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Full text of "The Celtic magazine; a monthly periodical devoted to the literature, history, antiquities, folk lore, traditions, and the social and material interests of the Celt at home and abroad"




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THE 

CELTIC MAGAZINE 

& JBonthlj) 



DEVOTED TO THE 



LITERATURE, HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, 
FOLK LORE, TRADITIONS, 



AND THE 



SOCIAL AND MATERIAL INTERESTS OF THE CELT 
AT HOME AND ABROAD. 



CONDUCTED BY 

ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, F.S.A. SCOT., 

Author of " The History and Genealogies of the Clan Mackenzie" ; " The History of the Mac- 

donalds and Lords of the Isles"; "The Prophecies of the Brahan Seer"; 

" The Historical Tales and Legends of the Highlands," &c. 



VOL. V, 



INVEKNESS : A. & W. MACKENZIE, 2 NESS BANK. 

1880. 
All Rights Reserved, 






PRINTED AT THE ADVERTISER OFFICE, 11 BANK STREET, INVERNESS. 



JDA 

75*0 



LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 




CONTENTS. 



FAOH. 
History of the Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles. The Editor. 1, 41, 81, 121, 

169, 209, 249, 289, 329, 369, 419, and 459 

Dermond A Tale. By Hugh Macgregor Campbell. 11, 60. 90, 129, 176, 221, 

280, 319, 400, and ... ... ... ... ... ... 430 

The Editor in Canada 

I. New York, Boston, New Brunswick, and Pictoa ... ... ... 20 

II. Pictou, New Glasgow, Springville, and Antigonish ... ... 69 

III. Cape Breton, and the City of Halifax ... ... ... ... 105 

IV. Quebec, Montreal, and Glengarry ... ... ... ... 151 

V. Cornwall, Ottawa, and Kingston The Marquis of Lome, Sir John 

A. Macdonald, K.C.B., and Evan MacColl ... ... ... 183 

VI. Toronto, Beaverton, and Woodville The Hon. George Brown, Hon. 
Alexander Mackenzie, and the Hon. Donald A. Macdonald, 

Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario ... ... ... ... 231 

VII. Guelph, Lucknow, and Kincardine ... ... ... ... 304 

VIII. "Woodstock, London, Hamilton, and the Falls of Niagara ... ... 351 

IX. New York and Philadelphia Independence Hall and Dr Sheltoa 

Mackenzie ... ,.. ... ... ... ... 393 

The Quigrich, or Pastoral Staff of St Fillan. By the Rev. Allan Sinclair ... 33 

A Sutherland Highlander's Welcome to the Marquis of Lome to Canada ... 39 
The Early Scenes of Flora Macdonald's Life, &c. By the Rev. Alexander Mac- 
gregor, M.A. ...... 52, 138, and 475 

Genealogical Notes and Queries 

Caithness Campbells ... ... ... ... ... 78 and 159 

Colonel Read ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

The Macraes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 208 

Macbeans of Kinchyle, the Crerars, and Rosses of Inverchastley 279, 297, and 368 
Maodonalds of Balranald ... ... ... ... ... 399 and 452 

The Shaws of the Black Isle ... ... ... ... ... 452 

Ian Lorn John Macdonald and his Times. By the Rev. Allan Sinclair ... 97 

History of the Clan Mackenzie Opinions of the Press ... ... ... 118 

Allan nan Creach A Legend. By Torquil ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Retirement of Provost Simpson ... ... ... ... ... ... 137 

Professor Rhys' Welsh Philology Review ... ... ... ... ... 144 

The Highland Clearances and the Highland Crofters ... ... ... 148 

Annual Dinner of the Gaelic Society of Inverness full Report ... ... 160 

List of Canadian Agents ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 168 

A Mackintosh Raid into Aberdeen in 1382. By the late Alex. Fraser ... ... 193 

The Wise Laird of Culloden. By M. A. Rose ... ... ... ... 195 

New Celtic Work Leabhar nam Fior Ghaidheal ,,, ... ... ... 200 

Highland Musical Instruments ... ... ... ... ... ... 204 

Flower Lore Review ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 206 

A History of the House and Clan of Mackintosh ... ... ... ... 208 

Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness Review ... ... ... 242 

Bide a Wee, and Other Poems. By Mary J. MacColl. Review ... ... 246 

A Legend of St Kilda. By M. A. Rose ... ... ... ... 258 and 298 

The Girls of Canada ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 264 

John Mackenzie's Monument Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... 264 

The Monks of lona. By Colin Chisholm ... ... ... ... ... 265 

Notes on Caithness History. By Geo. M. Sutherland ... 271, 361, and 445 

The Battle of Invernahavon. By Patrick Macgregor, M.A. ... ... ... 284 

Old Celtic Romances Review ... ... ... ... ... ... 286 

The Lewisman's Grace ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 303 

The Authenticity of Ossian. By the Rev. Allan Sinclair ... ... ... 311 

Highland Books 318 



iv. Contents. 

PACE. 

Mary Mackellar's Songs and Poems Review ... ... ... ... 327 

The Macaulays of Lewis ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 337 

The Emigrant. By M. H. W. ... ... ... ... ... ... 338 

The Celtic Side of Burns. By the late James Cunningham ... ... ... 345 

Donald the Fiddler A Legend. By M. A. Rose ... ... ... ... 347 

Inverness Highland Rifle Volunteers ... ... ... ... ... 350 

Gaelic Books for the Melbourne Exhibition ... ... ... ... ... 359 

The late Alexander Fraser, Registrar A Memoir ... ... ... ... 360 

Highland Legends. By Sir Thomas Dick Lauder Review ... ... ... 364 

The Gaelic Songs of Dr Maclachlan, Rahoy Review ... ... ... 364 

Highland Handbook, and Macbrayne's Guide to the Highlands Reviews 367 and 368 

The Rev. Alex. Stewart, F.S.A. Scot. " Nether-Lochaber" A Sketch ... 379 

The late D. C. Maopherson A Memoir ... ... ... ... ... 391 

The Aged Piper and his Bagpipes. By the Rev. Alex. Macgregor, M.A. ... 404 

The Annual Assembly of the Gaelic Society Addresses by the Rev. Thomas 

Maclauchlan, LL.D., Colin Chisholm, and the Rev. Alex. Macgregor, M.A. 406 

The late Angus Maodonald the Glen-Urquhart Bard ... ... ... 416 

Farms Indeed ! and Souls to Match ... ... ... ... ... 417 

The Government Factor and the Widow's Cow. By Rev. Alex. Macgregor, M.A. 426 

The Clan Mackenzie in Sarnia, Canada ... ... .. ... ... 434 

The Highland Rifle (Ross-shire) Militia. By the Editor ... ... ... 435 

The Invernessian A New Monthly Periodical Prospectus ... ... ... 451 

Teaching Gaelic in Highland Schools. By Wm. Jolly, H.M.I. S. ... ... 453 

The Rev. Alex. Macgregor, M.A. a Chieftain ... ... ... ... 456 

The Macdonalds and the Macleods in Harris. By Maclain ... ... ... 457 

Match-Making among the Frasers. By M. A. Rose ... ... ... ... 470 

Superstition Extraordinary ... ... ... ... ... ... 472 

Canntaireachd ; or Articulate Music. By A. M. ... ... ... ... 483 

History of Ireland by Standish O'Grady Review ... ... ... ... 490 

To the Reader ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 494 

CORRESPONDENCE. 
The Rev. Archibald Clerk, LL.D., and the Rev. Donald Massoa, M.A., M.D., on 

the Gaelic Scriptures ... ... ... ... 26, 32, 112, and 116 

The Quigrich. By Colin Chisholm ... ... ... ... ... 117 

By M. A. Rose ... ... ... ... ... ... 149 

By the Rev. Allan Sinclair ... ... ... ... ... 199 

Principal Sbairp on Ossian. By the Rev. P. Hately Waddell, LL.D. ... 274 

The Macdonalds of Keppoch. A Nova-Scotian Macdonald ... ... ... 276 

The Clan Iver A Son of Ivor ... ... ... ... ... 278 

The Raid of Killichrist. By William Mackay and A. Mackenzie ... 323 

POEMS AND SONGS. 

To Evan MacColl. By Duncan Macgregor Crerar ... ... ... j^g 

To my Father. By Mary J. MacColl ... ... ... ... jgg 

Call Pharais A Cheud Duan. Translated by Rev. Allan Sinclair ... 201 

Maighdean Loch-nan-Eala. By John Campbell, Ledaig ... ... 219 

In Sutheilaadshire. By W. A. Sim ... ... ... ... 248 

The Relief of Ekowe. By Alexander Logan ... ... ... 257 

Horinn ho cha bhi sinn tursach. By Alexander Campbell .. ... 4jg 

Tigh Dige nam Fear Eachannach. By Alexander Campbell ... 450 

Monessia A Song by Jerome Stone, with Notes by "Nether-Lochaber" 468 

Oran a Chlo. By Alexander Campbell ... ... ... 473 

GAELIC SONGS, WITH MUSIC. 

Oran Leannanachd ... ... ... ... ... ... gQ 

Gu'm a slan a chi mi ... ... ... ... ... ^20 

Mo Mhaili Bheag Og ... ... ... ... ... ... 247 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



No. XLIX. NOVEMBEE, 1879. VOL. V. 



HISTOEY OF THE M A CD ON ALD S, 

AND 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



To write a full, authentic, and, at the same time, a popular history of this 
ancient and illustrious family is no easy task. Its earlier annals are 
much obscured, and it is difficult to decide between the various contra- 
dictory accounts given of it by the earlier chroniclers. The researches of 
Skene, Gregory, and others have, however, made the task much easier, 
and the result more trustworthy than it could otherwise have been. 
Gregory's " History of the Western Islands and Isles of Scotland," now 
scarce, is an invaluable guide, and will be largely taken advantage of in 
the following pages, down to 1625. The object of that work, to quote 
the author himself, " is to trace the history of the territories once owned 
by the great Lords of the Isles, from the time of the downfall of that 
princely race, in the reign of James IV. of Scotland, until the accession 
of Charles I. to the throne of Great Britain." 

It is not our intention to speculate at length on the different races 
which are variously stated to have originally occupied the Highlands and 
Islands of Scotland. Those who desire to enter upon that subject will 
find various and divergent authorities to consult, which need not here be 
referred to. In this work we shall get on solid and authentic historical 
ground as soon as possible, and leave speculation as to the origin and pre- 
historic annals of the Clan to those who delight in such attractive but 
generally useless inquiry. Mr Skene holds that the Macdonalds are of 
Celtic, or at all events of mixed Celtic origin, that is, descended from the 
Gallgall, or Gaelic pirates, or rovers, who are said to be so described to 
distinguish them from the Norwegian and Danish Fingall and Dubh-ghall, 
or white and black strangers or rovers. He maintains that they are of a 
purely Pictish descent, not even mixed with the Dalriadic Scots. Gregory 
says that " the earliest inhabitants of the Western Isles or Ebudes (cor- 
ruptly Hebrides) were probably a portion of the Albanich, Caledonians, 
or Picts. In some of the Southern Islands, particularly in Isla, this race 
must have been displaced or overrun by the Dalriads on their first settle- 

A 



2 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ment ; so that, at the date of the Scottish conquest the Isles, like the 
adjacent mainland, were divided between the Picts and the Scots. The 
change produced in the original population of the Isles, by the influx of 
the Scots a cognate Celtic race was, however, trifling compared with 
that which followed the first settlement of the Scandinavians in the Isles 
towards the end of the ninth century." From 880 to about 1100 the 
Western Isles were under and governed by Norwegian and Danish kings. 
In 1103 the Islanders took for their king Lagman, the eldest son of 
Godred Crovan, King of Man. This Prince, after a reign of seven years, 
abdicated, when the nobility of the Isles applied to Murchad O'Brien, then 
King of Ireland, to send them over a Prince of his blood to act as Eegent 
during the minority of Olave, surviving son of Godred Crovan who died 
at Jerusalem, where he went on a pilgrimage, shortly after his abdication 
of the throne. The Irish King sent them Donald MacTade, who ruled 
over the Islanders for two years ; but he became so obnoxious, by his 
tyranny and oppression, that the Island Chiefs rose against him, and ex- 
pelled him ; whereupon he fled to Ireland, and never again returned to 
the Isles. Olave succeeded and reigned for forty years, preserving his 
kingdom from aggression, and securing a long period of peace within his 
dominions. This king was known among the Highlanders as Olave the 
Ked. He was succeeded by his son, Godred the Black, whose daughter, 
Eagnhildis, married Somerled, Prince or Lord of Argyle, from whom 
sprung the dynasty so well known in Scottish history, and of whom we 
shall have much to say in the following pages, as the Lords of the Isles. 

It is impossible to decide what the elements were of which the in- 
habitants of the Western Isles were . at this period composed ; but there 
appears to be little doubt that a mixture of Scandinavian and Celtic blood 
was effected in very early times ; and the same holds good of the con- 
tiguous mainland districts, which, being intersected by various arms of 
the sea, were also, like the Isles, overrun more or less by the Norwegian 
and Danish sea rovers ; but, in spite of this, history and topography prove 
beyond question that the Celtic language ultimately prevailed, and that it 
was very much the same as is spoken in the present day. While there 
is no doubt at all as to the mixture of races, it is much more difficult to 
decide to what extent the mixture prevailed ; but all the best authorities 
hold that the Celtic element predominated. It is, however, of much 
more importance to discover which of the Scandinavian tribes infused the 
largest portion of northern blood into the population of the Isles. Gregory 
says that the Irish annalists divided the piratical bands, "which in the ninth 
and following centuries infested Ireland, into two great tribes, sty led by these 
writers, Fiongall, or white foreigners, and DuWighall, or black foreigners. 
These are believed to represent, the former, the Norwegians, the latter, 
the Danes ; and the distinction in the names given to them is supposed to 
have arisen from a diversity either in their clothing or in the sails of their 
vessels. These tribes had generally separate leaders, but they were 
occasionally united under one king ; and, although both were bent, first on 
ravaging the Irish shores, and afterwards on seizing portions of the Irish 
territories, they frequently turned their arms against each other. The 
Gaelic title of High Fiongall, or King of the Fiongall, so frequently applied 
to the Lords of the Isles, seems to prove that Olave the Eed, from whom 
they were descended in the female line, was so styled, and that, conse- 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 3 

quently, his subjects in the Isles, in so far as they were not Celtic, were 
Fiongall or Norwegians. It has been remarked by one writer,* whose 
opinion is entitled to weight, that the names of places in the exterior He- 
brides, or the long island, derived from the Scandinavian tongue, resemble 
the names of places in Orkney, Shetland, and Caithness. On the other 
hand, the corresponding names in the interior Hebrides are in a different 
dialect, resembling that of which the traces are to be found in the topo- 
graphy of Sutherland, and appear to have been imposed at a later period 
than the first mentioned names. The probability is, however, that the 
difference alluded to is not greater than might be expected in the language 
of two branches of the same race after a certain interval ; and that the Scan- 
dinavian of the Hebrides was, therefore, derived from two successive Nor- 
wegian colonies. This view is further confirmed by the fact, that the 
Hebrides, although long subject to Norway, do not appear ever to have 
formed part of the possessions of the Danes.t 

We now come to consider more especially the origin of the Mac- 
donalds, at one time, by far the most important, most numerous, and most 
powerful of the Western Clans. This noble race is undoubtedly de- 
scended from Somerled of Argyle, but his origin is involved in obscurity 
and surrounded with considerable difficulty. Of his father, Gillebride, 
and of his grandfather, Gilledomnan, little is known but the names. 
According to both the Highland and Irish genealogists, Gilledomnan was 
sixth in descent from Godfrey MacFergus, who in an Irish chronicle is 
called Toshach of the Isles, and who lived in the reign of Kenneth Mac- 
Alpin. Tradition asserts that Godfrey or one of his race was expelled 
from the Isles by the Danes,! which assertion if correct, may apply to the 
conquest of Harald Harfager, who in all probability dispossessed many of 
the native Island chiefs. But the Celtic Seanachaidhs are not satisfied 
with a descent even so remote as Fergus. They trace, through a long line 
of ancestors, the descent of that chief from the celebrated Irish King, 
Conn nan Ceud Oath, or Conn of the Hundred Battles. So far the account 
of Somerled's origin according to those who maintain his Scoto-Irish des- 
cent. Others have maintained that he was undoubtedly a Scandinavian 
by male descent. " His name," says Gregory, " is certainly a Norse one ; 
but then on the other hand, the names of his father and grandfather axe 
purely Celtic ; whilst the inter-marriages that must have taken place be- 
tween the two races in the Isles and adjacent coasts, make it impossible 
to found any argument on the Christian name alone. Somerled is men- 
tioned more than once in the Norse Sagas, but never in such a way as to 
enable us to affirm with certainty what the opinion of the Scandinavian 
writers was as to his origin. He appears to have been known to them as 
Sumarlidi Haullds, and the impression produced by the passages in which 
he is mentioned is rather against his being considered a Norseman. It is 
possible, however, as he was certainly descended from a noted individual 
of the name of Godfrey, that his ancestor may have been that Gofra Mac- 
Arailt, King of the Isles, who died in 989. But, on the whole, the uni- 

* Chalmers' Caledonia, vol. i. , p. 266. 
t Highlands and Isles, pp, 89. 

* Hugh Macdonald's MS. History of the Macdonalds, written about the end of the 
seventeenth century. 

The Norse Somerled, and the Gaelic Somhairlc, are both rendered into tho English, 
Samuel. 



4 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

formity of the Highland and Irish traditions, which can be traced back at 
least four hundred years, lead to the conclusion that the account first 
given of the origin of Somerled is correct." 

We are informed by the Macdonald genealogists that Gillebride was 
expelled from his possessions, and that he and his son Somerled were 
obliged for a long time to conceal themselves in a cave in Morvean, from 
which circumstance the father is known in tradition as Gillebride na K 
Uamh, or of the Cave.* From certain circumstances, obscurely hinted 
at, continues Gregory, it would seem that Gillebride, after the death of 
Malcolm Ceannmor, had, with the other Celtic inhabitants of Scotland, 
supported Donald Bane, the brother of Malcolm, in his claim to the 
Scottish throne, to the exclusion of Edgar, Malcolm's son, and that, con- 
sequently, on the final triumph of the Anglo-Saxon party, Gillebride 
would naturally be exposed to their vengeance in exact proportion to his 
power, and to the assistance he had given to the other party. His pos- 
sessions are believed to have been on the mainland of Argyle, but this has 
not been conclusively ascertained. Somerled when young was drawn 
from his obscurity, and placed at the head of the men of Morvern, to de- 
fend the district from a band of Norse pirates who threatened to ravage 
it. By his courage and skill Somerled completely defeated them ; and, 
following up his success, he soon after recovered his paternal inheritance 

* "Fragment of a Manuscript History of the Macdonalds," written in the reign of 
Charles II., by Hugh Macdonald, is printed from the Gregery collection in the " Col- 
lectanea de Rebus Albania, " pages 282-324. It is often referred to by Gregory in his 
" Highlands and Isles." It begins as follows : "Sommerled, the son of Gilbert, began to 
muse on the low condition and misfortune to which he and his father were reduced, and 
kept at first very retired. In the meantime, Allin Mac Vich Allin coming with some 
forces to the land of Morverin for pillage and herships, intending to retire forthwith to 
Lochaber, from whence he came. From this Allan descended the family of Lochiel. 
Sommerled thought now it was high time to make himself known for the defence of his 
country, if he could, or at least see the same, having no company for the time. There 
was a young sprout of a tree near the cave which grew in his age of infancy. He plucked 
it up by the root, and patting it on his shoulder, came near the people of Morverin, de- 
sired them to be of good courage and do as he did, and so by this persuasion, all of them 
having pulled a branch, and putting the same on their shoulder, went on encouraging 
each other. Godfrey Du had possession of the Isles of the north side of Ardnamurchan 
from the King of Denmark. Olay compelled the inhabitants of some of these Isles to 
infest Morverin by landing some forces there. The principal surnames in the country 
were Macinneses and Macgillivrays, who are the same as the Macinneses. They, being 
in sight of the enemy, could act nothing without one to command them. At length 
they agreed to make the first person that should appear to them their general. Who 
came in the meantime but Sommerled, with his bow, quiver, and sword ? Upn his ap- 
pearance they raised a great shout of laughter. Sommerled enquiring the reason, they 
answered they were rejoiced at his appearance. They told him that they had agreed to 
make the first that would appear their general. Sommerled said he would undertake to 
lead them, or serve as a man otherwise. But if they pitched upon him as their com- 
mander, they should swear to be obedient to his commands ; so, without any delay, they 
gave him an oath of obedience. There was a great hill betwixt them and the enemy, 
and Sommerled ordered his men to put off their coats, and put their shirts and full armour 
above their coats. So making them go three times in a disguised manner about the hill 
that they might seem more in number than they really were, at last he ordered them to 
engage the Danes, saying that some of them were on shore and the rest in their ships ; 
that those on shore would fight but faintly so near their ships. Withal he exorted his 
soldiers to be of good courage, and to do as they would see him do. The first whom 
Sommerled slew he ript up and took out his heart, desiring the rest to do the same, be- 
cause that the Danes were no Christians. So the Danes were put to the flight ; many 
of them were lost in the sea endeavouring to gain their ships ; the lands of Mull and 
Morverin being freed at that time from their yoke and slavery. After this defeat given 
to the Danes, Sommerled thought to recover Argyle from those who, contrary to right, 
had possessed it, being wrung out of the hands of his father unjustly by Macbeath, Donald 

, and the Danes." 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 5 

and made himself master of a great portion of Argyle, and thenceforth 
assumed the title of Lord, Thane, or Regulus of Argyle, and became one 
of the most powerful chiefs in Scotland. 

Smibert agrees generally with the better known writers already 
quoted, and considers it probable, from many concurrent circumstances, 
that while the Macdonalds were wholly Celtic fundamentally, they had 
the blood of the Irish Celts commingled in their veins with that of the 
Pictish Celts. The term Gall-gael applied to them by early writers, sig- 
nifying strangers or Piratical Gaels, seems to him to prove that from the 
first they dwelt in the Isles or sea coasts of the west, and severed them 
broadly from the Norse pirates, who at the same time visited our western 
shores. " The Gall-gael appear to be clearly distinguishable from the primitive 
or Dalriadic Scots " who issued from Ireland, and originally peopled a con- 
siderable portion of Argyle, then termed Dalriada. "The sires of the 
Macdonalds arrived, in all likelihood, at a somewhat later epoch, fixing 
themselves more peculiarly in the Isles of the western coasts ; though, 
when the Scots overturned the kingdom of the southern and eastern 
Picts in the ninth century, and shifted more or less extensively to the 
richer territories then acquired, the Gall-gael seem to have also become the 
main occupants of Argyle and the surrounding mainland. From that 
period they are closely identified with the proper northern and north- 
western Gaelic Picts, with whom they, beyond doubt, formed connections 
freely. The interests of both were henceforth nearly the same ; and for 
many successive centuries they struggled conjointly against the growing 
and adverse power of the Scottish monarchy of the Lowlands." 

Of this view of "the descent of the Siol Cuinn (the special name 
given from an early chief, named Conn of the Hundred Battles, to the 
ancestors of the Macdonalds) it may at all events be said that there would 
be some difficulty in offering a more rational and intelligible one, and it 
may be justified by various and strong arguments. The early and long- 
continued hostility which they displayed towards the Scots will not admit 
of their being considered as a pure Scoto-Dalriadic tribe. On the other 
hand, their constant community of interests with the Gaelic Picts of the 
north and north-west goes far to prove a close connection with these, and 
a liberal intermixture of blood, though it does not altogether justify us in 
ascribing their descent wholly and primarily to that native and purely 
Celtic source. " Other facts indeed point strongly to an Irish original. 
Among such facts may be reckoned the repeated references of the Mac- 
donald race, to Ireland for aid, in all times of peril and difficulty, for many 
consecutive centuries. From the Somerleds of the eleventh, down to 
Donald (called the Bastard) in the sixteenth century, the kings and chiefs 
of the house are again and again recorded as having visited that island 
and sought assistance as from undoubted relatives, NOT did they do so 
vainly, the Macquarries, for example, being almost certainly among 'such 
introduced auxiliaries. Moreover the line and range of their early pos- 
sessions lead us directly towards Ireland. The Isle of Man was long one 
of their chief holdings, while Bute, Arran, and Islay, with Cantire, were 
among their first Scottish seats, all being in the track of Irish rovers or 
emigrants. Again the heads of the Macdonalds themselves seem to have 
entertained opinions as to their descent only explicable on the same sup- 
position. Sir James Macdonald, writing in 1615, speaks of his family as 



6 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

having been 'ten hundred years kindly Scotsmen under the Kings of 
Scotland.' . . . . ' On the whole, the conclusion reasonably to be 
drawn from these and similar circumstances is, that the direct founders of 
the Macdonald race came primarily from Ireland at some very early period 
of the annals of the Dalriad-Scots ; and that they were left (or made 
themselves) the successors of that people in place and power in the west 
of Scotland, at the precise time when the overthrow of the southern Picts 
drew their Dalriadic conquerors further inland. That the Siol Cuinn, or 
Race of Conn, then became deeply and inseparably blended in regard of 
blood, as well as of interests with the native northern Gael, is a farther 
conclusion equally consistent with facts and probability." 

" The almost natural division between the Highlands and the Low- 
lands, conjoined with the remembrances which must long have existed of 
Pictish greatness, ever urged the inhabitants of the former region of all 
sections and descriptions to unite for the maintenance of its independence 
against the encroaching Lowlanders. Besides, the ties betwixt the Scots 
and the Gaelic Picts were broken up at a very early period. The former 
entirely lost their Pictish dialect, spoken in Bede's time, and became 
otherwise thoroughly saxonised. On the contrary, the Highlanders, 
whether natives or immigrants, Gaelic or Erse, were from first to last, of 
the same primary Celtic stock ; and, accordingly, it was but natural that 
all of them should have combined against the Lo inlanders as against a 
common foe, and should, in short, have been blended in the course of 
time into one people, and that people the Gael of Scotland." The same 
writer proceeds to say that various other clans of less note are implicated 
in the question of the origin of the Macdonald s as well as themselves ; and 
he candidly admits, though personally disposed in favour of the Irish 
origin, that it is certainly enveloped in considerable difficulties. He then 
goes on to point out in reply to those who consider an Irish origin " de- 
grading," that such parties appear to forget that whatever Ireland may 
have been since, that to the ancient western world it was the very cradle 
of religion and the nursery of civilisation. He asserts that undoubted 
evidences exist of the advanced state of the Irish people at a time when 
the Celts of Britain were comparatively in a state of barbarism. To 
belong to a race " which sent forth Columba, and through him originated 
an lona, with all its concomitant blessings, might satisfy the pride of birth 
of even the haughtiest families," The settlement of the Saint in lona 
would appear, he thinks, to confirm the supposition that the immigrants 
of the sixth century, which he thinks were accompanied by Saint Col- 
umba, and with which the ancestors of the Macdonalds came over from 
Ireland, only obtained possession at first of some of the smaller islands, and 
that they held little of the mainland until the tenth, eleventh, or twelfth 
centuries, after the removal further south of the Dalriadic-Scots. 

Summing up the views of other writers on this subject, particularly of 
those above quoted, the editor of Fullarton's " History of the Highland 
Clans " assumes that the clan governed by Somerled formed part of the 
Gall-gael, that their independent kings must in all probability ha-ye been 
his ancestors ; and, therefore, that the names of these kings should be 
found in the old genealogies of Somerled's family. " But this appears 
scarcely to be the case. The last king of the Gall-gael was Suibne, the 
son of Kenneth, who died in the year 1034; and, according to the manu- 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 7 

script of 1450, an ancestor of Somerled, contemporary with this petty 
monarch, bore the same name, from which it may be presumed that the 
person referred to in the genealogy and manuscript is one and the same 
individual. The latter, however, calls Suibne's father ^Nialgusa; and in 
the genealogy there is no mention whatever of a Kenneth. But from the 
old Scottish writers we learn that at this time there was such a Kenneth, 
whom they call Thane of the Isles, and that one of the northern maormors 
also bore the same name, although it is not very easy to say what precise 
claim either had to be considered as the father of Suibne. There is also 
a further discrepancy observeable in the earlier part of the Macdonald 
genealogies, as compared with the manuscript; and besides, the latter, 
without making any mention of these supposed kings, deviates into the 
misty region of Irish heroic fable and romance. At this point, indeed, 
there is a complete divergence, if not contrariety, between the history as 
contained in the Irish annals and the genealogy developed in the manu- 
script ; for, whilst the latter mentions the Gall-gael under their leaders as 
far back as the year 856, the former connect Suibne by a different gene- 
alogy with the Kings of Ireland. The fables of the Highland and Irish 
Sennachies now become connected with genuine history. The real descent 
of the chiefs was obscured or perplexed by the Irish genealogies, and 
previously to the eleventh century neither these genealogies nor even that 
of the manuscript of 1450 can be considered as of any authority whatever. 
It seems somewhat rash, however, to conclude, as Mr Skene has done, 
that the Siol Cuinn, or descendents of Conn, were of native origin. This 
exceeds the warrant of the premises, which merely carry the difficulty a 
few removes backward into the obscurity of time, and there leave the 
question in greater darkness than ever." 

Skene, in his " Highlanders of Scotknd," writing of the " Siol Cuinn," 
says : " This tribe was one far too distinguished to escape the grasping 
claims of the Irish Sennachies, and accordingly it appears to have been 
among the very first to whom an Irish origin was imputed ; but later 
antiquaries, misled by the close connection which at all times existed be- 
tween the Macdonalds and the Norwegians of the Isles, have been inclined 
rather to consider them as of Norwegian origin. Neither of these theories, 
however, admit of being borne out either by argument or authority. The 
followers of the Irish system can only produce a vague tradition in its 
support against the manifest improbability of the supposition that a tribe 
possessing such extensive territories in Scotland should have been of 
foreign origin, while history is altogether silent as to the arrival of any 
such people in the country." The writer then points out that it has 
been proved that the Irish traditions in Scotland were of a comparatively 
modern origin, and that the Norwegian origin of the race has been assumed 
without solid reasons, mainly from the fact that the Danish and Norwegian 
pirates ravaged the western shores of Scotland, and brought its inhabi- 
tants under subjection, when the conquered Gaels, to some extent, adopted 
the piratical and predatory habits of their conquerors. The traditions of 
the Macdonalds themselves, he says, tend to show that they co\dd not 
have been of foreign origin. The whole of the Highlands, and especially 
the districts possessed by the Gall-gael, were inhabited by the Northern 
Picts, at least as late as the eleventh century. In the middle of the 
twelfth the Orkneyinga Saga terms Somerled and his sons, who were the 



8 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

chiefs of the tribe, the Dalveria Aett, or Dalverian family a term, ac- 
cording to Skene, " derived from Dala, the Norse name for the district of 
Argyle, and which implies that they have been for some time indigenous 
in the district ; and this is confirmed in still stronger terms by the Flatey- 
book, consequently the Macdonalds were cither the descendants of these 
Pictish inhabitants of Argyle, or else they must have entered the county 
subsequently to that period. But the earliest traditions of the family 
uniformly bear that they had been indigenous in Scotland from a much 
earlier period than that. Thus, James Macdonell, of Dunluce, in a letter 
written to King James VI., in 1596, has this passage ' Most mightie and 
potent prince recomend us unto your hieness with our service for ever, your 
grace shall understand that our forbears hath been from time to time* 
your servants unto your own kingdome of Scotland.' Although many 
other passages of a similar nature might be produced, these instances may 
suffice to show that there existed a tradition in this family of their having 
been natives of Scotland from time immemorial ; and it is therefore 
scarcely possible to suppose that they could have entered the country 
subsequently to the ninth century. But besides the strong presumption 
that the Macdonalds are of Pictish descent, and formed a part of the great 
tribe of the Gall-gael, we fortunately possess distinct authority for both of 
these facts. For the former, John Elder includes the Macdonalds among 
the ' ancient stoke,' who still retained the tradition of a Pictish descent, 
in opposition to the later tradition insisted on by the Scottish clergy, and 
this is sufficient evidence for the fact that the oldest tradition among the 
Macdonalds must have been one of a Pictish origin. The latter appears 
equally clear from the last mention of the Gall-gael in which they are de- 
scribed as the inhabitants of Argyle, Kintyre, Arran, and Man ; and as 
these were at this period the exact territories which Somerled possessed, 
it follows of necessity that the Macdonalds were the same people." 

In another part of his valuable and rare work, Skene says that " we 
are irresistibly driven to the conclusion, that the Highland Clans are not 
of a different or foreign origin, but they are a part of the original nation 
who have inhabited the mountains of Scotland as far back as the memory 
of man or the records of history can reach that they were divided into 
several great tribes possessing their hereditary chiefs ; and that it was only 
when the line of these chiefs became extinct, and Saxon nobles came in 
their place, that the Highland Clans appeared in the peculiar situation 
and character in which they were afterwards found." And he then pro- 
ceeds : " This conclusion to which we have arrived at by these general 
arguments is strongly corroborated by a very remarkable circumstance ; 
for, notwithstanding that the system of an Irish or Dalriadic origin of the 
Highland Clans had been introduced as early as the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, we can still trace the existence in the Highlands, even 
as late as the sixteenth century, of a still older tradition than that con- 
tained in the MS. of 1450 ; a tradition altogether distinct and different 
from that one, and one which not only agrees in a singular manner with 
the system developed in this work, but which also stamps the Dalriadic 
tradition as the invention of the Scottish Monks, and accounts for its in- 
troduction. The first proof of the existence of this tradition, which I 

* The expression of " from time to time," when it occurs in ancient documeats, 
always signifies from time immemorial. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOETALDS. 9 

shall bring forward, is contained in a letter dated 1542, and addressed to 
King Henry VIII. of England by a person designating himself ' John 
Elder, Clerk, a Eeddshanks.' It will be necessary to premise that the 
author uses the word ' Yrisclie ' in the same sense in which the word Erse 
was applied to the Highlanders, his word lor Irish being differently spelt. 
In that letter he mentions the ' Yrische lords of Scotland commonly callit 
EEDD SCHANKES, and by historiagraphouris PICTIS.' He then proceeds to 
give an account of the Highlanders ; he describes them as inhabiting 
Scotland ' befor the incummynge of Albanactus Brutus second sonne,' and 
as having been ' gyauntes and wylde people without ordour, civilitie, or 
maners, and spake none other language but Yrische;' that they were civil- 
ized by Albauactus, from whom they were ' callit Albonyghe.' And after 
this account of their origin he adds, 'which derivacion the papistical 
curside spiritualitie of Scotland will not heir in no maner of wyse nor 
confesse that ever such a kynge, namede Albanactus reagned ther, the 
which derivacion all the Yrische men of Scotland, which be the auncient 
stoke, cannot, nor will not denye. But our said bussheps drywithe Scot- 
land and theme selfes from a certain lady namede Scota (as they alledge) 
came out of Egipte, a maraculous hote cuntretti, to secreate hirself emonges 
theame in the cold ayre of Scotland, which they can not afferme by no 
probable auncient author.' From the extracts which have been made from 
this curious author, continues Skene, it will at once be seen that there 
was at that time in Scotland two conflicting traditions regarding the origin 
of the Eeddschankes or Highlanders, the one supported by the Highlanders 
of the more auncient stoke, the other by the ' curside spiritualitie of Scot- 
land;' and from the indignation and irritation which he displays against 
the ' bussheps,' it is plain that the latter tradition was gaining ground, and 
must indeed have generally prevailed. The last tradition is easily identified 
with that contained in the MS. of 1450 and consequently there must 
have existed among the purer Highlanders a still older tradition by which 
their origin was derived from the 'Pictis.' The existence of such a 
tradition in Scotland at the time is still further proved by Stapleton's 
translation of the venerable Bede, which was written in 1550. In that 
translation he renders the following passage of Bede, ' Cugus monasterium 
in cunctis pene sept entrionalium Scottorum et omnium Pictorum mon- 
asteriis non parvo tempore arcem tenebat,' as follows : ' The house of his 
religion was no small time the head house of all the monasteries of the 
northern Scottes, and of the Abbyes of all the EEDDSCHANKES.' It would 
be needless to multiply quotations to show that the Highlanders were at 
that time universally known by the term Eeddshankee." 

Our author says that in regard to this, the oldest tradition which can be 
traced in the country, that it accords with the conclusions at which he 
had arrived otherwise by a strict and critical examination of all the ancient 
authorities on the subject, and forms a body of evidence regarding the 
true origin of the Highlanders of Scotland to which the history of no 
other nation can exhibit a parallel ; and he points out that while 
the authority of John Elder proves that the tradition of the descent 
of the Highlanders existed before the Irish or Dalriadic system was in- 
troduced, we can at the same time learn from him the origin of the later 
system and the cause of its obtaining such universal belief. The first 
trace of the Dalriadic system is to be found in the famous letter addressed 



10 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to the Pope in 1320 by the party who stood out for the independence of 
Scotland against the claims of Edward I. To this party the clergy be- 
longed, while those who supported Edward I. believed in the more 
ancient tradition on which he founded his claim, and which included a 
belief in their descent from the Picts. The question of the independence 
of Scotland was thus to a considerable extent, most unfortunately, placed 
by the two parties, on the truth of their respective traditions, and " it is 
plain that as the one party fell, so would the tradition which they as- 
serted ; and the final supremacy of the independent party in the High- 
lands, as well as in the rest of Scotland, and the total ruin of their ad- 
versaries, must have established the absolute belief in the descent of the 
Highlanders, as well as the kings and clergy of Scotland, from the Scots 
of Dalriada." But in spite of all this, John Elder's letter proves that, 
notwithstanding the succession of false traditions which prevailed in the 
Highlands at different periods, traces of the ancient and probably correct 
one were to be found as late as the middle of the sixteenth century. 

"What is true of the Highlanders generally must be more or less true 
of individual clans, and of none more so than oi the Macdonalds, to whom 
we must now return. From all these authorities, though a little conflict- 
ing in some of their opinions, there seems to be no difficulty in coming to 
the conclusion, that whether Somerled, at a remote period, descended from 
some of the Scoto-Irish immigrants to the Western Isles, or not, the date 
of such descent is so far back, and his ancestors, if not of them, were so 
mixed up with the original Celtic Picts who, in those remote ages, inhabited 
the Isles and North-west Highlands that the Macdonalds and their im- 
mediate progenitor, Somerled of the Isles, may be fairly described as of 
native Highland origin ; and that with at least as much accuracy as Her 
Majesty of the United Kingdom when she is, notwithstanding her con- 
tinental connections, justly described as of native British descent. 

(To be Confirmed.) 



THE Hon. Mrs Murray Aust, in her " Guide to the Beauties of Scot- 
land," written in 1799, relates the following : " A lady of fashion, having 
ascended Ben Nevis, purposely left a bottle of whisky on the summit. 
When she returned to Fort-William, she laughingly mentioned that cir- 
cumstance before some Highlanders, as a piece of carelessness, one of 
whom slipped away, and mounted to the pinnacle of 4370 feet above the 
level of the fort, to gain the prize of the bottle of whisky, and brought it 
down in triumph." 

QUERY. Can you, or any of your correspondents versed in Highland 
patronymics and aliases, kindly inform me" what is the origin of the name 
" MacKeddie," which has been used as an alias by some families of 
Camerons, and to what branch of the main stock those belong who have 
used it ? J. MACDONALD CAMEKON. 



D E K M N D. 

A TALE OF KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DAYS. 

Tennyson. 

BOOK I. "AMONG THE ISLES OF THE WESTERN SEA." 
CHAPTER I. 

There is a cliff whose high and bending head 
Looks fearfully on the confined deep. 

King Lear. 

THE wild and picturesque features of our "Western Coast are well known. 
For ages the Atlantic has surged along the sea shores, washing away the 
softer soil, ploughing up the buiied rocks, and splintering them into a 
thousand shapes, hollowing out great caverns, and separating numerous 
tracks of rock and mountain from the mainland. Everywhere the coast 
line is torn and shattered, with myriads of little islands clustering around 
it, and a strong current sweeps rapidly through the narrow channels, 
rendering navigation dangerous to the unwary mariner or even to the ex- 
perienced rovers who, in ancient times, infested the Northern Seas. 

Most of the little islands barely maintain a few sheep on their mountain 
slopes, and the only fertile part is invariably found on the lee side. 
Sometimes, however, a small strip of well-cultivated pasture land, nestling 
under the shelter of a mountainous headland, blooms gem-like amidst the 
surrounding desolation. Different from many islands similarly situated 
that of Kerrera, with all its elevated surroundings, is not allowed to 
bask in sunny splendours on the southern shores of Mull. The far- 
sounding Atlantic forces its way through the passage of Colonsay, after 
skirting the triple barrier Islay, Jura, and Oronsay, on the one side, 
and the high cliffs of Mull on the other, and rushes impetuously in the 
full swell of its tide against the jutting rocks of Dunkerlyne. The whole 
island is but one mass of rude confusion. It slopes upwards from north 
to south in broken, indented outlines, till the high cliffs skirting a little 
bay, one mighty arm of black, unequal masses rushes far out into the sea 
as if to clutch the waves as they rear in sheets of fleecy foam and thunder 
along the beach. 

Crowning the outward rock the lines of a tower and ruinous heaps are 
distinctly dark against the leaden sky, and as the sea-mews dash, whirl, 
and shriek around them, the whole is rendered more savage and solitary. 

Such is the opening scene of our story the keep of Dunkerlyne as 
it appeared on an April morning in the early part of the fourteenth 
century. 

Yet, desolate as it might appear, the tower was not without its inha- 
bitants, and to-day there was a stir about the castle. 

A galley was labouring among the breakers. 

The hoarse shouts of the men were borne by the winds above the 
noise of the waters. They sounded faint, then deep. 



12 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

" What ! shall the vessel strike 1" some one was heard to cry. 

" Ha ! ha !" laughed the men. 

They weathered with confidence yea, with the assurance of gods. 
Blood in their thoughts ; curses on their lips ; ale in their flagons ; they 
lived under the very darkness of death's shadow. 

A sail, half-hoisted, struggled with the warring winds. 

The men leaped to and fro with the dexterity of demons their eyes 
flashing, their massy locks shaggy to the breeze, and their scaly armour 
glittering and reflecting the crested breakers. 

The galley sunk from sight above her the waters broke in snowy 
foam yet she rose and leapt among the seething and hissing billows. 

The oars struggled and splashed some struck, others broke. 

At length the sail became swollen and the mast creakingly bent to the 
breeze. 

" Hold, ye useless jackanapes ! Taut with these hallyards ! Aid that 
fingerless loon ! Leap Gylen ! carefully now, or the mast may go ! " 

Thus the weather-worn warrior commanded at the helm. Firmly he 
held against the tide as it made the rudder creak, and threatened in its 
strength to pitch him overboard. 

As the vessel caught the wind and bore out to sea ploughing and 
plunging, the song of the bravoes burst forth : 

'Tis death to our foes 
Who meet with our blows, 
On the stormy seas 
Where borne by the breeze 
Eules the Vikintj. 

'Tis a swelling sail, 
A brimmer of ale 
And a gusty gale 

For the Viking. 

Soon the galley became a speck in the distance now hidden, now 
visible till lost in the mazy mists beyond. 

From the old tower there were two who gazed anxiously across the 
waters watching the disappearance of the vessel. 

Jarloff the minstrel was sad, and spoke of the evil that would result 
from such a voyage. 

Dermond, the son of the pirate, was also sad at heart, but from the 
natural exuberance of his spirits, and his strong belief in the prowess of 
his father, who had just carried his ship so successfully through the 
breakers, he replied with laughter. 

The old harper merely shook his head in answer. 

Soon both relapsed into silence. 

Dermond paced to and fro apparently absorbed with his own thoughts, 
while the harper still sat looking out upon the sea watching the progress 
of the storm. 

At length the old man lifted his harp, ran along the wires to test 
their faithfulness, and then burst forth into a rhapsody of song, the only 
intelligible lines which appeared to Dermond being the Scandinavian 
chorus : 



DEKMOND. 13 

Forfete with thy brow so fair, 
And thy locks of sunny hair, 
Make thy voice of peace to bear 
And be beard. 

Suspend the lightnings of war, 
As they flash through clouds afar ; 
Thou, the great thundering Thor 
With the red beard. 

As the day lengthened the storm increased, there was no sign of the 
rover's return, and the wind drove with a fiercer fury round the solitary 
keep of Dunkerlyne. 

Darkness set in early, adding a superstitious gloom to the warring of 
the elements. 

Pacing the platform in front of the castle was the gaunt figure of 
Olave, the son of Jarloff, with his fair locks flowing from beneath his 
headpiece, and his merry blue eyes sparkling with health and good 
humour. His plaid was firmly drawn around him, and visible in its 
folds was a long dirk that knocked against his groin and flanks as the 
cold blast made him pace with redoubled vigour the length of the rocky 
platform. His mind was stored with snatches of Scaldic sagas, which he 
chanted, wild and rugged as the scenes around him. 

" Merry as usual, Olave !" said Donald, who kept watch on the battle- 
ments above. 

" What should make me sad ? When I'm like to be melancholy I 
sing myself into good-humour, and when the storm beats on the rock, my 
Norse blood boils and leaps in my veins : not like you, good Donald, to 
quiver at the blast ; 'tis my life and strength." 

" Well enough for you, but I'd sooner try my sword against twenty 
Sassenachs than strive with this night's wind." 

"Ha! ha!" laughed Olave, "Let the wind rage, and the twenty 
Sassenachs come if they will, I care for none of them." 

" But what of our chief, Brian the Eover, to be at sea on such a 
night ?" 

" Our chief, Brian ! Why, he's as wary an old fox as ever was in the 
toils. I've seen him weather a worse gale with a worse crew. Be- 
sides he knows every fiord and headland on the coast, and every tide and 
wind that runs and blows." 

" But what could make him set sail on such a morning as this was?" 

" No doubt he has his reasons, as he always has, and it's no part of 
our duty to wonder at what he does. But rely on it, Donald, there's 
something strange in the wind, as we shall soon learn ; so strengthen your 
courage and brighten your arms for the encounter. As for me I'm ready 
for the worst, so 

Tis death to our foes 
Who meet with our blows, 
On the stormy seas 
Where borne by the breeze 

Bules the Viking," &o. 

Leaving the sentinels, however, to pursue their conversation, let us 
look to the tower where Dermond and his ancient Jarlotf kept a much 
drearier look-out. 



H THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The old man's long white locks floated on the winds as he sat leaning 
on his harp and gazing across the Sound. 

The harp strings throhbed with JMian murmurs, and Jarloff regarded 
the omen with superstitious melancholy. 

As for Dermond, with all his veneration for the old seer, he now be- 
gan to share his anxiety. He paced restlessly to and fro, and wished 
that he had gone to sea in spite of his father's opposition, so that he might 
have been assured of what had caused the detention. 

" Know you, good Jarloff," said Dermond, " if this expedition of my 
father has aught to do with the rebellion of Bruce ?" 

" Of a certy it has. Every sign in the heavens and every movement 
on the earth have to do with that valiant rebel just now," 

" And why should my father distrust me in all these expeditions of 
his, seeing I am old enough and bold enough to be his stay and guardian 
in every danger that might assail him?" 

" Neither your discretion nor your bravery are doubted in these affairs, 
but I fear me, Brian, your father, is much changed of late. He is borne 
down by the weight of his burdens." 

" Why then does he not give me a part to bear ? He is getting old 
and I am young and ready to shed my blood in his cause, whatever it 
may be." 

" You shall know anon. Meanwhile you must be patient. Trust 
me, your day will come, and only a stout heart and a strong arm will 
avail you in the struggle." 

" Humph !" said Dermond half-contemptuously. 

" What fools these old men are," he muttered to himself. " They 
never can know again what it is to be young. What strange misgivings 
they have regarding us. I know how much they fear me, in telling me 
nothing. But I've learned more than they can understand." 

" John of Lorn holds another mysterious council to-night, does he 
not?" he continued, addressing the minstrel. 

" As you say, he does." 

" My father's attendance is required, I believe." 

" It hath been so commanded." 

" And why should he not obey ?" 

" He would if he could, but his will must bend to the fates." 

" I don't care about having another break with John of Lorn 
the old wolf. But if it is to be well then it must be. But why 
should my father rush upon an enterprise so fraught with peril?" 

The old man merely shook his head. 

" Your blood is young, and you are restless, my son," said the minstrel 
at length. " I was the same myself at your time, but what a merry time 
that was of a surety. My songs gained the favour of the fair, and when 
good oldAco ruled the Isles, my prowess was the envy and admiration of his 
knights. There was nothing on the board but good old Gascony, and mailed 
shirts and headpieces were as plentiful as Highland plaids. What a time 
that was to be sure ! and your brave old grandfather went by sea and land 
with a royal retinue clad in the best of burnished steel. Well and heavily 
he could ring his battle-axe about the pates of his enemies, but now 
alas" 

Here he stopped and sighed, and the youth was greatly relieved, for he 



DERMOND. 15 

had heard a great deal too much about these old days from this whining old 
man. The dreams of Dermond were all in the future, and although he liked 
to hear of the past, he had heard quite enough of this version of the old 
times to weary him. Above all things, however, he liked to hear Jarloff's 
stories of the knights of England and their chivalry. The predatory habits 
of his father had done much to disgust him with the sea-life, which, since 
the days of the Norse kings, had lost much of its fascination, and his 
secret ambition was to spur a heavy charger with lance in rest, and to win 
honour and renown in the battlefield and at the tournay. Of course he 
was thoroughly initiated in the chivalric accomplishments of his compan- 
ions. He had studied the use of the dirk, sword, and battle-axe, and 
could wield them with either strength, skill, or dexterity, but beyond the 
contests and exercises of Dunolly and some fugitive expeditions, he had 
had few opportunities of distinguishing himself in mortal combat. 

" What ails you, good JarloflT' said Dermond, more impressed than 
ever with the old man's melancholy. " Why, I've never found you as bad 
as this in what seemed to me the worst of times. Can't you cheer up and 
give us a song or a saga of the days of old ? Something stirring, full of 
fire, of love, and doughty deeds ?" 

The minstrel, rousing himself from his reverie, began to chaunt 
plaintively : 

While every bird has sought its home, 
Old Brian waits and will not come 

I fear, I fear this night shall prove 

Too strong in arms for life or love. 
Dunkerlyne halls are dark and drear, 

Old Brian lingers still too long 
Why comes he not, our hearts to cheer 

With jovial mirth and good old song. 

" A murrain on such minstrelsy," said Dermond, with some warmth. 
" Give us something merry." 

He had scarcely spoken, however, when a wild shriek rang through 
the castle, and for a moment the darkness opened up, and a fiery meteor, 
known as the dread-shradagach, lit up the heavens with a surging wave 
of pale, green light, and the moon and stars became momentarily visible 
like pallid and shivering ghosts in the nocturnal brilliancy. Darting 
from the left shoulder of Orion the Aerolite chariot shot obliquely west- 
wards, and, bursting into a thousand brilliant fragments, seemed to ex- 
plode with a sound as of distant, rumbling thunder among the mountains 
of MulL* 

There was then a fearful silence. For a moment the storm seemed to 
have passed away, but only to renew with more awful violence. 

Then the darkness was something intense. 

Soon the ruddy glare of the watchfire illuminated the gloom, and the 
sonorous voice of Dermond was heard commanding the duties of the little 
garrison. 

The men were properly equipped for lending aid should the pirate's 
vessel be driven on the rocks while attempting to reach the mouth of the 
creek, where a huge fire was lighted to show the place. 

* It may be remembered that the celebrated " Nether- Lochaber," in the Courier, 
directed attention to a similar phenomenon as this which occurred in the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, as certified by the ancient chroniclers. 



16 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

Extra faggots were added to the fire in the hall, and the smoke found 
its way out by an aperture in the roof, or strayed through the apartment 
blackening the oaken rafters. A great spit was turned by a shaggy-headed 
boy, while around there sat the privileged few. The glare lighted up 
the bare walls and the anxious features of the watchers, who sat tracing 
figures in the curling flames. Silently they sat as the storm swept 
fiercely round the rock, and the tower seemed to shake on its basement. 

Dermond was still on the watch-tower attempting to descry his father's 
bark in the darkness. The roar of the waters rose dismally in the gloom, 
and the scornful laugh of the tough-old Viking rang mockingly in his ear. 

The beacon hanging over the wall of the tower swung backwards and 
forwards, and the flames played with the blast as they hissed hideously 
in the rain. 

Free and distinct, he seemed to hear the piercing cry of the sea- wraith 
rend the tempest of the night, and the syrens of the deep sang their dirge 
of murmurs. At times they would rise above the noise of every wave 
and gust of wind, and then die away with the renewed roar of the storm. 

Towards midnight a great amount of wreckage was driven in by the 
tide and dashed against the rocks. 

Descending to the mouth of the creek, Dermond endeavoured to bring 
part of it ashore, in order to ascertain whether any of it belonged to his 
father's galley. 

A small raft, made from logs and barrels bound together with ropes, 
with some one clinging to it, was seen driving past in the darkness. At 
first it seemed like to be dashed on the rocks from the violence with 
which it was washed in by the tide, but caught in the whirl of a contrary 
current it bore past and was driven seawards again. 

In spite of every remonstrance Dermond got his galley under weigh, 
resolved upon rescuing the waif. 

A thousand emotions were quivering in his breast, and skilfully he 
carried the vessel out past the mouth of the creek into the midst of the 
storm and the darkness. 

The raft was again driven ashore, but Dermond found that having 
launched his vessel it was a very different thing to take it back again 
through the surf, and he soon found he was being driven by the tide 
farther and farther from Dunkerlyne. 

Alarm and consternation prevailed in the castle, but there was no 
other vessel available which could live in such a sea. 

As for Jarloflf, amidst all the commotion, he was unmoved. 

The raft was driven ashore, and the half-dead stranger who clung to 
it, notwithstanding the superstition of the times which predicted evil 
from such an act, was carefully taken care of for Dermond's sake, although 
there was little hope of his recovery from the state of stupor in which he 
was rescued. From his dress and appearance he seemed to be a youth of 
noble lineage, and everything was done that could be done in his behalf. 
He was placed before the great fire in the hall, and the efforts for his re- 
suscitation were carried out under the directions of the minstrel 

Olave and Donald were relieved from the watch, and in order to dis- 
pel the gloom that settled down on the little company, they told their 
tales of love and adventure. 

As for Jarloff, he did not fail to expatiate on the glorious reign of 
King Aco, and how he was outwitted off the coast 'of Largs. 



DEEMOND. 17 

The incident of the descent of Lorn on Eathlin was retold, and how 
Francis, the first chief of Dunkerlyne and father of Brian, had heen slain 
by the hand of his brother, Cyril, in the encounter. 

" That night," said the old man, " while the beacon blazed from the 
tall tower of which only the ruins remain, the storm raged more furiously 
than the oldest man living ever knew. The sea- wraith was distinctly 
visible shrieking on the battlements, and the soldiers fled into the hall. 
Besides the Dreag was more awful than that of to-night, the gates were 
burst, and the tall tower of the beacon was precipitated over the rocks, 
and never since rebuilt." 

" Just thirty years since this very night," said old Alastair, who re- 
membered the tragic affair vividly. 

Soon the gray dawn began to appear and the stormy winds to abate 
into their usual murmurs, but neither Brian the Kover nor his son Der- 
mond had returned from the sea. 



CHAPTER II. 

And first one universal shriek there rush'd 
Louder than the loud ocean, like a crash 

Of echoing thunder ; and then all was hush'd, 
Save the wild wind and the remorseless dash 

Of billows ; but at intervals there gush'd, 
Accompanied with a convulsive splash, 

A solitary shriek, the bubbling cry 

Of seme strong swimmer in his agony. 

Don Juan. 

BRIAN, the Chief of Dunkerlyne, though generally known as " Old Brian 
the Kover," from the premature whiteness of his locks and his piratical 
pursuits, had hardly passed the meridian of his manhood. Like his ruinous 
habitation, age had not caused his declension. The stern, inflexible ex- 
pression on his countenance spoke not of happy and peaceful days ; the 
wrinkles on his spacious forehead, his searching, restless glance, and the 
scars on his rugged features were a striking chronicle in themselves of the 
stirring life he had led among the Western Isles. 

He had been early banished from his native land, but not from his 
paternal home. Francis, his father, was the son and heir of Kathlin, but 
unhappily dispossessed by that irritable Lord owing to a family feud. 
Francis was strongly of opinion that the mercenary mode of warfare then 
carried on by some of the Irish chiefs, could neither throw off the yoke 
of England nor remove the grievances of his country, and he secretly enter- 
tained hopes that Ireland would one day rise to take her place beside 
England, and share the glory of her arms among the nations of the world. 
Eathlin, becoming aware of the sentiments of his son, swore eternal enmity 
to the wretch of his blood who would submit to the crown of England, 
and consequently planted the younger brother, Cyril, in 'his inheritance. 
Stung with the reproach of his dishonoured position, Francis gathered to- 
gether a number of his attached followers with other adventurers, and 
roamed the sea, a plundering pirate. Finally, for the sake of his wife and 
his boy, Brian, he settled at Dunkerlyne and built that almost impreg- 
nable keep. Eoyally he lived for a time till the Norseman overran the 
Isles and subjected them to his sway, but on the defeat of Aco at Largs, 
Lorn entered into a compact with Francis and the other chieftains to 

B 



18 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

conspire against the usurper, and to acknowledge the Chief of the 
Macdougals as their Lord. In the confusion which took place on the 
Norsemen "being driven from the land towards their ships, the men 
of the isles, accordingly, seized upon the imperfectly armed galleys, 
attacked those refusing to bring down the black raven from their mast- 
heads, left the remnants of Aco's force to perish on the shores, and sailed 
for their island fastnesses exulting in their success. But the joy was 
temporary, and gall was added to bitterness, for the Chief of Dunkerlyne 
now groaned under the supremacy of Lorn. After a long interval of 
peace, Lorn, in order to gratify his lust for revenge, resolved upon a de- 
scent on the shores of Rathlin, and Francis and the other fiefs of the 
island king were compelled to accompany the expedition. Persuasion 
with threats had to be applied in order to induce Francis to go, as an 
attack on his brother's castle was far from recommending itself to him. 
But there was no resisting the will of his liege lord, who promised him 
on return that the wish of his son, Brian, for the hand of Margery of 
Lorn would be gratified, and the house of Dunkerlyne and Dunolly 
would be more closely allied. Unhappily, Francis never returned. In 
the darkness of the night he fell by the hand of his own brother, and 
mourning had hardly ceased when the marriage of Brian was celebrated. 

This tie, however, did little to subdue the aspiring spirit of Brian, for 
his whole ambition was for independence. 

Lorn did not fail to discover the sentiments of his audacious relative, 
who was little skilled in the art of dissimulation, and a strict watch was 
kept over him. 

A plot for the massacre of Lorn's household was soon matured. The 
sentinels of Dunolly were bribed, and the attack was to take place at 
midnight. Lorn anticipated the storm how, it could not be discovered 
but that night with a force of arms he entered Dunkerlyne and accused 
the chief of his meditated treachery. 

Brian was instantly thrown into his own dungeon, and a more faithful 
dependant installed in his place. 

At length, through the entreaties of the beautiful Margery, her hus- 
band was set free, on the condition that his garrison should be diminished 
and the defences reduced. 

This to some extent accounted for the extensive ruins. The castle 
now consisted of a single tower perched on the utmost verge of the crag, 
the other tower having been thrown down as related by old Jarloff in 
the previous chapter. Most of the other defences were destroyed at the 
command of John of Lorn, and little huts erected in their stead for the 
accommodation of a few followers. 

Outwardly, however, the defences were still considerable. The land- 
ing place was approached by a hidden creek only known to those ac- 
quainted with that particular part of the island. Even if a footing could 
have been obtained by a stranger, rocks high and inaccessible, bleached by 
the wind and whitened by the salt of the sea, flanked the opening which 
led up a dark and intricate passage to a platform in front of a rude entrance 
in the masonry of the outward battlements. At the extremity, the plat- 
form was defended by a parapet bristling with barbicans, while the rock 
descended perpendicularly for about fifty feet. 

Brian returned from the dungeon to rule in the hall, but his character 



DERMOND. 19 

was greatly altered. He became desperate, and the victim of extraordi- 
nary hallucinations. The ambition of his life was crushed, and instead of 
contenting himself with fighting the enemies of Lorn, he took to the sea, 
like his father of old, broken in the true pride of his spirit. He became 
irascible and violent provoked to rage at the veriest trifles and even 
abused the noble Margery. 

She did not bear her husband's change of temper long. Her joy at 
his release was soon merged in a brooding melancholy, and after many 
miserable days and long night watches, her mind yielded to the strain, 
and she died a raving maniac. 

The only pledge of affection was her son, Dermond, who was the idol 
of his father's heart. The death of Margery proved a great trial to Brian, 
who became once more something of his former self, and the love, which 
was denied in the latter days to the mother, was profusely lavished on the 
son. Many a time the tear would trickle down the old man's weather- 
beaten features as he kissed the rosy boy when taking leave for some in- 
cursion, but he was too proud to forsake his roving life on the sea. 

Dermond, as he approached manhood, inherited much of his mother's 
comeliness and gentleness, allied to the youthful spirit of his father, and 
wearied with the forced confinement at Dunkerlyne he yearned to go forth 
and distinguish himself. 

Under the direction of his liege lord, Brian had equipped the galley, 
which had borne him safely through many a fearful storm and bloody 
battle, for the purpose of preventing two ships bound from Ireland with 
men and stores for the Bruce, from accomplishing their mission. All day 
long, however, he scoured the intricacies of the Western Isles in vain, 
and no small amount of skill was required in managing the vessel among 
the contending winds and strong tides. To the lee, she inclined so much 
that the waters broke through the oar ports, disabling the rowers, not- 
withstanding that the sheet was under double reef. At length the sea 
ran too high, the wind drove along with a blinding sleet, and the sky be- 
came black overhead. After being driven to and fro for a while, Brian 
descried the breakers that lashed the shores of Seila. With some diffi- 
culty the vessel was run into one of the numerous fiords on the coast, and 
the pirates made for the cavern of Ardnavorish a common resource in 
such emergencies. A fire was speedily lighted, the feast was prepared, 
and Brian resolved upon spending the night on the island. 

Sentinels were posted on the cold headlands, to observe should any 
vessel be driven on the rocks, and as the night wore on a storm-bound 
hulk, with a few dark objects clinging to her, was seen drifting helplessly 
through the surf. An alarm was raised, but to no purpose, as the wreck 
went crashing past and disappeared like a phantom in the murky gloom. 

(To be Continued.) 



20 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE EDITOR IN" CANADA. 



I 

FROM what I could learn at home of the position of my countrymen who 
had crossed the Atlantic of their own free will, as well as of those who 
had been driven away from their native land by the cruelty of a few of 
the Highland lairds of a past generation, I was led to believe that they 
occupied a much better position, in the New World, than those who re- 
mained at home. I could never, however, believe that the difference was 
so great as it really is, until I have now been able to judge for myself, 
from actual contact with them, and personal experience of their com- 
parative comforts and freedom from petty tyranny which they enjoy. I 
have now passed through the greater part of Nova Scotia, and have met, 
in the counties of Pictou and Antigonish, in the Island of Cape Breton, 
and elsewhere, specimens of Highland men and women many of whose 
ancestors have been evicted and hounded in a semi-naked and starving 
state from the Highlands of Scotland who will bear more than a favour- 
able comparison with the very best specimens of the race at home. In 
physique, taking them all over, they are superior to those of any district 
that I am acquainted with in what all here still take a pride in calling 
" The Old Country." In general intelligence they at least equal, while in 
genuine warm-heartedness, manly sentiment, and open, free, Highland 
hospitality, they are far in advance of the general run of those of their 
countrymen who occupy the same position as they themselves did before 
they left home. True, they are in more favourable circumstances, and 
therefore in a far better position, and better able to exhibit these 
characteristics of the fine race from which they sprung. But I cannot for 
the life of me see why, nor can I conscientiously advocate that my brother 
Highlanders should continue to remain at home in a servile and, often, in 
a starving position, on grounds of mere sentiment and love of their native 
soil, when such a country as this is open to receive them. This part of 
Canada is not the best part to come to, however, unless people have friends 
here ready to receive them, though tome it appears a Paradise in many re- 
spects in comparison with the wretched patches on which the crofter has 
to eke out an existence, in most cases, in the Highlands. 

It is quite true that most of those who came out here first, before the 
country was broken up, endured the most severe and cruel hardships, but 
these have long ago become things of the past. For specimens of these 
early difficulties I must at present refer the reader to the Aberdeen Daily 
Free Press, where I am able to give a more complete account of the his- 
tory of early emmigration and the present position of these provinces than 
the exigencies of space permits of in the Celtic Magazine. As I work my 
way to Upper Canada, I shall give an account of the richer districts in 
that quarter, and I trust to be of some service in directing poor and 
neglected Higldanders at home to places where they can become proprietors 
of the soil, and find an ample opportunity for laying a solid foundation 
for the future prosperity of themselves and their descendants. The reader 
is already aware that I have taken a view of this question of emigration, 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 21 

and of the Highland crofter's position at home, which is not shared by a 
good few, who have his real interest at heart quite as much as I have. 
These I expect will still continue to hold their own opinions, but, for me, 
having now seen with my own eyes, and having had an opportunity of 
forming, or rather strengthening, my previous opinions by observation on 
the spot, I have no hesitation in recommending the Highland crofter to 
keep his eye on this side, failing better treatment at home ; and finally to 
come to this country in spite of such mistaken and erroneous teachers as 
would advocate semi-starvation in Scotland to comfort and affluence in a 
country which is, in every respect, except in poverty and wretchedness, as 
Highland as his native land. 

I have taken considerable pains to find out the feeling here, regarding 
the mother country, among those who came out themselves, as well as 
among their descendants, and I cannot recall a single instance in which 
any of those who have settled down here on their own lands, would wish 
to go back and live in the Highlands. Most, not only of the original 
emigrants, but of their descendants, to whom I have put the question, 
expressed a desire to see the country of their ancestors, but the idea of 
going back to remain in it never crossed their minds. I have met them 
throughout the Province of Nova Scotia and in the Island of Cape Breton, 
who, at home, lived as our poorest crofters do, who can now turn out in 
their carriage and pair. While this is the case with not a few, hardly a 
single farmer can be met with who does not keep what is here called a 
" waggon," but what is in reality a nice, light, four-wheeled machine, 
made to carry two or four persons. The farmers as a class, however, are 
not wealthy, but they have as much bread, potatoes, meat, butter, cheese, 
and such substantial fare as any one needs to have, while they not only 
grow their own wool, but in nearly all cases keep their own looms and 
weave it in their respective homes into excellent cloth. Add to all these 
home comforts a beautiful climate, and the independence enjoyed by a 
fine race of men naturally of a cheerful and hopeful disposition, living 
unmolested by laird or factor, on their freehold possessions, and what 
more can be wished for. 

At the same time there is great room for improvement. Farming is 
not carried on on scientific principles; but the very reverse. Were a 
system of rotation of crops introduced, double the amount of corn and 
cereals could be produced with half the labour. At present, in some 
cases the land is left for several years under grass, as long, in not a few 
instances, as eight or nine years, while, again it is under crop for an equal 
length of time, thus run to seed, and all the sap taken out of it for either 
purpose. This is to be accounted for mainly from the fact that the class 
of people who originally emigrated from the old country to these provinces 
did not belong to the farming class at home were only the poorest of the 
crofting population, who had not then the slightest idea of farming their 
lots on any improved plan. When they arrived here, and obtained their 
grants ot 100 and 200 acres, they set to work in rough and ready 
fashion, reclaiming enough to grow all their requirements, and soon found 
themselves in a position of comparative affluence. Their ambition was 
not high, and finding themselves hi easy and comfortable circumstances, 
and in a much better position than they ever before occupied, they natur- 
ally settled down and enjoyed themselves, quite happy j and their de 



22 

scendants have, to some extent I fear, followed in their wake. The con- 
sequence is bad farming generally throughout the most Highland sections 
of the province. The local Government of Nova Scotia might, by offering 
prizes throughout the provinces for the best cultivated farms, in a few 
years bring about a revolution among the farmers. What can be done 
by such encouragement is illustrated this very week, as I write, by the 
magnificent Exhibition of the produce of the Province held in the 
city of Halifax, and of which I shall have something to say on a future 
occasion. 

Meanwhile I shall ask the reader to accompany me in my trip through 
Nova Scotia to make the acquaintance of a few of our countrymen, whose 
names deserve mention, not only on account of their warm-hearted, en- 
thusiastic welcome, and friendly feelings to, and in favour of, " a High- 
lander from home;" but on account of the excellent positions many of 
them have made for themselves on this continent. 

After experiencing a pretty rough passage across the Atlantic in the 
steamship State of Nevada, a splendid sea-going boat belonging to the 
State Line Company, navigated by Captain Braes, an experienced, care- 
ful, and courteous sailor, I arrived in 

NEW YORK on the 4th of September, just in time to see the New York 
Caledonian Games, which were held on that day. Here was an immense 
assemblage of about ten thousand people thoroughly enjoying themselves, 
and behaving in a manner highly creditable to the Scottish character. 
There was a capital sprinkling of the most prominent Scots fine stal- 
wart fellows dressed in Highland costume, presided over by their Chief 
a handsome Highlander, Nicholson by name. I was soon introduced 
to several of the leading men, among whom were the Honourable Thomas 
Waddell, a wealthy coal-owner from Pennslyvania, and the newly-elected 
President of the United Caledonian Association of America, the highest 
honour at the disposal of his fellow countrymen on this side of the At- 
lantic ; Mr L. Lawrie, Secretary of the same Association, and manager of 
the Aiiburn Cloth Manufactory, the largest thing of the kind in the 
United States ; Mr Stewart, editor and proprietor of the Scottish American 
Journal; Messrs Eobertson of the New York Scotsman; Mr D. Mac- 
gregor Crerar, Secretary of St Andrew's Society of New York, a highly 
respected and popular Highlander among the better class of Scots in 
America ; Mr Paterson, an Invernessian, and no mean poet ; Mr Gilully, 
a Merkinch boy ; Mr Harcombe, son of the late proprietor of the Waverly 
Hotel, Inverness ; Major Manson, a prominent Caithness man, and one 
of the most popular and liberal, open-handed men in the American capital. 
From these and hundreds of others I experienced the utmost kindness 
and attention. In fact their enthusiastic demonstrations in the shape of 
liberal supplies of the good things of this life were calculated to place one 
in a some\vhat trying position ; and to take care of one's self required no 
small amount of self-denial and force of charactar. Fortunately, however, 
I possess no small modicum of these, and I survive the liberal and warm 
hospitality of my Highland friends. 

The games were highly creditable in all respects, but the pipe-music 
and dancing left room for improvement. The favourite piper would have 
no chance in any of our best competitions in Scotland. There was an- 
other, however, who played very correctly and sweetly, and was, out of 



THE EDITOR IK CANADA. 23 

sight, a better performer than the winner of the first prize. Having spent 
a few days in New York, I went on to 

BOSTON, a magnificent city, admitted to be the most cultivated and 
intellectual town in the United States. I visited Harvard University, 
Longfellow's residence which was also Washington's head-quarters at 
the outbreak of the American War of Independence, also the spot where 
first blood was drawn, and the place where the historical tea was thrown 
overboard rather than that the detested and strongly resented duty should 
have been paid on it. These and many other points of interest were exa- 
mined with mixed feelings; but one place in particular, an old church, 
had an inscription cut upon it at which my blood boiled, and at the same 
time made me wonder that the inhabitants of the American Athens could 
be found capable of such a narrow-minded, contemptible thing The 
inscription read, " Desecrated by British troops" &c,; and that in such a 
thoroughly British city as that of Boston. I felt relieved on finding that 
this wretched littleness was perpetrated, not by any official body, but by 
a contemptible set of three or four Trustees of this church, much to the 
disgust of, and in opposition to, the inhabitants. My excellent guide, 
Mr Magee, the agent for the State Line Co., informed me that the gene- 
ral feeling among the greater part of the citizens of Boston found vent in 
expressions of regret that the church had not been burnt down in the 
terrible conflagration which, a few years ago, destroyed a great portion of 
the city, and, having escaped that, a desire prevailed that some such calamity 
should soon overtake it. In the late Civil War, the Americans "de- 
secrated," in the same way, hundreds of churches in the Southern States, 
but, of course, these were only " occupied." It is only occupation by 
British troops that can desecrate, in the estimation of these patriotic 
Yankee trustees, who, one is glad to find, do not represent the finer feel- 
ings of their own countrymen and fellow citizens. Leaving Boston, after 
a magnificent sail of 340 miles, I arrived in 

ST JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, and spent the evening with the Eev. D. 
Macrae, M.A., at his own house, and afterwards in the house of a hospit- 
able friend of his, Mr Murdoch, a southern Scot, holding a leading posi- 
tion in St John. Here I met several gentlemen distinguished in litera- 
ture and in the church fine, affable, open-hearted fellows, with the ec- 
clesiastical starch, if it ever existed, thoroughly rubbed out of them. Mr 
Macrae is the son of the late Eev. John Macrae, parish minister of Stor- 
noway, and presides here over a large, intelligent, and most influential 
congregation. 

I here found that I could get on to Halifax by either of two routes 
the Intercolonial Eailway on the one hand, or on the other, steamboat to 
Digby and Annapolis, thence rail through the Annapolis Valley, the most 
beautiful and fertile in all Nova Scotia. I made choice of the latter, and 
certainly had no cause to regret it. All along the railway route, through 
this magnificent valley, teems with orchards and foliage of the finest de- 
scription. It was originally reclaimed and long held by the French, un- 
til they were driven out of it by the British, who, though the place is a 
very agricultural paradise, do not seem to have followed up the enterprise 
of their predecessors, who reclaimed not only from the forest, but from 
the sea, thousands of acres known as the Annapolis Marshes, and immor- 
talised by Longfellow in his famous poem " Evangeline." This was my 



24 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

first trip of any consequence in the famous and luxurious American cars, 
which for comfort and elegance cannot be named in the same breath with 
our very best carriages at home, if we exclude the Pullman cars. They 
are particularly agreeable for a stranger to travel long distances in ; for all 
necessary conveniences are provided in them, as well as an elegantly fur- 
furnished smoking saloon, to which the passengers can walk along from 
one end of the long train to the other. Arriving in 

HALIFAX late on Friday evening, I remained there until the Monday 
morning following, and met some fine specimens of the Highlander, all 
of whom exhibited the best characteristics of the race characteristics, I 
regret to say, now only met with in full play from home. Of these gentle- 
men, of their excellent Society the North British, and of their doings and 
position generally, I shall have something to say hereafter. Meanwhile I 
proceed through a magnificent country by rail, a distance of 106 miles to 

PICTOU. 

The beauty on all sides on this route is simply indescribable. The 
pretty, clean-looking, white-painted, wooden houses, surrounded by fine 
arable land, in its turn enclosed within a thick and beautifully variegated 
forest, each appearing in miniature like one of our lordly mansions at 
home. Every man of these are proprietors of the soil, and thoroughly 
independent of mortal man, when he has paid a very small tax to the 
Government. He has his children educated free by the State, and alto- 
gether his position is much to be envied. In the morning I discovered 
that the Pictounians were celebrating the anniversary of the arrival of the 
ship Hector, which, in 1773, landed the first Highland colony in Pictou, 
and I was naturally anxious to see my Highland countrymen on such an 
occasion ; and there they were, when I arrived, exhibiting the prowess of 
their ancestors, commemorating the arrival of their fathers and grand- 
fathers, in good Highland fashion. Though they have no Scottish, High- 
land, or Caledonian Society, they are full of the proper spirit j and here 
they were hotly engaged in their annual Highland games, under the 
superintendence of the officers of the artillery, to whom great credit is due 
for the manner in which the sports are conducted. Here I found myself 
right in the centre of a country and people more truly Highland in their 
ways and in their speech than almost any part of the North of Scotland. 
Gaelic was more commonly spoken at this gathering of Highlanders than 
you can find it now in any part of Sutherland or Eoss shires ; and indeed 
it is there only that you can now meet with the Sutherland, Eoss, and 
Inverness-shire people in perfection. Erasers, Mackeuzies, and Mac- 
donalds meet you in hundreds, and address you in the purest Gaelic. 
Many of them are almost giants fine, honest-faced, powerful, healthy- 
looking fellows, glad to see one from what they still call "home," each 
vying with the other as to who can give him the most attention and make 
his visit most agreeable. The first I meet on landing is a Mr Donald 
Eraser, whose parents came originally from the Lovat country, near 
Inverness. He had his carriage to drive me to the games. Before I am 
barely seated in it, Captain William Crerar and his nephew the latter a 
son of a fine Highlander, John Crerar, and a young gentleman whom I 
have seen in kilts repeatedly during the summer in Inverness come up 
with another carriage for the same purpose, We are soon on the field, 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 25 

Where I find myself among hundreds from all parts of the Highlands 
any number of Mackenzies from Lochcarron and Gairloch, Erasers from 
Inverness, Rosses, Macdonalds, and Sutherlands, from other counties 
many of them wealthy men, and most of them, in fact, nearly all, in good, 
comfortable circumstances, possessing their own lands in free heritage, and 
producing everything necessary for human comfort and happiness. Mr 
Donald Eraser owns several farms, is wealthy, and a director of a thriving 
local bank. The Crerars, originally from Breadalbane, I found have 
many friends in Inverness and Badenoch. Their father came out here as 
an engineer, where he built some of the first roads in the district. He 
afterwards engineered and built the first railway. His sons became ship- 
owners and doctors, and are now in easy and affluent circumstances living 
on their means and well do they deserve it, a more hospitable, agreeable, 
noble, spirited family of true Celts it is impossible to meet. There is also 
a very wealthy family of Mackenzies from Ross, one of whom has designated 
his farm " Seaforth." Another Highlander a fine specimen, physically 
and mentally John D. Macleod, is mayor of the town of Pictou. D. 
Macdonald is collector of customs. In short, the place and people are 
thoroughly Celtic, and such as to make you proud of the race to which 
you and these fine fellows belong. One genuine enthusiast, Hector Mac- 
millan, I met at the games. His characteristic Highland face, his keen 
interest in all the proceedings of the day, wrapped in a Macneil tartan 
plaid, was to me an object of study. He had a hand in everything, and 
was a judge in almost all the competitions. He was almost too much 
engrossed to remember his own existence, and all he wanted was a full 
Highland costume to make him in appearance, what I have found him to 
be in country, soul, and sentiment a genuine specimen of a Lochaber 
Highlander. The jumping, tossing the caber, the stone-throwing, and 
various others of the competitions, would do credit to some of our best 
competitors at the Northern Meeting, but the pipe music was nowhere. 
I was sorry to see so few dressed in Highland costume, for there is no- 
thing looks so ridiculous as to see people dancing Gille-Callum and the 
Highland Fling in Sassenach trousers. Only three good kilt suits were 
on the field. And one of these, worn by a Mr Yawson, of Orcadian ex- 
traction, deservedly won him the first prize for the best dressed High- 
lander, a Mr Mackenzie, originally from Brora, Sutherlandshire, but 
now of Halifax, taking the second prize with a suit made by Messrs 
Robert Eraser & Sons, Inverness. This gentleman was also a good 
dancer, and secured some of the principal prizes. 

Pictou Town and County are sufficiently important to demand a whole 
article devoted to themselves, but it is my intention in these letters to 
deal more particularly with the people. The native resources, and ap- 
pearance of the country will be more particularly treated in my letters to 
the Aberdeen Daily Free Press. I may, however, state that the whole 
population of the county, in 1817, was only 6,737 ; in 1871 it was 32,1 14. 
In 1870 the county produced 76,426 bushels of wheat, 469,868 of oats, 
64,937 of other grain, 415,524 of potatoes, 32,334 tons of hay, and 
804,661 Ibs. of butter. The farm stock owned was 6,787 horses, 14,958 
milch cows, 12,560 other horned cattle, 43,416 sheep, and 4,343 swine. 
This county manufactures nearly as much leather as all the rest of the 
Province of Nova Scotia put together, and woollen factories are making 



26 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

rapid progress. The surface of the county is nearly level, and the soil is 
exceedingly fertile. The harbour of Pictou is one of the best in the 
world, but it is frozen over all winter. Underlying the surface is De- 
vonian lime stone. The country contains rich mines of soal and iron ore. 
It has one coal bed 33 feet in thickness, with 24 feet of excellent coal. 
Besides, there are ten other strata. Next to the County of Halifax, it is 
the most populous in Nova Scotia. Its area is 720,496 acres, and, as 
already indicated, it is mainly settled by Scotch Highlanders. The capital 
of the county is situated on the harbour of the same name, in a fertile and 
fairly cultivated district. It is well built, has an academy, a library, 
several banks, telegraph offices, a newspaper, masonic hall, several fine 
churches, hotels, two steam carding mills, two tobacco manufactories, an 
iron-foundry, several saw and grist mills, and tanneries. The shipping 
owned in the port is very extensive, and the imports and exports 
especially in coal and timber are very considerable. The population of 
the town at last census was 3,200 altogether a prettily situated, prosperous, 
and growing seaport. A. M. 



GAELIC SCRIPTURES EDITIONS OF 1826 AND 1860. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIR, IN any historical notice of the Gaelic Scriptures it should be remem- 
bered that the Eev. Robert Kirke, minister of Balquhidder, was the first who 
endeavoured to make them accessible to Highlanders. In 1690 he pub- 
lished Bishop Bedell's Irish Bible in Roman letters, conferring a very 
great boon on his countrymen. But the circulation of the work does not 
appear to have been extensive, nor does it seem to have met with any 
great favour. Yet for a period of nearly a hundred years it was the 
Highlanders' only Bible. At length in 1801 the Christian Knowledge 
Society completed a Gaelic translation of the Bible, and in 1807 published 
a second edition, considerably improved. In 1816 the General Assembly, 
at the Society's request, agreed to revise the whole work, and entrusted 
the task to the Rev. Dr Stewart of Luss, and the Rev. Dr Stewart, of 
Dingwall. Both these excellent men, however, died before making any 
considerable progress in the work. No successors were appointed, and, 
after lengthened and acrimonious controversy, the Assembly, in 1826, 
agreed to authorise the edition of 1807, which, however, when it actually 
appeared, was found to have undergone various alterations. 

The discontent with this edition (known as that of '26) was such that 



GAELIC SCRIPTURES. 27 

in 1840 just 14 years after its issue the Assembly, returning to its 
former opinion, appointed a Committee for " revising " it, and a revision 
Committee is still continued by the Established Church, with whom the 
General Assembly of the Free Church co-operated for several years by 
means of a " Revision Committee " of its own appointment. 

These are facts of great importance to be remembered. The defenders 
of this edition speak as if there were something illiterate, audacious, or 
positively profane in altering a word or a point to be found in it, whereas 
it is the publicly recorded opinion of both the Established and Free 
Churches that it stands in urgent need of revision ; and thus it appears 
that the authorisation conceded to it in '26 is a very qualified one, if it 
be not absolutely withdrawn. 

And now allow me to state some of the reasons which appear to me 
not merely to justify, but to demand such a revision. 

I. It deals very loosely with the " Received Text," of which the 
English authorised Bible is a translation sometimes transferring pas- 
sages from one book to another, sometimes adding passages the source of 
which is not declared, and sometimes omitting passages without any 
assigned reason. And let me say that while some of the transferred or 
interpolated passages are marked with brackets, this is not uniformly 
done. There are several of these without any such mark ; and there are 
many passages both in Old and New Testaments which are bracketed al- 
though found in the original. There is no index to additions or omis- 
sions ; consequently nothing but a laborious comparison of the translation 
with the originals will give right knowledge of the strange and daring 
work done by the editors of "26. 

I subjoin a few proofs in support of my very serious charges. 

Three names are added in I. Chron., viii., 29-31, transferred from the 
9th chap. In I. Chron., xi., 13, two long verses, which are transferred from 
II. Sam., xxiii., 9, 10, 11, are inserted in the middle of the verse, and in 
II. Chron. v., 3, a short clause is inserted from II. Kings, viii., 2. Ex- 
tensive changes are made on the genealogical tables in Chronicles and 
Ezra. Thus, in II. Chron., xiii., 2, we have a name taken in from I. 
Kings, xv., 1 ; in II. Chron., xv., 8, another is inserted without the 
source being mentioned ; in Ezra, vii-, 3, six names are transferred from 
I. Chron, vi., 7, 8, 9 : in Ezra, viii., 5, one name is added, and another 
in v.. 10, while in v., 16, two are excluded. 

The Psalms also are very freely handled. In Ps. xviii., 1 3, the last 
clause is omitted in accordance with the text of the Septuagint. Ps. xx., 
9, is considerably altered likewise after the Septuagint, though not a 
literal translation even of it is given. In Ps. Ixviii., 8, a clause is inserted 
not iound either in the Hebrew or the Septuagint. In Ps. Ixxii., 3, the 
word fireantachd is dropped ; Ps. cxiii., and cxiv., are very singularly 
dealt with. The last clause of the former is omitted in its proper place, 
but placed at the beginning of the latter without any explanation, while 
in Ps.^cxlv., a whole verse is added, likewise without explanation. 

In Prov. v., 3, there is a clause inserted not to be found either in the 
Hebrew or the Septuagint. In Lament, i., 13, a clause is omitted according 
to the Septuagint. Lam. ii., 18, there is a translation differing alike from 
both these authorities, and omitting the word "wall," which is to be 
found in both. In Micah ii, 4, there is a long clause inserted not to be 



28 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

found in either Hebrew or Greek. In Isa. xvi., 1, the word "Kuler" is 
omitted; in Isa. xxxviii., 7, a clause is transferred from II. Kings, xx., 
9, and in Luke i., 79, the quotation from the prophet is mutilated by the 
omission of the words " in darkness." 

II. This edition, founded very much on Bishop Bedell's Bible, retains 
many words and phrases which are purely Irish, and never had a place 
in the Highlands e.g., Fuigh for Faigh, Droing for Dream, Troisg for 
Trasg, Fuidh for Fo, Goigleadli for Caomhnadh, Lan-deimhin for Lan- 
chinnt, or dearbhadk, Coded for cadal, cos for cas, and many more such. 

III. The desire to bring Gaelic to conform to the rules of more learned 
languages induced the writers to manufacture forms of inflection totally 
opposed to genuine Gaelic. Apparently to have the Dat. Plur. somewhat 
like the Latin ibus, we have such absolute monsters as cnaimhibh, 
craobhaibh, lamliaibh, laoghaibh, naomhaibh, &c., &c., while with sin- 
gular disregard of this favourite form, and of the true Gaelic termination, 
we have, as in Dan. iv., 12, aig beathaiche, xii., 8, aig na nitlie so. 

Again to make substantives, referring to the same object, agree in case, 
an agreement not sanctioned by Gaelic usage, we have hundreds of times 
over such expressions as "do Dhia 'atliar Isaaic" "mao righ Sholaimh, do 
Sham mnaoi Abraim, do Egla a mhnaoi," expressions which it is quite 
enough to name to a Highlander. We have also a slavish conformity to 
the letter of the original in transliterating plural nouns into Gaelic plurals 
though such are utterly unknown to the language. Both in the Old and New 
Testaments we have arain " breads " ; toraibh for " fruits," eunlaithibh 
for " birds," and many similar instances ; yet, as if to show that careless- 
ness, more than ignorance, led to such offensive solecisms, we have, Gal. 
v., 20, 21, in the dark catalogue of " the works of the flesh," no fewer 
than nine of these works described in Greek by nouns plural, rationally 
and correctly rendered into Gaelic by nouns singular. 

The number of what, for want of more distinctive terms, I must call 
bad or unidiomatic Gaelic phrases, is likewise very great. Take the fol- 
lowing few as specimens : Mata., xvi., 9, 10, "Nach 'eil sibh a' cuimh- 
neacbadh nan cuig aran nanc uig mile . . no nan seachd aran nan ceithir 
mile' " ; Judges xix., 17, " C' ait a tha thu dol' " ; Acts xxii.. 27, " An 
Eomhanach thu ? ... Is mi," paralleled by a similar construction 
in Gen. xlii., 9, 10 ; Eom. iv., 12, " ann an ceumaibh a' chreidimh ar n- 
athar Abrahaim," and in the preceding verse we have " chum gu mea- 
eadh fireantachd dhoibhsan " an active for a passive form. Passing by 
many similar instances, let me refer to the 27th chapter of Acts, which is 
as well known for bad Gaelic as for bad seamanship, verses 16, 17 "is 
ann le 'eigin a rainig sinn air a' bhata, agus air dhoibh a thogail suas . . 
a' criosadh na luinge fuipe, leig iad an seoil sios." Bata is generally 
called ise, not esan, but as for fuipe and seoil, I will say nothing. 

IV. Passing by scores of anomalies, I must point out a few of the 
typographical errors which abound from Genesis to Eevelations, e.g., Gen. 
xviii. 21, mar do rinn, for mur, a frequently recurring one, vide Ezekiel 
xxxiii. 9, Zechar. xi. 12. Gen. xxviii. 13, " am fearann air am bheil thu 
do luidhe," an error to be met with many times. Gen, xxxi. 28, 
"nach do leag thu learn mo mhic a phogadh," for leig. Gen. xl. 8, 
" cbunnaic sin aisling," for sinn. Exod. xx, 20, air choir, for air chor. 
I, Sam, ii. 3, leisean for leie-san. I. Sam. ix, 2, o' ghuailibh, for ghuail- 



GAELIC SCEIPTUEES. 29 

UWi. I. Chron. iv. 22, uchdranachd for uachdranachd. Ps. ix. 19, na 
buadhaichear duine, for na buadhaicheadh. Isa. xxvii. 11, " sluagh gu'n 
tuigse," for gun (same error 57, 1). Isa xxx. 12, "a leigeal bhur taice," 
for leigeil. Isa, li. 23, gu'n teid sin thairis," for sinn. Isa. liii 1, "co a 
chreid air teachdaireachd," for ar. Jerem. xxx. 14, "Rinn do leannan 
gu leir," for leannain. Jerem. xlvi. 28, " lacoib m' bglaich" for m' 
bglach (unless it may be said to be according to foreign rule). Dan. iv. 
23, "fluich," for flinch. Hosea xii. 1, " ga giulain," for giulan. Jonah 
ii. 9, " Is an do 'n Tighearna," for is ann. Luke xii. 7, and xiv. 35, " an 
talmhainn," for na talmhainn. Luke xxiii. 41, "a thoil ar gniomliara 
fein," for a tlioill. Acts viii. 34, Guidheam thu for ort. Acts xii. 21, 
" air a sgeudachadh," for sgeadachadh. But I must pass on, leaving un- 
recorded many which I have marked, and certain that there are very 
many which I have not marked. 

V. A very unscholarly system prevails throughout of running short 
words together, and writing them as if they formed one word only, thus, 
arms an is almost always written san, anns a 'na, or na, an uair 'nuair, 
&c., &c. 

VI. The irregularity of the orthography from beginning to end is such 
as to defy description. Take any word, inflection, or construction, and 
you find all possible variations of it. Comhar, comhara, comharra, and 
comharadh, are all instances of the Nom. We have Foir and Oir, 
Fedbhas and Feodhas, Solamli and Solomon, Siriaich and Sirianaich. So 
of other cases. Often we have in Nom, Plur. the Irish aithriche, and 
often the Gaelic aithrichean. The dative plural probably presents the 
most remarkable variations cinnich and cinneachaibh ; diathaibh, dtibh, 
and diathan ; eeumaibh and ceumannaibh ; peacaiWi, peacannaibh, and 
peacanna. The irregularity of the syntax is just as complete as that of 
separate words, but I must confine myself to one example : Rom. vii, 15, 
20, in these few verses we have tha mi a' deanamh four times over, and 
iha mi deanamh, without any sign of the preposition, five times, while 
tha mi 'deanamh is in other places a very common form. We have here 
also gdbhail and a' gabhail, while we have a ta six times, and tha just 
as often. An examination of other passages will present similar results ; 
and while some portions are written much more carefully than others, I main- 
tain it as a fact that there is not even a remote approach to grammatical 
accuracy or uniformity throughout the edition of '26, a fact undeniable 
by any one who will admit the evidence of his eyes. Those who extol 
it as a " standard," and praise it as the work of " thorough grammarians," 
merely prove thereby that "they know not what they say, nor whereof 
they affirm." 

At the same time I have to say in all earnestness that I do not wish 
to cast any reproach on the editors for their loose method of writing. 
Every one wrote Gaelic very loosely in their day. It is only since Ger- 
man scholars began to analyze and explain our language that much regard 
has been paid to system and uniformity in writing it, and, as I said in 
my last letter, I have not seen uniformity attained by any one, even up 
to the present day, while I am glad to see considerable advances towards 
it. So of typographical errors. It is said that no book is absolutely free 
of them, and after about forty years frequent dealing with Gaelic printing 
affairs, I say that, unless an editor can himself be present at the final 



30 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

throwing off of his sheets, or an intelligent reader "be provided in Gaelic 
offices, as is the case in good English offices, errors, carefully corrected 
even in the third proof, will sometimes reappear, and, worse still, mys- 
terious " pies" an utter jumble of letters may be occasionally looked 
for; but the errors of '26 are very numerous, and ought, as far as possible, 
to be removed. 

Very many editions have appeared since '26, and all that I have 
noticed (except that of '60) profess to be reproductions of it, but I have 
never examined any that was strictly so in reality, nor any two that abso- 
lutely agreed one with another. They were undergoing constant changes. 
I have before me one by the Edinburgh Bible Society, 1831, which corrects 
several of the typographical errors of '26, but it introduces worse errors of 
its own. To mention only two, Ps. cxi. 2, we have for an Tigliearna, an i 
Tghearna. In Acts xix. 9, we have, speaking of the School of Tyrannus, 
the word sgoil repeated twice over, and there are scores of other oifensive 
blunders. It is decidedly worse than that of '26. I have before me a New 
Testament by the British and Foreign Bible Society showing the grossest 
carelessness. In John iii. 3, we have " Thubhairt e nis" instead of ris. In 
Acts xvi. 4, we have " Troimh na bailtibh " repeated twice, and the 
heading of the pages shows utter recklessness. Thus what ought to be 
Marc iv. is Mata xxiii. The Epistle to the Ephesians is in one place 
made Ephensianach ; and I have also a Bible by the same great Society 
(157), bearing on its back the mysterious title Biboul Noimbh, and at 
p. 512 we have forty-three Psalms in Italian inserted instead of the latter 
part of Job, and the first eighteen Psalms in Gaelic ! I have seen worse 
blunders, if possible, than any that I have mentioned. " Meallaidh na 
fireanan an tlr," "The righteous shall deceive the earth," instead of 
mealaidh. The Psalmist in the 11 9th Psalm speaks of "mo luhd-teag- 
aisg uilc," "my teachers of evil," instead of uile or "all." 

Such work went on for many years edition after edition, with gross 
and glaring blunders; but as far as I am aware the editors were unknown; 
and, this being so, no offence was taken. No one manifested the least 
zeal either for the purity of the Gaelic language, or for the integrity of the 
sacred text, when at length in 1860 there appeared an edition openly 
professing to be a "revised" one, and the names of the unfortunate 
editors were not concealed. Immediately a storm of indignation, which 
raged from Eenton to the extreme corners of Ross-shire, was raised against 
them for corrupting Gaelic, and altering the meaning of the Scriptures. 
The very mention of a new edition by the same editors is rousing the storm 
anew, although I hope that its area will not be so extensive, that it will 
prove to be a " tempest in a tea-cup " after all. I sincerely regret that 
Mr Cameron, who knows Gaelic, should devote his knowledge to the pur- 
pose of hindering a reform which is so imperatively demanded, and I also 
regret that Dr Masson should so causelessly come forward to condemn 
what he does not seem to know. Mr Cameron contradicts one assertion 
of his, Dr Maclauchlan proves his statement as to numbers to be very 
glaringly wrong, and I am obliged to remind him that the edition of '60 
was never, as far as I saw, or heard, discussed by the "joint-committee " 
certainly never referred to their consideration. It was the edition of '26 
which was really discussed by them. Mr Cameron's tremendous charges, 
followed by such ludicrously trifling instances, in your August number 



GAELIC SCRIPTURES. 31 

reminds one of the old saying, Parturiunt monies, nascitur ridiculus mug ; 
but of Dr Masson's it must be said that his labour results in nothing 
as solid as even a mouse that it is only empty sound. 

Now, one word as to what Dr Maclauchlau and I actually did in this 
terrible edition. We had no commission to meddle with the graver 
matters of interpolation, &c., but we banished several of the Irish inter- 
lopers. We substituted home-grown articles for such monstrosities of 
foreign manufacture as laoghaibh, craobhaibh, &c. We wrote san and 
such contracted words in a form which, without altering the pronuncia- 
tion, will show the student that they are composite words. In thousands 
of instances we changed the very faulty foim of tha mi deanamh, and 
cognate expressions to tha mi 'deanamh, or a' deanamh writing them in 
grammatical shape. But dreading the effects of prejudice, we proceeded 
with a very cautious and timid hand, leaving untouched hundreds of 
phrases which we knew ought to be changed. The result shows that we 
had grounds for caution, that reform in Gaelic writing must proceed by 
steps very short and slow. Our work is very imperfect in its conforming 
so much, as it does, to '26 ; yet it is a step in the right direction, pointing 
the way towards improvements which must come some day. The smallness 
of the improvements we have made is in one view a matter of regret, but in 
another a subject of congratulation. Seeing the alarming effects which our 
slight mending has produced on our opponents no humane man would 
wish to be responsible for the effects of a really good translation into 
genuine vernacular Gaelic on Mr Cameron and Dr Masson. 

If it is asked why the " Revision Committee," so long in existence, 
have done so little work, I can readily answer that, as far as I have seen, 
obstruction, much more dogged and persistent than that shown by the 
Irish obstructionists in the House of Commons, has hitherto blocked the way. 

But to conclude, let us for a moment set aside editors, editions, and 
controversies, and look calmly at the Gaelic Bible which alone is in any 
degree "authorised" among us. I have proved that the '26 edition 
tampers with its original in a manner which, from a literary point of view, 
is altogether unscholarly, and which, to those who hold even the most 
meagre convictions on the inspiration of Scripture, must appear irreverent, 
if not profane. Years ago I called attention to this very grave matter ; 
and I venture still to repeat the call, for it is a very serious matter under 
many aspects. I have shown that this edition, written after the fashion 
of the period to which it belongs (1807 rather than 1826), is written 
with remarkable disregard of uniformity, or grammatical system. I have 
proved that it contains very many errors of an important nature ; and I 
hold that there are the strongest reasons for improving it according to 
the oft declared wishes of the Assemblies alike of Established and Free 
Churches. The approaching completion of the new English translation 
will afford an unexceptionable foundation whereon to build ; and although 
I may not live to see it, I am certain the day is not far distant when 
Gaelic scholars and theologians, putting away all wrath and clamour, all 
envy and malice, will unite heart and hand to produce a Gaelic translation 
of the Scriptures in some degree worthy of its sacred theme, and of the 
devout minded people whom it is intended to guide on the way of 
righteousness and of peace. I am, &c., 

ABCHD. CLERK, LL.D. 

KILMALLIE MANSE, 6th September 1879. 



32 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Edinburgh, 1st October 1879. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

DEAR SIR, I will not attempt to reason with a man who, against 
reason and all reasonable evidence, only cries out angrily "it is not true." 
Nor will I repeat here what I have already written in disproof of Dr 
Maclauchlan's wild and reckless assertions. Such of your readers as have 
read my letters once will not need to read them again, in order to be 
satisfied that his " not true" applies not to me but to himself. 

One of his charges, however, is so extraordinary that I must be ex- 
cused for commenting on it. " I charged him," says Dr Maclauchlan, 
" with stating what was not true regarding the corrections made on it," 
that is, on the '60 Bible. Well, after that ! Has Dr Maclauchlan really 
shaken hands with Mr Cameron, and joined that gentleman in the com- 
plaint, not at all that my criticism was too severe, but that I did not 
state a hundredth part of the truth about these corrections ? I stated, 
undoubtedly, that there were many mistakes and misprints in the '60 
Bible. I even specified some of these mistakes, which were very remark- 
able, and in any other book than the Bible would be very laughable. 
Your readers will remember, as an example, the deplorable mistake where- 
by an ex-moderator of the Free Assembly, so honoured on account of his 
reputed Gaelic scholarship, raised the murderer to the bench, and com- 
missioned him, by warrant of Holy Writ, to sit on the throne of i\\Q judge / 
But then I added that these misprints were " carefully corrected" in '63, 
'68. Is this the " statement regarding the corrections" which Dr Mac- 
lauchlan is not ashamed to brand as untrue? I stand by it as fair, mo- 
derate, and even lenient criticism. If untrue at all, it is only in the sense 
that I do not tell all the unpleasant truth that might be laid to the 
charge of my assailant. And if that is Dr Maclauchlan's charge against 
me, he is at one with Mr Cameron, who protests that my criticism was 
unduly lenient ; and, to prove his protest, comes down upon us with a 
perfect avalanche of his reverend brother's blunders, not only in '60 but 
also in '63. 

It is just the old story. In your columns, as of old in the joint 
committee of the Churches, I tried to hold an even balance between " my 
neighbour" and his old antagonist. Naturally enough I have pleased 
neither. But in the fact that it is so, reasonable people will find a strong 
presumption at once of the accuracy and the moderation of the few lines of 
criticism which have occasioned all this terrible ado. That the issue be- 
tween Dr Maclauchlan and me should have taken a turn so personal I of 
course regret. But the blame of it is not with me. I sought not this 
fight ; neither do I shun it. 

One word, in conclusion, to Dr Maclauchlan. It is to me a matter of 
indifference whether or not he takes " notice of the other parts" of my 
letter. But till ho has something else to say than " it is not true," most 
people who care for his reputation will, I. think, advise him to hold his 
pen. Yours faithfully, 

DONALD MASSON. 



THE QUIGEICH, OE PASTOEAL STAFF OF ST FILLAN. 



NEXT to " the stone of destiny," on which the ancient Scottish kings were 
crowned at Dunstaffnage, and afterwards at Scone, the Quigrich of St 
Fillan is the most interesting of Scotch relics. Save the stone chair, we 
have no relic whose pedigree can at all compare with that of the Quigrich. 
It carries us back to a period as early as the eighth century so that 
apart from its intrinsic value those association of centuries a thousand 
of them that cluster round it, cannot fail to give it interest in the eyes 
of Scotchmen ; especially Highlanders, in whose country it has had its 
long abode, and by whose trusty hands it has been transmitted from gene- 
ration to generation down to the present time. This curious relic, now 
deposited in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries in Edinburgh, is 
well worth a passing inspection. In shape it resembles the crook of ft 
shepherd's staff. The material of it is bright silver the length about 
nine inches. The lower end of the crook, into which the staff was in' 
sorted, expands into a large bulbous socket, beautifully ornamented with 
a kind of interlaced knot-work. From this socket there rises a ridge or 
crest which extends all along the back of the crook, until it terminates 
at the extreme end of it, in the bust of a man in the dress of an ecclesi- 
astic ; meant, we suppose, to represent the original owner. The front of 
the crook is ornamented by a large oval-shaped cairngorm, terminating in 
a plate, which bears an engraved representation of the crucifixion. On 
closer inspection, it was found that the silver crook enclosed within it an- 
other crook of bronze, of a similar shape, inlaid with niello, and about 
seven inches long. This is supposed to be the old original Quigrich, sub- 
sequently encased in the silver which now encloses it but of which 
more afterwards. 

Of St Fillan himself the eminent individual with whose name the 
Quigrich is associated, little is known save a few simple facts. But from 
the veneration in which his memory has been held through so many ages, 
we may safely infer he must have been a man of mark in his day. St 
Fillan, like St Columba, was of royal descent. Kentigerna, his mother, 
was the daughter of the King of Leinster, in Ireland ; and both she and 
her brother, Congan, have been enumerated among the saints of Alba 
a connection that may possibly have influenced their nephew to devote 
himself to the work of a missionary of the Cross. He passed his earlier 
years in the monastery of St Mund, on the Holy Loch, of which he sub- 
sequently became Abbot. Thereafter he removed to Pittenweem, in 
Fifeshire, where he founded a monastery ; and where, as recorded of him, 
he employed much of his time in transcribing the Holy Scriptures. This 
was a work to which the early Culdees greatly devoted themselves, for 
giving as large a circulation as possible to the word of God ; to which wo 
may ascribe much of the success that attended their evangelistic labours. 
From Pittenweem St Fillan transferred his labours to Glendochart, in the 
Western Highlands of Perthshire. It appears Kentigerna, his mother, was 
latterly an inmate of the monastery of Inchchallach, an island in Loch- 

o 



34 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

lomond, not far from Strathfillan ; which may have partly influenced him 
in making choice of Strathfillan and the surrounding regions as the per- 
manent field of his labours. Here he passed the remainder of his days. 
Here he prosecuted his evangelistic labours, Quigrich in hand ; and here 
his dust reposes with that of his fellow labourers in the church of which 
he was the founder. 

In ancient, and even in modern times, the staff holds an important 
place as part of a man's travelling gear. Jacob tells us he carried a staff 
on his journey to his uncle in Padanaram. Moses carried a shepherd's 
staff, as we see from his interview with the angel that was in the bush 
which probably was the self-same rod that performed so distinguished a 
part in the subsequent history of the great legislator. Balaam carried a 
staff on his unhappy mission to the Court of Balac. Elisha sent his ser- 
vant, Gehazi, in advance with his staff, to lay it on the remains of the 
child of the Shunamite lady, to restore him to life. So the early mis- 
sionaries of the Christian faith in our own land made use of a staff, 
Quigrich, or Bachull, in their weary peregrinations, discharging the duties 
of their office. By-and-bye, because of veneration for the original owner 
his followers and successors attached a peculiar value to his staff. And 
as the shadows of darker times gradually obscured moral vision, men came 
to ascribe miraculous power thereto. The staff of St Fergus was long 
preserved in the parish which bears his name ; and the Aberdeen Breviary 
informs us of belief in its power to allay storms and tempests ; and of its 
actually having done this on a certain occasion on the coast of Buchan. 
In like manner the staff of St Ninian, and the staff of St Serf, are spoken 
of in the lives of these men as possessed of similar miraculous power. In 
the fourteenth century Earls of Eoss went to battle in the shirt of St 
Duthac to ensure victory over their foes ; and Queens of Scotland, during 
accouchement, wore the shirt of St Margaret, the wife of King Malcolm 
Ceanmore, to secure them a favourable delivery. This last relic was 
carefully preserved for this purpose, near her shrine, in the Abbey of 
DunfermHne. A copy of the Psalms of David, said to have been tran- 
scribed by St Columba, and enclosed in a silver case, was long held in 
veneration by an Irish tribe, believing that it possessed virtues similar to 
those of the green banner of Mahomet. Accordingly it got the name 
" Cathach," the fighter. The owners of this " Cathach " believed that if 
sent thrice rightways round the army of the tribe whose it was when on 
the eve of battle, victory was sure to them. Similar virtue is ascribed 
to the Quigrich of St Fillan. There was a well authenticated tradition in 
the Dewar family, hereditary keepers of it, and handed down from father 
to son, that it accompanied the army tf King Eobert Bruce to the Battle 
of Bannockburn, and was supposed to contribute to the famous victory 
achieved by him on that memorable occasion. Dr Jamieson, who edited 
an edition of Barbour's Bruce, knew this tradition, and speaks of it, as 
affirming, that before the battle, " King Eobert and his army received the 
sacrament under the relic of the Quigrich " which means, we suppose, 
that it was elevated in their sight, so as to be visible to them. We have 
it on the authority of the historian Boece, that relics of St Fillan were 
present at the Battle of Bannockburn. This makes it pretty certain that 
a relic so important and sacred in the eyes of the people as the Quigrich, 
would not have been omitted. " All the night before the battle," says 



THE QUIGEICH. 35 

Bcece, "King Robert was right weary, having great solicitude for the 
weal of his army, and could take no rest, but revolved all jeapordies and 
chances of fortune in his mind ; and sometimes he went to his devout 
contemplations, making his prayer to God and St Fillan, whose arm, as 
he believed, was inclosed in a case within his tent ; trusting the better 
fortune to follow by the same. In the meantime, the case cracked sud- 
denly without any motion or work of mortal creature The priest, as- 
tonished at this wonder, went to where the case lay, and when he found 
the arm in the case, he cried. ' Here is a great miracle ; ' and confessed 
how he brought the case empty to the field, dreading that the relic should 
be lost where so great danger was." The King, rejoicing in this so 
called mii-acle, " passed the rest of the night in good hope of victory." 
Morice, Abbot of Inchaffry, was the leading ecclesiastic in Bruce's army, 
and the King's own confessor. He was also Superior of the Church of 
Strathfillan, and only acted in accordance with the belief and customs of 
those times, in so using such relics. In Adamnan's life of Columba, we 
are told of the military powers ascribed to a certain pastoral staff ; and 
which accordingly got the significant cognomen of " Cath-bhuaidh " 
victory. In a battle fought between the men of Alban and the Norwe- 
gians in 918, the victory obtained by the former was attributed to the 
virtues of the " Cath-bhuaidh." For a similar purpose David II., King 
Robert's son and successor, carried with him the cross of St Margaret, 
when he invaded England in 1346. When Edward I. invaded Scotland, 
he marched with the banner of St Cuthbert unfurled in the van of his 
army as they thought the sure pledge of victory. There is, therefore, no- 
thing improbable in the tradition of the Dewars, that the Quigrich was at 
the Battle of Bannockburu. Superior of the church to which it belonged, 
and believing as he did in the virtue of such relics, Morice, the Abbot, 
would not fail to avail himself of it on so critical an occasion. It is not, 
therefore, the least interesting of the associations that gather round this 
Quigrich, that it was present at the great and crowning struggle of our 
warrior king for securing the independence of Scotland. 

As we have said, the bronze crook enclosed within the silver one, is 
considered by antiquarians to be the older of the two the original Quig- 
rich. This is also the Dewar tradition ; and, that the silver case is the 
gift of Bruce in acknowledgment and remembrance of the services sup- 
posed to be rendered by it. Macpherson, in his " Geographical IDustra- 
tions," says that King Robert founded a priory at Strathfillan, in gratitude 
to the Saint, on account of the victory of Bannockburn. But there is 
another incident that made Strathfillan and its patron Saint memorable 
in the life of Bruce : the narrow escape he made from his pursuers after 
the battle of Dairy, almost opposite the old Clachan. It will be remem- 
bered how William I. of England built a church on the ground on which 
he won the victory of Hastings. The lands of Glendochart, of which 
Strathfillan is a part, belonged in the Bruco's days to the Macgregors. 
" Ardchoill in Glendochart " was theii ancient war-cry. ThSy were Lorn's 
allies against Bruce, and therefore their lands were forfeited to tho 
Crown, and distributed among his friends and supporters. It was in 
course of this division of the forfeited lands of Glendochart, that the 
lands of Auchtertyre and other lands were granted to the Priory of Strath- 
fillan ; and in which the Dewars shared, as the keepers of the Quigrich, 



36 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

To them fell the lands of Ewich and certain other lands, in recognition 
of their office, as well as in acknowledgment of the veneration of the King 
for St Fillan and his Quigrich. The charter which confirms these grants 
in perpetuity dates from the year 1318, lour years after the victory of 
Bannockburn. 

In former times we find that offices of various kinds were invested 
and perpetuated from generation to generation in certain families. To the 
Earls of Buchan belonged the honour of officiating at coronations, and 
placing the crown on the head of the king elect. The Keiths were the 
hereditary Marshals of Scotland. "We had also our hereditary Stewards, 
our hereditary bards musicians, and standard-bearers. In 1466 the 
Abbot of Arbroath granted to Thomas of Lochan the office of Derethy ; 
and in 1527 a lease of the same with a croft was granted to William Gray 
and his wife the duties of which were " the keeping of the cows and 
the oxen of the Abbey." The Dempsters of EdzeLL were the hereditary 
ringers of St Lawrence's bell For this they had a farm, rent free. By 
virtue of an ancient grant from an Earl of Argyll, land in the island of 
Lismore was held, rent free, on condition that the holder " do keep and 
take care of the Baculus or pastoral staff of St Maluaig," the patron saint 
of the church of that island. The holder of the relic was called " Baran 
a bhachuill" the land-holder of the Baculus of St Maluaig. Similarly 
the Dewars of Glendochart, the keepers of the Quigrich, were also land- 
owners in virtue of their office, and known as Deoirich na Quigrich 
Dewars of the Quigrich, and sometimes as Deoirich na h-Araichd, Dewars 
of the treasure the Quigrich being the treasure. Very probably there- 
fore the name Dewar is significant of their office Dia-fhear contracted 
Deoir. We find individuals bearing the same name elsewhere invested 
with offices in connection with religious houses, as bell-ringing, and 
monastic dairy keeping, and it is not improbable that their name may be 
traced to the same origion. The keeper of St Mun's staff, and the 
keeper of St Maluaig's bell were Dewars, because of their semi-ecclesiasti- 
cal offices. 

