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CENSURA LITERARIA 



COMTAININO 



TITLES, ABSTRACTS, 



4MD 



OPINIONS 



OP 



OLD ENGLISH BOOKS, 



ORIGINAL DISQUISITIONS, ARTICLES OF BIOGRAPHY, 
AND OTHER LITERARY ANTIQUITIES. 



BY 

SIR EGERTON BRYDGES, Bart. K. J. M. P. 



SECOND EDITION. 



WITH THE ARTICLES CLASSED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER 
UNDER THEIR SEPARATE HEADS. 



VOLUME IV. 



PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, 
PA TERNOSTER-ROfV. 




1815. 






V^4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Td 



VOLUME IV. 



HISTORY. 
Art. Page 

255 Caxton's Recuyell of the Historye of Troye, 147 1 . . 1 

256 Seige and Conq^uest of Iherusalem, 1481. . 2 

267 Froissart's Chronicle, by Lord Berners, 1525 3 

258 by Johnes, 1803-4 5 

259 Nicholas's Conquest of New Spain, 1578 35 

260 Old Spanish Historians of Mexico 43 

261 Gage's Survey of the West Indias, 1655 53 

262 in French, 1695 65 

263 A. Cope's History of Annibal and Scipio, 1544 59 

264 J. Proctor's History of Wyat's Rebellion, 1555 60 

265 R. Aschara's Report of the Affairs of Germany, 1552 63 

266 Les grandes Annalles de la Grand Bretaigne, 1541.. 65 

267 Newton's History of the Saracens, 1 575 67 

268 Letters from Venice on the Victory over the Turks, 

1571 72 

269 The whole Discourse of the Victory over the Turks ib. 

270 Letter of J. B. on peopling the Ardes, 1572 75 

271 Churchyard's Wars in Flanders, 1578 89 

272 Stockar's Wars in Flanders, 1583 95 

273 Doleman's Conference, 1594 ♦ 97 

27 > Answer to Dolemao, 1600... 121 

VOL. IV. b 



▼i CONTENTS. 

Art. Page 

2T5 Victories of the French over the Rebels, 1589...., 128 
176 French King's Declaratiou, 1589 131 

277 Discoverer of France to the Parisians, 1590 132 

278 Occurrences of the Army at Paris, 1590.. ib. 

279 Underdowne's History of Heliodorus, 1605 133 

280 Verstegan's Restitution of decayed Intelligence, 

1605 ib. 

281 Hay ward's Lives of Norman Kings, 1013 134 

282 Percy and Catesby's Prosopopeia, 1606 136 

283 Sir Walter Raleigh's Demeanor, 1618 137 

284 News of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1618 ib. 

285 The Court of James I. 1620 139 

286 Duschesne's Scriptores Normanni, 1619 142 

287 Maseres's Emmae Encomium, &c. 1783 14T 

288 Vicars's Parliamentary Chronicle, 1644, 1646 151 

289 N.Bacon's Historical Discourse, 1647.. 160 

290 Weldon's Court of King James 1.1650 1 62 

291 Sanderson's Aulicus CoquinariiB, 1650 163 

292 Osborne's Memorials, 1658 ib. 

293 Warwick's Memoirs ib. 

294 Sir T. Herbert's Memoirs, 1702 164 

295 Roger Coke's Detection, 1719 170 

i96 Welwood's Memoirs, 1700 1 ib. 

297 Jones's Secret History of Whitehall it>. 

298 Walker's History of Independency, 1661 171 

^99 Blount's Roscobel, 1651 176 

.SOO Idol of Clownes, 1654 178 

801 Cecil's Secret Correspondetjce with K. James I. 1766 179 

302 Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia, 1641 r 199 

303 Fuller's Worthies, 1662 194 

304 Lloyd's State Worthies, 1670 ib. 

805 Winstanley *!J Worthies, 1 684. ib. 

806 Carter's Kentish Expedition, 1650 197 

807 Wisheart's Affaires in Scotland, 1649 199 

i08 Lord North's Narrative of Passages in the Long Par- 
liament, 1670 201 

309 Letters of Sir William Temple, 1700, 1701 ib. 



CONTENTS. vii 

Art. Page 

310 Letters of the Earl of Arlington, 1701 203 

Sll Fragraenta Aulica^ by T. S. 1662 205 

312 Reresby's Memoirs, 1734 20d 

313 Roll of Battle Abbey examined 210 

314 Overbury's Observations on the United Provinces, 

1651 249 

815 Philipot's Calalogu cof the Knights made by James I. 

1660 .. 250 

316 Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714 '. ib. 

in Commines's History, byDanett, 1674 251 

318 Anglorura Speculum, or, Worthies of England, 1684 254 

319 Mariana's History, by Stevens, 1699 255 

320 Destruction of Troy, Uth Edit. 1684 26T 

321 Rex Platonicus ab Isaaco Wake, 1663 258 

322 Kennet's Historical Register, 1728 260 

323 Parochial Antiquities, 1695 263 

324 Mrs. Scott's History of Gustavus Ericson, 1761 265 

325 Northern Memoirs by R. Frank, 1 694 ^ 270 

326 G. Bridges's Memoirs of the Duke of Rohan, 1660. . 272 



BIOGRAPHT. 

327 Gall's VirorumDoctorumEflSgies, 1572 278 

328 Holland's Heroologia Anglica, 1620 279 

329 Fuller's Abel Redivivus, 1651 285 

330 Lord Brook's Life of Sir Philip Sidney, 1652 288 

331 Cavendish's Life of Cardinal Wolsey, 1641, 1667, &c. 289 

332 Mrs. Scott's Life of Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne, 

1772 290 

333 Lawrence's Nicholsii Vita, 1780 302 

334 Forbes's Life of Beattie, 1806... 316 

335 Wooll's Life of Dr. J. Warton, 1 806 340 

336 Mrs. Hutchinson's Life of Col. Hutchinson, 1806 356 

337 Watson's Memoirs of the Warrens, Earls of Surrey, 

1776 388 

338 Ditto 1782 389 



Tiii CONTENTS. 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



Aet. Page 

339 Hakluyt's Voyages, 1598 403 

340 Purchas's Pilgrimage, 1613-1626 404 

341 English Collection of Voyages 410 

342 Frezier's Voyage to the South Sea, 1721 413 

343 SirE. Sandys's Europae Speculum, 1637 ..^ 416 

344 G. Sandys's Travels, 1627 420 

345 Blount's Voyage to the Levant, 1638 . 427 

346 Gage's Survey of the West Indies, 1648 432 

347 Journey from Honduras to the South Sea, 1735.... ib. 



CENSURA LITERARIA. 



HISTORY. 

Art. CCLV. The Remydl of the Histoids of 
Troye ; composed and drawen out ofdi/verce Bookes 
of Latin into Frenshe, hy the right venerable Per* 
sone and worshipfull Man Raoul le Feure^ Freest^ 
and Chapelayn unto the ryght noble, gloryous, and 
mighty Prince in his Tyme, Philip Due of Bur* 
ghyne^ of Brabant, &^c. in the Yere 1464, and trans- 
lated and drawen out of Frenshe into Englishe ; 
hy Willyam Caxton, Mercer of the Cyte of Lon* 
don, at the comaundment of the ryght, hygh, 
mighty, and vertuouse Princesse, his redoubtyd 
Lady Margarete, Duchesse of Burgoyne, S^c, 
whiche said Translation and Werke was begonne 
in Brugis, S^c. the first of March, 1468, and ended 
in the Holy Cyte of Colen, 19 Sept, 1471. 

Xhis is generally understood to be the first book 
printed by Caxton; though an mgenious and learned 
gentleman has argued for the probability of his having 
before printed the original, viz. " ie Recueil des His* 
tories de Troyes" Caxton, having printed this abroad, 
did not import the art itself till he returned to England 
a year or two afterwards He concludes in the Colo- 
phon of this book with the following words : " For- 

VOL. IV. B 



asmoche as age creepeth on me daily, and febleth all 
the bodye, and also because I have promysid diverce 
gentilmen^ and to my frendes, to address to hem, as 
hastely as I might, this said book, therefore I have 
practysed and lemed, at my grete charge and dispence, 
to ordeyne this sayde book in prynte, after the manner 
and forme as ye may here see, and is not wreton with 
penne and ynke, as other bokes ben, to thende that 
all men may have them attones; for all the bookes of 
this storye, named the Recule of the Historeys of 
Troyes, thus enprynted, as ye here see, were begonne 
in con day, and also fynyshid in oon day," &c.* 



Art. CCLVl. The Seige and Conquest of Iherusa- 
leniyWith many other Hy story es therein comprysed: 
and of the Meseases of the Cristen Men in the 
Holy Londe; and of their Releef Sfc, and how 
Godeffroy of Boloyne was first Kyng of the Latym 
inthat Royamme ; andofhis Deth. Translated and 
reduced out of Frenshe into Englyshe, by me 
symple Persone Wylliam Caxton, Emprynted 
in thAhhay of Westmester, xx of Novembre,f 
1481. 

" The end (or design) of this performance, Caxton 
tells us in his Colophon, was, that every Christian 
man may be the better encouraged to enterprise war 
for the defence of Christendom, and to recover the 
said city of Jerusalem, in which our Saviour sufired 
death, &c. Also, that Christians might go thither 

* See Bib. Har. III. 193. Herbert»s Typ. 1. 2. 
t See Herbert, 1. 35. 

3 



in pilgrimage, with strong hand, to expel the Turks 
and Saracens out of the same, that our Lord might be 
there served, &c. Matter of fact appears to have been 
the chief pursuit of the author in this history ; andt 
though some " mervallous workes'* do occur in it ; ye 
it seems not so over-run with romance, as some other 
histories of this age and subject are. Our translator 
says he presents this book to King Edward IV. which 
very presentation-book was sold in the auction of Mr. 
Rich. Smith's library in 1682. It was much read by 
our old warriors.^ 



Abt. CCLVIL ^' Here hegynniih the firste volum 
of Sir John Froissarty of the Crony cles of Eng' 
lande, FrauncCy Spaj/ne, Portj/ngale^ Scotlande^ 
Bretaincy Flounders : and other places adjoynynge. 
Translated oute of Frenche into our materalli' 
Englyshe tongue^ by John Bouchier Knyghte^ 
LordBerners : at the com aundement of our e moste 
hyghe redoubted soveragyne Lorde Kynge Henry 
the Eyghth Kyngc of Englande, Fraunce, and 
Irelande, defendourof the faith: and of the church 
of Englandcy and also of Irelande^ in earth the su- 
preme headeJ** 

On the back of the title are the King's arms. Next 
follows " The Preface of John Bouchier Knight, Lord 
Berners, translatour of this present cronicle," which 
fills one leaf; at the bottom of the second side of which 
is " Thus ended the preface of Syr John Bouchier 

* ^ibl. Harl. III. 193. f Sic. 

B 2 



Knight Lord Berncrs, translatour of this present croni- 
cle. And hereafter foloweth the table, with all the 
chapters as they stande in the boke in order, fro one to 
foure hundred li. whiche be in numbre cccc and li. 
chapiters." The whole contains fo. cccxxil, besides 
preface and contents. The Colophon, " Thus endeth 
the fifste volume of Sir John Froissart," &c. Im- 
printed at London in Fletestrete at the sygne of the 
George, by Wyllyam Myddylton." 

*' Here hegynneth the thirde and fourthe boke of 
Sir John Froissart of the crony cles of Englande, 
Fraunce, Spaygne, Portt/ngale^ Scotiande^ Bre- 
tat/nCy Flaundcrsy and other places adjoi/nyng^ 
translated out of Frenche into Englj/she hy Johan 
Bourchier Knyght Lorde Berners^ deputie generall 
of the Kynges towne of Calais and Marchesse 
of the same, at the comaundement of our most 
highe redouted soverayne lorde Kyng Henry the 
eyght Kynge of Englancte and of France and 
hyghe defender of the Christen faithe, 4*c." 

On the back of this leaf is the King's arms, as to the 
first volume. Then the preface and a table of the con- 
tents of cc xLix chapters. This volume contains Fo. 
cccxx, though numbered only cccxix, which num- 
ber was repeated by mistake. Colophon, " Thus endeth 
•the thirde and fourthe boke of Sir John Froissart" &c. 
" the whiche two bokes be copyled into one volume, 
and fynysshed in the sayd towne of Calds the tenth day 
of Marche, in the l6th yere of our said soverayne 
lordes raigne. Imprinted at London in Fletestrete by 
Rycharde Pynson, piinter to the kynges moost noble 



grace. And ended the last day of August : the yere 
of our Lorde God. mdxxv. 

Cum privy legio a rege indulto.** 

At the back of the last page is Pynson's device. No ) 
7, supposed to be his arms.^ 

Art. CCLVIII. " Sir John Froissarfs Chronicle 

of England^ France^ and the adjoining countries^ 
from the latter part of the reign of Edward II, 

* Herbert says, " William Middleton printed both volumes of 
Froissart, but the type is much ruder than Pynson's. Mr. Ames's 
copy had only th6 four last sheets of Pinson's edition, and having 
his colophon at the end, made Ames suppose the whole last volume 
had been Pinson's ; and that Middleton printed only the first vor 
lume." <* There appear'* Herbert afterwards add^, ♦' to have been 
three editions of Froissart*s Chronicle; one by Pinson himself, an- 
other with Pinson's name, but supposed to be a pirated edition, and 
a third by W. Middleton ; of this it has been queried whether he 
ever printed any more than the first volume. I had a copy of it 
which had been Mr. Ames's ; the title like the late Dr. Archer's copy, 
but had the king's arms, &c. on the back, and the colophon with 
Middleton's name without date. The title of the second volume had 
jieither compartment nor border, and the back page blank. The re- 
mainder of this volume to Fo. cccxii inclusive is printed on the 
same rude 'types aS the first volume, except the last eight leaves, 
which are on much neater types, with the colophon in Pinson's 
name, printed on types of the same size as the chronicle, the lines 
gradually shortening, &c. This is supposed to be part of the pirated 
edition : the other edition with Pinson's name, diii«rs from it, par- 
ticularly in this respect, that the lines of the colophon are of equal 
length, and of a larger size. I imagine there were no more editions 
than these three, but the making up copies from one or another of 
these may seem to multiply editions greatly. I have seen Pinson's 
edition with the last leaf reprinted on modern black letter, copied 
from the supposed spurious edition, but dated MDXXI 1 1."— -Her- 
bert, p. 1790. 



to the coronation of Henri/ IV. Newly trans- 
lated from the best French editions^ with varia* 
iions and additions from many celebrated Manu- 
scripts. 

By Thomas Johnes. 

Who so shall telle a tale after a man. 

He moste reherse, as neighe as ever he can, 

Everich word, if it be in his charge. 

All speke he never so rudely and so large ; 

Or else he moste tellen his tale untreite. 

Or feinen thinges, or finden wordes newe, 

Chaucer's Prologue. 

Vol. I. At the Hafod press, by James Henderson, 
1803, 4to. pp. 835, with a' dedication to Lord Thur- 
low, and a short advertisement, dated from Hafod, 
24 Dec. 1803. 

The same— Vol. II. 1804, pp. 744. 

There is a good account of Lord Berners*s transla- 
tion by Oldys in the " British Librarian," p. 67, in 
which he says " if Froissart has not hitherto received 
the honour of being printed at the Louvre with some 
other historians, according to the proposal of the learn- 
ed Monsieur Du Fresne, in Le Long, Bibl. Hist. p. 
£35, upon the national motive of praising his own 
country too little, and ours too much, (see La Pope- 
Hniere, Hist, des Hist. lib. 8, and Bodin M eth. Hist, 
c. 4) these reasons, with the extraordinary dearness of 
the printed copies, should excite some learned person 
of this kingdom, for the reputation of our own country, 
to collate the MS. copies, compare the facts with 
records, and contemporary writers, and correct the 



miserable mis- spellings in the several impressions of 
their surnames, who Abundantly signalized their valour, 
in justice to the merits of these celebrated persons, and 
in honour to their posterity. The most ancient of these 
impressions in French seems to be that printed by 
Ant. Verard, a bookseller of Paris, fol. without date. 
The next was that printed also at Paris . by three seve- 
ral persons, that is, the first volume by Fra. Regnauld, 
the second and third by Michael Le Noir, 1505. The 
fourth by John Petit, 1518. There was another im- 
pression at Paris by Ant. Couteau, also bound in two 
volumes, fol. 1530. This was that chiefly used by 
Denis Sauvage, Historiographer to King Hen. II. of 
France, in the edition he revised and corrected from 
many copies and abridgments ; which was printed at 
Lyons by John de Tournes, fol. 155% and again, at 
Paris, in fol. 1574, with marginal remarks, and anno- 
tations at the end of every book. He finds fault with 
the preceding Editors, several parts of whom he may 
have rightly corrected, but is himself liable in many 
places to correction ; notwithstanding he has been so 
preferred, that a copy of his edition has been sometimes 
sold in London for ten guineas. We could wish that 
most of the errors in these French editions were as 
truly corrected in the English one, as Bishop Nichols 
son imagined they were. In three of the editions we 
have seen, neither the books nor the chapters are di- 
vided alike ; so that it is very tedious and confusing to 
find in one of theni the references of the other. Though 
Froissarfs method is somewhat diffuse and interrupted^ 
yet the epitome we have of him in print is scarce 
worth mentioning, however drawn up by Sleidan, sueb 
a skeleton he has made of it^ 12mo. Franc. 1584; &c* 



8 

and with such partiality, to the prejudice of the English, 
has he so diminished it ; according to the censure of 
our learned Humphrey Lhuid in Comment. Brit. 
Descrip. fol. 27. And yet it has been translated into 
English by P. Golding, and printed in a 4to pamphletji 
1608." 

Sir John Bourchier, Lord Bemers, was bom about 
1467, son and heir of Sir Humphry Bourchier by 
Elizabeth daughter and heir of Sir Frederick Tilney;| 
(widow of Sir Thomas Howard) which Humphrey was 
slain at Barnet-field, on Edward the Fourth's part, and 
buried in Westminster- Abbey, during the life of his 
fiather, who was Sir John Bourchier, K. G. fourth soi| 
of William Earl of Ewe, and Baron Bemers, by marr 
riage with Margery, daughter and heir of Richard 
Lord Bemers. Lord Bourchier succeeded his grand- 
father 1 6 May, 1474, being then only seven years old. 
He was educated at Oxford, and afterwards travelled 
abroad, and returned a master of several languages^ 
and a complete gentleman. In 1495 he obtained the 
notice of Henry VH. by his valour in quelling the 
fury of the rebels in Cornwall and Devon, under the 
conduct of Michael Joseph, a blacksmith. In 5 Hen, 
VIII. he was captain of the pioneers at the siege of 
^herouenne. In 6 Hen. VHI. being made Chancelr 
lor of the King's Exchequer for life he attended the 
JLiady Mary, the King's sister, into France, to her mar- 
riage with King Lewis XII.; and in 19 Hen. VIII. 
obtained a ^rant from the king of several manors. 
Afterwards he was made Lieutenant of Calais and the 
inarches adjoining in France, and spending most of 
his time there, wrote several learned works in that 
|fituation. There he made his will, 3 March, 1532^ 



9 

(24 Hen. VIII.) bequeathing his body to be buried in 
the chancel of the parish church of our Lady, within 
the town of Calais, and appointing that an honest 
priest should sing a mass there for his soul, by the 
space of three years. He died l6th March follow- 
ing, leaving by Katharine his wife daughter of John 
Duke of Norfolk, Joane his daughter and heir, mar- 
ried to Edmund Knyvet of Ashwelthorpe in Norfolk, 
Esq.* 

Lord Berners translated besides Froissart, the fol- 
lowing : 

^* The Castle of Love, translated out of Spanyshe 
into Englyshe, by John Bowrchier, Knyght, Lord 
Bernes, at the instance of the Lady Elyzabeth Carew, 
which book treateth of love betweene Leriano and 
Laureola, daughter to the King of Masedonia," with 
cuts — Twelves. Printed by Robert Wyer.f 

The same ^* Imprinted at London by John Kynge, 
8V0.J 

*^ The Golden Boke of Marcus Aurelius Emperour 

* Pugd. Bar. II. 133. Wopd»s iVth. I. 33. Lord Berners had 
another daughter and co-heir, Mary, who married Alexander Unton 
of Wadley in Berkshire, but died without issue. Lord Berners's 
will is printed at length in the case of the Barony of Berners in 
CpUii^s's Baronies in Fee, 1734, Fol. p. 337, where it appears that 
,Iane perners who married Edmund Knyvet, died 1561, having had 
John K. who, by Agnes Harcourt, had Sir Thomas K. who died 
J617, having had by Muriel Parry, Sir Thomas K. who dying 1605, 
left by Elizabeth Bacon, Thomas K. who died 1658, leaving by Ka- 
tharine sister and co-heir to Thomas Birgh, Lord Burgh, Sir John 
j&nyvet of Ashwelthorpe, K. B. whose daughter and at length sole 
heir Katharine marrying first John Harris, Gent, and afterwards 
Richard Bokenham, of Weston Mercate, Co. Suff. Esq. claimed and 
was allowed the Barony of Berners, 1720, but died s. p. 
+ Herbert, I. 380. % Ibid II. 764. 



10 

and eloquent oratour." At the end, " Thus endeth 
the volume of Marke Aurelie, Emperour, otherwise 
called the golden boke, translated out of Frenche into 
Englishe by John Bourchier Knight Lorde Barnerg, 
deputie generall of the Kynge's town of Caleis and 
marches of the same, at the instaunt desire of his 
nevewe Sir Frauncis Bryan Kuighte, ended at Calais 
ye tenth dale of Marche, in the yere of the reigne of 
our Soverayne lorde Kyng Henry the VIII. the 
XXIIII." Printed bj Thomas Beithelet, 1534.* 

" Arthur of Brytayn/' On a ribbon ; under which 
" The hystory of the moost noble and valyaunt Knyght 
Arthur of lytell brytayne, translated out of frenshe into 
englyshe by the noble Johan bourghcher Knyght, 
lorde Bamers, newly imprynted." Over a cut of the 
Knight and his Squire, inclosed in a border of four 
odd pieces. On the back is the translator's prologue. 
On the next leaf begins " The table of thys present 
hystorie," ten pages, double columns. Contains 
174 leaves, with cuts, though numbered only Fol. 
LXix. " Here endeth the hystory of Arthur of lytell 
Brytayne. Imprynted at London in Powles churche 
yearde at the sygne of the Cock by Robert Red- 
bome."t 

Lord Berners also wrote *' The famous exploits of 
Sir Hugh of Bo¥U-dekux," a book " of the duties of the 
inhabitants of Calais," &c. " Ite in vineam," a co- 
medy usually acted at Calais after vespers, never print- 
ed4 

« Herbert, 1. 425. f Ibid IL 686. 

X Royal and noble authors. Dame Juliana Berners author of 
the book on Hawking, Hunting, and Armoury, 1481, was sister to 



11 

Mr. Johnes, the new translator of Froissart, is a man 
of fortune, of whose beautiful seat at Hafod descrip- 
tions may be found in many modem tours; and is 
M. P. for the county of Cardigan. 

A specimen of each translation of the same chapter 
may exhibit the fairest character of both. 

THE DEATH OF SIR JOHN CHANDOS. 

FBOM LORD BEBNERs's TRANSLATION, VOL. I* 
CH. CCLXX. 

" How Sir Johan Chaundos was slayne in a hdayle^ 
and homejinaUy the Frenchmen were discomfyted^ 
and taken in the same hatayle^^ 

Greatly it greveed Sir Johan Chandos the takyngc 
of saynt Salvyn, bycause it was under hys rule ; for 
he was seneschall of Poictpu. He set all hys mynde 
howe he myght recover it agayne, other by force or 
by stclthe, he cared nat so he myght have it, and for 
that entent dyvers nyghts he made sundrie bussh* 
mentes, but it aveyled nat. For sir Loyes who kept 
it, toke ever so good hede thereto, that he defended it 
fro all dangers. For he knewe well the takyng 
therof greved sore sir Johan Chandos at the hert. So 
it fell, that the night before the first day of January, 
sir Johan Chandos beynge in Poytiers, sent to assemble 
togyder dyvers barons, knyghtes, and squyres of Poitou. 
Desyring them to come to hym as prively as they 
coude: for he certeyned them how he wolde ryde 

Richard Lord Berners, whose daughter was this author's grand- 
mother. Sir Francis Bryan was distinguished for his poetical 
talents. 



12 

forthe, and they refused nat hys desyre, for they loved 
him entyrely, but shortely assembled togyder in the 
cyte of Poicters. Thyder came sir Guysshard Dangle, 
sir Loyes Harcourt, the lorde of Pons, the lorde of 
Partney, the lorde of Pynan, the lorde tanyboton, sir 
Geflfray Dargenton, sir Maubruny of Leniers, sir 
Thomas Percy, syr Baudwyn of Fesvyll, sir Rycharde 
of Pontchardon, and dyvers other. And whan they 
were all togyder assembled, they were thre hundred 
speares and departed by night fro Poictiers, none knewe 
whyder they should go : except certayne of the lordes, 
and they had redy with them scalying ladders, and so 
came to saynt Salvyn. And there alighted, and 
delyvered their horses to their varlettes which was 
about mydnight, and so entered into the dyke, yet they 
hadde nat their entente so shortely, for sodaynly they 
herde the watche home blowe. I shall tell you wher- 
fore it blewe. The same nyght Garlonet was departed 
fro the Roche of Poisay, with a xl speares with hym. 
And was come the same tyme to saynt Salvyn, to 
speke with the capitayne Sir Loys of saint Julyan, to 
thentent to have ryden togyder to Poictou, to se if 
they coude gette any pray. And so he called up the 
watchman, the whiche made hym to sounde hys home. 
And so the englyshmen, who were on the other 
syde of the fortresse, herynge the watche blowe, and 
great noyse in the place, feared lest they had ben 
spyed by some spyes, for they knewe nothyng that the 
sayd frenchmen were on the other syde, to have en- 
tred into the place. Therfore they withdrue backe agayne 
out of the dykes, and sayd, let us go hens for this night, 
for we have failed of our purpose. And so they re-p 
mounted on their horses, and retoumed hole togyder 



13 

to Chauvigny on the ryver of Cruse, a two leages thetl!^. 
Tlian the poictevyns demaunded of sir Johan Chandos, 
if he wolde commande them any farther servyce, he 
answered and sayde : sirs, retourne home agayne whan 
it please you, in the name of God : and as for thys 
day, I wyll abyde styll here in thys towne. So there 
departed the Knyghtesof Poictou and some of England, 
to the nombre of cc speares. Than Sir Johan Chan- 
dos went into a house, and caused to be made a good 
iyre, and there was styll with hym sir Thomas Percy 
and hys company seneschall of Rochell, who sayde to 
sir Johan Chandos, sir, it is your entent to tary here 
all this day. Ye, truly, quod he, why demaunded you ? 
«ir, the cause I desyre you is, sith ye wyll nat styre this 
daye, to gyve me leve, and I wyll ryde some way with 
my company, to se if I can fynde any adventure. Go 
your way, sir, in the name of God, quod Sir Johan 
Chandos. And so departed sir Thomas Percy with a 
XXX speares in his company, and so passed the bridge 
at Chauvigny, and toke the longe way that ledde to 
Poictiers. And sir John Chandos abode styll behynde 
full of displeasure, in that he had fayled of his purpose, 
and so stode in a kechyn warmynge him by the fyre. 
And his servantes jangeled with him, to thentent to 
bring him out of his melancholy. His servants had 
prepared for him a place to reste him ; than he de- 
maunded if it were nere day ? And therewith there 
came a man into the house, and came before hym and 
sayd, sir, I have brought you tidyngs. — What be they, 
tell me? — sir, surely the frenchmen berydingeabrode.— 
Howe knowest thou that ? said he ? — I departed fro 
Saint Salvyn with them. — Wfiat waye be they ryden ? 
— sir, I can nat tell you the certaintie ; but surely they 



14 

toke the high way to Poiters. — ^What frencheracn be 
they ; canst thou tell me ; sir, it is sir Loys of Saynt 
Julyan, and Carlonet the breton.— Well, quod sir 
Johan Chandos, I care nat ; 1 have no lyst this night 
to ryde forthe : diey may happe to be encountered 
thoughe I be nat there. And so he taryed there styll 
a certayne space in a gret study, and at last whan he 
had well advysed hymselfe, he sayde, whatsoever I have 
sayde here befor, I trowe it be good that I ryde forthe ; 
I must retourne to Poicters, and anone it wyll be daye. 
That is true, sir, quod the knights about him. Than 
he sayde, make redy, for I wyll ryde forthe ; and so 
they dyd, and mounted on their horses, and departed, 
and toke the right way to Poicters costynge the ryver, 
and the frenchmen the same tyme were nat past a leag 
before hym in the same way, thinkynge to passe the 
ryver at tiie bridge of Lusac. There the englyshmen 
had knowlege howe they were in the trake of the french- 
men, for the frenchmen's horses cryed and brayed, 
bycause of thenglysshe horses, th^t were before them 
with sir Thomas Percy. And anone it was fayre light 
daye, for in the begynnyng of January the mornyngs 
be soone light. And whan the frenchmen and bretons 
were within a leage of the bridge, they percy ved on the 
other syde of the bridge sir Thomas Percy and his 
company : and he lykewise perceyved the frenchmen, 
and rode as fast as he might to get the advantage of the 
bridge. And sayd, behold yonder frenchmen be a 
great nombre agaynste us, therefore let us take the 
avantage of the bridge. And whan sir Loys and Car- 
lonet sawe thenglysshemen make such hast to gette 
the brydge, they dyde in lyke wise. Howbeit the 
englisshemen gate it first^ and lighted all afore, and so 



15 

raynged themselfe in good order to defende the bridge. 
The frenchmen likevvyse lighted a fote, and delyvered 
their horses to their pages, commaundynge them to 
drawe a backe. And so dyde put themselfe in good 
order to go and assayle thenglisshemen, who kept them- 
selfe close togider, and were nothynge afrayed : though 
they were but a handfuU of men, as to the regard of the 
frenchmen. And thus as the frenchmen and bretons 
stayed and ymagined, howe and by what meanes to 
their advantage they might assayle the englysshemen, 
therewith there came behynde them sir Johan Chan- 
dos, his baner displayed, berynge therein, sylver, a 
sharpe pyle goules, and Jakes of Lery, a valyant man 
of armes dyd here it : and he had with him a xl 
speares : he approched fiercely the frenchmen. And 
whan he was a thre forlongs fro the brydge, the french 
pages who sawe them comynge, were afrayed ; and so 
ran away with the horses, and left their maysters there 
a fote. And whan sir Johan Chandos was come nere 
to them, he sayde, hark ye, frenchmen, ye are but yvell 
men of warre : ye ride at your pleasure and ease day 
and night; ye take and wyn townes and forteresses in 
Poyctou, whereof I am seneschall. Ye raunsome poore 
folke without my leave ; ye ryde all about clene armed ; 
it shulde seem the countrie is all yours. But I ensure 
you it is nat so. Ye sir Loyes and Carlonet, ye are to 
great maisters. It is more than a yere and a halfe that 
I have sette all myne entent to fynde or encountre 
with you ; and nowe I thanke God I se you and speke 
to you ; nowe shall it be sene who is stronger, other 
you or I. It hath been shewed me often tymes, that 
ye have greatly desyred to fynde me ; nowe ye maye 
se me here. I am Johan Chandos, advyse me well. 



1^ 

Vour great feates of armes wherwith ye h% reriowmedly 
by goddes leave nowe we shall prove it* Wbvle suche 
laDgage was spoken, sir Johan Chandos company 
drewe toguyder; and sir Loyes and Carlonet kept 
themselfe close togyder, raakynge semblant to be glad 
to be fought withall. And of all this mater sir Thomas 
Percys who was on the other syde of the bridge, knewe 
nothynge ; for the bridge was highe in the myddes, so 
that none coude se over. Whyle sir Johan Chandos 
reasoned thus with the frenchmen, there was a breton 
toke his glayve, and coude forbere no lenger, but came 
to an englysh squyer, called Sunekyn Dodall, and 
strake him on the brest that he cast him downe fro 
his "horsek Sir Johan Chandos, whan he herde the 
noyse b^syde him, he tomned that way, and sawe his 
squyre lye on the erthe, and the frenchmen layenge on 
him. Than he was more chafed than he was before, 
and sayd to his company, sirs, howe suffre you this 
squyere thus to be slayne : a fote, a fote. And so he 
lepte a fote, and all his company, and so Sunekyn was 
rescued, and the batayle begone. Sir Johan Chandos, 
who was right hardy, and a coragyous knight, with his 
baner before him, and his company about him, with 
his cote of armes on him great and large beten with 
his armes of whyte sarcenet, with two pylles goules, 
one before and another behynde, so that he semed to 
be a sufficyente knyght to do a great feate of armes ; 
and as one of the formast with his glayve in his hande, 
marched to his enemyes. The same mornyng there 
had fallen a great dewe, so that the grownde was 
somwhat moyste, and so in his goynge forwarde he 
slode and fell downe at the joyninge with his ene- 
myes ; and as he was arysing, there light a stroke on 

3 



17 

him, given by a squier called Jakes of Saynte Mar- 
tyn with his glayve ; the which stroke entred into the 
fleshe under his eye, bytwene the nose and the forheed. 
Sir Johan Chandos sawe nat the stroke commynge on 
that side ; for he was blynde on the one eye. He lost 
the sight thereof a fyve yere before as he hunted after 
an harte, in the landes of Burdeaux. And also he 
had on no vyser. The stroke was rude, and entred 
into his brayne, the whiche stroke greved him so sore, 
that he overthrue to the erthe, and tourned for payne 
two tymes up so downfe, as he that was wounded to 
dethe : for after the stroke he never spake worde. And 
whan his men sawe that mysfortune, they were right 
dolorouse. Than his uncle Edwarde Clyfforde stepte 
and bestrode him, for the frenchmen wolde fayne 
have had him ; and defended him so valyantly, and 
gave rouhde about him such strokes that none durst 
aproche nere to him. Also sir Johan Chambo and 
sir Bertram of Case semed lyke men out of their 
minds, whan they saw their mayster lye on the erthe. 
The bretons and frenchmen were gretly comforted 
whan they sawe the capitayne of their enemyes on the 
erthe, thynkynge verily that he had his dethe's 
wounde. Than they avaunced themselfe, and sayd, 
Ye englysh men yeelde you, for ye are all ours ; ye 
can nat scape us. There the englyshmen dyd mar- 
veyls in amies, as well to defende themselfe, as to 
reveng their mayster sir Johan Chandos, whome they 
saw lye in a harde case : and a squyer of sir John 
Chandos spyed Jaques of Saynte Martyn; who hadde 
gyven his mayster his mortall stroke, and ran to hym 
fiersly and stroke him with such vyolence, that his 
glayve pearsed through bothe his thyes; howebeit 

VOL. IV. c 



18 

for all that stroke he left iiat styll to fight. If Sir 
Thomas Percy and his company had knowen of this 
adventure, who were on the other syde of the brige, 
they shulde well have socoured him : but bycause they 
knewe nothynge therof, nor herde no more of the 
frenchmen, wenyng to them they had ben gone backe. 
Therefore he and his company departed, and toke the 
waye to Poycters, as they that knewe nothynge of that 
busynesse. Thus the englyshmen fought styll before 
the bridge of Lusal, and there was done many a feat of 
armes : brevely the englyshemen coude endure no 
lenger agaynste the frenchmen, so that the moost 
parte of them were disconfyted and taken ; but al- 
wayes Edwarde Clyfforde wolde nat departe fro hi» 
nephue there as he laye. So thus yf the frenchmen 
hadde bene so happy, as to have had their horses there 
redy as they had nat, for their pages were ronne awaye 
fro them before, or els they might have departed with 
moche honour and profite with many a good prisoner ; 
and for lacke of them they loste all, wherefore they 
were sore displeased, and sayd amonge themselfe. A, 
this an yvell order, for the journeye is ours, and yee, 
throughe faute of our pages we can nat departe, seynge 
we be hevy armed and sore traveyled, so that we can 
nat go a fote throughe this countre, the whiche is full 
of our enemyes, and contrary to us. And we are a 
sixe leages fro the next forteresse that we have ; and 
also dy vers of our company be sore hurt, and we maye 
nat leave theym behynde us. Thus as they were in 
this case, and wyst nat what to do, and had sent two 
bretons unarmed in to the feldes, to se yf they might 
fyude any of their pages with their horses, there came 



19 

on them sir Guyssharde Dangle, sir Loyes Harcourte, 
the lorde Parteney, the lorde Tanyboton, the lorde 
i)argenton, the lorde of Pynan, sir Jaques of Surgyers 
and dyvers other englysshmen, to the nombre of two 
hundrid speares, who rode about to seke for the french- 
men ; for it was shewed them howe they were abrode. 
And so they fell in the trake of t,he horses, and came 
in great hast with baners and penons wavynge in the 
wynde. And as sone as the bretons and frenchmen 
sawe them comynge, they knewe well they were their 
enemyes. Than they sayde to the Englysshmen 
whome they had taken as prisoners before, Sirs, be- 
holde yonder cometh a bande of your company to so- 
cour you, and we percey ve well that we can nat endure 
against them, and ye be our prisoners. We will quyte 
you, so that ye wyl kepe us and wyll become your 
prisoners, for we have rather yelde us to you, than to 
them that cometh yonder ; and they aunswered, as ye 
wyll, so we are content. 

Thus ^ the englysshmen were losed out of their pri- 
sons. Than the Poictevins, Gascoyns, and Englyssh- 
men came on them, their speares in their restes, 
cryeng their cryes. Then the Frenchmen and Bretons 
drue a syde and sayd to them, Sirs, leave, do us uo 
hurt, we be prisoners all redy. 

The englysshmen affirmed the same, and sayd, they 
be our prisoners. Carlonet was prisoner with sir Ber- 
tram of Case, and sir Loyes of Saynt Julyan with sir 
Johan Cambo ; so that there was none but that he had 
amaister. . 



c2 



20 

The barons and knyghtes of Poictou were sore dis- 
conforted, when they sawe their seneschall sir Johan 
Chandos lye on the yerthe, and coude nat speke : than 
they lamentably complayned, and sayd, A, sir Johan 
Chandos, the floure of all chivalry, unhappely was that 
glayve forged that thus hath wounded you, and brought 
you in parell of dethe. They wepte pyteously that 
were about hym, and he herde and understode 
them well, but he coulde speake no worde. They 
wronge their handes and teare their heares, and made 
many a pytefuU complaynt, and specially suche as 
were of his owne house. Than his servauntes un- 
armed hym and layde hym on pavesses, and so bare 
hym softely to Mortymer, the next forteresse to them. 
And the other barons and knyghtes returned to Poyc- 
ters, and ledde with them their prisoners. And as I 
understode, the same Jaques Martyu, that thus hurte 
sir Johan Chandos, was so lytell taken hede to of his 
hurtes, that he dyed at Poycters. And this noble 
knyght, sir Johan Chandos, lyved nat after his hurte, 
past a day and a nyght, but so dyed : God have mercy 
on his soule, for in a hundred yere after, there was nat 
a more curtesse, nor more fuller of noble vertues, and 
good condycions amonge the englysshmen than he was. 
And whan the prince and princesse, the erle of Cam- 
bridge, the erle of Pembrouke, and other barons and 
knyghtes of Englande, such as were in Guyen, herde 
of his dethe, they were all disconforted, and sayd, they 
had lost all on that -Syde of the see. For his dethe his 
frendes .and also some of his enemyes, were ryght sor- 
rowtull. The englysshmen loved him, bycause all 
noblenesse was founde in hym. The frenchmen hated 
hym, bycause they doubted hym. Yet I herde his 



21 

dethe greatly complayned among ryght noble and va- 
lyant knyghtes of France, sayenge that it was a great 
dommage of his deathe, for they sayde, better it had 
ben, that he had ben taken a lyve. For if he had ben 
taken alyve, they sayde he was so sage and so ymagi- 
natyve, that he wolde have founde som maner of good 
meanes, wherby the peace myght have ensued, by- 
tween the realmcs of Englande and Fraunce, for he 
was so well beloved with the kyng of Englande, that 
the kynge wolde beleve hym rather than any other in 
the worlde. Thus bothe frenche and englysshe spake 
of his dethe, and specially the englisshemen ; for by 
hym Guyen was kept and recovered. 

THE DEATH OF SIR JOHN CHANDOS. 

FROM MR. JOHNES'S TRANSLATION, VOL. II. CHAP.IX. 

Sir John Chandos is slain in a skirmish. The French^ 
at first victorious^ are in the end defeated. 

Sir John Chandos, being seneschal of Poitou, was 
seriously afflicted with the loss of St. Salvin : he was 
continually devising means to retake it, whether by 
assault or scalade was perfectly indifferent to him, so 
that he could gain it. He made many nightly am- 
buscades, but none succeeded; for sir Louis, who 
commanded in it, was very watchful, as he knew the 
capture of it had highly angered sir John Chandos. 

It happened that on the night preceding the ev6 of 
the new year (1370) sir John Chandos, who resided in 
the city of Poitiers, had sent out his summons to the 
barons and knights of Poitou to come to him as se- 
crectly as they could, for he was going on an expedi- 



2« 

tion. The Poitevins would not refuse him any thing, 
being much beloved by them : they obeyed his sum- 
mons, and came to Poitiers. Sir Guiscand d' Angle, 
sir Louis de Harcourt, the lords de Pons, de Pinane, 
de Tannybouton, sir GeofFry d'Argenton, sir Maubrun 
de Linieres, lord Thomas Percy, sir Baldwin de Fran- 
ville*5 sir Richard de Ponchardon, came thither, with 
many others. 

When they were all assembled, they were full three 
hundred lances. 

They left Poitiers in the night, and no one except 
tbe principal lords, knew whither they were going. 
The English, however, had scaling ladders, and every 
thing they might have occasion for, with them. They 
marched to St. Salvin ; and when there arrived, were 
told what was intended : upon which they all dis- 
mounted, and, giving the horses to their valets, the 
English descended into the ditch. It was then about 
midnight. 

They were in this situation, and would very shortly 
have succeeded in their expedition, when they heard 
the guard of the fort wind his horn. The reason was 
this. That very night Garnet le Breton had come 
from La-Roche-posay, with forty lances, to St. Salvin, 
to request sir Louis de St. Julien to accompany him 
in an expedition to Poitou : he therefore awakened the 
guard and those within the fort. 

The English, who were on the opposite side, igno- 
rant of the intentions of this body of Frenchmen want«- 
ing to enter the fort, thought they had been seen by 
the guard^ or that spies had given information of their 

♦ <iu. Freville? Editor, 



23 

arrival to the garrison. They immediately left the 
ditch, and said, " Let us away, for this night we have 
been disappointed in our scheme." They mounted 
their horses, and advanced in a body to Chauvigny on 
the river Crease, two short leagues distant. 

When all were arrived there, the Poitevins asked 
sir John Chandos if he wished them to remain with 
him : he answered, " No : you may return in God's 
name; I will to-day stay in this town." The Poitevins 
departed, and with them some English knights ; in all, 
about two hundred lances. 

Sir John Chandos entered a hotel, and ordered a 
fire to be lighted. Lord Thomas Percy, seneschal of 
La Rochelle, and his men remained with him. Lord 
Thomas asked sir John Chandos if he intended stay- 
ing there that day : " Yes," replied sir John : '* Why 
do you ask ?" *' Because, Sir, if you be determined 
not to go further,. I shall beg of you to give me leave 
to make an excursion, to see if I shall meet with any 
adventure." " In the name of God, go then," replied 
sir John. At these words, lord Thomas Percy set 
out, attended by about thirty lances. Sir John Chandos 
remained with his own people. Lord Thomas crossed 
the bridge of Chauvigny, taking the longest road to 
Poitiers, having left sir John Chandos quite low 
spirited for having failed in his intended attack on 
St. Salvin. He continued in the kitchen of the hotel, 
warming himself at a straw fire which his herald was 
making for him, conversing at the same time with his 
people, who very readily passed their jokes in hopes of 
curing him of his melancholy. 

After he had remained some time, and was prepar- 
ing to take a little rest, and while he was asking if it 



24 

were yet day, a man entered the hotel, and came before 
him, saying, " My Lord, I bring you news." " What 
is it?" asked sir John. " My lord, the French have 
taken the field." " How dost thou know this?" " My 
lord, I set out from St. Salvin with them." " And 
what road have they taken ?" " My lord, that I can- 
not say for a certainty ; but it seemed to me they 
followed the road to Poitiers." " And who are these 
French ?" " My lord, they are sir Louis de St. Julien 
and Carnet le Breton, with their companies." " Well, 
it is indifferent to me," replied sir John; " I have not 
any inclination to exert myself this day : they may be 
met with without my interference." 

He remained a considerable time very thoughtful ; 
after having well considered, he added, " Notwith- 
standing what I have just said, 1 think I shall do right 
to mount my horse ; for at all events I must return to 
Poitiers, and it will be soon day." " It is well 
judged," replied the knights who were with him. Sir 
John ordered every thing to be got ready, and his 
knights having done the same, they mounted and set 
off, taking the road to Poitiers, following the course of 
the river. The French might be about a good league 
before them on this same road, intending to cross the 
river at the bridge of Lussac ^. The English suspected 
this from perceiving the tracks of the horses, and said 
among themselves, *-* Either the French or lord Thomas 
Percy are before us." Shortly after this conversation, 
day appeared; for in the early part of January the 
mornings begin to be soon light. The French might 
be about a league from the bridge of Lussac, when 

* Lussac, a town in Poitou, diocese of Poitiers. 



25 

they perceived lord Thomas Percy and his men on the 
other side of the river. Lord Thomas had before seea 
them, and had set off full gallop to gain the bridge. 
They said, " There are the French : they are more in 
number than we are : let us hasten to take advantage 
of the bridge." 

When sir Lewis and Carnet saw the English on 
the opposite side of the river, they also made haste to 
gain the bridge: however, the English arrived first, 
and were masters of it. They all dismounted, and 
drew themselves up to defend and guard it. 

The French likewise dismounted on their arrival, 
and giving their horses for the servants to lead them 
to the rear, took their lances, and advanced in good 
order, to attack the English and win the bridge. The 
English stood firm, although they were so few com- 
pared witJi the enemy. 

Whilst the French and Bretons were considering; 
the most advantageous manner to begin the onset, sir 
John Chandos arrives with his company, his banner 
displayed and flying in the wind. This was borne by 
a vahant man at arms, called James Allen, and was a 
pile gules on ajield argent. They might be about forty 
lances, who eagerly hastened to meet the French. As 
the English arrived at a small hillock, about three fur- 
longs from the bridge, the French servants who were 
between this hillock and the bridge, saw them, and 
being much frightened, said, " Come away: let us 
save ourselves and our horses." They therefore ran 
off, leaving their masters to shift as well as they 
could. 

When sir John Chandos, with displayed banner, 
was come up to the French, whom he thought very 



«6 

lightly of^ he began from horseback to rail at them, 
saying, " Do you hear Frenchmen? you are mis- 
chievous men at arms ; you make incursions night and 
day at your pleasure ; you take towns and castles in 
Poitou, of which I am seneschal. You ransom poor 
people without my leave, as if the country were your 
own ; but, by God, it is not< Sir Louis, sir Louis, 
you and Garnet are too much the masters. It is up- 
wards of a year and a half that I have been endeavour- 
ing to meet you. Now, thanks to God, I do so, and 
will tell you my mind. We will now try which of us 
is the strongest in this country. It has been often 
told me, that you were desirous of seeing me : you 
have now that pleasure. I am John Chandos : look 
at me well : and, if God please, we will now put to 
the proof your great deeds of arms which are so 
renowned." 

With such words as these did sir John Chandos 
greet them : he would not have wished to have been 
any where else, so eager was he to fight with them. ' 

Sir Louis and Garnet kept themselves in a close 
body, as if they were willing to engage. Lord Thomas 
Percy and the English on the other side of the bridge 
knew nothing of what had passed, for the bridge was 
very high in the middle, which prevented them from 
seeing over it. 

During this scoffing of sir John Ghandos, a Breton 
drew his sword, and could not resist from beginning 
the battle : he struck an English squire, named Sim- 
kin Dodenhale, and beat him so much about the 
breast with his sword that he knocked him off his 
horse on the ground. Sir John Chandos, who heard 
the noise behind him, turned round, and saw his 



27 

«quire on the ground, and persons beating him. This 
enraged him more than before : he said to his men, 
'' Sirs, what are you about ? how suffer you this man 
to be slain ? Dismount, dismount :" and at the 
instant he was on foot, as were all his company. Sim- 
kin was rescued, and the battle began. 

Sir John Chandos, who was a strong and bold knight, 
and cool in all his undertakings, had his banner ad- 
vanced before him, surrounded by his men, with the 
scutcheon above his arms : he himself was dressed in 
a large robe which fell to the ground, blazoned with 
his arms on a white sarcenet, argent, a pile gules ; one 
on his breast, tind the other on his back ; so that he 
appeared resolved on some adventurous undertaking ; 
and in this state, with sword in hand, he advanced on 
foot towards the enemy. 

This morning there had been a hoar frost, which had 
made the ground slippery ; so that as he marched he 
entangled his legs with his robe, which was of the 
longest, and made a stumble : during which time a 
squire, called James de St. Martin (a strong expert 
man) made a thrust at him with his lance, which hit 
him in the face, below the eye, between the nose and 
forehead. Sir John Chandos did not see the aim of 
the stroke, for he had lost the eye on that side ^ve 
years ago, on the heaths of Bourdeaux, at the chace of 
a stag : what added to this misfortune, sir John had 
not put down his vizor, so that in stumbling he bore 
«pon the lance, and helped it to enter into him. The 
lance, which had been struck from a strong arm, hit 
him so severely that it entered as far as the brain, and 
then the «quire drew it back to him again. 

The great pain was too much for sir John, so he 



28 

fell to the ground, and turned twice over in great 
agony, like one who had received his death-wound. 
Indeed, since the blow he never uttered a word. His 
people, on seeing this mishap, were like madmen. His 
uncle, sir Edward Clifford, hastily advanced, and strid- 
ing over the body (for the French were endeavouring 
to get possession of it), defended it most valiantly, and 
gave such well-directed blows with his sword that none 
dared approach him. Two other knights, namely, sir 
John Chambo and sir Bertrand de Cassilies*, were 
like men distracted at seeing their master lie thus on 
the ground. 

The . Bretons, w ho were more numerous than the 
English, were much rejoiced when they saw their chief 
thus prostrate, and greatly hoped he was mortally 
wounded. They therefore advanced, crying out, " By 
Ood, my lords of England, you will all stay with us, 
for you cannot now escape." 

The English performed wonderful feats of arms, as 
well to extricate themselves from the danger they were 
in, as to revenge their commander, sir John Chandos, 
whom they saw in so piteous a state. A squire, at- 
tached to sir John, marked out this James de St. Martin, 
who had given the blow : he fell upon him in such a 
rage, and struck him with his lance as he was flying, 
that he ran him through both his thighs, and then with- 
drew his lance : however, in spite of this, James d^ 
St. Martin continued the fight. 

Now if lord Thomas Percy, who had first arrived at 
the bridge, had imagined any thing of what was going 

* Sir Johti Chambo, Sir John Cassilies. — Q. Barnes calls the 
iast Case. 



29 

forward, sir John Chandos' men would have been 
considerably reinforced : but it was otherwise decreed » 
for, not hearing any thing of the Bretons since he had 
seen them advancing in a large body towards the 
bridge, he thought they might have retreated ; so that 
lord Thomas and his men continued their march, 
keeping the road to Poitiers, ignorant of what was 
passing. 

Though the English fought so bravely on the bridge 
of Lussac, in the end they could not withstand the 
force of the Bretons and French, but were defeated, 
and the greater part made prisoners. Sir Edward 
Clifford stood firm, and would not quit the body of his 
nephew. 

If the French had had their horses, they would have 
gone off with honour, and have carried with them good 
prisoners; but, as Ihave before said, their servants had 
gone away with them. Those of the English also had 
retreated, and quitted the scene of battle. They re- 
mained therefore in bad plight, which sorely vexed 
them; and said among themselves, " This is a bad 
piece of business : the field is our own, and yet we 
cannot return through the fault of our servants. It is 
not proper for us, who are armed and fatigued, to 
march through this country on foot, which is quite 
against us ; and we are upwards of six leagues from the 
nearest of any of our fortresses. We have, besides, our 
wounded and slain, whom we cannot leave behind." 

As they were in this situation, not knowing what 
to do, and had sent off two or three of the Bretons, 
disarmed, to hunt' after and endeavour to find their 
servants, they perceived advancing towards them, sir 
Guiscard d' Angle, sir Louis deHarcourt, the lords de 



so 

Partenay, de Tannybouton, d'Argenton, de Pinaney 
sir Jaihes de Surgeres, and several others. They were 
full two hundred lances, and were seeking for the 
French ; for they had had information they were out 
on an excursion, and were then following the traces 
of their horses. They came forwards, therefore, with 
displayed banners fluttering in the wind, and marching 
in a disorderly manner. 

The moment the Bretons and French saw them, 
they knew them for their enemies, the barons and 
knights of Poitou. They therefore said to the English, 
" You see that body of men coming to your assist- 
ance : we know we cannot withstand them : therefore," 
calling each by his name, *' you are our prisoners ; 
but we give you your liberty, on condition that you 
take care to keep us company ; and we surrender our- 
selves to you, for we have it more at heart to give 
ourselves up to you than to those who are coming.'* 
They answered, " God's will be done." The English 
thus obtained their liberty. 

The Poitevins soon arrived, with their lances in 
their rests, shouting their war-cries ; but the Bretons 
and French, retreating on one side, said, " Hola ! stop, 
my lords: we are prisoners already." The English 
testified to the truth of this by adding, " It is so ; they 
belong to us." Garnet was prisoner to sir Bertrand 
de Cassilies, and sir Louis de St. Julien to sir John 
Chambo : there was not one but who had his master. 

These barons and knights of Poitou were strucl: 
with grief when they saw their senfeschal, sir John 
Chandos, lying in so doleful a way, and not able t© 
speak. They began grievously to lament his loss, 
saying, '' Flower of knighthood ! oh, sir John Chando»! 



SI 

cursed be the forging of that lance which wounded 
thee, and which has thus endangered thy life !" Those^ 
who were ground the body, most tenderly bewailed 
him, which he heard, and answered with groans, but 
could not articulate a word. They wrung their hands, 
and tore their hair, uttering cries and complaints, more 
especially those who belonged to his household. 

Sir John Chandos was disarmed very gently by hi» 
own servants, laid upon shields and targets, and carried 
at a foot's pace to Mortemer, the nearest fort to where 
they were. The other barons and knights returned to 
Poitiers, carrying with them their prisoners. I heard 
that James Martin, he who had wounded sir John 
Chandos, suffered so much from his wounds, that he 
died at Poitiers. 

That gallant knight only survived one day and night. 
God have mercy on his soul ! for never since a hundred 
years did there exist among the English one more 
courteous, nor fuller of every virtue and good quality 
than him. 

When the prince, princess, earls of Cambridge and 
Pembroke, and the other English knights in Guienne, 
heard of this event, they were completely disconcerted, 
and said, they had now lost every thing on both sides 
of the sea. Sir John was sincerely regretted by his 
friends of each sex ; and some lords in France bewailed 
his loss. Thus it happens throHgh life. The English 
loved him for all the excellent qualities he was pos- 
sessed of. The French hated him, because they were 
afraid of him. Not but that I have heard him at the 
time regretted by renowned knights in France; for 
they said it was great pity he was slain, and that, if 
he could have been taken prisoner, he was so wise and 



3S 

full of devices, he would have found some means of 
establishing a peace between France and England, and 
was so much beloved by the king of England and his 
court, that they would have believed what he should 
have said in preference to all others. Thus were the 
French and English great losers by his death, for never 
have I heard otherwise ; but the English the most ; for 
by his valour and prudence, Guienne might have been 
totally recovered *. 

* Sir John Chandos was buried at Mortemer. Underneath is bis 
epitapb, from Les Annates d'Aquitaine, par Bouchet. 

Je Jehan Chandault, des Anglois capitaine, 
Fort chevalier, de Poictou seneschal, 
Aprfes avoir fait guerre tres lointaine 
Au rois fran9ois, tant a pied qu' a cheral, 
Et pres Bertrand du Guesclii) en un val, 
Les Poitevins, pr^s Lussac, me diffirent, 
A Mortemer, mons corps enterrer firent. 
En un cercueil el6ve tout de neuf, 
L'an mil trois cens avec seixante neuf. 

He founded and endowed the Carmelite convent at Poitiers. 

" He was never married. Elizabeth and Eleanor, two of his 
sisters, (the latter being the wife of sir Roger Collins), and Isabella, 
daughter to Margaret, the thhrd sister, at that time married to sir 
John Annesley, were found to be his next heirs." Barnes. — Tran- 
slator's note. 

There are some genealogical mistakes in this note, but this is not 
the place to correct them. Leland says, " There were dy vars knight* 
of fame of the Chaundois afore the time of him, that was in Edward 
the Third's days, a noble warrior. This Chandois dyed without issue, 
and left his two sisters heirs, whereof one was married to Bridges, 
»nd the other td Pole. Bridges had Cowberlie and other lands to 
thjc value of 300 marks by the yere. Pole had Rodburne, within 
four miles of Darby. Chaundois in his old writings Tiameth himself 

Vicecomitem S. Salvatoris Chaundois had lands in or about 

Herefordshire; and he was founder, as I remember, of Goldclyve 
priory in Wales, and here, as I think, was his first and chief bowse. 



SB 

Lord Thomas Percy was appointed seneschal of 
Poitou, after the death of Sir John Chandos. His 
estates of St. Sauveur le Vicomte fell to the king of 
England, who gave them to one of his own knights, 
hy name Sir Alejne Boxhall, * a wonderful able man. 
The Prince of Wales succeeded to the other riches 
of Sir John Chandos, as he was never married, and 
therefore had no children, to the amount of four 
hundred thousand francs. + 

Shortly afterwards those captains who had been 
made prisoners at the bridge of Lussac were ran- 
somed, and received their freedom on paying down 
the sums agreed on, in which the king of France 
assisted them. Sir Louis de St. Julien, Sir William 
des Bourdes, and Garnet le Breton returned to their 
garrisons." 



The old howse of Rodburne is of no great thinge, but the last 
Chaundois begun in the same lordshipe a mighty large howse of stone 
with a wonderful cost, as it yet apperithe by foundations of a man's 
height standinge yet as he lefte them. He had thought to have made 
of his olde place a college." There is a castle a mile and more 
beneth Dorston, upon the right ripe of Donr,' (Co. Heref.) * it is 
called Snothill, and there is a park wallyd,' &c. &c. See Lei. Itin. 
Vol. 8. f. 70 — 89, &c. Here also are some mistakes, and a confnsion 
of branches. But 1 forbear to rectify them now. Editor. 

* Sir Aleyne Boxhall was the fifty-second Knight of the Garter, 
constable of the tower of London, custos of the park» of Clarendon, 
&c. He lies buried near St. Erkenwald's shrine in St. Paul's 
church, about 1380. 

Sir Aleyne Boxhall had a commission to restrain the excesses of 
Charles de Navarre in Normandy, and to put the castle in good 
repair, dated the 24th of Nov. 1370. Rymer. 

f I should imagine Froissart must mean that the Prince inherited 
all he possessed in Aquitaine, &c. but his sister's children were his 
heirs in England. 

VOL. IV. D 



54 

The literary world are very truly obliged to Mr. 
Johnes for this honourable occupation of his time 
find money. The two volumes already published 
by him extend no farther than the contents of the 
first volume of Lord Berners. Both translations 
are curious and valuable ; the last was no doubt a 
great desideratum ; the scarcity and high price of 
the former ; th^ repulsive appearance of the black 
letter ; and the total want of breaks and paragraphs, 
rendered the perusal of it a task of labour which 
few had the patience to encounter; and the want of 
notes was a defect which required amendment. At 
the same time the diligent investigator of the pro- 
gress of the English language, the lover of the ages 
of chivalry, and of that romantic cast of expressions 
nd manners and feats, of which Lord Berners was 
himself a speaker, a spectator, and an actor, will 
always secure an increasing rather than a diminished 
interest for his venerable work. And were a new 
impression of it in modern types, and with due ar- 
rangement of paragraphs, and judicious critical and 
historical illustrations, given to the world,* it would 
afford one of the most entertaining and instructive 
treasures of our ancient literature, without at all 
depreciating the value and attraction of Mr. Johnes's 
most liberal and praise- worthy undertaking f* 

* This has since been done under the care of Mr. Utterson (18 J5). 

•f The Edinburgh Review, in a criticism of this work, altogether 
just, and indeed candid, Vol 5. p. 347, truly remarks, that " ]j,ord 
Berners's version is the pure and nervous English of that early 
period, and deserves to be carefully consulted by the philologist.*^ 
But the critic, when he complains of the omission, by Mr. Johnes, 
of Froissart's Life, does not seem aware that the translator had 
already published a Memoir of the Historian as introductory to hi$ 
undertaking. 



35 



Art. CCLIX . The pleasant Jlistorie of the Conquest 
of the Weast India, now called new Spayne, atchieved 
hy the worthy Prince Hernando Cortes^ Marques 
of the valley of Huaxacac, most delectable to reade : 
Translated out of the Spanishe tongue'^, by T, N> 
Anno 1578. Imprinted at London by Henry By n^ 
neman^ 1578. 4<o. pp, 405. besides dedication^ 
table, Sfc, 

This translation, hy Thomas Nicholas, which 
at the present crisis of our foreign acquirements, has 
a more than usual claim upon attention, is thus de- 
dicated^ 

" To the Right Honourable Sir Francis JValsing' 
ham, Knight, principall Secretary to the Queenes 
most excellent Majestic, and one of her Highnesse 
most Honourable privie CounselV 

'^ Whilest I abode, right Honorable, in the isle of 
Palma, in aflfaires of merchandize for the worshipfull 
Thomas Lock deceased, and his company, time then 
permitted me to have conference with auncient 
gentlemen, which had served in the conquest of the 
Weast India, now called New Spaine, under the 
princely Captaine Hernando Cortes, ^y whom, as 
present witnesses of many of the actes herein con- 
tained, I was credibly informed, that this delectable 
and worthie Historie is a most true and just report 
of matter past in effect: wherefore I did the more 
willingly turne over and peruse the same, which is 

* Of Bernal *Diaz de Castillo. See the useful Catalogue of 
Voyages and Travels appended to Clarke's Progress of .Maritime 
Discovery, p. 186. But see postea, p, 43. 
D 2 



36 

a mirrour and an excellent president for all such as 
shall take in hand to governe new Discoveries: for 
here they shall behold, how glory, renownc, and 
perfit felicitie, is not gotten but with great paine9, 
travaile, peril and daunger of life: here the)'^ shall 
see the wisdome, curtesie, Vtilour, and pollicie of 
worthy Oaptaincs ; yea, i^nd the faithful hearts which 
they ought to beare unto their princess service. 
Heere also is described how to use and correct the 
stubborn and mutinous persons, and in what order 
to exalt the good, stout, and virtuous souldiours, 
and chiefly how to preserve and keepe that beautifull 
Dame, Ladie Victorie, when she is obtained. And 
where it was supposed, that the golden mettull had 
his beginning and place in the I^ast and West India, 
neare unto the bote Zoau, as most learned writers 
held opinion, it is now approoved by the ventcrous 
travellour and worthie Captaine Martin Frobisher, 
Esquier, yea, and also through the great paines, 
procurement, and first invention of the worshipfull 
Michael Locke, merchhnt, that the same golden 
mettall dooth also lie incorporate in the bowels of 
the north-west parties, environed with admirable 
towers, pillars, and pinacles, of rockes, stone, dnd 
ise, possessed of a people both straunge and rare in 
shape, attire, and living; yea such a countrey and 
people, as al Europe had forsaken and made no ac- 
count of, except our most gracious Queene and her 
subjects, whom undoubtedly God hath appointed 
not onely to be supreame princrsse over them, but 
tilso to be a meane that the name of Christ may 
bee known unto this heathenish and savage gene- 
ration. 



• 37 

" Not long since, right Honorable, I happened to 
traveli from the famous citie of Toledo in Spatue, 
towarde high Castele, and by fortune overtooke an 
auncient gentleman, worshipfully accompanied, unto 
whom 1 was so bolde as to approch, beseeching his 
Worship to advertise me of his journey : who, after 
hee had behelde my white head and beard, answered 
full gently, that his intent was to traveli unto the 
King of Spaine's court; and welcomed me unto his 
companie. In short space, that wo had journeied 
together, and communed of each other his countrey, 
it pleased him to say as foUoweth : * My good 
friend, if you knewe my sute unto the king's Ma- 
jestic, you would judge, that I were a madman; 
and therefore to shorten our way, I will declare 
my attempted sute unto you. You shall understand, 
that I am a gentleman of threescore and ten yeai es 
of age, and sometimes I served in the civil warres 
of Pirru, where I was wounded in diverse parts 
of my bodie, and am now therby lame in one of my 
legges and shoulder. I have neither wife nor cliilde, 
and at this present, God be praised, I have in the 
Contractation-House, in the citie of Sivell, in golde 
and plate, the summe of thirty thousand duckets : 
and I have also in Pirru in good landes and pos- 
sessions the yearly rent of twelve thousand duckets, 
which rents and readie money is sufficient to main- 
teine a poore Gentleman. But al this notwithstand- 
ing, 1 do now sue unto the King's Majestie to have 
a licence and authoritie to discover and conquer a 
certaine part of India, which adjoyneth with Brazile> 
and is part of the empire of Pirru. I pray you nowe 
declare what you think of my sute.' < By my troth| 



38 

gir,* quoth I, ' I trust your worship will pardon a 
rash and suddene judgement, which you now de- 
maund at my hand.' ' Yea, truly,' quoth he, ' say 
what you list.' ' Then,' quoth I, ' my opinion is, 
that you are not well in your wit ; for what would 
you have ? Will not Teason suiBce you ? Or els 
would you now in your old daies be an emperor, 
considering that your sepulchre attendeth for you.' 
' Now truly I thank you,' quoth he, ' for of your 
judgement are most men : but I say unto you, con- 
sidering that all flesh must finish, I seek for no 
quiet rest in this transitory life : yea, the wise and 
Christian doctors doe teach and admonish, that 
every true Christian is born, not for his own private 
wealth and pleasure, but rather to help and succour 
others his poore brethren. Likewise do I consider 
the great number of gentlemen yonger brethren,, 
and other valiant persons, who, through want of 
living, doe fall into many disorders. Wherefore to 
accomplish my duty towarde God and my prince, 
and to relieve such poore gentlemen, doe I now at- 
tempt this journey, with the adventure of my bodie 
and goods ; and for that purpose I have in readiness 
fouretall ships, well furnished, in the port of S. Lucar 
de Barrameda, hoping assuredly, that before the 
life depart out of my bodie, to heare these valiant 
yong gentlemen, whom now I mean to have in my 
company, say, * Oh happie day, when old Zarate, 
for so is my name, brought us from penury ; yea,^ 
and from a number of perils, that we were like to 
fall into 1' I hope also, that the royall estate of my 
prince shall bee by my paines, and poore service^- 
enlarged: beleeve you me, this is the onelie 



sumptuous tumbe that I pretend to build for my 
poore carkas. But yet I know there are some, unto 
whom I may compare the bore that lieth wallowing 
in the stie, who will not let to say ; ^ what need we 
any other world, honour, or kingdoms ? Let us be 
contented with that we have.' Who may easily be 
answered, * Su* Glutton, your panch is full ; and 
little care you for the glorie of God, honour 
of your Prince, neither the need lind necessitie of 
your poore neighbours.' With this conclusion the 
gentleman ended his tale; the judgement whereof 
I leave to noble gentlemen, his peeres, to be de- 
termined. 

^' And where our Captaine Hernando Cortes, of 
whose valiant acts this Historie treateth, hath de- 
serued immortal fame, euen so doubtlesse I hope, that 
within this happie realme is nowe lining a gentle- 
man, whose zeale of trauell and valiant beginning 
doth prognosticate great, maruellous, and happie 
successe : for perfection of honour and profit is not 
gotten in one day, nor in one or two voyages, as 
the true histories of the east and west conquests by 
Spaniardes and Portingals doe testifie. And calling 
to remembrance the great zeale and good will 
which your honour hath alwaies extended to good 
and profitable attempts, and especially in the pro- 
ceedings of the new discoveries, your honor hath not 
only used liberality in your adventures, but also 
taken great paines in court to aduance and further 
the voiage, a number I say of gentlemen, mariners, 
and other artificers, shall have great cause to pray 
for your honour. And where I for my part have, 
tasted of your honor's goodness sundrie waies^ I 



40 

am now most humblie to beseech jour honor to 
accept this poore gift, the which I have translated 
but of the Spanish tongue, not decked with gallant 
colours, nor yet filed with pleasant phrase of Rhe- 
torike, for these things are not for poore merchant 
trauellers, but are reserued to learned writers : yet 
I trust the author will pardon me, because I haue 
gone as neare the sense of this historic, as my cun- 
ning would reach unto. I also craue, that it may 
please your honour, when your great and waighty 
matters will permit, to behold this worke, and that 
shall be for me an encouragement to take in hand 
the translation of the East India, which is now 
enjoyed by the King of Portingale. Thus I end, 
beseeching the Almightie to preserue your honor- 
able estate. 

Your honors most readie at commandement 

Thomas ISicholas." 

To the Reader. 
" I thought it good, gentle Reader, to advertise 
thee to consider in reading this history, that Her- 
nando Cortes was not the firste, that did discover 
the newe Spaine, for after the Hands of Santo Do- 
mingo, and Cuba were discovered, conquered, and 
inhabited by the Spanyards, Hernando Cortes was 
then a dweller in the iland of Santo Domingo ; and 
at that time was governoure in the Hand of Cuba, 
one James Velasques, who had understanding (by 
others) that neere unto those Hands stoode a firm 
land, rich of golde and plate, whereupon the same 
Velasques prepared certain ships, and in them sent 
for General, a kinsman of his, called John de Gri" 



4i 

jalva, who with one Francisco Hernsndez de Cor- 
dova, discovered the said firm land in trafike of mar- 
chandise; and for things of little value, he broughte 
great treasure, as shall appeare in m inventorie 
placed in this historie. 

" This Grijalva pretended not to coiquer, nor jet 
to inhabite, but only to fill his hun^y bellie with 
golde and silver; for if he had pretmded honour, 
then Cortes had not enjoyed the prpetuall fame 
which now is his, although his corpst be clothed in 
clay. 

" In this Historie doth appeare tie simplicitie of 
those ignorant Indians in times pat, yea and how, 
they were deluded in worshipping id)lles and wicked 
mamon, their bloudie slaughter of ten in sacrifice, 
and how the greate mercie of Jesus IJhrist extended 
upon them in lightning their darknese, giving them 
knowledge of the eternitie, and holy rinitie in unitie, 
whereby they are nowe more devouG unto heavenly 
things then we wretched Christian, (who presume 
of auntiente Christianity) especiall in charitie, hu- 
miiitie, and lively works of faith. 

" And now, gentle reader, I d for my part but 
only crave, that it may' please the to accept these 
my paines taken, in good part; fr other benefite I 
seek not. Farewell. T. N." 

After the Address to the Reade are the following 
Commendatory Verses, not mentoned by Ritson. 

" Stephen Gosson in praise ofM Translator, 

The Poet, which sometimes hath rod awry. 
And sung in verse the force of [iery love. 



42 

When he beholds his lute with careful ^ye. 

Thinks oa the dumps that he was wont to prove. 
Hi« groaning sprite yprickt with tender ruth 
Calls then U mind the follies of his youth. 

The hardy mnd, with all his honour got 
In bloodyfield by fruit of deadly jar. 

When once h^ hears the noise of thirled shot. 
And threabing trumpet sound the points of war. 

Remembers fow thro' pikes he lov'd to run. 

When he the )rice of endless glory won. 

The Traveller which ne'er refus'd the pain 
To pass theianger of the straits he found. 

But hoisted sa: to search the golden vein. 

Which Natue's craft hath hidden in the ground; 

When he perctves Don Cortez here so pert. 

May well be nndful of his own desert. 

Then yield we hanks to Nicholas for his toil. 
Who strings'he lute that putteth us in mind 

How doting das have given us all the soil. 
Whilst learnd wits in foreign lands do find. 

That labour hers away the golden fleece. 

And is rewardecwith the flower of Greece. 

Lo! here the trmp of everlasting fame. 
That rends theair in sunder with his blast. 

And throws abrod the praises of their name. 
Which oft in fijit have made their foes aghast. 

Though they be cad, their glory shall remain. 

To rear aloft theleeds of haughty Spain. 

Lo ! here tlie tra\iller, whose painful quill 
So lively paints he Spanish Indies out. 

That English gentemen may view at will 
The manly process of that gallant rout: 



43 

Aad tvhen the Spaniard vaunteth of his gold. 
Their own renown in him tliey [will] behold." 