Eegarding the history of the Quigrich, before the Dewars became the 
official keepers of it, we are left very much in the dark. And but for 
the emoluments and endowments with which Bruce enriched their office, 
we would very probably know less of its history since. But these were 
so valuable, and moreover as the office involved other responsibilities be- 
sides the keeping of the Quigrich, contentions arose from time to time 
that afford glimpses of its history which in other circumstances would 
have remained unknown. In an inventory of old documents in the Tay- 
mouth charter-room we have the following: "Ewich in Glendochart" 
" Ane letter made by Alexander Lord of Glendochart to Donald McSo- 
brell Dewar Cogerach, of date 1336 years." This Alexander, Lord of 
Glendochart, was of the Menzies family, and related by marriage to King 
Robert. The letter, of which the above is an inventory, is in all probabi- 
lity confirmatory of King Eobert's grant to the Dewars. Alexander, Lord of 
Glendochart, was one of those on whom were conferred the lands of the 
forfeited Macgregors. Tho next authentic notice we have of the Quigrich 
is in the year 1428. In that year an inquest was held by John Spens, 
of Perth, Bailie of Glendochart, " regarding the authority and privileges 
of a certain relic of St Fillan, commonly called the Coygerach." The 



THE QUIGEICH. 37 

jury decided the case in favour of the Dewars ; and further, " that the 
keeper of it should have yearly from every one in Glendochart having, or 
labouring, a merk land, either free or in farm, a half boll of meal, and of 
every one having in like manner a half merk of land, a firlot of meal ; 
and of every one having a forty penny land, a half firlot of meal. That 
the office of carrying the relic had been conferred in heritage on a certain 
ancestor of Finlay Jore (Dewar) the present bearer, by the successor of 
St Fillan, and that the said Finlay was the lawful heir in said office." 
They further decided " that these privileges were enjoyed and in use, in 
the time of King Eobert Bruce, and in the times of the kings who reigned 
after him." But besides the antiquity of the office, as appears from this 
decision of the jury, as well as from the confirmation of it by King 
Eobert, we have the following decision also, though apparently it ill 
assorts with the calling of men holding an office such as these Dewars 
held. This further decision is, " that if it happened that any goods or 
cattle were stolen or carried away from any one dwelling in Glendochart, 
and he from whom they were stolen, whether in doubt of the culprit or 
from the feud of his enemies, did not dare to follow after his property ; 
then he should send a messenger to the said Dewar of the Coigreach, with 
four pence or a pair of shoes ; with food for the first night, and then the 
said Jore or Dewar, on his own charges oiight to follow the said cattle 
wherever they were to be found within the Kingdom of Scotland." His 
emoluments notwithstanding, the keeper of the Quigrich in those days of 
abounding thievery had not a very easy task to perform. We find in the 
year 1468, another action raised to invalidate the rights of these Dewars 
on this occasion by " the Lady of Glenurchy " the spouse of Sir 
Colin Campbell of that ilk, the progenitor of the family of Breadalbane. 
Her husband was then in life ; and why this onus lay upon her does not 
appear. Her object was to recover rents from a certain man of the name 
of Macgregor, for lands which she claimed as those of her husband. Mac- 
gregor, however, declined her claim, on the plea " that he had paid the 
rents demanded to Dewar of the Quigrich," from which it appears their 
possessions were such, that they could even afford to sublet lands to 
others. But the Dewars were not after all allowed to retain peaceable 
possession of their Quigrich privileges. In 1487 an appeal was 
made by them to the reigning monarch, James III., on account of a 
local decision limiting their rights. The King decided the case in 
favour of the Dewars. The decision was " that Malise Dewar and his 
forefathers have had a relic of St Fillan called the Quigrich, in keeping 
for the King, and his progenitors, since the time of King Eobert 
Bruce, and before; and made no obedience or answer to any person 
spiritual or temporal in anything concerning said holy relic, otherwise 
than was contained in the old infeftment made by the King's said royal 
progenitors and that none shonld make impediment to said Malise in 
passing with said relic through the country as he and his said forbears 
were wont to do." Other occasional notices of the Quigrich are found now 
and again, down to the reign of Queen Mary. Till then the Dewars suc- 
ceeded in holding their own, notwithstanding the persistent efforts of 
jealous neighbours to deprive them of both office and emoluments. But 
the Eeformation, when it came, wrought a change in the previous ecclesi- 
astical arrangements of Scotland. The Eoman Catholic Church, which 



38 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

owned at least one-fourth of the lands of the kingdom, was despoiled of 
her possessions, and they reverted to the Crown. The Crown gave leases 
of all or most of them on easy conditions to the Scotch lairds, whose 
own they eventually became. The lands belonging to the Dewars, as 
keepers of the Quigrich, shared the fate of other church possessions, and 
by-and-bye nothing remained to them but the mere symbol of their former 
privileges and possessions. Yet they were faithful to their hereditary 
charge ; and the relic continued to be handed down from father to son, 
as when the transmission of it was accompanied by solid heritage. Sub- 
sequent to this reverse and consequent impoverishment of the Dewars, the 
relic lapsed into obscurity, and we have no subsequent notice of it, till in- 
cidentally discovered by a tourist, whose name is not mentioned. This was 
in 1782. It was then in the possession of a Malise Dewar, the lineal re- 
presentative of its hereditary keepers ; and a day labourer in the village of 
Killin. Thereafter the relic passed into the hands of a younger brother 
of this Malise Dewar ; and then into his son's possession, who removed 
to Glenartney, where the Quigrich was seen by Dr Jamieson, who gives 
a description of it in his edition of Barbour's Bruce. This Archibald 
Dewar went from Glenartney to Balquhiider, and thereafter emigrated 
to Canada, carrying the Quigrich with him to the land of his adoption. 
Alexander Dewar, the son of this man and the representative of the family, 
is, we believe, still in life. From him the Society of Antiquaries, partly 
by purchase and partly by Dewar's donation, obtained the relic now de- 
posited in their museum. 

There has been a good deal of speculation as to the meaning of 
" Quigrich." It has been spelt in several different ways Quigrich, Coy- 
gerich, Coigrich, and Cuaigrich. In the account now given of it, we 
have followed the spelling generally in use. Some think it is derived 
from "Cr6g" a hand, and should be written " Crograch." Others 
identify it with " Cuigmheurach," in reference to the five fingers of the 
hand, which laid hold of it; while others maintain that it means Coigreach, 
a stranger, on the supposition that the original relic was imported from 
abroad. It seems to us that the simple and natural meaning of the word 
is a crook; the shape of the relic itself; and derived from the root 
" Cuag," a curve or bending. So the old song : 

Le cuaigreach a bhata 

Na h-uain rinn e ghlacadh 

'8 b'e 'shuaicheantas breacan 

'S e ga'n cuallach a steach thun a chro. 

This agrees with the meaning of the other names of the Culdee pastoral 
staff as Bachull and Camabhata. Bachull is in Gaelic a crook, or curl, 
from which comes bachullach, curly. So Koss 

A nigbean bhoidheach an or-fkuilt bhachullaich. 
And Macintyre 

Do chuach-fhalt bachullach, cas-bhuidh dlu. 

From the crook of it therefore, the pastoral staff was called Bachull which 
by the way is a Gaelic and not a Latin word. For a similar reason it was 
-also called Camabhata," from the root cam, crooked, bent, curved so 



THE QUIGRICH. 39 

that the three names Quigrich, Bachull, and Camabhata, are all Gaelic, 
and refer to the same thing, and have the same meaning. The Quigrich 
has been sometimes styled the Crozier of St Fillan, as if the two words 
were the same. This is not the case. The one, as we have shown, was 
a crook, the other a cross or " Crasc." Besides they differ, in that they 
respectively represent two churches and creeds, as widely different, as 
are the symbols themselves by which they are respectively represented. 
But whatever differences may exist as to the meaning of the name, there 
can be no difference as to the relic itself being a highly interesting one. 
It was five centuries in existence before the light of authentic record 
reveals it in 1336, in possession of the Dewars. As we have seen its 
connection with the Scottish monarchy, is older than the Eegalia so care- 
fully guarded in the Castle of Edinburgh ; while its ecclesiastical associa- 
tions carry us back to an era of which we have scarcely any other remains 
when the son of Kentigerna of the Eoyal race of Leinster, prosecuted 
his work in the valley of the Dochart, and with men like minded, sowed, 
as did others elsewhere, and since, that precious seed of gospel truth, 
which has eventually won for us the honourable designation of being the 
Israel of the Gentiles. 

KENMOBE. ALLAN SINCLAIR. 



A SUTHERLAND HIGHLANDER'S WELCOME TO THE 
GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF CANADA. 



MB Donald Ross, a native of Sutherlandshire, now resident in Nova 
Scotia, and a well-known Celt, sent the following characteristic letter, 
hitherto unpublished, to the Marquis of Lorn on his arrival at Ottowa. 
I have picked it up in Halifax, and it gives a fair indication of the en- 
thusiastic manner in which the Highlanders of the Dominion welcomed 
the Marquis and his Royal Consort. [ED. G. M.~\ 

To the Right Honourable Sir JOHN DOUGLAS SUTHERLAND CAMPBELL, K.T., 

G.C.M.G., MARQUIS of LORN, Governor-General of Canada, &c. t &c., &o. 
MAY IT PLEASE YOUB EXCELLENCY 

Please permit me, a Highlander from the county of Sutherland, but now resident in 
Nova Scotia, to address you, and to offer to your Excellency and to Her Royal Highness 
the Princess Louise, the assurance of my right hearty welcome, and the offer of my 
sincere congratulations on your safe arrival at the capital of the Dominion of Canada. 

Born, and long resident, in the romantic county of Sutherland, I could not fail to 
observe and to admire, the many noble qualities by which the illustrious family of 
Sutherland was ever and eminently distinguished ; and I feel proud that a grandson ot 
the " Good Duke " of Sutherland, in the person of your Excellency, has been chosen by 
Her Majesty to fill the important office of Governor- General of this extensive portion 
of Her Majesty's Dominions. 

For generations past, the name of the noble and illustrious family of Argyll wag 
always synonym with freedom, loyalty, patriotism, and every other Christian virtue ; 
not only in their own country, but in distant lands ; and their martial spirit and heroic 
deeds, as well as other excellent qualities, commanded the esteem and admiration of 
surrounding nations. 



40 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Some of your Excellency's illustrious predecessors took a leading part in promoting 
the Union between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland ; a union which has proved 
highly beneficial to both countries ; for it restored peace, and settled for ever, as be- 
tween them, the strife of swords and the carnage of battles. But, much as your prede- 
cessors did to accomplish that Union, it was in reality only fully completed when the 
solemnities of marriage of your Excellency and the Princess Louise were completed at 
Windsor Castle in March 1871. Then the Union was completed with all the necessary 
essentials on earth and ratified in Heaven I 

Your Excellency's countrymen, the Scottish Highlanders, scattered throughout this 
great Dominion, one and all, hail with feelings of unmingled joy your Excellency's 
arrival among them, and in the true sincerity of warm Highland hearts greet your Ex- 
cellency and your beloved Consort the Princess Louise, with many thousand Highland 
welcomes, and in event of their services being ever required, their fidelity and martial 
ardour is the same as of old ; and right loyally they would stand as a wall of fire around 
their Governor-General and his Royal partner. 

I look upon your Excellency's appointment of Governor-General of the Dominion of 
Canada as a token of great good. It will unite more firmly than ever, the union of those 
scattered provinces, and cement, as it were, in more happy union, all classes from ocean to 
ocean, in loyalty and devoted attachment to Her Majesty the Queen, to your Excellency, 
aud to the Princess, as well as to the British throne and to British institutions. 

I sincerely trust that your Excellency's stay in Canada will not be limited to any 
set term of years, but that it will be a very prolonged stay ; and that when you do visit 
the " old country " it will be only for a visit ; just to look once more on Scottish scenes, 
to admire again the magnificent scenery of Argyle and the Isles, to have a quiet look at 
the majestic Bencruachan and other heath-clad mountains, to wander by the beautiful 
and placid Loch Awe, to see the hills of Morven, Cowal, and Mull, made immortal by 
Ossian and the bards ; and generally like Scotland's renowned bard, make leisurely pil- 
grimages through dear old Caledonia gaze on her beautiful mountains, sit on the fields 
of her many battles, wander on the banks of her many lakes and meandering rivers, and 
muse by her old castles, stately towers, and venerable ruins ; once the abode of her 
honoured statesmen, heroes, and bards. 

May God bless your Excellency and your beloved Consort, the Princess Louise ; 
may He make your stay in Canada a blessing to the people, a satisfaction to Her Ma- 
jesty, and a source of very great pleasure to yourselves, is the sincere wish of your Ex- 
cellency's devoted old Highland countryman, who has the honour to be your Excel- 
lency's very obedient humble servant, An la chi 's nach fhaio, 

(Signed) DONALD Ross. 

Celtic Cottage, Dartmouth, N.S., December 1878. 

His Excellency replied as follows : 

Government House, Ottowa, December 13, 1878. 

SIB, I am desired by his Excellency, the Governor-General, to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of welcome, dated Dartmouth, December 1878, and to convey to 
you his hearty thanks for the warm welcome and the many kind expressions which it 
contains. I have the honour to bo, Sir, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) F. DE WiNTON, Major, 

Governor-General's Secretary, 
Donald Ross, Esq., Celtic Cottage, Dartmouth, N.S. 



NEW GAELIC PUBLICATIONS. We have received the fifth and 
last part of "An t-Oranaiche," by Archibald Sinclair, Glasgow. We 
have only time at present to say that the work is well printed, carefully 
got up, and exceedingly cheap. Thanks are due to Mr Sinclair for 
supplying such a good collection of Gaelic songs. 

WE are glad to understand that Mrs Mary Mackellar has a volume of 
her poems in the press, to be published soon by Messrs Maclauchlan & 
Stewart, Edinburgh. Mrs Mackellar's volume will be hailed with pleasure 
by all lovers of genuine Gaelic poetry. 



THE 

CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

No. L. DECEMBEE, 1879. VOL. V. 

HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

AND 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



II. 

FROM the death of Suibne to the accession of Gillebride, father of Somor- 
led, little or nothing is known of the ancestors of the Macdonalds. Gille- 
bride was expelled from his possessions in the Scottish Highlands by the 
Danes and the Fiongalls, whereupon he took refuge in Ireland, and after- 
wards prevailed upon the descendants of Colla, to assist him in an attempt 
to obtain possession of his ancient inheritance in Scotland. Four or five 
hundred of these joined him and accompanied him to Alban, but he was 
unsuccessful and failed to secure his object. It was only after this, that 
Somerled for the first time, comes into notice. He appears to have been 
of a very different temper to his father. At first he lived in retirement, 
musing in silent solitude, over the ruined fortunes of his family. He, 
when a favourable opportunity presented itself, as already stated, placed 
himself at the head of the people of Morven ; attacked the Norwegians, 
whom, after a long and desperate struggle, he expelled from the district ; 
and ultimately made himself master, in addition to Morven, of Lochaber 
and Argyle. When David the First, in 1 1 35, expelled the Norwegians 
from Man, Arran, and Bute, Somerled obtained a grant of those islands 
from the king. " Bat finding himself unable to contend with the Nor- 
wegians of the Isles, whose power remained unbroken, he resolved to re- 
cover by policy what he despaired of acquiring by force of arms;" and, 
with this view, he succeeded in obtaining, about 1140, the hand of 
Eagnhildis, daughter of Olavo, surnamed the Eed, then the Norwegian 
King of the Isles. The following curious account relating how Somerled 
secured the daughter of Olave the Eed, is recorded in the Macdonald MS. : 
" Olay encamped at Loch Storna, Sommerled came to the other side of 
the loch, and cried out if Olay was there, and how he fared ? Olay re- 
plied that he was well Then said Sommerled, I come from Sommerled, 
Thane of Argyle, who promises to assist you conditionally, in your expedi- 
tion provided you bestow your daughter on him. Olay answered that he 
would not give him bis daughter, and that he knew he himself was the 
man ; but that he and his men should follow him in his expedition. So 

D 



42 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Sommerled resolved to follow Olay. There was at that time a foster- 
brother of Olay's, one Maurice MacNeill, in Olay's company, who was a 
near friend of Sommerled ; and when Sommerled brought his two galleys 
near the place where Olay's ship lay, this Maurice aforesaid came where 
he was, and said that he would find means by which he might come to 
get Olay's daughter. So, in the night time, he bored Olay's ship under 
water with many holes, and made a pin for each hole, overlaying them 
with tallow and butter. When they were up in the morning and set to 
sea, after passing the point of Ardnamurchan, Olay's ship sprung a leak, 
casting the tallow and butter out of the holes by the ship tossing on the 
waves, and beginning to sink, Olay and his men cried for help to Som- 
merled. Maurice replied that Sommerled would not save him unless he 
bestowed his daughter upon him. At last, Olay being in danger of his 
life, confirmed by an oath that he would give his daughter to Sommerled, 
who received him immediately into his galley. Maurice went into Olay's 
galley and fixed the pins in the holes which he had formerly prepared for 
them, and by these means they landed in safety. From that time the 
posterity of Maurice are called Maclntyres (or Wright's sons) to this day. 
On this expedition Olay and Sommerled killed MacLier, who possessed 
Strath within the Isle of Skye. They killed Godfrey Du, or the Black, 
by putting out his eyes, which was done by the hermit MacPoke, because 
Godfrey I)u had killed his father formerly. Olay, surnamed the Eed, 
killed MacNicoll in North Uist likewise. Now Sommerled marrying 
Olay's daughter, and becoming great after Olay's death, which death, with 
the relation and circumstances thereof, if you be curious to know, you 
may get a long account of it in Camden." 

On this point Gregory says, " It appears by no means improbable, too, 
that Sommerled, aware of his own power and resources, contemplated the 
conquest of a portion, at least, of the Isles, to which he may have laid 
claim through his remote ancestor, Godfrey. On these or similar grounds, 
Olave the lied, King of Man and the Isles, was naturally desirous to dis- 
arm the enmity, and to secure the support of the powerful Lord of Argyle, 
whose marriage with Eagnhildis, the daughter of Olave, about 1140 the 
first authentic event in the life of Somerled seems to have answered this 
purpose. Of this marriage, which is lamented by the author of the 
' Chronicle of Man,' as the cause of the ruin of the whole kingdom of the 
Isles, the issue was three sons Dugall, Eeginald, and Angus." In a foot- 
note Gregory informs us that in regard to Somerlei's sons, he follows " the 
Orkneyinga Saga, p. 383, which is very explicit, and is a better authority 
than the Chronicle of Man," which latter, adds a fourth son, Olave. In 
Skene and in the " History of the Highland Clans," he is said to have had 
another son, Gillecallum, by a previous marriage, while in Findon's sup- 
plementary sheet he is said to have a son, Somerled, from whom the 
Maclans of Ardnamurchan, and another Gillies, the latter obviously the 
Gillecallum of Skene and of Kethe's " Highland Clans," who, it ia said, 
obtained Kintyre. 

Olave the Eed, Somerled's father-in-law, was, in 1154, assassinated by 
his nephews, the sons of Harald, who made a claim to the half of the king- 
dom of the Isles. His son, Godred the Black, was at the time in Nor- 
way, but hearing of his father's death, he immediately returned to the 
Isles, where he was received with acclamation and great rejoicings by the 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 43 

inhabitants as their king. He apprehended and executed the murderers 
of his father. He had gone to Ireland to take part in the Irish wars, 
early in his reign; but afterwards returned to Man, and became so 
tyrannical, thinking no one could resist his power, that he soon alienated 
the insular nobility one of whom, Thorfinn, the most powerful of the 
Norwegian nobles, sent word to Somerled requesting him to send his son, 
Dugall, then a child, who, being Godred's nephew, he proposed to 
make King of the Isles. The ambitious Somerled readily entered into 
the views of Thorfinn, who, having obtained possession of Dugall, carried 
him through all the Isles, except the Isle of Man, and compelled the in- 
habitants to acknowledge him as their king, at the same time taking host- 
ages from them for their fidelity and allegiance. One of the Island Chiefs, 
Paul Balkason by name, and by some called the Lord of Skye, refused to 
comply with Thorfirm's demand, and, escaping secretly, he fled to the Court 
of Godred in the Isle of Man, and informed him of what had just taken 
place in the Isles, and of the intended revolution. Hearing this, Godred 
roused himself and collected a large fleet, with which he proceeded against 
the rebels, who, under the command of Somerled, with a fleet of eighty 
galleys, met him. and a bloody but indecisive battle ensued. This en- 
gagement was fought on the night of the Epiphany, and though neither 
could claim the victory, next morning a treaty was entered into, by which 
Godred ceded to the sons of Somerled, what were afterwards called the 
Southern Isles, thus dividing the sovereignty of the Isles and establishing 
them into two principalities. By this convention he retained for himself 
the North Isles and the Isle of Man, those south of Ardnamurchan be- 
coming nominally the possessions of the sons of Somerled, but in reality 
of that warlike Chief himself, as his sons were all minors, he being 
naturally their guardian and protector. In spite of all these insular pro- 
ceedings, and the changes of their possessions between themselves and 
among the immediate and resident chiefs, or native kings, the allegiance 
of all the Isles to Norway still continued intact. It is somewhat peculiar 
that Kintyre, a part of the mainland, should always have been included 
with what was called the South Isles ; but it is explained as follows in a 
footnote by Gregory : " The origin of this was a stratagem of Magnus 
Barefoot. After that Prince had invaded and conquered the Isles, he 
made an agreement with Malcolm Canmor, by which the latter was to 
leave Magnus and his successors in peaceable possession of all the Isles 
which could be circumnavigated. The King of Norway had himself 
drawn across the narrow isthmus between Kintyre and Knapdale, in a 
galley, by which he added the former district to the Isles." This anec- 
dote has been doubted by some, but it appears in Magnus Berfaet's Saga, 
a contemporary work ; and it is certain that, as late as the commencement 
of the seventeenth century, Kintyre was classed by the Scottish Govern- 
ment as one of the South Isles." 

About two years after the above-named treaty was entered into, for 
some cause not clearly ascertained, Somerled invaded the Isle of Man 
with a fleet of fifty-three galleys, and after routing Godred, laid the island 
waste. Whether the invasion was in consequence of some infringement 
of the convention of two years previously, or in consequence of the in- 
satiable ambition of Somerled, it is impossible to say, but the power of 
the King of Man was shattered so much, that he was obliged to pay a 



44 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

visit to his rival in Norway, and to seek his assistance. He, however, did 
not return until after the death of Somerled in 1164, from which Gregory 
thinks it may be inferred that the latter had succeeded in extending his 
sway over the whole of the Isles. 

Meanwhile Somerled was not idle. Malcolm IV. was now King of 
Scotland, and to him Somerled had early made himself obnoxious, by 
espousing the cause of his nephews, the sons of Wymund, or Malcolm Mac- 
Heth, to whom, on his first appearance, Somerled gave his sister in mar- 
riage, which unmistakably shows the opinion he held of the justice of 
Malcolm's claim to the Earldom of Moray, while it suited the Govern- 
ment to detain him for a time in prison, as an alleged imposter, though his 
claim seems now, on minute and careful inquiry by the best authorities, 
to be considered well founded. The enormous power and high position 
ultimately attained by this Island Chief may be inferred from the fact 
that he was enabled on one occasion to bring his contest with the King 
to a termination by a solemn treaty, afterwards considered so important 
as to form an epoch from which Royal Charters were regularly dated. He 
is again very soon in arms against the King, having joined the powerful 
party who determined to depose him and place the Boy of Egremont 
on the throne. He first infested various parts of the coast, and after- 
wards, for some time, carried on a vexatious predatory war. The attempt 
to depose Malcolm soon failed ; but the King, convinced that the existence 
of an independent Chief like Somerled, was incompatible with the interests 
of the central Government and the maintenance of public order, requested 
the Island Chief to resign his possessions into the King's hands, and to 
hold them in future as a vassal from the Crown. This, Somerled declined 
to do, and boldly declared war against Malcolm himself, who prepared to 
carry out his intention against the Island King, by invading his territories 
with a powerful army called together for the purpose. Emboldened by 
his previous successes, Somerled determined to meet the Scottish King 
with a numerous army from Argyle, Ireland, and the Isles ; and having 
collected them together, he sailed up the Clyde with one hundred and 
sixty galleys, and landed his followers near Renfrew, threatening, as the 
Chroniclers inform us, to subdue the whole of Scotland. He there met 
the Eoyal army under the command of the High Steward of Scotland, by 
whom his army was defeated, and he himself and one of his sons, " Gille- 
colane"* (Gillecallum or Malcolm) were slain. The remaining portion of 
his followers dispersed. " Sommerled being envied by the rest of the 
nobility of Scotland for his fortune and valour, King Malcolm being 
young, thought by all means his kingdom would suffer by the faction, 
ambition, and envy of his leading men, if Sommerled's increasing power 
would not be crushed. Therefore, they convened and sent an army to 
Argyle, under the command of Gilchrist, Thane of Angus, who, harrassing 
and ravaging the country wherever he came, desired Sommerled to give 
up his right of Argyle or abandon the Isles. But Sommerled, making 
all the speed he could in raising his vassels and followers, went after 
them. ; and, joining battle, they fought fiercely on both sides with great 
slaughter, till night parted them. Two thousand on Sommerled's side, 
and seven thousand on Gilchrist's side, were slain in the field. Being 
wearied, they parted, and marched off at the dawn of day, turning their 

* Hailea Annals, ad Annum 1164. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDOXALDS. 45 

backs to one another. After this when the King came to manhood, the 
nobles were still in his ears, desiring him to suppress the pride of Som- 
merled, hoping, if he should be crushed, they should or might get his 
estate to be divided among themselves, and at least get him expelled the 
country. Sommerled being informed hereof, resolved to lose all, or 
possess all, he had in the Highlands ; therefore, gathering together all his 
forces from the Isles and the Continent, and shipping them for Clyde, 
he landed in Greenock. The King came with his army to Glasgow in 
order to give battle to Sommerled, who marched up the south side of the 
Clyde, leaving his galleys at Greenock. The King's party quartered at 
Renfrew. Those about him thought proper to send a message to Som- 
merled, the contents of which were, that the King would not molest Som- 
merlod for the Isles, which were properly his wife's right ; but as for the 
lands of Argyle and Kintyre, he would have them restored to himself. 
Sommerled replied that he had as good a right to the lands upon the 
Continent as he had to the Isles ; yet those lands were unjustly possessed 
by the King, MacBeath, and Donald Bain, and that he thought it did 
not become His Majesty to hinder him from the recovery of his own 
rights, of which his predecessors were deprived by MacBeath, out of re- 
venge for standing in opposition to him after the murder of King Duncan. 
As to the Isles, he had an undoiibted right to them, his predecessors 
being possessed of them by the goodwill and consent of Eugenius the 
First, for obligations conferred upon him ; that when his forefathers were 
dispossessed of them by the invasion of the Danes, they had no assistance 
to defend or recover them from the Scottish King, and that he had his 
right of them from the Danes ; but, however, he would be assisting to 
the King in any other affairs, and would prove as loyal as any of his 
nearest friends, but as long as he breathed, he would not condescend to 
resign any of his rights which he possessed to any ; that he was resolved 
to lose all or keep all, and that he thought himself as worthy of his own, 
as any about the King's Court. The messenger returned with this answer 
to the King, whose party was not altogether bent upon joining battle with 
Sommerled. Neither did the King look much after his rain, but, as the 
most of kings are commonly led by their councillors, the King himself 
being young, they contrived Sommerled's death in another manner. 
There was a nephew of Sommerled's, Maurice MacNeill, his sister's son, 
who was bribed to destroy him. Sommerled lay encamped at the con- 
fluence of the river Pasley into Clyde. His nephew taking a little boat, 
went over the river, and having got private audience of him, being sus- 
pected by none, stabbed him, and made his escape. The rest of Sommer- 
led's men, hearing the death and tragedy of their leader and master, be- 
took themselves to their galleys. The King coming to view the corpse, 
one of his followers, with his foot, did hit it. Maurice being present, 
said, that though he had done the first thing most villanously and against 
his conscience, that he was unworthy and base so to do ; and withal drew 
his long Xiam, stabbed him, and escaped by swimming over to the other 
side of the river, receiving his remission from the King thereafter, with 
the lands which were formerly promised him. The King sent a boat with 
the corpse of Sommerled to Icollumkill at his own charges. This is the 
report of twenty writers in Imlliimkill, i>,'i'<.i-j i lector Bootiua aild ]>iu-li- 
anan were born. . . . Somnierled was a well tempered man, in body 



46 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

shapely, of a fair piercing eye, of middle stature, and quick discernment."* 
Gregory, from the well-known character of the celebrated Chief, is 
disposed to believe in the account which says " that he was assassinated 
in his tent by an individual in whom he placed confidence, and that his 
troops, thus deprived of their leader, returned in haste to the Isles." He 
does not, however, adopt that part of it which states that Sommerled was 
buried in Icolmkill. "Modern enquiries," he says, " rather lead to the 
conclusion that he was interred at the Church of Sadale, in Kintyre, 
where Reginald, his son, afterwards founded a monastery." 

A recent writer, who claims descent for the Macdonalds from Fergus 
Mor, son of Eire, " who, about the year 506, permanently laid the founda- 
tion of the Dalriadic Kingdom of Scotland," sums up the character of 
Somerled thus The family of Fergus Mor continued to maintain a lead- 
ing position in Scotland, supplying with few exceptions, the line of Dal- 
riadic kings, and many of the more powerful of its thanes, or territorial 
lords. Of the latter, the most historical, and, it may be truly added, the 
most patriotic, was a great thane of Argyle, who appeared in the twelfth 
century, called Somhairle among his Celtic kinsmen, but better known 
as Somerled, which was the Norwegian form of his name. During the 
tenth and eleventh centuries, frequent settlements were made by Nor- 
wegian colonists among the Celtic population of the Highlands and Isles 
of Scotland. Although, however, the evils of Northern rapacity and 
oppression were keenly felt, the Celtic element continued to predominate 
even during the most disastrous periods. At length a deliverer arose in 
Somerled, who was the son of a Celtic father, and a fair-haired, blue-eyed 
Norwegian mother. Few, if any, military leaders have left their marks 
more broadly or distinctly in Scottish history than he. This fact stands 
clearly out not only from the records of his career, preserved in authentic 
chronicles, but perhaps even more strikingly in the circumstantial tradi- 
tions respecting him, which still exist in Argyleshire and the Isles. 
These traditions when compared with the well-authenticated records of 
his life, appear like the fragments of some history that had been written 
of him, but is now lost, and hence they serve to supplement attractively 
the curt and dry details of the old chronicles. Many of these traditions 
refer to the youthful days of Somerled, who appears to have grown up an 
indolent and handsome giant. His father, Gillebride, regarded with con- 
tempt the seemingly unwarlike nature of his youngest son, who occupied 
himself in hunting and fishing, whilst his brothers trained themselves to 
engage, as opportunities offered, in deadly conflict with their Norwegian 
oppressors. Somerled's indolent and pleasant time, however, was soon 
destined to end. His father, being driven from the hills and glens of 
Argyle, was compelled to conceal himself in a cave in Morven, and from 
that moment Somerled began to take serious counsel regarding the posi- 
tion of affairs with his youthful companion? of the chase. He found 
them ready, and equally prepared to hunt the wild boar, or assault the 
dreaded Norsemen. Somerled's very nature thenceforward was entirely 
changed; he became a new man; the indolent dreamer was suddenly 
absorbed in the delights of stratagem and battle. He spoiled like the 
eagle, and had no joy so great as when in the act of rending the prey. 
His little band gathered strength as he went, and under his eye dealt 

* Macdonald MS. ; printed in the " Coilectauca de Rebus Albanicis." 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 47 

blow after blow on the bewildered enemy, until the Norsemen, whether 
soldiers or settlers, quickly abandoned garrisons and settlements in 
Argyle. They crowded into the Hebridean Islands, whither Somerled 
pursued them, capturing the Islands in detail, killing or expelling the in- 
vaders, and firmly establishing once more the old Celtic authority. Thus, 
on the ruin of the Norwegian power, Somerled built up his Island throne, 
and became not only the greatest thane of his family, but the founder of 
that second line of Island rulers, who, for nearly a period of four centuries, 
were occasional and formidable rivals of the Scottish kings.* 

"We have seen that Somerled, by Elfrica or Eachel, daughter of Olave 
the Eed, King of Man, had three sons, first, Dugall, ancestor of the Mac- 
dougalls of Lorn and Dunolly ; second, Reginald, from whom all the 
branches of the Clan Donald with whom we have specially to deal in the 
following history ; and third, Angus, who succeeded to Bute, and was 
killed in Skye with his three sons in 1210. One of the sons of the latter, 
James, had a daughter, Jane, who married Alexander, son of "Walter, 
High Steward of Scotland, in right of whom he claimed Bute and Arran. 

Besides the three sons of his marriage with Rachel, daughter of Olave 
the Red, Somerled had other sons, who seemed to have shared with their 
brothers, according to the then prevalent custom of gavel kind, the main- 
land possessions held by the Lord of Argyle ; whilst the sons descended 
of the house of Man divided amongst them, in addition, the South Isles, 
as ceded by Godred in 1156. He is said by some authorities to have 
been twice married, and that Gillecolane, or Malcolm, and other sons, 
were by the first marriage. 

It has never been disputed that this Somerled was the immediate 
ancestor of the family of Macdonald. The period immediately succeeding 
his death is historically very obscure. "A second Somerled is found 
apparently holding his place, and many of his possessions, during the first 
twenty years of the succeeding, or thirteenth century. This must either 
have been a son or a grandson of the other most probably the latter, 
since Gillecolam, apparently the son of the elder Somerled by a first 
marriage, fell with him at Renfrew, and in all likelihood left the offspring, 
which bore the grand sire's name. This is the most feasible way in which 
the existence and the rule of the second Somerled can well be explainod,"t 
The author of the Macdonald MS., in the Transactions of the lona Club, 
who, however, cannot always be depended upon for accuracy, says that 
" after Sommerled, his son Sommerled succeeded him as Thane of Argyle ; 
Reginald his brother, the Isles ; Dugall, Lorn ; and Gillies, had Kintyre, 
by the disposition of their father. Sommerled pretended that the people 
of Cowal and Lennox harrayed his lands of their store and cattle, and 
therefore made incursions on them, of which they complained to the King. 
Furthermore, he would have the lands which were left by his father to 
his brethren at his own disposal. The King sent the Earl of March 
with a considerable body of men against him, who was so favourable that 
he advised, at a private conference, that since he lost his affection for his 
brethren, by seizing on those lands which their father left them, he could 
not stand out against the King and them, and therefore that it was best 

* " An Historical Account of the Maodonells of Antrim," by the ROT. George Hill, 

editor of the " Montgomery Manuscripts." 
f Smibert's Highlanders. 



48 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

he should go along with him, and he would procure for him the King's 
pardon and favour ; so he did, and was paidoned by the King. Shortly 
thereafter he died, leaving two sons, John and Maolmory, who were both 
young. Of this John are descended the MacEans of Ardnamurchan. He 
was buried at Icollumkill. Reginald, his brother, became Tutor to John." 
Gregory says nothing about this second Somerled, but, at page 67, he 
correctly traces the Maclans of Ardnamurchan from John Shrangach, 
younger son of Angus Mor of Isla. The editor of Fullarton's " Highland 
Clans " considers the existence of this second Somerled " very doubtful." 
Skene, however, believes in his existence. At this time of day it is im- 
possible to settle the point ; but it is really of very little importance 
whether he existed or not, for even if he did there is no question as to 
his successors having become extinct soon after his own death. 

Dougal, admitted by all the best authorities to have been Somerled's 
eldest son by the second marriage, succeeded to the Southern Isles and 
part of Argyle, if the Norse Sagas and native writers are to be credited, but 
his exact position has never been clearly defined. The records of the time 
are most confusing and obscure, but all are agreed that two or three of his 
line succeeded him, and there is no doubt whatever that his main line 
terminated in two heiresses the daughters of " King Ewin," who, accord- 
ing to Skene, married, the eldest, the Norwegian King of Man ; and the 
other, Alexander of the Isles, a descendant of Reginald. Gregory does 
not go at any length into this part of the history of the Island Chiefs 
that of the immediate descendants of Somerled prior to the great expedi- 
tion of Haco, King of Norway beyond saying that " from King Dugall 
sprung the great House of Argyle and Lorn, patronymically Macdugall,* 
which, at the time of Haco's expedition, was represented by Dugall's 
grandson, Ewin, commonly called King Ewin, and sometimes erroneously 
King John," but Skene informs us, that the failure of the male descend- 
ants of Dugall in the person of Ewin, had the effect of dividing this great 
clan into three, the heads of each of which held their lands of the Crown. 
These were the Clan Rory, Clan Donald, and Clan Dugall, " severally 
descended from three sons of these names, of Reginald, the second son of 
Somerled by his second marriage." The Clan Dugall is generally, and, we 
believe, more correctly held to be descended from Dugall, the eldest son of 
Somerled himself, but our present object does not require to go into the 
discussion of that question, as we have only to do with the descendants of 
Donald, who was undoubtedly a son of Reginald, son of Somerled, Thane 
of Argyle. 

Somerled was succeeded in his territories of Isla, Kintyre, and part 
of Lorn, by his son. 

II. REGINALD, who assumed the title of Lord of the Isles, or received 
it from his followers ; for at that time, whatever chief supported either 
party, when the possessions of Somerled were subdivided among his sons, 
was called by his supporters, King of the Isles. And we find that both 
Dugall and Reginald were styled Kings of the Isles at the same time that 
Reginald, the son of Godred the Black, was called King of Man and the 
Isles ; and in the next generation mention is made in a Norse chronicle of 
three Kings of the Isles, all of the race of Somerled existing at one and 
the same time. From this Gregory infers " that the word king as used 

* This family used generally the territorial surname of " de Ergadia," or " of Argyle." 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 49 

"by the Norwegians and their vassals in the Isles, was not confined, as in 
Scotland, to one supreme ruler, but that it had with them an additional 
meaning, corresponding either to prince of the blood-royal or to magnate. 
Many Seannachies or genealogists in later times, being ignorant of, or 
having overlooked this distinction, have, by means of the expression 
King of the Isles, been led to represent those whom they style the direct 
heirs or successors of Somerled, through his son Eeginald, and who alone, 
according to them, bore the royal title, as holding a rank very different 
from what they actually did." 

A most important change came over the fortunes of this family in 
1220, when King Alexander the Second led an army into the district of 
Argyle, and for the first time annexed it decisively to the Crown ; and, ac- 
cording to Smibert, expelled the second Somerled, who died soon after. 
Alexander, determined upon breaking up the kingdom of the Western 
Isles, and so reduce the power of its insular chiefs, confirmed in their 
possession on the Western shores all those who agreed to submit to 
his authority and consented to hold their lands direct from the Crown of 
Scotland. In place of those who still held out, he invited families from 
the adjoining tribes, and planted and confirmed them in the lands of the 
ancient possessors. It is about this period that Highland families first 
commenced to assume surnames, and about the time of this division of the 
territories of Argyle, that we find mentioned for the first time such names 
as the Macgregors, Macnaughtons, Macneils, Clan Chattan, and Laments. 
At the same time, Argyle, which extended much further inland than the 
present county does, was formed into a Sheriifship the hereditary ap- 
pointment being in favour of the ancestors of the present House of Argyle. 
The whole of Ergadia Borealis, or North Argyle, was at the same time 
granted to the Earl of Ross for services rendered to the King. 

From Reginald, King of the Isles, sprang two great .families, that of 
Ida descended from his son Donald, and therefore patronymically styled 
Macdonald ; and that of Bute descended from his son Ruari, and therefore 
patronymically styled Macruari.* It appears that most of the descendants 
of Somerled had for a century after his death a divided allegiance, hold- 
ing part of their lands, those in the Isles, from the King of Norway ; their 
mainland domains, at the same time being held of the King of Scot- 
land. The latter, whose power was now gradually increasing, could not 
be expected long to allow the Isles to remain dependent on Norway with- 
out making an effort to conquer them. The first footing obtained by the 
Scots in the Isles was, apparently, soon after the death of Somerled, 
when the Steward of Scotland seized the Isle of Bute. That island seems 
after this to have changed masters several times, and, along with Kintyre, 
to have been a subject of dispute between the Scots and Norwegians, whilst 
in the course of these quarrels the family ol the Steward strengthened 
their claim by marriage in the following manner : We have seen that 
Angus MacSomerled (who is supposed to have been Lord of Bute) and 
his three sons, were killed in 1210 ; nor does it appear that Angus had 
any other male issue. James, one of these sons, left a daughter and 
heiress, Jane, married to Alexander, the son and heir of Walter the High 
Steward of Scotland, who, in her right, claimed the Isle of Bute, and, 

* Bo'h the Macdonalds and Macruaries used the tevritoiial surnames of de Yla, or 
" of Isla," and " do Indulis," or "of the Isles." 



50 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

perhaps, Arran also.* This claim was naturally resisted by Euari, the 
son of Eeginald, till the dispute was settled for a time by his expulsion, 
and the seizure of Bute and Arran by the Scots. It has been maintained 
by some writers, among them the editor of Fullarton's Clans, that Euari 
was the eldest son of Eeginald. Others hold that Donald was the eldest ; 
and it is impossible now to say which is the correct view ; but this is of 
less consequence, as it has been conclusively established that Euari's 
descendants terminated in the third generation in a female, Annie, who 
married John of Isla, great-grandson of Donald of Isla, Euari's brother, 
and direct ancestor of all the existing branches of the Macdonalds. 
Thus, the succession of the ancient House of Somerled fell indisputably 
to the descendants of Donald, son of Eeginald, and grandson to the illus- 
trious Somerled, Lord of Argyle, who became the most powerful, and 
whose territories were the most extensive, of all the Highland Clans, in- 
deed at one time they were equal to all the others put together. 

Eoderick followed the instincts of his Norwegian ancestors and be- 
came a desperate pirate, whose daring incursions and predatory expedi- 
tions fill the annals of the period. He had two sons, Allan and Dugall, 
who settled down among their relatives of the west. Dugall joined Haco 
in his expedition against the Isles, and, in return for his services, obtained 
a considerable addition to his previous possessions, including the posses- 
sions of his brother Allan, called "Eex Hebudem," and died in 1268 
without issue. Allan succeeded his father, but left no legitimate male 
issue, when his possessions went to his only daughter Christina, who 
resigned her lands to the king, and had them re-conveyed to her to 
strengthen her position against the claim of her natural t brother, Eoderick, 
who, however, appears to have come into possession probably on the 
death of his sister, as his lands are forfeited in the reign of Eobert Bruce, 
in consequence of the share he took in the Soulis conspiracy of 1320. 
His lands were, however, restored to his son Eanald, who also had lands 
from William, Earl of Eoss, in Kintail,t in connection with which he 
became embroiled with that powerful Chief; a feud ensued, which re- 
sulted in Eanald's death. In 1346 David II. summoned the Scottish 
Barons to meet him at Perth, when Eanald MacEuari made his appearance 
with a considerable retinue and took up his quarters in the monastery of 
Elcho, a few miles from the city ; whereupon the Earl of Eoss, who also 
attended in obedience to the King's orders, determined to be revenged on 
his vassal, and, entering the convent about the middle of the night, he 
killed Eanald and seven of his principal followers. Leaving no succession, 
his lands fell to his sister Annie, who, as already stated, married, and 
carried her lands along with her to John of Isla, of whom hereafter. 
According to Gregory, these lands comprised also the Isles of Uist, Barra, 
Eigg, Eum, and the Lordship of Garmoran (also called Garbhchrioch), 

* " In the traditions of the Stewarts, this lady's grandfather is called Angus Mac- 
JRorie, which, as I conceive, is an error for Angus M&cSorlie the latter being the way 
in which MacSomerled (spelt MacSomkairle) is pronounced in Gaelic. That there was 
about this time a matrimonial alliance between the house of Stewart and that of Isla, 
is probable from a dispensation in 1342, for the marriage of two individuals of these 
families, as being within the forbidden degrees Andrew Stewart's Hist, of the Stewarts 
p. 433." Footnote in Gregory. 

t Charter of King David, 4th July 1342 ; and Robertson's Index, p. 48 Darid II. ; 
also Origines Parochialcs Scotite. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 51 

which " comprehends the districts of Moydert, Arasaig, Morar, and Knoy- 
dart," being the original possessions of the family in the North.* A 
charter was granted to the Bishop of Lismore, 1st January 1507 [Mag. 
Sig. L. xiv. No. 405 J, confirming two evidents made by Reginald in his 
lifetime, in which he is described as the son of Somerled, qui se Regem 
Insularum nominavit Lord of Ergyle and of Kintyre, founder of the 
monastery of Sagadull (Sadale), of the lands of Glensagadull, and twelve 
marks of the lands of Ballebeain, in the Lordship of Kintyre, and of 
twenty marks of the lands ol Cosken in Arran, to the said abbey. He 
made very ample donations to the monastery of Paisley, that he, and 
Fonia his wife, might be entitled to all the priviledges of brotherhood in 
the convent.t Of the principal events in the life of Reginald very little 
is known, and what can be ascertained is not free from uncertainty, for 
he was contemporary with Reginald, the Norwegian King of Man and 
the Isles, which makes it impossible to distinguish between the recorded 
acts of the two. Reginald was, however, without doubt designated 
" dominus insularum," and sometimes " Rex insularum," or King of the 
Isles, as well as " dominus de Ergile and Kintyre," under which title he 
grants certain lands as above to the Abbey of Saddell which he had 
founded in Kintyre. The author of "The Historical Account of the 
Macdonalds of Antrim," says at page 10, that Ranald, "although a 
younger son, became in reality the representative of the family, being not 
only popular in Scotland, but respected on the coasts of Ulster, where he 
appeared sometimes as peace-maker among the Northern Irish chieftains. 
If, however, he bore his character on the Irish coast, his sons occasionally 
came on a very different mission. At the year 1211, the Annals of the 
Four Masters and the Annals of Loch Ce, inform us that Thomas Mac- 
Uchtry (of Galloway) and the sons of Raghnall, son of Somhairle, came 
to Doire Chollum-Chille (Derry) with seventy ships, and the town was 
greatly injured by them. O'Domhnaill and they went to Tnja Eoghain, 
and they completely destroyed the country. 

He married a sister of Thomas Randoll, Earl of Moray, and by her 
had 

1. Donald of Islay, his heir, from whom the Macdonalds took their 
name, and 

2. Roderick, or Ruari, of Bate, whose succession and possessions we 
have already described, and whose issue terminated in Annie, who married 
John of Isla. According to the Macdonald MS. he had two other sons, 
Angus,* who had a son, Duncan, of whom the Robertsons, or Clann 
Donnachaidh of Athol, " and MacLullichs, who are now called in the low 
country Pittullichs." He had another son, John Maol, or Bald, who, ac- 
cording to the same, authority, went to Ireland, and " of whom descended 
the Macdonalds of Tireoin " (Land of John or Tyrone (?).) 

Reginald died in the 54th year of his age, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son. 

( 1o be Continued.) 



* Highlands and Isles, p. 27. 

t Douglas's Wood's Peerage, Highlands and Isles, p. 5. 

Major Mackenzie in his Mackenzie Genealogies, supplementary sheet, calls this 
Angus a natural SOD. 



52 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



THE EAELY SCENES OF FLORA MACDONALD'S LIFE, 

WITH SEVERAL INCIDENTAL ALLUSIONS TO THE 
EEMARKABLE ADVENTURES AND ESCAPES OP THE UNFORTUNATE 

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 
By the Eev. ALEX, MACGREGOR, M.A, Inverness. 

PART II. 

THE Prince became now really sensible that he was in a position of great 
jeopardy, and that something must be immediately resorted to for his 
safety. Time was rapidly passing away, and the encroachments of the 
vigilant enemy were becoming hour after hour more imminent. It was 
therefore requisite that a prompt determination should be come to as to 
the Eoyal fugitive's future movements. There the Prince stood, along 
with his friends, in deep meditation, in close vicinity to the place where 
he had first landed on the mainland. Lockhart, younger of Carnwath, 
young Clanranold, ^Eneas Macdonell, a banker in Paris, and several other 
devoted adherents were present, and a council was held as to what ought 
to be done. It was the Prince's own desire to betake himself to the Outer 
Hebrides, but his friends sternly objected, giving it as a reason that 
Government cruisers had been already ordered to scour all the lochs, 
bays, and channels of those regions, and that, in consequence, the chance 
of his being seized was much greater than if he remained on the mainland. 
The meeting pondered in deep suspense, and their almost unanimous 
decision nearly prevailed on the Prince to remain where he was, under 
the protection of his kind and faithful adherents. O'Sullivan alone ob- 
jected, and eloquently insisted on the propriety of resorting to the Isles. 
He strenuously maintained that such was the only course that afforded 
any chance whatever of obtaining a vessel to convey his Eoyal Highness to 
France. The meeting became somewhat excited and warm on the sub- 
ject ; whereupon one of them addressed O'Sullivan, and openly accused 
him of gross mismanagement already in the Prince's cause. This was 
confirmed by a letter from Lord George Murray to Charles, dated at 
Euthven on 17th April ] 746, of which the following is an extract : " I 
must also acquaint your Eoyal Highness that we are all fully con- 
vinced that Mr O'Sullivan, whom your Eoyal Highness trusted with the 
most essential things with regard to your operations, was exceedingly un- 
fit for it, and committed gross blunders on every occasion of moment. 
He whose business it was, did not so much as visit the ground where we 
were to be drawn up in line of battle, and it was a fatal error to allow the 
enemy these walls upon their left, which made it impossible for us to break 
them ; and they, with their front fire, and flanking us when we went 
upon the attack, destroyed us, without any possibility of our breaking 
them, and our Athole men have lost a full half of their officers and men. 
I wish Mr O'Sullivan had never got any other charge in the aimy than 
the care of the baggage, which, I am told, he had been brought up to, 
and understood. I never saw him in time of action neither at Gladsmuir, 
Falkirk, nor in the last, and his orders were vastly confused." 



FLOEA MACDONALD. 53 

In this letter Lord George Murray made no secret of the estimate 
which he had formed of the Prince's advisers, and particularly of O'Sul- 
livan. His lordship was greatly chagrined at the unhappy course which 
events had taken, but attributed the whole misfortune to the gross mis- 
management of parties who had usurped an authority which they were 
unable to exercise with prudence. Lord Murray, disgusted with the 
whole proceedings, was determined to incur no more responsibility in a 
matter of such vast importance. He accordingly sent the Prince a resig- 
nation of his command, remarking that he hoped the great cause might 
still be attended with better success. He had no idea that the war would 
then be abandoned, seeing that nearly two thousand Highlanders and 
others had assembled at Euthven, expressing a determination to stand 
steadfast to the cause of their Prince and country, and cordially to unite 
with chieftains and clansmen who might come forward to commence the 
campaign anew. 

The Prince, as if diffident or ashamed to give prompt orders to the 
Euthven friends to disperse at once, commenced to palliate matters, by 
stating that he was too powerless and weak to ensure success in the mean- 
time, but that if he got safely to France, he would, no doubt, receive 
effectual aid in men and in money to enable him to maintain the struggle, 
until happily he might obtain the victory. His communication, though 
couched in pleasing and plausible terms, yet breathed an air of despond- 
ency ; and his friends at once construed it, in the words of Chambers, " as 
the death-note of the war. Accordingly, taking a melancholy leave of 
each other, they dispersed the gentlemen to seek concealment in, or 
escape from, the country, and the common people to return to their 
homes." 

The Prince received Lord George Murray's letter by a messenger when 
in the midst of his deliberations with his friends at Borrodale as to his 
future movements. It is very probable that he would have shown it to 
those devoted adherents around him, if not to O'Sullivan himself, whose 
reputation as an officer was so sharply commented on by Lord Murray. 
Be this as it may, the Prince yielded to O'Sullivan's suggestion, and ex- 
pressed a determination to seek refuge in the Western Isles. When the 
Prince entered the town of Inverness he met in private with several 
friends who were warmly attached to his person, and sincerely zealous in 
his cause. The Prince happened to state that he expected some French 
vessels to arrive on the West Coast with money and requisite munitions 
of war, but was at a loss how to procure a trustworthy person to fall in 
with these foreign ships and get some of these requisites privately con- 
veyed to him. His Eoyal Highness was informed by Banker Macdonell 
that he had just seen a faithful, worthy Skyeman in town whom he con- 
sidered a most suitable person for the purpose required, if he would engage 
to do it. The Prince expressed a desire to see him, whereupon, in a 
short space of time, Macdonell brought Donald Macleod of Galtrigal into 
the presence of his Eoyal Highness, who shook hands with the humble 
Hebridean, and spent nearly an hour in conversation with him in a close 
in Church Street, near the Gaelic Church, wherein, shortly afterwards, a 
number of poor rebels were imprisoned by the cruel Cumberland, and 
thence taken to the adjoining churchyard, where they were made to kneel 
down in rows, and were shot to death by a party of Cumberland's soldiers. 



54 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

With the view of making a sure aim, the unfortunate Highlanders were 
fired at by the soldiers placing their muskets on erect stones, which are 
still left standing as monuments of this most heart-rending cruelty. 
Donald Macleod, who was an intelligent, enterprising man, was at the 
time in Inverness, loading a vessel with meal for Skye, and for other 
places on the West Coast. Owing to Donald's knowledge of the Western 
Isles, he so far yielded to the Prince's wishes, as to promise that he would 
accompany Banker ^neas Macdonell to Barra, to bring to his Royal 
Highness whatever money or despatches might have been left for him in 
that island,* 

These proposals of the Prince with Galtrigal were not, however, put 
into execution, as soon thereafter the bloody engagement at Culloden took 
place, and nothing more was heard of Donald Macleod until the meeting 
of the Prince with his adherents at Borrodale, when his Eoyal Highness, 
as already stated, expressed his determination to resort to the Western 
Isles. In the midst of their deliberations Macdonell informed the Prince 
that Donald Macleod, whom he had seen at Inverness, had fortunately 
arrived with his vessel at Kinlochmoidart, and that of all men he knew, 
he would be the most suitable for conducting the intended cruise to the 
Hebrides. Chambers states that " a message was sent to Kialochmoidart, 
where Donald now was, pressingly desiring him to come to meet the Prince 
at Borrodale. Donald immediately set out, and, in passing through the 
forest of Glenbiasdale, he encountered a stranger walking by himself, who, 
making up to him. asked if he was Donald Macleod of Galtrigal 1 Don- 
ald, instantly recognising him notwithstanding his mean attire, said, ' I 
am the same man, please your Highness, at your service.' ' Then,' said 
the Prince, ' you see, Donald, I am in distress ; I therefore throw myself 
into your bosom, and let you do with me what you like. I hear you are 
an honest man, and fit to be trusted.' When the old man, a year after, 
related these particulars to the individual who has reported them, the 
tears were streaming along his cheeks like rain." 

The Prince then proposed that Donald should go with letters from 
him to Sir Alexander Macdonald at Monkstadt, and to Macleod of Dun- 
vegan, soliciting their protection. Donald stared his Eoyal Highness in 
the face, and said, " Is your Eoyal Highness really in earnest in making 
such a mad request? The parties mentioned, you must be aware, are 
your enemies, and are at this moment employed in searching for you in 
the Isles and elsewhere." "Well, well, Donald," said the Prince, "all 
things seem to be adverse to me, but my good friend, you must at all 
events pilot me, and that immediately, to the Long Island." Donald at 
once replied that he was ready to be of any service to him in his power, 
and risk his very life in his behalf but that he peremptorily declined to 
be the bearer of any message to " the two apostate Chiefs of Skye." 

In order to put the Prince's plan into execution with all possible 
speed, the most expert seamen, and the most substantial boat in the 
place, were procured and equipped at Borrodale, in the bay of Loch- 
nanuagh, near where the Prince first landed in Scotland, The office 
of Captain, or head-man, was delegated by all to Donald of Galtrigal, 

* The reader will find an account of Donald Macleod ? s character and history in 
the Celtic Magazine, No. 19, and page 243. 



FLORA MACDONALD. 55 

who was to steer and pilot the frail barque on their perilous voy- 
age. On the evening of the 26th April the Prince, O'Neal, O'Sulli- 
van, and others, seated themselves in the boat, but Donald Macleod, 
leaning on the gunwale before entering the boat, and casting his eyes on 
the murky clouds all around, addressed the Prince, and said, that the 
evening looked gloomy, that he did not like the bright, but black-edged 
openings in the clouds, that he was certain that a storm would arise, and 
that it was more prudent by far to remain for the night where they were. 
Charles absolutely refused to do so, and said, " No, no, Donald, we will 
push on, and dread no evil, while you sit at the helm." On hearing this, 
Donald, very much against his will, ordered the sails to be set, while he 
himself took his place at the helm. In a few minutes the boat glided 
swiftly along under a breeze which was portentously fresh. In less than 
an hour after starting from Lochnanuagh, a terrible storm arose, with 
thunder and lightning, and the crew of seven men besides the pilot, had 
more than enough to do to keep the boat from swamping. The crested 
waves rose around them like dark rolling mountains, and breaking into 
the frail vessel in gushing streams, gave very hard work to the crew to 
bale them out. Rain fell in torrents, and the brooding darkness, like a 
gloomy curtain of death, was momentarily illuminated by the bright 
flashes of lightning that darted from cloud to cloud around ! Sorely did 
the Prince repent of his rashness and obstinancy in not yielding to the 
prudent advice of his sage and experienced pilot, but it was too late ; 
and all that now remained was to try to make the best of it. They had 
no compass, no chart, and almost no hope of safety. They could avoid 
neither rock, nor island, nor shore, nor quicksand ; but were compelled to 
dash on before a sweeping easterly hurricane, and to trust to Providence. 
The Prince, greatly impressed with the danger, frequently addressed the 
pilot, and said, " Oh ! Donald, Donald, I fear that all is over with us, for 
this is worse than Culloden by far." Donald replied, that while they 
were afloat there was hope, and that He who had the winds and the 
waves under His command, was able to preserve them if they placed con- 
fidence in Him. Such was the case, for at day-break, much to their sur- 
prise, but at the same time to their great joy, they observed the hills of the 
Long Island straight ahead, and in less than an hour thereafter, they 
landed in a creek at Rossinish, on the east side of Benbecula, where they 
had great difficulty in securing their boat, and their lives. The natives 
observed their approach, and they immediately assembled, and heartily 
assisted the weary mariners by conducting them to a place 01 safety. 

It is almost unnecessary to state that the departure of the Prince from 
Lochnanuagh, when it became known to the Duke of Cumberland, caused 
great consternation among the Eoyalists. They became mightily alarmed, 
not knowing what the consequences might be, should the Prince find 
access to the Highland chiefs and other adherents ; for Cumberland was 
well aware, that although he was so far successful at Culloden, yet that 
there existed a desire among the Prince's friends to rally, and to com- 
mence the campaign anew. Cumberland therefore gave immediate orders 
to provide cruisers, sloops of war, and all available sailing crafts, to scour 
the Western seas, and to convey troops to the Isles, to search every creek 
and corner, to find the Royal fugitive dead or alive. On the mainland 
the most cruel and heart-rending atrocities were committed on the helpless 



56 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

rebels ! Men, women, and children were murdered in cold Hood, and 
mercy was extended to none. High and low became the victims of these 
ministers of vengeance and bloodshed ! Like fiends of darkness they 
traversed the country from end to end, while silence, ruin, and death 
followed in their train. Mothers and matrons, sons and sires, infants and 
aged, were promiscuously massacred, or banished from the smoking ashes 
of their burning dwellings. Thus cruelly pursued, they had no alterna- 
tive but either to die of cold and hunger on the moors, or to perish in 
mountain recesses, and in the caves of the rocks. The rebel chieftains 
were doomed, as far as possible, to the same fate. The castles and strong- 
holds of Cluny, Keppoch, Glengyle, Glengarry, Lochiel, and many be- 
sides, were plundered and consumed by fire. In short, the devastations 
committed by the English army were a stain on humanity, and were so 
notoriously cruel that even the record of them, will prove revolting in 
every age, and painful to every generous mind. 

Meanwhile Prince Charles had commenced his wanderings in the 
Western Isles, where he ran many hair-breadth escapes for his life. It 
is unnecessary here to attempt a narrative of his various movements and 
shif tings during his hazardous pilgrimage in the Long Island.* He had 
been but a short time on shore, when many steadfast friends came to know 
that his Royal Highness was on their island in close concealment. His 
whereabouts was always known to some one or other of his faithful 
adherents. His wellwishers in the place were somewhat numerous, and 
of considerable influence, such as Clanranold and his brother Boisdale 
Banker Macdonell, Mr O'Sullivan, Mr O'Neal, the Macdonalds of Baile- 
shear, and his own " fidus Achates," Donald Macleod of Galtrigal. Clan- 
ranold and his excellent lady had selected twelve trusty men, whom they 
had sworn to fidelity, to act as messengers and guides to the Prince on 
every emergency when their services were required. 

Day after day increased the danger, and rendered the situation of the 
Eoyal fugitive more and more critical. Of all this he was fully aware 
himself, yet he appeared cheerful and apparently unconcerned in the pre- 
sence of his friends. By sea and land every imaginable precaution was 
taken, by commands from headquarters, to prevent the possibility of his 
escape. Every ferry was guarded, and every pass and highway had sentinels 
planted in them. About two thousand regular troops and militiamen were 
posted in suitable localities. In short, the whole range of country was so 
thoroughly watched, that the least movement on the part of the natives 
could hardly escape immediate observation. The various lochs and bays 
by which the Long Island is indented, as well as the open Atlantic sur- 
rounding it, were so thickly studded with cutters and cruisers, frigates and 
sloops of war, that no craft, however small, could come to, or leave the 
island unobserved. At last the danger became so imminent that the 
Prince's friends held a consultation at Ormiclade, the residence of Clan- 
ranold, as to the adoption of some immediate steps for his preservation, if 
such could at all be effected. After weighing the matter in all its bear- 
ings, it was ultimately agreed upon that an attempt should be made to 



* Such as desire full information on these points may consult Cbambers's History 
of the Rebellion, Brown's History of the Highlands, Cameron's History and Tuiditiona 
of ttkye, Jacobite Memoirs, Cullodeu Papers, &c, 



FLORA MACDONALD. 57 

effect his rescue through the instrumentality of a young lady in the neigh- 
bourhood, viz., Miss Flora Macdonald of Milton. 

Let us now leave his Royal Highness in his cave in the rocky recesses 
of Corrodale,* while we will attempt to delineate the early history and 
future movements of this interesting young lady. 

Flora was daughter of Ranold Macdonald younger of Milton, in South 
Uist. She was born in the year 1722, thus being two years younger than 
the Prince. She was patronirnically designated "Fionnghal nighean 
Raonuill 'ic Aonghais Oig, un' Airidh Mhuilinn;" that is, "Flora the 
daughter of Ranold, the son of Angus the younger of Milton." Ranold 
was a cadet of the Clanranold family, and not very distant in relation. 
Flora's mother was Marion, daughter of the Rev. Angus Macdouald, who 
had been for some years Parish minister of the Island of Gighu, but was 
afterwards translated to the Parish of South Uist. He was designated as 
" Aonghas Mac Uisdein Ghrimiuish," that is, " Angus the son of Hugh 
of Griminish," in the Island of North Uist. This clergyman was noted 
in the country as a man of extraordinary muscular strength. He had no 
equal in the place for lifting ponderous weights, or for any of those 
athletic exercises that required great bodily power. He was a mild, 
generous, and much respected gentleman. The natives of the Hebrides, 
or Western Isles, have always been noted for their attention and kindness 
to strangers, but the Rev. Angus Macdonald was proverbial in the place 
for his genuine Highland hospitality. He was known in the Island as the 
" Ministear laidir," that is, " The Strong Minister," and the name was by 
no means misapplied. This clergyman's wife was a talented and accom- 
plished lady, and was a daughter of Macdonald of Largie, in the peninsula 
of Cantire. Flora was the Only daughter of the family, but she had two 
brothers. The elder, named Ranold, was a very promising youth, who 
appeared to inherit no small portion of his reverend grandfather's activity 
and strength. He went to pay a visit to his relatives at Largie in Argyle- 
shire, where the gallant youth lost his life by the bursting of a blood 
vessel. It is said that he strained himself by rowing a boat against an 
adverse wind, and this caused his own death, to the deep regret of a 
numerous circle of relatives and friends. 

Flora's younger brother, Angus, succeeded his father in the tenement 
of Milton, while her mother, in the year 1728, married, as her second 
husband, Hugh Macdonald of Armadale in Skye, who was Captain of 
Militia in the Long Island during the Prince's wanderings therat Had 
it not been for the friendly disposition of Hugh Macdonald towards the 
Prince, in all probability his Royal Highness could never have effected 
his escape from the Long Island. Through Hugh's instrumentality, 
which will be spoken of afterwards, the Prince was rescued, and it is 
thought that his friends, with all their ingenuity would utterly fail to 
devise any other plan or scheme whereby his life could be saved. 

When Flora's mother, after her marriage, was to remove to her new 

* The recess or cave where the Prince was concealed was about ten miles from 
Ormiclade, at a place called Corrodale, on the east side of Beinn Mhor, near the point 
of Uisinish, and situated between Loch Boisdaleand Loch Skipport. The spot;is rugged, 
wild, and sequestered, and almost inaccessible to strangers. 

t See account of Hugh Macdooald of Armadala in No. xx., page 305 of the Celtic 
Magazine. Armadale is situated in the Parish of Sleat in the south end of Skye, and 
is the residence of " the Macdonalds of the Isles." 



68 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

residence in Skye, she most naturally desired to take her little only 
daughter along with her, hut her son, Milton, who was then a full grown 
youth, and an active manager of the place, felt extremely reluctant to 
part with his sister. She was only two years of age when she lost her 
father, and six years at the date of her mother's second marriage. The 
mother and son could not at all agree as to the little girl. After much 
talking and reasoning with each other as to the removal of Flora to Skye 
with her mother, they utterly failed to settle the point between them. 
Seeing this they came to the determination to leave the issue to the 
decision of young Flora herself. Being therefore asked whether she pre- 
ferred to accompany her mother to Skye or to remain with her brother at 
Milton ? she smartly replied and said, " I will stay at Milton because I 
love it. I do not know Skye, and therefore do not care for it. I will 
therefore remain with Angus until my dear mamma come back for 
me." 

Flora was a very interesting child, wise above her years, and more 
sage in her remarks than the generality of children. No doubt this arose 
from the circumstance of there being no children in the family at Milton 
to associate with, and of her growing up accustomed only to the con- 
versation, ideas, and society of persons of inaturer years. But notwith- 
standing all this, she was undoubtedly a very precocious little girl, who 
showed an early taste for what was beautiful, great, and grand in nature. 
She had been known to stand for hours admiring the battling of the ele- 
ments, when the bold Atlantic rose in mountains of foam. It was a mag- 
nificent sight to behold the storm in its fury dashing on the western 
shores of the Island, and showering its briny spray over the length and 
the breadth of the land. The whole scenery of the place, together with 
the grandeur of the surrounding isles, could never fail to arouse feelings 
of admiration in the minds of either young or old, who possessed the 
sensibility of discerning the variegated beauties of nature. It is therefore 
a matter of fact that whoever is a worshipper at the shrine of Nature, will 
find ample materials wheron to indulge his fancy in the solitude 
of this interesting isle. On the west is the frowning Atlantic, with its 
chilling breeze and stern aspect, even in the heat and calm of summer ; 
but alas ! in winter the scene becomes mightily changed. Then the 
sleeping deep arises in fury, and dashes forward in monster waves, as if 
to engulf in ruin the intervening rocks and plains of the adjacent land. 
At times the lonely St Kilda is visible in the dim horizen like a huge 
beacon in the midst of the crested waves, or rather like an unearthly 
spectre rearing its hideous head amid the green billows, to foster the 
superstitions of a race of honest, simple natives, naturally impressible with 
such objects. Then turning towards the east, the Minsh, in its somewhat 
wide expanse, appears dotted with ships and crafts of all calibre and sizes, 
moving northward and southward in calm, weather at the mercy of the 
tides. Further onward in the same direction, but at the distance of thirty 
to forty miles, Skye rears its misty cliffs ; and high above the surround- 
ing mountains, the rugged, serrated outlines of the CuchuUin hills may be 
seen darting into the clouds. On either side and all around the scenery 
is variegated, beautiful, and in some parts really magnificent. 

In a beautiful poem, by "Fear Gheasto," entitled "Farewell to Skye," 
the chief mountain scenery of that far-famed Isle is exceedingly well de- 



FLORA MACDONALD. 59 

scribed; and as it is the scenery which our heroine must have admired 
from her earlier years, a stanza or two of the poem may be given : 

FAREWELL TO SKYE. 

Farewell, lovely Skye, sweet Isle of my childhood, 

Thy blue mountains, I'll clamber no more ; 
Thy heath-skirted corries, green valleys and wildwood, 

I_now leave behind for a far distant shore. 
Adieu, ye stern cliffs, clad in old hoary grandeur, 

Adieu, ye still dingles, fond haunts of the roe, 
Where oft with my gun, and my hounds I did wander, 

And echo loud sounded to my " tally-ho." 

How painful to part from the misty-robed Coollin, 

The Alps of Great Britain, with antlered peaks high ; 
Bold Glamaig, Coruisk, and sublime Scuirnagillin, 

Make mainland grand mountains, look dull, tame and shy. 
Majestic Quiraing, fairy palace of Nature, 

Stormy Idrigill, Hailleaval, and cloud-piercing Stoer, 
And the shining Spar-cave like some beacon to heaven, 

All, I deeply lament, and may never see more ! 

Once more, dearest Isle, let me gaze on thy mountains, 

Once more, let the village church gleam on my view ; 
And my ear drink the music of murmuring fountains, 

While I bid to my old, and my young friends adieu. 
Farewell, lovely Skye, lake, mountain, and corrie ; 

Brown Isle of the valiant, the brave, and the free ; 
Ever green to thy sod, resting place of my Flora, 

My sighs are for Skye, my tears are for thee. 

Such then is the locality where the interesting Flora first came into 
the world, and such the scenes on which she daily cast her eyes. She 
was, when a mere girl, not only a favourite with all the associates of her 
age, but likewise with every respectable family in the place. Being an 
only daughter, and left fatherless at so early an age, created no doubt a 
general feeling of sympathy in her favour. All this, together with her 
own agreeable conduct, although a mere child, rendered her proverbial in 
the place, and caused her name to be generally brought forward by parents 
in correcting their children, by asking them, " C'uin a bhios sibh cosmhuil 
ri Fionnghal Nighean Eaonuill, 'n-Airidh-Mhuilinn?" "When will you 
resemble Flora of Milton ! " She was naturally smart and active, clever, 
but cautious in her movements. She was invariably the principal or 
leader in every bracing game, or juvenile frolic in which she might have 
been engaged. In fact, as will be afterwards seen, this distinction was 
justly conferred upon her in more important matters during the years of 
her eventful life. 

(To be Continued.) 



60 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

D E R M 1ST D. 

A TALE OF KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DAYS. 

Tennyton. 

BOOK I. "AMONG THE ISLES OF THE WESTERN SEA." 



CHAPTER II. (Continued.) 

Two galleys rode at anchor in the Bay of Eathlin two nights before the 
storm. The moon shed a pale lustre over the scene, casting long dark 
shadows from the vessels and glancing on the burnished shields that hung 
alongside. Skiffs and transports with muffled rowlocks were busily em- 
ployed conveying men, provisions, and other necessaries on board the 
vessels. The unusual hour and the mysterious precautions betrayed an 
important and secret expedition. The last boat had left the shore, and 
after discharging her little freight was drawn up on one of the decks. 
The oars were dipped, the sails hung loosely in the calm, and the galleys 
held their way northwards. Forward and forward they held, shaking the 
spray from their golden prows, and rising and falling on the long deep 
undulating swell, till no distinct conception of them could be had from 
the shores of Ireland. 

A venerable old man paced the quarter-deck of the more royal galley, 
with his silvery locks streaming over the scarlet cloak that covered his 
glistening cuirass. He was a man about the middle height, but of sturdy 
build, and his strong arms folded across his swelling breast, gave a pro- 
minence to his manly shoulders and a leonine cast of strength to his whole 
frame. The healthy flush of youth still lingered on his aged cheek. The 
nose was aquiline, the mouth large but firm, and the dark-brown eyes, 
steady and searching, flashed beneath a broad, commanding brow. 

His son a tall, handsome stripling of about twenty summers was in 
charge of the helm, and obeying the instructions of his father as to the 
course of the vessel He had the aquiline features of the parent with 
the brown flowing locks of youth, and an arch expression of levity in his 
large laughing eyes. 

Cyril ; for that was the name of the hoary warrior had now grown 
tired of the life led in the secluded castle of Eathlin, and had resolved 
upon striking an honourable blow with his old sword in a noble cause. 
Wearied with occasional raids across the English pale, and piratical attacks 
on English vessels, he had equipped these two galleys for the purpose of 
aiding Bruce in the struggle for Scottish Independence. Having finished 
this service, which was not by any means dictated through purely disin- 
terested motives, he expected an equal return from Bruce in helping him to 
expel the invader from the shores of Ireland. 

Scotland and Ireland had for some time been knit together with an 
affectionate sympathy, owing to the inroads and oppressions of their more 
powerful rival, and it was during the Scottish wars of independence that 
this sisterly sympathy became manifest in action. Bruce, in order to 
perfect his patriotic plans, was driven to the necessity of stipulating for 



DEEMOND. 61 

soldiers with the disaffected chiefs of Hibernia, and we afterwards find, 
when he had driven the English from Scotland, a conspiracy was set afoot 
for placing his brother on the throne of the Emerald Isle. This conspiracy, 
as we all know, culminated in an unsuccessful invasion. 

Onward the galleys speed, sailing in the pale moonlight of the early 
morn, and still the sails hung loose, the wind was hushed, the sea rolled 
in its long deep undulations, the rowers pulled in their strength, and the 
song of the warriors rose loud and sonorous in the stillness. The shores 
of Kintyre were sighted as the day dawned, with a ruddy glow on sea and 
sky. And with the day there came a sudden change the wind sprang in 
sweeping gusts, and the sea heaved with formidable breakers. The vessels 
rolled before the blasts, and the voice of Cyril was heard commanding his 
son in these words "Steady, Clement ! steady, good lad not so near the 
wind keep her up now, that'll do heave away," and forward with a 
swelling inainsheet the vessel swept, while the song of the warriors waxed 
wilder. Both vessels had to bo kept well to sea, as the greater danger was 
Bearing the coast, and no landing was attempted that day. At night 
they lay to, until the morning, and then made for the Kintyre coast As 
they approached the shore a round hearty shout of exultation burst from 
the men-at-arms, and " Cyril " was the cry. Emerging from a creek; with 
the golden leopards gorgeously painted on their mainsails, were several 
large war-ships, and they bore down on the galleys of Cyril. The wily 
old warrior perceived the dangers of an unequal battle, and putting up 
the helm he sailed seawards. Cyril's galley being much faster than the 
auxiliary, he could easily have avoided an encounter, but not wishing to 
see his other galley borne down singly by the whole fleet of the enemy, 
he kept close by ready to lend assistance. For two full hours the chase 
was kept up with spirit on both sides, but as they sighted the shores 
of Jura, the superiority of the English vessels was becoming apparent. 
As all sailed with full sheets before a sweeping blast on a rugged sea 
it was a noble sight. A shower of arrows swept the deck of the galley 
behind, falling short of that commanded by CyriL Soon both vessels 
were within bowshot, as the rowers had ceased from sheer exhaustion. 
Escape being impossible, Cyril resolved upon giving his enemy some 
trouble. The helm was put up, the sails were braced, and the two galleys 
bore down on their pursuers through thickening showers of arrows. 

The two largest vessels of the English having outstripped their com- 
panions, the tight for some time did not promise to be so very unequal. 
As the ships approached each other a contention of war-cries rent the 
air. "A Soulis ! a Soulis!" was answered by "A Cyril! a Cyril!" 
while " St George and Merrie England !" was received with " The Bruce 
and Independence!" "Down with the Tyrants!" As the vessels met 
there was a nourish of weapons, a din of threats, a breaking of oars, a 
smashing of timbers, a leaping of watery spray, and a reeling from the shock. 
Again they closed with a crash, and this time the grapplings were applied. 
With a rush the warriors closed in bloody strife, and yells and shouts re- 
sounded louder and louder as the conflict thickened. Soon the groans of 
the wounded and dying swelled the hideous discord. Spears clashed with 
shields and corslets, and great swords and mighty battle-axes went crash- 
ing through helmets and harness. 

A sudden darkness threw a gloom over the battle, The sea was red 



62 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

with blood and strewn with pieces of timber, and heavily armed warriors 
were sinking under their weight and clutching despairingly at the long 
oars. Exultation was now succeeded by despair. The decks were 
slippery with blood, and the men struggled in each other's clutches 
some falling overboard in the arms of their antagonists, others being 
pitchforked into the sea with war-hooks and lances. 

" Soulis to the Eescue ! " resounded from the other vessels as they 
neared the battle. 

" Clear away !" shouted Cyril, " Off with the grappling irons !" 

He seized the helm with one hand his long sword dripping from the 
slaughter in the other and ordered the slaves to pull it' they would 
escape drowning. The vessel shore away, and the tattered mainsail 
swelled with the gusty winds. A galley with torn sheet and broken 
oars made a feeble effort to pursue. Cyril's auxiliary was too much dis- 
abled to join in the flight, and the trusty commander, eager to facilitate 
his chieftain's escape, continued to resist the Englishmen, and fell a 
victim to his faithfulness, fighting for his lord and country. 

After baffling his enemies, Cyril's troubles had not ceased. His vessel 
was sorely disabled, and there was a wild sea sweeping over her. The 
mast had gone by the board, and only a few oars remained. He was 
totally ignorant of the coast towards which he was sailing, and the night 
was wearing on. The storm increased and the darkness became thicker. 
Gleaming lights shot through the gloom, and the sea sparkled with 
phosphorescent light. Onward the galley drifted, while the waves were 
heard to dash in the distance. The storm redoubled, sweeping barrels, 
gear, and forecastle overboard, but fortunately some timber had been 
bound together to form a raft, and in spite of his remonstrances, Clement 
was bound to it by his father and cast into the sea. As the hulk swung 
ever and anon to the lee with a crash, the sea streamed in on the poor 
howling slaves at the rowers benches, who felt chill and hungry and 
utterly wretched. The men-at-arms, who had survived the battle, having 
thrown their arms and armour overboard, clung despairingly to the vessel 
with nothing to protect them from the cold but their leathern under- 
dresses. Still the storm became louder, the waves were wilder, and the 
sombreness of the night grew more and more fearful, while the galley 
shook, groaned, rolled, and leaped. Onward she drifted unguided, for 
no one knew how or where to guide her. These brave men, so lately 
triumphant in battle, with hollow cheeks and sunken eyes clung more 
desperately to the hulk, and cried in their agony, while every groan and 
threat that rose from the slave benches, sent thrills of horror through their 
breasts. The slaves clanked their chains, insanely dashed their heads 
against the timbers, and tore their flesh with their teeth and nails. None 
dared approach these wretches with their burning vengeance nursed 
through long years of agony and wrong, lest in their rage the war of men 
should succeed the war of elements. Still the galley drifted onwards, 
the huge waves straining and making her every timber creak. 

Enveloped in the gloom, she stove upon a rock. It was then the 
terrific yells of the rowers rent the roaring sea and winds. For a moment 
all seemed calm and hushed, till the voice of vengeance should ascend 
and re-echo against the vaults of heavenly mercy ; but it was no more 
than the despairing shriek of drowning men that rent arid silenced the 



DERMOND. 63 

midnight storm, and borne away it died among the waves and rocks. The 
timbers yielded to the shock, and were strewn on the face of the waters. 
The roar and dash and hiss of the surging breakers made the hearts of 
those who clung to the scattered pieces of the wreck shiver in their 
bosoms. Some were borne away in the trough of some huge wave, while 
others were dashed to death on the rocks, and the silvery crests of the 
"breakers grew red and bloody. 



CHAPTER III. 

You have spoiled the feast, broke the good meeting 
"With most admired disorder. 

Lady Macbeth (Shak.) 

JUTTING from the mainland, and coming in close proximity to the northern 
shores of Kerrera, is the promontory of Dunolly, terminating in a beetling 
crag of considerable height. At the period to which our narrative refers 
this great rock was crowned with a formidable pile of defended dwellings, 
having a tall, square keep frowning on the western verge, and command- 
ing a fair prospect of woodland, mountain, and sea. 

The day preceding the storm an English knight attended by a squire 
and a few jackmen arrived from the interior, made for the castle of 
Dunolly, and demanded an audience of John of Lorn. Being commis- 
sioned by Edward of England, Sir Guilbert de Valancymer had little 
difficulty in accomplishing the object of his mission. The same day an 
envoy was sent to Dunkerlyne, and the split arrow was circulated through- 
out the "Western Isles commanding the immediate attendance of Lorn's 
vassals at a council of war. The violence of the tempest, however, which 
broke out immediately after the despatch of the messengers, seemed to 
prevent the gathering of the chieftains. The omen was bad, and predicted 
disaster to the projected expedition ; and as the day darkened with the 
increasing violence of the storm, Lorn became exceedingly uneasy. At 
length the arrival of Macnab with a large following from the interior 
served in some measure to abate his concern for the safety of his enterprise. 
Elated at the triumph of this chieftain in attending to his summons, not- 
withstanding the fearful nature of the night, Lorn resolved upon giving 
him a reception equalling in splendour the gallantry of his conduct. The 
board was furnished with the most costly dainties of the time, and all the 
preparation for a mighty feast were made. 

The blaze of log-tiie and flambeaux lit up the gloomy recesses of the 
hall where the guests were assembled. Brought out in strong Rembrandt- 
esque relief were the dark, almost Jewish, features of the Lord of Lorn 
as he sat clothed in all his melancholy magnificence at the head of his 
table. On his right was Macnab, a perfect specimen of the chieftain 
of his time tall and powerful in frame, exalted and proud in bearing, 
Beside him sat Nora the daughter of Lorn, celebrated throughout the Isles 
for her distinguished beauty. On the other side of the board sat the 
envoy from the Earl of Pembroke, Sir Guilbert de Valancymer, paying his 
utmost court to a somewhat shy and shrinking damsel, who did not seem 
to take the high-flown compliments of the English gallant with a very- 
good grace. This was Bertha, the cousin of Nora and daughter of Sir 
David Macneill. Her appearance was not so prepossessing as that of her 



64 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

noble cousin, but the extreme gentleness and modesty of her disposition 
fascinated and won the esteem, if not the love, of all who came in contact 
with her. In height she did not reach her cousin, yet from the exquisite 
symmetry of her form, which was gradually assuming the graces of 
womanhood, she did not look so slight and diminutive as she really was. 
Her cast of countenance had some claim to be called handsome, although 
wanting in the healthy lustre that suffused the cheek of Nora. In repose 
her eye, fringed with a beautiful black eyelash, was a fine, dreamy blue, 
but under the least excitement gleamed dark and lustrous. Her whole 
appearance indicated an extremely sensitive, but at the same time proud 
and noble -nature full of delicate sympathies. Nora had a bright olive 
complexion, a slightly acquiline nose, a mouth like the bow of Cupid, and 
a pair of large Spanish eyes which shone brilliantly under her silken 
lashes and splendidly pencilled eyebrows. Swept carelessly back from a 
very unintellectual but charming forehead was a profusion of glossy black 
tresses having a slight inclination to curl. Her voice was perhaps rather 
masculine in tone, and her manner, betimes coquettishly insinuating, was 
generally haughty and overbearing, but the Celtic brusqueness of her be- 
haviour merely served as a cloak to hide the tenderness of her feelings 
and the natural warmth of her heart, which she was frequently ashamed 
to express or show. She was strongly attached to her cousin, who 
heartily reciprocated the affection. A domestic bereavement had early 
thrown the cousins together, and nothing now seemed to be able to part 
them. Bertha's mother had died early, and since then her home on the 
solitary confines of Loch Awe had grown dull and uncomfortable. Her 
father, Sir David, was a stern, morose man, little fitted for a father or a 
companion. Ambition was a strong and irresistible passion with him, 
and during the unsettled state of the Kingdom of Scotland before the 
great War of Independence he was always from home and left his daughter 
pretty much to the care of a disagreeable and narrow-minded old nurse. 
A visit from Nora served to give Bertha a strong liking for her cousin, 
which she could not overcome, and having gone to see her in turn at 
Dunolly, where the round of festivities greatly pleased her, she had no 
desire to go back to. Loch Awe. 

The rest of the company was composed of the principal retainers of 
the Lord of Lorn, the followers of the chieftain Macnab, and the jackmen 
of the English knight. 

For a time the banquet proceeded with much formality and silence. 
Macnab was tired and worn with his journey, the studied frivolity of the 
knight was indifferently relished, and the Lord of Lorn was still grumbling 
at the result of his summons; while the violence of the storm served to create 
a peculiarly depressing feeling in the breasts of all present. The personal 
qualities of all the absent chieftains were eagerly discussed, and of course 
Brian of Dunkerlyne came in for a more than ordinary share of the 
criticism. Macnab, who had no good feeling towards the inhabitants of 
the strong castle of Kerrera, persisted in wishing to know what could 
have hindered the most daring sailor in the Highlands from attending to 
the order of the split arrow, notwithstanding the repeated assurances of 
Lorn to the effect that the old sea-rover had other work of a difficult 
kind on hand. 

"Nay, but," contended Macnab, "methinks, forsooth, if 'twere aught 



DERMONt). 65 

else but tlie command of his liege lord, a ten-times stronger storm would 
never have kept him back." 

" True, true in a sense," said Lorn, annoyed at the obstinacy of the 
chieftain, " but Cyril of Rathland first, the Bruce afterwards. Brian can 
attend to both of them, and trust me he will, and that faithfully." 

" Assure yourself less strongly," said Sir Guilbert, 

"For what reason, Sir Knight?" enquired Lorn rather sharply. 

" Nay ; I merely warn you. Far be it from my intention to do more." 

"Come, Sir," said Lom with evident irritation, "I will hear the 
reasons for your distrust. Brian of Dunkerlyne is a good and brave man, 
and one whom I greatly value. If you have aught of evil to say against 
him let me hear it." 

" Fly not up in this fashion, my lord," returned the knight with a 
calmness of demeanour which contrasted strongly with the turbulence of 
the Islesman. " Had I known you should have resented my warning I 
would willingly have withheld it. My ignorance of the customs in the 
West here, coupled with my nationality, can be the only excuse for my 
indiscretion in referring to a matter which I considered it my duty to 
mention." 

" You misunderstand me, good sir," said Lorn suppressing his passion. 
" I was merely annoyed at the thought of having so faithful a servant 
suspected." 

" So faithful a servant !" exclaimed Macnab. " Have you forgotten 
everything, my lord? If this be so, we that have served you so well 
have little thanks or encouragement for our devotedness." 

" I am misinterpreted on all hands," said Lorn knitting his brow at 
the recollection of Brian's former escapades. " The viking has been so 
very faithful of late I had almost forgotten his former treachery. 'Tis 
better, however, it should be forgotten. Besides, methinks he is much 
more settled now, and there is less fear of his bursting the bonds of fealty 
that bind him." 

" You have said well, my good father," said Nora. " It is unjust to 
be raking up memories which should have perished long ago. Brian 
of Dunkerlyne, viking and robber though he be, is a faithful vassal and a 
noble chief. We have heard enow of his treachery which was no more 
than the infatuation of a stubborn and fiery youth. You must also re- 
member that he has a son whom I have no doubt will some day succeed in 
restoring the honour and fortunes of his family." 

" Ay, sweet Nora, he has a son," returned the islesman. " That may 
have something to do with the sentiments you have just given expres- 
sion to." 

" You wrong me," said Nora leaping from her seat, her face suffused 
with blushes. " I will not bear to be thus openly insulted even by my 
father," 

" So saying she left the hall followed by Bertha who exclaimed as she 
rose to go, " Cowardly insinuator, you shall yet be called to make good 
your words." 

At the same time a vivid flash of lightning lit up the angry faces of 
i^he guests, a peal of thunder went rumbling over head, and a wild gust 
of wind made the towers and battlements of Punolly quiver to their founda- 
tions. A grim aspect was now given to the festivities, and it was some time 



66 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

before the guests could recover from the shock. Lorn wildly attempted to 
laugh the incident out of countenance, but the fearful silence which took 
possession of the hall made the fury of the storm more awful to be 
listened to. 

"Is not this Cyril the uncle of old Brian?" enquired Sir Guilbert 
anxious to break the oppressive monotony. 

" Assuredly," said Lorn. 

" Is not that something to fear?" 

" Way ; he knows it not. Cyril of Eathland is merely known to him 
as the slayer of his father Francis." 

" Cyril the slayer of his own brotner ! " exclaimed De Valancymer, 
"The curse of Cain be on him, and on the jackanapes of a son who 
should wince at the thought of revenge." 

" As you say," said Lorn. 

" Amen ! " said Macnab. 

" Come, my gallant guests," said Lorn, " an end of this subject. 
Fill me a bumper to the health of King Edward, and let's drink confusion 
to the rebels. Death to the heretic !" 

The wine, which had almost remained untouched during the early 
part of the evening, now circulated more freely and the guests grew 
merry. The night wore on. The morning stole quickly on the revellers. 
The harpers were called in to sustain the mirth, and the wild ecstacies of 
song and wine served to dissipate the former gloom. 

In the midst of revelry it was announced that a storm-tossed galley 
had found its way into the bay beneath the rock, having apparently been 
driven there for shelter by the violence of the storm. 

" Go," said Lorn, " bring them hither whoe'er they be. They'll share 
the hospitality of a Highlander's hearth. Fill high the golden cup of 
Somerled and hang another haunch of beef upon the spit. Come, make 
merry all. Fill your flagons to the brim and pledge me the weel of the 
wanderers." 

Just as the cups were emptied Dermond of Dunkerlyne was ushered 
into the hall to the disappointment and chargin of Macnab who scowled 
and exclaimed " Was it wind or will that brought you so late to our 
gathering ? " 

" Both of them," returned Dermond. " Who save a land prowler 
would be frightened for a storm when duty forbade him to fear?" 

" Do you insult me?" exclaimed Macnab, biting his lip. 

" Just as you take it," returned the youth. 

" None of this in my presence," said Lorn, " if you regard your safety. 
This is my hall, and neither insolence nor violence can pass current here. 
Have at least respect if you have no fear." 

" My duty to your lordship," said Dermond, " but even here, I may 
say, honour is free from impeachment, and insult cannot be allowed to 
pass unchallenged." 

Macnab scowled. 

" Come, sir youth," said Lorn, " the faithful Macnab did but jest." 

" If so, I forgive him." 

" Here, then, you shall have a seat at our board next to the noble 
Macnab," said Lorn. " Fill a bumper to the health of the young chief 
of Dunkerlyne." 



DERMOKD. 67 

" Pardon me," said Dermond, " but if my father is not here I must 
go. I fear the violence of the storm, and must instantly take measures to 
secure his safety." 

" A noble youth !" exclaimed Sir Guilbert " Happy the father with 
so brave a son. Come, sir chieftain, you will pledge me this bumper to 
the safety of your noble father, Brian of Dunkerlyne." 

" Nay," said Lorn, " we assure you of his safety. Moreover, let no 
man say that so gallant a youth went on so hazardous an expedition, or 
visited his liege lord on so stormy a night without partaking of his hospi- 
tality. Come, sir, be seated until we pledge you right royally. Here, by 
the brave Macnab, you have a seat." 

" Excuse my want of ceremony," said Dermond, " but my vow forbids 
it. Above all, my lord, remember the feud that exists between the house 
of Dunkerlyne and the chieftain on your right." 

" Tush !" said Lorn. " Here is your place ; be seated." 

" What !" exclaimed Dermond, " Sit at your board with a skiilking 
Macnab ! God save me from a dishonour so great. And to sit beneath 
the chief of that clan, I should resent the proposal as an insult were it 
not that my liege lord is incapable of malice towards one of his faithful 
vassals. No, my lord, I must go. Meanwhile, farewell ! " 

Having said this Dermond made towards the door of the hall, but 
Lorn and Macnab started up at the same time and signed to the attendants 
to detain him. 

" Off with your menial hands," said the youth, drawing his weapon 
and making the attendants stand aghast. 

" What !" he continued, turning to John of Lorn, "Am I to be thus 
insulted by your very servants ? Does my liege lord call for so mean a 
measure, and that at the instigation of a Macnab 1 Violence and insult 
to a son of Dunkerlyne in the hall of Macdougall t Let no man be so 
rash ! If anyone desires to stop me it must be Macnab. Let him not 
foolishly imagine that the menials of Lorn will form a cloak to his 
treachery. Villain as he is, he shall yet answer for his conduct." 

Here Dermond lifted the hilt of his sword in his left hand, and shook 
his fist in the face of Macnab, who again started up, clutched his clay- 
more, and glared at the angry youth. 

"Draw!" said Dermond, his gleaming sword still quivering in his 
passion- stricken hand. " I have hitherto refrained from striking, but I 
can bear it no longer. I will instantly be revenged for a thousand insults. 
Draw, you trembling, cowardly jackanapes. Big and strong though you 
be, my blood is young and my heart is steeled with the sense of right. 
Have at you, sir chief." 

At the same time Dermond advanced to where Macnab stood, and 
struck desperately at him. By this time, however, Macnab had bared his 
weapon, in time to guard the blow aimed by Dermond at his head. Re- 
turning the blow with as much strength and dexterity as he could, Mac- 
nab made a thrust which started the guard of Dermond and drew fire 
from his steel breastplate. The hot blood tingled in the cheek of the 
youth at the thought, but as yet no harm had been done, and striking 
down the sword of Macnab, he make a frantic attempt to disarm him. 

Consternation prevailed in the hall, and Lorn called for the termina- 
tion of the fight by the interference of fche attendants ; but to no purpose. 



68 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Most were bent on seeing the conflict fairly fought out. The combatants 
were almost equally wrong in their behaviour, and although the youth 
fought at a disadvantage so far as years and experience were concerned, 
his audacity and skill evoked general admiration; and everyone stood 
back while the fight went on. Two or three times a bench or a table 
came to grief in the contest or interfered with the free play of the 
weapons, but the daring of the youth and the coolness of the veteran 
were not much affected by the circumstance. Some cried for an adjourn- 
ment to the court-yard, and others wished for a postponement until the 
contest could be carried out under the proper rules of their barbaric 
chivalry. But all such advice was unheeded, and the chieftains still kept 
at it in the dim light of the feasting chamber. The clang of the swords 
echoed against the roof, and the sparks flew from every thrust, cut and 
guard like fire-flies in the gloom. Macnab hissed in his anger, and 
Dermond glared at his bearded and powerful opponent. 

For a time the two combatants rested on the upper guard, and eyed 
each other like wild cats. Feint and stamp were brought into requisition 
in vain. The strength of the youth was still good, and Macnab, although 
slightly ruffled at the sustained ardour of Dermond, kept well on guard 
without attempting to steal a cut lest he should suffer by the smartness of 
his adversary. This could not continue long, however, and Macnab was 
determined to end the fight. He guarded carelessly and struck desperately. 
Dermond parried every stroke and gave a few well-timed thrusts in return. 
The blood had now burst from a vein in Macnab's neck, and a shout of 
almost universal exultation rang against the oaken rafters. Macnab grew 
pale and mustered up more courage. Dermond grew more confident and 
less careful, and twice or thrice Macnab's claymore had splintered the 
links of his mail shirt. An intense silence now prevailed as Macnab was 
gaining ground, while Dermond's strength flagged. The red-bearded 
chieftain advanced rapidly on Dermond, and after a few dexterous move- 
ments sent the sword of the youth into splinters, and wounded him 
slightly on the light shoulder. Dermond drew his dirk and thrust madly 
at Macnab, who received a fearful wound in the throat. Macnab fell 
back into the arms of an attendant, while Dermond was seized and borne 
off to the dungeons. 

During the uproar Nora and Bertha had rushed into the hall and were 
silent but anxious spectators of the combat. No man was more celebrated 
throughout the Western Highlands for his swordsmanship than the chief 
of the Macnabs, and consequently great fears were entertained for the 
safety of Dermond, whose courage and prowess were greatly admired, 
Nora, however, was rather indignant at his violence, and darted a fiery 
look of reproach at him as the attendants dragged him away. Dermond 
did not notice this glance from the famous beauty of the Western Isles, 
but a shriek from Bertha went thrilling through his heart like a cold and 
gleaming knife, and that pale face and wildered aspect haunted him like 
a weird and dismal dream* 

(1o be Continued,) 



THE EDITOK IN CANADA. 



n. 

AFTER sending off my last letter, I met several North country gentlemen 
in Pictou, who hold high positions in the Dominion. One of these is a 
gentleman from Castle Street, Inverness, now Senator Grant. I enjoyed 
his hospitality, and obtained from him what I enjoyed even more than 
his very fine Scotch whisky, viz., two recent numbers of the Inverness 
Courier, in one of which, I read a well-written and sensible article, show- 
ing up the anti-Highland members of the Town Council who oppose 
the decoration of the New Town Hall Windows with the Arms of the 
Highland Clans. 

Another Highlander I met in Pictou was Colin Mackenzie, a gentle- 
man possessed of considerable property, including the principal Hotel in 
the town the St Lawrence, kept by another Highlander, Malcolm 
Morrison, originally from the Island of Lewis. Mackenzie's grandfather 
emigrated soon after the arrival of the ship Hector, in 1773, and came 
from a place then pretty thickly populated, but now without a house in 
it, the district of Andrary, in Gairloch. Another Mackenzie, in good cir- 
cumstances, whom I met here was a Murdo Mackenzie, also from Gair- 
loch, and a first cousin of the late Captain John Mackenzie, Telford Road, 
Inverness. He is over 80 years of age, and his father only died a few 
years ago, 99 years of age. Among this coterie, who came a long distance 
to see me, was a Captain Carmichael Mackay, whose grandfather, Rode- 
rick Mackay, a native of Beauly, was imprisoned in the old Tolbooth of 
Inverness many years ago for smuggling. 

I received the following account of Roderick, who, with his family, 
came out in the ship Hector to Pictou, where many of his descendants 
are now in prosperous circumstances. He was a blacksmith by trade, and 
some time after he came to Nova Scotia, secured the important position 
of chief of the blacksmith works in Halifax dockyard. In going to 
Halifax, he and his wife had to travel on foot, through the forest, the 
journey being made more difficult of accomplishment owing to the 
fact that they had to carry two young children with them. 
Under his direction, while holding this position, was made the 
great chain, which, during the war, was stretched across the harbour of 
Halifax to keep hostile ships from entering. Roderick was a thick-set, 
strongly-built Celt, distinguished for activity, determination, and fertility 
of invention. An interesting story is related of his quondam sojourn in 
Inverness prison on the occasion above referred to. The gaugers seized 
someof Rory's illicit whisky, upon which he "gave a good account of them," 
and liberated his " barley bree." For this he was captured, and lodged 
in the old prison of Inverness. His free-born spirit, naturally chafed 
under such indignities and restraints, especially in such a good cause as 
the hero considered himself engaged in, protecting his own pro- 
perty, and he soon set about concocting means of exit. He soon ingra- 



70 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tiated himself with his gaoler, and one day he managed to send him out 
for a supply of ale and whisky, such things being freely admitted into 
such places in the good old days and the gaoler could take his glass too 
from all accounts. Eeturning with the ale in one hand and the whisky 
in the other, Rory discovered his opportunity, slipped out smartly behind 
him, closing the door after him, locking it outside, at the same time 
carrying oif the key, which is still preserved by his descendants in Pictou. 
These feats secured for Rory an honourable place in the hearts of his 
countrymen here, and made him a perfect idol amongst them, though 
probably the Inverness gaoler and his friends looked upon the aifair in a 
very different light. Several other feats of great prowess, which he per- 
formed in his adopted country, are still told of the famous Rory Mackay ; 
but my space does not at present admit of further record. 

Some of these fine old fellows came nine miles to see a Highlander 
from the old country. The place is full of men whose ancestors left their 
homes in Kintail, Lochbroom, Gairloch, Poolewe, and Lochcarron, in im- 
poverished circumstances, but who themselves are now in comfort and even 
affluence, possessing lands and means of their own. 

Having parted, with these warm-hearted fellows, I was driven out se- 
veral miles into the country, by Captain David Crerar, to see the largest 
Tannery in Nova Scotia, owned and carried on by John Logan, a 
Highlander from Sutherlandshire. His grandfather was a stone mason 
at Bonar Bridge, and came out here in 1806. His father, when very 
young, worked at the Cotton Mills, the ruins of which are still to be seen 
at the roadside as you go from Bonar Bridge to Dornoch. He became a 
plasterer and small farmer in this country, and had four sons, all of whom 
are in good positions. One of these, John, started the Pictou Tannery in 
1849, with only two pits. It has since grown to one hundred and twenty, 
and is a sight well worth going a long way to see. He turns out an ave- 
rage of 3,200 hides of sole leather per annum, representing over 40,000 
in value. One pile of bark which I saw, alone cost over 2,600, while 
an equal quantity lay in smaller piles about the building; and this 
quantity, value over 5,000, is consumed annually in the works. All 
the leather manufactured is sold in the Dominion at from lOd to Is per 
Ib. The engine, 25 horse power, is kept going by the spent bark, which 
is carried to the furnace from distant parts of the building by a most in- 
genious, self-acting contrivance. The whole place is a perfect model of 
convenience and neatness, and the arrangements do great credit to the in- 
genuity and enterprise of this self-made, well-to-do Celt, whose place of 
business has become the centre of a great industry. I have seen, during 
the short time I was there, dozens of farmers coming in from all parts of 
the country, with cart-loads of bark, for which they get the cash in return 
from Mr Logan, to take home with them ; and, although he has no com- 
petition worth mentioning, he pays them a sufficient sum to make it worth 
their while to work at it, else he would have to go without what is, of 
course, an absolute necessity for his successful enterprise. A brother, 
Dougall, keeps a large shop close to the tannery, and is in a good posi- 
tion, worth a considerable sum of money. 

Parting with my good friends in Pictou, who, even in the short time 
I was there, became numerous, I took train to New Glasgow, with one of 
the leading barristers of that town, a Gaelic-speaking Highlander, named 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 71 

Duncan C. Eraser, whose ancestors came from the county of Inverness. 
Having spent a few days with him, he introduced me to several good 
Celts, and drove me through some fine Highland settlements in the coun- 
try. My friend had heen in Parliament, and was a Member of the Legis- 
lative Council of Nova Scotia, and is, altogether, a worthy representative 
of his clan and country. Here I also met an Invernessian, Daniel M. Fra- 
ser, son of Hugh Eraser, farmer, Clunes, Strathdearn, who, I was glad to 
find, occupied the responsible position of agent in New Glasgow, for the 
Pictou Bank, a prosperous and thriving institution. Mr Eraser had 
also charge of the agency at Stellarton, an important branch, among the 
great coal mines, a few miles away. Indeed, the Erasers are at the same 
time, numerous and prosperous in New Glasgow, and any Highlander 
coming among them will meet with a hearty and very warm reception. 

But more interesting to me than all my other discoveries as yet on this 
Continent, was finding a representative of the famous pipers and poets of 
Gairloch,in the person of John Mackay,who occupies the most honourable 
and prominent position in this thriving town that of Stipendiary Magi- 
strate. His great-grandfather was the celebrated blind piper of Gairloch, 
a sketch of whose life, with specimens of his poetry, is given by the late 
John Mackenzie in the " Beauties of Gaelic Poetry." About four years ago a 
paragraph appeared in the Celtic Magazine making enquiries as to whe- 
ther any members of this distinguished family of pipers were yet alive, but 
no answer was received. The only thing known about them was that one 
of them, the grandson of the famous Piobaire Dall, and the last male re- 
presentative of the race in Gairloch, emigrated to some part of America, 
in 1805, and carried with him more Ceol mor or Piobaireachd, than he 
left behind him among all the pipers of Scotland. At this time, John, who 
is now in his 86th year, was 12 years of age, and even now he remembers 
almost every prominent stone and tree in the parish, to say nothing of the 
lakes, rivers, mountains, and valleys. His father continued to play 
the national instrument all his life, and died a very old man. His 
elder brother, Angus, also played marches, reels, and strathspeys, but 
piobaireaclid not being appreciated in the land of his adoption, he prac- 
tised that higher class music but little, and was not, therefore, up to the 
family standard of excellence in that department. He died a few years 
ago, when nearly one hundred years of age. John himself also learned 
to play; but at the age of eighteen he finally gave it up, so that 
now not one of this celebrated family keeps up the name and 
reputation of the family, though several of the descendants of this 
fine race still exist many of them in good circumstances on this 
Continent. I spent a whole evening with this fine old Highlander, who 
still speaks the purest Gaelic, while his English strongly smacks of the 
peat and the heather. His intellect is quite unimpaired, and 
he is admitted on all hands to be the ablest and most independent 
judge in the whole Province of Nova Scotia. He was in a perfect 
ecstasy of joy when talking over his recollections of his native parish and 
of the people he remembered, but of whom hardly a soul now survives. 
The whole thing seemed as if a ghost had risen from the grave. He talked 
of things long ago as if they were but of yesterday ; and I parted with 
him with very mixed emotions. 

I must now carry you with me on a visit to a Highlander of a very 



72 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

different but equally genuine stamp, and better known to the reader, the 
Eev. A. Maclean Sinclair, who lives at Springville, ten miles from New 
Glasgow. Having heard that I was there, he sent up his machine on Satur- 
day to take me down to his place. I was only too glad to have the op- 
portunity of visiting this excellent Celt and Gaelic scholar, though it hap- 
pened to be his communion week, which made it more inconvenient for 
him, and, in all the circumstances, less attractive for me. On my arrival, 
I found him well housed, in a most beautiful locality, in the centre of a 
wide district, all settled by Highlanders, most of whom, I found, came 
from the parish of Urquhart, in the county of Inverness, while a few 
families of Macleans, Mackinnons, and Macquarries, I found to be 
descendants of emigrants from the Island of Eum in all about 200 well- 
to-do families. I attended divine service on Sabbath, and found at the 
English service about 700 of a congregation, in a neat, comfortable church 
listening to a well-reasoned, neatly-delivered sermon. Of these, about 300 
were communicants ; but, after the sermon was over, I left and went to a 
contiguous hall, where a neighbouring minister, the Eev, Alex. Maclean, 
was preaching to a krge Gaelic congregation, in the purest and most unc- 
tuous vernacular. I felt how great a pity it was that we could not have 
Buch a fine preacher, getting a good stipend at home, in place of some of 
those mongrel, so called Gaelic preachers we have in many places in the 
Highlands of Scotland, Mr Maclean is really a first-class Gaelic 
preacher, and uses the language with great fluency and power. He was 
born where he is now settled, but was for several years in charge of a 
Highland congregation in Prince Edward Island. His father emigrated 
from Glen Strathfarrar, in Strathglass now as celebrated for its deer as it 
was of yore for the fine fellows it sent to the Church, and to the defence 
of king and country. Having seen these meetings of my countrymen, I would 
not have missed them for a great deal Imagine nearly 200 carriages, four- 
wheeled, scattered all about outside the church. It was such a sight as I never 
saw, and never could have seen in the Highlands ; yet here there is hardly a 
family which does not drive to church, and market, in a nice light "waggon" 
or carriage ; but, in spite of all this, mistaken people at home, will advise the 
poor crofter not to emigrate to a country where such things are possible to 
those who came out here a few years ago in a state of penury and want. 

The Eev. A. Maclean Sinclair is really most happy and comfortable 
in his surroundings, and all he seems to want to make him as completely 
happy as this world can, is to have at the head of his household gods, a 
better half, congenial to his cultivated tastes ; though at present his mo- 
ther, a fine old lady, the daughter of the Bard of Coll, and a walking 
Celtic Encyclopaedia, keeps house for him, and presides at his hospitable 
table. But while I envied him the beautiful situation of his manse, the 
happy concord of the large Highland congregation over which he presides, 
and the respect paid to him by every one in the district, I envied him his 
magnificent and valuable library ten times more. It is almost impossible to 
conceive that such a rare collection of valuable books could be met with in 
such an out-of-the-way place. I believe his collection of Celtic works is 
the best private one on the American Continent, and very few indeed can 
surpass it even at home. Among the works of the Gaelic Poets on his 
shelves, I found the first edition of Alexander Macdonald's Poems, which 
contains several pieces not suited for modern ears, and not included in the 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 73 

later editions ; Ronald Macdonald's Collection, published in 1776, the first 
collection of Gaelic poems ever published ; Gillies's Collection now very 
rare published in 1786; Smith's Sean Dana, 1787 ; John MacGregor'g 
Poems, 1801 ; Robert Stewart's, 1802 ; a rare collection, published at In- 
veraray, without date, and containing " An Duanag Ullamh " ; Stewart's 
CoUection, 1804; the first Inverness CoUection, 1806 ; Donald Macleod's, 
1811; Turner's, 1813; P. Macfarlane's, in the same year ; Ossian; 
Leabhar na Feinne ; Sar Obair nam Bard ; and all the more modern col- 
lections down to the " Oranaiche," as well as the modem bards from Dun- 
can Ban down to the present day. In the Gaelic prose department, I no- 
ticed "An Teachdaire"; an " Cuairtear" ; an "Gaidheal"; "Bratachna 
Firinn"; "Adhamh agus Eubh"; " Bliadhna Thearlaich" ; CampbeU's 
Tales of the West Highlands; all the Gaelic Dictionaries ; and several Gaelic 
Grammars ; while among English works on Celtic subjects there were Dr 
John Macpherson's Critical Dissertation, published in 1768, a rare and 
valuable work ; the American Edition of Logan's Scottish Gael, published 
in Boston in 1833, and with which I was not previously acquainted; 
General Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders ; Pattison's Gaelic Bards ; 
Campbell's Language, Poetry, and Music of the Highlands; Dr Mac- 
lauchlan's Celtic Gleanings ; Laing's Dissertation on Ossian ; Robertson's 
Historical Proofs ; Fullarton's Highland Clans and Regiments ; Professor 
Blackie's Language and Literature of the Highlands; and numberless 
others, down to the " Prophecies of the Brahan Seer" ; the " Historical 
Tales and Legends of the Highlands" ; and the Celtic Magazine. Many 
people, possessing good libraries, know very little of their contents, but 
Mr Sinclair knows every word, and is a thorough master of every idea in 
his splendid collection. The only pity is that he does not give the bene- 
fit of his vast stores of Celtic learning to his fellow-countrymen. 

But I have not, as yet, exhausted the reverend gentleman's treasures, 
the best of which still fall to be noticed. He showed me a rare collection 
of Gaelic poems made by a Dr Maclean, in the Island of Mull, as early as 
the year 1768, eight years before Ronald Macdonald's, the first collection 
ever published. John Maclean, the Bard of Coll (Mr Sinclair's grand- 
father), obtained this rare MS. Collection about 1816, from the collector's 
daughter, Main Nigliean an Doctair. The majority of the poems in it are 
nowhere else to be found, and those in it which have appeared in printed 
collections are, Mr Sinclair informs me, far superior and more correct in 
the MS. This is natural enough ; for the earlier a poem or song is taken 
down, the more likely it is to bo correct, and as the original composer 
finally left it. The MS. contains about forty-eight pieces of considerable 
length, and several shorter pieces. Many of the songs are by Iain Lorn, 
Eachainn Bacach, Iain MacAilein, and other well-known Gaelic bards. 
Another valuable Collection in MS. is one made by the bard, John Mac- 
lean, who travelled extensively over the Highlands and Islands of Scot- 
land, between the years 1812 and 1816. During this tour he took down 
one hundred and ten Gaelic songs, forming the extensive MS. under no- 
tice. It contains pieces by Iain Lorn, Eachainn Bacach, Mairearad 
nigh'n Lachainn, and some by Mairi nigh'n Alastair Ruaidh, while there 
are several songs by Alexander Mackinnon, the warrior bard. Only a 
small portion of the valuable pieces preserved in this MS. have ever been 
published. My friend has yet a third MS. of Gaelic poems and songs 

F 



74 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

which he has prepared for the press ; and, I rejoice to find, will very soon 
be sent to the printer. I have heard several of John Maclean's songs 
sung throughout Nova Scotia, where they are very popular, while I had 
the pleasure of reading, or hearing read, many others ; and I have no 
hesitation in saying that the " Bard of Coll " deserves, and is sure to oc- 
cupy, a high place among the Gaelic bards : and Mr Sinclair will be con- 
ferring a great boon on Celtic students, and on the admirers of Gaelic 
poetry, by placing his grandfather's Gaelic poems within their reach. Is 
it not marvellous to meet with such a Celtic Eden in such a place, and 
all accumulated by Mr Sinclair from pure personal love for the language 
and literature of his ancestors, of which he is himself such a perfect master ! 
It is a pity that our friend had not a wider field, and a greater opportunity 
for sharing his knowledge with others ; and I am selfish enough to wish 
that he would get, and accept, a call to a charge at home, where we would 
have a better opportunity of getting him occasionally to aid us, in rescuing 
from oblivion the history and traditions of the Celts, and of popularising 
the language and literature of the Gael. Having said so much about Mr 
Sinclair and his surroundings, it may interest the reader to learn that his 
father was a native of the parish of Reay, and a brother of the late Alex- 
ander Sinclair of Thurso, so highly spoken of in " The Ministers and Men 
of the Far North." His mother, presiding so gracefully over his house- 
hold, is a daughter of the Bard MacGilleain. as already stated. He was 
born in Glenbard (so called after his grandfather), Nova Scotia in 1840, 
and was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church, in 1866. The 
Bard of Coll was born at Caolas, in the Island of Tiree, on the 8th of 
January 1787. He belonged to the Treisnish branch of the Macleans 
of Ardgour, and emigrated to Pictou in 1819, where he lived at a place 
called Barney's River for twelve years. He afterwards removed to the 
county of Antigonish, where he lived and died, at the place now known 
after him as Glenbard. Here he breathed his last, on the 25th of 
January 1848. His wife, Isabell Black, a native of Lismore, died two 
years ago, aged 91, and both now lie buried on the farm on which they 
lived. A handsome stone, seen from the train going from New Glasgow 
to Antigonish, with the following Gaelic inscription, marks their resting 
place : 

Ait BABD MAO-GILLEAIN, 

1787-1848. 

Fhir 's a* chladh s' 'tha 'dol mu'n cuairt, 
Stad is eisd ri guth bho;'n uaigh s', 
Cum a' Ghaidhlig 'suas ri d' bheo 
'S a cuid bardachd 's airde gloir ; 
Do gach ni 'tba maith thoir gradh, 
'S bi 'tigh'nn bee do Dbia gach la. 
BEAN A BHAIBD, 

1786-1877. 
Earb as an Tigbearna le d' uile chridhe. 

There is still another excellent Gaelic scholar in this district the Rev. 
D. B. Blair, born in the county of Argyle, but when he was only twelve 
years of age his father removed to Baden och. He came to this country a 
few years after the Disruption, where he is held in the highest estimation. 
He has charge of the congregation of Barney's River and Blue Mountain 
is a true Highlander and Gaelic scholar, a fact well known to the readers 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 75 

of the Gael, to which, during its existence, he contributed several articles. 
He is the author of several Gaelic poems, and of a new metrical transla- 
tion, of the Psalms of David, both of considerable merit ; and is altoge- 
ther a man and a Highlander, of whom, with many others here, we may 
well feel proud. I had only a very short stay with my reverend friend, and 
parted with him with many regrets. I had other engagements, however, 
which could not be postponed, so I was driven back to New Glasgow, from 
whence I found my way by rail an extension of forty miles through a 
magnificent country, only opened a few days previously to the townoi An- 
tigonish, where I had arranged to deliver a Lecture on " Flora Macdonald 
and Prince Charles," under the auspices of the " Highland Society of An- 
tigonish." I had previously lectured in the city of Halifax, under the 
distinguished patronage of His Excellency General Sir Patrick Macdou- 
gall, Commander-in-chief of Her Majesty's Canadian Forces ; of His Hon- 
our the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia ; and of the North British So- 
ciety of Halifax, where I had a fine, select audience, including in addition, 
the Premier and Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, the Archbishop, and 
most of the leading inhabitants. I had also lectured in Pictou and in 
New Glasgow, under high patronage, the Mayor of each place presiding ; 
but the Highland Society of Antigonish paid me the compliment of turn- 
ing out in their tartans and " Bonnets of Blue" ; and, at a special meet- 
ing of the Society, held in the hall immediately after the lecture, I was 
elected, by acclamation, an Honorary Member of their patriotic Society 
the highest compliment they had in their power to confer on a Highlander 
from home. Among those present, and in their Highland array, wore the 
President, Vice-President, and Secretary of the Society ; Angus Macisaac, 
M.P. for the Dominion of Canada; Angus Macgillivray, MP. for Nova 
Scotia; J. J. Mackinnon, ex-M.P. ; Dr William A. Macdonald, a cadet of 
the family of the Isles ; Archibald A. Macgillivray, a prominent High- 
lander; the Eev. Alex. Chisholm, D.D., D.P., Professor in St Francis 
Xavier's College ; Professor Macdonald ; the Rev. Father Gillies ; and 
many others not only of the best Gaelic-speaking Highlanders here, but 
the most prominent officials and the most influential citizens. There was 
one, however, who deserves more than a mere passing notice. Norman 
Macdonald, a native of Arisaig, came eight miles to see me. I found 
that he issued in 1863 an edition of Mackenzie's "Beauties of Gaelic 
Poetry," which was largely sold throughout Nova Scotia ; but I was sorry 
to learn that, like most other ventures in the Celtic field, it barely paid the 
patriotic Celt, who ran the risk of placing this classical Celtic work within 
the reach of his countrymen on this side of the Atlantic. In this edition, 
Mackenzie's Preface and Logan's learned and able Introduction are left 
out, as also the Ossianic Poems at the beginning, Oran na Briogsa, and 
the whole of the Appendix and Glossary, while a sketch of John Mac- 
lean, the Bard of Coll, and a few specimens of his poems, as well as a few 
poems composed by others, are introduced. "With the exception of a few 
typographical errors, inevitable in a work set up by compositors ignorant 
of the language, the work is very well got up. It was sold at 10s and 
you meet with a copy in the houses of most of the best-to-do Highlanders 
in Nova Scotia, and especially in Cape Breton. 

The people of the County of Antigonish came mostly from the West 
Coast Highlands Arisaig, Knoydart, Moidart, Morar, and Strathglass. 



76 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The prevailing names are, consequently, Macdonalds, Chisholms, and Mac- 
gillivrays. The population of the county in 1871 was about 15,000, of 
which about 2,000 live in the town of Antigonish, which is the seat of the 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Arichat. It contains a college, cathedral, two 
telegraph offices, a printing office issuing a weekly newspaper a bank, 
several fine shops and hotels. Vessels not drawing more than ten feet 
can come up the bay, which is a fine inlet of the Gulf of St Lawrence, 
extending up to the town. At least nine-tenths of the whole population 
of the county, belong to the Koman Catholic Church, but they live on the 
most friendly terms with their Presbyterian neighbours. The people are 
very comfortable, possessing fine farms of their own, specially suited for 
grazing purposes. Over 1,500 head of cattle, in addition to a large num- 
ber of horses, are annually exported from the country to Newfoundland ; 
also, large quantities of butter and cheese, and other agricultural produce. 
The County of Antigonish is now the most Highland in Canada, and hun- 
dreds of its inhabitants cannot speak any but the Gaelic language. In 
the town of Antigonish I met a fine Highlander, James Chisholm, from 
St Andrews, who insisted upon driving me out seven miles to see another 
fine old Highlander, a native of Glengarry, the Kev. J. V. Macdonell, pa- 
rish priest of St Andrews, and an old subscriber to the Celtic Magazine. 
I hesitated at first, but my friend would not be put off, and, as an addi- 
tional inducement, he offered to drive me in his carriage from St 
Andrews to Port Mulgrave, a distance of forty miles, on my way to Cape 
Breton. I could not resist his importunity, and I at last consented. I 
was naturally curious to know the antecedents of my benefactor, and he 
informed me on our way, that his grandfather, Thomas Chisholm, resided 
at Craobh Leabhamn, in Strathglass, and that his own father, Hugh Chis- 
holm, came out here in 1801. We soon arrived at Father MacdonelTs 
house, and found this fine old Highlander preparing to retire for the night, 
but he soon changed his mind on our arrival ; gave me a most hearty 
welcome ; after which we talked for hours about matters Highland. The 
Kev. Father, though past sixty, never preached an English sermon in his 
life. I remained two days with him, and there met several truly Celtic 
fathers, among whom was Father William Chisholm, a genuine Celt, full 
of Highland history and tradition, and brimful of Gaelic and Irish songs 
and melodies. My friend, Colin Chisholm, will probably recognise him 
as lar-Ogha do Dhomhnull Gobha, in Strathglass. Here also I met the 
Eev. D. J. Mackintosh, P.P., North Sydney, and the Rev. Roderick 
Grant, P.P., Boisdale, both of Cape Breton ; and fine, warm-hearted good 
looking Highlanders, all of whom treated me with such extreme kindness 
that I was melted down, and could almost exclaim with Agrippa of old, 
slightly varied, that " I was almost persuaded to become a Catholic." On 
Saturday morning, my original friend, James Chisholm, took me in charge 
to drive me forty miles on to Port Mulgrave, on my way to Cape Breton, 
and I had to part with my Catholic friends of St Andrews with no small 
regret. I soon, however, found that I was not yet done with the good 
fathers. About seven miles farther on, at Heatherton, I was accosted by 
a tall handsome young man, of six feet four inches and a-half, habilitated 
like the fathers I had just left behind me. He, Father John Chisholm, 
learned that I was coming his way that morning, and he prepared a feast. 
He even went the length of procuring a bottle of Scotch whisky, though 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA, 77 

he was an abstainer himself, and had not such a thing in his house for 
many years before. I must again leave my mellow Highland and Catho- 
lic friend, Colin Chisholm, to take charge of the Genealogical department, 
and make out the ancestors of my kind entertainer. The late Gilleaspuig 
MacCailean was his maternal grandfather ; the late Mr Alex. Macdonell, 
Judique, Cape Breton, was his maternal granduncle, and his paternal 
grandfather was Ian Donn MacAlistair Bhric, an Coire nan Cuilean, 
Strathglass. His father, Ian Mac Ian Duinn, lived during the last six 
years, before he left his native Strathglass, at Knockfin. The old gentle- 
man was then living, in his 82d year, and called at his son's house while 
I was there. Before I saw him, I heard a voice in the lobby, proclaim- 
ing in good, sonorous Gaelic, the following introduction : 

Bha mi uair an Inbhirnis, 
'8 mi gun storas, a'a gun mheas, 
Fbuair mi gunna, claidhe, 'a crios, 
'S thug sud misneachd mhor dhomh. 

Exactly a week after, this fine old Highlander died suddenly, without any 
suffering or pain whatever. 

All along this long drive of forty miles, the scenery was very fine, 
through hills, dales, and mighty forests the Island of Cape Breton in full 
view, a few miles on the right, with the Straits of Canso intervening. 
About half-way on, I called on a Church of England clergyman, the Rev. 
Angus Macdonald, Bayfield, but did not find him at home. He had writ- 
ten me to Halifax, on seeing my arrival in the papers, to spend a few days 
with him ; but this I found impossible from the limited time at my dis- 
posal I met him, however, accidentally at Antigonish, and found him a 
very genuine Celt, Late on Saturday night we arrived at the .Ferry of 
Port Mulgrave, and put up with another Highlander, Roderick Macleod, 
who keeps the best hostelry in the plac'e. Here I met several of my 
countrymen ; and, on Monday, I passed into the Island of Cape Breton, 
across a ferry about a mile and a-quarter wide. A description of this glo- 
rious region must be left for next issue. 

The whole of this article may probably appear tedious and, altogether, 
partaking too much of a personal character ; but I found it quite impos- 
sible to shew my appreciation of, and illustrate in any other way, the 
great kindness of my fellow-countrymen in this country kindness and 
attention not extended to me merely on personal grounds, but as a High- 
lander from the old country. The same good feeling would be extended 
to any other good specimen of the race from the other side, by these 
warm-hearted, hospitable Celts, A. M. 



78 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



feneakrgical JJotes anb 



ANSWERS. 

CAITHNESS CAMPBELLS. 

IN reply to the query of " Mag." in the October number of the Celtic 
Magazine, I have pleasure in supplying the following information : 
William Campbell, Heritable Sheriff Clerk of Caithness, was of the Mac- 
Iver branch of the clan, and was the eldest son of Donald Campbell or 
Maclvor, merchant in Thurso. William was baptised 25th October 1647. 
He had two sisters and two brothers, the younger of the latter being John, 
baptised 10th April 1672, who received the appointment of Commissary 
of Caithness, and became proprietor of Castlehill. William was twice 
married, first to Elizabeth, daughter of James Murray of Pennyland, who 
bore him one son, Donald, writer in Thurso, who left no issue ; and se- 
cond, to Helen Mowatt, by whom he had six sons, the eldest being James, 
baptised 6th November 1685, who succeeded his father as Heritable 
Sheriff-Clerk of Caithness, and who acquired the estate of Lochend, in 
Dunnett. He was twice married, first to Mary Sinclair of Forss, without 
issue, and next to Isabella, daughter of the Eev. James Oswald, minister 
of Watten, of the Auchincruive and Scotstown family. James' son, Wil- 
liam of Lochend, was served heir to his father 16th June 1768, but died 
without issue, and was succeeded by his brother Oswald, served heir 15th 
March 1770, but who died without issue in 1776, and was succeeded by 
Alexander Campbell, son of Alexander, whose father was William, second 
son of William, first Sheriff- Clerk. He sold Lochend in 1778 to Sinclair 
of Freswick, and as he left no issue it is believed the male line of the 
family of Donald, father of the Sheriff-Clerk, became extinct. The family 
are considered to have been cadets of the Quoycrook and Duchernan Mac- 
Ivers, of whom the Chief was the late Principal Campbell of Aberdeen. 
They were known sometimes, patronymically as the Maclvers buy. Other 
families in Caithness were those of Dorary, Brubster, Thurso (younger 
family), Braalbyne, Shurary, Braehour, Liurary, all connected with the 
Quoycrook family. Some other families are believed to descend from the 
Maclver Campbells of Leckmelme in Lochbroom, a family which was long 
at the head of the Macivers in Ross-shire, and which ceased to be a landed 
family towards the close of the 17th century. The last of the family in 
possession was Murdoch Maclver, served heir to Donald Eoy, his father, 
on 22d December 1663. This Murdoch is alleged to have had a son, 
Evander, who went to Thurso about 1680, and settled there in trade. 
Other members of the family are understood to have preceded him, but 
there are descendants of the family in the Aird, Kilmorack, and Contin. 
The writer is a descendant of Donald Roy, by his son Alexander (Alisdair 
Mac Conuil Eoy), who fought at Worcester, and who subsequently set- 
tled in the Aird, where he has still descendants, and who will be heads 
of the family of Leckmelme failing direct descendants of Evander of 
Thurso. 

LECKMELM, 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. 79 

COLONEL READ. 

GENERAL SIR WILLIAM EEID, E.E., K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., &c., died 
about 1860-5. He entered the Royal Engineers, and served with Sir J. 
Moore, and through the Peninsular War. He afterwards joined the 
Spanish Contingent, under Sir de Lacy Evans, where he served with dis- 
tinction, and was wounded in the neck by a musket ball The ball was 
stopped by a silk neckerchief, which he was wearing instead of the 
military stock, and thus his life was saved. In 1839 or '40 he was ap- 
pointed Governor of the Bermudas, which he governed so successfully 
that he was honoured with an extended term of office. His memory is 
still revered there as "the good Governor;" and after he left, the Legis- 
lature voted a sum of money for a monument to commemorate hia 
governorship, and this memorial stands in the gardens of the public 
buildings, in the shape of a granite obelisk, with a bronze medallion like- 
ness, and inscription. From Bermuda he was advanced to be Governor 
of Barbadoes and its dependencies. About 1850 he returned to England, 
and was made Commandant of Engineers at Woolwich, and in 1851 was 
one of the Commissioners for the Great Exhibition, and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee. His laborious and useful service obtained for him 
the warm approval and friendship of the Prince Consort, and largely con- 
tributed to the success of the Exhibition. He had previously been nomi- 
nated to a C.B. (military), and was now made K.C.B. (civil). Shortly 
afterwards he was Governor of Malta his last service, I believe. He 
was author of a, now famous, work on " The Law of Storms," to the com- 
pletion of which his experience in Bermuda and the West Indies was of 
material aid. In connection with the theories propounded in this work 
he acquired the humorous sobriquet of " a Reid shaken by the wind." 
General Reid married early a daughter of General Fyers, RA. (an old 
Waterloo soldier). .He left no son, but several daughters, all of whom 

married viz., the eldest, to Colonel Halliwell, C.B., 20th Regiment, 

who served with distinction in the Crimea ; Maria married Captain Hore, 
R.N., some time Naval Attache" at Paris ; Elizabeth, Charlotte, and Grace, 
all married. 



THE ETTRICK SHEPHERD IN MULL This is how the Ettrick 
Shepherd expressed himself after settling with his Mull boatman 

I have sailed round the creeks and the headland of Moll ; 

Her vales are uncultured, unhallowed, and weedy ; 
Her mountains are barren her haven is dull ; 

Her sons may be brave, but they're cursedly greedy. 

These lines were written in an album kept in one of the local inns. A 
native, on seeing them, promptly wrote the following underneath them 

Ah ! Shepherd of Ettriok ! why sorely complain 

Though the boatmen were greedy for grog? 
The beauties of Staffa, by this you proclaim, 

Were pearls cast away on a Hog. 



80 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



Lively. 



ORAN LEANNANACHD. 



mm 



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Cha 'n fhaigh thu uam pog, Ge b' oil le do shroin ; 



Sguir ! buailidh mi dorn 's a 1 chair - eon ort ! 



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Mur leig thu dhomh tamh, 

Gu'n glaodh mi cho ard 

'S gu'n tig cuid de m' chairde 'emalas thu. 

Seall ! shuiomh thu mo dhoru, 

Is chaill mi mo bhrog, 

Is shrachd thu mo cbota 's narach dhut. 

Nach sguir thu, 's bi falbh, 

Our boidheach, gu dearbh, 

Le d' obair, an dealbh.a dh' fhag thu orm ! 



Sin 1 bhris thu mo chir I 

Do ghonadh 'ad chridh' ! 

Leig as mi, no chi mo bhrathair sinn. 

Seall, sid Eochan Mor 

Gu h-ard air an torr ! [e. 

Dean sgur dhiom, no innsidh e 'm mhathair 

Leig cead domh, 's thoir ort 

Gu Seonaid nan cnoc, 

Gu bheil i fo sprochd o'n dh' fhag thu i. 



THE 



No. LI. JANUAEY, 1880. VOL. V. 

HISTOEY OF THE MA CD ON ALD S, 

AND 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



III. 

III. DONALD "DE ISLA," or, of the Isles, from whom the Macdonalds derive 
their name. The share of his father's possessions which appears to have 
fallen to him comprised South Kintyre and Isla^ but it is certain that he 
also came into possession, as head of the house, of his brother Eoderick's 
lands, by themselves a very extensive patrimony. A period of great import- 
ance in the history of this distinguished family has now been reached, and it 
is disappointing to find how little is recorded of the career of this famous 
chief who had no small share in the most important events in the early 
part of the thirteenth century. Indeed it is quite impossible that he 
could have done otherwise, for though the ancient autocratic authority of 
the Clan over others was never recovered by the race of Somerled after 
the partition by Alexander II. of the great district of Argyle, the ultimate 
union of all the claims and rights of this ancient and potent house in the 
line of Donald raised the family and its chief anew, to a pitch of power 
and eminence in Scotland almost unequalled by any other family in 
the kingdom, certainly unequalled in the Western Isles. Donald, 
like all the Western chiefs, after the treaty of succession agreed to 
as the result of the battle of Largs, held his possessions directly from 
the Scottish King, and ever since his successors remained subjects of the 
Scottish crown, in spite of many successive rebellions on their part, in- 
variably instigated by the English Government, to establish their inde- 
pendence in the Isles, and embarrass the Scots. Hugh Macdonald in- 
forms us that Donald succeeded his father " in the Lordship of the Isles 
and Thaneship of Argyle ;" that he went to Denmark, and took with him 
many of the ancient Danes of the Isles, such as " the Macduffies, and 
Macnagills;" that his uncle Dugall accompanied him; and that his 
own rights, and the peculiar rights he had to the Isles through his grand- 
mother, daughter of Olave the Eed, were then renewed to him by Magnus, 
King of Denmark. "After this, he and his uncle Dugall became enemies, 
so that at last he was forced to kill Dugall. After this King Alexander 
(King of Scotland) sent Sir William Rollock as messenger to him to Kin- 

Q 



82 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tyre, desiring to hold the Isles of him, which he had now from the King 
of Denmark. Donald replied that his predecessors had their rights to the 
Isles from the Crown of Denmark, which were renewed by the present 
King thereof, and that he held the Isles of his Majesty of Denmark, be- 
fore he renounced his claim to his Majesty. Sir "William said that the 
King might grant the superiority of the Isles to whom he pleased. Don- 
ald answered to this that Olay the Eed, and Godfrey the Black's father, 
from whom he had the most of the Isles, had the Isles by their conquest, 
and not from the King of Denmark or Scotland, so that he and Sir 
William could not end the debate in law or reasoning. Donald being 
advised by wicked councillors, in the dawning of the day surprised Sir 
"William and his men. Sir William, with some of his men, were killed. 
He banished Gillies (his wife's father) out of the Isles to the glens of 
Ireland, where some of his offspring remain until this day. He killed 
Gillies' young son, called Callum Alin. He brought the MacNeills from 
Lennox to expel Gillies out of Kintyre. After this he went to Eome, 
bringing seven priests in his company, to be reconciled to the Pope and 
Church. These priests declaring his remorse of conscience for the evil 
deeds of his former life, the Pope asked if he was willing to endure any 
torment that the Church was pleased to inflict upon him ? Donald re- 
plied that he was willing, should they please to burn him in a caldron of 
lead. The Church, seeing him so penitent, dispensed with him. Some 
writers assert that he had his rights from the Pope of all the lands he 
possessed in Argyle, Kintyre, and the rest of the continent. After he re- 
turned home, he built (rebuilt or enlarged) the monastery of Saddell in 
Kintyre, dedicating (it) to the honour of the Virgin Mary. He mortified 
48 merks lands to that monastery, and the Island of Heisker to the Nuns 
of lona. He died at Shippinage in the year 1289, and was buried at 
IcolumkilL"* 

He imitated the liberality of his father to the Church, particularly to 
the monks of Paisley, to whom he gave ample testimony of his charity 
and goodwill, on the condition that " ille uxor sua, heredes sui, et homines 
sui, participes sint in perpetuum, omnium bonorum quee in domo de 
Paslet, et in toto ordine Cluniascensi fient, tarn in orationibus, quam in 
ceteris divinis servitiis." In the document he is designated " Dovenaldus, 
filius Eeginaldi, filius Somerledi."t He left two sons. 

1. Angus Mor MacDonald, his heir. 

2. Alexander, according to Douglas, ancestor of the MacAlisters of 
Loup, and of the Alexanders of Menstrie, Earls of Stirling. This is cor- 
roborated by an old genealogical tree of the Macdonalds in our possession. 
He was also progenitor of Clann Alastair of Kintyre, and was married to 
a daughter of Lorn. 

Donald of the Isles died, as already stated, in 1289, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, 

IV. ANGUS MOB MACDONALD, who was Chief at the time of Haco's 
expedition to the Western Isles in 1266, and who immediately joined 
him on his arrival with his fleet, and assisted him throughout the war, 
though it appears, in consequence of the treaty which was afterwards ar- 



* Collectanea de Eebns Albanicus, pp. 288-9. 
f Wood's Douglas's Peerage, vol. ii., p. 6. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 83 

ranged between the Kings of Scotland and Norway, that he did not 
suffer for his conduct, either in person or property. In 1284 he appeared 
at the convention at which the Maiden of Norway was declared heiress to 
the Crown of Scotland, on which occasion his support seems to have been 
purchased by a grant of Ardnamurchan. He confirmed his father's and 
grandfather's grants to the Abbey of Saddell, and granted further lands 
himself by four separate charters.* He also made a donation to the con- 
vent of Paisley of half a mark of silver " de domo suo proprio, et de 
singulis domibus per omnes terras suas de quibus fumum exit unum 
denari, singulis annis in perpetuum in puram elemosynam." He also 
gave the monastery of the same place the patronage of the Church of 
Kilkerran, in Kintyre, " pro salute animse, Domini sui Alexandri Regis 
Scoticae illustris, et Alexandri, filii ejus, etiani pro salute sua propria, et 
heredum suorum."t A letter is addressed, in 1292, "to Anegous, the 
son of Dovenald of the Isles, and Alexander, his eldest son, respecting 
their comporting themselves well and faithfully to the King of Eng- 
land. "+ 

Writing of the descendants of Somerled about this period, Gregory 
says that of these "there were, in 1285, three great noblemen, all 
holding extensive possessions in the Isles as well as on the main- 
land, who attended in that Scottish Parliament by which the 
crown was settled on the Maiden of Norway. Their names were 
Alexander de Ergadia of Lorn (son of Ewin of Lorn), Angus, the 
son of Donald, and Allan, the son of Ruarie. From the nature of 
the treaty, in 1266, it is obvious that these individuals were vassals 
of the King of Scotland for all their possessions, and not merely for 
what they held on the mainland, as some have supposed. It is further 
clear that, at this time, none of the three bore the title of Lord of the 
Isles, or could have been properly so considered ; and it is equally certain 
that the first individual whom we find assuming the style of Lord of the 
Isles, in its modern signification, possessed all those Isles, and very nearly 
all those mainland estates, which, in 1285, were divided among three 
powerful noblemen of the same blood. But of this hereafter. From the 
preceding remarks, it will readily be perceived that the boasted indepen- 
dence of the modern Lords of the Isles is without historical foundation. 
Prior to 1266, the Isles were subject to Norway; at that date the treaty 
of cession transferred them to Scotland. " 

Angus Mor, who, according to Hugh Macdonald, " was of a very 
amiable and cheerful disposition, and more witty than any could take 
him from his countenance," resided for a portion of his life-time at the 
Castle of Ardthornish. He married a daughter of Sir Colin Campbell of 
Glennrchy, with issue 

1. Alexander, his heir. 

2. Angus Og, who succeeded his brother Alexander. 
He died in 1300, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

V. ALEXANDER MACDONALD of the Isles, who married one of the 
daughters and co-heiress of Ewen de Ergadia, the Lost of the male de- 
scendents of Dugall of Lorn, and by her he received a considerable ac- 

* Skene's Highlanders. t Cbartulary Lereuax, 186-187 b. 

Douglas's Patragt. Western Highlands and Isles, p. 23. 



84 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

quisition to Ms already extensive territories; but having joined John 
Stewart, Lord of Lorn, in his opposition to Eobert the Bruce, he naturally 
became a partner in the consequent collapse and ruin of that great family 
and chief. After the defeat of the Lord of Lorn at Lochow, Bruce pro- 
ceeded against Alexander of the Isles ; crossed over the isthmus of Tarbet, 
and laid siege to Castle Sweyn, where Alexander usually resided. The 
Island Chief proved as little able to resist the power of Bruce as the Lords 
of Lorn had previously been, and he was compelled to surrender to the 
King, who immediately imprisoned him in Dundonald Castle, where he 
ultimately died. His possessions were forfeited to the Crown, and after- 
wards given to his brother Angus Og. 

He is designated " Alexander de Insulis Scotise, filius Angusii, filius 
Dovenaldi," in a letter addressed to him during the life of his father, 
wherein he is directed to keep the peace within his bounds of the Isles, 
till the meeting of the Parliament of Scotland, on the day of St Thomas 
the Martyr 1292. He is also designed in the same style in a confirma- 
tion of a donation of the Church of Kilkerran to the monastery of Paisley, 
to which Eobert, Earl of Carrick, and Eobert Bruce, his son and heir, are 
witnesses. 

He died in 1303, and was succeeded by his brother, 

VI. ANGUS OG MACDONALD, who, fortunately for himself and Ms 
clan, sided with the Bruce from the outset of Ms bold attempt to free Ms 
native land from the English Edwards. After the disastrous defeat at 
Methven, and the subsequent skirmish with the Lord of Lorn at Tyn- 
drum, the valiant Bruce was obliged to fly with his life, whereupon 
Angus of the Isles received and sheltered him in his castle of Saddell, 
Cantire, and, in August 1 306, in his more secure Castle of Dunaverty, 
until, with Macdonald's aid, he retired some time after for safer refuge to 
the Island of EatMin, on the north coast of Ireland, then possessed by 
the family of the Isles. From this period Angus Og attached himself to 
the party of Bruce, and took an important share in all the subsequent 
enterprises, which terminated in the final defeat of the English at Ban- 
nockburn, and established for ever the independence of Scotland. Here 
Angus commanded the reserve, composed of 5000 HigManders, led, under 
Angus of the Isles, by sixteen of their own immediate chiefs. On this 
memorable occasion Angus and his Highlanders did such good service 
that, as a permanent mark of distinction for the gallantry and effect with 
which they plied their battle-axes, Bruce assigned to Angus and his de- 
scendants the honourable position of the right flank of the Eoyal army on 
all future occasions. He first joined him in 1286, and his loyalty never 
faltered, even when the fortunes of the King appeared most hopeless. He 
had previously assisted him in his attack on Carrick, when " the Bruce 
wan his father's hale," and continued to support him in all Ms toils and 
dangers, until these were crowned and rewarded by the great victory at 
Bannockburn. It was thus natural that the Chief of the Isles, having 
shared in the misfortunes of the great Deliverer of his country, should, 
when success crowned their efforts, also share in the advantages secured 
by the victors. The extensive possessions of the Comyns and their allies, 
the Lords of Lorn, having been forfeited, were now at the disposal of the 
King, and he bestowed upon Angus the Lordship of Lochaber, wMch had 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 85 

formerly belonged to the Corny ns, as also tlie lands of Diiror and Glencoe, 
and the Islands of Mull, Jura, Coll, Tiree, which had formed part of the 
possessions of the family of Lorn. Bruce was quite afive to the danger 
of raising up such a powerful vassal as Angus Og of the Isles to a position 
of such power and influence by adding so much to his already exten- 
sive territories, and thus raising up to a higher pinnacle of power an op- 
ponent and a dangerous rival even to the Crown itself; but the services 
rendered by the Island Chief in Brace's greatest need could not be over- 
looked, and so, believing himself quite secure in his attachment during his 
life, he made him these extensive grants, the only condition made by him 
to neutralize in any way their effects, being the erection of the Castle of 
Tarbet in Kintyre, which was to be occupied by the King's troops as a 
Eoyal stronghold, within the territories of the Island Chief. He had a 
charter from David II. " of the Isle of Isla, Kintyre, the Isle of Gythy 
(? Gigha), Dewre (Jura), the Isle of Coluynsay, and the twenty-four mark 
land of Moror, near the lands of Mule." He had a daughter named 
Fyngole, as appears from a papal dispensation, dated 19th KaL Februarii 
1342, permitting John Stewart and Fyngole, "filia nobilis viri Angusii 
de Insulis," to marry, notwithstanding their being within the fourth de- 
gree of consanguinity. 

According to Hugh Macdonald's MS., Robert Bruce was entertained 
by Angus for a whole half-year at Saddell, and he repeatedly sent his 
galleys with men to Ireland, and sent Edward Bruce across on various 
occasions, and furnished him with necessaries for his expedition. Ho 
brought 1500 men from Ireland, who fought with him at a place called 
Brarich, near Lcchow. He was a minor when his father died. When he 
arrived at the age of 22 years " he was proclaimed Lord of the Isles and 
Thane of Argyle and Lochaber," but was much opposed on his first entry 
into his possessions " by Macdougall of Lorn, on account of the Island of 
Mull, to which he pretended right." Gregory, referring to this period, 
sums up the changes which took place and the results which followed 
thus: In the series of struggles for Scottish independence, which marked 
the close of the thirteenth and the opening of the fourteenth centuries, 
the Lords of Lorn, who were closely connected by marriage with the 
Comyn and Balliol party, naturally arrayed themselves in opposition to 
the claims of Bruce. On the other hand, the houses of Isla and of the 
North Isles supported with all their power the apparently desperate for- 
tunes of King Kobert I., and thus, when he came to be firmly seated on 
the throne, had earned the gratitude of that Prince, in the same propor- 
tion as the family of Lorn, by the inveteracy of their hostility, had pro- 
voked his resentment. On the forfeiture of Alexander, Lord of Lorn, and 
his son and heir, John, their extensive territories were granted by Bruce 
to various of his supporters ; and, amongst others, to Angus Oig, i.e., 
Junior, of Isla, and to Roderick, or Ruari MacAlan, the bastard brother 
and leader of the vassals of Christina, the daughter and heiress of Alan 
MacRuari of the North Isles. The Isles of Mull (the possession of which 
had, for some time past, been disputed betwixt the Lords of Isla and 
Lorn), Jura, CoU, and Tiree, with the districts of Duror and Glencoe, 
feU, in this way, to the share of Angus Oig. Lorn proper, or the greatest 
part of it, was bestowed on Roderick MacAlan, to whom his sister, 
Christina gave, at the same time, a large portion of her inheritance in 



86 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Garmoran and the North Isles. The Lordship of Lochaber, forfeited by 
one of the powerful family of Comyn, seems to have been divided between 
Angus Oig andr Roderick. The former likewise obtained, in this reign, 
the lands of Morvern and Ardnamurchan, which seem previously to have 
been in the hands of the crown. But while Bruce thus rewarded his 
faithful adherents, he was too sensible of the weakness of Scotland on the 
side of the Isles, not to take precautionary measures against the possible 
defection of any of the great families on that coast, who might with ease 
admit an English force into the heart of the kingdom. He procured from 
Angus Oig, who was now apparently the principal crown vassal in Kin- 
tyre, the resignation of his lands in that district, which were immediately 
bestowed upon Robert, the son and heir of "Walter the High Steward, 
and the Princess Marjory Bruce. At the same tune, the fortifications of 
the Castle of Tarbert, between Kintyre and Knapdale, the most important 
position on the coast of Argyleshire, were greatly enlarged and strengthened, 
and the custody of this commanding post was committed to a Royal gar- 
rison. Following out the same policy in other places, the keeping of the 
Castle of Duiistaffnage, the principal messuage of Lorn, was given by 
Bruce, not to Roderick MacAlan, the " High Chief of Lorn," but to an 
individual of the name of Campbell, who was placed there as a royal con- 
stable. Towards the end of Brace's reign, Roderick MacAlan of Lorn 
and the North Isles, was forfeited of all his possessions for engaging in 
some of the plots which, at that period, occupied the attention and called 
forth the energies of that celebrated king. On this occasion, it is pro- 
bable that Angus Oig, whose loyalty never wavered, received further 
additions to his already extensive possessions ; and before King Robert's 
death the house of Islay was already the most powerful in Argyle and the 
Isles.* 

Angus Og married Margaret, daughter of Guy O'Cathan of Ulster, the 
" tocher " being, according to the Seannachaidh already quoted, " seven 
score men out of every surname under O'Kaine." Among these, it is 
said, came twenty-four chiefs, who became the heads of clans or septs. 
Of that number, Hugh Macdonald mentions " the Munroes, so called be- 
cause they came from the Innermost Roe-water in the county of Derry, 
their names being formerly O'Millans ; the Roses of Kilraack, the Fairns, 
Dingwalls, Glasses, Beatons, so now called, but improperly, that being a 
French name, whereas they are Irish, of the tribe of O'Neals, and took 
the name (of Beaton) from following the name of Beda. Our Highland 
Shenakies say that Balfour Blebo, and these Beatons that came from 
France, went formerly from Ireland, but for this they have no ground to 
go upon. The MacPhersons, who are not the same with the MacPher- 
sons of Badenoch, but are of the O'Docharties in Ireland ; the Bulikes in 
Caithness, of whom is the laird of Tolingail ; and many other surnames, 
which, for brevity, we pass over, many of whom had no succession." It 
is impossible to vouch for the accuracy of a great part of Macdonald's 
MS., for the author of it was such an out-and-out patriot, that he scrupled 
not to write anything calculated to glorify his chief and name, apparently 
not caring much whether it was true or not. Some of his stories, how- 
ever are far too interesting to be passed by ; but when not otherwise sup- 

* West Highlands and Isles, pp. 24-26. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 87 

ported the reader must just take them for what they are worth.* The 
following is one which is altogether too good, giving, as it does, a version 
of the origin of the Macleans, the ceremony of proclaiming the Lords 
of the Isles ; and the manner in which justice was administered in those 
days in the Western Isles : " Now Angus Ogg being at Ardhorinish in 
Morvein, in the time of Lent, Macdougall sent the two sons of Gillian in 
message to him. To know of these, viz., the sons of Gillian, I will tell 
you from whence they came, viz., John of Lorn, commonly called John 
Baccach, went off to harry Carrick in Galloway, the property of Eobert 
Bruce, afterwards King Eobert, and there meeting with one Gillian by 
name, son of Gilleusa, son of John, son of Gilleusa-More, he came to John 
Baccach of Lorn in quest of better fortune. Macdougall gave him a spot 
of land in the Isle of Sael, called Bealachuain. He had three sons, 
Hector, of whom descended the family of Lochbuy, and was the oldest ; 
Lachlin (of) whom descended thejfamily of Duairt, and the rest of the 
name ; and a natural son, John, of whom others of the name descended. 
Now in the Scots language they were called Maclean, from that Gillian 
that made the first fortune there ; but the ancient Scots called them 
MacGillian. The two sons of Gillian, as related above, were sent ambas- 
sadors to Macdonald at Ardhorinish, where, at the time, he held his Lent, 
as the custom of the time then was, They, after landing, had some con- 
ference with Macdonald about the Isle of MulL Macdonald, denying 
any of his proper right of lands to Mac, desired MacFinnon, who was 
master of his household, to use the gentlemen kindly, and to cause them 
dine alone. MacFinnon caused set before them bread and gruthim, con- 
sisting of butter and curds mixed together, which is made in harvest, and 
preserved until time of Lent. The gruthim was so brittle, that it was not 
easily taken up with their long knives. Macdonald, coming up at the 
same time, and perceiving the men at meat in that posture, desired to 
give them some other sort of meat. MacFinnon replied that if they could 
not eat that meat as it was, they should put on the nabs of hens, with 
which they might gather it up easily ; which reproachful answer touched 
the sons of Gillian nearly. Macdonald being that same day to cross the 
Sound of Mull to Aros, to solemnise the festival of Pasch there, he took 

* The editor of the Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis adds the following note at the end 
of tie MS. This MS. History of the Lords of the Isles, now for the first time printed, 
is a very favourable specimen of the productions of the ancient Sennaohies. Fall of tra- 
ditionary anecdotes, in general wonderfully accurate, they furnish a curious addition to 
the history of the Scottish Highlands. The Genealogical accounts of the various fami- 
lies contained in these MSS. is, however, frequently full of errors, principally inten- 
tional, and arising from the prejudices and active partizanship of the Seunacby, whe 
being always devoted to one particular family, shared his patron's animosity against the 
Clans with whom he was at feud, and his jealousy of the other families of his own Clan, 
between whom there existed a rivalry. The Sennachy seldom scrupled to sub-erve hii 
patron's jealousies, by perverting the history of their families, and this, he, in general, 
accomplished either by actually perverting the Genealogy, or by an extensive bastardis- 
ing of the heads of the family, probably proceeding upon a principle not unknown to the 
present day, that a fact, however notoriously false, if perseveringly asserted for a cer- 
tain length of time, will at length be received as true. The writer of this MS. was a 
staunch adherer of the Slate family, and therefore his statements, with regard to the 
Clans with whom the Clan Donald were at feud, and to the rival branches of that great 
Clan must be received with great caution. The bastardising of Dngall, reputed to b 
the progenitors of the MacDougalln, is a good illustration of the above remarks, for 
there is no doubt whatever that ha was the eldest legitimate son of Somerled, by his 
marriage with the daughter of Glare the Bed, 



88 THE CELTIC MAGAZISTE. 

a small "boat for himself, leaving MacFinnon behind with his great galley 
and carriage, and the rest of his men. "When MacFinnon went to the 
shore to follow Macdonald, the sons of Gillian, taking the opportunity of 
revenge, and calling MacFinnon aside, stabbed him, and straight with his 
galley and their own men followed Macdonald acrose the Sound, who 
was not aware of them, thinking it was MacFinnon with his own galley 
that followed him, till they leaped into the boat wherein he was, and 
after apprehending him, made him prisoner, and brought him to Dun- 
stafnage in Lorn. They remained without. Macdougall being, in the 
meantime, at dinner, who, hearing of their arrival, and that Macdonald 
was prisoner with them, said he was glad Macdonald was safe, and was 
very well pleased to have him his prisoner ; but that Gillian's children 
were very bold in their attempt, and that he would, through time, bridle 
their forwardness and insolence. There was a young son of Macdougall's 
hearing what his father had said. This boy, fostered by Gillian and his 
son, coming out to meet them, told what his father said of them. They 
being perplexed, and musing what to do in this so precarious an affair, 
thought best to have their recourse to Macdonald, and told him that all 
men knew that they were of no power or capacity to apprehend him, but 
by accident ; as it fell out ; and seeing it was so, that he knew if he 
pleased to do them any good, and forgive them their former crime, he 
was more in power than their former master ; that they would join with 
him, go along with him, and deliver him from the present danger. So 
taking Macdonald to his own galley again, Macdougall neither seeing him 
or them, they went for Mull, taking the Lord of the Isles upon his word, 
as they might. 

" For he gave four score merks lands to Hector the oldest brother, and 
to Lachlin the youngst he gave the chamberlainship of his house, and 
made MacFinnon thereafter marshall of his army. Now, these made up 
the surname of Maclean, for they never had a rigg of land but what they 
received from Macdonald ; to the contrary of which I defy them, or any 
other, to produce any argument ; yet they were very thankful for the 
good done them afterwards. When the Macdonalds were in adversity, 
which happened by their own folly, they became their mortal enemies, as 
may be seen in the sequel of this history. Angus Ogg of the Isles was a 
personable, modest man, affable, and not disaffected either to king or state. 
He created Macguire, or Macquarry, a thane. He had a natural son, 
John, by Dougall MacHenry's daughter, she being her father's only child. 
This John, by his mother, enjoyed the lands of Glencoe, of whom de- 
scended the race of the Macdonalds. He had his legitimate son, John, 
who succeeded him, by O'Kain's daughter. He had not many children 
that came to age. He had a daughter married to Maclean, and that by 
her inclination of yielding. Angus died at Isla, and was interred at 
Icolumbkill. I thought fit to annex the ceremony of proclaiming the 
Lord of the Isles. At this the Bishop of Argyle, the Bishop of the Isles, 
and seven priests, were sometimes present, but a bishop was always pre- 
sent, with the chieftains of all the principal families, and a Ruler of the 
Isles. There was a square stone, seven or eight feet long, and the tract 
of a man's foot cut thereon, upon which he stood, denoting that he should 
walk in the footsteps and uprightness of his predecessors, and that he was 
installed by right in his possessions. He was clothed in a white habit, 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 89 

to show his innocence and integrity of heart, that he would be a light to his 
people, and maintain the true religion. The white apparel did afterwards 
belong to the poet by right. Then he was to receive a white rod in his 
hand, intimating that he had power to rule, not with tyranny and partiality, 
but with discretion and sincerity. Then he received his forefather's sword, 
or some other sword, signifying that his duty was to protect and defend 
them from the incursions of their enemies in peace or war, as the obliga- 
tions and customs of his predecessors were. The ceremony being over, mass 
was said after the blessing of the bishop and seven priests, the people 
pouring their prayer for the success and prosperity of their new created 
lord. When they were dismissed, the Lord of the Isles feasted them for 
a week thereafter ; gave liberally to the monks, poets, bards, and musi- 
cians. You may judge that they spent liberally without any exception 
of persons. The constitution or government of the Isles was thus : 
Macdonald had his council at Island Fmlaggan, in isla, to the number of 
sixteen, viz., four Thanes, four Armins, that is to say, lords or sub-thanes, 
four bastards (i.e.), squires, or men of competent estates, who could not 
come up with Armins or Thanes, that is, freeholders, or men that had 
their lands in factory, as Macgee of the Einds of Isla, MacMcoll in Por- 
tree in Sky, and MacEachem, Mackay, and MacGillevray, in Mull, Mac- 
illemhaoel or MacMillan, &c. There was a table of stone where this 
council sat in the Isle of Finlaggan ; the whicli table, with the stone on 
which Macdonald sat, were carried away by Argyle with the bells that 
were at Icolumkill. Moreover, there was a judge in every Isle for the 
discussion of all controversies, who had lands from Macdonald for their 
trouble, and likewise the eleventh part of every action decided. But 
there might still be an appeal to the Council of the Isles, MacFinnon 
was obliged to see weights and measures adjusted; and MacDuffie, or 
MacPhie of Colonsay, kept the records of the Isles." 

Angus Og died at Islay about 1329, and was buried at Icolumkill. 

By his wife, Margaret, daughter of Guy O'Cathan, he had an only 
son and successor. He had also a natural son, John Fraoch, by a daugh- 
ter of Dougall MacHenry, the leading man in Glencoe, progenitor of the 
Macdonalds of Glencoe. 

He was succeeded by his only lawful son. 

( To fa Continued.) 



THE EDITOR is again at his post, having returned from a most 
agreeable tour among his 'country men in Canada. He has much pleasure 
in presenting his compliments to all the readers and friends of the Celtic 
Magazine, and in wishing them all now so largely increased in number, 
at home and abroad A very Happy and Prosperous Xew Year. Many 
thanks to all those who have so materially and so successfully aided in 
increasing the ciiculation and influence of the Magazine in every part of 
world, and especially in Canada and Australia, New Zealand and the 
United States of America, 



90 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



D E E M N D. 

A TALE OP KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DAYS. 

Tennyson. 

BOOK I. "AMONG THE ISLES OF THE WESTERN SEA." 


CHAPTER III. (Continued.) 

Insulted and disarmed he was roughly carried down the spiral stair- 
case in the seaward tower, till reaching a point far down beneath the 
foundations of the keep in the very heart of the rock, he was borne along 
a low, damp corridor, one of the walls of which ran parallel with the 
moat on the landward side of the castle. Here a series of small, arched 
doorways gave admittance to a number of gloomy dungeons. A fearful 
stench impregnated the atmosphere, and stifled groans rose painfully to 
his ears. Only one of the dungeons appeared to be unoccupied, and into 
this Dermond was thrust with a shower of abuse and imprecations. The 
glare of the torch lighted up the oozy walls with their patches of white 
and green mould, and the arched roof with its clustering stalactites and 
rows of massive iron chains and rings for securing and torturing prisoners. 
In the centre of the apartment he nearly stumbled over a pile of whitened 
bones, and a mad bat as it fled with its zig-zag, jerky motion and blood- 
curdling squeak dashed against the flame of the torch and disappeared in 
the darkness of the corridor. 

" H 's curse be upon you," said the irritated torch-bearer. 

As Dermond sank down on the stone bench where he was firmly 
bound with lock and chain, the iron-studded door was drawn to with a 
clang. For a while a glimmer of light stole in through the crevices of 
the doorway as the men were engaged fastening the bars and chains, but 
that soon died away and then all was darkness. The night was fearfully 
black outside, and not a single streak of light could pierce the narrow slit 
in the wall which looked out on the tossing sea. The breakers thundered 
on the rocks beneath, and the wind roared and whistled in frenzied fitful- 
ness. Dermond buried his head in his hands, and could have wept in 
the extremity of his passion, but for the strong and manly hope that 
mingled with his despair and sustained his burning heart. The deeds 
that had been done in this horrible hole were vividly pictured in his 
mind unspeakable tortures and awful deaths. The stench told of the 
countless numbers who had been left to rot and die of starvation. Some 
of the bones crunched beneath his feet as he moved, and the shackles rung 
on the bars of an iron bed where fire and -oil had often done their 
roasting work. Strange lights gleamed and flickered along the roof, and 
shot sparkling from his inflamed eyes. Cries and strange shrieks were 
heard piercing the darkness, and the whole air seemed thick with the 
ghosts of the dead. 

" Oh heaven !" he cried, " preserve me from the fangs of this Monster 
of Dunolly. Be near me, holy Mother of God. Spread your guarding 
wings around me, ye angels of blessedness." 



DEEMOND. 91 

He knelt on his knees, and taking the little rosary of chaste and 
glittering gems, which had once belonged to his mother, from his bosom, 
he fervently kissed it, and invoked the protection of his tutelar 
saint. 

Another burst of crackling thunder, accompanied by a blinding flash 
of lightning, recalled to his mind the dangers of the night at sea ; and as 
far as he knew his father was still abroad with his galley ot desperadoes. 
He cursed the rashness of offence which had sent him to writhe in a 
dungeon when he might have been scouring the waters in searching for 
his father. He would rather have died in such an effort than lie a help- 
less prisoner in the hands of John of Lorn. In the midst of all his 
misery, however, he could not forget that sweet, sad face of Bertha, and 
that piercing shriek. She had great influence with Nora, and Nora could 
perhaps move her father. If ever he should regain his freedom he would 
devote the rest of his life to her service, and go like the knight-errants of 
lowland Scotland and England in search of adventures for the purpose of 
maintaining the beauty of her face and fame. He would give up this 
dreadful life at Dunkerlyne, forswear his allegiance to Lorn, and go and 
unite his fortunes with the gallant Bruce. He would lay his hands 
between his, and thenceforward fight with him for the relief of his country 
from the yoke of the tyrant. A hundred other thoughts rose in his mind 
as to the impracticability of such a scheme, but his heart was strong and 
his faith was great. He was at least resolved that he should no longer 
live the inactive life which he had hitherto led. He would go forth and 
distinguish himself, or die nobly in the effort. Again, however, the 
thought of his captivity weighed heavily on his mind. The length of his 
confinement was uncertain, and he might be led out to execution on the 
morrow. He might be left to starve, and his followers were too few to 
attempt to storm the castle and rescue him. The prospect was too fear- 
ful He beat his head and groaned in his agony. The momentary 
sympathy which he had wasted on that poor waif clinging to the raft as 
it was dashed about by the waves at Dunkerlyne rose like a hideous 
phantom in his mind. He would not take the advice tendered him at the 
time, and now he was suffering the consequences. No good could come 
from running his head against the traditions of his race, and the rescue of a 
drowning man was peculiarly associated with evil He had been very mad. 
His belief in the power of Jarloff had not yet been unshaken, heathen 
and maniac as the Norseman was, .and he had strong hopes that relief 
would yet come. He attempted to sleep for the purpose of taking shelter 
from the fearful fancies in his mind, but all in vain. His nerves were 
too highly strung. He had only thought of his own pride, his own 
schemes, and his own personal safety at first ; but now, in the lone 
watches of this sleepless night in the midst of all the darkness, and 
listening to the noise of the winds and the sea every cord which bound 
him to his reckless but lovable old father clung tighter and stronger. 
Then when his passion became too great for inaction or silence he would 
gesticulate and break out into cursing Lorn and Macnab ; and attempting 
to rise and pace up and down the floor, he only found that the big clank- 
ing chains bound him too well to the iron torture-bed and stone bench of 
his gloomy dungeon. 



92 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



CHAPTER IV. 

The sun appears in the west, after the steps of his brightness have 
moved behind a storm. Ossian. 

In the morning, when the storm had passed away, a solitary figure 
stood on the brow of a cliff that overlooked the sea. Throwing back the 
wet, dishevelled hair from his pale brow, wistfully he stood gazing afar 
down the rocks towards the shore, and away across the glittering expanse 
of water to the mountains of Morven and Mull, as they flashed from their 
peaks the beams of the rising sun. A great cloud swept midway across 
the heavens like a phantasmal chariot on wheels of burnished gold, and 
drawn by steeds of scorching flame. The sun glared like a red disk on a 
fiery background. Away to the south and west a few tangled masses of 
curling, vapoury cloud lay steeped in the rose and saffron tints of the 
horizon ; while far above the burning hues of the eastern heavens the 
sky deepened into a brilliant blue, and stretched away to the north in 
shimmering grandeur behind the great, solemn mountains of the main- 
land. 

For a while Cyril, who stood basking in the splendours of this glori- 
ous scene, was wrapt and speechless with emotion. Day after day 
he had gone to the top of the highest rock in Eathland to see the same 
sun lift his head above the sea and mountains of his native land, but 
never before had he felt the same thrilling sensations tingle in every vein 
as he watched the sun rise over the land of the stranger, from this solitary 
cliff" among the isles of the Western Highlands. 

The sea was still very turbulent, and the great waves breaking in 
sparkling, silvery crests sung out loudly on the beach; but still and 
harmless they looked when the last night's storm and all its hideous ac- 
companiments were brought to memory the dreadful darkness, the 
frightful, gleaming lights, the mountainous waves, the plunging, groaning 
hulk, the despair of strong and warlike men, the howling of the slaves, 
and that wild crash on the rocks when the cries of drowning men rose in 
shrieks above the noise of wind and waves. 

Every soul had apparently perished but himself. How he had man- 
aged to escape was altogether a mystery. Clinging to a log of wood he 
drifted about for a while, until a great wave carried him gently ashore, 
and left him high and dry on the beach. He could scarcely believe, how- 
ever, that everyone had perished, and carefully he scanned the length of 
rocky shore to see if no one still lingered in life about the scene of the 
wreck. His son had been lashed to a raft by his own hands, but not a 
sail or speck was to be seen on the heaving bosom of the ocean. A few 
flocks of wailing sea-birds were the only signs of life. 

Bousing himself from his painful reverie, and turning his eyes land- 
ward, Cyril perceived that he was cast upon an island which appeared to 
be about five miles long and three broad. Towards the north the hills 
ran down in grassy and heathery slopes to the sea, A narrow streak of 
water ran between the island and the mainland, and a number of dark 
spots at the mouth of a glen in the distant landscape had the appearance 
of inhabited huts. 

Cyril resolved upon striking inland for the purpose of obtaining rest 



DERMONI). 93 

and refreshment, but he found himself exceedingly weak for travelling. 
His dress was thin and damp, and his aged limbs were benumbed with 
cold. His spirit was still the spirit of his youth, however, and not even 
age, bodily infirmity, or affliction could subdue it. Turning aside he dis- 
appeared down a dark gulley. Clinging to clumps of brushwood and 
fixing his feet in the safest places, he swung himself down the back of 
the rock with much more agility than he had mounted it. Expert as he 
was in the craft of the mountaineer, it took him some time before 
he could reach the bottom, owing to the difficulties he had to encounter. 
But the exercise seemed to do him good, and when he reached the shelf 
of rock running along the side of the glen he felt the warm blood pulsing 
through his veins and the colour returning to his cheek. He had little 
difficulty in fixing upon the direction he ought to take, but the road was 
steep and rugged, and after going some distance a reaction set in, and he 
felt himself growing more feeble from exhaustion and hunger. Besides 
his eyes were wearied with the continual strain of observing every new 
beauty of the wild scenery which burst on his view as he traced a precari- 
ous footing along the hillside. The sun also became hotter and hotter, 
and there was a certain sultriness in the atmosphere which made it ex- 
ceedingly oppressive. On reaching the head of the glen he found he 
could go no further, and after eating some of the wild berries which grew 
in plenty along the hillside, he lay down under the shelter of some hazel 
bushes and fell fast asleep. 

The day was far advanced, with the sun going down in the west, 
when a sound of harsh voices and the wild barking of dogs disturbed the 
slumbers of the wearied survivor from the wreck. A cross-bow bolt went 
tearing through the bushes, and whizzing past his ear it sunk deep into 
the soil close to where he lay. Springing to his feet he grasped the ash 
sapling which lay by his side, as liis only weapon of defence, and placing 
himself in an attitude of battle, with his back against a rock, he stood 
prepared to meet the party of Highlanders who were advancing upon him. 
The shot seemed to have been directed more in jest or mistake, however, 
as the leader of the party, who carried his sword in his sheath, came up 
to the front and desired the startled stranger to be at peace, and take 
down his weapon, as no harm was intended. 

" Methinks, good sir," he said, " you are a stranger on our shores, and 
judging from your style and bearing, I should say some evil fate hath 
cast you loose on this desolate island." 

" You say well, Sir Chief," said Cyril, " a most untoward mishap 
hath thrown me a helpless stranger on your mercy." 

" Say not untoward, for if it lieth in my power to do you aught that 
is good and hospitable, you shall not have been thrown on this wild shore 
in vain. The hearth of the Highlander is at all times open to the wan- 
dering or benighted stranger. His board is at his pleasure ; and he shall 
not forget the courtesy of his race so far as to enquire whom and whence 
he is." 

" Thanks, generous chieftain. I hope I may yet live to repay thy 
kindness. I'm in want of food and shelter for the night. On the mor- 
row I shall be well enough to travel, and you may be able to escort me to 
a place of safety, whence I may return by sea to my native land. I am 



94 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

but a poor castaway. Last night my ship was driven on the rocks in a 
frightful storm, and every soul but myself perished in the waves." 

Something in these words seemed to give oifence. A cloud passed 
over the brow of the chieftain. He stopped and bit his lip in the act of 
suppressing what he did not desire to speak. Cyril also saw him play 
with the hilt of his dirk, and he grasped his weapon more firmly prepared 
to fight for life if that were necessary. Brian the Viking, for it was no 
other than he, bent his eyes for some time on the noble features of the 
Irishman, and the frown gradually softened into an expression of great 
tenderness a tenderness which no one could have thought him capable 
of, from the habitual sternness of his countenance. There was something 
altogether embarrassing to Brian in the look of this stranger something 
he could neither explain nor understand. It awakened kindly and joyous 
memories. It carried him back to his buoyant boyhood. It wafted his 
thoughts away beyond those miserable years of intrigue and subjection to 
the sunny associations of the castle hearth when he was a gay, young 
stripling like his son Dermond, overflowing with love and exuberance of 
spirits. It reminded him of the glorious days of his father. All this 
was momentary, however, and his brow became darker with displeasure. 
He glared wildly at the stranger, and " What sought your galley on our 
shores !" burst savagely from his lips. 

Cyril trembled at this change of tone, and he felt himself growing 
pale with a rising passion. From no man had he been accustomed in his 
long life to receive such questions without resenting them. The sudden 
change in the manner of the Highlander was altogether startling and in- 
explicable. He was too well aware that hospitality on these shores was 
surrounded with no end of superstition, and one of its unbreakable laws 
was that no stranger who asked for food or shelter should be required to 
unfold his name or habitation, if he had either, until a certain period of 
time had elapsed, when the host was at liberty to demand an explanation 
from his guest. The question of the chieftain was, on that account, all 
the more strange and unreasonable. The thought struck him that perhaps 
this man was mad and required humouring. He did not look unlike one 
suffering from the affliction of evil spirits, and there was something alto- 
gether eccentric about his words and bearing the peculiar variations of 
his hollow voice, his perpetual restlessness, and the staring brilliancy of 
his dark eyes. Cyril could not, however, forget that look of speechless 
tenderness when the hard lines about his mouth gave way, the furrows 
on his brow relaxed, and the eyes softened with a glistening tear. What 
could all this mean 1 He reflected for some time, and a flood of harrow- 
ing memories burst madly on his thoughts. His eye had caught the 
name " Dunkerlyne " on the crests of the followers who now began to 
crowd curiously round about him, anticipating that something exciting 
was about to happen. It occurred to him that Dunkerlyne was surely 
the name of the castle frailt by his brother Francis after he had fallen 
under the displeasure of his father. Alas ! what sad associations surrounded 
the memory from the bursting of the bonds of family affection to the 
blood-curdling tragedy which cast a hideous halo around the death of a 
brother whom, with all his faults, he loved so well. Cyril's life had been 
a chequered one, and the latest calamity the loss of his two galleys, his 
faithful followers, and his only son was much easier to bear than the 



DERMOUD, 95 

norrible memory that his brother Francis had accidently died by his hand. 

" Dost tliou hear !" said Brian, quivering with rage. " What sought 
your galley on our shores ?" 

" Pardon me, Sir Chief," said Cyril, with some hesitation. 

" Nay," said Brian, " answer me. I will know, and that instantly, 
what was the nature of your expedition?" 

" My country claimed my services, and I went boldly forth in her 
cause." 

"What cause and what country?" 

" Hear me then, if you will have me speak. My cause was freedom ; 
and, I own it without fear or shame, my country the down-trodden Ire- 
land. To relieve her from an unjust oppression I pledged my home, my 
followers, and my lands. While cruising off the coast of Kintyre my two 
galleys were attacked by an English squadron. One of my galleys fell a 
victim to the enemy, but not without bloodshed, and her commander, my 
faithful Laurence de Gaston, died fighting nobly, The other galley, which 
I commanded, escaped, but sailing on a sea imperfectly known to us, she 
was overtaken by a storm, and last night she struck on a rock and found- 
ered with every soul but myself. My son, I fear, is dead, and as for my 
castle it must, by this time, be under siege by the enemy, who appears to 
have learned the plot by some foul treachery. To succour the Bruce, 
Carrick's noble knight, I came. In reality to save my country, for Sir 
Robert, once having established a footing as king of these fair realms, 
agreed to assist me in a rising for the overthrow of the tyrant Edward in 
Ireland. But now, alas ! I am undone. My hopes are scattered to the 
four winds of heaven, and here I am a shipwrecked, ruined, and homeless 
old man." 

This speech, spoken with a gleam of patriotic fire in his manly eye, 
visibly touched the tough old Viking, and Cyril saw the same tender ex- 
pression, which had formerly excited his attention so much, play about 
his rugged features. His mind, however, seemed to be disturbed with 
conflicting'passions, and the wild repulsive look soon returned. Absorbed 
in thought, he walked silently forward, and signed to the party to follow. 
The same sign was addressed to Cyril, and he marched forward with the 
rest, but without exchanging a single word. 

On reaching the north end of the island, which was about two miles 
distant from the head of the glen where Cyril was awakened from his 
slumbers, the whole party embarked on board some transports, which 
carried them to Dunkerlyne, where they were received with great glee, 
but alarm was expressed at the absence of the young chief. Brian's galley 
was already anchored in the creek as he had despatched it before him, 
while he had gone on a hunting expedition into the island of Soil, where 
he came in contact with the stranger. 

The feast was laid in the great halL The ale was broached and the 
board was laden with the spoils of the chase. Beneath a rude, oaken 
canopy, and exalted above the rest of the rovers, sat the Viking himself. 
His brow was cloudy, and although he drank frequently, there was a 
freezing coldness about his manner, and he did not care to mix in the 
mirth of his merry men. Jarloff the minstrel had not shown himself that 
day, as he was engaged in nursing the youth whom Dermond had 
saved from the sea. Brian had not yet learned the fate of his son. No- 



96 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

thing was more firmly fixed in his mind than the idea that some unknown 
power watched and guarded this precious youth, and that he would yet 
live to throw off the grinding yoke of John of Lorn. With this charmed 
life he was certain no harm could come to Dermond, and that he would 
soon return. Besides he had no fear for the sea, and he was certain of the 
stripling's prowess. With nothing to trouble him regarding Dermond, 
however, there was much in the event of the day. He could not resist 
the conclusion that this survivor from the wreck, who sat as his guest on 
his right hand, was no other than Cyril, the slayer of his gallant father, 
and upon whom he had gone forth that morning to wreak the vengeance 
of his liege lord and himself. The rights of hospitality were sacred and 
inviolable, and there was something peculiarly touching about the story 
of this desolate old man. And then those features ! He could not help 
continually gazing on them. They struck a chord in his heart which had 
long been silent, and the vibrations thrilled his whole soul. A madness 
came upon him as he looked into that face, which reminded him so much 
of what his father was. He could not explain the likeness, and he was 
not aware of any relationship. He should like to know more about his 
guest before he thought of delivering him into the hands of John of Lorn. 
The accounts of the fight in which his father fell at Eathland by the 
hand of Cyril, were altogether hazy and in some measure untrustworthy. 
He should like to know more about this dreadful tragedy before he put 
forth a finger to mar a face which shone so much like that of him who 
was long since dead. 

Brian had time for these reflections so long as the rest of the company 
continued to eat with the gravity of tired and hungry men, but as the 
ale began to circulate more freely, the mirth broke forth amidst a barbar- 
ous jargon of Norse and Gaelic and peals of echoing laughter. 

" Fill a horn to the health of our chief," said one who was pretty far 
gone in liquor, " and soon may a strong arm restore the ancient glory of 
Dunkerlyne." 

" Skoal to the Chieftain," resounded through the hall as everyone felt 
a penetrating glance from beneath the canopy fixed sternly upon him, 
cleaving every soul and analysing every secret thought. 

Scarce had the shouting ceased when a courier from Dunolly was 
ushered into the hall, bringing intelligence of the outrage committed by 
young Dermond and the punishment inflicted by his liege lord. It was 
also announced that the gathering of the chieftains, which was prevented 
owing to the storm of the previous night, would take place on the evening 
of the next day, when further despatches were expected from the Earl of 
Pembroke regarding the strength and whereabouts of the rebel Bruce. 
Meanwhile the faithful men of the Isles were strongly exhorted to keep a 
vigilant watch along the shores and among the mountains, as it was ex- 
pected that although Bruce was gallantly supported by a number of ad- 
herents, he would be beaten from the fields into the Highland fastnesses, 
and in all likelihood compelled to take to the sea. Brian the Viking was 
also particularly warned against allowing the Irish Chieftain, Cyril of 
Eathland, to land succours for the troops of the rebel knight. 

(To be Continued.) 



JOHN MACDONALD, THE LOCHABER BARD, AND HIS TIMES. 



JOHN MACDONALD Lorn, or Manndach, as he was called was a scion of 
the House of Keppoch ; of the branch known as " Sliochd a bhrathair bu 
shine." His father, Domhall Mac Iain mhic Dhomhaill mhic Ailean, was 
a distinguished member of the clan, and one of their leaders when they 
took the field. 

The year of his birth is not known ; but judging from his poems, 
which give us a good deal of accurate chronological data, it must have 
been very early in the seventeenth century. He seems to have possessed, 
as the following anecdote shows, a precocious mind, and to have given 
early indications of future celebrity. He accompanied his father Domhall 
Mac Iain and a party of his men to Inverness. After stabling their 
steeds, in which the boy took an active part, he joined the company where 
they were quartered for the night round a blazing fire. A stranger who 
happened for the nonce to be one of them, observing something peculiar 
about the appearance of our embryo bard, made a remark probably not 
very complimentary ; whereupon the boy replied impromptu : 

Breith luath lochdach 
Breith air loth pheallagach 
Na giulan breac-luirg teach. 

" He judges rashly who judges an untraine- ' colt, or a bare-legged youth " 
a saying that since has passed into a prc /erb among Highlanders. His 
father, who listened with evident satisfacti n to the ready retort, remarked 
" 'S math thu fhein, Iain, ni thu gleus rhathast." (Well done, John, 
you'll be a man yet.) Possibly his ready wit, or some peculiarity in his 
facial appearance, gained for him the soubriquet of " Lorn;" as the High- 
landers were rather addicted to giving names, because of oddities or ex- 
cellencies, as the case might be. " Manndach " means stuttering or stam- 
mering ; and as we find from a passage of arms between him and an 
Assynt bard, the appellation originated in some defect or peculiarity of 
utterance, which was probably born with him. On some occasion he had 
to be present at one of the Inverness annual markets, where O'Bryan the 
Assynt bard was also in attendance, and who evidently bore no good 
will to John. Seeing him dressed in Lochaber tartan, and so guessing 
that he hailed from thence, he inquired if he knew Iain Manndach. Our 
bard replying that he did, he enquired if he would be the bearer from 
him of a " soraidh " to that well known individual. " Soraidh " means 
compliments or farewell, as the case may be ; though on this occasion it 
happens to be something else than complimentary. John of course re- 
plied he would be the willing bearer of the " soraidh," and so O'Bryan 
begins as follows : 

Thoir soraidh gu Iain Manndach uam, . 

Rag mhearlaoh nan each bhreanndalach, 

'S trie a thug ana raearlach ud am meann a maoh 'o 'n ohro. 

B'e fasan fir a Bhraighe ud, 

Da thaobh Lochiall 'us Arasaig ; 

BLiodh sgian san dara brathair dhiu', mu urrad ar dh' fheoil. 



98 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The last line has reference to a quarrel in which our bard unintentionally 
and unfortunately wounded his brother ; allusion to which stung him 
sorely, in addition to the personal reflections upon his character, and that 
of his kin. Waiting not for more of the " soraidh," John replied in- 
stanter 

A theangaidh liodach mhiorbhuilleaoh, 
Nach tuig thu bhi ga d' dhiomalladh. 
'S mithich teannadh gu olach shnioraidh leat, 
'Sa faigheadh Brian a leor. 

Oha b' chubair a ghoid ghearran mi, 

Cha d' chair mi m'uigh snn ealaidh sin, 

Cha mho chum e caithris orm, 'toirt mhult a cara chro. 

As the next stanza shows, they are also far from agreed anent the politi- 
cal aspects of those times. This may account somewhat for their bardic 
antagonism : 

Oe d' 's cam a stigh fo d' ghluinean thu, 

Our caime stigh fo d' shuilean thu, 

'S tu troitear nan seachd duthchanna a reio an crun air grot. 

The remaining verses are so abusive, we elect not to quote them. Allow- 
ing, however, he traverses rules of good taste and courtesy, we must admit 
that as an instance of bardic ready wit and " spur of the moment " reply, 
John shows uncommon cleverness and power of repartee. 

In 1639 the Campbells of Breadalbane made a raid upon the Braes of 
Lochaber, and drove away large herds of cattle. In resentment of this 
injury, a hundred and twenty Lochaber men with their chief, Angus 
Odhar of Keppoch, at their head, made a similar raid upon Breadalbane 
raised a large " creach," and had driven the cattle homewards as far as 
Killin, where a battle was fought, long and sadly memorable in the his- 
tory of the Breadalbane family. The day on which the Lochaber men 
were wending their way homewards with their ill-gotten booty, happened 
to be the wedding day of one of the daughters of Sir Robert Campbell of 
that Ilk ancestor of the Breadalbane family then residing at his seat of 
I'inlaraig, west end of Loch Tay, News of the outrage came speedily to 
the ears of the wedding party who by-and-bye, from the windows of the 
castle, saw the stolen kine as they were driven along the brow of Strone- 
achlachain right opposite. Flushed with wine, and indignant at the 
boldness of the freebooters, the gentlemen of the party armed themselves, 
and with the bridegroom at their head, sallied forth to chastise the mar- 
auders a foolhardy deed and a sad ending to the marriage festivities. 
There was a deadly fight. The Lochaber men had the advantage of 
ground, and did great execution among the Campbells before they came 
to close quarters. In this skirmish there were slain eighteen cadets of 
the House of Breadalbane " ochd odhachan deug Thigh Bheallaich " 
besides the bridegroom, whose name tradition has not handed down. 
The loss of the Lochaber men was not so large, but included their chief, 
Angus Odhar, and Donald Mac Iain, the bard's father, The bard himself 
was present on this occasion, and commemorates the action in the lament 
beginning 

Buag sin cheann Loch-a-tatha, 

Si chuir mise bho aighear, 

Dii' fbag mi Aoughiis ua luidhe san araich, 



THE LOCHABER BARD. 99 

Ge d' fhag mi arm m* athair, 

Gha 'n ana air tha mi labbairt, 

Ach an lot 'rinn an claidheamh mu d' airnean. 

This was the beginning of a long and deadly feud between the men of 
Breadalbane and those of Brae-Lochaber. 

As late as 1681, we find from the Breadalbane papers in the Black- 
book of Taymouth that a bond of manrent was given by Gilleasba, chief 
of Keppoch, to John Glas, first Earl of Breadalbane ; " such as Ceppoch's 
predecessors gave to the Earl's predecessors." Such bonds were common 
in those turbulent times, and show the loose condition of society since 
that binding obligations of this nature became necessary, to allay mutual 
animosities, as well as for mutual defence, In the present instance the 
bond is significant as binding Keppoch " to restrain all the inhabitants of 
Brae-Lochaber, and all of the name of Macdonell, from committing rob- 
beries within the Earl's bounds." 

In appreciation of services rendered by our bard to the Stuart cause ; 
and which also shows the estimation in which his abilities were held by 
politicians, he was chosen to fill the office of Gaelic Poet Laureate to Charles 
II., of whom he was an enthusiastic supporter. It was owing to timely 
information given by him that Montrose, Charles's Lieutenant, gained his 
decisive victory at Inverlochy, in the winter of 1645. Montrose, formerly 
a Covenanter, but alienated by the preference shown to the Duke of 
Argyll, mortally hated the Campbells ; and never lost an opportunity of 
inflicting injury upon them. He burnt down every farm steading 
from the fords of Lyon to the Braes of Glenurchy ; and then passed 
on to Argyle, a great portion of which he wasted with fire and sword. 
Thereafter he pursued his course northwards by the great Caledonian 
Valley, and got as far as the camping ground of Leitir-nan-lub, near Fort- 
Augustus, when he was overtaken by a man in hot haste, informing him 
that Argyll was in pursuit of him ; and resting his army by the old Castle 
of Inverlochy. This was none else than our bard; who assured the 
Marquis that if he retraced his steps by a route he described the bard 
himself being guide he would have an easy victory. Montrose hesitated, 
but his Lieutenant, Sir Alexander Macdonald, who knew the poet, fell in 
at once with his suggestions, and urged the Marquis to act upon them. 
This was eventually agreed to, with results such as are well known. Ac- 
cording to tradition Montrose himself was not personally present at the 
battle of Inverlochy; the troops being commanded by his Lieutenant, 
" Alastair MacColla." This seems to gain confirmation from the fact that 
our poet, who was present a spectator of the fight, makes no mention of 
Montroso, while he extols to the skies the skill and prowess of his Lieu- 
tenant, MacColla. John Lorn proved himself a skilful guide on this 
occasion. He knew the district well, and leading the troops by unfre- 
quented routes over the hills to the south of the Great Glen, they found 
themselves on a Sabbath morning in November 1645, right in front of 
Argyle's forces, in a position in which the latter could neither decline 
battle nor yet fight to advantage. Sir Alexander so goes the tale 
would have our bard accompany him to the fight sword in hand. The 
latter, however, declined the proposal, on the plea that it was his office 
to celebrate the coming victory in song, which of course ho could not do 
in the event of his falling in battle. The plea was accepted, and the 



100 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

poet was a spectator of the action, which, as he tells us in one of his best 
poems, he witnessed from the top of Inverlochy Castle. His refusal to 
take an active part in the fray has been ascribed to cowardice. We see 
no good grounds for this charge considering the part he acted on other 
similar occasions. Besides, he was probably right in thinking he would 
do more service to the cause by his songs than by his sword. 

Angus Odhar Macdonald of Keppoch, slain at the skirmish of Strone- 
achlachain, was succeeded in the chieftainship by his uncle, Alastair 
Buidhe Macdonald. His elder brother, Ponald, was the rightful chief ; 
but on account of the prominent part he acted in the wars of Montrose, 
he fell under the ban of the authorities and was obliged to go into exile. 
His sons, Alexander and Eonald, who were minors, were sent abroad to 
be educated, and the management of the estate and clan devolved upon 
their cousins as nearest of kin. They proved unfaithful to their charge ; 
conspired with interested partizans to secure the chieftainship ; and as- 
sassinated their uncle Donald's sons at a feast given in honour of their 
arrival at their ancestral home. But for the action of our bard, almost 
single handed, they would have gained their object. Deeply touched by 
the sad fate of the murdered youths, he exerted all his personal influence 
and the power of his muse, to bring the culprits to immediate justice. 
" Murt na Ceapaich," " The Keppoch Murder," is a poem of great power 
and pathos, and describes in melting strains the melancholy fate of his 
young kinsmen : 

'S arm desatharna gcarr uainn, bhuail an t-earchall orm ppot, 
S mi caoidh nan oorp gealla call am fala fo'm brot. 
Bha mo lamhan-sa craobhaoh 'n deigb bhi taosgadh bhur lot, 
'Bhi ga'r cuir arm an ciste, tuirn is miste mi 'nochd. 

As might be expected, he was mercilessly persecuted by the perpetrators 
of the dark deed, and to save himself, had to flee his native country and 
find shelter in Kintail under the wings of the Earl of Seaforth. To this 
expatriation he alludes in the poem, of which the following are the two 
first stanzas : 

Mi ga na' fhogradh a Olachaig, 

'S mi gun mhanus gun aitreabh, 

'S nach e mal a tha faltrachadb orm. 

'S mi ga m' fhogradh a m' dhuthaich 
'S m' fhearann posd aig siol Dhughaill 
'S iad am barail gu 'n uraich iad coir. 

From this retreat he poured forth a torrent of mingled invective and ap- 
peals, such as very soon created a powerful public opinion in favour of the 
cause he espoused. Taking prompt advantage of this, he visited Inver- 
garry Castle, the seat of the Macdonell chieftain, raised to the Peerage 
by Charles II., by the title of Lord Macdonell and Aros. His represen- 
tations failed, however, in prevailing upon this chief to take the initiative 
in his favour ; but he advised him to appeal to Sir Alexander Macdonald 
of Sleat, as Captain of Clanranald. To make way to the good graces 
of Sir Alexander, he composed the song beginning 

A bhean leasaich an stop dhuinn 's lion an cupa le solas. 

Ma 'a a branndai na beoir i, 

'N deoch 'a air Captain Chloinn Domhnuil, 's air Sir Alastair Og thig 'o 'n chaol, 



THE LOCHABER BARD. 101 

This appeal was followed by a personal visit from our bard ; which, backed 
as he was by the influence of Lord Macdonell, had the desired result. 
Sir Alexander lost no time in representing the case to Government, who 
authorised him to bring the perpetrators of the murder to immediate jus- 
tice. The carrying out of the enterprise, which needed both secrecy and 
skill, was entrusted by Sir Alexander to his son, Archibald An Ciaran 
Mabach a soldier and a poet ; and in whose abilities and courage his fa- 
ther reposed great confidence. In concert witn the poet, they laid their plans 
so well that the assassins were surprised in their beds, and had summary 
justice inflicted upon them seven in all. By dawn next day their heads 
were laid at the feet of Lord Macdonell at Invergarry (Jastle. On their 
way to Invergarry, the heads were washed at a fountain, a few miles west 
from the castle, which to this day, in remembrance of the event, bears the 
name of " Tobair-nan-ceann" the fountain of the heads ; and over which 
a chieftain representative of Lord Macdonell erected a monument, with 
the following Gaelic inscription by the late eminent poet and scholar, Mr 
Ewen Maclauchlan of Aberdeen. It is in Ossianic verse, and will, we are 
sure, be appreciated by readers of the Celtic Magazine, who understand 
Gaelic : 

Fbir astair thig faisg agus leubh, 
Seul air ceartas an De bhuain. 
Eisd ri diol na ceilg a dh'fhag 
A Cheapach na laraich f buair. 
Sgaoil na milltich lion an Eig 
Mu bhord eibhinn nam fleadh fial, 
8 mheasguich iad na sean 's na b dig 
San aon tor na'tn fuil gun gbiomb. 
Mhosgail corruicb an t-ard Thriath, 
Ursainn dhian nan comhlan cruaidb, 
Mor-Fhear chloinn Domhnuill an fhraoicb, 
Leomhann nan euchd, Craobh nam buadh. 
Db'iarr e 's obaidh Diogbalt na luum 
Mar bbeithir bbeumnaob nan nuul. 
Gblao i dream a dhealbh an fhoill 
'3 thug Ian duais mar thoill an gniomb. 
Lamb riutsa 'ghorm-f buaraii gbrinn, 
Dh'ionnlaideadb seachd cinn nan lub, 
'8 aig casan a Gbais^ich aigh, 
Thilgeadb iad air lar a dhuin. 
Cor'us ouig tichead bliadhna deug 
Tbriall mu'n spenr 'o dheas gu tuatb, 
Bbo 'n ghairmeadh Tobair-nan-ceann 
Do 'n t-sbrutban so an cainnt an t-shluaigh. 
Mise 'n seacbdamh tb'air dbeiob gluin 
Do fbreamh uaiseil an laoicb threin, 
Mao-mbic- Alastair m'aium gbnaiths 
Flatb cblann Dombnuil nan sar euchd. 
Thog mi 'n leaobd's air 16m an raoin 
Faisg air caoohan a chliil bhuain, 
Mar mheas do oheann Stuie nan Triatb, 
'S gun cuimhnicht an niomh ri luaths. 

From Invergarry, John and his men wended their way to Inverness, 
by the direction of Lord Macdonell, who would have their action indorsed 
by magisterial approval. A local tradition records an anecdote of this 
journey, illustrative of the stern satirical character of our poet. The man 
who carried the creel with the heads, on arrival at the Inn of Cluanmore 
in Glen-Urquhart, threw it carelessly off, whereupon there was a rattling 
of the heads. John exclaimed, on hearing it, " Ud ! ud ! nach cord sibh ! 
nach cord sibh ! 's gur cloinn chairdean sibh!" (What ! wont you agree 



102 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

wont you agree, you being so near akin) a saying that passed into a 
proverb among Highlanders. " Mar a thuirt lam Manndach ris na cinn, 
nach cord sibh, 's gur cloinn chairdean sibh !" 

The restoration of the Stuart dynasty in the person of Charles II., 
was the realization of the bard's dearest wishes. He schemed for it. He 
fought for it. He sang for it ; and now that it is an accomplished fact, 
he is jubilant over it : 

Bho 'a blm sheanns oirn a chluinnthm, 

Ged bu teann a bba cbuing oirn, 

Gu'n do tbionndaidh a chuibhle mar b'aill leinn. 

The event assured to him his small, but to him, valuable Laureate emolu- 
ments which, during his subsequent expatriation by the murderers of 
his chieftain kinsmen, were his sole reliable support. It also relieved 
him from the toil, dangers, and anxieties of the campaigning life which he 
constantly lived during the unsettled years that preceded the Kestoration. 
On various grounds the event was a bright spot in the life of our bard. Ac- 
cordingly, the Revolution of 1688, so fatal to his favourite dynasty, 
brought into play afresh, all the old energy, both in action and song. In 
his poem on "William and Mary, we have all the former fire the old bit- 
ter, biting, indignant sally and satire in full play. William he compares 
to the recreant Absolom, and anticipates for him a similar fate the wish 
no doubt being father to the thought : 

Bha mac aig High Daibbidh 
'S bu dens aill air ceann sluaigh e. 
Cbaidb e 'n aghaidh an atbair 
Am fear is measa ga bbuaireadh. 
'Nuair a sgaoileadb am blar ud, 
Thug Dia paigheadh a dhuais dba. 
'S on' bu dhroch dkuine cloinn' e, 
Chroch a choill' air a gbruaig e. 

Accordingly, when in 1689, Viscount Dundee took the field in behoof of 
the fallen dynasty, he found in John Lorn one of his most active and en- 
thusiastic coadjutors. All his powers of persuasion, and his talent for 
song, were now as ever exerted in the cause ; and advanced in years as he 
must have been, he accompanied the Lochaber men to the field of Killie- 
crankie Einrory, as the Highlanders say. Their march, their successive 
encampments, and their prowess in the field, are given by him in his best 
style in his " Latha Kaonniaridh." The fall of Dundee he laments in ten- 
der, tearful strains, foreseeing, as by a sort of inspiration, the disastrous 
consequences to the cause he had so much at heart : 

Ceannard an aigb, gu'n do thuit tbu sa bhlar, 
'S bu sgatbacb do laimh RUS an d' thainig an uair. 
'3 e do bhas a Dhundee, db'fbag mis' fo throm lighe, 
Ohuir toll na mo cbridhe, 's dh'fbag snigb'air mo ghruaidh, 
Bu bbeag airson d'eirio, na tbuit de na beisdean, 
An cogadh Kigh Seumas ge d' dh'&rioh leinn buaidh j 
Acb sgabadh nan ouileag, air muinntir High Uilleam, 
Tha ainne fo mbulad, ge d' chuir sinn iad uainn. 

In another song, commemorative of the same action, he describes both 
the manner and the time of Dundee's death. The common account is 
that Claverhouse fell at the close of the battle ; that the fatal bullet struck 
him under the arm as he waved it to urge forward a division of cavalry, 
to complete the rout. John Macdonald's account reverses all this ; and 



THE LOCHABER BAlit). 103 

present as he personally was, and therefore conversant with the events to 
the day, we must give great weight to his testimony. According to him, 
Claverhouse fell at the commencement of the action, not at the close of it: 

A sbar Chlabhars nan each, 

Bu cheann-feadha' tbu air feacbd, 

Mu chreaoh leir an tits yleachd mar dli' eiricb dhuit. 

And as we see from the next stanza he was struck not under the arm hut 
in the pelvis ; when, as tradition says to use the modest language of 
Scripture, he was like Saul in the cave, " covering his feet." In this 
posture, which the exigencies of the moment compelled him to assume: 
the lower part of his hody was necessarily divested of his proof armour, 
and the fatal hullet did its work. So says our poet : 

Bu lasair theine dhoibh d'fhearg, 

Gus an d'6irich rai-shealbh. 

Bbuail am peileir fo earball t-6ididh thu. 

The tradition that his body was stripped, and left naked on the battle- 
field, is also corroborated by the following stanza of the same song : 

Bu mbor cosgradb do lamb 

Fo aon cbloguide bar. 

'S do chorp nochduidh geal b&n gun eideadh air. 

If we then accept the testimony of our bard, the story that he was buried 
in the Athole vault in full armour is a supposition, or an invention of 
partizanship, to hide the truth as to the fate of his remains. We are not 
to suppose that all the soldiers and camp followers even of his own army 
knew him so as to recognise him among the dead. There is, therefore, great 
probability in the averment, that Claverhouse was stripped of his raiment 
and armour by the hovering harpies of this well-fought field, and that his 
remains were consigned to the dust with those of the common soldiers of 
both armies. 

The fate of his wife, who survived him, is somewhat singular, and is as 
follows: She was the daughter of William, son and heir of William; Earl 
of DundonelL After the death of Claverhouse, she married Viscount 
Kilsyth, like her first husband, a strong partizan of the House of Stuart. 
Subsequent to the defeat of Sheriffmuir they fled to Holland, where two 
years aftei (1717) she and her infant son were smothered by the falling 
of a roof. Their remains were embalmed, sent to Scotland, and buried in 
the family vault at Kilsyth where, strange enough, they were accidentally 
discovered within recent years, in a state of perfect preservation. Stu- 
dents from the University of Glasgow, actuated by curiosity, opened the 
vault, long out of use for burying purposes. One of them, seeing a coffin 
with Lady Kilsyth's name and the date of her death, removed the decayed 
wooden lid ; and on lifting the leaden covering underneath, found her body 
and that of her child as entire as the day they were entombed. " Every 
feature," says Dr Eennie, " nay, the very shroud is as clean and fresh, and 
the ribbons as bright as the day they were laid in their coffin. It would 
not be easy for a stranger to distinguish with his eye, whether Lady Kil- 
syth was dead or alive." 

Of the history of our poet subsequent to the Killiecrankie campaign 
we know but very little, either Irom tradition or from the productions of 
his muse ; though we may rest assured he moved on the old linw, and 



104 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

was energetic and loyal as ever, in behoof of his favourite dynasty. His 
elegy on the death of the chief, Alastair Dubh Macdonell of Glengarry, 
shews that he survived the battle of Killiecrankie twenty-five years. Ala- 
stair Dubh of Glengarry fought at Sheriffmuir, and lived for some time 
thereafter ; so that John Lorn must have died at a very advanced time of 
life ; in all probability when he was over a hundred years of age. When 
he began life, James sat upon the throne of England ; and when he de- 
parted this life, George I. reigned ; so, besides Cromwell, he lived long 
enough to see seven monarchs swaying the English sceptre and the last 
of the seven, the representative of the dynasty, destined permanently to 
supplant that, which it was his life-long effort and wish to consolidate. 

Although, as we see from several of his productions, John Lorn was 
capable of powerful emotion, yet his poetry is not the poetry either of feeling 
or pathos. His muse was exerted almost exclusively for political and warrior 
ends ; which accounts for, if it does not excuse, a certain element of sa- 
vagery which pervades some of his productions, as " An Ciaran Mabach" 
and "Latha Innerlochaidh." Nor does he appear to have studied euphony; 
nor are his measures always exact, unless we are to suppose them affected 
in course of oral transmission, which is quite possible. But for command of 
language, vivid, graphic description, power of satire or praise as suited his 
purpose, few of our Highland poets have equalled him. His poetry also 
shews extensive knowledge of history, politics, and Scripture ; and as is 
seen from his song against " the Union," he was not only conversant with 
politics in general, but even with the individual opinions and proclivities of 
the actors in the dramas of his time. How he acquired such information, 
living as he did, in a remote locality, is a marvel. It shows, however, 
what can be done by a master mind, under even unfavourable circum- 
stances. 

He was married and had a family. One of his sons inherited a con- 
siderable measure of his father's poetical talent. The Keppoch family, ot 
which he was a cadet, were notable for their bardic gifts. " Gilleasba na 
Ceapaich," and "Colla na Ceapaich," were bards as well as chiefs. Julia of 
Keppoch Sile JNi-mhic-Kaonuill, was a poetess not much inferior to John 
Lorn himself. He is buried in Tom-aingil in Brae-Lochaber, where, until 
lately, the people showed his grave to the curious. 

Na Shineadb an sud fo na pluic, 
Tha gaol an Leomhaiun 's f uath an Tuirc. 
KENMOBE. ALLAN SINCLAIR 



THE ANTIQUABY. Just as we were going to press, we received 
the first number of this New Monthly. A hurried glance through its 
pages at once convince us that its contents are varied and interesting. 
Its Editor, Edward Walford, M.A., author of the " County Families," is 
well known in the antiquarian and genealogical world, and we have no 
doubt that he will make the " Antiquary " a success, surrounded as he is 
by such a galaxy of eminent antiquarian contributors. There is a field 
to be taken up, and the " Antiquary," so far as can be judged from a first 
number, promises to occupy it well. We, however, desiderate any Scotch 
or Highland contributions or contributors. 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 



III. 

CAPE BRETON. 

IP I remember correctly I parted company with the reader in my last at 
Port Mulgrave, on the Straits of Canso, on my way to Cape Breton, where 
I arrived, after having crossed the Straits by a ferry only a little more 
than a mile wide, on the 22d of September, thus satisfying a life-long 
ambition ; for ever since I began to think, I looked forward to the day 
when I should see this island, made interesting to me from child- 
hood days in consequence of several relatives having emigrated there 
when I was but a child. I felt as if I were a new man in a new world, 
and a most beautiful and delightful world it was. I crossed pretty early 
in the day, and a family of Grants from Glenmorriston having discovered 
that I was there, insisted upon paying me every attention, and upon my 
delivering a lecture on my return, which, in the end, I agreed to do. 
After a pleasant day spent in the village of Hawkesbury, I hired a con- 
veyance to carry me over a neck of land 13 miles across trom the Straits 
of Canso to "West Bay, on the Big Bras D'or Lake, from which I got to 
my destination on Boulardrie Island, by the steamer Neptune, a handy 
little boat, commanded by Captain Howard Beatty, a most agreeable 
fellow, and a genuine Scot. Our countrymen are in this country at the 
top of everything, and I was not surprised to find that the purser was 
also a Scot and a Highlander, Archibald Macdonald, a native of Arisaig. 
The sail on these magnificent lakes was most delightful, the scenery re- 
minding one very much of Loch-Ness and its surroundings, with the 
difference that the Bras D'or Lake would not miss Loch-Ness out of it, 
and that the Inverness-shire mountains are on a much grander scale than 
those of Cape Breton. I never enjoyed anything so much as this sail, 
though possibly that may be attributed in some degree to the fact that I 
was just realising, and, as it were, drinking in the ambition and object of 
forty years. On the right we leave the Little Bras D'or and Christmas 
Isle, while on the left we call at and pass Baddeck, a pretty village, the 
capital of Victoria county, which carries on a considerable trade with 
Newfoundland in cattle and dairy produce. In a few hours I land at 
Eraser's Wharf, so called after the son of the late Eev. Mr Eraser, a 
native of Dingwall, for many years minister on the Island of Boulardrie. 
John A. Eraser, a first cousin of the Rev. Mr Baillie, minister of 
Gairloch, was the first man I met on landing, and he at once volun- 
teered t to drive me to where my friends lived, about two and a-half 
miles distant I was soon among my friends, whom I found in much 
better circumstances than I anticipated, and as their position is a fair 
illustration of that of many others in Cape Breton, I may just as well 
describe it. Their father, Alexander Grant, emigrated from Gairloch in 
1841, having only a very few pounds in his possession. He had been in 
the British navy for five years, in virtue of which he obtained a free grant 
of 200 acres on his arrival in Cape Breton. He, at the same time, took up 



106 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

another lot of equal extent, both then completely covered with a dense 
forest. Some of his family were grown up, and he at once set to work to 
clear a patch to plant a few potatoes in. The first thing he did was to 
erect a hut in the forest. The snow lay thick on the ground. A suffi- 
cient space was cleared to enable the family to sit round a fire placed in 
the centre of the hut, and sleep around it at night, while the bank of 
snow was left at one end for the purposes of a pillow, with the bushes of 
trees as the only covering to screen them from the wintry elements. 
Never mind, they passed the winter without suffering any injury to their 
hardy constitutions; next year they built a log-house, and they set to 
work in right earnest to clear the forest. The old man and the family 
prospered. His two sons now possess 200 acres each of excellent land, 
contiguous to one another, with about twenty head of cattle, thirty sheep, 
and two pair of horses each. They live in good, substantially built houses 
of nine or ten rooms each, furnished and carpeted equal to any farmer's 
house in the county of Inverness. I was shown deposit receipts for con- 
siderable sums in bank, and notes for various amounts lent out at interest 
to tradesmen in the district. Here I met several from my native parish 
of Gairloch, and other parts of Wester Koss, in easy circumstances, pos- 
sessing their own farms in free heritage, and as happy as they can wish. 
Their religious wants are well supplied, since the death of the Eev. Mr 
Fraser, by a fine Highlander, and a good, solid, common-sense preacher, 
the Eev. Mr Drummond, a native of Argyleshire. I heard him preach 
two sermons, one in Gaelic and the other in English. In the former he 
was really eloquent, and, unlike many of the Gaelic sermons often preached 
at home, his effort exhibited evidence of having been carefully prepared ; 
while it was fluently, and earnestly delivered. Mr Drummond I found 
to be a great favourite with his people, and, though a genuine, true-blue 
Presbyterian, by no means a narrow-minded bigot. 

From Boulardrie my relatives were able to drive me to North Sydney, a 
distance of fourteen miles, in a carriage and pair, while, had they remained 
at home in Melvaig, they would probably have never got beyond a pair 
of creels. In North Sydney I delivered my lecture on " Flora Macdonald 
and Prince Charles." I was well received. Next morning I found my- 
self famous in the local papers, and in the evening I delivered another in 
South Sydney, the ancient capital of Cape Breton the Hon. Sheriff 
Fergusson, a native of Uist, and a perfect Celtic encyclopaedia, doing me 
the honour of presiding, while the Hon. E. F. Moseley, Speaker of the 
Nova Scotia House of Commons, proposed a vote of thanks in a tasteful, 
appreciative speech, and kindly invited me to spend a few days at his 
house. My time, however, was limited, and I was obliged, with some 
regret, to decline his preferred hospitality. Here I also met some 
warm-hearted and well-to-do Celts. Among them, James Mackenzie, a 
native of Lochcarron, owning the finest drapery establishment in Sydney, 
having larger accommodation than any shop in Inverness. His better- 
half I found to be a daughter of the better-known James Mackenzie, 
merchant and banker, Stornoway. Another prominent and prosperous 
Gael was Duncan Mackenzie, descended on the one side from the Sand 
(Udrigle) Mackenzies, and on the other from the family of Gruinard ; as 
also Kenneth E. Mackenzie, a leading grocer in North Sydney, from 
Lochcarron, descended from the Mackenzies of Fairburn and Davochma- 
luag, 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 107 

Nine-tenths of the population of Cape Breton are Scottish Highlanders, 
nearly all of whom still speak the Gaelic language. There are only two 
Presbyterian congregations in the whole Island in which Gaelic is not 
preached at least once a day. There are a great many Highland Catholics 
in the Island, who live on the most friendly terms with their Pres- 
byterian neighbours. It is divided into four counties, named respectively, 
Inverness, Kichmond, Victoria, and Cape Breton. Farming is generally 
backward, except in the county of Inverness, which is farmed equal to 
any county in Nova Scotia, but in spite of that, Cape Breton took the 
first pme for the best oats exhibited at the Provincial Exhibition of all 
the product of Nova Scotia, held during my visit to that place. 

The Island is 100 miles long by, in one part, 85 wide, having an area 
of 3120 square miles. The first settlement was made in 1712 by the 
French. It had, however, been discovered by the French navigator 
Cabot as early as 1497, but previous to 1700 it was only visited by fur 
traders and fishermen. After they lost Nova Scotia proper, or that part 
of it known as Acadia, the French began to colonise Cape Breton, and to 
build the great fortifications at Louisburg, which, while in the possession 
of the French, continued for many years to bo the capital of the Island. 
The fortress was long considered impregnable, but war having been de- 
clared between France and Great Britain, Governor Shirley of Massachus- 
setts formed the design of taking the stronghold ; and sailing from Boston 
with a powerful expedition for that purpose, he arrived at the Straits of 
Canso on the 5th of April 1745. The reinforcements sent by the French 
were captured by the British admiral, and the great fortress was ultimately 
forced to capitulate. The Acadians sent to France for aid ; an expedition 
was got up to reconquer Acadia and Cape Breton, but the hostile fleet met 
with severe and terrible disasters. It was wrecked and dispersed by 
violent storms, the crews were thinned to an alarming extent by epide- 
mics, the expedition accomplished nothing, and only a small remnant re- 
turned to France. By the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, the Island 
was restored to its original owners, but it was soon after finally and for 
ever attached to the British crown. 

It is very much indented with bays, and every part of its interior is 
accessible by water. The part to the north of the Big Bras D'or Lake, 
which divides the Island into two, is high, bold, and steep, while the 
southern half is low, intersected by numerous inlets, diversified by moder- 
ate elevations, and rising gradually from its interior ehore on Little Bras 
D'or Lake until it terminates in abrupt cliffs toward the Atlantic Ocean. 
The highest elevation in the southern half is only 800 feet above the 
level of the sea, while towards North Cape, in the northern section, the 
mountains rise to an altitude of 1800 feet. Big Bras D'or Lake is 50 
miles long by 20 wide, and varies in depth from 12 to 60 fathoms. It 
is one of the safest harbours in the world, and thousands of British ships 
have, in the past, obtained in it their cargoes of timber. Salt springs are 
found on the coast. The climate varies, but is not so cold as on the ad- 
joining continent of Nova Scotia. Vegetation is rapid. Maize and com 
are produced in considerable quantities, but not to a sufficient extent for 
home consumption. Quarries of marble, granite, limec*one, and slates, 
are plentiful throughout the Island. Gypsum and salt arb <dso to be 
found, and coal is abundant and of a very superior quality. EO lew 



108 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

than 120 square miles are occupied with coal of the very best description, 
while there are rich deposits of superior iron ore and gold. The Island 
has always been celebrated for its fisheries. In 1871 its products were as 
follows : Dried cod, 126,275 cwt.; scale fish, 64,025 do.; pickled mac- 
kerel in barrels, 49,226 do.; pickled herrings, 39,266 do.; pickled salmon, 
944 do.; other pickled fish, 3363 do.; oil of all kinds in gallons, 74,625, the 
total estimate at considerable over a quarter of a million sterling, and the 
Island employing no less than 5780 men in this industry alone. The coal 
trade has for many years been exceedingly prosperous, but since Confedera- 
tion with the upper provinces of Canada it has been almost ruined in 
consequence of a tax of 75 cents per ton placed by the Americans on all 
Canadian coal, making it impossible for the Nova Scotians to compete in 
their natural market with the home product in the United States of 
America. The population of Cape Breton in 1861 was 63,083, in 1871 
it was 75,483. It sends eight members to the Provincial Legislature of 
Nova Scotia, and five to the Dominion House of Commons. It has turned 
out some very good men, among them the Hon. William Eoss, late M.P. 
in the Dominion Parliament, and Minister of Militia in the late Govern- 
ment. He is now Collector of Customs at the port of Halifax, where I 
had the pleasure of making his acquaintance. His people emigrated from 
Sutherlandshire without a penny, and though he only obtained such edu- 
cation as the common schools of Cape Breton could afford him thirty to 
forty years ago, his natural ability secured for him the honourable position 
of a Minister of the Dominion of Canada. His brother, John Eoss, was 
also a member of Parliament, but was defeated at the last general election. 
Charles Campbell, Baddeck, was for twenty years M.P. in the local House, 
afterwards a member of the Legislative Council, and subsequently M.P. 
in the Dominion Parliament, He possesses extensive coal mines in Cape 
Breton, and a wharf and buildings at Halifax, for which a few years ago 
he paid nearly 10,000. He is a native of Skye, and was originally in 
poor enough circumstances. Another Skyeman, Alexander Campbell, is 
M.P. for the county of Inverness, and is, commercially, in good circum- 
stances. William Macdonald, M.P. for the county of Cape Breton, is a 
successful merchant at Glass Bay, whose father emigrated from the 
Western Isles. H. F. Macdougall, M.P., returned to the local House 
last year, has a capital business on Christmas Isle. His father came out 
from Barra quite poor and uneducated, in spite of which he succeeded in 
business here, educated his family, and his son is now in Parliament. 
Mr Machines, now M.P. for British Columbia, came from Skye to Cape 
Breton penniless, and made a fortune. And last, but not least among the 
members of Parliament, Cape Breton has turned out John Morrison, M.P., 
who has been returned last year to the local House, and who distinguished 
himself by delivering the first Gaelic speech ever delivered in the Nova 
Scotian Legislature. His father, who was closely related to Morrison 
" Gobha," the Harris bard, emigrated from that place without a cent, and 
became a prosperous farmer. The son now possesses the farm, along with 
one of his own, and is a prosperous merchant, at St Anne's, in addition. 
I had the good fortune to meet him on the steamer on my way back from 
Cape Breton, and enjoyed his company all the way to Halifax, and for a 
considerable time there ; and a finer Highlander plain and unpretentious, 
but most intelligent, it has not been my lot to meet. A Mr Maclean, 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 109 

who came out from the Isle of Skye without a sixpence, is now the 
wealthiest farmer on the Island. He was quite illiterate, but a good 
farmer. He made money, which he has advanced at high rates of interest 
on mortgages and other such safe investments, and is now reputed to he 
possessed of great wealth. 

Having spent five most agreeable days in Cape Breton, I returned, by 
the Bras D'or route, to Port Hawkesbury, where I delivered my promised 
lecture, to an appreciative audience, on the night of my arrival, and started 
immediately after, by boat, to Pictou, through the Straits of Canso and 
across part of the Gulf of St Lawrence. From there I took tram for 106 
miles to 

THE CITY OP HALIFAX, 

to see the annual Provincial Exhibition of the Agricultural, Mechanical, 
and Manufacturing Products of the whole Province. Here I had the 
pleasure of making the acquaintance of some very fine Highlanders, among 
them the Hon. William Holmes, Premier of Nova Scotia, and a Gaelic-speak- 
ing Celt. His ancestors came out quite poor. Hisjkther became a success- 
ful farmer, whose house I visited near the Church of the Rev. A. Maclean 
Sinclair, at Springville. He afterwards became a Senator of the Dominion, 
and his son now holds the leading position in Nova Scotian politics. 
The Hon. James Macdonald, Canadian Minister of Justice, who resides 
in Halifax, came originally from Redcastle. The Hon. James S. 
S. Macdonald, a banker and a member of the Legislative Council ; his 
brother, Charles Macdonald, recently represented the county of Hali- 
fax in Parliament, but was appointed to the chief Post-Office Inspector- 
ship of Nova Scotia ; the Hon. William Ross, Collector of Customs, 
already mentioned ; Angus Macleod, Collector of Inland Revenue ; George 
Maclean, cashier in the Merchants' Bank ; Hugh Murray, of Burns and 
Murray ; William Mackenzie, of Macllreith & Co.; Alexander Stephens, 
a native of Morayshire, and Robert Stewart, a native of Castle Street, 
Inverness, a large farmer and successful merchant in Truro ; these 
and many others, I had the pleasure of meeting in the City of Hali- 
fax, all well-to-do, and holding positions of influence or trust And 
in almost every instance their ancestors, and, in some cases, them- 
selves, came to this country without a farthing. All honour to them, 
and to the country in which they were able to do for themselves or their 
descendants what they could never have done in their native land. 

But there is yet another good Highlander in Halifax who has made for 
himself, by hard work and industry, wealth and position ; John Maclachlan, 
a native of Ardgour, in Lochaber, where he was skipper of a small sloop, 
and a boat-builder. He emigrated on the 8th of April 1839, settled first 
in New Brunswick, afterwards went to Prince Edward Island, and sub- 
sequently to Pictou, in all of which places he worked at his business of 
boat or ship-building. This was not considered good enough, however, 
by the old Lochaber skipper, and (I heard it whispered) poacher in a 
small way. Indeed it was partly in consequence of his diversions in the 
latter tempting sport that he determined upon emigration ; for it was too 
attractive a pastime to be let alone, and it might lead to bad and disagree- 
able consequences. Having made a little money at his trade in Pictou, 
Maclachlan decided upon visiting Virginia in the Unifed States, to dis- 
cover the secret of tobacco manufacturing, but the manner in which he 



110 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

managed it, though amusing and interesting, would occupy too much of 
my space. He returned, and commenced business in 1860 in a small 
way as a tobacco manufacturer in the City of Halifax. The business 
continued to increase until it has become, many years ago, the most ex- 
tensive in the Lower Provinces. The most approved machinery has been 
introduced, and before Confederation over a hundred hands were regularly 
employed, manufacturing as much as 50,000 Ibs. of tobacco per month, 
the net value of which, in bond, without the duty, was tenpence a pound, 
or a total per month of considerably over 2000. Since Confederation 
he has not been doing so much in consequence of Upper^Canada compe- 
tition, but he still turns out an average of 36,000 Ibs. a month, and is the 
only manufacturer who has hitherto made cake tobacco in Nova Scotia, 
though I have met with a Mr Thomas Grant, a native of Strathspey, who 
was just about starting another factory when I was in Halifax. The 
capital engaged in Maclachlan's business is about 12,000. The home 
duty on the manufactured article is tenpence a pound, exactly the same 
as the net cost of tobacco itself. The firm is known as A. A., and "W. 
Smith & Co., the Smiths attending to the commercial part of the busi- 
ness, while Mr Maclachlan has the sole management of the factory. He 
has amassed great wealth, and is, among his own countrymen, very 
liberal with it, though much of his good deeds are done on the principle 
that his right hand knoweth not what his left hand doeth. 

When the 78th Highlanders were in Halifax, several years ago, Mr 
Maclachlan became acquainted with Pipe-Major Ronald Mackenzie, of 
that distinguished Eegiment, and his son, John, exhibiting a taste for 
music, the old Highlander determined that he should be taught to play 
the bagpipes; and Pipe- Major Mackenzie was employed to teach him. 
Having met Eonald at the last Annual Assembly of the Gaelic Society of 
Inverness, I told him that I was going to Halifax. " "Well, if you are," 
said he, " you must call and see my old pupil, John Maclachlan, son of 
Maclachlan, the tobacco manufacturer there, one of the best Highlanders I 
ever met from home. Before I left Halifax the pupil could almost play as 
well as his master, and if he continued to practice and progress as he did 
when I was there, I expect he will be quite equal to, if not better, than 
myself." I called as requested, and had an evening of the pipes, played 
in perfect style, I never heard a cleaner finger on a chanter, and for 
time, spirit, and accurate playing, I honestly believe that the teacher's 
prediction has been verified, and that the pupil is now really as good a 
player as his master. I strongly recommended him to go to Scotland and 
compete at the Northern Meeting, where I feel sure he would carry away 
some of the principal prizes, and possibly the medal. He is, however, 
only a gentleman amateur, and he is loth to compete in public ; but as he 
has ample means, I trust his old master will ere long have the satisfaction 
of seeing him in the Highland capital competing for and possibly carrying 
off the gold medal. He has no competitor within sight on the American 
continent, and I am satisfied that he has few, if any, superiors at home. 

There are a great many Gaelic-speaking Highlanders in the City of 
Halifax, and it will gratify Professor Blackie, and those who reverence 
and still stand up for the Gaelic language, to know that public worship 
has been carried on in that city for the last seven years in the vernacular 
they love. These meetings were originated by the Bev. George Lawson 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA, 111 

Gordon, while yet a student at Dalhousie College, about which time he 
also published a Gaelic grammar, favourably noticed in these pages. I 
regret that I missed seeing him, for at the very time when I was in one 
part of Cape Breton, he was being introduced, in another part, to a Gaelic- 
speaking congregation, who had just given him a call. The meetings in 
Halifax are conducted during the winter by the students from the two 
colleges in turn, and in summer the work is carried on by Alexander 
Mackenzie, a native of Lochcarron, and a brother of Kenneth R Mac- 
kenzie, North Sydney, already mentioned. An excellent colleague is 
Neil Brodie, a southern Scot, who not only learnt to speak Gaelic fluently, 
but many other languages ; and he is a most enthusiastic supporter of the 
Celtic cause in Halifax. The Society is called " Comunn Criosdaidh nan 
Gael." The attendance is generally about 200 Gaelic-speaking people, 
principally from Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, Pictou, and Anti- 
gonish ; and those best acquainted with the Celts of the City assert that 
there is an ample field in Halifax for a Gaelic evangelist who would 
devote his whole time to the spiritual wants of the Gaelic-speaking popu- 
lation. 

The North British Society is one of the oldest and most useful on the 
American continent, and I trust on some future occasion to find room to 
write more fully of its history and work than I can possibly find 
in these papers. I may, however, say that it is conducted on prin- 
ciples which must recommend themselves to all right thinking people. 
No Scot in distress is permitted to go unaided ; but all help is given on 
the understanding that those receiving it will afterwards repay any money 
advanced to them or otherwise expended on their behalf if ever they find 
themselves able to do so ; and I am glad to say that, in many cases, this 
has been done by parties widows and orphans and others in distress, whose 
passages had been paid home, or to the homes of relatives in distant parts 
of Canada. The Society attend also to the wants of poor, respectable 
Scots, who are in reduced circumstances in the City, in a manner the least 
calculated to wound the feelings of the recipients of their bounty. Alto- 
gether they are doing a patriotic and a noble work, and it is gratifying to 
find that they possess very^onsiderable funds sufficient to deal liberally 
with all the deserving, necessitous cases brought under their notice. 

Halifax boasts, with justice, of the prettiest and best public gardens 
in the Dominion of Canada ; and here and at the Provincial Exhibition, 
I saw, taking them altogether, the best-looking women. I ever saw any- 
where. I have seen a few greater beauties, especially among English 
ladies, but here one can hardly meet with a common-place face. They 
have the robust, healthy characteristics of the Scotch, while the mixing of 
the races, and the fine bracing climate and sea air seem to have softened 
down the features and painted their lips and cheeks with the most beau- 
tiful tints of the lily and the rose. It is, however, possible that my 
judgment may be at fault as regards real beauty ; for I must confess that 
at the Northern Meeting Games, held at Inverness in 1878, having been 
told that the famous beauty, Mrs Langtry, was among the crowd of ladies 
assembled there, I and a few others were trying to discover her, and we 
failed. We saw her, but we did not recognise her as at all a beauty. 
We thought some of our own Highland girls were very pretty ; and that 
one out of a few whom we saw must have been Mrs Langtry, but when the 



112 THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 

object of our curiosity was pointed out to us, though at first we could not 
discover the lady's beauty, we began to look for what must of course be 
there. Our imaginations aided us, and the lady at once became beautiful 
in our eyes. At first sight I could pick out those whom I would con- 
sider far prettier women in Halifax, but the reader will probably con- 
clude from the above that I am no judge. 