These lines appear to me to possess merit for their 
day. They are followed by these in Latin : 

" In Thomos Nicholai occidentalem Indiam Stephan. 
Gosson, 

Sordescant Craesi radiantia tecta Pyropo, 

Et jaceat rutili pompa superba Mydae. 
Aurea felici volvuntur saecula cursu, 

Pactoli assidue fliimina vera tument. 
Terra ferax pandit, sua viscera plena metallis 

Praegnans, divitias parturit ilia suas. 
India luxuriat, locupleti prole triumphat, 

Pingue solum gemmis, fundere gestit opes. 
Ovos, qui patriae cupitis fulcire ru4nam, 

Et dare raella bonis aurea, mentis ape, 
Cortezi hos animo cupide lustrate labores, 

Postque, reluctanti credite vela salo." 



Art. CCLX. Old Spanish Historians of the DiS' 
covert/ of the New World. 

In the Note to the last article (p? 35) I have as- 
cribed the original of Nicholas's Translation of the 
Conquest of New Spain, to Bernal Diaz del Gas- 
tillo : but I have since had reason to think I have 
committed an error. I am unacquainted with 
Spanish literature, but recollecting that Colonel 
Keatinge had lately tiranslated that historian, I con- 
sulted the extracts in the account of that work in 
Brit. Crit. Vol. XVll. p. 27, 151-252, and found 



44 

them, though, in some respects, coincident with 
Nicholas, jet in others materially variant; and on 
referring to Robertson's America, I find a fact which 
induces me to attribute the work to Gomara. When 
Cortez was first driven out of Mexico, Robertson 
says, that B. Diaz states his loss of Spaniards at 
870 men, whereas Gomara states them at only 450. 
Now Nicholas, in p. 278, has the following para- 
graph on the subject. 

" This sorrowful night, which was the tenth of 
July, in An. 1520, were slain about 450 Spaniards, 
4000 Indian friends, and 46 horse, yea, and (as I 
judge) all the prisoners, which were in his com- 
panie." I cannot resist transcribing the remainder 
of this account. 

" If this mishap," he proceeds " had fortuned in 
the ^ay-time, possible so many, and so great a num- 
ber had not perished. But where it fortuned by 
night, the noise of the wounded was sorrowfull, and 
of the victors horrible and fearful. The Indians 
cried " Victory," calling upon their divelish and 
filthie gods with joy and pleasure ; our men, being 
overcome, cursed their unfortunate lot, yea, the 
hower and he that brought them thither; others cried 
unto God for succour; others said, ' helpe, helpe, 
for I stande in daunger of drowning.' I know not 
certainly, whether mo perished in the water or the 
lande, hoping to save themselves by swimming and 
/leaping over the sluices and broken places, for they 
say that a Spaniarde was no sooner in the water, but 
an Indian was upon his backe. They have great 
dexteritie and skill in swimming, so, that catching 



45 

any Spaniard in the water, they would take him by 
the one arm, and carry him whither they pleased, 
yea and wold unpanch him in the water. If these 
Indians had not occupied themselves in taking the 
spoyle of those that were fallen and slaine, certainly 
one Christian had not escaped that day. But in fine 
the greatest number of Spaniards that were killed 
were those that went most laden with gold plate and 
other jewels; and those that escaped, were they 
that carried least burdens, and the first that with 
noble courage made way to passe through the troupe 
of Indians." 

Having entered so far upon this subject, it may 
not be out of place to insert Robertson's Note, con- 
cerning the authors who wrote on the Conquest of 
New Spain, at length. 

Account of the Spanish Historians of the Conquest of 
Mexico^ hy Dr. Robertson, 

" Our knowledge of the events, which happened 
in the Conquest of New Spain, is derived from 
sources of information more original and authentic 
than that of any transaction in the history of Ame- 
rica. The letters of Cortes to the Emperor Charles 
V. are the most valuable of these, and the first in 
order of time. As Cortes early assumed a command 
independent of Velasquez, it became necessary to 
convey such an account of his operations to Madrid, 
as might procure him the approbation of his 
sovereign. 

" The first of his dispatches has never been made 
public. It was sent from Vera Cruz, July 16, 1519. 
It must have come to the Emperor's hands, while he 



,46 

was in Germany, as he left Spain on the 22d of May 
in that year, in order to receive the imperial crown, 
1 have made diligent search for a copy of this dis- 
patch; both in Spain and in Germany, but without 
success. This, however, is of less consequence, as 
it could not contain any thing very material, being 
written so soon after Cortes arrived in New Spain. 
The second dispatch, dated Oct. SOth, 1520, was 
published at Seville, A.D. 1522, and the third and 
fourth soon after they were received. A Latin trans- 
lation of them appeared in Germany, A. D. 1532, 
Kamusio soon after made them more generally 
known, by inserting them in his valuable collection. 
They contain a regular and minute history of the 
expedition, with many curious particulars concern- 
ing the policy and manners of the Mexicans. The 
work does honour to Cortes : the style is simple and 
perspicuous; but as it was manifestly his interest to 
represent his own actions in the fairest light, his 
victories are probably exaggerated, his losses dimi- 
nished, and his- acts of rigour and violence somewhat 
softened. 

'' The next in order is the Cronica de la Nueva 
Espagna, by Francisco Lopez de Gomara, published 
A. D. 1554. Gomara's historical merit is consider- 
able. His mode of narration is clear, flowing, al- 
ways agreeable, and sometimes elegant. But he is 
frequently inaccurate and credulous; and as he was 
the domestic chaplain of Cortes after his return from 
New Spain, and probably composed his work at his 
desire, it is manifest that he labours to magnify the 
merit of his hero, and to conceal or extenuate such 
transactions as were unfavourable to his character. 



47 

OfthisHerrera accuses him in one instance, Dec. II. 
Lib. III. c. 2, and it is not once only that this is con- 
spicuous. He writes, however, with so much free- 
dom concerning several measures of the Spanish 
Court, that the copies both of his Historia de las 
Indias, and of his Cronica, were called in by a de- 
cree of the council of the Indies, and they were long 
considered as prohibited books in Spain, though of 
late licence to print them has been granted. PinelQ 
Biblioth. 589. 

•" The Chronicle of Goraara induced Bernal Diaz 
del Castillo to compose his Historia Verdadera de 
la Conquista de la Nueva Espagna, He had been 
an adventurer in each of the expeditions to New 
Spain, and was the companion of Cortes in all his 
battles and perils. When he found that neither he 
himself, nor many of his fallow-soldiers were once 
mentioned by Gomara, but that the fame of all their 
exploits was ascribed to Cortes, the gallant old ve- 
teran laid hold of his pen with indignation, and 
composed his true history. It contains a prolix, 
minute, confused, narrative of all Cortes's oper- 
ations, in such a rude vulgar style as might be ex- 
pected from an illiterate soldier. But as he relates 
transactions of which he was witness, and in which 
he performed a considerable part, his account bears 
all the marks of authenticity, and is accompanied 
with such a pleasant naivete, with such interesting 
details, with such amusing vanity, and yet so par- 
donable in an old soldier who had been, (as he 
boasts) in an hundred and nineteen battles, as ren- 
ders his book one of the most singular that is to b^ 
foun4 in any language. 



48 

" Pet. Martyr ab Angleria, in a Treatise de In-' 
suits Huper Inventis^ added to his Decades de rebus 
Oceanis ^ novo orbe^ gives some account of 
Cortes's expedition. But he proceeds no further 
than to relate what happened after his first landing. 
This work, which is brief and slight, seems to con- 
tain the information transmitted by Cortes in his 
first dispatches, embellished with several particulars 
communicated to the author by the ofiicers who 
brought the letters from Cortes. 

" But the book towards which the^ greater part of 
modern historians have had recourse for information 
concerning the conquest of New Spain, is, Historia 
de la Conquista de Mexico^ per D. Antonio de Solis, 
first published A. D. 1684. I know no author in any 
language, whose literary fame has risen so far be- 
yond his real merit. De Solis is reckoned by his 
countrymen one of the purest writers in the Castilian 
tongue; and if a foreigner may venture to give his 
opinion concerning a matter, of which Spaniards 
alone are qualified to judge, he is entitled to that 
praise. But though his language be correct, his 
taste in composition is far from being just. His 
periods are so much laboured, as to be often stiff, 
and sometimes tumid ; the figures which he employs 
by way of ornament, are trite or improper, and his 
observations superficial. These blemishes, however, 
might easily be overlooked, if he were not defective 
with respect to all the great qualities of an historian. 
Destitute of that patient industry in research, which 
conducts to the knowledge of truth; a stranger to 
that impartiality which weighs evidence with cool 
attention, and ever eager to estajblish his favourite 



49 

system of exalting the character of Cortes into that 
of a perfect hero, exempt from error, and adorned 
with every virtue, he is less solicitous to discover 
what is true, than to relate what might appear 
splendid. When he attempts any critical discussion, 
his reasonings are fallacious, and founded upon an 
imperfect view of facts. Though he sometimes 
quotes the dispatches of Cortes, he seems not to have 
consulted them ; and though he sets out with some 
censure on Gomara, he frequently prefers his au- 
thority, the most doubtful of any, to that of the other 
cotemporary historians. 

" But of all the Spanish writers, Herrera furnishes 
the fullest and most accurate information concerning^ 
the conquest of Mexico, as well as every other trans- 
action in America. The industry and attention 
with which he consulted not only the books, but the 
original papers and public records, which tended to 
throw any light upon the subject of his inquiries, 
were so great, and he usually judges of the evidence 
before him with so much impartiality and candour, 
that his Decades may be ranked among the most ju- 
dicious and useful historical collections* If by at- 
tempting to relate the various occurrences in the 
New World, in a strict chronological order, the ar- 
rangement of events in his work had not been ren- 
dered so perplexed, disconnected, and obscure, that 
it is an unpleasant task to collect from different 
parts of his book, and piece together the detached 
shreds of a story, he might justly have been ranked 
among the most eminent historians of his coun- 
try. He gives an account of the materials from 
yol.it. b 



60 

which he composed his work, Dec. VI. Lib. III. 
C.19."* 

De Bure only mentions two of these works in the 
following words : 

" Historia de los Hechos de los Castellanos en las 
isfas y Tierra Jirme del Mare Oceano en VIII. 
Decadasy desde el anno 1492 hasta el de 1554, por 
Antonio de Herrera, En Madrid^ en la Emprenta 
i?ea/, 1601— 1615. Stom.en ^vol.infoi:^ 

'^ Historia de la Conquista del Mexico de D. AntO' 
nio de Solis, en Madrid^ 1684, infoV 

" La Misma Historia de la conquista del Mexico de 
D. Antonio de Solis^ con estampas y la vida del 
AutoTy por Juan de Goyeneche, En Brusselas, 
1704, infoU' 

^^ Des deux Editions que nous indiquons ici de 
FHistoire de la cpnqueste de Mexique, la premiere 
est la plus estimee, parcequ'on Ta croit plus correcte ; 
mais la seconde est plus communement recherchee, 
attendu qu'elle joint a I'avantage d'etre ornee de 
figures, celui d'etre beaucoup mieux executee. On 
peut conclure de la, que les deux Editions doivent 
^tre rassemblees dans un Cabinet choisi."+ De 
Bure, BibL Instruct. Histoire, II. 264. 

It seems that a collection of these original His- 

" * Robertson's Hist. Amer. 4to, Vol. II. p. 445. Herrera was trans- 
lated by Stephens, 6 vols. 8vo. London. 1740. 

f There was a French Translation " Histoire de la Conqueste du 
Mexique, ou de la Nouvelle Espagne, trad, de VEspagnol de Don An- 
tonio de SoliSf en Francois par M. Citri de la Guette. Paris, 1691, in 
4to.JigJ> Ibid.p.265. 



61 

torians entitled " Historiadores Primitivos de las 
Indias Occidentales^ hy D, And, GonzaL Barclay^ 
was published at Madrid in 3 vols. fol. 1749. 

But a modern translation of one of these historians 
remains to be particularized, which, as it has re- 
ceived the high praise of an eminent poet, deserves 
attention. This is 

" The true Histori/ of the Conquest of Mexico, hy 
Captain Bernal Diaz del Castillo^ one of the Con^ 
querors. Written in the year 1568. Translated 
from the &riginal Spanish, by Maurice KeatingCy 
Esq. ito. pp. 514:. London. 1800." 
The Historian says he " brought his history to a 
conclusion in the loyal city of Guatimala, the resi- 
dence of the royal Court of Audience, on Feb. 6, 
1572." 

It seems, from this authentic writer, as here ex- 
hibited, and indeed from other authorities, that 
Robertson represented the character of Montezmua 
in by far too unfavourable a light, while he has been 
too partial to that of Cortes. *' The character of the 
Monarch," say the British Critics, " is highly ami- 
able : frank, generous, and unsuspecting, he forms 
a perfect contrast with the gloomy, perfidious, sor- 
did and cold-blooded Cortes, who is a traitor upon 
argument, and a murderer upon calculation. Dr. 
Robertson relates the seizure of the Prince; but he 
attributes it, with the Spanish historians, or rather 
the glossers over of Spanish enormities, to the news 
of the defeat of Juan de Esculante. The doctor had 
certainly read Diaz, and, to do him justice, makes 
good use of the old soldier on many occasions; how 
is it then that he did not consult him on this?" 

£2 



5« 

These Critics conclude in the following words. 
" How it has happened that the cold, declamatory, 
and faithless narrative of Antonio de Solis should be 
naturalized in this country, while the invaluable 
pages of this honest veteran were only known by 
Dr. Robertson's extracts, we cannot take upon us 
to say. {*ossibly the rudeness of the style might re- 
pel the common reader; and indeed it required much 
knowledge of the Spanish tongue to fit the author 
for an English ear. This knowledge, however, the 
ingenious translator (Mr. Keatinge) possesses in an 
eminent degree ; and while we warmly recommend 
" The true History of the Conquest of Mexico," to 
the notice of our readers, we cannot refuse our tri- 
bute of applause to the fidelity, spirit, dexterity, and 
judgment, with which so important a work has been 
justly made our own."* 

In their last Review (Nov. 1806, p. 491) the same 
Critics add, that " in the energetic and glowing de- 
scription of Bernal Diaz, we follow the real Conque- 
ror of Mexico with trembling delight ; we see his 
perils, and are animated by the prodigies of valour 
exhibited on every side." 

Mr. Southey has also consecrated the original and 
his late translator, in a note to his Madoc. " The 
true History of the Conquest of Mexico," says he, 
" is indeed a delightful work, and the only account 
of that transaction, on which we can rely ; yet be- 
cause it appeared without any of those scandalous 
puffs which disgrace our presses, and teach our 
literati how to think, it mouldered on the 8helf."t 

♦ Brit Crit. VoL XVII. p. 261. 
fl intend hereafter, with the aidgf De Bute, and the learned 



53 

Art. CCLXI. A new Survet/ of the West-Indias : 
or the English American his Travail hy sea and 
land: containing a Journal of three thousand and 
three hundred miles within the main land of America, 
Wherein is set forth his Voyage from Spain to St, 
John de Ulhua; and from thence to Xalappa, to 
Tlaxcalla, the city of Angels^ and forward to 
Mexico; with the description of that great citj/^ 
as it was informer times ^ and also at this present. 
Likewise^ his Journey from Mexico, through the 
Provinces of Guaxala^ Chiapa, Guatemala, Vera 
Paz, Truxillo^ Comayagua; with his abode twelve 
years about Guatemala, and especially in the 
Indian Towns of Mixco, Pinola, Petapa, Ama- 
titlan. As also his strange and ziDonderful conver- 
sion €tnd calling from those remote parts, to his 
native countrey. With his return through the 
Province of Necaragua, and Costa Rica, to Ni- 
coya, Panama, Portobelo, Cartagena, and Ha- 
vana, with divers occurrents and dangers, that did 
befal in the said Journey, Also a new and exact 
Discovery of the Spanish Navigation to thoseparts. 
And of their dominions, government, religion, forts, 
castles^ ports, havens, commodities, fashions, be- 
haviour of Spaniards, Priests, and Friers, Black- 
mores, Mulattos, Mestisos, Indians, and of their 
feasts and solemnities. With a Grammar, or 
some few rudiments of the Indian tongue, called 
Poconelic, or Pocoman, The Second Edition, en" 

work of Mr. Clarke, to give an account of De Bry's invaluable col- 
lection, entitled « India Orientalis, & Occidentalis," in 7 vols. fol. 
of which complete sets scarcely ever occur j though Mr. White bad 
one not long ago. A complete set has sold for 300 guineas. 



54 

larged by the Author^ and beautified with Maps. 
Btj ike true and painful endevours of Thomas 
Gage^ Preacher of the Jferd of God at Deal, in 
the County of Kent. London : Printed by E* 
Cotes, and sold by John Sweetings at the Angel, in 
Pope's Head Alley, 1655, FoL pp. 220, besides 
Epistle Dedicatory, Commendatory Verses, and 
Contents, 

In the next article will be found some account of 
the author of this work. 

In the copy, here used, is the following 
notice. 

" Westwell, May 9, 1756. 

" I have been at the expense of rebinding this 
book in the best manner, because I look upon the 
author to have been a truly honest man, and that he 
put it together with a very pious design : and for 
these reasons, I am desirous that, with the name of 
the faithful and well-meaning Thomas Gage, may 
live united that of Sayer Rudd."* 



This author was descended from Robert Gage of 
Haling in Surry, third son of Sir John Gage of Firle 
in Sussex, who died 1557. John Gage of Haling in 
Surry, younger son of Edward, was his father. Lord 
Clarendon has recorded the memory of his elder 
brother Sir Henry, Governor of Oxford, ivho was 
slain at Culham Bridge, Jan. 1 1, 1644, aet, 47. 

The work is dedicated to Thos. Lord Fairfax, and 

* He was vicar of Westwell, Kent, and died 1757— a man of 
character, and literature. 



55 

followed by commendatory verses, by Thomas Cha- 
loner, which have some merit. 

The next article will explain more. 

Art. CCLXII. Nouvelle Relation contenant les 
Voyages de Thomas Gage dans la nowoelle Es- 
pagne, ses diverse s avantures ; Sf son retourpar Ift 
Province de Nicaragua, jusques a la Havane, 
Avec la description de la Ville de Mexique, telle 
qu'elle etoit autrefois, Sf comme elle est a present. 
Ensemble une description exacte des Terres <^ Pro- 
vinces que possedent les Espagnols en toute VAme^ 
riqu€y de la forme de leur Gouvernement Ecclesias- 
tique S^ Politique, de leur Commerce, de leurs 
Maeurs, 8^ de celles des Ci^iolles, des Mctifs, des Mu- 
latres, des Indiens, Sf des Negres, A Amsterdam^ 
chez Paul Marret, 1695. 2 vols. 12mo. 

In this edition there are a great number of very 
curious engravings, both of events relating to the 
narrative and of places, and several maps. It is de- 
dicated to Monseigneur de Witsen, formerly embas- 
sador from the States General to their Britannic 
Majesties. The translation was made, by the com- 
mand of the French Minister Colbert, by Monsieur 
de Beaulieu Hues O'Neil. He altered the title and 
the divifjion of the chapters, and omitted some of 
Gage's digressions. There is, probably, a mistake 
in the date of one of the volumes, for the second 
volume is dated 1694, and the first 1695. 

Gage was younger brother of the Governor of 
Oxford in 1645. He studied in Spain, and became 
a Dominican monk. From thence he departed with ! 



56 

a design to go to the Philippine Islands as a mission- 
ary in 1625 ; but, on his arrival at Mexico, he heard 
80 bad an account of those islands, and was so much 
delighted with New Spain, that he abandoned his 
original design, and contented himself with a less 
dangerous mission. 

At length being tired of this mode of life, he ear- 
nestly sought leave to return to England to preach 
the gospel among his countrymen ; but this he could 
not obtain ; and therefore resolved to take his first 
opportunity and come away unknown. With this 
design, he says, " I lived above a twelvemonth in 
Petapa, with great ease, pleasure, and content, for 
all things outward ; but within I had still a worm of 
conscience, gnawing this gourd, that shadowed, and 
delighted me with worldly contentment. Here I 
grew more and more troubled concerning some points 
of religion, daily wishing with David, that I had the 
wings of a dove, that I might fly from that place of 
daily idolatry into England, and be at rest." This 
he at length effected. 

He only remained ten days at St. Lucar, where he 
landed, and then, having purchased a secular 
English dress, returned on board an English ship 
to Dover, and thence to London, after an absence of 
nearly twenty-four years, in which he had quite lost 
the use of his native language. This was in 
1637. 

On his return to his native country, he found him- 
self unnoticed in his father's will, forgotten by some 
of his relations, and with difficulty acknowledged by 
others. After a little time, not being able to satisfy 
his religious doubts, and disgusted with the great 



57 

power of the Papists, be resolved to take another 
journey to Italy, to " try what better satisfaction 
he could find for his conscience at Rome in that - 
religion." At Loretto his conversion from popery 
was fixed by proving the fallacy of the miracles 
attributed to the picture of our Lady there: on 
which he immediately returned home on«e more; 
and preached his recantation sermon at St. Paul's, 
by order of the Bishop of London. He continued 
above a year in London, spending his own means, 
till " at last," says he, ** I was fully satisfied, and 
much troubled to see that the Papists, and most of 
my kindred, were entertained at Oxford; and in 
other places in the King's dominions; whereupon 
I resolved upon a choice for the Parliament's cause, 
which now in their lowest estate and condition I 
am not ashamed to acknowledge. From their hands, 
and by their order, I received a benefice, in which 
I have continued almost four years, preaching con- 
stantly for a thorough reformation intended by them, 
which 1 am ready to witness with the best drops of 
blood in my veins, to whom I desire this my history 
may be a better witness of my sincerity, and that 
by it 1 may perform what our Saviour Christ spake 
to Peter, saying, " And t/wu, being cowcerted^ 
strengthen tJiT/ brethren,^'' 

He was probably rector of Deal, in Kent, where 
he lived : for in the register of that parish, there is 
the following entry : . 

" Mary^ the daughter of Mr. Thomas Gage, par- 
son of Deakj and Mary his wife^ buried March, 21, 
1652." 

WJien he says of himself, that he was determined 



5S 

to lead a different life from that which he had hi- 
therto done, and to bid adieu to Spain, and to all 
Spanish manners; this must probably relate par- 
ticularly to religion, * for he appears to have been 
a very good and pious man, and to have led a very 
regular life in the midst of great temptation. At 
Chiapa, a city between Mexico and Guatimala, a 
lady made love to him, and upon his receiving her 
overtures with coldness endeavoured to send him 
after the bishop of that place, who had been poi- 
soned just before. His observation on leaving that 
city is not without point ; an enormity of which it 
must be confessed the good missionary was not often 
guilty. He says that it merits no other praise 
but that of being peopled with idiots, and with 
women who are only skilful in making poisoned 
chocolate. 

Gage seems to be a very accurate and faithful re- 
lator ; but was also extremely credulous and super- 
stitious. He gives some curious accounts of the 
power of the devil in sorceries and witchcrafts, in 
some of the Indian villages, which are not unlike 
what is recorded of the New England mania in the 
seventeenth century; and, 1 am sorry to add, of 
old England also in every century but the present, 
though not often attended with equally fatal con- 
sequences. M. P. 

• While he was in New Spain he laments his being able to con- 
vert so few Indians, and attributes it to his not being able to 
preach the truth of the gospel for fear of the inquisition ; npon 
which the translator remarks in a note, very justly, that ** this re- 
flection makes it doubtful whether the author was a true Catholic." 



59 

Art. CCLXIII. The Historie of two the mostt 
noble Capitaines of the worlde^ Anniball and Scipio : 
of thet/r dj/vers hattailes and victories : excedyng 
profitable to reade : gathered and translated into 
Englishe out of Titus Livius and other authores, 
hy Antony e Cope^ esquier. Anno 1544;. ^to. 
Colophon. Londoni. In cedibus Thomce Ber- 
theleti regit impressoris typis excusum. Anno 
terbi incarnati MDXLIIII, 

In the list of early English translations, which now 
makes a part of the prolegomena to Shakspeare, * 
Mr. Steevens has dated this version of Cope's Livj, 
1545. 1 have therefore cited both title and colophon, 
to shew the real date. Herbert! speaks of the book 
as a rarity : as a specimen of typography it confers 
far more credit on the printer, than do his recom- 
mendatory lines in the character of a poet. 

" Tho, Berthelet on this Historie. 

" Who so ever desireth for to rede 

Marciall prowesse, feactes of chivalrie. 
That maie hym profile at tyme of nede; 

Lette hym in hande take this historic. 
That sheweth the sleyghtes and policie. 
The wily traynes of wyttie Anniball, 
The crafty disceites full ofte wherby 

He gave his puissant ennemies a falle. 

Of woorthie stomache and courage valyaunt. 
Of noble herte and mannely enterprise, - 

Of jentleness of mynde, sure and constaunt. 
Of governaunce prudent, ware, and wyse, 

* See Reed's edition, II. p. 1 11 . f Typogr. Antiq. I. 447. 



60 

Shall fynde accordynge unto his devise 
This prince Scipio, this myghty Romayne, 

Whiche all for pleasure ever dydde dispyse. 
In continence a lorde and souveraigne. 

Lo thus raaie menne playnly here beholde. 

That wyly wytte, powre, guyle, nor policie, 
Coulde Anniball ever styll upholde. 

But that by Scipio's woorthy chivalrie. 
His manhode, vertue, and dedes knyghtly. 

He was subdued — there is no more to sayne : 
And yet, to speake as trouth wyll verifye. 

There was never founde a better capitayne." 

The translation extends to 74 chapters, and is 
dedicated to his most redoubted soveraigne lorde 
Henry the viii. by his right humble subjecte and 
servaunt Antony Cope," in seven pages. Any ex- 
tract might be deemed superfluous. T. P. 

Art. CCLXIV. The Historic of Wi/ates Rebellion^ 
with the order and maner of resisting the same, 
wherunto in the ende is added an earnest conference 
with the degenerate and sedicious rebelles for the 
serche of the cause of their daily disorder. Made 
and compiled hy John Proctor. Mense Januarij 
Anno 1555. i^mo. 

At the end. Impri/nted at London, hy Robert Caly, 
within the precincte of the late dissolved house of 
the graye freers nowe converted to an hospital^ 
called Christes* Hospital. The x day of January, 
1555. Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum. 

The book is dedicated " To the most excellent 
and moste vertuous ladye our moste gracious Sove- 



61 

raigne, Marie, by the Grace of God, Quene of 
Englande, Fraunce, Naples, Hierusalem and Ire- 
land, Defendour of the Faith, Princesse of Spajrne 
and Sicilie, Archeduchesse of Austria, Duchesse of 
Millaine, Burgundie and Braband, Coutesse of 
Haspurge, Flaunders and Tyrole, your Majisties 
most faythfull, lovynge, and obedient subjecte John 
Proctor, wisheth all grace, longe peace, quiet rayne, 
from God the Father, the Sonne, and the Holy 
Ghost." 

In the dedication he expresses his horror at the 
urickedness of Wyatt and his accomplices, and says : 
" These general considerations moving other to in- 
dict and penne stories, moved me also to gather 
together and to register for memorie the merveilous 
practise of Wyat his detestable rebellio~, litle in- 
feriour to the most dangerous reported in any 
historie, either for desperate courage in the authour, 
or for the mo'struous end purposed by this rebellion. 
Yet I thought nothing lesse at the beginning, then 
to publishe the same at this time or at this age, 
minding onely to gather notes therof where the 
truth mought be best knowen (for the which I have 
made earnest and diligent investigation) and to leave 
them to be published by others hereafter to the 
behof of our posterite. But hearing the sundrie 
tales thereof farre dissonaunt in the utteraunce, and 
many of them as far wide fro~ truth, facioned from 
the speakers to advaunce or deprave as they fantased 
the parties ; and understa~dyng besydes what notable 
infamie spronge of this rebellio" to the whole countre 
of Kent, and to every me''bre of the same, where 
sundrie and many of them to mine owne knouledge 



62 

shewed themselves most faithfull and worthje sub- 
jectes, as by the story self shal evidently appeare, 
which either of hast or of purpose, were omitted in a 
printed booke late sette furth at Canterbury: I 
thought these to be special co~sideracions whereby I 
ought of duety to my country, to compile and digest 
such notes as 1 had gathred concerning the rebellion, 
in some forme and fashion of historie, and to publish 
the same in this age and at thys present, contrary 
to my first inte't, as well that the very truth of that 
rebellious enterprise myght be throughly knowe", as 
that also the shire where that vile rebellion was 
practised, might by opening the ful truth in some 
part be delivered fro" the infamy, which as by re- 
port I heare is made so general in other shires, as 
though very few of Kent uer fre from Wyates con- 
spiracie." 

Then follows an address to the " Loving Reader;" 
afterwards the detail of the rebellion to leaf 80. 
Then 

" An earnest conference with the degenerats and 
sedicious, for the serche of the cause of theyr greate 
disorder." 

This is, in general, a mass of the most fulsome 
adulation to Queen Mary, for her numberless vir- 
tues, particularly her clemency and generosity. 
This concludes at leaf 9l. Then follows, « A 
prosopey of Englande under the degenerat Eng- 
lishe." 

Proctor was schoolmaster of the free school at 
Tunbridge, and from his vicinity to the scene of 
action must have had a greater opportunity of 
knowing the particulars of the rebellion than many 



63 

others. The other accounts of the rebellion, one 
of which he mentions as having been printed at 
Canterbury, do not, I fancy, now exist. W. S. 



Art. CCLXV. A Report and Discourse^ written 
hy Roger Ascham, of the affaires and state of Ger- 
many, and the Emperour Charles his court ; during 
certaine yeares while the sayd Roger was there. 
At London: Printed hy John Daye, dwelling 
over Aldersgate, Cum grat. S^ privileg. Regies 
Majest. 4:to, pp, 60. 

In September 1550, the noted penman of this 
report, accompanied Sir Richard Morysine to Ger- 
many, when he went as ambassador from the court 
of England to Charles the Fifth. There Ascham 
continued three years ; and, during that time, left 
nothing unattended to, which might serve to perfect 
his knowledge of men as well as books. In Oct. 
1552 he was requested by his particular friend, Mr. 
John Astely,* Master of the Jewel Office, to draw 
up an account of the political events which took 
place during his stay in Germany, and this ac- 
count is described by Dr. Campbell to be " one of 
the most delicate pieces of liistory that ever was 
penned in our language, evincing its author to have 
been a man as capable of shining in the cabinet as 
in the closet." t As a brief historical document, 
faithfully deduced from personal observation, it is 
certainly of considerable value; yet perhaps the most 
interesting extract to general readers, will be As- 

* For whom see Gent. Mag. Vol. LXVU. f Biog. Brit I. 284. 



64 

cham's prefatory statement of tbe qualifications 
essential to an historian. It is addressed to his 
friend John Astely.* 

*^ When you and I read Livje together (if jou do 
remember) after some reason^'ng we concluded both 
\vhat was in our opinion to be looked for at his 
hand, that would well and advisedly write an history. 
First point was, to write nothing false : next, to be 
bold to say any truth : wherby is avoyded two great 
faults — flattery and hatred. For which two pointes 
Caesar is read to his great prayse ; and Jovius the 
Italian to his just reproch. Then to marke diligently 
the causes, counsels, acts, and issues, in all great 
attemptes : and in causes what is just or unjust; 
in counsels, what is purposed wisely or rashly ; in 
actes, what is done couragiously or faintly ; and of 
every issue, to note some generall lesson of wise- 
dome an^ wariness, for lyke matters in time to 
come, wherin Polibius in Greeke, and Phillip Co- 
mines in French, have done the duties of wyse and 
worthy writers. Diligence also must be used in 
kepyng truly the order* of tyme, and describyng 
lyvely, both the site of places and nature of persons, 
not onely for the outward shape of the body, but 
also for the inward disposition of the mynde, as 
Thucidides doth in many places very ti imly ; and 
Homer every where, and that alwayes most ex- 
cellently, which observation is chiefly to be marked 
in him. And our Chaucer doth the same, very 
praise worthely : marke hym well, and conferre 
hym with any other that writeth in our tyme in 

♦ Blundevile partly addressed his " Port of Rest," 1561, to John 
Asteley, as a true lover of wbdom. 



65 

their proudest toung, whosoever Ijrst. The st^'le 
must be always playne and open ; yet some time 
higher and lower, as matters do ryse and fall. For 
if proper and naturall wordes,* in well joyned sen- 
tences, do ly vely expresse the matter, be it trouble- 
some, quyet, angry, or pleasant, a man shal thincke 
not to be readyng, but present, in doyng of the 
same. And herein Livie of all other in any toung, 
by myne opinion, carieth away the prayse." T. P. 

Art. CCLXVl. Les grandes Annalles ou Cronic' 
ques parlans tant de la grant Bretaigne a present 
nomee Angleterre que de nostre petite Bretaigne 
de present erigee en duche. Commencantz au Roy 
Brutus^ pmier fondateur de tours : Sf comme il 
conquist ledict Royaulme de Bretaigne, Lequel a 
este tousjours gouveme par gens preux : hardis Sf 
vaillans. Et leurs faictz recuilliz par ges sages 
et discretz : dan en an depuis ledict Brutus et son 
nepveu Turnus Jasques aux ans de present 8f du 
regne du trespreux 8^ magnanime roy Francoys 
premier de ce nom» Et pareillement recuilly Sf 
redige par escript plusieurs faictz advenux : tat 
es royaulmes de France {Ddgleterre) Despaigne 
(Descosse) (Darragon) Navarre: es ytalies: en 
Ldberdie en Jherusalem, Et entre aultres choses : 
des Popes : de leur election et estat. Et du tout 
jusques en Ian de present Mil. V. Cens. xli, NoU' 
vellement Imprimees. 

Aegidii vigothi hussonillis ad Britannos 
Epigramma. 
Cedat Alexander, graiumque acerrimus aiax 
Romulus, ac belli fulmina scipiades, 
VOL. IT. F 



66 

Cedatet Augustus superum dignatus honore, 

Et quos prisca duces secla tulere prius. 
Hos precor annales evolve Britannia, clarum 

Offendes geneiis stemma decusque tui. 
Arturus extremis magnus quem Juppiter oris 

Prefecit bello : viribus, arte, preit. 
Heroas memori notos super ethera pbama 

Quid referam 1 lepidum cuncta volumen habet. 
Quare si moveant patrum monime^ta Brita'nos, 

Hunc acri relegant sedulitate librum. 
Mil Cinq. Cens. xli. 

Colophon. 11 2/ finissent Its correctes 8f additionnees 
Annalles ou Croniques de Bretaigne. Nouvellement 
reveues €t corrigees : avec plusieurs adjoustemens, Et 
ont este achevees de Imprimer le nmifies me jour de 
Juillet Mil cinq cens quarante et ung. Folio. B, L. 
276 leaves, and many wooden cuts. 

This curious work is divided into four books, 
of which the two first are chiefly occupied with the 
fabulous history of Brutus and his successors, liot 
omitting King Arthur with his round table. They 
include also the principal contemporaneous events, 
as the establishment of Christianity, &c. The two 
last books contain the history of Little Britain under 
its Dukes, till it was completely merged in the crown 
of France. This part comprehends many historical 
facts worthy of observation, related in a style sin- 
gularly quaint and naif, including a considerable 
portion of the general history of the adjacent coun- 
tries. It is brought down to the year 1539, the 
twenty-fourth of the reign of Francis I. 



67 

Art. CCLXVII. A notable Historj/e of the Sara* 
cens, hriejli/ and faithfulli/ describing the originall 
beginnings continuaunce and successe aswell of the 
Saracens, as also of Turkes, Souldans, Mamalukes, 
Assassines, Tartarians and Sophians, with a dis' 
course of their affaires and actes from the byrthe 
of Mahomet their first peeuish prophet and founder 
for 700 yeeres space ; whereunto is annexed a com- 
pendious Chronycle of all their yeerly exploytes 
from the sayde MahomeVs time tyll this present 
yeere of grace 1575. Drawen out of Augustine 
Curie, and sundry other good Authours by Thomas 
Newton. Imprinted at London by William How, 
for Abraham Veale, 1575. Colophon. Imprinted 
at London by William How for Abraham Veale 
dwelling in Paules Churchyard, at the signe of the 
Lambe, 1575. 4to. Fo, ii^, without preface, ^c. 

This compiled translation is the performance of 
Thomas Newton the poet, and dedicated " to the 
Ryghte Honorable the Lorde Charles Howarde, 
Baron of EfFyngham, and Knight of the most noble 
Order of the Garter," with a lion rampant in a circle 
of the garter, back of the title. " The author's 
preface" describes " this whole history e breeflye 
comprysinge the whole discourse of their raignes 
and conquestes, collected aswell out of many 
Greeque, Constantinopolitan and Latine authours, 
as out of the Chronicles of the Arabians and Moors, 
is deuided into three Bookes. The firste containeth 
the natiuitie, education, raigne and continuance of 
dotynge Mahomet and the beginning of the Saracens, 
with the successe and increase of their empire euen 
F 2 



68 

iy\l it was at the highest for two hundreth yeeres 
space. The seconde is continued from the fyrst 
incljnation tyll the beginning of the destruction and 
last ende thereof, contay ninge also the space of two 
hundreth jeeres. The third breefly comprehendeth 
the final end of it, and the original beginning of the ^ 
Turkishe empire, (which succeeded the Saracenical 
domination) till Othoman, the first Emperour of 
Turks, which intreateth of their acts, for the space 
of three hundreth yeeres." 

The following extract from the second book is of 
a period the most productive for the fables of ro- 
mance and displaying feats of chivalry. It is a 
brief account of the battle of Roncevalles. 

*' When he [Charles] was returned home agayne 
into Fraunce, some write that there came out of 
Aphrica, one Aigoland, sent from the high Duke of 
the Aphrican Saracens, (who kept his seat royall at 
Marrocco) with a mighty army to recover all such 
townes and places as Charles had taken in Spaine ; 
with whom there were many other princes, potentats, 
and valyaunt personages; and that Charles (after 
many combates, darraigned and foughten with hym 
hand to hand beinge thereunto by hym chalenged and 
prouoked), fought a Woudy battayle with him at 
Baion, a citie of Vasconia, wherein were slayne 
400000 Christians, and among them Myles Anglese, 
father to Rouland, a stout gentleman and a hardy, 
who had the leadinge and was generall of the whole 
army. Notwithstanding, all was regained by the 
puyssance and prowesse of Charles, and other fresh 
ayd that then came euen in the nicke out of Italy to 
succour the Frenchman in that distresse. Insomuch 



69 

that iEgoland priuyly fled and conueighed himselfe 
away. 

" But not long after, hauinge repaired his army 
with a supply of raoe souldiours, iEgoland againe 
prouoked Charles into Vasconia, and besieged the 
citie Gennum, now called Baion, the space of seuen 
monthes, and departing thence was in the borders of 
Xantongue in a cruell battel ouerthrowen, after 
which discomfiture he fled back againe into Spaine. 
And how that Charles (because he would at length 
bring his Spanish warres to an end) with a greater 
army than any afore, entred into Spaine, where after 
many light skirmishes, he slew ^gola''d in a notable 
battell ; after which victorie he brought under his 
subiection and rule almost all Spaine ; with many moe 
forged reportes and mere fables of some aduoutched, 
all which, for the vntruth and vnlykelyhood thereof 
we do heere pretermit ; but if any be desirous to 
see them, let them reade Turpiue bysshoppe of 
Rheimes, to whom also 1 do referre you, for the 
trueth of this, which we haue here last recited ; for 
we do not fynde in any of those credible and ap- 
proued writers whych wee folowe, that Charles made 
any moe voyages against the Saracens into Spaine 
but one, nor that they euer entred into Fraunce 
during his raigne. But this is manifest, that A1-- 
phonsus kyng of Asturia, mooued with the famous 
renowne of his noble actes and inuincible valiaunce, 
and for the common weale of his kingdome and 
fiubiectes, because he had no children of his owne, 
and saw that the power of that onely region was 
farre vnhable to beare out and maintaine continuall 
warres wyth tUe Saracens, offered vnto him secretely 



70 

by trustie messengers and ambassadoures the king- 
dome of Ljons so that he would ayde hym against 
the king of Corduba, with whom he had then waged 
warre. Charles accepting this offer and condition, 
sent ayde vnto hym. Which composition when the 
nobles and peeres of the realme of Lyon vnderstoode, 
they were soore displeased and tooke the matter gre- 
uously, spighting (as commonly in like cases it falleth 
out) to haue a nation hard vnder theyr noses to bee 
rulers ouer them, and therevpon they compelled theyr 
king to starte from his bargaine and vndoe his league. 
And not so contented to leaue, purposed also and 
deuised which way to dispatch and destroy e king 
Charles and all his army ; fearing, lest he seeing 
himselfe thus deluded and mocked would reuenge 
this iniurie done vnto him. Therefore gathering and 
assembling all the power of the Asturians and Can- 
tabrians together, and sendying also for ayde to the 
Saracenes (in secrete wise preuenting Charles) tooke 
and kept the narow streightes of the mountaines, 
where the passage and way lyeth into Spaine by 
Ronceuall. For Charles was retourned into Fraunce, 
and was now againe in his way going into Spaine, 
to reuenge this wrongfull dealing. The armie of 
King Charles was the" at the foote of the Pyrenee 
mountaines, on that side next Fraunce, in the valley 
(yet called Hospita) when there came newes vnto 
them, that the Spaniardes were comraing, in warlike 
manner against him along by the valley called at this 
day Charles Valley, which was a faire plaine 
€ha~paine. Therefore diuiding his hoast into three 
battailes, by the fraudulent and traiterous cou^saile 
ofQalerd' (or as some cal him Gane) who the enemies 



71 

had corrupted with money, he appointed Rouland, 
his nephew, by his sister, (commonly called of the 
•vulgar sort Orland) Duke of Little Britaine, a vali- 
aunt gentlema^ and a hardy, to leade the vanwarde, 
wherein he placed al the noble states and peeres of 
Fraunce: in the second battaile, he placed in- 
numerable gentleme" and noble personages : and he 
himself with the third (wherin was the traitour 
Galero) taried stil in the campe, commaunding 
Orland with the vauntgard to aduaunce himself for- 
ward. The Spanish army was embattailed in Ron- 
ceuaU, expecting their combing; vpon whom the 
fronte of the French hoast geuing the onset was at 
the first brunt so handled (for the Spanyardes had 
gotte the vpper groiTd and al the strait passages) 
that they were in worse case which escaped their 
hands, the" they which were slain outright in fighting; 
for they dyed and were quickly out of pain, but the 
other fleeing through thicke and thinne among the 
stones and craggy cliues and falling down fro" high 
rockes, had their limmes broke', and so continued 
for a logger seascT in extreme tormente and agonies. 
Thus, Rouland and all his traine being wearied, 
what with climing vp the hill, and what with the 
waight of their armour were easily killed and 
brought to confusio". After the same maner also 
was the second battaile handled, wherein were the 
12 peeres of Frau'ce, in whose power it is to create 
the king and decide al waightie causes of the 
real me. 

" Charles still abode in the valleye, which for this 
cause is to this day called Charles' Valley, whyther 
he had remoued his campe out of Hospita ; who, 



7« 

vnderstandinge of the great ouerthrow and losse 
of his men, retyred with all speede againe into 
Fraunce/' 

J. K. 



Art. CCLXVIII. Letters sent from Venice^ Anrtd 
1571, containing the certaine and true newes of the 
most noble victorie of the Christians over the armie 
of the great Turke : and the names of the Lordes 
and Gentlemen of the Christians slaine in the same 
battelL Translated oute of the Frenche Copie 
printed at Paris^ hy Guillem de Niuerd^ with the 
jKing'spriuiledge. Imprinted at London hy Henrie 
Bynneman. And are to be sold in Paules Church' 
yard by Anthonie Kitson, n. d, 6 leaves, 12mo. b. L 

Aet. CCLXIX. The whole discourse of the Victorie 
that it pleased God to giue to the Christians against 
the Turkesy and what losse hapened to the Christians 
in the said conflict, Englished by a Frenche Copie 
printed at Paris^ by Fleuri Preuost^ priuiledged 
hy the King, Imprinted at London by Henrie 
Bynneman, And are to be sold in Paules Church- 
yard by Anthonie Kitson, n. d. 5 leaves, l^mo. b,l,* 

These little tracts appear to have been intended 
to convey authentic information to the public of the 

* Neither of these articles are noticed in Herbert. On the last page 
of the second is the device, in an oval, of the Genius of England, as 
described by that editor, p. 780; but with outer or corner ornaments 
forming a square ; warKke trophies being at the bottom, and at the 
top two female figures, each holding a palm branch in the one haad^ 
And supporting a trumpet with the other, which they blow inward. 



73 

victory obtained by a fleet of gallies belongings to 
the Pope, the Knights of Malta, and the Venetians, 
or, (as they are united, called) the Christians over 
the Turks, on Sunday the 7th Oct. 1571, near " the 
gulphes of Velapante.'* 

As usual the loss of the conquerors was more than 
doubly exceeded by the loss of the conquered. 

*^ Of all the armie of the Turkes, there was none 
saved but xviij galeys, whiche were folowed a great 
whyle by three galeys of the popes, four of the 
knyghtes of Malta, and sixe of the Venetians, and they 
came so neere them, that if the darknesse of the nyght 
had not favoured them with the helpe of their good 
ores, they had not gone to carie the heavie newes of 
the overthrow of the rest of their armie. 

*' There is taken by the Christians cxxx greate 
Turkishe galeys and fyftie foystes, out of whiche 
galleys and foystes have bene delivered xiiij thou- 
sande Christians captives with the Turks. 

"In the sayde galeys and foysts vVas founde great 
store of munitions of war, the moste parte whereof 
was delivered to be sente to Malta. 

" There were also xv galeys of the Turkes 
drowned. 

" And there were xxv galeys burnt. 

" And there were xx thousand Turks slayne wyth 
their Bassa,* whiche was the generall of their armie. 
Besides ^ve thousande prisoners. 

♦ When the Turkish Commander was killed, his head was carried 
to Seigneur Don Jeande Austriclie,(who commanded the Christians): 
** after he had a good while helde the same in his handes, he con- 
maunded it to bee put upon the ende of a pyke, and to be sette 
uppon the foreparte of the galey for Victoria, and for a tryumphe." 



74 

" The losse that the Christians had was two 
galejes of the Popes whiche were drowned. 

" And one burned of the Knightes of Malta. 

"Five of the Venetians were loste, of the which 
two were burnt and three drouned. 

" The generall of the armie of the Venetians (the 
moste excellent Lorde, S. Augustine Barbarico) was 
slajne in the saide galeys that were lost, and xx Ve- 
netian gentlemen. 

" There is deade of the Christians as wel out of 
the said eight galey s that were lost, as of them that 
were slayne in the other galejs, aboute two thou- 
sande men, of the which there was four Knightes of 
Malta, three Spaniardes, and one Italian. 

" The Venetians, amongs all the rest, did shewe 
themselves very valyante, and they were the first 
that with great furie did joyne in combate agaynst 
the sayde Turkes." 

At the conclusion is a short address " to the 
Christian Reader," the greater portion of which is 
too applicable to this country, at the present period, 
to be omitted. 

" Considering the times past and present, in the 
which God, all mercifuU, hathe delivered and pre- 
served us from a number of mischeeves and daungers, 
with the which we ordinarily are beset, without 
having any power of oure selfe, to escape the same, 
except the immeasurable pi tie of oure Lord God 
shoulde helpe us : We ought, therefore, to sing con- 
tinually with the royall prophet, the earthe is all re- 
plenished with the mercie of our good God, which 
dothe maintaine us in his kingdom, in his faith, in 



75 

his service, and in his grace incomprehensible; and 
let us firmely beleeve that he hathe care of us, and 
that he dothe keepe and defend us more warely than 
the egle or the henne doo their chickens. Let us 
give him, therefore, withoute ceassing, glorie, and 
praises everlasting; framing our selves to marvel at 
the greatnesse of his mercie, that doth preserve us 
alwajes from eminent dangers and perilles." 

J.H. 



Art. CCLXX. A Letter senthy I. B. Gentleman 
unto his very frende Maystet [r] R. C. Esquire. 
Wherin is conteined a large discourse of the peop- 
• ling and inhabiting the Cuntrie called the Ardes, and 
other adiacent in the North of Ireland, and taken 
in hand hy Sir Thomas Smith, one of the Queenes 
Maiesties Priuie Counsel, and Thomas Smith, Es- 
quire, his Sonne, Colophon. Imprinted at Lon- 
don, by Henry Binneman, for Anthon [y Kit'] 
son, dwelling in Paules Church Yard, at the signe 
oftheSunne. 31 leaves, folded in fours. Small Svo., 
b, I \bl% 

This historical tract needs little introduction; the 
subject is interesting and popular, and appears to 
have escaped the attention of our early historians. 
It was evidently written in support of a scheme in- 
tended, but never carried into effect, and the doubts 
and objections were created to give the writer an op- 
portunity of arguing in support of the feasibleness of 
the plan. 

" Suche doubtes and exceptions, frende R. C. as 
I have heard alleged and put forthe to unhable that 



76 

enterprise of peopling and replenishing with the 
Englishe nation the North of Ireland, which, with 
the assistance of Sir Thomas Smith, one of her Ma- 
jestie's Counsell, Mayster Thomas Smith, his 
Sonne, hath undertook to bring to passe, maketh 
mee that I can not holde from you my so singuler 
freende those arguments, wherwith through con- 
ference had with him upon his sayde attempt by 
reason of our great familiaritie, hee hath fully per- 
suaded and satisfied me. 

" Ireland is a large cuntrie, commended wonder- 
fully for the fertilenesse and commodious site therofj 
wherin the Kings of England have had footing and 
continuall governement these foure hundred yeeres 
and more ; but so as the barbarous nation at no time 
fully subdued, throgh their often rebellion, have 
bene rather an anoy and charge to this realme of 
England, than otherwise, which some men have im- 
puted to the impossibilitie therof, or to the evil go- 
vernment of deputies, which eyther have bene neg- 
lygent or corrupt. But Maister Smith, to see and 
knowe the truthe, travayled thither in thecompanie 
of Sir Wiliian Fitzwilliams, now Lord Justice there, 
minding after serche heerof made (for now beganne 
the desire of this attempt to root in his hart) to de- 
clare his opinion, if hee thought it myght be ac- 
cepted, and hath founde that the decay of the govern- 
ment there hath not chaunced, bicause that the plant- 
ing at the firste of the Englishe nation (so muche as . 
it was) was not for the time substancially done, nor 
by the negligence and corruptnesse of the governours 
there, wherof within our remembraunce hath been 
a successive order of noble, just, wise, and sufficient 



77 

persons ; but hath growne hy the necessitie whiche 
hath constrayned the governours to give protections 
and pardons unto moste heynous rebels and outlawes, 
after they have spoyled, murthred, and made havocke 
of the good subjects, for lack of sufficient forces 
wherwith to attache and execute the sayde male* 
factours, by reason of the spare supplye at all times 
made to them by the Prince, who at the firste inha- 
byting thereof mynding more the kyngdome of 
Fraunce, and thinking all to little for that purposed 
conquest, neglected Ireland as a matter of smal im- 
portance, then worst looked to, when England itselfe 
was a prise or rewarde to them that best could be- 
sturre themselves of the houses of Yorke and Lan- 
caster ; and if you wil marke the stories, you shal 
finde great reasons that have moved the Prince too 
bee spare of charges in that cuntrie, and a conse- 
quence of decay in that government. 

" About the time of the first entrie of the Englishe 
in Ireland made that they began to settle, arose the 
Barons warres in England, that weakened and de- 
cayed all at home; Fraunce was chargeable too bee 
mainteyned with many garrisons, a great waster 
both of men and money, yet a thing whereto the 
Princes were more bent than to Ireland : so that we 
may easly perceive and judge, that the Irishe whiche 
yet remayned unsubdued, taking advantage of the 
time, whiles the cheef that had authori tie there, were 
called over to upholde their factions here, possessed 
againe their land, and expelled the new inhabitants ; 
found without hed and scarce yet wel setled ; whiche^ 
could not be recovered againe so soone, bicause suche 



78 

as were come over after they had wasted themlsvecs 
in civil warres, and had in the meane time lost their 
landes in Ireland, lost also their credite with such 
as at the first adventured under them, by reason 
they had forsaken and lefte them open to the spoile; 
nor the Princes, being eaten out also with civile dis- 
cord and with the charges ofFraunce, unto which 
they were more addicted, had the treasure to spare 
for the reformation thereof. Only King* Richar4 
the Second in hys owne person attempty ng the same, 
was overtaken with civil discension and deposed, 
whiche hath ever since discouraged his successours 
personally to attempt the like. Thus home warres 
still increasing, with the armies in Fraunce, (a de- 
vouring grave of this nation) and, lastly, the losse 
therof, so weakned and impoverisshed the crown of 
England, that both people and money wanted 
therein, much good land lying waste for lacke of in- 
habitaunts, that it was more time to recover by rest 
that which was wanting at home, than to send 
abrode that could not be spared. And the Princes 
contented themselves if they myght onely preserve 
a footyng or entrye into Ireland wyth some small 
charge, wherby the governours were constreyned, 
for wante of supply, by protections and pardons to 
appease every rebellion, which otherwise to represse 
and punish they were not sufficiently furnished. 
This perceived of the Irishe, made them that upon 
every light occasion they will flie out, and satisfied 
with bloud and burning, will not without protection 
and pardon be brought in. The Englishe raceover- 
runne and daily spoiled, seeing no punishment of 
malefactors, did buy their owne peace, alied and 



79 

fostred themselves with the Irishe, and the race so 
nourished in the bosome of the Irishe, perceiving 
their immunitie from lawe and punishmente dege- 
nerated; choosing rather to maintain themselves in 
the Irish mans beastly libertie, than to submit them- 
selves and to live there alone, and not the Irish in the 
godly awe of the lawes of England. This dege- 
nerating and daily decay of the English manners by 
little and little in the countrey, discourageth those 
that have not perfectly wayed all that is aforesaid, 
to attempt any new enterprise. The Prince seeing 
no manne forwarde therin, is weryed with the con- 
tinuaunce of the yerely great charge which hir 
Maiestie liberall above hir predecessoures hath 
borne more willingly, and to this, the first entring of 
the English, their first inhabiting, the order and 
manner therof, is almost worne out of memorie and 
forgotten, their decay and wasting daily to be 
seene. 

" All these things when my friend, being then in 
Ireland, had informed him selfe of, by diligent inqui- 
sition, he fell to consider what way were fittest for 
oure time to reform the same; and if it were re- 
formed, I meane the whole countrey replenished 
with Englishe men, what profite that coulde be to 
the estate of Englande, hath sithens his return told 
me divers times, that he thought Irelande once in- 
habited with Englishe men, and polliced with 
English-lawes, would be as great commoditie to the 
Prince as the realme of England, the yerely rent and 
charges saved that is now laide out to maintaine a 
garrison therein, for there cannot be (sayeth he) a 
more fertile soile thorowe out the world for that 



80 

climate than it is, as a more pleasant, healthful, fu! 
of springs, rivers, great fresh lakes, fishe, andfoule, 
and of most commodious Lerbers. England giveth 
nothing save fine woolle, that will not be had also 
moste abudantly there; it lacketh only inhabitants, 
manurance and pollicie. 

" As for the meanes how to subdue and replenish 
the same (say th he) they were easie to be devised, if 
the Queene's Majestic wold once take it upon hir, 
with army maintained at hir charges : but sith her 
Highnesse is not bent thereto, what other meanes is 
to be folowed, he hath heeretofore in his first offer to 
the Queene's Majestie's counsell declared ; which is 
that which he nowe foloweth, and so many that have 
not in themselves the will or grace to do so well, da 
impugne, whiche I wil heere defende and persuade 
you in as a thing moste reasonable, faisable, and 
commendable. 

" He hathe taken in hande, withoute hir Majestie's 
pay, to win and replenish with Englishe inhabitantes 
the countrey called the Ardes in the northe of Ire- 
lande, and some partes thereto adjoyning. 

" The first entry with the Englishemen made into 
Irelande, was in Henrie the Seconde's time, with his 
licence, by Strangbowe, Earl of Chepstow, at his 
own charges, and the charges of his adherentes, at 
what time the countrey was replenished with inhabi- 
tants, and devided only into five kingdomes; who 
with a smal number entred into the same, and sub- 
dued the kingdom which is nowe called Lenster, 
which he possessed and held quietly, planting it with 
Englyshe inhabytants, and placing English lawes, 
until the King envying his proceedings, and fearing 



81 

to have so ^reat a subject, enforced him to surrender 
his right, whiche hee did. And this was the first 
feting of Englishe men in that land, not by the 
King's power. 

" Muche more then that whiche Strangbowe wonne, 
reroayneth not at this day civile in Irehinde, but 
many parcels have bene wonne by the English men 
therin, without the King's forces, whiche eyther by 
the occasions afore rehersed wer lost, or els for lack 
of inward pollicy degenerated, as great cuntries in 
Munster, by the Gerardines and Butlers. In 
Connalt, by the Surges. In Meth, by Nogent. In 
Ulster, sometimes by Lacy Earle of Lincolne; after 
him by Mortimer; yea a great part of the Arde was 
and is possessed by the Savages, in whose offspring, 
which at this time holde it, save the name remayneth 
nothing English^ with divers other parcelles which 
fer shortnesse sake, I let passe. 

^' The Arde which is my demaund, and the nearest 
part of all Irelande to Lancashire, and the east part 
of England, I take to be a peece of ground as easie 
to be wonne, inhabited, safely kepte and defended, 
as any platte within the real me of Ireland, being a 
reache of land (as it were of purpose bayed out from 
the mayne into the sea,) to wall in so muche of it as 
would make so faire and commodious a lake and 
herber, as thehavfen of Strangford is fasshioned like 
an arme bente in the elbowe, annexed no where to 
the mayne but at the one ende as the arme to the 
shoulder." 

" England was neuer that can bo heard of, fuiiei 
of people than it is at this day, and the dissci'ition 
of abbayes hath done two things of importance 

▼ OL.IV. Q 



82 

heerin : it hath doubled the number of gentlemen 
and mariages, whereh^^ commeth daily more in- 
crease of people; and suche yonger brothers as were 
wonte to be thruste into abbayes, there to line (an 
idle life,) sith that is taken from them, must now 
seeke some other place to liue in; by thys meanes 
there sure many lacke abode, and fewe dwellings 
emptie. 

" With that our lawe, which giueth all to the elder 
brother, furthereth much my purpose; and the ex- 
cessiue expence, bothe in diet and apparell, maketh 
that men, which have but small portions, can not 
maintaine themselues in the emulation of this world, 
with like countenance as the grounded riche can do;* 
thus stand we at home." 

" They shal haue their peculiar portions in that 
frutefuU soile, being but as a bodie to be deuided 
amongs them. And this shall be the quantitie which 
a foote man shall haue, videlicet, a plowe lande, 
which containeth a C and xx acres Irishe, but you 
will understande it better by English measure. A 
plowland shall containe CC and Iv acres of earable 
grounde. Then can there not lie in any country 
almost, (especially so full of bottomes as that soile is) 
so much earable lande together, but there will lie 

♦ The writer afterwards observes that younger brothers will 
<* rather saue than lose, for with lesse expe~ce?, if he haue no horse 
in England, can he not liue for his dyet, than ten pound j if he bee 
a horseman, his horse and hee vnder twentie pound, yet liue he 
tnust whither he spend the time in England or Ireland, and this I am 
sure of, that whatsoeuer hee maye saue of his dyet in a yeerieere 
in England by lying in his freends house, he shal spe'Vi in apparaile : 
for that cuntrie of Ireland requireth rather lasting and warm clothes 
than gorgeous and deere garments." 



85 

also entermingled therewith sloppes, slips, andbot- 
tomes fitte for pasture and meading^ and commodious 
to be annexed to the same plowlande, so that the 
whole may amount to CCC acres in the leaste. | 
pray you tell me, if you had so much good jarrounde 
in Essex, would you not take it for a pretie farrae, 
and yet a horsse man shall haue double, videlicet 
sixe C. acres of ground one with an other at the 
least, wherof there is v. CCCCCx. acres earable, 
the rest medow and pasture, I believe you would 
call that in Essex a good manor, and yet these are 
the least deuisions." 

" There is no doubt but ther will great numbers 
of the husbandmen, which they call churles, come 
and offer to line vnder vs, and to ferme our grounds .• 
both such as are of thecuntry birth, and others, bothe 
out of the wilde Irishe and the Englyshe pale. For 
the churle of Ireland is a very simple and toylesome 
man, desiring nothing but that he may not be eaten 
out with ceasse, coyne, nor liuerie. 

" Coyne and liuerie is this; there will come a 
Kerne or Galliglas, whiche be the Irishe Souldiours, 
to lie in the Churles house; whiles he is there hee 
wil be maister of the house, hee will not onely haue 
meate, but money also allowed him, and at his de- 
parture the beste things he shall see in the Churles 
house, be it linne~ cloth, a shirte, mantil, or such like. 
Thus is the Churle eaten vp, so that if dearth fall in 
the cuntry where he dwelleth, he should be the first 
starued, not beeing maister of his owne." 

The principal arguments adduced by the writer to 
support the feasibility of the plan of peopling the 
Ardes are given in the above extracts. To the work 
o 2 



84 

is annexed the plan of Sir Thomas Smyth and his 
son, as authorised b^^ Queen Elizabeth, which was 
also printed on a broadside, for general distribution, 
in 1572, as follows : 

" The offer and order giuen forthe by Sir Thomas 
Smyth, Knt. and Thomas Smyth his Sonne, vnto 
suche as be willing to accompanie the sayd Thomas 
Smyth the sonne in his voyage for inhabiting some 
partes of the north of Irelande. 

" The Queenes Maiestiee graunt made to Sir Tho- 
mas Smith Knighte,and Thomas Smyth his sonne, in 
Ireland, is all that is hir Maiesties by enherita'ce, or 
other right in the countrey called the Ardes, and 
part of other coun treys adiacent in the Erledom of 
Vlster, so that they csT pbssesse and replenishe 
them with Englishe men. The which thing, that it 
mighte the more surely be done, the said Sir Thomas 
and Thomas his sonne haue bounden themselues to 
hir Highnesse to distribute all the said land within 
the said countreys, which they shal be able to ob* 
laine and possesse, to suche as shall take paines to 
helpetbe" to possesse the same, to haue and holde to 
them and to their heires for euer. 

*^ That is to say, to eche ma who wil serue as a 
soldier on foote, one plowland containing a hundreth 
and twentie acres Irisheof eai*ablelande, for which 
the said Sir Thomas and Thomas must pay to the 
Queues Maiesty two pence Irish for an Irish acre, 
after four and twentie foote to the pole. In consi- 
deration of which rent bi the" to be paid vnto her 
Maiestie, the souldier shall paye for the saide plow- 
lande vnto Syr Thomas Smyth and Thomas, and their 
heires, one penie sterling for euery Englishe acre of 



85 

the said plowland, after the measure of sixtene fote 
and an halfe to the pole, and no more. The first 
paiment to begin foure yeres hence, videlicet, 
1576. 

^' To eche man who will serue on horsebacke two 
plowla'ds, videlicet two hundreth and fortie acres 
Irishe, which is at the leaste fiue hundreth acres and 
more English, paying for euery acre English as the 
footeman dothe. 

'' And the earable lande being deuided, ech foote 
man and horseman shall haue also allotted vnto him 
pasture, medowe, and suche like necessary, as the 
cuntry wil serue, as reasonably as they haue arable 
grounde so that they may therewith be contented. 

'' The charges that is required of a footeman at his 
first settyng forth, if he be furnished of sufficient ar- 
mour, for a pike, halberd or caliuer, with a con- 
uenient liuery cloke of red colour, or carnation with 
black facing, is tenne pounds for his vitayling for one 
whole yeere after his arriual and his transportation : 
after whiche yeere, there is hope to finde prouisyo" 
inough in the cuntrie, which they shal obteine with 
good guidance. 

" The charges of a horsema wel horsed and armed 
for alight horseman wyth a stafFe, and a case of dag- 
ges, is tweniie poundes for vittayle of him and his 
horse for one whole yeere, and for his trsTsportation. 
His liuery had neede be af the colour aforesayd, and 
of the fashyon of the ryding Dutche clokes now 
vsed. 

" And to auoyde the flixe and suche dangerous 
diseases as doth many times chaunce to souldiours by 
reason of lying vpon the ground and vncouered, and 



86 

l3^kewyse to horses for lacke of hales : if anj soul- 
diour footman wil giue before hand ten shillinirs, and 
the horseman twentye shjllin<j^s they shal be lodged 
under ca'uas and vppon beddes, vntill houses may 
be prouided. 

" And if any will beare the charges of a souldyour, 
that cannot go himselfe, nor sende another in his 
roume, he shall haue his part of land allotted to him 
as wel as though he went himself: but then for a 
footman he must pay in ready money xvj pound, xiij. 
8. iiijd. This is one parte. And if any wil haue 
two parts or more, then according to this rate to paye 
the money. The coronell to finde the sayd footman 
or men in al points for the first yere, according as 
the money is receiued. 

" And to the intente that no man willing to ad- 
uenture in this most honorable and profitable voyage 

may doubt hereof, if it please him to resorte to * 

there he shall see both the letters patents and the 
indentures of couenanntes betwixt the Queenes 
Maiestie and the sayd Sir Thomas Smith and Thomas 
Smith, and pay suche money as he is disposed to ad- 
uenture, and receyue his assuraunce from Thomas 
Smith the sonne, who taketh the aduenture and 
voyage vppon him to go in person, orifthesayde 
Thomas bee not there, one of the receyuers of this 
voyage reniayning there, shall do herein as apper- 
te^neth, whom he hath made his deputie in this 
behalfe. 

" Note that all suche kindes of prouision as bee 

* Prcm this hiatus it appears to have been printed previous (;o 
the letters pateut being obtained. 



87 

necessary in this iourney, the Treasourer may re- 
ceiue in lieu of money, accordyng as he shal haue 
neede of such prouision, be already furnished there 
wyth, and accordyng to the place where the sayd 
prouision shal lie, for the commodious transporta- 
tion thereof. 

5 God saue the Queene." 

As an interesting conclusion to this article, is added 
the following account of the establishment made in 
Ireland, a few years after the above period, by the 
city of London. The transcript appears to have 
been made several years since, and came to mj pos- 
session, within these few days, with other manu- 
scripts, belonging to a literary gentleman deceased. 

" Irish Society, 

" In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the province 
of Ulster, in the north of Ireland, had been greatly 
depopulated by the suppression of several insur- 
rections, and, in particular, the city of l>erry and 
town of Colrain were quite ruined. 

" To prevent such insurrections for the future, it 
was thought proper to repeople that part of the 
country with protestant families; and soon after the 
accession of James the First to the throne, that 
Prince, considering this as an affair worthy of his 
attention, signified his pleasure to some of the Alder- 
men and Commoners, by means of several of his 
Privy Council, upon which a Court of Common 
Council was called; and a deputation sent over to 
view the place of the intended plantation. These 
deputies being returned, it was agreed in Dec. 1609^ 



that 150001. should be expended on the plantation, 
and 50001. in the purchase of private interests. 

" Soon after articles of agreement were entered 
into between the Lords of the Privy Council, and a 
Committee chosen by the Lord Mayor and Com- 
monalty of the city, and it was agreed for the better 
managing of the plantation, there should be a com- 
pany constituted in London, to consist of a Go- 
vernor, and twenty-four Assistants, to direct what 
ought to be done on the part of the city, relating to 
the plantation; and in pursuance of this agreement, 
the King by his letters patent, changed the name of 
Derryto that of Londonderry, and incorporated tlie 
Committee nominated by the city, by the name of 
The Society of the Governor and Assistants in Lon- 
don of the new Plantation in Ulster within the realm 
of Ireland, directing that it should consist of a Go- 
vernor, Deputy Governor, and twenty-four Assist- 
ants; whereof the Governor and five of the Assist- 
ants were to be Aldermen, the Recorder for the time 
being to be an Assistant, and the Deputy Governor, 
with the rest of the Assistants, to be Commoners. 
By this charter, the King also granted to the Society, 
and their successors, the city, fort, and town of Lon-r 
donderry, the whole island of Derry, and all the 
castles, towns, villages and lands, in the county of 
Londonderry, particularly mentioned in the charter. 

" The Society now immediately set about rebuild- 
ing Londonderry and Colerain, and improving and 
planting the other parts of the county. And, in 
order to reimburse the twelve principal companies 
and other inferior companies that had contributed to 
the expense of the plantation, the Society divided 



89 

the wholecounty of Londonderry into thirteen parts; 
the first, consistin<2^ of the city of Londond rrv and 
town of Colerain, with some of the adjoining lands, 
and the fisheries, was retained by the Society in their 
own possession, to defray the charge of the general 
work of the plantation, and the surplus was from 
time to time divided among the twelve Companies 
by the Society. 

" The rest of the county being divided into 
twelve parts, as equal in value as possible, the twelve 
Companies drew lots for them, and each Company 
had the part which fell to its share. The Society 
then erected each lot into a manor, and obtained a 
charter of the Crown to convey to each of the Com- 
panies the lands fallen to it, to hold the same in 
perpetuity. 

" King Charles the First, however, ordered his 
Attorney General to prosecute the Society in the 
Star-chamber, under the pretence that the charter 
had been surreptitiously obtained; upon which it 
was cancelled by a decree of that court, and the 
lands seized into the King's hand8 : but the Society 
were reinstated in their possessions by Oliver Crom- 
well, who granted the city a new charter; and 
Charles the Second incorporated the Society anew, 
and the Companies have enjoyed their possessions 

J.H. 



Art. CCLXXI. A lamentable, andpitifull descrip' 
tiouy of the wofull warres in Flaunders, since the 
foure last y cares of the Emperor Charles the Fifth 
his rmgne. With a brief e rehear sail of many things 



90 
done since that season, vntill this present yeare^ and 
death of Don John, Written by Thomas Church- 
yarde, Gentleman, Imprinted at London hy Ralph 
Nevvberie. Anno 1578. 4/o. 42 leaves. 

The Epistle Dedicatory is addressed to Sir 
Frauncis Walsingham, Knight, wherein the author 
says, " had I beautified my boke, with the depe 
iudgeme^ts of my betters, and filled the empty places 
& se~te"'ces voyd of learning, with some borowed 
tearmes & fine translations, as wisely and lernedlie 
some hauedone, n)y ignorance and boldnesse heerein 
so soone had not bin espyed, and I might haue found 
more pillers and proppes to haue susteyned vp from 
falling a long season, my weake and feeble worke- 
manship, and tottering building: but wanting that 
prouision and foresight, and bringing fro the printer 
my booke, I make myselfeand my credite subiecte to 
the worldes reporte, and must desire your honorable 
countenance to the furthering of my good name, 
and liking of my worke. And for that of late you 
were Embassadour in Flaunders, and haue bin long 
acquainted with the causes of that countrey, I haue 
dedicated my paynes heerin to your hands and pro- 
tection, minding, if this be well accepted, (as I doubt 
not but it shall be,) to set forth another worke, 
called, the calamitie of Fraunce, the bloudy broyles 
pf Germany, the persecution of Spayne, the misfor- 
tune of Portingall, the troubles of Scotlande, the 
miserie of Irelande, and the blessed state of Eng- 
land." 

Introductory to tl e work is a long poem of near 
eight pages, which commences; 



^^ Flaundera hewai/les with bitter sorrow the scare af' i 

Jliction of hir state and court' re 1/. ^ 

" The wife, that hath hir husban;! lost, | 

alone may sit and vvaile. 

Whose tears fast trickle dovvnehir cheekes, | 

as thicke as shovvres of hayle. , 
The friend that farre is from his feere, , i 

and wants a faithfiili mate. 

By view of foe, and fraude of world, i 

laments his losse to late. \ 

The lab'ring man, that sees his land \ 

lye waste for wantc of plowe, i 

And cannot well supply his lack, | 

is fraught with sorrow throw. \ 

The sadde and heauie minded wight, 

(of ioy that takes no holde) 

As mirth forsakes the striken breast, J 

hath hart full deade and colde. ! 
The merchaunt whom the pyrate spoyles, 

and in wide world is laft, ^ | 

May blame the wiles of wicked heades, 1 

And cursse their cunning crafte. ; 
The Caplaine which no souldiers bath, 

who lost his force by fight, | 
Doth folde his armes and wrings his handes, 

he sorrowes day and night. ■ 
But none of those compares with me, 

that left am as you know. 

In friendlesse sort with many babes, \ 

like widowe full of woe: \ 

That each man wrongs and few do help, \ 

and in mine ageddayes, i 

And made a pray to people straunge, J 

that plagues me many wayes. 



9i 

I flourisht once in pompc and pride, 

beyonde my neyghbonrs all. 
But when apace came in the tide, 

now floud bcginnes to fall : 
And at lovve water raarke I stand, 

that earst liaue floated stil ; 
My hauen mouth is chokt with sand, 

my loades men iacke the skil. 
To passe the strayghtes, and safely bring 

my barcke to quiet port. 
I^ovv waste and empty lie the tovvncs 

wherein was greate resort. 
And where my nierchauntes trafficke kept, 

now men of warre do flocke. 
And where the gates wide open stoode, 

with barres and double locke. 
Now are they shutte and rammed fast, 

and bulwarkes still we make. 
And ore the vvalles the cannon rores, 

whereat our houses shake." 