Nova Scotia, its climate and people, have made an impression upon 
me which I shall never forget, and I have good reason to know that the 
good feeling is not altogether on one side. After spending five weeks 
about the happiest in my life in this fine Province amongst its mag- 
nificent people I found my way, on the 1 7th of October, to the City of 
Quebec, after travelling a distance of about 600 miles on the Intercolonial 
Railway, through, on the whole, some very fine scenery, going right across 
the Province of New Brunswick, and alongside the noble St Lawrence. 
In the next number I shall ask the reader to accompany me to Upper 
Canada, and visit Montreal, Glengarry, and the Capital of the Dominion. 

A.M. 




THE GAELIC SCEIPTUEES EUETHEE ANSWEE TO 
ME CAMEEON'S CHAEGES. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIR, In a former letter I endeavoured to answer Mr Cameron's charges 
made in his August article against the edition of '60, and I wish now to do 
the same regarding his Oct. one. But I must for a moment yet return to 
the earlier one. Therein he expends much learning to show how illiterate 
a thing it is to write such forms as air a bhi, air 'bhi, &c, ; yet, in his 
favourite '26, he will find Mark xiv., 19, 33, air a bhi dubhach', 'air a 
bhi fuidh uamh-chrilh, Luke ii, 3, Chum a bhi air am meas, &c. Again, 
he is quite indignant at the pronoun do being written d' before a vowel 
instead of t' as in '26, and goes even to Sanscrit to find proof against it ; 
but, in the table of abbreviations, &c,, prefixed to '26, he may read " D " 
for do, thy, thine, as d" athair, &c. ; and in the opposite column of the 
same page " T" for do, thy, as t' anail. Before a vowel the initial con- 
sonant of the pronoun is changed into t. but t, the initial (sic) consonant, 
&c., &c. But what in '60 is a " corruption of the language," is in '26 the 
work of thorough Grammarians ; and people are expected to believe that 
they are " thorough Grammarians " who wrote the above contradictory 
explanations ! 

In his last, he says Chum craobh-sgaoilidh a Bhiobuill is wrong. 
According to the law regarding the Infinitive, as laid down by himself, 
it is right. According to '26 it is right, vide I. Cor. xvi., 15, Chum 
frithealaidh do na naomhaibh; Colos, ii, 23, Chum sasuchaidh nafeola; 
Heb. ix., 13, Chum glanaidh na feola, &c. ? &c, According to frequent 



GAELIC SCRIPTUBES. 113 

usage in other writings and in conversation it is right ; and therefore I 
must meet Mr Cameron's assertion with a direct negative. 

He objects to Fear-coimhid, telling the editors that they do not 
understand the matter. Perhaps not ; but when we have such compounds 
as fear-saoraic/A, fear-gleidhid/i, fear stiwaidh, and hundreds of similar 
ones, his condemnation will not be much heeded by any one who believes 
that rules were made for language, not, as his remarks imply, that lan- 
guage was made for rules. 

A' m' ionnsuidh is condemned, and with the customary compliment 
to the editors that they know not one preposition from another. All I 
will here say is that do is not the only preposition which enters into this 
expression. 'N am ionnsuidh is prevalent in the Jforth, In '2G \ve have 
a m' ionnsuidh, and am ionnsuidh without any sign of elision ; and these 
things being so, I look on it as a pitiful waste of time and of paper to 
write on such a triviality. 

He lays down the law about adjectives when appellatives being in the 
singular, though the noun which they refer to be plural a good law I 
admit. If, however, he looks at the table of explanations prefixed to '26, 
already mentioned, he will find it stated that a few Gaelic words admit 
of a final vowel or not, as the euphony requires it. ... as naomh, 
or naomha, " holy ;" fad or fada, " long," This may show him that 
several of the adjectives which he complains of as plural, were regarded 
by the writers as singular ; and he will find here, as is generally the case, 
that euphony carries the day against mere rule. 

A' leithid, or a leithid. The difference between the two forms is ex- 
actly that between " the like," and " its like," in English. Both are in 
frequent use, and the discussion about them is just as rational as that of 
old between " Fiddle-dee-dum, and Fiddle-dum-dee." 

Le 'n toil do shlainte, " whose delight is thy salvation " Mr Cameron 
translates " whose will is thy salvation," If he look at a Gaelic Diction- 
ary he will find that toil signifies "desire," "love," "pleasure," "de- 
light," as well as " will." He, for reasons no doubt satisfactory to himself, 
chooses to pick out the one translation which is unmeaning, when there 
are four before him, any of which would give an appropriate meaning to 
the expression. In the metrical Psalms the word is often used as in '60, 
Ps. xxxvii,, 23; xl,, 4; cxix., 48, &c., &c. And while le 'n toigh do 
shlainte is quite according to rule, " le 'n toil do shlainto " is according to 
usage. I never heard toigh used by a Highlander, except before a word 
beginning with I. 

As to eadar fear, agus bean, I would say that, as the words in the 
original are in the singular number, it has at least the merit of being a 
literal translation, and is much better than that of '26, where there is a 
strange mixture of both numbers. 

A more serious misstatement than any hitherto noticed is made by 
Mr Cameron when he says that in Rev. iv., 7, the editors assert that 
there were a hundred living creatures around the throne an ceud beo- 
chreutair. Without dwelling on his partiality for the most improper, 
and offensive translation of this passage, given alike in English and in 
'26, " beast " = beathach, I would point out the following passages in '26 : 
I. Cor. xv., 47, an ceud duine o 'n talamh talmhaidk ; Heb. viii., 13, 
an ceud coi-cheangal ; Rev. xxi., 1, 19, an ceud talamh, an ceud bunait. 



114 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

I do not believe that Mr Cameron's hardihood of assertion will carry him 
so far as to maintain that in these passages ceud means " a hundred ; " 
but if not, he is bound to retract what he says about Rev. iv., 7, for they 
must, in common honesty, all stand or fall together. Every Gaelic scholar 
knows that both aspiration and accentuation in that language are as yet 
in great measure free from fixed rules, and to single out one passage in 
the manner of Mr Cameron does not show much knowledge of Gaelic, or 
practice of critical impartiality. 

Much worse than even the above is, I regret to say, his extraordinary 
perversion of Gen. xxv,, 24, where he says that leth-aoin signifies " the 
half of one child," while leth-aona signifies twins. Here he goes openly 
in the teeth of both rule and usage. It is notorious that words like aon, 
which insert i to form the Gen. Sing., have their Nom. Plur. often like 
the Gen. Sing. e.g., raon, raoin, Gen. Sing,, raoin Nom. Plur., so, uan 
uain, uain ; Ion, loin, loin ; bord, buird, buird ; ball, buill, buill, and 
hundreds of others ; while they may also form the Nom. Plur. by adding 
a to the Nom. Sing. Leth-aoin, as a Nom. Plur., is as much according 
to rule as the other form, and entirely according to usage as far as I have 
heard Highlanders speaking it. In all inflected languages there are 
occasionally various parts of the same word identical in form, but different 
in meaning. Three of the Latin declensions have the Gen. Sing., and 
Nom. Plur. alike, as happens to be the case in Gaelic. Yet what would 
be said of the man who, reading pennae, or domini, or fructus sunt, &c., 
would say that these nouns were in the Gen. Sing., or legi librum, that 
the verb was in the Infin. Pass.; and thereupon denounce the writers as 
entirely ignorant of the principles of the Latin language 1 According to 
Mr Cameron's conduct this would be all right, and would show disinterested 
zeal for the purity of the language. I must say further that if he trans- 
lates leth-aoin as the "half of one," he is undeniably bound to translate 
leth-aona as " the half of ones," which he does not do. And I may be 
permitted a word about this very strange idiom of Gaelic which makes 
leth " half," signify a whole ; but it is very common. Thus, tha e air 
leth-shuil, "he is on half an eye," signifies that he has one, but 
only one, whole eye ; so of tha e air leth-chois, leth-laimh, &c., 
&c., phrases perfectly intelligible to every Highlander ; and I may 
mention an instance which I have heard, like Mr Cameron's literal trans- 
lation, which strikingly shows the absurdity of its rendering into English 
the phrase cha-n 'eil ann ach leth-bhurraidh, my friend made " He is 
only the half of a fool." 

He tries to cast ridicule also on the translation of I, Kings xxii., 48. 
The passage is confessedly an obscure one, and I have met with no com- 
mentator who throws much light on it ; but, whatever be its true mean- 
ing, it is the same in the English version, in '26, and in '60 " Ships of 
Tharsish " in all three. He condemns '60, saying not a word about the 
others. 

It is difficult to believe that a man in the respectable position 
occupied by Mr Cameron would try to convey the impression that the 
editors of '60 sought to deceive the public, and palm off their edition as 
an exact reprint of '26, by printing on the title-page the words " Eevised 
edition in smaller type." He implicates the National Bible Society also 
in this contemptible plot, and reiterates the vile insinuation time after 



GAELIC SCRIPTURES. 115 

time. The title-page, like all others which I have seen, is made up <>t' 
lines, some in larger, some in smaller type ; and " Revised Edition " is 
in smaller type than some other lines not smaller than all. It is what 
printers call Brevier size, and to make it more conspicuous it is in italic 
capitals, while the other lines are in Roman. To say then that it is 
actually in " small type," or in any way obscure or difficult to observe, is, as 
the fac-simile below will show, the very reverse of the facts ; and tho 
base charge implied in his assertion I utterly repudiate with deserved con- 
tempt.* 

Mr Cameron, besides doing all that he himself can to damage this 
edition, tries to crush, it under the authority of the late Dr M. Mackay, 
who is not now in court, and ought to be let alone, but who, Mr Cameron 
says, "as is well known, was the most eminent Gaelic scholar of his time." 
I never before heard this claim advanced in behalf of Dr Mackay ; but 
hearing it now led me to the very disagreeable task of examining his edi- 
tion of the extremely filthy poems of Rob Bonn Inverness, 1829. Tho 
result confirms what I have so often said about the irregular writing of 
Gaelic, Inconsistencies, errors, and misprints occur frequently there as 
elsewhere ; nor will any authority rightfully belonging to its editor 
injure the '60 Edition in the estimation of any judicious person. I must 
add that, in marked opposition to Mr Cameron's denunciation of substi- 
tuting de for do, " of," we have here repeatedly the North-country form 
of it in dhe. 

I have thus gone over Mr Cameron's two very extraordinary letters, 
and have shown that his objections are very easily answered. Had ho 
brought forward one genuine Gaelic expression, or even one word which 
would be an improvement on the old rendering, I would thankfully acknow- 
ledge it ; but I see nothing of the kind even attempted. Except that there 
are typographical errors in '60 (and I repeat that as far as I have examined 
these are fewer than in any other edition), there is not one statement 
made by him which stands the test, as of any importance whatever. Be- 
sides, there is an extreme smallness of detail which is surprising in a 
scholar, there is a bitterness of spirit, a rudeness in denouncing the editors 
as " ignorant," &c., &c., a gross and glaring unfairness in his criticisms 
which fortunately are very rarely, if ever met with, in mere literary con- 
troversy now-a-days. I must reluctantly dwell for a moment on this last 
point. I have conclusively shown that considerably more than one-half 
of the forms of expression which he condemns in '60 are to be found re- 
peatedly in '26. Yet he and his supporters extol the one and condemn 
the other in unmeasured terms. I am bound in charity to suppose that 
they can reconcile such conduct with truth and justice, though I confess 
it is far beyond my power to do it ; but most men will agree with me in 
thinking that they are bound to abandon either their extravagant lauda- 
tion of the one, or their rancorous reviling of the other ; and assuredly to 
abandon both would be best. 

I would fain hope that this wretched controversy may now cease. I 
can truly say that defence, not oflfence, is my sole object, and that it is 
with much pain I point out the unfounded nature of Mr Cameron's 

* The following is the exact style and size of type used : 
REVISED EDITION. 



116 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

charges. I trust, however, that the discussion may help to hasten the 
much needed reform of the Gaelic translation of the Bible ; and to show 
further the need of such reform I conclude by quoting the words of a 
far better Gaelic scholar than I am perhaps better than even Mr Cam- 
eron the late James Munro, author of a Gaelic Grammar, and of several 
other works, who, after pointing out numerous instances of what he calls 
" syntactical monstrosity," says " many other improprieties and inconsis- 
tencies of this kind occur in the sacred volume, besides errors of the press 
of enormous disgrace to the Church." Gaelic Grammar, 2d Ed., p. 229. 
I am, sir, &c., 

Kilmallie Manse, 7th Nov. 1879. ARCH. CLERK, LL.D. 

ANSWER TO DE CLERK. 



EDINBURGH, November 11, 1879. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIR, In this month's Celtic Magazine I observe that the Rev. Dr 
Clerk, of Kilmallie, pays me one or two left-handed compliments. If 
this amusement gives any satisfaction to his wounded feelings, I am 
sure I do not grudge him the pastime. 

So far as any matter of fact or scholarship is at issue between us, I 
need only refer him to my former letters in this controversy. Take just 
one example. Dr Clerk, like another Polonius, still harps away on the 
old mare's nest, whose contents, in deference only to himself, I have al- 
ready dealt with at too great length. He says, " Dr Maclauchlan proves 
his statement as to numbers to be very glaringly wrong." Now I am 
really ashamed again to disturb the patient pertinacity which thus devotes 
itself to the incubation of an addled egg. But lest it should be thought 
that I treat your correspondent with disrespect, I shall refer him and the 
reader to what I already said in answer to this charge in the last paragraph 
on page 466 of the Celtic Magazine for October. I ask if that was not 
a complete and conclusive answer to this reiterated charge against my 
" statement as to numbers ? " And I will now add that the figures ob- 
jected to were taken by me from an authoritative document in the office 
of the Bible Society. I repeat then that as regards any matter of fact or 
scholarship at issue between us, I need only refer Dr Clerk to my former 
letters. Why should I ask you to reprint them in detail ? No one surely 
expects me to set up as rival to him in olden times of whom it is written 
that " thrice he slew the slain ! " 

And as to matters of mere passing temper, I really am not in the 
mood to break a lance with the learned and worthy minister of Kilmallie. 
If it were the case of a pompous rana instar tauri sufflata, whose over- 
stretched pneumatic cist one might feel the common satisfaction of human 
nature in puncturing, I might not perhaps turn aside from the fair oppor- 
tunity of doing so, especially when, as some times happens, the opportu- 
nity is rudely obtruded on one's path. But this is not the case of Dr 
Clerk. His fair fame as a Gaelic scholar rests on a higher and worthier 
pedestal than his share in the misadventure of '60. And so far as I 
know I have never had as much as a crow to pluck with him. Why 



GAELIC SCRIPTURES. H7 

then should we go down into the sawdust for a personal encounter 1 I 
frankly confess that such an encounter, purely gratuitous, and for the 
mere love of fighting, with a brother minister of my own Church, how 
much soever it might amuse the spectators, would be to me a tame and 
zestless performance. 

And so, at least till the emergence of some new development, I shall 
bid adieu to this controversy, and turn to more profitable, if not more 
congenial work. I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

DONALD MASSON. 



PASTORAL STAFF OR CROZIER OF ST FILLAN. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIR, The above expressions are undoubtedly synonymous terms, and 
have ever been considered as such. The words, "pastoral staff," are 
simply an explanation, a putting into plain English, of what is, and 
has always been meant by Crozier a staff belonging to the pastor or 
shepherd. To speak of these two words as representing " respectively 
two churches and creeds widely different," is a matter of great surprise 
coming from such an authority as the Rev. Allan Sinclair.* 

As the sceptre in the hands of kings is the symbol and declaration of 
temporal sovereignity over an earthly kingdom, so the crozier has always 
been looked upon as symbolizing the spiritual power vested by the 
Founder of the Church in those appointed by Him to be His overseers 
Episcopi bishops, head pastors of His Church which is, and can be, but 
one " One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism, one Shepherd of the one Fold." 

In the early history of the Church this Crozier, symbol of spiritual 
authority, bad the form of the letter ~|~, as it still has in some of the 
Catholic Churches of the East reminding us of our English word crutch 
or staff. And to explain more fully the meaning of this symbol of 
spiritual authority, in course of time the shepherd's crook was superadded, 
showing that it was not a common crutch, or staff, but one in the hands 
of the Shepherd or Pastor hence came the name of Pastoral Staff. 

By privilege, not by right, the use of the Crozier or Pastoral Staff was 
granted to some abbots always with the same meaning symbolising 
their limited authority over those entrusted to their charge. 

Ambitious men in their pride may have tried sometimes to usurp an 
authority to which they had no right, and attempted to grasp the symbol 
which declared such authority. But all these usurpers belonged to the 
Catholic Church. The authority symbolised by the Crozier or Pastoral 
Staff was the same the only dispute was about the person who should 
wield it. It was not Crozier, versus Pastoral Staff, or vice versa, but 
whose it should be to grasp the emblem. It was no dispute about faith, 
but about a simple fact- -Who was, or was not the rightful, lawful, pos- 
sessor. 

Namur Cottage, Inverness. COLIN CHISHOLM, 

* See Celtic Magazine of November 1879, page 39, line* 6 and 7. 



118 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



TO EVAN MACCOLL. 



My greeting to thee, Bard revered, 

Sweet minstrel of Loch Fyne ! 
Heaven bless, and shield, and pros- 
per aye, 

Mo charaid I thee and thine. 
May time deal ever tenderly, 

Maccoll ! with thine and thee ; 
Long may thy tuneful Highland harp 

Throb sweetest minstrelsy. 

The sterling virtue of the Gael, 

Their deeds of bravery, 
Their guileless hearts so warm and 

true, 

Who can portray like thee ? 
And sweetly dost thou sing the 

charms, 

The gracefulness divine 
Of Highland maids, in speech en- 
deared 
Thy mother tongue and mine. 

"lona," "Staffa," and "Loch Awe," 

"Loch Lomond" & "Loch Fyne," 

The " Brander Pass " and " Urqu- 

hart's Glen," 

Thou grandly dost outline. 
Thy " Child of Promise," beauteous 

gem, 

A plaintive, soothing psalm, 
Thy " Falling Snow," brings to the 

heart, 
A sweet, a holy calm. 

Thine own "Glenshira," by thy 

muse, 

Is now a classic land ; 
New York, October 1879. 



Its scenes of grandeur have been 
limned 

With skill by Royal hand. 
Oh bless her, Princess of our race ! 

That Rose without a thorn, 
So dearly cherished in our hearts, 

The loved Louise of Lorn. 

Thine odes, thy sonnets, and thy 



All rich in melody, 
Shall with delight be read and sung 

While Awe flows to the sea. 
Oh Bard beloved! in boyhood's morn 

I sang thy mountain lays ; 
With joy perused thy poesie 

'Mong famed Breadalbane's braes. 

I dreamed not then the rich delight 

My future had in store 
Thy noble friendship, treasured dear, 

Within affection's core. 
The happy ceilid/is to thy home, 

The charming converse there ; 
Thy Highland hospitality, 

How cordial, and how rare ! 

Though fair Canadia, now thy home, 

Be full of charms to thee, 
Thy heart oft yearns to see Argyll, 

And thine own " Rowan Tree." 
My wishes warm to thee I waft, 

Charmed songster of Loch Fyne ; 
And oh, may Heaven's blessing rest, 

My friend, on thee and thine ! 

DUNCAN MACGREGOR CRERAR. 



HISTORY OF THE CLAN MACKENZIE; with Genealogies of the Principal 
Families. By ALHXANDBB MACKENZIE, Editor of the Celtic Magazine, &o. In- 
Terness : A. & W. Mackenzie, 1879. 

WE cannot, of course, review thia work in our own pages, but the following extracts 
will show the reader how it has been received by the literary critics. A few copies are 
still for sale at 25s. It makes a handsome New-Year's gift : 

" It opens with the litetary feud as to the origin of the Mackenzies, the author 
vigorously supporting the theory of their descent from the ancient Earls of Ross 
in opposition to tho popular traditional account which traces them to Colin Fitz- 
gerald, an Irish chief, who, fleeing from his country, found a refuge in Scot- 
land, and scored a triumph by saving the King's life from the attack of a savage 
buck a story bearing a remarkable resemblance to the myth regarding John 
of Galloway, the reputed founder of the house of Buccleuch. The Fitzgerald 
fable may be looked upon as exploded, and the documents evidencing it as forgeiies ; 



LITERATURE. 119 

and the theory might now have been passed unnoticed, had it not recently found 
ingenious advocacy in Eraser's ' Earls of Cromartie.' . . . The History of the Mac- 
kenzies of Kintail is a series of tragedies, he^e and there relieved by touches of rude 

humour Mr Mackenzie is disposed to be more exact than some of his 

predecessors, and is not guilty of such blunders as those of Mr W. Fraser, who prefixed 
to his book on the Earls of Cromartie a pedigree of the Seaforth line which was simply 
a slavish copy, even to the eccentric spelling of Douglas's 'Peerage,' and repeated the 
errors of that hook, although he had actually incorporated in his work the history by 
George, Earl of Cromartie, whore a more correct pedigree was given. . . . The work 
has an intense interest of a certain kind, and there is a suggestive picturesqueness about 
the appellations of the chiefs. The various branches of the clan are traced genealogi- 
cally to the present day, a stiff piece of labour for which Mr Mackenzie certainly de- 
serves the thanks of his kinsmen." Athenceum. 

" It was certainly no ordinary task that the enthusiastic editor of the Celtic Magazine 
imposed upon himself, in writing up the history of his clan ; but the manner in which 
he has accomplished the work reflects great credit, not only on his devotion to his family 
name, but his historical faculty as well. His book is a monument of careful and pains- 
taking labour. By many, however, not Mackenzies, the question may be put, Has not 
the author thrown away great labour upon a work which nobody will read outside the 
charmed circle of his clan ? Who in these busy times has leisure, even if he had the 
will, to read the genealogical tree of a Highland family in which he has not the remotest 
possible interest? The answer which the author would make, and justly, is that his 
book is in effect a chapter of national as well as of family history, and as such lays claim 
to be read by all who would make a study of Scottish history. Leaving out the genea- 
logies, of course, the book is, in fact, a deeply interesting and instructive one, dealing as 
it does with men like the Earls of Seaforth, who played such important parts in the 
times of the Covenant, and the revolution which followed. There is not much to admire 
in the characters which figure in this history treacherv, rapine, murder followed too 
closely on their heels, but Mr Mackenzie has been able to throw considerable light, not 
only upon the Highland character, but also upon important historical facts such as the 
conduct of Generals Hurry and Seaforth at the Battle of Auldeam. In a word, he who 
would master the attitude of the Highlanders towards the Covenant and Jacobitism can- 
not afford to pass by this history of the clan Mackenzie. Difference of opinien there 
may be about the author's tracing of the clan back to the ancient Earls of Ross instead 
of the Irish chief, Colin Firzgerald, but there can bo none as to the praiseworthy manner 
in which he haa discharged a most difficult task ; and his book, at any rate, merits the 
notice of all the loyal members of his clan." London Literary World. 

" It furnishes an historical narrative of the family, its feuds, its victories, its acqui- 
sitions of property, its sub-divisions, and their several ramifications down to the present 
day, including alliances by marriage so recent as the present generation. It is an extra- 
ordinary volume. . . . Mr Mackenzie first published what he knew of the history 
of his clan in the Celtic Magazine, an excellent expedient for acquiring additional infor- 
mation ; for correspondence flowed in upon him copiously, correcting inaccuracies, and 
pointing out fresh sources of supply. The present history has by this means been greatly 
enhanced in value. . . . The History of the Mackenzies may be taken as typical of 
the Highlands generally, more so, perhaps, than any other clan in this respect that 
their possessions extended uninterruptedly from the Outer Hebrides to the Point of 
Tarbat Ness, from the western to the eastern extremity of the Highlands proper, and 
the people shared the turbulent life of the Islands and west coast of the mainland, 
as well as that of the peaceful agricultral districts of Easter Ross. . . . The labour 
that must have been bestowed upon the work is amazing." Inverness Courier. 

" Mr Mackenzie traces with laborious minuteness the history of the different chiefs, 
and the feuds in which they were engaged with neighbouring clans, as well as the part 
they played in the struggles which so frequently convulsed the Scottish nation. . . . 
Mr M. gives exhaustive genealogies ef the different branches of the clan, and an abstract 
of the evidence bearing on the much-disputed question of the Chief ship, in the course of 
which he records his opinion that the Mackenziesof Allangrange appear to be heirs male 
of the family of Seaforth." Edinburgh Courant. 

" Mr Mackenzie brings us down through centuries of rapine and bloodshed, in which 
tho feuds between the Mackenzies, the Macdonalds, and the Macleods, are amply re- 
lated. . . . The action taken by the clan dnring the Jacobite rebellions forms an 
interesting chapter in the history, and the events of recent years are skilfully told. . . 
The question of the chiefship is ably discussed. Mr Mackenzie has succeeded in 
completing a very difficult and laborious task, and we have no doubt his researches in 
the interests of Celtic history will be favourably received." Glasgow Newt. 

" Not only the members of the clan, but also all who take an interest in the annals of 
Scotland and the Highlands, owe a debt ot gratitude to the author for the research and 
ability which he has devoted to this interesting volume, which is very handsomely got 
up in Roxburgh binding, nd the printing and general get-up are highly creditable to 
Northern enterprise." Eota-ihire Journal. 



120 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 
GTPM A SLAN A OHI MI. 



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Gur muladach a ta mi, 

'S mi nochd air aird a' ohuain, 
'S neo-shuundtich mo chadal domh, 

'S do chaidn ainh fada uam ; 
Gur trie mi ort a' smaointeach 

As t'aogaia tha mi truagh ; 
'S mar a dean mi d'fhaotainn 

Cha bhi mo shaoghal buan. 

Suil chorrach mar an dearcag, 

Fo rosg a dh' iadhaa dlu ; 
Gruaidhean mar an caoran, 

Fp 'n aodann tha learn ciuin ; 
Aidicbeam le eibhneaa 

Gun d' thug mi fein duit run ; 
'S gur bliadhna learn gach la 

O'n uair a dh'fhag mi thu. 

Theireadh lad ma 'n d' fhalbh mi uat, 

Gu 'm bu ehearbh learn dol ad choir, 
Gu 'n do chuir mi cul riut, 

'S gun dhiult mi dhuit mo phog. 
Na cuircadh sid ort curam, 

A ruin na creid an sgleo ; 
Tha d'anail loam ni's curaidh, 

Na'n driuchd air bharr an fheoir. 

NOTE. The above melody is a favourite in every part of the Highlands. The words 
according to Mackenzie (in the " Beauties of Gaelic Poetry"), were composed by Hector 
Mackenzie, Ullapool. W. M'K. 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



No. III. FEBEUAEY, 1880. VOL. V. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS, 



AND 



THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



IV. 

VII. JOHN MACDONALD of Isla, first Lord of the Isles, who played a 
most important part in the turbulent age in which he lived. He is ad- 
mitted by all authorities to have been one of the most able and sagacious 
chiefs of his time, and, by his diplomacy and alliances, more than by 
the sword, he raised the clan to a position of splendour and power which 
they have not attained to since the days of Somerled. In his time Scot- 
land was divided and harrassed by various claimants to the crown, the 
principal of whom were the second Bruce and Edward Baliol. John of 
the Isles sided with the latter, more probably with the object of recover- 
ing, and maintaining intact, the ancient possessions of his house, than for 
any preference he entertained for Baliol and his English supporters. The 
Island chiefs had always, more or less, claimed to be independent of the 
Scottish kings, and naturally enough it appeared to John of the Isles 
that to aid Baliol against Bruce would be the most effective means of 
strengthening his family pretensions. He was perfectly satisfied that the 
Scottish king would not admit the claim to independence of any compe- 
titor within his realm ; whereas Baliol, not only entertained his preten- 
sions, but actually confirmed him " as far as in him lay," not only to the 
vast territories already possessed by him, but to an extensive addition, 
granting him by charter, in 1355, the lands of Mull, Skye, Islay, Gigha, 
Kintyre, Knapdale, and other large possessions. For these favours John 
bound himself and his heirs to become lieges to the Baliols ; for he well 
knew that even if they succeeded to establish their claim to the crown he 
would be practically independent in the "Western Isles, and could at any 
time re-assert his old pretensions. He, however, visited England in 1338, 
and was well received by Edward III., to whom, it is said, he acknow- 
ledged vassalage. John and the Eegent had some disputes about the 
lands granted by Eobert the Bruce to Angus Og of the Isles, which was 
the main cause of the Island chief being thrown into the arms of Baliol's 
party, who, in addition to the lands above-mentioned, also granted him 

I 



122 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the Wardship of Lochaber, until the heir of Athol, at the time only 
three years of age, attained his majority. These territories had been pre- 
viously forfeited by his ancestors on the accession of .Robert Bruce ; and 
the grant to John of the Isles was confirmed by Edward III. on the 5th 
of October 1336. In spite of all this, however, and the great advantages 
to Baliol of securing the support of a powerful chief like John of the 
Isles, the Regent was ultimately successful in freeing Scotland from the 
dominion and pretensions of the English and their unpatriotic tool, Ed- 
ward Baliol ; and established the independence of his own country. 

In 1341 the Steward sent to France for David II., to commence his 
personal reign in Scotland ; but the Island chief was too powerful to suffer 
materially in person or property for his disloyalty. Indeed, King David on 
his return deemed it the wisest policy to attach as many of the Scottish 
barons to his party as possible ; and with this view he concluded a treaty 
with John of the Isles, by which a temporary peace was secured between 
them, and in consequence of which the Insular Chief was, for the first 
time during his whole rule, not in active opposition to the Scottish king. 
Gregory, referring to these transactions, says that " on the return of David 
II. from France, after the final discomfiture of Baliol and his supporters, 
John of the Isles was naturally exposed to the hostility of the Steward 
and the other nobles of the Scottish party, by whose advice he seems to 
have been forfeited, when many of his lands were granted to one of his 
relations, Angus Maclan, progenitor of the house of Ardnamurchan. 
This grant, however, did not take effect ; and such was the resistance 
offered by John and his kinsman, Reginald or Eanald, son of Eoderick 
MacAlan (who had been restored, in all probability, by Baliol, to the 
lands forfeited by his father), and so anxious was David at the time to 
bring the whole force of his kingdom together in his intended wars with 
England, that he at length pardoned both these powerful chiefs, and con- 
firmed to them the following possessions : To John he gave the Isles of 
Isla, Gigha, Jura, Scarba, Colonsay, Mull, Coll, Tiree, and Lewis, and the 
districts of Morvern, Lochaber, Duror, and Glenco ; to Ranald the Isles 
of Uist, Barra, Egg, and Rum, and the Lordship of Garmoran, being the 
original * possessions of his family in the North. By this arrangement, 
Kintyre, Knapdale, and Skye, reverted to their former owners, and Lorn 
remained in the hands of the crown, whilst it is probable that Ardna- 
murchan was given as a compensation to Angus Maclan," The Lordship 
of Garmoran comprehended the districts of Moidart, Arisaig, Morar, and 
Knoydart, on the mainland. Not long after this Ranald, son of Rory of 
the Isles, and last male representative of Roderick of Bute, grandson of 
Somerled of the Isles, was, in 1346, murdered, as already stated, at Perth 
by the Earl of Ross, from whom he held lands in Kintail ; and, leaving 
no issue, his sister Amy, who married John of the Isles, in terms of the 
grant in his favour by David II., became her brother's heir, when her 
husband, uniting her possessions to his own, assumed henceforth the style 
of Dominus Insularum, or Lord of the Isles, The first recorded instance 
of the assumption of this title by John of Isla, is in an indenture with 
the Lord of Lorn, in 1354. " Thus was formed," continues Gregory, " the 
modern Lordship of the Isles, comprehending the territories of the Mac- 
donalds of Isla, and the Macruaries of the North Isles, and a great part 
of those of the Macdougalls of Lorn ; and although the representative of 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 123 

the latter family was nominally restored to the estates of his ancestors on 
the occasion of his marriage with a niece of the king, yet he was obliged 
to leave the Lord of the Isles in possession of such portion of the Lorn 
estates as had been granted to the latter by David in 1344. The daugh- 
ter and heiress of John de Ergadia, or Macdugall, the restored Lord of 
Lorn, carried Lorn proper to her husband, Eobert Stewart, founder of the 
Eosyth family, by whom the Lordship was sold to his brother, John 
Stewart of Lmerneath, ancestor of the Stewarts, Lord of Lorn." 

This acquisition of territory added immensely to the power and in- 
fluence of the Lord of the Isles, and though he was at the time on friendly 
terms with King David, the Government became concerned as to the con- 
sequences of permitting the ancient territories of Somerled to become 
again united in the person of such an able and already powerful chief as 
the Lord of the Isles. They therefore determined to place every obstacle 
in his way, and refused to acknowledge him as the rightful heir to Eanald 
MacEuari of the Isles, and his wife Amy dying soon after, advantage was 
taken of her death to refuse him a title to her lands, while the Govern- 
ment even went the length of asserting that the marriage with the Lord 
of the Isles, on which his claim was founded, had been irregular, and 
therefore could not be recognised. This naturally aroused the ire of the 
great chief ; he was again in opposition, and in the ranks of the Baliol 
party ; but the English king having had to direct his attention to the 
war with France, a treaty was entered into between the Scottish king and 
the former before his opposition could produce any consequences detri- 
mental to the Government of Scotland. 

Shortly after this a very extraordinary change took place in the 
character and position of the different factions in Scotland which had the 
effect once more of detaching the Lord of the Isles from the English in- 
terest, and of inducing him to take his natural position among the barons 
who stood out for the independence of Scotland. Skene puts the state of 
parties at this period and the ultimate result in a remarkably clear and 
concise form, and says Previously to the return of David II, from cap- 
tivity in England in 1357, the established Government and the principal 
barons of the kingdom had, with the exception of those periods when 
Edward Baliol had gained a temporary success, been invariably hostile 
to the English claims, while it was merely a faction of the nobility, who 
were in opposition to the Court, that supported the cause of Baliol and of 
English supremacy. John, from the natural causes arising from his situa- 
tion, and urged by the continued policy of the Government being directed 
towards the reduction of his power and influence, was always forced into 
opposition to the administration, for the time, by which this policy was 
followed, and when the opposing faction consisted of the adherents of the 
English interest, the Island lord was naturally found among them, and 
was thus induced to enter into treaty with the King of England. On tho 
return of David, however, the situation of parties became materially 
altered; the King of Scotland now ranked as Edward of England's 
staunchest adherent, and secretly seconded all his endeavours to overturn 
the independence of Scotland, while the party which had throughout sup- 
ported the throne of Scotland and the cause of independence were in 
consequence thrown into active opposition to the crown. The natural 
consequence of this change was that the Lord of the Isles left the party 



124 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to which he had so long adhered as soon as it became identified with the 
royal faction, and was thus forced into connection with those with whom 
he had been for so many years at enmity. 

The Steward of Scotland, who was at the head of this party, was of 
course desirous of strengthening himself by means of alliances with the 
most powerful barons of the country, and he therefore received the acces- 
sion of so important a person with avidity, and cemented their union 
by procuring the marriage of the Lord of the Isles with his qwn daughter. 
John now adhered steadfastly to the party of the Steward, and took an 
active share in all its proceedings, along with the other barons by whom 
they were joined, but without any open manifestation of force, until the 
year 1366, when the country was in a state of irritation from the heavy 
burdens imposed upon the people in order to raise the ransom of their 
king, and when the jealousy of David towards the Steward had at length 
broken out so far as to cause the former to throw his own nephew and 
the acknowledged successor to his throne into prison. The northern 
barons, who belonged to his party, broke out into open rebellion, and re- 
fused to pay their proportion of the general taxation, or attend the parlia- 
ment, to which they were frequently summoned. Matters appear to have 
remained in this state, and the northern chiefs to have actually assumed 
independence for upwards of two years, until David had at last brought 
himself to apply to the Steward as the only person capable of restoring 
peace to the country, and charged him to put down the rebellion. 

In consequence of this appeal, the Steward, who was unwilling to be 
considered as the disturber of the peace of the kingdom, and whose ends 
were better forwarded by steady opposition to the Court party than by 
open rebellion, took every means in his power to reduce the insurgent 
noblemen to obedience ; but although he succeeded in obtaining the sub- 
mission of John of Lorn and Gillespie Campbell, and although the Earls 
of Mar and Ross, with other northern barons, whose object was gained 
by the restoration of the Steward to freedom, voluntarily joined him in 
his endeavours, 1 the Lord of the Isles refused to submit, and, secure in 
the distance, and in the inaccessible nature of his territories, set the royal 
power at defiance. But the state of affairs in France soon after requiring 
the undivided attention of the English king, he was obliged to come to 
terms with the Scots, and a peace having been concluded between the 
two countries on the most favourable terms for the latter, the Scottish 
Government was left at liberty to turn its attention wholly towards re- 
ducing the Isles to obedience. In order to accomplish this, David II,, 
well aware of the cause of the rebellion of the Isles, and of the danger of 
permitting matters to remain in their present position, at length deter- 
mined, and that with a degree of energy which his character had given 
little reason to expect, in person to proceed agiinst the rebels, and for 
this purpose commanded the attendance of the Steward with the barons 
of the realm. But the Steward, now perceiving that the continuance of 
the rebellion of the Isles would prove fatal to his party, by the great in- 
fluence which he possessed over his son-in-law, succeeded in persuading 
him to meet the king at Inverness, and to submit himself to his authority, 
and the result of this meeting was a treaty entered into between " Johannes 
de Yla, dominus insularum " on the one hand, and " David, Dei gratia 
rex Scotorum " on the other, in which John not only engaged to submit 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 

to the royal authority and to take his share of all public burdens, but also 
to put down all others who dared to raise themselves in opposition to the 
regal authority. For the fulfilment of this obligation the Lord of the 
Isles not only gave his own oath, but offered the High Steward, his 
father-in-law, as security, and delivered his lawful son, Donald, by the 
Steward's daughter, his grandson, Angus, by his eldest lawful son, John, 
and a natural son, also named Donald, into the hands of the King as 
hostages.* 

By the accession of Eobert Steward to the throne of Scotland, which 
took place shortly after this event, the Lord of the Isles was once more 
brought into close connection with the crown, and as John remained dur- 
ing the whole of this reign in a state of as great tranquillity as his father 
Angus had been during that of Eobert Bruce, the policy of thus connect- 

* The following is a copy of the famous instrument which will be feund at pp. 69-70 
of " Invernessiana," by Charles Fraser-Maekintosh, F.S.A., Scot.,M.P. "To all who may 
see the present letters : John de Yle, Lord of the Isles, wishes salvation in the Saviour 
of all. Since my most serene prince and master, the revered lord David, by the Grace 
of God, illustrious King of Scots, has been stirred up against my person because of cer- 
tain faults committed by me, for which reason, coming humbly to the presence of my 
said lord, at the Town of Inverness, on the 15th day of the month of November, in the 
year of grace 1369, in the presence of the prelates, and of very many of the nobles of his 
kingdom, I offered and submitted myself to the pleasure and favour of my said master, 
by suppliantly entreating for favour and for the remission of my late faults, and since 
my said lord, at the instance of his council, has graciously admitted me to his goodwill 
and favour, granting besides that I may remain in (all) my possessions whatsoever and 
not be removed, except according to the process and demand of law : Let it be clearly 
patent to you all, by the tenor of these presents, that I, John de Yle, foresaid, promise 
and covenant, in good faith, that I shall give aud make reparation to all good men of 
this kingdom whatsoever, for such injuries, losses, and troubles as have been wrought 
by me, my sons, or others whose names are more fully set forth in the royal letters of 
remission granted to me, and to whomsoever of the kingdom as are faithful I shall thus 
far make the satisfaction concluded for, and I shall justly note purchased lands and 
superiorities, and I shall govern them according to my ability ; I shall promptly cause 
my sons and my subjects, and others my adherents, to be in peaceable subjection, and 
that due justice shall be done to our lord the King, and to the laws and customs of his 
kingdom, and that they shall be obedient to, and shall appear before the justie-iars, 
sheriffs, coroners, and other royal servants in each sheriffdom, evt-n better and more 
obedit ntly than in the time of Robert of good memory, the predecessor of my lord the 
King, and as the inhabitants of the said lands and superiorities have been accustomed 
to do. They shall answer, both promptly aud dutifully, to the royal servants what is 
imposed regarding contributions and other burdens and services dun, and also for the 
time past, and in the event that within the said lands or superiorities any person or 
persons shall offend against the King, or one or more of his faithful servants, and it he 
or they shall despise to obey the law, or if he or they shall be unwilling to obey in the 
premises, and in any one of the premises, I shall immediately, entirely laying aside 
stratagem and deceit, pursue that person or those person* as enemies, and as rebels of 
the King and kingdom, with all my ability, until he or they shall be expelled from the 
limits of the lands and superiorities, or I shall make him or them obey the common 
law : And for performing, implementing, and faithfully observing these things, all and 
each, I personally have taken the oath in presence of the foresaid prelates and nobles, 
and besides I have given and surrendered the under-written hostages, viz., Donald, my 
son, begotten of the daughter of the Lord Seneschal of Scotland, Angus, son of my late 
son John, and one Donald, another and natural son of mine, whom, because at the time 
of the completion of this present deed, I have not at present ready and prepared. I shall 
cause them to go into, or to be given up at the Castle of Dumbarton, at the feast of our 
Lord's birth now next to come, if I shall be able otherwise OB this side, or at the feast of 
the Purification of the Blessed Virgin (or Candlemas, 2d February) next following there- 
after, under pain of the breach of the oath given, and under pain of the loss of all things 
which, with regard to the lord our King, I shall be liable to lose, in whatever manner. 
And for securing the entrance of these hostages as promised, I have found my Lord Senes- 
chal of Scotland, Earl of Strathern, security, whose seal for the purpose of the present 
security, and also for the greater evidence of the matter ia appended, along with my own 
proper seal, to these presents in testimony of the premises. Acted and given, year, day, 
and place foresaid." 



126 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

ing these turbulent chiefs with the Government by the ties of friendship 
and alliance, rather than that of attempting to reduce them to obedience 
by force and fortitude, became very manifest. King Robert, no doubt, 
saw clearly enough the advantage of following the advice left by Robert 
Bruce for the guidance of his successors, not to allow the great territories 
and extensive influence of these Island lords ever again to be concentrated 
in the person of one individual ; but the claims of John were too great 
to be overlooked, and, accordingly, Robert had been but one year on the 
throne, when John obtained from him a feudal title to all those lands 
which had formerly belonged to Ranald, the son of Roderick, and which 
had been so long refused to him. 

In order, however, to neutralise in some degree the effect of thus in- 
vesting one individual with a feudal title to such extensive territories, and 
believing himself secure of the attachment of John during his lifetime, 
King Robert determined, since he could not prevent the accumulation of 
so much property in one family, at least, by bringing about its division 
among its different branches, to sow the seed of future discord, and even- 
tually perhaps of the ruin of the race. He found little difficulty in per- 
suading John, in addition to the usual practice in that family of gavelling 
the lands among the numerous offspring, to render the children of the two 
marriages feudally independent of each other, a fatal measure, the conse- 
quences of which John did not apparently foresee ; and, accordingly, in the 
third year of his reign, King Robert confirmed a charter by John to Regi- 
nald, the second son of the first marriage, of the lands of Garmoran, which 
John had acquired by his marriage with Reginald's mother, to be held of 
John's heirs, that is to say, of the descendants of the eldest son of the 
first marriage, of whom one had been given as an hostage in 1369, and 
who would of course succeed to every one of John's possessions which 
were not feudally destined to other quarters. Some years afterwards 
John resigned a great part of the Western portion of his territories, con- 
sisting principally of the lands of Lochaber, Kintyre, and Knapdale, with 
the Island of Colonsay, into the King's hands, and received from him 
charters of these lands in favour of himself and his heirs by the marriage 
with the King's daughter; thus rendering the children of the second 
marriage feudally independent of those of the first, and furnishing a sub- 
ject for contention between these families which could not fail to lead to 
their ruin.* The regularity of the first marriage has been questioned, 
but its perfect legitimacy is now placed beyond question by the discovery 
of a dispensation permitting the marriage by the Pope, dated 1337, as 
the parties were within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity allowed 
by the Church. On this point Gregory, Skene, Smibert, and indeed all 
the best authorities are at one. And the first wife was divorced, from 
anything that can be ascertained, without any just reasons or any cause 
of complaint against her good and faithful conduct. Gregory considers it 
highly probable that a secret understanding was arrived at between the 
Steward and the Lord of the Isles before the latter divorced his first wife 
and married the daughter of the Steward, that at the death of King David 
the Steward would ascend the throne under the title of Robert II. ; and 
certain it is, he says, that after that event the destination of the Lordship 

* Highlanders of Scotland, by W. F, Sksne, pp. 64-70. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 127 

of the Isles was altered so as to cause it to descend to the grandchildren of 
the King. Aware that his rights to Garmoran and the North Isles was 
annulled by the divorce of his first wife, the Lord of the Isles, disregard- 
ing her claims, and trusting to the influence of the Kiug, his father-in- 
law, procured a royal charter of the lands in question, in which her name 
was not even mentioned. Godfrey, the eldest son of the Lord of the Isles, 
by his first wife, resisted these unjust proceedings, maintaining his 
mother's prior claims, and his own as her heir ; but Eanald, his younger 
brother, being more pliant, was rewarded by a grant of the North Isles, 
Garmoran, and many other lands to hold of John, Lord of the Isles, and 
his heirs.* 

When the Steward ascended the throne as King Robert II. of 
Scotland, one of his first Acts of Parliament was to confirm his " beloved 
son John of the Isles " in the possession of the greater portion of the 
Scottish heritage of the house of Someiled, except a portion of Argyle, 
Moidart, Arisaig, Morar, and Knoydart, on the mainland; and IJist, 
Barra, Rum, Egg, and Harris, in the Western Isles, were confirmed or 
assigned to him and his heirs by royal charter, dated at Scone, on the 9th 
March 1371-2. By the charter granted in his favour by David II. on 
the 12th June 1344, he, in addition to securing the lands already named, 
was made keeper of the " King's Castles of Kernoburgh, Iselborogh, and 
Dunchonnal, with the lands and small Islands thereto belonging to be 
held by the said John, and his heirs, in fee and heritage." In 1354 he 
entered into an indenture with John of Lorn, Lord of Argyle, by which 
the latter gave up his ancient claims to these castles and lands, in favour 
of John of the Isles, as also his rights to the Islands of Mull, Jura, 
and Tiree. In the same year he was one of the four great barons of Scot- 
land named as securities for the observance of the Treaty of Newcastle, 
and as the other three barons named were the Steward of Scotland, after- 
wards Robert II., the Lord of Douglas, and Thomas of Moray, it is clear 
that he was selected as one of the most powerful chiefs at the time in all 
Scotland. On 31st March 1356 Edward III. of England issued a com- 
mission to treat directly with the Island Chief, and in the treaty for the 
liberation of David II., entered into on the 3d October in the following 
year, by which also an " inviolable truce " for ten years between England 
and Scotland, was agreed upon, the Lord of the Isles was specially men- 
tioned. In 1362 he obtained a confirmation of all donations and conces- 
sions by whosoever made to him, and of whatsoever lands, tenements, 
annual rents, and other possessions held by him. 

The haughty temper of the Western chief is well illustrated by an 
anecdote preserved in Hugh Macdonald's MS. " When John of the 
Isles was to be married, some of his followers and familiars advised him 
to behave courteously before the King, and to uncover himself as others 
did. He said (that) he did not well know how the King should be 
reverenced, for all the men he ever saw should reverence himself;" and, 
to get over the difficulty, the haughty lord " threw away his cap, saying 
he would wear none," and thus there would be no necessity to humiliate 
himself by taking it off before the King. 

There is no doubt whatever that John, first Lord of the Isles, married 

* Wettem Highlands and Isles, pp. 30-31, 



128 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

first, as his lawful wife, Amy, sole representative and heiress of the Mac- 
Ruari "branch of the Siol Cuinn, and that among his descendants by thia 
marriage, we must look for the representative of the elder branch, and 
therefore for the chiefs of the line of Somerled of the Isles, while it is 
equally true that the family of Sleat represent John, last Earl of Ross 
and Lord of the Isles. The controversy which has taken place on this 
important question between the families of Glengarry and Moydart is 
well known to many of our readers, and we are fortunate enough to pos- 
sess copies of it ; but although the question arises chronologically here, 
we prefer to discuss the whole subject at a future stage in a special 
chapter. There is, however, no doubt that Donald, the eldest son of the 
second marriage, although not the chief of the family by right of blood, be- 
came the actual feudal superior of his brothers. On this point Gregory is 
emphatic, and says "Donald, the eldest son of the second marriage, be- 
came, on his father's death, second Lord of the Isles, and in that capacity 
was most undoubtedly, feudal superior and actual chief of his brothers, 
whether of the full or half blood." We shall therefore follow and treat 
the Lords of the Isles as the main, and, unquestionably, the most import- 
ant line in this work. 

By his marriage with Amy, heiress of the MacRuaries, "the good John 
of Isla " had issue 

1. John, who died before his father, leaving one son, Angus, who died 
without issue. 

2. Godfrey, of Uist and Garmoran, of whom hereafter. 

3. Ranald, or Reginald, progenitor of Glengarry, and of all the Mac- 
donalds claiming to be Clan Ranalds. These shall afterwards be dealt 
with in their order. 

4. Mary, said to have married, first, one of the Macleans of Duart, 
and, secondly, Maclean of Coll. 

He married, secondly, Lady Margaret, daughter of Robert, High Stew- 
ard of Scotland, afterwards King Robert II., and first of the Stewart 
dynasty. By this lady he had 

5. Donald, who succeeded as second Lord of the Isles. 

6. John Mor Tanister of Islay and Kintyre, and of whom hereafter. 

7. Alexander, Lord of Lochaber, known as u Alastair Carrach," pro- 
genitor of the family of Keppoch. 

Gregory says that he died in 1380, while Skene has it that he died 
about 1386. His death took place at his Castle of Ardtornish in Morven, 
and he was buried in the sacred precincts of lona, " with great splendour," 
by the ecclesiastics of the Isles, whose attachment he secured by liberal 
donations to the Church, and who evinced their gratitude by calling him 
" the good John of Isla," a designation handed down by tradition to 
modern times. 

He was succeeded in all his possessions, and in the Lordship of the 
Isles, by his eldest son by the second marriage. 

(To be Continued.) 



D E E M N D. 

A TALE OP KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DAYS. 

Tennyson, 
BOOK I. "AMONG THE ISLES OF THE WESTERN SEA." 

CHAPTER V. 

What may this moan, 

That thou, duad corse, again, in complete steel, 
Revisit'st thus the glimpses of the moon, 
Makiag night hideous ; and we fools of nature, 
So horribly to shake our disposition, 
With thoughts beyond the reaches of our soul? 

Hamlet. 

It is quite unnecessary to dwell on the way in which the night was 
passed at Dunkerlyne. The news of Dermond's escapade fell like a 
thunderclap among the assembled revellers, and silenced the mirth for a 
while. As soon as the messenger had gone, a stern vow of vengeance on 
the head of John of Lorn and his minion, Macnab, burst from the lips of 
the men-at-arms. Brian was greatly alarmed and confused at first, but 
reflection made him calm and decided. The reception of Cyril as his 
guest did not now disturb him so much ; Dermond's captivity weighed 
too heavily on his mind. But it stung him into resolution. He knew 
he had a dual part to play, and hesitation might be ruin. The night was 
principally spent in sounding the men, all of whom appeared to be above 
suspicion, although the heart of a traitor beat in the breast of Cormac 
DoiL Brian held counsel with Jarloff as to what he should do on the 
morrow. To attempt a rescue or openly defy the power of John of Lorn 
would be madness, and might precipitate the fate of the youth. Submis- 
sion and dissimulation were resolved upon, but meanwhile every effort 
was to be made to resume secret communication with Robert the Bruce, 
so that the power of the tyrant of Dunolly might be overwhelmed in the 
general rising of the country against the yoke of Edward. Confidences 
were exchanged between the pirate and his guest. Brian was informed 
of his relationship to Cyril The story of the descent on Eathland waa 
related, and the Chief of Dunkerlyne thanked God that he had not been 
too rash to revenge a deed for which Lorn was more to blame than the 
unfortunate Cyril. 

"With every semblance of feality, Brian and a large body of his fol- 
lowers attended at Dunolly on the succeeding day. 

The gathering was a formidable one, and night had almost set in be- 
fore all the petty chieftains from the interior of the mainland and the 
most remote island fastnesses of the Western sea had gathered under the 
walls of the great stronghold of the Lorns. 

In the principal hall of the castle the heads of the various clans were 
assembled, and John of Lorn made known his fell purpose. 

" My gallant chieftains," he said, as his eagle eye scanned the expect- 
ant faces of the war-girt Highlanders, " from your hearths and from the 
bosoms of your families have I called you to accompany me on an expedj- 



130 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tion of great and mighty import. Two days ago the violence of the wind 
and waves prevented our assembling in such force as we do now, but 
since one of your number at least the brave and faithful Macuab had 
the courage to set the storm at defiance, take not this as an evil omen 
attainting the justice of our cause or the success which shall attend there- 
unto. The delay, mayhap, hath rather been for good than otherwise. A 
courier from the English court hath arrived in the interval, bringing in- 
telligence of the whereabouts and strength of the rebellious Bruce of 
Carrick. His sacrilegious deed in the Church of Dumfries now meets a 
just punishment. All the faithful sons of the Church have forsaken his 
standard, and the hand of an indignant God is lifted high to smite his 
cause. All of you must know of the insult perpetrated in contempt of 
the holiness of the Sanctuary and the dignity of our house. My gallant 
kinsman, the Red Comyn, rightful heir to the throne of Scotland, and 
joint regent under the power of Edward of England, after having been 
unfaithfully treated with, and divers forgeries and calumnies invented for 
his traduction in the eyes of his most gracious Majesty as a scheming 
traitor, hath been treacherously and vilely stabbed before the altar of God 
in the Church of Greyfriars. Since the perpetration of a deed so repul- 
sive to the principles of faith and loyalty so infamous in the eyes of the 
whole world, since the blood of royalty itself spattered the steps of the 
holy alter, the regicide hath presumptously assumed the crown of Scot- 
land, the ceremony being publicly performed by the Countess of Buchan 
in the precincts of the palace of Scone. But thanks to the noble Pem- 
broke, he hath not long enjoyed his blood-bought honours. Driven from 
the woods of Methven as a pestilence defiling whithersoever his feet may 
tread, he hath with unprincipled audacity overrun the territority of Lorn, 
living royally on the produce thereof with fishing hook and hunting spear. 
Start not when I say that this reckless adventurer is now within a few 
days march of our seat of Dunolly. Desperate and mighty as he is, he 
can yet be crushed. Defeated as he is, he is still powerful, and all the 
efforts of our noble allies have been unable to oust him from his retreat. 
One who can so shamelessly violate all that is sacred in chivalry is neither 
open to the protection of God nor man. Think you, my gallant chief- 
tains the strength of our noble house in justice to the blood which 
bears testimony on the altar we shall stand carelessly by and allow this 
flaming hell-fiend to take refuge in our woods and mountains. Let us 
exert the utmost of our power to crush the bloody and unholy usurper. 
Eor this cause therefore the cause of Heaven, the cause of England, the 
cause of Lorn, yea, the cause of each and every son of the faithful I 
have called you forth, and before another day dawns upon our indolence 
let us go and seek the rebellious regicide, and expel him from our terri- 
tory." 

As soon as the bursts of applause, the shouts of assent and vows of 
vengeance had died down, he resumed 

" This is not all. The same courier bringeth intelligence of the total 
defeat of two galley? commanded by Cyril of Rathland, our sworn enemy, 
while attempting to land succours for the Bruce on the shores of Kintyre. 
Cyril escaped, but is supposed to have suifered wreck on these shores. 
The storm was the weapon with which the God of the faithful smote the 
helper of the heretic. Cyril, however, hath not yet perished, By the 



DERMOKD. 131 

foul treachery of some of our vassals ho hath gained a refuge in these 
isles. (The eye of Lorn was sternly fixed on Brian the Viking as he 
spoke these words.) The vengeance of Heaven and the blood of Comyn 
also demand that instant search be made for the Lord of Rathland, and 
the shelterer of his unholy head shall be hung with Cyril's carcase by 
the heels from the highest tower of his castle," 

" Death to the traitor !" shouted the chieftains. 

Brian was silent and looked somewhat startled as every eye was 
directed against him. 

" Ha ! you start and look pale, good Brian of Dunkerlyne !" exclaimed 
Lorn with a malicious chuckle. " Why do you not shout ' Death to the 
traitor ! ' like the rest of my noble vassals ? " 

" Your pardon, my lord," said the Viking, recovering himself, " I 
feel abashed at your words. I am truly alarmed at what you say regard- 
ing some traitor, God knows I am innocent. Day and night I have 
not slept in trying to find the whereabouts of this bloody man, Cyril of 
Eathland. As yet my work has been in vain." 

" Methinks, Sir Chief, you have cause enough to perform the mission 
surely and faithfully. The slayer of your gallant father, Francis, and the 
abettor of a sacrilegious regicide make a fit subject for your vengeance." 

" They do, my lord," assented the chieftain, suppressing the passion 
which boiled within him. 

" Eevenge for the death of your noble father, the blessing of the 
Church, and the liberty of your son," exclaimed Lorn, " make a fitting 
reward." 

Brian remained speechless. 

" What," said Lorn, " you hesitate. Have I said too little for so 
small a deed. Would you have me give you money to bribe your cour- 
age ? Or shall I add to the liberty of your jackanapes of a son the hand 
of a noble lady he covets V 

" Shame upon the mercenary knave," re-echoed through the chamber. 

" To revenge the death of a father," said the swarthy Chief from Col- 
onsay, " would methinks be guerdon enow for the death of a thousand 
men." 

" The blessing of the Church," said the holy abbot of lona, " ought, 
above all things, to spur you to revenge." 

" Give me the task, my lord," said the fiery Macnab, " and even I 
will undertake to find and slay the accursed abettor of this murdering 
heretic." 

"You misunderstand me on all hands," said Brian of Dunkerlyne, ex- 
asperated with the insults of Lorn, the goading of the Abbot, and the ex- 
clamations of the chieftains. " Hear me, good sirs, and you shall know 
what makes me shrink from answering as I should wish your unseemly 
taunts. If there be a sire among you with love or sympathy in his heart 
who knows what it is to have a son, he will not be so ready to fling such 
cowardly reproaches. I have a son, an only son, whom I love as i love 
my own life. My gallant Derrnond lies writhing in chains far down be- 
neath this floor in the depths of the dungeons of Dunolly. Grief for his 
fate unnerves me and makes me dumb. Set him at liberty. Let him 
accompany you in this expedition, and I shall return to the execution of 
my duty. Let Heaven and this assembly be my witnesses, while I swear 



132 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

"by this sword with its holy cross while I swear by the sacred shrine of 
Columba that another day shall not dawn before the death of my father 
is avenged, the Church satisfied, and the state assured, Rest so much 
faith in me my liege for this once. Set Dermond at liberty, take him 
with you to fight against the Bruce, and leave me to deal with Cyril of 
Bathland." 

" Nobly spoken," burst from almost every lip as this speech was con- 
cluded. 

" Go then, brave Brian of the sea-wave," said Lorn, " I believe you 
are worthy of the trust. Dermond shall go free. His offence, with the 
assent of Macnab, will no doubt be pardoned. The good Abbot will 
shrive him of his sin, and he will accompany me against the Bruce. 
But, remember, my suspicions have not been without ground my charges 
have not been without cause. See that Cyril has not gained your confi- 
dence and hospitality already. Tremble at my words, and harken ye 
noble bulwarks of our house, while I threaten the wavering vassal. If 
the roof of your castle shelters Cyril of Eathland another night the life 
of your son shall answer for your treachery. Avenge me on this Irish 
chieftain, and the guerdon shall exceed your expectations." 

Brian frowned at this speech, and thundered forth a denial of the 
charges it contained. 

" I trust you do not belie yourself," said Lorn. " I may have been 
deceived by my informant. At least remember my words." 

Bowing to Macdougall Brian retired in sore dismay from the presence 
of the chieftains. 

Before starting for Dunkerlyne he had an interview with his son in 
his dungeon. The youth, who was ghastly pale with thought and confine- 
ment, clasped his father to his breast, and thanked Heaven that he had 
not perished in the storm. A gleam of fire lighted up his weary eye, and 
the colour returned to his cheek as he fondled in his parent's arms. The 
blood forsook his cheek again, however, when he had time to observe the 
cloud which rested on the Viking's brow. All was not well, and the 
offer of liberty did not bring that gladness to his heart which it ought to 
have done. The manner of his father was altogether suspicious, and he 
urged him to reveal what could oppress him so much. 

" If you have done aught that is wrong or bound yourself to any un- 
holy task for the sake of my liberty," said Dermond, " let me rather rot 
in this foul dungeon. I will not be free on any such terms." 

" Nay, my good Dermond," said the Viking, " rest assured there is 
nought I have undertaken but what can be executed with honour. It 
merely troubles me to know that you start on your first errand of peril 
without the protection of a father's arm. Be wary, my son, in your deal- 
ings with the enemy. He is cunning and courageous. Be bold and fear- 
less, but neither rash nor careless. Be always well on your defence, and 
use the tricks of the sword and battleaxo, which have made your fathers 
so illustrious on land and sea. The Sassenach is well armed with linked 
shirt and glittering cuirass, but watch the chinks and joints of his harness. 
Your sword was the sword of my father, Francis, in his youth. It is well 
tempered and handy. Your battle-axe was given to Jarloff by the great 
King Haco. Treasure it, for it is your strength. It is the trust of your 
life, and no Sassenach helmet can resist its clang. Above all things place 



DEKMOND. 133 

your hope in the Saints, for though I be not a very godly man, for the 
sake of your heavenly mother I adjure you to bo faithful and chivalrous." 

" Never fear, my father," said Dermond with assumed laughter, " I 
have strength and skill to hold my own against the strongest Sassenach. 
Meanwhile, farewell ! When I return my shield shall be brighter with 
the deeds of the battle." 

Brian kissed his son and parted. As he turned away he muttered 
something like a curse, and wiped a trickling tear from his cheek with 
his iron hand. 

He returned to Dunkerlyne, and mixed deeply in the nightly revel 
He drank much, and startled the men-at-arms with fits of what appeared 
to be madness. He had always been subject to these fits since the de- 
scent of Francis on the shores of Bathlaud, but that night there was 
something wild and savage about his speech and bearing such as no one 
had previously witnessed. 

The hall was at length emptied of the men-at-arms. Brian lingered 
behind. He cursed those who came to offer him assistance to his bed- 
chamber, and sternly ordered all to go and sleep. 

He sat gazing into the smouldering fire which cast a dim and lurid 
light over the bare walls and blackened rafters. The boisterous laugh 
and merry song of the retreating revellers jarred fearfully on his ear. His 
eyes were red and swollen, and his head, with its unkempt grey hairs, lay 
buried in his hands. He looked dazed and troubled, and when he spoke 
to himself or the visionary beings who floated round him, his voice was 
deep and unusually harsh. 

Most of the other occupants of the keep were soon wrapt in a slumber 
such as succeeds to late hours and a boisterous revel. 

No sound broke the stillness of the hall save the tread of the sentinels 
echoing from the platforms without, the roar of the waves dashing on the 
cliffs beneath, the rustle among the expiring embers, or the occasional 
restlessness of Brian himself. 

At length he lifted his head, glared wildly into the fire, rested one 
arm on his knee, and thrust the other into his breast. 

" I am a cruel and hardened man," he muttered to himself. 

Again he buried his face in his hands, and then sat speechlessly 
watching the flickering flame in the deadening fire. 

The crying of a little child, piercing the pitiless darkness of the night, 
made him start up and glance fearfully around. 

He went to the window, and after looking some time towards Dunolly 
where the watchfires cast a ruddy glamour on the mountains and the sky, 
he returned to his seat with " Bloody, faithless villain !" hissing through 
his teeth. The life of his only son Dermond lay in the balance against 
the life of his uncle. There was some traitor at Dunkorlyne who had 
been revealing all regarding his reception of Cyril. How he yearned to 
tear the eyes and tongue from his treacherous head ! 

" Stain my hands with an old man's blood 1" thought Brian in his 
agony. " Spatter the steps of God's altar forsooth ! What if the blood 
of my guest should spatter the hearth of (hospitality ? Murder my uncle 
shameless, treacherous Lorn. Heaven support me in this struggle. 
Holy mother of God be my guide and adviser. Ye burning sattelites 
above, and all the sacred bones of St Columba's shrine, aid me in this the 



134 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

hour of my need. I have been rash and ungodly in my life, let me not 
add this sin to the rest." 

He wept and prayed in vain. 

" Bah !" he exclaimed, " I have played the woman, but no more. I 
must revenge my father. Dermond must be made happy. A murrain 
on my fears." 

He rose from his seat, clutched his dirk, aud made to leave the hall. 
Something seemed to stand between him and the door, barring the way, 
and when he moved forward a strong hand seemed to clutch him by the 
throat and thrust him back. 

" Avaunt, ye hell-fionds ! " he attempted to shout, but his voice failed 
him and his dagger clung tenaciously to the sheath. 

Hailing with a cold sweat and breathing abruptly, he drew back and 
sank helplessly on the bench by the fire, 

For some time he sat in a state of quivering fear, and then mustering 
up courage and muttering something about " fancy," he rushed out. 

Strange sounds re-echoed through the castle. An earthquake rumbled 
among the mountains and shook the sea, while the towers of Dunkerlyne 
rocked to and fro. 

Brian returned pale as a ghost, and sank into his seat. He had been 
to the chamber high up on the northern side of the keep the same 
chamber where the great Alexander II. of Scotland was smitten by the 
hand of death in his expedition for the subjection of the Lord of Argyle 
and the Isles in 1249. There Cyril and his son slept in each other's 
arms. A strange feeling came over him as he stood there with his dagger 
drawn ready to do murder. " Oh God !" he cried, " whence this terrible 
delusion T He remembered the meeting on the hillside when the face of 
his uncle, who was then a stranger to him, so vividly recalled the features 
of his father, and then the youth so like^his Dermond in the lineaments 
of every limb and feature. He could not stab. He turned away his 
eyes, and attempted to do so in vain. 

" Hellish bewilderment !" he shouted fiercely on returning to the hall. 
" So like the image of my father ! Something withheld my hand." 

He thought of of the circumstances under which his father had met 
his death. Cyril had slain his brother Francis while defending his own 
castle. The deed had been done in error and in the heat of combat. 
The night had been very dark, and Eathland had been attacked by John 
of Lorn. He thought of the tyrannies exercised by the great Macdougall ; 
and meditating on the weakness of his castle of Dunkerlyne, when traitors 
lurked within its walls, he struck his brow and beat his feet on the floor 
with rage. 

" Haughty, bloody miscreant]!" he exclaimed, " your threats and 
orders I defy. Yes, my castle hath walls and gates of strength, and the 
traitors shall be thrown into the sea from the highest cliif in Kerrera. 
My Dermond, my gallant son, shall yet escape your villany. Now to my 
couch in peace, and to-morrow shall dawn upon a free and independent 
Chief of Dunkerlyne." 

He rose to leave the hall, but dimly discernable in the pale moonlight 
that straggled through the bars of the iron casement the stately figure of 
his father stood. 

Brian paused, and as he gazed tremulously, the blood in his veins ran 



DERMOND. 135 

cold. He drew his hand across his eyes to remove the film that seemed 
to gather on them. But there his father stood with an unearthly glare 
lighting up his pallid features. The eyes gleamed with fire. The richly 
embossed armour shone with inherent brilliancy. One pale hand grasped 
the glittering mantle, while the other held aloft the battle-axe as of yore. 
As Brian continued to gaze in dumb fear, the vision grew more vivid 
and alarming until it seemed to fade away in a sea of blood. With a 
feeling of sinking into the ruddy gulf he fell cold and senseless on the 
hard stone floor. 

(To be Continued.) 



ALLAN NAN CREACH. 



THE traveller through the Pass of Drumouchter to Newtonmore at the 
base of Craigdhu, the ancient gathering place of the Macphersons, would 
be apt to imagine that the district along which he is skirting is one of 
dreary wildness of mountains, barren or only covered by heather the 
sole homes of the deer and the grouse, and would scout as a ridiculous 
idea the possibility of finding level fields capable of being farmed as highly 
and affording as fertile returns as many districts in the Lowlands. 

And yet it is so. Amid hills and mountains crowded, and as it were 
crowding together, climbing over each other to see and be seen of the 
world, to share the sweeping storm or bathe in the beaming sunshine 
there are valleys as sweet and picturesque as they are unexpected. 
Stretching westward, twenty miles in length by about two in breadth, 
there is the Strath of the Spey. Flanking the valley, runs the Monadh- 
lia (gray mountains) range, extending from the confines of Lochaber 
nearly eighty miles towards .Nairn, in some places three thousand feet 
high and thirty miles wide, and separating the vale of the Spey from the 
glen of the Findhorn while the Ben Alder range, lofty and precipitous 
to the west, once the favourite haunt of red deer, before sheep invaded the 
territory, overhanging Loch Ericht, one of the wildest lakes in Scotland, 
divides it from Loch Laggan, one of the most beautiful. 

To the traveller on approaching it the view is very pleasing ; its bays 
so much indented look like a series of small lakes. The lands around it 
rise gradually from base to summit, are clothed on their skirts with na- 
tural wood, and abound in ravines and corries, which the fugitives from 
Culloden Prince Charlie, Lochiel, Cluny Macpherson, and others, made 
their hiding homes, until they could leave the land of their love with the 
breaking hearts of exiles, for sunnier yet sadder climes. 

Around Loch Laggan the scenery is most magnificent. The hills seem 
thrown into their present position by some mighty convulsion of nature, 



136 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

and to the traveller, as lie proceeds, present, as it were in a moving pano- 
rama, a series of grand yet indescribable views. 

The whole district is interesting. In the foreground is Cluny Castle, 
the residence of the Chief of the Macphersons ; Laggan Manse, once the 
home of Mrs Grant, the famous authoress ; the neighbourhood of the 
Loch, once the favourite hunting grounds ; and lastly, the burial places 
of the Kings Fergus. One of the islands bears the name of Eilean an 
Righ (King's Island) ; another, Eilean nan Con (Dogs' Island), while a 
height is called Ardverige or the ard or height of Fergus. At the east 
end of this Loch are the ruins of the Church of St Killen, round which 
hangs the following tradition : 

It is said that this Church was built by " Allan nan Creach" or Allan 
of the Spoils, a soubriquet given to one of the family of Cameron of 
Lochiel. The following anecdote has been gravely told, and gravely be- 
lieved by the good people of Lochaber and Badenoch, as giving an ac- 
count of the circumstances that led to the building of this and of six other 
churches. It is said that Allan was very active, and at first rather suc- 
cessful in levying contributions from his neighbours, and in driving off 
their cattle without ceremony, for his own special use. But the tide of 
plunder does not always run smooth, any more than that of love. Allan 
having met with some disasters in his predatory expeditions, was resolved 
upon having some communication with the inhabitants of the invisible 
world, in order to find out the cause. There was a celebrated witch in 
his neighbourhood, called Gorm Shuil or blue-eyed. She was such an 
adept in her profession that she could transform herself and others into 
hares and cows, raise hurricanes from any quarter of the compass she 
pleased, and perform other wonderful exploits, too tedious to mention. 
Under the direction of this and other similar advisers, Allan, to attain the 
project he had in view, took a living cat, and with his servant, went at 
night to a corn-kiln, near Torcastle in Strathlochy. The cat was put liv- 
ing on a spit ; and the servant commenced the process of roasting it before 
a slow fire, while Allan stood at the entrance leading to the fire, with a 
drawn sword to keep off all intruders. The cat set up doleful lamenta- 
tions, when a crowd of cats immediately gathered, as it were to its rescue ; 
but they were kept at a respectable distance by the redoubtable Allan. 
Every cat as it came, exclaimed in Gaelic, " 'S olc an carabh cait sin," 
" that is bail treatment of a cat." " It will not be better just now " was 
Allan's response ; and every moment he would address the man at the fire, 
saying, " Whatever you may hear or see, keep turning the cat." At last 
a black cat with one eye came and calmly remonstrated with the guardian 
of the passage on his cruelty, and told him that his late reverses were a 
punishment for his wickedness in plundering his neighbours, and that in 
order to atone for his guilt, and obtain forgiveness for his sins, he must 
build seven churches a church for every creach which he raised. The 
cat Cam Dubh (the one-eyed cat), added, that if Allan would persevere 
in his present amusement, until the cat with the long hanging ears, his 
brother (Cluasan leabhra mo bhrathair) should arrive, he would take such 
summary vengeance, that Allan would never see his Maker's face in mercy. 
This lecture having struck terror into Allan's soul, he released the cat at 
the fire, and did not wait the arrival of the dreadful cluasan leabhra, but 
retired immediately from the scene, and lost 110 time in commencing his 



ALLAN NAN CREACH. 137 

church building scheme, according to the directions of his monitor. He 
erected ere he died, the seven churches which are still pointed out, and it 
is said that the old church of Laggan was one of the seven. 

In St Mungo's Island, at the entrance of Loch Leven, near Glenco in 
Argyleshire, there is a burial-place ; and there we find another of Allan 
nan Creach's churches. The following story is reported, and firmly be- 
lieved at this day in that part of the country : About the middle of the 
last century a man was buried in the island. For several nights after, 
the dead man disturbed the whole neighbourhood in Glenco, calling in a 
most dolorous strain on a certain individual to come and relieve him. 
The man at last set off for the island in the dead hour of night, and hav- 
ing arrived at the grave, found the dead man with his head and neck 
fairly above the ground. " What is your business with me," says the 
Glenco man, " and why are you disturbing the neighbourhood with your 
untimely lamentations after this fashion ?" " I have not," says the dead 
man, " rest night or day since I lay here, nor shall I, as long as this head 
is on my body. I shall give you the reason. In my younger days I 
swore most solemnly that I would marry a certain woman, and that I 
never would forsake her as long as this head remained on my body. At 
this time I had a hold of a button, and the moment we parted, I sepa- 
rated the head of the button from the neck, thinking that then all was 
right. I now find my mistake. You must, therefore, cut off my head." 
The other, fetching a stroke, cut off the head close to the surface of the 
ground, and then the dead man dragged the rest of the body back to the 
grave, leaving the head to shift for itself. This story is as firmly believed 
in Glenco this day, by some people, as any truth of Holy Writ. 

TORQUIL. 



EETIREMENT OF PROVOST ALEXANDER SIMPSON. 
Apart altogether from Municipal politics, a change in the Chief Magis- 
tracy of the Highland Capital must possess more or less interest for High- 
landers wherever located ; and especially so in the case of one who, like 
Provost Simpson, has devoted about a quarter of a century to public affairs. 
During his reign, schemes of great importance to Inverness have been 
completed, such as the introduction of Water from Lochashie, the pur- 
chase by the Town of the Old Gas and Water Company's business and 
plant, and the building of a New Town Hall ; and while a considerable 
difference of opinion exists as to the manner in which these schemes were 
carried out, there is none as to the honesty of purpose of the chief actor, 
and the ultimate amelioration and benefit of the town, Provost Simpson 
had his failings, but they generally leant to virtue's side. Ho tried to 
please all, and of course failed, like others who attempted the impossible. 
His knowledge of town affairs was unequalled by any member of the 
Town Council, and he was noted for his discharge of the public duties 
pertaining to the office on all occasions where his presence as chief magis- 
trate was considered of advantage to any good cause. He especially encou- 
raged all matters Celtic, and invariably attended officially all the public 
meetings of the Gaelic Society, of which he is a chieftain. He carries 
with him into private life the best wishes of all who know him. 

IP 



138 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

THE EARLY SCENES OF FLORA MACDONALD'S LIFE, 

WITH SEVERAL INCIDENTAL ALLUSIONS TO THE 
REMARKABLE ADVENTURES AND ESCAPES OP THE UNFORTUNATE 

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 
By the Rev. ALEX, MAOGREGOR, M.A., Inverness. 

o 

PART III. 

FLORA was, in every respect, a very interesting girl. She became a parti- 
cular favourite with all the respectable families in the Island, such as Clan- 
ranold and his lady, his brother Boisdale, and family her own relatives 
at Baileshear, and many others. Lady Clanranold acted towards her more 
like a mother than a distant relative. She was seldom left at home with 
her brother at Milton, but paid long visits to her respected friends around, 
and these visits were welcomed by all When Flora was about thirteen 
years of age, Lady Clanranold insisted on her remaining continuously at her 
residence at Ormiclade, that she might get the benefit of instruction from 
a governess who had been provided by Clanranold for his own children. 
Such was the kindness of the family at Ormiclade to her, that she could 
not express her gratitude. For about three years Flora's home was in the 
hospitable mansion of Clanranold, with the exception of short trips occa- 
sionally to Skye, to visit her mother at Armadale. She by far excelled 
in her lessons the daughters of the family, and although Clanranold and 
lady had too much sense not to appreciate her expertness and aptitude, 
for the acquisition of useful instruction, yet the daughters became to 
some degree jealous of poor Flora, and hinted that the governess was 
more attentive to her than she was to themselves. There was, in short, 
every appearance, that in their hearts, the youngsters at Ormiclade 
cherished a certain degree of envy or jealousy towards their unoffend- 
ing protege. Flora was by far too clear-sighted not to see all this, 
and likewise too prudent not to be able to effect a remedy. She 
endured everything patiently for about half-a-year, as in reality the 
youngsters only had taken private offence at her success, while the 
parents very probably had never heard nor thought any thing about 
it. She had given intimation in her own pleasing and grateful way, to 
Lady Clanranold, that by such or such a time, she would require to visit 
her mother, and spend some time with her, as she had, again and again, 
heard it alleged that she was an unnatural daughter, and a very unduti- 
ful one, who had deserted her only parent, and lost all sense of her filial 
duties. " Eh ! me, Flora dear," said Lady Clanrauold, " what will be- 
came of ' ce61ag,' if you go off and leave us, and what will become of us 
all 1 If you do go, you must return soon, and bear that in mind." The 
" ce61ag " to which the lady here alludes, was the name given in the 
family to a spinet, or small piano at Ormiclade, on which Flora became 
an astonishing performer. She acquired a knowledge of the notes from 
the governess, but her own correct ear for muisc, was the real source of 
her success. She could play not only the reels, and the dance music of 
the day with no ordinary efficiency, but likewise the ancient " piobair- 
eaehds," in which she gave due prominence to all the pogiaturas, and 



FLOEA MACDONALD. 139 

grace-notes of the quick variations. In the same manner, even at this 
youthful age, she could sing Gaelic songs exceedingly well, and repeat 
lengthy strains of ancient poetry in that language. All these she com- 
mitted to memory from the rehearsals of the bards and seanachies that ex- 
isted then in the Isles. 

In the year 1739 Lady Clanranold had a communication from the 
Honourable Lady Margaret Macdonald (wife of Sir Alexander Macdonald 
of the Isles, residing at Monkstadt, in Skye), expressing a wish to have a 
visit from Flora, whom her ladyship had not seen for two years. She 
wished this visit to take place for a certain praiseworthy purpose, which 
she stated to Lady Clanranold, and which was to the effect, that she and 
her husband, Sir Alexander, were desirous that Flora should be well 
educated, and that they had certain plans in view for this purpose, which 
they hoped to be able soon to execute. 

Flora appeared to be much gratified at this act of attention paid to her 
by Sir Alexander's lady, although as yet she was entirely ignorant of the 
special purposes, which her ladyship had in view in regard to her. She 
had been frequently at Monkstadt before, where she met with as much 
kindness from her noble chief and his lady, as should she have been their 
own child. She had formed the idea that her presence was thus wanted 
in Skye, in order perhaps to place her under the tuition of some notable 
teacher who may have come to the place. It may be remarked that in 
Skye at that period, all kinds of useful education flourished in respectable 
families beyond most other quarters of the Highlands. The cause was 
simply this : Public schools were few in number, but the gentlemen 
farmers procured for themselves a remedy for this inconvenience. They 
resorted to a very successful expedient for counteracting the existing defici- 
ency in the means of education. It so happened that a century or a century 
and a half ago, farmers of the middle class, or such as rented lands to an 
extent that enabled them to be ranked as gentlemen, were very numerous 
in Skye, though now, alas ! the very reverse. These snug, comfortable, 
moderately-rented tenements of land, have been since then conjoined into 
extensive deer forests or into large sheep walks. The consequence is, that 
now one sheep farmer occupies a tract of pasture, which in past ages 
afforded means of support to twenty, thirty, or fifty respectable, and well- 
to-do middle-class tenants. These tenants being prudent, sagacious men, 
in order to educate their families, clubbed together to engage a common 
tutor, perhaps a well recommended student of Divinity, or some learned 
young gentleman from the south country, and sometimes even from Eng- 
land. By this arrangement every group of contiguously situated families 
had their centrical schoolroom, nicely fitted up, their qualified teacher, 
and their children thus efficiently educated in the common, and even in 
the higher branches of useful knowledga Hence the vast number, within 
the last century and a-half, from that Island, who had distinguished 
themselves so greatly in the civil and military services of their Sovereign 
and country. No other territory perhaps of the extent of Skye, in the 
whole kingdom or elsewhere, can boast of even the one-half of distin- 
guished men, in all the departments of the public service, as Skye can do.* 

* A good many years ago, a correct and elaborate computation was made on com- 
petent authority, that during the war* with America and France, from the middle of 
the past to the beginning of the present century, tke Isle of Skye furnished the following 



HO THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

In more than one of these excellent schools Flora received the solid 
ground-work of her educational requirements. In short, owing to this, 
and to the excellent training of which she had the benefit under the hos- 
pitable roof of Lady Clanranold, her mind was, at a comparatively early 
age, well stored with rudimental knowledge, as well as deeply imbued 
with a veneration for the system of clanship, and with loyalty to the ex- 
iled house of Stuart. 

According to the request of Lady Margaret, preparations were being 
made for Flora's departure to Skye, by the first favourable opportunity 
that offered itself, of a safe passage across the Minsk* It happened at 
this very time that a sort of pirate ship frequented the creeks and bays 
of the Long Island, by means of which many persons of both sexes were 
cajoled on board, made prisoners, and thereby were refused their liberty. 

At this wicked and unexpected proceeding, the natives of the Lews, 
Harris, Uist, Benbecula, and Skye, became exceedingly alarmed, and it 
created much anxiety and confusion among all ranks and classes of the 
natives. The authorities in these quarters resorted to every measure 
within their power to counteract such base and unlooked-for cruelty. 
Unfortunately, however, the leader of this kidnapping party managed to 
set sail for the Southern States of America, with a ship-load of his own 
country-people of all ages, with the intended purpose of selling them as 
slaves. While the united efforts of all the authorities in these quarters, 
lay and clerical, seemed to be of no avail to check it, the overruling Pro- 
vidence of the Almighty immediately intervened to put a speedy termina- 
tion to this cruel and unchristian procedure. Soon after the pirate ship 
had sailed from the shores of the Long Island with its mournful cargo of 
innocent natives, a terrific gale sprung up, which dashed the unhallowed 
ship into a rocky creek on the coast of Ireland, where it was totally 
wrecked, and splintered into fragments. It is, however, marvellous, that 
all the prisoners escaped, without the loss of a single life ; and through 
the kindness of Irish philanthropists they were humanely cared for, and 
eventually conveyed to their native Isles. It was soon afterwards dis- 
covered that the chief leader in this diabolical plot was a young man, 
Norman Macleod, son of Donald Macleod, tacksman of the Island of Ber- 
neray. The stern-hearted youth escaped the punishment which his 
dastardly deeds so richly merited, by crossing " incognito" to Ireland, 
where he concealed himself for about two years. He subsequently joined 
himself to the Government forces, and was soon raised to the rank of 
Captain, In the course of some years he became a changed, and much 
respected gentleman, succeeded his father at Berneray, and died there at 
nearly a hundred years of age. Along with all others, Lady Margaret 
Macdonald deeply shared in the general alarm created by this wicked 
piratical plot. Her ladyship did so the more, no doubt, from a private 
report that got into circulation, that her husband, Sir Alexander, had 

remarkable list of men for the service of their Sovereign and country, viz. : 10,000 
foot soldiers, 500 pipers, 600 commissioned officers, under the rank of Colonel, 48 Lieut. - 
Colonels, 21 Lieutonant-Generalsand Major-Generals, four Governors of British Colonies, 
one Governor-General, one Adjutant-General, one Chief Baron of England, and one 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Scotland, Besides this a great number filled offices in 
the University, in the Church, and in legal departments. 

* The " Minsh " is the name of the channel which intervenes between the Long 
Island and Skye, which is from 20 to 30 miles in breadth, and is frequently very rough 
and stormy. 






FLOKA MACDONALD. Ul 

some secret hand in this cruel undertaking, in order to get the people, 
away, and to banish them from his extensive estates. Knowing well Sir 
Alexander's innocence in this painful matter, her ladyship became quite 
indignant, and greatly disturbed in her peace of mind. In her husband's 
absence, she addressed a long letter, dated 1st January 1740, to Lord 
Justice Clerk Milton, in which she gave a long and minute detail of the 
whole affair. She assured his Lordship that Sir Alexander " was both 
angry and deeply concerned to hear that some of his own people wore taken 
away in this manner, but could not at the time learn who were the actors 
in this wicked scrape until the ship was gone." Her ladyship's letter was 
long and interesting, and may be seen in the Cullodeii papers. 

When the fact of the existence of this piratical vessel was noised 
abroad, sloops and craft of all descriptions were sent by the authorities 
in Skye to the Long Island, but they were too late to seize the expected 
prize. Being in the dead of winter, the weather was boisterous and wild, 
and the different craft had to lie at anchor in the lochs and bays of the 
Island. It was, however, arranged that in one of these vessels Flora was 
to be accommodated with a passage across the Minsh to Skye, to the hos- 
pitable residence of Lady Margaret at Monkstadt. One evening she set 
sail in the largest of these vessels, and the night being stormy the vessel 
was driven into Loch Snizort and anchored about sunrise at the " Cran- 
nag," near the mansion-house of Kingsburgh. Flora was glad to be put 
ashore, but finding that the Kingsburgh family were absent at Flodigarry, 
she walked a few miles to the house of Peinduin, the residence of Captain 
Norman Macleod, the very house wherein, after an eventful life, she died 
about fifty years thereafter. 3Text day she made the best of her way to 
the residence of Sir Alexander Macdonald at Monkstadt, distant about 
fourteen miles. She was warmly received by Lady Margaret, with whom 
she remained for about eight months on that visit, with the exception of 
a stay of a few weeks with her mother at Armadale. 

Lady Margaret felt a deep interest in Flora's welfare, being much 
pleased with her prudence, general conduct, and amiable disposition. 
She fully revealed her plans to the young lady, and explained to her that 
she and Sir Alexander had arranged to pass the winter in Edinburgh, and, 
that they had resolved that she should accompany them and finish her 
education in the metropolis. Flora gratefully acknowledged her ladyship's 
friendship, and modestly signified her willingness to comply. She then 
visited her mother, to reveal to her the kind intentions of Lady Margaret, 
and to obtain her consent, which the old lady readily granted. She bade 
farewell to her mother, returned to Monkstadt, and matters being 
settled for the removal to Edinburgh, she seized the first opportunity of 
crossing the channel to Ormiclade, and to her brother at Milton. 

It was proposed by Lady Margaret that Flora should visit the metro- 
polis during the autumn of that season, but circumstances occurred to 
prevent it. Lady Clanranold became an invalid at the time, and so did 
her brother Angus, at Milton, apparently in both cases from a neglected 
cold. Such being the case, Flora's kind, generous heart would not permit 
her to leave her dear friends in a state of inconvalescence ; and 
there was a remarkable providence in her remaining, as ^the sloop 
by which she proposed to sail to Glasgow, on her passage to Edinburgh, 
was wrecked on the Mull of Cantyre, and not a single life was saved. 



142 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Fortunately, in course of some time, the invalids recovered of their ail- 
ments, and Flora resided at Ormiclade and Milton during that winter and 
spring. Early in the following summer (1 740) she embraced an opportunity 
of visiting her friends in Skye. In all quarters of that Island she was 
welcomed by every family of respectability she met with, and more par- 
ticularly so by those at the houses of Scorribreck, Kingsburgh, Cuiderach, 
and Monkstadt. Arrangements were made anew for her departure to 
Edinburgh during the ensuing months of September or October, according 
to the state of the weather, as by that time Lady Margaret and Sir Alex- 
ander expected to reach the metropolis themselves. About the beginning 
of August, Flora bade farewell to her friends in Skye, and revisited her 
native Isle, which, of all localities, was the most dear to her Highland 
heart. Towards the end of September she took her passage from Uist to 
Glasgow in a small schooner belonging to the place, which was laden with 
cured cod and ling for the southern markets. The captain's name was 
Roderick Macdonald, but he was usually called j"Ruairidh Muideartach," 
being a native of Moidart, on the mainland. Rory was a very jolly, 
middle-aged tar, who materially diminished the tediousness of the passage 
by his singing of Gaelic songs, in which he could not easily be excelled. 
In this respect he met with a very congenial spirit in his only cabin pas- 
senger, Flora being one who greatly admired the Celtic muse of her skipper. 
At length after an ordinary passage the schooner arrived safely at what is 
now called the Broomielaw of Glasgow. Two days thereafter Flora found 
her way by some public conveyance to Edinburgh. On her arrival at that 
city, where she was an entire stranger, she resorted with as little delay as 
possible to a boarding-school provided for her through the kind services of 
Lady Margaret. This female seminary, which was attended by about 
half-a-dozen of other young ladies, was taught by a Miss Henderson, in 
the Old Stamp-Office Close, High Street, and was near the town residence 
of the Earl of Eglinton. The Countess of Eglinton and daughters 
usually resided there during the winter months, and Flora had been only 
a few days in her new seminary when some of these noble ladies did her 
the honour of visiting her at Miss Henderson's. Flora was agreeably sur- 
prised, but soon came to understand that they had done so by the instruc- 
tions of Lady Margaret, who had not then arrived in town herself from 
Skye. The Eglinton ladies were as much noted for their affability and 
kindness as they were celebrated for their personal beauty and charms. 
All the daughters were exceedingly handsome, and no doubt they had 
inherited these qualities from their mother, the Countess Susan Kennedy, 
who is said to have been one of the handsomest women of her day. It is 
recorded in the " Traditions of Edinburgh," that " Countess Susan's 
daughters were all equally remarkable with herself for a good mien ; and 
the ' Eglintonne air ' was a common phrase at the time. It was a goodly 
sight a century ago to see the long procession of sedans, containing Lady 
Eglintonne and her daughters, devolve from the Close, and proceed to the 
Assembly Rooms in the West Bow, when there was usually a considerable 
crowd of plebeian admirers congregated to behold their lofty and graceful 
figures step from the chairs on the pavement. It could not fail to be a 
remarkable sight eight beautiful women, conspicuous for their stature 
and carriage, all dressed in the splendid, though formal fashion of that 
period, and inspired at once with dignity of birth, and consciousness of 
beauty." 



FLORA MACDONALD. H3 

During Flora's stay in Edinburgh, which lasted over three years con- 
tinuously, she had the good fortune to be introduced to many families of 
high rank and distinction, such as Bishop Forbes of Leith, the Mackenzie's 
of Delvin, and many others. The friendship that subsisted between the 
Delvin family and herself lasted during her lifetime. It must be stated 
to Flora's credit and great good sense, that notwithstanding the elevated 
rank of many parties into whose society and residence she had often been 
invited, and from whom she received much hospitality and attention, yet 
she invariably conducted herself with such a degree of unassuming mo- 
desty as no doubt added materially to her appreciation in the eyes of 
others. Both in prosperity and in adversity she ever retained the same 
equable temperament of mind the same gentle, submissive deportment, 
and the same calm spirit of resignation and contentment. Whatever 
might have fallen to her lot, and many distressing things did, yet her 
frame of mind remained constantly unruffled and unchanged. While pos- 
sessed of a keen, lively, sensitive nature, yet she was largely gifted with 
the power of exercising a complete control over her feelings, and of ap- 
pearing on all occasions cheerful, pleasant, and entertaining. 

Flora attended closely to her education in the seminary or boarding- 
school wherein she was placed during the first two seasons of her stay in 
the metropolis. She considerably excelled her fellow pupils in the com- 
paratively few branches of education in which instruction was communi- 
cated to females at that remote period. In the musical department a sort 
of small harp was the instrument which was generally made use of for 
inculcating a knowledge of that interesting science. Flora, however, pre- 
ferred to cultivate her taste in that respect by practising on a spinet, or 
small pianoforte, at which she was out of sight the most proficient in the 
seminary. From the correctness of her ear she had acquired a facility in 
the use of this instrument, her own favourite " ceolag " at Ormiclade, 
which enabled her to play, as already stated, a great variety of Highland 
airs and " piobaireachds," with a degree of gracefulness and ease that de- 
lighted all around her. She was likewise gifted with a sweet, mellow 
voice, which rendered her capable of singing Gaelic songs exceedingly 
well, and much to the gratification and amusement of the company pre- 
sent. In consequence of this she was frequently asked the favour of 
singing those songs in the drawing-rooms of the noble and great, where no 
one present understood a single vocable of the stanzas so sweetly sung. 

After having passed nearly three seasons with the ladies in the Old 
Stamp-Office Close, under whose charge she was at first settled, she re- 
sided chiefly in the house of Lady Margaret and Sir Alexander, where 
her ladyship treated her as a member of the family, and showed her as 
much maternal kindness as should she have been her own daughter. She 
became so thoroughly domesticated and useful to her ladyship that she 
pressed upon her to prolong her stay in Edinburgh for more than a year 
after she had intended to return to her mother, and to her friends in the 
Long Island. Sir Alexander had not been at that time in very 
robust health ; and, by the advice of his medical attendants, he remained 
for about two years 'continuously in Edinburgh without returning to hia 
residence in Skye. On two occasions Flora accompanied Lady Margaret 
to Eglinton Castle, where weeks were pleasantly spent under the noble 
roof of the ancient domicile wherein her ladyship first saw the light of 
day. (To be Continued.) 



144 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

PROFESSOR EHYS'S WELSH PHILOLOGY.* 



ALL lovers of the science of language must rejoice at the present incipient 
cultivation of Celtic studies. Scottish students especially will welcome 
the growing interest now taken in philology which has been altogether 
neglected in our country. With the exception of the brilliant Professor 
of Greek in Edinburgh, to whom the Celtic world is so much indebted, 
the teachers of languages in Scottish Universities scarcely ever touched on 
the subject. We are therefore glad to observe that this state of matters 
is disappearing ; and that an earnest living interest is manifested in con- 
nection with philological studies. 

The interest taken at present in Celtic studies is not a transient one. 
It is the outcome of patient study and labours of many eminent scholars 
who during the last half century turned their attention to the science of 
language. Their efforts have ultimately resulted in assigning their proper 
position in the philological world to the Celtic languages. Till the be- 
ginning of this century, and indeed by many long after, the dialects of 
the Gael in the west were spoken of as belonging to the Shemitic family 
of tongues. But it is only the incurably unscientific that contend for any 
such theory at the present day. 

Before proceeding to indicate the contents of the excellent volume 
before us, it may be interesting to mention the names of those who have 
contributed to Celtic philology. Dr Pritchard's Eastern Origin of the 
Celtic Nations, applying the philological principles of Bopp and Grimm 
to the Celtic languages to determine their philological position, marks an 
era in the history of these tongues. Pritchard endeavoured to prove that 
its true affinities were with Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and Gothic, and not 
with the Shemitic languages. Lhywd and Jones, earlier, had glimmerings 
of such possible affinities. Pritchard's work appeared in 1832. In 1837 
another Frenchman, Adolphe Pictet, published his De I'Affinitie des 
Langues Celtiques avec le Sanskrit. After these two French works we 
have those of two Germans on the Celtic languages. In 1839 Bopp pub- 
lished at Berlin his Die Celtishen Sprachen. In 1839-40 Diefenbach 
published at Stuttgart his Geltica. But the great classic of Celtic philo- 
logy appeared in 1853 the Grammatica Geltica of J. Kaspar Zeuss. 
After thirteen earnest conscientious years of labour, this Bavarian, who 
had some Celtic blood in his veins, gave the world his work in a Latin 
dress since in German a work which constitutes a monument to his 
memory more enduring than brass. Celtic studies have been continued 
in Germany since by Drs Kuhn, Schleicher, Gorres, Holtzrnan, &c. The 
works of Dr Ebel of Berlin, and those of Ebrard of Earlangen have re- 
ceived much attention in this country. What Ebrard has published on 
Ossian would have greater philological value had he a better text as the 
basis of his work. As it is, we cannot help wondering at receiving such 
an admirable contribution to Celtic studies from a foreigner so distin- 
guished also in theology, while so many at home, whose mother-tongue is 

* Lectures on Welsh Philology. By Professor Rhys. Second edition. Trubner, 
London. 






WELSH PHILOLOGY. 145 

Gaelic, and from whom we would naturally expect something, are unable 
to speak even intelligently about their native language. Recently in 
Germany and France, by Edwards, Pictet, &c., the study of the Celtic 
tongues has been carried on by regular publications. The Celtic Review, 
published in Paris, is well known in this country. Italy has also taken 
up the study ; from the Chevalier Di Nigra we have very interesting 
works " The Turin Glosses," and " The Milan Glosses." Working with 
these continental writers, a learned Irishman, Dr Whitley Stokes, has 
made contributions of .great 'Value to Celtic philology. Most Celtic 
students know his " Irish Glosses " and his " Goidilica." Men of culture 
and scholarship in Britain could not ignore this revival of Celtic 
learning. Since then we have had in our own country Professors Blackie, 
Arnold, Geddes, Morley, and Principal Shairp influencing and quickening 
learned and historic thought in a Celtic direction, and breaking down the 
bulwark of much unreasonable prejudice. Canon Bourke of Ireland, and 
now more recently Professor Rhys at Oxford, have also helped to invest 
Celtic studies with scientific interest. The movement for the establish- 
ment of a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh has heightened the importance of 
such studies at home. It is now an accomplished fact, mainly under the 
stirring influence of the golden tongue of Professor Blackie, who has so 
grandly succeeded in bringing down showers of gold from the cold heights 
of Saxon divinities. Looking begets liking ; and our whole nation look- 
ing at and hearing the Professor of Greek, in his own learned, popular, 
and naturally winning ways, advocating the cause of the Celt and his 
language, is beginning to regard both in a more kindly and scientific 
manner. Men now learn to see how much the Hindoo, the Englishman, 
and the Celt have in common in the matter of language. It is seen and 
recognised that English and Celtic have many family resemblances, that 
many words of a radical character existing in the one have their cognates 
in the other. It is now discovered that by a philological law of letter- 
change, words beginning in Gaelic with c begin in English with h, and 
the kinship between the two races is instantly recognised. Now the Celt 
and the Saxon embrace each other in the bonds of linguistic friendship, 
forgetting their earlier philological and racial differences and feuds. This 
law has opened up a field of fresh and interesting knowledge. By it we 
ascertain that the Gaelic ceann, cen, ken, has its English cognate in head ; 
cridhe, earlier cride, its cognate in heart ; crodh, cattle, its cognate in lierd ; 
cruaidh, its cognate in hard; cruit, its cognate in harp; ciod, its cognate 
in what ( = huat) ; c6, its cognate in who ( = hoo), &c. All this has re- 
sulted in a renaissance of Celtic sentiment on every side except in con- 
servative quarters which seem to be absolutely impervious to the quicken- 
ing influence of fresh thought and feeling. It is now felt and believed 
that several millions of people still speak the tongue of the Celt ; and 
that the Celtic languages deserve attention as the living speech of many. 
Scholars now believe that the study of these languages is not altogether 
so contemptible ; and that the spirit of the Celt has vitalized, enlivened, 
and enriched the mighty stream of English letters. 

Professor Rhys's book is, perhaps, the only work that we have as yet 
in this country taking up Celtic philology, pure and simple. We in the 
Highlands rejoiced at his appointment as Celtic professor at Oxford ; but 
we rejoice more at the instant fruit of his Celtic studies, with which we 



146 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

are now favoured in his highly attractive " Lectures on "Welsh Philology." 
The volume is dedicated to Max Muller and Whitley Stokes, and no 
names could be mentioned more deserving of esteem on the part of the 
Celtic student of languages. These lectures were first delivered at the 
College at Aberystwyth in 1874. Since then they have been substantially 
repeated by the author as Professor of Celtic at Oxford. This is the 
second edition, quickly following the first, with a valuable appendix. 
When the Gaelic student is furnished with the contents of each lecture 
there are seven altogether with the appendix he will instantly recognise 
the importance of the work. The conclusions . of the writer in general 
may be taken as applying to other Celtic dialects as well as to the Welsh, 
and it is this that makes his book so valuable to all Gaelic students of 
the science of language. 

The first lecture takes up introductorily the science of language : 
Grimm's law of the interchange of mutes in the Indo-Germanic tongues, 
and the Classification of the Celtic Languages. The second lecture deals 
with the Welsh Consonants ; the third with the Welsh Vowels. In the 
fourth lecture we have a most interesting historical sketch of the Welsh 
language, and in the fifth of the Welsh alphabet. In the sixth lecture 
we have Ogams and Ogmic Inscriptions treated of; and in the seventh 
and last an attempt to reconstruct the history of the Ogmic alphabet. It 
would be well that our Gaelic savants would take to heart, before we pro- 
ceed to remark in detail on these lectures, the instructive paragraphs with 
which Professor Rhys closes his second lecture : 

" Now that we have fairly come to the end of our task at least in 
outline as regards the consonants, than which we have no reason to sus- 
pect the vowels of being less interesting, though it be that the laws they 
obey are more subtle, we may be allowed to indulge in a few remarks of 
a more general nature. Enough has probably been said to convince you 
that, in spite of our having preserved to the last the fag-ends of the 
subject, Welsh phonology is far from devoid of interest. The regularity 
which pervades it leaves but little to be desired, and it falls, compara- 
tively speaking, not so very far short of the requirements of an exact 
science." In this respect what is true of Welsh is just equally true of 
Gaelic or Erse-Gaelic. Notwithstanding the complaints of soi-disant 
Gaelic scholars, that we have no standard of Gaelic scholarship, which 
they have not grammatically taken up, the phonology of Gaelic does not 
indeed fall far short "of the requirements of an exact science." Much 
needed lessons the Welsh Professor suggests and inculcates. " But some 
there are, however, who have no patience with a discussion which turns on 
consonants and vowels, and nothing short of etymologies bearing directly 
on ethnological questions or the origin of language can hope to meet with 
their approval. This need not surprise any one, for few people, as a rule, 
feel interested in the details of a scientific inquiry, and duly realise the 
fact, that what they regard as food only fit for the shrunken mind of a 
specialist must necessarily precede those gushing results they thirst after." 
The complaint underlying Professor Ehys's remarks, we are all familiar 
with in Scotland. Some cultivated men like Dr Charles Mackay, &c., 
have rushed to the study of Gaelic, finding that in the Celtic Chair in 
Edinburgh it might pay ; some nearer home, and having pretensions to 
knowledge of their native tongue, declaim against the variableness of its 



WELSH PHILOLOGY, 147 

orthography, &c. But the true student of Gaelic knows the value of 
their complaints. The further remarks of Professor Rhys deserve quo- 
tation : "In the case before us we are only too familiar with the worth- 
lessness of the fruits of a method which ignores the phonological laws of 
the language with which it pretends to deal, or fails to do justice to their 
historical import ; and it is by his attitude with respect to these laws that 
one can generally tell a dilettante from a bonafide student of the Celtic lan- 
guages. The former you hardly need to be told, never discerns a difficulty, 
for to him a letter more or less makes no difference, as his notion of 
euphony is so Protean as to be equal to any emergency ; but the latter 
frequently stumbles or goes astray, and has to retrace his steps ; and 
altogether his progress can be but slow; so much so, in fact, that 
some of our leading glottologists of our day think it, on the whole, 
impossible to attain to the same state of knowledge respecting the 
history and etymology of Celtic words as that arrived at in the 
case of the other Aryan tongues. That it is harder is certain, 
but that it impossible I am inclined to doubt." It consoles us in 
Scotland to find our "Welsh cousins in troubles similar to our own. But 
so far " progress is being made " in Scotland as in Wales. The all-per- 
vading influence of Professor Blackie, of Skene's Celtic Scotland, &c., of 
Dr Maclauchlan's many works, and of the Eev. A. Cameron's most 
scientific teaching in Glasgow, are signs of real progress in the right 
direction. " Nor is there anything which may be regarded as an indica- 
tion that we have nearly come to the end of our tether. For example, 
one of the tasks and only one out of several which the student of an 
Aryan language proposes to himself is to discover, as far as that is 
practicable, the origin of every word in its vocabulary, and to show to 
what group of vocables it belongs, or in other words, from what it is de- 
rived and how." We regret that in connection with the Celtic tongues 
this work has been carried on with most reprehensible extravagance in 
some quarters, especially in the sphere of topography, to this very day ; 
but we hope that henceforth Professor Rhys's lectures and the labours of 
others throughout the British Isles will help to diminish the number of 
Celtic vocables whose origin is obscure, notwithstanding the special diffi- 
culties in the way. There are good signs of the times, not only in the 
German Kuhn's Beitraege and in the French Gaidoz's Revue Celtique, but 
also at home among the Irish and the Welsh ; in Scotland in the Celtic 
Magazine, and in the newly-proposed quarterly by Mr Cameron, the 
Scottish Celtic Review. In these publications, as Professor Rhys neatly 
remarks in regard to the foreign ones, " stubborn words of our vernacular 
are forced, one after another, to surrender the secrets of their pedigree." 
Nothing could be more admirable than the following general remarks. 
The conclusion of the last two sentences of the paragraph to be quoted 
suggest a much needed lesson. a But whence, it will be asked, does this 
greater difficulty attending the study of the Celtic languages, and of the 
Welsh in particular, proceed ? Mainly from two causes the great dearth 
of specimens of them in their earlier stages, and the large scale on which 
phonetic decay has taken place in them. For, to pass by the former 
for the present, it is to be remembered that the phonetic changes 
which have been engaging our attention are but the footprints of 
phonetic decay, and that the phonological laws which have just been dis- 



148 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

cussed form but a map of its encroachments, and a plan, as it were, of its 
line of attack. With these before our eyes, we are, to a certain extent, 
enabled to infer and picture to ourselves the positions, so to say, and the 
array in which the forces of our language were at one time drawn up." 
Perhaps some of our Celtic scholars who undertake the solution of all 
topographical names by means of Celtic dialects from Lewis to Japan 
will benefit by the following sentences : " So when you hear it said, as 
you frequently may, that Welsh or Irish [or Gaelic] is the key to I know 
not how many other languages, do not believe a word of it : the reverse 
would be nearer the truth. We want concentrated upon the Celtic 
languages all the light that can possibly be derived from the other Aryan 
tongues, that is if we are to continue to decipher their weather-worn 
history." 

Professor Rhys has spoken a needed word to Celtomaniacs. For that 
he is to be thanked, as well as, apart from the intrinsic value of his 
lectures, for his following a strictly scientific method. Celts have never 
shown too much devotion to method or system except in one particular 
sphere. In some quarters we have had the most rigidly scientific 
systematic theology a severity of method at which many stout though 
elastic spirits have quailed. Emotion is a predominating element in the 
Celtic nature is the source of much of the lyrical productiveness ot the 
Celt ; and is probably an explanation of his dislike to intricate scientific 
research. The German, on the other hand, is nearly all bound up in an 
iron method which occasionally chokes to death the warmer currents of 
the soul. Professor Rhys is scientific ; and higher praise can scarcely be 
accorded to the productions of a Celtic writer. He has given us nearly 
all ascertained philologic truth bearing on the Celtic languages, although 
he only calls his book "Welsh Philology." The philological student of 
these languages can not do without his lectures, which, as coming from a 
Celtic Professor at Oxford, as well as on account of their permanent 
value, mark an era in the history of Celtic tongues. 



THE HIGHLAND CLEARANCES AND THE HIGHLAND CROFTER 

Mr Alexander Mackenzie, editor of the Celtic Magazine, has just completed 
a series of sixteen letters, as Canadian "Special Commissioner," in the 
Aberdeen Daily Free Press, on "The Highlanders of Canada." In an ap- 
preciative "leader,'' on the completion of the series, the editor says truly, 
"that Mr Mackenzie went to Canada perfectly free and unfettered by any 
official engagement, and with no other instructions than to seek his informa- 
tion at the best available sources, and to use his own powers of shrewd 
observation freely and independently." Be is pleased to add: "That he 
has acted out his programme intelligently and impartially, and with an 
amount of momentum, vigour, and bonhomie that do credit to the character 
of the Northern Celt, has been amply testified by the press of Canada, and 
must be well known to those of our readers who have followed the strain of 
his communications." The letters above referred to will shortly be followed 
by another series from the same pen, on " The Highlanders at Home," 
specially devoted to the Highland clearances in their relation to the crofter 
and present state of the Highlands. Those of our friends desiring to peruse 
them, and who do not wish to take the paper daily, may get the series in 
which the letters appear by ordering tht m direct from the Free, Press Office, 
Aberdeen. 



QLoxuzyoribtnct. 



THE QUIGKICH, OR PASTOEAL STAFF OF ST FILLAtf. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIR, Reading the very interesting article on the Quigrich, or Pastoral 
Staff of St Fillan, by the Rev. Allan Sinclair, which appeared in the Celtic 
Magazine for November, it occurred to me that I had somewhere read a 
different account of the relic to that given by Mr Sinclair. In an old 
book entitled " A Companion and Useful Guide to the Beauties of Scot- 
land and the Hebrides," by the Hon. Mrs Murray Aust, 3d edition, voL 
ii., pp. 115-119, is the following : 

As we were baiting oar horses at the small inn of Suie at the foot of Benmore, a 
curiosity of considerable antiquity was presented to us. It is a crook, which is believed 
to have been at the head of St Fillan's staff. It is hollow, large, heavy, and of wrought 
silver. It had been gilt, but the gilding is mostly worn off. At the smallest end of the 
crook is a red stone set in the silver ; it is in colour like a ruby, on which is engraven 
the head of the saint. 

It is said that a man named Doire was in the service of the holy bishop (probably 
his crosier bearer), and that this wonder-working relic had been carefully preserved from 
father to son in the Doire family, from the time of Saint Fillxn to this day ; and that it 
has been a continual source of emolument to them, which, probably, they were in danger 
of losing when they had the royal grant of their sole right to this relick registered in 
Edinburgh. 

The following is a literal copy of that transaction, extracted fiom the register by a 
gentleman who favoured me with it. 

"At Edinburgh the 1st day of November 1734 years. In presence of the Lords of 
Council and Session compeared, Mr John Lookup Advocate as Procurator, for Malice 
Doire after designed, and gave in the letter of gift under written, desiring the same to 
be registered in their Lordship's books as a probative writt : which desire the said Lords 
found reasonable, and therefore they ordain the same to be done according to act of 
Pailiament made anent the registration of probative writts in all points, whereof the 
tenor follows. James be the grace of God King of Scottis, to all and sundri oure liegis 
and subditis sp'riale and temporale to q'has knowlage this oure 1'res sal cum greting : tor 
as mikle as we have understood that oure Servitoure Malice Doire and his Forebearis 
has had an relick of Saint Filane callit the quegrich in keeping, of us and of oure pro- 
Renetouris of maist nobill mj tide, qubam God as&oleze, sen the time of King Hubert the 
Bruys and of before, and made naue obedience nor ausure to na persouu sp'riale nor 
temprale in ony thing concerning the said holy reliok, uthirways tuau is q'teint in the 
auld iufeftmeut thareot made and griintit be oure said progenetouris. We charge yow 
herefore strately and commandis that in tyme to cum ye and ilk ane of yow redily 
ansusre, intend and obey to the said Malice Doire in the peciable broiking and joising of 
the said relick, and that ye nane of yow tak upon hand to compell nor destrinze him to 
naak obedience nor ansuere to yow nor till ony uthir, hot allena'ly to us and oure succes- 
souris, according to the said iufeftmeut and foundation of the said relick, and sick like, 
as was uss and wouut in the tyme of oure said progeuetouris, of maist nobill mynde of 
before, and that ye mak him nane impediment letting nor distroublauou in the passing 
with the said relick throw the centre as he and his Forebearis was wount t do, and that 
ye and ilk ane of yow in oure name and autorite kepe him unthrallit, bot to remane in 
sick like freedom and liberte of the said relick as is q'teint in the said iufeftment under 
all the hiest pain and charge ye and ilk ane of yow ni.iy committ and inrin, anent us in 
that part. Given under oure p've sele at Edinburgh the xi. day of July. The yere of 
God jmiiij o Lxxx5ij yeres, and of oure regnne the xxSij yares. 

" Sic subset ibitur, 

"JAMES K, 

"L'ra pro Malice Doire in Strath Filane. M July MCCCCLXXXVn. xxvn yre of 
the Kings renue." 



150 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

The above relic is said to cure cattle of every disease by sprinkling them with water 
in which it has been immersed. The inhabitants at Suie Fuelan, the seat of Saint Fillan, 
believe that he used to preach on a hilloc at that place. 

When I was at Suie in 1802, I inquired for Doire's relic, and found the owner of it 
had removed it with himself to a village called New Nineveh in Strath Ire. Nineveh is 
a singular name for a Highland village, but it seems the drunkenness and irregularity 
of its inhabitants have procured it this name. Mr Doire, who keeps the inn at Suie, 
(which is now a tolerably good one,) favoured me with an anecdote of his uncle's relic, 
which I had not heard before. 

When king Robert Bruce was going to the battle of Bannock Barn, he sent a mes- 
sage to Doire to carry the relio thither. Doire was apprehensive the king might retain 
the relic when in his power ; he therefore left it at home, and carried only the bos. in 
which it was usually kept. This box, on the morning of the battle, was, by the order of 
Robert Bruce, placed in the midst of the army, and the sacrament was administered 
around it. In the middle of the service, the lid of the box opened of itself, and pre- 
sented the relic to view, and then instantly re-closed, to the astonishment of the whole 
army, but still more to the amazement of Doire, who knew he had left the relic behind 
him. 

This description was written about 1800, at which time there was no 
bronze crook inside the silver one, as described by Mr Sinclair, for, it 
will be seen, that it is distinctly stated to have been " hollow." The re- 
mains of gilding visible in 1800 may very possibly have been totally 
obliterated by time and frequent rubbings, so as to present the appearance 
of bright silver it now bears, but there is a marked difference in the two 
accounts as to the stone at the end of the crook. According to Mrs 
Murray Aust there was at the smallest end of the crook *' a red stone set 
in the silver," " in colour like a ruby, on which is engraved the head of the 
saint." Mr Sinclair makes no mention of this engraved stone, but says, 
" The front of the crook is ornamented by a large oval-shaped caiingorm, 
terminating in a plate, which bears an engraved representation of the 
crucifixion." Is it possible that the original stone has been lost or removed 
and another substituted ? Again, Mr Sinclair says that from the time of 
the Reformation, " we have no subsequent notice of it, till incidentally dis- 
covered by a tourist," in 1782, evidently unaware of the fact of the Re- 
gistration at Edinburgh in 1734, 48 years earlier than the date he named. 
In giving an account of the miraculous occurrence at the Battle of Ban- 
nockburn Mr Sinclair quotes Boece, who says that the wonder-working 
relic was an arm of St Fillan, but according to the Dewar tradition, as 
related to Mrs Murray Aust, by one of the family, it was the Quigrich 
itself, which was so mysteriously conveyed from one place to another, and 
this version appears the most probable, for Mr Sinclair says, the fact of 
its being present at Bannockburn was " a well authenticated tradition in 
the Dewar family." Yours, &c., 

M. A. ROSE. 



SHERIFF NICOLSON'S EDITION" OF MACKINTOSH'S 
GAELIC PROVERBS are at last in the press. We have no doubt that 
when the book appears it will still further enhance the already distinguished 
reputation of the learned Sheriff in the Celtic world of letters, and fully 
justify the labour and time which, for so many years, he must have ex- 
pended upon it. 



THE EDITOK IN CANADA. 

TV. 

HAVING arrived at Point Levi, opposite Quebec, on the 1 7th of October, 
I crossed the river St Lawrence next day, and visited the famous forti- 
fications of this ancient and remarkable city. On the night of my arrival 
at Point Levi one of the Atlantic liners arrived with about 500 passengers, 
several of whom took up their quarters at my hotel. Among them I re- 
cognised an old Invernessian, who was accompanied by four south-country 
Scots ; and we decided upon visiting Quebec together, and upon going 
the length of the Heights of Abraham, where the immortal Wolfe fell in 
the moment of victory over the French, who, the same day, surrendered 
Quebec to the British army. We examined the spot on which the 
famous commander fell, mortally wounded, and on which a neat, unpre- 
tentious monument is erected to commemorate the fact. As he there lay 
his eyes closed, it was thought, in death, some one cried out "They fly." 
He instantly opened his eyes and asked, " Who are flying?" and on being 
told that it was the enemy, he said, " Then I die happy," and immediately 
expired. In this memorable engagement Eraser's Highlanders took a pro- 
minent and distinguished part, losing in killed, Captain Thomas Ross of 
Culrossie ; Lieutenants Roderick MacNeill of Barra and Alexander Mac- 
donald of Barrisdale ; one sergeant, and fourteen rank and file ; while 
among the wounded were Captain John Macdonald of Lochgarry, and 
Captain Simon Eraser of Inverallochy : Lieutenants Macdonell of Kep- 
poch, Archibald Campbell, Alexander Campbell, John Douglas, Alexander 
Eraser; Ensigns James Mackenzie, Malcolm Eraser, Alexander Gregor- 
son ; 7 sergeants, and 131 rank and file. It is well known that the High- 
landers distinguished themselves as usual on this occasion when, accord- 
ing to the " General account," Brigadier Murray briskly advanced with 
those under his command, among whom were our countrymen, and soon 
broke the centre of the enemy, " when ftae Highlanders, taking to their 
broadswords, fell in among them with irresistible impetuosity, and drove 
them back with great slaughter." The Highlanders had other oppor- 
tunities of distinguishing themselves here. In another engagement they 
lost in killed Captain Donald Macdonald of Clanranald, Lieutenant Cosmo 
Gordon, and 55 non-commissioned officers and men, while among the 
wounded were Colonel Eraser, Captains John Campbell of Dunoon, Alex- 
ander Eraser, Alexander Macleod, and Charles Macdonell ; Lieutenants 
Archibald Campbell of Glenlyon, Charles Stewart, who fought at Culloden 
under Stewart of Appin ; Hector Macdonald, John Macbean, Alexander 
Eraser, senior, Simon Eraser, senior, Archibald MacAlister, Alexander 
Eraser, John Chisholm, Simon Eraser, junior, Malcolm Eraser, and Don- 
ald Macneil ; Ensigns Henry Munro, Robert Menzies, Duncan Cameron 
of Fassiefern, William Robertson, Alexander Gregorson, and Malcolm 
Eraser, in addition to 129 non-commissioned officers and men, represent- 
ing amongst them most of the families of note in the Scottish Highlands, 
as well as many of those in humbler circumstances who followed the 



152 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

gentlemen of their respective clans, as of yore, to fight the battles of their 
country. My interest in Quebec and its surroundings was intense ; but 
it centred more in the history of the dead and the associations of the past 
than in those of the living and the present. The surrounding scenery is 
magnificent by far the finest in Canada, Having spent three days about 
the place, on Monday evening I left by the Grand Trunk Eailway of 
Canada for 

MONTREAL, 

having crossed over the famous Victoria Bridge which spans the St Law- 
rence a short distance before you enter the city, 172 miles from Quebec. 
I have already given a full description of this famous structure in the 
Aberdeen Daily Free Press, which, as well as many other details given 
in my series of sixteen long letters to that paper, on " The Highlanders 
of Canada," I do not intend to reproduce in these pages. Those letters 
were devoted more to a general description of the country, and its advan- 
tages as a field for emigration, while the series in the Celtic Magazine are 
confined almost entirely to the more Celtic parts of the Dominion, and 
personal instances of Highland success. This must be held to account 
for their incomplete and fragmentary nature. 

Montreal has a population of between 130,000 and 140,000, about 
five-eighths of whom are French, and three-fourths Eoman Catholics. It 
contains some very fine churches, and other public buildings, and is, in 
short, the finest city in the Dominion. The Scotch here are at the head 
of the commercial and political world, and though the Highlanders 
are not numerous, there are a few amongst them distinguished for 
philanthropy, integrity, and wealth, The Mackays of Montreal are known 
all over the world. The family originally belonged to Kildonan, in the 
county of Sutherland, which they left in humble circumstances. Joseph, 
one of the sons, who has since become famous in the commercial world as 
a millionaire and philanthropist, commenced life quite poor. He 
worked his way steadily onwards and upwards. In 1837, when the 
French Canadian rebellion broke out, we find him doing' a prosperous re- 
tail ready-made clothing and tailoring business. A large quantity of 
clothing was required that year for the militia, and the Mackays (for Ed- 
ward had ere this become a partner) were successful in getting a large 
contract, which turned out well. By this they made enough money 
to enable them to go into the wholesale trade. The business steadily 
increased, and in a few years they added the woollen or, as it is called in 
Canada, the dry goods business. They soon acquired a name for integrity 
and for the excellent quality of their goods ; trade increased day by day 
in the woollen department of the business, and the firm rose steadily in 
the estimation of the public. Ultimately the ready-made department was 
given up, that the firm might be able to devote their undivided atten- 
tion to the more profitable part of their rapidly increasing business, 
In a comparatively few years, they amassed a large fortune, and four or 
five years ago Joseph and Edward retired in favour of three nephews, 
who, for many years previously, practically managed the business, and 
who now conduct the largest dry goods, or wholesale woollen business in 
Canada. Joseph and Edward are both unmarried, and live together in a 
noble mansion, presided over by an amiable niece from the Scottish High- 



THE EDITOR iisr CANADA. 153 

lands. I had the pleasure of partaking of their hospitality, after which 
Edward drove me round the suburbs, and to Mount Eoyal, overlooking the 
city, from which I obtained a most magnificent view of it and of the country 
for hundreds of miles in all directions. Edward is one of the directors 
of the Bank of Montreal; and he has occupied many other important 
positions of trust in the city. Joseph built, two years ago, the Mackay 
Institution for Protestant Deaf Mutes at a cost of over 15,000 dollars, 
and then presented it absolutely to the Association for teaching the deaf 
and dumb. The building will accommodate about 100 inmates, and the 
pupils are taught printing and other usetul trades, in addition to reading, 
writing, and arithmetic. This is only a specimen of his munificence, for 
he has given largely to other causes, both religious and charitable. An- 
other brother is a partner in an old and most respectable wholesale dry 
goods firm Gordon, Mackay, & Co. in Toronto, who are also cotton 
manufacturers, possessing extensive mills at Merriton, on the Welland 
Canal. Mackay Brothers, when they retired, were reputed worth over 
two million dollars. 

The firm of James G. Mackenzie is the oldest dry goods house in the 
Dominion, having been established more than forty years ago, Mac- 
kenzie arrived in Canada with nothing but perseverance and steady habits 
for his capital. He has long since reached the summit of the commercial 
ladder. The firm is now reputed to be worth from one and a-half to two 
million dollars the wealthiest in Canada since the retirement of Joseph 
and Edward Mackay. One of his sons represented the Electoral Division 
of Montreal West in the Dominion House of Commons. Two of them 
were Captains in the 5th Eoyal Scots Fusiliers, the crack volunteer corps 
of Montreal, indeed of Canada, and served with their regiment on active 
service during the Fenian raids of 1866 and 1870. Another wholesale 
dry goods man, who retired from business about two years ago with a 
fortune of about 200,000 dollars, deserves notice. James Eoy was a 
native of Dunfermline, and he landed in Canada with a pack of fine linen 
on his back. He continued to perambulate in and about Montreal for a 
few years ; afterwards went into the retail dry goods business, and rapidly 
rose to be one of the leading merchants of the city. Ultimately he went 
into the wholesale trade, and, although his business never approached 
the magnitude of the firms already named, it was prosperous and lucrative ; 
and Mr Eoy was considered one of the most upright and straightforward 
business men in the city. Another self-made Scot is Andrew Eobertson, 
of the firm of Eobertson, Linton, & Co., who was for several years Presi- 
dent of the Dominion Board of Trade, and occupied many other most im- 
portant and influential positions, James Johnston came to Montreal 
about forty years ago without a penny. About five years after he founded 
the firm of James Johnston & Co., now reputed worth over a million. 
He commenced as a clerk, and, saving a few hundred dollars, began busi- 
ness on his own account in a very small way, but gradually and surely 
established a reputation for the very best goods, at paying prices a repu- 
tation which he has carried through his whole business career ; and to-day 
the firm of James Johnston & Co. stands unrivalled in the Dominion for 
high class goods, for choice and varied assortment, and for the systematic 
conduct of their business. Mr Johnston owns the fine cut stone ware- 
house in which he conducts his business, as well as his princely residence 

M 



154 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

on Mount Eoyal, which perhaps equals in magnificence that of the great 
Joseph Mackay himself. Mr Johnston also became famous in connec- 
tion with the celebrated Pew Case Johnston v. Gavin Lang and the 
Trustees of St Andrew's Church. In the other trades, especially in the 
grocery business, quite as many successful self-made men can be found. 
Among other prosperous Highlanders whom I had the pleasure of meeting 
in this city was John Macdonald, a most enterprising and rising account- 
ant, and a native of Tain, Eoss-shire. He belongs to the aristocracy of 
intellect, and I was proud to hear a native of my own county so highly 
spoken of among the elite of Montreal. Ewen Maclennan, whose father 
went out from Kintail, spoke Gaelic purer than some of his West-Coast 
relations of the present day, He takes a leading part among the patriotic 
Scots of the city, and has long ago occupied all the posts of honour which 
the St Andrew's Society could confer upon him a Society which does 
more real good than any other on the American continent ; but having 
already described at length its operations and that of the St Andrew's 
Home in the Free Press, I must here pass it over. Among other genuine 
Highlanders and most useful citizens whom I had the pleasure of meeting 
were Alexander MacGibbon, a native of Perthshire ; Alexander Mackenzie, 
merchant, a native of Beauly; and Alex. Murray, bookseller, a Perthshire 
Celt. Last, but not least, I had a most pleasant chat with D. Macmaster, 
a young but distinguished and rising barrister, and a member of the local 
Parliament for his native county of Glengarry, who a week afterwards 
paid me the compliment of travelling fifty-four miles to Lancaster to hear 
my lecture on " Flora Macdonald and Prince Charles." 

The last night I was in the city I had the great gratification of attend- 
ing in the drill hall of the 5th Eoyal Scots Fusiliers, already referred to, 
where I have seen them put through the usual exercises by Colonel Craw- 
ford, their commandant. This crack regiment is composed entirely of 
Scotsmen and Scottish Canadians, who wear the undress Highland uni- 
form Campbell tartan trews and plaid, with scarlet scalloped tunic, and 
Glengarry bonnet. No. 1 company has among its members 40 men who 
had served with the 78th Highlanders under Sir Henry Havelock at 
Lucknow and Cawnpore ; and whose manly breasts are well decorated 
with medals and clasps for distinguished service ; while No. 6 company 
is composed entirely of old 42d or " Black Watch " veterans. The others 
are largely made up of men who fought for their Queen in some part or 
other of the great and glorious Empire of which the Canadian is so proud 
to form a part. The pipers wore the kilt, one of them being Duncan 
Macneil, an old pupil of Pipe-Major Alexander Maclennan, Inverness ; 
the other, whose name I forget, an old veteran of the 78th, and for many 
years a companion of Pipe-Major Eonald Mackenzie, late of the Buffs, 
but now of the Highland Eifle Militia. Another 78th man Sergeant- 
Major Eraser, and who holds the same position, while he is at the same 
time Sergeant-Instructor, in the Scots Fusiliers I found to be a native of 
Castle Street, Inverness. The period of service of these men expired 
when their respective regiments were last in Montreal, and they settled 
down in the place, where almost all of them are doing remarkably well. 
This fine regiment recently held a meeting for the purpose of considering 
the desirability of procuring kilts in time for a proposed visit to Toronto 
and Niagara in the spring; and from the spirit shown there is little 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 155 

doubt that they will decide upon completing their Highland costume 
in time to enable them to visit their friends in Ontario, and parade 
its capital in the " Garb of old Gaul." I could have spent several 
more days in Montreal with profit and pleasure, but time was 011 
the wing, and I had yet barely entered Canada proper. The cele- 
brated Highland settlement of Glengarry, fifty-four miles further west, 
on the Grand Trunk Eailway, was to be my next place of call. I was 
informed by Mr Macmaster, M.P., that his colleague Mr Maclennan, M.P. 
for Glengarry in the Dominion Parliament, was in the city, and would 
be going on that evening to Glengarry. I was fortunate enough to meet 
and to secure an introduction to him on the platform before the train 
started. At first I found him somewhat reserved, but he soon melted 
down ; when I found his father was a native of Kintail ; and I after- 
wards learned that the son was very wealthy and highly respected 
throughout the county, irrespective of party politics. We had a moat 
agreeable chat during the greater part of the journey, and he gave me the 
names of several of the most prominent Highlanders in the county, in 
addition to those whose names I already had. In a few hours I found 
myself in Lancaster, a thriving village on the eastern border of 

THE COUNTY OF GLENGARRY, 

and I at once made for the principal hotel, kept, as I was informed in 
Montreal, by an excellent Gaelic-speaking Highlander, and a Macrae, 
whose father, in 1806, emigrated from Kintail. I saluted my host in my 
native Gaelic, to which he responded in pure Kintail vernacular ; for one 
of the peculiarities you meet with throughout the whole Dominion, is to 
find the children and even the grandchildren of the original settlers 
speaking the dialect of their respective districts in Scotland ; so that you 
meet with half-a-dozen or more different dialects in the same village or 
township. Any one acquainted with the various districts in the Scottish 
Highlands can therefore almost at once tell what part of the country the 
ancestors of the parties he is addressing originally came from. I was 
at once made quite at home, after my host had insisted upon carrying 
out the good old practice of his Scottish ancestors, by reminding me " gur 
luaithe deoch na sgiala," and at once, suiting the action to the word, 
ottering me a " druthag" out of his private bottle. That evening and next 
morning I was introduced to scores of fine Highlanders in the village, 
Macphersons, whose ancestors came from Badeuoch, predominating ; one 
of them being no less than a grand-nephew of the famous " Black Officer " 
of black art and Gaick celebrity. Here I had a visit from a Mr Allan 
Grant, whose grandfather was Donald Grant of Crasky, Glenmoriston, 
and one of those heroes of the " Forty-five " who sheltered Prince Charles 
Edward in the cave of Corombian, when wandering about, life in hand, 
after the Battle of Culloden, before he succeeded in effecting his escape to 
the Outer Hebrides. He emigrated to the States, and was one of the 
patriotic band known as the United Empire Loyalists, who would not 
remain in the States after they were lost to the British crown, and who 
went to various parts of Canada where they received grants of land from 
the British Government. Donald Grant, with several others, went to 
Glengarry, where 1000 acres were allotted to him, 200 of which fell into 
the possession of niy visitor his grandson, Allan Grant. 



156 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

It is commonly reported that Donald could spin a good yarn, one of 
which, in connection with the pilgrimage of the U.E. Loyalists from the 
States to Canada, will bear telling. On one occasion the Catholic Bishop 
was in Donald's neighbourhood, and knowing that he was rather fond 
of relating the hardships endured by the Loyalists on their way to Glen- 
garry, under his leadership, the good Bishop called upon him and intro- 
duced the subject. Donald was proud of his exploits, and the great suc- 
cess which had attended himself and his devoted followers ; and he always 
related the hardships and hairbreadth escapes which they experienced 
with unfeigned pleasure. As he advanced in years they seemed to have 
grown upon him, until at last they appeared to others almost bordering on the 
miraculous. When he had finished the description of the journey through 
the trackless forest in glowing colours, the Bishop in blank amazement, said 
" Why, dear me, Donald, your exploits seem almost to have equalled 
even those of Moses himself when leading the children of Israel through 
the Wilderness from Egypt to the Land of Promise." "Moses," exclaimed 
the Highlander, adding two emphatic short words, to which the ears of 
his reverence were not much accustomed; "Why," said Grant, with an 
unmistakeable air of contempt, " Moses took forty years in his vain at- 
tempts to lead his men over a much shorter distance, and through a mere 
trifling wilderness in comparison with mine, and he never did reach his 
destination. I brought my people here without the loss of a single man." 
The answer made by the Bishop is not recorded ; but he afterwards used 
to tell the story with evident gusto, and to the great amusement of his 
hearers. 

Having arranged for a lecture here and at Alexandria, I went on to 
Ottawa, where I spent a few days. On my return, my host kindly offered 
to drive me himself through the county, and to introduce me to the leading 
Highlanders. On Wednesday, the 29th of October, we started for Alex- 
andria, 14 miles inland, behind a splendid pair of horses, calling upon 
some genuine Celts on our way. A few miles out we passed a very fine 
farm of 400 acres owned, occupied, and capitally farmed by Donald Mac- 
lennan, whose father emigrated from Kintail without a cent. Shortly 
after this we called on Christopher Macrae, Glenroy, who has a fine farm 
and keeps the district shop or store. We were hospitably entertained by 
his better-half, and I had a most interesting chat with his father, a fine 
old gentleman, 93 years of age, who left Glenelchaig in Kintail in 1821. 
The venerable sire, I had been told, was full of old lore and Highland 
tradition ; but my time was too limited to enable me to get him into the 
proper groove, which I very much regret. Another of his sons, Duncan, 
owns the fine farm of Glen- Nevis, the whole family being exceedingly com- 
fortable and well-to-do. Another worthy specimen of the good old stock of 
Kintail Macraes, and with whom I had the pleasure of travelling from 
Lancaster to Kingston, was D. A. Macrae, a fine young fellow, whose fa- 
ther left Morvich, Kintail, about 50 years ago, and who now owns a fine 
farm of 400 acres, nearly the whole of which is cultivated. By the time 
we left Glenroy, it was getting dark, and we drove right on to Alexandria, 
where we took up our quarters at the St Lawrence Hotel, a comfortable 
hostelry kept by another Gaelic-speaking Highlander, Angus Macdonell. 
Having seen several of the leading citizens of Alexandria next morning, 
I started for a drive some twenty miles into the back settlements of 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 157 

the county, where I had the pleasure of meeting some genuine old 
Celts. Among them I would notice Norman Macleod, Laggan, a 
native of Glenelg ; and Captain Mackenzie, a fine old veteran 93 years 
of age. I found Mackenzie to be a native of Contin, Ross-shire ; but 
brought up in Lochbroom. He subsequently became a soldier, and was 
in the British army when Napoleon I. was a prisoner in Elba, a period of 
his life of which my venerable namesake was so full that I could hardly 
induce him to talk about anything else. He was the second who turned 
a sod in the back part of Glengarry county, to which he found his way 
by pure accident, having lost his way in the forest for three days and 
nights trying to find his way to a place mpre than a hundred miles in the 
opposite direction. "When he left this country he was so poor that he 
could not pay for his passage across ; but the Captain of a sailing ship in 
Greenock gave him credit until he was afterwards able to pay him. He 
is now in affluent circumstances, possessing an excellent farm of his own, 
and has been able to start several sons in farms of their own equally good. 
After a most pleasant drive to Lochiel and the surrounding country, I 
returned to Alexandria, where I delivered my lecture to an appreciative 
audience of as genuine a type of Highlanders as ever drew breath. 

In the morning before starting for Lochiel, a deputation waited upon 
me to know if I had any engagements in the evening, after my lecture ; 
and, answering in the negative, I was told that they would be glad then 
to spend an hour with me. What was my surprise to find a really good 
piper, and a Macdonald, at the door of the hall ready to play us to the 
hotel immediately after my lecture, and there to find supper laid for about 
forty-five gentlemen who were good enough to entertain me thus 
as the guest of the Highlanders of Alexandria. The chair was taken by 
Mr Angus Macdonald, a fine Highlander and a prominent official in the 
place, supported by John Macdougald, whose grandfather left the Island 
of Eigg, in 1788, for Sydney, Nova Scotia, and in 1793 went to Glengarry 
and settled there. His mother I found was one of the United Empire 
Loyalists already referred to, descended from the Camerons of Fassiefern. 
Mr Macdougald possesses his grandfather's original property in Glengarry. 
Donald Macmillan, M.D., who presided at the lecture, was croupier at 
the supper, and added much to our entertainment by his singing in fine 
voice and spirit some excellent Gaelic songs. Among the company was 
also the grandson, A. B. Macdonald, of the first wliite man born in Glen- 
garry. His great-grandfather emigrated from Morar without means of 
any kind, but having been in the army he had free land allotted to him 
and he died worth property valued at 2000. The great-grandson became 
partner, and is now the successor, in the extensive and lucrative business 
long carried on by the Hon. Donald Macdonald, the present Lieutenant- 
Go vernor of Ontario ; and is rapidly amassing a fortune. Among others 
present were Colin D. Chisholm, clerk to the District Court a cousin of 
our own Colin Chisholm, and almost as enthusiastic and as well informed 
a Celt as the ex-President of the Gaelic Society of London himself; Dr 
Alexander R. Macdonell, and several other warm-hearted fellows whose 
names I did not manage to carry along with me. There were, however, 
two Southern Scots present, who had settled down among the Highlanders 
of Alexandria, and who appeared to be in spirit as genuine Celts as the 
rest, viz., Charles H. Connon, M.A, and Edward H, Tiffany, both bar- 



158 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

risters practising in the county. The oratorical ability displayed was 
really marvellous in such an out-of-the-way place as Alexandria, con- 
taining only about 1000 inhabitants, and such as would put many who- 
would-be-considered-orators in more pretentious places at home to shame. 
I gave expression here for the first time to my views and feelings repeating 
the manner in which successive governments of Canada discouraged and 
otherwise treated Highland immigrants, while they had acted in a manner 
entirely different to the Russian Memnonites and Icelanders ; and the 
enthusiastic sympathy displayed by my fellow countrymen of Alexandria 
at once convinced me that the Highlander of Canada only wants to have 
this dereliction on the part of ,the Government pointed out to him to 
have the present system of giving his countrymen the cold shoulder con- 
demned and reversed. It was proposed and seconded, there and then, 
that those present should form themselves into a Society for educating 
public opinion on the point, and I learned after I left that they met on 
the following evening and formed themselves into the nucleus of a 
Caledonian Society. My driver, who knew all present, informed me 
that the company amongst them represented accumulated property worth 
about a quarter of a million sterling. I parted with them next morning 
with very genuine regret, and not without hope of again seeing them in 
the hospitable capital of Glengarry county. 

I learned that John Murdoch of the Highlander had passed through 
the village that morning in the mail-gig, while I was away in the district 
of Lochiel, and that he had gone on, some miles, to visit Mr Cattanach, an 
old Badenoch Celt, who lived at Laggan, so called by him in commemo- 
ration of his native place in the old country. I was naturally anxious to 
see the Ard-Albannach, and made my driver go several miles out of his 
way to overtake him at Laggan or meet him on his way back ; and meet 
him we did, Mr Cattanach driving him back to Alexandria. I requested 
my driver to go into Cattanach's machine, while Fear-an-fJieilidh came 
in with me. I then turned round my team in the direction in which the 
Highlander was going, and thus had about half-an-hour of him. I had 
about 30 miles to go in another direction, and, as he was going direct to 
Lancaster, where I was engaged to lecture that evening, we agreed to meet 
there and compare notes, after such a long absence from home and from 
each other, and to talk over our new and varied experiences. After a 
long drive through the county to the west, and making several calls on 
the way, I arrived in the afternoon at Williamston, a village only 4 miles 
from Lancaster, where we obtained refreshments for man and beast at the 
hostelry of another good Hie'lanman John J. Macdonald, Glencoe House, 
who, like most of my friends, had succeeded in feathering his nest pretty 
well. Having made a few other calls, Mr Macrae soon rattled into Lan- 
caster, The Ard-Albannach arrived a few minutes after us. In the even- 
ing, I delivered my promised lecture, for which I was by no means in good 
form ; but the Highlander and D. Macmaster, M.P. for the County, who 
came all the way from Montreal to meet me, addressed the audience, and 
thus enabled me to drop easy. My old travelling companion, Mr Mac- 
lennan, M.P. for Glengarry in the Dominion Parliament, came several 
miles to preside at our meeting ; and my only regret in connection with my 
visit to this Highland settlement is my inability to call upon him at his 
own house, agreeably to his repeated requests that I should do so. The 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA, 159 

same evening and next morning I met a few more fine specimens of the 
good old stock, among them A. S. Macdonald, from the West Coast of In- 
verness-shire, proprietor of the Commercial Hotel ; Duncan Macarthur, 
merchant, Alexandria, whom I missed when there ; A. B. Maclennan of 
Glen-Gordon, originally from Kintail ; and no end of Macphersons, whose 
forbears came from Badenoch, all in excellent circumstances. 

Glengarry has produced another fine Gaelic-speaking family the 
Sansfield Macdonalds who rose from the ranks to the very highest 
positions in the Dominion. One of them lived close to Lancaster ; but 
I was unfortunate enough to miss him. Another died Premier a few 
years ago ; while a third is the Hon. Donald Macdonald, the present 
Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, one of the most popular, genial, and 
warm-hearted Highlanders in the whole Dominion. Their ancestors came 
originally from Knoydart, in the county of Inverness ; and their father 
commenced life in very humble circumstances, and became a farmer at 
Sansfield's Corner, Glengarry, from which place the family took the addi- 
tion to their original and simple name of Macdonald, to distinguish them 
from the legion of the same name in Canada many of whom are in high 
positions like themselves. 

The farms throughout this Highland county is laid out in 1 50 acre 
lots, and the people are very comfortable throughout. !N"ot only in 
politics but in most other walks of life it has turned out many who have 
distinguished themselves in other parts of Canada. A mistaken idea has 
got abroad, no doubt in consequence of the name, that most of the people 
came originally from Glengarry in the Old Country ; but this is not the 
case, the great majority of them being from Lochaber, Morar, Moidart, 
Knoydart, Glenelg, Kintail, and Badenoch. I could say a great deal more 
which would redound to their credit, but I must at present pass on, and 
introduce you, in my next, to some of the Highlanders of Ottawa, King- 
ston, and Toronto. A. M. 



feneakrgiral $ottx mib 

CAITHNESS CAMPBELLS. 

I am much obliged to " Leckmelm " for his kind communication. There 
is some mistake, however, about the family of William Campbell, Sheriff- 
Clerk of Caithness, about 1690, as he was not a native of the county. I 
found out within the last few days that John Campbell, Commissary of 
Caithness, was not William's brother, nor a son of Donald Campbell, 
merchant in Thurso. On the 1st of March 1692 the office of Commissary 
of Caithness was conferred on Mr John Campbell, "sono to ye laird 
of Barbreck." Will " Leckmelm " kindly allow me to communicate with 
him privately on this subject ? MAO. 

QUERIES. 

WOULD any of your correspondents, learned in the history of the Highlands, be kind 
enough to answer the following queries :- - 

1. Are the Macraes a clan, and, if so, who is their chief? 

2. What are their arms, crest, and badge? 

3. Have they a tartan of their own, and, if so, what are its colours? 

Colona, Soath Australia. GABBHAO AN T* SIBTBHE. 



160 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVEENESS ANNUAL DINNER 



THIS month we give eight pages additional, in small type, to enable us to 
place a report of the proceedings at the eighth annual dinner of the Gaelic 
Society before our readers especially those abroad, now so greatly in- 
creased, and who are not likely to see the local newspapers. The meeting 
was one of the most enjoyable of all the successful meetings hitherto held 
by the Society ; and for this great credit is due to the excellent secretary, 
Mr William Mackenzie, of the Aberdeen Free Press, whose arrangements 
were complete, and all that could be desired. The Chief also helped to 
make all pleased with themselves, and the Society will not fail to appre- 
ciate the trouble he has taken in coming all the way from Skye to perform 
his duties as Chief not only on this occasion, but also to the annual 
assembly in July of last year. He was supported right and left by Sir 
Kenneth S. Mackenzie of Gairloch, Bart., Captain MacEa Chisholm of 
Glassburn, Captain Scobie, The Eev. Mr Bisset, &c. The attendance 
was large and influential William Jolly, Esq., H.M.I.S., and Alexander 
Eoss, Esq., F.S.A.S., architect, acted as croupiers. 

After giving the loyal toasts that of "Her Majesty" having been proposed in a 
neat, correctly delivered Gaelic speech the CHIEF proposed the "Army, Navy, and 
Volunteers," and referring to the Afghan war, said, amid loud cheers, that "in that war 
our brave Highlander were at the front as usual, doing their duty and maintaining the 
prestige of the British army." 

Captain CHISHOLM responded, concluding a neat speech We, of the Gaelic Society, 
may heartily rejoice that the gallant Highland regiments continue to uphold their 
ancient renown for courage and heroic bravery, in all the recent wars of the Empire in 
Africa and Asia and the martial strains of the war-pipe are always sounding there to 
encourage our brother Highlanders in the din of battle. A great deal might be said re- 
garding our present military organisation, but, unfortunately, I am no speaker, and 
much prefer the attitude of listener, particularly when I see around me so many orators 
of renown. You will therefore, I am sure, easily pardon me if I "cease firing" and 
eome to a "halt." (Great applause.) 

Captain SOOBIB, for the Militia, said that the military ardour had not yet died out 
of the Highlands, as shown by the fact that the two Highland regiments of militia the 
Inverness and Ross continued to hold their high place among the militia regiments of 
the kingdom. (Applause.) In spite of all that had been said about the calling out of 
the reserves in 1878 having frightened the people from joining the militia, that action 
had in no way interfered with the Highland regiments ; and at this moment the Boss- 
shire (Highland Rifle) Militia was over its strength by more than 100 men. (Cheers.) 
The reserves of that regiment, when called out in 1878, turned out splendidly three, 
four, or at most no more than five men absenting themselves. (Applause.) 

Lieutenant G. J. CAMPBELL, for the Volunteers, said that im the town of Inverness, 
between rifles and artillery, there were nearly 900 men under arms as volunteers, and 
they were all men who were both able and willing to do their duty should they ever be 
called upon. (Applause.) 

The SECRETARY at this stage intimated a large number of apologies ; after which he 
read the annual report, which exhibited for last year an income of 167 8s 7d, and an 
expenditure of 153 7s lO^d, showing a balance of 32 Os 9d in favour of the Society. 

The CHIEF, after congratulating the Society on their eighth volume of Transactions, 
proceeded The Society had arrogated to themselves the right of viewing the Highlander 
in his various aspects they bad seen him as a crofter and ia his various other social 
occupations to-night he thought it would not be out of place to have a glance at him 
as he might appear as a soldier. (Applause.) Some thought that a little military drill 
might improve him, and that as a soldier he would be a much more interesting subject 
than going about lounging as at present with bis hands in his pockets. (Laughter.) 
Considering what the Highlanders were, what they are, and what they might be, and 
bearing ia mind the distinction acquired by our Highland ancestors for military prowess, 
the present seemingly low ebb of military ardour in the north was a question of some 



GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 161 

interest. (Applause.) To examine it they must take into consideration tkree periods. 
The first period was one of 60 years, extending from 1757 to 1815, when men were in 
great demand. The second period, from 1815 to the time of the Crimean War wai one 
of peace. Daring it men were, so to speak, a drug in the market, and the Highlander 
was allowed to slip out of consideration and be supplanted by sheep. They might let 
that period for the present slip out of consideration, and treat it as it treated 
the men. (Laughter.) The third period was that fiom the Crimean "War, or rather 
from 1859, after the threat of the French colonels which had put our present voluntter 
system in motion. During that period, which was oir own period, the value of men 
again began to be recognised. Various Highland societies had started into existence, 
and wherever Highlanders kad congregated in the towns of the south they were deter- 
mined not to lose sight of the traditions of their ancestors, and through their agency, to 
a considerable extent, people began to put his true value on the Highlander. (Applause.) 
Immediately after the " rising" of 1745-6, when as a people the Highlanders were con- 
quered, disarmed, and, he might say, undressed (laughter) everybody thought the 
military spirit had been entirely crushed out of the residue of the people. (Hear, hear.) 
But what were the facts ? Only a dozen years after thac, when Pitt called on the country, 
how did the Highlands respond.? They all knew how the Highlands responded. In 
the Highlands regiment after regiment was raised till, in a period of forty years, the 
Highlander had contributed between forty and fifty regiments, which had greatly 
assisted the country in maintaining her own among the European nations, and enabled 
the Empire to extend her boundaries in every quarter of the globe (cheers) which 
really meant the extension of civilisation, the extension of Christianity, the extension 
of good government, and numerous other blessings besides. (Applause.) There was a 
very martial song composed by his friend, that well-known Highlander, Alex. Nicolson, 
Sheriff of Kirkcudbright (applause) the chorus of which began " Agus ho Mhoray." 
It enumerated, in chronological order, the various actions and battles taken part in by 
our Highlanders from the days of Bannockburn, when Scotland gained her independence, 
to the triumphal entry of the 42d into Coomassie. (Cheers.) No one gloried in the 
gallant deeds of our ancestors more than he did. No one was more willing to acknow- 
ledge that by these gallant deeds a lustre was raised around them which was even 
shad on us their descendants at the present day, but in contrasting the past with the 
present he must say that he thought, with all deference to those gallant actions and deeds, 
that they had now among them in the Highlands men who had got the hearts to will 
and the arms to perform similar deeds of valour, if placed in a position where they would 
be called upon to do so. (Loud cheers.) Seeing that regiment after regiment waa 
raised in those days, how did it come to pass that we cannot raise men in the Highlands 
in a similar way at the present day ? If what he heard was true, the greatest difficulty 
was experienced in obtaining recruits for the Highland regiments. Can our nature be 
changed ? or must we account for it by supposing that former clearances of n.en, for the 
sake of sheep, had anything to do with it ? He should say most decidedly not, because he 
found that if the population of the Highlands was not so large as in those days, Inverness- 
shire at any rate had actually a much larger population now than in the days when the 
tremendous drain upon their resources to which be had alluded had gone on for sixty 
years. If it was thought that the Highland nature had changed, and that the Highlander 
was not so fond of military occnpation as formerly, he thought that would not bear 
examination ; for he found that wherever the volunteer system had been established 
Highlanders cordially adopted it. (Cheers.) Then let any of them go to the railway 
station at Inverness in the month of June and they would find hundreds he might 
say thousands of West Coast fishermen going to the East Coast fishing, a calling which 
he might term one of the perilous occupations. (Hear, hear.) Again, if they looked 
at the Highlander as they found him in the large towns and cities of the south, thert 
they would find him engaged in the peaceful occupation of policeman. (Laughter.) 
They had thus exemplified in the Highland character a combination of order and ad- 
venture the essential qualities of a good soldier. (Cheers.) Looking at figures, h 
found that in the rural and insular parts of the country there was a great break-down. 
(Hear, hear.) They did not contribute Many men in comparison to what they 
formerly did. Inverness-shire had at present an insular population of 40,000, and the 
contributions it made to the military strength of the Empire were very small, especially 
when they recollected what these districts did in former days, and the large numbers 
of men they contributed to fight our battles. (Hear, hear.) He had heard the numbers 
computed at large figures, which it was unnecessary for him to repeat ; but one thing ho 
might mention which they did not perhaps know, and it was this that the Isla of Skye 
alone had 1600 men engaged in the battle of Waterloo. (Applause.) It was all very 
well to state what we did. The question was What are we doine now ? On looking 
at the history of the raising of the Highland regiments, he found that in each instance 
the entire credit was due to the personal influence of the nobles, chiefs, and gentry who 
took an interest in the matter. (Hear, hear.) The moment these took the initiative 
they had no difficulty in getting men to follow thm. Did they think that if either of 
the Pitts or the Government of the day had simply expressed a wish that there should 



162 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

be an augmentation of the forces by the Highlanders, or that the Highlanders should 
join the army, or if they sent a Gaelic speaking recruiting sergeant to the Highlands- 
Would that be successful in getting men ? He had no hesitation in saying, No. The 
men did then what they would do now if called upon they followed their chiefs and 
leaders. They followed those they knew and in whom they had confidence. The men 
were asked as a favour to join the regiments, and they did it. Let them look, for instance, 
at the history of the 92d, where the historical and beautiful Duchess of Gordon induced 
the men to enlist with the bounty of a sovereign and a kiss. (Laughter.) Why, if our 
ladies of the present day emulated that celebrated duchess (laughter) they would 
have the country bristling with bjyonets. (Applause.) It must not be supposed, that 
because the rural populations did not join the Volunteer force, they had lost all military 
spirit. If the time came when the services of the people were required as they were in 
former days, the Highlanders woald be found to retain their ancient military renown. 
(Cheers.) This Society had done good work in keeping up the recollection of the past, 
and stimulating us of the present day to imitate the deeds of our fathers, and he would 
ask them all to drink cordially to its success. (Loud cheers.) 

Dr F. M. MACKENZIE proposed the members of Parliament for the Highland counties 
ard burghs, and expressed the hope that " the day may soon come when some of us now 
around this table will grace the House of Commons." (Cheers.) 

Mr JOLLY, in proposing " Celtic Literature," thought that he must have been again 
selected to speak to this toast as a sort of counteractive to the serious indictment made 
on the literature of the Gael by two of his Highland colleagues in last year's Educational 
Blue Book. It was a subject of the greatest interast and widest range, and one deeply 
affecting the interests of the Gaelic people more than many people thought. He could 
only touch on a few points. One point on which misapprehensions existed both among 
its friends and foes was its real character and importance. It should be valued for these 
alone, which were of high merit, and not for extrinsic and foreign elements which some 
of its too zealous friends arrogated to it. (Applause.) It was not valuable as containing 
history, philosophy, or science, or|*he like, the introduction of which into the discussion 
had complicated it with false issues. These should not be looked for there any more 
than grapes in Iceland or gooseberries in India. (Laughter.) Its highest merit lay in 
its being a vehicle for the utterance of the deepest elementary feelings of human nature, 
which formed nine- tenths of the daily experiences of the race, which the Highland 
people uttered according to the genius of their expressive and picturesque tongue, amidst 
the special colouring of their mountain home, and as influenced by their race and peculiar 
history, and which had produced a body of lyrical poetry of great intrinsic merit, viewed 
absolutely, and of still higher value as a cultural element to the people that had produced 
it. (Applause. ) He would refer only to two distinguishing elements of this poetry.^ First, 
there was its relation to nature its character as a branch of the naturalistic poetry of our 
country. In that it stood high. The Highlander had been always surrounded by 
natural influences of the greatest power from the country in which he lived, that had 
brought him into special relations with nature, and had early produced a poetry of 
nature of a striking kind ; and this at a date long anterior to the rise of naturalistic 
poetry in Britain. (Applause. ) Here Mr Jolly described several of the characteristics of this 
poetry - its animate descriptions of its various phases from sunshine to storm, its loving 
appreciation of its beauties both of animal and plant life, its glory in the varied scenery 
that filled their land, the constant interplay between nature and human feelings that 
pervaded it, the artistic use of its imagery in all its utterances and the like. Such 
poetry wherever it existed was of high value, and an important agent in culture. (Hear, 
hear. ) When it arose in British literature it marked \n important epoch, but it had always 
more or less existed in Gaelic literature. He then referred to its use in early education 
in generating a taste for natural beauty and grandeur, and the feelings it generated ia 
young minds. The second element of value in this literature he would refer to was its 
value as giving varied, beautiful, and powerful utterance to the fundamental feelings of 
the human heart those of home, daily life, social intercourse, war, and devotion. Here 
its lyrical poetry had eminent merit. (Applause.) He mentioned some of its character- 
istics, from the fiercest battle ode to sprightly humour and deep pathos and genuine 
passion. Such poetry should form a powerful element in the culture of any people pos- 
sessing it, and it shoull be more employed than it had been. If rightly used it would 
dispel as a black mist before the sun much of the over-sombreness of the life of the 
Highlander and the over-sternness of his religion. (Applause.) Mr Jolly would not 
enter into, was in no way fitted to express an opinion, on the character and contents of 
the literature as a branch of general literature in itself and as related to others. The 
indictment against it by his colleagues he would leave to others to answer, and it re- 
quired an answer. The accusers were men of ability who did not utter themselves rashly, 
especially in a question bearing so strongly on their relations to their own people. 
Their statements on the subject were important in many ways, and should be seriously 
met by competent Gaelic scholars, otherwise they would remain an unanswered challenge 
seriously affecting their literature, and the success of their own efforts in regard to it and 
related questions. In regard to this also, he had heard it said that the translations of 



GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 163 

their poetry were no real expression of the original text, that they were finer than these, 
and especially as done by their friend Professor Blackie, were so coloured by the person- 
ality of the writers that an outsider such as the speaker could never know what Gaelic 
poetry really was. Was this true? It was for them to answer that. The Highland 
people themselves had in general an inadequate idea of their own literature, both as to 
its extent and nature ; that was, he feared, too true, from various causes. That gave 
the teaching of it to Gaelic children, if adequately done, a special value in opening their 
eyes, and making it the cultural agent it might become. (Applause.) The chief thin* 
that should be aimed at was less a mere grammatical study of the words than a real 
insight into the literature, as poetry and beauty. For that purpose a select anthology 
of Gaelic poetry and prose should be made by a competent Gaelic scholar for the use of 
Gaelic children in the higher classes, and as a specific subject, which he hoped it would 
soon become. (Chears.) He was glad to tell them that an eminent publisher wag 
prepared to issue such a book, even at a loss, from his interest in the Highlands, and 
that a distinguished Gaelic scholar had determined to take it in hand. (Applause.) If 
tbat were done, it would give practical expression to what they proposed to do when ap 
preaching Government ou the matter. They did not recommend exclusive Gaelic literary 
culture, but the native literature alongside of the higher and richer English field ; but 
they claimed justice to the native tongue, with its special avenues to the native mind. 
In that connection Mr Jolly hoped that the Northern Meeting would do something far 
higher than they had been doing in "playing at Highlanders," (loud applause) and 
making a public exhibition of a few professionals, (cheers) and would imitate the 
Welsh in cultivating the Highlanders in a broader and higher way, making their litera- 
ture a special aim. (Applause.) What was done on such occasions was a travestie on 
the Highlands. (Loud cheers. ) Mr Jolly concluded by wishing all success to their efforts 
in the cultivation of their literature in all departments, and proposed the toast amidst 
great enthusiasm, coupling it with the names of Mr Alex. Mackenzie of the Celtic 
Magazine whom he congratulated on his labours generally in that field, especially on the 
solid piece of good work performed in his "History of the Clan Mackenzie" recently 
published and Mr John Wbyte of the Highlander. 

Mr MACKENZIE, in reply, congratulated Mr Jolly upon his speech in proposing 
the toast, and on the position he has taken up in connection with teaching Gaelic in 
Highland Schools, and proceeded to compare his views and disinterested advocacy of ths 
rights of Highlanders OB this question, with the crude, flippant, and misleading views 
expressed by others of Her Majesty's Inspectors in their official capacity in their latest 
reports to the Education Department. (Applause.) In the capacity in which they there 
appear, we are perfectly justified in criticising them and in asking if they are even com- 
petent judges. (Hear, hear.) Their remarks on Gaelic in the last Educational Blue 
Book is a public challenge to this Society, and to all who take an interest in 
teaching Gaelic in schools, and who assert that we have any literature. (Applause.) 
And it appears to me that the Federation of Celtic- Societies would be much better engaged 
in getting up an effective answer, in the form of a pamphlet or otherwise, to be sent to 
"their Lordships" and distributed among those interested, than in discussing such burning 
questions as the Land Question, and other political subjects (loud applause) and I 
trust they, and this Society, will at once take the matter up. (Hear, hear.) For me to 
stand up at a meeting like this, and occupy the time of the members of the Gaelic 
Society of Inverness, at this time of day, to prove that a Gaelic literature exists would 
he quite superfluous. Those who assert the contrary are either ignorant, dishonest, 
or prejudiced. (Hear, hear.) I am dealing with Her Majesty's Inspectors aa public 
officials and mean to make no personal reflections. I have no great quarrel with Mr 
Ross for what appears in his report to the Education Department, for he has been 
driven in spite of himself to recommend "to place Gaelic in the schedule of Special 
Subjects, and thus put it, as regards the country and the universities, precisely 
on the same level as Latin and Greek." (Applause.) Personally, I never advocated 
more than is here conceded, except that the language of Gaelic-speaking children should 
be used as a medium to teach them English. But I know that Mr Ross long opposed 
this, especially in an article which appeared in the second number of the Rom-shire 
Journal, and in a letter which he afterwards wrote to the Glasgow Actos, and to 
both of which I replied at the time. The "negative attitude" and other choice stock 
phrases of the report will also be found in his earlier lucubrations. Were it not pitiable 
to see a really clever Highlander disposing as he does of a great literary problem which 
has baffled even more distinguished scholars than he (hear, hear) it would be amusing 
to see him giving forth dogmatically, without the slightest doubt, as if he were the Pop* 
himself acting ex Cathedra, his inspired conclusions on the poems of Ossian, which he 
says, " if ancient, would be a noble literary heritage ; but unfortunately these poems are 
a modern fabrication." (Oh !) Get over that if you can, gentlemen of the Gaelic 
Society. It shows how easily an Ispector of Schools (and thank Goodness I am not 
one) (loud laughter) can settle a controversy about which other great scholars have, 
even yet, some little difficulty. His elaborate paragraph on Gaelic Statistics crumbles 
like a pack of cards by the mere withdrawal of the word "only." I never heard that 



164 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

upwards of 300,000 Highlanders spoke Gaelic only, but the introduction of the word 
" only " by Mr Ross was, of course, unintentional, though it comes in well as a prop to 
his otherwise weak-kneed paragraph. Other paragraphs are equally UDstable, and could 
just as easily be tumbled over if time permitted. (Applause.) The man who composed 
that paragraph is too clever by half. (Cheers. ) I am not, however, done with Mr Ross. 
This Society has given him 24 pages of their last volume of Transactions for an abuse of 
themselves, which, in my opinion, for this reason alone, they thoroughly deserve. I 
cannot understand why we at all exist as a Society if all Mr Ross says regarding us is 
true ; and even if true, to publish his charges in our Transactions and at our own 
expense is a thing for which I can see no legitimate reason, and a thing against which 
I strongly protest. At the rate I pay for printing, his two papers cost the Society about 
10, and circulation for nothing. (Laughter.) This is a great deal more than in my opi- 
nion they are worth. (Applause.) He then, at page 79, goes on to cumulate all the bad 
things said of the Celt by the enemies of the race for the last century and a half, pretty 
much as follows : That the Celt is an impediment vanishing before civilization like 
the Red Indian ; that from the dawn of history he has been centuries behind, hugging 
crass creeds which more enlightened people had abandoned ; the best articles of his 
theology are disjointed fragments [Where are the Rev. Dr Mackay and other orthodox 
clergymen of the north ? (cheers and laughter)] ; they are given to transparent pre- 
tence ; they possessed incoherent eloquence [perhaps like my own (oh ! and laughter)] ; 
a volcanic tendency to revolt ; they have been visionaries dead to the laws of facts ; 
pretentious bards ; and when not dreamers, they have been scourges in lands which 
they failed to conquer or till. The best, the most law-abiding of them, have seldom 
got beyond a melancholy wail, except when passion, the attribute of animal nature, 
has driven them into fits of revenge ; until they change they can have no kindred with 
the friends of progress or social reform. Their language is a fitting article for savage 
imagery, and crude, conglomerate thinking ; their philosophies are audacious myths 
or shreds of savage survivals ; and their much vaunted poetry is stolen or appropriated 
from more fertile fields whenever it rises above the dignity of scurrilous twaddle, or 
extends beyond the borders of ruda elemental lyric. (Oh !) I did not think that there were 
swob a terrible lot of adjectives in Ogilvie's dictionary. (Laughter.) He admits that 
this is a fierce indictment, but he has no doubt that a certain egotistical class of Celts 
(like the members of this Society) merit this charge. (Oh ! oh !) He then goes 
on to say in the same strain that that ignorant type of Highlander, who sees no 
manly virtue except beneath the kilt, which, in his ignorance, he calls the national 
garb ; who hears no sweet sound except that of the bag-pipes, which with equal ignor- 
ance he calls the national instrument ; and who finds no poetry except in Gaelic, 
which he regards as the national language. Gentlemen, what an ignoramus the High- 
lander has always been before we had inspectors of schools (loud laughter) to think that 
Gaelic was his national language. (Laughter.) What was it? This typical Celt is alto- 
gether ignorant of the merest elements of his ancestral history ; he preaches manliness 
and toadies to the nearest lord [Where are you John Murdoch? (applause)] his func- 
tion is to ignore facts and to over-rule the laws of social pelity and national sequence. 
(Oh ! oh !) He calls himself a reformer, and he advocates a return to the kilt, 
to the bagpipes, to Gaelic, all of which he loudly asserts to possess high national 
antiquity as well as high national virtues ; but the Celtic savant in Europe Mr ROSB 
of course ; and what a blessing it is we have one modest Celt (great laughter) knows 
that the kilt is neither ancient nor Gaelic ; that the bagpipe is Sclavonic, and not 
the national instrument of the Gaelic people ; and that Gaelic itself is a very modern 
and rery composite dialect ; and so on through this remarkable article, which you have 
published in your annual volume. (Hear, hear.) It is not for me to say whether this is 
all true or not. Indeed I dare not when such a distinguished oracle (laughter) pro- 
claims it in our own Transactions. But whether it be true or not, our annual volume 
is not the place to publish such charges against ourselves and the race in whose interest 
we have come into existence as a Society. (Loud Applause.) As one of the originators 
of this Society I strongly protest against its funds and its volume of Transactions being 
used for such an unpatriotic purpose. (Cheers.) I have left myself but little time 
to say anything about Mr Sime's conclusions and the manner in which he expresses them 
to "My Lords." He "should regard the teaching of Gaelic in schools, in any shape 
or form, as a most serious misfortune." (Oh ! oh !) He then has a dig at the " patriots," 
[the word is in inverted commas of course (laughter)] and informs us that Gaelic " is 
not and never will be of the slightest value in conducting the business of this world," 
forgetting, if common report be true, that he himself owes his position as one of Her 
Majesty's Inspectors of Schools to what I know to be, his very limited knowledge of it. 
(Laughter and applause.) It must have ben of some commercial value to him. 
(Loud laughter.) He says that there is the strongest reasons for not teaching 
it ; which is perfectly true from his stand-point, for the double reason, that he has not 
a sufficient knowledge of it to examine the scholars in it, (hear, hear) and that most 
of the teachers are so ignorant of it that they cannot teach it. (Applause.) The cure 
for this is too obvious t need pointing out. (Hear.) I agree with him that " every 



GAELIC SOCIETY OF IKVEENESS. 165 

teacher so situated would rejoice were Gaelic, as a spoken tongue, abolished root and 
branch." I know Mr Sime too well not to know that he is incapable of misrepre- 
senting the facts wilfully. It is, however, equally certain that he doss not under- 
stand them. His references for they are not worthy the name of arguments 
about the "bread and butter poiut of view" and the comparative advantages ef 
reading the English or Gaelic Bible, and Gaelic as a means of culture, are beneath 
notice. Mr Sime would lead " My Lords" to think that we advocated the teaching of 
Gaelic to the exclusion of English. This is worse than nonsense. (Hear, hear.) No 
aane Highlander ever went that length. (Applause.) What I want, and what you 
want, is that Gaelic should be used as a means to teach English, and also made a special 
subject, as even Mr Boss and the Educational Institute now recommend. (Cheers.) 
Mr Sime most certainly does not understand the position (hear) for he entirely carica- 
tures the claims of all intelligent advocates of Gaelic. (Applause.) The reasons which 
he gives for his advice to their Lordships, are misleading and illogical on the very facu of 
them, and they will most undoubtedly be valued accordingly. (Applause.) In con- 
clusion he thanks the teachers who have so readily and so fully responded to his request 
for information to be used in preparing his report ; but I know those whose opinions, 
given at his request, in circulars sent out by him to teachers, and iuo.it of whom already 
knew his own views, are quite ignored in the report, just because they advocated that 
Gaelic should be made a special subject. The existence of such should have been at 
least acknowledged. (Cheers.) I am sorry that I should have been obliged to have 
spoken thus, but the challenge was a public one made by public officials in a public repeat. 
It is then fore fair game for criticism ; and I have no hesitation in saying that if further 
challenged I shall take in hand to prove that some of these gentlemen, at least, are far 
too ignorant of Gaelic, and any literature it contains, to justify them in expressing any 
opinion upon it. (Loud applause.) I have occupied your time far too long, and I will 
now leave my friend, Mr Why te, to do the amiable part of the business. (Loud and con- 
tinued applause.) 

Mr WHYIE said After the eloquent, pointed, powerful, and I bad almost said, 
pugnacious speech of Mr Mackenzie (laughter) it seems to me almost necessary to 
remind the meeting that my friend was not replying for the Army and Navy (laughter) 
but for the much more peaceful toast of Celtic Literature. I am sure after the effective 
address to which we have just listened, you will commend my good sense when I tell 
you that I have no intention of inflicting any lengthened speech of mine upon you. 
Indeed it is not required, and moreover, you will admit that a very serious disadvantage 
attaches to a mere smatterer in Celtic literature, like uie, if called upon to follow such 
a Demosthenes as the editor of the Celtic Magazine. You must also remember that I 
have not, like some of our friends, had the benefit of a voyage to the Western land of 
eloquence to lubricate the eagle pinions of my oratory. (Laughter.) I do not know 
very wsll how to account for the fact that ray name was selected from among the large 
circle round this table, of men much more capable than I am to do justice to this subject. 
Perhaps I may account for it somewhat as a newspaper reporter once defended tbe cor- 
rectness of his account of a meeting which he had described as "large and appreciative," 
while the fact was that there was no one present but himself and another gentleman. 
(Laughter.) The report, he said, was absolutely correct, for the other gentleman was 
" large" and he himself was " appreciative." Now, sir, I think I may point to my friend 
the editor of the Celtic Magazine as possessing the necessary dimensions (loud laughter) 
both physically and figuratively, for a 6t and proper representative of Celtic litera- 
ture ; and I can assure the meeting that no one can be more "appreciative" of the 
beauties aud merits of our Celtic literature than I am. (Applause.) It is quite un- 
necessary to occupy your time iu proving the fwlsity of the statement so often made that 
we have no literature a statement that has been so often contradicted, and even now so 
effectually rebutted by Mr Jolly and Mr Mackenzie. It were an impertinent reflection 
on the members of the Gaelic Society of Inverness for me to assume that they were ig- 
norant ef the existence of not only a respectable aud not insignificant literature even in 
the vernacular Gaelic of the Highlands of Scotland, but also of the vast stores that exist 
in the language of the ancient Celts of Ireland and Wales, and the wide and fruitful 
fields of our unwritten literature, if I may use the phrase. (Cheers.) But, Mr Chair- 
man, even if we admit which we don't that our literature, strictly speaking, is small 
and unimportant, I hold that we have in other respects no small title to claim rather a 
large crop of literature. Falstaff says " I have not only wit in myself, but I am the 
cause that wit is in other men." So even if we had no literature of our own, are we not 
the cause that there is literature in other men ? (Hear, hear, and applause.) Who 
does not see the large and all prevailing influence of the Celtic element in the character 
and volume of the literature, not only of our own country, but in that of almost all 
civilised nations. (Cheers.) But, sir, we have a living and growing literature. We do 
not require to go beyond our own little burgh, or outside of this Society to find abundant 
proof of this. Besides our local newspapers which from week to week give forth their 
quota, and the Gaelic Society with its annual volume of valuable Transactions, have we 
not the Celtic Magazine, with my portly friend at its head (cheers) from mouth to 



166 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

month adding to the fund of our literature? And let me also specifically mention one 
most valuable item of Mr Mackenzie's work in the augmentation of the store : I mean 
his recently published History of the Clan Mackenzie the most important and the 
handsomest work ever issued from our Northern press. (Applause.) In conclusion, Mr 
Chairman, I don't think I am out of place in referring to an honoured member of our 
Society who, though by nativity and ancestry perhaps, a Saxon, or at least a Lowlander, 
has exerted an immense influence in the formation of opinion on this subject guiding 
the minds of young and old among us, and inviting into exercise those powers which ate 
known to be latent in the Celtic character and who is, I am sorry to say, about to leave 
our neighbourhood. Indeed but for this circumstance, I wuuld not in his own presence 
have ventured to make this reference. I mean our excellent friend Mr Jolly. (Cheers.) 
Why, sir, the very mention of his name at a gathering of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 
renders any eulogiums on my part perfectly superfluous. (Applause.) Mr Jolly, sir, 
is a genuine Celt (hear, hear) and though neither speaking our tongue, nor wearing 
our Highland garb, yet in heart, and life, and work, he is the " noblest Koman of us 
all." (Great applause.) 

Mr Boss, architect, proposed "Kindred Societies," the object of which, as well as 
of this society, is the preservation of records, the elucidation of our early history, and 
the perpetuation of all that is good and worthy in the nation. (Applause.) Unfortun- 
ately, much of the early history of Scotland, especially before the tenth oentury, is en- 
veloped in darkness and obscurity, and we have but faint rays of light in the incidental 
references of Roman and other writers. "We are thus left to grope about as we best can. 
These occasional lights or beacons, faint and distant though they be, serve as a start- 
ing point, and daily through the instrumentality of zealous individuals and the en- 
couragement of this and kindred societies, obscure points are being cleared up, and our 
knowledge of the early history of our native land extended. (Applause.) When we 
look at our Transactions, now extending to eight goodly volumes, one feels that the time 
of this Society has not been misspent, and that in the departments of folk-lore, philology, 
and song, good work has been done. (Applause.) I am not one of those people that 
believe that Gaelic is destined long to survive as a commercial language ; but it 
is not dead yet, and will not die out in our time, and it is necessary to the very ends 
of history, to which I referred, that its bones should be preserved, and for this reason I 
hail with pleasure the successful accomplishment of Blackie's task the gathering of 
funds for the endowmnt of the Celtic Chair. (Cheers.) So far back as 1836 this 
scheme was taken up by the Gaelic Society of London and ethers. Mr Hoss here pointed 
out what other societies had done in collecting the scattered fragments of archaeological 
remains and folk-lore of the people, and continued I am glad to see that the songs and 
folk-lore are receiving special attention from the members of the Inverness Society, and 
from their situation in the heart of the Highlands they can, or ought, to do more than 
almost any other. There are, I am glad to observe, many other stations where societies 
have been established, notably at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Greenock, Oban, Perth, and I 
confess I should like to hear more of similar societies in the colonies, (\pplause.) I 
am not aware of what has been done, or that anything definite has been done in this 
direction though social clubs are no doubt plentiful. I have yet to learn that they have 
undertaken any definite work. Mr Mackenzie, in his late rambles through Canada, re- 
ferred to fine libraries of Celtic literature and enthusiastic scholars. Surely they may 
do something to forward the work. I am glad to say we have more than one society in 
Inverness devoting its energies to the investigation of the early records and history, 
and also to the collecting and stoiing of every trace of archaeological remains that can 
be found, and I hope when we have the benefit of our new Museum and Library, to see 
them both enriched by a full complement of Celtic relics and literature. They ought to 
be a crowning feature of our collection, and I trust they will be so. (Applause.) 
When we look around, and find that even within the memory of many here, societies 
having those special objects in view which we now possets, have grown and passed away, 
and what is still more sad, their collections perished, we ought to make every effort to 
preserve what is left to us, and I do hope that with the adoption of the Free Libraries Act, 
and the establishment of a permanent museum, we shall be able not only to recover, but 
to preserve every atom and object of interest in Highland history. (Applause.) When 
I said that many societies and members thereof have passed away, I am glad to be able 
to point to one exception, and he is a notable one I mean Mr Colin Chisholm, for many 
years President of the Gaelic Society of London, and whose kindly face and reverend 
appearance, at our annual feast here, adds much to the character and pleasure of the 
evening. (Loud cheers ) 

Mr COLIN CHISHOLM said Having been attached for the greater part of my life to 
kindred societies in the south, I may be permitted, at the outset, to express my opinion 
as the result of observation and long experience that it would be both desirable and 
beneficial for a young man from the Highlands to join a society of his countrymen in any 
town in which his lot may be cast in the south. The one I joined, the Gaelic Society of 
London, the oldest of all Scottish societies in London, was a source of much pleasure and 
information to me. It is now venerable, having celebrated its centenary three years ago. 



GAELIC SOCIETY OF INYEKNESS. 167 

(Applause.) The cordiality with which all present honoured "Kindred Societies" it an 
earnest of the undying attachment which all Celtic societies have to each other. 
With no other is that welfare more at heart, better understood, or more efficiently pro- 
moted than by the Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Mr ANDBEW MACDONALD proposed the Prorost, Magistrates, and Town Council 
of Inverness, to which 

Councillor JOHN NOBLE replied, saying that by the retirement of an excellent man, 
Provost Simpson, a gentleman who had done good work for a great many years (cheers) 
the Council was in a state of interregnum ; but he trusted the office would soon be 
filled up, and that the next Provost would be a man bearing the name of a clan that had 
always been intimately connected with, and favourable to, the town of Inverness. (Ap- 
plause.) 

Mr JAMES BABBON proposed " The Agricultural and Commercial Interests of the 
North of .Scotland "a toast which it might be said embraced the entire material interests 
of the district, for it was either on commerce or agriculture that the population de- 
pended. During the past year we had experienced a crisis of exceptional severity. Se 
extreme was it in commerce that he hoped we might never look upon the like again. 
(Hear, hear.) No one could remember without a chill the gloom that sat upon men's 
faces ur the depression that clogged their energies and filled their hearts with dismay. 
Thanks, however, to the tact, forbearance, and patience of a few skilful men, the wont 
apprehensions were never realised, and we had now shaken off the iucubus, and were 
rejoicing in returning prosperity. (Applause.) In agriculture, he thought, we had not 
been so ill off as people were in some parts of the country. In the country, as a whole, 
the wheat crop, which should have returned over 11,000,000 quarters, had failed to yield 
even 7,000,000 quarters ; and he had observed that a farmer stated recently that he had 
lost 20,000 in five years. In the North their losses were not so large, but they were 
large enough. Arable and pastoral farmers bad both suffered. "Wool had fallen so low 
that it actually became unsaleable, and he need not remind them of the fears that were 
experienced regarding foreign competition in meat and grain. Happily, if they now got 
favourable seasons, agriculture promised to share in the revival that had set in. (Hear, 
hear.) We were alive here in spite of the Americans, and, indeed, it was curious that re- 
turning vitality was in a great measure owing to this very people. The demand from 
the United States gave the first impulse to activity, and he had been informed that we 
were actually indebted to American manufacturers for the sudden and wonderful rise in 
the price of wool. (Applause.) In conclusion, he observed that if any agriculturists de- 
served to succeed, they were the industrious and intelligent agriculturists of the North 
of Scotland (applause) and if any commercial community deserved to prosper, it was 
that community which stood manfully together in the darkest hour, and saved an 
institution which so many powerful elements had combined to destroy. (Cheers.) 

Mr BOBBBT GBANT (of Messrs Macdougall & Co., Royal Tartan Warehouse) replied 
in a neat speech, after which 

Mr WM. B. FORSTTH of the Advertiser proposed the " Non resident Members," and 
said it was most gratifying to know that these gentlemen formed a considerable proportion 
of the Society more than one half in fact while they contributed largely to tbe funds, 
and displayed great interest in the objects and proceedings of the Society. Indeed, they 
composed perhaps the most enthusiastic class of members. (Applause.) He coupled the 
toast with the name of a gentleman who had been a member from the beginning, and had 
shown a lively interest in their affairs, Mr A. C. Mackenzie, Maryburgh. (Applause.) 

Mr MACKENZIE, in responding, said that as one of the oldest members of the Society, 
he had much pleasure in replying for the non-resident members, who, as Mr Forsyth 
remarked, formed the majority of the Society. The country members were inclined to 
look on the town members as a sort of general standing committee to carry out the 
behests of the non-residents, and that duty was well and satisfactorily performed. (Cheers.) 
The action of the Society which interested him most, as a teacher, was the efforts made 
to secure the teaching of their native language in their schools. (Applause.) On this 
subject some strong opinions had been expressed on both sides, but these views were 
now being modified so much that there was a better prospect of an agreement on the 
subject. He was sorry to see their Highland Inspectors going so far out of their way to 
decry our Gaelic literature, which, though not extensive, was interesting, and well worthy 
of preservation. (Applause.) Of the five inspectors at work in the Highlands, two were 
Saxons, and he was not sure but one of them, their friend the Croupier, was in sentiment 
the most Highland of them all. (Cheers.) The other three were native Highlanders; 
but he was sorry to see that they did not sympathise much with Gaelic. He was, how- 
ever, well satisfied with Mr Ross's conclusion, though how he arrived at it from his 
premises he (the speaker) could not well understand. (Laughter.) It was remarked 
that Mr Sime had consulted the teachers, which he knew to be the case ; but he also 
knew that the great majority of them held their inspector's views. He luinht state that 
he (Mr M.) was one of the smaller number. (Cheers.) 

Mr WM. MACKAY, solicitor, proposed " The Clergy of all Denominations" in an 
amusing antiquarian speech, which, we regret, the space at our disposal will not at pre- 



168 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

sent admit of publication, but we hope Mr Mackay will add to it, and give it to us in 
another form. The Rev. Mr BlSSET, Stratherrick, replied in an exceedingly happy 
manner. "The Press" was proposed by Mr D. CAMPBELL, Bridge Street, and replied to 
by Mr W. B. FoBSYTH of the Inverness Advertiser. Captain SCOBIE proposed "The 
Croupiers," and Mr JuLLY replied. Mr WM. MACKAY proposed the Secretary, Mr Win. 
Mackenzie, who, he said, conducted the work of the Society in a manner so efficient and 
admirable as to make it impossible to over-estimate his services. 

Sir KENNETH MACKENZIE of Gaiiloch, Bart., who was received with loud applause, 
again and again renewed, proposed the health of the Chairman. (Cheers.) One of the 
advantages which he (Sir Kenneth) had experienced by being present at this meeting 
was that he had been enabled to form the acquaintance of Mr Macdouald of Skaebost, 
whom, it was, indeed, a very great pleasure to know, and to have as Chief of this Society. 
(Applause.) He had been long known as an excellent Highland gentleman, and a most 
indulgent landlord ; and in an age when the necessities of the many are sometimes 
sacrificed to the pleasures of the few in an age when game on Highland properties 
frequently assumed a greater importance, considering the population, than it ought to 
assume there was nothing of the kind to be found on Mr Macdonald's property in 
Skye. (Cheers.) 

The CHAIRMAN briefly replied, gave "Good Night," and the meeting separated. 
Gaelic and English songs were sung in the course of the evening by Messrs Fraser, 
Mauld ; Jolly, Maclean, and Whyte ; and Pipe-Major Maclennan greatly enhanced the 
pleasure of the meeting by discoursing excellent bag-pipe music. 



BOOKS, &c., RECEIVED. " Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness," 
vol. viii. ; Isaiah Frae Hebrew intil Scottis," by the Rev. P. Hately Waddell, LL.D. ; 
" Mackay's Regiment," by John Mackay of Benreay; and " Botmie Prince Charlie," a 
Drama. 



OUR AGENTS IN CANADA. The Celtic Magazine may be ordered from any of 
the following agents (or direct from this Office) FREE BY POST, $1.75 per annum : 

IN ONTARIO. 

TOBONTO The Toronto News Company supplies the trade. 

,, James Bain & Son, booksellers, 40 King Street, East. 
GUELPH Mr Day, bookseller. 
WOODSTOCK Mr Gilbert Anderson, bookseller. 
LONDON Mr John Mills, bookseller. 
LUOKNOW Dr MacCrimmon. 
WOODVILLE Mr Duncan Campbell, Post Office. 
KINCARDINE Mr John Morrison. 

IN NOVA SCOTIA. 

HALIFAX Mr Wm. Mackenzie at Messrs M'llreith & Co,, Hollis Street. 
NEW GLASGOW Mr James Logan, Eastern Chronicle Office. 
PlCTOU Mr James Maclean, bookseller. 
ANTIGONISH Mr Boyd, editor of the Casket. 
Si ANDREWS (Autigonish) Mr James Chisholm, Glenroy. 
HAWKESBUKY (Cape Breton) Cogswell Brothers, Beacon Office. 
SYDNEY (Ditto) Mr John A. Mackenzie, bookseller. 
NOBTH SYDNEY (Ditto) Mr Kenneth R. Mackenzie, grocer, &c. 

IN NEW YORK. 
Messrs Robeitson, Scotsman Office, 12 Barcl-ty Street. 



THE 



No. LIII. MAECH, 1880. VOL. V. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

AND 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



V. 

VIII. DONALD, SECOND LORD OP THE ISLES, better known in history as 
" Donald of Harlaw," was, as stated in our last, the eldest son by 
his father's second marriage; but he became feudal superior of the 
children by the first marriage, in the manner already described. This 
chief possessed no small share of his father's spirit. He was a man of 
distinguished ability, and, though so closely connected with the throne, he 
resolved to gain, if possible, complete independence, like his ancestors, for 
the Island kingdom ; and the more easily to gain his purpose he entered 
into an alliance with the English against his own country and king, a 
proceeding which can only be justified on the plea that he considered 
himself an independent Prince, owing no allegiance to the Scottish king for 
the lands hitherto held by the race of Somerled in the north-west Highlands 
and Isles. This position is, however, clearly untenable, for in point of fact 
he only possessed his lands, as the eldest son of the second marriage, by 
a charter from the crown, in the absence of which they would have gone 
to the children of the first marriage, who only could, on that plea, claim to 
be independent sovereigns. Be that as it may, it is an undisputed fact 
that the second Lord of the Isles is found, in the year 1388, shortly after 
the death of his father, negotiating with Eichard II. of England on the 
footing of an independent Prince. Twelve years later we find him visit- 
ing England under a safe-conduct granted in his favour by Henry IV., 
dated 2d June 1400; and treaties exist entered into between them, 
dated respectively 1405 and 1408. By the first, dated June 2d, 
Donald de Insulis, and John, his brother, are allowed to come into Eng- 
land with 100 horse; while on the 16th September 1405, Henry IV. 
issued a commission for treating with Donald de Insulis, Chevalier, and 
John, his brother, concerning final peace, alliance, and friendship be- 
tween his Majesty and them. The same thing is repeated under date of 
8th of May 1408. 

A few years later Donald of the Isles raised the nag of rebellion, and 



1TO THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

conducted himself in a manner, and exhibited a power and capacity, which 
shook the throne and the government almost to their very foundations. 
He had married Lady Mary Leslie, only daughter of the Countess of 
Ross. Alexander, Earl of Ross, her only brother, married Isabella 
Stewart, daughter of the Regent, Robert Duke of Albany, by which 
union he had an only child, Lady Euphemia, who became a nun, and 
resigned all her estates and dignities in favour of her grandfather and her 
uncle, John, Earl of Buchan, second son of the Duke of Albany, and his 
heirs male, and whom failing, to return to the Crown, thus cutting off 
Lady Margaret, wife of Donald, second Lord of the Isles, who was the 
heir general, Skene informs us that Euphemia, on taking the veil, com- 
mitted the government of her earldom to the Governor, when Donald 
saw that if Albany was permitted in this manner to retain actual posses- 
sion of the Earldom, he would be unable to recover his vast inheritance 
in right of his wife from so crafty a nobleman. He accordingly proceeded 
to obtain possession of the Earldom, contending that Euphemia, by taking 
the veil, had become, in a legal point of view, dead ; and that the Earl- 
dom belonged to him in right of his wife. His demand that he should 
on these grounds be put in possession of it was opposed by the Governor, 
whose principal object appears to have been to prevent the accession of so 
vast a district as the Earldom of Ross to the extensive territories of the 
Lord of the Isles, already too powerful to be kept in check by the Go- 
vernment. His conduct was actuated more by the principles of expe- 
diency than by those of simple justice by what would most conduce to 
the security of Government than whether the claims of the Lord of the 
Isles were in themselves just or not. Donald was not the man, however, 
who would patiently brook such an unjust denial of his rights ; and no 
sooner did he receive an unfavourable denial of his demands than he col- 
lected all the forces he could command, amounting to about ten thousand 
men, and with them he invaded the Earldom. He appears to have met 
with no resistance from the people of Ross; and he very soon obtained 
possession of the district ; but on his arrival at Ding wall he was met by 
Angus Dubh Mackay, in command of a large body of men from Suther- 
land, who, after a fierce attack, were completely routed by the Lord of 
the Isles; and their leader, Angus Dubh, was taken prisoner. "Donald was 
now in complete possession of the Earldom, but his subsequent proceed- 
ings showed that the nominal object of his expedition was but a cover to 
ulterior designs; for, leaving the district of Ross, he swept through 
Moray, and penetrated into Aberdeenshire, at the head of his whole army. 
Here he was met at the village of Harlaw by the Earl of Mar, at the head 
of an inferior army in point of numbers, but composed of Lowland gentle- 
men, who were better armed and better disciplined than the Highland 
followers of Donald, It was on the 24th of July 1411 that the cele- 
brated battle of Harlaw was fought, upon the issue of which seemed to 
depend the question of whether the Gaelic or Teutonic part of the popu- 
lation of Scotland were in future to have the supremacy, Of the battle 
the result was doubtful, as both parties claimed the victory ; but in the 
case of the Highlanders, the absence of decided victory was equivalent 
to defeat in its effects, and Donald was in consequence obliged to retreat, 
The check which had been given to the Highland army was immediately 
followed fey the Duke of Albany collecting additional forces, and march- 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOtfALDS. 171 

ing in person to DingwalL But Donald avoided hazarding another en- 
counter, and returned with his forces to the Isles, where he remained all 
winter, while Albany rapidly made himself master of the Earldom of 
Koes."* 

Gregory says that the whole array of the Lordship of the Isles fol- 
lowed Donald of Harlaw on that occasion, and that consequently he was 
not weakened by any opposition such as might be expected on the part 
of his elder brothers or his descendants, though Eanald, " the youngest 
but most favoured son of the first marriage of the good John, was, as the 
seannachies tell us, 'oldin the governmentof the Isles, at his father's death;' " 
and though he also acted as tutor or guardian to his younger brother 
Donald, Lord of the Isles, to whom, on attaining his majority, he de- 
livered over the Lordship, in the presence of the vassals, " contrary to the 
opinion of the men of the Isles," who doubtless considered Godfrey, the 
eldest son of the first marriage, as their proper lord. If the opinion of 
the Islanders was at first in favour of Godfrey, the liberality and other 
distinguished characteristics of Donald seem in a very short time to have 
reconciled them to his rule, for " there is no trace after this time of any 
opposition among them to Donald or his descendants." And " as the 
claim of ' Donald of Harlaw ' to the Earldom of Eoss, in right of his wife, 
was after his death virtually admitted by King James L, and as Donald 
himself was actually in possession of that Earldom and acknowledged by 
the vassals in 1411, he may, without impropriety, be called the first Earl 
of Eoss of his family, "t 

For a full and graphic account of the famous battle of Harlaw, and for 
the names of the leading men who fell in it, we refer the reader to pp. 122- 
125 Celtic Magazine, vol. iii. "In the fight," Buchanan says, " there fell 
so many eminent and noble personages as scarce ever perished in one 
battle, against a foreign enemy for many years before." We extract 
the following from Hugh Macdonald's MS.: "This Alexander (Earl 
of Eoss), who was married to the Duke of Albany's daughter, left no 
issue but one daughter, name Eupheme. She being very young, the 
Governor, her grandfather, took her to his own family, and having 
brought her up, they persuaded her by flattery and threats to resign her 
rights of the Earldom of Eoss to John, his second son, Earl of Buchan, 
as it was given out, and that much against her will. But others were of 
opinion she did not resign her rights ; but thereafter she was bereaved of 
her life, as most men thought, by the contrivance of the Governor. 
Donald, Lord of the Isles, claimed right to the Earldom of Eoss, but 
could get no other hearing from the Governor but lofty menacing answers, 
neither could he get a sight of the rights which Lady Eupheme gave to 
his son John. The Governor thought that his own strength and sway 
could carry everything according to his pleasure in the kingdom, still hoping 
for the crown, the true heir thereof (James L, nephew to the Duke of 
Albany) being prisoner in England. He likewise was at enmity with the 
Lord of the Isles, because Sir Adam Moor's daughter J was his grandmother, 

* The Highlanders of Scotland, vol. ii., pp. 71-3. 

t Westera Highland! and Isles, pp. 31-32. 

J The author of the " Macdotmells of Antrim " says, in a footnote, pp, 17-18, regard- 
ing this lady, who was the grandmother of both the claimants that ! Elizabeth More or 
Muir, was a lady of the wwll-knovrn Rowallan family, in the parish of| Kilmarnook, her 



172 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

knowing full well that he would own the true heir's cause against him. 
The Lord of the Isles told the Governor he would either lose all he had 
or gain the Earldom of Eoss, to which he had such a good title. The Duke 
replied he wished Donald would be so forward as to stick to what he said. 
Donald immediately raised the best of his men, to the number of 10,000, 
and chose out of them 6600, turning the rest of them to their homes. 
They thought first they would fight near to Inverness ; but, because the 
Duke and his army came not, Donald's army marched through Murray, 
and over the Spey. The Governor, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Murray, 
and John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, the Governor's son, having gathered 
an army of 9700 men, desired the Lord of the Isles to stay, and that they 
would meet him near Inverness and give him battle ; but he would not 
leave his own men foraging in his own county of Boss. Therefore he 
marched forward, resolving to take his hazard near their doors, assuring 
himself of victory. Huntly, who was Macdonald's friend, sent him a 
private message, desiring him to commit no hostilities in his country, by 
the way of assuring him, he would not own the Governor's quarrels, and 
wishing Macdonald good success, and desiring him to be of good courage. 
The Lord of the Isles went forward till both armies met at Harlaw, a place 
in Garioch, in the Braes of Buchan. There came several in the Governor's 
army out of curiosity to see Macdonald and his Highlanders routed, as 
they imagined ; others came to be rewarded by the Governor, as they did 
not expect to see any other king, in all appearance, but he and his offspring ; 
others came through fear of the Duke's great authority. Macdonald set 
his men in order of battle as follows. He commanded himself the main 
battle, where he kept most of the Islanders, and with the Macleods, John 
of Harris and Eoderick of the Lewis. He ordered the rest to the wings, 
the right commanded by Hector Hoy Maclean, and the left by Callum 
Beg Mackintosh, who that day received from Macdonald a right of the 
lands of Glengarry in Lochaber, by way of pleasing him for yielding 

father, Sir Adam Muir, being the fifth in descent from David de Moore, the founder of 
that house early in the thirteenth century. There had formerly existed considerable 
doubt as to the reality of the marriage between Robert II. and Elizabeth Muir, and all 
the earlier Scottish historians down even to Buchanan, supposed that their union had 
not been legalised by marriage. The author of the Historic of James the Sexth, however, 
after quoting from a pedigree of the Muirs of Rowallau, says that " Robert, great 
Steward of Scotland, having taken away the said Elizabeth, drew to Sir Adame, her 
father, ane instrument that he should take her to his lawful wyf e, which myself hath 
seene, said the collector (of the Pedigree, Mr John Lermouth), as also ane testimonie, 
written in Latine by Roger M'Adame, priest of our Ladie Marie's Chapell." A charter 
granted by Robert II., in 1364, proves that Elizabeth Mair was the first wife of tbat 
King, and refers to a dispensation granted by the Pope for the marriage. This charter 
was published in 1694, by one Mr Lewis Innes, Principal of the Scots' College at Paris. 
The dispensation from Rome referred to in the charter of 1364, was long sought for 
after the lady's death, and was not found until the year 1789, when it, and a dispensa- 
tion for the King's marriage with Euphemia Ross, his last wife, were discovered to- 
gether. There exists also another charter, by David II., "to Robert, great Steward of 
Scotland, of the lands of Kintyre ; and to John Stewart his son, gotten betwixt him and 
Elizabeth Moore, daughter of Adam More, knight, and failzeing of him, to Walter, his 
second brother." Elizabeth Muir is said to have been a very beautiful woman, and to 
have captivated the High Steward during the unquiet times of Edward Baliol, when the 
former was often obliged to seek safety in concealment. It is supposed that Dundonald 
Castle was the " scene of King Robert's early attachment and nuptials with the fair 
Elizabeth." From this union are descended, through their daughter, Margaret Stewart, 
the Macdonnells of Antrim ; and through their sons, not only the race of our British 
sovereigns, but also of several crowned heads in Europe. For an account of the Muirs 
of Rowallan, see Pateraon's Parishes and Families of Ayrshire, vol. ii., pp. 182-194. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOtfALDS. 173 

the right wing to Maclean, and to prevent any quarrel between him 
and Maclean. Mackintosh said he would take the lands, and make 
the left behave as well as the right. John More, Donald's brother, 
was placed with a detachment of the lightest and nimblest men as a re- 
serve, either to assist the wings or main battle, as occasion required. To 
him was joined Mackenzie and Donald Cameron of LocheilL Alister 
Carrick was young, and therefore was much against his will set apart, lest 
the whole of the brothers should be hazarded at once. The Earls of Mar 
and Buchan ordered their men in a main battle and two small fronts ; the 
right front was commanded by Lords Marishall and Erroll, the left by Sir 
Alexander Ogilvie, Sheriff of Angus. They encountered one another; 
their left wing was forced by Maclean, and the party on Macdonald's right 
was forced to give way. There was a great fold for keeping cattle behind 
them, into which they went. The Earl of Mar was forced to give ground, 
and that wing was quite defeated. Mar and Erroll posted to Aberdeen, the 
rest of Macdonald's men followed the chase. There were killed on the 
Governor's side 2550. The Lord Marishall was apprehended safe, and 
died in his confinement of mere grief and despair. Sir Alexander Ogilvy, 
Sheriff of Angus, was killed, with seven knights, and several other gentle- 
men. On Macdonald's side Maclean fell ; he and Irvin of Drum fought 
together till the one killed the other. Drum's two brothers, with the 
principal men of that surname, were killed, so that a boy of that name, 
who herded the cattle, succeeded to the estate of Drum. Two or three 
gentlemen of the name of Munioe were slain, together with the son of 
Macquarry of Ulva, and two gentlemen of the name of Cameron. On 
Macdonald's side were lost in all 180. This battle was fought anno 1411. 
Macdonald had burnt Aberdeen had not Huntly dissuaded him from it, 
saying that by his victory, in all appearance, he gained his own, yet it 
was ridiculous in him to destroy the town, and that citizens would always 
join with him who had the upper hand. ISTow, to prove these fabulous 
and partial writers, particularly Buchanan, it is well known to several men 
of judgment aud knowledge that Macdonald had the victory there, and 
gained the Earldom of Eoss, for four or five generations thereafter, and 
that Mackintosh, whom they say was killed, lived twenty years thereafter, 
and was with the Earl of Mar when Alexander Macdonald, Lord of the 
Isles was captfve at Tantallon, in the battle fought at Inverlochy against 
Donald Balloch, Alexander's cousin-german. This Donald Balloch was 
son to John More, brother to Donald of the Isles and Earl of Eoss. Now, 
it happened that this same Callum Begg Mackintosh was with King James 
I. after his releasement from his captivity in England, in the same place 
where the battle was fought. The King asked him how far they followed 
the chase ? Mackintosh replied that they followed it farther -than his 
Majesty thought. So the King riding on a pretty pace, asked Mackintosh 
if they came that length ? He answering, said, that, in his opinion, there 
was a heap of stones before them, and that he left there a mark to show 
that he followed the chase that length ; and with that he brought a man's 
arm with its gauntlet out of the heap. The King, beholding it, desired 
him to be with him that night at Aberdeen. The King, upon his arrival 
there, going to his lodgings, Mackintosh said, in presence of the bystanders, 
that he had performed his word to the King, and now he would betake 
himself to his own lodgings ; whereupon he immediately left the town, 



174 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

for lie dreaded that the King would apprehend him. Patrick, Earl of 
Tullibardin, said, as the other noblemen were talking of the battle of 
Harlaw, we know that Macdonald had the victory, but the Governor had 
the printer." * 

Summing up his description and the consequences of this famous engage- 
ment, Burton, who with his characteristic hatred of the Highlanders, must of 
course call the result of this battle a " defeat " for the Islanders, says 
" So ended one of Scotland's most memorable battles. The contest be- 
tween the Lowlanders and Donald's host was a contest between foes, of 
whom their contemporaries would have said that their ever being in 
harmony with each other, or having a feeling of common interests and 
common nationality, was not within the range of rational expectations. . . 
It will be difficult to make those not familiar with the tone of feeling in 
Lowland Scotland at that time believe that the defeat of Donald of the 
Isles was felt as a more memorable deliverance than even that of Bannock- 
burn."t 

According to the MS. History of the Mackintoshes quoted by Charles 
Eraser-Mackintosh in his "Invernessiana": In this war Malcolm, or Cal- 
lum Beg, Chief of Mackintosh, "lost many of his friends, particularly James 
Mackintosh (Shaw) of Rothiemurchus," who must have been confused 
with the Chief himself, though, in point of fact, he lived until about 1457. 
In 1412 the same author finds from "the accounts of the great chamber- 
lain of Scotland " that " payment is made to Lord Alexander, Earl of Mar, 
for various labours and expenses incurred in the war against the Lord of 
the Isles for the utility of the whole kingdom of 122 7s 4d ; and also to 
him for the construction of a fortalice at Inverness, for the utility of the 
kingdom, against said Lord of the Isles, 100 ; and for lime to Inverness 
for the construction of said fortalice, and for food and the carriage of 
wood, 32 10s 3d. In 1414 payment is made to Lord Alexander, Earl 
of Mar, in consideration of his divers labours and expenses about the 
castle of Inverness, of 52 11s 3d." About the year 1398 Charles Mac- 
gilleane, of the ancient house of Maclean of Mull, settled in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lochness, under the protection of Donald, Lord of the Isles, 
whose followers the Macleans were. 

It has been generally supposed that the resignation of the Earldom of 
Ross by Euphemia the nun in favour of her grandfather, Robert, Duke of 
Albany, was the sole and immediate cause of the battle of Harlaw but 
the actual date of the instrument of resignation is 1415 four years after 
the famous battle ; and Skene thinks that the securing of the resignation 
of the earldom in his favour at that date was rather an attempt on the part 
of Albany to give a colour of justice to his retention of what he was, by 
the result of the battle of Harlaw, enabled to keep in his possession. 
There is no doubt whatever that a claim on the earldom was the ostensible 
cause of the invasion by the Lord of the Isles, but the readiness with 
which, in the following summer, that claim was given up by a treaty con- 
cluded with the Governor at Port-Gilp, in Argyleshire when Donald not 
only gave up the earldom, but agreed to become a vassal of the Crown, and to 
deliver hostages for his future good behaviour, while he might easily have 

* Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, pp. 300-2. 
fVol, iii., pp. 101-102. 



HISTOKY OF THE MACDONALDS. 176 

kept possession of Eoss clearly indicate that the invasion was but a part 
of a much more extensive scheme for which the claim to the earldom 
served as a very good pretext, and that upon the failure of the more im- 
portant scheme, the claim for the earldom was, with little ado, given up. 
This becomes the more apparent if we keep in mind the treaty between 
Donald and Henry IV. of England, dated 1408, and above referred to ; 
and that no sooner was the civil war in Scotland concluded than a truce 
was entered into between England and Scotland for a period of six years. 
Gregory is of the same opinion, and says (p. 32) " After the death of 
John, Lord of the Isles, we discover various indications of the intrigues of 
the English Court with the Scottish Islanders had been assumed ; and it is 
not altogether improbable that it was a suspicion of these treasonable 
practices which caused the Eegent, Eobert of Albany, to oppose the pre- 
tensions of Donald, Lord of the Isles, to the Earldom of Eoss. But 
although English emissaries were on various occasions dispatched, not only 
to the Lord of the Isles himself, but to his brothers Godfrey and John 
and two of the brothers even appear to have visited the English Court 
we cannot, at this distance of time, ascertain how far these intrigues were 
carried." The fatal policy of taking part with England instead of Scot- 
land in the quarrels of those kingdoms was continued by Donald's succes- 
sors until the power of the Lord of the Isles was finally broken up ; and, 
as will be seen in the sequel, his grandson, by this unpatriotic means, 
brought on the downfall of his house sooner than it would otherwise have 
come to pass. 

Donald of Harlaw, second Lord of the Isles, married Lady Mary 
Leslie (daughter of Sir Walter Leslie, by Euphemia, Countess of Eoss, in 
favour of whose marriage there is a dispensation dated 1967), who became 
Countess of Eoss when her neice resigned the earldom and became a nun. 
By this marriage the Lord of the Isles had issue 

1. Alexander, who succeeded him as Lord of the Isles and Earl of Eoss. 

2. Angus, Bishop of the Isles. 

3. Mariot, who married Alexander Sutherland, and to whom " her 
brother Alexander, in 1429, gave the lands of Duchall to her and her 
husband, Alexander Sutherland, as appears from the grant of the same in 
the possession of Sinclair of Eoslin."* 

He died, according to Findon's genealogy, in 1423 ; to Gregory, "circa 
1420" ; while Hugh Macdonald, the Seannachaidh, though not mentioning 
the year of his death, informs us that he " died at Ardhorinish, in Morvairn, 
in the forty-fifth year of his age, and was buried at Icolmkill, after the 
rites and ceremonies of his predecessors." He was succeeded in the Lord- 
ship of the Isles, and a few years later in the Earldom of Eoss, by his 
eldest son. 

(To be Continued.) 



Dougliu'i "Wood's Peerage. 



176 THE CELTIC MAGAZI1TE. 



D E E M N D. 

A TALE OP KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DAYS. 

Tennyson. 

BOOK I. "AMONG THE ISLES OF THE WESTERN SEA." 



CHAPTER VI. 
Cupid is a knavish lad. -Puck. 

SOME nine leagues from Dunolly, between two ranges of barren moun- 
tains, lies the Yale of Hassendean, deriving its name from a tawny 
coloured brook, which, after descending rapidly from the sombre and 
lofty heights of Ben Ardoch, pursues its babbling course amidst a pro- 
fusion of hazel bushes, patches of green pasture land, and groves of thickly 
foliaged trees. In the basin, formed by the circuit of hills at the mouth 
of this romantic vale, the gurgling rivulet empties its waters into a small 
but almost bottomless loch, which at noonday brilliantly reflects the 
radiance of the sun, and at midnight is black with the shadows of the 
surrounding mountains. 

Looking out from the cluster of beech and pine trees on the hill-slope 
running along the southern bank of the stream, the crumbling ruins of a 
solitary dwelling, with chapel adjoining, might attract the attention of a 
curious traveller. History informs us that this rustic habitation belonged 
to a rollicking friar generally known in the district as "Good Father 
Dominick." He was originally a devotee of St Francis, but latterly be- 
came an adherent of one of the more privileged sects which sprung from 
the Franciscan order and became so numerous in the early part of the 
fourteenth century. Far from being a specimen of the ascetic hermit 
with sallow cheeks, sunken eyes, lank hair, and emaciated body, he had 
a jolly, red face, laughing eyes, a shapely nose, and strongly developed 
limbs, as well as a good round belly. His physical characteristics were 
probably the result of confinement in youth when possessed of a sanguine 
temperament and lusty constitution, and better fitted for a soldier than a 
monk ; yet some irreverently hinted that he was rather fond of a haunch 
of venison, a flowing goblet, and a buxom wench. Frequently a visitor 
to the strongholds of the Isles, rumour would assert that John of Lorn, 
who was continually receiving his ghostly attentions, was a bigger sinner 
than the rest of the chieftains. Others persist in maintaining that the 
secret of Father Dominick's devotion to the service of Lorn consisted in 
the fact that the penitents were the fairest and most liberal in their con- 
tributions, the wine the strongest, and the good cheer the most plentiful. 
Without attaching any importance to vulgar gossip and popular scandal, 
however, our opinion is that Father Dominick was a jolly, pious, and 
kind-hearted mortal, whose easy conscience and abundance of good humour 
accounted for his full face and round belly. The sterner adherents to the 
order of St Francis, residing in the island solitude of the monastery of 
lona, finding their revenues carefully collected, and the penitents within 
their jurisdiction duly shriven by a landlouping adventurer, exerted the 
influence of their churchly power for Father Dominick's excommunication 
and expulsion from the "Western Isles. In this they failed, however, and 



DEKMOND. 177 

the ministrations of the merry friar were welcomed more heartily than 
those of his more ascetic brethren. The chapel was of an ordinary, rude 
construction, being totally deficient in ornament of any kind, but the 
relics which were sheltered within its hallowed walls, and the virtues of 
the holy fountain which trickled from the rocks rising immediately be- 
hind the building, attracted pilgrims from all quarters. The shrine was 
devoted to the celebrated St Fillan, who had died in the vicinity about 
the middle of the eighth century, and the luminous arm which, by the 
splendour of its beams, enabled the holy man to transcribe the Scriptures 
without the aid of candle-light, was carefully preserved by Father Domi- 
nick in a silver casket, and formed part of the decorations of the altar. 

On no occasion had the services of the jolly friar been so much in 
request as when Lorn was about to set out on his expedition against 
Eobert the Bruce. He arrived at Dunolly on the previous day, for the 
purpose of pronouncing a benediction and praying for the success of the 
enterprise. There was one, however, who seemed more in need of his 
holy services than all the bands of Highlanders combined, and Dominick was 
no time within the precincts of the castle walls when he received a summons 
from the fair Bertha, calling upon him for consultation and advice on a 
matter of immediate interest. Ascending to the small turret-chamber in 
the western wing of the building, he found her impatiently awaiting his 
arrival. Kate, her bower-maiden, a pretty, gossiping wench, had just 
completed the dressing of her mistress's long, silken locks, and taken her 
needlework in hand when Father Dominick entered. He had the shaven 
crown of his order, but his feet were enclosed in leathern sandals, being 
a grade more luxurious than the strict Franciscans who went bare-foot 
He was dressed in the usual woollen frock with scourge and band attached, 
and as he crossed the threshold of the damsel's chamber, a smile of latent 
humour could not help mingling with the serious lines of his features. 

" Pax Vobiscum !" he said, with his customary salutation. 

" Amen !" said Bertha. 

" You are well, I hope," said Dominick. 

" Well 1 yes," with some hesitation. 

" Nay, I swear you are ill. Jesu Maria, how pale and lack-lustre you 
look. My fair dame, I'll warrant the gallant has jilted you, and in your 
grief you wish to -become a daughter of the Church." 

" Nay," interposed Bertha. 

But the good friar was not to be outdone when an idea struck him. 

" The objects of our earthly desires," he continued, " are as evanescent 
as the mirage of the barren desert, the offspring of a heated fancy, or the 
delusions of the devil. Happy are they whose thoughts turn Heaven- 
ward from the corruptible to the incorruptible, from the temporal to the 
eternal 

" Nay, good father," said Bertha, interrupting him, " you misconstrue 
me entirely." 

11 Heaven forbid that I should be so uncharitable." 

" You know my father, Sir David." 

" My blessing on him. I do, sweet maid." 

" I am anxious for his safety. He has got entangled in this rebellion, 
and Sir Guilbert informs me he has joined the ranks of the sacrilegious 
heretic." 



178 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

" Jesu Maria !" said the friar, looking upwards and crossing himself. 
" An abettor of the rebel Bruce !" 

" He is. To-morrow my uncle goes against him. There will be a 
great battle, and my father may be slain. I know he will be in the front 
ranks, for he is brave and fearless. Bruce is a gallant knight, but his 
love of adventure and a hopeless cause, will imperil the lives of many 
dauntless men. Moreover, if my uncle learns of my father's escapade, he 
may retain me as a hostage. For the matter of that, I am a prisoner 
already, and all my movements are religiously observed and reported on. 
You will have learned all about the scene in the feasting hall where 
young Dermond of Dunkerlyne wounded the great Macnab in a sword to 
sword encounter. My conduct on that occasion has called forth the ut- 
most displeasure, and even cousin Nora is threatened by her father with 
confinement if she does not leave off thinking about the son of the brave 
old viking. Dermond, as you know, was thrown into prison. Thank 
God, he has since been liberated. My uncle is growing most cruel and 
tyrannical. He ordered me to be thrown into a dungeon as well, but 
Nora would not let him. I determined on going to my father's castle 
where I might be happier, but uncle refuses to give me a sufficient retinue 
for the journey. I want to tell my father of Lorn's tyranny, to warn 
him against risking his life in a mad enterprise, to exhort him to forsake 
the standard of the rebels, and to entreat him to come and save me from 
the clutches of John of Lorn." 

" Ay," said the friar thoughtfully. " 5Tou have really set for yourself 
an extraordinary task, What if your uncle discover the plot 1 If he 
intercepts the letter, what become of the fair Bertha, her docile emissary, 
and her treasonable amanuensis ?" 

" Trust me," said Bertha eagerly, " the letter cannot miscarry. "Write 
it, and all will be well." 

" Ha ! ha ! A gallant in the case !" exclaimed the friar. " 'Tis e'en 
as I thought. This is the key to all your rashness." 

" Why, good father, you jest now. Do you wish me to swear for the 
faithfulness of the intended bearer 1" 

" Well, well, be it so ; but burden not your soul with vows for the 
conduct of a gay young chieftain." 

"Neither, good father, be so uncharitable as vow to the contrary, or 
raise doubts regarding the honour of a man you know naught of," said 
Bertha pouting. 

" Now, by St Francis," replied the friar, " if I were young and a 
soldier, as I ought to have been, I'd go break the noddle of my audacious 
rival But Heaven forgive the thought. Lend me the pen and parch- 
ment." 

The merry friar soon wrote to the dictation of his fair confident, not, 
however, without a sigh, as he had a soft heart and could not help admir- 
ing her courage. Having finished the letter, he gave it to her with his 
blessing, resolving to pray for its safety, and urging the maiden not to 
be too precipitate in her confidences. 

" St Francis speed the bearer," he said, " or I would not give a goose- 
quill for the security of his neck, or the living of the poor friar." 

As he made to leave with a halting step, Bertha called him back, and 
a tear glistened in her dark blue eye. She then signed to her attendant 



DEKMOND. 179 

to approach, and as Kate threw aside her needlework and came tripping 
up, she said, " See that Olave is faithful" " Fear him not, dear ma- 
dame," was Kate's reply, and here she would have launched forth a 
volume of assurances, but Bertha interrupted " Few words and faithful 
deeds are all we want, sweet Kate. We can speak afterwards ; mean- 
while be wary ; but how can you pass the small courtyard and the 
southern porch ?" 

" Duncan keeps watch at the porch," said Kate, " and I have served 
him with as much ale as will keep him sleeping for an hour yet. As for 
the courtyard I can manage it with ease." 

And off she went with the letter carefully secured in her bosom. As 
soon as she had gone, Bertha called Dominick to take a seat beside her, 
and, during the interval of Kate's absence, she requested him to tell her 
all about the life of the old pirate and Cyril of Rathland. The friar 
eagerly complied, and gave her a full history of the origin of the keep of 
Dunkerlyne, and the vicissitudes of the singular race who had made it 
their abode. 

Meanwhile Kate was accomplishing the behest of her mistress. At 
the foot of the spiral stair-case she easily passed an adherent of the house 
of Macneill, who had come from Loch Awe in the retinue of Sir David's 
daughter. Traversing the long, gloomy corridor leading to the southern 
wing, she had almost gained the porch overlooking the back courtyard, 
when a half-drunken porter sprung from his retreat, and clasping her in 
his arms said, " Hold, my pretty wench. No passage this way. You 
must have heard the night-bell toll." " Peace with you, Duncan," she 
replied, seizing him firmly by the beard. " Let me go, or I'll pull the 
beard off your face. I carry a message from my lady Bertha to the 
southern battlements." " Not till the night-bell toll again," he replied, 
kissing her as she escaped blushing from his arms, and adjusting her 
head-gear. As the sentinel who watched in the courtyard turned his 
back, she tripped nimbly across, and gained admittance to an unoccupied 
guard-house communicating with the southern battlements, but as she ap- 
proached the far-end of the corridor she found the door securely fastened 
with lock and chain. Not to be outdone she untied her neckerchief and 
let it flutter through the elongated shot-hole that flanked the door-way. 
For a time the superstitious Norseman who paced the platform outside, 
avoided the mysterious apparition which disturbed his night-watch. 
Turning his eyes away he tried hard to convince himself that it was no- 
thing. He had probably taken too much ale. As the strange object 
continued to flutter in the sea-breeze he involuntarily crossed himself, and 
repeated a pater-noster. Seeing it linger he gathered up courage, and 
drawing his sword, shouted, " By the soul of Odin and all the saints in 
Valhalla, I conjure you what would ye with me?" Kate seeing his 
embarrassment enjoyed the situation, and mischievously kept him in sus- 
pense. 

" Come here, Olave," she at length ventured to Bay, " I have a mes- 
sage for your master," 

" Not for me, fair Kate T he replied, recognising the voice and burst- 
ing into a fit of laughter. 

" For you too if you can be secret, but you must be silent and not 
alarm the garrison." 



180 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

" Of a surety. I'm no vain coxcomb to boast of a night-interview 
with, a fair maid." 

" Well, I trust you," she whispered. " Your master, Dermond, has 
been released." 

"Thank God for that." 

" But he is almost a prisoner, so far as free intercourse with the rest 
of the chieftains is concerned, and John of Lorn has forbidden him from 
speaking with my lady Bertha. She has a letter for him, which is to be 
delivered safely and secretly to Sir David Macneill, who belongs to the 
ranks of the rebel. She did not know how to get it given to young 
Dermond without being observed, but of course I knew you could do it. " 

" I will, sweet Kate, and if Dermond fails to carry it to its destina- 
tion, for your sake I'll undertake the task." 

" The saints will reward you for your devotion to a damsel in distress. 
She, at least, wont forget you." 

" And will you not remember me likewise ?" 

" "Well, well, both of you be good and faithful knights. 'Tis a feat 
of chivalry worthy of two such gallants." 

" Now, let's seal the contract," said he, grasping the little hand that 
thrust the letter through, " May the foul fiend brain the knave who 
locked this gate and built this wall between us." 

He raised the little hand passionately to his lips, and bade farewell. 

" Be brave and faithful in the battle to-morrow, and keep your head 
with a strong hand," said Kate, as she drew her hand away, and, turning 
on her heel, soon reached her lady's chamber to tell her of her success. 

CHAPTER VII. 

All day long the mountains thrilled with sounds of war. Anon. 

At grey dawn the men-at-arms were marshalled along the beach. In 
regular order each chieftain took possession of his galley, and a hundred 
and seventy vessels spread canvas to the wind. About forty years had 
elapsed since the Norsemen had been driven from the Western Highlands, 
but traces of their domination could be seen in the arms and armour of 
the Islesmen, whose well-appointed accoutrements contrasted strongly 
with the primitive dress and weapons of the men of the interior. The 
deck of Lorn's leading galley shone brilliantly with steel-clad warriors, 
the flower of Western chivalry. Bright in his glittering hauberk, among 
the chieftains more closely allied to Dunolly, was the noble Dermond. 
He stood leaning on his battle-axo, while his long sword hung from his 
chastely embroidered girdle. His plaid was bound across his breast, and 
secured with a finely ornamented silver clasp, while his broad and burn- 
ished shield hung on his well-formed shoulders. Though tall and manly 
in figure, his countenance was feminine and youthful, with the down of 
approaching manhood shading his ruddy cheek. His glossy raven locks 
curled on a shapely head, and escaped from beneath his shining helmet in 
graceful wavelets. The towers of Dunolly were crowded with spectators, 
and few commanded more attention among the fair ones of the West than 
the gallant young chief of Dunkerlyne. Bertha looked anxiously from 
the seaward window of her turret-chamber, and although no one else could 
have distinguished her, Dermond did not fail to mark her out from 



DERMOND. 181 

amongst the bevy of beauties who crowded every coign of vantage, and he 
ordered his pennon to be lowered in token of his fealty to her behest. 
Olave had that morning safely delivered the packet for Sir David Mac- 
neill into Dermond's keeping, and the youth had sworn a knightly oath 
upon his sword to carry out the wish of his mistress or die in the endeavour. 

The course was northwards for a time and then eastwards, the head 
of Loch Etive being reached before midday. Here a disembarkation 
took place, and scouts were sent out to ascertain the numbers, position, 
and whereabouts of the enemy. The afternoon was not far gone when 
the whole line was set in motion. The dark wilds of Glenorchy were 
penetrated, and the host of Lorn made for the rugged Grampians. On 
the vanguard reaching the tops of the lower ridges the little army of 
Bruce was descried, compactly arrayed in the plain beneath. The num- 
bers appeared to be about five hundred, consisting, for the most part, of 
light-armed cavalry, but commanded by several of the sternest and most 
desperate characters of the time. The large number of ladies who had 
taken refuge in the Bruce's camp occupied a position with the baggage in 
the rear, protected by a very inadequate guard of squires and jackmon. 
Bruce himself, notwithstanding his resolution to fight in the front, had 
been prevailed upon to take up a position in the centre for the purpose 
of securing his person from the vengeance of the Highlanders. 

As both parties came in sight ol each other savage and clamorous 
shouts resounded against the rocks and cliffs. The Islesmen, heaving 
aloft their ponderous battle-axes, and raising their fearful " slogan," rushed 
down the mountain slopes, some of them in their martial determination 
tumbling over the stones and brushwood which blocked their passage, and 
sending large pieces of rock bounding into the plain beneath. As they 
gained the valley the gallant knights of Bruce charged " the undisciplined 
rabble," as a historian calls them, driving the Highlanders back into the 
glens and recesses of the Grampians. Dermond following on the van- 
guard with his small body of followers in fine order, advanced cautiously 
on the enemy as they were engaged in pursuing the first portion of the 
host of Lorn, and, by a series of skilful manoeuvres, succeeded in breaking 
the line of cavalry and unseating a number of the horsemen. At this 
time an incident occurred which gave rise to a considerable amount of 
remark on both sides. The horse of the King, either by accident or at 
the instigation of the rider, rushed frantically into the midst of the melee, 
and Bruce, who had singled out Dermond as the object of his attack, was 
on the point of engaging in single combat, when he was surrounded by a 
number of his followers and driven back into a place of safety. The 
Scottish knights continued to fight with great valour, and reinforcements 
of Islesmen kept charging down the hillsides, but were as often repulsed 
and compelled to take refuge in their mountain retreats. Hopes of a 
complete victory now filled the minds of the Sassenach forces, but the 
appearance of the main body of Lorn's army on the heights discouraged 
the followers of Bruce, who had already been sorely pressed, and gave 
renewed confidence to the defeated masses whi>, dislodging themselves 
from their mountain retreats, raised a triumphant *hmit, and closed again 
in terrible and bloody conflict. Again they were driven back, and Der- 
mond, who was in the front of the battle, had already sustained a slight 
flesh wound, which, however, did not interfere with his fighting powers. 



182 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The main host pouring through the gorges and mountain slopes ardently 
assailed the King's army in front and flank, and even threatened to carry 
the rear. The slaughter now became most fearful. The shouts of the 
victors, and the groans of the vanquished, re-echoed among the mountains. 
Knights were seen with startled horses, mad with wounds, careering 
wildly across the plain. The Islesmen were rushing boldly into the 
thickest of the fight, hewing about with their long Lochaber axes, and 
bringing down horses and men. Dermond's axe had been cut from his 
grasp as he attempted to engage Sir James Douglas, who was instantly 
unseated by Olave, who never left the side of his young chief. Douglas 
sprang to his feet, and crossed swords with Dermond, but weak with 
wounds and stunned with his fall, he immediately succumbed, and was 
borne senseless to the rear. The battle now raged fiercely and disorderly 
along the whole line, the Lord of Colonsay, and the Chieftains of Dun- 
vegan, Duart, and Skye, fighting bravely in spite of their numerous 
wounds. Lorn had already engaged the redoubtable Kirkpatrick in a 
hand to hand contest, from which neither of the combatants seemed to 
suffer much. Sir Guilbert de la Hay, who had been pulled from his 
horse by the crook of a Lochaber axe characteristically wielded by a stal- 
wart Highlander, kept fighting bravely on foot with sword in hand until 
he was struck down by the hand of Macnab. Bruce, who had been kept 
from mingling too much in the battle, now discarded every remonstrance, 
and collecting the remnant of his bravest followers in a body, he resolved 
upon a final and desperate charge. Heading the attack he rushed into 
the midst of the Islesmen, dealing destruction to all who came within 
the sweep of his weapon. His huge sword was seen flashing constantly 
in the sunlight, and sending forth gleams of fire, while his stalwart figure 
rose in stately strength above all surrounding him. Several of the chief- 
tains essayed to engage the King, but they were borne back by the 
knights who protected him in his deadly course. Dermond, eager to dis- 
tinguish himself by a deed of chivalrous daring, rushed forward, but 
failed to pierce the mass of devoted knights who defended the King, and 
he was almost borne down by a shower of blows which only a keenly 
tempered hauberk and helmet could have resisted. The whole host of 
Lore yielded and swayed in face of the charge, and had the King been 
possessed of another force to follow it up, the Islesmen might have been 
put to total rout, but recovering from the shock they surrounded the 
handful of warriors, and after considerable slaughter compelled the Bruce 
and his followers to retreat. The scene now assumed an aspect of the 
utmost disorder, and the sun sinking behind the distant mountains gave 
a deeper tinge of red to the brooklets. The turf was torn, and gutted 
with crimson pools where wounded and dying men lay weltering in their 
blood. There was something like panic in the rear, where a strong body 
of Highlanders, led by the English envoy, Sir Guilbert de Valancymer, 
were advancing. For a moment it seemed as if the Bruce and his fol- 
lowers were about to be encompassed and slain, if not captured by the 
eager and numerous host of Lorn. Eealizing his peril the King cut his 
way through a body of men who intervened between him and the rear, 
and arrived in time to repulse Sir Guilbert de Valancymer, who cast his 
glove in the teeth of the frantic King, and promised at a future time to 
retrieve his honour. 