Churchyard's narrative must be considered va- 
luable from its embodying historical facts relative 
to transactions in which he was personally concerned. 
Of the English who sought glory in the Flemish 
wars, there are repeated notices, and an enumeration 
of the principal leaders. " Before Pyrsen, was Sir 
William Drufie shotte through the bridle hande by 
a French ma , y'. offered to breake a lance vpo" him, 
who threwe downe his staffe when bee shulde haue 
putte it in the rest, and so discharged hys dagge at 
Sir William Drurie, whych wasaccompted the parte 
of a cowarde." To this anecdote may be added, as 
a specimen of the author's prose, a short relation 



93 

respecting the town of Harlam. " Being a place 
of strength, somewhat by nature thorow tlie mean of 
water (& other causes a fortresse requireth) was 
manned & fucnished with most assured souldiers. 
And as the Duke had greate adoe in many other 
places, and made great armies to besiege them, so at 
the siege of this y\ Duke loste such a number of me", 
as is incredible to be spoke", & would hardly be 
beleeued; for women there were of such courage, as 
was wonderful to beholde ; and one woman tooke a 
miraculous charge vpon hir, which was, to haue the 
leading of men (a matter to be smiled at, but yet of 
troth, and to be credited.) Then if women were so 
stoute, what mighte men of noble hart Sc mind proue? 
forsooth their actes and deedes did shew the" to be 
in courage more than lions, & in worth & valour 
more than a C. M. of the ordinarie sorte of people. 
For some haue been in many seruices, that neuer 
saw y®. like of Harlem souldiers: & men may 
trauel to the very confines of Christendome, & not 
find such people, as were at Harlem (besieged by 
the Spaniardes, a nation in these days, that can 
both besiege a town, & can do much in the field,) 
whiche people had such resolute minds & willing 
bodies to defend & suffer whatsoeuer might happen, 
y*. they seemed to be made & formed, not out of our 
common mould, but wrought and created of some 
speciall substance and workmanship, wherein y% 
glorie of manhood and valiancie was cunningly co - 
prehe'nded. O that my stile were so stately (& 
could carry such life) that I might worthily expresse 
the noblenes of their courages. But I may not praise 
the alone for their corage^ but exalt the" also for 



M 

their policies, and snifera'ce of al misery & aduer* 
sitie«? a lougf spnso~, and in a maner past j^. power of 
nan's weak nature and conditio'^. But alas,y^ while, 
thev were onertake" w'. too much truste in their 
enimies words, & led at length like sheepe to 
3^ slaui^hter : but how I liste not tell you, re- 
ferring y*. iudgment of such like actions, to those 
that haue y . managing of mighty matters, & knowd 
how to co^quere & gouerne. Well, to finishe and 
knitte vppe the scanning and seruices of the famous 
souldionres of Harlem, to the furthest of my abilitie, 
I will honour the bones of all suche warlike people, 
wlieresoeuer I shal finde them, and with perpetuall 
fame ad nance theyr bodyes to the lofty skies." 

At the end " Finis q. Thomas Churchyard;" then 
Bixty-eight lines, commencing, 

" To the Worlde. 
" Go sillie hooke to sHttle worlde. 

And shew, thy simple face. 
An! forwart^ passe, and do not turne 

agayne to my disgrace. 
For thou shall bring to people's eares 

but troth that needes not blush. 
And though MaeJI Bouch giue thee rebuke, 

care not for that a rush. 
For euill tongs do ytch so sore, 

they must be rubbing still 
Against the teeth, that should hold fast 

the clapper of the mill." 

J.H. 



Art. CCLXXII. A Tragkall Historic of the 
troubles and Civile Warres of the Lowe Countries, 



95 

otherwise called Flanders. Wherein is sett fortkt 
the originall and full proceedj/fig of the saied 
troubles, and civile warres, with all the stratagemeSy 
sieges, forcehle taki/nges, and manlike defenses, of 
divers and sondrie cities, tounes, and fortresses of 
the same, together with the barbarous crueltie and 
ti/rannie of the Spaniard, and trecherous Ilis' 
paniolized Wallons, and others of the saied Lowe 
Countries. And there withall, the estate and cause 
of Religion, especialljy from the yere 1559, unto 
the yere 158 1 . Besides many letters, commissions^ 
contractes of peace, unions, articles and agrementes, 
published and proclaimed in the saied Provinces, 
Translated out of Frenche into Englishe, by T. S. 
Gent, Imprinted at London by Jhon Kyngston 
for Tobie Smith, dwelling in Paules Churchyarde^ 
at the signe of the Crane, ito. ff, 211. besides De- 
dication and Epistle. 

The dedication of this translation to Robert 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, is signed " Thomas 
Htocker, London, 15 March, J 583." Stocker ap- 
pears by many various titles in Herbert's Typo- 
graphy to have been a voluminous translator, 
principally of divinity ; and though omitted in the 
index, this work is recorded by him in p. 841. It 
is mentioned also by Tanner, who misdates it 1585, 
and who says Stocker was sprung from a gentilitial 
family ; and names another translation of his, men- 
tioned also by Herbert, entitled " A right noble and 
pleasant History of the Successors of Alexander 
sirnamed the Great, taken out of Diodorus Siculus : 
and some of their lives written by the wise Plutarch : 



m 

translated out of the French into English by Thomas 
Stocker." Printed by H. Troy for H. Binneman. 
Licenced, 1568. 4to. The original of this is dedi- 
cated *' To the high, noble, honourable, and wise 
Lordes, my Lordes of the Estates, the Deputies, 
Presidentes, and Counselles, Burrough maisters, 
Scoutes or Marshalles, Maiors, Bailiefes, and to al 
other officers and ministers of the Provinces what- 
soever, united to the Lowe Countreis : your most 
humble and obedient vassal and subject Theophile, 
wissheth grace, peace, and love from God through 
Jesus Christ his only beloved Sonne our Lord." 
Signed " Theophile. D. L." 

The work is divided into four books. 

I. " The first booke : conteyning the very ori- 
ginall and chiefe beginning of all those troubles, 
and cruell warres, which sithens have ensued." 

IL " The seconde booke: in the beginning 
whereof shall be described and set forth, the In- 
quisition of Spaine, and the execution thereof: and 
next after, howe the banished Princes, Noblemen, 
Gentlemen, and others, assailed the Low Coun- 
tries, both with horsemen and footeraen good store, 
for the recoverie of their enheritances, and goods, 
from which they were driven away by the tyrannie 
ofthe Duke of Alva." 

in. " The thirde booke : wherein shal be set 
downethe second invasion ofthe Nobilitie, Gentle- 
men, and other fugitives, and banished men into the 
same." 

IV. " The fourth booke : wherein shal bee set 
foorth the utter Revolte of all the Lowe Countries, 
and the union of the estates^ with Holland and 



97 

Zealand, and many other tbynges thereon ensur- 
ing." 

The paging of this fourth book commences anew. * 

Art. CCLXXIII. A Conference about the next 
succession to the Crowne of Ingldndy divided intd 
two partes. Whereof the First contei/neth the dis- 
course of a Civill Liawyer^ how and in zchat manner 
propinquit?/ of blood is to be preferred. And the 
Second the speech of a Temporall Lawyer ^ about 
the particuler titles of all such as do or may pretende 
within Inglande, or without, to the next succession, 
Whereunto is also added a new and perfect arbor 
or genealogie of the discents of all the hinges and 
princes of Ingland, from the Conquest unto this 
day, whereby each man's pretence is made more 
plaine. Directed to the Right Honorable the Earle 
of Essex, of her Majestic' s PHvy Councell, and of 
the most noble order of the Garter, Published 
by R. Doleman. Imprinted at N. with Licence, 
1594. Svo. The First Part, pp. 220. The Second 
Part, pp. 267. 

This is a singular book, which 1 believe is scarce, 
but whether scarce or not, is well worth the attention 
of inquisitive minds, as it contains very many ex- 
ceedingly curious historical and genealogical par- 

* There is " A lamentable arid pitlfull Description of the Wofull 
Warres in Flaunders, since the foure last yeares of the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth his raigne. With a briefe rehearsall of many 
things done since that season, until this present yeare, and death of 
Don John. Written by Thomas Churchyarde, Gentleman. Im- 
printed by Ralph Newbery, anno 1578." 4to. Herbert) II. 906. 

YOL.IT. M 



98 

ticulars. The name of Doleman is fictitious, and 
it is understood to have been the production of the 
noted Jesuit, Robert Parsons — at least in cowjunc- 
tion with Cardinal Allen, and Sir Francis Englefield.* 
The doctrines contained in the First Part are most 
grossly seditious and unconstitutional ; and it was 
considered at the time a most heinous publication, 
though the notion prevalent in Wood's time, that it 
was enacted, that any person in whose house it should 
be found, would be deemed guilty of high treason, 
does not seem to have been true. The doctrine of 
cashiering kin^s has been so completely exploded 
in this country by the wisdom of a sound, enlightened^ 
and loyal people, that its exposition serves only to 
excite scorn and indignation. And at ho time could 
such weak positions be less dangerous, than at a 
period when we live under a most virtuous and con- 
stitutional monarch, who by his wisdom and un- 
exampled firmness has shewn himself the father of 
his people,* the anxious supporter of their rights, 
and the defender of their religion and liberties 
against sophistry, corrupt intrigue, servile submis- 
sion, and open and daring threats. 

But so adapted were the contents of the First part 
of this book to the purposes of the King-killers in 
the time of Charles 1. that it was reprinted by Ro- 
bert Ibbotson, living in Smithfield, under this title : 
Several Speeches made at a Conference, or Several 
Speeches delivered at a Conference concerning the 
power of Parliaments to proceed against their King 
for Mis- government, Lond. 1648, ten sheets^ ^to. 
It is said to have been edited by Walker, an iron- 
monger, originally a cowherd, and afterwards in 

♦ Herbert, III. 1725. 



9S 

1649 a presb^'terian minister, wlio wrote The Per- 
fect Occurrences — and to have been prir.ted -^t the 
charge of Parliament, who paid thirty pounds for it. 
What uses were afterwards made of this tract at 
the time of agitating the Exclusion Bill against 
James II. &c. «&c. may be seen in Wood's Athense, 
I. 359, 360. 

The original work was answered by Sir John 
Hayward, L.L.D. Anno 1603, under this title; 
The right of Succession asserted^ 8^c, 



" The Contentes of the First Parte » 

'^ The Preface conteyning the occasion of this 
treatise; with the subject, purpose, and partes 
thereof. 

'' That succession to government by neerness of 
bloode is not by law of nature, or diviqe ; but only 
by human and positive lawes of every particulei* 
common wealth, and consequently may ' upon just 
causes be altered by the same. Cap. i. fol. 1. 

" Of the particuler forme of monarchies and 
kingdomes, and the different lawes whereby they 
are to be obteyned, holden, and governed in divers 
countries according as ech commonwealth had chosen 
and established. Cap. ii. fol. 15. 

" Of the great reverence and respect dew to klngs^ 
and yet how divers of them, have bene lawfully 
chastised by their commonwealthes for their mis- 
government, and of the good and prosperous suocesse 
that God commonly hath given to the same, and 
much more to the putting back of an unworthio 
pretender. Cap. iii. fol. 37. 
u2 



100 

" Wherein consisteth principally the lawfulnes 
of proceeding against Princes, which in the former 
chapter is mentioned, what interest Princes have in 
their subject's goodes or lives ; how othes do bynde 
or may be broken by subjects towardes their Princes : 
and finally the difference between a good King and a 
Tyrant. Cap. iv. fol. 63. 

" Of the coronation of Princes, and manner of their 
admitting to their authority, and the othes which 
they do make in the same, unto the commonwealth, 
for their good government. Cap. v. fol. 82. 

" What is dew to only succession by birth, and 
what interest or right an heyre apparent hath to the 
Growne, before he is crowned, or admitted by the 
commonwealth, and how justly he may be put back, 
if he have not the partes requisite. Cap. vi. fol. 121. 

*' How the next in succession by propinquity of 
bloode, have oftentymes bin put aback by the com- 
monwealth, and others further admitted in their 
places, even in those kingdomes where succession 
prevaileth, with many examples of the kingdomes of 
Israel and Spayne. Cap. vii. fol. 140. 

*' Of divers other examples out of the states of 
France and Ingland, for proofe that the next in 
blood are sometymes put back from succession, and 
how God hath approved the same with good sue- 
cesse. Cap. viii. fol. 164. 

" What are the principall points which a com- 
monwealth ought to respect in admitting or ex- 
cluding any Prince ; wherin is handled largely also of 
the diversitie of religions, and other such causes. 
Cap. ix. fol. 197 " 



101 



^' The Contents of the Second Booke, 

" The Preface with the intention and protestation 
of the Lawyer to treat this matter without the hurt 
or prejudice of any. 

" Of divers bookes and treatises that have bin in 
writing heretofore about the titles of such as pre- 
tende the crowne of Ingland, and what they do 
conteyne in favour or disfavour of divers pretendors. 
Cap. i. fol.l. 

" Of the succession of the Crowne of Ingland 
from the Conquest unto the tyme of King Edward 
the Third, with the beginning of three principal 
linages of the Inglish blood royal, dispersed into the 
houses of Britanie, Lancaster, and Yorke. Cap. ii. 
fol. 12. 

" Of the succession of Inglish Kings from King 
Edward the Third unto our dayes, with the parti- 
culier causes of dissention betweene the families of 
Yorke and Lancaster more largely declared. Cap. 
iii. fol. 37. 

" Of the great and general controversie and con- 
tention betweene the said two houses royal of 
Lancaster and Yorke, and which of them may seem 
to have had the better rights to the Crowne, by way 
of succession. Cap. iv. fol. 56. 

" Of five principal and particuler houses or linages, 
that do or may pretende the Crowne of Ingland at 
this day, which are the houses of Scotland, of Suf- 
folck, of Clarence, of Britanie, and of Portugal ; ard 
first of al the house of Scotland, which conteyneth 
the pretensions of the King of Scotts, and of the lady 
Arbella. Cap. v. fol. 107. 



103 

^^ Of the house of Siiffolke, contejning the clay mes 
asvvel of the Countesse of Darby and of her children, 
as also of the children of the Earle of Hartfort. Cap. 
vi. fol. 130. 

" Of the houses of Clarence and Britany, whicli 
conteyneth the claymes of the Earle of Huntington, 
and of the Lady Infanta of Spayne, and others of 
these two families. Cap. vii. fol. 14.J. 

'' Of the house of Portugal], which conteyneth the 
iclay mesas well of the King and Prince of Spayne to 
the succession of Ingland, as also of the Duke of 
Parma and Braganza by the house of Lancaster, 
Cap. viii. fol. 160. 

^' Whether it be better to be under a forraine or 
Jiome-borne prince, and whether under a great and 
mightie Monarch, or under a little Prince or King, 
Cap. ix. fol. 193. 

" Of certayne other secondary or collateral lines, 
and how extremely doubtfull al the pretences be, 
and which of all thease pretenders are most like by 
probability to prevaile in the end, and to get the 
crowne of Ingland. Cap. ix. fol. 2S3." 



Questions of descent and of the rights of inherit'- 
ance are considered by different tastes with such 
various degrees of interest or dislike, that it is 
difficult to find a subject less generally popular." For 
this reason I have hesitated, whether I should pro-r 
produce the chapter which I am about to transcribe. 
Some will think it dull and insignificant; some will 
laugh at the empty vanity of birth; and some will 
be angry, because they will conceive that it touches 
ppop their owp pretensions. 



lOS 

In this strangely- mingled constitution, in which 
aristocracy and commercial wealth are continually 
struggling for the mastery ; in which the greatest 
families have been frequently degraded, and thrown 
back among the hum])lest stations of society to 
struggle with poverty, contempt, and oppression, till 
their birthrights have been forgotten, or denied and 
overwhelmed, while persons immediately sprung 
from the lowest dregs of the people have risen by 
sudden and meanly obtained wealth to the highest 
honours, and the alliance with princes, any con- 
sistency of judgment on these subjects will be sought 
in vain. Many put too great, and many too little 
value on such an adventitious distinction. But among 
those, who estimate it too highly, envy and jealousy 
prompt no small number to tear away the laurels 
from others, to which they cannot make pretensions 
themselves. 

Of admitted pedigrees it is difficult to extract from 
the incongruous remarks we hear, what it is, which 
is deemed most worthy of notice and fame. Some 
fix on wealth, some on titles, some on preferments 
and places ; some on active life, and some on an 
independent and dignified retreat ; some on talents ; 
and some on virtue. Which ever of all these be 
chosen as the ground of pretensions, ill-temper and 
ingenuity always set some of the others in opposition 
to it, with the hope of reducing it below themselves. 

The world however admit with doubt and dislike 
any of these claims. To " make the past predo- 
minate over the present," is a kind of intellectua 1 
effort not suited to the gross capacities of the mob. 
A splendid equipage, a luxurious table,' proud U- 



104 

veries, and a gorgeous coronet, they can feel and 
worship in a cut-throat Nabob, or swindling con- 
tractor, though they remember them once drudging 
in the meanest occupations. But the descendants 
of princes and kings, who have ruled kingdoms by 
their talents, and filled the globe with their heroism, 
are mean and insignificant in their eyes, if they have 
not themselves commanding estates, and are not 
placed in seats of rank and power, even though they 
should possess brilliant genius, and talents which 
have never come into active employment only be^ 
cause they may be too high for it ! 

Whether any one is wise in laying any stress 
whatevei; on the distinctions of birth is a fair 
question. For my own part, I am inclined to think 
upon -the whole, that it is inconsistent with a sound 
wisdom to regard it. The major part of those, who 
have exhibited the most sublime and admirable of all 
human qualities have been men of the lowest ex- 
traction. Such were Virgil, (if not Homer) Horace, 
Shakspeare, Chatterton, Burns, and Kirke White. 
Nor had Spenser, Milton, Cowley, Pope or Gray, 
any pretensions to superior birth. On the contrary, 
many families which have for ages been in possession 
of honours, wealth, and power, have not in the long 
track of centuries produced one man conspicuous for 
abilities, or energy ; or even eminent for private 
virtues. To such families pedigree is a disgrace : 
it only furnishes a light to exhibit their defects and 
Jheir baseness more conspicuously. 

It is not to be supposed, that every member of 
a numerous race will have either eminent talents, 
pr a good disposition. Nor can those, who o^-j 



105 

casionally fall below the standard of their alliances, 
be permitted to throw a cloud over a whole house. 
But among those, who think birth a circumstance 
of high value, there is another question, and a very 
idle one, often agitated. It is contended by many 
that the honours of birth are confined to the male 
line! Sir William Blackstone, who was himself a 
man of no eminent origin, wished to annihilate at 
once the distinctions of descent, by shewing how 
small a portion of blood of any owe ancestor an indi- 
vidual possesses after a few generations. He ap- 
plied this, if I recollect, to the case of kinship to 
Archbishop Chichely, who founded All Soul's Col- 
lege with a preference, as to fellowships, to his own 
relations. But if this argument be admitted, where 
is it to stop ? What is the precise quantum of blood, 
at which it shall be deemed that affinity is worn out? 
In truth such an argument leads to the most gross 
iabsurdity, and is very unbecoming so sound a mind 
as Blackstone's ! The male line will always neces- 
sarily have the advantage in point of credit with the 
world, because the name is itself a perpet jal indi- 
cation of the descent. It may be more rationally 
questioned how far a low and unequal alliance coun- 
teracts the honour: — to which, however, it may 
be replied, that it leaves the proportion, in right of 
which the distinction is claimed, unaltered. And, in 
truth, in this country of mixed ranks, such an objec- 
tion would at once annihilate the honours of almost 
all the most ancient and powerful families remaining 
in this country ; such as Howard, Seymour, Courtnay, 
Talbot, Percy, Cecil, Compton, Mordaunt, Stan* 
Jjope, Berkeley, Neville, Di^by, Pelham, Devereux, 



106 

St. John, De Spenser, De Clifford, Audlej, Argyle, 
Hastings, Lytielton, and Bertie. 

It is well known how often the regal blood of our 
present rojal family has changed the male line — 
from Plantagenet to Tudor, thence to Stuart, and 
again to another branch of Stuart — and thence to 
that of the Elector Palatine, before it came to the 
House of Brunswick. Yet surely his Majesty does 
not less partake of the rights and honours derived 
from the blood of Hen. VII. and Elizabeth of 
York, than if his descent had been confined to the 
male line. 



I will now transcribe the account of the House of 
Suffolk. 
*' Of the House of Suffolk^ contei/ning the claywes of 

the Countesse of Darby and her children, as also 

of the children of the Earle of Hartford. 

" It hath appeared by the genealogie set downe 
before in the third chapter, and oflentymes mentioned 
since, how that the house of Suffolk is so called, for 
that the Lady Mary second daughter of King Henry 
the Seventh, being first married to Lewis XIL King 
of France,* was afterwards married to Charles 
Brandon Duke of Suffolke, who being sent over to 
condole the death of the said King, got the good will 
to marryt the widow Queene, though the common 
ferae of al men was, that the said Charles had a wife 
lyving at that day, and divers yeares after, as in this 
chapter we shal examine more in particuler. 

•* She vas married Oct. 9, 1514; and King Lewis died Jan. 1, 1515^ 
apt. 53. 

f This mayrriage took place in 1517. 



107 

<< By this Charles Brandon then Duke of Suffolk, 
this Queene Mary of France had two daughters, first 
the Lady Francis, married to Syr Henry Gray Mar- 
ques Dorset, and afterward in the right of his wife, 
Duke also of Suffolke, who was afterward be-hed- 
ded by Queene Mary,* and secondly Lady Lienor 
married to Syr Henry Clifford Earle of Cumberland. 

" The Lady Frances, elder daughter of the 
Queene, and of Charles Brandon, had issue by her 
husband the said last Duke of Suffolke, three daugh- 
ters, to wit, Jane, Catherine, and Mary, which 
Mary the youngest was betrothed first to Arthur 
Lord Gray of Wilton, and after lefte by hym, she 
was marryed to one M, Martin Keyes of Kent, Gen- 
tleman Porter of the Queene's Housholde, and after 
she dyed without issue.+ 

" And the Lady Jane the eldest of the three sisters 
was married at the same tyme to the Lord Guylford 
Dudley, fourth sonne to Syr John Dudley Duke of 
Northumberland, and was proclaymed Queene after 
the death of King Edward, for which acte al three 
of them, to wit, both the father, sonne, and daugh- 
ter-in-law, were put to death soone after. 

" But the Lady Catherin the second daughter, was 
married first uppon the same day that the other two 
her sisters were, unto Lord Henry Herbert now 
Earle of Pembroke, and uppon the fal and misery of 
her house, she was left by him, and so she lived a sole 
woman for divers yeares, until in the begining of 
this Queene's dayes, she was found to be with child; 

* He was beheaded Feb. 23, 1554. The Ij)uchess remarried Adrian 
Stokes, Esq. She has a monument in Westminster Abbey, 
f She was deformed. 



108 

which she afRrmed to be by the Lord Edward Sey- 
mour Earle of Hartford who at that tyrae was in 
France, with Syr Nicholas Tlirogmorton the Em- 
bassador, and had purpose and licence to have tra- 
vailed into Italie ; but being called home in haste 
uppon this new accident, he confessed that the child 
was his, and both he and the Lady affirmed that they 
were man and wife; but for that they could not prove 
it by witnesses, and for attempting such a match 
with one of the blood royal, without privity and 
license of the Prince, they were committed both of 
them to the Tower, where they procured meanes to 
meete againe afterward, and have another childe, 
which both children do yet live, and the elder of 
them is called Lord Henry Beacham, and the other 
Edward Seymer;* the mother of whom lived not 
long after, neither married the Earle againe, until 
of late that he married the Lady Francis Howard, 
sister to the Lady Sheffield ; and this is all the issue 
of the elder daughter of Charles Brandon, by Lady 
Mary Queene of France. t 

" The second daughter of Duke Charles, and the 
Queene, named L. Elenor, was married to Henry 
Lord Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, and had by him 
a daughter named Margaret, that married J Syr 

' This Edward was afterwards Lord Beauchamp ; he was bom 
about 1563, and died in August 1618, in his father's lifetime, leaving 
issue by Honora, second daughter of Sir Richard Rogers of Biian- 
stone, in Dorsetshire, 1. Edward Lord Beauchamp, who died in his 
grandfather's life without issue. 2. William Lord Beauchamp^ 
afterwards Marquis of Hertford, &c. 3. Sir Francis Seymour, aa- 
eester of Charles, the proud Duke. 

t This Earl of Hertford survived till April 1, 1621. 

J Viz. Feb. 7, 1550. 



109 

Henry Stanley, Lord Strange, and after Earle of 
Darby,* by whom the said Lady + (who yet liveth) 
hath had issue Fernande Stanley, now Earle pf 
Darby,:}: William § and Francis Stanley, and this is 
the issue of the house of SufFolke, to wit, this Coun- 
tesse of Darby, with her children, and these other of 
the Earle of Hartford; of al whose claymes and ti- 
tles with their impediments, I shal here briefly give 
accompt and reason. 

" First of al, both of these families do joyne toge- 
gether in this one pointe to exclude the house of 
Scotland both by foraine birth, and by the foresaid 
testament of King Henry, authorized by two Parlia- 
ments, and by the other exclusions which in each of 
the titles of the King of Scots and of Lady Arabella 
hath ben before alleaged. But then secondly they 
come to vary bfetweene themselves, about the priority 
or propinquitie of their owne succession, for the 
children of the Earle of Hertford, and their frendes 
do alleage, that they do discend of Lady Francis the 
elder sister of Lady Lienor, and so by law and rea- 
son are to be preferred ; but the other house alleageth 
against this, two impediments, the one, that the 

* He died Sept. 25, 1594. 

f She outlived her husband three years, djnng Sept. 29, 1596, 
aged 56. 

JDiedbeforehismother, April 16, 1594. This Earl Ferdinando 
left three daughters his coheirs — 1. Lady Anne, wife of Grey Bruges 
Lord Chandos, and afterwards of Mervin Earl of Castlehaven, in 
1624, and died 1647 — 2. Lady Frances married John Egerton, first 
Earl of Bridgewater, and died March 11, 1635—3. Lady Elizabeth 
Hiarried Henry Hastings Earl of Huntingdon, and died Jan. 20, 
1632. 

§ Succeeded his brother as Earl of Derby, and died Sept. 29, 1642. 



110 

Lady Margaret, Countesse of Darby, now lyving^, 
is neerer by one degree to the stemrae, that is, to 
King Henry the Seventh, then are the children of 
the Earle of Hartford, and, consequently, according 
to that which in the former fourth chapter hath bin 
declared, she is to be preferred, albeit the children 
of the said Earle were legitimate. 

" Secondly they do affirme that the said children 
of the Earle of Hartford by the Lady Catherin Gray, 
many waies are illegitimate. First for that the said 
Lady Catherin Gray their mother was lawfully mar- 
ried before to the Earle of Pembrok now living, as 
hath bin touched, and publike recordes do testifie, 
and not lawfully seperated, nor by lawful authority, 
nor for just causes, but only for temporal and worldly 
respects, for that the house of Suffolk was come into 
misery and disgrace, wherby she remayned stil his 
true wife in deede and before God, and so could have 
no lawful children by an other, while he lived, as yet 
he doth. 

" Agayne they prove the illegitiraation of these 
children of the Earle of Hartford, for that it could 
never be lawfully proved that the said Earle and the 
Lady Catherin were married, but only by their owne 
assertions, which inlaw is not holden sufficient, for 
■which occasion the said pretended marriage was dis- 
anuUed in the Court of Arches, by publique and de- 
finitive sentence, of Dr. Parker, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and Pry mate of lngland,not long after 
the birth of the said children. 

^' Further-more they do add yet another bastardy 
also, in the birth of Lady Catherin herselfe, for that 
her father Lord Henry Gray Marquis of Dorset wa» 



Ill 

knowne to have a lawful wife alive when he married 
the Lady Francis, daughter and hey re of the Queene 
of Fraunce, and of Charles Brandon Duke ofSuf- 
folke, and mother of this Lady Catherin, forobteyn- 
ing of which great marriage, the said Marques put 
away his foresaid lawful wife, which was sister to the 
Lord Henry Fytzallen Earle of Arondel, which 
disorder was occasion of much unkindness and hatred 
betweene the said Marquis and Earle ever after. 
But the power of the Marquis and favour with King 
Henry in women's matters, was so great at that tyme, 
as the Earle could have no remedie, but only that his 
said sister, who lived many yeares after, had an an- 
nuitye out of the said Marquis lands during her life, 
and lived some yeares after the said Marquis (after- 
wards made Duke) was put to death in Queene 
Marie's tyme. 

" These then are three waies by which the family 
of Darby do argue the issue of Hartford to be ille- 
gitimate. But the other two houses of Scotland and 
Clarence do urge a former bastardy also that is com- 
mon to them both, to wit, both against the Lady 
Frances, and the Lady Eleanor ; for that the Lord 
Charles Brandon also Duke of Suffolk had a wife 
alive, as before hath bin signified, when he married 
the Lady Mary Queene of France, by which former 
wife he had issue the Lady Powyse (I meane the wife 
of my Lord Powyse of Poystlandes in Wales) and 
how long after the new marriage of her husband 
Charles Brandon this former wife did live, I cannot 
set downe distinctly, though 1 think it were not hard 
to take particular information therof in Ingland, by 
the register of the church wherein she was buried; 



lis 

but the frendes of the Countesse of Darby do affirme, 
that she died before the birth of Lady Eleanor the 
second daughter; though after the birthe of Lady 
Frances; and thereby they do seeke to cleere the fa- 
milie of Darby of this bastardye, and to lay al fourei 
uppon the children of Hartford before mentioned; 
but this is easy to be known and verified by the 
meanes before signified. 

^' But now the frendes of Hartford do answere to 
al these bastardies, that for the first two pretended by 
the marriages of the two Dukes of Suffolk, they saye 
that either the causes might be such, as their devorces 
with their former wives might be lawful, and prove 
them no marriages, and so give them place to marry 
againe, or els that the said former wives dyd dye be- 
fore these Dukes that had bin their husbands, so as 
by a post-contract and second new consent, given 
betweene the parties when they were now free, the 
said later marriages which were not good at the be- 
ginning, might come to be lawful afterwards, accord- 
ing as the law permitteth, notwithstanding that chil- 
dren begotten in such pretended marriages where 
one partye is alredy bounde, are not made legitimat, 
by subsequent trew marriage of their parentes ; and 
this for the first two bastardies. 

" But as for the third illegitimation of the contract 
betweene the Lady Catherin and the Earle of Hart- 
/ord, by reason of a precontract made betweene the 
said Lady Catherin and the Earle of Pembroke, that 
now liveth, they saye and affirme, that precontract 
to have bin dissolved afterward lawfully and judi- 
cially, in the tyme of Queene Mary. 

" There remayneth then only the fourth objection, 



lis 

about the secret marriage made betweene the said 
Lady Catherin and the Earle of Hartford, before the 
birth of their eldest sonne, now called Lord Beacham, 
which, to say the truth, seemeth the hardest pointe 
to be answered; for albeit in the sight of God that 
marriage might be good and lawful, if before their 
carnal knowledge they gave mutual consent the one 
to the other, to be man and wife, and with that 
mynde and intention had carnal copulation, which 
thing is also allowed by the late councel of Trent 
itselfe, which disanulleth otherwise al clandestine 
and secret contracts in such states and countries, 
wher the authoritie of the said councel is receaved, 
and admitted; yet to justifie these kinde of mar- 
riages in the face of the church, and to make the 
issue therof legitimate and inheritable to estates and 
possessions, it is necessary by al law, and in al 
nations, that there should be some witnes to testifie 
this consent and contract of the parties before their 
carnal knowlege : for that otherwise it should lye 
in every particuler man's hand, to legitimate any 
bastard of his, by his only woord, to the prejudice of 
others that might in equitie of succession pretend to 
be his heyres, and therfore (no doubt) but that the 
Archbishop of Canterbury had great reason to pro- 
nounce this contract of the Lady Catherin, and the 
Earle of Hartford, to be insufficient and unlawful, 
though themselves did affirme that they had given 
mutual consent before, of being man and wife, and 
that they came together, animo maritali, as the law 
of wedlock requireth ; but yet for that they were not 
able to prove their said former consent by lawful wit- 
nesses, their saide conjunction was rightly pro- 

VOL. IV. I 



114 

nounced unlawful ; and so I conclude that tlie first 
Sonne of these two parties might be legitimate before 
God; and yet illegitimate before men; and conse- 
quently incapable of al such succession, as otherwise 
he might pretend by his said mother. 

" And this now is for the first begotten of these 
two persons; for as touching the second childe, be- 
gotten in the Tower of London, divers learned men 
are of opinion that he may be freed of this bastardy, 
for that both the Earle and the Lady, being examined 
uppon the first child, did confesse and affirme that 
they were man and wife, and that they had meaning 
so to be and to continew, which confession is thought 
to be sufficient, both for ratifying of their old con- 
tract, and also for making of a new, yf the other had 
not been made before. And seeing that in the other 
former pretended contract and marriage, there 
wanted nothing for justify'ing the same before men, 
and for making it good in law, but only external tes- 
timony of witnesses, for proving that they gave 
such mutual consent of myndes before their carnal 
knowlege (for the presence of priest or minister is 
not absolutely necessary) no man can say that there 
wanted witnesses for testifying of this consent, before 
the second copulation, by which was begotten their 
second sonne ; for that both the Queene herselfe and 
her counsel, and as many besides as examined these 
parties uppon their first acte and child birth are wit- 
nesses unto them that they gave their ful consents 
and approbations, to be man and wife, which they 
ratified afterward in the Tower by the begetting of 
their second child; and so for the reasons aforesaid, 
he must needs seeme to be legitimate, whatsoever 



115 

my Lord of Canterbury for (hat tyme, or in respect 
of the great offence taken by the estate against that 
act, did or myght determine to the contrary. 

" And this is the sorame of that which is commonly 
treated, about these two families of the House of 
Suffolk, to wit of Hartford and Darby, both which 
families of Suffolke, the other two opposite houses of 
Scotland and Clarence, do seeke to exclude by the 
first bastardy, or unlawful contract betweene the 
Queene of France, and Charles Brandon, as hath 
bin seene : of which bastardye the House of Darby 
doth indevour to avoide itself in manner as before 
hath bin declared; and preferreth itselfe in degree 
of propinquity not only before the foresaid two 
Houses of Scotland and Clarence, but also before 
this other part of the House of Suffolke; I meane the 
familie of Hartford, though descended of the elder 
daughter; for that the Countesse of Darby doth holde 
herselfe one degree neerer in discent, than are the 
other pretenders of Hartford as hath bin shewed. 
And albeit there want not many objections and rea- 
sons of some, besides that which I have touched 
before, yet for that they are for the most part per- 
sonal impediments, and do not touch the right or 
substance of the title, or any other important reason 
of state concerning the common wealth, but only the 
mislike of the persons that pretende, and of their 
life and government, I shall omit them in this place; 
fpr that as in the beginning I promised, so shal I 
observe as much as lieth in me, to utter nothing in 
this conference of ours, that may justly offend, and 
much lesse touche the honor or reputation of any one 
person of the bloode royal of our realme. When the 
I 9 



116 

tyme of admitting or excluding cometh, thenwil the 
realme consider as wel of their persons as of their 
rightes, and wil se what accompt and satisfaction 
ech person hath given of his former life and doings, 
and according to that wil proceede, as is to be sup- 
posed : but to me in this place, it shal be enough to 
treat of the first pointe, which is of the right and in- 
terest pretended by way of succession ; and so with 
this I shal make an ende of these families and passe 
over to others, that yet do remayne." 

Extract from Chap, V, 

Among many other objections to the title of the 
Lady Arabella, the last is as follows: " Another 
consideration of these men is, that if this Lady 
should be advanced unto the crowne, though she be 
of noble blood by her father's side, yet in respect of 
alliance with the nobility of Ingland shee is a meere 
strainger, for that her kyndred is only in Scotland, 
and in Ingland shee hath only the Candishes by her 
mother's side, who being but a meane familie might 
cause much grudging among the Inglish nobilitie, to 
see them so greatly advanced above the rest, as rte- 
cessarily they must be, yf this woman of their linage 
should come to be Queene ; which how the nobility 
of Ingland would beare is hard to say ; and this is as 
much as I have heard others say of this matter and of 
al the house of Scotland: wherfore with this I shal 
end, and passe over to treat also of the other houses 
that do remayne of such as I before named." 

Extracts from Chapter X, 

" In the House of SufFolke the Lord Beacham and 
theEarle of Darby have the difference of titles that 



117 

before hath bin seene, and each one his particuler 
reasons why he ought to be preferred before the 
other, and for their other abilities and possibilities^ 
they are also different, but yet in one thing both 
Lords seeme to be like, that being both of the blood 
royal they are thought to have abased themselves 
much by their marriages with the two Knightes 
daughters. Sir Richard Rogers, and Sir John 
Spenser,* though otherwise both of them very wor- 
shipful, but not their matches in respect of their kin- 
dred with the crowne : yet doth the alliance of Sir 
John Spenser seeme to bring many more frends with 
it then that of Sir Richard Rogers, by reason of the 
other daughters of Sir John, wel married also to 
persons of importance, as namely the one to Sir 
George Carey, Governour of the Isle of Wight 
who bringeth in also the Lord Hunsdon his father, 
captaine of Barwick, two of the most important 
peeces that Ingland hath. 

'' And for that the said Lord Hunsdon and the 
Lady Knowles disceased, were brother and sister, 
and both of them children to the Lady Mary Bullen, 
elder sister to Queen Anne, hereof it cometh, that 
this alliance with Sir George Carey, may draw after 
it also the said House of Knowles, who are many and 
of much importance, as also it may do the husbandes 
of the other daughters of Sir John Spencer, with 
their adherents and followers, which are neither 
few, nor feeble, al which wanteth in the marriage 
of the Lord Beacham. 



* Sir John Spencer of Althorp, ancestor to the present great fami- 
lies of Marlborough and SpenCer. This was the famous Alice 
Countess of Derbv. 



118 

" An other difference also in the ability of these 
two Lords is, that the House of Seymers in state and 
title of nobility is much yonger then the House of 
Stanleys, for that Edward Seymer late Earle of 
Hartford, and after Duke of Somerset, was the first 
beginner thereof, who being cut off together with 
his brother the Admiral, so soone as they were, 
could not so settle the said House, especially in the 
alliance with the residue of the nobilitie, as other- 
wise they would and might have done. But now as 
it remayneth, I do not remember any allyance of 
that house, of any great moment, unless it be the 
children of Sir Henry Seiiner of Hampshire, and of 
Sir Edward Seymer* of Bery Pomery, in Devon- 
shire, if he have any, and of Sir John Smith of 
Essex, whose mother was sister to the late Duke of 
Somerset; or finally the alliance that the late mar- 
riage of the Earle of Hartford with the Lady 
Frances Howard, nriay bring with it, which cannot 
be much, for so great a purpose as we talke of 

" But the Earle of Darby on the other side is very 
strongly and honorably allied, both by father and 
mother, for by his father, not to speake of the Stan- 
leys, (which are many and of good power, and one 
of them matched in the House of Northumberland,+) 
his said father, the old Earle, had three sisters, wel 
married, and al have left children, and heyres of the 

* Ancestor to the present Duke of Somerset. 

f Sir Edward Stanley of Tonge Castle in Shropshire, son of Sir 
Thomas Stanley, second son of Edwaid third Earl of Derby, married 
Lady Lucy Percy, daughter and coheir of Thomas seventh Earl of 
Northumberland J he died 1632.. The famous Lady Venetia Digby 
was his daughter. 



119 

houses, wherein they were married; for the elder 
was married, first to the Lord Sturton,* after to Sir 
John'Arundel,f and of both Houses hath left heyres 
male. The seconde sister was married to the Lord 
Morley, by whom she hath left the Lord that now is, 
who in lyke manner hath matched with the heyre of 
the Lord Montegle who is likewise a Stanley. And 
finally the third sister was married to Sir Nicholas 
Poynes of Glocestershire, and by him had a sonne 
and heyre that yet liveth.;}: And this by the father's 
side; but no lesser alliance hath this Earle also by 
the side of his mother, who being daughter of George" 
lHenri/2 '' Clifford Earle of Cumberland, by Lady 
Eleanor neece of King Henry the Seventh, the said 
Lord George" [^Henri/'] " had afterward by a se- 
cond wife, that was daughter of Lord Dacre of the 
North, both the Earle of Cumberland that now is, 
and the Lady Wharton, who are hereby brother and 
sister of the halfe blood, to the said Countesse of 
Darby, and the Dacres are their uncles.§ 

" Besides al this, the states and possessions of the 
two forsaide Lordes, are far diffrent, for the pur- 
posse pretended; for that the state ofthe Earle of 
Hartford is far inferior, both for greatnes, situation, 

* Charles Lord Stourton, memorable for his unhappy exit at Sa- 
lisbury, March 16, 1557. 

f Of Lanherne in Cornwall. 
+ This match is not mentioned in the Peerages, which mention 
Mary married to Edward Lord Stafford ; and Jane to Edward Lord 
Dudley. ^ 

§ It must be observed that Sir James Stanley, ancestor of the 
present Earl of Derby, branched off in 1497, before these alliances 
took place. 



120 

wealth, multitude of subjects, and the like : for of 
that ofthe Stanleys, doth depend the most part of thfe 
shires of Lancaster and Chester; and a p^oode parte 
of the north of Wales, (at least wise by way of ob- 
servance and affection) as also the Isle of Man, is 
their owne ; and Ireland and Scotland is not far off^, 
where friendship perhaps in such a case might be 
offered, and finally in this poynte of abillity great 
oddes is there seene betweene these Lordes. 

" As for their religion, I cannot determyne what 
difference there is, or may be betweene them. The 
Lord Beacham is presumed to be a protestant, albeit 
some hold that his father, and father-in-law be more 
inclined towards the Puritans. The Earle of Darbyes 
religion is held to be more doubtful, so as some do 
think him to be ofal three religions, and others of 
none; and these a gay ne are devided in judgments, 
about the event heerof, for thai some do imagine that 
this opinion of him may do him goode, for that al 
sides heerby may perhapps conceave hope of him, 
but others do persuade themselves that it wil do him 
hurt, for that no side in deede will esteeme or trust 
him, so as al matters with their events and conse- 
quences do reniayne* uncertaine."f 

♦ Robertson mentions this book. ** The Catholics," says he, 
" who were in exile, advanced the claim of the Infanta of Spain ; 
and Parsons the Jesuit published a book, in which by false quotations 
from history, by fabulous genealojries, and absurd arguments, 
intermingled with bitter invectives against the Kingof SCots, be en- 
deavoured to prove the Infanta's title to the English crowne to be 
preferable to King James's," &c. 

f While this article was transcribing, the following appeared in 
the Gazette. 



121 



Art. CCLXXIV. A Disconerye of a Counterfecte 
Conference helde at a counterfecte place j hy counter * 
fecte tra'oellers, for the advancement of a counter- 
fecte tytle, and invented^ printed, and published hy 
one (Person) that dare not avowe his name. 
Printed at Collen 1600. Small Sijo. pp, 96, 

This, which is ati Answer to Parsons* s book en- 
titled Doleman's Conference, of which a full account 

" Whitehall, January 22, 1808. 
" TTie King, taking into his royal consideration that upon the 
death of Francis, late Duke of Bridgewater, without issue of his 
body, the title of Earl of Bridgewater is devolved upon John Wil- 
liam now Earl of Bridgewater, as son and heir of the late Right 
Reverend Father in God John Egerton, Lord Bishop of Durham, and 
great grandson ani heir male of the body of Johu Earl of Bridge- 
water, grandfather of the said Duke, and by the ordinary rules of 
honour the younger brother and sister of the said E a rl^can not enjoy- 
that place and precedency, which would have been due to them in 
case the said title and dignity had descended to him from his fa- 
ther; and a'so considering that the said Earl is now heir male of 
the body of Sir John Egerton, Knt. created Earl of Bridgewater by 
King James the First, in the fifteenth year of his reign, and of the 
said Earl's wife Fcances Stanley, (commonly called Lady Frances 
Stanley,) one oftlie daughters and coheirs of Ferdinando Stanley, 
Earl of Derl^y, son and heir of Henry Stanley, Earl of Derby, and 
of his wife Margaret Clifford, (commonly called Lady Margaret 
Cliftbril,) daughtt^r and only cliild of Henry Clifford, Earl of Cum- 
berland, by bis first wife Eleanor Brandon (commonly called Lady 
Eleanor Brandon,) who was daughter and coheir of Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk, and of his wife the Princess Mary, younger 
daughter of King Henry the Se nth, and Dowager Queen of 
France ; and that through his deceased mother Anna Sophia Grey, 
(commonly called Lady Anna Sophia Grey), he is grandson, and 
younger coheir of Henty Grey, late Duke and Earl of Kent, who 
was heir male of the body of Sir Edmond Grey, created Earl of Kent 
in the fifth year o| King Edward the Fourth, which Sir Edmond 



129 

has already been given in this work, is said to be so 
excessive!}^ rare as to be almost unique. 
The following is the Preface. * 

" To the Auctor of the Counterfaicte Conference^ S^c, 
' " It were as easy for me, yf 1 would, to discover 
your name with assured proofes, as to detect the 
devises and driftes of your counterfeat conference 
made at Amsterdam, but since as it seameth you are 
ashamed to justify the same with your name, I am 
not he that will publishe it, because it might be 
thought by somme, that are redye to interpret things 
to the worst, that hatred might induce me there- 
unto : that which I desire chefely to be effected by 
this discourse, next to the inconvenience that might 
generally have growen by your fraude and desceit 

Grey Earl of Kent, was son and heir of Sir John Grey and of his 
wife Constance Holland, (comiiionly called Lady CoD«;tance Hol- 
land,) whose father, Sir John Holland, Duke of Exeter and Earl of 
Huntingdon, was son and heir male of the body of Lady Joan 
Plantagenet, daughter of King Edward the First's youngest son, 
Edward Plantagenet of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, and whose mo- 
ther. Lady Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of King Edward the 
Third's son, John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, and of his first 
wife, Lady Blanch Plantagenet, daughter and heir of Henry Plan- 
tagenet, Duke of Lancaster, who was grandson and heir of King 
Henry the Third's second son, Edmond Plantagenet, Earl of Lan- 
caster, has been graciously pleased to ordain and declare, that 
Francis Henry Egerton, only younger brother, and Dame Amelia 
Hume, wife of Sir Abraham Hume, Bart, only sister of the said 
Earl, shall from henceforth have, hold, and enjoy the same titles, 
place, pre-eminence, and precedence, as Jf their said father John 
late Lord Bishop of Durham had survived his said cousin Francis 
late Duke of Bridgewater : and also to order, that this his Ma- 
jesty's concession and declaration be recorded in his College of 
Arms." 



123 

undesciphered, is that you would looke upon your 
ignorance or malice, or perhapes bothe, which is 
manifest by seakinge to make division betwene 
Christian Princes, that are in charitye one with 
another, by defacing the monarchical state, which 
so longe tyme hath ben used and approved, and by 
disposinge of the crown of Engiande, not weighinge 
wheare the right lieth, but whear your fancy best 
liketh ; if in this later point you would excuse your- 
selfe by saying you determine no man's tytle, the 
course of your whole booke and di verses practices 
de facto shewe the contrarye. 

** These things be not of small weight or import- 
ance, for that they concern kings and kingdoms, and 
require the practise wisedome and experience of 
other maner of heddes than yours is, yea and that in 
nombre to the assembly of a court Parlement. 
Tharfore you raaye see what cause of divScontentment 
you geve to all wise and indifferent men, and what 
disgrace you have braught toyourself and bretherne;, 
for that, if any happen to be king of Engiande be- - 
sides those two youe would seem to advance, it is 
likelye, according to the rules of policye and state, 
that yourself will be in question for meddlinge in 
these matters above your reach and capacitye, and 
your bretherne will be blamed and banished out of 
the coi^ntry for approving, or at least for not chas- 
tising your lewde and y veil demenor : methinketh 
the preventing of these incomodities should make 
you consider ofsomme remedyes, and the remorse 
of your conscience should breederepentaunce, which 
coming from the bottom of your harte will force 
youe, in as ample and publicke maner, to disclarae 



and disavowe jour sayd conference, as ever passion 

and partialitje did invite you to set forthe the same. 

This is the best and easiest waye to satisfye the 

Princes discontented, the people scandalized, and 

yourself endaungered, and this is that I suppose 

your wisest friendes will advise you unto : for my 

particular ; I do pray for you, and wishe no waye 

revenge to your person, but reformation in your 

manners, as God I call to witnes, who direct youe 

to that which is best." 

The tract itself begins in the following manner : 

" It is observed, and hath bene noted longe in the 

worlde, that no vanitye is so light, which beareth 

not somme credit, no fable so phantastical, but some 

will beleeve it, nothinge so disorderly attempted 

which hath not found a supporter. Even so it falleth 

out touchinge a certen vaine diet appointed somme 

years past to abuse the worlde, under the title of a 

conference aboute the next succession to the crowne 

of Englande, beinge in deede a confused bablinge of 

idle troublesome travailers, without interest to deale 

in suche matter, and a very confederacie of a practize 

against the Blood Royal, state and dignitye of that 

nation. 

" Therefore wanting the true and certain place, 
persone, author, and other due circumstances; it 
may well be called an infamous fablinge chartel or 
libel, feigned to be conceived in Holland, knowen 
to be fostered in Spayne, falselie fathered of R. 
Dolman, printed at N. to wit no certaine place 
justifiable, with licence of, it may not be knowen 
who. Neverthelesse all must be so commended at 
the first sight for pleasure and utilitye, the author 



125 

so extolled for sharpnesse of witte, plentye of much 
readinge, ciinninge in conve^hance, abondance of 
eloquence, and other graces, as none can find any 
want or default. Nay, (to amplify the estimation 
as well of the author as of the libel) it is provided 
that whosoever by worde, deede, or contenance, 
seemeth to dislike the one or tlie other, all such 
persons must be reputed by a common fame, and 
thereupon condemned as enemies to the privat 
designes of the Kinge Catholique, and adversaries 
to the common cause. Albeit it is very likely that 
the late Kinge of Spayne, nor this King living, were 
every privye to the contents of that libel, nor ex- 
pressly consented to the publishing thereof, as will 
appear hereafter ; therefore it is but a ridiculouse 
sentence so rashlye to censure men, and very partial, 
suche also, as advanceth the credit neyther of King 
nor cause. 

" For when a man pretendethe a clayme never 
heard of in any age, to another man's lande whose 
quiet possession actually, and right also apparently 
in all wyse mens eyes, have concurred and con- 
tinued manye hundreds of years, in him and those 
whose state and title he hath, and injoyeth, no in- 
different wise man will alio we, that the sodainlye 
supposed pretender may haue any reason by a bare 
clayme to think that he should beare all away 
without contradiction : especiallye when the claym 
exceedeth measure, is misliked generally, and 
bringeth with it suspicion of evil dealinge other 
wayes, as made by travailing strangers, without the 
supposed pretender's warrant and privitie. In 
respect whereof, and for want of upright behaviour. 



126 

the same crime may be imputed more justly to the 
libeller, and his libel as prejudiciall to the same King 
and cause. 

*' The principal scoape and drift, fyrst in mind, 
though last in operation, and in mean while dis- 
sembled (besides the deposinge of the present 
possessor) is to supplant, dispossesse and disinherit 
the true heire and lawfuU successor of the English 
crown, with all the offspring, to translate and alter 
the ancient lawes and customs of that realm, and 
consequently to transform the government of that 
nation into a province ; or at the least to thrust into 
the Royall throne, against the right course of English 
laws, a forainer bred and born far off, which neyther 
in her owne personne, nor any braunche of the roote 
from whence theis practizers pretend to derive hir 
title, was ever herde or thought of in the memory 
of man, nor beforementioned in any record of any 
age, to such effect or purpose as now is devised ; 
nay, if any such things have bene spoken of, theis 
smoothe conferers have practized in time past to 
suppress it, and to bear the garland another way, 
and that not long agoe, as hereafter shall be de- 
clared. 

" And for the wayes and means to draw this on, 
they are many, but all roughe, uneven, tedious, in- 
direct, out of the highe waye that may be lead to any 
good end, all things well weighed, yet agreable to 
such an attempt : as in like troublesome interprizes 
it falleth out, that odd shifts must be made for tools 
to remove blocks, to skower streets, and make ways 
clearer, for crafty surmises and wily insinuations to 
walke more smoothly and currantly to the marke. 



127 

Touching the scope and butte of the booke I will 
speak hereafter generally, for the particular mis- 
chiefs tlierof every true Englishman dooth throwghlye 
see at the first sight. In the mean tyme, let us search 
the wayes to see what monsters lye hidden therein ; 
and soe we shall find the effects like to follow the 
practizes of their conferers, what gloriouse pretence 
soever they geve. 



The following are the contents of the remainder^— 
" A general compact of the Conferrers to bring 
England to the Civil Laws Roman — A special com- 
pact that two lawyers and not law must be umpiers 
of this matter — Six articles of the lawyer's agree- 
ment — The civilian must lead the temporal lawyer 
— Popularitye — Popular doctrine — Feigned maxims 
of forcing laws to direct the Crowne for a common 
fame — A surmised dowtfuUness — Practice a dan- 
gerous ensinuation — A seditiouse challenge — Shifts 
to further surmise by complying with the tyme — 
Dissimulation and duplicitie in speach must be used 
— No heyr apparent must be known — To wynne 
tyme by false bruyts — The Queen must seem to be 
put in securitie for her tyme — Things must be af- 
firmed by way of protestation onely — The late Earl 
of Derby — The circumstan(ies of effect like to fol- 
low this pattern of conference — A vaine evasion — \ 
General mischeifs of innovation — The libeller nay- 
ther profited the King nor the comon cause — Of 
disservice done to the King by this conference — The 
popular doctrine is ill grounded — Mischeifs in Scot- 
lande by this popular doctrine — Mischeifs in Arragon 



128 

b^ the same doctrine — Mischeifs of this doctrine irt 
the Low Countries— This book of conferences was' 
not published with the late King's privitye nor this 
living — No wise man will consent to his own wronge 
— The King prejudiced in state by the booke manje 
wayes in thiese days especially — No Kinge sure of 
his state, but removable by law at will of people — 
A fond assumption of the lawyers — A crafty shift to 
blere the late king; and this living he'eyes with a 
contradiction — Flatterye and dissimulation dis- 
grace th any attempt — Blasphemies against the sacred 
state of Regall dignitye — Absurdities against bothe 
King and subject— A King is but tenant at will of 
the people — What rashe boldnesse these disguysed 
lawyers shew — This author and lawyer mock and 
abuse the Kinge of Spayne — The author's extream^ 
malyce against the King of Scotia nde — This author 
preocupieth the office of a Pope — This author re- 
fuseth to take his holiness as an example — No cause 
to esterae the Kinge of Scotlande desperate to be 
reconciled to the true Catholique churche as theis 
lawyers wolde have the world to thincke." 



Art. CCLXXV. A true discourse of the most happ^ 
victories ohtayned by the^ French King, against the 
Rebels and enemies of his maiestj/. With a par- 
ticuler declaration of all that hath beene done be- 
tweene the two armies^ during the monthes of 
September and October and part of Nouember 
1589. Also of the taking of the subburbes of Paris 
by the King, Here 'onto is adioyned a Mappe^ 
wherein is set forth the whole platforme of the 



1^ 

Battells^ for the better satisfying of the curteous 
reader. Faithfulli/ translated out of French into 
English^ according to the coppi/ imprinted at Tours» 
By T. D. London, printed for J, Woolfeyond E. 
White. 1589. ito. \0 leaves. 

T. D. must have been the initials of the original 
author. The translation has a short dedicatory 
epistle " to the right Honourable Lord Robert 
Deuorax, Earle of Essex and Ewe, Viscount of 
Harryford, and Bourchier, Lord Ferrers of Chartley, 
Burchier and Louaine, maister of the Queenes 
raaiesties Horse, and Knight of the most honourable 
order of the garter: [to whom] Luke Wealsh 
wisheth all heauenly happiness, and increase of 
honourable vertue," and says, " in respect of your 
honourable and magnanimous minde, your hardi- 
nesse in warres, and hatred to rebellion, sondrie 
times manifested to your eternall and well deserued 
praise, as also to declare my well affected hart to 
vbur honour, I haue chosen you the patrone of this 
warlike discourse." — The next leaf entitles Luke 
Wealsh to a niche in the Bib. Poetica by eight six- 
tine stanzas ; from which are transcribed the last 
four. They are entitled " certain verses written by 
master Wealsh as a thankesgiuing vnto God, for the 
prosperous successe of the king." 

' — " Thou, O France ! whose fame in former daies, 
Did glorifie the pleasant western partes : 
How oft in thee did God his wonders raise. 
Which neuer yet could mollify your hartes? 
But praised be our God of greatest power, 
Who can confound his foes within an howre. 
TOL. IV. K 



m 

What grifeubifs tamultes in thy townes are wrought ? 
What rage and bioudshed by thy city Wd]es 1 
What wrongful I broyles and causele^e wars are sought ? 
What great rebellion on thy people falls t 

Butpraysed be our God of greatest power, 
J Who can confoupd bisi fo^s within an howre. 

3€f^i\kUtn that citty of reriownei ' 
By diuers tokens warned was of sinne ; 
And thou, O France ! didst lately see a crowne 
Plast in the skie, by God duer the King ; 
As many men aihroie and plainely shoe, 
'^I'Mk woBderaus thing if that the truLli be so. 

Then cease your iarres obey your soueraigne Lord, 
Whom God from Heaven aihrmes your louing king ; 
Whose heart, whose hand, doth seeke with one accord. 
Your health, your wealth, and realine iu peace to bring ; 
"^^ ^ And blessed be our God of greatest power. 
Who can confirmethese blessings in an howre." 

, tJTbe victories narrated are those obtained b^ 
Henry IV. in support of his accession to the crown 
of France aft^r that sanguinary conflict of the ttrqe 
Henries* , In th^ army were " certain Englishe loria 
well mounted and armed, and most sumptuously 
attired ; among the rest the noble gentleman maister 
d'Euerax, brother to the right honorable Earle of 
Essex, who was one of the formost and forwardefet 
in the fight." Elizabeth assisted with money and 
provisions as well as troops : four thousand flnglish 
had " Lord Willoughbie their generall," which only 
appear a portion of the supplies. At the time the 
king lay ill the fort of the Mount of Cats, ", the first 
day of October the enemie planted sixc peectfs of 



131 

ordenance vpo» the toppe of the hill by Januafl 
shjootin^ fiue or sixe vollies of shot into the towne, 
wherewith was slaine one of the kings cookes^ a 
woman, a maiden, and a boye, doings also great hurt 
vnto two shippes which lay at anker in the hauen. 
But they withdrewe soon after their cannons from 
that place, because by our cannon^ their maister 
gonner was slaine, and two pieces of their ordenance 
dismounted, which was done by a skilfuU English 
cannonier, who was presented to the king by my 
Lord Stafford ambassadour to the Queene of Eng- 
land." The next three tracts upon the same subject, 
escaped the research of Herbert ; the present article 
is insufficiently described by him, p. 1176. J. H. 



Art. CCLXXVI. The Letters Pattents of the 
Kings Declaration for the generall assemblie of the 
Princes^ Cardinalls^ Dukes and Peeres, as well 
Ecclesiasticall as Temporal!, the officers of the 
Crowne^ the Lords, Gentlemen, Officers and others, 
vnto the 15 dat/ of March next comming. Also to 
reclaime his subiects and rebellious townes to his 
obedience. Published in the Parliament of Caen 
the 22 of December 1589. Faithfullie translated 
out of the French copie printed at Caen. At Lon- 
don printed by Thomas Orwin for Augustine 
Lawton, dwelling in Maiden lane neere Wood- 
streete, n. d, 4cto. 8 leaves, 

A PROCLAMATION " given at our Campe before 

Mans the 28 of Nouember in the yeare of grace 

1589 and of our reigne the first. Signed Henrie : 

and vppon the fould, '* By the king in his counselL 

K 2 



132 

Forget." agaiii subscribed, " in the Parliament at 
Caen the 22d of December 15»9 signed Godefroy." 
There is added a short extract from the register o( 
same parliament, confirming the grant of pardon to 
those persons who had incurred the crime of felony 
and rebellion, except those that might be found 
guilty of the slaughter of the late King. J. H. 



Art. CCLXXVII. The Discouerer of France to 
' the Parisians^ and all other the French Nation. 
Faithfullie translated out of the French; hy E. A, 
[Printer's device of a wyvern rising out of a ducal 
coronet, the crest of George Earl of Cumberland, 
&c.] Imprinted^ 1590. ito, 8 leaves. 

The initials appear to belong to Edward Aggus, 
the printer: they are to be found in the titles of 
several pieces translated from the same language, 
printed by him. J. H. 

^BT. CCLXXVIII. A recitall of that which hath 
^happened in the Kings Armie^ since the taking of 
the suhurhes of Paris ^ xntill the taking of the towne 
of Humflet [arms of France]. Imprinted at Lon- 
don for Tobie Cooke, 1590. 4:to. M leave^,^ _ ^^^ 

At the end. "After the siege of Fales^, ^the 
King gaue the Englishmen leaue to depart ; and he 
himselfe with his armie, to weete, the Frenchmen 
and Svvitzers, Rutters and Lants-knights: went 
vnto Lizeux, which within ten dayes after he 
took: and from thence his Maiestie went vnto 
Jlumflet, which he did batter vpon Fridaie the xvj 



13S 

of lanuarie. At which time, part <Sf our English 
forces were shipped at Dines in Normandie, and the 
rest, the morrow after." J. H. 



Ab^. CCLXXIX. Jn Ethiopian II istorie : first 
written in Greeke by Ildiodorus^ and translated 
into English hy T, F, No lesse zoittj/ then plea- 
sant : being newly corrected^ and augmented^ with 
di-oers new additions by the sam^ author, Wherpr 
unto is also annexed the argument of every booke 
i in the beginning of the same^ for the better under- 
.standing of the storie. Printed at London fq^; 
William Cotton^ and are to be sold al his $hopr^ 
adjoyning to Ludgate, 1605. Ato. pp. 153, besides 
dedication, and address to the Readej^. 

The dedication of this work to Edward de Veere, 
Earl of Oxford, &c. is signed " Thomas Under- 
downe." 

This autbor was the translator of Ovid's Ibis, 
illustrated with notes, 1569, &c. Warton says h6 
opened a new field of Romance, which seems partly 
to have suggested Sir Philip Sydney's Arcadia, by 
this translation of Heliodorus, which was first pub- 
lished in 1577. Abraham Fraunce also translated 
into English Hexameters the beginning of Heliodo- 
rus'^ History, * 

:.\\ V > ■ ■ . ■;.... ,1- .■. -r:r- 

Art. CCLXXX. a Restitvtion of Decayed In- 

telligence, in Antiquiticsy concerning the most noble 

and renowmed English nation. By the studie and 

* Wart. IH.kl9, 420. Theat.Poct 11^, 112.'^ 



281 

travdile of R, V. Dedicated tnto the King^s Most 
Excellent Maiestie, [Engraved vignette of the 
Tower of Babell and division of mankind] Na- 
tionum Origo. Printed at Antwerp bi/ Robert 
Brune^ 1605, and to be sold at London in Pauleys 
Church yeard^ by John Norton and John Bill. 4to. 
pp. 338, exclusive of Introduction and liable. 

Another edition, London, printed by Jobri Rill, 
printer to the King's Most Excellent Maiestie, 
1628, 4to. 

Again, London, printed by John Norton, for 
Joyce Norton, and Richard Whitaker, and are to 
be sold, at the King's Armes, in S. Paul's Church- 
yard, 1634, 4to. Again, London, printed for Sa- 
muel Mearne, John Martyn, and Henry Herringman, 
1673, 8vo. 

Richard Verstegan, the author, has been already 
noticed in the 2d vol. of this Work for his odes, 1600. 
The Antwerp Edition is deservedly reckoned the best, 
as well on account of containing one or more en- 
gravings afterwards omitted, as also the superiority 
of the plates, those of the subsequent editions being 
very indifferent copies. A full account of th« work 
is given by Oldys, in the British Librarian, p. 299. 



Art. CCLXXXI. The Lives of the three Nor- 
mans, Kings of England: William the First, 
William the Second, Henrie the First. Written 
by J, H. Mart. Improbe facit qui in alieno libro 
ingeniosus est. Imprinted at London by R. B, 
Anno il613* 4^o. pp, 314. Besides the Epistle 



135 

Dedicaiorie to Charles the First tX)hiht Prince of 
Wales, pp, 6. 

The author, Sir John Hay ward, Knight, whose 
historical works, as Wood informs Us^ '" for the 
phrase and w6rds in them were in their titne esteemed 
very good," in his dedication tells us, that it was 
in consequence of a conversation that passed be- 
tween the Prince Henry and himself, a short time 
previous to the decease of the former, he undertook 
to give the world a history of his own country 
during certain period^. * I cannot refrain from 
giving a short specimen of the manner in which he 
draws the character of that distinguished and pi^o- 
mising young prince, " whose death,'* he says, 
*' alasse ! hath bound the lines of many vnto death^ 
face to face ; being no wayes able, either by fbrget- 
fulnesse to couer their griefe, or to diminish it with 
consideration." He then proceeds, 

"For in trueth he Was a Prince of a most heroical 
heart: free from many vices which sometimes ac- 
companie high estates, full of most amiable and 
admirable virtues : of whose perfections the world 
was not worthy. His eyes were fiill of pleasant 
modestie; his countenance manly, beautiful!; in 
bodie both strongly and delicately made ; in beha- 
uiour sweetely sober, which gave grace to whatso- 
euer he did. He was of a discerning wit ; and for 
the fecultie of his mirid, of great capacitie and power, 

* In addition to this work Hayward likewise wrote the Lives of 
;Henry th,e Foyrth-^fi4 of Edward the Sixth, I59i^, i€30, 4to. and as 
he informs us hinMelf^ finished " certaine yeeres of Queene E^iza- 
)>eth's Keigne." This .waa prin^d mih bis Life of K, £4wa(!d VL 
Lond.Svo. 1«36. ^ 



m 

accompanied with equal expedition of will : much 
forseeing in his actions, and for passions a com' 
ipander of himselfe ; and of gfood strength to resist 
the power of Prosperitie. In counsaile he was ripe 
and measured ; in resolution constant ; his word 
euer led hy his thought, and followed by his deede. 
And albeit hee was but yong, and his nature for- 
ward and free, yet his wisedom reduced both to a 
true temper of moderation ; his desires being neuet* 
aboue his i^eason, nor his hopes inferior to his de- 
sires. In a word, hee was the most faire fruit of 
his progenitours, an excellent ornament of the pre-, 
sent age, a true mirrour to posteritie; being so 
ecjually both setled to valour, and disposed to good- 
ne^se an^J justice, as he expressed not onely tokens, 
but proofes, both of a courage, and of a grauitie and 
jndiistrie right worthie of his estate." 

The history of the Normans contains a very well 
written account of the periqd during which they 
lived : it abounds in anecdotes, many of which are 
|to be found in no other publication of the kind, and 
is enriched with a variety of just remarks as well 
pji the actions and characters of those whom it is 
intended to display, as on the manners of the times 
during whiph they flourished. 1 know of no other 
edition of it than this of J613, excepting that it has 
^ee« reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany, with 
some few notes, vol. II. p. 418,,.. .,,, ^^ 9,ilu:u?-B- 

Art. GCLXXXII. Trayterovs Percj/esSf Cateshi/es 
JPrdsopopeia. Written hy Edward Howes ^ Scholler 
at Westminster^ a j/autH of sixteene yeeres old* 
[Woodcut.] Imprinted <it Jjondon hy Simeon 



137 

Stafford, dwelling in the Cloth- Faj/re, at the signe 
of the Three Crownes. 1606. 4/o. 

Dedication in Latin, and one piece of Latin 
poetry, with translation, all by Hawes ; then the 
poem, in eighty stanzas, of six lines each. J. H. 

Art. CCLXXXIII. A Declaration of the De^ 
meanor and Cartage of Sir Walter Raleigh^ 
Knighte^ as well in his Voyage^ as in and sithence, 
his returne ; and of the true motives arid induce- 
ments TSihich occasioned his Majestic to proceed in 
doing justice upon him as hath been done. London: 
Printed by Bonham Norton and John Billy Prin- 
'ters to the King's most Excellent Majestic, 1618. 

• ito, pp. 68. 

Art, CCLXXXIV. , Newes of Sir Waller Raw 
leighy with the true Description of Guiana: as 
also a relation of the excellent government^ and 
much hope of the prosperity of the Voyage, Sent 
from a Gentleman of his fleets to a most especiall 

y, friend of his in London, From the River of Ca- 

'. liana, on the Coast of Guiana, Novemb, 17, 1617. 
, London: Printed for //. G, and are to be sold by 

/yyjj.0 Wright, at the signe of the Bible, without New- 
gale, 1618. With Portrait, pp, ^5, .; .i<;.,„ _y_,^^ 

The following extracts I have taken frortt'theiat- 
ter work (both of which are very uncommon, but the 
latter especially,) intituled 

" Orders to bee observed by the Commanders of 
the Fleete, and Land Companies, under the Charge 
and Conduct of Sir Walter Rauleigh, Knight, 



138 

bound for the South Parts of America or elsewhere. 
Given at Pli mouth in Devon, the third of May, 
1617. 

" First, because no action or enterprise can pros- 
per (be it by sea or land) without the favour and as- 
sistance of Almighty God, the Lord and Strength of 
Hoasts and Armies, you shall not fayle to cause di- 
vine service to be readinyourshippe, morning and 
evening, in the morning before dinner, and at night 
before supper, or at least (if there be interruption 
by foule weather) once the day, pray sing God every 
night with singing of a psalme at the setting of the 
watch. 

Secondly, you shall take especiall care that God 
be not blasphemed in your ship ; but that after admo- 
nition given, if the offenders doe not refraine them- 
selves, you shall cause them of the better sort to be 
fined out of their adventures, by which course, if no 
amendment bee found, you shall acquaint me withall : 
for if it be threatened in the scriptures, that the 
curse shall not depart from the house of the swearer, 
much lesse from the ship of the swearer. 

" No man shall play at cards or dice, either for 
his apparill or armes, upon paine of being disarmed 
and made a swabber; and whosoever shall shew 
himselfe a coward upon any landing or otherwise, 
hee shall bee disarmed, and made a labourer and 
carrier of victualls for the rest. 

" No man shall land any men in any forraigne 
parts, without order from the generall, the serjeant- 
mayor or other chiefe officer, upon paine of death ; 
and wheresoever wee shall have cause to land, no 
man shall force any woman, bee shee Christian or 



139 

Heathen upon paine of death ; and you shall take 
especial] care when God shall suffer us to land in the 
Indies, not to eat any fruits unknowne; such fruits 
as you doe not find eaten by birds on the tree, or 
beasts under the tree, yon shall avoyd. 

" You shall not sleepeon the ground, nor eat any 
new flesh till it bee salted two or three houres, 
which otherwise will breed a most daTigerous fluxe; 
so will the eating of over fat hoggs or turkies : you 
shall also have a great care, that you swim not in 
any rivers but where you see the Indians swim, be- 
cause most of the rivers are full of allegators: you 
shall not take any thing from any Indian by force, 
for from thenceforth we shall never be releeved ; but 
you must use them with all courtesie." 

J. H. M. 
jirdwicky Lancashire, Ma^ 19, 1807. 



Art. CCLXXXV. The Court of the most illus- 
trious and most magnificent James the First, King 
of Great Britaine, France, and Ireland, Sfc. With 
divers rules, most pure precepts, and selected deft' 
nitions lively delineated, 

, " Principibus placuisse viris, nou ultima laus est. 
To please the best, best praise I doe it judge ; 
Let Grill be Grill ; I passe not Envie^s grudge." 

London: Printed by Edw, Griffin, in Eliot's 
Court in the Little Old Baily, neere the King's 
Head. 1620. Small 4to. pp, 168, exclusive of 
Dedication^ Prefacey SfC, 



140 

This excellent little treatise, although addressed 
to the courtiers of James the First, is well worthy 
the perusal ot'those belonging to George 111. It is 
inscribed to " George Marquisse Buckingham, 
Vicount Villiers, &c. &:c." the well known favourite 
of James 1. And. the dedicaiion is signed with the 
initials A. D. B* >"t h^tf { - "/'I |i ]V[i ih.'W- 'ft^n 

The principal object of the author appears to hav^e 
been to warn the courtier " to bee most wary and 
beedfuU that out of himselfe hee draw a rule to rec- 
tifie and governe his owne life, that hee be content to 
taste the sower with the sweete, and in court to i^x- 
pect as well burthen-some blame and injuria as 
beautiful fame and dignity," and " to let him knowei^ 
and knowe assuredly, that he which enters into the 
court enters into such a kind of life as compre- 
hends much more labour and care than ease and 
quietnesse." 

The chief part of the work, consists of a code of 
useful admonitions, with some good advice, to those 
engaged both in the domestic and foreign services of 
their princes, whom the author compares to " sol- 
diers," and their line of action to a '* warre-fare." 
After advising the courtier " to get wisdonie as his 
best guide," he observes, " let him not by any meanes 
omit or neglect the studie of law, languages, and 
eloquence ; and let him especially, bend his best en- 
devours, to attaine unto the prompt, perfect, and 
most commendablie knowledge of histories, and anti- 
quities, to which, indeed 1 cannot sufficiently move 
and admonish him : for, this knowledge is the testis 
of the times, the light of truth, the life of memorie, 



141 

tiiemistresseof life, aud the messenger of antiquifle? 
Yea, this same historical knowledge (if wee may be- 
leeve Polybius) is a most sound and sure direction, 
instruction, and preparative, to all well managing 
of politique affayres, and is, indeed, a singular tu- 
trixe, and faithfull informer, how to abide and suffer 
patiently the inconstancies, and mutabilities, of 
brittle and fickle fortune. If therefore (friendly 
courtier) thou wouldst not continually shew thyselfe 
a childe, an non-proficient, in the court of thy prince, 
be not (I say) rude, but well read, and a skilfull 
antiquary in histories and chronicles." Page 92. 