( To be Continued.) 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 

V. 

WHILE in the district of Glengarry I paid a visit to Cornwall, fourteen 
miles distant, a village of between 3000 and 4000 inhabitants, and the 
Capital of the three counties of Glengarry, Dundas, and Stormont, It is 
situated at the mouth of the Cornwall Canal just where it enters the St 
Lawrence, and contains several large mills and factories, including one of 
the largest woollen factories in Canada, and extensive cotton mills. There 
are also two newspapers representing the two political parties ; one, the 
Reporter, on the Conservative side, edited by an exceedingly genial and 
courteous Highlander named Macfarlane, while the Freeholder, on the 
Liberal side, is owned and conducted by H. Sansfield Macdonald, son of 
the late Premier of Canada, and one of the firm of Macdonald & Mac- 
lennan, barristers, the other member being a brother of A. B. Maclennan, 
Glen-Gordon, Glengarry, originally from Kintail. Macdonald I found at 
first somewhat distant and reserved, looking at me exactly as if he thought 
I was going to ask him to lend me a thousand dollars ; but having told him 
that I wanted a little printing done, for which I suggested payment in 
advance, he became quite pleasant, referred me to his foreman in the 
printing-office, and was condescending enough to inform me that he took very 
little interest in the paper, and that he only kept it on for his own amuse- 
ment, as lie was perfectly independent of anything it might bring him in. 
the way of income. I naturally envied his position, and congratulated 
him mentally on his good fortune in having had a father who was able to 
leave him in such happy affluence. I paid his foreman 1 Os 6d for a small 
printing job that I could have got at home, at most, for 4s ; but my 
editorial confrere, originally so unbending, having discovered who I was, 
became in a very few minutes most agreeably gracious ; and in his paper 
next morning he gave me a most flattering paragraph, so that the printing 
was cheap after all. Mr Macfarlane, on the other hand, at first refused to 
take anything for an advertisement which I requested him to insert ; but 
having declined such favours from one whom I never had seen before, he 
finally accepted a dollar for space which in the regular way would have cost 
me three times that amount. I was informed that there were some real good 
Celts in Cornwall, and I had introductions to the Eev. Dr Macnish, and 
to Sheriff Macintyre, to the former from the Eev. Donald Masson, M.A., 
M.D.,Edinburgh, and to the latter from another mutual friend ; but I missed 
them both. I intended to have gone back, but the place had such a de- 
pressing influence upon me that, though I passed it twice a few dayc after, 
I could not muster courage enough to pay a second visit to the only part of 
the whole Dominion where I thought the place and people so far as I 
had seen them, except Mr Macfarlane equally flat. For this I am 
most likely to blame, unless it be to some extent attributable to the fact 
that a brutal murderei, who had killed his father and an innocent little 
sister, was lodged in prison in the town, where he was executed a few 
daya after j and this naturally, perhaps, induced a gloomy mental atmos- 



184 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

phere in a town where no execution had taken place for forty years before. 
I also, as stated in my last, took a run from Glengarry to 

OTTAWA, 

the Capital of the Dominion, taking the Grand Trunk to Prescott, a 
distance of 58 miles, and from thence by the St Lawrence and Ottawa 
Railway, some 54 miles, to the Capital, where I arrived on 25th of 
October, at 4 P.M., after a run of five hours through a flat and uninter- 
esting country. This short railway of 54 miles actually cuts all that is 
habitable of the vast Dominion of Canada, at this point, right across from 
south to north, the portion beyond being an endless mountainous and un- 
reclaimable region, valuable, however, for its great forests, the proceeds of 
which find their way to Ottawa by the river of that name and the 
Gatineau. The character of the country here impressed me with the idea 
that Nature never intended North British America to be one vast country 
under one Government ; and that ultimately, as the population increased, 
all below Ottawa and to the east would become one, if not several power- 
ful nations ; while that part of the Dominion to the west and north-west 
would form several great nations, each province becoming independent, 
possessing a Government of its own. 

On my arrival in the Capital I found a gentleman with whom I had 
previous correspondence awaiting me at the station. Indeed were it not 
for him I would not have gone there at all ; and I am under a debt of 
gratitude to him, which I shall never forget, for inducing me to visit a 
city which, if I could only know what I would have lost, I would not 
have passed upon any account. All I knew of him was his name, A. M. 
Burgess, and the position which he held in the Capital of Canada as the 
Official Secretary of the Ministry of the Interior. I soon discovered that 
he was a native of Strathspey, who had gone out to seek his fortune, like 
most of our countrymen, his capital consisting solely of perseverance, 
steady habits, and average natural ability. He at once insisted upon my 
becoming his guest. I soon found myself quite at home, and well enter- 
tained by his most intelligent and kindly better-half, whom I discovered 
to be the daughter of a newspaper proprietor in Portsoy, Banffshire ; while 
his mother, who only some six or seven years ago left Strathspey to end her 
days with her dutiful son in the Far West, positively delighted me with 
her Inverness-shire Gaelic. Mr Burgess was originally on the staff of the 
Globe as its leading Parliamentary reporter in the Capital, after which he 
started and continued to publish the Canadian Hansard, and subsequently 
became the proprietor of the Ottawa Free Press. The latter did not prove 
successful ; but being a strenuous supporter of the late Mackenzie Admini- 
stration, Mr Burgess secured the appointment of Private Secretary to the 
Minister of the Interior, and was soon after promoted to the more respon- 
sible and permanent position of Official Secretary to the Department. 

In the evening I met Mr Kinloch, Private Secretary to Sir John A. 
Macdonald, K.C.B., Premier of Canada, and several other gentlemen con- 
nected with the various Government departments, and with the press ; as 
also Mr Rogers, of Eogers & Maclean, Government printers (originally 
from Dundee), who invited a few friends to meet us at dinner next even- 
ing. I afterwards met his partner Maclean, a native of Mull. Their fine 
printing establishment is quite abreast of the times, all the machinery and 



185 

plant being of the most modern description, with the latest improvements 
introduced into all the departments. Among other Highlanders which it 
was my agreeable lot to meet here was Mr Macleod Stewart, a wealthy 
barrister, and a warm-hearted Celt, descended from the Stewarts of 
Appin; and Mr Macdougall, Auditor-General for the Dominion. The 
Mayor of the city, who is also editor and proprietor of the leading 
Conservative paper, was a Borlum, or Holme Mackintosh (I forget 
which), and a near relative of our own popular M.P., Charles Fraser- 
Mackintosh of Drummond. Another leading Celt, holding a good position 
in local politics, Avith whom I had a chat, is Alderman Masson, a native 
of the Elack Isle, Ross-shire, and a cousin of the Rev. Dr Masson, of the 
Gaelic Church, Edinburgh. But really the Celt meets you everywhere in 
the Dominion, and the reader who has followed me in these sketches will 
not be surprised to find him at the very top of the political world of 
Canada. 

The MAKQUIS OP LOENE, heir to the Dukedom of Argyll, is Governor- 
General, while Sir John A, Macdonald, K.C.B., another distinguished 
Highlander, is Premier of the great Dominion. His Excellency having 
seen by the morning papers that I was the guest of Mr Burgess of the 
Interior Department, on Monday morning, sent several messages to the 
office before we arrived there, t intimating his desire to see me at his residence, 
Rideau Hall (two miles out), and that he would be glad to receive mo from 
twelve o'clock to two P.M. Just as we entered the office his official secre- 
tary, Mr Kidd, came in to make further enquiry, and I at once started, 
arriving there exactly at noon. In a few minutes I was ushered into the 
presence of vice-Royalty. A genuine hearty shake of the hand and a grace- 
ful, easy, unpretentious manner on the part of his Excellency at once 
placed me at perfect ease. All ceremony was set aside, and the Queen's 
son-in-law, the Governor-General of this vast territory, acted and spoke as 
if he were the humblest of her Majesty's subjects. Here was one who 
traces his descent through forty-eight generations to Constantino (who 
died early in the fifth century), and in whose veins circulates the blood 
of William the Conqueror and of the Bruce; whose consort is her 
Majesty's favourite daughter ; and who governs the greatest of our British 
Colonies ; sitting beside you talking in the simplest manner in the most 
gentle tone without the slightest air of superiority, about his brother High- 
landers at home those who settled in the Dominion; but especially those 
who left his own property in Tiree and other parts of Argyleshire, and 
who emigrated and settled down in Canada, as if he were a mere ordinary 
subject of the Queen. I was never so much struck with the impassable 
gulf that exists, and must continue to exist, between the real gentleman, 
born and bred, and the snob who prides himself on his mere possession of 
filthy lucre. He talked freely about Canada and its magnificent prospects ; 
the warm reception which the people accorded to himself and to his royal 
consort on their arrival; and at every place which they had since visited ; 
the advantages of the Dominion as a field for emigration, especially for 
Highlanders, who, he said, he would be glad to welcome there as Governor- 
General of Canada, though as a Highlander he would be very sorry to part 
with them at home. I asked if it was not possible to extend any special 
encouragement to the Highlanders of Scotland such as the Government 
had already given to the Mennonites and Icelanders 1 I received pretty 

o 



186 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

much the answer which I expected : That that was entirely a question of 
Government policy carried on by responsible Ministers, and in which he, 
even were he disposed, as the representative of a constitutional Sovereign, 
could not interfere. He was good enough not only to give me all the in- 
formation that I asked for, but offered me while in Ottawa the use of valuable 
papers and memoranda in connection with emigration which were prepared 
for his own special use, and of which I gladly availed myself. He also offered 
me letters of introduction to the leading men in Canada on either side 
of politics whom I might wish to see. I took advantage of this kind offer 
to some extent ; but I felt that it would not suit me to go about with 
many introductions from his Excellency, or I might be considered a much 
more important personage than I really was, and my object in securing the 
class of information which I wanted might be defeated. I afterwards 
discovered that the honour conferred upon me Was a very special one ; for 
hundreds, I was told, attempted to secure an interview with his Lordship 
without the slightest chance, in most cases, of obtaining their object j 
while I, no doubt more as an humble representative of the readers of the 
Celtic Magazine than on any personal grounds, had such a high, unex- 
pected, and unsolicited honour forced upon me. I felt that I was occupying 
his valuable time too long, but was told repeatedly that he had arranged 
to place himself at my disposal from twelve to two o'clock, during most 
of which time our conversation never flagged, and I left with a very high 
opinion of our distinguished and exalted countryman. He expressed his 
great interest in some of his father's tenants who left Tiree several years 
ago, and settled down in the districts of Huron and Bruce, where they 
are very comfortable, and desired me to pay them a visit if I possibly 
could. And I regret much that, though I was afterwards very near them, 
at Kincardine, on Lake Huron, the time at my disposal did not admit of 
my paying the Tiree Settlement a visit. Though myself a Campbell on 
the mother side, I never was a great admirer of some of the leading mem- 
bers of the clan, but I must honestly admit that my interview with the 
future MacCailean Mor has very much raised his and my own mother's 
clan in my estimation. But, as I have already indicated, the Governor- 
General is not the only Highlander high up the political ladder in Canada. 
Next to him in position, and possessing infinitely more power and politi- 
cal influence, as in all limited monarchies, comes 

SIB JOHN A. MACDONALD, K.C.B., Prime Minister of the whole 
Dominion, a thorough Highlander, born in the county of Sutherland, on 
the llth January 1815, shortly after which his father, Hugh Macdonald, 
emigrated to Canada and settled in Kingston, Ontario, where the son was 
educated at the Eoyal Grammar School He studied for the law, was 
called to the bar of Upper Canada in 1836, and became a Q.C. in 1846, 
by which time he had entered on the political career in which he has 
since so much distinguished himself. Eeturning from my interview with 
the Governor-General, I found a note awaiting me from the Private Secre- 
tary of the Premier, intimating that Sir John wished to see me at ten 
o'clock next morning, at his private residence. I called at the appointed 
time, and was received in the most gracious manner by our distinguished 
countryman, already busy among his despatches, and giving instructions 
to a couple of secretaries. We had a most agreeable conversation about 
Canada, emigration, the Highlanders at home, and his own extraordinary 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA, 187 

career the details and principal incidents of which he at my request 
agreed to supply me with, so as to enable me to prepare a sketch of him 
for my forthcoming "History of the Macdonalds." I at once discovered 
the secret of his marvellous success as a politician his peculiarly agreeable 
and affable manner. Sir John is a man made to rule, and he does it, 
compelling even his most bitter opponents to admit that in twisting them 
round his fingers, he mystifies them in the most agreeable manner. As a 
Highlander I felt proud of the position occupied by my brother country- 
man a position attained without any aristocratic or influential con- 
nections, and entirely due to his own native ability. **But Sir John Mac- 
donald is not the only humble Highlander who worked himself up to be 
Premier of Canada. The Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, a native of Logie- 
rait, Perthshire, and originally a stone mason, only retired from the 
Premiership less than two years ago ; and apparently it matters not what 
party here is in power, a Highlander must occupy the highest place. The 
Premier must in either case be a Macdonald or a Mackenzie, representing 
here on a small scale the strifes and feuds of their respective clans in the 
past ; with this difference, however, that in their ancient contentions the 
Mackenzies managed to get the better of their opponents by political 
shrewdness and far-seeing policy, while these qualities, so necessary to the 
successful politician in Canada as elsewhere, seem to be better understood 
and practised more in modern Canadian politics by the Macdonalds. 

While in the Capital eight of us had a most agreeable drive for ten 
miles alongside the River Gatineau, until we almost touched the fringe of 
the endless wilderness which begins here and ends only at the North Pole. I 
extract the following description of the city and of the Houses of Parliament 
from one of my own letters to the Aberdeen Free Press, believing it will 
prove interesting to the reader : " Ottawa is a small city, with, in 1871, a 
population of about 30,000, and that number, during the last few years, 
has been rapidly decreasing as many, it is said, as 5000 in five years. 
To this number may be added, however, the population of Hull, a town 
on the opposite side of the river, connected by a suspension bridge and 
steam ferry-boat, containing about 10,000, and one or two suburban 
villages, with about a thousand souls each. The only business of import- 
ance carried on in the city and neghbourhood is lumbering, which is a 
great and important industry. There are several large firms, possessing 
very extensive saw-mills. It has been computed that for a few years prior 
to 1871, when the timber trade was in a prosperous state, over 80,000,000 
cubic feet of timber have been cut down in the forests of Canada ; that 
16,000 men were employed cutting it in the forests; 10,000 men in the 
saw and planing mills ; and 17,000 sailors employed in 1200 ships, 
carrying across the Atlantic a portion of this huge quantity to the United 
Kingdom; the productions of the forest thus affording employment to 
50,000 men annually. A very large proportion of this production was in 
the neighbourhood and in the city of Ottawa ; and, even now, when the 
trade is very depressed, you can see thousands upon thousands of piles in 
and about the city waiting for a market which it is difficult for the unin- 
itiated to believe can ever be found for such an enormous quantity. There 
is, too, a pail factory, which turns out over 2000 pails, and 150 washing 
tubs per day ; a match manufactory, the largest in Canada, turning out 
over 2000 boxes per day, and a few other minor factories 



188 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

The surroundings are on the whole, excepting Cape Breton and the Bras 
D'or Lakes, the finest, and those which remind one of some of the most 
beautiful scenes in Scotland, which I have seen as yet on this Continent. 
There are some very respectable hills here called mountains an undu- 
lating, partly wooded country ; and the rivers, though small for Canadian 
rivers, are in comparison to ours magnificent. The Ottawa is navigable 
by large steamers for about 150 miles above Montreal (where it joins the 
St Lawrence) to the city, except for a few miles where they have to pass 
through a canal to escape the rapids. At Ottawa there is a fine fall 
and some rapids ; but after you pass these for a few miles by rail, the 
river is again navigable for over 200 miles, right into the centre of the 
country. The Parliamentary buildings, three large and fine looking blocks 
some distance apart, occupy a most prominent and commanding position 
on an elevated plateau overlooking the river on one side and the city on 
the other. They are seen for many miles before you reach the city, and 
are built on a scale of magnificence which to the visitor appears most ex- 
travagant, except on the assumption that this is, in the future, to be one 
of the greatest countries in the world. The style is Gothic ; but though 
it looks very fine from without, it has the drawback of making the corridors 
and offices inside appear dull and badly lighted. Though on a smaller 
scale the buildings look, in consequence of the locality and surroundings, 
even more imposing than those at Westminster. I much prefer, however, 
the arrangements in our own Houses of Parliament so much more sub- 
stantial and comfortable, and at the same time more sumptuously and 
elegantly furnished, especially in our Upper House. The Supreme Court 
here, however, which is in the building, is a perfect gem of a place, and 
superior for comfort, elegance, and good taste to anything we can show at 
home ; while the Library in quite unique, unlike anything of the kind in 
existence. The latter must be seen; no description can do it justice. 
The main building, in which the Houses of Parliament, the Supreme 
Court, and the Library are situated, covers an area of 82,666 superficial 
feet, is 472 feet in length, and 582 feet in depth from the front of the 
main tower to the rear of the Library. It is 40 feet high, with an im- 
posing tower over the entrance, 180 feet high. The lobby is supported 
by massive pillars of native marble, beautifully polished, while the corridors 
around both Houses are ornamented with a complete set of fine paintings 
of the Speakers of both Houses, from the first Speaker of the Dominion 
Parliament, down to the present holder of that distinguished office. The 
buildings form three sides of a square, the one already described forming 
the centre. The eastern block contains the Governor's offices and those 
the Privy Council, Interior, Justice, Secretary of State, Finance, and 
Inland Revenue ; while the western building contains the offices of Public 
Works, Railways and Canals, Post-Office, Customs, Military and Defence, 
and Agriculture and Emigration, forming a pile of buildings which seems 
altogether out of proportion to the present requirements of Canada, and 
erected in an out-of-the-way and inconvenient locality, in a city making no 
progress in population or in any other respect, And which from its position, 
depending almost entirely on the timber trade which must ere long be- 
come exhausted cannot be expected to make any great progress in the 
future. It seems a pity that such a magnificent pile of buildings was not 
erected in a central place, where it could be seen and admired by the 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 189 

mass of the Canadian people, whose patriotism would necessarily be 
strengthened by such noble buildings, and by visitors who could not but 
admire the enterprise and trust in the future which raised such a splendid 
edifice." I met with the greatest civility in all the Government depart- 
ments ; but I am especially indebted to Colonel Dennis, Deputy-Minister 
of the Interior, and to Mr Lowe of the Emigration Department, for 
placing at my disposal all the information in their possession on the sub- 
jects in which I was more particularly interested. Having had lunch 
Avith his Worship the Mayor, on Tuesday, the 28th of October, I left on 
my way back to Glengarry, where I met the Highlander, as described in 
my previous letter. On Saturday following we left together for Kingston, 
the ancient capital of Upper Canada, 1 05 miles further west, to pay our 
respects to a Highlander who has distinguished himself in a very different 
field the well-known Gaelic bard, 

EVAN MACCOLL. Since I began to read, " Eoghainn MacColla" and 
his " Clarsach nam Beann " were names as familiar to me as " Uilliam 
Eos" and " Feasgar Luain," and to see the sweet bard of Lochfyne in the 
flesh, and in his own house, was the most central object in my Canadian 
tour. About five o'clock in the afternoon the train pulled up at Kingston 
station ; and there he was waiting for us, a smartly habilitated, lively, 
nervous-looking Highlander of middle stature, in Glengarry bonnet We 
could not mistake him, though we had never seen him. We involuntarily 
stepped forward to meet one another; and what a meeting and warm 
greeting. Knowing his age, sixty-seven, and his occupation, I expected 
to have met a portly, stiffish, and formal old man ; but there he was, 
trim and sprightly as a mavis, and looking at least fifteen years younger 
than he really is. We are soon in his cosy habitation, warmly welcomed 
by his better-half a superior woman, whose sole object in life seems to 
be the happiness and gratification of her husband ; and her natural 
shrewdness has evidently taught her that the surest way of doing so was 
by giving full scope to her own inclinations in extending a hearty 
reception and genuine hospitality to his friends. Nothing was too good 
for us. The whole family had apparently but one object in view to 
make us feel at home from homo. Here I remained for three days 
three of the happiest in my life in the society of one who possessed the 
genuine poetic spark, and in a home where childhood's days were vividly 
brought back to my recollection, seeing the fine old Highland custom, 
of family worship conducted and shared in by certain members of the 
family in a manner which I had not elsewhere seen and enjoyed since I 
had left the home of my parents many years ago in my native vale in 
Wester Ross. 

I was grieved to find the bard almost struggling with existence. 
After a long period of service in the Customs, he was still working hard 
and constant for the small pittance of 150 a year. The Muse is appar- 
ently not appreciated in the Dominion so highly as one could wish, 
otherwise Evan MacColl would not have been neglected as he has hitherto 
been by those his brother Celts who have occupied place and power 
in Canada, and who, you would have thought, might bo expected to ap- 
preciate literary and poetic talent in the person of a bard who, though 
hitherto neglected, will undoubtedly live in the memory and affection of 
future generations of his countrymen, when Premiers, and even Governor- 



190 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

generals, shall have been forgotten. The neglect of such a man is a 
positive disgrace, especially to his own political friends, whom he served 
to a much greater extent than, in his case, they deserved. A few weeks 
after I left Kingston I learned that, to make his case even worse than 
ever, he had been superannuated, and his income very much reduced. I 
had meanwhile written to Sir John Macdonald, the present Premier, in 
his behalf, asking him to rise above mere politics and do something for the 
Celtic bard, who had been so shamefully neglected by his own political 
friends, I was, however, too late. The deed had been already done. 
MacColl was no longer in the Civil Service. But Sir John kindly offered 
his aid in getting up a public testimonial "to the Celtic Bard," if started 
by his friends. I feel sure the mere suggestion is sufficient. The ex- 
Premier, I know, will do his share, and so in part at least make up for 
having overlooked the claims of the bard when he was in a position to 
make some public acknowledgment of MacColl's claims as a warm, honest, 
and admiring supporter of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, the representa- 
tive and able exponent of Canadian Liberalism. And Avhat a gracious 
and appropriate act it would now be for the Governor-General 
himself no mean votary of the Muse to raise his own countryman, an 
Argyleshire man, a brother and more distinguished bard than himself, 
to be Poet Laureate of Canada. This would, I know, be greatly appre- 
ciated by MacColl, and at the same time some little compensation for past 
neglect of his claims. 

I was glad to find that he was preparing a new edition of his poems, 
which is to include at least eighty pieces hitherto unpublished, and much 
superior in many respects to anything in his previous well-known and 
popular " Clarsach." I could devote a whole article to the Bard of Loch- 
f yne, his family, and surroundings, with great pleasure to myself ; and, I 
feel sure, no little gratification to many of my readers ; but I hope to re- 
turn to the subject in another form at no very distant day. Meanwhile 
I would direct attention to the noble and true description given of him 
page 198 of this issue by his talented daughter, Mary J. MacColl, in 
the dedicatory poem to her volume of sweet poemlets recently published, 
and which do credit even to the daughter of such a father. Since the 
above was written, a letter from the dear old bard reached me, which be- 
gins as follows, and the introduction to which I have no little pleasure to 
insert here : 

" Kingston, 12th January 1880. 

" (New Year's Day, O.S.). 

" Mhic Coinnich, Mhic Coinnich, mo bheannachd gu brach ort ! 
'S tu fein le d' pheann deas dh-f hag mo thaigh-sa gle straiceil ; 
Cha 'n ioghnadh gach neach a tha'n diugh ann fo m' churam 
Bhi mar-rium a dian-ghuidhe ' Bliadhna mhath ur dhuit?' 

" Seadh, Bliadhna mhath ur, le mor-chliu, mar is dligheach, 
Dhuit fein 'us do d' cheile, mo laochan blath-chridheach ! 
Ma gheibh sibh mu 'n criochnaich i trian de na b'aill learn 
Cha'n eil iad ach gann d' am buin roinn leth cho lanail. 

" Air d' ais ort gun dail ! Eailte Thearlaich o d' shinnsir 
'S leat cinnteach an ath-uair a thig thu do 'n tir so ; 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 191 

Nam faicinn thu d' shuidhe uair eile 'n am chuirt-sa 
Gum bithinn cho storail ri coileach air dunan." 

The bard continues " My dear Mackenzie, I took up my pen with a 
view of inditing you a plain prose letter, when lo ! will you nil you 
the muse would insist on my making a commencement in rhyme, hinting 
that at least the New Year's salutation, with which I intended to begin, 
ought to take a rhythmical shape," &c., &c. 

While under the bard's roof I was honoured by a visit from another 
distinguished Highlander, Principal Grant, of Queen's College University, 
Kingston, whose parents emigrated from Balnellan, parish of Invernaven, 
Strathspey, where many of his relatives still reside. His mother was a 
Munro from Inverness, They went out to Pictou, in Nova Scotia, where 
the future Principal was born, on the East Eiver, in 1837. He first 
attended the Pictou Academy, and afterwards the University of Glasgow, 
where he graduated in Arts, in 1857, with the highest honours in Logic 
and Mental Philosophy. Having been ordained by the Presbytery of that 
city, in 1860, he returned to Nova Scotia, where, after two years of suc- 
cessful missionary work in Prince Edward's Island, he was called to St 
Matthew's Church, Halifax, the oldest Presbyterian congregation in the 
city. Here he remained until 1877, when he was unanimously elected 
Principal of Kingston University and Primarius Professor of Divinity. 
In 1878 the University of Glasgow conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of D.D. He was not long in his new position when he discovered 
that new buildings and additional endowments were needed for the Uni- 
versity, and in the summer of 1878 he appealed to the friends of the 
institution throughout the country, with the gratifying result that the 
large sum of 30,000 poured in upon him, more than nine-tenths of 
which, he informed me, with pardonable pride, was from his own fellow- 
countrymen and brother Scots. He was unfortunate enough to have lost 
his right arm, close to the shoidder, in early life ; but this serious draw- 
back seems only to have made him the more determined to push on and 
distinguish himself. He is a graceful writer, and he has written several 
contributions for Good Words, In 1872 he made a tour from Halifax to 
Vancouver Island from the Atlantic to the Pacific and wrote an account 
of the Great Canadian North-West, entitled "From Ocean to Ocean," 
which has gone through several editions. 

One of the most distinguished members of the University staff, indeed 
one of the most distinguished Highlanders in Canada, with whom I spent 
a most enjoyable hour, was Professor Mackerras, a native of Nairn, where 
he was born June 15th, 1832, and who, I grieve to say, has since I saw 
him passed over to the majority. His father became a schoolmaster in 
Cornwall, Ontario, where the son commenced his education, and the career 
which has been so brilliant throughout. He has been in failing health 
for some time back. A few years ago he visited his native land, for which 
he expressed the warmest affection. His conversation mainly turned 
upon it ; and he talked of his early recollections of Scotland and the vivid 
impressions made upon his mind during his recent visit to his native laud 
where he lias still many relatives with genuine pleasure. I was par- 
ticularly struck with his quiet gentleness, and extremely delicate appear- 
ance, so much so the latter that I expressed my fear on parting with him 



192 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

to the bard that he would not live out the winter, a prediction which, 
alas ! proved only too true. The Press of Canada is loud and unanimous 
in his praises. The Kingston Whig says that he was " a literary genius. 
He had a highly cultivated intellect, a polish of manner, and a winning 
disposition which made him a favourite in his chosen walk of life. He 
was possessed of tastes of rare refinement, and voice and pen were both 
advantageously employed by him in labours of a most important character. 
His mind was always active, and no one was more cheerfully disposed 
than he to contribute to the entertainment and elevation of his fellow 
men. He was a speaker whose thoughts were always delightfully ex- 
pressed, and whose diction was rendered interesting and fascinating by 
the elocution of which he was such a master." 

The Eev. Dr Jenkins, of St Paul's Church, Montreal, preaching the 
Sunday after his death, paid him the following tribute : 

" I cannot close these services without a passing reference to the loss 
which the Presbyterian Church in Canada has lately sustained in the 
death of the late Eev. John Hugh Mackerras, one of the Clerks of the 
General Assembly, and Professor of Classics in the University of Queen's 
College. To some of you he was personally known ; to most of you he 
was known by reputation. A man of rare natural endowments, he was 
also a man of large culture. Learned was he and eloquent, an accom- 
plished scholar, an able and persuasive preacher while his legal acumen 
and attainments in the ecclesiastical sphere has perhaps never been sur- 
passed. Certainly they have never been equalled. These are endow- 
ments that have loomed before the public eye, but they were insignificant 
compared with his qualities as a man and his excellence as a Christian. 
Singularly gentle by nature, he became by Divine grace the humble, 
simple-hearted Christian sitting at the feet of Jesus ; and while learning 
from his words, drinking largely into his spirit. To those who knew him 
in private life, his grace and gentleness, his transparent honesty and 
truthfulness, his reverent spirit, his godly walk, were felt to give a charm 
and a brilliancy to his character which even his more public qualities 
failed to impart. His was indeed the path of the just, His religious 
character grew in Christian principle as he passed on in life and deepened 
within his great nature. On and on he went, walking in the light of 
Heaven while yet with us on earth. Such men rarely appear in the 
firmament of the Church. When they pass beyond to another sphere, a 
blank is left, which it takes generations to fill up. We shall never again 
hear his eloquent voice, never again shall we have the privilege of being 
guided by his wise counsels." 

Such are a few specimens of the Celt which one meets in Canada. 

The member for the city in the Dominion Parliament I found to be 
a successful Caithness Highlander, Alexander Gunn, who defeated even 
the great Sir John A. Macdonald himself, at the last general election, 
though the latter represented the city uninterruptedly for thirty-five 
years. Learning that we were in the city, he was good enough to invite 
MacColl, myself, and the Highlander to meet a few of the leading Celts 
of the place, around his hospitable table ; among whom were a successful 
Macrae, from Strathpeffer, who served his apprenticeship to the grocery 
business with John Chisholm, Inverness ; a Mr Fraser, from Dingwall, 
and several others whose names I did not carry away with me. The 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 193 

Highlander was in his kilt ; but Mrs Gunn, to my great gratification, 
placed him completely in the shade, by unexpectedly introducing her two 
handsome boys, both dressed in superb Highland costumes, with strap- 
pings, armour, and ornaments complete. I feel more indebted to her for 
this compliment than for the substantial fare which she was good enough 
to provide for our entertainment. While in Kingston snow fell to the 
depth of three or four inches, and I there saw sleighing for the first time 
in my life. I could say much more about tbis city and its kind and 
hospitable people ; but this article has already reached such an inordinate 
length that I must pull up, In the next I shall introduce the reader to 
the Highlanders of Toronto, Woodville, and Beaverton. A. M. 



A MACKINTOSH KAID INTO ABERDEENSHIRE IN 1382. 



THE unearthing of old documents and the publication thereof by such 
bodies as the Spalding Club, have from time to time brought many 
curious facts within our reach, shed light on obscure and little understood 
points, and also enabled us occasionally to settle many difficult questions. 
We trust we shall soon see more of this good work, and that such as de- 
vote themselves to it may receive more encouragement 

In perusing lately the Register of the Bishoprick of Aberdeen, we were 
astonished to find that the Mackintoshes all the way from the wilds of 
Badenoch and the Monalia, or perhaps from the low-lying lands of 
Petty, or not at all unlikely from the Braes of Lochaber, did about the 
year 1382, make more than one descent into the parish of Birse in Aber- 
deen, under the leadership of a certain Farquhar Mackintosh. What 
brought them so far, and into so totally different a district, it is now im- 
possible to say. Surely not the mere love of the foray, and certainly they 
do not appear to have had any claims upon the lands they seem to have 
so grievously and persistently vexed. The family historians are silent 
on the point, and all the information we can gather regarding the subject 
is contained in two documents, entitled, first a precept of King Robert 
regarding Farquhar Mackintosh, dated under the secret seal at Methven, 
on the 7th day of June 1382, and second, though incorrectly so styled, a 
charter of the Earl of Carrick regarding the lands of Birse, dated at Perth, 
the 8th of June 1 382, and both preserved for us in the Register above 
referred to. From the first of these we learn that Robert, by the grace 
of God, King of Scots, greets his beloved son, Alexander the Senescal, 
lord of Badenoch, and informs him that Adam, by the grace of God, 
Bishop of Aberdeen, came lately into the Royal presence, earnestly en- 



194 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

treating that himself and his lands of Birse, with the inhabitants thereof, 
would be protected and secured from Farquhar Mackintosh and his fol- 
lowers. It is further stated that the Bishop offered to appear and abide 
the law whenever it might please the said Farquhar to proceed in a legal 
form with any claim he might have upon the lands, if any. The King 
therefore commands that so soon as his precept has been seen, Farquhar 
shall be called to the presence of the Senescal, and compelled by royal 
authority to give security that the Bishop, his lands and people, shall re- 
main uninjured by him and his followers, unless he may perchance think 
fit to take the legal process suggested by the Bishop, and abide by the 
consequences. 

From the second document we learn that John, Earl of Carrick, eld- 
est son of the illustrious King of Scotland, and Senescal of Scotland, 
sends love and greeting to his dearest brother, Alexander the Senescal, 
lord of Badenoch, and to the Sheriff of Inverness, who may for the time 
be, and informs them that in a Council held at Perth on the 7th day of 
this present month of June, the venerable father in Christ, Adam, by the 
grace of God, Bishop of Aberdeen, had shown to the King and Council, 
with grave complaint, that Farquhar Mackintosh by himself and his fol- 
lowers had inflicted heavy losses on the church lands and inhabitants of 
Birse in time past, and that still he daily strikes these lands and people 
with such threats and terrors that the inhabitants cannot and dare not re- 
main in their houses, cultivate the land, nor otherwise, as faithful sub- 
jects live in peace, nor through fear enjoy their possessions. And, fur- 
ther, that the Bishop offered himself in sight of the Council as ready, at 
a fit time and place to abide the law regarding any claim the said Farqu- 
har might have upon said lands, if he would only prosecute it legiti- 
mately, and to find security so to do ; therefore, he humbly entreated the 
King and Council, that himself and his lands of Birse would be protected 
and kept secure from Farquhar Mackintosh and his followers. John, 
Earl of Carrick, therefore entreats his dearest brother and the Sheriff of 
Inverness, who may for the time be, and enjoins and commands them that 
when and as often as they shall be required, so to do, by the Bishop of 
Aberdeen, they shall compel the said Farquhar to give sufficient security 
to them that the Bishop and his lands, with the inhabitants and their 
goods, shall be uninjured by him and his followers, and that he shall 
neither himself inflict loss upon them, or molest them, nor cause, against 
law, any others to do so, under the pain of loss of life, limbs, and all else; 
intimating however to the said Farquhar, that if he wish he may legally 
proceed against the Bishop, and that justice will be done. 

Whatever Farquhar's claims might be, we hear no more of them or of 
him, but from the wail of the Bishop, we can gather easily that he endea- 
voured to assert his supposed rights in a severe and high-handed manner, 
as was the custom in old times, and especially so in the lawless days of 
the easy and peace-loving kings, Eobert Second and Third. John, Earl 
of Carrick, above referred to, when he came to the throne, assumed the 
title of Robert III., because of the ill odour of the name John, both in 
England and Scotland. 

ALEX. FRASEK. 



THE WISE LAIRD OF CULLODEN. 



ONCE upon a time (as the story books say) there lived a laird of Culloden, 
who, on account of his sagacity and prudence, was called " An tighearna 
glic," or the wise laird. Being a peacefully disposed man, he never en- 
gaged in any of the frequent feuds of the different clans, but lived quietly 
with his family, and devoted his time to the breeding and rearing of an 
extensive stock of superior cattle. Many a time and oft had covetous 
looks been cast on the fine herd by different reivers, but Culloden was so 
inoffensive that he never gave any one an excuse to molest him, and he 
was careful to take every precaution to prevent his cattle from being 
" lifted," so that he had as yet escaped scathless. It happened on a cer- 
tain occasion that an acquaintance of the laird, a Lochiel from Lochaber, 
and some of his people were returning from Falkirk market, and spent a 
night at Culloden house. In the course of conversation the laird ex- 
pressed a fear that he should not be able to keep all his cattle for want 
of sufficient pasturage, and that he thought he should be obliged to sell 
some of them, though he was sorry to do so. This remark set the wily 
Cameron a-thinkiug, and he rapidly evolved a scheme for getting posses- 
sion of a portion of the much-to-be-coveted herd, but was careful not to 
exhibit any sign of his feelings, merely saying that he was sorry the pre- 
sent state of his finances would not permit of his purchasing the cattle, as 
he should very much like to do, but suggested that as he had plenty of 
good pasture in Lochaber, Culloden should send part of his stock there, 
and he would take care of them and provide them provender for a fair 
consideration, adding that as he and his men were now on their way 
home, they could drive the cattle along and so save the laird the trouble 
of sending any of his own people. To this Culloden agreed, and arrange- 
ments were soon concluded. 

Next morning saw Lochiel and his party depart, driving before them 
about a score of fine young heifers. 

Having got possession of such a prize, Cameron had no intention of 
giving it up again, so after a few months had passed, he sent his cousin 
Rory, a fine, 'handsome young man who acted as his lieutenant, to Cul- 
loden with a specious story to the effect that a party of wild Macraes had 
come in the night and " lifted " all Lochiel's cattle, including those be- 
longing to Culloden ; that they had given chase to the reivers but had 
failed to overtake them ; that Lochiel was deeply grieved at his friend's 
loss, but still more for his own, with various other excuses. At first the 
laird listened in blank dismay at this most unwelcome news, but not 
feeling quite sure of Lochiel's ingenuousness he questioned Rory farther 
as to the details, and noticing a slight hesitation in some of his answers, 
and also that Rory, though a frank open-faced looking man, seemed to 
avoid the direct glance of his eye, he began to think that all was not 
right and above board. Culloden was, however, too prudent to hint of his 
suspicions to Rory, but after expressing his regret at the mutual misfor- 
tune of himself and Lochiel, invited the young man to partake of his 
hospitality, and introduced him to his family, who, having received a 
hint from Culloden, vied with each other who would pay the most atten- 
tion to their guest. The next day proving stormy, the laird insisted on 
Rory staying with them for another day or two. This was no hardship 



196 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

to the Lochaber man, who was delighted with his new friends, parti- 
cularly with the eldest daughter, Jessie, a blooming lass of eighteen, 
whose merry smile and bright blue eyes had already captivated the sus- 
ceptible heart of the stalwart Highlander. 

The storm continued and raged for two or three days, during which 
time Eory remained, nothing loth, a guest of Culloden. During the day 
time he lent his aid to the laird, and assisted him in the manifold 
duties which Culloden took upon himself, knowing, wise man that he 
was, " that if you want a thing done well you must do it yourself." The 
Highlander was much struck with the shrewd commonsense, foresight, 
and kindliness of disposition of his host, and listened with pleasure to his 
homely yet wise and thoughtful conversation. When the day's work 
was over, the whole family met, and spent the evening right merrily. 
Culloden produced his fiddle, on which he played reels and strathspeys, 
while the young folks danced and capered. Eory was a capital dancer, 
and always choosing Jessie for his partner, he had an opportunity of 
giving many a loving glance, and many a squeeze of the hand, which he 
would not otherwise have had. With all this Eory was ill at ease ; he 
could not forget the injury done to this worthy family, to which he was 
being accessory, and it was with very mixed feelings that he bid them, all 
adieu. Culloden accompanied him for a mile or two on his homeward 
journey, and charged him with the most friendly messages to Lochiel, 
expressing a hope that Eory would soon pay them another visit, and 
adding in a sort of half soliloquy, " I am vexed about the loss of the 
beasties too, especially as I had meant them for a tocher for Jessie, but 
now I shall not be able to give her anything, and I expect she will have 
to marry Bailie Cuthbert, the rich merchant in Inverness, who has long 
been seeking her for his wife. I aye thought him too old, but I ex- 
pect now no suitable young gentleman will take her without a tocher." 

After taking leave of the laird, Eory pursued his way very thought- 
fully, pondering over what he had heard, his unspoken thoughts running 
in this strain " What a fine fellow Culloden is, and so wise too. How 
bonnie Jessie is ! I wonder what she thought of me ? It would be a 
shame to let her marry an old man, a merchant, and living in a town ! 
Faugh ! but then the chief is my kinsman ; I must do his bidding. 
They are fine beasties to be sure, but Jessie is a real handsome lass." 
Suddenly he appeared to have made up his mind to some definite object, 
and exclaiming aloud, " Yes, I'll do it," he cleared his brow and walked 
briskly forward, 

Lochiel was waiting with some impatience the return of his messenger, 
whose first words on his arrival did not a little astonish the chieftain, 
" Lochiel, those cattle must be sent back to Culloden." " Sent back ! 
must be ! this to my face !" exclaimed the irate chief, " what do you 
mean ?" Eory related the hospitable manner in which he had been re- 
ceived and treated by Culloden and his family, and vowed he would be 
no party to injure such an excellent man. Lochiel would not hear of 
such a thing, and was indignant at the presumption of the other in proposing 
it. But Eory was firm, the cattle should be sent back, or he would expose 
the whole transaction ; on the other hand, if Lochiel would give up the 
cattle he would undertake to return them to Culloden without any reflec- 
tion on the character of his chief. To these arguments Lochiel at last 
gave way, though not with the best grace. 



THE WISE LAIED OF CULLODEK 197 

In a few weeks Rory again appeared at Culloden house, driving be- 
fore him all the cattle in splendid condition, and related a long story of 
how Lochiel had traced them, how he and his men had attacked and 
defeated the Macraes, and rescued the whole of the creach. To all which 
Culloden listened with commendable gravity, though his eyes twinkled 
with suppressed amusement. 

Once more Eory was a welcome guest at the hospitable house of Cul- 
lodon, and his mind being now free from self-reproach, he gave way to 
his natural vivacity of temperament, and became a greater favourite than 
ever. 

He was not long in impressing upon Jessie how much more desirable 
it would be to marry a young man, and a Highland gentleman like 
himself for instance than an old man, a common trader ! and a Saxon 
too, forsooth. 

The blushing Jessie listened and smiled while her eager lover urged 
his suit, and at last coyly whispered that " he might speak to father." 

Culloden was not a little surprised at being asked for his daughter's 
hand by one of whom he knew so little, and asked the young man what 
were his prospects, and how he was to keep a wife. Rory answered 
frankly enough that it was true he was poor, but he was a gentleman, a 
near kinsman of Lochiel. He had some little land and a few cows, but 
truth to say, he had never seen much after his property, having been prin- 
cipally engaged in fighting the battles of his chief. 

The laird gravely replied that he should require something besides 
good birth and a ready sword in his daughter's husband ; but noticing 
the gloom on Rory's face, he continued in a kinder tone, " You are both 
young and can afford to wait a little. Go you back to Lochaber, leave 
off fighting and quarrelling, settle down on your bit land, see after your 
herd, and if at the end of two years you can show me a score of prime 
cattle, I will give you another score as Jessie's tocher." 

Rory could not but admit the prudence of this arrangement, and pro- 
mised to do his best to fulfil his part. Two years would soon pass, and 
Jessie would then only be twenty, he reflected, so after pledging vows of 
undying attachment, he bade adieu to his beloved Jessie; returned 
home, and set manfully to work to render himself worthy of her. 

Fortune favoured him, for before the two years had expired, a wealthy 
relative died, and leaving no son, Rory succeeded to the property as next 
heir. / 

It was a proud day for Jessie when her lover no poor gentleman 
now, but the wealthy laird of a fine estate came to lay his new honours 
at her feet. There was now no reason for delay, and the marriage took 
place at once, on a scale of profusion, and attended by such numbers of 
friends that the like was never before seen in the district, showing the 
high respect in which the " tighearna" was deservedly held. The 
most of the articles required for the wedding were purchased from Bailie 
Cuthbert, and the worthy trader solaced himself for the loss of his wished- 
for bride by the contemplation of the long bill of charts it gained to him. 

Rory never forgot the experience ho had gained by following the 
advice of Culloden, and exerted himself to improve the breed of cattle on 
his estates, and encouraged his tenants and dependants to pay more 
attention to the subject than they had done before. The beneficial effects 



198 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of this policy soon "became apparent, and the whole country side had 
reason to bless the benign influence exerted by the wise laird of Culloden. 

M. A. ROSE. 



[We quote the following Dedication to her father from " Bide a "Wee 
and other Poems," recently published by Mary J. MacColl, daughter of 
the well-known " Bard of Lochfyne "] : 

TO MY FATHEK. 

Dear, honored Father, who in childhood's years 

Did'st fill to me the place of parents both 

So faithful that scarce I felt that loss 

Which naught of earth can fully compensate 

A mother's love and guidance glad J tune 

My harp to sound thy praise, nor could I choose 

A nobler, fitter theme. An honest man, 

God's noblest work, thou art. For Truth and Right 

A champion undismayed, who ne'er at wrong 

Or aught unjust hath winked, because, forsooth 

The doers sat enthroned in places high. 

One who disdained to cringe to any man 

Although thereby he might have gotten gain 

And won position, ease, and all the good 

That baser minds would prize as far above 

A conscience clean and void of all offeuce. 

E'en in the vilest thy broad charity 

Could clear discern the good the spnrk divine 

Though latent, waiting but the quickening breath 

Of noble influence, example pure, 

To fan it into never-dying flame. 

The lowest outcast was thy brother man ; 

No Levite thou, to take the other side ; 

A kindly, helping hand was ever stretched 

To all in need, and from thy hard-won store 

Thou gavest bountifully. None unoheered, 

Unaided, left thy ever open door. 

No test of worthiness did'st thou require 

That miserable excuse for heartlessness ; 

The greater to be pitied, in thine eyes, 

That wretch who knew that he himself had wrecked 

His own and worse, it might be, other lives ; 

And bowed beneath the burdon of Too Late. 

A man thou art of simple, child-like faith, 
Enduring patience, and undying hope, 
In one grand word, thou art a Christ-like man. 
I think with sad regret of all the years 
Passed far from thee, for Providence decreed 
That my life-path, when thy protecting love 
I needed most, should far diverge from thine ; 
And I have missed thae sore a thousand times, 
But ever by my side thy spirit seemed 
To stand and counsel me to choose the good ; 
And sweeter piaise on me was ne'er bestowed 
Than this, " Thou'rt very like thy father, child." 

Had I not lacked s oft thy sympathy, 
Thy tender guidance, ever wise reproof, 
My muse had taken loftier flights and thou 
Had'st seen thy youth again renewed in me ; 
But having to forego so much, my strains, 
E'en when I sing of thee, are faltering j 
And yet a deep, unfathomable flood 
Of fond affection surges in my soul. 
In vain I strive to give it overflow 
In voiceless music, and within my heart 
It must remain a sweet, imprisoned song, 







MESSRS CHISHOLM AND ROSE ON THE QUIGRICH. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

DEAR SIR, The part of my article on the Quigrich, to which Mr 
Chisholm refers in the January number of your magazine is as follows : 
" The Quigrich has been sometimes styled the Crozier of St Fillan as if 
the two words were the same. This is not the case. The one, as we 
have shown, is a crook, the other a cross, or ' erase.' Besides they differ 
in that they respectively represent two churches and creeds, as widely 
different, as are the symbols by which they are respectively represented." 
Mr Chisholm heads his letter, " Pastoral Staff or Crozier of St Fillan ; " 
and represents me as saying that these two expressions are not synoni- 
mous. I am not aware that I said so. On the contrary I agree with Mr 
Chisholm, that they may be synonimous. What I say is, that Quigrich 
and Crozier are not synonimous terms. Quigrich is a crook, Crozier a 
cross or " erase." Either therefore may be a pastoral staff as the case may 
be. But as we find from the meaning of Quigrich, Bachull, Camabhata ; 
the names given to the pastoral staff of the early Celtic Church, it was a 
crook, and not a cross or crozier. The difference between its creed, and 
that of churches whose pastoral staff is a cross, is a point, the discussion 
of which I shall not ventue upon in the pages of the Celtic Magazine 
although I may be allowed the opinion, that they are not the same. My 
remarks went, or were meant to go, exclusively on antiquarian lines ; 
apart altogether from ecclesiastical controversy. 

Mrs Murray Aust's book, from which Mr Rose quotes, is to be found 
in some of our libraries, and occasionally at a book stall It is interesting 
as the production of one of the earliest of our Highland tourists but not 
always reliable, as we may see, if we compare her description of the relic, 
with the relic itself, deposited in the Museum of the Society of Anti- 
quaries in Edinburgh, where it may bo at any time inspected by the 
curious. If so, it will be found that the silver case and the bronze which, 
it encloses are quite distinct from each other ; and separable. Possibly, 
therefore, the silver case only may have been shown to Mrs Murray Aust, 
or it may be she refers to it apart altogether from the bronze, as in her 
opinion the real Quigrich. In either case it may account for her descrip- 
tion of it, as " hollow " which, of course, is quite true of the silver case 
apart from the bronze. It is, I should think, scarcely probable that the 
bronze is an addition made to the relic since the beginning of this century. 
Mrs Murray Aust also says, it is of ' wrought silver." So it is. But 
how are we to reconcile this with its being " gilt," as she affirms " and 
the gilding mostly worn off." The relic as now on sight in the Antiqua- 
rian Museum, has no appearance of gilding so far as 1 coidd see ; nor is 
it apparent what object could be served by gilding solid silver. There is 
therefore nothing improbable in the supposition, that the relic may have 
contracted some kind of rust in a damp climate, which Dewar took pains 



200 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to polish off "before exhibiting it ; and the remains of which Mrs Murray 
Aust may have supposed to be the remains of gilding. The stone at the 
end of the crook she describes, " as in colour like a ruby." Antiquarians 
are pretty much agreed that it is a Cairngorm. Cairngorms are of various 
colours. The colour of the Quigrich Cairngorm is that of an opaque 
crystal, with seams of a purplish hue a colour combining red and blue, 
and which Mrs Murray Aust may have supposed to be that of a ruby. 
There is no engraving on the stone as she says. But the plate beneath 
it, at the end of the crook, has an engraving ; a figure on a cross with a 
star on each side of it meant no doubt to be a representation of the 
crucifixion. The figure which she says is engraved on the stone sup- 
posed to represent the original owner, is on the silver immediately above 
it. It is not at all likely, considering the veneration in which the Quig- 
rich has been held by the keepers of it, that they have in any way tam- 
pered with it. I am willing therefore to believe that Mrs Murray Aust 
may have unintentionally erred slightly in her description of it, rather 
than suppose that so interresting a relic differs in any respect, as now ex- 
hibited, from what it has always been during the ages of the past, along 
which it has been so carefully and even sacredly handed down to us. 
KBNMOEE. ALLAN SINCLAIK. 



NEW CELTIC WORK. In our last issue a circular was issued giving 
a full description of the important work, "LEABHAR NAM FIOR GHAIDHEAL," 
or the " Book of the Club of True Highlanders." in course of preparation for 
the press, by Mr C. IS. Macintyre North, architect, London, and Chief of 
the above-named Club. The work is to be published by subscription as soon 
as a sufficient number of names have been received to secure the author 
against loss. We are glad to find this will \ ery soon be assured ; for names 
are fast coming in. Hardly any one, we are told, who has seen the specimen 
plates, and who can afford the price namely, 3 3s to subscribers but 
have subscribed. The circular issued shows that of these fine plates (I3J by 
17 inches), described as " admirable" by such a high authority as Sir Noel 
Paton, there shall be no less that fifty-nine in the work, as follows : Club 
of True Highlanders title page portraits : Spalding, Menzies, Logan, 4 ; 
Stone and bronze implements ancient Keltic town Druid temples battle 
and storming the forts, 4 ; Oghams futhore alphabets agricultural imple- 
ments domestic duties, 3 ; Ancient ivory casket, 2 ; Highland and Lowland 
dress compared, 8 ; sporrans, ornaments, and brooches, 5 ; celebrated 
brooches, 4 ; Keltic swords, targets, and other weapons, 2 ; Two-handed 
swords, and targets claymores, pistols, targets, &c. mode of attack Cul- 
loden, 9 ; Lochaber axes, dirks, chariots, and horse-trappings, 3 ; harps 
and harpers bagpipes and pipers, 6 ; pipe music, dancing, dance music, 
songs, and mode of singing, 5 ; Camanachd, and other games and customs, 
4. The Duke of Hamilton, Cluny, Lord Blantyre, Lord W. P. Lennox, as 
well as Sir Noel Paton, and Professor Stephen, the great Runic scholar, and 
a great many others, have spoken most flatteringly of the plates. So many 
notices of relics connected with Prince Charlie have been received by the 
author, that he intends to add another chapter and set of plates in addition 
to what is promised in the circular already issued. From the specimens, 
plates, and letter-press before us, we are satisfied that few if any such sump- 
tuous works aa that on which Mr Macintyre North is engaged have ever 
been published in connection with the Highlands. Names of intending sub- 
scribers will be received at this office, where specimens of the plates and of 
the letterpress may be seen ; or we shall be glad to forward them by post to 
any intending subscriber who may desire to see them. 



CALL FARAIS. 
DAN ANN AN DA-DHUAN-DHEUG 

LBIS AN ARD FHILIDH IAIN MILTON, 
Air a thionndadh gu Gaelic le AILBAN SINCLAIR, M.A. 

A OHEUD DUAN. 



Mu pheacadh an duin' air tus, 
'S meas na craoibh' bu chiuirteich 1 
Thug do'n t-shaoghal so am bas, 
Gach cradh 'us dolas air fad. 
Cia mar chaill sinn sonas aigh 
Edein ghraidh nan iomadh buadh ; 
Gus an d'aisigeadh as ur 
Triomh ar n' lull an Slan'fhear m6r 
A ris air ais dhuinn ann an seilbh, 
lonad soirbh nan cliar gh!6ir. 

Can a Cheolraidh bhinn nan Aird', 
Roimhe so bha thamh air stuaidh 
Sbinai 's Horeb 'nochd gach cail 
Do aodhair' aghmhor an t-shluaigh ; 
A theagaisg do'n taghadh air tus 
Cia mar dhuisgeadh a mi-rian 
An saoghal 's na neamhan shuas 
Le neart buadhach Dlio nan gniomh. 

Na ma's annsa Sion loat, 
Na Siloa aig Teach Dh<5 ; 
Uatha-san o guidheam ort 
Gu'n abram ceart mo dhan f6in. 
'G 6iridh air sgiathan an aird 
Thairis air gach dan a bh'ann 
Fada osceann Aonain nam bard 
'S na labhradh an radh na'n rann. 
'Thus' thair chach a Spioraid Dh& 
A thug speis do chridhe glan, 
Thairis air gach teach a th' &nn 
Deonaich ceart mo rann gu'n can. 
Bha Thu ann bho chian nan cian, 
Le d'egiathan diomhair sint' mach, 
'Gur air doimhneachd na mi-rian, 
Mar chal'man toirt alaich a mach. 
Na nithe dhomhsa nach e61 
Foillsich, 'us se61 le d' chleas ; 



202 TEE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Air m' anmhuinneaclid mhor dean foir, 
Le d' neart cbrr, ceart mar's leas. 
Chum le tuigse ghe"ir 'o shuas, 
Gu'n cnuasaich mi m' dhan air ch6ir 
S gu'n nochd mi freusdal 'n D6 bhuain 
Ceartas a ehligh' 'e airde' ghloir. 

Aithris dhomh air tus gu foil, 
Cha cheil Neamh bho d' eolas toirt, 
Na dorchadas ifrinn shies ; 
Cha cheil seunadh air bith ort. 
Abair ciod e 'n t-aobhar fe*in 
Ghluais Adhamh' us Eubh air tus, 
Cho sona an gaol an De 
'Thoil gu leir a chuir air chuL 
Do 'n d' thug E'n saoghal 'sa Ian 
Ach anihain a'meas bha ciuirt'. 
Co thug uapa an ceart chiall 
Dhol an aghaidh Dhia nan dul ? 

An nathair-nimh bho ifrinn shios, 
Lan gamhlais 's dioghaltais claoin, 
'S esan troimh f harmad a mheall 
Mathair aigh a chinne-daoin'. 

Troimh 'ardan thil geadhe sios, 

Bho fharas shior 'n De" is aird', 

Mar ri cheannaircich gu leir, 

A chaidh leis an stre*up a bhlair. 

Tre 'n gaisge ceannairceach doirbh 

Shaoil leis seilbh f haotainn air g!6ir 

Fada thairis air Dia f^in 

'S flathaibh tr^un na luchairt 6ir, 

Shaoil leis gu 'm b' choimeas e 'n neart, 

Do Dhia nam feart a tha shuas, 

'S thairis airsan le euchd fheachd, 

Gu'n coianeadh 'le' ghleachd a bhuaidh. 

Mar so troimh ardan 's gloir-mhiann, 

Einn e cogadh fiar air neamh, 

An aghaidh tighearnas Dhe", 

Ach b' diamhain an ni dha e. 

Troimh ard chumhachd Dhe" nan gniomh, 

Thilgeadh sios e gu ro ghrad, 

Car air char do 'n doimhne chiar, 

E fe"in 'sa dhubh chliar air fad, 

B' uamhor ri faicinn a bhinn 

E'n coinneamh a chinn 'dol sios, 

Mar shal'chair ronnaig nan spe"ur 

A shiubhlas bho re"ul 'san iar. 

Millte thuit san duibhre thiugh 

An t-aigean dubh diol a mhiann. 

Sud an gainntir e gu brath 



CALL FAKAIS. 203 

Fo gheimhle bais is teinntich dath, 

Chionn dubhlan gu'n d' thug do Dhia, 

Ga bhrosnach' gun f hiamh chum cath. 

Naoi laithean 'us naoi oidhch' 

Gu h-an-aoibhneach le saoi fheachd, 

Laidh 'san aibheis theinntich shios, 

Lan imcheist 's fo thrdm bheachd. 

Claoidhte le smachdachadh geir, 

An D6 Shiorruidh is m6r neart. 

Gidheadh neo-bhasmhor tha e, 

Gu tuilleadh craidh 'dhol ma sgairt. 

Fo aimheal ro mhor bha e, 

A smuain' air an neamh a bha, 

An sonas a chaill e 'm feasd, 

An t-amhghar nach teasd gu brath. 

A shuilean br6nach do thog, 

'Us sheall gun sog air gach taobh, 

Cha 'n f haicte ach d61as searbh, 

Fiamh 'us uabhar 'us dubh chaoidh ; 

Fuath oilteil anns gach aon, 

Do 'n Ti 's airde 'sa reachd naomh. 

Cho fada sa chi a sliuil 

Aon chuid dlu, na fada uaith, 

Cha 'n f haicear leis ach fasach shior 

Gainntir dhubh chianail nan uamh' 

A lasadh mar amhuinn ghe"ir, 

Gidheadh nach d' thoir leirsinn seach, 

Ach dorchadas tiugh gu leir 

A foillseachadh pein gach neach. 

lonad an amhghair 'sa chraidh 

Frogan graineil nam plaigh dubh. 

Far nach comhnuich slth gu brath ; 

Fardach an-earbsa gun sgur. 

An sud tha piantan gun chrioch 

'G iathadh mar thonnan mu 'n cinn, 

Tuiltean teinnteach nam fearg sior 

Pronnasg laist 'gu cian nan linn. 

So gnath ionad nan dian f hearg, 

Dh' ullaich ceartas dearbht 'gu brath, 

Do cheannaircich duais an gniomh 

Priosan dorcha nan dubh chradh. 

Bho Dhia 's bho shoills' tri chuairt f had, 

'S tha aiseal a chruinne-ch^, 

Bho mheadhoin gu iomal a mach, 

'S tha mugha an staid d' a r6ir. 

A chompanaich chunncas leis, 
Biit' an teas 'a an tuiltean pein, 
lorn' ghaothan doinneanach laist', 
'Fadaidh gu goirt teas an cleibh, 
Dluth dha do chunncas leis aon, 



204 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

'Ga aoirneagaich fein 'san teas, 

Ti 'b' fhaisg' air an neart 'san giornh 

Beelsebub nam fiar chleas. 

Eisan thubhairt an t ard namh, 

Do'n goireir Satan air neamh, 

'Se labhairt a'm briathran dan 

Bho bhalbh thosdachd na searbh sheamh. 

An' tus' e, ars' esan, 'n tu ? 
am mugh' th'ort seach mar bha 
'Nuair dh' aitich thu teach na soills', 
Far 'n do bhoillsg' thair mhoran shar, 
Le drillseachd bar-mhaiseach glan, 
Sgeudaicht' thair mhilltean do chacL 
Ma 's tu e 'rinn nasgadh leum, 
An ionnsuidh, an hum, 's an gleachd 
An cunnart, an strfth nan lann 
Sa chogadh a chlaoidh ar neart 1 
A nise maraon tha sinn, 
An leir-sgrios millt' 'sar feachd ! 
F&ic ail doimhneachd chianail mh6r 
'Sa bheil sinn 'sar se6id fo phramh ; 
An airde bho 'n thuit sinn sios, 
Gu cian ghainntir nan dubh chradh. 
Oirne 'sar feachd thugadh buaidh, 
Le torunn uamhor a mhdr neart, 
Cha d' thuig sinn 'san am a chaidh, 
Colg eug-samhluidh Dhe" nam feart, 
Gidheadh airson so gu l^ir 
'S na 's urrainn a gh^ur fhearg bhorb 
A dhioladh orm do shearbh phe"in 
Cha 'n aithreach leum stre"up nan colg. 

An Ceannamhor. 



HIGHLAND MUSICAL INSTEUMENTS. 



AT a recent meeting of the Antiquarian Society, a notice of the Ancient 
Musical Instruments of Scotland, by Mr Eobert Glen, musical instru- 
ment maker, was communicated by Mr George G. Cunninghame, advocate, 
F.S.A., Scot. The author began by noticing the musical instruments 
mentioned in the poem of " The Houlate," dating from the 15th century. 
Of all the instruments of music used by man, the horn or trumpet was 



HIGHLAOT) MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 205 

probably the most primitive. The discovery of a trumpet of bronze at 
Caprington, in Ayrshire, showed that metallic instruments of this kind 
had been in use in Scotland before the dawn of history. He next noticed 
the bagpipe, which had been styled the national instrument, but was not 
peculiar to Scotland, having been at one time popular in all parts of 
Europe. There was no evidence to show when the instrument was intro- 
duced into Scotland. The Exchequer Rolls record a payment to the 
King's pipers in 1362. Pipers formed part of the municipal institutions 
of every large town, and in some burghs, as Jedburgh for instance, the 
office was hereditary. But it was in the Highlands, among the Celtic 
population, that the pipes were most popular. The author possessed a 
set of Highland bagpipes (which were exhibited) bearing the exceedingly 
early date of 1409. This instrument possessed only two small drones 
and chanter, and previous to the beginning of last century bagpipes in 
this country had no large or bass drone. But if the Gael could not claim 
the merit of inventing the bagpipes, he could at least boast that he had 
made the instrument his own by inventing a style of execution which had 
turned its imperfections into beauties, and composed a rich and varied 
stock of music so specially adapted for it that it could not be properly 
rendered by any other instrument. The old name of the harp was the 
clarsach, and it appears frequently in Scottish documents. The last 
native harper in Scotland was Murdoch Macdonald, a retainer of Maclean 
of Coll, who died about 1739. The lute is familiar to all readers of Scot- 
tish poetry, from Davy Lindsay's mention of it, and other allusions of 
constant occurrence. It appears in the accounts of the Lord High 
Treasurer 1474. Originally it had eight thin catgut strings arranged in 
four pairs, tuned in unison. In course of time more strings were added, 
and during the seventeenth century it had twenty-four strings. In con- 
clusion, the author remarked that there had been great improvements in 
the construction of musical instruments in modem times, but it was ques- 
tionable whether what had been gained in one respect had not been lost 
in another by lessening the individuality of the separate instruments. 
The paper was illustrated by a series of beautiful water-colour drawings 
of nearly 100 musical instruments by Mr Glen. 

In reference to the Highland bagpipes the following letter appeared 
in a recent issue of the Scotsman : 

" Kinlochmoidart, Fort-William, February 13, 1880. 

" SIB, In your issue of the 10th inst., in reporting proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries, mention is made of a bagpipe bearing the date 
1409. I have the chanter and blow pipe of one which I believe to be 
older. Its history is this : It was given in the end of last century to 
my maternal uncle, Donald Maodonald of Kinlochmoidart, Colonel of the 
Royals (who I now represent), by the M'Intyres, who were the hereditary 
pipers to the Clanranald branch of the Macdonalds, as they were on the 
point of emigrating to America. They told him the Macdonalds had 
followed its inspiring strains into the battle of Bannockburn, and that it 
had never been played at any lost battle ; that believing him to be the 
chief of the Macdonalds, they left it with him as the proper person to 
have it. The chanter is perfect, and the worn state of the holes shows it 
to have been much used. I am, &c., 

"WM. ROBERTSON MACDONALD." 



206 THE CELTIC MAGAZIKE. 

Siteattxr*. 



FLOWER LORE; THE TEACHINGS OF FLOWERS, HISTORICAL, LE- 
GENDARY, POETICAL, AND SYMBOLICAL. Belfast: M'CAW, STBVIN- 
SON, & OBB. 

WE cannot conceive any feasible reason why this book should have 
been published anonymously, for beyond question it is in its every 
aspect a piece of work that all concerned have the utmost reason to be 
proud of. To speak of it even as it appears to the eye of sense, the work 
is the very perfection of the compositor, the engraver, and the binder's 
art. The typography is antique, and ornate to a high degree. There are 
red and black letter titles alternately at the head of the pages, and large 
red letters at the commencement of each division, each new chapter being 
surmounted by admirably executed, quaint, old-fashioned-looking garden, 
rural, floral, and fairy scenes, all evidently prepared specially for this 
work. The illustrations proper of the work, on the other hand, consist of 
very superior representations of a large number of the principal flowers, 
shrubs, and trees, which come in for tender and tasteful dealing at the 
hands of the author. 

In referring to the author's handiwork, we have to continue the same 
stylo of unqualified praise as in dealing with the other departments of the 
work. Perhaps the reader will save us the trouble of detailed criticism by 
anticipating what the merits of the work should be, when we mention 
what ought to be no secret, that the author is Mrs Paterson, daughter of 
the late lamented Dr Carruthers, editor of the Inverness Courier, and 
when we further observe that the book before us furnishes ample evidence 
that the succession to the accomplished father's rich and extensive herit- 
age of culture, taste, and information, has not conformed to the salic law 
by confining itself to " heirs male of the body." 

The work consists of nine divisions or chapters, each treating of 
flowers, trees, and plants, whether as objects of use, ornament, religious 
emblem, or heraldic badge ; the nature and habits of plants, and, in fact, 
almost every conceivable purpose to which they have been devoted by 
the necessities or the fancies of man. Monkish legend, the store-houses 
of story, and the rich treasuries of poetry in every time and clime, have 
been put under tribute to complete the vast accumulation of "flower 
lore " which the gifted author has brought together, and all selected with 
the most admirable discrimination and taste. Nor is the tender and 
loving admiration of the subject which is necessary in a work of this kind 
to be met with merely in the numerous extracts from all the sources 
placed under contribution, but the author herself, if not in point of fact, 
a poet, is possessed of a very large share of the constituents from which 
poets are made, one of them being a large and loving admiration of the 
works of nature, with a sympathetic appreciation of all that is beautiful and 
elevating and good in the world around. 

This work is certainly composed in the " language of flowers," not in 
the ordinary and arbitrary acceptation of that phrase ; it is a faithful in- 
terpreter of the speech of the " tongues in trees " spoken of by the poet, 
as well as of the utterances of the " heart," which the fancy of the ancients 
put " in every stirring leaf." 



LITERATURE. 



207 



The -work is divided into nine sections. Chapters I. and Vll. treat 
of sacred plants and flowers, and contain endless contributions, culled 
from all conceivable sources illustrative of the emblematic uses to which 
plants have been applied in all times, especially by the monks. Some- 
what akin in subject is chapter III., which deals with "superstitions 
connected with trees, plants, and flowers," and is replete with interest. 
Perhaps the chapter to which the Celt would be expected to attach most 
importance is the one on the use of plants as heraldic symbols, and in 
particular the part of it referring to the Celts and their various badges of 
distinction. Mrs Paterson furnishes a complete list of the various clang 
and families of the Highlands, and under the name of each, gives the 
badge which distinguished it from its neighbour. Every clansman, how- 
ever, worthy of the name, knows not only his own decorations, but also 
something of those of the other clans ; it is therefore unnecessary to quote 
the author's very useful table. Chapters V. and VI. are of a more scientific 
character, being devoted to the habits of plants. They evince a minute 
acquaintance with the nature of plants and flowers ; the various insects 
that frequent them ; the order in which they come into bloom ; and a 
thousand other useful and entertaining facts connected with the subject. 
The following is from page 104 on the "Sensibility of Plants :" "The 
irritability of the sun-dew and of Venus' fly-trap resides in the hairs which 
spring from the discs of their lobes. No sooner does a fly or other in- 
sect touch the hairs than the two lobes of which the leaf consists collapse 
and entrap the hapless intruder, retaining it there until its body becomes 
decomposed and absorbed, when the leaf reopens to perform a similar 
function." 

Apropos of this carnivorous propensity of the class of plants referred 
to, the author gives the following bit of humorous rhyme from " Scrib- 
nerV': 

"What's this I hear, 

My Molly dear, 
About the new Carnlvora ? 

Can little plants 

Eat bugs and ants 

And gnats and flies? 

Who is this wise, 
Who is the great " diskiverer?" 

Not Darwin, love, 

For that would provw 
A sort of retrograding ; 

Surely the fare 

Of flowers is air 

Or sunshine sweet ; 

They should not eat 
Or do augkt so degrading. 

Alas 't would be 

Sad news to me 
To hear your own dear Fido pet 

Had lost hit breath 

In oruel death, 

Because one day, 

In thoughtless play, 
He went too near a violet. 

A work on flower lore would be incomplete without a chapter on 
the " Language of Flowers." It need not be said that in the work before 
us there is a whole section devoted to the subject, where the language of 



O ! horror ! what 
If, heeding not, 

Some cruel plant carnivorous 
W ventured near 
Yes, we, my dear 
And swallowed were 
With no one there 

To succour or deliver ms ? 

And yet, to die 

By blossoms, I 
Would call a doom chromatic 

For one might wait 

A harder fate 

Than have a rose 

End all his woes 
In pain called aromatic. 

Ah ! science knows 

Each flower that blowi, 
And all its wicked habits, 

Tis not for u 

To make a fuss ; 

For aught we know, 

The lilies grow 
From dining on Welsh rabbits. 



208 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

flowers is, of course, taken down from their own lips ! The book closes 
appropriately with a chapter on "funeral trees." 

We conclude by again reiterating our unqualified testimony to the 
excellence of the gifted author's labours, and the great beauty of the book 
as . a work of art. We have never seen a more successful attempt at 
" holding the mirror up to Nature." 



ffiottz mtfo 

ANSWER TO QUERY. 

THE MACRAES. In reply to " Garbhag an t' Sleibhe," who writes from South Australia: 

1. The Macraes are one of the most ancient clans in the North. They were for- 
merly very numerous in Kintail, where many still remain. A large number have, how- 
ever, emigrated. The old 78th Regiment of Highlanders was very largely composed of 
Macraes, and the splendid stature and physique of the men from this clan are still re- 
membered. The grenadier company was at first composed of Macraes, every one six 
feet or more in height. 

Their chiefs were the Macraes of Inverinate, on Loch Duich. This family is un- 
doubtedly of very ancient origin. The tradition of the country says they were descended 
from Fingal, and that this is the origin of the name Mac Ra sons of Ra M6r. It is 
certain that many of the ancestors of the present family were buried at loaa. The 
Maoraes of Inverinate possessed these lands, with many others, on both sides of Loch 
Duich for about 400 years, but the estates were sold by the grand uncle of the present 
chief, who is Mr Colin Macrae of Wellbank, Forfarshire, presently residing in Edin- 
burgh. 

2. The arms of the clan are Argent, a Fesse Azure, between two Mullets in chief, 
and a lion Rampant in base-gules. The chief also has two Highlanders as supporters. 
The crest is a hand holding a sword. Motto, Jfortitudine. The badge is the Fir Club 
MOBS. 

3. The Macraes have a distinct and very beautiful tartan, not unlike that of the 
Clan Fraser, although distinctly different. The late Mr Kenneth Macleay, who painted 
a selection of some of the Highland clans, always regretted that he was not authorised 
to paint a Macrae, as he said their tartan was, in his opinion, the most beautiful of all 
the Clans. It is to be found in the best works on Clan Tartans, although not always 
correctly given, and is well known. MACRAE. 



A HISTORY OF THE HOUSE AND CLAN OF MACKIN- 
TOSH, by Alexander Mackintosh Shaw, author of " The Clan Battle of 
Perth," and of " The Highland Family of Shaw," we are glad to find, is to 
be published this year by subscription. Separate accounts will be given 
of the other families of Clan Chattan, such as the Macphersons, Mac- 
gillivrays, Macbeans, Macqueens, Macphails, Shaws, Farquharsons, and 
others. The readers of the Celtic Magazine will remember Mr Mackin- 
tosh Shaw as the author of the excellently written and valuable articles 
published by us a few years ago on " Brigadier Mackintosh of Borlum." 
His claims to do justice to this work may be judged by the sketch of 
the Clan Chattan in Fullarton's " Highland Clans ;" for we are informed 
by the editor in his preface that the narrative of the Clan in that work 
" owes its value almost entirely to his (Mackintosh Shaw's) kindness," 
"who," we are told at p. 197, " has revised the whole." Mr Mackintosh 
Shaw is engaged in excellent work, and we heartily wish him the success 
he so well deserves. We are apparently on the way for having a com- 
plete series of Clan Histories worthy of our ancestors. 



THE 



CELTIC MAG-AZINE. 



No. LIV. APEIL, 1880. VOL. V. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

AND 

THE LOKDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 

o 

VI. 

IX. ALEXANDER, third Lord of the Isles, and after the death of his 
mother, Countess of Eoss in her own right, he became Earl of 
Eoss, which title was in 1429 or 1430 acknowledged by the Crown, not- 
withstanding that his father had given up all claims to it by the treaty of 
Port-Gilp noticed in the previous number. It may be questioned, how- 
ever, whether Donald of Harlaw was entitled to style himself Earl of 
Eoss, though he undoubtedly possessed, in right of his wife, the territory 
comprising the Earldom, and notwithstanding that Skene is of opinion 
that Donald may fairly be considered the first Earl of Eoss of the race of 
Somerled ; but be that as it may, there is no doubt whatever that Alex- 
ander was not only styled Earl of Eoss, but was acknowledged as such by 
the Government and the Crown, by right of descent through his mother. 
This Lord of the Isles was a man of great spirit and distinguished 
ability, and, like his father and grandfather, was ambitious to found a 
Celtic kingdom of the Isles, the sovereignty of which should be in his 
own family. At this period, however, Scotland was ruled by James I., 
a man who was exhibiting kingly talents of a high order, and a resolution 
to bring his rebellious vassals, however powerful, to submission. In this 
he was ultimately successful, even in the case of the great Lord of the 
Isles, though, at first, more by strategy than by actual force of arms. 
The King, who possessed a remarkable energy, great decision of character, 
and personal bravery unsurpassed, determined to break down the inde- 
pendence and power of the turbulent Island Lords, and, collecting a large 
force, in 1427 he marched, accompanied by his principal nobles, to the 
town of Inverness with an army which made any resistance on the part 
of the Highlanders quite unavailing. Hero b/r summoned his barons, in- 
cluding the Highland chiefs, to attend a parliament. Even the Lord of 
the Isles, seeing the power and splendour of the King, thought it prudent 
to obey ; and, with most of the ^Northern barons, he proceeded to meet 
King James at Inverness. As they entered the hall in which the parlia- 

R 



2lO THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

merit was assembled, each of these haughty nobles was immediately 
arrested, and placed in irons in different parts of the building, not one of 
them being permitted to communicate with any of the others. Among 
the prisoners were Alexander of the Isles ; his mother, the Countess of 
Eoss ; Alexander of Garmoran, and several of the most powerful chiefs in 
the Highlands. It is said that the King exhibited marks of great joy as 
he saw those powerful Highland Lords marching into the toils which he 
had so treacherously prepared for them. Alexander of Garmoran, as well 
as several others, was tried, convicted, and adjudged to be decapitated on 
the spot, and his whole possessions forfeited to the crown, while most of 
the others were sent to different castles and strongholds throughout the king- 
dom, until the majority of them were afterwards condemned to various 
kinds of death ; while a few were set at liberty after various terms of 
imprisonment. Among the latter was Alexander of the Isles. No 
one can defend this mean act of treachery by the King, however brave or 
otherwise distinguished, though Hill Burton tries to excuse him ; but 
while telling us that " It is useless to denounce such acts," he makes the 
admission, which is not altogether inapplicable even to the present day, 
namely : That at that time " there was no more notion of keeping faith 
with the ' Irishry,' whether of Ireland or Scotland, than with the beast of 
prey lured to his trap ;" after which he proceeds to say that those whom 
it was deemed fitting to get rid of were put to death, and that nothing 
remains to show that there was even the ceremonial of a trial* 

The Earldom of Koss, which had been procured by Eobert, Duke of 
Albany, for his son, John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, on its resignation at 
Port-Gilp by Donald of Harlaw, fell to the Crown by the death, in 1424, 
of the Earl of Buchan, who was killed in that year at the battle of 
Verneuil in France; whereupon the King at once restored it to the 
heiress of line, the mother of Alexander of the Isles. In 1425 Alexander 
of the Isles and " Master of the Earldom of Eoss," sat upon the jury 
which condemned to death the enemy of his family, Murdoch, Duke of 
Albany, his two sons, and the Earl of Lennox, for the murder of young 
Eothesay. He does not, however, seem from the above to have long 
continued in favour at Court, and it may be interesting to have Gregory's 
views of the reasons and influences which led Alexander at that time into 
opposition to the King. It has been mentioned, he says, that Godfrey, 
Lord of Uist, on the death of his younger brother, Eanald, asserted suc- 
cessfully his claim to the North Isles and Garmoran, from which he had 
been unjustly excluded by his father. Both Godfrey and Eanald left 
male issue who must naturally have been opposed to each other, like their 
fathers ; but the meagre notices we possess of the domestic feuds in the 
Highlands and Isles at this period, do not enable us to trace the progress 
of these dissensions. It may be readily conceived, however, that where 
such a prize was in dispute, much blood would be shed and many atrocities 
committed. The issue of Godfrey, or the Siol Gorrie, as they were called, 
must for a time have acquired a superiority over the Clanrauald or the 
descendants of Eanald ; for in the year 1427 we find mention made by a 
contemporary writer of an Alexander MacGorrie of Garmoran, then de- 
scribed as a leader of two thousand men. In addition to the disturbances 

* History of Scotland, vol. ii., 402 ; Blackwood & Sons, 1876. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 211 

sure to arise out of the rival claims of two such powerful families, closely 
connected with the Lord of the Isles, there were other circumstances, in 
addition to these, which tended to involve his Lordship in feuds which 
his natural disposition inclined him to settle more with the sword than 
"by an appeal to the laws. There was a certain John MacArthur, of the 
family of Campbell, and a leader of some note in the Highlands, who 
appears to have revived about this period a claim which one of his 
ancestors had acquired over a portion of Garmoran and the North Isles, 
and it can easily be. conjectured what reception the assertions of such pre- 
tensions would receive from Alexander of the Isles and his warlike rela- 
tives. There is a charter of the lands of Moydert, &c., by Christina, 
daughter of Allan MacEuari, in favour of Arthur, son of Sir Arthur 
Campbell, knight, early in the fourteenth century, which is found, quoted 
for the names of the witnesses, in a MS. history of the Macnaughtans, in 
the Advocates' Library, The event, however, which appears to have had 
most effect in throwing the Highlands and Islands into confusion at this 
time was the murder of John, Lord of Isla and Kintyre, uncle to the 
Lord of the Isles, by a man, James Campbell, who is said to have received 
a commission from the King to apprehend John of Isla, but who ex- 
ceeded his instructions by putting him to death. When it is considered 
in what lawless state even the more accessible portions of the kingdom 
were found on his accession by James I., owing to the incapacity and the 
weakness of the regent, Murdoch, Duke of Albany, it can easily be con- 
ceived how the murder of the uncle of Alexander of the Isles, and the 
leader of a powerful branch of the Macdonalds, should have raised dis- 
turbances in the "Western Highlands and Isles which required all the 
energy and personal bravery of the King to suppress.* Among the most 
prominent of those executed at Inverness in 1427 was the above-named 
John MacArthur, and James Campbell, hanged for the murder of John 
of Isla, as if to show the supposed impartiality of the treacherous proceed- 
ings of the King and his parliament on that occasion. Hugh Macdonald 
informs us that while the Lord of the Isles was confined in Tantallon 
Castle, the King sent this John Campbell to know " if John More of 
Kintyre, Macdonald's uncle, would take all his nephew's land ; but it was 
a. trap laid to weaken them that they might be the more easily conquered. 
James Campbell sent a man with a message to John of Kintyre, desiring 
him to meet him at a point called Ard-Du, with some prudent gentlemen, 
and that he had matters of consequence from the King to be imparted to 
him. John came to the place appointed with a small retinue, but James 
Campbell with a very great train, and told (him) of the King's intention 
of granting him all the lands possessed by Macdonald, conditionally he 
would hold of him and serve him. John said lie did not know wherein 
his nephew wronged the King, and that his nephew was as deserving of 
his rights as he could be, and that he would not accept of those lands, 
nor serve for them, till his nephew would be set at liberty ; and that his 
nephew himself was as nearly related to the King as he could be. James 
Campbell, hearing the answer, said that he (John of Isla) was the King's 
prisoner. John made all the resistance he could, till, overpowered by 
numbers, he was killed. His death made a great noise through the king- 

* Gregory's Western Highlands and Isles, pp. 34-35. 



212 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

dom, particularly among the faction in opposition to the King, viz., the 
Hamiltons, Douglasses, and Lindsays. The King at last being ashamed 
of what had happened, he pursued James Campbell as the murderer ; and 
although Campbell protested he had the King's authority for so doing, 
yet the King denied having given any other orders than that of appre- 
hending him, if he would not come into the terms proposed to him ; and 
because Campbell had no written order from the King to produce in his 
defence, he was taken and beheaded, which shows the dangerous conse- 
quences of undertaking such a service without due circumspection."* 

The young Lord of the Isles was sent south, some say to Edinburgh, 
and others to Perth, where he was kept in captivity for a short time, and 
then liberated. His conduct immediately after his release shows that he 
felt the indignity of his capture and imprisonment very deeply. Accord- 
ing to Gregory, his mother, the Countess of Boss, had meanwhile died, 
though Bower states that in 1429 she was charged with encouraging her 
son in his violent proceedings, and was arrested and confined at Inchcolm, 
in the Firth of Forth, where she is said to have remained fourteen months 
after, a prisoner. But Gregory points out that this is hardly reconcilable 
with a charter, dated 24th October 1429, in which her son styles himself 
Earl instead of Master of Koss. "We do not think the simple change 
from the title of. Master to that of Earl at all unlikely during her life, when 
all the circumstances are taken into account his mother, who quite possibly 
may have even resigned in his favour, being a state prisoner ; and the 
necessity that he should use every influence, which the assumption of the 
title was calculated to strengthen, to raise the vassals of the Earldom for 
his projected raid on the Lowlands. 

He raised a force of about ten thousand men in Eoss and the Isles, 
with whom he marched to Inverness, where he wasted the Crown lands 
and burnt the town to ashes, in revenge for the treacherous treatment 
there extended to him two years before by the King. His followers, ac- 
cording to the MS. History of the Mackintoshes, quoted in " Invernessi- 
ana," " were a band of men accustomed to live by rapine, who fell upon 
Inverness, pillaged and burnt the houses, and then besieged the fort 
itself. But in vain, for it was gallantly defended by the bravery and 
rigour of the Governor, and Alexander, understanding that an assault 
was meditated upon him, retired precipitately towards Lochaber." The 
King, hearing of the burning of Inverness, prepared at once to vindicate 
his insulted authority, and with great promptitude collected a large force, 
which he commanded in person, and marched them into Lochaber, where 
he came upon the Island Chief quite unexpectedly. On the appearance 
of the Koyal forces the Clan Chattan and the Camerons, who had hitherto 
followed the banner of the Lord of the Isles, deserted him and went over 
to the King, who immediately attacked the Islanders, routed them, and 
pursued them so closely that their chief was obliged to sue for peace. 
This the King sternly refused on any other terms than an absolute and 
unconditional surrender, which the haughty Lord of the Isles declined to 
make, whereupon the King returned home, leaving strict orders with his 
commanders to make every effort to capture the Earl, who found it neces- 
sary to flee for shelter, leaving his army to take care of itself as best it 

* Collectauea De Rebus Albanicis, p. 308. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 213 

could. He was ultimately driven to despair by the energy and vigilance 
of his pursuers, and determined to throw himself on the mercy of the 
King, which he did by presenting himself before him, his Queen, and 
Court, while assembled, on Easter Sunday, at a solemn festival in the 
Church of Holyrood, engaged in their devotions before the High Altar. 
The haughty chief, with bonnet in hand, his legs and arms quite bare, 
his body covered only with a plaid, in his shirt and drawers, with a 
naked sword in his hand held by the point, which, in token of submission, 
he offered to the King on bended knees, imploring his forgiveness. " His 
appearance, with the solicitations of the affected Queen and all the nobles, 
made such an impression on his majesty that he completely submitted to 
the promptings of his heart, against the wiser and more prudent dictates 
of his better judgment. He accepted the sword offered to him, and 
spared the life of his captive, but immediately committed him to Tantallon 
Castle, under the charge of William Douglas, Earl of Angus. The spirit 
of his foDowers, however, could not brook this mortal offence, and the 
whole strength of the Clan was mustered under Donald Balloch, a cousin 
of the Lord of the Isles. They were led to Lochaber, where they met the 
King's forces, under the Earls of Mar and Caithness, killed the latter, 
gained a complete victory over the Eoyal forces, and returned to the Isles 
in triumph with a great quantity of spoil. James again came north in 
person as far as Dunstaffnage ; Donald Balloch fled to Ireland ; and after 
several encounters with the Highlanders, the King received the submis- 
sion of most of the chiefs who were engaged in the rebellion ; others were 
apprehended and executed, to the number of about three hundred, after 
which he released the Earl from Tantallon Castle, and granted him a free 
pardon for all his rebellious acts, confirmed him in all his titles and pos- 
sessions, and conferred upon him the Lordship of Lochaber, which had 
previously, on its forfeiture, been granted to the Earl of Mar."* 

Skene has been led into the error of saying that Donald Balloch was 
the son of Eeginald, and the Chief of Clanranald ; whereas he was the 
son of John Mor Tannister, elder brother of Donald of Harlaw, and 
ancestor of the Macdonnells and Earls of Antrim. He also fell into the 
mistake of believing in the ruse played upon the King, when a head, said 
to be that of Donald Balloch, was sent to him by Conn O'Neil, an Irish 
chief; for he informs us that King James, seeing that the absence of 
their chief, so far from rendering the Clan more disposed to become 
amenable to his will, rather roused them to acts of rebellion and revenge, 
and that it was better to have at their head a chief who had become bound 
to him from acts of clemency, than to expose them to the influences of 
the other branches of the family, who were now irritated by the indignity 
offered to their legitimate chief ; he therefore proceeded in person to the 
north, for the purpose of quelling the remains of the rebellion, His ex- 
pedition was attended with his usual success by the submission of all the 
chiefs who had been engaged in it. " Donald Balloch was soon after this 
betrayed, and his head sent to the King, upon which he at once restored 
the Lord of the Isles to liberty, granted him a free pardon for all the 
various acts of rebellion he had been guilty of, and also confirmed him 
not only all his titles and possessions, but even granted him the Lordship 

* Historj and Genealogies of tb Clan Mackenzie, by the same author, 1879, pp. 49-50. 



214 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of Lochaber, which had been forfeited from his cousin Alexander, and 
given to the Earl of Mar."* The prudence of this policy on the part of 
the King was soon apparent, for although the Island Chief was naturally 
more disposed to take up an antagonistic position to the Crown, and 
went the length of even entering into a treasonable league with the Earls 
of Crawford and Douglas, who at the time led the opposition to the King, 
he did not again disturb the peace of the nation as long as he lived, 
Donald Balloch inherited through his mother, Margery Bisset, the dis- 
trict of the Glens in Ireland, whither he had betaken himself after the 
dispersion of his army, and after he had ravaged and spoiled the territories 
of the Clan Chattan and the Camerons, who had left him and gone over 
to the King. Most of the subordinate insurgent leaders submitted to the 
dreaded James, and tried to avoid punishment by throwing the whole 
blame of the insurrection on Donald Balloch, whose power, they 
declared, they dared not resist. Kegarding Donald and his reputed deca- 
pitation, Gregory says that " on the return of James to Edinburgh, a 
head, said to be that of Donald Balloch, was sent to him by Hugh Buy 
O'Neill, an Irish chief of Ulster ; and it was generally believed at the Scot- 
tish Court that the ringleader of the late insurrection was now no more. 
But as Donald Balloch certainly survived King James many years, it is 
obvious that the sending of the head to Edinburgh was a stratagem 
devised by the crafty Islander in order to check further pursuit, "t 

The date of this battle, according to Hill Burton and Gregory, was 
1431. The former tells that an extraordinary tax was granted on the 
occasion of it " for the resistance of the King's rebellers of the north," 
which was to be such that " in all in lands of the realm where the yield 
of twa pennies was raiset, there be now ten pennies raiset." [VoL iL, p. 
403]. After describing the battle of Inverlochy, the author of " The 
Macdonnells of Antrim " informs' us that the Lowland knights, who were 
very numerous in the Eoyal army, plumed themselves on the superior 
armour and discipline of their men, but soon found that even this was of 
no avail against the furious onset of their Highland foes, who wielded 
their broadswords and Lochaber-axes with all the ferocity of Northern 
warfare. According to him, at least one thousand of the King's army 
were slain, among whom were the Earl of Caithness, and sixteen of his 
personal retinue, together with several knights and barons from the 
southern counties of Scotland, after which the Highland host dispersed 
itself into marauding parties, spoiled the county, and then returned to 
their native fastnesses, having only lost some fifty of their comrades in 
arms on the battlefield, " Donald Balloch, and several other leaders, 
having had their revenge, steered their galleys across the channel, and 
sought rest and security, which they very much needed, in the woody 
glens of Antrim. They were soon followed by a despatch from the Scot- 
tish King to O'Neill, requesting the latter to seize and send back Donald 
Balloch alive or dead. O'Neill, who had previously entered into a treaty 
with James I. of mutual assistance against England, sent the latter a 
human head, which was joyously accepted as that of Donald Balloch 
by the Scottish Court then at Perth. But Donald Balloch retained pos- 
session of his own head, and at the time of this other head's transmission, 

* Th Highland* of Scotland, pp. 78-79. 
f Highlands and Isles, pp. 38-89. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS, 215 

to Scotland he was actually paying his addresses to O'Neill's daughter, 
whom he soon afterwards married, and through whose powerful connec- 
tions he was restored without much delay to his estates in Isla and Can- 
tire." This lady was the daughter of Conn O'Neill (son of Hugh Buy 
O'Neill), who resided at a place called Edendutfcarrick, and now known 
as Shane's Castle, in Ireland, where he died in the year 1482. 

Following up his account of the execution of James Campbell at 
Inverness in 1427 for the murder of John Mor Tannister, father of 
Donald Balloch, Hugh Macdonnld proceeds to describe the incidents 
which led up to the battle of Inverlochy, the battle itself, and the events 
which followed upon it, in a manner so detailed and interesting that, even 
at the risk of some little repetition, we shall place it before the reader, 
slightly modernising the phraseology. He says : All those about the King 
wished to impair Macdonald's estate and diminish his grandeur, to which 
the King himself was not very averse. They now thought it a convenient 
time for their purpose, the Lord of the Isles being in prison (in Tantallon 
Castle) and his uncle, John Mor, dead, to seize on the lands of Lochaber, 
whereupon, Alexander, Earl of Mar, who had received a grant of these 
lands from the King, levied a great army by his Majesty's directions, 
namely, the followers of Huntly ; Allan, Lord of Caithness ; Fraser of 
Lovat; Mackintosh, Mackay of Strathnaver, Grant, and the Chief of the 
Camerons, who enticed some of Macdonald's vassals, by making them 
great promises, to join with them, and that the rights they formerly held 
of Macdonald would be confirmed to them by the King. The vassals 
and the freeholders, considering that Macdonald's power was entirely 
gone and ruined, and believing they would never again see him installed 
in his possessions, through greed and covetousness they joined the King's 
party. So, coming to Lochaber, they pitched their tents near the Castle 
of Inverlochy. Fraser of Lovat * was sent to harass Sunart and Ardua- 
murchan with 3000 men, to secure provisions for the army and the camp. 
Macdonald obtaining information of these proceedings, and finding an 
opportunity, sent a message from his prison of Tantallon to the Highlands 
desiring those whom he trusted most to face the enemy, though they 
might never again get a sight of him. So Donald Balloch, his cousin- 
german (John Mor's son, at the time only 18 years of age, and who was 
fostered by Maclean), gathered all those who faithfully adhered to Mac- 
donald's interest, and came to Carna, an island in Loch Sunart, where, 
meeting with the Laird of Ardnamurchan ; Allan, son of Allan of Moy- 
dart ; and his brother, Ranald Ban (for these were the principal men of 
the name who were with him). He picked out the best of their men to 
the number of 600, most of whom were gentlemen and freeholders, and 
all of whom came in their galleys to Inverskippinish, two miles south of 
Inverlochy. Now Alastair Carrach, Macdonald's younger uncle, who 
held the lands of Lochaber east of Lochy, and whose posterity are yet 
there, took possession of the hill above the enemy with 220 archers, being 
unable by the smallness of their number to face the enemy, and expecting 
that some of his friends would at last come to his relief. Upon seeing 
his nephew, Donald Balloch, lie was, however, much animated. As 
Donald Balloch drew near the Royal forces, Huntly stepped into the Earl 

* This was Hugh Frnger, created Lord Lovat by James I. ip th same year, 1431. 
His second sun, Hugh, succeeded to the title. 



216 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of Mar's tent, where he and Mackintosh, were playing at cards. Huntly 
suggested to them to give up their play as the enemy were close at hand. 
They (the card-players) asked if the enemy were in great force, when 
Huntly replied that they were not very numerous, but he could see that 
they were determined to fight. " Well," said Mackintosh, " we'll play 
this game, and dispute with these fellows afterwards." Huntly again 
looked out, when he saw the enemy driving on furiously towards them ; 
he goes a second time to the tent, saying, " Gentlemen, fight stoutly, or 
render yourselves to your enemies." Mackintosh replied that they 
" would play that game, and would do with the enemy what they pleased 
afterwards, and that he knew very well the doings of the "big-bellied 
carles of the Isles." " Whatever they be," replied Huntly, " they will 
fight like men this day," when Mackintosh retorted that "though he him- 
self (Huntly) should assist them, their (Mackintosh's) party would defeat 
them both." Whereupon Huntly went out of the tent in a rage, saying 
that he would fight none against the Highlanders that day. He then 
drew his men aside, and- " was more of a spectator than of either party." 
" Then joining battle, Donald Balloch made a main battle, and a front of 
his men." The front was commanded by Maclan of Ardnamurchan, and 
John Maclean of Coll ; the main battle by Ranald Ban, son of John.Mor, 
murdered by James Campbell (and a natural brother of Donald Balloch, 
who became progenitor of the family of Lairgy), and Allan, son of Allan, 
Laird of Moidart (of whom descended the family of Knoydart), and Mac- 
Duffie of Colonsay, MacQuarrie of Ulva, and MacGee of the Einds of 
Isla. As the combatants faced one another, Alastair Carrach and his 220 
archers poured down the brae of the hill on which they had planted them- 
selves, and shot their arrows so thick, on the flank of the Eoyal army, as 
to compel them to give way. Allan, Lord of Caithness ; a son of Lovat ; 
and 990 were killed. Hugh Mackay of Strathnaver was taken prisoner, 
and he married a daughter of Alexander Macdonald of Keppoch, " of 
whom descended the race of Mackays called Slice Ean Abrich." Donald 
Balloch lost only 27 men. The Earl of Mar was wounded in the thigh 
by an arrow, and was in the hills for two nights accompanied only by his 
servant, in a starving condition, for they had no provisions. At last he 
fell in with some women tending their cattle, who happened to have a 
little barley meal for their own use, and with which they relieved the 
Earl and his servant, mixing it with a little water in the heel of the Earl's 
own shoe. The Earl, after he and his servant had satisfied their hunger, 
composed the following lines in Gaelic : 

'S math an cocaire an t acras, . 
'S mairg 'ni tailleas air biadh, 
Fuarag eorn' a sail mo bhroige 
Biadh is fbearr a fhuair mi riamh. 

The Earl left his clothes with the woman that he might disguise himself, 
and he travelled all night until he came to a small house, on a spot of 
land called Beggich, belonging to an Irishman named O'Birrin. He told 
this man that he was one of the Earl of Mar's followers, and that necessity 
obliged him to disguise himself for fear of being discovered. The man 
was going to slaughter a cow as the Earl came to his place, and he 
desired the stranger to hold her. " The Earl was more willing to obey 
his landlord's orders than skillful to act as butcher." The Irishman, dis- 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 217 

satisfied "with the awkward manner in which he was assisted by the Earl, 
" cursed those who took such a blockhead abroad to be a soldier. At 
last he cuts some collops which he gave to the Earl to dress for himself, 
which he could not very well do, until his landlord did it for him, by 
roasting them upon the coals. At going to bed he washed the Earl's feet 
in warm water, cleaned and washed his wound. "When the Earl laid 
himself down, he could not sleep with cold, being very scarce of bed- 
clothes. O'Birrin got up, took the cow's hide, and warming it to the 
fire, wrapped it about the Earl, which warmed him so much that he per- 
spired during the whole night. In the morning, after such refreshments 
as they had, the Earl said he would go to Badenoch." He informed his 
host that he did not know the way thither, but would do his best to find 
it, whereupon the Irishman made him fill his pockets with the flesh of 
the cow, and then convoyed him three or four miles on his way. When 
they parted company the stranger told him if he should ever find himself 
in tightened circumstances, to go to Kildrummie, the seat of the Earl of 
Mar, and ask there for Alexander Stewart, who would cause the Earl to 
reward him for his present kindness to himself. Some time after the 
Irishman did as he was told, and arriving at Kildrummie, asked for Alex- 
ander Stewart, when the porter told him that " he was a fool, for there 
was no such man there," but the Irishman continued to knock until the 
Earl himself at last heard him, and, calling for the porter, he asked him 
who was knocking at the gate. The latter replied that " he was some 
fool enquiring for Alexander Stewart." The Earl soon recognised the 
" fool " as his old friend the Irishman, ordered the gate be opened to him, 
and kindly embraced him. The Earl then addressed him in the following 
lines : 

Oidhche dhomh a bhi ann an tigh air moran bidh ' air bheag aodaicb, 
Fbuaras agh' mor do dh' fheoil air dhroch bbruich bho O'Birrin 'a a Bbaggaoh. 

His Lordship sent for a tailor, and ordered him at once to make a suit of 
clothes for O'Birrin, whom he requested to bring his wife and son to Kil- 
drummie, but this the Irishman declined, saying that his wife was old, 
and would not leave her native country. After entertaining him for some 
time, the Earl sent O'Birrin home with sixty milch cows, enjoining him 
to send his son to Kildrummie. The son came " some time thereafter, 
and was made a laird of a small estate, which has since fallen to a gentle- 
man of the name of Forbes, whereby it may be seen, that a good turn to 
a generous or noble person is not always lost. "* 

In the minority of James II. the Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles 
held the important office of " Justiciar of Scotland north of the Forth," a 
position which Gregory thinks he probably obtained from Archibald, Earl 
of Douglas and Duke of Touraine, then Lieutenant-General of Scotland. 
There is no account extant from which it can be ascertained in what 
manner the Earl exercised the duties of his high office ; but it is supposed 
that it was under colour of it that he inflicted his vengeance on the Chief 
of the Camerons about this time for deserting him and going over to the 
Royal standard, in Lochaber, and in consequence of which Lochiel 
was forced to fly to Ireland, where he remained for several years; 

* Transactions of the lona Club, pp, 308-312. 



218 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

and in his absence his lands were bestowed by the Earl of Ross upon 
Johne Garve Maclean, ancestor and founder of the family of Coll. 

He married Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Seton, Lord of Gordon 
and Huntly, and by her had issue 

1. John, his successor. 

2. Celestine, variously styled Archibald, and its Gaelic equivalent, 
Gillespic, Lord of Lochalsh and Lochcarron. He married Finvola, 
daughter of Lachlan Maclean of Duart, with issue Sir Alexander Mac- 
donald of Lochalsh (Alastair MacGillespic) who afterwards, in 1488 
fought the famous battle of Park with the Mackenzies, and of whom 
hereafter. 

3. Hugh, often called " Austin " and " Augustine," being a corruption 
of the Gaelic equivalent of Hugh, i.e., Huistean or Uistean. He was 
styled Lord of Sleat, and married, first, Finvola, daughter of Maclan of 
Ardnamurchan, by whom he had John, his heir, who died without issue. 
He married, secondly, a lady of the Clan Gunn in Caithness, by -whom 
he had issue, who carried on the succession, and whose descendants are 
now held, by general concurrence, to represent, as heirs male, John, last Earl 
of Ross and Lord of the Isles, forfeited in these honours, respectively, in 1475 
and 1494. A question has been raised about the legitimacy of Celestine 
and Hugh, as well as of Hugh's descendants, especially Donald Gallach, 
from whom is descended the present Lord Macdonald of the Isles. Re- 
specting Hugh, after describing the results of a successful raid under 
him to Orkney, Hugh Macdonald says, that " Having routed the 
enemy, Austin (Hugh) and his party began to ravage the country, that 
being the only reward they had for their pains and fatigue, with 
which, having loaded their galleys, they returned home. Austine 
having halted at Caithness, he got a son by the Crowner of Caithness's 
daughter, of the name of Gun, which at that time was a very flourishing 
name there, descended of the Danes. This son was called Donald Gal- 
lich, being brought up in that county in his younger years ; for the 
ancient Scots, until this day, call the county of Caithness Gallibh," Re- 
ferring to the two families of John, first Lord of the Isles, Skene says 
[voL ii., p. 95] that the representation of his children by his second 
marriage, with the daughter of Robert II. " clearly devolved upon the 
Macdonalds of Sleat, who were descended of Hugh, brother of John, the 
last Lord of the Isles," and at page 96 he says that " it is fully admitted 
that the family of Sleat are the undoubted representatives of the last Lord 
of the Isles." Smibert calls Hugh of Sleat a " full brother " of John, 
Lord of the Isles, and says that " he left a line which indubitably had the 
clearest direct claims, as legitimate descendants, to the family honours 
and inheritance." Gregory, who says that it is uncertain whether they 
are by the same mother as John or not, is more learned, and in a foot- 
note, p. 41, writes : " I call these sons legitimate notwithstanding that 
Celestine is called ' filius naturalis' by Earl Alexander (charter in charter 
chest of Mackintosh 1447), and 'frater carnalis J by Earl John (Reg. of 
Great Seal, vi., 116, 1463), and that Hugh is likewise called ' frater 
carnalis ' by Earl John (charter in Westfield Writs, in the possession of 
Alex. Dunbar, Esq. of Scrabster, 1470). They are, however, both called 
' frater,' without any qualification, by Earl John (Reg. of Great Seal, vi., 
116, xiii., 186), The history of Celestine and Hugh and their descend- 






HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 219 

ants, as given in the present work (Highlands and Isles), sufficiently 
shows that they were considered legitimate, and that, consequently, the 
words ' naturalis ' and ' carnalis,' taken by themselves, and without the 
adjunct ' bastardus,' do not necessarily imply bastardy. It is probable 
that they were used to designate the issue of those handfast, or left-handed 
marriages, which appear to have been so common in the Highlands and 
Isles. Both nafuralis and carnalis are occasionally applied to individuals 
known to be legitimate in the strictest sense of the term." This import- 
ant question will be more fully discussed when we come to consider the 
respective claims to the Chiefship of the race of Macdonald, and of its 
various branches. 

Alexander of the Isles had also several daughters, one of whom 

4. Margaret, married the Earl of Sutherland, and another 

5. Florence, who married Duncan Mackintosh, IX. of Mackintosh, 
with issue. 

He died, at his Castle of Dingwall, on the 8th of May 1448, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son. 

(lo be Continued.) 



MAIGHDEAN LOCH-tfAN-EALA. 



'S AN tiom a dh' fhalbh, bha aon do Thigheaman Loch-nan-Eala aig an 
robh nighean mhaiseach, eireachdail, a thug gaol do Thighearn 6g a 
chloinn Dhomhnuill. 'S an am sin bha an da fhine thar a cheile na 
Caimbeulaich 's na Domhnullaich ; is cha leigeadh a h'athair leatha a 
phosadh. Bha e na chleachdadh aice bhi dol gu r6inn na Garbhaird, is a 
bhi cuir litrichean ann an soitheach e'igin a bha an sruth aig am sonraicht 
a giulan a dh' ionnsaidh an taobh eile far an robh esan g 'am faighinn. 
Mu dheireadh, ann an oidhirpeachadh teicheadh, chaidh a bathadh air a 
Chonthuil. 

Tha Loch-nan-Eala br6nach 

Tha 'n Domhnullach fo ghruaim, 

Tha a Chonathuil ri cronan 

'S tha h' eoin ri guileadh thruagh ; 

Tha Maighdean an fhuilt or-bhuidhe 

An se6mar nan tonn uain', 

'S tha 'n f heamuinn ruadh a comhdach 

An oigh is aillidh snuadh. 

Oir thug i gaol a h oige 
Do Dhomhnull og nan Gleann, 
Fleasgach, maiseach, ordhearc, 
A'choimeas cha robh ann ; 



220 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

'S mnr bitheadh a h' athair iargalt, 
A fiarach gradh a cri', 
Cha robh i 'n diugh ra h'ianaidh 
Measg iasg na fairge li'. 

'S ann thug e dhi teann ordugh 

A cul chuir ris gu brath ; 

No fear do f hull chloinn Dhomhnuill 

Nach glacadh i air laimh ; 

Ach la air falbh dba sealgach 

'S a Gharbhaird air son f hiadh, 

Ghreas ise thar na Chonathuil, 

A choinneachadh fear a miann. 

Nuair leum i anns a bhata 
'S a ghlac i 'n ramh na dorn, 
A sealladh bha gun ardan 
A gruaidhean bla' le deoir 
A broilleach geal a' g' eiridh 
Le mheud s a bha do stri 
Sa chridhe bha ga leireadh 
Le eibhle na h-as-sith. 

Bh'on chladach nuair a ghluais i 

'S a theann i suas do'n Phleoid,* 

An sruth le be"uc an uamhais 

Fo bhuaireas air a toir. 

Mo chreach ! mo leir ! mo thruaighe ! 

Tha chuartag ud fo sroin 

S mar chuibhle sneachd sa chuairt-ghaoith 

'S an uair tha i gun treoir. 

Mo neart tha nis ga'm threigsinn 
'S mo leir si nn a fas dall : 
Tha scread a glaodh am e"isdeachd 
'S gun aon thoirt fuasgladh ann ; 
Tha Loch-nan-Eala deurach 
Tha eigheach feadh na'n gleann, 
Ach ! cha till an reult ud 
'S na creagan geur fo ceann. 

Sa nis air roinn na Garbhaird 

'S an anmoch cha bhi i, 

Is litrichean am balgan 

Cha 'n f haicear falbh le sgriob ; 

Is thusa mhac Mhic Dhomhnuill, 

Air muir cha bhi do shuil 

'S i nochd na luidhe iosal 

'S an robh do chri' s do dhuil. 

Lodaig. JOHN CAMPBELL. 

* A small creek at the opening of the falls. 



D E R M N D. 
A TALE OF KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DATS. 

Tennyson. 
BOOK I. "AMONG THE ISLES OF THE WESTERN SEA." 

CHAPTER VII. (Continued.) 

"My noble lords and gallant knights," said Bruce, perceiving the 
critical nature of the situation, "it were vain to charge again. "We 
can only reap destruction from our wasted efforts. Rally round the ladies, 
and let us force a passage through yonder glen. Get ye first and charge 
bravely as ye have already done. Scotland will yet be proud of your 
services, and while ye charge avenge the wounds of Sir James Douglas 
and Sir Guilbert de la Hay. Drive the enemy fearlessly before you. I 
myself will guard the rear, and let no man on pain of death come within 
the reach of my battle-axe." 

The words of the King were received with a general murmur of ap- 
probation, and the remnants of his noble, little army were marshalled in 
proper order for forcing a passage through the glen. A thrilling shout 
rose from the men of Lorn on perceiving that the Bruce intended to for- 
sake the field ; and a strong body of Highlanders, under the banner of 
Sir Guilbert de Valancymer, moved down on the advancing column. 
Macnab, supported by a number of the more subordinate chieftains, was 
prepared to follow up the attack of the English Envoy by an assault on 
rear and flank. Dermond, whose gallantry during the progress of the 
battle had evoked the admiration of his liege lord and the envy of many 
a youth and veteran, was detailed off to defend the pass at all hazards. 
The shouting on both sides died away before the commencement of the 
deadly struggle, and the portentous clink of glittering steel, the rattle of 
bridles, and the thud of the horses hoofs, mingling with the tramp of 
armed men, echoed among the mountains. Squadron after squadron 
assailed the retreating column, but in vain. It broke right through the 
mass of Islesmen, and carried the mouth of the glen where Dermond was 
beaten back from his post, to the chagrin of the Lord of Lorn, who swore 
that the crest of Macneill, who led the van of the enemy, had softened 
the heart of the young chieftain. Bruce kept fighting in the rear, and as 
man after man fell before the sweep of his powerful arm and deadly wea- 
pon, Lorn grew more enraged, and cursed his followers as weaklings and 
cowards. Dermond, eager to free the house of Dunkerlyne from the imputa- 
tion of cowardice, resolved upon engaging the King in single combat, but 
Olave and several of his most devoted followers held him back, while the 
two sons of Gylen Durwarth, who were reckoned among the strongest and 
bravest men of the Isles, sprung from the ranks determined on bringing 
down the Bruce. The road was very narrow and difficult to traverse, 
being blocked up with stones, and bushes, and fallen trees, and the King 
was managing his horse at considerable disadvantage. The first Dur- 
warth, leaping forward, caught the reins before the King could use his 



222 THE CELTIC 

sword. The second Durwarth caught hold of Bruce's leg, and attempted 
to pull him from his horse. Bruce struck the arm from the body of the 
Durwarth who held the reins, and spurring his horse forward at the same 
time, the hand of the other Durwarth slid down between the foot and 
the stirrip, and he was dragged along the ground. Gylen perceiving the 
position of his sons, uttered a cry, rushed from the lines and gained the 
hillside, from which he made a spring on to the King's horse, and seized 
the royal mantle. Bruce loosend his silver broach, letting the mantle go ; 
and as Gylen rolled from the horse his head was cloven in two by a blow 
which broke the King's sword. The Durwarth who held on by the 
stirrup rose as the horse stopped, and Bruce, having thrown away his 
shattered weapon, seized the axe which hung at his saddle bow, and 
struck the rising Durwarth to the earth, After performing this extraor- 
dinary feat, the King rode on flourishing his battle-axe in triumph. The 
death of the three Durwarths smote the Islesmen with terror, and Der- 
mond, who stood an anxious spectator of the fight, held back from joining 
in the encounter by several of his most attached followers, could not help 
giving expression to his admiration for the prowess of the Bruce. 