Furthermore the author adds, '' I must truly tell 
thee (kind courtier) this one thing, namely, that the 
court makes not a man better, but men rather may 
make the court itselfe better, whereby I would inti- 
mate thus much, that tis not enough to live in court, 
to goe to bed at midnight, to rise the next morning 
at ten aclocke, and then what with apparelling him- 
selfe, with frizling and curling his haire with his 
curling pin, with poudring and turning up the same 
this way and that way, about liis eares, continuing 
thus in his bed-chamber, even till noone at least, and 
then to spend the rest of the day in feasting, jesting, 
and many such like toyes and triviall exercises and 
practises ; assuredly I say (and let every courtier 
beleeve me) that he which is onely occupied and 
busied in cropping these roses, shall undoubtedly 
finde then but pricking thornes; on these trees, 
shall finde nothing but fruitlesse leaves; shall find 
these vines both wilde and barren ; in these garners 
shall find nothing but chaffe: and finally, in these 



treasuries, shall be possest of nothing but raeere 
counterfeit mettle. The courtier (I say) which ad- 
heres, cleaves, and is inclined to these things above 
mentioned, cannot rightly undertake, excogitate, 
doe, or begin to doe any thing, much lesse perfectly 
£nish or effect the same; be also which cleares not 
himselfe of these things, shall finde many defects in 
himselfe, and such, as that, if hee mend not his man- 
ners, will give him just cause to weepe and lament." 
Page 161. 

The auth)(^ concludes his. work witli some pious 
and whoiegome exhortations which he desires the 
courtier " to ke epe alwayes^ in perpetuall remem- 
brance, and alwayesbeare about him.'' 

l.H.M. 



Art. CCLXXX VI. Historic^ Normannoruvi Scrip- 
tores Antiqui, Res ah illis per Galliamy Angliam^ 
ApuliamjCapucePrimipatum^ Siciliam, SfOrie^tem 
gestas explicantesy ah anno Christi pcccxxxviii 
ad annum mccxx. Inserted sunt Monasieriorj 
um fundationes varice, series Episcoporum ac 
Ahhatum : genealogies Regum^ Ducum^ Comitunij 
et Nohilium ; Plurima denique alia Vetera tarn ad 
profanam quam ad sacram Hlorum temporum histo- 
riam pertinentia. Ex MSS. codd. omnia fere 
nunc primum edidit Andreas Du Chesne TuroU" 
ensis. Lutetice Parisiorum mdcxix. Cum privi- 
legio Regis. 

Andrew Du Chesne, a learned and voluminous 
collector and publisher of the ancient historians, 



148 

particularly of France, was born in Touraine 158-1, 
and crushed to death by a cart as he was passing to 
Paris from his country house in 1640. The titles of 
his other works are, 

Andre du Chesne Bibliotheque des Autheurs qui 
ont ecrit THistoire et Topographic de la France, 8vo. 
Paris, 1637. A rare book. "!)«(J /il 

Les Antiquitez & Recherches des vllleg & cha- 
teaux de France, in 8vo. Paris, 1624. Id. in I2nio. 
Paris, 1668, 2 vol. This ill-written piece has some 
curious things in it. The edition in twelves is the 
best.- i 

Historiae Francorum ScriptoresfCoaBtanei ab ipsiua 
gentis origine ad Philippum Puichrum, in fol. Paris 
1^36, 1641, and 1649,5 vol. This is an excellent 
and scarce collection. It is a misfortune that Mr. 
Du Chesne did not pursue his design, which would 
have made at least twenty-four volumes of original 
authors of the H istory of France. The fifth volume 
was published by his son. 

Les Antiquitez, & Recherches de la Grandeur <& 
Majeste des Roys de France, in 8vo. Paris, 1609. 
This is a curious and rare book. 

Histoire des Rois, Dues, & Comtes de Bourgogne 
& d'Arles in 4to. Paris, 1619 and 1628, 2 vol. 
or in the collection of his works. 

Histoire des Papes,in fol. Paris, 1658. This book, 
of which this is the best edition, is jiot much 
esteemed. .»f"vr frj}' '^vu»^ -,^, r 

Histoire d'Angleterre, d'Ecosse, & dlrlande, in 
fol. Paris, 1634.— In fol. Paris, 1666, 2 vol. 

Histoire Genealogique des Rois, Dues, Comtes de 



144 

Bourgofl^ne&d'Arles, extraites de di verses Chartes 
& Chroniques anciennes, in 4t(>. Paris, 1619. 

Histoire Genealogique des Dues de Bour^ogne, 
de la M aison de France, des Dauphins de Viennois^^ 
& des Conites de Valentinois, justifiee par preuves 
autentiques, 4to. Paris, 1628. These two volumes^ 
of Mr. Du Chesne are r ire and much sous:ht for. 

Histoire Genealogiqne de la Maison de Dreax, 
in fol. Paris, 1632— De Montmorenci & de Laval, 
in fol. Paris, 1624— De Chastillon, in fol. 1621— 
De Bethune, in fol. Paris, 1639. — Des Chasteigniers, 
in fol. Paris, 1634— De Guines & Ordes, in fol. 
Paris, 1631.— Du Vergy, in fol. Paris, 1625.* 

Du Fresnoy observes that " long since it was said 
of Andrew Duchesne, that he succeeded well in par- 
ticular histories, but that he has ever halted, and 
even forced his genius in the general histories he 
has printed. That of England is worse than any of 
his others. It cannot be termed a history, but facts 
loosely tacked to each other. He writes in a lan- 
guid stile, enters shallowly into affairs, as if he was 
unacquainted with the art of knowing men, and has 
nothing but a bare relation of their actions, which, 
without doubt, proceeds from the little pains he had 
taken to study human passions. He had applied 
himself to nothing but searching libraries, or ar- 
chives of princes, and churches, which afford a light 
for particular history; and in this it must be acknow- 
ledged he succeeded well.'H 

• All these titles are taken from Du Fresnoy's Method of studying^ 
History, by Kawlinson, in 2 vol. 8vo. London, 1730. 
t Ibid. I. 160. 



145 

With regard to the " Scriptores Normannici," of 
which the full title is given at the head of this article, 
Dufresnoj observes that " he who would consider 
the beginnings of that nation may see what Duchesne 
has collected in that work." 

I have not here room or leisure to enter very par- 
ticularly into the contents of this bulky volume, of 
which the preface gives a minute account. The 
first article, by an anonymous writer, comprehends 
a space of fifty-nine years from the first irruption of 
the Normans from the North in 837 to the settle- 
ment of RoUo in Normandy in 896. 

The fifth article is a poem in hexameters in two 
books on the siege of Paris by the Normans. It be- 
gins at page 37, and ends at page 48. Then follows 
Dudo Dean of St. Quintin's panegyric on the man- 
ners and acts of the first Dukes of Normandy, which 
ends at page 160. 

The next article is the " Emmae Encomium," re- 
published as above mentioned, by Baron Maseres, 
and this is succeeded by the work of William of 
Poictiers, which extends to page 213, and forms the 
principal part of Maseres's new edition. 

Next follow " Willelmi Calculi Gemmeticensis 
Monachi, Historiae Normannorum Libri VIII. 
which end at page 318, and which are also printed 
in Camden's collection of ancient historians of 
England.* 

At page 319 commences " Orderici Vitalis Angli- 
genae, Coenobii Uticensis Monachi, Historiae Eccle- 
siasticae Libri XIII. in iii. partes divisi,quarum pos- 

* Entitled, << Anglica, Normannica, Hibernica, Cambrica, a ve- 
teribus scripta." In fol. Frankfort, 1603. 
VOL. IV. L 



146 

tremffi dtiae res per Normannos in Francia, Anglia, 
Sicilia, Apulia, Calabria, Palastina, pie strenueque 
gestas, ab adventu Rollonis usque ad annum Christi 
Mcxxiv complectuntur." This forms by far the 
largest article in the work, and extends to page 925. 

Ordericus Vitalis was born in England in 1075, 
the son of Odelinus, chief counsellor of Roger de 
Montgomery Earl of Shrewsbury. At five years 
old he was sent to school at Shrewsbury, and at ten 
was sent over to Normandy to the monastery of St. 
Eurole*s (Utici), and in his eleventh year became a 
member of the order of that society ; where he had 
already passed fifty-six years, when he wrote this ac- 
count of himself, complaining that he then was loaded 
with age and infirmities, and that it was time for him 
to lay down his pen. In his thirty-third year he 
says he entered into the priesthood. 

Nicholson in his Historical Library seems too se- 
vere upon this historian. ^' The most of his thir- 
teen books," says this writer, " are spent in the 
affairs of the church within his own native * country: 
but towards the latter end, he has intermixed a great 
many passages that relate to us. There are itt his 
writings two faults, (and they are great ones) which 
Lucian of old condemned in history : for, first, he is 
immoderate in the praise of his friends, and the dis- 
praise of his enemies; either all panegyric, or all 
satire. Now such discourses are rightly observed 
to be strangely monstrous and unnatural productions : 
they want metre to become poems, and truth to 
make them just histories; secondly, he istoo large 

♦ This appears ainistake, if he mealis Noitnandy, for the histo- 
rian's native country was England. 



U7 

in the description of little petit matters; and on the 
contrary passes too cursorily over some things of 
such weight as would well endure reflection and a 
second thought." 

We shall presently see that Mr. Maseres estimates 
this historian much more highly : and it may be re- 
marked that he has preserved many curious and in- 
teresting particulars of the birth and actions of our 
first Norman nobility, of which Dugdale experienced 
the advantage in the compilation of his Baronage. 
And I concur most heartily with the learned Editor 
next mentioned in wishing to see a new edition of the 
remaining books of this author, more especially if 
they can be illustrated by such entertaining j^nd use- 
ful notes as that industrious and accomplished critic 
has subjoined to the portion he has reprinted.* 

Of the remaining contents of this volume of Du 
Chesne, which contains eleven hundred and four 
closely printed pages, besides a full index, the prin- 
cipal are reprinted iu the book of Maseres ; but there . 
is an useful article of genealogical tables at the end, 
entitled " Familiae Regum, Ducum, Comitum, et 
aliorum Nobilium quae in hoc volumine dedu- 
cuntur."t 



Art. CCLXXXVII. Emmce Anglorum Regince, 
Richardil, Duds Normannorumjilice, Encomium. 
Incerto Auctore^ sed cocetaneo. Item Gesta Guil' 

♦ See also Gibbon's Address on the proposed republication oiFour 
old historians, in his *' Miscellaneous Works," by Lord Sheffield, 
Vol. II. p. 707. 

f In some future Number I propose to ins^rt a disquisition on the 
Roll of Battle-Abbey, printed by Du Chesne. 

l2 



148 

lelmi II. Ducts Normannorum^ Regis Anglofum 
/. A Guillelmo Pictavensi, Lexoviorum Archi- 
diaconoj contemporaneo^ scripta. Ex Bibliotheca 
nobilissimi Viri Roberti Cottoni, Equitis Aurati 
et Baronettij primttm edita Lutetice Parisiorum^ 
Anno Domini 1619, a doctissimo viro Andrea 
Duchesne^ Turonensi: nunc denuo edita Londiniy 
Anno Domini 1783. To these are added. Ex- 
cerpta ex Orderici Vitalis, TJticensi^ Monachi, Ec- 
clesiasticcB historice libris tertio S^ quarto : quorum 
ope suppleri quodammodo possint defectus in manu- 
scripto codice Cottoniano supra memorato Historian 
Gulielmi Duds Normannorum et Regis Anglorum, 
A Guillelmo Pictavensi, scriptce, — Also, Annalis 
Historia Brevis in Monasterio Sancti Stephani 
Cadomensis conscripta, — And at the end are — Ex- 
cerpta qucedam ex Appendice doctissimi viri An- 
drecB Du Chesne ad rerum Normannicarum scrip- 
tores, viz, 1. Nomina Normannorum, qui Jlorue^ 
runt in Anglia ante Conquestum. 2. Cognomina 
Nobilinm, qui GuilL Norm. Ducem in Angliam 
secuti sunt, 3, Cognomina eorum qui cum Gui- 
lielmo Conqucestore Angliam ingressi sunt, 4. 
Magnates superstites Anno XX. Regni Willelmi 
ConqucBstoris ; Sf quibus in comitatibus terras tenue- 
runt. 5. Catalogus Nobilium, qui immediate prce- 
dia a Rege Conqucestore tenuerunt, London^ for B, 
White, Fleet-street, 1783. 4fo. ;?jp. 380. 

This book was printed, I believe, for private dis- 
tribution onlj, with that disinterested love of liter- 
ature, which through a long life has adorned and 
dignified the various and profound studies of Baron 
Maseres. The text is selected from the numerous 



pages of Duchesne's Scriptores Normanni, and il- 
lustrated with very ample and curious English notes, 
and marginal abstracts of the contents, by the pre- 
sent Editor. 

The principal article here selected is the History 
of William the Conqueror by William of Poictiers, 
Archdeacon of Lisieux in Normandy. This author, 
who had been first a soldier himself, and afterwards, 
the Conqueror's chaplain, relates actions which he 
saw with his own eyes, and in which he was himself 
engaged; but he did not continue his history be- 
yond the year 1070, which was the fourth of that 
king's reign in England ; and unluckily even of this 
the latter part is lost, and what remains scarce ex- 
tends beyond the battle of Hastings. " Perhaps," 
says Mr. Maseres, " the deficient part exists in some 
old manuscript, that has not been attended to by the 
learned, in the library of some old monastery of 
France or Normandy. And, if it does exist, it is a 
pity it should not be produced ; as it is probable that 
it contains a more exact account of the events of the 
four first years of the Conqueror's reign than is else- 
where to be found." 

Mr. Maseres, having observed that Ordericus Vi- 
talis, in his account of the first part of the Conque- 
ror's reign, took most of his facts from William of 
Poictiers, only relating them with more brevity, has 
therefore added from Ordericus the history of that 
period, of which the relation by Poictiers is lost. 

" Thus much therefore of this fourth book of Or- 
dericus Vitalis," says the learned Editor, " is all 
that is necessary to supply the loss of the latter part 
of the manuscript of that curious history. But as 



150 

the remaining part of this Fourth book of Ordericus'a 
work contains many important particulars concern- 
ing the Conqueror's government of England after 
he had completed the conquest of it, I shall here 
present the reader with a new edition of it. The 
following books of our author's history (the whole 
of which is divided into thirteen books) are likewise 
full of interesting matter, and very fit to be repub- 
lished with marginal abstracts of the contents, and 
with explanatory notes, in the same manner as this 
Fourth Book, in order to render them inviting and 
agreeable to the lovers of English history. But this 
would be an expensive and tedious work, which it 
will not be convenient to me to undertake. I hope, 
however, that some other gentlemen, that are fond of 
these researches into our ancient history, may be 
hereby induced to complete this new edition of our 
author, or at least to carry it on to the end of the 
Seventh Book, or the death of William the Con- 
queror. For I believe there is no other book ex- 
tant that gives so full and authentic an account of 
the transactions of that important reign. If one 
gentleman would republish in this manner the re- 
maining part of the reign of William the Con- 
queror, and another would give us the reign of 
William Rufus, and a third those of Henry the First 
and King Stephen, to the year 1141, (with which 
the History concludes), the labour and expence, 
being thus divided, would not be very great, and the 
work would, I presume, be thought a matter of 
great accommodation and real benefit by all curious 
enquirers into the ancient history of England.'* 



151 

Art. CCLXXXVITI. Jehovah Jireh. God in 
the Mount ; or, England's Parliamentary/ Chronic 
cle. Containing a most exact narration of all the 
most material Proceedings of this renowned and un- 
paraleird Parliament : the armies which have been 
or are in the severall parts of this land; the manner 
of the battails and sieges of Kenton, Brainfordy 
Stafford, Litchfield, Cheshire, Lancashire, York- 
shire, Lincolnshire, Lin, Gloucester, Newbury, 
and of those other places in England where any 
have been, from the yeare 1641 to this present 
moneth of October 164.3, concluding with the late 
Covenant of Great Britain and Ireland. Collected 
and published, principally for the high honour of 
our wonder-working God, still more graciously and 
gloriously carrying on the great work of a pure re- 
formation in Church and State ; as also for the great 
encouragement of all that are zealous for God and 
lovers of their country. By the most unworthy ad- 
mirer thereof , JOHN VICARS. 

Happie art thou, O Israel, who is like unto thee! O 
people saved by the Lord, the shield of thy help, 
and who is the sword of thy excellencie : and thine 
enemies shall be found lyers unto thee : and thou 
shalt tread upon their high places. Deut. iii. 2. 

The works of the Lord are great, and sought out of 
all them that have pleasure therein. His works are 
honourable and glorious, and his righteousness en- 
durethfor ever. Psalm iii. 2, 3. 

The Lord hath so done all his marveilous works, that 
they ought to be had in everlasting remembrance. 
Psalm, iii. 4. 

It is ordered by the Committee of the House of Com- 



152 

mons in Parliament^ concerning Printings that 
this hook intituled^ God on the Mount, or, A 
Parliamentarie Chronicle, he printed hy Jo. Roth- 
well and Tho, Underhill, Jo, White, 

London: printed hy T, Paine andM, Simmons, for 
J, Rothwell and T, Underhill, 1644. pp. 434, 
besides index, and dedications, S^c. 

The first part of this work ends at page 87, and 
the second part begins at page 89, with the title 
" God in the Mount; or, A Continuation of 
England's Parliamentary Chronicle." 

God's Arke overtopping the world's waves ; or, the 
third part of the Parliamentary Chronicle. Con- 
taining a successive continuation and exact and 
faithfull narration of all the most materiall Parlia- 
mentary Proceedings and memorable mercies where- 
with God hath crowned this famous present Parlia- 
ment and their armies in all the severall parts of 
the land; the famous sieges, defeats, hattails, vic- 
tories and prizes obtained and taken by land and sea ; 
the appeasing of the Kentish Rebellion; HulVs 
admirable preservation; the famous victories at 
Horn-castle, Aulton, Alsford, Selby, and Arun- 
dell Castle; Discoveries of many desperate plots 
and designes against the Parliament ; the establish- 
ing of a new Great Seal of England; the advance 
and actions of our Brethren the Scots among us ; 
the most renowned siege and deliverance of Ply- 
mouth and Lyme: together with all the famous per- 
formances of all our armies in the West and North 
of the kingdome, from July 1643 to July 1644; 
and concluding with a most exact, full^ and faithfull 



153 

relation of the most famous victory/ at Marston 
Moor, near York. Collected and published for 
God's high honour and the great encouragement of 
all that are zealous for God and lovers of their 
country. By the most unworthy admirer of them^ 
JOHN VICARS. 

What nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh 
unto it^ as the Lord our God is in all things that 
we have called upon him for f Only therefore take 
heed to thy self e, and keep thy soul diligently , lest 
thou forget the things, which thine eyes have seen, 
and lest they depart from thy heart, all the dayes of 
thy life: But teach them to thy sons and thy sons* 
sons. Deut. iv. 7, 9. 

London: printed by M. Simons and J, Macockj 
1646. 4to. pp. 304, besides Tables and Dedi" 
cations. 

The Burning Bush not consumed; or, the Fourth and 
last part of the Parliamentarie Chronicle. Con- 
taining a full and faithfull continuation and exact 
narration of all the most materiall and most me- 
movable proceedings of this renowned Parliament. 
The armies and Forces, which are or have been 
in the severall parts of the kingdome ; the descrip- 
tion of all the brave battails, victories, and famous 
defeates given to the enemies, both by sea and land; 
especially the winning of Newcastle, the glorious 
victory at Nazeby, and that famous victory at 
Langport, won through fire and water-, together 
with all the other admirable successes of our most 
renowned and victorious Generale Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, with his despised new-modelled army in 
the JVest,^ even to admiration : and the happy ren- 



154 , 

dition of Oxford, and the rest of the strong gar- 
risons about it. Beginning from August 1644, 
and comming up to this present moneth of July 
1G46. Collected for God^s high honour^ and all 
pious Parliamentarians' comfort: By the most 
unworthie admirer of them, JOHN VICARS, 

Isaiah Ixiii. 7. / will mention the loving kindnesse 
of the Lordj and the high praise^ of our God, 
according to all the rich mercies which the Lord 
hath bestowed upon us; and his great goodnesse 
towards us (his English Israel) which hee hath 
conferred on us, according to his great mercies, and 
according to the multitudes of his loving kindnesses. 
The Third, and this Fourth Part, being printed at 
the sole and entire cost and charge of the authour 
himself 

Imprinted at London by R. C. arfd M. B, for M, 
Spark, at the Bible in Green Arbor, J. Rothwell, 
at the Sun in P, Churchyard, and T. Underhill, at 
the Bible in Wood-str, IQiQ. ito. pp. 476, besides 
tables and dedications. 

And at the end of this Fourth Part, is '^ A Colossus 
of Eternall'bounden Gratitude ; or, a Panegyricall 
Pyramides of perpetuall Praise. First erected by 
our Britain s ingenious and ingenuous Mercuric : 
And now re-erected by the unworthy authour of 
this Parliamentary Chronicle, with some plain and 
homely inlaid work of his own in some convenient 
places.''^ pp. 14. ^ 

The First Part of this curious and very scarce 
medlej of facts and furious party venom is dedicated 
1st to the Lords and Commons, and 2d\y to 



155 

" Isaac Pennington, Lord Mayor" — " Sir John 
Wolaston, Lord Major Elect" — *' Sir Richard 
Sprignall, and Alderman Warner," and their wives. 

The Third Part is dedicated to Alderman Adams, 
Lord Major — Sir John Wollaston, and Sir Richard 
Spri^*^nall, and their ladies. 

The Fourth Part is dedicated to Thomas Adams, 
Esq. Lord Mayor — Sir Matthew Brand, Kt. Hig^h 
Sheriff of Surry; and Sir Richard Sprignall, Kt.— 
To Lady Francesse Brand, Lady Anne Sprignall, 
the Lady Rebeccah Wollastone, Mistris Mary 
Grirastone, all of them, his pious and most precious 
friends. 

It is difficult to select any thing from such multi- 
farious contents. But as a short thing of the most 
general interest I shall transcribe the list, (though 
imperfect) by Vicars, of those who fell on both sides. 

« Psalme Iviii. 10,11. 

" The righteous shall rejoice when he seeth God's 
vengeance on the wicked, and shall wash his feet in 
their blood ; so that a man shall say, verily there is 
a God that judge th the earth. 

" The Slaine on the King's side. 

1. The Earl of Lyndsey, the Lord Generall of the 

King's army that appeared in the field at first 
against the Parliament. 

2. The Lord George Stuart, being Lord of Aubignie 

in France. 

3. The Lord John Stuart^ 

4. The Lord Bernhard Stuart. All these three 

brave young Lords being of the bloud royall, 
and all three brothers to the Duke of Lenox. 



156 

5. The Earle of Northampton. 

6. The Earle of Denbig-h. 

7. The Earle of Carnarvan. 

8. The Earle of Sunderland. 

9. The Earle of Kingstone. 

10. The Earle of Strafford beheaded for treason on 

the Tower-hill. 

11. The Lord Grandison. 

12. The Lord Faulkland. 

13. The Lord Carey, son to the Earle of Monmouth. 

14. The Lord Ashton. 

15. The Marquesse of Viville, a French Lord. 

16. The Arch-Prelate of Canterbury beheaded for 

treason on Tower-Hill. 

17. General Cavendish. 

18. General Mynne. 

19. Sii* Edward Varney. 

20. Sir John Harper. 

21. Sir Bevill Green vill, son to the Marquesse of 

Hartfort. 

22. Sir George Bowles. 

23. Sir William Wentworth, brother to the Earl of 

Strafford. 

24. Sir Francis Dacres, neare Kinsman to the Lord 

Dacres. 

25. Sir William Lambton. 

26. Sir Marmaduke Loudson. 

27. Sir Thomas Metton. 

28. Monsieur Saint Paul, a French Gentleman. 

29. Sir Richard Goodhill. 

30. Sir Alexander Carew, beheaded for treason on 

the Tower-Hill. 



157 

31. Sir John Hothatn, beheaded also for treason on 

the Tower-Hill. | 

32. Sir Henry Gage. 

33. Sir William Crofts. 

34. Sir Thomas Nott. 1 

35. Sir Owen. i 

36. Sir Brian Stapleton. J 

37. Sir Francis Carnabie. ^ 

38. Sir Richard Hutton. J 

39. Col. Monroe. - I 

40. Col. Wane. \ 

41. Col. Ewers, nephew to the Lord Ewers. * j 

42. Col. Roper, brother to the Lord Baltinglasse. ' , ' 

43. Col. Slingsby, son to Sir William Slingsby. .] 
44* Col. Fenwick, eldest son to Sir John Fen wick. \ 

45. Col. Prideaux. ^ ^ 

46. Col. Atkins. ! 

47. Col. Marrow. ' 

48. Col. Baynes. 

49. Col. Conyers. 

50. Generall Goring's brothf^r. 

51. Col. Houghton, son to SirGilb. Houghton. 

52. Generall Goring's Quarter-Master-Gen. of ] 

Horse. 

53. Gen. Goring's Quarter-Master of Foot. 

54. Col. Phillips. ; 

55. Lieut,-Col. Ward. 

56. Lieut.- Col. Howard. 

57. Lieut.-Col. Bowles. | 

58. Lieut.-Col. Lisle. 

59. Lieut.-Col. Stony wood. 

60. Serjt.-Major Beaumont. I 

61. Serjt.-Maj. Purvey. ' 



158 

62. Serjt. Maj.-Smith. 

63. Serjt.-Maj. Lower. 

64. Serjt.-Maj. Wells. 

65. The Mayor of Preston, Mr. Adams. 

66. Major Heskith. 

67. Major Trevillian. 

68. Major Hatton Farmar. 

69. Major Pilkington. 

70. Major Duet. 

71. Major Heynes. 

72. Major Pollard. 

73. Captain Wray. 

74. Capt. Bins. 

75. Captain Houghton. 

76. Captain Hotham, beheaded on Tower-Hill. 

77. Captain Baggot. 

78. Captain James. 

79. Captain Cornishara. 

80. Captain Plunket. 

81. The King's Standard-bearer at that fight where 

and when the Earle of Northampton was 
slaine. 
S2. Sir John Smith, brother to the Lord Carrington. 

83. Dr. Weston, a Phisitian. 

84. An Earl, or such like eminent personage found 

slaine in the field at Nasebie fight, with a star 
and a red crosse upon his coat, but his name 
or title not known. 

85. Major Threave. 

86. Capt. Fry. 

87. Col. Billingsly. 

88. Captain Cottingham. 

89. Major Caft. 



159 

90. Six Priests slain in Bazing house. 

91. Lieut.-Col. Gardiner. 



The most eminent persons slaine on the ParliamenVs 
parti/^ since the beginning of these unhappie 
warres. 

1. The Lord St. John. 

2. The Lord Brooke. 

S. Sir William Fairfax, brother to the most noble 
and renowned Lord Fairfax. 

4. Sir John Meldrum. 

5. Major-Gen. Charles Fairfax, sonnetothe afore- 

said noble Lord Fairfax, and brother to our 
present most renowned Generall Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, slaine at Marstone- Moore fight. 

6. Col. Essex. 

7. Col. Hampden. 

8. Col. Tucker. 

9. Lieut.-Col. Ramsey. 

10. Serjt.-Major Quarles. 

11. Major Stawham, a brave Scottish Gent. 

12. Major Fitz-Simons. 

13. Major Bradbury. 

14. Major Jackson. 

15. Capt. Lacie. 

16. Capt. Hister. 

17. Capt. Nuttie. 

18. Capt. Massie. 

19. Capt. Hunt. 

20. Capt. Oglesby. 

21. Capt. WiUiams. 



160 

29. Captain Pue. 

23. Master Hugh Pophatn. 

24. Major Hajnes. 

25. Capt. Dove. 

26. Lieut.-Col. Ingoldsby. 

27. Cap. Allen. 

28. Maj. Francis Sydenham. 

29. Col. John Gunter.'' 

In Part III. p. 17, is a copy of " An Ordinance 
of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, 
touching the rebellion in Kent, dated " Die Mer- 
curii, August 16, 1643," in which " Sir Henry Tane 
senior, Sir John Sidley, Sir Anthony Welden, Sir 
Michael Levesey, Sir Henry Hey man, Mr. Nut, 
Mr. Augustine Skinner, Mr. Thomas Blunt, Mr. 
Thomas Franklin, Sir Edward Boyse, Mr. Brown, 
Sir William Springate, Sir Edward Master, Mr. 
John Boys, Mr. John Boyse, Sir Peter Wroth, Mr. 
Richard Lee, Sir Thomas Walsingham, Mr. Thomas 
Selyard, and Sir John Robarts, or any three of them, 
are appointed to seize upon the arms and horses of 
the loyalist insurgents." 

But it is not yet possible to detail in this work 
the various contents of these volumes. 



Art. CCLXXXIX. An Historical Discourse of 
the Uniformity/ of the Government of England, 
The First Part. From the first times till the 
reigne of Edward the Third, London, Printed 
for Matthew Walbanke at Grayes Inne Gate, 1647. 
4to. pp. 322, besides preliminaries and Table^ and 
an engraved frontispiece hy Marshall. Dedicated 



T61 

to Edward. Earl of Manchester, Speaker of the 
House of Peers ; and William Lenthall, Speaker 
of the House of Commons. 

This is the first edition of the celebrated treatise bj 
Nathaniel Bacon, of which the memory has been 
lately revived by the praises of Lord Chatham in 
the Letters published by Lord Grenville, (Lond. 
1804, duod.) who has also honoured the nearly 
obsolete author with this notice. 

Some time ago the present writer communicated 
some curious memoranda of Oldys regarding Bacon 
to the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. LXXl V. p. 807, 
to which he refers his readers. 

Lord Chatham's words are as follow flozforiai VI ni 

" I also recommend Nathaniel Bacon's Historical 
and Political Observations; it is, without exception, 
the best and most instructive book we have on 
matters of that kind. They are both to be read 
with much attention, and twice over; Oldcastle's 
remarks to be studied and almost got by heart for 
the inimitable beauty of the style, as well as the 
matter; Bacon for the matter chiefly; the style 
being uncouth, but the expression forcible and 
striking." 

Lord Grenville adds in a note, '^ This book, 
though at present little known, formerly enjoyed a 
very high reputation. It is written with a very 
different bias to the principles of the Parliamentary 
party, to which Bacon adhered; but contains a 
great deal of very useful and valuable matter. It 
was published in two parts, the first in I647J the 
second in 1651, and was secretly reprinted in 1672, 

VOL. lY. ' M 



and again in 1682 ; for which edition the publisher 
was indicted and outlawed. After the revolution a 
fourth edition was printed with an advertisement, 
asserting, on the authority of Lord Chief Justice 
Vaughan, one of Selden's executors, that the ground- 
work of this book was laid bj that great and learned 
man. And it is probably on the ground of this 
assertion, that in the folio edition of Bacon's book, 
printed in 1739, it is said in the title page to have 
been ^^coUected from some manuscript notes of John 
Selden £sq.'^ But it does not appear that this 
notion rests on any sufficient Evidence. It is, how- 
ever, manifest from some expressions in the very 
unjust and disparaging account given of this work 
in Nicholson's Historical library, (Part I. p. 150) 
that Nathaniel Bacon was generaUy considered as 
an imitator and follower of Selden." Ld, Chatham^ s 
Letters, p. 55. 



Art. CCXC. The Court and Character of King 
Jamesy written and taken hy Sir A, W, being an 
eye and eare witnesse. Qui nescit dissimulare^ 
nescit regnare. Published by authority, London, 
Printed by R. J, and are to he sold at the King^s 
Head in the Old Baily 1650. Duod. pp. 197. 

Again, 1651, 8vo. " dedicated to Lady Elizabeth 
Sedley, to which is added 1. The Court of King 
Charles, continued unto these unhappy times. 
Q, Observations, instead of a character upon this 
King from his childhood. 3. Certain Observation^ 
before Q. Elizabeth's death." 



163 

Art. CCXCl. Aulicus Coquinaricc, or a Vindtcu' 
Hon in answer to Sir Antlwmj Wddon's Pamphlet, 
called " The Court and Character of King James,''^ 
Sfc, London, 1650. Svo, 

This is attributed to William Sanderson. For a 
full account of Weldon and Sanderson, and these 
two volumes, see " Memoirs of King James's 
Peers," * p. 106, &c. 

Francis Osborn was born in 1558. ' He was de- 
scended from the Osborns of Chicksand in Bedford- 
shire, now represented by General Sir George 
Osborn, Bart. On the breaking out of the civil 
wars he sided with the Parliament. He died Feb. 
11, 1659, aged about 70. t 



Art. CCXCII. Historical Memoir es of the reigns 
of Queen Elizabeth and King James. Bi/ Francis. 
Osborn, Esq. 1658. Svo. 

Also in his works, of which the seventh edition 
appeared in 1673, Svo. 



Art. CCXCIII. Memoires of the reign of King 
Charles I. Containing the most remarkable OC' 
currences of that reign, and setting many secret 
passages thereof in a clear light. With impartial 
characters of many great persons on both sides, who 
chiefly governed the counsels and actions of that 
scene of affairs. Together with a continuation to 
the happy Restauration of King Charles II. By 

* Lond. 1802, Svo. f Biog. Diet XL 348. 

m2 



164 

Sir Philip Warwick, Knight. Published from 
the Original Manuscript with an Alphabetical 
Table. The Third Edition. London. Printed 
for Ri. Chiswell, and sold by John Pero, at the 
White Swan in Little Brittain. 1703. Svo. pp. 
437. 

Art. CCXCIV. Memoirs of the two last years of 
the reign of that unparallelled prince, of ever Messed 
memory, King Charles I. By Sir Thomas Her- 
bert, Major Huntington, Col. Edward Coke, and 
Mr. Henry Firebrace. With the character of that 
blessed Martyr. By the Reverend Mr. John 
Diodati, Mr. Alexander Henderson, and the au* 
thor of the Princely Pelican. To which is added, 
The death-bed Repentance of Mr. Lenthal, Speaker 
of the Long Parliament ; extracted out of a letter 
written from Oxford, Sept. 1663. London. Printed 
for Robert Clavell, at the Peacock at the west end 
of St. PauPs. 1702. Svo. pp. 303. 

Sir Philip Warwick, whose portrait by R. White 
is prefixed to these Memoirs, was son of Thomas 
Warwick, organist of St. Peter's Westminster ; and 
was educated at Eton School, and afterwards at 
Geneva, under the celebrated Diodati. He was 
afterwards Secretary to the Earl of Southampton 
in the office of the Treasury : he died 15 Jan. 1682. 
His Memoirs being eminent for their candour and 
integrity, retain their reputation. * 

♦ Granger, IV. 66. See an original Memoir of Sir Philip, with a 
portrait, in Gent. Mag. Vol. LX. p. 781, copied into Biogr. Diet. 
Vol. XV. p. 216. 



165 
Before this volume is the following address 
« To the Reader. 

*' These Memoirs were written bj a gentleman of 
great integrity and wisdom, who by means of his 
stations and employments under King Charles the 
first, of blessed memory, and near attendance on his 
person, had great opportunities of knowing the 
most considerable occurrences of those times, with 
the secret springs by which they moved : as also 
the characters of the persons that were most con- 
cerned and active in them. 

<' And as the vindicating of the cause and actions 
of his Royal Master and his friends, and to do right 
truth, were the great inducements to his writing 
these remarks: so to rectify mistakes, and rescue 
the memory of that injured Prince from the false 
imputations and indignities, that have been cast 
upon him by prejudiced and malicious men, is the 
cause of this publication. 

" More is not needful to be said, than to assure 
the world, that these Papers are genuine, and 
published from the author's original manuscripts, 
by a faithful friend, with whom they were intrusted. 
Except I may have leave to add that, as the au- 
thor wrote with freedom according to his genius 
and principles, so 'tis hoped he will be read with 
candour and just allowance by all gentlemen of 
what sentiments soever." 

The book was edited by Dr. Thomas Smith, the 
learned writer concerning the Greek church. It 
first appeared in 1701. 



m 

Sir Thomas Herbert, Bart, was son of Christopher 
Herbert, son of Thomas Herbert, Alderman of 
York, descended by a younger son from Sir Thomas 
Herbert of Colebrooke, in Monmouthshire, Kt. 
He was born in Yorkshire, entered of Jesus 
College, Oxford, 1621, thence taken under the 
patronage of his relation William Earl of Pembroke. 
Hence he was sent to travel in Asia, and Africa ; 
and, on his return, published " A relation of some 
years* Travels into Africa and the greater Asia, 
especially the territories of the Persian Monarchy 
and some parts of the Oriental Indies and isles 
adjacent. Lond. 1634, 1638, &c. 1677," Fol. which 
is the fourth impression, wherein many things are 
added, not in the former.* In the Rebellion he 
adhered to the cause of the Parliament ; and when 
the Parliament Commissioners in 1647 removed the 
King's own servants from about his person at Hold- 
enby, Mr. Thomas Herbert was with Mr. James 
Harrington received as Groom of his Majesty's 
Bedchamber. In that employment he continued 
to serve, with great fidelity and affection, till his 
royal master was, to the horror of all the world, 
brought to the block. 

Mr. Herbert was created a Baronet 3 July 1660, 
and died 1 March 1681, aged 76. He married 1st 
Lucia daughter of Sir Walter Alexander, by whom 
he had Sir Henry, his successor, and other chil- 
dren. His second wife was Elizabeth daughter 
of Sir Gervase Cutler of Stainborough, in York- 
shire, Kt.+ 

* Wood's Ath. II. 691. 

t See Wood's Ath. II. 690, where are long extracts from his letters 



167 

These Memoirs contain the following passages in 
the Advertisement to the reader. 

" There having been of late years several Me- 
moirs printed and published relating to the lives 
and actions of the Royal Martyr, King Charles I. 
of ever blessed memory ; it was judged a proper 
and seasonable time to publish Sir Thomas Her- 
bert's Carolina Threnodia under the title of his 
Memoirs ; there being contained in this book the 
most material passages of the two last years of 
the life of that excellent and unparallelled Prince, 
which were carefully observed and related by the 
author in a large answer of a letter wrote to him 
by Sir William Dugdale. In the same book is 
printed Major Huntington's Relation made to Sir 
William of sundry particulars relating to the King ; 
ds also Col. Edward Coke's and Mr. Henry Fire- 
brace's Narratives of several memorable passages 
observed by them during their attendance on him 
at Newport in the Isle of Wight, Ann. 48. All these 
were copied from a Manuscript of the Right Re- 
verend, the Bishop of Ely, lately deceased ; and, as 
I am credibly informed, a copy of the several 
originals is now to be seen amongst the Dugdale 
Manuscripts in Oxford Library. 

*^ To these Memoirs are added two or three small 
tracts, which give some account of the affairs of 
those times ; of the character of King Charles I. 
and of his just claim and title to his " divine Me- 
ditations." These having been printed An. 46, 48, 

regarding the last years of Ch. I. nearly, if not quite, in the same 
words as were afterwards published in the Memoirs. See also an 
abridged Memoir of Herbert, Biogr. Diet. VIII. 68. 



• 168 

49, and very scarce and difficult to procure, were 
thought fit to be reprinted for public service. 

" As to the letter, which gives an account of Mr. 
Lenthal's carriage and behaviour on his death-bed, 
it was twice printed An. 62, and the truth of it 
attested by the learned Dr. Dickenson, now living 
in St. Martin's Lane," &c. 



Herbert's Memoirs end at p. 150, then begins 
" The Relation which Major Huntington made to 
me Sir William Dugdale, Knight, Garter Prin- 
cipal King of Arms, in the month of June, Anno 
1679, of sundry particulars relating to King 
Charles 1. of Messed memory. This ends at p. 163. 

Then follows " A Narrative made by Mr. Edward 
Cooke of Highnam, in the County of Gloucester, 
who was Colqnel of a Regiment under Oliver 
Cromwell then called Protector, containing cer- 
tain passages relating to our late Sovereign King 
Charles I, of blessed memory, which happened at 
Newport in the Isldof Wight, upon the 29th of 
Not). Anno 164.8. 

At p. 185 begins " The copy of a Letter to Sir George 
Lane, Knight, Secretary to the Duke of Ormond, 
written by Mr. Thomas Firebrace, Clerk of the 
Kitchen to his Majesty King Charles II. contain- 
ing a narrative of certain particulars relating to his 
Majesty King Charles I. during the time that he 
attended on his Majesty at Newport, in the Isle of 
Wight, Anno 1648, which letter beareth date at 
Whitehall, July 21, 1675. 



169 

Next is at p. 201, " An Answer sent to the Ecclesi- 
astical Assemhly at London^ hy the r&oerendj noble, 
and learned man, John Deodatey the famous pro- 
fessor of Divinity^ and most vigilant pastor of Ge- 
neva, Translated out of Latin into Englishy 
First printed at Geneva 1646. 

Then at p. 223, " The Declaration of Mr, Alex- 
ander Henderson, principal Minister of the Word 
of God at Edinburgh, and Chief Commissioner 
from the Kirk of Scotland to the Parliament and 
Synod of England, made upon his death-bed." 
First printed 1648. 

At p. 241 is " The Princely Pelican, Royal Re- 
solves presented in sundry choice observations ex- 
tracted from his Majesty's Divine Meditations, 
With satisfactory reasons to the whole kingdom, 
that his sacred person was the only author of them J^ 

vvFirst printed 1649. 

Lastly, at p. 300, " Speaker Lenthal, his Death- 
bed repentance" 

Art. CCXCV. A Detection of the Court and State 
of England during the reigns of K, James I, 
Charles I, Charles II. and James II. as also the 
Inter-regnum. Consisting of private Memoirs, 
S^c, with observations and reflections. Wherein are 
many secrets never before made public : as also a 
more impartial account of the Civil Wars in Eng- 
land, than has yet been given. By Roger Coke, 
Esq. The fourth edition, continued through the 
reigns of King William and Queen Mary, and to 
the death of Queen Anne, In three volumes. 



170 

London, Printed for J, Brotherton and W, Mea* 
dows^ at the Black Bull in CornhilL 1719. Svo. 
First printed in 2 vols. 1697. 

Art. CCXCYI. Memoirs of the most material 

Transactions in England for the last Hundred 

years preceding the Revolution in 1688. By James 

Welxooodj M, D. Fellow of the Colledge of Physi^ 

ciansy London, — London. 1700. Svo. 

Art. CCXCVll. The Secret History of TFkite^ 
hall, from the Restoration of Charles II. down to 
the abdication of the late K. James. Writ at the 
request of a noble Lord, and conveyed to him in 

letters, by late Secretary- Interpreter to 

the Marquess of Louvois, who by that means had 
the perusal of all the private minutes between Eng» 
land and France for many years. The whole con' 
sisting of Secret Memoirs, which have hitherto lain 
concealed, as not being discoverable by any other 
hand. Publish* d from the original papers. By 
D. Jones, Gent. London. Printed and are to 
be sold by R. Baldwin, near the Oxford Arms Inn 
in Warwick Lane, 1697. 8t)o. 2 vols, in one, 
pp. 144 and 1 10. 

James Welwood, M. D. was born at Edinburgh 
IQb^, and educated at Glasgow; after which he 
$pent some years at Leyden in the study of physic, 
and came ovier with King William at the Revolution. 
He then settled at Edinburgh, being appointed one 
of the King's Physicians for Scotland. He died 
1716. He was strongly attached to republican prin- 
ciples, as sufficiently appears in his Memoirs, which 



171 

are otherwise well written.* Roger Coke was 
grandson of Lord Chief Justice Sir Edward Coke, 
by his fourth son. He had his education at Cam- 
bridge, became well versed in several parts of learn- 
ing, and wrote a Treatise against Hobbs's Levia- 
than. He afterwards engaged in commerce, but ex- 
celled more in the theory than the practice; for he 
fell into distresses ; and retained little more for his 
support than an annuity of an hundred pounds a 
year paid out of the family estate; so that he lived 
for some years within the rules of the Fleet, and 
died single about the 77th year of his age.t 

It has been remarked, that Coke's and Daniel 
Jones's volumes contain " a sort of secret history, 
engaging to an Englishman, naturally inquisitive, 
curious, and greedy of scandal."^ 

Art. CCXCVIII. The Compleat Historj/ of Inde- 
pendency. Upon the Parliament begun 1640. 
By Clem, Walker^ Esq. Continued till this pre' 
sent year 1 660 / which fourth part was never before 
published. Horat. Spe Metuque procul. London. 
Printed for Henry Brome at the Gun in Ivy Lane^ 
1661. 4^o.§ 

This curious volume consists of four parts, which 
were originally published at different periods, and 
has a print, by way of frontispiece, well known to 
collectors, and much valued by them, representing 

* Biogr. Diet. XV. 233. 
t Apology to the Reader before the 4th Edit, of his Detection. 
J Du Fresnoy's Method of studying History, by Rawlinson, II. 476. 
§ Kennet'8 Register says " Sould by Richard Ijyundsy 1660." 



172 

'« The Rojall Oake of Brittayne" submitting to the 
axes of the rebels, and the portrait of Cromwell, 
encouraging them^ in the comer, standing upon a 
globe, on which are the words " Locus lubricus;" 
and under it " Inspiratio diabolica," &c. &c. 

Part I. consists of pp. 174; then follows '' An Ap- 
pendix to the History of independency.^ being a 
brief description of some few of Ar gyle's proceed- 
ings., before and since he joined in canfederacy with 
the Independent Junto in England : with a Parallel 
betwixt him and Cromwell.^ and a Caveat to all his 
seduced Aherents, London, Printed for R. Roys- 

■ ton ^ at the Angel in Ix)ie Lane " 1661. /7p. 18. 

The title of the Second Part is " Anarchia Angli- 
cana: or the History of Independency. The 
Second Part. Being a Continuation of relations 

' and observations historical and politick upon this 

■ present Parliament begun Anno 16 Caroli Primi, 
By Theodorus Verax. London. Printed for R, 
Roy stony' S^c. as before, pp. 262. 

The Third Part is entitled " The High Court of 
Justice, or CromwePs New Slaughter-house in 
En gland .t with the authority that constituted and 
ordained it, arrained, convicted, and condemned, for 
usurpation, treason, tyranny, theft, and murder. 
Being the Third Part of the History of Indepen- 
dency, written by the same author. London,^' S^C' 
as before, pp. 58. 

The Fourth Part is entitled " The History of Inde- 
pendency. The fourth and last part. Continued 
from the death of his late Majesty King Charls the 
first of happy memory, till the deatheofthe chief of 



173 

that Juncto. By T, M, Esquire, a lover of his 
King and Country. London. Printed for H. 
Brome at the Gun in Ivie Lane ,- and H, Marsh 
at the Princess Arms in Chancery Lane. 1660." 
pp. 124. 

Before the Second Part is the following address to 
the Reader. 

" Reader, having spoken to thee in the First 
Part, 1 might have forborn thee in this Second, did 
I not fear to seem guilty of the sullenness and malig- 
nity of these times. The subject matter of my book 
is a combination or Faction of Pseudo-Politicians, 
and Pseudo-Theologicians, Hereticks, and Schis- 
matics, both in divinity and policy, ,who having sa- 
crificed to their fancies, lusts, ambitions, and avarice, 
both their God and religion, their king and country, 
our laws, liberties, and properties, all duties, di- 
vine and human, are grown so far in love with their 
prosperous sins, as to entitle God himself to be the 
father and author of them ; from whose written word 
and revealed will, held forth to us in the scriptures 
as the only north-pole and cynosure of our actions, 
where they find no warrant for their doing, they ap- 
peal to the secret will and providence of God, to 
which they most Turkishly and Heathenishly ascribe 
all their enormities, only because they succeed : and 
from that abyss of God's providence draw secondary 
principles of necessity and honest intentions, to build 
the Babel of their confused designs and actions upon ; 
not considering that wicked men perform the secret 
will of God to their damnation ; as good men do the 
known will of their Father to their salvation. 
" If a man be sick to death, and his son wish him 



174 

dead, this is sin in the son, although his desire con- 
cur with the secret will of God; because the son 
ought to desire the preservation of his father's life, 
whereto the will of God revealed in his word 
obligeth him : & vivendum secundum praecepta, non 
secundum decreta Dei. The secret will and provi- 
dence of God can be no rule and law of our actions, 
because we know it not; nor can search into it with- 
out presumption: we must not therefore altum 
sapere; think ourselves too wise, and well gifted to 
tie ourselves to the scriptures of God ; and lust after 
revelations and inspirations, expecting God should 
rain bread from heaven for us : ( Manna, Exod, xvi. 4.) 
but be wise unto sobriety. But prosperum scelus 
virtus vocatur. Thus casting off the written word 
of God, unless where by an inforced interpretation 
they can squeeze atheism and blasphemy out of it, as 
they do sometimes rack treason, murder, and non- 
sense out of our laws, .and parliament-priviledges, 
conducible to their ends, they insensibly cast off 
God himself, and make themselves the supreme cause 
and finall end, the Alpha and Omega, of all their 
doings, whilst they use the hidden and unsearchable 
providence of God but as a disguise and visard to 
mask under, like Coelius the atheist in Martial. 
Prosperity is become a snare to them, and a topick 
place, out of which they draw arguments to satisfy 
themselves there is no God, no religion, but a pru- 
dential one to fool the people with. 

Nullos esse Deos, inane Ccelum, 

Aifirmat Coelius, probatque, 

Quod sp videt, dum negat haec, beatum. 

^ But O wretched, unholied men ! What are they 



176 

that thus commit burglary in the Sanctum Sanctorum 
of God's providence? That presume, not only toprjr 
into, but to thrust their hands polluted with blood 
and rapine into God's mysterious ark ? 

" Thus much for the subject matter. For the 
manner of my writing, 1 confess, as to its style it is 
not aequabile scribendi genus, all of one weaving 
and contexture: it is a history writ with a satirick 
style and vein : 



, nam quis iniqui 

Tarn patiens orbis, tarn ferreus ut teneat se ? 

It is a virtue to hate and prosecute vice. The Scrip- 
ture tells us there is a perfect hatred, a holy anger. 
And our Chaucer tells us, ' The words must be of 
kynn unto the deeds;' otherwise how can they be ex- 
pressive enough? I detest ' vitia pulcherrime man- 
gonizata;' vice tricked up in virtue's raiment; and 
prostituted under her modest dress to stir up 
adulterers. 

Quicquid agunt homines, nostri est farrago libelli. 
A huge galimaufry, an oglio of all villainies I here 
set before thee : it cannot be all of one dressing and 
seasoning, it must be a mixture, a hogo of all 
relishes ; like manna in the wilderness, it must be 
applicable to all palates. 

" Wherefore according to the variety of every sub- 
ject-matter, vel ridenti rideo, vel flenti fleo ; 1 be- 
come all things to all men ; I assimilate my affections 
and humors to every man's humor as well as to the 
present theam ; that 1 may take every man by the 
right hand and lead him out of this Ur of the Chal- 
deans, this land of ^gypt, this house of bondage 



176 

in judgment and conscience, though not in person 
and estate: which must only be the mighty handy 
work of that God, who is able to divide the Red 
Sea, and give us a safe march through it upon dry 
land. 

" Which that he would vouchsafe to do, let us all 
join our hearty prayers : and that we may instrumen- 
tally serve him in it, let us aU join our heads, hearts 
and hands together, since God neglects faint-hearted 
and cowardly prayers : let us not lie in the ditch, 
and cry, " God help us;" but let us help God to help 
us ; and keep cor unum, viam unaro, in the doing 
of it!" 

Art. CCXCIX. Boscobel, or the compleat Historj/ 
of His Sacred Majesties most Miraculous Preserv- 
ation after the Battle of Worcester, 3 Sept, 1651. 
Introduced by an exact Relation of that Battle \ 
and illustrated with a Map of the City, The 
. Third Edition with Additions. 

Hear this, ye old men, and give ear all ye inhabitants of 
the land : has this been in your days, or in the days of 
your fathers? Joel, i. 2. 

London, Printed hy M. Clarke^ and to he sold by 
H. Brome, and C. Harper^ at their shops in S. 
PauVs Churchyard and Fleetstreet, 1680. 12mo, 
1st Part, 81 Pages, The Second Part, styled the 
second stage of the Royal Progress, is dated 1681. 
90 Pages. 

This volume, which is dedicated to the King, by 
Tho. Blount, Esq. is ornamented with (1.) an en- 
graving of his Majesty by Van Houe. (2.) An exact 



177 

Ground Plot of the City of Worcester, a« it stood 
fortify'd 5 Sept. 1651. (3.) View of Boscobel House, 
White Ladies, the Royal Oak, &c. &c. (4.) En- 
graving of arms, in which the Royal Oak is intro- 
duced, (proper, in a field Or, a fess gules, charged 
with three regal crowns of the second; hy the name of 
Carlos. And for his crest, a civic crown, or oaken gar- 
land, with a swordand scepter crossed through it saltier* 
wise) granted by the King to Colonel William Carlis, 
who vvas born at Brom-hall in Staffordshire, within 
two miles of Boscobel. (5.) Frontispiece to the 
second part by Van Houe, representing some of the 
principal events. Subjoined is a small treatise of 
90 passes, entitled Claustrum Regale Reseratum, or 
the King's Concealment at Trent, published by 
A. W. 1681. 

I.S.C. 

This account was first published 1660, in 8vo. and 
translated into French and Portuguese ; the latter 
by Peter Gilford, of White Ladies in Staffordshire, 
a Roman Catholic. 

Thomas Blount, the author, was son of Myles 
Blount of Orleton, in Herefordshire, and was edu- 
cated to the law in the Temple, where he became a 
Barrister. He published several other works, of 
which one. The Art of making Devises will be here- 
after noticed. The rest are recorded in A. Wood's 
Ath. IL 73. He died at Orleton, 26 Dec. 1679. 

Full extracts from this Boscobel are given in the 
Addenda to Lord Clarendon's History, on which 
account they are omitted here. 

VOL. IV. N 



AiiT. CCC. The Idol of the Clownes, or Insurrection 
of Wat the Tt/ler^ with his fellow Kings of the 
Commons^ against the English Church, the King, 
the Lawes, Nobility and Gentry, in the fourth 
Yeare of King Richard the Second, Anno 1381. 

Nulla Tyrannis vel quieta est vel diuturna. 

tdOndon, Printed in the Year 1654. 



Thi» curious little volume details some events, 
Exactly resembling those dreadful scenes, which 
took place in France during the revolution : and 
the reflections of the writer, after what has passed 
in our days, carry with them peculiar force. 

" To the Reader. 

♦ [Extract from the conclusion.] 

" What I relate here (to speak something of the 
story) 1 collect out of Sir John Froissart, a French- 
man, living in the times of King Edward the Third, 
and his grandchild, K. Rich, who had seen England 
in both reigns, was known and esteemed in the court, 
and came last ov€r after these turn ults were appeased ; 
and out of Thomas of Walsingham, a monk of S. 
Albans, in Henry the Sixth's dayes : who (sayes 
Bale, in his Centuries of him) writes many the most 
choice passages of affairs, and actions, such as no 
other hath met with. In the main, and to the sub- 
stance of things, I have made no additions, no al- 
terations. I have faithfully followed my authors, 
who were not so historically exact as I could wi«h, 
nor could I much better what did not please nae in 



179 

tlieir order. No man, (sayes Walsingliam,) can 
recite fully the mischeifes, murders, sacriledge, and 
cruelty of these actors ; he excuses his digesting^ 
them upon the confusion of the combustions flaming 
in such variety of places, and in the same time. 
Tyler, Litster, and those of Hartfordshire, take 
up the most part of the discourse ; Westbrome is 
brought in by halves; the lesser snakes are onely 
named in the chronicle : what had been more, had 
not been to any purpose ; those were but types of 
Tyler the idol, and acted nothing but according to 
tho Originall; according to his great example, they 
were Wolves alike, and he that reads one knows all; 
Thomas of Becket, Simon of Montfort ; the English 
Catiline, Thomas of Lancaster; Rebels and Trai- 
tors of the former yeares, are canonised by the Monks 
(generally the enemies of their kings.) Miracles make 
their tombs illustrious, and their memories sacred. 
The Idoll and his Incendiaries are abhorred every 
where, every history detests them. While Faith, 
Civility, Honesty and Piety, shall be left in the 
World, the enemies of all these must neither be be- 
loved, norpittied." 

I. S. C. 

A fix. CCCI. The Secret Correspondence of Sir 
Robert Cecil with James VI, King of Scotland. 
Now first published. Edinburgh. Printed for A. 
Millar, in the Strand. London. MDCCLXVL 
Duod. pp. 235. 

This was one of the publications of Sir David 
Dalrymple, Bart. * Lord Hailes; and, for some 

* Sir David also published *' Memorials and Letters of British 
N 9 



180 

reason or other, does not often occur ih modern ca- 
talogues. At least I was not successful in procuring 
a copy, when I was compiling the " Memoirs of 
Peers of James I. ;" and only lately met with it in 
the library of a near relation. 

Its contents are singularly curious and important. 
They add tenfold confirmation to the duplicity, ar- 
tifice, and intrigue, of Sir Robert Cecil. And 
though, in the opinion of many, they may not detract 
from his ability, they must fill all virtuous minds 
with a horror of his selfish, and ungenerous, 
character. 

The number of the letters is sixteen, of which the 
first contains King James's Instructions to the Earl 
of Marr and Mr. Edward Bruce, his ambassadors 
at the Court of Queen Elizabeth. The ninth is 
also a letter from this Monarch to Lord Henry 
Howard, (afterwards Earl of Northampton). The 
rest are all from Lord Henry Howard, (Cecil's instru- 
ment,) to King James, the Earl of Marr, and Mr. 
Edward Bruce. 

The principal purpose of this correspondence was 
evidently to ingratiate Cecil, and the Letter- Writer^ 
with the rising Sun, and to destroy all opinion and 
favour of their enemies and rivals. The primary ob- 
jects of their hatred and fear were Raleigh, Cobham, 
and Northumberland, which at once takes away all 

History, temp. Jam. I. and Charles L 2 vols. Glasar. 1766." Sir 
David was born at Edinburgh, 28 Oct. 1726 j educated at Eton 
school, and Utrecht; called to the Scotch bar, 1748 j and a Judge 
of Session 1766, with the title of Lord Hailes. Ho died 29 Nov. 
1792, aet. 66, and was, the author of ipany valuable publications, 
especially historical. 



181 

the surprise, felt or affected, at the hard circum* 
stances, and real or fictitious treasons, in which 
they were involved, soon after King James's acces- 
sion to the throne of England. The intrigues, 
which these ill-starred men were carrying on to gain 
the expectant monarch's countenance, were in them, 
according to Cecil, flagrant crimes ; though, in him- 
self, a similar conduct was virtuous. Strange 
effrontery ! when in him, the most confidential mi- 
nister of Queen Elizabeth, it was the highest breach 
of trust ; in them, I know not that it was even 
blameable ! 

How much then have we reason to doubt that mys- 
terious conspiracy, which has been called Raleigh's 
plot! How fairly may we be sceptical, as to the jus- 
tice of the punishment inflicted on Northumberland, 
for a supposed privity to the Gunpowder Treason ! 
And will it be uncandid, to suspect that these accu- 
sations were but final strokes of that malice, which 
Cecil had long been pursuing against these sufferers ? 

Northumberland expressed his astonishment at 
the heavy judgments which had fallen on him, after 
the active attachment he conceived that he had shewn 
to King James's succession, and the favourable light 
in which he consequently believed himself to stand 
with that monarch. But he had not penetrated the 
dissimulation, and the dark cabals, of Cecil, who all 
this time had been representing him as at once dan- 
gerous and contemptible; so that the Sovereign's 
bosom had long been prepared to receive the worst 
impressions of him. 

Raleigh had, unhappily for the purity of his own 
character, joined Cecil in the fall of Essex. The 



182 

accomplices of ^ guilty deed can seldom continue 
their amity long. He fell himself by the swing of 
that power, which he had contributed to strengthen, 
for the destruction of others ! The crooked Secretary, 
more crooked still in his soul than in his body, no 
longer required the aid of a mind so bold and ro* 
mantic as Raleigh's. He could not endure, there- 
fore, that he should participate with him the smiles 
of the future possessor of the throne. Raleigh, it 
has been said, made an equal attempt against Cecil ; 
and if so, he, who was successful, it might naturally 
be expected, would crush his opponent: but of this 
I do not find satisfactory evidence in these letters. 
Lord Henry Howard no where, that I can recollect, 
hints at, or endeavours to obviate, personal preju- 
dices so disseminated against his patron or himself. 
He throvvs the foulest abuse on the general charac- 
ters of R'dieigh and Cobham ; he calls them " those 
wicked villains;"* " that accursed duality ;"t " who 
hover in the air for an advantage, as kites do for 
carrion;":]: and says that " hell did never spew up 
such a couple, when it cast up Cerberus and Phle- 
^ethon."|| Nay, while they are represented un» 
worthy ofcon^dence, inconstant and pursuing only 
their own interests, they are accused of applying to 
Cecil himself to aid their influence, first with King 
James, and, on this not succeeding, with Queen 
Elizabeth ; applications inconsistent with a belief in 
this charge; for, surely, the mighty spirit of Raleigh 
eould never have descended to solicit the good offices 
of him, whose destruction he was plotting. 

But the reader shall judge for himself, by the inser- 
tion of some of the passages alluded to. 

♦ p. 35. tP.66. J P. 88. §P. 132. 



183 

^ I gave you notice," says Lord Henry Howard to 
Mr. £dw. Bruce, in his third letter, " of the diabo- 
lical triplicity, that is, Cobhara, Raleigh, and Nor- 
thumberland, that met every day at Durham House, 
where Raleigh lies in consultation, which awaked 
all the best wits of the town, out of suspicions of 
sundry kinds, to watch what chickens they would 
hatch out of these cockatrice eggs, that were daily 
and nightly sittenon."* — " Cobham, finding how im- 
possible it is to cut the sinews of Cecil's motion in 
our estate; and that, like a raging billow, he doth 
rather break himself than the rock against which he 
beats," &c. " either turned within five days after, 
or at the least seemed to turn another leaf; and 
taking the advantage of the fitness of time, wherein 
he was appointed to ac«ompany the Duke [of 
Lenox] at his last going to the Queen, brake with 
him, touching the conceit which many hold of his 
affection to King James; and, as himself hath since 
imparted with his own mouth to Cecil, both excused 
himself of imputations past, and vowing future 
affection, which is almost miraculous." Lord Henry 
then gives " the reasons which Cobham vouched of 
his insinuation to King James." f But " Cecil knew, 
by certain late courses undertaken, that these were 
not the motives of his revolution, (though they 
might move a reasonable man,) but colourably laid 
together by Raleigh, that his purpose might be bet- 
ter covered and carried. ":f 

'' Cecil answered to Cobham's plain confession^ 
that he made a great adventure if King James were 

♦ p. 29 tP-39, 40. tP.42* 



181^ 

either malicious or humorous, considering his ordi- 
nary axiom, both since the death of Essex and be- 
fore, delivered with passion, and often openlv, that 
it was not possible for any man to be a lojal subject 
to his gracious mistress, that respected King James 
in any degree, either present or future. Cobhara 
said, that such fervent speeches were effects of zeal, 
and so to be interpreted. Cecil said that he would 
neither make nor meddle with his course, but he had 
done that which he would not adventure for his state, 
but hoped that her Majt sty should outlive him ; and 
after her, setting aside conscience, which ought ever 
to favour right, he was indifferent which way soever 
it should please God to dispose of the monarchy. 
This cold answer pleased not ; but there was no 
further help, where caution had sealed up secrecy. 

"The very npxt day Raleigh came to him with 
the same brave flourishes of confidence and love, but 
touching the main point more reservedly ; for he de- 
nied any kind of proffer of devotion or kind affection 
to have been made to King James from him by the 
Duke, but protested, that the Duke had sent ear- 
nestly to crave conference with him privately, which 
he had denied with a gallant answer, that he had 
been over deeply eng-aged and obliged to his own 
mistress to seek favour any where, and seemed in a 
sort, to take the motion unkindly, that should either 
divert his eye, or diminish his sole respect to his own 
Sovereign. Cecil answering, that he did well, and 
as himself would have made answer, if the like offer 
had been made ; Raleigh, without any long dissi- 
mulation, went roundly to the point, desiring Cecil 
to let the Queen know the particular^ what had been 



185 

offered, what answered. From this course Cecil 
dissuaded him by many reasons ; as, that the Queen 
would rather mark a weakness that ^ve the Duke 
encouragement, than praise his resolution. Again, 
that it would be thought a motive only to pick a 
thank, and in the present by dishonour, and in the 
future by danger, do more hurt than it could ever 
do hira good any way." * 

" If the Duke [of Lenox] crave traffic with these 
gallants of intelligence by correspondency of King 
James, Cecil desires him not to yield to it in any 
sort; for the first beginning King James may find 
that their intentions are traitorous, and only seek, 
like syrens, by sweet songs, to draw those pas- 
sengers within the compass of their danger, whom 
they would work upon for private use, and desire 
to devour most eagerly." + 

Soon after follows a threat, which proves Cecil's 
confidence in his own power over King James. 
" You must persuade the King, in his next dispatch, 
to direct you to thank Cecil in the letter which you 
write to me, for the liglit he receives of Cobham and 
Raleigh by this advertisement; and if it please his 
Majesty to speak of them suitably to the concert 
which Cecil holds, it will be the better ; for Cecil 
sware to me this day, that duo erinacii, that is, he 
and they, would never live under one apple-tree. 
The thing which Cecil would have me print in the 
King's mind, is the miserable state of Cobham and 
Raleigh, who are fain to put their heads under the 
girdle of him whom they envy most, and that they 

* p. 46—48. f P. 49. 



cannot escape his walk with all their agility; which, 
if you seem in your letter by the King's direction 
to observe, you tickle the right humour.* 

" Raleigh and Cobham, as they vaunt themselves, 
have agreed with the Duke to further all the plots 
that shall be recommended hither, and returned 
back with a new crest for the weakening of you + and 
Mr. Bruce ; whom they give out to be opposite to 
the Duke, in seeking to hold King James at the 
Queen's devotion, and to draw him all they can 
from having a good conceit of the Queen, or her 
chief counsellers of state, resenting still the death of 
Essex, and desiring, for revenge, the state's con- 
fusion. Cecil knows all this, and makes the better 
sport; because he hears that all their flattery to 
him, is only to incense him against you and Mr. 
Bruce, and to draw the King by compliments from 
hence, to entertain both there and here new fol- 
lowers and favourites. Your Lordship may be- 
live, that hell did never spew up such a couple, 
when it cast up Cerberus and Phlegethon. They 
are now set on the pin of making tragedies, by 
meddling in your affairs; since among us, longer 
than they follow the Queen's humour in disclaiming 
and disgracing honest men, their credit serves them 
not. For my Lord Admiral [Nottingham] the other 
day wished from his soul, that he had but the same 
commission to carry the cannon to Durham-House, 
that he had this time twelvemonth to carry it to 
Essex house, to prove what sport he could make in 
that fellowship." f 

* p. 52. t Lord Marr. t P. 131—133. 



187 

Sept. 1602. ^' In this place all is quiet, and hath 
ever been without disturbance, since Cobham by 
sickness, and Raleigh by directions, were absent 
from court : for though Northumberland, to main- 
tain life in the party, were directed by them to 
attend the progress, yet his head is so shallow, and 
his friends are so (ew, as he was not able to make 
good the first point of their project, which was to 
give intelligence, much less to carry the Sovereign. 
Being weary of ill lodgings, in respect of his patched 
body, he made a sudden retreat, and now means to 
go down to visit his Damon Raleigh, who is come 
from his stand in Dorsetshire, which hath angered 
the Queen exceedingly, because he did it without 
premonition of his purpose, for fear of a counter- 
mand ; so gracious doth his own conscience hold 
him at this instant with her Majesty."* 

The opinion of Sir John Harington, the poet, as 
it is recorded in the Nuga Antiquae, is worthy of 
attention on the subject of Raleigh's character, + 
as it was written by one not ill inclined to Cecil, 
and of undoubted sagacity, and knowledge of the 
world. It is contained in a letter to Dr. John Still, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1603. 

*' I doubt not but some state business is well-nigh 
begun, or to be made out ; but these matters pertain 
not to me now. I much fear for my good Lord 
Grey and Raleigh. I hear the plot was well nigh 
accomplished, to disturb our peace, and favour 

♦ p. 229. 

t A new Life of Sir Walter Raleigh has lately been published by 
Mr. A. Cayley ; but, as I have not seen it, I know not whether 1 have 
fallen into any coincidence with him, of matter or opinion. 



188 

Arabella Stuart, the Prince's cousin. The Spaniards 
bear no good will to Raleigh, and I doubt if some 
of the English have much better affection towards 
him ; God deliver me from these designs. I have 
spoken with Carew* concerning the matter; he 
thinketh ill of certain people, whom I know, and 
wisheth he could gain knowledge and further in- 
spection hereof, touching those who betrayed this 
business. Cecil doth bear no love to Raleigh, as 
j?ou well understand in the matter of Essex. I wist 
not that he hath evil design, in point of faith or re- 
ligion. As he hath often discoursed to me with 
much learning, wisdom, and freedom, 1 think he 
doth somewhat differ in opinion from some others ; 
but I think also his heart is well fixed in every 
honest thing, as far as I can look into him. He 
seemeth wondrously fitted, both by art and nature, 
to serve the state, especially as he is versed in fo- 
reign matters, his skill being always estimable and 
praise-worthy. In religion, he hath shewn in 
private talk great depth and good reading, as I once 
experienced at his own house, before many learned 
men. In good truth, I pity his state, and doubt 
the dice not fairly thrown, if his life be the losing 
stake : but hereof enough, as it becometh not a poor 
country knight to look from the plough-handle into 
policy and privacy. I thank Heaven, I have been 
well nigh driven heretofore into narrow straits, 
among state rocks and sightless dangers ; but, if I 
have gained little profit and not much honour, I 

* " Sir George Carew, afterwards Embassador to the Court of 
France." 



189 

have not ventured so far as to be quite sunken 
herein." * 

Lord Cobham, who has hitherto been represented 
to have been weak, is not held forth in that light in 
these letters. He is here, in conjunction with Ra- 
leig^h, constantly called worthless, while the im- 
putation of weakness and ductility is reserved for 
the Earl of Northumberland. But it seems. Lord 
Henry Howard and Cecil engrossed, in their own 
eyes, all the virtue and the wisdom of the nation. 

What a life of anxiety and restlessness must these 
wretches have led, who relied for their success, not 
on the talent, ability, and care, with which they 
conducted the public weal, but on their superior 
artifice, on their pre-eminent falsehood and deceit, 
in outwitting their personal rivals ! Well might 
Cecil exclaim to Sir John Harington, (29 May, 
1603) " Good Knight, rest content^ and give heed 
to one that hath sorrowed in the bright lustre of a 
court, and gone heavily even to the best seeming 
ground. It is a great task to prove one's honesty, 
and yet not spoil one's fortune. You have tasted a 
little hereof in our blessed Queen's time, who was 
more than a man, and in troth sometime less than a 
woman. I wish I waited now in her presence 
chamber, with ease at my food and rest in my bed. 
lam pushed from the shore of comfort, and know 
not where the winds and waves of a court will bear 
me ; I know it bringeth little comfort on earth ; and 

♦ From Park's elegant republication of the " Nugae Antiquae," 
1804, Vol. I. p. 341. This a most interesting publication, in which 
the Poet's letters are highly curious and valuable. His portraits 
of Q. Elizabeth and K. James, are unusually distinct and lively. 



190 

lie 18, 1 reckon, no wise man, that looketh this waj 
to heaven!"* 

The Countess of Kildare, widow of Henry Fitz- 
gerald, Earl of Kildare, daughter of Lord Notting- 
ham, and now re-marriedtoLord Cobham ; and the 
Countess of Northumberland, sister to the unfor- 
tunate Essex ; were both, as seems by these letters, 
active partizans of King James, and both being on 
doubtful terms with their husbands, were occasion- 
ally resorted to, by them, for the purposes of carrying 
on their cabals with the expectant monarch. The 
former is painted weak, vain, busy, and garrulous ; 
the latter amiable and warm, and constant in her 
attachments. 

A few other characters are touched by the ma- 
lignant pens of these interested correspondents, 
thus: 

" It is advertised to Cecil, that H. Leigh, at his 
being here, did either bring a letter or a message 
from your Majesty to Sussex f, which we cannot 
believe : your Majesty doth know the man so well, 
and hath so well tasted his affections in former 
levities. One pitying his estate not long ago, to a 
devoted friend of yours, with great fear that he 
would sink suddenly, was willed to be of good cheer, 
for that he had so much cork in his head, as that he 
should sink was impossible. I know not how, but 
in these days, as in former times, fools are not for- 
tunate. Your Majesty hath had experience in 

* Park's « Nuga Antiquae of Harington, Vol. I. p. 345. 

t Robert Ratcliffe succeeded to the Earldom of Sussex, 37 EJi?. 
and died 1629. 



191 

Lincoln's * business, and are like enough to find 
it sooner bj the slightest traffic with this giddy fel- 
low, who, by how much he is less fearful than the 
other^ by so much he is more dangerous, both being 
mad equally." + 

Again, "Cecil is infinitely glad that Mountjoy:}: 
and Southampton § are so strange to the mystery, 
as by this appears, and that all was not true which 
was advertised. He desireth me to write, that in no 
one thing he can acknowledge your respect and 
grace, so much as in casting clouds over their cu- 
riosity. For Mountjoy, out of observation, hath 
begun to sound, but without satisfaction, to the 
point of his eagerness. He knows it to be very true, 
as Mr. Bruce writes, that they would both be glad, 
that he would come into the circle, though not so 
much, as he hath sundry motives to believe, out of 
desire to set forward the main, which may be done 
without their privity, as to labour their own private 
ends upon advantages. He hath saved the life of 
the one, out of respect to his affection to King 
James, though it were neither ancient nor very 
meritorious : he hath preserved the reputation and 
credit of the other for the same respect, though his 
adventure herein was not small. The rest must 
be wrought out with opportunity and time ; for the 

* Henry Clinton, Second Earl of Lincoln, succeeded 1584, died 
1616. See Memoirs of King James's Peers, p. 43 — 45. 

t P. 187. 

X Charles Bloimt, Lord Moun'joy, afterwards created Earl of 
JDevonshire. He died 1606, aged 43. See Memoirs, ut supr. p. 25. 

% Henry Wriothesley, Ban of Southampton, the patron of Shaks- 
p«are. Ob. 152 i. /itrf, p, 322. 



19g 

Queen hath passions, iigainst which whosoever 
struggles above the measure and proportion of state, 
shall be reputed a participant." * 

In Letter XIV. there is an assertion, to which it 
is very difficult to give credit. 

" I do remember, that in our late unlucky tra- 
gedies, many of Essex's friends were willing that he 
should rather break his neck, by desperate attempts 
suitable to their own humours, than be saved and 
redeemed by the faith and industry of Cecil, who, of 
all men living, in case he had found subjectum bene 
dispositum^ would have dealt best with, and per- 
fected the work of his deliverance." t 

Thus it is that time will gradually unfold the 
secrets of state, and the private intrigues of cabinets. 
Much has been done regarding the reigns of Eliza- 
beth and James ; but I am convinced that much yet 
remains to be done. There is a delight in rescuing 
from calumny the memory of those great and un- 
fortunate men, who !iave long sunk beneath the 
weight of falsehood and injustice, which expands the 
heart and elevates the soul. How willingly would 
I devote to it days and nights of labour and in- 
vestigation, did my fate permit me ! But, far re- 
moved from the mines of treasure, whence ore of 
this kind can be extracted ; ij; at a distance from 

* 188,189. 

f P. 219. " Here is an assertion," says Dalrymple, " opposed 
to the general current of history." 

X It is yet the author's intention soon to publish another volume 
of Memoirs of the Peers of James I. from the conviction of the 
utility of such a work, not\<rithstanding the little encouragement he 
has received. 



193 

those noble repositories of letters, state-papers, and 
memorials, which yet have been so imperfectly ex- 
plored ; oppressed by difficulties, and agitated by 
almost hourly persecution, how can I possess the 
command of my humble faculties sufficiently to 
pursue, intensely and without interruption, any li- 
terary occupation or work of the mind ? I dare not 
now hope that the day will ever arrive, when I shall 
be permitted in calmness and patience to accomplish 
some of those designs, long floating in my brain, 
which distraction and sorrow have hitherto stifled ! 
But I will persevere. There is a selfish cowardice 
in sitting still, because we cannot accomplish the 
extent of our wishes. And compared with literature, 
what is there of human comfort to gild the paths 
of life ? 



AiiT. CCCII. Fragmenta Regalia. Written hy Sir 

Robert Nauntoriy Master of the Court of Wards. 

Printed Anno Dom. 164^1. 4:to, pp. ^9. 

There have been subsequent editions of this 
little tract, of which one was in 1694, 8vo. and one 
within these very few years. 

Sir Robert Naunton was educated at Cam- 
bridge, where he was Proctor and Public Orator; and 
attracting the notice of King James, was brought to 
court. By the influence of Villiers ne was promoted 
ta be Secretary of State, 8 Jan. 1617; and after- 
wards Master of the Court of Wards. He died 
163-.* 

These sketches of the characters of Queen Eliza- 
beth's times and favourites by one, who had himself 

* See Fuller's Worthies, Suf. p. 64. 
TOL. IT. O 



194 

been in some degree admitted into the penetralia 
of courts, are very interesting.* 

Art. CCCIII. The History of the Worthies of 
England, Endeavoured hy Thomas Fuller^ D.D, 
London, Printed by J, G, W, L, and W, G, 
1662. Fol 

Art. CCCl V. State- Worthies^ or the Statesmen and 
Favourites of England since the Reformation; 
their prudence and policies^ successes and miscar- 
riagesy advancements and falls during the reigns 
of King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. Queen 
Mary, Queen Elizabeth^ King James, King 
Charles I. The Second Edition with Additions. 
London. Printed by Thomas Milbournfor Samuel 
Speed, in Threadneedle Street near the Royal 
Exchange. 1670. Sm. Svo. 

Art. CCCV. England's Worthies. Select Lives of 
the most eminent persons of the English nation 
from Constantine the Great down to these times. 
By William Winstanley. London. Printed by 
J. C. and F. C. for Obadiah Blagrave, at the 
Bear in St. PauVs Churchyard, 1684. Sm. Svo. 

Memoires of the Lives, Actions, Sufferings and 
Deaths of those noble, reverend, and excellent per' 
sonages, that suffered by death, sequestration^ 
decimation, or otherwise, for the Protestant Reli* 
gion, and the great principle thereof. Allegiance to 
their Soveraigne, in our late intestine wars, from 
the year 1637 to the year 1660, and from thence 
continued to 1666. With the life and martyrdom 

* Several of these Memoirs are reprinted in the Harleian Mis- 
cellany; and in the late Selectiou from it in one vol. 4to. 



195 

of King Charles I. By Da, Lloyd. A. M, some" 
time of Oriel College in Oxon. London. Printed 
for Samuel Speed ; and sold hy him at the Rain* 
bow between the two Temple- gate s ; by John 
Wright at the Globe in Little Britain; John 
Symmes, at Gresham Colledge-gate in Bishopsgate- 
street; and James Collins in Westminster-hall, 
1668. Fol. 

In all these works, though of various fame, 
among- which the first is of most reputation and price, 
and the last of considerable authority, there are 
many curious notices of popular biography, and 
many amusing traits of personal history. 

The " Worthies" of Fuller were a posthumous 
publication : for that learned compiler died 16 Aug. 
166 J. It is unnecessary to detail the particulars of 
his life, because memoirs of him are to be found in 
all our biographical collections. His " Abel Redi- 
vivus," will hereafter be recorded in this work. 

Before the present book is a fine portrait of the 
author, engraved by Loggan. The plan of this 
work is according to an alphabetical arrangement 
of counties, in which he insists on the native com- 
modities, the manufactures, medicinal waters, won- 
ders, buildings, local proverbs, medicinal herbs; 
eminent natives, (as princes, martyrs, saints, con- 
fessors, popes, cardinals, bishops, statesmen, ad- 
mirals, judges, soldiers, and sailors, authors, public 
benefactors, lord mayors,) gentry in the time of 
Henry VI. sheriffs, modern battles. This method is 
explained in XXV preliminary chapters. 

This collection, though partaking of Fuller's com- 
mon faults, a loose and corrupt style of composition, 
a quaint vivacity, and too many trite and colloquial 
o 2 



196 

anecdotes, yet contains manj interesting memorials, 
the result of long, active, and extended research ; and 
notwithstanding it may exhibit several errors which 
the intelligent reader will easily rectify, is far from 
meriting the dull and ill-natured censures of Bishop 
Nicholson. It is a book, which never yet has been 
superseded; and though upon this foundation it is 
easy to plan, and might not now be difficult to exe- 
cute, a popular work of the same kind, with equal 
liveliness, more accuracy, and still more copious ma- 
terials, yet, till such a work i? produced, Fuller's 
Worthies will continue to rise in price and estimation : 
for no well-furnished library of English History 
ought to be without it. The List of Sheriffs is of pe- 
culiar use to an antiquary; and must have cost the 
author infinite toil. 

Of Lloyd, who seems to have been an humble 
imitator of Fuller's faults, I cannot speak so well; yet 
as this compiler has also registered many minutiae, 
which would otherwise have been forgotten, and as 
we still see his pages cited by modern authors of 
credit, I may be excused for borrowing a short ac- 
count of him from Anthony Wood. 

David Lloyd was born at Pant Mawr in Merioneth- 
shire, 28 Sept. 1635, educated at Ruthen in Den- 
bighshire, and became a servitor of Oriel College, 
Oxford, in 1652; took his degrees, went into orders, 
and first obtained preferment in Oxfordshire, from 
whence he went to London, and became Reader at 
the Charter-house ; and having at this time the am- 
bition of authorship upon him, wrote many books, 
which " being without quotation or authority" ac- 
cording to Wood, were little esteemed by intelligent 
men. He then retired into Wales, and gave himself 



197 

up to getting money, instead of fame, and died there 
16 Feb. 1691, not without leaving a good moral 
character behind him, and wishing to be known to 
posterity only by his two books " The Worthies of 
the World" abridged from Plutarch, 1665, 8vo. and 
his " Statesmen and Favourites" here mentioned, 
first published in 1665.* 

Of William Winstanley, originally a barber, 
and a notorious plagiary, the same, who stole the 
characters of the English poets from Phillips's 
Theatrum, and put them without acknowledgment 
into a book of his own, which he called " The Lives 
of the most famous English poets," Lond. 1687, 8vo. 
it is unnecessary to give more than the title-page, 
which 1 have already copied. 

Lloyd's book is too common to require extracts, 
or further notice. It contains 260 characters and 
upwards. Winstanley's contains only 72 characters. 

Art. CCC7I. A most true and Exact Relation of 
that as honourable as unfortunate Expedition of 
Kenty Essex, and Colchester. Bi/ M. C. a loyall 
Actor in that Engagement, Anno Dom. 1648. 
Printed in the Yeare 1650. Duod. pp. 214. 

I ONLY mention this scarce little tract with the 
hope of preserving it from oblivion, because it re- 
cords several particulars not noticed by Lord Cla- 
rendon, and our general Historians. The author, 
Matthew Carter, acted as quarter-master-general 
in this expedition. It is dedicated from some place 

* Woud says, he published " The Countess of Bridge water's 
Ghost,*' 1663, 8vo. in honour of that excellent woman, which the 
Earl resented, as a liberty unworthy her memory, taken by ^oo ob- 
icurea person. See a list of the rest of his work^ in Wood, II. 883. 



198 

of imprisonment, " To the truly noble and his 
worthily honoured friend sir G. K.," whose address 
to the reader follows. At the end are three copies 
of verses, I. '' To my ingenious Friend upon his 
exact Journal of the Kentish Forces," signed G. W. 
II. " To the ingenious Author of these Commen- 
taries," signed Roderigoe. III. " To my honoured 
Friend upon his Commentary," signed E. P. 

The author concludes his own relation with the 
following prophetic paragraph. 

*' For my own part, I will not despair while there 
is mercy in heaven, and a just title upon earth, 
but Charles the Second may fulfil that prophecy 
that is so authentically avowed concerning his 
person, when all these horrid distractions and 
clouds shall vanish into a calm, and there shall be 
no more a babel city, 

Carolus a Carolo, 
IVlajor erit Carolo Magno." 



There is no doubt that the author was the same 
who published the following : 

Honor Redivivus ; or. An Anali/sis of Honour and 

Armorz/. Bt/ Matthew Carter, Esq. London. 

Printed for Henry Herringman, 1673, Svo. And 

are to he sould hy Henry Herringman at the 

Ancker on the lowest Side of the New Exchange, 

All which is on an engraved title-page, by R. 

Gaywood. The printed title-page, which follows, 

calls it the Third Edition. * Opposite the first is 

a plate of the arms of Carter (two lions combatant), 

with a crescent for difference. 

* First printed 1655, and again 1660. 



199 

One of the examples of arms, p. 264, points out 
the author's Kentish connexions and acquaintance, 
for it contains a shield of the nine following coats, 
known at that time by their connexion either by 
blood or marriage, with the Auchers of Bourne 
near Canterbury. 1. Sir Thomas Peyton, of Knowl- 
ton, Bart. 2. Sir Anthony Aucher of Bourne. 3. Sir 
James Thynne, of Longleat, Wilts. 4. Anthony 
Hammond, of St. Alban's, in East Kent, Esq. [an- 
cestor of James Hammond, the elegiac poet]. 
S.Thomas Stanley, ofCumberlow, in Hertfordshire, 
Esq. the poet [whose mother was a Hammond], 
6. Edward Hales, of Tunstal, in Kent, Esq. 7. Ro- 
ger James, of Rygate, in Surry, Esq. 8. Killigrew, 
of Cornwall [whose connexion with the rest I do 
not know]. 9. Stephen Penckhurst, of Buxted, in 
Sussex, Esq. * 

Art. CCCVII. I' The Histori/ of the King' s Ma- 
jesties Affaires in Scotland, under the conduct of 
the most Honourable James Marques of Montrose^ 
Earl of Kincardine etc. and Generall Governour 
of that Kingdome in the Years 1644, 1645, 1646. 
Printed in the Year 1649." Small 8ro. without 
either place or printer'' s name^ pp. 192, Preface 
6. At the end of which are the following lines " on 

♦ With my copy of this last work is bound up the following : 
" Jus imaginis apiul Anglos ; or, The Law of England relating to 
the nobility and Gentry. Faithfully collected and methodically 
digested for common benefit. By John Brydall, of Lincoln's Inn, 
Esquire. Lond. for John Billinger, in Clifford's Inn Lane« near 
Fleet Street J and George Dawes, over against Lincoln's Ina 6at« 
in Chancery Lane." 1673. pp. 7G. 



200 

the death of King Charles the Firsty^ here copied 
literally. 

•' Great ! Good ! and Just ! could I but Rate 
, My Griefs and Thy too Rigid fate, 
I*de weeepe the world to such a straine. 
As it should deluge once againe. 
But since Thy loud-tongued blood demands supplys 
More from BRIAREUS Hands than ARGUS Eys, 
He sing Thy Obsequies, with trumpet Sounds, 
And write thy EPITAPH with BLOOD and WOUNDS. 
MONTROSE, written with the point of his Sword/' 

This history was originallj written in Latin by 
Dr. George Wisheart, Bishop of Edinburgh, who 
attended Montrose in all his expeditions, and was 
both an eye and ear witness of what he relates. 
It was first published in 1646, and ag^ain 1647. It 
was translated also into English, and printed in that 
year: from that time to 1660 there were several 
editions in 4to. and Svo. after whith period no other 
appeared till the year 1720, when it again was 
printed in small Svo. with the addition of a second 
part, and fifteen letters to Montrose from Charles 
the First, Charles the Second, Prince Rupert, and 
Queen Henrietta Maria, " from originals in the 
publisher's hands." — Who this was I am unable to 
learn. This last and improved edition contains 
pp. 200, besides the appendix, letters, &c. which 
in all consist of 294 : it has neither printer's or 
bookseller's name, but was published at London : it 
is much superior to the old ones, and I doubt not 
but it is more scarce. P. B. 



201 

Art. CCCVIII. A Narrative of some passages in 
or relating to the Tjong Parliament. Curse not the 
Kingj no not in thy thought. Eccles. x. 20. — 
Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft. 1 Sam. xv. 
23. By a Person of Honour. London. Printed 
for Robert Pawlet at the Bible in Chancery Lane, 
1670. sm. duod. pp.101. 

This little tract was written by Dudley, 4th 
Lord North, and contains several curious pas- 
sages. But it may be unnecessary to give a full 
account of the book, as the elaborate edition of 
Lord Orford's * Royal and Noble Authors by Mr. 
Park, which the public has reason to expect will 
soon make its appearance, must I presume, com- 
prise notices of or extracts firora this volume. 

Dec. 26, 1805. 



Art. CCCIX. Letters written by Sir TV. Temple^ 
Baronet^ and other Ministers of State, both at home 
and abroad ; containing an Account of the most im- 
portant Transactions that passed in Christendom 
from the year 1665 to the year 1672. In two 
volumes ; reviewed by Sir TV. Temple, sometime 
before his death, and published by Jonathan Swift, 
Domestic Chaplain to his Excellency the Earl of 
Berkeley, one of the Lord's Justices of Ireland, 

* I am sorry to observe Mr. Cumberland's contemptuous men- 
tion of the author of the Castle of Otranto, the Mysterious Mother, 
and other works of indubitable genius, as well as of industrious 
research, and elegant taste. My respect for a veteran in li:erature 
restrains my pen from saying more. See Cumberland's Memoirs, 
p. 17. 



202 

London, Printed for J. Tonson^ A, and J. 
Churchill, and R. Simpson. 1700. Svo. 
Select Letters to the Frince of Orange (now King 
of England) King Charles II. and the Earl of 
Arlington, upon important subjects. Vol. Ill, 
To which is added an Essay upon the State and 
Settlement of Ireland. All written by Sir William 
Temple, Baronet. Published from the originals 
of Sir William Templets own hand-writing, and 
never before printed. London. Printed for Tho, 
Bennet, 1701. Svo. 

Art. CCCX. The Right Honourable the Earl of 
Arlington's Letters to Sir William Temple, Ba- 
ronet, from July 1665, being the first of his em- 
ployments abroad, to Sept, 1670/ when he was 
recalled. Giving a perfect and exact account of 
the Treaties of Munster, Breda, Aix la Chapelle, 
and the Triple Alliance ; together with the parti- 
cular instructions to Sir William Temple, the Earl 
of Carlingford, and Mr. Van Beuningen, with 
other papers, relating to those Treaties. As also 
a particular Relation of Madam, by a person of 
Quality then actually on the spot. All printed 
from the Original never before published. By 
Tho. Bebington of Gray's Inn, Gent. London. 
Printed for T Bennet, 1701. Svo. pp. ^54t. 
The Bight Honourable the Earl of Arlington's 
■ Letters, Vol. II. Containing a compleat Collection 
of his Lordship's Letters to Sir Richard Fanshaw, 
the Earl of Sandwich, the Earl of Sunderland, and 
Sir W, Godolphin, during their respective em- 
bassies in Spain from 1664 to 1674. As also to 



203 

Sir Robert Southwell in Portugal, Now pub- 
' lishedfrom the originals^ and never before printed, 

London, Printed for T. Bennety 1701. Svo. pp. 

480. 

It has been observed, that *' the serenteenth cen- 
tury, especially towards the latter part of it, may 
justly be styled an age of intrigue; in which most 
of the Princes of Europe, and their Ministers of 
State, carried on their projects and designs with more 
address and policy than open force and plain down- 
right violence. Those disciples of Machiavel, 
Richlieu, and Mazarine, refined upon and improved 
the maxims of their masters so far, that they had the 
art, even whilst they were signing of treaties, and 
caressing each other after the most endearing man- 
ner, to carry on underhand a scheme of proceedings, 
which looked another way. The more we reflect 
upon those dark times, the more we are at a loss 
what to infer from them ; for all things seemed to be 
intricate, and the Arcana Imperii, the mysteries of 
state, were veiled with so thick a cloud, that they 
were screened not only from vulgar view, but even 
from the eyes of those, who pretended to be sharper 
sighted than others. 

" And, in truth, the historian, who undertakes 
the history of those times, finds himself in a sort of 
labyrinth, out of which he can hardly get without a 
friendly clue to lead him through the maze. Nay, 
Memoirs and Letters, which can give him the clearest 
light into these matters, will afford him but little 
help, unless he has judgment enough to distinguish, 

and integrity enough to deliver nothing but what is 

truth, or at least that, which looks most like it. For, 



S04 

amidst those heaps of secret histories, private letters, 
&c. which have been published, by men of several 
and contrary parties, one cannot tell where to fix, 
nor whose relation to credit ; since they contradict 
one another so often in relating matters of fact; and 
tha( both sides of a contradiction cannot be true, is 
a maxim or axiom granted on all hands."* 

That Sir William Temple was a scholar, his 
works sufficiently testify ; and that he was an able 
statesman, these letters will evince. They are not 
mere formal letters, and letters of compliment; but 
such as carry in them a discovery of the secret springs 
of action under one of the most subtle reigns that 
England ever knew. There is contained in them an 
account of all the chief transactions and negoti- 
ations, which passed in Christendom, during the 
seven years, in which they are dated : viz. The War 
with Holland, which began in 1665. The treaty 
between King Charles II. and the Bishop of Munster, 
with the issue of it; the French Invasion of Flan- 
ders in 1667; the Peace concluded between Spain 
and Portugal by King Charles's Mediation ; the 
Treaty at Breda; the Triple Alliance ; and the Peace 
of Aix La Chapelle. In the Second Part are con- 
tained, The Negotiations in Holland, in conse- 
quence of those alliances, with the steps and. degrees, 
by which they came to decay : the journey and death 
of Madame : the seisure of Lorraine by the French, 
and his Excellency's recall; with the first unkind- 
ness between England and Holland, upon the 
Yatch's transporting his lady and family; and the 

* Works of the Learned, 1700, 4to. Vol. II. p. 673. 



205 

beginning of the Second Dutch War in 1672. By 
these it appears, " how faithful a minister Sir Wil- 
liam was in the discharge of his trust to his master; 
how just a sense he had of the affairs and state of 
Europe, and how true a friend he was to the particu- 
lar interest of the English nation." * 

As to the first volume of Lord Arlington's Letters, 
most of them arc written upon the same subject with 
those of Sir W. Temple, and, being compared to- 
gether, may give the reader an insight into the secret 
and obscure management of affairs during that space 
of time.t 

The second volume carries us to the transactions 
on the other side the mountains, being sent to the 
several ambassadors, that resided successively in 
Spain for ten years together, and containing in them 
a piece of history, of which the world had hitherto 
had but imperfect accounts. Here are the original 
papers relating to the transactions then on foot, be- 
sides the particular treaties between Spain and Por- 
tugal, England and Spain, and Spain and Holland. 
In short, here is the best history of all the transac- 
tions of our ablest ministers in Spain and Portugal 
from 1664 to 1674 : and from thence the true springs 
may be observed, upon which most of the great 
affairs of Europe turned at that time.;]: 

Art. CCCXL Fragmenta Aulica: or Court and 
State Jests in noble drollery : true and real i as- 
certained to their times, places, and persons. By 

* Works of the Learned, 1701, Vol. III. p. 492. 
f Works of the Learned, 1701, Vol. 11. 674. % Ibid, IIL 294. 



206 

T, S, Gent, London : Printed hy IT. Marsh and 
Jos. Conyers, \QQ^. \%mo. pp. 144. [With 
neatly engraved frontispiece of a male and female 
figure, superscribed " Curia quasi Incuria," and 
beneath their feet an owl and a magpie.] 

This amusing collection of court- witticisms pro- 
fesses to be rectified from false citations, and to have 
the several pieces reduced to their undoubted origi- 
nals by the careful examination of historical and 
other tracts. Many of them will be found in later 
volumes of jests and anecdotes; the reader is here 
presented with a few that are of less common oc- 
currence. 

" In the King's wardrobe is a rich piece of arras* 
presenting the sea fight in 1588, which at severall 

The titles of the following volumes relative to this period may be 
added here. 

1. Original Letters and Negotiations of Sir Richard Fanshatv, the 
Earl of Sandwich, the Earl of Sunderland, and Sir William Godolphin 
wherein divers matters between the three Crowns of England, l^ain, 
and Portugal, from the year 1663 to 1678, are set in a clear light. 
2vols.Svo. 1724. 

2. Sir Richard Bulstrode^s Letters written to the Earl of Arlington, 
Envoy at the Court of Brussels from King Charles IT. containing the 
most remarkable Transactions both in Court and Camp, during his Mi' 
nistry, particularly the famous battle of Seneff, between the Prince of 
Orange and the Prince of Conde. 8vo. 1712. 

3. Original Letters from King William the Third to King Charles IL 
Lord Arlington, S^c. translated, with an account of his reception at Mid- 
dleburgh, and his Speech upon that occasion. 8vo. 1 704. 

4. The Marquis of Clanricarde^s Memoirs, containing several origi- 
nal Papers and Letters of Ki?ig Charles IL Queen Mother, the Duke of 
York, 5ff. relating to the Duke of Lor rain, and the Irish Commis- 
sioners, 1722. 8vo. 

• The same probably which afterwards ornamented the House of 
Lords. 



207 

audiences of ambassadors bath been used for magni- 
ficence in the banquetting-house, (as in Cromwell's 
usurpation,) and wherein were wrought the living 
portraitures of the chiefest commanders in that 
service. On a time a captain who highly prized 
himselfe and his valour, in that naval fight, coming 
to court and missing his picture therein, complained 
of the injury to his friend, professing of himselfe that 
he merited a place there as well as some therein re- 
membred, for that he was engaged in the middle of 
the fight. ' Be content, (said his friend) thou hast 
been an old pyrate, and art reserved for another 
hanging.^ 

" Dr. Preston was the greatest pupil- monger in 
England in man's memory, having sixteen fellow- 
commoners, most heires to faire estates, admitted in 
one yeare in Queen's Colledge, and provided con- 
venient accommodations for them. As William the 
popular Earl of Nassau, Prince of Orange, was said 
to have won a subject from the King of Spain to his 
own party, every time he put off his hat, so it was 
commonly said in the coUedge that every time Mr. 
Preston plucked off his hat to Dr. Davenant, the 
master, he gained a chamber or study for one of his 
pupils ; among whom one Chambers^ a Londoner, 
was eminent fof his learning. Bein^ afterwards 
chosen himself master of Emanuel College, he re- 
moved thither with most of his pupils; and when it 
was much admired where all these should find lodg- 
ing in that coUedge which was so full already — one 
replyed, * Mr. Preston will carry Chambers along 
with him.' 

^^ It is the rule general in arms that the playner 



208 



the ancienter, and so consequently the more honour- 
able. To this purpose a memorable gentleman, the 
beginning of whose gentry might easily be remem- 
bred for its late rise, was mocking at the plain coat 
of an ancient Esquire : to whom the Esquire re- 
turned — ' I must be fain to wear the coat which my 
great, great, great, greatgrandfather left me ; but 
had I had the happiness to have bought one, as you 
did, it should have been guarded after the newest 
fashion.' 

" King James first coined his 22 shillings piece of 
gold, called Jacobusses; where on his head he wore 
a crown. After that he coined his 20 shillings, and 
wore the laurel instead of the crown. Upon which 
mutation Ben Johnson said pleasantly, * that poets 
being always poor, bai/es were rather the emblem of 
wit than of wealth, since King James no sooner be- 
gan to wear them, but he fell two shillings in the 
pound in publique valuation.' 

" One was friendly telling Benjamin Johnson of 
his great and excessive drinking continually. ' Here's 
a grievous clutter and talk (quoth Benjamin) con- 
cerning my drinking, but here's not a word of that 
thirst which so miserably torments me day and 
night." T. P. 



Art. CCCXII. " The Memoirs of the Honour- 
able Sir John Reresbi/, Bart, late Governor of 
York. Containing several private and remarkable 
transactions, from the Restoration to the RevolU' 
tion inclusivelt/. Published from his Original Ma- 
nuscript. London : Printed for Samuel Harding, 



209 

Bookseller^ on the Pavement in St. Martinis Lane, 
1734. 8w." 

The following is an extract of the preface. 

" The reader, we believe, will be convinced that 
Sir John (Reresby) was a person very equal to the 
task he undertook; and having such opportunities 
of prying, as it were, into the hearts of the greatest 
ministers and princes of his time, it had been un- 
pardonable in him to have refrained from communi- 
cating the many important matters he so assuredly 
knew. The reader will, we hope, find in him an 
impartiality rarely met with in writers, who have 
been like him, of a party; for, being a man of the 
strictest honour, and nicest conscience, he, it seems, 
thought it as unjust not to applaud an enemy for any 
good he had done, as weak not to accuse a friend 
when, through human frailty, he happened to deserve 
it. This, and what goes before, might be sufficient 
to bespeak the reader in his favour, even though he 
had related no fact but such as had been an hundred 
times represented before this appearance of his book ; 
but, as he abounds with things new, or, what is the 
same, with matters known to very few living, and 
which will much assist us in forming a right idea of 
the times he lived in, he must claim a greater share 
of attention, and we flatter ourselves with the appro- 
bation of the public for our thus retrieving him from 
the recesses of privacy." 

It appears by these Memoirs that Sir John Reresby 
was a staunch loyalist, and likewise a great egotist; 
they are, however, written in a lively, pleasant style, 
but abound more in court anecdote than in political 
history, although some remarkable occurrences of 

VOL. IV. p 



210 

the latter description are here placed in a clearer 
point of view than in any preceding publication. 

Art. CCCXIII. A Brief Examination of the Roll 
of Battle Ahhey ; with a c&py of that Roll, con' 
tainingthe names of those who are supposed to harce 
accompanied William the Conqueror to England, 

In a former Article of this volume, in my account 
of Du Chesne's Scriptores Normanni, I promised 
the Disquisition which I now insert. 

A Table pretending to contain the names of those 
who came over with William the Conqueror of Eng- 
land, was formerly suspended in the Abbey of Battle 
in Sussex, with the following superscription : 
Dicitur a bello Bellum locus bic, quia bello 
Angligenae victi sunt hie in morte relicti : 
Martyris in Cbristi festo cecidere Calixti: 
Sexagenus erat sextus millesiraus annus 
Cum pereunt Angli, stell^ monstrante Cometh. 

To this list we hear vain persons making perpe- 
tual references for proof of the antiquity of their 
families, and even authors to this day occasionally 
cite it. Holinshead and Stow have both printed 
copies of it, but so variant from each other, that the 
former consists of 629 names; the latter of 407 only. 
Fuller, in his " Church-History," p. 153 — 161, has 
reprinted both in opposite columns ; and the learned 
Andrew Du Chesne, in the Appendix to his Collec- 
tion of the Historians of Normandy, has inserted a 
copy which agrees mostly with Stow's. 

Yet nearly two centuries ago the learned Camden, 
who excelled as much in the depth and extent of his 



211 

knowledge as in the elegance of his taste and his lan- 
guage, and though one of our earliest, was surely the 
most judicious of our antiquaries, pronounced, that 
" whosoever considereth it well, shall find it always 
to be forged, and those names to be inserted, which 
the time in every age favoured, and were never 
mentioned in the notable Record of Domesday*." 

I shall here insert the copy printed by Du Chesne, 
from the communication of Camden, but reduced 
into a more exact alphabetical order, accompanied 
by remarks, which are anticipated for the sake of 
avoiding a tiresome repetition of the names, but with 
a reservation of my main arguments till the conclu- 
sion of the list. 

Roll of Battle Ahhey^ with Remarks.^ 

1. Abel. A name which has not a very genuine 

sound, as a surname. 

2. Akeney. 

3. * Alhini, Nigel de Albini, ancestor of the 
ancient Earls of Arundel of that name. 

4. Amonerdville, 

5. Augenoun. Probably the same as Argentoun. 

6. Angilliam. 

7. Archer. 

6. * Arcy, Ancestor of the Lords D'Arcy, Earls 

of Holderness. 
9. * Argentoun. 

* Camden's Remains, p. 153, 6th edit Lond. 1657, 4to. 

f The names to which the asterisk is prefixed, ar* in Doiiiesd«y 
Book. 

p 2 



212 

10. * ArundelL Lords Arundel of Wardour. 

11. Asperemound. 

12. Asperoile. 

13. Avenant, 

14. Audle?/. Seepostea, 

15. * Aumerle. Albemarle. 

16. Augers, Aungier. 

17. Bandi/. 

18. Banistre. Perhaps Balister or Balistarius. 

19. Barbason. 7 _ , , , , , « .^ , 

90 K h \ I^t^'^Q^d probably for Brabazon. 

21. Barcblph, A family who do not seem to have 

risen into notice till the reign of Hen. II. 

22. Barchampe, Probably a corruption for Beau- 
champ. 

23. Bamevalle. 

24. Barrett, 

95. Barre. 

96, Barte, Intended, no doubt, for Bartie; a name 

of no note till the reign of the Tudors. 

27. Basset, A family whom, from the silence of 

Domesday book, I strongly suspect, though of 
great note, not to have come to England till 
some years after the Conquest. 

28. Bawdewyne, Not at this time a surname. 

29. Baylife, 

SO. Bayous, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux ? 

31. * Beauchamp, One of the powerful attendants 
of the Conqueror, whose family history would 
fill volumes. 

32. Beauper. 
S3. Beer. 



213 

34. * Beke, Settled at Eresby in Lincolnshire, 
from whose heiress came the Willoughbys of 
Eresby. 

35. Belasyse. A name which, though ancient, is 
understood to be of English local origin. 

^, Belefrown. 

37. Belhelme, 

38. Belknape, 

39. Belomy, I suppose, meant for Bellamy. 

40. * Belot. A name of early note in Dorsetshire 
and Lincolnshire. 

41. Beaufort, 

42. * Berners, Lord of Eversdon in Cambridge- 
shire, temp. W. Conq. 

43. Bertevyley^ 7 

44. • fierte»«&, P'^^t*'^"^- 

45. Bertine, Perhaps this may be intended for 
Burton. 

46. * Bertram, Barons in Northumberland. 

47. * Bigot, Earls of Norfolk. 

48. Blundel, 

49. Blundell. 

50. * Blunt, A great Norman family of real an- 
tiquity, of which branches are surviving at So- 
dington in Worcestershire, and Mapledurham, 
in Oxfordshire, to this day. 

51. Bodi/t, 

52. * Bohun, A high and illustrious name^ E^rls 
of Hereford, &c. 

53. Bolesur, 

54. Bondeville, 7 rj tt-i 
55.Bonville, j Barons temp. Hen. VL 



S14 

56. Bonj/lat/m. 

57. Boteler. An official name, Hugh Pincerna 
occurs in Domesday Book. 

58. Boiville. 

59. Bowlers* 

60. Bowser. Probably Bourchier, a great family, 
but who do not seem to be traced higher than 
the time of Edw. III. 

61. * Brcehus. Braose, a great baronial family of 
Bramber in Sussex, &c. 

62. Brand, 

63. Brasard, 

64. Braunche, 

63. Brayhuf, Perhaps Braybroc. 
^6. Bret, 

67. * Breton, Several of the nameofBrito occur 
in Domesday book. 

68. Brounc, A name, I suspect, of long subse- 
quent date. 

69. Broylehy. 
ri^), Bujfard. 

^ 71. Buhner e. Of early consequence in the North. 

72. Burdet, A famUy of undoubted antiquity. 

73. Burden. 

74. Burgh, See postea, 

75. Burts. 

76. BurneL A baronial family whose antiquity is 
witnessed by Dugdale. 

77. Buschell, 

78. Bussevile, This may be meant for Bosville. 
79^ Bushel/, Rob. de Buci occurs in Domesday 

book, as does Roger de Busli. 



215 

80. Butrecourt, Perhaps Botetourt, or Buteturt. 
See Dugd. Bar. 

81. Byseg, Perhaps Biset^ a family of some note 
in the reign of K. Stephen. 

82. Camos. Camois, a baronial family, temp. Hen. 
III. 

83. Camnine, v 

84. Camille. Camvile. See Dugd. Bar. 1. 527. 

85. * Carhonell. 

86. Carew, See postea. 

87. Cat€ray, 

88. Chamberlaine, Camerarius, an official name, 
of which several occur in Domesday book. 

89. Chambernoune. Champernon. 

90. Champene^, 

91. * Chaney. Ralph de Caineto came into Eng- 

land with the Conqueror. 

92. Chantelowe, Perhaps Cantilupe. See Dug. 
Bar. 

93. Chereberge. 

94. Charles. Qu. Calgi, or Cailli, which occurs in 
Domesday book ? 

95. Chaucer, 

96. Chaunduyt, 

97 Chaundos. See Dugd. Bar. I. 502. Does not 
appear in Domesday book, though Rob. de 
Ch. certainly came over in the Conqueror's 
reign. See postea. 

98. Chaunville. Probably the same as Camville. 

99. Chawent. 

100. Chawnis. 

101. Chawmont. 



216 

102* Chawns, 

103. Chaworth. Patric de Cadurcis, or Chaworth, 
lived in the Conqueror's reign. See Dugd. B. 

104. Chayters, 

103. Cherecourt, Qu. Crevequeur? 

106. Cheyne^ 7 c i-i 

107. Cheynes, j^^^ Cheney. 

108. Cholmlay. See postea. 

109. ClarefL 

110. Claremaus. 

111. Clercaile, 

112. Clereney. 

113. Clifford, See postea. 

114. Cokt. 

115. Cohile. Dugdale mentions as a baronial fa- 
mily, temp. K. Stephen. 

116. Conell. 

117. Corners. Dugdale also traces this family to the 
time of K. Stephen. 

118 Constable. 

119 * Corbet. Roger, son of Corbet held twenty- 

four lordships in Shropshire, temp. W. Conq. 
See Dugd. Bar, 
120. Corbine. 

121 Corleville. 

122 * Coucy. Curcy. Rich, de Curcy. See Dug. B. 

123 Coicderay, 

124 Courtena?/. See postea. 

125. Cressy. See Dug. B. 

126. Cribet. 

127. Curly. 

128. Cursen. Curzon, a very ancient family. 

129. Dabernoun, 



217 ; 

130. Dakeney, 

131. Damri/. Probably Damory. See Dug. Bar. II. 

100. ■ 

132. Daniell, j 

133. Dammi/, Daunay. .See Dug. B. 

134. DarelL \ 

135. Dauntre, i 

136. 'Daveros. Devereux. 'J 

137. Davers, j 

138. Deauvile. Dei veil. See Dug. B. 

139. De Hewse, Qu Herman deDrewes, mentioned 

in Domesday B. ? i 

140. Be La Bere, A i 

141. De La Hill I 

142. De La Lind. U*^ ^^^^^ "^™^s ^P^^^ ^^^ J 

143. De La Planche. J themselves as to their origin. ^ 

144. De La Pole. J « 

145. De La Vere. 

146. De La Warre, See Dug. B. 

147. De La Ward, Ibid. 

148. De La Watche. I 

149. De Liele, * L'Isle. Dug. B. i 

150. Denyse. 

15 1 . Darcy. D'Arcy . See before. 

152. Desuye. Desny, or Disney. \ 

153. Denaus. De Vaux. See Dug. B. ■ 

154. Dine. Qu. *Dive? i 

155. Disard. * 

156. Dispenser, Rob. De-Spencer was ste Vizard to 

the Conqueror. ) 

157. * Divry. D'lvery. See Lovel. i 

158. Donyngsels, D'Odyngsels. \ 

159. DruelL 1 



SJIS 

160. * Engat/ne. Richard Engayiie, the head of a 
baronial family occurs in Dom. B. and Dug. B. 

161. Escriols. Criol, great Kentish Barons, but ap- 
parently not as early as W. Conq. See Dug. B. 

162. Estrange, Seepostca, 

163. Estutaville. Stuteviiie. Rob. de Stoteville lived 
temp. W. Conq. See Dug. B. 

164. Esturnei/. * Sturmy. 

IQb. Evers, or Ever, a local name from Evre, or 
Iver, Bucks, temp. Hen. III. 

166. Faconbridge. Fauconberg, a great Yorkshire 
family, probably of later date, at least as to the 
name. See Dug. B. 

167. Fanecourt, 

168. Faunville, 

169. FiberL 

170. FiliolL 

171. Finer. 

172. FitZ' Allan. Fitzalan, a name taken temp. 
Hen. I. by Wm. son of Alan, Lord of Oswald- 
stre, com. Salop. See postea. 

173. Fitz-Brown. Meant, I suppose, for Fitz-bruen. 

174. FitZ' Herbert. Herbert Fitzherbert was living 
5 Steph. See Dug. B. 

175. FitZ'Hugh. Dugdale says this name was not 
appropriated till Ed. Ill's reign.Dug.Bar. 1. 402. 

176. Fitz-John. This name seems to have been first 
taken by John Fitz John Fitz Geffrey, temp. 
Hen. III. He was one of the Mandeville 
family. Dug. Bar. 1. 706, See also Fitzpain 
andVesey. 

177. FitZ'Maurice. 

178. Fitz-Marmaduke, 

179. FitZ'Fain, Robert Fitzpain son of Pain Fitz 



219 

John, brother of Eustace Fitz John, ancestor 
of the Vescies, both sons of John de Burgo, 
Bumaraed Monoculus, first took this name. 
Dug, Bar. I. 572, 90. Which is a good in- 
stance how little surnames were fixed at this 
time. 

180. Fitz- Philip. 

181. * Fitz-Rauffe. See Dug. Bar. I. 510, 678, 769. 

182. FitZ' Robert, 

183. FitZ'Roger. 

184. FitZ' Thomas. 

185. FitZ'Urci/. Fitz-Urse. 

186. FitZ' Walter. This name seems to have been 

first exclusively appropriated to Robert Fitz- 
walter, a great Baron temp. K. John, son of 
Walter Lord of Dunmou, who died 10 Ric. I., 
son of Robert, fifth son of Richard Fitz-Gil- 
bert (or de Tunbridge, or de Clare) to whom 
the Conqueror granted 175 Lordships. Dug, 
B. 

187. Fitz- William. First appropriated temp. 

Hen. II. Dug. Bar. II. 105. 

188. FitZ'Waren. This name could not be taken 

earlier than the time of Hen> 1. hy Fulk, son 
of Guarine de Meez, sometimes called Fulco 
Vicecomes. Dug. Bar. 1. 443. , 

189. Foke. 

' 190. Fohille. 

191. Formal/. 

192. Formiband. 

193. Freville. Was of note temp. Hen. III. Dug. 

Bar. IL 102. 

194. Frison. 

195. Furnivale. See postea. 



220 

196. Gamages, Gamage. 

197. Gargrave. 

198. Gascoigne, 

199. * Gaunt. Gilbert de Gant was son of Baldwin, 

Earl of Flanders, and nephew to the Con- 
queror. Several of this family came over 
with William. Dug. Bar. I. 400, &c. 

200. Glaunville. Ralph de Glanville lived temp. 

W. Conq. Dug. Bar. I. 423. 

201. Golofer, 

202. Gover. I suppose Gower. 

203. Graci/. 

204. Gray. The first mention of this family in public 

record is temp. Ric. I. Dug. Bar. I. 709. 

205. Graunson, Grandison. See p. 23. 

206. Gurdon. Perhaps Gernon. 

207. Gurli/: 

208. Hameleyn, Perhaps Hanselyn, or *Alselyn. 

See Dug. B. 

209. Hamound. Hamo, not then a surname. 

210. Hansard, 

211. Harecoud, Harcourt is said to have come over 

with the Conqueror and returned to Nor- 
mandy. He was ancestor to Lord Harcourt. 

212. HarewelL 

213. * Hastings. Of palpable local origin in Eng- 

land 

214. Haulay. Hawley. 

215. Hecket. 

216. Heme. Heron, a Baron in Northumberland, 

temp. K. John. Dug. B. 

217. Husie. Hussey. Hoese. See Dug. Bar. 1.622. 

218. Janville. Geneville. 

219. Jarden. Jordan. 



221 

220. Jasperoille. 

221. Jay, 

222. Jf^arre, Carey. 

223. Karron. Carew. 

224. KyrielL SeeCriol. 

225. Lastelles, Lascelles of Yorkshire. Dug. Bar. 

II. 6. 

226. Latomere, Latimer. Dug. B. 

227. Lave. Qu. Lane ? or * Laci ? 

228. Le Despenser, See Dispenser. 

229. Le Mare, Delamare. Dug. Bar. II. 28. 

230. * Le Scrope. A great and numerous family of 

long continuance. Dug. B. 
^31, Le Strange, Seepostea. 

232. Level, Qu. Le'det ? Dug. Bar. I. 736. 

233. Levoni/, 

234. Le Wawse. Vaux. See De Vaux. 

235. * Lindsey. Lindesey, or Limesei. See Dug. 

Bar. 1. 769. 

236. Lislay. Lisle. See before. 

237. Litterile, Probably the same as Lutterell. 

238. Logenton, 

239. Longspes, William Earl of Salisbury, temp. 

K. John, was surnamed Longspe from his 
long sword. He was supposed to be a Talbot, 
and procured his Earldom by marrying Ela, 
heiress of William De Ewrus, (or Salisbury) 
Earl of Salisbury. Dug. B. 

240. Lonsroaile. 7 , .,, 

241. Logecille. J ^°»«««v>"«- 

242. Lonschampe, Longcharnp. Hugh de Long- 

champ was Lord of Wilton, co. Heref. t. 
Hen.L Dug. B. 

243. LoterelL LuttreH, Dug. Bar. I. 724. 

244. Loveday, 



245. hoy, Qu. ♦ Loges ? 

246. Lucy, First occurs in Records, temp. Hen. I. 

Dug. B. 

247. Mainard, 

248. Mainwaring, or Mesnilwarin. Richard de Mes- 

nilwaren was one of the Barons of Hugh 
Lupus, Earl Palatine of Cheshire, temp. W. 
Conq. Dug. Bar. I. 35. 

249. Malehranche, 

250. Malherh. 

251. Malemaine. Malmains. 

252. Malevile. 

253. Malory. 

254. * Manduit. Mauduit. A great family. Dug. 

Bar. 1.398. 

255. Manley. A corruption probably for Mauley. 

256. * MantelL 

257. Marmilon. Probably * Marmion. Rob. Mar- 

mion had a gift of Tamworth from W. 
Conq. Dug. Bar. I. 375. 

258. Marteine, Martin de Tours, a Norman, won 

the territory of Kemeys, co. Pembr. Dug. 
Bar. I. 729. 

259. MayeU. Qu. Meinell? Dug. Bar. H. 120. 

260. Maule. 7 ., 

^l. Mauley.]^'' ^''"'- 

262. Mautr avers. Maltravers. Dug. Bar. H. 101. 

263. Menpincoy. Qu. Montpincon ? 

264. Merke. Q. Merle, or Morley ? 

265. Mesni-lc' Fillers, 

266. * Montagu. 

267. Mantalent. Q.Montault? Dug. Bar. 1. 627. 

268. Mountbocher. 

269. Morell. 



223 

270. Moribrai/, Qu. Moubray ? 

271. Morlet/. Dug. Bar. 11. 26. 

272. Mortmain^ Prob&bly * Mortimer. Ralph de 

Mortimer continually occurs in Domesd. B. 
See this great family's history in Dug. Bar. 

273. * Morton. Macy de Moritania occurs in 

Domesd. B. 

274. Moroille. 

275. Mountmortin, 

277. Mountnei/, Probably Munchensi. Dug. Bar. I. 

561. 

278. MuffeU 

279. Murres. Morris. 

280. ♦ Musard, Hascoit Musard had great posses- 

sions temp. W. Gonq. Dug. Bar. 

281. Muschamp. Dug. Bar. I. 5f>7. 

282. Muse, Mens. 

283. Musgrave, Dug. Bar. II. 153. 

284. * Musgros, Roger de Mucelgros occurs in 

Dora. B. 

285. Miners, 

286. Neele, Nigellus ]lf edicus occurs in Dom. B. 

287. NevilleT Gefirey de Neville the ancestor of 

this once princely family is not mentioned in 
Dom. B. but he is said to have been Admiral 
to the Conqueror. Dug. Bar. 

288. Newhorough. Roger de Newburgh is not men- 

tioned in Dom. B. and therefore is supposed 
not to have acquired the Earldom of Warwick 
till the latter part of the Conqueror's reign. 
Dug. Bar. I. 68. 

289. Newmarche. Bernard Newmarch, a follower 

of the Conqueror, was a witness of one of that 



224 

king*s charters to the monks of Battle : but 
does not occur in Dom. B. Dug. Bar. I. 
435. 

290. Norhet. 

291. Norece. Norris. 

292. Nonnanville, 

293. Norton. 

294. Olibef. Probably Oiley or *D'Oiley. See 

Dom. B. and Dug. Bar. I. 459. 

295. Olifaunt 

296. Oryoll Qu. Crioll? 

297. Otenell. Otburville, or Auberville. 

298. Oi/sell. 

299. Pampilion. 

300. Patine. Perhaps Peyton. 

301. Peche. Dug. Bar. 1. 676. 

302. Pect/. * Per elf. Dug. Bar. 

303. Pekeney. Qu. Pinkney. Dug. Bar. I. 556. 

304. Pericord. 

305. PericounL 
300. Perot. 

307. Pershale. 

308. Pervinxe. \ 

309. Picot. \ 

310. * Pimeray. Pomerai. Dug. Bar. 1. 498. • 

311. PoterelL Qu. *Peverell? Ranulph Peverell ! 

occurs in Dom. B. ] 

312. Pouncy. ' . \ 

313. Power. \ 

314. Pudsey. ^ 

315. Punchardon. 

316. Pynchard. i 
^VJj, Quincy. Dugdale could not discover the oc- I 



> Qu. Pierrepoint 



i 

225 ' 



> Ros, or Roos. 



currence of this name till the reign of Hen. II, 
Dug. Bar. 1. 686. 

318. Quintine, St. Quintine, I suppose. 

319. Reymond. 

320. Richmond. 

321. Ridell, Occurs in the reign of Hen. I. Dug. 

Bar. I. 33d. 
?22. Rocheford, 

323. Rond, 

324. Rose. 

325. Rous. 

326. Russell. 

327. Ri/nel. Probably Rejnell. 

328. St.Albine. St. Aubyn. 

329. St. Barbe. 

330. * St. Leger. This name is found in records 

again very soon after the Conquest. 

331. St. Les. St. Liz. Simon de St. Liz came to 
England with the Conq. Dug. Bar. I. 58. 

332. St,Lo. 

333. St. More. St. Maur, or Seymour. Milo de 

St. Maur occurs as a Baron, 18 Joh. Dug. 

Bar. II. 89. 
33L St. Omer. 
335. St. Quintin, Hugh de St. Quintin appears in 

Dom. B. 
$36. St. Scudamore. 

337. Sandeville. 

338. Sanford. Rob. Vere, Earl of Oxford, married 

Alice daughter and heir of Gilbert de Saun- 
ford, temp. Hen. III. 

339. Savim. 

340. SomervU^. Lords of Whichoovre, co. Staff. 

V«L. IT. Q 



226 

by grant from the Conq. whence came W. 
Somerville the Poet. Dug. Bar. II. 106. 

341. Someri/, Roger de Sumeri occurs 5 K. Steph. 

Dug. Bar. I. 6 J 2. 

342. Souche. Zouche. A great baronial family, 

but not in Domesday. Dus^. Bar. I. 688. 

343. Taket, Perhaps Tuchet, of which the first men- 

tion occurs temp. Ed. I. Dug. Bar. II. 28. 

344. * Talbot, 

345. Talihois. 

346. Tanny, Tani. Rob. de Tani a witness to the 

Conqueror's Charter to Selby Abbey. Dug. 
Bar. I. 508. 

347. Tavcmer. 

348. Tavers, 

349. Tihtote. Walter de Tibtot occurs as early as 

6 K. Joh. Dug. Bar. II. 38. 

350. TirelL 

351. ''TorelL 

352. Totels, 

353. Tows, Perhaps Tours or Towers. 

354. Traynell. 

355. Trushut. William, son of Geffrey Fitzpain, took 

the name of Trusbut, temp. Hen. I. Dug. 
Bar. I. 542. 

356. Truslot, Probably the same. • 

358. Trussell. Rich. Trussell fell at the battle of 

Evesham, 49 Hen. III. Dug. Bar. II. 143. 

359. Turbeville, Turberville. 

360. Turville. 

361. Tuchet. See Taket. 

362- * Valence. Valoins. Pet. de Valoins, a great 
"^'^^ Baron, temp. W. Conq. Dug. Bar. 1. 441. 



I Duff. Bar. I. 471. 



227 

S63, Vancord. Perhaps Valletort. Dag. Bar. 1. 5!?S. 
SQL Vavasor. Dug. Bar. II. 19. 

365. Vendour. Perhaps Venator. 

366. Verder. 

367. * Verdon. i """^' 
36S.*Vere. Earls of Oxford. 

369. Verlarid. 

370. * Verlai/: Verli. 

371. Vermis, 

372. * Vernoun, One of the Barons of the County 

Palatine of Cheshire. 

373. Verny. Vernej. 

374. Vilan. 

375. Umfraville. Robert de Umfraville had a grant 

from the Conqueror of the Lordship of Rid- 
desdale in Northumberland. Dug. Bar. I« 
504. 
-376. Unket, Perhaps *Ulketel 

377. UrnalL Perhaps Arnold, or WahulL 

378. Wake, Hugh Wac appears to have been of 

note in the time of Hen. I. Dug. Bar. I. 539. 

379. Waledger. 

380. Warde, See de la Warde. 

381. Wardehus, 

382. * Warren. William de Warren was one of the 

most powerful companions of the Conqueror, 
at the Battle of Hastings. Dug. Bar. I. 73. 

383. Wate. 

384. Wateline. 

385. * WateDile. 

386. Woli/. 

387. Wyvell. An old Yorkshire £imily, but does not 

occur in Domesd. B. 
Q 2 



ThJB ignorant and disgusting forgery persons at 
all acquainted with our old records will require no 
arguments for rejecting. There seems to be a great 
number of nanses in it, which, after making every 
allowance for the corruptions of time and tran- 
scribers^ could not, even at any subsequent period 
to the Conquest, ever have been in use. But per- 
haps there are many not habituated to travel in 
the dull and thorny paths of antiquity, who will 
not be displeased to be furnished with a few digested 
observations, in addition to the remarks already 
given, which will enable them to form a judgment 
of the authenticity of this often-cited memorial. 

These observations I shall divide into two heads. 
J. Proofs of insertion of names that could not be 
known in England till long afterwards. II. Proofs 
of omission of several of the great names, which 
persons known to have accompanied the Conqueror, 
then bore : not to insist on the great variation of the 
different copies of this roll, because these remarks 
will apply to all : otherwise it might be replied, 
that the Roll itself may be genuine, though some of 
the copies should be found to be interpolated. 

First then I shall give proofs of insertion, 1st, of 
&milies who did not come to England till a subse- 
quent period : and 2dly, of surnames which were 
not adopted till the lapse of some ages after the 
Conquest ; and that of such, the greater part of the 
list is composed. 

I. Among those in subsequent reigns, drawn hi- 
ther from the continent by alliances, by the favour 
of our Norman kings, or by the hopes of fortune 
(whom Dugdale and others assert to have been very 



229 

numerous) the name of Courtnay appears in this 
list ; yet this family is recorded not to have come 
hither till the reign of Henry II. * and at any rate 
could not have been in England twenty years after 
the Conquest, for they are not mentioned in Domes- 
day Book. + So the great baronial house of Strange, 
of whom, long after the Norman accession, " it is 
said that at a Justs held in the Peke of Derbyshire 
at Castle-Peverell, where, among divers other per- 
sons of note, Oweyn Prince of Wales, and a son of 
the King of Scots were present, there were also two 
eons of the Duke of Bretainy, and that the younger 
of them being named Guy, was called Guy Le 
Strange J from whom the several families of the 
Stranges did descend:]:." Peter de Mauly was a 
Poictovin, brought over by King John to murder 
his nephew Prince Arthur, k Girard de Furnival 
came out of Normandy as late as the reign of 
Ric. I. ; and being in the Holy Land with that King 
in the third year of his reign was at the siege of 
Aeon. II Otto de Grandison, the first of that name 
here, in the reign of Hen. III. is called by Leland 
*' Nobilissimus Dns Ottho de Grandisono in Bur- 
gundia Diascesis Lausenensis, ubi castrum de Gran- 
disono est situm firmis saxis." ** Of the same reign 
Peter de Gene vile, (or Jan vile) is called " Peter de 

* Dugd. Bar. I. 634. Monast. Angl. I. 786, and Cleveland's 
Geneal. Hist, of the Courtnay s. See also Gibbon's D. and F. of 
the Roman Emp. 

f So in Holinshead's copy* Beaumont, who came to England only 
with Isabel wife of Edw. II, So Comyn in the same. 

' X Dugd. Bar. I. 663. § Ibid. 733. \\ Ibid. 726. 

** Ititt.111. f.37. 



230 

Geneva," >vhich I think speaks his immediate 
foreign origin. 

Having given a specimen of the subsequent trans- 
migration hither of some families, from the positive 
testimony of historians, I will now give a list of some, 
of whom the silence of Domesday Book affords the 
strongest negative evidence. It must however 
be first observed, that three or four names appear 
by good evidence to have been attendants of the 
Conqueror, though not inserted in Domesday Book. 
This seems to have been the case with Simon de 
St. Liz, and with Geffrey de Nevile, who is said 
to have been Admiral to the Conqueror ; and the 
Somerviles who had a grant of the Lordship of 
Whichnour in Staffordshire, on a singular tenure. 
At any rate this occurred in the case of Roger de 
Mowbray, according to Ord. Vitalis, and of Bernard 
Newmarch, and Robert de Chandos, upon the high 
authority of the Monasticon. But there were some, 
I believe, who after the battle of Hastings returned 
home, and again after the lapse of some years came 
hither, and received the Conqueror's bounty. These 
few exceptions, however, prove the strength of the 
general inference. If many had been here, who were 
not registered in Domesday Book, their names would 
have oftener occurred in other records. 

The negative evidence therefore is strong agamst 
the following names. 

Basset, word PincernainDom* 

Bonville, ^.] 

Boteler, [indeed this name Bourchier, 
is recorded under the Bulmer, 



fSl 



Burnel, 


Hussey, 


Botetourt, 


T^ascelles, 


Biset, 


Latimer, 


Camois, 


Longcharap, 


Caraville, 


Lucy, 


Chaworth, 


Luttrell, 


Colville, 


Meinill, 


Confers, 


Quincy, 


Damory, 


Ridel, 


De Vaux, 


St. Maur, 


Crioll, 


Soniery, 


Stuteville, 


Zouche, 


Fauconberg, 


Tibtot, 


Glanville, 


Touchet, 


Gray, 


Wake, and others 



These great Norman names, which all appear in 
the Roll, but were not recorded as holders of pro- 
perty twenty years afterwards, either had not, at the 
time when Domesday was compiled, assumed these 
surnames, or what is more probable had not then 
come over. For very quickly afterwards they appear 
in full baronial rank and property. 

If this observation operates against these illus- 
trious names, how much more strongly will it apply 
to the obscure ones, which remain. 

Secondly, 1 now come to the insertion of surnames 
of later date, which must lead me somewhat into the 
history of their origin. Camden says, " about the 
year of our Lord 1000, surnames began to be taken 
up in France: but not in England till about the 
time of the Conquest, or a very little before, under 
King Edward the Confessor, who was all frenchified. 



Yet in England, certain it is, that as the better sort 
even from the Conquest by little and little took 
surnames, so they were not settled among the 
common people fully, until about the time of Ed- 
ward the Second ; but still varied according to the 
father's name, as Richardson if his father were Ri- 
chard; JTodgeson, if his father were Roger, or in 
some other respect, and from thenceforth began 
to be established (some say by statute) in their 
posterity.* 

'^ Perhaps this may seem strange to some English- 
men and Scottishmen, who, like the Arcadians, think 
their surnames as ancient as the moon, or at least to 
reach many an age beyond the Conquest. But they 
which think it most strange, I doubt, will hardly 
find any surname which descended to posterity be- 
fore that time. 

*' As for myself I never hitherto found any her6- 
ditary surname before the Conquest, neither any 
that I know : and yet both I myself, and diverse, 
whom I know, have pored and puzzled upon many 
an old record and evidence to satisfy ourselves 
herein : and for my part I will acknowledge myself 
greatly indebted to them that will clear this doubt. 

" But about the time of the Conquest, I observed 
the very primary beginning as it were of many sur- 
names, which are thought very ancient, when as it 
may be proved, that their very lineal progenitors 
bare other names within these six hundred years. 
Mortimer and Warren are accounted names of great 
antiquity, yet the father of the first Roger, surnamed 

* Camden's Rem. chapt. on Surnames. 



233 

" de Mortimer/* was " Walterus de Sancto Mar* 
tino," which Walter was brother to William who 
had assumed the surname " de Warrena." He that 
first took the surname of Mowbray (a family very 
eminent and noble) was Roger son of Nigel de 
Albini; which Ni^l was brother to William de 
Albini, progenitor to the ancient Earls of Arun- 
del," &c.* 

The name of Clifford, which appears in the Battle- 
Abbey-Roll, and has belonged to a family one of 
the most illustrious and of the latest continuance of 
any in the kingdom, and which in truth came over 
with the Conqueror, was yet itself first adopted at a 
subsequent period. Twenty years after the Con- 
quest, Walter and Drogo (viz. Dru) are recorded in 
Domesday book, with no other designation than as 
" the sons of Ponz" a Norman. They had a brother 
Richard, called " Richard de Pwns," who obtained 
of Hen. I. the cantref of By chan, and castle of 
Lhanymdhry in Wales, and with the consent of Maud 
his wife, and Simon his son, was a benefactor to th6 
Priory of Malvern in Worcestershire. This Simon 
was founder of the Priory of Clifford in Hereford- 
shire, and his brother Walter first called himself 
after the castle of that name, about the time of 
Hen. n. ; for it appears by the unquestionable evi- 
dence of the " Monasticon Anglicanum" that by the 
name of " Walter son of Richard, son of Ponce," he 
made a gift to the canons of Haghmon in Shrop- 
shire, t and afterwards by the name of " Walter de 
Clifford," X gave to the nuns of Godstow in Oxford- 

* Ibid. f Monast. Augl. Vol. IL 48 su n. 10 & 20. 

+ Ibid. 884, b. n. 50. 



234 

shire, for the health of the soul of Margaret his wife, 
and of Rosamond his daughter, (so well known as 
" the fair Rosamond") his mill at Framton in 
Gloucestershire. This person was living as late as 
17 King John. * 

Audlej, the next instance, I shall cite in the words 
of Dugdale. " That this family of Aldithelj, vul- 
garly called Audley, came to be great and eminent, 
my ensuing discourse will sufficiently manifest : but 
that the rise thereof was no higher than King John's 
time, and that the first who assumed this surname 
was a branch of that ancient and noble family of 
Verdon, (whose chief seat was at Alton castle in 
the northern part of Staffordshire) I am very in- 
clinable to believe; partly, by reason that Henry 
had the inheritance of Aldithely given him by 
Nicholas de Verdon, who died in 16 Hen. III. or 
near that time ; and partly, for that he bore for 
his arms the same ordinary as Verdon did) viz. 
FretUy but distinguished with a large canton in the 
dexter part of the shield, and thereon a cross pate: 
so that probably the ancestor of this Henry first 
seated himself at Aldithelei/ : for that there hath 
been an ancient mansion there, the large moat, 
northwards from the parish church there (somewhat 
less than a furlong and upon the chief part of a fair 
ascent) does sufficiently testify." t 

Hamo, a great Kentish lord, the ancestor of the 
Crevequeurs, did not himself assume that name, being 
written in Domesday Book " Hamo Vicecomes," 
because he was Sheriff of Kent for life, and as late 

« Dugd-Bai*. 1, 335, 336. f Dug. Bar. I. 746. 



235 

as nil, 12 Hen. II. he writes himself in a deed 
" Hamo Cancii Vicecoraes et Henrici regis Anglo- 
rum dapifer," &c.* 

Of the name of Cholmondeley, or Cholmley, Dug- 
dale says, that it was " assumed from the lordship 
of Cholmundeley in Cheshire, where Sir Hugh de 
Cholmundelej, Kt. son and heir of Robert second 
son to William, Baron of Malpas, fixed his habita- 
tion, as the Egertons descended from Philip, second 
son to David Baron of Malpas, who were then seated 
at Egerton also did ; which practice was most usual 
in those elder times, as by multitudes of examples 
might be instanced t." This must of course have 
happened generations after the battle of Hastings. 

De La Pole is a mere English local name, which 
first came into notice through William de la Pole a 
merchant at Hull, in the time of Edw. III. whose 
son William, also a merchant, was father of Michael, 
created Earl of Suffolk, (9 Ric. II.)t 

The great family of Ros of Hamlake and Belvoir 
took their name in the time of Hen. I. from the lord- 
ship of Ros in Holdernesse.§ 

They who assumed the surname of Burgh, or 
Burke^ are descended from William Fitz-Aldelm, 
steward to Hen. II. and governor of Wexford in 
Ireland. || 

So the name of Multon, first taken in the time of 
Hen. I. by Thomas de Multon from his residence at 
Multon in Lincolnshire.** Kari, (or Carey) and 

* Hastcd's Kent, in the List of Sheriffs, &c. 

f Dug. Bar. II. 474. + Ibid. 11. 180. § Ibid. 1. 545. 

II Dug. Bar. I. 693, and Camden's Remains. 

** Dug. Bar. I, 567. 



^36 

Karrow, (o^ Carrew) derived from the castles of 
Kari and Carew, in Somersetshire and Pembroke- 
shire. The name of Fitz- Warren was not taken till 
the time of Hen. I.; nor Fitz-Walter till that of 
K. John ; nor Fitz-Pain, till the da^s of Hen. II. ; 
nor Fitz-Hugh, till those of Edw. III.; nor Fitz- 
Alan till those of Hen. I. ; nor Fitzwilliam till those 
of Hen. II. ; * nor Longspe till those of K. John ; 
nor Trusbut, till those of Hen. I. 

II. It is probable that by this time my readers will 
deem the proofs against the authenticity of the 
Battle Abbey Roll to be sufficient. But the instan- 
ces of omission are very striking as well as those of 
interpolation. It is true that those omissions are 
not, for the most part, in the fuller catalogue printed 
by Holinshead, but that copy exhibits much addi- 
tional matter for condemnation. 

The copy here given, while it contains a number 
of barbarous and unintelligible names, omits, among 
many others to be found in Domesday Book, or other 
good authorities, the great families of Ferrers, 
Stafford, Gifford, Mohun, Mallet, Mandeville, 
Baliol, Salisbury, Speke, Tony, Vesci, Byron, 
Gernon, Gurnay, Scales, St. Waleri, Montfort, 
Montgomery, with those of Churchill, Lovet, Lin- 
coln, Pauncefoot, De Salsey, De Rie, De Brioniis^ 
De Romara, De Vipount, De Creon, De Grente- 
maisnil, Montfitchet, Tatshall f, &c. 

* As to these Fitzs, it is true Will. fil. Alan, &c. occur in Domes- 
day Book ; but by no means as names of exclusive and hereditary 
appropriation. 

f If the Roll of Battle Abbey had been genuine, it must have re- 
ceived confirmation from that authentic record of the reign of Hen. 
II. the Liber Niger Scaccarii, published by Hearne ; but no two rc- 
{[isters can less agree; 



Sd7 

Whoever is desirous to understand the real origin 
of surnames in Engiand, will do well to study the 
chapter on this subject by Camden, inserted in his 
Remains, of which the following is an imperfect 
epitome. 

Epitome of Camden's Chapter on the origin of Sur- 
names 

I. The most surnames in number, the most ancient, 
and of best account, have been local, deduced from 
places in Normandy, Britany, France, or the Nether- 
lands, being either the patrimonial possessions, or 
native places of such as served the Conqueror, or 
came in after, as from Normandy, Mortimer, Warren, 
Albini, Percy, Gournay, Devereux, St. Maure, 
Nevile, Ferrers, &c.: from Britany, St. Aubin, 
Morley, Dinant, Lascelles, &c. : from France, Court- 
nay, St. Leger, Villiers, Beaumont, &c.: from the 
Netherlands, Loraine, Gaunt, Bruges, &c. and in 
later ages, Dabridgcourt, Robsert, Mainy, Gran- 
dison, &c. 

II. Those names, which had LE set before them, 
were not at all local, but given in other respects; as 
Le Marshall, Le Latimer, (that is, interpreter) Le 
Dispencer, Le Scroop, Le Savage, Le Tavasour, Le 
Blund, Le Molineux. As they also which were 
never noted with DE orLE, in which number are 
observed, Giffard, Basset, Arundel, Talbot, For- 
tescue, Howard, Tirell, &c. And these distinctions 
with DE, or other with LE, or simply, were religi- 
ously observed until about the time of K. Edw. IV".* 

♦ Yet there seems something like an exception in some instances 
which Camden gives, in another place, of local Norman names, from 



238 

III. Many strangers coming hither were named of 
their countries: as Breton, Gascoigne, Fleming, 
Pi card, Burgoyne, Germain^, Westphaling, Daneis, 
&c. And these had commonly LE prefixed in re- 
cords and writings. 

IV. Names from places in England and Wales in- 
finite : as Clifford, Stafford, Berkeley, Hastings, Ha- 
milton, Lumley, Clinton, Manners, Paulet, Stan- 
hope, Willoughby, Astley, &c. 

At a word, all which in English had OF set before 
them, which in Cheshire and the North was con-- 
tracted into A. : as Thomas a Button, &c. and all 
which in Latin old evidences have had DE prefixed, 
were borrowed from places. 

Many local names also had AT prefixed to them : 
as At Wood, &c. 

V. Rivers also have imposed names : as Sur-Teys, 
Derwent- Water, Eden, &c. 

VI. Many also had names from trees near their 
l^abitations : as Vine, Ash, Hawthorn. 

VII. In respect of situation to other places have 
arisen, North, South, East, West, and likewise 
Northcote, Southcote, Eastcot, Westcot ; and even 
the names of Kitchen, Lodge, &c. 

VIII. After these local names, the greatest num- 
ber have been derived from occupations, or profes- 
sions : as Taylor, Potter, Smith, Archer, &c. 

IX. Many have been assumed from offices: as 

trees near their habitations : as Coigners, that is, Quince; Zoucb, 
that is, the trunk of a tree ; Cursy and Curson, that is, the stock 
of a Vine ; Chesney and Cheyney, that is, Oak ; Dauney, that is, 
Alder, &c. 



2,39 
Chambers, Chamberlaine, Cooke, Steward, Marshall, 

&C. ' ! . i^M.i !/.//, 

X. Likewise from Ecclesiastical fiAictions : as 
Bishop, Abbot, Monk, Deane, Archdeacon. 

XI. Names have also been taken from civil ho- 
nours, dignities, and estates : as King, Duke, Prince, 
XiOrd, Baron, Knight, &c. 

XII. Others from the qualities of the mind: as 
Good, Wise, Bold, Best, Sharp, &c. 

XIII. From the habitudes of the body, and its per- 
fections and imperfections: as Strong, Armstrong, 
Long, Low, Little, &c. 

XIV. Others in respect of age : as Young, Child, 
&c. 

XV. Some from the time when they were born, as 
Winter, Summer, Day, Holiday, Munday, &c. 

XVI. Some from that which they commonly car- 
ried : as Palmer, Longsword, Shakspeare, Wagstaff, 
&c. 

XVII. Some from parts of the body : as Head^ 
Whitehead, Legg, Foot, &c. /-^^ ^v jiii** 

XVIII. Some from garments : as Hose, (HbSatasj, 
Hat, &c. 

XIX . N ot a few from colours of their complexions : 
as White, Brown, Green, &c. Rous, that is, red, and 
Blunt or Blund, that is, flaxen hair, and from these 
Kussell, and Blundell. 

XX. Some from flowers and fruits: as Lilly, 
Rose, Nut, Peach. 

XXI. Others from beasts : as Lamb, Lion, Bear. 
Buck, Roe, &c. .If^mrSO .nowr.' 

XXI I. From fishes: as Playce, Salmon, Herring, 



240 

XXIII. Many from birds : as Raven, (Corbet) 
Swallow, (Arundel) Dove, (Bisset.) 

XXIV. From Christian names, without change : 
as Francis, Herbert, Guy, Giles, Lambert, Owen, 
Godfrey, Gervas, &€. 

XXV. Besides these, many surnames are derived 
from those Christian names which were in use about 
the time of the Conquest : as Achard, Aucher, Bagot, 
Bardolph, Dod, Dru, Godwin, Haraon, Hervye, 
Howard, Other, Osborn, Pain, Picot, &c. 

XXVI. And not only these from the Saxons and 
Normans, but from many British and Welsh Chris- 
tian names : as Mervin, Sitsil or Cesil, Caradock, 
Madoc, Rhud, &c. 

XXVII. By contracting or corrupting Christian 
names : as Terry for Theodoric; Colin and Cole for 
Nicholas; Elis for Elias, &c. 

XX VIII. By addition of S to Christian names: 
as Williams, Rogers, Peters, Harris. 

XXIX. From Nicknames: as Bill; Mill for 
Miles, Ball for Baldwin, Pip for Pipard, Law for 
Lawrence, Bat for Bartholomew. 

XXX. By adding S to these nicknames: as 
Robins, Thomas, Dicks, Hicks, &c. 

XXXI. By joining KINS and INS to these 
names : as Dickins, Perkins, Hutchins, Hopkins. 

XXXII. Diminutives from these: as Willet, 
Bartlet, Hewet. 

XXXIII. Many more by the addition of SON to 
the Christian or nickname of the father : as Richard- 
son, Stevenson, Gibson, Watson, &c. 