" By my faith," he exclaimed, " but yonder is the strongest wight I've 
ever seen or heard of. Neither saga nor romance can tell us of deeds so 
wonderful. Within the space of a few moments he has stricken down 
three men of muckle strength and pride, and in the face of a conquering 
army he manages his noble horse with the most singular grace and cool- 
ness ; yet no man dare assault him." 

" It seems to give thee pleasure, fair sir," said Lorn, glaring angrily 
at the youth, " that yonder he slays our men." 

" With due delerence, my lord," retorted Dermond, " I know and 
regret that he is our enemy, but, whether he be friend or foe who bears 
himself with strength and grace in battle or tournay, it becometh us to 
speak thereof with truth and gentleness ; and, of a certy, I've never heard 
of man in song or story show such doughty deeds of chivalry." 

" A murrain on such babbling foolishness," shouted the enraged Mac- 
dougall. "Canst thou perceive, shuffling coward? Yonder is the rebel 
and heretic. Lead oif, false chief, or your head shall answer for your per- 
fidy. To the onslaught, and down with the regicide and usurper !" 

At these words several of the chieftains, after collecting their forces, 
dashed down the pass in pursuit of the disappearing enemy. 

" Farewell, my liege," said Dermond, " you have called me coward. 
I have been bold enough to provoke you so far. You shall never, I hope, 
be justified in repeating the imputation, Come, my gallants of Dunker- 
lyne, follow me 1" 

Dermond and his followers left the ranks and ardently joined in the 
chase, but Bruce, favoured by the gathering darkness of the night, was 
soon beyond the reach or ken of his pursuers. After beating the brush- 
wood and exploring every glen and crevice, most of the Highlanders 
abandoned the search as hopeless ; but Dermond pushed on with all his 
youthful ardour. His commission from the fair Bertha to deliver the 
packet to her father, Sir David, had not escaped his memory, and he had 
secretly resolved to make an effort to convey the message to its destina- 
tion, even at the risk of provoking the dreaded enmity of John of Lorn. 
All day long in the midst of the battle he had brooded over the import- 



DERMOND. 223 

ance of Bertha's behest and the obstacles which lay in the way of accom- 
plishing it. He had almost resolved upon forsaking the standard of his 
liege lord and joining the Bruce ; indeed his vow in the dungeon had 
bound him to such a course. Reconsideration, however, prevailed against 
the audacity of such a move ; there was first of all the dangers to which 
he would expose Brian, his father, as the sworn vassal of a cruel and un- 
scrupulous tyrant, there was his oath of allegiance, and above all what 
good could arise to a faithful son of the Church in uniting his fortunes 
with the excommunicated Bruce, who was both accursed by God and 
man, and a fugitive among the mountains. He had flourished his im- 
pious battle-axe in the face of true soldiers and Christians after laying 
low three of the most powerful men in the Highlands. What would 
Brian, the bold viking, say to the son who failed to revenge the death of 
the three Durwarths 1 Harrassed with these reflections Dermond dashed 
on determined at least on finding where the Bruce had fixed on spending 
the night. He thrust his hand into his bosom and found the packet 
safely nestling near his heart. Some ten of his men-at-arms kept up the 
chase with much difficulty, Olave following close at the heels of the 
young chieftain, and attempting to persuade him against going any 
further. All the others had returned to represent to John of Lorn the 
hopeless nature of the pursuit, and that irritable chieftain grew rnoie en- 
raged than ever, and denounced his vassals with great vehemence. 

" What of that young varlet, Dermond," he inquired. " Has he not 
come back with the same tale V 

11 1 fear me," said Macnab, " that Dermond of Dunkerlyne will not 
come back to tell any tale." 

" D d be your cowardly fears," exclaimed the infuriated Lorn. 

" Dermond of Dunkerlyne is braver than all of you." 

" Ha ! ha ! my lord," laughed Macnab. " What ! have'you forgotten 
that he was your prisoner and hostage retained until the capture of Cyril 
of Rathland ? He is free now, and will of a certainty continue to be so." 

" Villain and coward, is it now you tell me this ? If you suspected he 
would fail to return, why did you not secure him ?" 

" Secure him ! What ! When you commanded him to lead off or 
forfeit his head ? Nay : but since you know not whom to trust, this is 
the last time a Macnab shall bow at the beck of a Macdougall. Good 
e'en, my lord ; we shall meet again." 

Calling his followers together, Macnab gave orders to abandon the 
standard of John of Lorn. 

"What mean you?" exclaimed Lorn. "Is it traitor you have be- 
come?" 

" Thou shalt soon enough learn," retorted Macnab, shaking his wea- 
pon defiantly. 

" Bind me the treacherous scullion ! Seize him, ye cowards ! Charge 
me the traitors !" 

He looked around, but none moved at his command. 



Meanwhile Dermond kept on the track of the retreating Bruce, who 
was descried disappearing down the glen of Balquhidder, accompanied by 
a number of jackmen. 



224 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

"Follow me, my gallants," exclaimed the youth, "and you shall 
share the glory and the guerdon," 

As he uttered these words a hand of ahout sixty men sprung from the 
copse. 

" Yield rehels, or die," shouted the leader. 

" Not to the followers of a heretic," said Dermond. " So Heaven and 
the right." 

The resistance offered, however, was useless, as in the space of a few 
moments the followers of the young chieftain were either slain or com- 
pelled to surrender. Dermond, who placed his hack against a rock, re- 
mained on his defence, and kept the whole party at bay until he was 
stricken down by a blow from a jackman's axe, which severed his helmet 
and rendered him insensible. When he recovered consciousness he 
found himself suffering severely from the loss of blood, and shackled to 
the faithful Olave. Both were mounted on horseback with their feet 
secured under the animal's belly, and were following in the rear of 
Bruce's little army under a strong guard. 



CHAPTER YIIL 

I've liv'd a lifa of start and strife ; 
I die by traaeherie. 

Macpkersoii's Farewell Burns. 

ON the day after the battle of Dairy Lorn had not recovered from 
his irritable humour. He kept his chamber and meditated on the dis- 
asters that had overtaken him. Bruce had been driven from the battle- 
field, but the victory was equivalent to, if not worse than defeat. More- 
over, the men of the Isles had returned discontented ; and Macnab, in 
concord with several of the inland chieftains, had broken his oath of 
allegiance, and was no longer an obedient vassal to the House of Mac- 
dougall. 

The morning had dawned fair and pleasant, with the rays of the rising 
sun dancing brilliantly over the broad expanse of blue waters, and light- 
ing up the dark recesses of the mountains. All, however, was dull and 
disagreeable to the baffled chieftain. Even the splendours of the advanc- 
ing day had no visible effect upon his spirits. He sat blankly staring 
out of the window, with his arm resting on the rudely carved oaken table, 
which formed one of the principal parts of ornamental furniture in his 
sulking room. His big hand crossed his brow, or .played at intervals 
with his curling front locks. His features were naturally dark and 
gloomy, but now they seemed more sombre and oppressed with disappoint- 
ment and melancholy. 

Strict orders had been issued against the admittance of visitors, and 
he had resolved to see no one for that day, but the arrival of a mysterious 
messenger in a strange disguise, imperiously demanding an interview, had 
awakened Macdougall's curiosity, and the request for a private audience 
was granted. 

" Who can this be, or what, in Heaven's name, can he want 1" was 
the internal exclamation of his Lordship, as a singular-looking individual, 
enveloped in a Spanish cloak, was ushered into his presence. The keen 



DERMOND. 225 

eye of Lorn, however, quickly discerned the crest of Dunkerlyne on his 
Norwegian cap. 

" By your crest you come from Dunkerlyne," said Lorn. 

" As you say," returned the stranger. 

" And in name of Brian the Viking." 

" Nay, my lord, I come not in the name of a traitor." 

" By the soul of Comyn, I could have sworn't," exclaimed the chief- 
tain as the full force of the answer flashed across his mind. " 'Tis well 
you have freed yourself from a nest of rebels, for, look you, he and his 
hirelings shall taste of my authority. What may be your name, fair 
sir?" 

" Cormac Doil." 

" Ha, then I have heard of you." 

" Methinks you should remember me." ' 

" I do now, when I think. You told me of Cyril of Rathland having 
found shelter in the castle of his nephew." 

'' Of a certy, and you would not believe my words. Clement, his son, 
was washed ashore from the wreck, and is now well and safely lodged 
with his father under the roof of the Viking." 

" Two of the varlets ! Now, may the foul fiend devour the knave, 
I'll make a dunghill of his castle for his bones to bleach on. "What, ho ! 
without there ! Equip my two galleys, and send up my armourer." 

" Patience, my lord," said Cormac Doil, " I have something more to 
tell" 

" Out with it, knave." 

" He has already determined to resist." 

" A murrain on his resistance." 

" He even garrisons with his galley slaves," continued the informer, 
" and is busy strengthening the defences. I'll be on the watch to night, 
as it darkens, at the outer porch, just before the keys are carried up. 
I've the confidence of the galley-slaves, who will rebel and aid you in 
gaining possession of the narrow passage. After that there is no fear ; 
the gate and tower can easily be stormed. I shall further the design be- 
fore night, and Dunkerlyne will be captured and subdued with little 
difficulty." 

" As you say then. 'Tis well. See that you be true to your promise. 
If this be a scheme to betray me, I'll hang you by the heels from the 
highest battlement after roasting you on a gridiron," returned the chief- 
tain with a scowl that made Cormac Doil shake in his boots. " Get you 
to your duty, and remember my words." 

Let us now return to Dunkerlyne. The noise of Brian's fall attracted 
several attendants to the place, who carried the chieftain to his bedcham- 
ber, where he lay in trance-like silence till next day. Everyone was 
anxious to know what had happened, but Brian refused to say. In the 
morning he manned his galley as usual, and set out to scour the seas. In 
the evening he returned, after a very successful expedition, in a fit of 
boisterous merriment, and held a great feast at Dunkerlyne. The ale 
was sent round the board again and again ; the hall fire blazed cheerily ; 
the song rose mirthfully; and laughter resounded against the oaken 
rafters. 

8 



226 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

In the midst of the revelry, however, a somewhat different tone was 
given to the proceedings by the arrival from Dairy of one of Dermond's 
followers who related the incidents of the fight the defeat and escape of 
Bruce, the wrath of Lorn, the disaffection of Macnab and the other chief- 
tains, the death of the three Durwarths, and the conduct of the young 
chief, who had gone in pursuit of the King's army and never returned. 

"He must undoubtedly have fallen into the hands of Bruce," sug- 
gested Cyril. 

" He has at least escaped from the hands of Lorn," said Brian, " and 
will, of a certy, continue at liberty." 

" What if he has been slain in the battle ?" enquired young Clement. 

" Ay, but that's what troubles me," said Brian. " I fear he may have 
fallen by the hand of the great Bruce." 

" If he has," said Jarloff, " he has fallen by the hand of a worthy 
knight. 'Tis no craven feat to venture within the reach of Brace's sword 
or battle-axe. But, have no fear ; my son, Olave, was with him, and a 
more faithful and gallant follower he could not have." 

" As you say, good Jarloff," said Brian, evidently somewhat relieved, 
" Olave is valiant and devoted, and Dermond is skilled and daring in the 
use of every weapon. Both may now be with the Bruce as prisoners. 
What think you if we send to ascertain 1 If they should perchance 
escape, let them not walk with open eyes into the dungeons of Dunolly. 
Let's send some one in search bidding them fight for the noble king." 

" What, good nephew, if we leave this accursed place and join the 
Bruce in a body ?" asked Cyril. 

This was received with shouts of assent, in which Clement heartily 
joined. 

" Wait yet a little, my noble kinsman," said Brian, " till the good 
father Donn'nick comes. He'll be here to-night, and his advice is worth 
the waiting for. Besides he m*y have news of Dermond." 

" A health to the merry friar," rose from almost every lip at the men- 
tion of his name. 

" Come, send the goblet round," said Brian. 

This was answered with acclamation, the health of Dominick being 
pledged with round after round. 

" Confound the Lord of Lorn and all his tyrannies," said Brian when 
the ale began to take effect. " He is a coward a miserable, prating, skulk- 
ing coward. Let him come to Dunkerlyne, and woe betide his haughty 
head." 

" He come to Dunkerlyne !" said Donald. " He dare not." 

' 'Tis as well," chuckled the treacherous Cormac Doil, half-audibly 
as he shouldered his pick, and hastened from the hall to the outer portal, 
his appointed place of watch. 

" A murrain on the knave, but I like not his chuckling," exclaimed 
the Viking: " CaU him back." 

As Jarloff and several others made to hail him, Brian, on second 
thoughts, said " Nay ; let him go. 'Tis his way." 

" A singular way, indeed," said one. 

" Shame on you for a slanderous knave. He is most excellent, cun- 
ning, wise, and worthy of all honour," said another. 



DEKMOND. 227 

" Indeed, good friend," was the answer. " Then evil must, of a surety, 
be in the clouds Avhen such as you take to prating of honour." 

" Silence, brawling knaves !" shouted the chieftain. " No bandying 
of quarrelsome words in my presence. Let your companion pass until 
some base deed attests his villany. Hitherto he has been faithful. Me- 
thinks that should satisfy you. Come, let's be merry. What, ho ! Jar- 
loff ! get your harp in tune ; and sing us a saga of the days of old. Drink 
to the death of Lorn. Eound with the goblet. Let each son of Dun- 
kerlyne drink down to his peg." 

The ale circulated, and Jarloff had just attuned his harp to a thrilling 
fragment of Norwegian minstrelsy, when friar Dominick was ushered in. 

" Jesu Maria /" was his first exclamation as he piously crossed him- 
self " Save us from the lures of Satan. By the soul of St Francis the 
arm of the Church must bear on the receivers of heretics. Hear me, sir 
Chief ; silence this singing Pagan or tremble at my words." 

" Be patient, good father," said Brian. " Something must ail you to- 
night. Are your revenues unprosperous ? If so I'll supply the deficiency. 
If it be merely melancholy that oppresses you, I have ale enow to ex- 
orcise a hundred sable devils. Come, sit you down and be merry, The 
saga is interesting, and Jarloff is well skilled in the gentle art of the 
minstrel." 

The harper, who had stopped the tale at the first interruption, re- 
sumed the song, when the friar indignantly exclaimed, " Silence, paynini 
wretch, or hell shall yawn for you. Put up your instrument of Lucifer, 
or beshrew me but I'll break every string it possesses." 

" Peace with you, canting monk, or by the soul of Odin I'll warm 
your hide with a cudgelling," shouted the old man in a fit of rage, as he 
approached the friar in a threatening attitude. 

Clement, overcome with pious horror, started from his seat, and held 
back the Norseman. The friar, with uplifted hands, stood aghast in as- 
tonishment. Some of the men were shocked, but the most of them, ex- 
hilarated with repeated draughts of ale, looked on and laughed. 

" Nest of unholy heretics " began Dominick, but Brian interposed, 

" Peace with you, good father ! You are in a most execrable humour. 
Take your seat and be merry." 

" Farewell, ye renegades. I would not " continued Dominick. 

Here Brian sprung from his seat and thrust himself betwixt the friar 
and the door. " Hold, good father Dominick," be said, " you shall not 
budge until you have shriven and absolved each one of us." 

Dominick halted, switheriug whether he should submit or enforce his 
exit with the terror of the Church. He knew too well, however, how 
thoughtless and violent the pirate might become, half intoxicated as he 
was. 

" I have much reason," said Dominick, " to bring down the curse of 
Rome upon you, but I forbear. Send this paynim dog away and all will 
yet be well ; otherwise, I must depart and leave you to reap the whirl- 
wind which ye have sown." 

Brian signed to Jarloff, who retired with a look of rage and disap- 
pointment stamped on his aged features. The friar, somewhat despoiled 
of the ease and dignity which characterised his first entry, and conscious 
that he had been vilely insulted, took his seat among the desperate crew. 



228 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

After a while, however, hia embarrassment forsook him, and he joined 
most heartily in the revel. The alo continued to circulate, and all grew 
louder and merrier. 

" To-night let us forget," said Brian ; " to-morrow rise to action and 
repentance. Father Dominick will remain until the morning for the exe- 
cution of his holy office. Kound with the goblet. What say you if we 
join the Bruce to-morrow V 

The last sentence was addressed to the friar, who said, " Nothing 
could be better; for though the curse of Eome has been pronounced 
against the noble knight of Carrick, he is brave in conduct, and of goodly 
presence, and inany in the Church pray fervently for the success of his 
enterprise against the tyranny of Edward. L>ermond has not returned 
from the pursuit, and I could almost venture to predict that he will be 
found following the King's standard." 

" 'Tis well," said Cyril. " To-morrow we shall leave this place. 
Alas, what noise is that ? 'Tis most unseemly." 

The alarm of Cyril was well founded, for a dreadful scream rose from 
without, and there was a strange rumbling as of distant muttering 
thunder. 

" A goblet for Eobert the Bruce," said Brian. " Death to King 
Edward and all his adherents." 

Another ominous sound almost silenced the shouting of the revellers. 

" What means that noise ?" enquired Dominick. 

" Some of these quarrelsome knaves ah'ghting," said Brian. " Let 
them brawl. We'll see them to-morrow. Eound with the goblet. Death 
to Edward the usurper." 

The tumult increased without, and a startled expression overspread 
the faces of all present. The bell was violently tolled, and Jarloff rushed 
in exclaiming, " Treachery ! treachery ! you are all undone !" 

Donald rushed in afterwards, excitedly shouting, " Two galleys be- 
longing to John of Lorn have entered the creek unchallenged. No alarm 
has been given. A landing has been obtained, The outer portal has 
been passed, and the narrow passage is being carried by storm." 

The chieftain listened in agony for a moment, as a crowd of incidents 
in connection with the suspected Cormac Doil rushed across his memory. 
But arousing himself, his corrugated features assumed an expression of 
great fierceness, his nostrils became dilated, he gnawed his lip, and his 
eyes flashed fire. He burst into a paroxysm of rage. Seizing his battle- 
axe, he exclaimed, " To arms ! to arms ! my gallant men ! Quick, to the 
battlements. Make good the gates with bolts and barricades. Defend 
Dunkerlyne for your lives. Heat hot the lead ; scald the pate of haughty 
Lorn. Spare the traitor, Cormac Doil ; his fate shall be reserved. Ven- 
geance, ye sons of the Viking ! Rouse the whole garrison ! Fight like 
demons ! Hurl the stones from the battlements 1" 

" Hold, my good son," said Dominick entreatingly. " Beware of 
what ye do." 

" Peace, prattling knave ! 'Tis soldiers and not monks we want in 
the hour of battle. Obey all or perish," shouted the chieftain in his fury. 

The noise of assault and defence now shook the air in reality. Torches 
glared and arms gleamed. The hoarse shouts of the men rose louder and 
more desperate as the assailants forced the narrow passage. Weapons 



DEKMOND. 229 

clashed with shield and corslet. Heavy feet rattled on the pavements. 
Masses of rock were hurled from the heights and -walls. The ruins of the 
castle supplied an abundance of missiles, and stone succeeded stone, and 
rock followed rock down the passage. 

" Forward to the gate ! Down with the rebels !" became louder as 
the storming party neared the front. 

On they came. The defenders retreated, driven back by the stream 
of assailing soldiery. A dreadful encounter took place in front of the 
gate. The platform was crowded with fierce pirates and Islesmen fight- 
ing to desperation. Shouts, shrieks, and curses rent the air as the de- 
fenders on the platform fought on the very edge of the precipice, for the 
parapet had been cleared away when hurling stones down the narrow 
passage. Many oi the defenders were thrown over, and many a groan 
rose from beneath. The axes fell heavily on the gate. Lead, stones, and 
inflammables were poured on the heads of the assailants, but crowds of 
fresh jackmen swarmed to the assault. The blows followed in quick 
succession, and rang throughout the whole castle. 

" Down with Lorn and his hirelings ! " resounded from the battle- 
ments, as shower succeeded shower of missiles and burning lead. 

" Down with the gate !" and "Down with Brian and his plundering 
crew !" rose from the assailants as they continued to thunder on the gate. 
The shouting grew louder as the bolt-studded doorway swung on its 
hinges. A few additional blows and it gave way with a crash. Over it 
rushed the men of Lorn. Met by the small garrison in the courtyard, a 
desperate struggle ensued, but the superior numbers and equipments of 
Loin's soldiery placed the defenders at a disadvantage, and they were 
soon driven to death or submission. 

Brian and his friends took refuge in the tower, which was the only 
strengthened place remaining. The axes soon thundered on the strong 
door, which did not long resist. The soldiers rushed tumultuously over 
it, but the worst part of the storming had still to bo accomplished. Only 
one man could ascend the narrow turret stair at a time, and the followers 
of the Viking had resolved upon an obstinate defence. 

" Fire the tower !" shouted some. " Roast the pirate in his lair. 
Bring forward a flambeau." 

" Silence !" shouted Lorn. " The rebel must be taken alive. "We 
shall roast him at leisure. First let me ses him. Storm the stair ! The 
man who flinches dies." 

The assailants fell one by one before the defenders, till the stair was 
almost choked with dead. The assault continued. Man after man at- 
tempted to force the passage in vain. The defenders held out stoutly, 
but their number gradually decreased, until only one or two remained. 
A few more sacrifices and the tower would be in the hands of Lorn. The 
voice of Brian was heard urging his followers in the defence. In his 
frenzy he shouted down curses on the head of Lorn, and at times he 
wished to descend and annihilate the assailants, but he was borne back 
by Cyril and Clement. 

The stair was at length mounted, and stoving in the hall door, the 
soldiers filled the apartment, where a few hours before the revel was in- 
terrupted at its height. A scene of the direst confusion met their eyes. 
The benches were overturned, and the ale drenched the table and floor. 



230 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

All resistance was soon quelled, and the torches which had been flung 
down by the affrighted attendants, left the hall in almost total darkness. 

" Bring forward a flambeau," shouted Lorn. 

When the glare lighted up the apartment, Brian was seen standing at 
the further end of the hall clutching his battle-axe with both hands, and 
an expression of wild desperation on his features. Cyril and Clement 
were holding him back, and Dominick, clutching his girdle, pleaded that 
resistance was in rain, 

" Yield, rebel, and your charge !" said Lorn. " Surrender Dunkerlyne 
or die." 

" Let Lorn and his slave horde be d d," was the answer of the 

chieftain, as he struggled to be free. " Off with your hands. Approach 
me not, foul tyrant, if you would live to exult o'er your conquest." 

" Clamour no more, drunken fool," said Lorn. " Submit, or die the 
death. Seize upon the villains. Bind me each one of them." 

'* Not so easily done, my lord," exclaimed Brian, breaking away, and 
heaving his axe aloft. " My weapon must first drink blood. Tyrant be 
wary." 

So saying, he delivered a desperate blow, but Lorn parried it swiftly. 
Swinging his axe round again, Lorn struck fearfully at the chieftain. 
Brian was equal in dexterity, however, and putting the return blow aside, 
he whirled his ponderous weapon with fatal desperation to all who came 
within its compass. One or two of the jackmen who had rushed to the 
assistance of Lorn were felled to the floor. 

" Stand back !" shouted Lorn. " Leave the old wolf to me." 

Obeying the command, all stood by watching the fight with the in- 
tensest interest. Fire flashed from the steel, and pieces of armour were 
splintered by the hacking blows. 

The combat was continued with great fierceness. Blinded with the 
blood that ran into his eyes, Brian received a fearful cut. The axe of 
Lorn went crashing through the helmet, Brian swung on his feet and 
staggered back with a vain attempt to throw aside his clotted locks. 
Another blow laid the old man prostrate. As he fell he was heard to mut- 
ter something faintly about Dermond and revenge. The good friar ran 
forward and unhelmed him, He pressed the emblem of salvation to his 
lifeless lips. The features gave some nervous twitches, and the blood 
flowed from a horrid gash ; the eyes became fixed and glazed ; and the 
countenance became calm and composed, as the muscles and wrinkles re- 
laxed, giving an air of peace and innocence in death to a man who in life 
was terrible and violent. 

[END OF BOOK L] 



BOOKS RECEIVED. "OLD CELTIC ROMANCES," translated from the Gaelic by 
P. TV. Joyce, LL.D., T.C.D., M.R.I.A. ; C. Kegan Paul & Co., London. " HISTORY OF 
IRELAND," vol. iL, by Standish O'Grady; Samson Low & Co., London. " POEMS AND 
SONGS," Gaelic and English, by Mrs Mary Mackellar ; Maclachlan & Stewart, Edinburgh. 
"THE IMAGE OP THE CROSS," Hunter, Kose, & Co., Toronto; and "THE DOMINION 
ANNUAL REGISTER, 1878," Dawson Brethers, Montreal. We understand the volume for 
1879 is in the press, and will goon be issued. Most of these works we shall hereafter notice 
in the uiual way. 



THE EDITOE IN CANADA. 



VI. 

MR MURDOCH having left Kingston early on Tuesday, I had the bard all 
to myself that day until 4 P.M., when we started together for the station 
on my way to Toronto. The train being late, I here got into conversation 
with the Hon. Sir Eichard J. Cartwright, Finance Minister in the late 
Mackenzie administration. He was also Avaiting the train, and I was in- 
troduced to him by Maccoll. I at once turned the conversation to my 
grievance about the Canadian treatment of Highland emigrants, so shabby 
as compared with the facilities and encouragement which have been ex- 
tended to the Mennonites and Icelanders, and what I considered the 
suicidal policy of only encouraging men with money to the Dominion. 
Sir Eichard was against me. I stated my opinion firmly and in such a 
manner as probably justified this able but self-opinionative Canadian 
knight to part from me with the idea that I did not pay that deference 
to his opinions and policy which they deserved. The train, however, 
rushed along the platform before I had an opportunity of doing the 
amiable ; and probably both of us went our respective ways fully con- 
vinced that the other was more dogmatical in his assertions and opinions 
than either our knowledge or experience justified. For that, however, the 
arrival of the Grand Trunk train in the middle of our interesting discussion 
must be held responsible, 

I soon found myself rushing along through a very fine country, with 
Lake Ontario a considerable distance on the left, xuitil, after passing 
Belleville, Cobourg, and Port Hope, we skirt almost along its banks, 
through some of the best and most productive land in Canada. This 
district is celebrated as the greatest barley producing country in the 
Dominion. About 11.30 P.M. we arrived at 

TORONTO, 

a distance of over 160 miles, and I made for the ""Walker House," a 
capitally conducted hotel, kept by a native of Glasgow, who arrived in 
the Dominion with only a capital of 3, but who is now proprietor of 
this fine establishment and other property in Toronto. His house, in 
which you are only charged 8s a day for everything, is the common ren- 
dezvous of Scotsmen, not only in Toronto and neighbourhood, but of 
those who visit the city from all parts of Canada, the United States and 
Scotland. 

Next morning I had a walk through the principal parts of the city, 
the streets of which, in consequence of the recent fall of snow, were very 
slushy. There are some very fine buildings in the commercial part of the 
town, but I saw the place for the first time under such serious disadvant- 
ages that I was not so favourably impressed with it as I would no doubt 
otherwise have been. Toronto is the capital of Ontario, the most import- 
ant province of the Canadian Dominion. It is situated on a beautiful 
circular bay on the north-west shore of Lake Ontario, 333 miles west 



232 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

from Montreal, having a fine harbour formed by a peninsula called Gib- 
raltar Point which .separates it from the Lake, shelters the inner bay, 
which is six miles long by one and a-half wide, and makes it a very safe 
harbour for shipping. The city lies low, but rises gently from the water's 
edge, until, at the Observatory buildings, it reaches a point 108 feet above 
the level of the sea. It is mainly built of stone and brick, and has a 
number of very fine streets crossing each other at right angles, and con- 
taining several very fine public buildings, warehouses, and private resi- 
dences. The city is the seat of the Provincial Government of Ontario 
and of the Law Courts. The Government buildings make a very poor 
appearance in comparison with others in the city, but they are about to 
be pulled down, and new buildings, in keeping with the importance and 
requirements of the Government, are to be erected in their place. Osgoode 
Hall, where all the Law Courts are held under one roof, is a fine classic 
structure, and the official residence of the Lieutenant-Governor and the 
University are noble buildings the latter considered to be one of the 
finest on the American continent. The public park is a very fine one, and 
the wide avenue leading to it, ornamented with stately trees, must be a 
magnificent sight in summer. The city contains no end of thriving 
factories and foundries, breweries and distilleries, and the largest cabinet 
factory in Canada, while between forty and fifty newspapers and periodi- 
cals are published in it, including the Globe, admitted on all hands to be 
the most influential paper in the whole Dominion. Its founder and prin- 
cipal proprietor is 

THE HON. GEORGE BROWN, Senator of the Dominion, quite a self-made 
man, and whose mother was a Mackenzie from the Island of Lews. His 
influence among Liberal politicians, derived no doubt largely from that of 
the Globe, is unequalled, and indeed more potent than some of the 
ostensible leaders of the party are willing to admit. No Liberal Government 
can ignore his opinions, and usually declining to accept office, it is most diffi- 
cult indeed, sometimes impossible to keep him under party control. 
In Nova Scotia I was told that " the people of Ontario believed more in 
the gospel of George Brown than in that of the New Testament," and in 
Toronto I found the Globe described among its opponents as the " Scots- 
man's Bible." While this is no doubt a libel on the orthodoxy of our 
countrymen, it gives no bad idea of their faith in the leading Canadian 
journal. The Toronto Mail has been started a few years ago in the interest 
of the Conservative party. It is capitally written, and conducted with 
great vigour, and, I was told, no small amount of success. I found the 
Hon. George a most agreeable and chatty fellow, but his herculean frame 
and firm, determined-looking visage at once convinced me that, apart al- 
together from the power of the Globe, it would be the better part of valour 
to keep on friendly terms with him. I had been told that 

THE HON. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, ex-Premier of the Dominion, re- 
sided in Toronto, where he held the post of Chairman of the Isolated 
Risk Insurance Company. I called and sent in my card, whereupon he 
walked out of his sanctum, invited me in, and introduced me to one of his 
brothers, who was at the time with him in the office, and, after a most 
pleasant chat, invited me to dine with him that evening. I did so, and 
enjoyed a most agreeable evening listening to the pleasant and unpreten- 
tious chat of the distinguished statesman, and that of his amiable and 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 233 

much esteemed lady, like himself a native of the county of Perth. As 
already stated in a previous article, Mr Mackenzie is a native of Logie- 
rait, where he was born on the 22d of January 1822, so that he is now in 
the 58th year of his age. I have not been able to find out what parti- 
cular family of the clan the ex-Premier is descended from, but his ances- 
tors lived in Strathtummel for several generations. The whole family 
emigrated to Canada, where the sons, seven in number, were all successful 
men, and remarkable for tkoir natural ability and great force of character. 
One of them, the late Hope F, Mackenzie, was successively and for several 
years M.P. for Lambton and for North Oxford, and was well known as a 
man of marked ability, of earnestness, and honesty of purpose. 

The Hon. Alexander was educated at the public schools of Moulin, 
Dunkeld, and Perth, and his father having died when the future Premier 
was very young, he had at the age of fourteen to push his own way in the 
world. He was apprenticed to a stone mason, and became a thorough 
master of his trade. He had early evinced a taste for literature, and con- 
tinued a persevering student through life. He now possesses not only a 
very extensive acquaintance with general literature, but has few equals in 
his accurate and wide knowledge of political, constitutional, and social 
history, as well as the present condition and general history of the leading 
nations of the earth. He has thus a great advantage over most of the 
politicians of Canada, his ready command of the facts thus acquired 
enabling him to illustrate his eloquent public orations with telling effect. 
In 1842, when only 20 years of age, he emigrated and settled down in 
Sarnia, then a thriving and rising village, where he commenced business 
as a contractor. He took a keen interest in all public questions, and be- 
came a contributor to the press. He was soon acknowledged as a very 
useful, and ultimately as a most prominent member of the Liberal party. 
In all the most exciting political events of the period, from 1850 to 1864, 
he was a most active and earnest participator. His excellent and power- 
ful speeches, as well as his able contributions to the press during that 
eventful period of Canadian history, strongly aided in bringing about the 
great results achieved by the party of which he was now fast becoming 
the natural leader. He continued earnestly to advocate with great power, 
firmness, and fearlessness, the introduction of popular reform. He be- 
came the editor of a Liberal newspaper, which, by the force and ability 
of his contributions, and the sound common sense and patriotism which 
pervaded its columns, soon became a power in the State, and commanded 
general attention. He naturally became associated with the leading con- 
stitutional and administrative reformers in Parliament. In 1861 he was 
returned to the Legislature for the county of Lambton, in which Sarnia is 
situated, and of which it is now the capital town, and from that day to 
this he held one of the most prominent and influential positions, both as 
a speaker and as a legislator, in the Dominion Parliament. When the 
Hon. George Brown left the Coalition Cabinet of 1864-5, Mr Mackenzie 
was offered the Presidency of the Council, but declined it on the ground 
that the concessions offered to the United States for a renewal of the Re- 
ciprocity Treaty were unwise ; and that he could not become a member 
of a Government who would be held responsible for such concessions. 
In 1871 he was prevailed upon to contest West Middlesex for the local 
Parliament of Ontario. In this he succeeded against a strong opponent. 



234 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

On the meeting of the Legislature shortly after, he rendered great service 
in the debate which resulted in what is described as u the memorable and 
victorious attack " upon the then existing Government. In the new Go- 
vernment he was made Provincial Secretary, and afterwards he accepted 
the office of Treasurer or Finance Minister, the duties of which his great 
and intimate knowledge of the resources of the Province enabled him to 
conduct with vigour and success, his budget speech in 1872 being de- 
scribed as " a masterly exposition of Provincial finance." Hitherto repre- 
sentatives could sit as members of the Dominion and of the local Legisla- 
tures at the same time, but in 1872 an act was passed which disqualified 
members from sitting in both, whereupon Mr Mackenzie resigned his seat 
and office in the local Legislature, to devote himself exclusively to the 
more important sphere of Federal politics at Ottawa, in the Dominion 
Parliament. His great ability and industry soon made themselves felt 
here. He was soon, by common consent, first, leader of the Ontario 
section of the Liberals in the House of Commons; then tacitly, 
and .afterwards by formal election, he became the leader of the whole 
Liberal party of the Dominion. When, in 1873, the downfall of Sir John 
A. Macdonald and his Government occurred, " there was no one," accord- 
ing to the Globe, "justly to deny Mr Mackenzie's title to the Premiership 
of British North America, by virtue of the position he already held in 
the House of Commons, his capacity as a statesman, his ability as a 
speaker, his wide and accurate knowledge of public affairs, his ardent 
devotion to the interests of his adopted country, his genial love of the 
Old Sod and all its belongings, his unspotted personal character, his in- 
tense love of right and hatred of wrong, and the enviable place he has 
won for himself in the confidence and respect of his fellow countrymen." 
The Mackenzie Administration has left its impress on the political 
history and the statute book of Canada, and Mr Mackenzie, its chief and 
most distinguished member may be fairly credited with most of the re- 
forms administrative and departmental which his Government were 
able to carry out, In 1875 he paid a visit to his native country with a 
view of securing some repose from his arduous duties, and at the same 
time to see his native land, which he continues to love with genuine 
affection. The reception accorded to him on that occasion is in the recol- 
lection of the reader, and need not here be enlarged upon. He was 
received by her Majesty at Windsor Castle, Every rank of his country- 
men welcomed him with marks of distinction and genuine cordiality. 
Dundee and Perth conferred upon him the freedom of their respective 
burghs, while his reception at Dunkeld, Logiorait, Greenock, and other 
places throughout the north, were honours of which any statesman, how- 
ever eminent, might feel proud. All throughout his political career, and 
during his agreeable tour in his native land, he bore himself with a 
characteristic modesty and dignity, while all his utterances were univers- 
ally held to partake of great common sense and refined taste. Those who 
know him say that he is of the most kindly disposition, without the 
slightest ostentation or assumption, a thoroughly upright man, a firm 
friend, a pleasant companion, and full of fun, anecdote, and pleasant 
banter, when he unbends at his own fireside or at that of a friend. In 
religion he is a Baptist, and while he holds to his own religious opinions 
conscientiously and firmly, he has never shown the slightest tinge of 
bigotry or uncharitableness towards those who differ from him. 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 235 

Such is a brief sketch of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, with whom 
I had the honour of spending a most agreeable evening. At first 
he does not impress you as being possessed of any extraordinary gifts, but 
as the conversation proceeds a countenance, by no means indicative of 
great power and force of character, gradually brightens up, the purest 
English, with an unmistakeable Perthshire accent, flows easily and 
fluently from his tongue. You are impressed with his genuine honesty 
and want of reserve, and you cannot help thinking that these qualities 
must be a great obstacle to his success as a Canadian politician, when 
pitted against such an able tactician and Disraelian imitator as Sir John 
A. Macdonald. I was, in short, in the company of a man of great 
natural ability and culture, who talked freely and fluently on the various 
questions introduced by me ; and I was particularly pleased to find him 
admitting that the policy of giving the cold-shoulder to Highland immi- 
grants was a great mistake ; and promising that if he ever again got into 
power, the policy of the present Government on that particular question 
would be entirely reversed. In the morning of the same day I called, at 
Government House, upon 

THE HON. DONALD ALEXANDER MACDONALD, Lieutenant-Governor of 
Ontario, with a letter of introduction from his Excellency the Marquis of 
Lorn. I found him exceedingly pleasant and affable, and quite able and 
willing to converse with me in Gaelic as well as in English. He was 
having a party of the leading politicians of the Province to dine with him 
the same evening, and kindly invited me to join them. Having, how- 
ever, already engaged to dine with the ex-Premier, I was most reluctantly 
obliged to decline his proferred hospitality, but had to promise him that 
I should accept of it on my return to Toronto from Beaverton about tbe 
middle of the following week. The grandfather of the Lieuteuant-Gover- 
nor emigrated from Knoydart, on the west coast of Inverness-shire, in 
1786, and settled in Glengarry, Canada. One of the sons, Alexander, 
succeeded his father in the farm at Sandfield Corner, close to St Eaphael's 
Church, in Glengarry, and had a family of sons brought up there which 
turned out to be one of the most influential and distinguished in the 
great Dominion. One of these, the late John Sandfield Macdonald, was 
for many years one of the leading politicians of Canada, and ultimately 
became Premier. Another son, A. F. Macdonald, represented Cornwall for 
many years in the House of Commons, and this distinguished Highland 
family represented almost without any interruption the county of Glen- 
garry in Parliament since the Union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, 
in which year John Sandfield was first elected for the county. The pre- 
sent Lioutenant-Governor of Ontario was born on the farm, at Sandfield, 
in 1817, so that he is now in his 63d year. He was educated at a neigh- 
bouring institution, presided over by the Eight Rev. Alexander Mac- 
donnell, D.D., afterwards Bishop of Kingston. He devoted himself 
to mercantile pursuits, and became a successful contractor, in which capa- 
city he constructed several railways and canals. In course of time he be- 
came President of the Montreal and Ottawa City Junction Railway, 
and one of the Directors of the Bank of Ontario. In 1870 he retired 
from business, and since that time devoted himself almost exclusively to 
public affairs. He was returned to Parliament in 1857. In 1871 he 
declined the Treasurership of Ontario. On the defeat of the Government 



236 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

of Sir John A. Macdonald in 1873, he became Postmaster-General in the 
Mackenzie Administration, and in the space of two years carried out 
great reforms in his department, among which were the establishment of 
direct mail communication between Canada and Europe, the reduction 
of postal rates across the Atlantic, and the establishment of a system of 
uniformity, free postal delivery in the principal cities of the Dominion, 
prepayment of the postage on letters and newspapers, and a Postal 
Convention with the United States, which resulted in the reduc- 
tion of postage each way by about fifty per cent., and the exten- 
sion of reciprocity to the money order system of the country. His 
public speeches were always short, but at the same time distinguished 
by pleasant and graceful thought and utterance. Naturally of a con- 
ciliatory disposition, he was able to overcome difficulties that hia prede- 
cessors in office were unable to surmount. He had always taken a keen 
interest in the military affairs of the country, and for many years held the 
honourable position of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Glengarry Reserve 
Militia, a body of men possessing the military ardour and heroic spirit 
which in all ages distinguished their Highland ancestors, and which still 
animates the inhabitants of Glengarry County. It was only natural that 
when Mr Mackenzie found himself in a position to fill up the vacancy in 
the high office of the Lieutenant-Governorship of Ontario, he should have 
conferred it upon his able Lieutenant, the Postmaster-General ; and it was 
universally admitted by politicians on both sides that no more fitting ap- 
pointment could be made, and that no member of the Liberal party 
deserved the honourable distinction more than Mr Macdonald, who had 
continued throughout all his public career to retain the esteem and 
respect of friends and foes alike. A general chorus of approval from 
all parties followed upon the appointment, and it is admitted on all 
hands that "nothing occurred since his elevation to mar this feeling 
of satisfaction. Punctual and earnest in the discharge of his public 
duties, Mr Macdonald, in his no less important social capacity, retains 
and continues to display the same valuable qualities which have long 
made him a favourite with all who knew him, dispensing the hospi- 
talities of Government House with as little ostentation as possible, but 
with as much kindness and liberality as could be desired." He is a tall, 
good-looking man, with a fine open countenance, most unassuming, and 
agreeable in manner ; a Catholic in faith, but full of charity and good 
feeling towards those who differ from him in religion. He is highly 
popular with all the members of the Liberal party, and devotedly fond of his 
native Glengarry and its people, while he still has a warm corner in his 
heart for "Tir nam beann, nan gleann, 's nan gaisgeach." While in the 
city I had a most agreeable interview with the Hon. S. C. Wood, 
Treasurer and Minister of Agriculture for the Province of Ontario, who 
supplied me with information bearing upon emigration, and expressed his 
views freely on that and such other questions as I introduced and discussed 
with him. His deputy, Mr Spence, Secretary of the Emigration Depart- 
ment, I found equally pleasant and obliging, and most anxious to place 
any information in his possession at my disposal. And now that I am 
taking leave, for the present at least, of Canadian officials, it is only right 
to say that whether they agreed or differed with me, I found them, with- 
out exception, from the highest to the lowest, perfect gentlemen, most 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA. 237 

agreeable, civil, and obliging, with no offensive airs of superiority, and 
most anxious to supply any information in their power, whether it was 
connected with their own special departments or not. 

The reader is no doubt aware that in Toronto resides Patrick Mac- 
gregor, M.A., barrister, better known from his connection with Celtic 
literature, more particularly as the author of " The Genuine Remains of 
Ossian, literally translated, with a preliminary Dissertation," published by 
him in 1841, under the patronuge of the Highland Society of London. 
Mr Macgregor was educated in the University of Edinburgh, and has 
several relations in this country, in Badenoch and Paisley, the well-known 
P. Comyn Macgregor of the latter place being his cousin-german. In the 
course of a most interesting chat, I learned with pleasure that Mr Mac- 
gregor had a new edition, improved, with extensive notes, of his now rare 
work, ready for the press. One of the judges is Kenneth Mackenzie, but 
though I called twice I found him on the bench, and I was unable to 
procure an interview or find out what branch of the Mackenzies he 
originally sprang from. " But perhaps the best known (to quote from 
my letters in the Free Press) and most genuinely warm-hearted High- 
lander in Toronto is Hugh Miller, a wholesale chemist, who learned his 
business in Church Street, Inverness. He came to Toronto in 1842, 
when it had only a population of between thirteen and fourteen thousand, 
the inhabitants of the city having thus increased six times in 37 years, 
during which period Mr Miller has been one of its most prominent and 
upright citizens. Finding him so popular among his fellow countrymen, 
I jocularly remarked that it was a pity our friend had so nearly outlived 
the Clan Miller, or he would no doubt have been appointed Chief by accla- 
mation. ' Ah,' answered one, ' he holds a far more important position here ; 
he is Chief of all the Clans in Toronto.'" Indeed I found that he was known 
and spoken of over the whole of Upper Canada as one of the very best in 
all respects of his race in the wide Dominion. He has long ago occupied 
all the positions of honour at the disposal of the St Andrew and Cale- 
donian Societies. He is a Justice of the Peace, and a leading reformer, 
and his eldest son and partner in business holds the honourable position 
among his countrymen of Secretary to the St Andrew Society. No de- 
serving Scot in distress is turned away from Hugh Miller's ; but in spite 
of all his liberality and kindness, which are proverbial, he possesses, in 
addition to a lucrative and extensive business, some valuable land and 
house property in and around the City of Toronto. There were number- 
less good Highlanders in the city whom I desired to see ; but the limited 
time at my disposal did not admit of my staying long enough in the 
place. Among others I met Mr .Neil Bain, a very fine fellow, a native 
of Dingwall, and a partner in a large safe manufacturing concern in the 
city. James Bain & Son is a most respectable firm of booksellers of long 
standing, doing a very prosperous business, and also originally from Ding- 
wall. One of the sons is a partner in the London publishing firm ot 
Nimrno & Bain. The leading publishers in the city are Campbell & Son 
and Maclear & Co., and genuine Highlanders to b:>ot. I was also pleased 
to meet with two young Invernessians one, a sou of the late respected 
Bailie Alexander Macbean, who holds a respectable position in the Goods 
Department of the Grand Trunk Railway ; and Angus Macbeau, a son of 
Lewis Macbean, also occupying a respectable position "winch I was in- 



238 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

formed he is steadfastly improving in a manner which his good conduct 
and steady habits fully deserve. The mercantile houses exhibit Gordons, 
Mackays, Campbells, Macdonalds, Mackenzies, Mathesons, and other such 
Highland names without number on their signboards, making you feel 
quite at home as you pass along the principal streets of the city. While 
here I took a run out to 

BEAVERTON AND WOODVILLE 

by the Toronto and Nippising narrow gauge railway, the manager of 
which was good enough to send me a return pass over his line to and from 
Woodville where I had to change and travel some eight miles on another 
line to Beaverton. At the Midland junction, about 100 miles due north 
from Toronto, I had to wait for more than an hour the arrival of the train, 
which was just an hour behind time. The officials showed the most 
delightful unconcern as to its appearance ; and, making inquiry, I was told 
by one of them that the trains were almost invariably equally late and 
was "not once in a fortnight up to time," the delay generally taking place 
at Lindsay. 

My principal object in going to this district was to see the Eev. David 
Watson, M.A, one of the earliest subscribers to the Celtic Magazine in 
that quarter a genuine Highlander, whose father at one time occupied 
the farm of Knocknageal, near Inverness. He was in the village to meet 
and drive me to the manse, about a mile further on, where, on arriving, I 
received a warm Highland greeting from his wife and family. I soon dis- 
covered that Beaverton, situated on Lake Simcoe, a magnificent sheet of 
water, was almost entirely populated by Gaelic-speaking Highlanders, 
those from Islay and Kintail forming the great majority. I much desired 
to see them, but my kind host stuck to me so closely and attentively that 
I could not leave him to go among the people, without a seeming rudeness 
and ingratitude which I naturally felt most anxious to avoid. However, 
on Sunday morning, finding that I could not have my desires satisfied as 
to the living, I went to the churchyard, and wandered and mused among 
the tombs of the dead> until it was time to enter the church to hear my 
eloquent friend preaching to his devoted Highland flock. Here, among 
the tombs, I enjoyed a sermon in stones which surpassed in interest to 
me any that I had ever heard preached from living lips. There I found 
from the inscriptions and sculpture which abounded that vast numbers of 
my expatriated countrymen lay under a strange sod thousands of miles 
away from their native land, waiting for the great day when the earth 
and sea shall give forth their dead, Hardly a monument or head-stone 
but proclaimed that he or she over whom it was placed was " a native of 
Scotland " Campbells and Mackays " from Islay," Camerons " from 
Lochaber," Macraes " from Eoss-shire " or " from Kintail," Gordons and 
Murrays "from Sutherlandshire," Macewens "from Perthsire," and so on 
from all the Highland counties. The whole surroundings and the thoughts 
to which they gave rise were touching beyond description, and made an 
impression upon my mind which I shall never forget. The harsh cruelty 
or callous indifference on the part of the Highland Chiefs, who must be 
held principally responsible for the expatriation of their noble country- 
men, was recalled and presented in vivid colours before the mind's eye. 
The ties of affection for fathers, brothers, sisters, and friends, for country 



THE EDITOR IN CANADA, 239 

and kin, so remorselessly torn asunder by the natural protectors of their 
people and dependants were recalled, and the feeling produced was one of 
subdued sorrow mixed with no small amount of hatred and contempt for 
the memory of the authors of Highland evictions and other less glaring 
and offensive, but equally cruel forms of expatriation and transportation 
of a past generation. One could not help feeling the great value and in- 
terest which would have attached to such a record, as was here given, of 
the early migration westward from Europe to the British Isles of the early 
Celtic races. Though thousands have found a last resting-place in this 
city of the dead, the first burial took place in it so recently as 1834, a few 
years after the first tree was cut in the then trackless and endless forest. 
The inscription, which shows a poor acquaintance on the part of the com- 
poser with Highland geography for he places Invera ess-shire in the Isle 
of Skye is as follows : " Sacred to the memory of Ann M'Ginnis, wife 
of Donald Cameron, a native of the Parish of Strath, Inverness-shire, Isle 
of Skye, Scotland, died May 14th, 1834, aged 48 years. Deceased was 
the first intered (sic) in this yard." Another inscription, on a very fine 
monument, is " In memory of Colonel Kenneth Cameron, formerly in Her 
Majesty's 79th or Cameron Highlanders, who died June 20th 1872, aged 
84 years," Colonel Cameron joined the famous 79th, I was told, as ensign 
about 1802. In the same enclosure is another monument to Robt. Bethune, 
youngest son of the late Eev. John Bethune, D.D., of the parish of Dornoch, 
Sutherlandshire, who died in 1864, aged 67 years, and whose widow, a 
sister of Colonel Cameron, survives him, and is perhaps the most respected 
lady now living in the Township of Thorah. On a fine marble column 
we are told that, " Here moulders the ashes of Robert Mactaggart, . . . 
He was born in Islay, served under Admiral Nelson, fought in the 
memorable battle of the Nile, departed this life on the 6th of September 
1858, at the good old age of 88." 

But perhaps the most peculiar, and those which best illustrate the love 
of home and the pride of ancestry, are the following : "In memory of 
Donald Macrae, born 29 June 1786, died 30 Nov. 1870. Emigrated to 
Canada 1821. Was one of the first pioneers of the Township of Thorah. 
He was son of Donald Macrae, who was (son) of Christopher Roy, (son) 
of John Donald, (son) of Alexander, (son) of Christopher. His first wife, 
Mary Macrae, was daughter of John [Brec], (son) of Donald, (sou) of Donald, 
(son) of Alexander (son) of Christopher." From this it appears that this 
couple were cousins six times removed from Christopher, their common an- 
cestor. Two of their sons, John and Donald, are in excellent circumstances, 
worth about 4000 each, and I was determined to see them. I found them 
such genuine Highlanders as I expected the commemorators of their an- 
cestors in such an inscription would be ; and it is quite unneccessary to say 
that they still take a warm and most lively interest in the Scottish High- 
lands. John was born in Kintail, but left with his father quite young ; 
but Donald was born in Canada. Their great-grandmother was a daughter 
of the Macrae of Ardintoul of the day. 

Alongside the above unique inscription Ava=i one "In memory of 
Isabella Macrae, relict of Donald Macrae. Born at Kintail, Ross-shire, 
t Scotland, in 1783 ; died at Thorah, July 17, 1872. Daughter of John 
and Margaret Macrae, who were descendants of the Reverends Farquhar 
Macrae and Donald Macrae, ministers of the Church of Scotland, A.D. 
1744, in KintaiL" 



240 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

- These inscriptions, as I have already indicated, gave rise to feelings 
and emotions not easily suppressed, and some of which I communicated 
to my reverend friend before he entered the pulpit ; and during the most 
eloquent and impressive discourse which he afterwards delivered, he made 
such telling references thereto as visibly affected many of his hearers. Mr 
Watson is deservedly highly popular with the people, among whom he 
has laboured for so many years. He is one of the small number of 
ministers who opposed the Union, recently entered into by all the Pres- 
byterian Churches of Canada, and his congregation to a man adhered to 
him, though every one of them were quite willing to join if their pastor 
did so. Some of them, however, asked themselves the question, Whether 
it was best to go over and part with their minister, or adhere to a pastor 
whom they almost adored, as a godly, earnest, and hard-working man, to 
whom they looked up as their natural father and protector when any 
troubles or trials overtook them 1 The question of Union or not was put 
to them from the pulpit, their minister asking all those who were in 
favour of Union with the other churches to stand up. Not one responded. 
He then asked those who defired to continue as they were to show their 
wishes in the same manner, when every soul in the building sprang to 
their feet. The church in which they had been hitherto worshipping 
was antiquated and too small for the growing requirements of an increasing 
congregation ; and to show their confidence in their minister, and to en- 
courage him still further, the time was considered appropriate to set on 
foot a subscription for the building of a new church. In a very short 
time a sum of 3500 was subscribed solely among his Highland friends, 
and all within the township. A handsome building, large enough to seat 
900 persons, was contracted for, and was ready to receive the congregation 
the Sunday after my visit, on which day it was to be formally opened. 
It is a pretty, neat structure, and every farthing of its cost was subscribed 
before the building contract was entered into, a fact which I am afraid 
cannot be recorded of many, if any, churches in our Highland districts at 
home. It will thus be seen that Mr Watson is happy in his people and 
surroundings, and he is equally so in his own family. His sons and 
daughters are educated under the domestic roof by their father, who in the 
most systematic manner devotes so many hours a-day to these paternal 
duties. The ladies' performances on the piano were really remarkable, 
when the difficulties of the situation are taken into account ; and they 
sang Scotch and Highland airs with the natural simplicity and sweetness 
of the mavis, one of them especially possessing a compass and command 
of voice which, under professional training, would soon enable her to 
make her mark among the most accomplished vocalists of our time. 

Mr Watson is, in many respects, quite a character. He is entirely 
devoid of any ecclesiastical starch, but Avholly devoted to benefiting physic- 
ally as well as morally and religiously, his fellow creatures ; and notwith- 
standing his genuine respect and love for the Old Church, he is thoroughly 
catholic in his views, and on the most friendly terms with his neighbours 
Catholic as well as Presbyterian. His popularity among his neighbours 
was strongly evidenced by an intimation in the other Presbyterian churches 
of the district that there would be no services held in them on the oc- 
casion of the opening, on the following Sunday, of Mr Watson's new 
church, so that all the neighbouring ministers and people might be able 



THE EDITOR Itf CANADA. 241 

to join in the opening celebration services. I was particularly struck with 
his nervous restlessness, and with the peculiar naturalness and simplicity 
of his eloquence and action in and out of the pulpit. He possesses a 
magnificent library, and is a great student and master of botany, ornitho- 
logy, astronomy, geology, and many of the other sciences a very prodigy 
of learning, in an out-of-the-way region, where only his natural love of 
knowledge could ever have induced him to devote himself so much to 
study as he does. And he is not a mere bookworm, but makes good use 
of his researches by occasionally delivering free lectures to the people on 
the elements of the various sciences. Mr Murdoch, with whom I parted 
in Kingston a fortnight previously, was to lecture in Woodville on " The 
Heroes of Ossian," on Monday evening, and I decided upon being present 
on the occasion. My reverend friend would insist upon driving me in 
his own machine, though the train was leaving Beaverton at the same 
time ; and I parted with his family, and later on with himself at Wood- 
ville, much regretting that I had so little time at my disposal to spend 
among such a fine, warm-hearted people as the Highlanders of Thorah. 

Woodville is a thoroughly Highland settlement of about 600 inhabit- 
ants, most of whom are from the Island of Islay, and nearly all Gaelic- 
speaking people. They turned out well to hear Mr Murdoch's lecture, 
after which I had the pleasure of addressing them briefly in Gaelic. The 
Rev. Mr Mactavish, now of Inverness, has been there for several years, 
and he is still remembered and spoken of with the highest respect by 
every one with whom I came in contact during my short stay in the 
place. Among those whom I had the pleasure of meeting there was Dr 
Mackay, who is married to a daughter of Mr Mactavish ; Duncan Camp- 
bell, of the Post Office ; and the Eev. Mr Ross, the present settled Gaelic 
minister in the village, and a native of Easter Ross. I intended to have 
visited the churchyard there as I had done at Beaverton, but next day 
turning out very wet, I started on my way, and had the pleasure of the 
Rev. Mr Ross's company all the way back to Toronto. In my next I 
shall introduce the reader to the Highlanders of Guelph, Lucknow, and 
Kincardine. A.M. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. Letter and enclosure received from Mr John Macdonald, 
secretary, Gaelic Society, Sydney, N.S.W. Please arrange with Messrs Gordon & Gotch 
of your city, as you propose. Mag. can be supplied through their Melbourne branch, our 

Australian agents. Malcolm Robertson, Sefton, New Zealand. Letter and enclosure 

received. Neither the Gaelic nor English words are given with Captain Fraser of 

Knockie's Highland music. Alexander Cameron, Coburg, Melbourne. Many thanks 

for letter and enclosure ; but especially for your valuable service in making known the 

Celtic Magazine in the colony. Dr MacCrimmon, Lucknow, Ontario. Order received, 

and books forwarded to your address. "Wo shall be glad to hear from you after your re- 
turn from Dacotah and Manitoba. William Fraser, Elgin, Illinois. Thanks. We 

have conveyed your messages to Maclachlan & Stewart an.l to the Highlander. 
Myles Campbell, White Rock, N.Z. Many thanks. Your kind order booked, but the 
work will not appear for some time, 

T 



242 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS, Vol. VIII., 
1878-9 ; Printed for the Society. 

LOOKING over this goodly volume, the first contribution that meets one is 
the address of the Chief, John Mackay, Swansea, delivered at the Seventh 
Annual Assembly of the Society on the llth of July 1878. In it he 
deals earnestly and eloquently with some of the good work which had 
hitherto been performed by the Society. To the influence created and 
fanned by it he gives credit for the bringing into existence of the High- 
lander, of the Celtic Magazine, and of the Celtic Chair, and no doubt 
this is to some extent true. It is, however, equally true that the 
proprietors and editors of these publications were respectively the 
mover and seconder of the motion that the Gaelic Society itself be 
formed. Considering the interest which has been taken in the case of the 
Highland crofter for the last few years, we are pleased to quote what 
such an authority was good enough to say of our own share in, and re- 
sponsibility for, directing attention to his unfortunate lot. After referring 
to the Highlander, the Chief continued : ""We were not long exulting 
in the conduct of this champion when another made his appearance upon 
the scene, visiting our houses every month, with ever new and varied re- 
freshments of the daintiest kind History, Folklore, Legends, Poetry, and 
Music. He, too, has a strong cudgel in his hand, which he wields like a 
master, and surprised many by boldly asserting, without fear of contra- 
diction, that the ' Highland Crofter ' was the most depressed, oppressed, 
and repressed member of the great British nation ; that there was neither 
' Poetry nor Prose ' in his lot, that the time had come either to ameliorate 
his condition or banish him for ever to the backwoods of America, to add 
to the strength and power of Brother Jonathan, or to assist Miss Columbia 
in her onward progress, and wipe away the stigma ever exposed to view 
on the bonnie braes and hill-sides of Gaeldom. The refrain of this ' ditty' 
has been taken up and echoed from Land's End to John O'Groats, from 
the Scotsman in Edinburgh to the Echo in London town, with a bewilder- 
ing, though diversifying, unanimity. The grievances complained of were 
admitted to be of long standing, known to all, patent to all, acknowledged 
to be undeserved mildly, and sometimes unmurinuringly, borne, and 
above all, however much might may have overborne right, powder and 
shot were never thought of as a means of redress, nor as instruments of 
revenge. All honour to the brave population who know how to endure 
without disgracing their bright escutcheon ! The time is at hand when 
their case will have consideration. ' The darkness of to-day will issue in 
a brighter to-morrow."' At the annual dinner, held in the following 
January, Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of Gairloch, Baronet, who presided, 
devoted an excellent speech to the same subject, and among the results of 
the Society's influence was, he said, " that a new magazine devoted to High- 
land literature and Highland interests has been established by your former 



LITERATURE. 243 

excellent Secretary, and though it is in no way under our control, it very 
efficiently promotes some of the objects we have set before us." He then 
congratulates the Society on the prominent part which it had taken in 
promoting the Federation of Celtic Societies, and on the many valuable 
papers which were printed in the " Transactions," and continues : " The 
Celtic Magazine, to which I have alluded, is now in its fourth year, and 
is, I hope and believe, an assured success. It concluded its second volume 
with an essay on ' The Poetry and Prose of a Highland Croft,' which 
attracted so much observation that our leading Scottish journal thought 
the public sufficiently interested to make it worth sending a special com- 
missioner to the West Highlands, to report on this abnormal element of 
society the West Coast crofter. The Commissioner's letters were of 
course widely read, and intended to extend the area of discussion. The 
Scotsman itself could see in the croft system only an unmitigated evil ; 
others (like the Highlander in this town), could see in it nothing but 
good ; while a third party, admitting the misery spoken to by the Celtic 
Magazine and the Scotsman's commissioner, thought that by legislation 
(of a character which I fear they did not clearly define to themselves), the 
crofter's position might be brought back to that of an ideal past, in which 
I have no doubt they firmly believed." Sir Kenneth then goes on to 
give his own opinion, and states that it is absolutely certain that, despite 
the hardships with which the crofter has to contend, " not one crofter in 
ten desires to change his condition by removing with his family to some 
other part of the country where he could have regular employment." 
The reason why the poor crofter is apparently so thoroughly satisfied with 
his lot is then given, and Sir Kenneth holds that " this must be accepted 
as a fact, that for no increase of material plenty, which is within his 
reach, will he give up his present surroundings, and surely he knows 
better than his critics what tends most to his own happiness." This by 
no means follows. We have seen with our own eyes some twenty-five 
years ago, parents on the Gairloch property weeping and crying loudly 
because they were obliged to send their children to school by the estate 
regulations, the reasons given being that if they were taught to read and 
write, they would leave the country, as the writer of this notice and other 
members of the same family did, and were in the habit of doing. Will 
it be maintained that these parents were the best judges of what tended 
most to their welfare and happiness ! We think not ; and the same is 
equally true of the great majority of the Highland crofters. They are 
ignorant of how easily they could benefit themselves and their families in 
Canada and other British colonies. They do not know how thickly popu- 
lated these places are, especially the Dominion, with their own country- 
men, and the comparative comfort and affluence enjoyed by them, or they 
would not stop a single day longer than they were obliged to do in their 
present positions. The remainder of the Baronet's speech is devoted to 
showing that the Highlanders of to-day are in many repects better off 
than those of the last century ; and in this he is quite successful. 

The Rev. Alexander Macgregor has two interesting Gaelic speeches in 
the volume, one of which he concludes, amidst great applause, by desiring 
that Sir Kenneth should soon occupy a seat in the British Parliament, 
where he could attend effectually to the interests of the Gaelic race : 
" Ach cluinnibh mi," he says, " ami an aon fhocal eile m'an co'-dhuin 



244 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

mi; agus 'se sin, gu'm bheil mi'n dochas gu'n d' thig an la anns am Tbi ar 
caraid uasal, ionmhuinn, cinneadoil fein, an Ridir Coinneach Gheanioch, 
(a tha aig ceann a' bhuird an nochd) 'na Bhall aim am Parlamaid na 
Rioghachd air son cearnaidh air chor-eigin 'nar tir ! Ochan 'se dheanadh 
an gaire-mor ri sin an Ceilteach, seadh, agos an t-Ard-Allannacli mar an 
ceudna, ged nach ann de shliochd 'nan cabar e : ach dheanamaid uile e, 
oir c'ait am bbeil uasal ni's airidh na esan air urram, agus ni's freagarraicbe 
na e, chum dleas'-nais na dreucbda sin a cho'-lionadh V Is it possible 
that our Reverend friend may after all, and in spite of modern scepticism 
as regards all prophecy, possess that ancient gift ? 

There is a most interesting paper by Mr James Barron, of the Inver- 
ness Courier, on " The Celtic Province of Moray," in which he treats 
learnedly of its ancient Maormorships, and informs us that the town of 
Inverness had a fortified place on the Castle Hill in the reign of Malcolm 
Ceannmore, and that soon after his day the Castle was the most important 
stronghold in the northern part of the kingdom. The town became a 
Royal burgh in the twelfth century, but it was previously mentioned by 
David I. as one of the local capitals of the realm. After describing the 
fierce battles which were fought between King Duncan, Macbeth, and the 
powerful Norse Earl, Thorfinn, Mr Barron goes on to propound the 
theory that Macbeth, who first took the side of the King, deserted 
Duncan and joined his enemy, Thorfinn. Macbeth wanted to make 
peace with the powerful Norseman, and " what more acceptable 
gift could he bring (him) than the head of King Duncan ?...-.. 
Macbeth had no wish to be subordinate to the King of Scotia. He held 
that he was himself an independent prince ; and here was a good oppor- 
tunity once for all to destroy Scottish pretensions, or perhaps, if Thorfinn 
was favourable, to seize upon the Scottish throne. His wife, desirous to 
avenge her kinsman, doubtless encouraged such projects. Thus influenced, 
it is reasonable to suppose that Macbeth slew Duncan after the battle, and 
threw in his lot with Thorfinn. Their combined forces ravaged the country 
east and south, and a partition of the kingdom appears to have followed. 
The rule of Thorfinn was acknowledged throughout the district north of 
the Grampians, while Macbeth ruled over the central territory. . . 
The reign of Macbeth extended to seventeen years, and was comparatively 
peaceful and prosperous. The power of Thorfinn helped to render his 
throne secure ; but something must also have been due to the Conserva- 
tive elements still existing in the Scottish kingdom. The innovations 
which had been previously introduced could not have failed to create a 
certain measure of discontent. The old Pictish law of succession through 
the female line had been abandoned ; the law of Tanistry had next been 
undermined by Teutonic influences ; and to the southern Celts it may 
have been satisfactory to obtain a Gaelic king like Macbeth, especially as 
he was connected by his wife with their own royal family. Macbeth was 
in reality the last truly Celtic king of Scotland. By the oldest writers 
he is represented as a liberal and popular sovereign. He and his queen 
twice gave grants of land to the Culdees of Loch-Leven, and Macbeth and 
Thorfinn appear to have visited Rome in 1050, where the Scottish king 
freely distributed silver to the poor. Several attempts were made to de- 
throne him, but until 1057 without success. In that year Malcolm Can- 
jnore, advancing from Northumberland, attacked him with a powerful 



LITERATIM, 245 

force. Macbeth was driven across the Mounth, and slain at Lumphanan 
in Marr, where there is still a large cairn known aa Cairnbeth. 

The paper entitled " The Cosmos of the Ansient Gaels " has been re- 
ferred to in a different form in the February number. Such a paper 
should never have been admitted into the Transactions of a Society whose 
objects are so entirely at variance with those of the writer of that paper. 
The objects of the Soiety, as printed in the volume before us, " are the 
perfecting of the members in the use of the Gaelic language ; the cultiva- 
tion of the language, poetry, and music of the Scottish Highlands," &c. 
The object of Mr Donald Eoss, one of Her Majesty's inspectors of 
Schools, is to crush, if he can, everything Celtic. He adopts, with 
evident satisfaction, the opinions of writers who have described our 
language as " a fitting article for savage imagery and crude conglomerate 
thinking," and who say that our " poetry is stolen or appropriated from 
more fertile fields whenever it happens to rise above the dignity of 
scurrilous twaddle." Our music is sneered at and caricatured ; and the 
very men who brought the Society itself into existence, and whose active 
support has made it the power for good it now is, are, figuratively, spat 
upon and designated a nuisance by this modest Celtic savant, while in the 
matter of " culture and criticism," he modestly designates himself " the 
heir of all the ages," whatever that may mean. In our notice of the last 
volume issued by the Society, we protested against non-members in which 
category Mr Boas was at that tune being allowed to abuse the race and 
all the inheritance we as Highlanders value most, in our own Transactions. 
He has since qualified to abuse us with a vengeance at our own expense. 
But the pill has been found too strong, and his connection with the Society 
has been dissolved in a manner which it is not our intention to notice 
here beyond saying that it unmistakably marks the manner in which his 
services to the Society have been appreciated by the members. 

There are two chapters of " Leaves from my Celtic Portfolio," by the 
Secretary, Mr William Mackenzie, which by themselves are worth doublo 
the small sum of five shillings paid for ordinary membership of the 
Society. Nearly one third of the volume is taken up with a full and 
most interesting history of " Mackay's Eegiment," by Mr John Mackay of 
Ben Reay, which is an exceedingly valuable contribution to Highland 
military history, and for which not only the Mackays, but all who take 
an interest in such subjects, are placed under a debt of gratitude to the 
author. The paper on " lona," by Mr Colin Chisholm is of so interesting 
a nature as to dispose us to place it before the reader in an 
early issue ; and we trust at no distant date to be in a position to treat in 
like manner the very learned and valuable paper on " Celtic Etymologies," 
by Mr C. S. Jerram, M.A. (Oxon.), an English scholar who has paid 
great attention to the subject extending even to the length of having 
acquired the Gaelic language ; and who is not unknown to the readers of 
the earlier volumes of the Celtic Magazine. 

The Gaelic Society continues to do real substantial service, and the 
volume before us, excellently printed by the proprietors ui' the Free Preai, 
is worthy of its predecessors and of the Society, 



246 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



BIDE A WEE, AND OTHER POEMS. By MABT J. 
Buffalo : Ptter Paul & Brother. 1880. 



THIS unpretentious, beautifully printed little book will find a hearty 
welcome in many a household on both sides of the Atlantic. Miss 
MacColl has evidently inherited no small share of the divine afflatus from 
her father, the well known bard of Loch Fyne. From him she may 
have got the lively fancy, the graceful flow of language, the slight dash of 
satire at the passing follies of the day ; but the true womanly feeling, the 
tender maternal instinct, th essentially feminine sweetness, evinced in 
this book are all her own. 

"One Less To-Night" is a pathetic picture of a bereaved mother's 
chastened sorrow for the loved little one so early lost. " Fallen Stars " is 
a sweet poem, full of large-hearted charity and tender sympathy for the 
human " wandering stars," and has the true ring in its piety. In " My 
Love," with its smoothly flowing measure, musical cadence, and glowing 
imagery, we recognise the work of a true poet ; but in " Good-By " 
there is poetry and more there we have depicted human nature in one 
of its best aspects, a woman's love, trusting, dependant, clinging to the 
hero of her heart like the ivy round the sturdy oak. Strong-minded 
ladies full of " woman's rights " will sneer at the picture here given ; 
ambitious, cold-hearted beauties will not understand it; but all leal- 
hearted women will both understand and admire it. "We would fain give 
it in full, but the first and three last verses will give an idea of the whole : 

Good-by ! I cannot speak it, lore, to thee, 
That saddest of all words ; my quick tears flow 

At thought of parting ; life would sunlass be 
Without thee ; nay I cannot bid thee go. 

I could net climb life's rugged mountain side 

Without thy strong right arm to lean upon ; 
I could not stem the waves of sorrow's tide 

Without thy roice and smile to cheer me on. 

O, what is gold, or rank, or power to me ? 

They will not satisfy as aching heart : 
And wanting love how cold the world would be, 

How desolate with all its show and art. 

I love thee, darling, more than I can tell, 

All else I could yield up ; but thee, ah, no, 
Not e'en when dying shall I say farewell, 

Sweetheart, sweetheart, I cannot bid thee go. 

There are six or seven lighter pieces, written in quite a different key to 
the rest; some of these strike at the foibles of the hour, and are not 
destitute of humour. " Johnny's Letter " is charming in its simplicity and 
drollness. 

The book is very neatly got up, and we trust it will meet with the 
success it so well deserves, so that Miss MacColl may be encouraged to 
the still greater efforts of which this volume, described even by Longfellow 
as " full of poetic beautj and deep feeling," can only be the harbinger. 



MO MHAILI BHEAG OGK 



Slow and plaintive. 




J^j^r ^:u ^ 



Naoh truagh leat mi 'a mi 'm prioaan, Mo Mbali bheag og, 



3 



i 



^ 



Do chairdean a' cuir binn' orm, 



Mo cbuid de 'n t aaghoal thu. 



i 



i 



: \ h-Jl. f r M-fy 



A bbean na mala mine, 



'S na ' pognn mat na ioguis, 



Zr-3F * 


r~ 


w 


j % r ' 








\ |L 


1 1 


rn> i 




\, r . 


* 


f 








^ 


1 


Q2 / 


w 


n> \ 






4 




1 


! II 


Gur tu nach fagadh bbios 


mi, 


Le mi-ruin do bbeoil. 



1 I s ., s : m . s | d' : s . f 
B d 1 ., d 1 : r 1 . d 1 I t : 1 . s 



r ,,m :s .,1 Id 1 : r 1 . d 1 
d 1 ., t : 1 ., s I d 1 : s . f 



m : r . d | d : - 

1 ., t : 1 ., s I s : - 

d 1 ., t :1 .s Is :1 

m : r . d I d : -, 



Di-donr hnaich anns a' gbltann duinn, 

Mo Mbali bheag og 
'Nuair thoisioh mi ri caiant riut ; 

Mo chuid de 'n t-ahaogal mbor. 
'Nuair dh 'fhosgail mi mo shuilaan, 

'S a sheall mi air mo chul-thaobh ; 
Bha marcaoh an rich chruthaich, 

Tigh'nn dlu air mo lorg. 

'S mise bb'air mo bhuaireadh, 

Mo Mhali bheag og, 
'Nuair 'thain' an 'sluagh mu'n cuairt duinn 

Mo ribhinn ghlan ur ; 
'S truagb nacb ann san uair ud, 

A tbuit mo lamb o m' ghualainn, 
Mu'n dh' amaia mi do bhualadh, 

Mo Mhali bheag og. 

Gur boicho learn a dh'fbas thu, 

Mo Mhali bheag og, 
Na'n lili ann san fhasach, 

Mo cheud fcliradh 's mo ruin : 
Mar siiteal caoin na grein' 

Ann am maduinn chiuin ag eirigh, 
Be Bud do dbreach a'ti t-eugais, 

Mo Mhali bheag og. 

'S mise a thug an goal 

Dha mo Mhali bhig oig, 
Nach dealaich rium sa'n t-saoghal, 

Mo t>ighau bhoidhtach thu. 



Tha t-thalt air dhreach nan teudan, 
Do gbruaidhean mar na coaran ; 

Do shuilean, flathail, aobhach, 
'S do bheul-labhairt oiuin. 

Shiubhlainn leat an saeghal, 

Mo Mhali bheag og ; 
Cho fad a'a ul na grciine 

A ghaug a's ailli' gnuii 
Ruitliimn agui leunaian, 

Mar fhiadh air bharr nan sleibhtean, 
Air ghaol 'a gu'm bithinn reidh ' tu, 

Mo Mhali bheag og. 

'S truagh a rinn do chairdean, 

Mo Mhali bheag og I 
'Nuair thoirnisg iad do ghradh dhmh, 

Mo chuid de 'a t saoghal thm : 
Nan tugadh iad do lamh dhomh. 

Cha bhitbinn-'g ann san am 10, 
Fo' bbinn air ion BIO ghraidh dbut, 

Mo Mhali bheag og. 

Ge d' bheirte mi bbo'n bhas so, 

Mo Mhali bheag og. 
Cha 'n iarrainn tuille dalach, 

Mo cheud ghradh 's mo ruin : 
B'aimsa 'n saoghal s' fhugail, 

'S gu'm faicinn t-aodann ghradhaoh ; 
Ga'n chuimhn' bhi air an la sin, 

'S na dh'fhag mi thu ciuirt*. 



JOHN MACKENZIE, in " Tbe Beautiee," from which we copy the werdi, addi the 
following note : " The abere beautiful sonj wai conpoaed bj a yomag Highland officer, 



248 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

who had served under King William on the continent soon after the Revolution. His 
history, which elucidates the song, was thus : He was the son of a respectable tenant 
in the Highlands of Perthshire, and while a youth, cherished a desperate passion for a 
beautiful young lady, the daughter of a neighbouring landed proprietor. Their love was 
reciprocal but such was the disparity of their circumstances that the obstacles to their 
union were regarded even by themselves as insuperable. To mend matters, the gallant 
young Highlander enlisted, and being a brave soldier and a voung man of excellent con- 
duct and character, he was promoted to the rank of an officer. After several years' 
absence, and when, at the end of a campaign, the army had taken up their winter 
quarters, he came home to see her friends to try whether his newly acquired status 
might not remove the objections of her friends to their union. She was still unmarried, 
and if possible more beautiful than when he left her every feature had assumed the 
highly finished character of womanhood her beauty was the universal theme of admira- 
tion. Othello like, the gallant young officer told her of 'hair-breadth 'scapes by land 
and flood,' and so enraptured the young lady that she readily agreed to elope with him. 
Having matured their arrangements, they fled on a Saturday night probably under the 
belief that the non-appearance of the young lady at her father's table on Sabbath morn- 
ing, would excite no surmises in the hurry of going to church. She, indeed, had com- 
plained to her father of some slight headache when she retired to rest, and instructed 
her maid to say next morning that she was better, but not disposed to appear at the 
breakfast table. Not satisfied with the servant's prevarication, who was cognizant of the 
elopement, the father hurried to his daughter's bedroom, and, not finding her there, he 
forcibly elicited the facts from the girl. He immediately assembled his men, and pur- 
sued the fugitive lovers with speed and eagerness. After many miles pursuit, they over- 
took them in a solitary glen where they had sat down to rest. The lover, though he had 
nobody to support him, yet was determined not to yield up his mistress ; and being well 
armed, and an excellent gladiator, he resolved to resent any attack made upon him. 
When the pursuers came up, and while he was defending himself and her with his 
sword, which was a very heavy one, and loaded with what is called a steel apple (ubfial 
a' chlaidheimh), she ran for protection behind him. In preparing to give a deadly stroke, 
the point of the weapon accidentally struck his mistress, then behind him, so violent a 
blow, that she instantly fell and expired at his feet ! Upon seeing this, he immediately 
surrendered himself, saying, ' That he did not wish to live, his earthly treasure being 
gone ! ' He was instantly carried to jail, where he composed this heait-melting gong a 
few days before his execution. Our neighbours, the Irish, claim this air as one of their 
own, but upon what authority we have been left in the dark. Sir John Sinclair estab- 
lishes its nativity in Scotland, but falls into a mistake in making an inn the scene of the 
melancholy catastrophe of the lady's death. The song itself substantiates our version of 
it. The second stanza was never printed till given by us the whol is now printed 
correctly-fotlhe first time. It is one of the most plaintive and mellow in the Gaelic 
language full of pathos and melancholy feeling. The distracted lover addresses his 
deceased mistress, as if she were still living a circumstance that puts the pathetic 
character of the song beyond comparison, and amply illustrates the distraction of his own 
mind a state of mental confusion, and wild melancholy, verging on madness." 

W. M'K. 



IN SUTHEKLANDSHIKE. 

Now the last flake of amber is subdued 

By twilight, and the fainting crimsons fly 

From the quiet spaces of the western sky ; 

The rook is winging homewards with his food ; 

Down in the cosy sedge the curlew's brood 

Have hushed themselves to silence suddenly, 

As if afraid to startle with their cry 

The stretch of listening moorland and still wood. 

Day is reluctant to resign this hour, 

And night scarce dares to take it till the shell 

Of the high moon casts forth her miracle 

Of perfect silver, and resumes her power 

Over the wind, the sea-wave, and the flower 

That folds against the night its weary beil. 

W. A, SIM. 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



No. LV. MAY, 1880. VOL. V. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

AND 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 

t f\ 

ra 

X. JOHN, FOURTH AND LAST LORD OF THE ISLES of the family of Mac- 
donald, who was as strenuous an opponent of the King's party as his fa- 
ther had been, began to rule at a critical period in the history of his 
family. The treasonable league which his father, Alexander, had 
entered into with William, 8th Earl Douglas, and the Earl of Crawford, 
has been already referred to, and though no action was taken upon it dur- 
ing the life of the last Lord, after his death the parties to it broke out into 
open rebellion, and John of the Isles took an active part in the insurrec- 
tion, collected a large force of the Islanders, seized the royal castles of In- 
verness, Urquhart, and Euthven, and declared his independence of the 
Scottish King. The Castle of Euthven he at once demolished to the 
ground. Urquhart Castle was placed under the command of his father 
in-law, Sir James Livingston, who on hearing of the insurrection of the Is- 
land lord left the Court and escaped to the Highlands ; while the strong- 
hold at Inverness was carefully garrisoned and supplied with a large quan- 
tity of military stores. It is asserted that it was the King himself who 
caused the Lord of the Isles to marry the daughter of Sir James Living- 
ston, promising him a grant of land with her which he never granted. 
And in the Auchinleck Chronicle it is recorded that this was a private 
grievance which, among others, urged the Island Chief into this rebellion. 
On this subject Gregory says, that it may be supposed he was too much 
occupied in securing himself against the great power and ambition of the 
Douglas party in the southern counties, now rendered more confident by 
the return of their chief from abroad, to be able to take prompt measures 
against the Earl of Eoss ; at least, none such are recorded in the chroni- 
cles which have come down to us. But there can be no doubt that James 
contemplated proceeding to the north to chastise the rebels there ; for it 
was upon the refusal of Douglas to renounce the league, offensive and de- 
fensive, into which he had entered with the Earls of Eoss and Crawford, 
that the king, in a sudden fit of passion, assassinated, with his own 

U 



250 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

hand, that nobleman, whose inordinate ambition was considered the chief 
cause of all these commotions. William, Earl of Douglas, being thus cut 
off in the height of his power, was succeeded by James, 9th Earl, his bro- 
ther, who, after repeated rebellions, was finally encountered and defeated 
by the Earl of Angus, leader of the King's troops, at Arkinholme in An- 
nandale. In this battle, Archibald, Earl of Moray, and Hugh, Earl of 
Ormond, brothers to the Earl of Douglas, were slain ; whilst the Earl him- 
self, with his only remaining brother, Sir John Douglas of Balvany, made 
his escape into the West Highlands. Here he was received by the Earl 
of Eoss, who still remained faithful to his engagements, having, it would 
appear, hitherto escaped, by reason of the remoteness and inaccessibility 
of his territories, the vengeance which had fallen so heavily on his confe- 
derates, Douglas and Crawford. Eoss immediately collected a fleet of one 
hundred galleys, with a force of five thousand men on board, and dis- 
patched this expedition, under the command of his kinsman, Donald Bal- 
loch of Isla, to attack the coast of Ayrshire, with the intention, probably, 
of encouraging the Douglas party again to draw together, should such a 
course appear expedient. Owing to the able measures of defence adopted 
by the King, this enterprise met with little success. Donald commenced 
hostilities at Innerkip in Ayrshire ; but being unable to effect any object 
of importance, he proceeded to ravage the Cumrays and the Isle of Arran. 
Not above twenty persons, men, women, and children, were slain by the 
Islanders, although plunder to a considerable amount including five or 
six hundred horses, ten thousand oxen and kine, and more than a thou- 
sand sheep and goats was carried off. The Castle of Brodick in Arran 
was stormed and levelled with the ground ; whilst one hundred bolls of 
meal, one hundred marts (cows), and one hundred marks of silver, were 
exacted as tribute from the Isle of Bute.* The expedition was concluded 
by an attack upon Lauder, Bishop of Argyle or Lismore, a prelate who 
had made himself obnoxious by affixing his seal to the instrument of for- 
feiture of the Douglases ; and who was now attacked by the fierce Admi- 
ral of the Isles, and, after the slaughter of the greater part of his attend- 
ants, forced to take refuge in a sanctuary, which seems scarcely to have 
protected him from the fury of his enemies.t 

The Earl of Douglas returned to England after the faflure of the expe- 
dition under Donald Balloch ; and Eoss, finding himself alone in rebel- 
lion, became alarmed for the consequences, and, by a submissive message, 
entreated the forgiveness of the King; offering, as far as it was still 
left to him, to repair the wrongs he had inflicted. James at first refused 
to listen to the application ; but, after a time, consented to extend to 
the humbled chief a period of probation, within which, if he should 
evince the reality of his repentance by some notable exploit, he was to be 
absolved from all the consequences of his rebellion, and reinstated in the 
Eoyal favour.;}: The Earl of Eoss was, in 1457, one of the Wardens of the 
Marches, an office of great trust and importance, but obviously intended 
to weaken his influence in the Highlands and Isles, by forcing him frequ- 

* It would seem that tie Castle of Rothesay was also besieged. Acts of Parlia- 
ment, II. 109. 

t Tytler's Scotland, IV. pp. 86 127. Auchinleck Chrouiclt, pp. 44, 51, 55. Acts 
of Parliament. II. 190. 

+ Tytler's Scotland (1879 ed.), vol. II. p. 177. 

Rjmer's Fcedera, XL, p. 397. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS, 251 

ently to reside at a distance from the seat of his power ; and, as he wag, 
at the same time, one of the nobles who guaranteed a truce with Eng- 
land,* it would seem that he had lost no time in effecting a reconciliation 
with the King. Previous to the siege of Roxburgh, at which James II, 
was [1460] unfortunately killed, the Earl of Ross joined the Royal army 
with a body of three thousand of his vassals, well armed in their peculiar 
fashion. In order to prove his fidelity and loyalty, he offered, in case of 
an invasion of England, to precede the rest of the army, whilst in the en- 
emy's country, by a thousand paces distance, so as to receive the first shock 
of the English. Ross was well received, and ordered to remain near the 
King's person ; but, as there was at this time no invasion of England, the 
courage and devotion of himself and his troops were not put to the test 
proposed.t 

Dr John Hill Burton [434-5 History of Scotland, vol. II.], quoting 
from Pitscottie, informs us that the Earl of Ross got such encouragement 
as made him believe that it was sound policy to help the King in his pro- 
ject, and so he went to the siege with " ane great army of men, all armed 
in Highland fashion, with halbershownes, bows, and axes ; and promised to 
the King, if he pleased to pass any farther into the bounds of England, 
that he and his company should pass ane large mill before the host, and 
take upon them the press and dint of the battle " ; and that he was found 
very serviceable " to spoil and herrie the country," an occupation to which 
the Lowland forces were now less accustomed than they used to be. 

Soon after the siege of Roxburgh, and the death of the King, a 
Parliament met in Edinburgh, which was attended by the Earl of Ross 
and Lord of the Isles, and other Highland chiefs. The Earl soon dis- 
covered that the new Government was not strong enough to keep him in 
subjection, and he renewed his league with the banished Douglases, with 
the view of pursuing his former schemes of personal aggrandisement. The 
Douglases were naturally anxious to secure the great power and influence 
of the Earl of Ross on their own side and against the Government, and 
they soon succeeded in inducing the Island chief to enter into a treason- 
able league with Edward IV. of England. By the advice of his principal 
vassals and kinsmen, on the 19th of October 1461, Ross assembled in 
council at his Castle of Ardtornish, and granted a commission, as an in- 
dependent prince, " to his trusty and well-beloved cousins," Ranald of 
the Isles, and Duncan, Archdean of the Isles, to confer with the deputies 
of the English King. These Commissioners met soon after at Westminster, 
and on the 13th of February 1462, concluded a treaty for the conquest of 
Scotland by Edward IV., with the assistance of the Earls of Ross and 
Douglas, who were to receive stipulated sums of money, and, in case of 
success, large grants of lands for their support in subjugating their native 
land to the English crown. 

Referring to these negotiations, Hill Burton [vol. iii., p. 3] informs us 
that on the 2d of August 1461, " a commission is appointed by Edward 
IV. for peace ' with our beloved kinsman the King of Scots,' yet just two 
months earlier another had been issued for treating with ' our beloved 
kinsman, the Earl of Ross, and our choice and faithful Donald Balagh, or 
their ambassadors, commissioners, or messengers.' The refugee Earl of 

* Rymer's Fcedera, XL, p. 397. 

f Tytler's Scotland, IV., p. 176. Buchanan, b. XI. 



252 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Douglas was a party to this negotiation, It was brought to a conclusion 
by an elaborate treaty bearing date in February 1462. By this astound- 
ing document it was covenanted that the Lord of the Isles should become 
for all his territory the liegeman of King Edward and his heirs ; and that 
if Scotland should be conquered through the aid of the Lord of the Isles, 
he should be lord of the northern part of the land to the Scots Water, or 
Firth of Forth ; while Douglas, should he give proper aid, was to be lord 
of all the district south of the Forth both districts to be held in strict 
feudal dependence on King Edward and his heirs. Meanwhile, and until 
he should reap this brilliant reward, the Lord of the Isles was to have 
' for fees and wages ' yearly, in time of peace, a hundred merks, and in 
time of war two hundred pounds ; while his assistant, Donald, was to 
receive a retainer amounting to twenty per cent of these allowances." 
Donald Balloch's son, John, was at the same time retained at half the 
sum stipulated for his father for his part in carrying out the treasonable 
and unpatrotic programme. 

While the negotiations which ended in this treaty were proceeding, 
the Earl of Ross raised the standard of rebellion in the North. Having 
assembled a great force, he placed them under the command of his bastard 
son, Angus Og of the Isles, who had the assistance of his distinguished 
and experienced relative, the veteran Donald Balloch. The rebellion, 
according to Tytler,* "was accompanied, by all those circumstances of 
atrocity and sacrilege that distinguish the hostilities of these island 
princes. Ross proclaimed himself King of the Hebrides, whilst his son 
and Donald Balloch, having taken possession of the Castle of Inverness, 
invaded the county of Athole, published a proclamation that no one should 
dare to obey the officers of King James, commanded all taxes to be hence- 
forth paid to Ross, and after a cruel and wasteful progress, concluded the 
expedition by storming the Castle of Blair, dragging the Earl and Countess 
of Athole from the chapel and sanctuary of St Bridget to a distant prison in 
Isla. Thrice did Donald attempt, if we may believe the historian, to fire 
the holy pile which he had plundered thrice the destructive element re- 
fused its office, and a storm of thunder and lightning, in which the greater 
part of his war-galleys were sunk, and the rich booty with which they 
were loaded consigned to the deep, was universally ascribed to the wrath 
of heaven, which had armed the elements against the abettor of sacrilege 
and murder. It is certain, at least, that this idea had fixed itself with all 
the strength of remorse and superstition in the mind of the bold and sav- 
age leader himself ; and such was the effect of the feeling, that he became 
moody and almost distracted. Commanding his principal leaders and 
soldiers to strip themselves to their shirt and drawers, and assuming him- 
self the same ignominious garb, he collected the relics of his plunder, and 
proceeding with bare feet, and a dejected aspect, to the chapel which he 
had so lately stained with blood, he and his attendants performed penance 
before the altar. The Earl and Countess of Athole were immediately set 
free from their prison." The relief of Donald Dubh from captivity seems 
to have been originally the chief object of this expedition, but Angus ap- 
pears to have liberated his prisoners, as above, without attaining his object. 

During the recent turbulent proceedings Ross assumed royal preroga- 

* Vol. ii. (1872 edition) p. 192. 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS. 253 

tives over the whole Sheriffdoms and Burghs of Inverness and Nairn, 
which at that time included all the northern counties. There are now no 
means of ascertaining how this civil broil was suppressed ; but it is known 
that the Earl of Eoss was summoned before Parliament for treason in 
connection with it, that he failed to appear, and that the process of for- 
feiture against him was for a time suspended, though an army was 
actually in readiness to march against him. His submission, however, 
rendered this unnecessary, and although he did not receive an uncon- 
ditional pardon, he was permitted to remain in undisturbed possession 
of his estates for twelve or thirteen years afterwards, until at length, ic 
1475, the treaty concluded between himself and Edward IV., in 1462, 
came to light, when it was at once determined to proceed against him as 
an avoAved traitor to the crown. He was summoned at his Castle of 
Dingwall to appear before the Parliament to be held in Edinburgh, in 
December 1475, to answer the various charges of treason and rebellion 
brought against him, and at the same time a commission was granted in 
favour of Colin, Earl of Argyle, to prosecute a decree of forfeiture against 
the island lord. He failed to appear on the appointed day, and sentence 
was pronounced upon him. He was declared a traitor, and his estates 
were forfeited to the Crown. A formidable armament, under the com- 
mand of the Earls of Crawford and Athole, comprehending both a fleet 
and a land force, was made ready to carry the sentence of Parliament into 
effect. These preparations induced him to sue for pardon through the 
medium of the Earl of Huntly. By means of a grant of lands in Knap- 
dale to the Earl of Argyle he secured the powerful influence of that 
nobleman in his favour. The Queen and the States of Parliament were 
also prevailed upon to intercede in his behalf, and appearing soon after- 
wards in person at Edinburgh, he, with much humility, and many ex- 
pressions of repentance, surrendered himself unconditionally to the Eoyal 
clemency, when the King, "with wonderful moderation," consented to 
pardon him, and in a Parliament held on the 1st of July 1476, he was 
restored to the forfeited estates of the Earldom of Eoss and the Lordship 
of the Isles, Immediately afterwards he made a voluntary and absolute 
surrender to the Crown of the Earldom of Eoss, the lands of Kintyre and 
Knapdale, and all the Castles thereto belonging, as well as the Sheriff 
dorns of Inverness and Nairn ; whereupon he was in return created a 
Baron Banrent, and Peer of Parliament by the title of Lord of the Islea. 
" The Earldom of Eoss was now inalienably annexed to the Crown, and a 
great blow was struck at the power and grandeur of a family which had 
so repeatedly disturbed the tranquillity of Scotland." 

" By the favour of the King, the succession to the new title and the 
estates connected with it, was secured in favour of Angus and John, the 
bastard sons of the Lord of the Isles ; and Angus, the elder of them, was 
soon afterwards married to a daughter of the Earl of Argyle. This Angus 
was early accustomed to rebellion, having acted as Lieutenant to his 
father in the great insurrection of 1461. Neither the favour now shown 
to him by the King, nor his alliance with the Earl of Argyll, were suffi- 
cient to keep the natural violence of his temper within bounds ; and 
circumstances soon enabled him to establish an ascendancy over his 
father. The sacrifices made by the latter in 1476, when he gave up the 
Earldom of Eoss, and the lands of Kintyre and Knapdale, were very un- 



254 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

popular among the chiefs descended of the family of the Isles, who further 
alleged that he had impaired his estate by improvident grants of land to 
the Macleans, Macleods, Macneills, and other tribes. Thus, the vassals 
of the Lordship of the Isles came to be divided into two factions one 
comprehending the clans last mentioned, who adhered to the old lord, the 
other consisting of the various branches of the Clandonald who made 
common cause with the turbulent heir of the Lordship. In these circum- 
stances Angus not only behaved with great violence to his father, but he 
involved himself in various feuds, particularly with the Mackenzies.''* 

The Sleat Seannachaidh, Hugh MacdonaW, gives the following version 
of the feuds and family quarrels which took place between John of the 
Isles and his son Angus Og. He describes the father as " a meek, modest 
man, brought up at Court in his younger years, and a scholar, more fit 
to be a churchman than to command so many irregular tribes of people. 
He endeavoured, however, still to keep them in their allegiance by be- 
stowing gifts to some and promoting others with lands and possessions ; 
by this he became prodigal and very expensive. . . . He gave the 
lands of Morvairn to Maclean, and many of his lands in the north to 
others, judging by these means to make them more faithful to him than 
they were to his father. His son, Angus Ogg, being a bold, forward man, 
and high minded, observing that his father very much diminished his 
rents by his prodigality, thought to deprive him of all management and 
authority. Many followers adhered to him. His father being at Isla, he 
went after him with a great party, forced him to change seven rooms to 
lodge in, and at last to take his bed, during the whole of the night under 
an old boat. "When he returned to his house in the morning he found 
his son sitting with a great crowd about him. MacFinnon rising up, 
desired Macdonald to sit down ; who answered that he would not sit till 
he would execute his intention, which was to curse his son. So leaving 
Isla with only six men, he went to the mainland and to Inveraray, and 
having waited without till one of the Argyll gentlemen came forth in the 
morning, who, observing Macdonald, went in immediately and told Argyll 
of the matter, who could scarcely believe him, saying, if he was 
there he would certainly send some person to inform him before 
hand. With that he started up, and going out, finds Macdonald, and 
having saluted him and brought him in, he said, I do not wonder at your 
coming here; but I am surprised you did not warn me before your 
arrival and that your retinue is so small. That is little, said Macdonald, 
to the revolutions of the times, and thou shall be the better of my com- 
ing ; and so, after dinner, he bestowed on him the lands of Knapdale, 
Eilisleter, from the river Add to the Fox-burn in Kintyre, 400 merks 
lands, and desired Argyll to convey him to Stirling, where the King was 
at that time, and for his son's disobedience he would resign all his estates 
to the king. So they went to Stirling, and from thence to Air, in com- 
pany with the King, when John resigned all into his hands, excepting 
the barony of Kinloss in Murray, of Kinnaird in Buchan, and of Cairn- 
donald in the West, which he retained to support his own grandeur 
during his lifetime. Angus Ogg Macdonald, his son, followed his former 
courses, came to Inverness, and demolished the castle. When his brother 

* Gregory's Western HigWands and Isles, pp. 51-52. 



HISTOKY OF THE MACDONALDS. 255 

Austin saw how matters went on, and that John had resigned all to the 
king, he goes to Edinburgh, and takes his charters from the king for all 
his patrimony which his father and mother bestowed on him formerly, in 
favour of his heirs-male, legitimate or illegitimate ; which patrimony con- 
sisted of ]S"orth Uist, the parish of Hough in South Uist, Canna, Benbi- 
cula, Slate, Trottenish, and Lochbroom. But Angus Ogg, his nephew, 
continuing his former pretensions, resolved not to surrender any of his 
father's lands to the king or to his father himself. The Earl of Athole 
was ordered with a party against him. He joined others in the north, 
who had the same injunctions from the kiug, viz., the Mackays, Mac- 
kenzie, the Brodies, some of the Erasers and Eosses. Angus Ogg came 
from Isla and Kintyre to the West, and raising some of his own name 1 
viz., Alexander Macdonald of the Braes of Lochaber, John of Glengarry, 
the Laird of Knoydart, and some of the Islanders, he goes to Koss, where, 
meeting Athole and his party near Lagobread, he gave them a defeat, 
killing 517 of their army. Mackay was made prisoner, Athole and Mac- 
kenzie made their escape. The Earl of Crawford afterwards was ordered 
by the king to go by sea, and Huntly with a party to go by land, to 
harass and discourage Angus Ogg's adherents ; but neither of them exe- 
cuted their orders. Argyll and Athole were sent to the Islanders, desiring 
them to hold of the king, and abandon Angus Ogg, and that the king 
would grant them the same rights they had formerly from Macdonald. This 
offer was accepted by several But when the Macdonalds, and heads of 
their families, saw that their chief and family was to be sunk, they began 
to look up to Angus Ogg, the young lord. About this time Austin, his 
uncle, died, and was buried in Sand, North Uist"* 

Skene informs us that after the resignation of the Earldom of Ross, 
and after the late Earl was created a Peer of Parliament by the title of 
Lord of the Isles, the Earl of Athole was despatched to the north to re- 
instate Eoss in his former possessions, now re-granted to him by the 
King, where he was joined by the Mackenzies, Mackays, Erasers, Eosses, 
and others ; but being met by Angus Og at a place called Lag-a-bhraid, 
the Earl of Athole was defeated with great slaughter, and it was with 
great difficulty that he managed to make his escape. Two expeditions 
were afterwards sent north the first under the Earl of Crawford by sea, 
with another body under the Earl of Huntly by land ; the other, under 
the Earls of Argyle and Athole, accompanied by the Lord of the Isles in 
person. But these expeditions proved unsuccessful against Angus Og. 
Argyle, however, managed to pursuade several families of the Isles to join 
him ; but failing in the object of their mission, the two Earls soon returned. 
The Lord of the Isles, however, proceeded south, through the Sound of Mull, 
accompanied by the Macleans, Macleods, Macneils, and others, and again 
encountered his rebellious son in a bay on the south side of Ardnamurchan, 
near Tobermory, where a naval engagement immediately took place between 
them, which resulted in the complete overthrow of the father and in the dis- 
persion of his fleet. By this victory, at " the battle of the Bloody Bay," 
Angus was completely established in the full possession of the power and 
extensive territories of his clan, " There was one called Edmond More 
Obrian along with Eanald Bain (Laird of Muidort's eldest son), who thrust 

* Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, 315-310. 



256 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the blade of an oar in below the stern-post of Macleod's galley, between it 
and the rudder, which prevented the galley from being steered. The 
galley of the heir of Torquil of the Lewis, with' all his men, was taken 
and himself mortally wounded with two arrows, whereof he died soon 

after at Dunvegan After this conflict, the Earl of Athole, 

being provided with boats by Argyle, crossed over privately to Isla, where 
Angus Ogg's lady, daughter of Argyle, was, and apprehended Donald Dhu, 
or 'the Black,' a child of three years of age, and committed him a 
prisoner to Inch Chonuil, so called from the builder, Conuil, son of the 
first Dougall of Lorn, where he remained in custody until his hair got 
grey. Yet Angus Ogg, Donald Du's father, was still advised by the Earl 
of Angus and Hamilton to hold out and maintain his rights. After this, 
John of the Isles gave up to the King all these lands which he formerly 
held back for the support of his grandeur. . . . If we search 
antiquaries, we will find few names in Scotland that mortified more lands 
to the Church than the Macdonalds did. However, I cannot deny but 
his father's curse seems to have lighted on this man. He took a journey 
south, where he killed many of the Macalisters in Arran, and also of his 
own name, for seizing and intromitting with some of Ms lands without 
his consent. Keturning through Argyle and Lochaber, he came to Inver- 
ness. Mackenzie was like to be killed, or at least banished, by Macdonald, 
because he was always against him, contriving all the mischiefs he could, 
least, upon recovering his own, he would deprive Mackenzie of these lands 
which he held of the King. There was another circumstance which 
shortened Macdonald's days viz., there was a lady of the name of 
Macleod, daughter of Kory, surnamed the Black, who was tutor to the 
lawful heir of the Lewis, married to the Laird of Muidort. The tutor, 
her father, being resolved not to acknowledge, by any means, the true 
heir of the Lewis, and engross the whole to himself, was displaced by 
Macdonald, and the rightful heir put in possession. This lady having a 
spite at Macdonald for dispossessing her father, together with John Mac- 
kenzie, contrived his death in the following manner. There was an Irish 
harper of the name of Art O'Carby, of the county of Monaghan in Ireland, 
who was often at Macdonald's, and falling in love with Mackenzie's 
daughter, became almost mad in his amours. Mackenzie seeing him in 
that mood, promised him his daughter, provided he would put Macdonald 
to death, and made him swear never to reveal the secret. This fellow 
being afterwards in his cups, and playing upon his harp, used to sing the 
following verse, composed by himself in the Irish language : 

T' anam do dhia a mharcaicb. an eich bhall-a-bhric, 

Gu'm bheil t' anam an cunnurt ma tha puinnsean an Gallfit ; 

meaning, that the rider of the dapple horse was in danger of his life (for 
Macdonald always rode such a one), if there was poison in his long knife, 
which he called Gallfit. As Macdonald went to bed one night, there was 
none in the room along with him but John Cameron, brother to Ewan, 
laird of Locheill, and Macmurrich, the poet. This John had some rights 
from Macdonald of the lands of Mammore in Lochaber, written the day 
before, but not signed by Macdonald. The harper rose in the night- 
time, when he perceived Macdonald was asleep, and cut his throat, for 
which he was apprehended, but never confessed that he was employed by 



HISTORY OF THE MACDONALDS. 



257 



anybody so to do, although there were several jewels found upon him, 
which were well known to have belonged formerly to Mackenzie and the 
lady of Muidort. The harper was drawn after horses till his limbs were 
torn asunder. After the death of Angus, the Islanders and the rest of the 
Highlanders were let loose, and began to shed one another's blood. Al- 
though Angus kept them in obedience while he was sole lord over them, 
yet, upon his resignation of his rights to the King, all families, his own 
as well as others, gave themselves up to all sorts of cruelties, which con- 
tinued for a long time thereafter,"* 

Gregory substantially corroborates the family historian and informs us 
that the rage of Angus knew no bounds when he discovered by whom his 
child, Donald Dubh, had been carried away ; that this was the real cause 
of the expedition to Athole and the mainland, and of the sacrilegious 
act of violating the Chapel of St Bridget. And after describing his assas- 
sination at Inverness, he concludes : Thus fell Angus, the son and heir 
of John, last Lord of the Isles, With all his violence, which appears to 
have verged upon insanity, he was a favourite with those of his own name, 
who, perhaps, flattered themselves that he was destined to regain all that 
had been lost by his father. 

( lo be Continued.) 



BELIEF OF EKOWE. 



-o- 



SOUND THE TRUMPET OP RENOWN. 

At the Relief of Ekowe, the gallant behaviour of a handful of British troops against 
overwhelming numberb has won the admiration of all. 



bound the trumpet of renown, 

Let its music rend the sky, 
Britain strike thy foemen down, 

Swell thy war note loud and high ; 
See yon brave and gallant band, 
How undauntedly tbey stand 
Waiting for the proud command : 
" Forward, heroes, do or die ! " 

England ! elevate thy Hose ! 

Scotland ! rear thy Thistle green ! 
Every British bosom glows 1 

When those emblems dear are seen ! 

'Mid a cloud of gleaming steel, 
Onward fearlessly they dash ; 
Now our sable foe will feel 

Britain's ire when weapons clash ; 
Boldly fight the valiant few, 
Nobly honour's path pursue, 
Ekowe bursts upon their view, 

Pearson's brilliant signals flash. 
England ! elevate thy Kose, &o. 

EDINBURGH. 



Wilder still tke battle laves, 

England wide her standard flings, 
Far amid the warrior waves 

Scotland's pibroch proudly rings ; 
Louder peals the stirring strain, 
Notes that never sound in vain 
Spurning every galling chain. 

Freedom flaps her golden wings ! 
England ! elevate thy rose, &c., 

Lofty valour struck the blow, 
Stainless honour was the shield ; 

Hundreds now are lying low, 
Vanquished hosts have fled the field ; 

Glory weave a wreath of fame I 

In it blend each noble name ! 

Bravely to the world proclaim 
Britain's sous shall never yield ! 

England 1 elevate thy Rose ! 

Scotland ! rear thy Thi.-tle green ! 
Every British bosom glows ! 

When those emblems dear are seen ! 

ALEXANDER LOGAN. 



Collectanea de Rebus Albanioes, pp. 317-319. 



258 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



A LEGEND OE ST KILDA. 



AMONG the many beautiful and high-born ladies of the Court of Scotland, 
at the time of our story, few could vie, in point of beauty, with the youth- 
ful Alice Graham. Left an orphan at an early age, and before she was 
old enough to realise her loss, she was brought up by her grandmother, 
old Lady Graham. Petted and indulged by her fond relative, flattered 
and spoiled hy the indiscriminate praises of her nurses and maids, fair 
Mistress Alice at seventeen, when she accompanied Lady Graham to 
Court, was as giddy, vain, and empty-headed as she was lovely. The 
admiration she excited, and the attentions paid to her by the gallants of 
the Court, only made the haughty beauty more imperious and capricious. 

She had many eligible offers of marriage, but none of her suitors 
pleased her fastidious taste, until she met with Sir Hugh Grange, when 
everyone was astonished to see her, not only smile on his suit and en- 
courage his attentions, but after a little while actually promise to marry 
him, for Sir Hugh was not at all a likely man, one would suppose to at- 
tract a lively young lady like Alice Graham. He was a reserved haughty 
man, a widower, past the prime of life, an ambitious intriguing politician, 
with a son older than his intended bride. Lady Graham highly disap- 
proved of the proposed alliance, and sought in vain to persuade her grand- 
daughter from such an unsuitable marriage, rightly conjecturing that Sir 
Hugh thought more of her handsome dowry and the influence he would 
gain through his marriage with her, than he did of herself. But whether 
her pride was flattered at having such " a grave and reverend signior " at 
her feet, or whether through mere caprice, Sir Hugh she would have and 
no one else. And as the spoilt beauty had always hitherto had her own 
way, so she had it now, and the marriage was solemnised with all due 
pomp and ceremony, the King himself giving the beautiful bride away. 

Castle Grange, the residence of Sit Hugh, was not a cheerful place 
a dark gloomy pile, evidently built more for strength and defence than with 
any regard for the picturesque or even for comfort situated far from any 
other habitation, on a lonely rock jutting out in the sea, the wild waves 
of the Atlantic ever dashing and foaming round its base, leaping and 
breaking in angry waves against the massive walls, as if eager to swallow 
in its huge billows, the frowning fortress and its inmates. The light 
heart of fair Alice grew sad and heavy, as she surveyed her new home for 
the first time, and, as she passed through its gloomy portals, she shudder- 
ingly compared it to a prison. Yet youth and beauty will enliven any 
place however dull, and the castle, tinder the direction of its new mistress, 
soon assumed a different aspect, a constant stream of visitors, with their 
servants and followers, caused plenty of bustle and excitement ; each day 
brought some new pleasure. Hawking, hunting, riding, games of skill, 
and contests of strength and agility, occupied the day, while the evening 
was devoted to music, dancing, feasting, and flirting. All this revelry 
little suited Sir Hugh's sombre temperament. Long past the age of en- 
joying these gaities himself, he looked with disfavour on what he con- 
sidered the frivolous and extravagant amusements of his wife and her 






A LEGEND OF ST KILDA. 259 

guests, and soon gave expression to his disapproval. Lady Grange, how- 
ever, was enjoying with all the zest of a child, her novel position as 
hostess, and had no idea of giving up the delightful, though somewhat 
dangerous position she held as the centre of admiration, at whose shrine 
was daily offered up the most extravagant flattery, of whose beauty min- 
strels sang, for whose smile gallant youths and valiant men strove in the 
tilting-yard, or risked life and limb in the stately tournament. 

Each day saw Sir Hugh getting more and more annoyed at the con- 
tinued extravagance of his wife. In vain he showed coolness, amounting 
almost to incivility, to his numerous and unwelcome guests, who either 
did not or would not notice his hints and innuendos. Equally in vain 
were his frequent remonstrances to Lady Grange. At first she treated 
his complaints with her usual light-hearted levity, but as he got more de- 
cided and firm in insisting upon her keeping a quieter establishment, she 
got angry, pouted, and sulked, declaring he was a hard-hearted wretch to 
expect her to live in that horrible, dull, gloomy place, without company. 

Unfortunately for Lady Grange she had already succeeded in making 
a most bitter enemy in the person of her husband's son, Nigel, who was 
much annoyed at his father's marriage ; but when he saw the bride, he 
was so charmed with her brilliant wit and glowing beauty, that his resent- 
ment faded away, and he was as ready to bo her servant as the rest of the 
gallants in her train. His awkward, ungraceful figure, rugged features, 
and unpolished address were, however, fatal to his finding lavour in the 
eyes of the fastidious lady, who took a malicious pleasure in making him 
the butt for the shafts of her wit, and amused her guests at his expense, 
by making him appear ridiculous. 

Nigel soon withdrew with deep disgust from the brilliant and thought- 
less circle, breathing curses " not loud but deep " against the fair author 
of his discomfiture. In the solitude of his own chamber, he meditated 
with knitted brow and close-set teeth how best to humble the pride and 
destroy the happiness of his father's bride. His first move was to increase 
by artfully concocted tales and half-expressed hints, his father's dissatis- 
faction with the conduct of Lady Grange. With the skill of an lago, he 
distilled drops of deadly poison into the ears of Sir Hugh, thus daily 
estranging his affections from, and exciting his displeasure against, the 
thoughtless Alice, who, sooth to say, often played into her enemy's hands, 
for, while perfectly well aware of his hostility, she despised and under- 
rated his power ; and strong in her conscious innocence, she took a foolish 
delight in giving him still greater hold over her, by her frivolous conduct 
and self-willed opposition to her husband's wishes. 

Gradually the guests, who could no longer affect ignorance of the un- 
happy domestic relations of their hostess, dropped off, until there only re- 
mained one. Allan Graham was a cousin of Lady Grange ; they had been 
brought up together as children, and Alice regarded him in the light of a 
dear brother. Sir Hugh had however taken a great dislike to this young 
man, and this feeling was worked upon by his son, who never -failed by 
indirect means to call his attention to the familiarity which Lady Grange 
allowed her cousin, and the evident partiality with which she regarded 
him. On finding that Allan remained after the other guests had gone, 
Sir Hugh threw off all self-control, and in a violent scene with his wife, 
coarsely expressed his suspicions, and commanded her with fierce threats 



260 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

to send her lover away and never hold the slightest communication with 
him again at her peril. Now, indeed, Lady Grange realised the folly of 
playing with edged tools, for to her vehemently indignant refutations of 
the base accusations of her husband, she was confronted with instances in 
which her conduct, as exhibited in the light of Nigel's deadly animosity 
appeared, to say the least, suspicious. 