XXXIV. Some have also had names from their 
mothers : as Mawds^ Grace, Emson, Sec. 



241 

XXXV. In the same sense it continues in these 
who descended from the Normans: as Fitz-Hugh, 
Fitz-Herbert, &c. and those from the Irish as Mac- 
Derm ot, Mae-Arti, &c. And so among the Welsh, 
Ap-Robert, Ap-Harry, Ap-Rice, &c. 

XXXVI. The names of alliance have also con- 
tinued in some for surnames: as R. Le Frere, Le 
Cosin, &c. 

XXXVII. Some names have also been given in 
merriment: as Malduit for ill-tanght; Mallieure, 
commonly Malyvery, for Mains Leporarius, ill 
hunting the hare, &c. 

" Hereby/' says Camden, " some insight may be 
had in the original of surnames, yet it is a matter 
of great difficulty to bring them all to certain heads, 
when as our language is so greatly altered, not only 
in the old English, but the late Norman; for who 
knoweth now what these names were, GifFard, 
Basset, Gernon, Mallet, Howard, Peverell,Paganell 
or Paynell, Tailboise, Talbot, Lovet, Pancevolt, 
Turrell, &c. though we know the signification of 
some of the words r" &c. 

It is also difficult to find out the causes of alter- 
ation of surnames, which has been very common. 

But the most usual alteration proceeded from 
place of habitation. " As if Hugh of Suddington 
gave to his second son his manor of Frydon, to his 
third son his manor of Pantly, to his fourth his wood 
of Albdy; the sons called themselves De Frydon, 
De Pantley, De Albdy, and their posterity removed 
De." 

Others took their mother's surname, as Geffrey 
Fitzmaldred took the name of Nevile; the son of 

VOL. IV. R 



242 

Joseline de Lovaine took the name of Percy ; Sir 
Theobald Russell the name of Georges, &c. 

Others changed their names to that of a more ho- 
nourable ancestor, as the sons of Geffrey Fitz-Petre 
took the name of Mandeville. 

Some changed their names to those of the former 
possessors of the land they obtained, as the posterity 
of Nigel de Albini took the name of Moubray. 

Others in respect of benefits as Mortimer of 
Richards Castle to Zouche. Others from adoption. 

Some have assumed the names of their father's 
baronies, as the issue of Richard Fitz-Gilbert took 
the name of Clare. 

To conclude. " The tyrant Time, which hath 
swallowed many names, hath also changed more by 
contracting, syncopating, curtailing, and mollifying 
them, as Audley from Aldethelighe, Darell from Le 
Daiherell, Harrington from Haverington," &c. 



The following is the best catalogue I can at present 
form from authentic evidences of the real companions 
of the Conqueror in his expedition to England. 

" Interfuerunt huic praelio,'* says Ordericus Vi- 
talis, " Eustachius Boloniaii Comes, Guillelmus Ri- 
cardi Ebroicensis Comitis filius, Goifredus Rotronis 
Moritoniai Comitis filius, Guillelmus Osberni filius, 
Rodbertus Tiro Rogerii de Bellomonte filius, Ilai- 
mericus Toarcensis praeses, Hugo Stabulariorum 
Comes, Galteriusi Giphardus, et Radulphus Thoen- 
ites: Hugo de Grentemaisnilio, et Guillelmus de 
Garenna, aliique quamplures n»ilitaris praestantiae 
faraacelebratissimi; & quorum nomina Historiarum 



243 

voluminibus inter bellicocissimos commendari dcceat. 
Willelmus vero Dux eoruin praestabat eis fortitudine 
et prudentia. Nam ille nobiliter exercituin duxit, 
cohibens fugam, dans animos, periculi socius, saepius 
damans ut venirent, quam jubens ire. In bello tres 
equi sub eo confossi ceciderunt: ter ille intrepidus 
desiluity nee diu mors vectoris inulta remansit. 
Scuta, galeas, et loricas irato mucrone, moramque 
dedignante, penetravit: cljpeoque suo nonnullos 
collisit, auxilioque multissuorum atque saluti, sicut 
e contra hostibus perniciei fuit *." 



Genuine Catalogue of the Companions of the Con^ 
queror to England, 

1. Eustace Earl of Boulogne, in Picardy, father to 

the famous Godfrey of Boulogne. 

2. William, son of Richard Earl of Evreux in Nor- 

mandy. 

3. Godfrey, son of Rotro, Earl of Moritagne. 

4. William Fitz- Osborne, created Earl of Here- 

ford. He died 1070. He married Adeline, 
daughter of Roger de Toeni, and was suc- 
ceeded in the Earldom of Hereford by Roger 
de Britolio, his third son, whose daughter and 
coheir Emma married Ralph Guader Earl of 
Norfolk, whose daughter Amicia married 
Robert Earl of Leicester. 
. Robert Tiro, son of Roger de Bellomont, in 
Normandy, whom Hen. I. advanced to the 
Earldom of Leicester : " Tyro quidam Nor- 

# Ord. Vit. apud Duchesne, p. 501. 

ii2 



244 

manus,*' sajs William of Poictiers, " Robertus 
RogeriideBelloraonte filius, HugonisdeMel- 
euto Coinitis ex Adelina sorore nepos et 
hceres, praeliura illo die primum experiens egit 
quod aeternandum esset Jaude : cum legione, 
quam in dextro coriiu duxit, irrueiis ^c sternens 
magna cum audacia.*" His great grandson 
Robert Fitzparnel, Earl of Leicester, who died 
s. p. 1204, 6 Job. left two sisters, bis cobeirs, 
Amicia wife of Simon de Montfort, and Mar- 
garet wife of Sajer de Quincy. 

6. Haimeric, the President of Tours. " Aquita-^ 

nus," says William of Poictiers, "lingua non 
ignobilior quam dextra." 

7. Hugb de Montfort, whom Ord, Vitalis calls 

" Stabulariorum comes," son of Tburstan de 
Bastenbergb, a Norman. His descendant, 
Simon Montfort, married Amicia, sister and 
coheir of Robert Fitzparnel Earl of Leicester. 
The family long remained in Warwickshire. 

8. Walter GifFard, son of Osborne de Bolebec and 

Avel'iue his wife, sister to Gunnora Duchess 
of Normandy, was soon after his arrival in 
, England advanced to the Earldom of Buck- 
inghamshire. A curious account of his wii'e 
Agnes is given by Ordericus Vitalis^ pp. 809, 
, 810. His son Walter became 2d Earl of 

Buckingham, but dying s. p. his great inherit- 
ance was shared between his sisters, Rohesia, 
wife of Richard Fitz- Gilbert, ancestor of the 
great family of Clare, and Isabel, wife of Wil- 
liam Mareschal Earl of Pembroke. 

* GuiU Pict apud Duchesne, p. 202. 



245 

9. Ralph de Tony was son of Roger, Standard 
Bearer of Norniaudy, by Alice, daughter of 
William Fitz-Osborne. Rpbert de Tony, his 
last'heir male,« died 3 Edvv. II., leaving Alice, 
his sister and heir, wife of Guy Beauchamp 
Earl of \yar wick. 

10, Hugh de Grentemaisnil, a valiant soldier, had 

great grants of land in Leicestershire, &c. He 
died 1094. He was Lord of the Honor of 
Hinkley. His descendant, Hugh, left a daugh- 
ter, Petronel, wife of Robert Blanchmains 
Earl of Leicester, who died 2 Rich. 1. 

11. William de Wijrren, afterwards Earl of Surry. 

He died 10S9. See Watson's History of this 
family. 



These are all recorded hij JVilliam, of Poictiers and 
Ordericifs Vitalis to have deen present at the battle 
of Hastings. The Conqueror'' s other companions 
I must collect from less direct authorities. 

12. Robert Earl of Moriton, in Normandy, half- 

brother to the Conqueror. His «on and suc- 
cessor, William, died s. p. 

13. Odo, his brother, Bishop of Bayeux, and after- 

wards Earl of Kent. 

14. Walter Earl of Eureux, in Normandy, whose 

younger son Edward called himself de Saris- 
burie, and was grandfather of Pat ric Earl of 
Salisbury. From henqe also came the noble 
family of Devereux. ,. ,, ..^^ j, . . . 

15. Robert Earl of Ewe, in Normandy, who had a 

grant of the Honour of Hastings, to whose son, 



246 

Earl William, still gf eater territories in Eng- 
land were added. Earl Henry, son of the last, 
died 1JS9, whose grandson, Earl Henry, left 
a daughter and heir, Alice, married to Ralph 

, de Ysendon. 

16. Roger de Montgomery led the middle part of the 
Conqueror's army at the invasion, was first 
advanced to the Earldom of Arundel, and af- 
terwards of Shrewsbury. He was succeeded in 
the English Earldom by his second son Hugh, 
on whose death the elder brother, Robert, ob- 
tained it. His son Talvace did not enjoy this 
honour, but left two sons, Guy Earl of Pon- 
thieu ; John ; and two daughters, one married 
to Juhel, son of Walter de Meduana, the other 
to William, 3d Earl of Warren, and afterwards 
to Patric Earl of Salisbury. 

17. Alan, son of Eudo Earl of Britanny, commanded 

the rear of the Conqueror's army, had a grant 
of the Earldom of Richmond, co. York. The 
last heiress of this great family married Ralph 
Lord Basset of Drayton. The family of 
Zouche sprung from a younger son of this 
house. 

18. Drew Le Brever, a Fleming, to whom the Con- 

queror granted the territory of Holdernesse ; 
but upon his killing a kinsman of the King, he 
fled, and this estate was given to Odo Earl of 
Champaigne, who was grandfather of William 
le Grosse Earl of Albemarle, whbse sole daugh- 
ter and heir married William de Mandeville 
Earl of Essex. 



247 

19. Richard Fitz-Gilbert, son of Gilbert surnamed 

Crispin, Earl of Brion, in Normandy, gave 
great assistance in the battle, had a grant of 
the Castle of Tunbridge in Kent, and other 
great possessions, of which Clare in Suffolk 
was one, whence he took the name of Clare. 
His descendants were Earls of Gloucester and 
Hertford. Gilbert the last Earl died 7 Ed. II., 
and his sisters were married to De-Spenser, 
Audley, and De Burgh. 

20. Geffrey de Magnaville is said to have hewed 

down his adversaries on every side at this bat- 
tle, and received great rewards in lands. His 
grandson, GeftVey, was advanced to the Earl- 
dom of Essex. Geffrey Fitzpiers married the 
grandaughter of his aunt, who became the 
heiress. 

21. William Malet was sent with the slain body of 

King Harold to see it decently interred. He 
had the Honour of Eye in Suflblk. The eldest 
branch soon went out in heiresses; but there 
is still a male descendant in the person of Sir 
Charles W. Mallet, who therefore, though an 
East Indian, eclipses in antiquity almost all 
our old families. 

22. Hubert de Rie, who came as Ambassador from 

Duke William to Edward the Confessor, and 
was sent back into Normandy after the Con- 
quest. His descendant, Eudo, built the Castle 
of Colchester, and left an heiress married to 
William de Mandeville. 

23. Ralph de Mortimer, one of the chief commanders 

at the battle. A family well known for their 
rank and power. 



248 

24. William de Albini is stated to have come in at 
the Conquest. His family were Earls of Arun- 
del. 

^. William and Serlo de Percy came into England 
with the Conqueror. 

26. Roger de Moubray came to England with the 

Conqueror. 

27. Robert D'Oiley ; the same. 

28. Rob. Fitzhamon, nephew toDukeRollo; the 

same. He was Lord of the Honor of Glou- 
cester. 

29. Bernard Newmarch; the same. 

SO. Gilbert de Montfichet, a Roman by birth, and a 
kinsman of the Conqueror, fought stoutly at 
this battle. 

31. GeftVey de Neville was the King's Admiral on 

thia occasion. 

32. Robert de Chandos accompanied William from 

Nori)iandy. 
S3, Eudo, with one Pinco, came over at this time. 
He took the name of Tatshall. 

34. So Eugenulf de Aquila. 

35. So Robert de Brus. 

36. So Walter Deincourt. 

37. So (filbert de Gaunt. 

38. So Guy de Creon. 

39. So Ralph de Caineto, or Cheney. 

40. So Hugh de Gurney. 

41. So Humphry de Bohun. 

42. Walter de Laci. 

43. Ilbert de Laci. 

44. Geffrey, Bishopof Constance, brother of Roger 

de Moulbray, was an eminent commander at 
this battle, though an ecclesiastic. 



249 

45. Simon de St. Liz, with his brother Garnerius 

le Rich, came over with the Conqueror. 

46. Robort Fitz-Harding. 

47. Waiter Bee. '^V 

48. Sir William de Mohiin. 

49. Hameline de Balun. 

Art. CCCXIV. Observations upon the Provinces 
United. And on the State of France. Written hy 
Sir Thomas Overhury. London. Printed by 2\ 
Maxey for Richard Harriot ; and are to be sold at 
his shop in St. Dunstan's churchyard, Fleet streety 
165 J. Duod. pp. 80. 

Annexed to this volume is " the lively portrai- 
ture of Sir Thomas Overbury" by S. Pass. Under 
which are the following lines : 

A man's best fortune, or his worst's a wife; 
Yet I, that knew nor marriage peace nor strife. 
Live by a good, by a bud one lost my life. 



A wife like her I writ, man scarse can wed ; 

Of a false friend like mine man scarce hath read. 

These allusions are obvious to every one ac^ 
quainted with the story of Sir Thomas Overbury. 
His good " Wife," a poem, has gone through nu- 
merous editions. His false friend, Somerset, and 
his false friend's bad wife, no one can think of, with- 
out shuddering ! 

Overbury was born 15S1, and died 13 Sept. 1613. 

It is very doubtful, whether he was the real author 
of the above book. 



250 

Art. CCCXV. A perfect Collection or Catalogue 
of all Knights Batchelaurs made hy King James 
since his comming to the Crown of England. Faith" 
fully extracted out of the Records by J. P. Esq, 
Somerset Herald^ a devout servant of the Royal 
Line, 

Cicero ad Atticum. Honor quid nisi Virtus cognita. 
Londony printed for Humphrey Mosely^ and are 
to he sold at his shop at the Princess Armes in 
S. Pauls Churchyard^ 1660, Svo. pp. 94. Dedi" 
cated to Sir Edward Nicholas. 

John Philipot the author of this work died in 
1645. 

It seems bj this Catalon^ue, that King James made 
23^3 Knights, of whom 900 were made the first year. 
" If" says the Editor, " jou observe the history of 
those days, you will find many knighted, who, in the 
time of the late Queen, had shewed small affection 
to that king of peace. But he was wise, and best 
knew how to make up a breach." There is a copy 
of this in the Library of the Royal Institution, which 
was formerly Oldys's. 

Art. CCCXVI. An Attempt towards recovering an 
account of the numbers and sufferings of the Clergy 
of the Church of England, Heads of Colleges, Fel- 
lows, Scholars, 8fc. who were sequestered, harrass'd, 
SfC, in the late times of the Grand Rebellion : oc- 
casion d by the ninth chapter (now the second 
volume) of Dr, Calamy^s Abridgment of the Life 
of Mr. Baxter, Together with an examination of 
that chapter. By John Walher, M, A. Rector of 
St, Mary's the More in Exeter, and sometime Fel- 



g51 

low of Exeter College in Oxford, London. Printed 
hy W. S.for J. Nicholson, R. Knaplock, R. Wil- 
kin^ B. Tooke, D. Midwinter y and B, Cowse. 1714. 
FoL 

In this work are many curious particulars of 
personal history. It was intended to contrast the 
sufferings of the loyal clergy, with those of the 
ejected Nonconformists, of whose hardships Dr. 
Calamy had given a grievous arccount, with a view 
to engage the public interest in their favour. 

Art. CCCXVII. The History of Philip de Corn- 
mines y Knight y Lord of Argenton. The Fourth 
Edition corrected, with Annotations, London, 
Printed for Samuel Mearne, John Martyn, and 
Henry Herringman, and are to he sold in Little 
Britain, St. Paul's Churchyard, and the New Ex- 
change, FoL 1674. pp, 348. 

CoMMiNES is an historian very well known and a 
good companion to Froissart. He was born at 
Commines in Flanders, 1445, and died at his house 
of Argenton, in Poictou, 17 Oct. 1509, aet. 64. He 
was first in the service of Charles, Duke of Bur- 
gundy, and afterwards of Lewis XI. of France. 

The translator was Thomas Danett, who first 
published his work in 1596, printed by Arnold 
Hatfield, for John Norton. FoL * and dedicated it 
to Lord Treasurer Burghley. 

Danett also published A Continuation of the His- 
torie of France, from the death of Charles the 

♦ i\mes, UL 1213. 



Eight, where Comines endeth, till the death of 
Henry the Second. Collected hy Tho. Danetty 
Gent. London. Printed hi/ Tho. East for Tho- 
mas Chard. Dedicated to Lord Buckhurst, Lord 
High Treasurer of England. 1600. ^to. pp. 148.* 

The only editions of Comiiiines, mentioned by De 
B.ure, are those of \Q\S,par Deny's Sauvage, Leydf^ 
Elzevier, in l2mo. a beautiful little edition. Again, 
Paris, Impr. Royalc, 1649, infol. Again, Par M, 
VAbbe Lenglet Du Fresnoy. Paris, 17 4J. 4 %oL 
inito.f 

The following editions of Commines are taken 
from the Bibl. Had. 

" Gr/>mque Sf Hist, f aide iS" composee, par Phelippe 
de Comines contenant les Choses advenues, durant 
le Regne du Roy Lovys XL tant en France^ 
Bourgoyn, Flandres, Arthois, Angleterre, que 

• lb. II. 1197. 

f I take this opportufjity of mentioning (though out of place) in 
addition to the Account of the Old Spanish Historians of the 
New World, in this volume, that there is a Translation into English 
of Antonio de SoliSj by Tho. Townsend, ■ 1724. Fol. I add the two 
following titles on the same subject. 

•* The Decades of the New Worlde, or West India, conteyning the 
Navigations and Conquestes of the Spanyardes, with the particular de- 
scription of the most ryche and large landes and ilandes lately founde 
on the West Ocean, peiteyninge to the inheritance of the Kings of Spay ne^ 
translated out of Latine by Richafde Eden, 1556,410. 

*' Feidinando Georges's History of the Spaniards Proceedings in the 
Conquests of the Indians, and of their Civil Wars, among themselves, 
from Columbus^s first Discovery to these latter times. 1659." 

Eden also translated, " The History of Travayle into the West and 
East Indies, and other countreys, lying either nay, towardes thefruitfull 
mid ryche Molucca," Sac. finished hy Richard Willes. Lond. 1577, 
4to. He aho translated other works. 



253 

Espaigne et Lieux circonvoisins, - en 
Gothique^ 1525. FoL 
" La Meme, reveus S^ corrigez par Dennis Sauvage. 

Pans^ 1552. 
",Z/fl Aleme, reveus Si' corrigez sur divers Manuscrits 
S^ anciennes Impressions ; augmentez de plusieurs 
Traitez^ Contracts, Testaments y autres Actes, Sf de 
divers Observations, par Godefroj/, Paris, de 
rimprimerie RoT/ale, 1649, Foiy 
" Memoires de Phil, de Comines sur les principaux 
Faits et gestcs de Louys XI, 8^ Charles VIII. 
Rouen, 1625, Svo. 
••^ La Meme, augmentez de plusieurs Traitez, Con- 
tracts, Testaments, Actes, <^ Observations par 
Godefroy, enrichie de Portraits S^ augmentee de 
VHist. de Louis XI, connue sous le nom de Chro- 
nique Scandaleuse, 4 Tom. %vo. Bruss. 1706. 
" Cominoe de Rebus Gestis Ludovici XI. and Caroli 
Burgundies Ducis, ex Gallico facti Latini a Joan. 
Sleidano. Paris apud Wechel. Sro. 1545." 
" La Historiafamosa di Monsignor di Argenton delle 
Guerre 4" Costumi di Ludovico XI. con la Bat- 
taglia 8f Morte del Gran Duca di Borgogna. Venct. 
1544. 8x'o." .Uii i .T 

There was also an edition of the original in black 
letter, 4to. 1525. 

The compiler of the catalogue oI>serves, ** I^e 
Comines, qui morut en 1509, est le plus sense & le 
plus judicieux Ecrivain de I'histoire de France ; il a 
ete compare, avec Thucjdide, & avec meilleur dans 
I'Antiquite." He adds of the edition hy Godefroy, 
1649, that it is incomparable for its correctness, 
beauty, and selection of notes and proofs. * * 

* BibJ. Harl. II.5I3. 



254 

Art. CCCXVIII. Anglorum Speculum; or the 
Worthies of England^ in Church and State, Al- 
phabeticalli/ digested into the several Shires and 
Counties therein contained; wherein are illustrated 
the Lives and Characters of the most Eminent Per- 
sons since the Conquest to this present Jge. Also 
an account of the Commodities and Trade of each 
respective County^ and the most flourishing Cities 
and Towns therein, London, Printed for John 
Wright at the Crown on Ludgate Hill, Thomas 
Passinger at the Three Bibles on London Bridge^ 
and William Thackary at the Angel in Duck Lane, 
1684. 8t5o. pp. 974. 

" The Preface to the Reader. 

" Courteous reader, I here present you with an 
abstract of the lives and memoirs of the most famous 
and illustrious personages of this realm, since the 
Conquest to this present time : for order sake I 
have digested it alphabetically into the several 
shires and counties contained in this kingdom; 
which I hope will find a kind acceptance, there being 
nothing of the same method now extant. 

« Dr. Fuller in his large history in folio, did go 
a great way in this matter, but here is included the 
lives of many more eminent heroes and generous 
patrons, (which I hope their memory may survive 
in succeeding ages) this being done with that bre- 
vity, which may be more beneficial to the reader. 
Here you have the original or rise of most of the 
eminent families in this kingdom. 

•' Also an epitome of the most material matters in 
i:hurch and state, containing the lives of the most 



253 

eminent fathers in the English church, and the most 
flourishing statesmen in the latter times ; also the 
most famous authors, as well divine as historical ; 
together with the lives of the most memorable per- 
sons in the law, mathematicks, geographers, astro- 
nomers, poets, &c. which have made this kingdom 
known throughout the world. 

" I need not enlarge, or give any further en- 
comium upon this subject, but refer yon to the table 
first, and then to the book itself, which I hope will 
find that kind acceptance, that may engage me in some 
further procedure that may please my countrymen, 
which I shall always endeavour to do in plainness 
and brevity to the reader's satisfaction, and in the 
mean time, am yours to command, G. S." 

With the articles already mentioned in this 
volume on the " Worthies, &c. of England," the 
present claims an arrangement. The notice for 
this work is fully supplied by the above preface, 
which the editor (whose initials I have not disco- 
vered) has rather too highly tinted. J. H. 

Art. CCCXIX. 7"he General Histori/ of Spain 
from the first peopling of it by Tubal^ till the death 
of King Ferdinand^ who united the Crowns of 
Castile and Arragon; with a continuation to the 
death of King Philip III, Written in Spanish, 
hy the R, F, F. John de Mariana, To which are 
added two Supplements ; the First by F. Ferdinand 
Camargo y Salcedo ; the other by F, Basil Varen 
de Soto; bringing it down to the present reign. 
The whole translated from the Spanish, by Captain 



256 

J. Stevens. London. Printed for R. Sare, F. 
Saunders y and T. Bennet^ 1699. Fol. The His- 
tory contains pp. 563. The Supplements, pp. 91. 

The reputation of Mariana, the original author 
of this history, is sufficiently established. It first 
appeared in Latin, and was dedicated to Philip II. 
King of Spain : he afterwards translated it into 
Spanish ; and put it under the protection of 
Philip III. It begins at the first peopling of the 
world by the posterity of Noah ; and is brought 
down by Mariana to the end of Philip Ill's reign. 

The history is divided into thirty books. The last 
twenty books comprehend the history of Spain from 
the time of the invasion made by the Almohades to 
the death of King Ferdinand, who united the crowns 
of Castile and Arragon ; a period of 303 years, if 

In the whole work there are, besides matters of 
fact related candidly and fairly, several political and 
useful reflections made by the author on several ira-. 
portant transactions.* To this he has added a com- 
pendious supplement from the year 1515 to the year 
1621. F. Ferdinand Caraargo y Salcedo, Preacher 
and Historiographer of the order of St. Augustin, 
has carried the history down to the year 1649 ; and 
from thence F. Basil Varen de Soto, once Provincial 
of the Regular Clergy, has continued it down to the 
year 1669. * 

This translation of Captain Stevens still retains its 
reputation, and bears a considerable price. 

♦ Memoirs, ut. supr. 1699, Vol. I. p. 566. ^ 



257 

Art. GCCXX. The Destruction of Troy^ in three 
books. The first shewing the founders andfounda" 
tion of the said citt/, with the causes and manner 
how it was sacked and first destroyed by Hercules, 
The second how it was re-edified^ and how Hercvles 
slew King Laomedon, and destroyed it the second 
time : and of Hercules his worthy deeds and his 
death. The third how Priamus son of King Lao* 
medon, rebuilded Troy again more strong than it 
was before ; audfor the ravishment of Dame Helen^ 
wife to King Menelaus of Greece^ the said city 
was utterly destroyed and Priamus with Hector 
and all his sons slain. Also mentioning the rising 
and flourishing of divers kings and kingdoms^ with 
the decay and overthrow of others. With many 
admirable acts of chivalry and martial prowess ^ 
effected by valiant knights^ in the defence and love 
of distressed Ladies, The eleventh edition^ corrected 
and much amended, London^ Printed for T, Pas' 
singer^ at the Three Bibles on London Bridge* 
1684. Small ito. pp. 439. B. L. 

This is a Iflite edition of Caxtpn's celebrated ;His- 
tory of Tray, 

^^ Tifus en^eth the secoind book of collections 
of the hiatpiriess of Troy. Wbich books were trans- 
lated into French out of Latin by the labour of the 
yenerable person Raoulle Feur«, priest^ ats afore is 
eaid, and by me unfit and unworthy, translated into 
the rtide English, by ithe commandment qf ray re- 
doubted Lady, Dutchess of Burfi^oine, (sister of 
Edward 1 1 II.) And forasmuch as I suppose the 
said two books have not been had before this time 

VOL. IT. s 



258 

in our English language : therefore I had the better 
will to accomplish this present work, that was begun 
in Bruges, and continued in Gaunt, and finished in 
Colen in the time of the great divisions as well in 
the realms of England and France, as in all other 
. places universally through the world, that is to say, 
in the year of our Lord, one thousand four hundred 
seventy and one." * 

The author adds that the third book had lately 
been translated into English verse by " the wor- 
shipful and religious man John Lidgate, Monk of 
Bury ;'* but that he having " now good leisure, 
being in Colen," had determined " to take this la- 
bour in hand" in prose. 

" Now thus I am come to the finishing of this pre- 
sent book {the third) — and for as much as I am weary 
of tedious writing, and worn in years, being not able 
to write out several books for all gentlemen, and 
such others as are desirous of the same, I have 
caused this book to be printed : that being published 
the more plenteously men's turns may be more 
easily served." * 

The work itself is taken, but with many altera- 
tions, additions, and accomodations to the language 
of romance, from Homer, Virgil, Dares, and Dictys ; 
and is by no means void of interest or entertainment. 

P. M. 

Art. CCCXXI. Rex Platonicus ; sive de poten^ 
tissimi Principis Jacobi Britanniarum Regis ad 

• This was the year in which printing was first introduced into 
England by William Caxton ; of whose Recuyel of Troy this is as 
has been said, a reprint. See Herbert 1. 5. 

f See these words to Caxton's Recuyel ; Herb. I. 7, 



259 

itlustmsimam Academiam Oxoniensem adventu, 
Aug, 27, Anno 1605 Narratio ab Isaaco Wake. 
Editio Sexta, Anno 1663. l2mo, 

Isaac Wake, the author of this curious little 
volume, was the public orator of the Uuiversity. 
One of the most curious passages it contains is that 
which relates to the little spectacle exhibited at 
St. John s College, when James entered the Uni- 
versity from Woodstock ; and it is the more remark- 
able, as it is supposed to have given rise to the 
Macbeth of Shakspeare, which did not appear till 
a year after. The passage may be found at page 29, 
and is as follows. 

'' Quorum primos jam ordines dura Principes 
contemplantur, primisque congratulantium accla- 
mationibus delectantur, Collegium D. Johannisy 
nomine literarum domicilium (quod Dominus Th. 
Whitus Prcetor olim Londinensis, opimis reditibus 
locupletarat,) faciles eorum oculos spcciosae struc- 
turae adblanditione invitat; moxque & oculos & 
aures detinet ingeniosa, nee injucunda, lusiuncula, 
qua clarissimus Praeses cum quinquanginta, quos alit 
Collegium, studiosis, magnaque Studentium con- 
viventium caterva prodiens, Principes in transitu 
salutandos censuit. 

Tabulae ansam dedit antiqua de Regia prosapia 
historiola apud Scoto-Britannos celebrata, quae 
tres olim Sibyllas occurrisse duobus Scotice pw 
ceribus Macbetho Sf Banc ho ni, Sf ilium prcB" 
duxisse Regem futurum, sed Regem nullum gent- 
turum^ hunc Regem non futurum sed Reges geni* 
turum multos, Vaticinii veritatem rerum eventuf 
i2 



comprobavit. Banchonis enim 6 stirpe Potentissimus 
Jacobus oriundus. Tres adolescentes concinno 
Sibi/llarum hahitu indutiy e CoUegio prodeuntes, 8f 
carmina lepida alterndtim canentes, Regi se tres esse 
illas Sibyllas projitentur^ qum Banchoni olim soholis 
imperia prcedixerant^ jamque iterum comparere^ ut 
eadem vaticinii veritate prcedicerent J acobo se jam 
et diu regem futurum BritannicB felicissimum et 
multorum Regum parentem^ w^ejr Banchonis siirpe 
nunquam sit hceres Britannico diademati defuturus. 
JDeinde trihus Principibus suaves felicitatum triplU 
citates triplicates terminum vicibus succinentes, ve- 
niamque precantes, quod alumni cedium Divi Johannis 
(qui proBCursor Christi) alumnos ^Edis Christi (quo 
turn Rex tendebat) prcecursoria hac salutatione ante^ 
vertissenty Principes ingeniosa fictiuncula delectatos 
dimittunt; quos inde universa.ostantium multitudo, 
felici praedictionum successui suffragans votis pre- 
cibusque ad portam usque invitatis Borealem pro- 
sequitur. E. 

Art: CCCXXlt. A Register and Chronicle Ec' 
clesiastical and Civile containing matters of facty 
delivered in the words of the most authentic books, 
papers and records, digested in exact order of time, 

' With proper notes and references tozipards dis- 
covering and connecting the true History of Eng- 
land from the Restauration of King Charles II, 
Vol, I, Faithfully taken from the Manuscript 
Collections of the Lord Bishop of Peterborough. 
London, Printed for R. Williamson, near Gray^s 
Inn Gate in Holhorn, 1728. Fol pp, 938, besides 
DedicatioHy Preface and Index. 



961 

The dedication of this work to the Queen is dated 
March 1, 1727-8, and the Bishop died 19 Dec. fol- 
lowing, aet. 69, 

The Preface commences with these observations. 

" The common world will judge, that it has much 
more of reputation to bean author, than to be a bare 
collector : and this will be a standing reason why the 
multitude of writers shall aim at the more creditable 
name, and why so few seem willing to submit to. 
that lower character. But however to write for 
praise and popularity is one thing, and to write for 
public use and service is a different thing. The 
first indeed is more natural ; the latter has some- 
what of self denial and mortification in it. 

" The author has not only the pleasure of hunting 
after the applause of others, but he enjoys a quicker 
taste of pleasing himself, being at liberty to indulge 
his invention, his judgment, his fancy, wit, oratory, 
or any other prevailing talent in him ; while the dull 
collector is confined to the sort of mechanic drudgery, 
to the running, stooping, searching, poring, picking 
out, and putting together, a mass of authorities; and 
often revising, collating, and transferring of them, 
without being able to bring them soon into any re- 
gular form and fashion. As inglorious, as for the 
day-labourer to be throwing up a heap of stones and 
rubbish, while the noble architect alone has the 
satisfaction and credit of raising and perfecting his 
own model. 

" And yet in compiling any history fit to be read, 
the proper materials are to be sought out with dili- 
gence, and before they are compacted, they must be 
examined, compared, corrected, and adjusted in due 



262 • 

order, and marked out for the respective use and 
occupation of them. And therefore the dry collectors 
of original and authentic matter, such as acts, deeds, 
records, and other evidences, do somewhat more of 
service to the world, to posterity at least, than those 
finer pens, that upon slight materials strike out a 
goodly frame, to little bett^ purpose^, than the 
building a castle in that place, where there can be 
no foundation for it." 

The volume however, useful as it is, remained for 
many years, and probably still continues, little better 
than waste paper in booksellers' shops. Such is 
public caprice ! 

Dr. White Kennet, the compiler, was son of a 
clergyman at Dover, in Kent, where he was born 
Aug. 10, 1660. In 168i, he became A. M. at Ox- 
ford, and in 1685, Vicar of Ambrosden. In 1691 he 
was chosen Lecturer of St. Martin's in Oxford, and 
Tutor, and Vice-Principal of St. Edmund's Hall. In 
1695 he published his Parochial Antiquities ; and in 
1699 he became D. D. and was appointed minister of 
St. Botolph, Aldgate, London. About 1705 he pre- 
pared a third volume to the collection of Writers of 
English History ; of which the second edition came 
out in 1719. In 1707, he was appointed Dean of 
Peterborough, and was promoted to the bishopric in 
November, 1718.* 

His younger brother, the Rev. Basil Kennet, D. D. 
well known for his " Lives of the Grecian Poets," 
and other learned works, died 1714, aged 40. 

* Tbe former editions of the Biographical Dictionary, with 
their usual deficiency, omit the mention of either of the works here 
jrpgistered. 



263 

Art. CCCXXIIL Parochial Antiquities attempted 
in the History of Amhrosden^ Burcester^ and other 
adjacent parts in the counties of Oxford and Bucks, 
By White Kennet, Vicar ofAmbrosden, Vetera 
Majestas qucedam, Sfc. (ut sic dixerim) Religio 
commendat, Quinctil. de Instit. Orator I. ?. c. 6. 
Oxford^ Printed at the Theater, 1695. ^to. pp. 
704. besides dedication, preface, full index, and 
long glossary. 

This laborious compilation of the learned Bishop 
of Peterborough, has for many years been scarce, 
and sold at a hia;h price. It arose from an inquiry 
into the abuse of an ancient public charity in the 
parish, of which he was presented to the vicarage in 
1685. 

" This was the occasion," says he, " which first 
engaged me in inquiries and searches after papers 
and records, which might any way relate to my 
church and parish. 

" When 1 had once began to be thus inquisitive, 
the slow discoveries which I gradually made, did not 
so much satisfy my mind, as they did incite it to 
more impatient desires. So that diverting from my 
ordinary course of studies, I fell to search for private 
papers, and public evidences, to examine Chartu- 
laries, and other manuscripts, and by degrees to run 
over all printed volumes, which I thought might 
afford any manner of knowledge of this parish, and 
the adjacent parts of the country. 

" As to the method, I proposed to make it as ob- 
vious and regular, as such disjointed matter would 
allow. Where I wanted authorities, I resolved ray 
conjectures should be short and modest." 



204 

At the Norman Conquest, he says h6 found hid 
matter more copious; and has gathered up many 
materials to improve Dugdale's Baronage, and 
thousands of charts and muniments to Add to the 
Monasticon Anglicanum. 

At length, as his matter increased upon him, he 
found it necessary to break off at the year 1460, 
*' having thought it convenient to proceed by way of 
annals, that he might keep to the exact period of life 
and action, which are the soul of history, and the 
criterion of all truth/* 

Finding, in the progress of the sheets through the 
press, many terms and phrases unexplained, he has 
drawn up a glossary of about 1 18 pages, which fur- 
nish improvements to the excellent Glossary of Sir 
Henry Spelman, of which Du Fresne's Work, as to 
all the old terms of more peculiar use in this island, 
is merely an abridgment. 

*' I am sensible," he concludes, ^' there be some, 
who slight and despise this sort of learning, and re- 
present it to be a dry barren monkish study. I leave 
such to their dear enjoyments of ignorance and ease. 
But I dare assure any wise and sober man, that 
Historical Antiquities, especially a search into the 
notices of our own nation, do deserve and well re- 
ward the pain's of any English student; will make 
him understand the state of former ages, the con- 
stitution of governments, the fundamental reasons 
of equity and law, the rise and succession of doc- 
trines and opinions, the original of ancient, aiid the 
composition of modern, tongues; the tenures of 
property, the maxims of policy, the rites of religion^ 
the characters of virtue and vice, and indeed the 
sature of manjkind." 



265 

In the Dedication to his patron. Sir William 
Glynne, Bart, he says farther on this subject : " As 
to the performance, I am under no concern to vin- 
dicate it from the slights and ridicules that may be 
cast upon it by idle witty people, who think all his- 
tory to be scraps, and all antiquity to be rust and 
rubbish. Next to the immediate discharge of my 
holy office, I know not how in any course of studies 
I could have better served my patron, my people, 
and my successors, than by preserving the memoirs 
of this parish and the adjacent parts, which before 
lay remote from common notice, and in few years 
had been buried in unsearchable oblivion. If the 
present age be too much immersed in cares or 
pleasures, to take any relish, or to make any use 
of these discoveries, I then appeal to posterity : for 
I believe the times will come, when persons of better 
inclination will arise, who will be glad to find any 
collection of this nature ; and will be ready to sup- 
ply the defects, and carry on a continuation of it. 

The volume' contains nine plates of churches and 
seats, by Michael Burghers, distinguished by a cer- 
tain kind of character, like that of the Flemish school 
of painters, which is exceedingly amusing and at- 
tractive. 

Art. CCCXXI V, The Histori/ ofGustavus Ericson, 
% Mrs. Sarah Scott. 1761. Svo, 

to the editor. 
Sir, 

1 ENCLOSE you an account of a publication of the 

late Mrs. Sarah Scott, author of the Life of D'Au- 

bigne, and many other works. The " History of Gus- 



266 

tavus Ericson," in point of composition, is fully 
equal to the Life of D'Aubigne. I believe it is be- 
come a scarce book. The meinorandum herewith 
is annexed to a copy in the library of T. B. Esq. 
ofN . 

1 beg^ leave to wish you every pos^sible success in 
the prosecution of a work calculated to be eminently 
useful to the lovers of antiquarian research. 

London, Dec. 12, 1805. M. B. 

" The name of Henry Augustus Raymond, an- 
nexed to the title of the History of Gustavus Ericson, 
is fictitious, the real author being Mrs. Sarah Scott, 
wife of George Lewis Scott, Esq. sub-preceptor to 
his present Majesty (George the Third) during his 
minority, and afterwards one of the Commissioners 
of Excise, whom she survived near fifteen years, and 
died at her house at Catton, near Norwich, in 1795. 
She was sister to the celebrated Mrs. Montagu of 
Portman Square, London, who died in 1800 ; they 
were daughters of Matthew Robinson, Et-q. of West 
Layton in Yorkshire^ and Monks-Horton, near 
Hythe, in Kent; their elder brother Matthew, Lord 
Rokeby, died cilso in 1800. With abilities of a 
superior cast, and distinguished literary attainments, 
there was a mixture of eccentricity in the character 
of all the three. Mrs. Scott wrote also the Life of 
Theodore Agrippa D'Aubigne, published in 1772." 

The above is transcribed from a manuscript me- 
morandum written on the first leaf of a copy of 
^' The History of Gustavus Ericson, King of Sweden, 
with an Introductory History of Sweden, from 
the Middle of the Twelfth Century. By Henry 



267 

Augustus Raymond, Esq. Printed for A. Millar, 
1761, 8vo." T. B. 

Motives of delicacy restrain the Editor from en- 
tering at large^upon the characters of those whom 
the present communication gives him an opportunity 
to mention; but he cannot totally omit the occasion 
to say a few words. The epithet " eccentric" was 
totally inapplicable to Mrs. Montagu. She justly 
prided herself upon her knowledge of the world, and 
her conformity to its manners and habits. It was 
indeed her defect that she had too great a regard to 
these things, and damped her transcendent talents 
by a sacrifice to the cold dictates of worldly wisdom. 
Her understanding was as sound as her fancy was 
lively ; * her taste was correct and severe ; and she 
penetrated the human character with an almost un- 
erring sagacity; but her love of popularity, her 
vanity, and her ambition of politeness, controuled 
her expressions, and concealed her real sentiments 
from superficial observers. No one had seen more 
of life than she had; and of that part of mankind, 
who were eminent either for their genius or their 
rank; and, for many years, during the latter part of 
her long existence, her splendid house in Portman 
Square is ^ell known to have been open to the 
literary world. She had lived at the table of the 
second Lord Oxford, the resort of Pope, and his 
co-temporaries ; she was the intimate friend of 

* The Essay on Shakspeare is really a wonderful performance, as 
all, who will examine it impartially, must admit. It is a ridiculous 
supposition that she was assisted by her husband. Mr. Montagu's 
talent lay in mathematical pursuits. 



268 

Pulteney, and Lyttelton ; and she survived to en- 
tertain Johnson, and Goldsmith, and Burke, and 
Reynolds, till their respective deaths. Beattie Has 
frequently her inmate ; and Mrs. Elizabeth Carter, 
who now has been distinguished as an author for 
nearly seventy years, and still exhibits on the eve 
of ninety the possession of her extraordinary fa- 
culties and acquirements, was, from their early y<^ar8, 
her intimate friend, correspondent, and visitor. 
During these continued opportunities Mr^- Montagu 
was not idle or heedless; she saw human nature 
in all its windings ; and she saw it with the aid of a 
constellation of wits. Her knowledge therefore was 
eminently acute and practical ; and as she was a 
votary of the manners of the world even to a fault, 
had no pretensions to the epithet " eccentric." In 
making these observations the Editor trusts he shall 
not be deemed to have gone beyond the occasion ; 
for he has touched only a very small part of the 
character of Mrs. Montagu*. 

To her brother, the late Lord Rokeby, indeed the 
term " eccentric" might not unjustly be applied. He 
was the perfect opposite to his sister. From his very 
boyhood he resolved to live by the guide of his own 
understanding. That understanding was by nature 
vigorous, and by constant exercise eminently acute; 
and, if he sometimes became bewildered in laby- 
rinths for want of the assisting lights of others, he 
often struck out unexpected truths, which in personal 
conferences he communicated with peculiar force 
by the energy of his manner; but of which, for want 

* Mr. Matthew Montagu has since published 4 volumes of his 
Aunt's Letters, for which he has such voluminous materials. 



269 

of attention to the polish of language and the arts of 
composition, he did not gain the full credit with the 
public at large. In the early part of his life he had 
associated with the world, and sat in Parliament. 
Ill health first drove him into a fixed retirement ; 
but when there, he had an opportunity of completely 
emancipating himself from the sphere of the world's 
prejudices. He saw its follies " through the loop- 
hole of retreat," and he had the courage to judge 
and act for himself. The baubles of life had no 
attractions for him. Solitude was no desert in his 
eyes. He looked around him on creation with an 
expanded heart, and surveyed the simple and un- 
sophisticated charms of Nature with rapture. I 
saw him at the age of eighty-five, from the stone 
steps of his hall, lifting his arm to point out the 
beautiful scenes around him with a heart full of 
gratitude to Providence for the pleasures of which 
our existence is capable; and then heard him la- 
ment with a tremulous and energetic eloquence how 
those blessings were thrown away by the crimes of 
Society, which, influenced by luxury and instigated 
by ambition, defiled them with litigation, and wasted 
them with wars, and rapine, and bloodshed ! 

On the verge of eighty-eight be died in the vigour 
of his body and mind, from neglect of an accidental 
complaint in his leg. But the lamp of life could 
not easily be extinguished : his struggles to the last 
were full of agonizing strength. His heart was the 
very seat of simplicity, independence, and integrity. 
His intellect was powerful and commanding. He 
had a few peculiarities, which gave scope for 
the misrepresentations and silly comments of the 



270 

light-hearted, and the light-headed ; beings, about 
whom he gave himself no concern ; and whom no 
man of elevated mind will ever condescend to notice ! 

Art. CCCXXV. Northern Memoirs ^calculated for 
the Meridian of Scotland^ wherein most or all of the 
cities, citadels, sea-ports, castles, forts, fortresses, 
rivers and rivulets are compendiously described, 
Sfc. S^c, To which is added, the contemplative 
and practical Angler, With a narrative of that 
dexterous and mysterious art, ^c. By way of 
Dialogue, Writ in the year 1658, but not till now 
madepublick. By Richard Frank, Philanthropus, 
Plures necat Gula quam Gladius, London: 
Printed for the Author, 1694. ^vo,pp.SO^, 

The author, a Cambridge academician, and dis- 
satisfied cavalier, appears to have travelled as much 
for the pilrpose of diverting his spleen and melan- 
choly, as for amusement, being passionately devoted 
to the pursuit of angling. The greater part of this 
work is occupied by a variety of dissertations on this 
subject, rather than affords any topographical inform- 
ation. I have selected, as a specimen of his style, 
an extract from his^r*^ dedication to a friend, (there 
being no less than /owr distinct ones* to this rare 
and singular book.) After inviting him " to step 
into Scotland to rummage and rifle her rivers and 

• They are respectively entitled as follows : 1. " To my worthy 
and honored friend Mr. J. W. Merchant in London." 2. " To the 
Virtuoso's of the Rod in Great Britain's Metropolis, the famous 
City of London." 3. ** To the Academics in Cambridge, the place 
of my nativity." 4. " To the Gentlemen Piscatorians inhabitins 
in or near the sweet situation of Nottingham, North of Tr«at.** 



271 

rivulets, and examine her flourishing streams for 
entertainment," he observes, " you are to consider, 
that the whole tract of Scotland is but one single 
series of admirable delights, notwithstanding the 
prejudicate reports of some men that represent it 
otherwise. For if eje-sight be argument convincing 
enough to confirm a truth, it enervates my pen to 
describe Scotland's curiosities, which properly ought 
to fall under a more elegant stile to range them in 
order for a better discovery. For Scotland is not 
Europe's umbra, as fictitiously imagined by some 
extravagant wits : no, it's rather a legible fair 
draught of the beautiful creation, dressed up with 
polished rocks, pleasant savanas, flourishing dales, 
deep and torpid lakes, with shady fir-woods, im- 
merg'd with rivers and gliding rivulets; where every 
fountain o'er flows a valley, and every ford super- 
abounds with fish. Where also the swelling moun- 
tains are covered with sheep, and the marish grounds 
strewed with cattle; whilst every field is filled with 
corn, and every swamp swarms with fowl. This, in 
my opinion, proclaims a plenty, and presents Scot- 
land, a kingdom of prodigies and products too, to 
allure foreigners and entertain traveller^." J. H. M. 
*^* J. H. M. would be extremely gratified if 
some one of the numerous contributers to the Cen- 
8URA Liter ARIA would give an account of that 
very rare work entitled " Bi/shope's Blossoms,** 
The reason of this request originates from observing, 
in the catalogue of a most respectable provincial 
bookseller, the following note subjoined to the same 
book. " At page fifty-one of this very curious work 
is to be found the remarkable story upon which th9 



272 

late Horace Walpole's play of the Mysterious Mo- 
ther is founded." 



Art. CCCXXVI. The Memoires of the Duke of 
Mohan : or, a faithful Relation of the most re- 
markable occurrences in France; especially con' 
cerning those of the Reformed Churches there. 
From the death of Henri/ the Great until the Peace 
made with them, in June 1629. Together with 
divers politic Discourses upon several occasions. 
Written originallj/ in French, by the Duke o/ 
Rohan, and now Englished by George Bridges, of 
Liincolns-Inne, Esq. London. Printed by E . M. 
for Gabriel Bedell, and Thomas Collins ; and are 
to be sold at their shop, at the Middle Temple Gate 
in Fleet-street. 1660. %vo. pp. 224, besides 
Epistle, Preface and Table. 

After this occurs a new Title-Page, viz. Divers 
Politique Discourses of the Duke of Rohan; made 
at several times upon several occasions: written 
originally in French ; and now rendered into Eng- 
lish. By G. B. Esq. London, Printed by Tho- 
mas Ratcliffe, for G. Bedell and T. Collins, at the 
Middle Temple Gate in Fleetstreet. 1660. pp. 70. 

George Bridges, the translator of this work, was 
younger brother of Sir Thomas Bridges, of Keinsham 
Abbey in Somersetshire, and son of Edward Bridges, 
Esq. of the ^arae place, by Philippa, daughter of Sir 
George Speke, K. B. He died Jan. 1, 1677, and 
was buried in Keinsham church. I cannot refrain 
from embracing the opportunity of saying a few 
words about the above branch of this once numerous 



g73 

and 'spreading family. I cannot refrain, because there 
was a vile attempt, on a late occasion, for the most 
malicious and dishonest purposes, to substitute them 
in a wrong place. The Keinsham branch were noto- 
riously, and upon the most demonstrable proof, de- 
scended from Thomas Bridges, who died 1559, and lies 
buried at Cornbury * in Oxfordshire, and to whom 
Edw. VI. granted the site of the priory of Keinsham. 
He was younger brother to John, first Lord Chandos; 
and some account of him may be found in Tho. 
Warton's Life of Sir Thomas Pope. He left issue 
Henry, who died 1597, and was father of Sir Thomas, 
whose son Edward was father of George Bridges 
the translator. George Rodney Bridges, the first 
cousin of this George, married the famous Countess 
of Shrewsbury, who is said to have held the Duke 
of Buckingham's hoi-se in the disguise of a page, 
while he fought a duel with her husband, Lord 
Shrewsbury. Pope records the loves of this tender 
pair : 

** Gallant and gay, in Cliefden's proud alcove. 
The bovver of wanton Shrewsbury and love." 

The son of this too famous Countess, by her last 
liusband, lived at Avington, near Winchester, which 
city he long represented in Parliament, and dying 
1751, aged 72, left his estates to his remote cousin 
the late Duke of Chandos; among which was the 
large manor of Villiers in Ireland, derived, I 

* In Oct. 1796, I visited CornbuTy church, and saw the broken 
fragments still legible of the brass which records his memory, and 
many honourable employments. I restored the parts to their place 
in the wall, whence they are probably again separated for ever, 
VOL. IV. T 



274 

presume from his mother, which was for many years , 
afterwards the subject of dreadful litigations with 
the tenants, as may be seen in Hargrave's Law 
Tracts. 

But, proveable and clear as was the descent of 
this branch, it was not the only instance, in which 
wicked opponents made use of similar materials, in 
defiance of the acknowledged falsehood of their ap- 
plication. There existed a certain family of the 
name, of respectability and fortune, and for many 
generations possessed of the seat * of their residence. 
These had long flattered themselves by the claim of 
alliance to a noble house. But it happened unfor- 
tunately for this claim, that there existed amongst 
the most authentic records of the Heralds' College, 
under the powerful certificate of the very learned 
Gregory King, and even their own signature, f a 
pedigree which decisively annihilated these preten- 
sions. But this family was pressed forward also to 
create confusion, and disseminate preju(Jices. It was 
not indeed brought publicly forth : the propagators 
knew it would not bear the light ; and that the con- 
sequence would be instant confutation. But they 
worked like moles in the dark : vile toad-eaters and 
dissemblers, who got access to the houses of the 
Great by base servility and adulation, poisoned by 
these means the minds of two many, and misled and 
puzzled those who were too easily puzzled. I for- 
bear to point out individuals, though there is one 
deceitful little wretch, whose constant dangling at 
the doors of high rank, and peculiar activity in this 

* Tyberton, in Herefordshire. 

t In the last visitation of Herefordshire. 



275 

business, will, should he ever read these passages, 
be fully aware of its allusions.* 

Having written thus far, I look back, and hesitate ! 
But what I have written shall stand ! 1 have for- 
borne for years, out of delicacy, to tell the truth on 
this subject ; but there is a point, when forbearance 
becomes a folly, and even a crime. Let it not be 
supposed, that I care for these baubles, or that my 
mind still dwells incessantly on the ill usage that my 
family have received. Indignation has worked my 
cure. My heart is purged, I trust, of all its weak 
ambitions; and 1 allow of no superiority, but that 
of the disposition and the head. Were I vested with 
the titles and possessions even of a leading Duke, 
but were (as might have happened) low in manners, 
vulgar in intellectual qualities, and base in dispo- 
sition, I should consider that my honours and wealth 
would expose instead of covering my personal in- 
feriority ! Could I reach the pathetic or sublime 
strains of Burns, how mean would it be, to feel hu- 
miliation, had I been born in a hovel, and traced no 
blood in my veins, but what had flowed from la- 
bourers and peasants I 

I know not then why I should concern myself in 
endeavouring to honour a family, who, numerous 
and powerful and far spread as they have been, have 
in the long track of ages been little known in li- 
terature, but whose habits have been almost all 

feudal, whilst I am forced to press an humble tran- 

% 

* The person here alluded to, has since gone to his long home. 
He vras nearest in blood to a very learned and ingenious author, 
who deceased many years before him ; and whose Legal Treatises 
are less known than they ought to be. 
T 2 



276 

slator into the service, and re^t our fame upon one, 
who must stand in the hindmost ranks of authorship ! 
Nor shall I perhaps gain much more credit by the 
niche which, on doubtful pretensions, I have formerly 
obtained for a peer of the family in the temple of 
Lord Orford's Noble Authors. But I care not : 

■ quae non fecimus ipsi. 



Vix ea nostra voco. 

1 can see insolent and undeserving men, sitting in 
the seats of my ancestors, and inebriated by the 
giddy height they have attained ; I can see them 
without humiliation or regret. Nay, 1 can with 
sincerity return scorn for scorn ! But enough ! 

The Duke de Rohan died April 13, 1638. His 
Memoirs are highly esteemed. It seems to have 
been agreed that he was one of the greatest men of 
his time. 

The translation is dedicated to James Marquis 
of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The 
translator says he was principally induced to pub- 
lish it in our language, by some passages tending 
to the vindication of our late incomparable king 
and martyr, from no less false than foul asper- 
sions concerning Rochelle ; his care and diligence 
to order their relief being here acknowledged, by 
persons more concerned, than our pretended pro- 
pagators of religion ; the Rochellers* ruin being 
chiefly occasioned by their own inconstancy, re- 
fusing to admit those succours when come, which 
they before, even with tears, implored, and their 
own intestine divisions and factions; with which 
his blasphemous and rebellious subjects first 



277 

sought to wound his fame, that with more se- 
curity they might imbrue their hands in his most 
sacred blood."* 

P. S. Harry Bridges of Keinsham, nephew of 
this George, was also an author, or rather translator 
of The Tales of Cervantes, 

• In Bibliotheque des Sciences, Oct. Nov. Dec. 1767;. (Tom, 
XXVIII. Part. II. A La Hage, 1768,) is an account of a Book 
entitled " Historic de Tancrede de Rohan, avec quelques autres 
Pieces concernant L'Historie Romaine. A Liege, chez. J. F. Bos- 
sompierrel Imprimeur de Son Altesse, & Libraire ; 1767, grand in 
12 de 498 pp." 

This Tancred, says Anderson in his Genealogies, was rejected by 
^e Parliament of Paris, who made his sister heiress of Rohan. 

Dec. 26, 1805. 



278 



BIOGRAPHY, 



Art. CCCXXVII. Virorum Doctorum de Dis- 
ciplinis Benemerentium effigies XLIIII. A 
Phillippo Galleo Antwerpice, 1572, fol. 

As I SHALL presently give an account of 
Holland's Jfferoologia, I insert in this place the 
above work of a similar nature; though perhaps not 
strictly within ray plan. It contains no lives like 
Holland : but two Latin distichs at the bottom of 
each portrait. At the commencement is an advertise- 
ment in two pages, entitled " Philippus Gallasus 
Pictor et Chalcographus Bonarum Artium Amatori- 
bus," dated " Antwerpiae VI. Kal. Mart. 1572." Of 
the distichs he says " Singulorum quos nunc exhibe- 
mus elogia, Benedictus Arias Montanus, (qui dis- 
ciplinarum omnium, et nostrarum etiam artium, 
picturae et sculpturae peritos plurimum diligit) binis 
distichis artificiose complexus est, quae non minus 
varietate et elegantia, quam veritate laudum lectores 
juvabunt. 

The portraits are 1. JEneas Silvius. 2. Abrahamus 
Ortelius. 3, Andreas Alciatus. 4. Andreas Veaa- 



279 

lius. 5. Angelas Politianus. 6. Ben. Arius Mon- 
tanus. 7. Bilibaldus Pircheymer. 8. Christophor 
Plantinus. 9. Clemens Marotus. 10. Cornelius 
Gemma. 11. Cornelius Grapheus. 12. Dantes Ali- 
gerius. 13. Erasmus Roterod. 14. Fransciscus Pe- 
trarcha. 15. Gemma Frisius. 16. Georgius Macro- 
pedius. 17. Gilbertus Limburgus. 18. Guiiielmus 
Budaeus. 19. Guiiielmus Philander. 20. Hadrianus 
Junius. 21. Hadrianus Trajectensis, 22. Hieronymus 
Savonarola. 23. Jacobus Lalomus. 24. Joachimus 
Camerarius. 25. Joannes Bapt. Gellius. 26. Joan- 
nes Becanus. 27.. Joannes Bocatius. 28. Joannes 
Dousa. 29. Joannes Fischerus. 30. Joannes Sam- 
bucus. 31. Joannes Sartorius. 32. Ludovicus 
Vives. 33. Marcilius Ficinus. 34. Nicolaus Tar- 
taalia. 35. Pet. Andreas Mathiolus. 36. Petrus 
Apianus. 37. Petrus Bembus. 38. Rembertus Do- 
donaeus. 39. Rodolphus Agricola. 40. Ruardus 
Tapperus. 41. Stanislaus Hosius. 42. Theodorus 
Pulmannus. 43. Thomas Morus. 44. Wolfgangus 
Lazius. 

This book is scarce. In the copy I have seen 
there is bound with it " Doctorum aliquot Virorum 
Yivst Effigies. Joos de Bosscher excudebat," which 
contains forty portraits, of which some of the sub- 
jects are the same as those in the former work. 



Art. CCCXXVIll. HeroologiaAnglica: hoc est^ 
Claris simorum et dociissimorum aliquot Anglorum, 
qui Jloruerunt ah anno Cristi M. D. usque ad pre* 
sentem annum M. DC XX ^ vivce effigies, vitce, et 
elogia. Duohus Tomis, Authore H. H. Anglo 



280 

Britanno. Impensis CrispiniPassceiCalcecographice^ 
et Jansonii Bibliopoles Arnhemiensis. 

Tins is part of an engraved title-page, orna- 
mented with figures, with a small map of England 
at the top, and a view of London at the bottom. 

The author was Henry Holland, son of Philemon 
Holland, a physician and schoolmaster at Coventry, 
and the well-known translator of Camden, &c. Henry 
was born at Coventry, and travelled with John Lord 
Harington into the Palatinate in 1613, and collected 
and wrote (besides the Heroologia) " Monumenta 
Sepulchralia Ecclesiae S. Pauli Lond." 4to ; and 
engraved and published " A book of Kings, being a 
true and lively effigies of all our English Kings from 
the Conquest till this present," &c. 1618. He was 
not educated either in Oxford or Cambridge, having 
been a member of the Society of Stationers in Lon- 
don. I think it is most probable that he was brother 
to Abraham Holland, who subscribes his name as 
*< Abr. Holland alumnus S.S. Trin. Coll. Cantabr." 
to some copies of Latin verses on the death of John 
second Lord Harington, ofExton, in the Heroolo- 
gia ; which Abraham was the author of a poem, 
called " Naumachia; or, Holland's Sea-Fight," 
Lond. W22. 4to. and died 18 Feb. 1625, when his 
<' Posthuma" were edited by " his brother H. Hol- 
land." At this time however there were other writers 
of the name of Hen. Holland *. 

The Heroologia is dedicated to James I. After 

which is " Praefatio ad Spectatorem pium, et ad 

Iburoanum Lectorem." This is succeeded by Post- 

* Wood's Ath. i. 499. 



281 

Prefatio seu commonefactio Spectator! pio, Lectori 
candido, Censorique aequo." The last I will copy 
as explanatory of the work. 

" Docti, dilecti, pii, piique : En vobis delineatas 
Anglicanae gentis heroum effigies, quas curavi (quod 
maxime potui) ut ab ipsis illorum vivis iniaginibus 
oleo depictis effingerentur, una cum succincta vi- 
tarum suarum historia, quae Coilegi et conquaesivi 
ex ipsis VERITATIS visceribus, in mundi theatrum 
produco, non spectandi solum gratia (cum puerorum 
sit nuda oscilla, seu imagunculas attonite intueri) 
nedum superstitioso affectu ullo: Papistae eiiim 
canonizatorum sacrificulorum suorum Icones re- 
tinere solent inviolatas; sed etiam idque imprimis, 
ut illorum piam memoriam illustremque famam 
immortalitati commendarem, defunctosque quod- 
amodo a mortuis excitarem, et illis quandam vitam 
infunderem. Neque tamen dicti illius immemor, 
S" Augustini in libris suis de Civitate Dei : " Se- 
pulchrorum memoria magis est vivorum consolatio 
quam defunctorum utilitas. Denique ut ipse haec 
vivorum simulacbra intuitus, et virtutibus jam de- 
functorum notalibus Deum Opt. Max. gloria afficias, 
propter tam eximios et salutares administros ex- 
citatos. Theologorum autem et scriptorum vitis 
utcunque a me delineatis catalogum, et quasi Com- 
mentariolum quoddam singulorum librorum et 
tractatuum ab iis conscriptorum sive Anglice sive 
Latine editorum subjeci et subjunxi. 

Sed fortasse aliquis vestrum excipiet (vos autem 
oj(AO£0i/fi? populares meos alloquor) superesse, com- 
plures alios per excellentes viros natione Anglos 
qui in hoc album referri possent : Concedo id quidcra, 



282 

sed in veras illorura efligies non potui incidere 
fdlsas autem et adulterinas Picturas in omnium con- 
spectum proferre nolui : Hue accedit, quod destina- 
tum et mihi propositum numerum, compievi. Neque 
vereor affirmare hos ipsos quos exhibui intra cen- 
tenos annos proxime elapses in JNatione nostra 
longe excelluisse. Nihilominiis, si qua in re deli- 
querim vel minus exquisite quid descripserim, quod 
non adeo repugnanter cognoscam, ad tuam, benevole 
Lector Spectatorque, facilem et candidam censuram 
confugio, unde in proposito meo confirmabor, et 
postea omnium aspectui judicioque exponam, con- 
similes virorum praestantium atque etiamnum in 
nostra Gente superstitum effigies quibus sapientiores, 
doctiores, prudentiores, nulla aetas vidit. Et hoc 
sane opus parturio, jamque in manibus habeo. 
Iterum valete." 

Next follows " Admonitio ad Lectorem," which 
is succeeded by several copies of commendatory 
Latin verses. 

The first division, or volume (both being bound 
together and paged as one), contains principally 
laymen; the second is entirely dedicated to di- 
vines. 

This work is very valuable, as it contains, I believe, 
the first regular collection of English heads, several 
of which are done by the family of Pass^ and many 
of subjects which have never been otherwise en- 
graved, except as they were copied from these. A 
reference to the enumeration of prints in the first 
volume of Granger's Biographical History will con- 
firm this assertion. It may however be useful ta 
give 



283 

A List of the Portraits in this Work. 
Tom. I. 

1. Henry VIII. 

2. Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex. Ob. 1540. 

3. Sir Thomas More. Ob. 1535. 

4. Cardinal Wolsey. Ob. 1530. 

5. Cardinal Reginald Pole. Ob. 1558. 
6-. Edward VI. 

7. Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset; a fine 

head. Ob. 1549. 

8. Lady Jane Gray. Ob. 1553. 

9. Q. Elizabeth ; . followed by a print of her tomb. 

10. Henry Prince of Wales ; a fine head. Ob. 1612. 

11. The same, a whole length. Tilting; followed 

by a print of his tomb. 

12. Sir John Cheek ; a fine head. Ob. 1557. 

13. WiUiam Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Ob. 

1569, 

14. Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex. Ob. 1576. 

15. Sir Nicholas Bacon. Ob. 1578, 

16. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Navigator. Ob. 1583. 

17. Sir Henry Sydney, K. G. (of whom a beautiful 

portrait remains at Penhurst.) * Ob. 1586. 

18. Sir Philip Sydney. Ob. 1586. 

19. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, by W. Pass. 

Ob. 1588. 

20. Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick. Ob. 1589. 

21. Sir Francis Walsingham. Ob. 1590. 

22. Sir Richard Granville, Navigator. Ob. 1591. 

* Granger makes a strange mistake in calling his mother a 
Dudley. His wife was a Dudley, by which his son Sir Philip becanae^ 
nephew to Robert Earl of Leicester. 



284 

23. Thomas Candish, Navigator. Ob. 1592. 

24. Cristopher Carlile, Navigator. Ob. 159.3. 

25. Sir Martin Frobisher, Navigator. Ob. 1594. 

26. Sir John Hawkins, Navigator. Ob. 1596. 

27. Sir Francis Drake, Navigator. Ob. 1596. 

28. WiJliam Cecil, Lord Burleigh. Ob. 1598. 

29. Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Ob. 1600. 
SO. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. Ob. 1601. 
3L George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland. Ob. 

1605. 

32. Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury. Ob. 1612. 

33. Thomas Sutton, Founder of the Charterhouse. 

Ob 1611. 
34:. John Harington, Lord Harington of Exton. 

Ob. 1613. 
S5. John second Lord Harington of Exton. Ob- 

1614. fine. 

The Second Part is dedicated "Ad utrasque illus- 
trissimas, et florentissimas Angliae Academias, binos 
illos regni oculos, sydera clara, binosque Literarum 
et Religionis purioris fontes," which is followed by 
" auctoris inscriptiuncula." 

List of the Portraits in Tom. II. 

36. John Collet, Dean of St. Paul's. Ob. 

37. William Tyndal, Martyr. Ob. 1536. 

38. John Bradford, Martyr. Ob. 1555. 

39. Bishop Hugh Latymer, Martyr. Ob. 1555. 

40. Bp. Nicolas Ridley, Martyr. Ob. 1555. 

41. John Rogers Martyr. Ob. 1555. 

42. Laurence Saunders, Martyr. Ob. 1555-6. 

43. Apb. Thomas Cranmer. Ob. 1556. 



283 

44. John Bale, Bp. of Ossory. Ob. 1558. 
45 Bp. John Jewell. Ob. 1573. 

46. David Whitehead. Ob. 1571. 

47. Abp. Matthew Parker. Ob. 1574. 

48. Thomas Becon. Ob. 1570. 

49. John Gay, M. D. Ob. 1573. 

50. Robert Abbot, Bp. of Salisbury. Ob. 1618. 

51. James Montagu, Bp. of Winchester. Ob. 1618. 

52. Edward Bering. Ob. 1576. 

53. Abp. Edmund Grindall. Ob. 1583. 

54. John Fox, Marlyrologist. Ob. 1587. 

55. Abp. Edwin Sandys. Ob. 1588. 

56. Laurence Humfrey. Ob. 1589. 

57. John More S. T. P. Ob. 1592. 

58. William Whitaker, S. T. P. Ob. 1595. 

59. Alexander Nowell. Oh. 1601. 

60. William Perkins, S. T. P. Ob. 1602. 

61. Abp. John Whitgift. Ob. 1603. 

62. John Reynolds, D.D. Ob. 1607. 

63. Richard Vaughan, Bp. of London. Ob. 1607. 

64. Gervase Babington, Bp. of Worcester. Ob. 

1610. 

65. Thomas Holland, S. T.P. Ob. 1612. 



Art. CCCXXIX. Abel Redivivus : or, the Dead 
yet speaking. The lives and deaths of the Modern 
Divines. Written by severall able and learned men 
(whose names ye shall Jinde in the Epistle to the 
Reader.) And now digested into one volume, for 
the benefit and satisfaction of all those that desire 
to be acquainted with the paths of piety and virtue. 
Prov. X. 7. " The memory of the just is blessed. 



286 

but the name of the wicked shall rot." London. 
Printed hy Thomas Brudenell for John Stafford^ 
dwelling in Brides Churchyard^ near Fleetstreet. 
1651. 4to. 

This is one of the voluminous publications of Dr. 
Thomas Fuller, who signs his name to the " Epistle 
to the Reader," from his residence at Waltham 
Abbey. 

The work is adorned with a great many small 
engraved heads, which, though mentioned generally 
in a note by Granger (Vol. I. p. 204.) are, I think, 
not particularly specified by him. None, I presume, 
are originals, but copied from Holland, Boissard, 
and others. 

" As for the makers of the work," says Fuller in 
the Epistle, '^ they are many ; some done by Dr. 
Featly, now at rest with God, viz. The lives of 
Jewell, Reynolds, Abbot, and diverse others. Some 
hy that reverend and learned divine Master Gataker ; 
viz. The lives of Peter Martyn, Bale, Whitgift, 
Ridley, Whitaker, Parker, and others. Dr. Willet's 
life by Dr. Smith, his son in law. Erasmus his life 
by the Rev. Bishop of Kilmore. The life of Bishop 
Andrewes by the judicious and industrious, my 
Worthy friend. Master Isaacson : and my meannesse 
wrote all the lives of Berengarius, Huss, Hierom of 
Prague, Archbishop Cranmer, Master Fox, Perkins, 
Junius, &c. Save the most part.of the poetry was 
done by Master Quarles, father and son, sufficiently 
known for their abilities therein. The rest the 
Stationer got transcribed out of Mr. Holland and 
other authors." 

I shall only cite the poetical character at the end 
of the life and death of Dr. Andrew Willet. 



287 

'-' See here a true Nathaniel, in whose breast 

A careful conscience kept her lasting feast. 

Whose simple heart could never lodge a guile 

In a soft word, nor malice in a smile. 

He was a faithful labourer, whose pains 

Was pleasure ; and an other's good, his gains : 

The height of whose ambition was, to grow 

More ripe in knowledge, to make others know : 

Whose lamp was ever shining, never hid ; 

And when his tongue preach'd not, his actions did : 

The world was least his care ; he fought for heaven ; 

And what he had, he held not earn'd, but given : 

The dearest wealth he own'd, the world ne'er gave ; 

Nor owes her ought but house-rent for a grave." 

Dr. AndrevF Willet, Rector of Barley in Hertford- 
shire, was a celebrated divine, whose theological 
works, both Latin and English, are numerous. He 
died 4 Dec. 1621, aet. 59. He was also a poet; the 
author of " Sacra Emblemata," and an Epitha- 
lamium" in English. " As the Latins," says A. 
Wood, " have had these emblematists Andr. Alciatus, 
Reusnerus, and Sambucus, so in England we have 
had these in the reign of Q. Eliz. Andr. Willet, 
Thorn. Combe, and Geffrey Whitney;"* which 
words, it seems, were borrowed from Meres. 

A well- written selection of the Lives of our most 
celebrated Divines, with critical accounts of their 
works, is a desideratum in our literature, which, if 
supplied, seems calculated fdr a most extensive sale, 
and the most important benefits to society. Such a 
work, if well digested, and brought within a moderate 
compass, no clergyman could forego, and to the many 

» Ath 1. 230. Ritsoa's Bibl. Poet. p. »94. 



of this professiofl, who cannot purchase a library, it 
would afford an advantageous substitute. It would 
encourage their labours, assist their studies, and 
direct their judgments; while the charms of bio- 
graphy would render it interesting to those who are 
least inclined to the toil of books. Such a work 
ought only to be undertaken by a clergyman, who 
joins to an intimacy with the whole learning of his 
profession, the skill of composition, and the powers 
of a Vigorous, reflecting, and rich mind. 

Art. CCCXXX. The Life of the renowned Sir 
Philip Sidnet/y with the true interest of England^ 
as it then stood in relation to all forrain piinces : 
and partieularlt/ for suppressing the power of Spain 
stated by him. His principall actions, counsels, 
designes, and death. Together with a short ac- 
count of the maxims and policies used hy Queen 
Elizabeth in her government. 

Written by Sir Fulke Grevil, Knight, Lord Brook, 
a servmit to Queen Elizabeth, and his companion 
and friend, London, Printed for Henry Seilcy 
over against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleetstreet, 
1652. 8i?o. pp. 247. 

Tins book is dedicated " most humbly to the 
Right Honourable the Countesse of Sunderland," 
by P. B. I give this title, as it is more full than in 
A. Wood, Ath. I. 522. where the reader may find a 
full account of Sir Fulke Greville, who was born 
1554, made a Peer, 18 James 1. and murdered by 
his servant Haywood, 30 Sept. 1628, at the age 
of 74. 



S89 

Art. CCCXXXI. The Negotiations of Thomas 
Woolsei/ the great Cardinall of England^ containing 
his life and death ; viz. 1. The originall of his pro- 
motion, 2. The continuance in his magnificence, 
3. His fall death, and huriall. Composed hy one 
of his own servants, being his Gentleman- Usher, 
London, Printed for William Sheer es, 1641. 
4^0. pp, 118. With a print of Woolsei/, 

The life and death of Thomas Woolseij, Cardinal; 
once Archbishop of York and Lord Chancellour of 
England, Containing 1. The original of his pro- 
motion, and the way he took to obtain it. 2. The 
continuance in his magnificence. 3. His negotiations 
concerning the peace with France and the Nether- 
lands, 4. His fall, death, and huriall. Wherein 
are things remarkable for these times. Written by 
one of his own servants, being his Gentleman Usher, 
London, Printed for Dorcas Newman, and are 
to be sold at the Chyrurgeon's Armes in Little 
Brittain, near the flospital-gate, 1667. Duod, 
pp. 157. Dedicated to Henry, Marquis of Dor- 
chester, 

The former of these is the first edition of Sii 
William* Cavendish's Memoirs of Wolsej. It is not 
mentioned in Kippis's Biogr. Brit. III. 324, (Art. 
Cavendish) nor in Collins's account of Sir W. C. in 
his Noble Families." The first impression, there 
registered, is that of 1667, printed for Dorcas New- 
man. It was again reprinted in 1707, duod. 

* A most ingenious Disquisition vas published, in 1814, to 
prove the author to hare been George Cavendish, Sir William's 
brother. 

VOL. IV. U 



290 

A very fair and valuable MS. copy of these me- 
moirs is among the Harleian MSS. N^. 428 ; much 
more large and correct than any of the printed copies, 
which abound with gross errors, and many omissions. 
It is my intention, if nobody anticipates me, to ex- 
amine the above MS. the first opportunity, and 
produce a more accurate edition of this valuable 
memorial by an ancestor of whom I am proud. 

Art. CCCXXXII. The Life of Theodore Agrippa 
D^Aubigne^ containing a succinct account of the 
most remarkable occurrences during the Civil' Wars 
of France in the reigns of Charles IX. Henri/ III. 
Henry IV. and in the minority of Lewis XIII, 
London. Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly 
in the Poultry. 1772. 8w. pp. 421, besides In- 
troduction and Index. 

This was written by Mrs. Sarah Scott, wife of 
George Lewis Scott, Esq. and sister to the late Mrs. 
Montagu of Portman Square, and of Matthew Lord 
Rokeby. 

Mrs. Scott died at Catton, near Norwich, in Nov. 
1795. The following is an imperfect list of her nu- 
merous publications ; all of which were, I think, 
anonymous, and many of them not now to be traced. 
She was an excellent historian, of great acquirements, 
extraordinary memory, and strong sense; and con- 
stantly employed in literary labours ; yet careless of 
fame, and free from vanity and ostentation. Owing 
to a disagreement of tempers, she soon separated 
from her husband, who was a man well known in 
the world, of amiable character, and of intellectual 



291 

eminence, especially in the severer sciences : but in 
every other relation of life, she was, with some pe- 
culiarities, a woman of exemplary conduct, of sound 
principles, enlivened by the warmest sense of re- 
ligion, and of a charity so unbounded, so totally 
regardless of herself, as to be almost excessive and 
indiscriminate. Her talents were not as brilliant, 
nor her genius as predominant, as those of her sister, 
Mrs. Montagu; but in some departments of litera- 
ture she was by no means her inferior. When she 
left her husband, she united her income with that of 
her intimate friend, Lady Bab Montague, the sister 
of Lord Halifax; and they continued to live together 
till the death of the latter. From that period Mrs. 
S. continually changed her habitation ; for restless- 
ness was one of her foibles. Her intercourse with 
the world was various and extensive; and there 
were few literary people of her day with whom she 
had not either an acquaintance or a correspondence. 
Yet when she died, not one of her cotemporaries 
who knew her literary habits came forward to pre- 
serve the slighest memorial of her ; and she went to 
her grave as unnoticed as the most obscure of those, 
who have done nothing worthy of remembrance. 
Under these circumstances, the writer of this article 
trusts to a candid reception of this imperfect memoir, 
while he laments that Mrs. Scott herself shut out 
some of the best materials, by ordering all her papers 
and voluminous correspondence, which came into the 
hands of her executrix, to be burnt : an order much 
to be lamented, because there is reason to believe, 
from the fragments which remain in other hands, 
that her letters abounded with literary anecdotes, 
and acute observations on character and life. Her 
u 2 



292 

stjle was easy, unaffected, and perspicuous; her 
remarks sound, and her sagacity striking. Though 
her fancy was n6t sufficiently powerful to give the 
highest attraction to a novel, she excelled in ethical 
remarks, and the annals of the actual scenes of 
human nature. ,In dramatic effect, in high-wrought 
passion, and splendid imagery, perhaps she was 
deScient. 

Imperfect List of Mrs, Scotfs Works. 

1. The History of Cornelia. A Novel. London, 
Printed for A. Millar. 1750. duod. 

2. A Journey through every stage of Life. Lon- 
don, for A. Millar. 1754. 2 vols. duod. 

3. Agreeable Ugliness; or, the Triumph of the 
Graces. Exemplified in the real life and fortunes 
of a young lady of some distinction. London, for 
R. and J. Dodsley. 1754. duod. 

4. The History of Mecklenburgh. London, for 
J. Newbery. 1762. 8vo. 

5. A Description of Millenium Hall. The Second 
Edition corrected. London, for J. Newbery. 1764. 
duod. 

6. The History of Sir George Ellison, in two vols. 
London, for A. Millar. 1766. duod. 

7. The Test of Filial Duty, in 2 vols. London, 
for the Author. Sold by T. Carnan, No. 65, St. 
Paul's Churchyard. 1772. duod. 

8. Life of Theodore Agrippe D'Aubigne. As 
above. 

Introduction to the Life of D^Aubigne, 
^' There is a secret satisfaction in relating the 
actions of a man, who has particularly engaged our 
esteem. We flatter ourselves we shall by this means 



293 

communicate to others part of the pleasure, which 
the contemplation of them has afforded ourselves ; 
and we fancy we are doing an act of justice, in 
holding forth to public view a character, • which 
ought to sink into oblivion, with the despicable race 
of beings, who in their passage from the cradle to 
the grave performed no action worthy of record; 
whether from a regular course of vicious conduct, 
or from that insipid insignificance, with which the 
lives of some men are tinctured, in whom though 
censure can find no grievous offences, candour can 
discover nothing to commend; who equally void of 
strong passions to seduce them into evil, or of vir- 
tues to stimulate them to worthy actions, are 
through life, like Mahomet's tomb, suspended be- 
tween heaven and hell ; who, being mere negatives, 
are destitute of either positive virtue or vice; yet 
by no means innocent, for they incur great guilt 
by a neglect of the due exertion of the talents, 
which were committed to their trust for useful pur- 
poses. The justice of a fair representation is more 
especially due to men, from whom it has long been 
withheld. Such has been the lot of the Huguenots. 
Their actions have been related by historians, who 
were under the influence both of party and religious 
prejudices; men blinded by passion, and warped 
by interest, as incapable of judging with candour, 
as averse to acknowledging truths, which might 
give offence to the powerful. Near the times of 
the dreadful desolation made by those civil wars, 
the hatred excited by the contention must have in- 
fluenced the minds of men, and given asperity to 
their pens-; but many of the French historians 



294 

wrote after the cruel and impolitic revocation of 
the edict of Nantz; and little justice could the 
Huguenots expect, under the reign of their bigoted 
persecutor. 

" Yet the merit of Theodore Agrippa D'Aubigne 
was so conspicuous, that there is no doubt, but dur- 
ing the time his granddaughter, Madame de Main- 
tenon, shone in the most exalted sphere, many 
persons would have been employed in collecting the 
various incidents of his life, and presenting him in 
full lustre to the world, had not his attachment to 
the reformed religion been considered, even by her, 
as a crime, that overbalanced all his virtues. Inte- 
grity, courage, and constancy, would appear to 
change their nature, and become criminal in the 
eyes of so bigoted a woman, when exercised in the 
defence of tenets, which she considered as heretical. 
She would reflect with horror on those parts of his 
conduct, which to the unprejudiced eye appear most 
laudable ; and would blush where she had reason to 
boast. Had not this been the case, the servile pens 
of mercenary flatterers would not have been em- 
ployed in endeavouring to dignify, by a supposed 
royal descent a man who had so just a title to honour 
far more intrinsic from his noble actions, and un- 
blemished virtue. But the spirit and constancy, 
with which he exposed both his life and fortune in 
defence of his religion, could not be an agreeable 
subject of contemplation to a woman, who detested 
the tenets he professed, and practised both deceit 
and force to prevail on all whom she could influence 
to abjure them ; even the descendants of that man, 
who from the regular course of his actions we may 



295 

reasonably believe would have readily sacrificed his 
life, could he thereby have purchased for them a 
steady perseverance in the religion, to which he was 
so warmly attached. 

" I am sensible that when his granddauarhter was 
in the zenith of her power, Agrippa D'Aubigne 
would have appeared more worthy of attention than 
at present : but a brave and honest man must al- 
ways be an interesting object ; and the contempla- 
tion of great virtues, even of a sort the least suited 
to the fashion of the times, will ever warm the 
heart. Of such 1 trust the subject of the following 
sheets will be found possessed; though it is cer- 
tain, that when an author makes choice of a cha- 
racter, because it is particularly pleasing to him- 
self, he would be very unreasonable were he to 
expect, that it would become equally the favorite 
of his readers. Taste influences our judgments in 
regard to virtue, as in other things ; people differ 
concerning intellectual as well as corporeal beauty, 
but they differ only in degrees of approbation; 
they will give a preference to one particular turn 
of mind or features, but some charms will be al- 
lowed to every object, that can produce any just 
claim to real beauty, though it be not of the kind 
most agreeable to the peculiar taste of the spectator 
or of the reader. 

The undeviating rectitude, the perfect consistency, 
the unspotted virtue of Agrippa D'Aubigne's cha- 
racter render him one of the best examples, that 
history can exhibit. The camp of Henry IV. and 
the court of Catharine De Medicis contained many 
illustrious men. Times of trouble are times of 



296 

heroism; but in the shock of interest, the conten- 
tions of party rage, and all the heat of irritated 
ambition, it is very rare to find unshaken integrit^^ ; 
in this time it was still more to be admired, as 
Catharine De Medicis so eminently possessed, and 
with such general success employed, the arts of 
seduction ; to the ambitious she held forth the 
temptations of power, to the avaricious of wealth, 
to the luxurious of pleasure. Never had the great 
enemy of mankind so able a minister, and so faith- 
ful a representative. Rvery species of dissimula- 
tion, every mode of treachery, was adopted by her 
to allure, to betray, and to ruin ; not only on the 
common frailty of human nature, or on the weak- 
ness of peculiar dispositions, did she found her 
hopes and schemes to corrupt, but even when zeal 
for right objects was carried beyond just boundi, 
or a virtue beyond its due proportion, she watched 
the opportunity for mischief. But D'Aubigne was 
under a better guard than human prudence; and in 
spite of all the snares she laid for him, or the 
temptations, the nature of the times, and the soli- 
citations of a prince he loved put in this way, he 
walked surely and uprightly, by following invaria- 
bly the undefiled law, which giveth light to the 
simple. The faithful disciple of this law, he lived 
with honour, and died in peace ; and possesses the 
best renown, an honest fame, while his adversary, 
the pupil of Machiavel, led a life of turbulence and 
infelicity, and left a memory detested by all good, 
and despised by all wise men. 

*' Some may think the conduct of a man, who was 
not greatly exalted by birth, nor dignified by titles, 



297 

nor rendered conspicuous by the splendour of riche??, 
below their notice ; but in his own words I will 
endeavour to obviate the objection. In the be- 
ginning of bis private memoirs he addresses his 
children, for whose use he wrote them, nearly to 
this effect : 

" In the works of the ancients, and in the lives of 
the emperors, and other great men of antiquity, we 
may be taught both by precept and example, how 
to repel the attacks of an enemy, and to baffle the 
machinations of rebellious subjects ; but you cannot 
there find any instructions for common life, which 
to you, my children, is a more necessary branch of 
knowledge. For in the sphere wherein you are to 
move, the actions of private men, not of princes, 
are the proper objects of your imitation. You can 
seldom have to contend with any but your equals; 
and in your intercourse with them, you will have 
more occasion for dexterity and address, than for 
force. Heiiry the Great was not pleased to see 
any of his dependants apply closely to the perusal 
of the lives of kings and emperors; and having 
observed Monsieur de Neufry much attached to the 
study of Tacitus, apprehensive lest a destructive 
ambition should be excited in a man of his spirit, he 
advised him to lay aside the book, and confine himself 
to the histories of persons of his own rank. 

" This advice I address to you ; and in compliance 
with your reasonable request, I here give an histo- 
rical account of my life, with that paternal freedom 
and confidence which allows me to lay open every 
action, which it would have been a shameful im- 
pertinence to have inserted in my Universal History. 



298 

As I can neither blush from conscious vanity in re- 
lating my good actions, nor from shame in con- 
fessing mj faults to you, my children, I shall re- 
count every minute particular, as if you were still 
sitting on my knee, and listening to me with the 
amiable simplicity of childish attention My desire 
is, that what I have done well may inspire you 
with emulation ; and that you may detest and avoid 
my faults, for I shall lay them all open before you ; 
as they may prove the most useful part of my 
narration. To you I leave it to make such reflec- 
tions upon them as reason and virtue shall suggest. 
Actions must be judged by their motives, not by 
their consequences. Good or ill fortune are not at 
our command ; they are dispensed by a superior and 
wiser power." 

^' D'Aubigne's address to his children I may apply 
to my readers. The courage of an Alexander, the 
popularity of a Caesar, the arts of an Augustus, or 
to approach nearer to the pursuits of a nation of 
politicians, the subtleties of a Machiavel, offer no 
subject of imitation to the greater part of mankind. 
Such exalted stations as call for the exertion of 
talents like theirs are above the reach of most men, 
and ought to be foreign to their wishes. But the 
man of steady integrity, of inflexible virtue, of 
noble frankness, of disinterested generosity, and of 
warm and sincere pity, is an object every man may, 
and every man ought to imitate. Virtue is within 
the reach of every station ; it cannot, at all, wear a 
dress equally splendid, but it is alike respectable, 
in its plainest garb and in its richest attire. 

" While we admire the heroic virtues of many. 



299 

who lived in France at that period, we hare reason 
to return thanks to Providence, that we are born 
in times wherein such virtues are not called forth in 
our countrymen by dreadful occasion, A civil war 
is the nursery of heroes. That slaughter and deso- 
lation, which sink the greatest part of a nation into 
despair and wretchedness, elevate the soul of a 
brave man almost above mortality. He struggles 
with that fate, which others droop under, and seeks 
in the pursuit of glory, for some compensation for 
the loss of that happiness, of which the ravages of 
war deprive him, as well as the rest of his country- 
men. Animated by a bolder spirit, he attempts to 
conquer those evils, which softer natures endeavour 
patiently to endure. 

^' The seeds of those civil wars, wherein D'Aubigne 
was engaged during the greatest part of his life, were 
sown before his birth. The rapid progress of the 
reformed religion in France alarmed those of the 
established church, and excited the civil power to 
take such measures to suppress it, as rather caused 
its increase ; for the effects of persecution have ever 
been directly contrary to the views of those who 
employed it. Disappointment added rage to the 
bigotry of persecutors; and fear and resentment 
heated the zeal of the persecuted ; but the enmity 
between the two parlies did not break out into open 
hostilities, during the life of Henry II. who was 
accidentally killed in a tournament by the Count 
De Montgomery, in July 1559 ; nor in the short 
reign of his son and successor, Francis II. but in 
the minority of Charles IX. who ascended the 
throne of France on the fifth of December 1560, 



300 

the kingdom became involved in all the horrors of a 
civil war." 



Theodore Agrippa D'Aubigne was born 8 Feb. 
1550, and died 29 April, 1630, aet. 81, at Geneva. 

" D'Aubigne left three children, Constant, his 
son, and two daughters ; the eldest daughter mar- 
ried the Seigneur D*Adets de Caumont, &c. the 
other the Seigneur de Villette de Mursey. Happy 
it was for D'Aubigne that he could not see so far 
into futurity as to know that his grandaughter, by 
his worthless son, would have so great a share in 
the revocation of the edict of Nantz, and the sub- 
sequent destruction of the reformed churches in 
France, for the preservation of which he so freely 
sacrificed his fortune, and would joyfully have laid 
down his life, could he thereby have purchased their 
prosperity. The interests of the religion he pro- 
fessed were through life his first object ; he wished 
to extend its influence, and steadily practised the 
duties it recommended ; from which even his pas- 
sions, strong as they were by nature, could not se- 
duce him. His integrity, his love of civil liberty, 
and every principle of virtue, were so founded on, 
or blended with his piety, that neither the sunshine 
of favour nor the storms of fortune could overcome 
them. Ambition could not tempt him to violate 
the natural probity of his mind, nor to forego his 
sincerity, though he knew that his fortune was at 
stake ; that by courtly compliances he should rise to 
honours and dignities; without them had nothing 
but neglect, perhaps hatred, to expect ; for princes 
seldom love the man who refuses their favours. 



301 

The uncommon brightness of his understandins^, 
and the liveliness of his wit, were such recommenda- 
tions to him in a court, and especially to a sove- 
reign who had so much himself, and allowed the 
greatest latitude in that way to all around him, as 
could not have failed of rendering him a general 
favourite, if his rigid manners and blunt frankness 
had not disgusted, because they reproached those 
whom his conversation delighted. Had he not of 
himself told us the very early progress he made in 
letters, it would have been difficult to have recon- 
ciled his learning with his military life, which seems 
to have allowed no leisure for study. At seventeen 
years old he entered the army ; was a captain fifty 
years, forty-four of which he was maitre de camp, 
and thirty-two also mareschal de camp ; continually 
engaged in the field or in some military operations ; 
yet his writings are very numerous, and lasting 
monuments of his genius. Some of them, indeed, 
though admired at the season they were written, 
being relative only to the occurrences of those 
times, have now lost much of their merit, as the 
poignancy of the satire, and the play of wit to be 
found in them, are no longer felt, nor in many 
parts discerned, from our ignorance of the things 
designed to be ridiculed. Of these are Les Con- 
fessions de Sancy, and Les Avantures du Baron de 
Foeneste. The merit of his General History of 
his own Time did not depend on times and seasons ; 
it will always be esteemed as one of the best during 
that period, though none ever produced a greater 
number of historians, the natural consequence of an 
uncommon series of interesting and shining events. 



" His " Private Memoirs" were written only for 
tbe use of his Children, never published by him, nor 
till very long after his death. He left but two of 
them, and desired they might never be published. 
Herein he was disobeyed ; and there seems so little 
reason for burying them in oblivion, that the dis- 
obedience is excusable. 



Mrs.'Scott obtained a just reputation by this life. It 
is compiled nqt only from D'Aubigne's own private 
account, but from the principal historians and me- 
moir-writers of that age : and it is characterized not 
only by research and knowledge, but by a per- 
spicuous narrative, by a. lucid selection and ar- 
rangement of materials; by force of sentiment, and 
vigour of language. 

Art. CCCX XXIII. De Anima Medica Prcelectio, 
ex Lumleii ct Caldwalli instituto, in Theatro Collegii 
Regalis Medicorum Londinensiunij ad Socios ha- 
bita, Die Decembris W Anno 1748^ A Fran, 
Nicholls, M, D. Reg* Societatis Sodali, et Medico 
JRegio ordinario. Cui, quo clarius eluceant, qucc 
in ipsa Prcslectione Jigurate ejjplicantur, accesse- 
runt Noted. Editio altera^ Notis ampliorihus aucta, 
Cui accessit Disquisitio de Motu Cordis et San- 
guinis in homine nato et non nato, Taiulis ceneis 
illustrata, Londini excudehat H. Hughs : Prostat 
venalis, apud J, Walter^ juxta Charing- Cross, 
M.DCCLXXIII. Ato. 

Franci Nicholsii, M, D. Georgii Secundi Magna; 
Britannice Regis Medici ordifiarii, Vita : cum con- 
jeeturis ejusdem de natura et usu partium humani 



303 

corporis similarium, Scriptore Thoma Lawrenccj 
M, D. E Collegio Sanctas Trinitatis Oxon. et 
Collegii Medicorum Londinensis socio, Londini 
M.DCC.LXXX. Uo, 

Dr. Frank Nicholls is recorded in a very 
short and meagre article in the Biographical Dic- 
tionary, in which these two works are mentioned ; 
but Dr. Lawrence^ a man equally deserving, the 
friend of Dr. Johnson, and well known for more 
than half a century in the circles of literature, is 
totally omitted, while many a comparatively obscure 
name has found a place, and a long panegyric, in 
those volumes.* I know not whether the latter article 
was ever published : I suspect it was only given 
away among Dr. NichoUs's friends. 

I do not presume to give any criticism on the 
subject of the first article, a science of which T am 
totally ignorant, but merely register it here for the 
notice of those whom such inquiries interest. All I 
can pretend to form any opinion upon, are the 
composition and language, which seem perspicuous, 
classical, and elegant. But the following just and 
dignified sentiments, with which the first lecture 
commences, are of general import. 

*' Si quid inter dignum atque honestum interesse 
vellem, hunc honesti nomine designarem, qui, dum 
turpia omnia atque indecora fugit, dum ne injuriam 
alteri fecerit, cavet, dum eas virtutes colit, quae 
hominum fidem atque benevolentiam conciliant ; de 
aliorum rebus, de ipsa etiam republic^, parum 
solicitus, ad se solum, suamque pacem, otium atque, 

* This is spoken of the former editors of Biographical Dictiona- 
ries, not of Chalmers's, which amply supplies their defects. 1815. 



304 

felicitatem omnia refert. Solus contra dignus, solus 
ille cultu, atque honoribus ornandus videretur, qui 
ad aliorum commoda magnum aliquid et eximium 
contulerit: tantumquetribuendum cuique dignitatis, 
quantum vel suis, vel civibus, vel humano generi 
profuerit. Ea enim lege nascimur, et ea habemus 
principia naturae, quibus parere, et quae sequi de- 
bemus, ut hominibus consulere, et humanae societati 
inservire, debeamus : ut utilitas nostra communis 
utilitas, yicissimque communis utilitas sit nostra. 

" Su£B enim imbecillitatis, atque impotentiaB, con- 
sciiineos omnia homines libenter conferunt, quorum 
vel opibus, vel consiliis, vel virtutibus fit, ut cum 
libertate tuti, atque beati vivant. Hinc parentibus 
apud suos dignitas ; hinc magistratibus apud cives 
auctoritas ; hinc purpura, splendoris et imperii in- 
signe, ducibus et regibus communi hominum pacto 
tribuuntur; hinc aequissimum coramercium inter 
homines instituitur, ut, dum optimi cuj usque labore, 
ingenio, virtute fruimur, amplessimo dignitatis prae- 
mio (quae aliunde non paratur) eadem rependamtts. 
Non fasces itaque, non purpuram, non exstructas 
in altum divitias, non ingenium artibus, et scientits, 
utcunque ornatum et imbutum ; sed animum com- 
muni utilitati inservientem, dignitas sequitur : cum 
communi hominum consensu sola sit cultu, atque 
publicis honoribus, digna ilia virtus, quae ad eorum 
rem confert, et in promovenda humani generis feli- 
citate tota occupatur. 

" Neque alia est ex consociati» hominibus com- 
raunitatum ratio; nisi quod, cum honoribus et 
immunitatibus, ornentur, cum opibus et auctoritate, 
pacto foedere muniantur, ut junctis viribus, et con- 



305 

silii^, publican utilitati melius consulant et inserviant, 
neque spem fallere, neque institutionis suae con- 
ditiones elud^re, sine pravo dedecore, a^ue tur- 
pitudine, possunt." '. ; 

, Pr. Lawrence dedicates his life of (Dr. NichoUs to 
the university of Oxford : and then begins the life 
with the following paragraph : 

" Nichollsii vitam scripturo non quidem id solum 
niihi est consilium ut genus, et fortunam, et mores, 
et vitae consuetudinem quotidianam eximii illius viri 
tradam ; sed, ut id etiam, quod reipublicse magis 
interest, quantum scilicet in natura animali expo- 
nenda, quid in vitae salutisque causis aperiendis ejt 
potuerit, et fecerit memorem." ;i, i,i.:, ,..>ij> . ' 

Dr. Frank Nicholls was born in Landon in 1699, 
of parents sprung from gentilitial families in Corn- 
wall : his father was a learned and industrious lawyer, 
who had three sons and one daughter : the eldest son 
William was educated to merchandise, but did not 
follow it. Frank was educated at Westminster school, 
and thence admitted of Exeter College, Oxford, in 
1714. Here he became distinguished in the studies 
of the place ; but more particularly in physic, and 
above all in physiology. Here he read lectures on 
anatomy with great applause, from whence he went 
to London, and thence into Cornwall, where he 
practised for some time with much success, but after 
a time, weary of the fatigues of country business) he 
returned to London. ii -i 

" Nichollsium praelegentem multa laude Ox- 
onienses exceperunt; nam rebus injucundis gratiam, 
obscuris lucem dedit : praeterea orationis splendido 
quodam genere utebatur, argumentorum raomentis 

YOL. IV. X 



306 

gravissimis, rerum ubertate summa; non solum igi- 
tur iis, qui OxoniaB medicinae studio incubuerunt, 
sese in ejus disciplinam tradidere, sed et alii multi, 
illecebris doctrinae liberalis ducti, auditores quidem 
diligentes fruerunt, ii nimirum, quibus pars physices 
nulla ab homine docto aliena videbatur,'* &c. 

He now travelled to France and Italy, and on his 
return gave physiological lectures in London, which 
were numerously attended, and to which many 
flocked from Oxford and Cambridge. In 1728 he 
was elected F. R. S., in 1729 he took his degree of 
M. D. at Oxford, and returning to London, was on 
26 June, 1732, elected a member of the College of 
Physicians ; and after two years read the Gulston 
lecture there on the fabric of the heart, and the eir- 
culation of the blood. In 1739 he read the Hervey 
oration there ; in 1743 he married the daughter and 
coheir of Dr. Mead. In 1753, on the death of Sir 
Hans Sloane, he succeeded to the place of king's 
physician. On the death of George II. which, on 
opening the body, appeared to have been attended 
with uncommon circumstances from a bursting of 
some vessel about the heart, Dr. NichoUs gave a 
most clear account of it in a letter to lord Maccles- 
field, as president of the Royal Society, among 
whose transactions it is published. 

At last, says Dr. Lawrence, with a happy elegance 
and energy, " Pertaesus molestiarum, quae a miseriis 
et ineptiis aegrotantium medicinam facientibus 
gravissimae esse solent, et simul impatiens urbis ini- 
qucBj in qua hominum suhdolorum artes in fama 
comparanda magis quam eruditio et peritia valent, 
prasterea ut filio adolescenti artibus ingenuis in 



307 

academia operam daturo, custos morum, monitorque 
prudens adesset, a Londino Oxonium, quo ipse 
ineunte adolescentia in otio jucundissime annos 
aliquot transegerat, migravit. At postquam juris- 
prudentias studium filium Londinum revocaverat, 
comparata domo Ebeshami inagro Surriensi, senec- 
tutem in otio cum dignitate egit. Nee tamen rerum 
naturalium curam prorsus abjecit; nam experimentis 
aptis quaesivit, quid laetas segetes in agro feraci 
faciat, quid agrum sterilem faecundet : naturam 
etiam plantarum interiorem, Linnaso facem prae- 
ferente, sum ma admiratione est contemplatus." 

At length, worn out, he placidly breathed his last 
on 7th Jan. 1778, ffit. 80. 

" Staturae fuit mediocris, corporis compacti, et 
cum a3vi integer erat, agilis. Facies ei honesta et 
decora ; vultus.benevolentiam et dignitatem prae se 
ferens, ita ut primo aspectu rev^rentiam simul et 
amorem astantium sibi conciliaret; varius autem 
et mutabilis, ut hominis naturae simplicis et aperti 
motus animi ex oris immutatione facile cognosceres. 
Mira suavitate et perspicuitate orationis, et in ser- 
mone familiari, et in praelectionibus usus est; in 
his autem id praecipuae laudis fuit, ut verbis propriis, 
ordine lucido extempore prolatis, orationem aliorum 
meditatam et lepore et vi, et suxpyBia, facile vinceret. 

" In aegrotorum curiatione nihil prius habuit, 
quam ut signa morbi propria a communibus, quod 
optime potuit, nempe qui physiologiam perspectam 
haberet, sejungeret, ut quid oppugnandam esset 
cognosceret, ut motus, quibus ex naturae institute 
morbi causa vel vinceretur, vel expelleretur, a 
motibus illis, quibus homo patitur, nihil m njalo 
X 2 



SOS 

amoliendo. agitj secerneret: ilium enim medicinam 
feliciter facturum putavit non qui symptomatis sup- 
primendis, sed, qui, ex naturae concilio, vim ejusdem 
ferocientis temperare, eandem languentem excitare^ 
errantem, in viara reducere contendit. Quis enim 
prudens in Cholera materiam acrem per alvum exi- 
turam cohiberet ? Quis nialo arthritico cum dolore 
et) inflammations pedem occupante, morbum in 
sanguinem repelieret ? ut aeger molliculus et doloris 
impatiens ai/«Ay»i(r/a frueretur. Nihil siquidem in 
morbis capitalius esse statuit, quam, morbi causa 
minime expulsa vel subacta, sjmptomata evanescere ; 
unde \\x aliud expectandum esse experientia doce- 
mur, quam ut aegrotus ajU,app^MT» manus hosti det. 
^.y'^ Medicamentorum in curationibus, quod satis 
esset, parca mahu adhibuit; religio quippe illi fuit 
luolestiis illis, quas morbus secum ferebat, alias ad- 
dere. Literis Graecis et Latinis satis doctus; in 
multis libris legendis nonnuUorum obscuram dili- 
gentiam contempsit ; cum medicinae principia vera, 
morbqrum facies varia, remediorum retendorum 
ratio paucis libris sint tradita, sententiam vero 
cuj usque vel inepti, vel absurdi, vel delirantis, ro- 
gandilaborem stultum censuit.^1 , , , f.jq ^jj ^, ,; 

" E vita excessit septimo die Janaai;ii^ anno 
1778, annum agens octogesimum, de patria, de 
uxore, de liberis, de amicis op time meritus, omnibus 
flebilis, nuili flebilior quam hujus libri scriptori, qui 
eo multos annos familiarissime usus est, qui eidem 
quicquid in physiologia et medicina noverit, id prae- 
ceptis ejus acceptum gratus agnoscit, qui eum, dum 
viveret, ut fratrem dilerxit, ut parentem coluit." 
John Nicholls, his only surviving son, was in 



S09 

parliament many years till the last general elec- 
tion, (viz. 1802.) 

Having thus given some account of Dr. Nicholls, 
I hope I may be permitted to copy from the Gentle- 
man's Magazine (Vol. LVII. p. 191) an excellent 
Memoir of the writer of his Life, more especially 
as from some unaccountable neglect the name of this 
celebrated scholar and most amiable man is omitted 
in the former editions of the Biographical Dic- 
tionary. 



DR. LAWRENCE. 

March 1, lT8f . 

" In almost every account which has been pub- 
lished of Dr. Johnson since his death, mention 
having been made of Dr. Lawrence the physician, 
and some mistakes concerning him having found 
their way into most of them, the following short 
account of his life may not be unacceptable. 

'* Dr. Thomas Lawrence was the grandson of an- • 
other Dr. Thomas Lawrence, who was first physician 
to queen Anne, and physician general to the army : 
he lived to a great old age, and held employments 
under four successive princes, beginning with 
Charles the Second, by whom he was appointed 
physician to the garrison at Tangier, part of the 
dowry of queen Catharine While he was in that 
station, he married Mary Elizabeth, daughter to the 
lieutenant-governor of the garrison, by whom he 
had six sons and three daughters. The eldest daugh- 
ter, whom we shall have occasion to remember again 
in the course of this narrative, was married to Mr. 
Gabriel Ramondonj a French gentleman ; and the 



310 

second having become a widow by the death of her 
first husband, colonel Eldward Griffith, was after- 
wards married to lord Mohun, well known for his 
fatal contest with duke Hamilton, in which both 
those noblemen lost their lives. All the six sons 
dedicated themselves to the profession of arms, and 
two of them were killed in the service of their 
country, one a soldier and the other a sailor, who 
was shot in a sea engagement as he stood by the 
side of his eldest brother Thomas, then a captain in 
the royal navy, and father to Dr. Lawrence who is 
the subject of this relation. 

" He was born on the 25th of May, 1711, in the 
parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, the second son 
of his father, by Elizabeth the daughter of Mr. 
Gabriel Soulden, merchant of Kinsale in Ireland, 
and widow of colonel Piers. About the year 1715 
captain Lawrence, being appointed to the Irish 
station,^ carried his family into that country, where 
his wife's relations resided. But she dying in the 
year 1724, and leaving him with five children, one 
of which was a daughter, he determined, being pos- 
sessed of a very easy fortune, to quit the navy, and 
to accept the invitation of his eldest sister Mrs. 
Ramondon, who was lately become a widow, of 
settling with her at Southampton, where she under* 
took the superintendence of his family, till, in the 
year 1726, he married a second time to Elizabeth 
the daughter of major Rufane, who survived her 
husband, and is still alive. Some years after this 
captain Lawrence went with his family to Green- 
wich, and soon after his removal thither was ap- 
pointed one of the captains of the hospital, where he 
died in December 1747. 



311 

"On hia arrival at Southampton young Lawrence 
was placed under the care of the Rev. Mrs. Kings- 
man, master of the free-school at that place, and 
there finished his school education, which he had 
begun at Dublin, and was entered in October 1727 
a commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, under the 
tuition of the Rev. George Huddesford, afterwards 
president of that College, when he removed to Lon- 
don, where he pursued his studies till some time in 
the year 1734, and according to the custom of young 
physicians at that time, took a lodging in the city 
for the convenience of attending St. Thomas's 
Hospital, and became a pupil of Dr. NichoUs, who 
was then reading anatomical lectures in London^ 
with a celebrity never attained by any other before 
or since. The novelty of his discoveries, the grace- 
fulness of his manner, and the charms of his delivery, 
attracting to him, not only the medical people in 
every line, but persons of all ranks and all profes- 
sions, who crowded upon him from every quarter. 
What progress Dr. Lawrence made under such a 
teacher is too well known to be here insisted upon. 
At these lectures he formed many of those friend- 
ships which he most valued during the remainder 
of his life; and here he was first acquainted with 
Dr. Bathurst, by whom he was afterwards intro- 
duced to the friendship of Dr. Johnson. 

" In the year 1740 he took the degree of Doctor 
of Physic at Oxford, and was upon the resignation 
of Dr. NichoUs, chosen Anatomical reader in that 
University, where he read lectures for some years, 
as he did also in London, having quitted his lodgings 
in the city for an house in Lincoln's-Inn Fields, 



which had before been occupied by Dr. Nichblls, 
and was vacated by him upon his marriage with the 
daughter of Dr. Mead. 

fi " On the 25th of May 1744, Dr. Lawrence was mar- 
ried, at the parish church of St. Andrew, Hoi born, by 
Dr. Taylor, Prebendary of Westminster, to Frances 
the daughter of Dr. Chauncy, a physician at Derby, 
by whom he had six sons and three daughters. Upon 
his marriage he took an house in Essex-street in, the 
Strand, where he continued to read his anatomical 
lectures till the year 1750. After which he laid them 
aside, and devoted himself more entirely to physick, 
in which he had for many years a considerable share 
of business, which he obtained solely by the re- 
putation of his skill and integrity ; fbr he laboured 
under the disadvantage of very 'frequent and severe 
fits of deafness, and knew no art of success but that 
of deserving it. 

" In the same yfear 1744, he was chosen fellow of 
the Royal College of Physicians in London, where 
he read successively all the lectures instituted in 
that society with great reputation both for his pro- 
fessional knowledge, and for the purity and elegance 
of his Latin ; nor did he confine himself to the oral 
instruction of his contemporaries, for in 1756 he 
published a medical disputation de Hydrope, and 
in 1759 de Natura Musculorum Prelectiones tres ; 
and when the College published the works of Dr. 
Harvey in 1766, Dr. Lawrence wrote the life which 
is prefixed to that edition, for which he had a com- 
pliment of 100 guineas. In 1759 he was chosen 
Elect, and in 1 767 President of the College of Phy- 
sicians, to which office he was re-elected for the seven 
succeeding years. 



SI3 

" In 1773 an event happened to his family, which 
as it gave occasion to a very elegant Latin Ode by 
Dp. Johnson, now published, it may not be imper- 
tinent to relate in this place. The East India Com- 
pany being then in the meridian of their power, the 
second of his sons then alive, a young man of very 
lively parts and aspiring hopes, was so dazzled by 
the splendid accounts brought home by the servants 
of the Company, and had so much fixed his mind 
upon trying his fortune in that part of the world, 
that his friends were induced to persuade his father 
to. comply with his inclinations in this point; yet 
such was his opinion of the corruptions and tempta- 
tions of the East Indies, that though his son went 
out with many advantages of connection and recom- 
mendation, the grief of so parting with him, dwelt 
long upon his mind. The supreme court of judicature 
being established at Calcutta a few years after, Mr. 
Lawrence complied with the wishes of his friends 
in returning to the law, for which profession he had 
been educated, and became an advocate in that 
court ; he died at Madras, whither he went for the 
recovery of his health, in December 1783, having 
obtained the rank of second advocate to the East 
India Company. 

" About this time Dr. Lawrence's health began to 
decline, and he first perceived symptoms of that 
disorder on the breast, which is called by the phy- 
sicians the Angina Pectoris, and which continued to 
afflict him to the end o*f his life ; notwithstanding, 
he remitted little of his attention, either to study or 
business; for no man of equal sensibility had a 
greater contempt of giving way to suffering of arty 
kind ; he still continued his custom of rising at very 



314 

early hours, that he might secure leisure for study 
in the quiet part of the day ; and his old friend and 
instructor, Dr. Nicholls, dying in the beginning of 
the year 1778, he paid a tribute of friendship and 
gratitude to his memory by writing an account of 
his life, which was printed in 1780. 

'' The death of his friend was soon followed by a 
nearer loss, for on the 2d of January 1780, it pleased 
God to afflict him by the death of his wife, with 
whom he had lived with great happiness for above 
thirty-five years ; from this time his health and 
spirits began more rapidly to decline. 

" The following year, the lease of his house in 
Essex-street being expired, he had nearly agreed 
for another, which was more commodious, when his 
family, obserfing the hourly and alarming alteration 
of his health, put a stop to the negociation, and 
prevailed with him to retire from business and 
London: his own choice inclined him to Oxford, 
but it being objected that city was not so eligible as 
some others, for a family that Would chiefly consist 
of women, he at length fixed upon Canterbury, 
where he hoped that the Cathedral would supply 
him with a society as suitable, if not so numerous, 
as that of Oxford. 

" In consequence of this resolution, an house was 
hired at Canterbury, and Dr. Lawrence removed 
thither with his family on the 16th of June 1782. 
But so rapid was the progress of his disorder, which 
now indubitably appeared to be paralytic, had made 
during the course of the preceding winter, that be- 
fore the necessary preparations for the removal of 
his family could be finished, it had by slight but 
repeated strokes nearly deprived him of the power 



315 

of speech, and entirely of the use of his right hand. 
He continued in this state for almost a year, and 
died on the 6th of June 1783, loved, honoured, and 
lamented by all who knew him.'* 



I can add little to this just, modest, and well- 
written account, which I suspect cafme from a very 
near and accomplished relation of the subject of it. 
There now survive only two children of this learned 
physician, Elizabeth * widow of George Gipps, Esq. 
late M. P. for Canterbury, and Sir Soulden Law- 
rence, Kt. one of the Judges of the King's Bench, 
to whom it may truly be said, as Milton said in a 
famous sonnet to one, who was I believe related to 
this family. 

" Lawrence, of virtuous father virtuous son !" 
one who is a real honour to the Bench on which he 
sits ; a true constitutional judge, above the fumes of 
pride and power; acute, yet candid; learned, yet 
modest ; ready, yet patient ; firm, yet mild ; but who 
feels no pleasure in the dignified station which he has 
obtained, equal to what he would have received in 
the gratification of a fond parent, had he survived 
to see his son fulfil all his anxious wishes for him.f 

* The supposed author of the above Memoir, Mrs. Gibbs, and Sir 
Soulden Lawrence, both died in the summer of 181 1. S. P. 

f The late Mr. Lawrence of Kirby Fleatham in Yorkshire, M. P. 
for Rippon, was first cousin to Dr. Lawrence. 

Warton says that " Lawrence, the virtuous father" of Milton, 
was M. P. for Hertfordshire, in 1653, and that the family appears 
to have been seated not far from Milton's neighbourhood in Buck- 
inghamshire : for Henry Lawrence's near relation, William Law- 
rence, a writer, and appointed a Judge in Scotland by Cromwell, 
and in 1631 a gentleman commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, 
died at Belfont near Staines in Middlesex, in 1633."— T. Warton's 
Milton's Juvenile Poems, 1785, p. 361, 



316 



.Art. CCCXXXIV. A sketch of the genius and 
writings of Dr. Beattie, with extracts from his Life 
and Letters^ lately published hy Sir William 
I Forbes. 

Sir WiiiLiAk Forbes's long-expecied Life of 
Dr. Beattie has at length appeared in two quarto 
volumes : and I cannot refrain from indulging my- 
self with a few cursory remarks, and a few extracts, 
while my heart and my head are warm with the 
subject. Has it added to our aduiiration of him as 
an author and a man ? It has done both. There 
are many circumstances which combine to qualify 
Sir William, in a very uncommon degree, for the 
biographer of this great poet anil philosopher : their 
long, intimate, and uninterrupted friendship, their 
habits of constant correspondence, and their con- 
genial turns of mind, in particular; while the talents, 
and the character of the survivor, and his very ex- 
tensive and near acquaintance with the most emi- 
nent men in the literary world, give a force and 
authority to his narration, which few eulogists can 
confer. 

But with due respect to the examples of Mr. Ma- 
son, and Mr. Hayley, I confess I am not entirely 
satisfied with the plan of leaving a man to be prin- 
cipally his own biographer, by means of a series of 
letters, connected by a few short and occasional 
narratives. I do not mean indeed to depreciate 
those of Mr. Hayley, by comparing them with his 
predecessor's, which always from a boy disgusted 
me with their stitFand barren frigidity ; while those 
of the former glow with all the warmth of friendship, 



m 

and congenial poetic feeling : but I allude only to 
the plan. 

There are many points on which there is no doubt 
that an autlior can best delineate his own character : 
but there are others, of which he is totally disqua- 
lified to give a fair portrait, and of which, even if 
he were qualified, it is highly improbable . that his 
Letters should furnish an adequate account. 
. I trust therefore I may be e:xcused for venturing 
the opinion which I have long formed, that, though 
Letters are an excellent, and almost necessary, 
accompaniment of a Life; and though appropriate 
extracts from them, an.d continued references to 
them may well be introduced in the narrative, yet 
they should not form th^ principal part of that 
narrative, which, as it seems to me, should exhibit 
one unbroken composition. To leave the genera- 
lity of jfeaders to collect and combine an entire 
portrait, or a regular series jof events, from the 
scattered notices of a variety of desultory letters, is 
to give them credit for a degree of attention, and a 
power of drawing results, which few will be found 
to possess, and fewer still have leisure to exercise. 

Having thus frankly declared my sentiments, it is 
almost unnecessary to add, that 1 prefer the plan 
adopted by Dr. Currie, in his Life of Burns, to that, 
which has been chosen by Sir William Forbes for 
the life of his illustrious friend. In the execution 
of the mode he has followed, Sir William has dis- 
covered a soundness of judgment and taste in his 
selection, an elegance of language, a purity of sen-, 
timent, and an ardour of friendship, which will do 
him immortal honour. But, as my purpose is not 



318 

to criticise the biographer, but to make some slight 
remarks on the poet, I must proceed. 

Beattie was born a poet; that is, he was born 
with those talents and sensibilities, which, with the 
assistance of the slightest education, are almost 
certain in due time to vent themselves in poetry. 
In the first occupation of his manhood, the care of 
an obscure country school. Sir Vfm. Forbes says, 
" he had a never failing resource in his own mind ; 
in those meditations which he loved to indulge, 
amidst the beautiful and sublime scenery of that 
neighbourhood, which furnished him with endless 
amusement. At a small distance from the place of 
his residence, a deep and extensive glen, finely 
cloathed with wood, runs up into the mountains. 
Thither he frequently repaired ; and there several 
of his earliest pieces were written. From that wild 
and romantic spot he drew, as from the life, some 
of his finest descriptions, and most beautiful pic- 
tures of nature, in his poetical compositions. He 
has been heard to say, for instance, that the de- 
scription of the owl, in his charming poem '^ On 
Retirement," 

" Whence the scar'd owl on pinions grey 
Breaks from the rustling boughs ; 

And down the lone vale sails away 
To more profound repose ;" 

was drawn after real nature. And the seventeenth 
stanza of the second Book of The Minstrel, in which 
he so feelingly describes the spot, of which he most 
approved, for his place of sepulture, is so very 
exact a picture of the situation of the churchyard of 
Lawrencekirk, which stands near to his mother^s 



SJ9 

house, and in which is the school-house where he 
was daily taught, that he must certainly have had it 
in his view, at the time he wrote the following beau- 
tiful lines. 

* Let Vanity adorn the marble tomb 

With trophies, rhymes, and scutcheons of renown. 
In the deep dungeon of some Gothic dome, 

Where Night and Desolation ever frown ! 
Mine be the breezy hill that skirts the down. 

Where a green grassy turf is all I crave. 
With here and there a violet bestrown. 

Fast by a brook, or fountain's murmuring wave ; 
And many an evening sun shine sweetly on my grave.' 

" It was his supreme delight to saunter in the 
fields the livelong night, contemplating the sky, and 
marking the approach of day ; and he used to de- 
scribe with peculiar animation the soaring of the 
lark in a summer morning. A beautiful landscape, 
which he has magnificently described in the twen- 
tieth stanza of the first book of The Minstrel, 
corresponds exactly with what must have presented 
itself to his poetical imagination, at those occasions, 
on the approach of the rising sun, as he would 
view the grandeur of that scene from the hill in the 
neighbourhood of his native village. The high 
hill, which rises to the west of Fordoune would, 
in a misty morning, supply him with one of the 
images so beautifully described in the twenty-first 
stanza. And the twentieth stanza of the second 
book of The Minstrel describes a night-scene un- 
questionably drawn from nature, in which he pro- 
bably had in view Homer's sublime description of 
the Moon, in the eighth book of the Iliad, so ad- 



320 

mirably translated by Pope, that an eminent critic 
has not scrupled to declare it to be superior to the 
original. He used himself to tell, that it was from 
the top of a high hill in the neighbourhood, that he 
first beheld the ocean, the sight of which, he de- 
clared, made the most lively impression on his 
mind. 

" It is pleasing, I think, to contemplate these 
his early habits, so congenial to the feelings of a 
poetical and warm imagination; and therefore, I 
trust, I shall be forgiven for having dwelt on them 
so long.'* 

Sir William Forbes need have ma:de no apology 
for the length of these passages. • I would have said 
" O si sic omnia !" but that it would seen^ to imply 
some censure ; and I well know that all could not 
be like this. We cannot always be watching the 
dawn of day "on the misty mountain's top;" nor 
be constantly wandering " alone and pensive" by 
the " pale beams" of the "Queen of Night." But 
it will not be doubted, that in the occupations of 
'* young Edwin" the poet described many of his 
own early propensities and amusements. I do not 
agree therefore with an eminent critic,* who ob- 
serving that Edwin " is marked from his cradle 
witb those dispositions and propensities, which 
were to be the foundation of his future destiny," 
adds, " I believe it would be difficult in real bio- 
graphy to trace any such early indications of a 
genius exclusively fitted for poetry; nor do I ima- 
gine that an exquisite sensibility to the. sublime 

* Dr. Aikin's Lfetters on English Paetsy. 



321 

and beautiful of nature is ever to be found in minds, 
which have not been opened by a degree of culture." 
The interposition indeed of the word " exclnsivelt/'* 
a little qualifies the assertion ; but the endowments 
attributed bj the poet to Edwin, though they are 
not excliisivelj/^ are more -peculiarly^ adapted to 
poetical eminence. 

If this assertion then, be true, that the delinea- 
tion of the infant Minstrel was essentially that of 
the author, for which we have the authority of Sir 
W. Forbes, and even of Beattie himself, there va 
an end to the denial of particular genius, which 
Johnson was so fond of urging, and which so many, 
on his great, but surely far from infallible, judg- 
ment, are fond of repeating. Every one possessed 
of equal fancy and equal sensibility of heart with 
Beattie, would feel in childhood similar sentiments 
and similar pleasures; and 1 think it must not be 
questioned that the impression of those sentiments 
and those pleasures would lead a person of equal 
capacity more peculiarly, not only to the inclination, 
but, with the aid of a little industry, to the power, 
of composing poetry. 

I assert again therefore that the hand of Nature 
impressed on Beattie's mind the character of a 
poet. He afterwards became a philosopher by the 
effect of accident, and study. All this indeed he 
appears to me to have confirmed by his own direct 
declarations. 

Hear him in a letter to Dr. Blacklock, dated 9 Jan. 
1769. 

**** " Perhaps you are anxious to know what 
first induced me to write on this subject;" (Truth.) 

VOL. lY. T 



329 

*' I will tell you as briefly as I can. In my younger 
days I read chiefly for the sake of amusement, and 
I found myself best amused with the Classics, and 
what we call the Belles Lettres. Metaphysics I 
disliked; mathematics pleased me better ; but I 
found my mind neither improved, nor gratified by 
that study. When Providence allotted me my 
present station" (of Professor of Moral Philosophy) 
" it became incumbent on me to read what had 
been written on the subject of Morals and Human 
Nature: the works of Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, 
were celebrated as master-pieces in this way; to 
them therefore I had recourse. But as I began to 
study them with great prejudices in their favour, 
you will readily conceive, how strangely 1 was sur- 
prised to find them, as I thought, replete with ab- 
surdities : I pondered these absurdities ; I weighed 
the arguments, with which I was sometimes not a 
little confounded; and the result was, that I began 
at last to suspect my own understanding, and to 
think that I had not capacity for such a study. For 
I could not conceive it possible that the absurdities 
of these authors were so great, as they seemed to 
me to be ; otherwise, thought I, the world would 
never admire them so much. About this time, some 
excellent antisceptical works made their appearance, 
particularly Reid's " Inquiry into the Human 
Mind." ThiBn it was that I began to have a little 
more confidence in my own judgment, when I found 
it confirmed by those, of whose abilities I did not 
entertain the least distrust. I reviewed my authors 
again with a very different temper of mind. A 
very little truth will sometimes enlighten a vast 



323 

extent of science. I found that the sceptical philo- 
sophy was not what the world imagined it to be ; 
but a frivolous, though dangerous, system of verbal 
subtlety, which it required neither genius, nor 
learning, nor taste, nor knowledge of mankind, to 
be able to put together ; but only a captious tem- 
per, an irreligious spirit, a moderate command of 
words, and an extraordinary degree of vanity and 
presumption. You will easily perceive that I am 
speaking of this philosophy only in its most extra- 
vagant state, that is, as it appears in the works of 
Mr. Hume. The more I study it, the more am I 
confirmed in this opinion," &c. 

***** " I am convinced that this metaphysical 
spirit is the bane of true learning, true taste, and 
true science; that to it we owe all this modern 
scepticism, and atheism ; that it has a bad effect 
upon the human faculties, and tends not a little to 
sour the temper, to subvert good principles, and 
to disqualify men for the business of life. You will 
now see wherein my views differ from those of other 
answerers of Mr. Hume. I want to shew the 
world, that the sceptical philosophy is contradictory 
to itself, and destructive of genuine philosophy^ as 
well as of religion and virtue ; that it is in its own 
nature so paltry a thing, (however it may have 
been celebrated by some) that to be despised it 
needs only to be known ; that no degree of genius 
is necessary to qualify a man for making a figure in 
this pretended science ; but rather a certain minute- 
ness and suspiciousness of mind and want of sensi- 
bility, the very reverse of true intellectual excel- 
lence; that metaphysics cannot possibly do any 
y 2 



324 

good, but may do, and actually have done, much 
harm ; that sceptical philosophers, whatever they 
may pretend, are the corrupters of science, the 
pests of society, and the enemies of mankind," 
&c. ****. 

In a Letter to Major Mercer,* dated 26 Nov. 1769, 
he says, 

***. " I intend to bid adieu to metaphysics, and 
all your authors of profound speculation ; for, of all 
the trades, to which that multifarious animal, man,* 
can turn himself, I am now disposed to look upon 
intense study as the idlest, the most unsatisfying, 
and the most unprofitable. You cannot easily con- 
ceive with what greediness I now peruse the 
*' Arabian Nights Entertainments," " Gulliver's 
Travels," " Robinson Crusoe," &c. I am like a 
roan, who has escaped from the mines, and is now 
drinking in the fresh air and light, on the top of 
some of the mountains of Dalecarlia. These books 
put me in mind of the days of former years, the 
romantic aera of fifteen, or the still more careless 
period of nine, or ten, the scenes of which, as they 
now stand pictured to my fancy, seem to be illu- 
minated with a sort of purple light, formed with the 
softest, purest gales, and painted with a verdure, to 
which pothing similar is to be found in the dege- 
nerate summers of modern times. Here I would 
quote the second stanza of Gray's " Ode on Eton 
College," but it would take up too much room, and 
you certainly have it by heart." 

The above extracts discover the origin of Beattie's 

* Major Mercer was himself a poet. , 



. 325 

philosophical works. Those which follow exhibit 
the first traces of his incomparable poem *< The 
Minstrel." 



Dr, Beattie to Dr. BlacJdock, 22 Sept, 1766. 
- ****. " Not long ago I began a poem in the style 
and stanza of Spenser, in which I propose to give full 
scope to my inclinatfon, and be either droll or 
pathetic, descriptive or sentimental, tender or sati- 
rical, as the humour strikes me ; for, if I mistake 
not, the manner, which I have adopted, admits 
equally of all these kinds of composition. I have 
written one hundred and fifty lines, and am sur- 
prised to find the structure of that complicated 
stanza so little troublesome. I was always fond of 
it; for I think it the most harmonious that ever 
was contrived. It admits of more variety of pauses 
than either the couplet, or the alternate rhyme; 
and it concludes with a pomp, and majesty of sound, 
which, to my ear, is wonderfully delightful. It 
seems also very well adapted to the genius of our 
language, which, from its irregularity of inflexion 
and number of monosyllables, abounds in diversified 
terminations, and consequently renders our poetry 
susceptible of an endless variety of legitimate 
rhymes. But I am so far from intending this per- 
formance for the press, that I am morally certain 
it never will be finished. I shall add a stanza now 
and thenj when 1 am at leisure ; and when I have 
no humour for any other amusement: but I am 
resolved to write no more poetry with a view to 
publication, till I see some dawnings of a poetical 



526 

taste among the generality of readers ; of which, how- 
ever, there is not at present any thing like an ap- 
pearance." 



To the same, 20 May, 1767. 

" My performance in Spenser's stanza has not ad- 
vanced a single line, these many months. It is 
called " The Minstrel." The subject was suggest- 
ed by a dissertation on the old minstrels, which is 
prefixed to a collection of ballads lately published 
by Dodsley in three volumes.* 1 propose to give 
an account of the birth, education, and adventures 
of one of those bards; in which I shall have full 
scope for description, sentiment, satire, and even a 
xertain species of humour and of pathos, which, in 
the opinion of my great master, are by no means 
inconsistent, as is evident from his works. My 
hero is to be born in the south of Scotland, which 
you know was the native land of the English 
Minstrels ; I mean of those Minstrels, who travelled 
into England; and supported themselves there by 
singing their ballads to the harp. His father is a 
shepherd. The son will have a natural taste for 
music and the beauties of nature ; which, however, 
languishes for want of cultpre, till in due time he 
meets with a hermit, who gives him some instruc- 
tion ; but endeavours to check his genius for poetry 
and adventures, by representing the happiness of 
obscurity and solitude, and the bad reception which 
poetry has met with in almost every age. The poor 

* The Reliques of anci«nt Englisk poetry, by Dr. Percy, pub- 
lished in 1765. 



327 

swain acquiesces in this advice, and resolves to 
follow his father's employment, when on a sudden 
the country is invaded by Danes, or English Bor- 
derers, (I know not which,) and he i^ stripped of 
all his little fortune, and obliged by necessity to 
commence Minstrel. This is all that I have as yet 
concerted of the phiff.* I have written 150 lines; 
but my hero is not yet born, though now in a fair 
way of being so ; for his parents are described, and 
married. I know not whether I shall ever proceed 
any farther; however, I am not dissatisfied with 
what I have written." 



In the course of two more years Beattie finished 
the first canto of this enchanting poem ; and pub- 
lished it early in the spring of 1771. It instantly 
attracted the public attention, and raised the author 
into the first ranks of fame. Gray praised it with 
a warm and disinterested energy ; and it seemed to 
have electrified Lord Ly ttelton, who spoke of it in 
a much higher tone of eloquence, than he was ac- 
customed to reach. I cannot resist transcribing the 
short but beautiful letter here. 

Lord Lyttelton to Mrs. Montagu^ 8 March^ 1771. 

" I read your " Minstrel" last night, with as 
much rapture, as Poetry, in her noblest sweetest 
charmsf ever raised in my soul. It seemed to me, 

* But he once afterwards told Sir W. Forbes, " he proposed to 
Tiave introduced a foreign enemy as invading his country, in con- 
sequence of which The Minstrel was to employ himself in rousing 
his countrymen to arms." Life, I. 208. This was probably the re- 
sult of his friend Gray's suggestion. 



. 328 

that my once most beloved minstrel, Thomson,^ 
was come down from heaven, refined by the con- 
verse of purer spirits than those he lived with here, 
to let me hear him sing again the beauties of nature, 
and the finest feelings of virtue, not with human, 
but with angelic strains ! I beg you to express 
my gratitude to the poet for the pleasure he has 
given me. Your eloquence alone can do justice to 
my sense of his admirable genius, and the excellent 
use he makes of it. Would it were in my power to 
do him any service !"* 

In a letter dated 6 July, 1772, the author declares 
that the second canto had been nearly finished these 
two years : but it was not published till 1774, ac- 
companied by a new edition of the first canto. 

In the mean time Beattie's domestic afflic(!ons in- 
creased with his fame ; and embittered the exquisite 
satisfaction, which He would otherwise have derived 
from the flattering station he now held in society. 
To these I think we must attribute the change of 
sentiments on a very important topic, which the 
latter part of the following most eloquent letter 
seems to discover. 

Dr. Beattie to Mrs. Montagu^ 26 Juli/, 1773. 

" Your most obliging and most excellent letter of 
the 14th current, bore the impression of Socrates on 

* The Rev. Mr. Allison, the elegant author of ** Essjtys on the 
Nature and Principles of Taste," and the husband of Dr. Gregory*8 
daughter, feelingly observes " I do not know any thing that Lord 
Lyttelton has written, that so strongly marks the sensibility and 
purity of his taste. The allusion to Thomson is singularly affect- 
ing, and constitutes the finest praise, that ever was bestowed on a 
poet." 



329 

the outside. He, if I mistake not, piqued himself 
on having constantly resided in Athens, and used to 
say, that he found no instruction in stones or trees ; 
but you, Madam, better skilled in the human heart, 
and more thoroughly acquainted with all the su- 
blimest affections, do justly consider that quiet which 
the country affords, and those soothing and elevating 
sentiments, which " rural sights and rural sounds" 
so powerfully inspire, as necessary to purify the soul, 
and raise it to the contemplation of the first and 
greatest good. Yet, I think, you rightly determine, 
that absolute solitude is not good for us. The social 
affections must be cherished, if we would keep both 
mind and body in good health. The virtues are all 
so nearly allied, and sympathise so strongly with 
each other, that if one is borne down, all the rest feel 
it, arid have a tendency .to pine away. The more 
we love one another, the more we shall love our 
Maker : and if we fail in duty to our common 
parent, our brethren of mankind will soon discover 
that we fail in duty to them also. 

" In my younger days I was much attached to 
solitude, and could have envied even " The Shepherd 
of the Hebride isles, placed far amid the melancholy 
main." I wrote Odes to Retirement, and wished to 
be conducted to its deepest groves, remote from 
every rude sound, and from every vagrant foot. In 
a word, I thought the most profound solitude the 
best. But I have now changed my mind. Those 
solemn and incessant energies of imagination, which 
naturally take place in such a state, are fatal to the 
health and spirits, and tend to make us more and 
more unfit for the business of life : the soul deprived 



330 . 

of those ventilations of passion, which arise froni 
social intercourse, is reduced to a state of stagnation ; 
and if she is not of a very pure consistence indeed, 
will be apt to breed within herself many " monstrous 
and many prodigious things," of which she will find 
it no easy matter to rid herselt^ even when she is 
become sensible of their noxious nature.*' 



I have no room here to enter into a disquisition 
upon the very interesting subject of solitude. The 
objections to it thus urged by Beattie deserve, n© 
doubt, very serious consideration. But they do not 
convince me, expressed, as they are, in general 
terms. Nay, I confess I could have wished they had 
never appeared under this poet's authority ; because 
they take something from the pleasure^ we feel in 
some of the finest passages of his best poems. For 
my part, it appears to me, that as long as God en- 
dows individuals with more energetic capacities, 
with more tender sensibilities, with higher hopes, 
and sublimer sentiments than the mass of mankind, 
so long must solitude be the proper sphere of their 
human existence. If it do tend to '' make us unfit 
for the business of life," it fits us for something much 
better : for tliat intellectual eminence and purity of 
heart, which exalt our nature, arid almost lift us into 
an higher order of beings ; for those mental exer- 
tions, by which the heads and hearts of thousands 
have, century after century, been ameliorated, and 
drawn away from the low and selfish ambitions of 
the world ; and by which nations have sometimes 
been electrified from their slumbers into efforts that 
have saved them from impending destruction ! I am 



331 

now older than Dr. Beattie was, when he expressed 
these sentiments, and I do not find my love of soli- 
tude diminish. I discover no " stagnation of the 
soul ;*' the day is not lonj enough for the enjoyment 
of my books, and those pure and innocent wander- 
ings of the fancy, in which I delight ; and in the 
deep woods and silent vallies, I find " no monsters" 
of horror, which, alas ! I too frequently meet in 
society ; but on the contrary, 

" Resentment sinks ; Di^sgust within me dies, 
And Charity, and meek Forgiveness rise. 
And melt my soul, and overflow mine eyes." 



Although Dr. Beattie experienced the happiness, 
as a philosopher, to have almost all the eminent 
divines on . his side, such as Porteus, Hurd, Mark- 
ham, &c. ^et it seems he had not the unanimous 
concurrence of the Bench of Bishops. For in a 
letter to Mrs. Montagu, of I3th March 1774, he 
says, " Pray, Madam, be so good as to favour me 
with some account of the Bishop of Garlisle, Dr. 
Law, if he happens to be of your acquaintance. His 
Lordship, in a book lately published, has been 
pleased to attack me in a strange manner, * though 
in few words, and very superciliously seems to con- 

• Considerations on the Theory of Religion, by Edmund Loyd 
Bishop of Carlisle, p. 431. Forbes. ' 

The Bishopwas of a school of philosophers and divines, whom we 
have since l^ad the happiness of seeing go out- of ftishion. But when 
the Editor was at Cambridge, the prejudices in favour of the dry, 
coarse, and fallacious modes of thinking and reasoning, of this hard 
old man, who then resided there, had not ceased. He was father of 
the present Lord Eilenborongh. ^ 



r 



3S2 

demn my whole book ; because I believe " in the 
identity of the human soul, and that there are 
innate powers, and implanted instincts in our na- 
ture." He hints, too, at my beings a native of 
Scotland, and imputes my unnatural way of rea- 
soning, (for so he characterizes it) to my ignorance 
of what has been written on the other side o£ the 
question, by some late authors. It would be a very 
easy matter for me to return such an answer to his 
lordship, as would satisfy the world that he has 
been rather hasty in signing my condemnation ; but 
perhaps it would be better to take no notice of it : I 
shall be determined by your advice. His doctrine 
is, that the human soul forfeited its immortality by 
the fall, but regained it in consequence of the merits 
of Jesus Christ ; and that it cannot exist without the 
body ; and must, therefore, in the interval between 
death and the resurrection, remain in a state of non- 
existence. The theory is not a new one ; but hit 
Lordship seems to be one of the most sanguine of 
its adherents. Some of the objections, drawn from 
the scripture, he gets the better of by a mode of 
criticism, which I humbly think, would not be ad- 
mitted in a commentary upon any other book." 



In 1776 Dr. Beattie published his " Essays on 
Poetry and Music; Laughter and Ludicrous Com- 
position : and on the Utility of Classical Learning." 
" My principal purpose," says he, " was to make 
my subject ptein and entertaining ; and, as often as 
I could, the vehicle of moral instruction ; a purpose, 
to which every part of the philosophy of the human 
mind, and indeed of science in general, may, and 



33S 

ought, in my opinion, to be made In some degree 
subservient." . 

I will now add a few, and a very few^ miscel- 
laneous extracts; for I fear this article already 
grows too long. 



1785. » " Johnson's harsh and foolisli censure of ( 

Mrs. Montagu's book does not surprise me ; for I , 

have heard him speak contemptuously of it. It is, 
for all that, one of the best, most original, and most 
elegant pieces of criticism in our language, or any 
other, Johnson had many of the talents of a critic ; 
but his want of temper, his violent prejudices, and 
something, I am afraid, of an envious turn of mind, 
made him often a very unfair one. Mrs. Montagu 
was very kind to him ; but Mrs. Montagu has more 
wit than any body ; and Johnson could not bear that ^ 

any person should be thought to have wit but him- 
self. Even Lord Chesterfield, and what is more 
strange, even Mr. Burke he would not allow to have 
wit ! He preferred SmoUet to Fielding. He would 
not grant that Armstrong's poem on " Health," or 
the tragedy of " Douglas," had any merit. He told 
me that he never read Milton through, till he was 
obliged to do it, in order to gather words for his 
Dictionary. He spoke very peevishly of the Masque 
of Comus ; and when I urged that there was a great 
deal of exquisite poetry in it ; " Yes," said he, 
" but it is like gold hid under a roCk ;" to which I 
made no reply ; for indeed I did not well understand 
it. Pray, did you ever see Mr. Potter's " Remarks 
on Johnson's Lives of the Poets?" It is very well 
worth reading." 



334^ 

1788. " What Mrs. Piozzi sajs of Goldsmith is 
perfectly true. He was a poor fretful creature, eaten 
up with affectation and envy. He was the only 
person 1 ever knew, who acknowledged himself to 
be envious. In Johnson's presence he was quiet 
enough ; but in his absence, expressed great un- 
easiness in hearing him praised. He envied even 
the dead ; he could not bear that Shakspeare should 
be so much admired as he is. There might, however, 
be something like magnanimity in envying Shak- 
speare and Dr. Johnson ; as in Julius Caesar's 
weeping to think, that at an age at which he had 
done so little, Alexander should have done so much. 
But surely Goldsmith had no occasion to envy me ; 
which, however, he certainly did ; for he owned it, 
(though, when we met, he was always very civil ;) 
and I received undoubted information, that he sel- 
dom missed an opportunity of speaking ill of me 
behind my back. Goldsmith's common conversation 
was a strange mixture of absurdity and silliness ; of 
silliness so great as to make me think sometimes 
that he affected it. Yet he was a great genius of no 
mean rank: somebody who knew him well called 
him an inspired idiot. His ballad of " Edwin and 
Angelina," is exceedingly beautiful ; and in his two 
other poems, though there be great inequalities, 
there is pathos, energy, and even sublimity." 



In 1790 Beattie lost his eldest son ; and in 1796, 
his remaining son. These successive shocks were 
too much for a tender heart, already half broken by 
the sorrow for their mother's incurable malady. 
From the last event he at times lost his senses. " A 



336 

deep gloom/* says he, ^^ hangs upon me, and dis- 
ables all my faculties; and thoughts so strange 
sometimes occur to me, as to make me " fear that I 
am not," as Lear says, " in my perfect mind." 

Yet, on 15th May, 1797, he wrote a letter to Mr. 
Frazer Tytler, somewhat in his former manner; 
from whence the following extract is derived. 



" There is one translation, which I greatly ad- 
mire, but am sure you never saw, as you have not 
mentioned it : the book is indeed very rare ; 1 ob- 
tained it with difficulty by the friendship of Torn 
Davies, an old English bookseller ; 1 mean, Dobson's 
" Paradisus Amissus ;" my son studied, and I be- 
lieve, read every line of it. It is more true to the 
original, both in sense and spirit, than any other 
poetical version of lengt|i, that I have seen. The 
author must have had an amazing command of 
Latin phraseology, and a very nice ear in har- 
mony.****. 

^^ Being curious to know some particulars of Dob- 
son, I inquired of him at Johnson, who owned he 
had known him, but did not seem inclined to speak 
on the subject. But Johnson hated Milton from his 
heart ; and he wished to be himself considered as 
a good Latin poet ; which however, hie never was, 
as may be seen by his translation of Pope's Messiah. 
All that 1 could ever hear of Dobson's private life 
was, that in his old age he was given to drinking. 
My edition of his book is dated 1750. It is de- 
dicated to Mr. Benson, who was a famous admirer 
of Milton; and from the dedication it would seem to 



L 



356 

have been written at his desire, and under his 
patronage. * 



1798. " I am acquainted vvith many parts of your 
excursion through the north of England, and very 
glad that you had my old friend Mr. Gray's " Let- 
ters" with you, which are indeed so well written, 
that I have no scruple to pronounce them the best 
letters that have been printed in our language. 
Lady Mary Montagu's " Letters" are not without 
merit, but are too artificial and atfected to be con- 
fided in as true ; and Lord Chesterfield's have much 
greater faults ; indeed, some of the greatest that 
letters can have : but Gray's letters are always 
sensible, and of classical conciseness and perspicuity. 

• Dr. J. Warton says, that Benson " gave Dobson lOOdl. for his 
Latin translation of Paradise Lost. Dobson had acquired great 
reputation by his translation of Prior's Solomon, the first book of 
which he finished, when he was a scholar at Winchester college. He 
had not at that time, as he told me, (for I knew him well) read 
Lucretius, which would have given a richness and force to his 
verses ; the chief fault of which was a monotony, and want of variety 
of Virgilian pauses. Mr. Pope wished him to translate the Essay 
on Man, which he began to do j but relinquished on account of the 
impossibility of imitating its brevity in another language. He has 
avoided the monotony abovementioned in his Milton; which 
monotony was occasioned by translating a poem in rhyme. Bishop 
Hare, a capable judge, used to mention his Solomon as one of the 
purest pieces of modern Latin poetry. Though he had so much 
felicity in translating, 3'et his original poems, of which I have seen 
many, were very feeble and flat, and contained no mark of genius. 
He had no great stock of general literature, and was by no means 
qualified to pronounce on what degree of learning Pope possessed ; 
and I am surprised 1;hat Johnson should quote him, as saying " I 
found Pope had more learning than I expected." Warton's Pcfe^ 
V. 240. 



337 

They very much resemble what his conversation 
was. He had none of the airs of either a scholar or 
a poet ; and though on those, and on all other sub- 
jects, he spoke to me with the utmost freedom, and 
without any reserve, he was, in general company, 
much more silent than one could have wished." 



Dr. Beattie died 18 Aug. 1803, ast. 68. 

His character, has been as justly and eloquently, 
as briefly, sketched by Mrs. Montagu, in a letter to 
himself. " We considered you," says she, " as a 
poet, with admiration ; as a philosopher, with re- 
spect ; as a Christian, with veneration ; and as a 
friend, with affection." He clearly directed his 
ambition to excellence, rather as a philosopher, than 
as a poet ; and yet it is apparent, that these studies 
were not congenial to his natural taste; but that 
they fatigued and oppressed him. In these paths 
he seems to have arrived at the utmost height, of 
which his powers were capable; but this is far from 
being the case with the poetry he has left. Beautiful 
as is his Minstrel, yet, had he concluded it on the 
plan he originally intended, which I must venture, 
in opposition to Dr. Aikin, to say, was easily within 
the scope of his genius, he would have contributed 
very materially both to its variety and its interest. 
I will add that the innocent and exalted occupation 
might have soothed his broken spirits, and gilded 
the clouds of his latter days. 

It is not easy to guess, when we consider the 
opinions which this excellent author himself pro- 
mulgated in his philosophical works, on what ground 
he depreciated the dignity, or the use, of his capacity 

VOL. IV. z 



k 



338 

as a poet. But it is certain that, at least for the 
last thirty years of his life, he did slight and neg- 
lect it most unjustly. There is no adequate reason 
for considering it inconsistent with his professional 
functions, which his exemplary virtue induced him 
to discharge with uncommon industry aiid atten- 
tion. It would, on the contrary, have relieved the 
toil of them, by a delightful diversity of ideas. But 
it may be suspected, that there was a certain ti- 
midity in this good man's mind, not entirely con- 
sonant with the richness of his endowments. In 
the cause of religion indeed, his piety made him 
bold ; but he was otherwise a little too sensible of 
popular prejudices. 

The goodness of the cause, and the particular 
occasion, has added an accidental value to his great 
philosophical work, " The Essay on Truth." But 
I believe 1 am not singular in asserting, that his 
genius is least capable of rivalry in that " Minstrel," 
on which he bestowed so little comparative atten- 
tion : while it is apparent that, even there, his se- 
yerer studies occasionally encumbered and depressed 
his fancy. Burns knew better the strength, which 
Nature had bestowed on him ; and giving full scope 
to it, succeeded accordingly. 