Outraged, bewildered, her pride wounded, her haughty spirit crushed 
under the humiliation, Lady Grange sat like one in a stupor, until her 
overcharged feelings found relief in a passionate burst of tears. Thus 
Allan found her, and in answer to eager entreaties, she told him of her 
trouble, and begged him to leave her at once. Deeply resenting the in- 
dignity oifered to his cousin and himself, the hot-spirited youth drew his 
sword, vowing that he would steep it in the life-blood of the caitiff, Nigel; 
but Lady Grange restrained him, showing the utter futility of attempting 
such a thing against Nigel in his father's house, and surrounded by his 
own people. Allan reluctantly gave way ; but begged of her to send 
word to him if at any time she found herself in want of a trusty friend to 
champion her cause, or redress her wrongs. 

" Alas !" said the broken-hearted lady, while her eyes streamed with 
hot and bitter tears, " alas, Allan, that may not be, I must never see you 
more, or hold any communication with you. Go, leave me to my miserable 
fate ; but do me the last kindness I shall ever ask of you, conceal from 
my dear granddame and my friends the wretched state in which you leave 
me. That would be humiliation indeed." 

" Is it so, fair Alice 1 Is Sir Hugh indeed such a tyrant? Well, at 
least I will leave you my glove ; see here, take it, and whenever you need 
my assistance, send it back to me. I shall need no other message. When I 
see this glove, I will come at once wherever I may be. Will you pro- 
mise to send it when you need me ?" 

Lady Grange gave a tearful assent, and with deep regret the cousins 
parted ; and Allan, mounting his horse and calling his attendants, rode 
sorrowfully away. 

Nigel, with stealthy footsteps retreated from his hiding-place, in 
which he had overheard the parting conversation between the cousins, and 
with a sinister smile on his ill-favoured countenance, he slipped out of the 
gate a little before Allan rode through it, thus it happened that they met 
a little way from the castle. On seeing Nigel on neutral ground, as it 
were, Allan could restrain himself no longer. Flinging himself from his 
steed, and desiring his attendants not to interfere, he rushed forward and 
striking Nigel with his sheathed sword, called upon him to draw and de- 
fend himself. Nothing loth, his opponent's steel flashed out instantly, 
and the contest began. Both were good swordsmen, and for a few mo- 
ments the victory seemed uncertain ; but Allan's passion made him reck- 
less, while Nigel stood immovable, the working of his face only showed 
the concentrated hate that consumed him. Soon the sword of Allan was 
eent spinning out of his hand, and he stood defenceless before his relent- 
less foe. For one moment Nigel seemed inclined to bury his blade in the 
breast of the brave Allan, who stood unmoved before him, disdaining to 
ask for quarter ; but remembering himself, he stayed his hand, exclaim- 
ing as he turned away, " To kill you now would be but a poor avenging 
of all the insults I have borne at your hands. No, your jibes and sneers 



A LEGEND OF ST KILDA, 261 

shall have a better return. I bide my time, and will take my revenge in 
my own way." 

Allan stood looking after his retreating foe with bitter feelings, shame 
for his defeat, mingled with a sense of dread at the inexorable hate and 
malignity depicted on the face of Nigel as he uttered his parting words. 
Then moodily picking up his sword, he slowly remounted, and pursued 
his way. 

Time passed heavily with the beautiful Alice now, Not a visitor ap- 
proached the castle, and she was not allowed to go out of the grounds im- 
mediately surrounding it. Even her own maid was dismissed and ano- 
ther belonging to the neighbourhood substituted. Sir Hugh and Nigel 
were often from home ; they had a small boat in which they came and 
went in a secret and \inostentatious manner. "When at home, Sir Hugh 
treated his wife with cool civility, while the very presence of Nigel was 
hateful to her. Having no mental resources to fall back upon to wear 
away the tedious hours, Lady Grange became dispirited and unhappy 
the only thing that had any interest for her now was to try to discover the 
reason of her husband's frequent absence. She was filled with an insati- 
able curiosity to find out his projects and the object he had in maintain- 
ing so much secrecy about his actions. She had attempted once or twice 
to question him, but met with such a surly rebuff, that she found it use- 
less to attempt to gain any information from him. The more she thought 
over it, the more she became convinced that they were involved in state 
intrigues, probably even of treason. Brought up as she had been, under 
the very shadow of the Court, and honoured by the notice of Eoyalty, 
she regarded treason with peculiar horror, and the suspicion that she 
should be in any way mixed up with the enemies of the King, filled her 
with dismay. She determined to watch them carefully, and, if possible, 
do something to frustrate their schemes. But she was no match for the 
subtle Nigel, who soon penetrated her motives, and, while laughing in his 
sleeve at her futile efforts, he did not fail to direct his father's attention 
to this new and dangerous freak of his wife. Lady Grange was, in con- 
sequence, treated with greater harshness, and kept more like a prisoner 
than ever. The climax was reached, when one day Sir Hugh and his son 
arriving unexpectedly, found Lady Grange examining with breathless in- 
terest some papers to which she had gained access, and which only too 
clearly demonstrated the treasonable plots in which they were engaged. 
So absorbed was she, that she did not hear the splash of their oars under 
her window, nor the grating of the boat against the steps, green and slimy 
with sea-weeds, that led down to the water. The first thing she heard 
was the fierce oath that escaped from Sir Hugh as he saw how she was 
engaged. The first thing she felt was his heavy hand bruising her deli- 
cate arm with its rude clasp. The first thing she saw, as she raised her 
startled eyes, was the sneering look of triumph on the hateful face of 
Nigel, as he stood looking on with malicious pleasure at her confusion. 
That insolent look stung her into madness. Rising superior to her fear, 
she, with flashing eyes and scornful voice, denounced them for a couple 
of traitors, and, forgetting in her passion her helpless condition, vowed 
she would defeat their scheme* and make known their treachery, Nigel 
listened with the sinister smile still on his cruel face. Aa a cat takes a 
delight in the dying agonies of the poor mouse, so Nigel found pleasure 
in witnessing the unavailing passion of his victim. 



262 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

But there was an ominous frown on the face of Sir Hugh, as he 
growled rather than said, " Oh ! oh ! my pretty bird, do you siiig so loud ? 
we must find a cage for you, before you fly away altogether." Then ga- 
thering up the papers, he left the room, followed by Nigel 

Left to herself, Lady Grange underwent a revulsion of feeling, the 
burning indignation which had hitherto supported her gave way under the 
reaction. She felt a cold sinking at heart, as she thought of her utter 
helplessness, and overcome by fear, she threw herself weeping on a couch. 

The situation of the poor lady was indeed pitiable. She was kept a 
strict prisoner to her apartments, the only person she saw being the wo- 
man who waited on her. Devoid of all means of communicating with her 
friends, she was perfectly at the mercy of Sir Hugh, whom she had never 
loved, and now looked upon with abhorrence. 

Surely now Nigel has had his revenge on the proud beauty who had 
made sport of his devotion ; but no, he must slake his tiger-like thirst for 
blood. By the assistance of the woman who acted as attendant and jailer 
of Lady Grange, he got possession of the glove that Allan had given to 
his cousin at parting, and immediately sent it off to him by a trusty mes- 
senger, to whom he gave full instructions how to proceed. 

Days, weeks, wore away, Lady Grange still remained a close prisoner, 
pining in solitude without hope of release. Towards the close of a warm 
summer day she sat at the open window of her room, looking out on the 
sea, the cool evening breeze was grateful to her fevered brow, her face 
still beautiful in outline had lost the freshness of health it was white and 
careworn the fair forehead already wrinkled with lines of sorrow and 
suffering. She gazed at the sea, but she noted not how beautiful it looked 
with the rays of the setting sun reflected in every wave with ever-chang- 
ing hues. Her thoughts were far away, with her loving grandmother, 
the only parent she had ever known. Then she recalled her merry life as 
a girl, the troops of friends, the ardent admirers, the brilliant Court, the 
Royal pair who had been so gracious and kind ; then her thoughts lin- 
gered on the memory of her cousin, the brave, the joyous, kind-hearted 
Allan what would she not give to be able to call him to her aid ; when 
her thoughts were abruptly recalled to her present unhappy condition by 
hearing an unusual commotion in the castle, voices in loud expostulation, 
then a firm step on the stone staircase, the clank of a spurred heel, a halt 
at her chamber door, the voice of her attendant in controversy with ano- 
ther voice which caused the blood to rush to her heart with a sudden 
throb, and her pulse to beat with excitement ; a moment more and the 
door is dashed open, and Allan Graham enters with a hasty step ; ano- 
ther moment and she is clinging to him and sobbing on his breast. Quick 
eager questions and answers succeed each other, till Lady Grange asked 
in a tone of wonder, " But how was it Allan that you arrived so oppor- 
tunely. "What brought you back to this hateful place T 

" What brought me ?" exclaimed Allan, " Why, your message, of 
course. Did I not tell you I would come at any time, if you sent me my 
glove T 

" Your glove," faltered his cousin. " I never sent it, because I could 
not, there must be some mistake," she continued, hastening across the 
room to a cabinet, where she had hidden the glove. When she saw that 
it was gone she turned with a frightened look, " Oh, Allan ! what does it 



A LEGEND OF ST KILDA. 263 

mean ? I fear me much there is some plot against you, to lure you here 
to your destruction." " Fear not, dear Alice, what matters it who sent 
me the token, as long as I am come. Some unknown friend perchance hath 
done this good turn." " Alas ! alas ! I have no friends here ; but hist ! 
what is that ? do you not hear the sound of oars, and voices too 1 Hea- 
vens ! it is Sir Hugh and Nigel. Fly ! fly ! Allan ; if they find you here, 
you are doomed." Her warning came too late ; Sir Hugh dashed into the 
room with his sword drawn, demanding in a voice of thunder, what had 
brought Allan there ; then, without waiting for a reply, he made a lunge 
and attempted to run him through ; but Allan was on his guard, and 
quickly parried the stroke. Lady Grange, with a piercing shriek, threw 
herself between them and tried to shield her cousin from the fury of her 
husband. Nigel, who had followed his father into the room, drew his 
dirk and passed round to the back of Allan. Lady Grange caught sight 
of the cruel face of her relentless enemy, lighted up with fiendish exulta- 
tion, saw the keen blade flash as it descended with unerring aim, and 
buried itself in the true heart of her cousin. She heard the harsh voice 
of Nigel exclaim, " Thus I take my revenge." She felt the warm blood 
of her kinsman gush over her neck and breast, then merciful oblivion 
seized on her overtaxed brain, and she fell insensible to the floor. The 
unfortunate Allan never spoke, the stroke was so sudden and deadly. 
His still warm body was dragged to the window, and ruthlessly thrown 
out to the hungry waves below. " What shall we do to her," said Sir 
Hugh, pointing to the insensible figure of his wife, " the traitress deserves 
the same fate as her lover, but yet " 

" Nay, father," interposed Nigel, " I have a better plan than that, 
listen," and he eagerly whispered his scheme, which his father agreed to, 
and raising the poor lady in their arms, they made their way downstairs 
to their boat, leaving the castle as secretly as they came. 

When Lady Grange recovered consciousness, she found herself lying 
at the bottom of the boat, covered with a cloak, the keen night wind chil- 
led her through and through, the cold spray dashed over her as the boat 
cut through the heaving billows ; but her bodily discomfort was nothing 
compared to the agony of her mind. One look at the stern, unrelenting 
face of her husband and the malignant expression on Nigel's countenance, 
convinced her that any appeal for mercy would be useless. 

Hour after hour they kept on their way, the night wore away, the 
stars disappeared, and the clear moon paled before the advancing orb of 
day ; but the rising sun brought no comfort to the unhappy lady. Stupe- 
fied by grief, she seemed as though she was under the influence of a fright- 
ful nightmare. She saw what was going on without the slightest power of 
speech or resistance. She knew they were approaching land, for she 
could see the rugged outline of high rocks in the distance. Soon the boat 
was under the shadow of the same rocks, then the keel grated harshly on 
the shingle, as it was run ashore, when she felt herself lifted out and 
placed on dry ground. She gazed around with wondering eyes. What 
dreary place was this 1 Had they brought her here to murder her where 
no eye could see them ? No, they re-enter the boat and seat themselves. 
Sir Hugh does not turn his head ; but Nigel cannot resist the promptings 
of gratified revenge. He gloats over the despair of his victim with the 
malevolence of a demon, as the boat again puts off. Lady Grange sees 



264 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the rapidly receding boat, and the full horror of her situation bursts upon 
her appalled mind. Throwing up her arms with a gesture of despair, she 
uttered screams mingled with supplications, so long as they were in sight, 
then she again relapsed into insensibility. 

M. A. ROSE. 
(To be Continued.) 



THE GIELS OF CANADA. The girls in the principal cities of 
Canada are noted as follows : Montreal, the best dressed. Toronto, the 
tallest and most stylish. Quebec, smallest feet ; all dumplings and lambs, 
London, the most demure, Kingston, robust and blooming. Hamilton, 
the best musicians. St John, KB., the prettiest. Halifax, the best com- 
plexions. Port Hope, intellectual and vivacious. Coburg, fond of music, 
the wharf promenade and flirting. Brockville, lady-like and graceful. 
Prescott, the most amiable. Brantford, the most indifferent. Sarnia, the 
most anxious to be loved. Bowmanville, the most anxious to be married. 
St Catherines, the wittiest and most refined. Charlottetown, the most 
truthful. St Johns, Kfld., the most liberal entertainers. Peterborough, 
the most unsophisticated, with a weakness for skating. Belleville, the 
most reckless. Ottawa, the most intellectual. Canadian Illustrated News. 



MONUMENT TO THE LATE JOHN MACKENZIE, OF "THE 
BEAUTIES OF GAELIC POETRY." 

It will be remembered that a Subscription was originated in the Celtic Magazine some two 
years ago to raise a small monument, in his native Parish of Gairloch, to our distinguished 
countryman, who has placed Celtic scholars and all who take an interest in Celtic literature 
under such a debt of gratitude, by his famous collection, "The Beauties of Gaelic Poetry"; 
his Lives of the Gaelic Bards ; and other works in the same field. The response made enabled 
us to erect a much more substantial monument than was at first thought of, and wa are glad to 
state that sufficient funds were forthcoming to defray nearly all the expenses incurred hitherto. 
The work cannot, however, be considered complete without a nice railing round the monument, 
which will cost 5 or 6 additional ; and we shall be glad if any of our Celtic friends who have not 
already given will aid us with their Subscriptions to get this small sum together, and so en- 
able us to finish the whole in a manner worthy of the man commemorated. The following is 
the balance sheet, from which it will be seen that the sums received practically balance the 
outlays, the sum of 2s 7d only being due to the Treasurer : 

To Sums received and acknowledged in detail in No. XXV. of the Celtic 

Magazine .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 33 15 

Do. do. in No. XXXII 15 9 6 

Do. do. in No. XXXIII. . . 18 

Do. do. in No. XXXV. 11 2 6 

K. Macewen, not previously acknowledged . . . . . . . . 050 

Interest .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 017 

Total Receipts .. .. .. .. 61 11 7 

By Contract price to Messrs Robertson & law, sculptors, 

Inverness . . . . . . . . . . 65 6 8 

By Advertising, Printing Circulars, Postages, &c. . . 3 19 
By Travelling and other Expenses, going to and returning 

from Gairloch, to erect monument . . . . 1 11 6 

Paid for Carting Stones, and Labourers' Wages at Gairloch 17 

61 14 2 



Balance due to Treasurer . . . . . . . . 027 

ALEXANDER FRASER, Hon. Treasurer. 
A. MACKENZIE, Hon. Secretary. 
Celtic Magazine Office, Inverness. 
March 16th, 1880. 



THE MONKS OF IONA.* 
By COLIN CHISHOLM. 

HISTORY records that St Columba, the pious founder of the Monks of 
lona, was born at Gartlan, in Donegal, in the year of our Lord 521. It 
is stated that he was of royal pedigree, both by paternal and maternal 
descent. His father was one of the eight sons of O'Neil of the nine 
hostages, supreme monarch of all Ireland, and his mother was a daughter 
of the Royal House of Leinster. According to some Irish writers, his 
proper name was Corinthian, but was called by his companions Columan, 
or Dove. From his attachment to the church he was also called Colum- 
Cille, or Columb of the Church. At an early age he was placed under 
the care of a holy priest. His biographer, Adamnan, the 6th Abbot of 
lona, tells us that he afterwards resided with the saintly Bishop Finnian, 
at Moville, County Down. St Columba went from the north to the 
south of Ireland, and took up his residence at Cluanard College, in 
Leinster, which was resorted to by the most eminent sages and divines of 
the day. In due time he was ordained priest, and began his labour with 
apostolic zeal. In his twenty-fifth year, he founded the monastery 
of Deny, and in the year 553 that of Durrow. O'Curry, the late eminent 
Celtic scholar, in his Lectures on the Manuscript-Materials of Ancient 
Irish History, says, that the eight great races of Ireland are O'Neill and 
O'Donnell in the north. O'Brian and M'Carthy in the south, O'Moore and 
O'Byrne in the east, and O'Connor and O'Rourke in the west. 

This union ot noble races, combined with piety and education, gave 
St Columba extensive influence. Usher and O'Donnell state that he 
founded more that one hundred monastries before his departure from Ire- 
land. We have it on the authority of Adamnan that St Columba was in 
the vigour of manhood, being 42 years of age, when he established himself 
in lona. All testimonies agree in celebrating his personal beauty. His 
height, his voice, and his cordiality were very remarkable. Venerable 
Bede thus writes : " Columba came into Britain in the ninth year of the 
reign of Bridius, who was the son of Meilochon, and the powerful king of 
the Pictish nation, and he converted that nation to the faith of Christ by 
his preaching and example ; whereupon, he also received the aforesaid 
island for a monastery. His successors hold the island to this day." 
Ritson, in his Annals of the Caledonians, says that " Conal MacConguil, 
King of the Scots, was the real benefactor of the holy man." 

The late Dr Norman Macleod (the father of the late editor of Good 
Words] tells us, in his eloquent Gaelic life of St Columba, that Columba 
left Ireland in a little curach in the year of our Lord 5G3, accompanied 
by twelve of his select and beloved disciples. He reached that lonely 
island behind Mull, which is called from that time / Challum Chilled A 
writer in the London Examiner, January 7th, 1871, states that on the 

* From the Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, 1878-9. 
t Vide " LeabLar nan cnoc," p, 43-53. 



266 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

arrival of St Columba at lona, " he set himself to establish, on the double 
basis of intellectual and manual labour, the new community which was 
henceforth to be the centre of his activity." How far he succeeded in his 
gigantic undertaking will be seen by another extract I translated from the 
polished Gaelic of Dr Macleod. After dwelling with evident sympathy on 
the difficulties St Columba encountered among the Druids and their un- 
civilized Caledonian followers, the Dr says " The country itself was at 
that time like a vast wilderness, without way or safe roads through the 
thick dark woods, the hills extensive and full of wild beasts. But in 
spite of all this, he persevered, and that in a measure miraculous. During 
thirty-fjour years he worked hard founding churches, and spreading the 
Gospel of Christ. In his own time he saw the Druidic religion con- 
demned, and the kingdom of Scotland converted to the religion of the 
Gospel" The Doctor states that St Columba established three hundred 
churches in his day, and that he founded one hundred monasteries. 

We are told that the small curach, or coracle, in which St Columba 
and his twelve companions came from Ireland, was built of wicker-work, 
covered with hide. It appears that the Celtic nations navigated their 
stormy seas with such flotilla. In the frail skiifs of that period, St 
Columba and his Monks sailed from island to island through the Hebrides, 
and thus they discovered St Kilda, the Faroe Islands, and even reached 
Iceland. Not only did they spread Christianity through the islands, but 
through the inlands of Caledonia, carrying truth, light, and religion to 
the remotest glens and valleys of the Highlands and Lowlands also. We 
have the testimony of our earliest writers bearing us out in this belief. 
We have also the strongest collateral evidence in support of it ; and let 
me now direct your attention to a few places south, north, east, and 
west where the Monks of lona and their disciples planted religion, and 
dedicated their churches and chaples to Saints of unmistakable Celtic 
names. 

County or Town. Name of Chnrcb. 

Berwickshire Gill or Eaglais founded by Gospatrick. 

Do Cill-Lauran. 

Peeblesshire Cill-Bothoc, or Beathoc. 

Do Cill or GillMoriston (changed in 1189 to Eddleston). 

Ayrshire Gill-Bride. 

Do Cill-Mnian. 

Dumfriesshire Gill-Michael, in the town of Dumfries. 

Do , . . . Eccles-Fechan, 

Wigtonshire Cill-Cholm. 

Linlithgowshire Cill or Eaglais-Machan, 

Do. ...Cill or Dailmanich, or Delmenie. 

Dumbartonshire Gill-Patrick. 

Renfrewshire Gill-Bar chan. 

Do Cill-Fillan. 

Do CiU-Chalum, 

Stirlingshire Gill-Earn. 

Do Cill-Ninan (Bannockburn). 

Haddingtonshire Cill-Lacly (now Glade's Muir Church). 

Kirkcudbright Cill-Eren, 



THE MONKS OF IONA, 267 

County or Town. Name f Church. 

Perthshire Cill-Ohonan or FortingaL 

Do Cill-Fhirm. 

Do Cill-Madoc. 

Forfarshire Cill-Causnan. 

Edinburgh Cill-Ghiles, i.e., Ghille losa. 

Fife CiU-Chonnchar. 

Do Cill-Raymont. 

Do CiU-Eeuny. 

Aberdeenshire Cill-Bavtha. 

Do Cill-Adamnan. In the Ellon district, and dedicated 

in the 7th century. 
Sutherland. Gill-Earn. 

Do Cill-Donnan. 

Do Cill-Pheadar, in Clyna 

Do Cill-Chalum-Chill, Clyne. 

Ross-shire Gill-Martin. 

Do Cill-Donnan. 

Do Cill-Earnan. 

Do Cill-Fhillan, ) ,. , . v .^ n 

n-n TT- A f both in Jvintail. 
Do Cill-Uistean, } 

Inverness Cill-Colm, Petty. The Earl of Moray has also the 

title of Lord of St Colm, from a small island on 
the coast of Fife. 

Do Cill-Beathan, Strathglass. 

Do Cill-Uradan, do. 

Do Gill- Finnan, Glengarry. 

Do Cill-Donnan, also in Glengarry. 

Do Cill-Barr, or Barra Isle. 

Do Cill-Michael, do. 

Argyleshire Cill-Chalum, in Lorn. 

Do CillFinan. 

Do Cill-Choinnich , or Kenneth. 

Do Cill-Chiaran (Campbeltown). 

Do Cill-Oran, in Colonsy Island. 

Kincardineshire Cill-Lauran. The birth-place of John De Fordun, 

author of the Scoto-Chronicon. This parish is also 
celebrated for having been the residence, and pro- 
bably the burial place of St Palladius, sent to 
Scotland by Pope Celestine, in 431. St Palladius 
was the first bishop sent to Scotland, 

Having taken you in imagination on a rapid pigrimage to view, if not 
to pray with me at, the shrines of Celtic Saints in every quarter and por- 
tion of our native country, is it too much to expect you to endorse with 
me the honest statement of Dr Macleod ? 

We have seen how the surface of Scotland has been studded with 
churches dedicated to saints of Celtic names ; but the sceptic will exclaim, 
" You North Bri tains are so very clannish, that nothing less than national 
saints will satisfy you." My answer to any such charge is that there are 
more names of Roman saints on the Scottish Catholic Kalendar than on 
the Kalendar of any country of its size in Europe. 



268 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE, 

The Order of Sf Columba was one of the most extensive, for it had a 
hundred monasteries and abbeys belonging to it in the British islands. 
The principal house or head of the Order was at lona. It was in this 
lonely island that St Columba, who was a priest and monk only, received 
the homage of mitred bishops and crowned monarchs. 

In the time of Venerable Bede, about the year 731, all the bishops of 
the Picts were subject to the jurisdiction of the priest who was Abbot of 
lona. Kings sought advice, and received both counsel and consolation 
from St Columba. Fierce warriors, bitter enemies, proud and haughty 
chieftains, were reconciled, and absolved on bended knee before him. 
Feuds and contentions were abandoned and obliterated before St Columba. 
In his presence mutual friendship and goodwill were entered on, and 
sealed by oath on three stones. As these stones correspond in number 
with the three Divine persons of the blessed Trinity, it is possible that 
St Columba might have pointed them out, or even used them in some 
religious sense, so as to make a lasting impression on the minds of the 
newly reconciled parties, and incline them, for the rest of their lives, to 
recoil with horror from participating in the acts of belligerents. History 
and legend seem to be mutually silent on this point ; therefore, let this 
view of swearing on the " Three black stones of lona," be received for 
what it is worth. 

Thus we find St Columba had the power of binding the hands and 
the hearts of the most determined enemies. He exercised his power in 
preventing wars, and in pacifying all manner of human turbulence. We 
find the kings, the courts, and the people of the surrounding nations had re- 
posed unbounded confidence in him. Yet in the very midst of this, much 
more than regal power could bestow, we find that his palace was a hut, 
built of planks, and there up to an advanced age, he slept upon the hard 
floor, only with a stone for a pillow. Thither he returned after perform- 
ing his share of out-door labour with the other monks, and there he 
patiently transcribed the sacred text of Scripture. When he had come 
to the thirty-third Psalm, he stopped and said, " Baithean will write the 
rest." On the next morning he hastened before the other monks to the 
church, and knelt before the altar, and there he died, in the arms of 
Diarmad, blessing all his disciples, on the 9th day of June, 597. 

" To us," says Montalembert, " looking back, he appears a person as 
singular as he is loveable, in whom, through all the mists of the past, and 
all the cross lights of legend, the man may be still recognised under the 
Saint." " For two centuries," says Dr S. M'Corry, " after his death, lona 
was the most venerated sanctuary of the Celts, the nursery of bishops, 
and the centre of learning and religious knowledge. Seventy kings or 
princes were brought to lona, to be buried at the feet of St Columba, 
faithful to a traditional custom, the remembrance of which has been pie- 
served by Shakespeare : 

' Where is Duncan's body?' 
asks Eoss, in Macbeth. Macduff replies 

' Carried to Colme's Kill, the 
Sacred storehouse of his predecessors, 
And guardian of their bones.'" 



THE MONKS OF IONA. 269 

A kindred expression of thought has been placed on record by the 
bi-linguist poet, Evan MacColl, formerly of Lochfineside, but latterly 
tuning his lyre to the rustling of the " Green Maple Tree " in Canada. 
In one of his plaintive Odes to lona, MacColl says : 

" Sacred Isle of lona, 
Where saints and heroes 
Live in stone." 

It is admitted by critics that Dr Johnson wrote one of the finest 
pieces in the English language on lona, "Wordsworth, and a host of 
master-minds, wrote on lona. 

" The distinguished archaeologist," says Dr Stewart M'Corry, " Dr 
Eeeves, who, although not a catholic, has proved his honesty of purpose 
by editing so well ' Adamnan's Life of St Columba,' has given us in his 
' Chronicon Hyenese' the detailed chronology of the forty-nine successors 
of St Columba from 597 to 1219. "We have it on the best possible au- 
thority that the first eleven abbots of lona after St Columba proceeded, 
with the exception of one individual, from the same stock as himself 
from the race of Tirconnel, and were all descended from the same son of 
Niall of the nine hostages, the famous king of all Ireland." 

I will now make a few remarks about St Baithean. He was steward 
of lona, and succeeded St Columba as Abbot of lona. It is stated that 
Baithean consecrated the burying-ground of my native valley, Strathglass. 
Be that as it may, it is quite certain that the cill or clachan in Strath- 
glass is dedicated to St Baithean. There is a small green mound close to 
the cill or clachan called Cnoc Bhaithean, at the foot of which gushes out 
a spring of the clearest and coldest water, also called Fuaran Bhaithean. 
The legend relaters of the district state that a clodhopper began to cut 
rinds for thatch on the brow of Cnoc Bhaithean. A well-meaning neigh- 
bour reminded him that the mound was considered sacred, as bearing the 
name of Cnoc Bhaithean. The scornful and contumelious reply the 
neighbour received from the insolent clodhopper was " 0, Baithean maol 
carrach bhuaininn foid eadar a bhial 's a shroin." Ann am priobadh an 
roisg, thuit an duine truagh, fuar niarbh thairis air crasg a chaibe-lair a 
bha na lamhan fhein. The English equivalent of the reply, and the im- 
mediate result thereof, may be taken as the following : " 0, Bald scald- 
headed Baithean, I would cut a sod between his mouth and his nose." 
In the twinkling of an eye, the miserable man fell lifeless over the cross- 
handles of the rind-spade he had in his own hands. The sceptic will ex- 
claim, who cares for misty legends ! The Rev. Dr Stewart M'Corry tells 
us that Milman, in his Latin Christianity, vol. L, p. 415, writes, "His- 
tory, to be true, must condescend to speak the language of legend." 

Nicholas Carlisle is answerable for the appearance of the following 
statement regarding lona in his " Topographical Dictionary of Scotland," 
London, 1813 "The Chapel of the Nunnery is now used by the inha- 
bitants as a kind of general cow-house, and the bottom is consequently 
too miry for examination. Some of the stones which covered the later 
Abesses have inscriptions, which might yet be read if the Chapel were 
cleaned. The Cemetery of the Nunnery was, till very lately, regarded 
with such reverence that only women were buried in it. Besides the two 
principal churches, there are, I think, five chapels yet standing, and three 



270 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

more remembered," Carlisle continues the sickening narrative, and states 
that " the wood forming the roof of the churches and chapels in lona, was 
the first plunder of needy rapacity." For the honour of our country I 
wish we could suppose that Mr Carlisle had been misinformed about the 
unroofing of the churches and chapels in lona. 

It is not my intention to lead you at present through the roofless but 
noble ruins of the cathedral and churches of lona, the walls of which have 
been described in a leading journal as " riddled and cracked in a most 
alarming manner." Neither shall we be seen along with tramping tourist 
and browsing cattle defacing the tombs, and disturbing the ashes of the 
saintly, princely, and heroic dead in the consecrated cemetery. 

In the Irish annals there is preserved a short account of events in 
lona, carried on from year to year. Under date of A.D. 794, there is this 
entry " Devastation of all the islands by the heathens." From this time 
forward, during a period of no less than three hundred years, lona was 
frequently ravaged, its churches and monasteries burnt, and its brethren 
murdered by the savage Northmen, It is stated that the bones of St 
Columba were carried to safer places to Kells in Ireland, and to Dun- 
keld in Scotland. 

lona was the only place spared by Magnus, King of Norway, in his 
predatory expedition of A.D. 1098. The fierce King Magnus is said to 
have recoiled with awe when he had attempted to enter the church built 
by the Saintly English Princess, Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Cean- 
more. 

The recent improvements in and around St Mungo's Cathedral in 
Glasgow are attributed to a happy remark, vouchsafed by Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, on Her Majesty's visit to that cathedral during the Royal 
Tour through the West Highlands. Some of ns had fondly expected 
that Her Majesty would have been graciously pleased to extend her 
queenly journey, and steer her royal bark to lona's Isle. This we 
flattered ourselves to hear that Queen Victoria, like Queen Margaret, had 
landed on the hallowed Isle of lona. 

From that auspicious moment we expected to have heard that an edict 
had gone forth warning the elements, saying in effect this is the oldest 
Christian temple in Great Britain. The work of destruction and dilapi- 
dation must cease instanter, and henceforth give place to preservation and 
restoration, 

Sin agaibh brigh mo sgeoil. 



"POEMS AND SONGS, GAELIC AND ENGLISH." A copy 
of the recently published volume of " Poems and Songs, Gaelic and Eng- 
lish," by Mrs Mary Mackellar, bard to the Gaelic Society of Inverness, 
having been in due form presented to the Queen, Mrs Mackellar has 
received the following reply : " Windsor Castle, Feb. 28th, 1880. Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir Henry Ponsonby is commanded by the Queen to thank 
Mrs Mackellar for the volume of poems and songs which she has had 
the kindness to send to Her Majesty." 

THE EDITOR IN CANADA," VII,, crushed out, 



NOTES ON CAITHNESS HISTOEY. 

THE CHEYNES. 


No. I. 

MUCH cannot be written with any degree of accuracy regarding the History 
of Caithness in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The district now 
embraced within the county was far removed from the seat of Govern- 
ment, and it necessarily took a considerable time before communication 
could take place between the far north and the metropolis of Scotland. 
On this account important events might have had happened affecting the 
welfare of the kingdom long ere the intelligence thereof reached the 
northern extremity of the country. But notwithstanding this great draw- 
back, some eminent men connected with Caithness distinguished them- 
selves from time t time in the affairs of their country. And it may be 
well, in the first place, to refer to the Cheynes, who were Lords of Auld- 
wick Castle, and especially to Sir Reginald Cheyne, the father and son of 
that name who were both men of ability and experience, and were like- 
wise considered tried servants in questions bearing on the well-being of 
the nation. The Cheynes, or as they were styled in Norman-French, Du 
Chesyne, were of Norman extraction, and came over with the Sinclairs 
and other families to Britain along with William the Conqueror. Not 
finding, perhaps, a congenial soil in England, a branch of the family 
arrived in the North of Scotland, establishing its head quarters at the 
Castle of Inverugie, parish of St Fergus, and county of Aberdeen. One 
named Sir -Reynold Cheyne, belonging to the parish of St Fergus, had 
two sons namely, Reginald, who was Lord Chamberlain of Scotland in 
1267, and Henry, who was appointed Bishop of Aberdeen in 1281. 

Between 1320 and 1330 it is evident that the Earls of Caithness only 
possessed one-half of the county, while the other half appears to have 
belonged to the De Moravia family. Treskyn de Moray, Lord of Duffus, 
had by his wife Johanna two daughters Mary and Christina each of 
whom had one fourth of Caithness. Johanna died some time before the 
year 1269. Mary was married to Sir Reginald Cheyne, while Christina 
married William De Fedrett. It appeal's that this William De Fedrett 
gave his one-fourth of Caithness to Sir Reginald Cheyne the latter of 
whom then became the owner of one-half of the county. This is con- 
firmed by the learned antiquary, Dr Skene, in his " Notes on the Earldom 
of Caithness," reported in the proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland. 

The principal stronghold of Sir Reginald in Caithness was Auldwick 
Castle, the ruins of which may still be seen. Centuries ere the town of 
Wick had received its Royal Charter from the hands of its Sovereign, the 
Castle of Auldwick was full of life, and its strong primitive-like walls 
afforded protection at a time when a man's life was accounted of very 
little value. Even at the present time the old Castle, standing prominently 
on a vast precipice, forms a landmark to the lonely mariner and brawny 
fisherman, while the eye of the traveller is attracted by its weird and 



272 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

olden appearance. The first that is known ot the Castle is that it was 
the stronghold of the Cheynes. Cambden, in his Brittania states that 
" Oldwick Castle is a curious tower of great antiquity has small chambers 
on its very thick walls, and narrow stairs opening into the hall or area 
below. The outside of the building shows scarce anything like windows, 
only a few small square openings left for observation." The Macfarlane 
MSS. describe the old castle in the following terms : " The ruins are now 
known to sailors as the Old Man of Wick being a tower of three storeys, 
with remains of other buildings, built on a high peninsula rock at the 
south-head of the Bay of "Wick, and defended on the land side by a deep 
ditch." The situation and general surroundings of the castle are described 
by Mr James Traill Calder in his History of Caithness in the following 
words "The whole aspect of the scene is peculiarly wild and repulsive, 
without a single redeeming feature of beauty. With a gale from the east 
or north-east the sea beach is horrible, reminding one of the poet's epithet 
of ' a Hell of waters.' The maddened breakers roar and foam, and dash 
in fiend-like fury against the worn cliffs, while the old keep, grey and 
weather-beaten, scowls amid the storm like an angry demon." 

At the time the county was nothing save a mere wilderness, with an 
exceedingly small population, and the inhabitants of the "keep" had 
very little to do, except to protect themselves from their enemies without, 
and to engage in the chase. But apart from such duties, the Lords of the 
Castle, both father and son, had other functions to perform, and both 
were regarded as men of position and standing in the kingdom. It is im- 
possible to detail all the events of their lives, in respect that no record 
exists regarding them. In his Heraldry, Nisbet mentions " that Reginald 
Cheyne, the father, and Reginald, the son, were both present in 1284 
among the Magnates Scotiw who agreed to receive the Princess Margaret 
the fair maid of Norway as their Queen ; indeed the father and son 
were parties to the obligation. This fact alone established their position 
in the kingdom. Again, in 1296, Sir Reginald, with others of the same 
name, swore fealty to Edward I. of England. All the principal men in 
the kingdom followed a similar course, with the exception of Sir William 
Wallace. Sir Reginald was present at the convention at Brigham in 
1289. In 1292 the " Roll of the Accounts of Reginald, Sheriff of Inver- 
ness," was produced. The Sheriffdom of Inverness then comprehended 
all the Northern Counties, but by an Act of the Scottish Parliament, 
passed in 1503, the Sheriffdom of Caithness (now the Counties of Caith- 
ness and Sutherland) was disjoined from that of Inverness. In 1305, 
when King Edward, I. of England, arranged the Government of Scotland, 
he appointed Sir Reginald one of the Justiciaries " in the North parts 
beyond the mountains." 

After leading an eventful life, Sir Reginald died some time previous 
to 6th November 1313, leaving his possessions to his son Reginald. The 
son, it may be remarked, was regarded as a kind of patriot and warrior, 
and, as a hunter, was looked upon as the Ninirod of the North. Dr Hill 
Burton, in his History of Scotland, describes the famous address to the 
Pope, passed in the Parliament assembled in the Abbey of Arbroath, on 
the 6th day of April 1320, as to the Independence of Scotland, and 
Reginald le Cheyne was one of the Barons who subscribed that celebrated 
document. He next appears with the Scottish army at Halidon Hill in 



NOTES ON CAITHNESS HtSTOEY. 273 

1333. In this battle the Scotch lost almost as much as they had gained 
at Bannockburn, and in it Sir Eeginald was taken prisoner by the English. 
He was shortly afterwards liberated from his confinement, and returned 
to the north of Scotland, where his chief enjoyment was hunting. 

He was the last male issue of his family, and on his return to Caith- 
ness he married a lady of Scandinavian descent, and it may be well to 
relate the following occurrence, written by the same pen elsewhere : 
Eeginald was very anxious that his vast estates should continue in his 
own family, and on his lady giving birth to a daughter, he was so enraged 
that he gave orders to drown the infant. The mother, however, with 
maternal affection, sent the child to a nurse, unknown to the cruel parent. 
By and bye a second child was born, and this child also happened to be 
a daughter. The father repeated his former orders, while the mother 
adopted her former tactics. As his wife Imd no other child, Sir Eeginald 
thought it was owing to a dispensation of Providence on account of his 
cruelty to the two children whom he supposed were drowned. About 
twenty years after the birth of the eldest child, Lady Cheyne had a great 
entertainment at Sir Eeginald's castle near Lochmore, and conspicuous 
among the guests were two young ladies whose beauty and amiable man- 
ners made them the observed of all observers. Eeginald enquired who 
they were, and on his lady informing him, he became deeply affected. 
The two daughters were educated at the Convent of Murkle, near Thurso, 
the only seminary for the instruction of young ladies in those days. The 
two daughters were named Marjory and Marietta. The former was mar- 
ried in 1337 to Nicholas, second son of the Earl of Sutherland, while the 
latter married John de Keith, second son of Edward, the Marischal of 
Scotland. Sir Eeginald divided his estates previous to his death, and 
Marjory got Auldwick. 

He is referred to in the old statistical account of the parish of Halkirk. 
He is sometimes called "Morar na Shean," which means the Great Cheyne. 
It is stated in the Statistical Account that he had "a chest or some kind of a 
machine fixed in the mouth of the stream below the Castle for catching 
salmon in their ingress into the loch, or their egress out of it ; and that 
immediately on the fish being entangled in the machine, the capture was 
announced to the whole family by the ringing of a bell which the motions 
and struggles of the fish set agoing by means of a cord fixed at one end 
to the bell in the middle of an upper room, and at the other end to the 
machine in the stream below," Sir Eobert Gordon, in his History of the 
House of Sutherland, mentions that, " In this "William, Erie of Souther- 
land, his dayes, lived Eenold Cheyn, a Cathyness man, who dureing his 
tyme was a great commander in that cuntrie ; of whom many fables are 
reported amongst the vulgar sort of people, and cheiflie concerning hunt- 
ing, wherein he much delighted. Doubtles the Cheins had sometymes 
many possessions, and were ance of greatest command and power in that 
cuntrey, yet they were never carles thereof." 

Sir Eeginald was the Sheriff of Invernairn, to which he was appointed 
in 1292. He died at a ripe old age, about the year 1350. Before his 
death, he wished that his corpse would be covered over with sand from 
Lochmore. He was buried in the Abbey of Olgrinmore, or Olgrinbeg, 
Thus passed away the House of Cheyne, in the County of Caithness, and 
it may be well to note that they held the lands from King David IL 



274 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

In Robertson's Index to Charters there are the following entries 
" Charter by King David II. to Ronald Cheyne of the fourth part of 
Kathnes, given by William Fedrey (Fresken), in the County of Inverness, 
and Charter by King David II. to Marjory Chene of the lands of Strath- 
brock, and half of Catnes. 

Auldwick Castle has been for many generations silent as the grave, 
while Wick has breathed an existence by Royal grant since 1589. Yet 
who can tell if the words of the old couplet will turn out true, that 

Aulwick was Auldwick ere New Wick was begun. 

And that Auldwick will be Auldwick after New Wick is done. 

( lo be Continued.) 
WICK. G. M. SUTHERLAND. 



PRINCIPAL SHAIRP ON OSSIAN. 

TO THE EDITOR OP THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

SIB, In this month's issue of Good Words appears a lecture on 
Ossianic Poetry, by Principal Shairp of St Andrews, adapted presumably 
for an English audience at Oxford, or at least delivered by him there as 
Professor of Poetry at that distinguished Academical centre. In this 
lecture, as reproduced in Good Words, there are not a few points worthy 
of remark. It is no purpose of mine, however, to review the paper at 
large as it now stands, or to suggest how it might have been improved 
for an audience who knew anything of the subject. The learned Princi- 
pal takes the comparative ignorance of his hearers on the theme of dis- 
course for granted, and talks to them accordingly with pleasant vagueness, 
self-contradiction, and superficiality. It is difficult indeed to determine 
on whose authority he chiefly depends for any of his ideas Arnold, 
Skene, J. F. Campbell, or the Dean of Lismore ; or whether he has any 
ideas worth verifying at all, beyond the very guarded admission that 
there is a sort of sublime haze of passion here and there, about the poetry 
in question, which reminds him of the Highlands, and seems to be partial 
proof of its originality perhaps of its remote antiquity. But whether 
Ossian was a man or a myth ; and if a man, whether a Scotchman or an 
Irishman or both; and whether his poetry belongs to Glencoe or the 
green vales of Erin, to the Moor of Rannoch or the county of Meath, to 
himself or to the Seannachies or to Macpherson he, the learned lecturer 
and Principal declines to determine. Of one thing only he seems to be 
sure, that something Ossianic is to be found somewhere, and that enough 
would still remain in the Book of Lismore although all that Macpherson 
ever published in the name of Ossian were obliterated to-morrow as for- 
gery but whether what remains would be poetry or prose, he is not 
sure not quite. 

Taking other people's ignorance in this matter for granted also, as equal 
to his own, he dispassionately inquires as he proceeds, as if in critical des- 



COKEESPONDENCE. 275 

pondency on the point " Who was this Ossian, and when did he live ? 
His exact date or even century we cannot name." So frank an admission 
as this of utter incompetence to deal with his own subject by a public 
lecturer in one of the most important seats of learning in Europe, if it 
had not been made in the lecture itself, if it had not been reproduced 
without qualifying note or comment in a magazine like Good Words, 
would have been incredible ; but it stands there as indisputable proof of 
what men will sometimes say and do who undertake to say something, 
but " who understand neither what they say nor whereof they affirm." 
Has the Principal, I may inquire, collated more than half-a-dozen passages 
in the entire collection of poems ascribed to Ossian ? Has he verified a 
single sentence, or guessed at a single scene or date, beyond accepting 
at random the mediaeval Irish idea that Ossian was the son of Fin, or 
Fiun, the king of the Feinne ; and that much of his poetry if it was 
anybody's at all refers to a period specifically unknown in that " very 
dim foretime," " when Christianity was yet young, and was struggling for 
existence against old Paganism in Erin and in Alba ?" It would appear 
not. He has not even consulted a single reliable authority on the sub- 
ject else how could he put such an interrogation as the above, on the 
supposition that it never had been and never could be answered ? He 
might as well have inquired with a desponding sigh Who Moses was ? 
who Homer was ? who Isaiah was 1 or who John the Divine was ? In 
point of fact, we know a great deal less genealogically about any of these 
than we do about Ossian. We know for example, on his own authority 
exclusively, that Moses was the son of Amram of the house of Levi, 
through whom of course he may be traced to Abraham, and that he was 
also the adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter. We know that Homer was 
utterly unrecognisable as the citizen of any city, or as the son of any 
family that his very birth-place, in fact, was disputed : that Isaiah was 
the son of Amos, and prophesied in the days of Uzziab, Jotham, Ahaz, 
and Hezekiah, kings of Judah : and that John was the son of one 
Zebedee, a fisherman of Galilee, in the year of our Lord 27 ; that he was 
once a prisoner in Patmos, and died within the first century but whether 
he wrote either the Gospel or the Apocalypse there, we do not know. 
Ossian in like manner, on his own authority but a hundred times more 
distinctly reiterated, and by universal local tradition in Scotland affirmed 
was the son of Fingal, who was the son of Comhal, who was the son 
of Trathal, who was the son of Trenmor who in all probability was of 
eastern or north-eastern descent, but who was undoubtedly generalissimo 
king of the Western Caledonian Celts at the very commencement of the 
Christian era at a date, in fact, when John the Divine had not yet re- 
ceived his own call to discipleship. 

Fingal's era, again, as defined in Ossian, and confirmed by the clearest 
evidence both geological and historical, was from A.D. 190 or thereby, to 
286, when he was assassinated on his return from Temora, at the age of 
92. Ossian himself, who survived, would then be about 70, and he lived 
for many years afterwards how many we cannot affirm ; but in the in- 
terval, some of his most beautiful and important poems were composed 
or finished. Oscar, his son, as Principal Shaiip seems to be aware, had 
already been treacherously slain in Ullin in the flower of his youth; and 
Malvina, the betrothed of Oscar, and Ossian's sole surviving friend, fell 



276 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

by-and-bye a victim at the chase whose obsequies by cremation -were 
also celebrated by Ossian in his own Dying Hymn. The entire family, 
therefore, would be extinct before the end of the third century ; " and 
their sepulchres, are they not all with us," in the Island of Arran, " unto 
this day ?" If Principal Shairp, on consulting Macpherson's notes, should 
object that Fingal's age is there stated to have been only 56 at his death, 
then I must explain to the Principal for explanations of the kind are 
obviously required in the circumstances that Macpherson is in error ; 
that he contradicts both himself in fact, and the text of his own transla- 
tion, in that estimate one of the clearest proofs in the world that he was 
not at least an impostor. 

In conclusion now, as regards the region of Fingal's administration, and 
of Scoto-Celtic occupation, on which Principal Shairp seems to be also in 
perplexity, the details are all equally clear as recorded in Ossian. There 
was first, the original dynasty of Trenmor at home at Selma or among 
the Hebrides represented by Trathal, Comhal, and Fingal, in succession ; 
there was second, the contemporaneous dynasty of Trenmor at Temora in 
Ullin, represented by his eldest son Conor, and by the Cormacs, his de- 
scendants there who were therefore cousins-german in their successive 
degrees to the dynasty at home ; and there was, besides these, the dynasty 
of Larthon, a Gallovidian Scot, who settled in the north-west of Ireland 
beyond Lough Neagh, about 500 B.C., and was represented there in 
Ossian's day by Cairbar, the usurper and assassin. These western Irish, 
who were known to Ossian as the Sons of Erin, or the Bolgae, were the 
natural enemies of the Scots in Ullin under Conor; and it was to protect 
his relatives and allies from their incursions, as much as from the raids 
of Norwegian pirates under Swaran, that Fingal more than once had 
occasion to visit Ireland. All this may be made as plain from the text 
of Ossian, as the details of the Norman Conquest or the occupation of the 
Danes can be, from the chronicles of Great Britain ; with all geographical, 
topographical, and historical circumstances of peace and war, in connec- 
tion including battles, expeditions, and adventures by sea and laud, 
from the coast of Ireland and the Solway Frith, from the Frith of Clyde 
and the Roman Wall to the Orkney Isles and the coasts of Iceland and 
Norway ; but it is Principal Shairp's own business, and not mine, to in- 
vestigate the matter further. It may perhaps stimulate his curiosity, 
however, to be informed that the whole subject, from this very point of 
view, has been occupying for many months past the serious attention of 
so eminent a Continental scholar as Dr Ebrard of Erlangen ; and that in 
all probability a series of articles from his pen, embodying similar results, 
will ere long be issued in one of the most influential German magazines 
the Conservative Monadtsschnft of the period. I am, sir, &c., 

P. HATELY WADDELL. 
Glasgew, April 6, 1880. 



THE MACDONALDS OF KEPPOCH, 

s 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Sm, In reading the sketch of the Keppoch Family, by Mr D. C. Mac- 
pherson, in the August number of your magazine, I find that some of it 
does not correspond with the traditions of my forefathers. However, if 



CORRESPONDENCE. 277 

your information is derived from a proper " Chronicle " kept of the said 
family from time to time, I readily give in. But if your information is 
only the hearsay of the present, I venture to assert that my grandfather 
could trace the Keppoch family better than any one now living in the 
Braes of Lochaber. 

I do not pretend to give an extended history of this famous family 
merely the succession, with a few remarks. 

ALASTAIR CARRACH, the founder of the Keppoch family, was succeeded 
by his son ANGUS, who was succeeded by his son DONALD, who was suc- 
ceeded by his son IAIN ALAINN. 

When IAIN was deposed by his clan, his uncle, ALASTAIR MAcAoNGH- 
AIS, was chosen, who succeeded him. 

ALASTAIR MACAONGHAIS was succeeded by his son ANGUS, who was 
succeeded by his son ALEXANDER, who was succeeded by his son RAONULL 
MOR,* who was succeeded by his son ALASTAIR BHOTH-FHLOINN, who 
was succeeded by his son ALASTAIR NAN CLEAS, who was succeeded by 
his son RAONULL OG, who was succeeded by his son AoNGHAS.t 

AONGHAS MACRAONUILL OG was succeeded by his uncle DONULL 
GLAS, who was succeeded by his son ALEXANDER. This Alastair and his 
brother Ranold were cruelly murdered by " Siol Duiel Ruaidh," who 
were not related to the Keppoch family. " Siol Duiel Ruaidh " were 
assisted by two cousins of the murdered persons in the above plot. They 
were sons of Alastair Buidhe- Allan J and Donald. 

ALASTAIR MACDHONUILL GHLAIS was succeeded by his uncle ALASTAIR 
BUIDHE, who was succeeded by his son GILLEASBA, who was succeeded by 
his son COLLA, who was succeeded by his son ALASTAIR, who was suc- 
ceeded by his son RAONULL OG, who was the last Mac Mhic Raonuill. 

In reading No. 57 (January 1880) of your Magazine, page 101, I 
see it stated, by the Rev. Allan Sinclair, that the accomplishing of the 
punishment of the murderers of the children of Keppoch was intrusted to 
Sir Alexander Macdonald of Sleat ; and that Archibald, the " Ciaran 
Mabach," was his son. For proof, I will refer you to an unpublished 
historical MS. of the Macdonalds, and the same will inform you that the 
carrying out of said deed was entrusted to Sir James, the father of Sir 
Donald, and the Ciaran Mabach was the brother of Sir James. 

In 1665 Sir James got a letter of thanks from the Earl of Rothes and 
others, thanking him for the service he had done in punishing the mur- 
derers, assuring him that it should not pass unrewarded, with many other 
clauses much to the honour of Sir James. Sir James died in the year 
1678. 

See Iain Lorn in his song " Mort na Ceapach," where he says : 
Gur h-iom oganach sgaiteach, 
Lub bhlachlach, sgiath chrom, 

* This is not Raonull MacDhonuill Ohlais. If I am rightly informed he nor his 
father, Donull Glas, never was chief of the clan. 

f I never heard of this Aonghas being called Aonghas Odhar. However, the song 
of which he is said to be the author was composed by a son ot Oilieasba-na-Ceapaich, 
who was always called Aonghas Odhar. He had a brother called Alastair Odhar, the two 
being brave sons of Oilieasba-na Ceapaich, of which your magazine made no mention. 

J Allan, son of Alastair Buidhe, never was a Mac Mhic Raonuill, as his fathtr ruled 
when he was murdered and for some time afterwards. You magazine informs us he left 
no issue. I know numbers of his descendants from Badenoch, who are now settled in 
Mabou, Cape Breton. 



278 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Eadar drochaid Allt Eire 

'S rugha Shleibhte nan tonn 

A dheanadh leat eiridh 

N'am biodh do chreuchdan Ian tholl, 

'S a rachadh bras ann a t-eirig 

Dheadh Shir Sheumais nan long. 

Also see the Piobaire Doll, in composing a dan to Sir Alexander Mac- 
donald of Sleat, where he said : 

B'aithne dhomh Sir Seumas Mor, 
'S b'eol dhomh Domhnull a Mhac, 
B'eol dhomh Domhnull eile ris 
Chumadh fo chis no sloigh ceart ; 
B'eol dhomh Domhnull na n' tri Don'ull 
'S ge b-og e bu mhor a chliu, 
Bhi'dh fearaibh Alb' agus Eirinn 
Ag eiridh leis anns gach cuis, 
B'eol dhomh Sir Seumas mo ruin 
T-athair-sa Mhic chliuitich fein, 
'S tus a nis an siathamh glun 
Dh'ordaich Righ nan dul nan deigh : 
N'an tuiteadh m' aois cho fad a mach 
'S do mhac-sa theachd air mo thim 
Be sin dhomh-sa, an seachdamh glun 
Thainig air an Dun ri' m' linn. 

Yours, &c,, 

A NOVA-SCOTIAN MACDONALD. 



THE CLAN IVEE. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

Sm, In the excellent little book of notes issued by Mr Mackenzie 
of Findon, introductory to the sheets of genealogies, I notice at page 15 
that he speaks of the Macivers, Macaulays, &c., as being Scandinavians. 
I do not think there is any evidence for this. In the case of the Macivers 
I am satisfied that it is pure assumption. Principal Campbell, the historian 
of the Macivers, assumes them to be Scandinavian, because the name 
" Iver " or " lamhiar " is, he thinks, not Celtic, But this is not reason- 
ing, and there have been too many groundless attempts made to rob us of 
our superior native descent. While I write in disapprobation of the 
Scandinavian assumption, and while I trust Finion is wrong also with his 
bastard Irish-Italian origin for the Mackenzie clan, I cannot withhold from 
him my admiration for the public spirit he has shown in issuing the ex- 
cellent series of sheets of clan pedigrees. What a pity a similar monu- 
ment of research were not in existence respecting all our Northern Clans. 
But, as Findon truly says, " The means which existed in years gone by 
of collecting details of family history in the Highlands are now-a-days not 
so attainable ; the old Highland gentlemen and ladies whose memories 



COKKESPONDENCE. 279 

were stored with genealogical treasure, and who rarely straying from their 
own immediate settlement, made family history, as handed down by their 
forbears, the delight of their conversation, are now rapidly leaving the 
scene ; they have no successors." Findon has done a great work, and per- 
formed a filial and public duty, and he merits the gratitude of all High- 
landers interested in their past national history, and who are proud of the 
race from which they have sprung. I am, &c. 

A SON OF IVEK. 



feneahrgical Jfcrte* mtb 



QUERIES. 

MACBEANS OF KINCHYLE. Are there any descendants of this family at the present 
time? Any such would greatly oblige by communicating with A. M. Shaw, Chipping 
Barnet, Herts, who is desirous of completing a pedigree of the family from Angus Mac- 
bean, captain in Mackintosh's Regiment in 1715, to the present time ; and of knowing 
when the feu right to Kinchyle was given up. A. M. S. 

MURDOCH MACKENZIE was a native of Poolewe, or Gairloch, and married Mary, 
daughter of Donald Maclennan, Croft, Poolewe (late Gaelic schoolmaster there), and 
sister of the present George and Kenneth Maclennan, meal, cattle, &c., dealers, Croft, 
Poolewe. Will you, or any of the numerous Mackenzie or other antiquarian readers of 
the Celtic Maqasine, inform me what branch of the Mackenzies this Murdoch Mackenzie 
is descended from ? I shall esteem it a great favour if any one can give me correct in- 
formation as to the above. MACCoiNNiCH 

Birnam. 

THE CRERARS. "Would your distinguished local, and more widely famed, antiqua- 
rian, Charles Eraser-Mackintosh, M.P., F.S.A.S., much eblige me by giving his views in 
the Celtic Magazine of the origin of the Crerars, and their connection with the Mackin- 
toshes ? My ancestors were always called Mackintoshes in Gaelic, and my grandfather 
is so designated, though a Crerar, n his tombstone in the church-yard of his native glen 
in Perthshire. I would also like to know what place Mr Mackintosh Shaw gives to the 
Crerars in his forthcoming History of the Clan Chattan, advertised in your Magazine. 
Before the Breadalbane clearances many families of the name of Crerar resided at 
Glenquaich, and at Loch Tayside, who used to muster at the Ken more markets, arrayed 
in the genuine Mackintosh tartan, and wearing sprigs of boxwood in their Highland 
bonnets. I intend to subscribe for Mr Shaw's patriotic work, and possibly I may induce 
others to do the same, if I find that my branch of the clan occupies its proper place in 
the History. There are many of them on this side of the Atlantic, now calling them- 
selves Mackintoshes, who were at home known as Crerars. Any information regarding 
this branch of the clan will be highly esteemed by A TRANS-ATLANTIC CRERAR. 

THE ROSSES OP INVERCHASTLET OR ARDGAT. I should esteem it a great favour if 
your learned correspondent " Lex " (who has given such a full and interesting account in 
your August number of the Rosses of Invercharron, to whom the above-named Rosses 
were closely related), or any of your other antiquarian contributors, could supply me 
with information regarding the family of Inverchastley. Bailie Donald Ross of Tain, 
who was the great grandfather of the present representatives of the family, married his 
cousin Margaret, eldest daughter of Andrew Ross of Sbandwick. What I want par- 
ticularly to know is, who was the father of this Bailie Donald Ross, and the connecting 
link between him and the Rosses of Inverchastley? The latter family repeatedly Inter- 
niarried with the Rosses of Invercharron. A. M. 



280 



THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



D E R M N D. 
A TALE OP KNIGHTLY DEEDS DONE IN OLD DATS. 



Tennyson. 



BOOK II. "A SYLVAN COURT." 



CHAPTER IX. 

The harp that thrilled in the castle hall 
Is hung on the willow tree. 

Old Ballad. 

FOR some days after the battle of Dairy Bruce and his followers took 
shelter in Balquhidder glen, but as soon as they had recovered from the 
fatigues of the encounter, and the wounds of the unfortunate combatants 
had been sufficiently healed, the wanderings among the woods and moun- 
tains were resumed. Pursued by the spiritual anathemas of the church 
as well as the more formidable emissaries of the English oppressor, the 
life of that little band of patriots was far from enviable. They were 
happy, however, in the possession of a wild sort of freedom, and liberty 
of any kind was dearer than servitude. 

Summer was now approaching, the bleak winds of March were giving 
way to the balmy breezes and refreshing showers of April, with inter- 
mittent outbursts of solar heat, and the fragrance of the hillside flowers 
lent a new charm to the itinerant life of the fugitives. 

The day was generally spent in wandering from place to place eluding 
the pursuit of the enemy, broken at more favourable intervals by the ex- 
citements of the chase, the diversions of the combat or tournay, or the 
milder pleasures of angling, for which Sir James Douglas had a particular 
passion. The presence of the ladies was in some respects a burden, more 
especially in times of danger, for their food and safety had to be secured ; 
but when all went well, when there was no enemy in the vicinity, and 
when the venison fell readily to the hand of the hunters, the fair ones 
gave an additional interest to the life of the greenwood revellers. The 
evening was made merry around the log watchfire by the songs and tales 
of the minstrels, and the King shone as brilliantly in song and story as 
he did in doughty deeds of chivalry. His memory was stored with the 
riches of Roman history, and his youth had been spent in reading the 
romances of the time. To his listening admirers he poured forth an 
almost inexhaustible stream of anecdote and fiction. He dwelt on those 
innumerable examples of heroism and fortitude, perseverance and patriot- 
ism to be found in the annals of Rome, and inculcated on his knightly 
companions the virtues of the Roman citizen. In referring to the story 
of Hannibal he dwelt especially on the disheartening reverses which assailed 
the outset of his career and that indomitable courage and inexorable for- 
titude which led to his ultimate triumph. 

Not even so joyous was the life of Dermond. The transports of the 
captor served but to increase the depression of the captive. He saw free- 
dom and happiness around him and contrasted them with his own forlorn 
and fettered condition. Ardent and impulsive as he was he could not but 
look with envy on the merry faces of his guards and condemn that rash- 



DERMOND. 281 

ness -which bound the shackles on his limbs. Had it not been for the 
company of the light-hearted .Norseman, who continued to remind him that 
at least one of the trusty relics of Dunkerlyne remained, the tedious and 
monotonous nature of his life would have been intolerable, and no doubt 
he would have made some desperate effort to escape, which would only 
have imperilled the life of himself and fellow prisoners. As the days and 
weeks rolled on -\\ ithout any prospect of relief, the life of the captives be- 
came more unbearable. It is not intended to dwell on the various inci- 
dents which resulted from repeated endeavours to break away from the 
bondage of the Bruce. Overborne by the increased vigilance of the guards 
which the impatience of Derniond and his followers had contributed to 
strengthen, all hope had to be abandoned for a while, and a more favour- 
able turn of fortune had to be awaited. 

During all this time Dermond had not forgotten the missive which 
Bertha had entrusted to his care, but his solicitations for an interview 
with Sir David M'Neill had a very different effect from that which he 
anticipated. Having gained the ear of Douglas's squire, he succeeded in 
interesting him on his behalf; day after day he looked for the success of 
his suit, and scarcely a week had elapsed before he received some notifi- 
cation of the effect of his new friend's intercession. He was separated 
from Olave and his companions, mounted on horseback between two 
squires and a strong body of Douglas's own followers, but he could gain 
no explanation regarding the meaning of these increased precautions. In 
the midst of the mirth of this goodly companion his loneliness was like 
to crush his youthful spirit, and as time lengthened, however eager he 
was to enjoy the conversation of those around him, he was compelled to 
commune with his own thoughts until he became almost insensible to 
what was passing, and he rode on dreaming strange dreams, 

Summer now spread her splendours over the hills, the forests, and the 
vales, and the life that was led by the kingly Bruce and his knightly 
followers was a gay and festive one. Under the bright and smiling eyes 
of the ladies the tone and habits of the party were softened and refined* 
The King was cheered by the ever welcome ministrations of his beautiful 
consort, and inspired with more than ordinary martial enthusiasm by that 
brave and patriotic woman, the fearless Countess of Buchan, who had 
dared so much for the preservation of the ancient right of her family in 
the coronation of the Kings of Scotland. There was also young Stewart 
undivided in his attentions to the lovely and girlish Marjory, exciting the 
envy of many a more unfortunate gallant. The harmony existing in this 
sylvan court was something remarkable compared with that of Edward in 
London. Common misfortune awakening the loving and benevolent 
sympathies, sweetened the intercourse with gentleness and courtesy, and 
in this sense, perhaps, the Scottish Court in its outlawry was happier than 
any in Europe. 

It was towards the end of September, and the little party held its way 
with some difficulty among the large stones and masses of rock that had 
tumbled from, the heights, almost choking the passage through the moun- 
tain gorge where Bruce and his followers journeyed. Summer had rapidly 
passed away, and the cold, cheerless blasts of autumn had set in early, 
with unusual severity, giving a foretaste of the coming winter. Food 
was getting scarcer, and even the unabated efforts of the Douglas as a 

Y 



282 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

hunter and angler, were not received with the same favour and reward 
which had formerly surprised his sportive competitors. The ladies were 
beginning to suffer from exposure to the chilling winds and rains which 
had followed somewhat suddenly in the wake of the splendid summer. 
It was still early, and the morning was dull, the ground was soft with re- 
cent rains, and the vegetation of the woods was glistening with the heavy 
dews. A few horses had been set apart for the convenience of the more 
distinguished ladies, and they were each led forward through the obstructed 
pathway by some attentive gallant. A number of horses had also been re- 
served for the purposes of the chase, and at the head of this foraging ra- 
ther than sporting party, rode the swarthy Douglas. Now and then a 
stag or some other wild inhabitant of these unfrequented forests was 
started, and away the hunting party scampered, the horses' hoofs flinging 
up the turf behind them amidst the general whoop and halloo, and the 
deep impressive bay of the King's bloodhounds, while it was with some 
difficulty that the rest of the party could be restrained from joining in the 
general rout from the incumbent state of disorder in which the party 
straggled forward, resulting from the irregular nature of the ground tra- 
versed. 

The day was drawing to a close, but the sun, which had scarcely been 
seen for some weeks, had, in the early part of the afternoon, dispersed the 
grey clouds of the morning, and now shone with unusual lustre on the 
rusty habiliments and soiled trappings of the King's equipage. Fatigue 
and langour prevailed throughout the whole party a slight eminence of a 
long rambling line of hills branching off from the Grampian range was be- 
ing mounted. The road, on either side, was beset with high and rugged 
cliffs, but as the top of the lower ridge was reached, a descent was made 
towards a wide stretch of vale and forest, with a large sheet of water 
glistening in the distance. The sun was just sinking with a red and 
burning glow behind the mountains, and the various colours of the fading 
woodlands were lit up in vivid contrast to the stern grandeur of the sur- 
rounding country. 

No time was allowed to admire the prospect ere a wild halloo reverbe- 
rated amongst the mountains, and a whole herd of deer and wild cattle 
bounded right across the path, amid the crackling of branches and shak- 
ing of bushes. This incident threw the whole party into disorder. Every 
horse, heedless of curb and rein, dashed forward in pursuit, and the two 
squires who rode on either side of Dermond had much difficulty in rein- 
ing in their prancing steeds, and holding back the spirited horse of the 
young chieftain. 

Soon all had become quiet save the dash of some men in the distance, 
the rustling of the leaves, or the solitary chirp of some stray or homeless 
bird ; and our hero found himself wending wearily forward with the small 
retinue of two squires and six jackmen. Now and then some straggler 
came across them, enquired the direction of the hunters, and spurring for- 
ward in pursuit, disappearing speedily amongst the trees. At intervals a 
horn was heard sounding in the distance, and the laggards quickened their 
pace, making for the point whence the sound appeared to come, but the 
calls became fainter and fainter, and as the sun sunk and darkness spread 
over the labyrinth of forest, a deep sense of loneliness overtook the young 
chieftain and his guards. 






DERMOND. 283 

'Now no horn resounded from the distant dingle, and the rustling that 
occurred among the bushes was occasioned by some wild animal bursting 
from its lair where it had taken shelter for the night without the fear of 
intrusion on its solitude. As the darkness increased it became more diffi- 
cult for the wanderers to trace their way through the thickness and black- 
ness of the trees, and the sounding of their horns awoke no response 
apart from mocking echoes. At length the trees became thinner and 
thinner, until a wild stretch of moor was reached, with no other trace of 
vegetation save clumps of furze, short, unwholesome grass, and here and 
there a patch of moss and heather. The soil was somewhat soft, and the 
horses sank fetlock deep with eveiy step, so that progress was more re- 
tarded than ever. The riders had the greatest difficulty in keeping their 
saddles, and the jackmen who travelled on foot had to lead the horses 
forward so as to avoid the pools and quagmires which occurred at frequent 
intervals. There was the advantage of better light, and the absence of 
obstructing trees and underwood, but the fear of being lost in a moving 
bog was worse than all the dangers of the forest combined, notwithstand- 
ing the wolves and other ravenous animals which infested the wilds of 
the Highlands at the time of our narrative. After going about half a 
league further a more level and sounder portion of the country was 
emerged upon, and all held briskly onward in the hope of falling in with 
the main body under command of the King ; but as the advancing night 
cast its gloomy shadows over the open moor, as well as the thickly 
studded forest, a path more intricate and rough, running through a lonely 
glen was reached. A little brook rattled along this solitary vale, and the 
course of the stream was followed in the hope of reaching some human 
habitation erected on its banks. The search, however, was altogether 
unsuccessful, and although several imagined that they had descried a light 
glimmering in the distance, the more superstitious of the jackmen set it 
down to the movements of some "Will-o'-the-wisp or Jack-o'-Lanthorn who 
was bent on leading them further out of the way. They were obliged to 
give up in despair, and notwithstanding the howl of the hungry wolf on 
the hills set a few shivering with fear, they were so weary and worn with 
the fatigues of the day that they turned aside resolved upon spending the 
night among the bracken on the slope. 

One of the jackmen was ordered to keep guard over the prisoner while 
the rest resigned themselves to slumber, but Dermond was too weary in mind 
as well as body to sleep soundly. Lying dozing away carefully wrapped in 
his Highland plaid, he became doubly sensible of his captivity, and the 
weakness of his guard inclined him to long more ardently for liberty. 
Opening his eyes he thought to find the sentinel asleep, probably overcome 
by the fatigues of the day, but his glance was instantly returned, and half 
satisfied that the least effort without every assurance of success would be 
more destructive than ever to his purpose, and might imperil any future 
chance of escape, he shut his eyes and allowed himself to fall asleep, 
dreaming the while of Bertha and his father's hall. He dreamt of the 
mysterious behaviour of his father on parting, and longed to know what 
could have oppressed the old man's mind. His dreams were long and 
vivid, and happiest of all he thought his father had once more regained 
the favour of his liege lord Lorn tin; torches burned brightly, the ale 
flowed in brimming flagons, the guests were loud and merry he danced 



284 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

with the fair Bertha. He dreamt of his wedding night, but he awoke 
with a low moan just as he was conducting her to the bridal chamber. 
He started up, looked around amazed, and then listened. Nothing broke 
the heavy stillness of the night but the breathing of the sleepers and the 
restlessness of the horses ; even the watchman had succumbed to the 
power of the somniferous god. 

After listening for some time, Dermond resolved upon effecting his 
escape, but what was his disappointment to find that he had been carefully 
secured to one of the guards. Finding it impossible to dispose of this 
precautionary encumbrance without causing an alarm, he lay down again, 
but just as he was about to close his eyes a rustling in the bracken close 
at hand attracted his attention. Listening with greater care he heard the 
rustling repeated, and looking round he caught the flash of a weapon. 
He sprang to his feet, but ere he had time to awaken the sleepers he 
found himself within the grasp of a powerful man. As he struggled he 
met the eye of the assailant, and was astonished to find himself in the 
arms of Olave, who quickly unbound his master, but not before the 
sentinel was awakened. Olave, however, had been too careful in securing 
the jackman's sword, which he placed in Dermond's hand. A struggle 
ensued, but three of the soldiers fell beneath the blows of the Islesmen ; 
and obeying the command of Olave, as well as following his example, 
Dermond dashed across the stream, and both suddenly disappeared in the 
thicket, 

( 70 be Continued.) 






THE BATTLE OF INVEKNAHAVON. 



THERE was a feud of long continuance between the Mackintoshes and 
the Camerons. The Mackintosh claimed, under an old grant from the 
Crown, to be owner of the lands in Lochaber occupied by the Camerons, 
who denied the validity of the grant, and refused to pay any rent. This 
Mackintosh attempted, on various occasions, to collect by poinding or dis- 
training. The Camerons opposed force by force; and hence resulted 
various bloody frays, of which the battle of Invernahavon was one. It is 
said to have been fought in the year 1386, on the plain of Invernahavon, 
where the river Truim flows into the Spey, a little above where the rail- 
way now crosses this river. The following account was derived from two 
senachies, the survivor of whom died upwards of forty years ago : 

The Camerons, having had their cattle seized by Mackintosh and his 
followers, mustered their force, and marched into Badenoch in order to 
make reprisals. Mackintosh having learned of their advance, hastened 
.to give them battle, at the head of the clansmen of his own name and the 
Davidsons, or MacDhaidhs,* of Invernahavon. Mackintosh invited the 
Laird of Cluny, chief of the Macphersons, to join him with his retainers ; 
but the latter declined, as Mackintosh claimed to be the great captain of 
all the Clan Chattan, while Cluny claimed that of right such a title be- 

* From similarity of sound, these have been confounded sometimes with the 
Maekays, who were a different clan. 



THE BATTLE OF IXVERNAHAVOK 285 

onged to himself. The Clan Chattan comprised all the tribes just men- 
tioned, and several others who claimed a common descent from Gillie- 
Cattan More, a worthy of the olden time, from whom they derived their 
common name. It is said, however, that the Mackintoshes were his de- 
scendants only in the female line, and that their ancestor in the direct 
line was a Macduff, of the family of the Earl of Fife ; and this was one 
reason why the Camerons refused to do him service or pay him rent. 

The Camerons were led by their chief, Charles MacGilonay, and their 
opponents by the Laird of Mackintosh. Like most clan battles the con- 
flict was severe ; but the victory was won by the Camerons ; and so many 
of the Davidsons were slain that they have ever since, to this day, been 
few in number. 

The defeated clans fled along the low grounds south of the Spey, and 
the Camerons pursued them for a few miles till they halted and rested 
for the night on the height of Briagach, opposite Ballychroan. Towards 
morning the Chief of the Camerons dreamed that he lay on the ground, 
and that two hogs were turning him over and over with their snouts. 
As he was relating this ill-omened dream to his brother, they heard a loud 
splashing noise ; and on looking in the direction whence it came they 
could see the Macphersons crossing the Spey by the ford at the upper 
end of the islet Eileaiirnan-uan. 

Immediately after his defeat, Mackintosh sent his bard to Cluny, 
offering to acknowledge him as the chief of all the Clan Chattan, 
if he would at once hasten to his relief with his clan. As Cluny resided 
only a few miles above Invernahavon, he was able to march at once with 
a strong force against the Camerons, for he was glad to have his title ac- 
knowledged on these terms. He moved with such rapidity that he crossed 
the river with his men shortly after daybreak. 

The Camerons had suffered so much in the battle of the preceding 
day, that they were in no condition to face a fresh enemy. They there- 
fore fled precipitately, without losing a moment. They crossed the Spey 
near Noidmore, and made for their own country by the shortest and 
safest route through Glen Benchar, hotly pursued by the Macphersons. 
These, however, did not make much execution among them, as they had 
got a good start, because the Macphersons had to advance for some time 
along the low marshy ground. But the Camerons suffered a good deal 
from the country people, who attacked them in their flight, and slew a 
number of them. Among others, their chief was killed with an arrow, on 
the height thence termed to this day Torr Thearlaich hill of Charles. 
Such of them as succeeded in reaching the mountains escaped in safety, 
for any further pursuit was then impracticable. 

In the course of time the Camerons recovered from the disastrous 
effects of this incursion, and again invaded the undisputed possessions of 
Mackintosh with a strong force. On this occasion they succeeded in 
carrying away all the cattle of their opponents that they could find ; and 
they were returning home with them triumphantly through the braes of 
Lochaber, when their own folly caused them a sad reverse. The Camerons 
cherished hostile feelings towards Clan Eanald of Keppoch, whose family 
they deemed intruders in Lochaber. So they resolved to send him an 
insulting message. But there was some difficulty in finding one who 
would thus "beard the lion in his den." At length one known as the 



286 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

tailleir caol (slender tailor) offered to convey the message, on condition 
that he should receive a double share of the prey. He was very swift of 
foot, and hoped by that means to get back with his head on his shoulders. 
So he went off and delivered the message, which was that the prey of Clan- 
ranald's master (meaning Mackintosh) was passing, let him rescue it if 
he dare. 

Unfortunately for the Camerons, Clanranald happened to have his 
men assembled near his residence at the time. He therefore sent them, 
without delay, under the command of a brother, to chastise the Camerons 
for their insult. These were attacked in a very short time by the Mac- 
donalds with the fiery valour characteristic of their race ; and as they were 
quite unprepared for such an onset, they were completely defeated, and 
the whole of the prey was carried off in triumph by their enemies. When 
they returned, Keppoch enquired how far they had pursued the Camerons. 
" Across the Lochy," was the answer. " Ye should have chased them to 
their doors," he replied. This, however, would have been dangerous 
tinder the circumstances, as they might have been attacked by a superior 
force and driven back into the river. 

Although Keppoch was highly enraged at the message, yet he dis- 
dained to cut down the impudent messenger without giving him a chance 
for his life. So he said to him, " If thou wert Clanranald of Keppoch, 
and I the slender tailor, what wouldst thou do to me 1 ?" The tailor cun- 
ningly answered, " I would allow thee a certain distance ahead ; if thou 
shouldst escape, well ; and if not thou shouldst fall." "So be it," re- 
plied Keppoch. He gave the tailor the distance in advance that he had 
mentioned ; but he thought to get up with him speedily by pursuing on 
horseback. The tailor, however, got off, by running through the large 
peat-bog that lies north-west of Keppoch House, which soon checked 
Clanranald's pursuit. He reached his home all safe, but of course he had 
labour and risk for his pains, as there was now no prey to divide. 

I am aware that this account differs in some respects from that given 
in Shaw's " History of the Province of Moray," but I have written it 
down as I received it. Shaw's account is based on tradition as well as 
this, which tallies better than his with some other well-known facts. 

TOEONTO. PATRICK MACGREGOR. 



literature. 



OLD CELTIC ROMANCES, Translated from the Gaelic by P. W. JOYCE, LL.D., 
T.C.D., M.R.I.A. London : 0. Kegan, Paul, & Co., Paternoster Square. 

WHAT will the unbelieving Saxon say to this goodly volume of tales 
translated from genuine Gaelic manuscripts, some of the latter actually 
eight hundred years old. It is enough to make Dr Johnson's ghost break 
away from its ethereal abode, and, if it could, make mince meat of the 
translator of these beautiful romances, We are charitable enough to hope 



LITERATUEE, 287 

that the old man who, so steeped in prejudice, did so much to damage 
the fair fame of the Celt, is kept in ignorance of what is doing here be- 
low, else no heaven can secure comfort for him, while the Professors 
Blackie, Shairp, Joyce, and other Celtic warriors like Dr Hately Wadiell, are 
allowed to go at large. We have read the book with great pleasure. The 
stories are themselves most interesting, and the manner in which the 
translations have been rendered has made them delightful reading for 
those who enjoy that class of literature. There are in all eleven tales, 
the Gaelic originals of which are to be found in the Libraries of Trinity 
College and of the Irish Academy, where fortunately there are piles of 
valuable Gaelic MSS., from the eleventh century down to the present 
time, on every conceivable subject, including annals, history, biography, 
theology, romance, legend, science, and endless other subjects. And these, 
Professor Joyce informs us, " are nearly all copies from older books." 

With the Celts of Ireland as with those of Scotland the recitation of 
stories Tales and Legends has always been a favourite pastime in the 
winter evenings ; and in early times we read of the professional story- 
tellers, who were divided into various grades such as ollarnhs, shean- 
nachies, filidhs, bards, and so on, whose duty it was to know by heart a 
good stock of old tales, poems, and historical pieces for recitation at the 
festive gatherings of their chiefs, for the entertainment of themselves and 
their guests, Thus long poems and pieces were carried down from genera- 
tion to generation by these professionals and those who heard them, until 
modern contempt for such things, clerical abuse, and the printing press, 
have almost sounded the death-knell of both story and story-teller <it the 
same time. By such works only as the one before us can the tales of 
ancient times be preserved and placed within the reach of those who come 
after us, and we warmly commend the translator for his present work and 
for his excellent manner of doing it. The latter cannot better be de- 
scribed than in his own words. He informs us that : A translation may 
either follow the very words, or reproduce the life and spirit, of the origi- 
nal ; but no translation can do both. If you render word for word, you 
lose the spirit ; if you wish to give "the spirit and manner, you must de- 
part from the exact words, and frame your own phrases. I have chosen 
this latter course. My translation follows the original closely enough in 
narrative and incident ; but so far as mere phraseology is concerned, I 
have used the English language freely, not allowing myself to be tram- 
melled by too close an adherence to the very words of the text. The 
originals are, in. general, simple in style; and I have done my best 
to render them into simple, plain, homely English. In short, I have 
tried to tell the stories as I conceive the old shanachies themselves would 
have told them, if they had used English instead of Gaelic." He suc- 
ceeded admirably. 

After informing us that this institution of story-telling held its ground 
in Ireland and in Scotland to a very recent period, he says that it is 
questionable if it is yet extinct, and that within his own memory that sort 
of entertainment was quite common among the farming classes of the 
north of Ireland. " The family and workmen, and any neighbours that 
chose to drop in, would sit round the kitchen fire after the day's work 
or perhaps gather in a barn on a summer or autumn evening to listen to 
some local sheannachie reciting one of his innumerable Gaelic tales. The 



288 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

story-teller never chose his own words he always had the story by heart, 
and recited the words from memory, often gliding into a sort of recitative 
iu poetical passages, or when he came to some favourite grandiose descrip- 
tion abounding in high-sounding alliterative adjectives. And very in- 
teresting it was to mark the rapt attention of the audience, and to hear 
their excited exclamations when the speaker came to relate some mighty 
combat, some great exploit of the hero, or some other striking incident. 
Three years ago, I met a man in Kilkee, who had a great number of these 
stories by heart, and who actually repeated for me, without the slightest 
hitch or hesitation, more than half and if I had not stopped him would 
have given me the whole of ' Ciiirt an Mheadhon-Oidhche ' (' The Mid- 
night Court'), a poem about six times as long as Gray's 'Elegy.'" 

It is not only " within our memory " to see taking place, in the West 
Highlands of Scotland, the thing here described ; but we have within the 
last 30 years actually taken part in them in our " Highland Ceilidhs," of 
which we have given some accounts and specimens in the earlier volumes 
of the Celtic Magazine. They are, however, now fast becoming things of 
the past even in the Highlands of Scotland ; and it would not be difficult 
to prove that the modern and moro fashionable amusements which are 
taking their place is a long way short, in many respects, of being an im- 
provement. We can, however, enjoy our ceilidhs over again in such 
works as the one before us ; and all those who wish to possess specimens 
Of our Celtic romances, recited on such occasions, should place themselves 
.*n possession of Professor Joyce's most interesting and amusing work. 

""He stories given are two of ( " The Three Tragic Stories of Erin," 
namelv '' ^ e ^ ate ^ *^ e Children ^ -^ r >" ta ken from a copy of about 
1680-1700 / n k it is understood that older copies exist in some of the 

public libraries- ^ ud " The Fate the Children of Turenn," mainly 
T f, fk ' Ti v of Leccan, compiled about 1416 : but there are 
uui.en irom tne Jjooii. i , , r\ > /--M 

_.+ , . .-. . . "*l characters in it in Cormac s Glossary, writ- 
relerences to the principc. ^ -PI * *- , -, 

ton Q K,f i-w m an old poem by Flann of Monasterboice, 

ten about tne vear yuo ana <. -, -, ,-, T> i V 
whr, H^ri i I\KK which is in the Book of Lemster, written 

wno died in 1056, and a copy 01 - T , AT i, n *Tv n ij 

n"hnnf ii <*H TV, n t 4 ca -Neagh," " Connla of the Golden 

aooutlidU. " 1 he Overflowing oi a. - tfn^\r f T\/T 

Hair," and " The Fairy Maiden," ana The J ?& of Ma f lld ^ n ' are 
taken from the Book of the Dun Cow, toS olde f """S** f Gae 1 hc 
literature possessed by the Irish, and which ^ J""*" 1 ^ fr m an ld ^ 
book by Maelmuire Mac Ceilechair, who died in . 106 ' ..J?* ar . e ca ? ltal 
stories the second iUustrating fairy pranks and sup." 1 
Isle, whHe figuring in it we find the famous Conn of th J 1 ua ^ ea 7^ ^ 
a well-known historical character of the second century. "V 16 t ^ ird 
" The Voyage of Maildun," "The Fairy Palace of the Quic^' 
and " The Pursuit of the Gilla Backer and his Horse," we have reve . llec 
in with peculi ar and intense delight the latter being especially bea' 111 ^ 
and a marvel of creative fancy. " The Pursuit of Dermat and Gran ia 
can hardly V je surpassed, in this class of literature, in some of its principa. 
episodes fo\- pathos and power ; while the last three in the book " The 
Chase of 'Slieve Cullinn," " The Chase of Slieve Fuad," and " Oisin in 
Tirnanoge ; ," are perfect gems of their kind. 

The val ue of the book is much enhanced by the addition at the end, 
as well ^as in the body, of learned " notes," and a list of the proper names 
occurrip.g in the text, with their Gaelic and English meanings. 



THE 



CELTIC MAGAZINE. 



No. LVI. JUNE, 1880. VOL. V. 

HISTOEY OF THE MACDONALDS, 

AND 

THE LOEDS OF THE ISLES. 
BY THE EDITOR. 

o 

VIII. 

IT has been maintained by some that Angus Og was a legitimate son of 
John, Earl of Eoss, but all authorities now considered worthy of the 
name hold a different opinion. It has been already seen that Gregory 
calls him a bastard. Smibert, in his "Clans of the Highlands of 
Scotland," referring to the assertions of " ancient private annalists," and 
especially to Hugh Macdonald, the Sleat family historian, says that some 
of these assert that John, last Lord of the Isles, who had no children by 
his wife, Elizabeth Livingston, had yet, quoting from Hugh Macdonald, 
" a natural son begotten of Macduffie, Colonsay's daughter, and Angus 
Og, his legitimate son, by the Earl of Angus's daughter." In reference 
to the latter assertion, Smibert says " No mention of this Angus mar- 
riage occurs in any one public document relating to the Lords of the Isles, 
or to the Douglasses, then Earls of Angus. On the other hand, the 
acknowledged wife of John of the Isles, Elizabeth Livingston, was 
certainly alive in 1475, at which date he, among other charges, is accused 
of making ' his bastard son ' a lieutenant to him in insurrectionary con- 
vocations of the lieges; and Angus could therefore come of no second 
marriage. He indubitably is the same party still more distinctly named 
in subsequent Parliamentary records as ' Angus of the Isles, bastard son 
to umquhile John of the Isles.' The attribution of noble and legitimate 
birth to Angus took its origin, without doubt, in the circumstance of 
John's want of children by marriage having raised his natural son to a 
high degree of power in the clan, which the active character of Angus well 
fitted him to use as he willed. That power was still further established 
by his being named in 1476 as principal heir of entail to his father, when 
the latter submitted to the Crown and obtained a seat in Parliament; but 
in that very deed of entail his illegitimacy is stated once more with equal 
clearness, and he was only to succeed failing other heirs of the body of 
John. However, in the absence, of any such legal issue, Angus wielded 
all the authority of an heir-apparent, and appears, hy his violence, to have 
involved the tribe in perpetual disturbance." The father and son seem 
to have become quite reconciled to each other during the latter years of 

I 



290 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

the life of Angus, who died during his father's lifetime, about 1485, at 
Inverness, in the manner already described. A few years after this the 
Lord of the Isles is again in antagonism to the Crown, and enters into a 
treaty with Edward IV. of England, who was preparing another expedition 
against the Scots ; and for the remainder of the reign of James III. the 
vassals of the Island Chief appear to have been in a state of open resist- 
ance to the Crown. Angus Og having, according to some authorities, 
died without legitimate issue, and John, Lord of the Isles, being now ad- 
vanced in years, his nephew, Alexander of Lochalsh, son of Celestine, his 
Lordship's brother, held, according to Gregory and other authorities, the 
rank of heir to the Lordship of the Isles, while others maintain that he 
merely commanded the clan as guardian to Angus Og's youthful son, 
Donald Dubh, who was still a prisoner at Inchconnell ; but the latter view, 
it is held, is inconsistent with several known facts, one of which is, a charter, 
dated in 1492, in favour of John Maclean of Lochbuy of the office of Bailliary 
of the south half of the Island of Tiree, granted by John, Lord of the Isles, 
and Alexander de Insulis, Lord of Lochalsh, an office which could not have 
been given by Alexander of Lochalsh in any other capacity than as his 
father's heir to the Lordship of the Isles, for it formed no part of his own 
patrimony of Lochalsh. In 1488 Alexander invaded the mainland at the 
head of his vassals with the view of wresting the ancient possessions of 
his house in the Earldom of Ross from those who now held them by 
charters from the Crown, especially the Mackenzies, apparently with the full 
consent and approval of his aged uncle of the Isles. A full account of his 
proceedings and the causes which were the more immediate cause of them 
is given in "The History of the Mackenzies,"* pp. 59-74, and at pp. 161- 
170, No. xxix, (vol, iii.) of the Celtic Magazine. It is therefore un- 
necessary to reproduce it here, but we may give the following summary 
from Gregory : " As the districts of Lochalsh, Lochcarron, and Loch- 
broom, which Alexander inherited from his father, and which he now 
held as a Crown fief, lay in the Earldom of Eoss, his influence there was 
greater than that of Angus of the Isles had been. Yet the only Crown 
vassal of the Earldom who joined him was Hugh Eose, younger of 
Kilravock, whose father at this time was keeper, under the Earl of Huntly, 
of the castle of Ardmanach, in Eoss. In the year 1491,t a large body of 
Western Highlanders, composed of the Clanranald of Garmoran, the Clan- 
ranald of Lochaber, and the Clanchameron, under Alexander of Lochalsh, 
advanced from Lochaber into Badenoch, where they were joined by the 
Clanchattan. The latter tribe, which possessed lands both under the 
Lord of the Isles and the Earl of Huntly, was led by Farquhar Mackin- 
tosh, the son and heir of the captain of the Clanchattan. From Badenoch 
the confederates marched to Inverness, where Farquhar Mackintosh 
stormed and took the royal castle, in which he established a garrison ; and 
where the forces of the Highlanders were probably increased by the 
arrival of the young Baron of Kilravock and his followers. Proceeding 
to the north-east, the fertile lands belonging to Sir Alexander Urquhart, 
the Sheriff of Cromarty, were plundered, and a vast booty carried off by 
the Islanders and their associates. It is probable that at this time Loch- 

* By the same author. Published by A. & "W. Mackenzie, Inverness : 1879. 
t There is some confusion here as to the dates, for there is no doubt at all that the 
battle of Park was fought as early as 1488, 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOtfALDS. 291 

alsh had divided his force into two parts, one being sent home with the 
booty already acquired, whilst with the other he proceeded to Strath- 
connan, for the purpose of ravaging the lands of the Mackenzies. The latter 
clan, under their chief, Kenneth, having assembled their forces, surprised 
and routed the invaders, who had encamped near the river Connan, at a 
place called Park, whence the conflict has received the name of Blairne- 
park. Alexander of Lochalsh was wounded, and, as some say, taken 
prisoner in this battle, and his followers were expelled from Ross. The 
victors then proceeded to ravage the lands of Ardmanach, and those be- 
longing to William Munro of Fowlis the former because the young 
Baron of Kilravock, whose father was governor of that district, had assisted 
the other party ; the latter probably because Munro, who joined neither 
party, was suspected of secretly favouring Lochalsh. So many excesses 
were committed at this time by the Mackenzies, that the Earl of Huntly, 
Lieutenant of the North, was compelled (notwithstanding their services 
in repelling the invasion of the Macdonalds) to act against them as rebels 
and oppressors of the lieges. Meanwhile, the origin of these commotions 
did not escape the investigation of the Government ; and the result was 
the final forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles, and its annexation to the 
Crown. It does not appear, from the documents which we possess, how 
far the Lord of the Isles was himself implicated in the rebellious proceed- 
ings of his nephew. It may be that his inability to keep the wild tribes 
of the West Highlands and Isles in proper subjection was his chief crime, 
and that the object of the Government in proceeding to his forfeiture was, 
by breaking up the confederacy of the Islanders, to strengthen indirectly 
the royal authority in these remote districts. The tenor of all the pro- 
ceedings of James IV., connected with the final forfeiture of the Lordship 
of the Isles, leads to this conclusion. These proceedings will be described 
at more length in their proper place. At present we have only to record 
the fact, that, in the Parliament which sat in the month of May 1493, 
John, fourth and last Lord of the Isles, was forfeited and deprived of his 
title and estates. In the month of January following, he appeared in 
presence of the King, and went through the form of making a voluntary 
surrender of his Lordship, after which he appears to have remained for 
some time in the King's household in the receipt of a pension. Finally, 
this aged nobleman retired to the Monastery of Paisley, a foundation 
which owed much to the pious liberality of himself and his ancestors. 
Here he died, about the year 1498 ; and was interred, at his own request, 
in the tomb of his royal ancestor, King Robert II,"* 

During this period from the final forfeiture of the Lords of the Isles 
in 1493, to his death the country was almost in a constant state of in- 
surrection, though many of the leading heads of families made their sub- 
mission to the Crown ; for Alexander of Lochalsh lost no opportunity of 
asserting his claim to the Earldom of Ross and the Lordship of the Isles. 
It was, however, determined by the Government that no single family 
should ever again be permitted to acquire the same preponderance in the 
west as the Lords of the Isles. At first the steps taken to secure the 
submission of the Islanders were not characterised by any great severity, 
and in the year 1493 James IV. proceeded in person to receive the sub- 

* Highlands and Isles, pp. 55-58. 



292 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

mission and homage of the leading vassals of the ancient Lordship. In 
this he acted wisely, for even those haughty barons had some respect for 
Royalty, and proved themselves willing to grant to their king in person 
what it was quite possible he could never have forced from them by the 
sword. Among the first who came to submit themselves to his clemency 
were Alexander de Insulis of Lochalsh, John de Insulis of Isla, John 
Maclean of Lochbuy, and Duncan Mackintosh of that ilk, formerly vassals 
of the forfeited Lord of the Isles. They received in return for their sub- 
mission royal charters of all or nearly all the lands which they previously 
held under the Island Chief, and were thus made freeholders, quite inde- 
pendent of any superior but the Crown ; and Alexander of Lochalsh and 
John of Isla both received the honour of knighthood, while the former, 
as presumptive heir to the Lordship of the Isles, previous to the forfeiture 
of. his uncle, received a promise from the King to secure all the free tenants 
of the Isles in their then present holdings, an engagement which at first 
seems to have been strictly adhered to. This promise is distinctly men- 
tioned in several charters of the year 1498.* In all the circumstances it 
must be conceded that the King acted with great leniency towards the 
Island Chiefs, and especially to Alexander of Lochalsh, who had 
been the leading spirit in all the recent troubles, particularly in the outbreak 
which ended in the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles. The King 
soon after returned to his lowland court ; but some of the more powerful 
vassals still holding out, it was decided that another expedition should be 
sent accompanied by such a display of military force as should effectually 
secure their submission and command their obedience. So, in the month 
of April 1494, we find the King in the Isles making preparations for a 
third visit by preparing and garrisoning the castle of Tarbet, one of the 
most important strongholds in the West Highlands. In July following 
he is again there with a powerful force, when he proceeded to seize the 
castle of Dunaverty, in South Kintyre, where he placed a strong garrison, 
supplied, like the one at Tarbet, with powerful artillery and experienced 
gunners. By far the best and most complete account of this period by 
any writer is that given by Gregory, and whether acknowledged or not, it 
has been made the groundwork by all our modern historians when treat- 
ing of this dark period in the History of the Highlands and Isles. We 
shall therefore quote him in extenso. He says It will be recollected 
that the districts of Kintyre and Knapdale were, in 1476, expressly re- 
signed by the Lord of the Isles, along with the Earldom of Eoss, to the 
Crown. A great portion of Kintyre had been held, under the Lord of 
the Isles, by Sir Donald de Insulis, surnamed Balloch of Isla, prior to 
this resignation, which deprived Sir Donald and his family of a very 
valuable possession. Whether Sir John of Isla, the grandson and re- 
presentative of Sir Donald, had, at the time he received knighthood, 
on the first visit of James IV. to the Isles, any hopes of the restoration of 
Kintyre, cannot now be ascertained. But it is certain that he was deeply 
offended at the step now taken, of placing a garrison in the castle of 
Dunaverty ; and he secretly collected his followers, determined to take 
the first opportunity of expelling the royal garrison, and taking pos- 
session of the district of Kintyre. This opportunity was soon afforded 

* Reg. of Great Seal, xiii., 336, 337. Gregory, p. 88. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDOJSALDS. 293 

him. The King, not expecting opposition from this quarter, was pre- 
paring to quit Kintyre by sea, with his own personal attendants the 
bulk of his followers having previously been sent away on some other 
expedition when the Chief of Isla, finding everything favourable for his 
attempt, stormed the castle, and hung the governor from the wall, in the 
sight of the King and his fleet.* 

James, unable at the time to punish this daring rebel, took, neverthe- 
less, such prompt measures for the vindication of his insulted authority, 
that ere long Sir John of Isla and four of his sons were apprehended in 
Isla, by Macian of Ardnamurchan, and brought to Edinburgh. There they 
were found guilty of high treason, and executed accordingly on the Bur- 
rowmuir ; their bodies being interred in the church of St Anthony. Two 
surviving sons, who afterwards restored the fortunes of this family, fled 
to their Irish territory of the Glens, to escape the pursuit of Macian.t In 
the course of this year, likewise, two powerful chiefs, Eoderick Macleod 
of the Lewis, and John Macian of Ardnamurchan, made their submission, 
and the activity displayed by the latter against the rebellious Islesmen, 
soon procured him a large share of the Eoyal favour. 

In the following year, 1495, after extensive preparation for another 
expedition to the Isles, the King assembled an army at Glasgow ; and, 
on the 18th of May, we find him at the Castle of Mingarry, in Ardna- 
murchan, being the second time within two years that he had held his 
court in this remote castle. John Huchonson, or Hughson, of Sleat ; 
Donald Angusson of Keppoch ; Allan MacKuari of Moydert, chief of the 
Clanranald ; Hector Maclean of Dowart ; Ewin Allanson of Lochiel, cap- 
tain of the Clan Chameron, and Gilleonan Macneill of Barra, seem to have 
made their submission in consequence of this expedition. In this year, 
too, Kenneth Oig Mackenzie of Kintail and Farquhar Macintosh, son and 
heir of the captain of the Clanchattan, were imprisoned by the King in 
the Castle of Edinburgh. This may have been partly owing to their 
lawless conduct in 1491, but was more probably caused by a dread of 
their influence among the Islanders for the mothers of these powerful 
chiefs were each the daughters of an Earl of Eoss, Lord of the Isles. 
The measures now taken by the King were soon after followed up by an 
important Act of the Lords of Council (1496), which merits particular 
notice. This Act provided, in reference to civil actions against the 
Islanders of which a considerable number were then in preparation 
that the chief of every clan should be answerable for the due execution 
of summonses and other writs against those of his own tribe, under the 
penalty of being made liable himself to the party bringing the action. 
This, although undoubtedly a strong measure, was in all probability 
rendered necessary by the disturbed state of the Isles after so many re- 
bellions, and could hardly fail to produce a beneficial effect ; for in these 
wild and remote districts the officers of the law could not perform their 

* The Treasurer's accounts, under August 1494, show that Sir John of the Isles was 
summoned, at that time, to answer for treason " in Kintyre." The precise act of treason 
is learned from a tradition well known in the Western Highlands. 

t Thse particulars regarding the punishment inflicted on the Chief of Isla and his 
sons are derived from the MS. of Macvurich and Hugh Macdonald, corroborate! from a 
charter from the King to Macian, dated 24th March 1499. and preserved among the 
Argyle papers, rewarding the latter for his services in apprehending Sir John, his sons, 
and accomplices. 



294 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

necessary duties in safety, without the assistance of a large military force. 
At the same time that this important regulation was made, five chiefs of 
rank viz., Hector Maclean of Dowart, John Macian of Ardnamurchan, 
Allan MacRuari of Moydert, Ewin Allanson of Lochiel, and Donald 
Angusson of Keppoch appearing before the Lords of Council bound 
themselves, " by the extension of their hands," to the Earl of Argyle, on 
behalf of the King, to abstain from mutual injuries and molestation, each 
under a penalty of five hundred pounds. Such were the steps taken by 
the King and Council to introduce, at this time, law and order into the 
remote Highlands and Isles. 

The active share taken by King James in supporting the pretensions 
of Perkin Warbeck (1497) withdrew his attention for a time from the 
state of the Western Isles, and seems to have given opportunity for a new 
insurrection, which, however, was suppressed without the necessity for 
another Eoyal expedition. Sir Alexander of Lochalsh whether with 
the intention of claiming the Earldom of Eoss, or of revenging himself on 
the Mackenzies, for his former defeat at Blairnepark, is uncertain invaded 
the more fertile districts of Eoss in a hostile manner. He was encountered 
by the Mackenzies and Munros at a place called Drumchatt, where, after 
a sharp skirmish, he and his followers were again routed and driven out 
of Eoss. After this event the Knight of Lochalsh proceeded southward 
among the Isles, endeavouring to rouse the Islanders to arms in his behalf, 
but without success, owing probably to the terror produced by the execu- 
tion of Sir John (Cathanach) of Isla and his sons, Meantime Macian 
of Ardnamurchan, judging this a proper opportunity of doing an acceptable 
service to the King, surprised Lochalsh in the Island of Oronsay, whither 
he had retreated, and put him to death. In this Macian was assisted, 
according to tradition, by Alexander, the eldest surviving son of John (Cath- 
anach) of Isla, with whom he had contrived to effect a reconciliation, and 
to whom he had given his daughter in marriage. Sir Alexander of Loch- 
alsh left both sons and daughters, who afterwards fell into the King's 
hands ; and of whom we shall have occasion to speak in the sequel. 
About the same time as the unsuccessful insurrection of which we have 
just spoken, the Chiefs of Mackenzie and Mackintosh made their escape 
from Edinburgh Castle ; but on their way to the Highlands they were 
treacherously surprised at the Torwood by the Laird of Buchanan. Mac- 
kenzie having offered resistance, was slain, and his head, along with 
Mackintosh, who was taken alive, was presented to the King by Buch- 
anan. The latter was rewarded, and Mackintosh returned to the dungeon, 
where he remained till after the battle of Flodderu 

In the summer of 1498 King James, still intent upon preserving and 
extending his influence in the Isles, held his court at a new castle he had 
caused to be erected in South Kintyre, at the head of Loch Kilkerran, 
now called the Bay of Campbelltown. Alexander Macleod of Harris, or 
Dunvegan, and Torquil Macleod, now (by the death of his father Roderick) 
Lord of the Lewis, paid their homage to the King on this occasion ; and 
some steps were taken to suppress the feud between the Clanhuistean of 
Sleat and the Clanranald of Moydert, regarding the lands of Garmoran 
and Uist. The King soon afterwards returned to the Lowlands, leaving, 
as he imagined, the Isles and West Highlands in a state of tranquillity 
not likely soon to be disturbed. A few months, however, sufficed 



HISTOEY OF THE MACDOKALDS. 295 

to produce a wonderful change "between the King and his subjects in the 
Isles. The cause of this change remains involved in obscurity ; but it 
must have been powerful to induce so sudden and total a departure from 
the lenient measures hitherto pursued, and to cause the King to violate 
his solemn promise by revoking all the charters granted by him to the 
vassals of the Isles during the last five years.* The new line of policy 
was no sooner determined on than followed up with the wonted vigour of 
the Sovereign. We find him at Tarbet in the month of April, when he 
gave to Archibald, Earl of Argyll, and others for letting on lease, for the 
term of three years, the entire Lordship of the Isles as possessed by the 
last lord, both in the Isles and on the mainland, excepting only the 
Island of Isla and the lands of North and South Kintyre. Argyll 
received also a commission of Lieutenandry, with the fullest powers, over 
the Lordship of the Isles ; and, some months later, was appointed Keeper 
of the Castle ot Tarbet, and Bailie and Governor of the King's lands in 
Knapdale. Argyll was not, however, the only individual who benefited 
by this change of measures. Alexander, Lord of Gordon, eldest son of 
the Earl of Huntly, received a grant of numerous lands in Lochaber 
(1500) formerly belonging to the Lordship of the Isles. Upon Duncan 
Stewart of Appin, who was much employed in the Eoyal service, were 
bestowed the lands of Duror and Glenco during the King's pleasure. The 
important services of Macian of Ardnamurchan (who alone of all the Is- 
landers seems to have retained the favour of his Sovereign) were likewise 
suitably acknowledged, t 

Skene, though somewhat less clear in his details, substantially corro- 
borates this account,^ and Tytler sums up the whole of the various expe- 
ditions of the King so neatly that we cannot resist quoting him. He 
says : In 1493, although much occupied with other cares and concerns, 
he found time to penetrate twice into the Highlands, proceeding as far as 
Dunstaffnage and Mingarry in Ardnamurchan, and in the succeeding 
year, such was the indefatigable activity with which he executed his 
public duties, that he thrice visited the Isles. The first of these voyages, 
which took place in April and May, was conducted with great state. It 
afforded the youthful monarch an opportunity ot combining business and 
amusement, of gratifying his passion for sailing and hunting, of investi- 
gating the state of the fisheries, of fitting out his barges for defence as 
well as pleasure, and of inducing his nobles to build and furnish, at their 
own expense, vessels in which they might accompany their Sovereign. 
It had the effect also of impressing upon the inhabitants of the Isles a 
salutary idea of the wealth, grandeur, and military power of the King. 
The rapidity with which he travelled from place to place, the success and 
expedition with which he punished all who dared to oppose him, his 
generosity to his friends and attendants, and his gay and condescending 
familiarity with the lower classes of his subjects, all combined to increase 
his popularity and to consolidate and imite, by the bonds of equal laws 
and affectionate allegiance, the remotest parts of the kingdom. 

* The King's general parliamentary revocation of all charters granted in his mino- 
rity, could not affect those of the Islanders, which seem all to have been granted after 
his attaining majority. 

t Highlauds and Isles, 89-95. 

Highlanders of Scotland, vol. iL, pp. 86-90; Tytler's History of Scotland, vol. 
ii., pp. 258-259, 1879 Ed. 



296 THE CELTIC MAGAZINE. 

At Tarbetj in Cantire, he repaired the fort originally built by Bruce, 
and established an emporium for his shipping, transporting thither his 
artillery, laying in a stock of gunpowder, and carrying along with him 
his master-gunners, in whose training and practice he appears, from the 
payments in the treasurer's books, to have busied himself with much per- 
severance and enthusiasm. These warlike measures were generally 
attended with the best effects ; most of the chieftains readily submitted 
to a Prince who could carry hostilities within a few days into the heart 
of their country, and attack them in their island fastnesses with a force 
which they found it vain to resist ; one only, Sir John of the Isles had 
the folly to defy the royal vengeance, ungrateful for that repeated lenity 
with which his treasons had been already pardoned. His great power in 
the Isles probably induced him to believe that the King would not ven- 
ture to drive him to extremities ; but in this he was disappointed, 
James instantly summoned him to stand his trial for treason ; and in a 
Parliament which assembled at Edinburgh soon after the King's return 
from the north, this formidable rebel was stripped of his power, and his 
lands and possessions forfeited to the crown.* 

The last Lord of the Isles died, as we have seen, in the Monastery of 
Paisley, about the year 1498, leaving no legitimate issue. He was 
married to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James, Lord Livingston, great 
Chamberlain of Scotland. His son, Angus Og, died, as already stated, 
about 1485, leaving an only child, Donald Dubh, who was at the time of 
his father's death, and still (1498) continued to be, a prisoner in the Castle 
of Inchconnell. Angus was married to Lady Mary Campbell, daughter of 
Colin, first Earl of Argyll ; and most authorities agree that Donald Dubh 
was the legitimate issue of this marriage, though, for state reasons, he was 
declared a bastard in various Acts of parliament, and known, in conse- 
quence, as " Donald the Bastard." John the second illegitimate son of the 
last lord, also died during his father's lifetime before the 16th of December 
1478, as is clearly proved by the Eegister of the Great Seal, viii., 120. 
Angus Og of the Isles had also two daughters one of whom, Florence, 
married Duncan Mackintosh of Mackintosh, and the other, Margaret, who 
married Kenneth Mackenzie (a'Bhlair), VII* h Baron of Kintail. The 
sons of both the heirs respectively of Mackintosh and Kintail, were 
taken prisoners to Edinburgh Castle, in 1495, as already described. 
Celestine of Lochalsh died in 1473 fifteen years before the death of his 
brother, Earl John while his son, Alexander of Lochalsh, the "heir 
presumptive " to the Lordship of the Isles, was assassinated in the Island 
of Oronsay in 1498 the same year in which Earl John himself died. 
In the same year also died Hugh of Sleat, the only surviving son of Earl 
John, leaving by his first wife, Finvola, daughter of Alexander, the son of 
John of Ardnamurchan, one son John MacHuistean, or Hughson, who 
is above referred to as having, in 1495, made his submission to James IV. 
with several others of the principal vassals of the Isles. John Hughson 
died without issue in 1502, but he was succeeded in the property by his 
brother, Donald Gallach, previously referred as the issue of his father by 

* Treasurer's Accounts, August 24th, 1494, "Item, to summon Sir John of the Islea, 
of treason in Kintyre, and for the expense of witnesses, vi. Ib. xiii. sh. iiii. d." This, 
according to Mr Gregory, was Sir John, called " Cathanach," of Isla and Cantire, and 
Lord of the Glens in Ireland executed afterwards at Edinburgh about the year 1500. 



HISTORY OF THE MACDOKALDS. 297 

Mary, daughter of Gunn, Crowner of Caithness, and from whom is descended 
the family of the present Lord Macdonald of the Isles, who still pos- 
sesses the Sleat property in Skye, and of whom, and other members of 
the family, hereafter. 

Sir Alexander of Lochalsh, nephew of the last Lord of the Isles, 
married a daughter of Lovat, by whom he left three sons and two daugh- 
ters, the eldest of whom, Sir Donald of Lochalsh, known as " Donald 
Gallda," Lieutenant of the Isles, was afterwards elected by the Islanders 
to the Lordship of the Isles. He and his brothers took a prominent part 
in the succeeding insurrections in the Isles, in connection with which his 
proceedings will be noticed at length in the sequel. It may, however, be 
stated here that he and his brothers died without issue, his two sisters, 
Margaret and Janet, having succeeded to his property, carrying it to their 
respective husbands Macdonald of Glengarry and Dingwall of Kilduu. 

From these facts it will be seen that the vassals of the Lordship of 
the Isles, on the death of Earl John, were without any recognised head, 
while there were not less than three possible claimants to that high posi- 
tion ; namely, Donald Dubh, the son of Angus Og of the Isles, the latter 
of whom was undoubtedly heir of eritail to John, last Lord of the Isles 
and Earl of Ross. Donald Dubh therefore, whether legitimate or not, 
had powerful claims, and he was not long in asserting them. The next 
claimant was Sir Donald, whose father, Sir Alexander of Lochalsh, had 
been for many years acting as, and holding the rank of, heir to the Lord- 
ship ; and finally we have the descendants of Hugh of Sleat, who also, in 
their turn, claimed the succession. To follow these in their various in- 
surrections and make the various points in this most difficult portion of 
the history of the Macdonalds as clear as possible, will be attempted in 
our next. 

( lo be Continued.) 



ffiotts mti 



ANSWER TO QUERY. 
THE MACBEANS OF KINCHYLE. 

In answer to the query by "A. M. S." in our last issue, regarding 
this family, Mr Charles Fraser- Mackintosh, F.S.A.S., M.P., writes to us 
as follows : "Upon the 16th October 1759 Lieutenant Donald Macbean 
was served heir male to his late uncle, ^Eneas Macbean, in the lands of 
Kinchyle ; and on the 26th March 1760 the conveyance to Fraser of Nees 
Castle was signed by Donald Macbean's commissioners, he being then 
abroad." 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND.-At the last 
monthly meeting of this Society, Mr Alexander Mackenzie of the Celtic 
Magazine was among tho