The Letters, which are now published, exhibit 
Dr. Beattie's moral character in the most amiable 
light. Their style unites ease and elegance ; and 
they prove the correctness of his opinions, the nicety 
of his taste, and the soundness of his judgment. 
They discover, above all, the tenderness of his 
heart, and the fervor of his religion. But the 
frankness of truth demands from me the confession. 



339 

that they do not appear to me to possess those 
characteristic excellencies, as literary compositions, 
which enchant us in the letters of Burns and Cowper ; 
and which none but themselves could have written. 
He has nothing like the touchin^^ simplicity of the 
poet of Weston ; nor any thing like the ardent 
eloquence of the Bard of Airshire.* He scarce^ 
ever indulges in sallies congenial with the rich 
warblings, which used to flow so copiously from 
the harp of the inspired Edwin. 

1 would now willingly enter into the peculiar 
traits both of the poetical and prose works on 
which Beattie's fame was founded ; but this article 
is already too long; (I hope my readers will not 
think it out of place ;) and I have now neither room 
nor leisure for more, except to say, that as a poet 
he possessed an originality, and an excellence, to 
which I doubt whether justice has yet been done.t 
July 2, 1806. 

"1^ I do not recollect that the names of Cowper, or Burns, once 
occur in Beattie's own letters, which is singular. 

f It has long been my wish, if Providence should ever permit 
me a little continued leisure from the sorrows and perplexities, by 
which I have for some years been agitated, to enter into an entire 
separate Disquisition on the Poetical Character ; its tendencies ; the 
mode in which it should be cherished; and the benefits to be derived 
from it. 1806. 

This intention, announced in 1806, has never since proceeded a 
step towards execution. But what a series of occupations, and 
anxieties, and changes has the author experienced in the nine busy 
years that have since elapsed ! July 9^ 1815. 



z2 



340 

Art. CCCXXXV. Sketch of the Life and Charac- 
ter of Dr. Joseph TVarton, with an account of Mr. 
TVooWs Memoirs of him. 

The Rev. John Wooll, a W^^kehamist, now 
master of Midhurst school, in Sussex, has just pub- 
lished, in a quarto volume, the Life, Poems, and 
Correspondence of Dr. Joseph Warton. I shall 
venture, as I have done in the case^of Dr. Heattie, 
to make a few extracts and remarks on it. 

It appears that Dr. Warton, was born at the 
house of his maternal grandfather, the Rev. Joseph 
Richardson, at Dunsfold in Surrey, in April 1722. 
His father, as is well known, was Vicar of Basing- 
stoke, in Hampshire, had been professor of Poetry 
at Oxford, and was himself a poet: as is proved bj^ 
a posthumous volume, published by this, his eldest 
son, with the following title. 

Poems on several occasions. Bj/ the Reverend Mr. 
Thomas Warton, Batchelor of Divinitj/, late Vicar 
of Basingstoke in Hampshire, and sometime Pro- 
fessor of Poetry in the University of Oxford. 
Nee lusisse pudet. Hor. 

London. Printed for R. Manhy and H. S. Cox, 
on Ludgate Hill. 1748. %vo. pp. 22S. Dedicated 
to Fulwar, Lord Craven, 

It was published by subscription. The editor had 
it some time in hand. In a letter to his brother 
Thomas, dated 29 Oct. 1746, he says, " Since you 
left Basingstoke, I have found a great many poems 
of my father's, much better than any we read to- 
gether. These I am strongly advised to publish 



341 

by subscription, by Sir Stukely Shuckburgh, Dr. 
Jackson, and other friends. These are sufficient to 
make a six shilling octavo volume ; and thej ima- 
gine, as mjfathe>''j» acquaintance was large, it would 
be easy to raise two or three \iundred pounds; a 
verv solid argument in our present situation. It 
would more than pay all my father's debts. Let 
me know your thoughts upon this subject; but do 
not yet tell Hampton, or Smythe, who would at first 
condemn us, without knowing the prudential rea- 
sons, which induced us to do it." The author died 
in the preceding year, 174.^. 

But Joseph Warton had already published a 
quarto pamphlet of his own poems, as I shall par- 
ticularize presently. He was admitted on the 
foundation of Winchester college, 1736, and soon 
distinguished himself for his poetical talents. As 
early as Oct. 1739, he became a contributor to the 
poetry of the Gentleman's Magazine, in conjunction 
with his friend Collins, and another, by some verses 
entitled " Sappho's Advice," signed Monitorius, 
and printed at p. 545.* In 1740, he was removed 
from Winchester, and being superannuated, was 
entered of Oriel College, Oxford. 

How he spent his time at Oxford may be guessed 
from the following interesting, and eloquent pas- 
sages of a letter to his father. ^' To help me in 
some parts of my last collections from Longinus, J 

* It is worth remarking how many first productions of persons of 
genius this Magazine has usliered into the world. In the same 
month appears Akenside's " Hymn to Science," dated f;om ** New- 
castle upon Ty ne," 1 739 j in the next page appears a juvenile sonnet 
by Collins, signed Delkalulus ; and in the next month, p. 599, is 
inserted Mrs. Carter's beautiful Ode to Melancholy. 



r 

f 



342 

have read a good part of Dionysius Halicarnassun : 
so that I think by this time I ought fully to under- 
stand the structure and disposition of words and 
sentences. I shall read Longinus as long as I live : 
it is impossible not to catch fire and raptures from 
his glowing style. The noble causes he gives at 
the conclusion for the decay of the sublime amongst 
men, to wit, the love of pleasure, riches and idleness, 
would almost make one look down upon the world 
with contempt, and rejoice in, and wish for toils, 
poverty and dangers, to combat with. For me, it only 
serves to give me a greater distaste, contempt, and 
hatred of the Profanum Vulgus, and to tread under 
foot this dysvvio-TocTov -rrd^oq, as thoroughly below, 
and unworthy of man. It is the freedom, you give 
me, of unburdening my soul to you, that has troubled 
you so long : but so it is that the next pleasant 
thing to conversing with you, and hearing from 
you is writing to you : I promise myself a more ex- 
alted degree of pleasure next vacation, by being in 
some measure better skilled to converse with you 
than formerly." 

In 1744 he took his degree of A. B. was ordained 
on his father's curacy, and officiated there, till Feb. 
1746. In this year he published, 

" Odes on various subjects. 

Euripides in Alceste. 



343 

By Joseph Warton^ B.A.of Oriel College^ Oxon, 
London. Printed for R. Dodsley^ at Tullifs Head 
in Pall Mall^ and sold hi/ M. Cooper in Pater^ 
noster Row, 1746." 4/o. pp, 47. 

The greater part of these have been republished 
by Mr. WooU. There seems no sufRcient reason 
for what he has omitted. The whole have been 
lately reprinted for Sharpens edition of the Poets. 

In the following year he was presented by the 
Duke of Bolton to the small rectory of Wynslade, 
at the back of Hackwood Park, a pleasing and pic- 
turesque retirement, which gave him an opportunity 
at once of gratifying an ardent attachment by mar- 
riage, and pursuing his poetical studies. Two years 
afterwards he was called to go abroad with his 
patron ; and on this occasion his brother, Thomas, 
wrote that beautiful " Ode sent to a friend on leaving 
a favourite village in Hampshire," which alone, in 
ray opinion, would place him in the higher order of 
poets ; and which is one of the most exquisite de- 
scriptive pieces in the whole body of English poetry. 
Every line paints, with the nicest and most dis- 
criminative touches, the scenery about Wynslade 
and Hackwood. 

" Ah ! mourn, thou lov'd retreat ! No more 
Shall classic steps thy scenes explore V 

&c. &c. 
" For lo ! the Bard, who rapture found 
In every rural sight and sound ; 
Whose genius warm, and judgment chaste 
No charm of genuine nature passed ; 
Who felt the Muse's purest fires. 
Far from thy favour'd haunt retires : 



344 

Who peopled all thy vocal bowers 

With shadowy Shapes, and airy Powers !" 

The first of T. Wartoii's sonnets is also addressed 
to Wjnslade : and the images in several of his other 
poems are drawn from this neighbourhood. * 

In about six months, when they had advanced no 
farther than Montauban, Dr. Warton left his patron, 
and returned to his family. He now dedicated his 
whole time to the Translation of Virgil's Eclogues 
and Georgics: which he soon afterwards published, 
with Pitt's Translation of the ^neid, and the ori- 
ginal Latin of the whole ; accompanied by notes, 
dissertations, commentaries, and essays. This work 
was well received ; and Oxford conferred the degree 
of A. M. by diploma on the Editor. 

At this time Dr. Johnson, in a letter dated 8 
March 1753, applied to him frotn Hawksworth to 
assist in the Adventurer. " Being desired," says 
he, " to look out for another hand, my thoughts 
necessarily fixed on you, whose fund of literature 
will enable you to assist them, with very little in- 
terruption of your studies," &c. &c. " The province 
of Criticism they are desirous to assign to the Com- 
mentator on Virgil." + His first paper, I believe, 
is No. 49, 24 April, 1753, containing " a Parallel 
between ancient and modern learning." His com- 
munications are undoubtedly the best of the whole 
work ; and are written with an extent of erudition, 
a force of thought, and a purity, elegance, and 

* The lines which begin 

** Musing through the lawny park*' 
I presume to allude to Hackwood, &c. 

t BoswelPs Life of Johnson, I. 224. 



345 

vigour of language, which demand very high 
praise. 

He now planned to unite in a volume, and publish 
^' Select Epistles of Angelas Politianus, Desiderius 
Erasmus, Hugo Grolius, and others," a part of a 
design for a History of the Revival of Learning, 
which had also been agitated by his brother, and his 
friend Collins; but which unfortunately none of 
them executed. 

In 1754 he obtained the living of Tunworth, near 
Wynslade ; and in 1755 was elected second Master 
of Winchester School. 

In 1756 he published the first volume of his " Es- 
say on the genius and writings of Pope :" " A book,*' 
says the supercilious Johnson, "which teaches how 
the brow of criticism may be smoothed, and how she 
may be enabled, with all her severity, to attract and 
to delight; but which, as it counteracted the stream 
of fashion, and opposed long received prejudices, 
did not meet with unqualified approbation. He did 
not put his name to it, nor did he communicate the 
information to many of his literary friends ; but it 
was immediately known to be his. Richardson, I 
think, calls it an amusing piece of literary gossip. 
Richardson, though a genius, was not a man of 
literature ; or he never could have called it '^ gossip." 
The critical observations are almost always just, 
original^ and happily expressed; and discover a 
variety of learning, and an activity of mind, which 
are entitled to admiration. It is true that his method 
is often abrupt and desultory : but it is dullness, or 
ignorance, alone, which mistakes formality of ar- 
rangement, and the imposition of a philosophic 



346 

manner, for depth of thought, and novelty of in- 
struction. 

The Essay drew forth, in due time, Ruffhead's 
Life of Pope, a poor jejune performance, written 
with all the sterility and narrowness of a Special 
Pleader. 

In 1766 Dr. Warton succeeded to the Head- 
Mastership of Winchester school. In 1772 he lost 
his first wife. About this time he became a member 
of the literary club in London. In Dec. 1773, he 
remarried Miss Nicholas. In 1782, he obtained 
from Bishop Lowth a prebend of St. Paul's, and the 
living of Chorley, in Hertfordshire ; which last he 
exchanged for that of Wickham, in Hants. 

In this last year, 1782, he gave the world the se- 
cond volume of his " Essay on Pope," of which the 
publication had been retarded by motives of a de- 
licate and laudable nature. 

In 1786 he suffered a most severe affliction in the 
loss of his second son, the Rev. Thomas Warton, 
Fellow of New College, Oxford, a young man of 
high talents and acquirements; and four years after- 
wards he lost his beloved brother, with whom he 
had always enjoyed a mutuality of affections and 
studies, of a very uncommon kind. 

In 1788 he obtained, through the interest of Lord 
Shannon, a prebend of Winchester cathedral. He 
soon after obtained the Rectory of Easton, which 
he exchanged for that of Upham. 

Being now at the age of 7 1, he resigned his school 
on 23d July 1793, and retired to his Rectory of 
Wickham, " carrying with him the love, admiration, 
and esteem of the whole Wykehamical society." 



347 

« That ardent mind," says Mr. Wooll, « which 
had so eminently distinguished the exercise of his 
public duties, did not desert him in the hours of 
leisure and retirement; for inactivity was foreign 
to his nature. His parsonage, his farm, his garden, 
were cultivated and adorned with the eagerness 
and taste of undiminished youth ; whilst the beauties 
of the surrounding forest scenery, and the interest- 
ing grandeur of the neighbouring shore, were en- 
joyed by him with an enthusiasm innate in his very 
being. His lively sallies of playful wit, his rich 
store of literary anecdote, and the polished and 
habitual ease, with which he imperceptibly entered 
into the various ideas and pursuits of men in diffe- 
rent situations, and endowed with educations 
totally opposite, rendered him an acquaintance 
both profitable and amui^ing ; whilst his unaffected 
piety and unbounded cliarity, stamped him a pastor 
adored by his parishioners. Difficult indeed would 
it be to decide, whether he shone in a degree less 
in this social character, than in the closet of criticism, 
or the chair of instruction." 

He did not however sink into literary idleness. 
In 1797 he edited the works of Pope in 9 vols. 8vo. 
The notes to this edition, which necessarily include 
the greatest part of his celebrated Essay, are highly 
entertaining and instructive. But Dr. Warton was 
severely, and, it may be added, illiberally, attacked 
for inserting one or two somewhat indecent pieces 
in this edition, which had hitherto been excluded 
from his collected works. The most harsh of these 
attacks came from the author of the Pursuits of 
Literature : something, no doubt, must be deducted 



348 

from the violence of one, whose professed object 
was satire ; but the grey hairs and past services of 
Warton ought to have protected him from excessive 
rudeness; and these over-nice critics might, with a 
proper regard to consistency, have demanded the 
exclusion of several other works of Pope. It must 
not be concealed, however, that Beattie agreed in 
some degree with these censurcrs. " I have just 
seen," says he, " a new edition by Dr. Joseph War- 
ton, of the works of Pope. It is fuller than Warbur- 
ton's ; but y<)u will not think it better, when I tell 
you, that all Pope's obscenities, which Warburton 
was careful to omit, are carefully preserved by 
Warton, who also seems to have a great favour for 
infidel writers, particularly Voltaire. The book is 
well printed, but has no cuts, except a curious cari- 
cature of Pope's person, and an elegant profile of 
his head."* 

Warton was not however deterred by the blame 
he thus suffered, from entering upon an edition of 
Dryden ; which alas ! he did not live to finish ; 
though he left two volumes ready for the press. 
This however h the less to be regretted as a simi- 
lar undertaking is now in the hands of Mr. Walter 
Scott. 

He died 23 Feb. 1800, at. 78, leaving behind him 
a widow ; one son, the Rev. John Warton ; and 
three daughters; of whom only the youngest was by 
the last wife. 

Such are the outlines of Dr. Warton^s life; in 
which I have not confined myself to Mr. WooH's 
Memoir, having inserted a few trifling notices from 

♦ Forbes, 11.320. 



349 , 

personal knowledge. I cannot here transcribe at 
length the delineation of his nooral and literary 
character, with which his biographer concludes the 
present publication : but in the brief observations I 
shall make with candour, yet with frankness, my 
opinion both of that, and of the success with which 
Mr. Wool! has executed his task, will appear. 

Let me own then, that the volume now presented 
to the world, in some respects, does not quite 
answer my expectations. The life itself, consider- 
ing it comes from one, who was a native of Win- 
chester, who was brought up under Dr. Warton, 
and who seems to have had the advantage of all the 
family papers, is rather too sparing, not merely of 
incident, which literary men seldom supply, but of 
remarks, opinions, anecdotes, habits of study, and 
pictures of mind. In truth a great deal of what it 
tells, was known before. It is written with much 
talent, and elegance ; and every where exhibits the 
scholar and the man of virtuous sentiment. But 
perhaps the important duties of Mr. Wooll's station 
have not given him time to fill his mind with all, 
which probably may be called, the idlenesses of mo- 
dern literature, but which are yet necessary to give 
a rich and lively interest to the memoirs of a modern 
author; more especially of one, whose own mind 
abounded in that kind of knowledge. 

In the next place, the correspondence which War- 
ton himself left for publication, and which therefore, 
as it was well known how long and how widely he 
had been connected with persons of genius, excited 
the strongest curiosity, is, for the most part, slight 
and unimportant. It is true, the letters are, everv 



350 

one of them, those of eminent people : but scarce 
any one written with any effort ; or upon interest- 
ing subjects. What can have become of the letters 
of the Wartons themselves ? Or did they find no 
time, or no talent for epistolary exertion? For 
here are, I think, only sixteen of Dr. Warton ; and 
only two of T. Warton. A few of them have 
nothing to do with either of the Wartons. Two or 
three of Dr. Johnson are interesting, as they relate 
to Collins, the poet. 



Dr. Johnson to Dr, Warton, March 8, 1734. 
***. " How little can we venture to exult in any 
intellectual powers, or literary attainments, when 
we consider the condition of poor Collins ! I knew 
him a few years ago, full of hopes and full of pro- 
jects, versed in many languages, high in fancy, and 
strong in retention. This busy and forcible mind is 
now under the government of those who lately 
would not have been able to comprehend the least 
and most narrow of its designs. What do you hear 
of him? Are there hopes of his recovery ? Or is 
he to pass the remainder of his life in misery and^ 
degradation ? Perhaps with complete consciousness 
of his calamity!" 

Again, Dec. 24, 1754. *** " Poor dear Collins ! 
Let me know, whether you think it would give him 
pleasure, if I should write to him. I have often been 
near his state ; and therefore have it in great com- 
miseration." 

Again, April 15, 1756. *** « What becomes of 
poor dear Collins ? I wrote him a letter, which he 



351 

never answered. I suppose writing is very trouble- 
some to him. That man is no common loss. The 
moralists all talk of the uncertainty of fortune ; and 
the transitoriness of beauty; but it is yet more 
dreadful to consider, that the powers of the mind 
are equally liable to change; that understanding 
may make its appearance, and depart ; that it may 
blaze and expire !" 



Collins died in this very year 1756. It is singular 
that, after Dr. Johnson had written about him with 
such ardent and eloquent affection, he could at a 
long subsequent period, when time generally melio- 
rates the love of departed friends, and memory 
aggrandizes their images, speak of him with such 
splenetic and degrading cdticism in his '' Lives of 
the Poets." Those lives, especially of his cotem- 
poraries, powerful as they often are, have gone 
further towards the suppression of rising genius, 
than any book our language has produced. They 
flatter the prejudices of dull men, and the envy of 
those who love not literary pursuits ; and on this 
account, in addition to the wonderful force with 
which they are composed, have obtained a dan- 
gerous popularity, which has given a full effect to 
their poison. 

The next best letter, is one, and indeed the only 
one, by Mrs. Montagu, whose correspondence always 
ishines 

veiut inter ignes 

Luna ininoresj 

in wliatever work it appears. 



352 



Mrs, Montagu, to Dr, Warton^ 17 Sept, 1782. 

***. " By opening to us the original and genuine 
books of the inspired poets, and distinguishing too 
what is really divine in them, jou lead us back to 
true taste. Critics that demand an ignorant sub- 
mission, and implicit faith in their infallibility of 
judgment, or the councils of learned academies, 
passing decrees as arbitrary, could never establish 
a rational devotion to the Muses, or mark those 
boundaries, which are rather guides than restraints. 
By the candour and impartiality, with which you 
examine and decide on the merits of the ancients 
and moderns, we are all informed and instructed; 
and I will confess I feel myself inexpressibly de- 
lighted with the praises you give itt the instructor 
of my early youth. Dr. Young, and the friends of 
my maturer age, Lord Lyttelton and Mr. West. 
Having ever considered the friendship of these ex- 
cellent persons as the greatest honour of my life, 
and endeavouring hourly to set before me their 
precepts, and their examples, I could not but be 
highly gratified by seeing you place a guard of 
laurel round their ^tombs, which will secure them 
from any mischievous impressions, envy may at- 
tempt to make. I do not love the wolf and the 
tiger, who assail the living passenger ; but most of 
all beasts I abhor the vampire, who violates the 
tomb, profanes the sepulchre, and sucks the blood 
of sleeping men — cowardly, cruel, ungenerous 
monster! You and your brother are critics of 
another disposition ; too superior to be jealous, too 
good to be severe, you give encouragement to liv- 



353 

ing authors, protection to the memories of those of 
former times; and instead of destroying monu-^ 
ments, you bestow them. 1 have often thought, 
with delighted gratitude, that many centuries after 
my little Essai/ on Shakspeare is lost and forgotten, 
the mentioi) made of it in the History of English 
Poetry, the Essay on Pope, and Mr. Harris's Phi- 
lological Enquiries, will not only preserve it from 
oblivion, but will present it to opinion with much 
greater advantages than it originally appeared with* 
These reflections afford some of the happiest mo-* 
ments to 

« Yours, &c. &c. 

" Eliz. Montagu*'* 



To the juvenile poetry of Dr. Warton, which is 
here republished, scarce any thing new is added. 
Perhaps I may think that Mr. WooU has rated his 
powers in this way, if we judge from these remains, 
a little too high* though there are some striking 
and appropriate traits in his delineation of them. 
Yet I must admit that " The Enthusiast, or Lover 
of Nature," written at the age of 18, is a rich and 
beautiful descriptive poem ; and I will indulge no 
hyper-criticisms upon it. The Odes it is impossi- 
ble to avoid comparing with those of his friend and 
rival, Collins, which were published in the same 
year, at the same age ; and it is equally impossible 
to be blind to their striking inferiority. The Ode 
to Fancy has much merit; but it seems to me to 
want originality ; and to be more an effort of me- 
mory, than of original and predominant genius. 
The finest lines, consisting of S8, which begin at 

VOL. IV. A A 



354 

verse 59, were inserted subsequent to the first 
edition, a circumstance not noted by Mr. Wooll. 
The Ode to Content, (not in the first edition) in 
the same metre as Collins's Ode to Evening, has 
great merit : but here again we are unfortunately 
too strongly reminded of its exquisite rival.* War- 
ton has also an Ode to Evening, in which are some 
good stanzas. " The Dying Indian;" and more 
particularly " The Revenge of America," are very 
fine ; but the latter is too short for such a subject, 
and ends too abruptly. On the whole, I cannot 
honestly subscribe to Mr. Wooll, where he says : 
" There breathes through his poetry a genuinely 
spirited invention, a fervor which can alone be pro- 
duced by an highly-inspired mind ; and which, it is 
to be presumed, fairly ranks him amidst what he 
himself properly terms, " the makers and inventors;" 
that is, the " real poets." There seem to be want- 
ing those original and predominant impressions, 
that peculiarity of character, which always accom- 
pany high genius, and which are exhibited in the 
poetry both of his brother Thomas, and his cotem- 
porary Beattie. 

This opinion, if just, will not detract fi'om Dr. 
Warton's critical talents. The power which feels, 

* Dr.Warton, in a note to Milton's Translation of the 5th Ode, 
lab. i. of Horace^ in his brother's edition of that poet, says: •* In 
this measure, my friend and schoolfellow, Mr. William Collins, 
wrote his admired Ode to Evening ; and I know he had a design of 
writing many more Odes without rhyme." T. Warton goes on to 
say, that *« Dr. I. Warton might have added, that his own Ode to 
Evening was written before that of his friend Collins ; as was a 
poem of his, entitled "The Assembly of the Passions;" before 
Collins's favourite Ode on that subject." Mr, Wooll has inserted * 
prose sketch on this subject; bi^t no poem. 



555 

and the power which originates poetry, are totally 
distinct. The former no writer seems to have 
possessed with more exquisite precision, than Dr. 
Warton; and I do not mean to deny that he 
possessed the latter in a considerable degree : I only 
say that his powers of execution do not seem to have 
been equal to his taste. 

But Dr. Warton's fame does not rest upon his 
poetry. As a critic in polite literature he stands in 
the foremost ranks. And Mr. Wooll, who beina^ 
educated under him had the best opportunity of 
forming a just opinion, has delineated his character 
as a teacher with the highest and most discriminate 
praise. His vivacity, his benevolence, and his 
amiable temper, and moral excellencies have long 
been known ; and are celebrated by his biographer 
with a fond admiration. But 1 must say, that Mr. 
Wooll, in his dread of " descending to the minutise 
of daily habits," has not left us a portrait sufficiently 
distinct. Nor has he given us any sufficiently bold 
touches, such as we had a right to expect in the 
life of one of the Wartons ; while, unfortunately, 
here are scarce any original letters to supply the 
deficiency. I had hoped to have found materials 
for an interesting and energetic character ; but, what 
Mr. Wool has omitted, it would be rash for a stran- 
ger to attempt. 

Mr. Wooll however promises another volume, 
and though I cannot hope that ray suggestions will 
have any influence with him, yet perhaps some one 
of more authority may induce him to favour the 
public with a supplementary account. 

July 23, 1806. 

A K 2 



356 



Art. CCCXXXVI. Memoirs of the Life of Co!. 
Hutchinson, Governor of Nottingham Castle and 
Town, Representative of the County of Notting- 
ham in the Long Parliament, and of the Town of 
Nottingham in the First Parliament of Charles II. 
4*c. With original Anecdotes of many of the most 
distinguished of his Cotemporarics, and a Summary 
Review of Public Affairs. Written by his Widow 
Lucy, daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant 
of the Tower, Sfc. Now first published from the 
Original Manuscript by the Rev. Julius Hutchin- 
son, <^c. S^c. To which is prefixed the Life of 
Mrs. Hutchinson, written by Herself, a Fragment* 
London. Printed for Longman and Co. 1806. to. 
pp. 460. 

This is a book of singular interest and indeed 
importance, of which, though lately published, yet 
having been written so many years past, the notice 
in this work will not be out of place. " Surely," 
observes the Editor, " we risque little in saying 
that the history of a period the most remarkable in 
the British annals, written one hundred and fifty 
years ago by, a lady, of elevated birth, of a most 
comprehensive and highly cultivated mind, herself 
a witness of many of the scenes she describes, and 
active in several of them, is a literary curiosity of 
no mean sort." 

It is indeed the most impressive of all the books on 
that side of the question, which I recollect to have 
read. The character of a man of inflexible virtue, 
actuated solely by the purest principles of patriotism, 
opposing tyranny without a taint of the hatred of 



357 

greatness ; seeking the post of difficulty and danger 
without a wish for the vanity of rank and honours; 
a zealous and energetic supporter of his cause ; yet 
frank and discriminative ; and free from the viru- 
lence, and rant, and prejudices of party, when 
party raged in its utmost fury, commands such re- 
spect and admiration, that we listen to his opinions, 
and pursue his actions, with feelings of involuntary 
inclination towards them ! 

Under the influence of sentiments founded on the 
experience of a series of various and complicated 
events which have since occurred, I have hitherto 
thought that, had I lived in those times, I should 
have been a fixed and undoubting Royalist. But 
perhaps the principles of Col, Hutchinson, as en- 
forced by the arguments and eloquence of his heroic, 
virtuous, and highly-accomplished wife, might then 
have made me hesitate. No rational man can 
question that the sentiments and conduct of the 
Monarch and his Ministry, did actually not only 
threaten, but intrench upon, the just liberties of 
the people. Some resistance became necessary: 
circumstances, in which both parties were perhaps 
to blame, at length caused the scabbard to be thrown 
away ; and from that moment the purest and wisest 
patriots might think, and perhaps think rightly, that 
there was no medium between victory and des* 
potism. 

It cannot be denied, that they, who taxed Charles I. 
"with insincerity, had strong appearances on their 
side. Perhaps it resulted from some of the many 
amiable traits in his character ; from that ductility, 
and diflidence of his own opinions and resolves, 



358 

which made him a dupe to artful, yet less wise, 
advisers ; but whether the origin was amiable or 
unamiable, the effect was equally to be dreaded. A 
monarch, against whom his subjects have been once 
driven to resistance, must go out of the contest 
with too much, or too little power ! Had I there- 
fore engaged in that cause, for which Col. Hutchin- 
son's view of it was at least an honest and a gener- 
ous justification, I think I should have departed 
from it, as he seems to have done, a stern Re- 
publican ! 

If it be pleaded, that there were many artifices 
used to inflame the people, and many leaders en- 
gaged, whose views were apparently private and 
selfish; and that these things, which could not 
escape the notice of a man of sagacity, and virtue, 
should in his eyes have damned their cause, it may 
surely be answered, that in the imperfect condition 
of human affairs, we are not to refuse to seek a 
paramount good, because, in its progress, there 
may be mingled with it some evil instruments, 
whose motives or actions are impure ! For the 
same reason a strict Loyalist might have deserted 
the defence of tlie Crown, because he must have 
observed that there were many on the same side, 
who were actuated by ambition, or love of power, 
or desire to retain emoluments extorted from the 
oppression of the people ! There must indeed have 
been something in the cant of the Puritans, and 
other Sectarists, extremely disgusting to a liberal 
spirit. But on the other hand, what noble and 
indignant mind could bear the scoffs, and insults, 
and tyranny, and injuries, and follies of profligate 



359 

and abandoned courtiers, the minions of state, raised 
from obscurity without merit, and fattening in the 
spoils of the land? 

Henry VII. had began systematically to break the 
power of the Feudal Nobility ; and the Constitutional 
check, which they formed, upon the Crown, was 
now nearly extinguished. The families of Vere, 
and Stafford, and Grey, and Hastings, and Clinton, 
and Stanley, and Percy, and Howard, and others 
of that stamp, were in poverty or oppression. 
New lords, sprung from favouritism, or enriched 
within half a century from the harvest of the Re- 
formation, or just emerged from North of the 
Tweed, swarmed both in the metropolis, and in 
every county : Buckingham, and his brothers, and 
cousins to the fourth degree, shone in a splendour 
surpassing royalty ! But these, as they had lately 
risen from the hot- bed of the regal prerogative, 
could neither be any controul upon it, nor have any 
interests or sentiments in common with the people. 
Necessity, therefore, operating upon the expansion 
of mind created by navigation and commerce, raised 
up a spirit and a power in the people themselves to 
combat and countervail the growing encroachments 
of the sceptre. To fan this flame, there was inter- 
mingled much false enthusiasm, much horrid hypo- 
crisy, much unjust depreciation of well-acquired 
rank, and much sophistical and half-witted reason- 
ing on natural equality, and the rights of man. 
But the collision of the contest struck out also 
many important truths, and dissipated many artful 
or servile prejudices which had long enchained or 
overawed the intellects of the Commonalty. 



360 

At a period so critical, the cowardly or the im» 
becile alone (:ould remain neutral. A man of stern 
virtue, who abominated the luxuries and dissipa* 
tions of courts, and had a head fond of busying 
itself in all the severe ingenuity of abstract politics, 
was exempt from tlie force of seductions, which, 
however amiable, must be admitted to operate bj 
other powers than those of reason. To him the 
splendour of a palace, the imposing dignity of titles, 
and all the outward brilliance which surrounds 
thera, put forth their rays ineffectually. Could not 
such a man, especially if resident in the country, 
like Col. Hutchinson, as virtuously have embraced 
the cause of the Parliament as of the King? 

The event proved whither the fury of the mob, 
once roused, will lead : and late events in a neigh- 
bouring kingdom have too fatally confirmed it. 
Indeed every man of sagacity must at all times have 
been aware, how dangerous it is to appeal to the 
passions of the populace. But this is no reason for 
forbearing such appeal in extreme cases : otherwise, 
what can stop despotism^ when it is inclined, as it 
too often is, to extend its encroachments beyond 
endurance ? There are some evils, of which in the 
pursuit of a remedy, we must incur the chance of 
other evils. In common cases patience may be a 
virtue ; but there are points, at which it becomes a 
contemptible weakness. 

Charles I. was a monarch of many attractive ac- 
complishments, and many virtuous qualities, as Mrs, 
Hutchinson herself confesses. He was a man, un- 
doubtedly, whose speculative talents were of no 
,cpmmon order; he drew around hira men of genius 



361 

and literature, and loved, and understood, and 
patronized the arts ; he possessed therefore, for the 
most part,* the hearts of those, who could best 
embalm his memory, and the memory of his cause ; 

** Quique pii vatcs, et Phaebo digna locuti, 
Inventas aut qui vitain excoluere per artes, 
Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo ;** 

men, whose cultivated talents, acquainted with the 
general traits of human nature, and possessed of a 
command of elegant language, not derived from the 
narrow and factitious fountain of a temporary and 
accidental state of opinion, could give to the history 
of their actions a colour of permanent interest and 
celebrity. Thus the pages of Clarendon may have 
operated in favour of the party of his Royal Master, 
beyond what truth and justice would have exacted of 
posterity. 

Clarendon, it must be allowed, has drawn the 
characters of most of those who remained faithful 
and active to the Crown, in hues so glowing and 
delightful, that it may be doubted whether we are 
not more influenced by respect for them, than by 
the examination of their measures, or the reason- 
ings by which they are justified. In truth, at this 
distance of time, it does raise a strong, and, per- 
haps, not a very fallible argument in their favour. 
The virtuous Earl of Newcastle, to whose integrity 
Mrs. Hutchinson bears testimony, had been out of 
the atmosphere of the Court; nay, he had been 
slighted and disobliged by it; yet he broke from his 

* I have not forgot the exception of Milton, whose praise of 
<>romwelI is now among the best testimonies in his favour. 



56^ 

beloved ease and the luxury of a princely retire- 
ment, and embarked his immense property, and his 
life, in favour of the monarch ; and (not to be 
tedious) the enlightened, the conscientious, the 
heroic, the admirable Lord Falkland, engaged on 
the same side, and sealed his sincerity by his blood. 
It is true they were men deeply interested in the 
preservation of aristocrat ical privileges, which, in 
the rude dispute that had now commenced, were 
thrown into jeopardy. 

If then personal example be admitted as a power- 
ful guide of opinion on the rectitude of this contest, 
no book has for years been published, calculated to 
weigh so strongly in this question as the life of Col. 
Hutchinson now presented to the public. And for 
this reason it is extremely essential that the character 
of the writer should in the first place be established. 
Indeed she has on many other accounts a full claim 
to the most conspicuous notice : and more especially 
in such a work as this, of which it is a prime ob- 
ject to rescue the memory of those who have been 
emiment for their intellectual attainments, from 
undeserved oblivion. 

The fair and exemplary author appears to have 
possessed an understanding of uncommon vigour and 
extent, cultivated with great industry, and adorned 
not only with all the politest literature of her sex, 
but with an entire familiarity with classical erudition. 
To these she added an'heroic and virtuous heart, 
which sometimes exalted her language, always pure 
and vigorous, into strains of high eloquence ! How 
capricious is that fame, which we are too apt to sup- 
pose the constant attendant of eminent virtue, or 



363 

great attainments of thp mind ! The memory of Mrs. 
Hutchinson has slept for a century and a half, in an 
obscure MS. the sport of carelessness or stupidity, 
thrown about in corners of deserted mansions, ex- 
posed perhaps, to the rats ; to the weather ; to the 
dirty lighters of fires. But it has survived all these 
chances ; and at length, by the pious care of a col- 
lateral relation and representative of her husband, 
comes forth in full splendour. Now it is, that Mrs. 
Hutchinson starts into life again, as if from the 
tomb ; and lives in the eye of the world with a lustre 
of fame, which never fell upon her, during her actual 
existence here ! The name of Apsley becomes con- 
secrated among the lovers of genius, and Lord 
Bathurst may thank the Editor of this precious MS. 
for at least adding a splendour to one of his titles, 
beyond what it before possessed ! 



" My grandfather by the fathei*'s side," says 
Mrs. Hutchinson, " was a gentleman of a competent 
estate ; about 7, or 8001. a year, in Sussex. He being 
descended of a younger house, had his residence at a 
place called Pulborough; the family out of which 
he came, was of Apsley, a town where they had 
been seated before the Conquest, and ever since 
continued, till of late the last heir male of that eldest 
house, being the son of Sir Edward x4psley, is dead 
without issue, and his estate gone with his sister's 
daughters into other families," &c. 

Her father. Sir Allen Apsley, was knighted by 
K. James, and afterwards procured the office of 
Victualler of the Navy, " a place then both of credit 
and great revenue." His third wife was Lucy 



364 

daughter of Sir John St. John of Ljdiard-Tregoz 
in Wiltshire ; by whom he had, among other children, 
this his eldest daughter. Her father was afterwards 
Lieutenant of the Tower, and died in May 1630, 
aet. 63, leaving his widow surviving, who died at her 
daughter's house at Owthorpe, in 1659. 

" After my mother had had three sons," continues 
the memoir-writer, " she was very desirous of a 
daughter ; and when the women at my birth told 
her that I was one, she received me with a great deal 
of joy ; and the nurses fancying, because I had more 
complexion and favour than is usual in so young 
children, that I should not live, my mother became 
fonder of me, and more endeavoured to nurse me. 
As soon as I was weaned, a French woman was 
taken to be my dry nurse, and I was taught to speak 
French and English together. My mother, while 
she was with child of me, dreamed that she was 
walking in the garden with my father, and that a 
star came down into her hand, with other circum- 
stances, which, though I have often heard, I minded 
not enough to remember perfectly ; only my father 
told her that her dream signified she should have a 
daughter of some extraordinary eminency : for my 
father and mother, fancying me then beautiful, and 
more than ordinarily apprehensive, applied all their 
cares, and spared no cost to improve me in my 
education, which procured me the admiration of 
those that flattered my parents. By that time I was 
four years old I read English perfectly, and having 
a great memory, I was carried to sermons, and while 
I was very young could remember and repeat them 
exactly, and being caressed, the love of praise 



365 

tickled me, and made me attend more heedfully. 
When I was about 7 years of age, 1 remember I 
had at one time 8 tutors in several qualities, lan- 
guages, music, dancing, writing, and needlework, 
but my genius was quite averse from all but my 
book ; and that I was so eager of, that my mother, 
thinking it prejudiced my health, would moderate 
me in it ; yet this rather animated me, than kept me 
back, and every moment I could steal from my play 
I would employ in any book 1 could find, when my 
own were lockt up from me. After dinner and 
supper I still had an hour allowed me to play, and 
then I would steal into some hole or other to read. 
My father would have me learn Latin, and I was 
so apt that I outstript my brothers, who were at 
school, although my father's chaplain who was my 
tutor was a pitiful dull fellow. My brothers, who 
had a great deal of wit, had some emulation at the 
progress I made in my learning, which very well 
pleased my father, though my mother would have 
been contented, I had not so wholly addicted my- 
self to that as to neglect my other qualities : as for 
music and dancing I profited very little in them, 
and would never practise my lute or harpsichords but 
when my masters were with me ; and for my needle 
I absolutely hated it; play among other children I 
despised, and when I was forced to entertain such 
as came to visit me, I tired them with more grave 
instruetion than their mothers, and pluckt all their 
babies to pieces, and kept the children in such awe, 
that they were glad when I entertained myself with 
elder company, to whom I was very acceptable; 
and living in the house with many persons that had 



366 

a great deal of wit, and very profitable serious dis- 
courses being frequent at my father's table, and in 
my mother's drawing-room, I was very attentive to 
all, and gathered up things that I would utter again 
to great admiration of many, that took my memory 
and imitation for wit. It pleased God that through 
the good instructions of my mother, and the sermons 
she carried me to, I was convinced that the know- 
ledge of God was the most excellent study, and ac- 
cordingly applied myself to it, and to practise as I 
was taught : I used to exhort my mother's maids 
much, and to turn their idle discourses to good sub- 
jects ; but 1 thought, when I had done this on the 
Lord's day, and every day performed my due tasks 
of reading and praying, that then I was free to 
any thing that was not sin, for I was not at that 
time convinced of the vanity of conversation which 
was not scandalously wicked. I thought it no sin 
to learn or hear witty and amorous sonnets or poems, 
and twenty things of that kind, wherein 1 was so 
apt that I became the confidant in all the loves that 
were managed among my mother's young women, 
and there was none of them but had many lovers, 
and some particular friends beloved above the rest." 
Mr. Hutchinson having'" tried a little the study 
of the law, but finding it unpleasant and contrary 
to his genius, and the plague that spring beginning 
to drive people out of town," retired to the house of 
his music- master at Richmond, " where the Prince's 
Court was, and where was very good company and 
recreations, the King's hawks being kept near the 
place, and several other conveniencies." Having 
communicated this to a friend " the gentleman bid 



367 

him take head of the place, for it was so fatal for 
love, that never any young disengaged person went 
thither, who returned again free." 

Mr. Hutchinson found there " a great deal of 
good young company, and many ingenuous persons, 
that by reason of the Court, where the young Princes 
were bred, entertained themselves in that place, and 
had frequent resort to the house, where Mr. Hutch- 
inson tabled : the man being a skilful composer in 
music, the rest of the King's musicians often met at 
his house to practise new airs and prepare them for 
the King, and divers of the gentlemen and ladies that 
were affected with music, came thither to hear; others 
that were not, took that pretence to entertain them- 
selves with the company. Mr. Hutchinson was soon 
courted into their acquaintance and invited to their 
houses, where he was nobly treated with all the at- 
tractive arts that young women and their parents 
use to procure them lovers, but though some of them 
were very handsome, others wealthy, witty, and well- 
qualified ; all of them set out with all the gaiety and 
bravery, that vain women put on to set themselves 
oflf, yet Mr. Hutchinson could not be entangled in 
any of their fine snares ; but without any taint of 
incivility, in such a way of handsome raillery, re- 
proved their pride and vanity, as made them ashamed 
of their glory, and vexed that he alone, of all the 
young gentlemen that belonged to' the court or 
neighbourhood, should be insensible of their charms. 
" In the same house with him, there was a younger 
daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, late Lieutenant of the 
Tower, tabled for the practice of her lute, till the 
return of her m^other, who was gone into Wiltshire 



3(S^ 

for the accomplishment of a treaty that had been 
made some progress in, about the marriage of her 
elder daughter with a gentleman of that country , out 
of which my lady herself came, and where her bro- 
thers. Sir John St. John and Sir Edward Hungerford, 
living in great honour and reputation, had invited 
her to a visit of them. 

'^ This gentlewoman, that was left in the house 
with Mr. Hutchinson was a very child; her elder 
sister being at that time scarce past it ; but a child 
of such pleasantness and vivacity of spirit, and in- 
genuity in the quality she practised, that Mr. 
Hutchinson took pleasure in hearing her practise, 
and would fall in discourse with her. She, having 
the keys of her mother's house, some half a mile 
distant, would sometimes ask Mr. Hutchinson, when 
she went over, to walk along with her. One day, 
when he was there, looking upon an odd by-shelf, 
in her sister's closet, he found a few Latin books. 
Asking whose they were, he was told they were her 
elder sister's ; whereupon, enquiring more after her, 
he began first to be sorry she was gone, before he 
had seen her ; and gone upon such an account that 
he was not likely to see lier. Then he grew to love 
to hear mention of her ; and the other gentlewomen, 
who had been her companions, used to talk much to 
him, of her, telling him, how reserved and studious 
she was ; and other things, which they esteemed no 
advantage; but it so inflamed Mr. Hutchinson's 
desire of seeing her, that he began to wonder at 
himself, that his heart, which had ever had such an 
indifferency for the most excellent of womankind, 
should have so strong impulses towards a stranger, 



sm 

he never saw ; and certainly it was of the Lord, 
(though he perceived it not) who had ordained him, 
through so many various providencies, to be yoked 
with her in whom he found so much satisfaction. 

^^ There scarcely past any day, but some accident 
or some discourse still kept alive his desire of seeing 
this gentlewoman, although the mention of her, for 
the most part, was enquiries whether she had yet 
accomplished the marriage that was in treaty. One 
day there was a great deal of company met at Mr; 
Coleman's, the gentleman's house, where he tabled) 
to hear the musick, and a certain song was sung, 
which had been lately set, and gave occasion to some 
of the company to mention an answer to it, which 
was in the house, and upon some of their desires 
read : a gentleman saying it was believed that a 
woman in the neighbourhood had made it, it was 
presently enquired who? whereupon a gentleman, 
then present, who had made the first song, said, there 
were but two women that conld be guilty of it, 
whereof one was a lady then among them, the other 
Mrs. Apsley. 

" Mr. Hutchinson, fancying something of ra- 
tionality in the sonnet, beyond the customiiry reach 
of a she- wit, although, to speak truth, it signified 
very little, addresst himself to the gentleman, and 
told him, he could scarcely believe it was a wo- 
man's, whereupon this gentleman, who was a man 
of good understanding and expression, and inspired 
with some passion for her himself, which made him 
l^egard all her perfections through a multiplying 
glass, told Mr. Hutchinson, that though for civility 
to the rest, he entitled another lady to the song^ yel 

TOL. IT. B B 



STO 

he was confident it was Mrs. Apsley's only, for 
she had sense above all the rest, and fell into such 
high praises of her, as might well have begotten 
those vehement desires of her acquaintance, which 
a strange sympathy in nature had before produced ; 
another gentleman, that sat by, seconded this com- 
mendation, with such additions of praise, as he 
would not have given if he had known her. 

'' Mr. Hutchinson hearing all this, said to the first 
gentleman, I cannot be at rest till this lady's return, 
that I maybe acquainted with her; the gentleman 
replied, ' Sir, you must not expect that, for she is of 
an humour she will not be acquainted with any of 
mankind, and however this song is stolen forth, 
she is the nicest creature in the world of suffering 
her perfections to be known, she shuns the converse 
of men as the plague, she only lives in the enjoy- 
ment of herself, and has not the humanity to com- 
municate that happiness to any of our sex.' ' Well,' 
said Mr. Hutchinson, ' but I will be acquainted with 
her;' and indeed the information of this reserved 
humour, pleased him, more than all else he had 
heard, and filled him now with thoughts, how he 
should attain the sight and knowledge of her. 

" While he was exercised in this, many days 
passed not, but a footboy of my lady her mother's, 
came to young Mrs. Apsley, as they were at din- 
ner, bringing news that her mother and sister would 
in few days return ; and when they enquired of 
him, whether Mrs. Apsley. was married, having be- 
fore been instructed to make them believe it, he 
smiled and pulled out some bride laces, which were 
given at a wedding in the house where she was, 



571 

and gave them to the young gentlewoman and the 
gentleman's daughter of the house, and told them 
Mrs. Apsley bade him tell no news, but give them 
those tokens, and carried the matter so, that all 
the company believed she had been married," 

** While she so ran in his thoughts, meeting the 
boy again, he found out upon a little stricter ex- 
amination of him, that she was not married, and 
pleased himself in the hopes of her speedy return, 
when one day, having been invited by one of the 
ladies of that neighbourhood, to a noble treatment 
at Sion garden, which a courtier, that was her ser- 
vant, had made for her, and whom she would bring, 
Mr. Hutchinson, Mrs. Apsley, and Mr. Coleman's 
daughter were of the party, and having spent the 
day in several pleasant divertisements, at evening 
they were at supper, when a messenger came to tell 
Mrs. Apsley, her mother was come. She would 
immediately have gone, but Mr. Hutchinson pre- 
tending civility to conduct her home, made her stay 
till the supper was ended, of which he eat no more, 
now only longing for that sight, which he had with 
such perplexity expected. This at length he ob- 
tained ; but his heart being prepossessed with his 
own fancy, was not free to discern how little there' 
was in her to answer so great an expectation. 

" She was not ugly ; in a careless riding-habit, 
she had a melancholy negligence both of herself and 
others, as if she neither aifected to please others, 
nor took notice of any thing before her ; yet spite 
of all her indifferency, she was surprised with some 
unusual liking in her soul, when she saw this gentle- 



372 

man, who had hair, eyes, shape and countenance 
enough to beget Jove in any one at the first, and 
these set off with a graceful and generous mien, 
which promised an extraordinary person ; he was 
at that time, and indeed always, very neatly habited, 
for he wore good and rich clothes, and had variety 
of them, and had them well suited and very answer- 
able, in that little thing, shewing both good judgment 
and great generosity, he equally becoming them and 
they him, which he wore with such unaffectedness 
and such neatness as do not often meet in one. 

" Although he had but an evening sight of her 
he had so long desired, and that at disadvantage 
enough for her, yet the prevailing sympathy of his 
soul, made him think all his pains well paid ; and 
this first did whet his desire to a second sight, 
which he had by accident the next day, and to his 
joy found she was wholly disengaged from that 
treaty, which he so much feared had been accom- 
plished ; he found withal, that though she was 
modest, she was accostable and willing to entertain 
his acquaintance. 

" This soon past into a mutual friendship between 
them, and though she innocently thought nothing of 
love, yet she was glad to have acquired such a friend, 
who had wisdom and virtue enough to be trusted 
with her counsels, for she was then much perplext 
in mind ; her mother and friends had a great desire 
she should marry, and were displeased that she re- 
fused many offers which they thought advantageous 
enough ; she was obedient, loath to displease them, 
but more herself, in marrying such as she had no 
inclination to. The troublesome pretensions of 



373 

some of the courtiers, had made her willinir to try 
whether she could bring her heart to her mother's 
desire, but beino^ by a secret working, which she 
then understood not, averted, she was troubled to 
return, lest some might believe it was a secret liking 
of them which had caused her dislike of others, and 
being a little disturbed with these things and me- 
lancholy, Mr. Hutchinson, appearing, as he was, a 
person of virtue and honour, who might be safely 
and advantageously conversed with, she thought 
God had sent her a happy relief. 

" Mr. Hutchinson on the other side, having been 
told, and seeing how she shunned all other men, and 
how civilly she entertained him, believed that a 
secret power had wrought a mutual inclination be- 
tween them, and daily frequented her mother's house, 
and had the opportunity of conversing with her 
in those pleasant walks, which, at that sweet season 
of the Spring invited all the neighbouring inhabit- 
ants to seek their joys : where, though they were 
never alone, yet they had every day opportunity 
for converse with each other, which the rest shared 
not in, while every one minded their own delights. 

" They had not six weeks enjoyed this peace, but 
the young men and women, who saw them allow 
each other that kindness which they did not afford 
commonly to others, first began to grow jealous 
and envious at it, and after to use all the mali- 
cious practices they could invent to break the 
friendship. Among the rest, that gentleman, who 
at the first had so highly commended her to Mr. 
Hutchinson, now began to caution him against her, 
;aad to disparage her, with such subtile insinuations^ 



374 

as would have ruined any love, less constant and 
honourable than his. The women, with wittj spite, 
represented all her faults to him, which chiefly 
terminated in the negligence of her dress and habit, 
and all womanish ornaments, giving herself wholly 
up to study and writing. Mr. Hutchinson, who had 
a very sharp and pleasant wit, retorted all their 
malice with such just reproofs of their idleness and 
vanity, as made them hate her, who, without af- 
fecting it, had so engaged such a person in her 
protection, as they with all their arts could not 
catch. He in the meanwhile prosecuted his love, 
with so much discretion, d uty, and honour, that at 
the length, through many difficulties he accomplished 
bis design. 

*^ I shall pass by all the little amorous relations, 
which if I would take the pains to relate, would 
make a true historoy of more handsome manage- 
ment of love than the best romances describe: for 
these are to be forgotten as the vanities of youth, 
not worthy mention among the greater transactions 
of his life. There is this only to be recorded, that 
never was there a passion more ardent and less 
idolatrous ; he loved her better than his life, with 
inexpressible tenderness and kindness, had a roost 
high obliging esteem of her, yet still considered 
honour, religion, and duty, above her, nor ever 
suffered the intrusion of such a dotage as should 
blind him from marking her imperfections: these 
he looked on with such an indulgent eye, as did 
not abate his love and esteem of her, while it aug- 
mented his care to blot out all those spots which 
might make her appear less worthy of that respect 



375 

lie paid her; and thus indeed he soon made her 
more equal to him than he found her, for she was a 
very faithful mirror, reflecting truly, though but 
dimly, his own glories upon him, so long as he was 
present ; but she, that was nothing before his in- 
spection gave her a fair figure, when he was removed, 
was only filled with a dark mist, and never could 
again take in any delightful object, nor return any 
shining representation. 

^^ The greatest excellency she had was the power 
of apprehending and the virtue of loving his : so as 
his shadow, she waited on him every where, till he 
was taken into that region of light, which admits of 
more, and then she vanisht into nothing. It was 
not her face he loved, her honour and her virtue 
were his mistresses, and these (like Pigmalion*s) 
images of his own making, for he polisht and gave 
form to what he found with all the roughness of the 
quarry about; but meeting with a compliant subject 
for his own wise government, he found as much 
satisfaction as he gave, and never had occasion to 
number his marriage among his infelicities. 

'^ That day that the friends on both sides met to 
conclude the marriage, she fell sick of the small-pox, 
which was many ways a severe trial upon him ; first 
her life was almost in desperate hazard, and then the 
disease, for the present, made her the most de- 
formed person that could be seen, for a great while 
after she recovered; yet he was nothing troubled 
at it, but married her as soon as she was able to 
quit the chamber, when the priest and all that saw 
her were afirighted to look on her : but God re- 
compenced his justice and constancy, by restoring 



376 

her, though she was longer than ordinary before she 
recovered as well as before. 

*^ One thing is very observable, and worthy imi- 
tation in him ; although he had as strong and violent 
affections for her, as ever any man had, yet he 
declared it not to her till he had first acquainted 
his father, and after never would make any en- 
gagement but what his love and honour bound him 
in, wherein he was more firm and just than all the 
promissory oaths and ties in the world could have 
made him, notwithstanding many powerful tempta- 
tions of wealth and beauty, and other interests, that 
were laid before him ; for his father had concluded 
another treaty, before he knew his son's inclina- 
tions were this way fixt, with a party in many things 
much more adyantageable for his family, and 
more worthy of his liking : but his father was no 
less honourably indulgent to his son's afiection, thaa 
the son was strict in the observance of his duty, and 
at length to the full content of all, the thing was 
accomplished, and on the third day of July, in the 
year 1638, he was married to Mrs. Lucy Apsley, 
the second daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, late Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower of London, at St. Andrew's 
Church in Holborn." 

Colonel John Hutchinson was eldest son of Sir 
Thomas Hutchinson of Owthorpe in Northampton- 
shire, Kt. by Margaret daughter of Sir John By ron^ 
of Newstead in the same county, and was born at 
Nottingham in 1616. He was educated at Notting- 
ham school, and thence removed to the free school 
at Lincoln. Here, when not occupied in his 
studies, he was exercised in all military postures, 



377 

assaults, and defences, by an old low-country sol- 
dier, who was employed to instruct the scholars in 
this way. Hence he was removed back to the free 
school at Nottingham, and on quitting it sent a 
Fellow Commoner to Peter-House, Cambridge, 
where he attained much credit for his learning, and 
took a degree with considerable reputation. a 

After five years stay at the University, being then 
twenty years old, he returned to his father's house, 
who had now settled his habitation at Nottingham ; 
but a new brood of children, by a second marriage, 
having sprung up in the house, which made his 
abode there not entirely agreeable, he obtained 
leave to go to London, where he was admitted of 
Lincoln's Inn. Here however he did not find 
society congenial to his taste, and thinking the.study 
' of the law unpleasant and contrary to his genius, 
and the plague, which broke out this spring, be- 
ginning to drive people out of the town, he retired 
to Richmond. At this place, he met his future wife 
and biographer, Lucy Apsley, as has been already 
mentioned. J 

In the two years, which follpwed, in the bosom 
of domestic privacy he took the greatest delight in 
the study of divinity. " It was a remarkable pro- 
vidence of God in his life,'* says his wife, " that; 
must not be passed over without special notice, that 
he gave him these two years leisure, and a heart so 
to employ it, before the noise of war and tumult 
came upon him : yet about the year 1639 the thun- 
der was heard afer off rattling in the troubled air, 
and even the most obscured woods were penetrated 



378 

with some flashes, the forerunners of the dreadful 
storm, which the next year was more apparent." 

He now being anxious to increase his income, was 
on the point of concluding a bargain, for the pur- 
chase of a place in the court of Star-chamber, which 
an accident put aside, and which Mrs. H. considers 
a providential interference. In October, 1641, 
therefore, he retired to the family house at Owthorpe. 
Here " he applied himself to understand the things 
then in dispute, and read all the public papers that 
came forth, between the King and Parliament, be- 
sides many other private treatises, both concerning 
the present and foregoing times. Hereby he be- 
came abundantly informed in his understanding, 
and convinced in conscience of the righteousness of 
the Parliament's cause, in point of civil right, and 
though he was satisfied of the endeavours to restore 
Popery, and subvert the true Protestant religion, 
which indeed was apparent to every one that im- 
partially^ considered it, yet he did not consider that 
so clear a ground for the war, as the defence of the 
just English liberties; and although he was clearly 
swayed by his own judgment and reason to the 
Parliament, he thinking he had no warrantable call 
at that time to do any thing more, contented himself 
with praying for peace." 

He was now by the influence of Henry Ireton, his 
relation, put by the Parliament into the Commission 
of the peace, and soon after presented a petition of 
the yeomanry and others of that stamp belonging to 
his own county to the King at York, requesting 
him to return to the Parliament, a circumstance. 



379 

that gave much uneasiness to his loyal relations the 
Byrons. He was hence embarked in this cause, and 
other events immediately followed, which confirmed 
him in it. 

Mrs. H. records that almost the whole county of 
Nottingham were for the King. " The greatest 
family," she says, " was the Earl of Newcastle's,* 
a lord so much beloved in his country, that when 
the first expedition was against the Scots, the gen- 
tlemen of the country set him forth two troops, one 
all of gentlemen, the other of their men, who waited 
on him into the north at their own charges. He 
had, indeed, through his great estate, his liberal 
hospitality, and constant residence in his country 
so endeared them to him, that no man was a greater 
prince than he in all that northern quarter, till a 
foolish ambition of glorious slavery carried him to 
court, where he ran himself much in debt to pur- 
chase neglects of the King and Queen, and scorns 
of the proud courtiers."f 

Mr. Hutchinson was not willing to quit his house, 
to which he had so lately come, if he could have 
been suffered to live quietly in it ; but his affections 
to the Parliament being taken notice of, he became 
an object of envy to the other party. Nottingham 
now took up the sword, and it was not safe to lay it 
down again. Upon the Parliament's commission 

* William Cavendish, afterwards Marquis and Duke of New. 
castle, who was seated at Welbeck Abbey, and whose landed rental 
in those days amounted to 22,0001. a year and upwards. 

f The strong coincidence of this portrait, with that given by- 
Lord Clarendon, though written by one of the opposite party, is a 
dear presumption of the reliance that is to be put upon both. 



S80 

therefore for settling the militia, Mr. Hutchinson 
was chosen Lieut. Col. of Col. Pierrepoint's Regi- 
ment of Foot. He now resolved, if possible, to 
preserve the town of Nottingham to the Parliament; 
an important service, it being a considerable pass 
into the north, which, if the enemy had first 
possessed themselves of, the Parliament had been 
cut off from all intercourse between the north and 
south, especially in the winter time, when the river 
Trent is not fbrdable, and only to be passed over 
by the bridges of Nottingham and Newark, and up 
higher at Wilden Ferry, where the enemy also had 
a garrison. He well knew the difficulty of what he 
undertook, and considered himself as the forlorn 
hope of those, who were engaged in it ; but his in- 
vincible courage and passionate zeal for a cause, 
which he believed to be just, impelled him to per- 
severe. 

On the 29th of June, 1643, the castle of Notting- 
ham was committed to Colonel Hutchinson's care. 
This fortress was ill fortified and ill provided, all 
which he set himself as soon as possible to repair. 
Soon afterwards his father died, and did him much 
injustice by his will, but this he bore with his 
accustomed fortitude of mind, and did not suffer it 
to abate his energy in the cause which he had em- 
braced. Attempts were made to shake his fidelity 
through the medium of his cousin Sir Richard 
Byron ; he replied, ^' that except he found his own 
heart prone to such treachery, he might consider, 
there was, if nothing else, so much of a Byron's 
blood in him, that he should very much scorn to 
betray or quit a trust he had undertaken; but the 



881 

g^unds he went on were such, that he very much 
despised such a thous^ht, as to sei! his faith for base 
rewards or fears, and therefore could not consider 
the loss of bis estate, which his wife was as willing 
to part with, as himself, in this cause, wherein he 
was resolved to persist in the same place, in which 
it had pleased God to call him to the defence 
of it." *i 

From hence Colonel H. continued the defence of 
his castle with much ability and courage, not only 
against the enemy but against many internal in- 
trigues, till 1647, when the war being ended he 
thought the command no longer worthy himself or 
his brother, and gave it over to his kinsman Cap- 
tain Poulton. He then removed his family back to 
his own house at Owthorpe, but found, as it had 
stood uninhabited and b6en robbed of every thing 
which the neighbouring garrisons of Shelford and 
Wiverton could carry from it, it was so ruinated 
that it could not be repaired to make a convenient 
habitation, without as much charge as would almost 
build another. But he made a bad shift with it for 
that year. 

Not long afterwards followed the trial of the un- 
happy monarch. " After the purgation of the 
House," says his biographer, " upon new debate 
of the Treaty of the Isle of Wight, it was concluded 
dangerous to the realm, and destructive to the better 
interest, and the trial of the King was determined. 
He was sent for to Westminster, and a commission 
given, forth to a court of high justice, whereof 
Bradshaw, Serjeant at Law, was President; and 
divers honourable persons of the Parliament^ city^ 



382 

and army, nominated commissioners. Among them 
Colonel Hutchinson was one, who very much 
against his own will, was put in ; but looking upon 
himself as called hereunto, durst not refuse it, as 
holding himself obliged by the covenant of God, 
and the public trust of his country reposed in him, 
although he was not ignorant of the danger he run, 
as the condition of things then was.'* 

As he voted for the death of the King, Mrs. H. 
justifies it in the following words : " As for Mr. 
Hutchinson, although he was very much confirmed 
in his judgment concerning the cause, yet here 
being called to an extraordinary action, whereof 
many were of several minds, .he addressed himself 
to God, by prayer, desiring the Lord that if through 
any human frailty he were led into any error or 
false opinion, in these great transactions, he would 
open his eyes and not suffer him to proceed, but 
that he would confirm his spirit in the truth, and 
lead him by right enlightened conscience ; and find- 
ing no check, but a confirmation in his conscience, 
that it was his duty to act as he did, he upon serious 
debate, both privately and in addresses to God, 
and in conferences with conscientious upright un- 
biassed persons, proceeded to sign the sentence 
against the King. Although he did not then be- 
lieve, but it might one day come to be again dis- 
puted among men ; yet both he and others thought, 
they could not refuse it without giving up the peo- 
ple of God, whom they had led forth, and engaged 
themselves unto by the oath of God, into the hands 
of God's and their enemies ; and therefore he cast 
himself upon God's protection, acting according tQ 



383 

the dictates of a conscience, which he had sought 
the Lord to guide, and, accordingly the Lord did 
signalize his favours to him/* 

He soon saw through Cromwell's designs of pri- 
vate ambition, and was treated by him accordingly. 
He still however attended his duty in Parliament. 
*^ The only recreation he had during his residence 
at London was in seeking out all the rare artists he 
could hear of, and in considering their works in 
paintings, sculptures, gravings, and all other such 
curiosities, insomuch that he became a great virtuoso 
and patron of ingenuity. Being loath that the land 
should be disfurnished of all the rarities that were 
in it, whereof many were set to sale in the King's 
and divers noblemen's collections, he laid out 
about two thousand pounds in the choicest pieces 
of painting, most of which were bought out of the 
King's goods, which were given to his servants to 
pay their wages : to them the Colonel gave ready 
money, and bought so good pennyworths, that they 
were valued much more worth than they cost. 
These he brought down into the country, intending 
a very neat cabinet for them ; and these, with the 
surveying of his buildings, and improving by en- 
closure the place he lived in, employed him at home, 
and, for a little time, hawks abroad; but when a 
very sober fellow, that never was guilty of the 
usual vices of that generation of men, rage and 
swearing, died, he gave over his hawks, and pleas- 
ed himself with music, and again fell to the prac- 
tice of his viol, on which he played excellently well; 
and entertaiiuiig tutors for the diversion and educa- 
tion of his children in all sorts of music, he pleased 



384 

himself in these innocent recreations during diverts 
mutable reign. As he had great delight, so he bad 
great judgment, in music, and advanced his chil- 
dren's practice more than their tutors : he also was 
a great supervisor of their learning, and indeed 
himself a tutor to them all, besides all those tutors 
which he liberally entertained in his house for them. 
He spared not any cost for the education of both 
his sons and daughters in languages, sciences, music, 
dancing, and all other qualities befitting their 
father's house. He was himself their instructor in 
humility, sobriety, and all godliness and virtue, 
which he rather strove to make them exercise with 
love and delight, than by constraint. As other 
things were his delight, this only he made his busi-> 
ness, to attend the education of his children, and 
the government of his own house and town. This 
he performed so well that never was any man more 
feared and loved than he, by all his domestics, 
tenants, and hired workmen. He was loved with 
such a fear and reverence, as restrained all rude 
familiarity and insolent presumptions in those 
who were under him, and he was feared with so 
much love, that they all delighted to do his plea- 
sure." 

" As for the public business of the country, he 
could not act in any oflSce under the Protector's 
power, and therefore confined himself to his own, 
which the whole country about him were grieved at, 
and would rather come to him for council as a pri- 
vate neighbour, than to any of the men in power for 
greater help." 

"In the interim Cromwell and his army grew 



385 

wanton with their power, and invented a thousand 
tricks of Government, which, when nobody op- 
posed, they themselves fell to dislike and vary every 
day." 

Mrs. Hutchinson observes of Richard Cromwell, 
that " he was so flexible to good councils, that there 
was nothing desirable in a Prince, which might not 
have been hoped in him, but a great spirit and a just 
title, the first of which sometimes doth more hurt 
than good in a Sovereign, the latter would have been 
supplied by the people's deserved approbation." 

During the events that immediately preceded the 
Restoration, " the Colonel was by many of his friends 
attempted every way to fall in with the King's in- 
terest, and often offered both pardon and prefer- 
ment, if he could be wrought off from his party, 
whose danger was now laid before him ; but they 
could no way move him." 

He was chosen in the new parliament to repre- 
sent the town of Nottingham, and on the twenty- 
fifth of April, 1660, went up to attend his duty 
there. On the 29th of May Charles the Second 
again entered London. They, who had acted a 
principal part in the late times, and who now sat in 
the house, were expected to make some recantation 
of their conduct. When it came to Colonel H.'s 
turn, he said, " that for his acting in those days, 
if he had erred, it was the inexperience of his age, 
and the defect of his judgment, and not the malice 
of his heart, which had ever prompted him to pur- 
sue the general advantage of his country more than 
his own, and if the sacrifice of him could induce to 
the public peace and settlement, he should freely 

YOL. IV. c c . 



386 

fabmit his life and fortunes to their dispose ; that 
the vain expense of his age, and the great debts his 
public employments had ran him into, as they were 
testimonies that neither avarice nor any other in- 
terest had carried him on, so they yielded him just 
cause to repent, that he ever forsook his own 
blessed quiet to embark in such a troubled sea, 
where he made shipwreck of all things, but a good 
conscience, and, as to that particular action of the 
King, he desired them to believe, that he had that 
sense of it, that befitted an Englishman, a Christian, 
and a gentleman." 

The result of the house that day was to suspend 
Colonel Hutchinson and the rest from sitting in the 
house. But he was not one of the seven, who were 
excepted from mercy. 

Yet afterwards although he was " cleared both 
for life and estate in the House of Commons, not 
answering the court expectations in public recan- 
tations, and dissembled repentance, and applause 
of their Cruelty to his fellows, the Chancellor was 
cruelly exasperated against him, and there were 
very high endeavours to have razed him out of the 
act of oblivion ; but Sir Allen Apsley's interest, and 
most fervent endeavours for liim turned the scales ia 
his favour." 

He now retired into the country, but, while he 
saw his old compatriots suffering, he was ill satisfied 
with himself for accepting mercy. 

He continued retired, all that winter, and the next 
summer; but it seems that his enemies continued to 
cherish their malice against him, and only watched 
for an opportunity to shew it. In autumn 1663 lie 



had Relieved with money one Palmerj a non-coti« 
forming minister, then in Nottingham jail, and oil 
the 11th of October that year, a body of soldiers 
came to his house at Owthorpe, and conducted him 
a prisoner to Newark ; and here he continued, no 
taaan coming to him, or letting him know why h6 
was brought there. On the 19th of October h6 
was carried by a party of horse to the Marquis of 
Newcastle's, who treated him very honourably, and 
dismissed him without a guard to his own house. 
On the 22d of October another party of horse came^ 
Bnd carried him back to Newark, from whence he 
tvas soon removed to London, where he was confined 
in the Tower, being committed by a warrant of Se^ 
cretary Bennet for treasonable practices. On No* 
vember the sixth he was carried to Whitehall and 
examined by Bennet himself; whose questions tti 
him were answered in such a way, as to leave no 
impression of guilt. Soon after he was examined 
a second time with the hope of entrapping him, but 
with no effect. It seems the suspicion was founded 
on the idea of a northern plot : when Sir AUert 
Apsley appealed to the Chancellor, his answer was 
^* your brother is the most unchanged person of his 
party." 

An order at length came to remove him to San- 
down castle, on the sea side, close to Deal in Kent. 
*' When he came to the castle, he found it a la- 
mentable old ruined place, almost a mile distant 
from the town, the rooms all out of repair, not 
weather free, no kind of accommodation either for 
lodging or diet, or any conveniency of life." 

There being no room for his wife or family, Mr^. 
cc:2 



S88 

H. and her daughter were obliged to take lodgings 
at Deal. Yet the colonel did not lose his chear- 
fulness. He entertained himself with sorting and 
shadowing cockle shells ; but his business and con- 
tinual study was the scripture. As it drew towards 
the close of the year, Mrs. H. was obliged to go to 
Owthorpe to fetch her children and other supplies 
to her husband. His daughter and brother staid at 
Deal, and coining to him every day, walked out 
with him to the sea-side, a liberty with which he 
was now indulged. When his wife went away, he 
was well and chearful, and confident of seeing 
Owthorpe again. On the third of September, after 
walking by the sea-side, he came home aguish, and 
went to bed. The disorder, with some variations, 
increased, and on the fourth day he rose to sleep 
no more until his last sleep came upon him, con- 
tinuing the whole time in a feverish distemper. The 
day on which he died was the IJth of September, 
1664:. His body was conveyed to Owthorpe for 
burial. He died in the forty-ninth year of his age. 

Art. CCGXXXVH. Histori/ of the ancient Earls 
of Warren and Surri/^ and their descendants to 
the present time. Bt/ the Ren. John Watson^ 
M.A.F.A.S. and Rector of Stockport in Che- 
shire, 
His name shall live from generation to generation, 

Ecclus. xxxix. 9. 
Warrington^ printed hy William Eyres^ 1776, 4/o. 
pp. 4^37. 

This was the original edition of Dr. Watson's 
History mentioned in the next article^ of which only 



389 

SIX copies were printed, probably for the purpose of 
circulating them for corrections and additions. One 
copy, formerly Mr. Astle's, is in the library of the 
Royal Institution, with the MS. notes of \\ie 
compiler. 



Art. CCCXXXVIII. Memoirs of the ancient Earls 
of Warren and Surret/, and their descertdnrtts to 
Ike present time. Bt/ the Rev, John Watsony 
M. A. F. A, S. Late Fellow of Brazen Nose Col- 
lege in Oxford^ and Rector of Stockport in Che 
shire. 



-Genus itnmortale maoet, multosque per annos 



Statfortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum. 

Virgr. Georg. Lib. iv. 

In two Volumes^ 4fo. Warrington^ Printed by 
William Et/res^ 1782. 

Prefixed to this work is a portrait of the Com- 
piler, Dr. Watson, engraved by Basire, 1780, This 
author also wrote the History and Antiquities of 
Halifax. Gilbert Wakefield, who married his niece, 
says,* " he was a very lively, conversible, well- 
informed man ; and one of the hardest students I 
ever knew. His great excellence was a knowledge 
of antiquities, and several papers on the^^e subjects 
are preserved in the Archaiologia of the Antiquarian 
Society, of which he was a member. He was by no 
means destitute of poetical fancy ; had written some 
good songs, and was possessed of a most copious 
collection of boa-mots, facetious stories, and hu- 
morous compositions of every kind, both in verse 

• Memoirs of himself, p 153. 



590 

and prose, written out with uncommon accuracy and 
neatness." 

The object of the present work was to prove the 
late Sir George Warren, K. B. of Pointon, in Che* 
shire, entitled to the ancient Earldom of Surry, 

It is agreed on all sides that the Warrens of 
Poynton are in some way descended from the an» 
cient Earls of that name ; but genealogists have 
differed in the mode. Dugdale, following Vincent, 
has asserted that they are derived from a bastard 
of the last Earl, by Maud de Nereford his concubine. 
On the contrary, Flower and Glover in 1580, having 
industriously examined the evidences of John War- 
ren, then of Pointon, Esq. have deduced them in 
the legitimate line from a more remote ancestor, 
Reginald, younger brother of William, third Earl 
of Warren and Surry. A critical attention to all 
that Dr. Watson, with the aid of these authorities, 
has been able to urge in favour of the latter mode, 
induces me to confess that he leaves the matter in 
very great doubt. 

. The writer of this article is willing to pay due 
respect to the authority of Robert Glover ; but his 
experience has induced him never to rely on the 
unsupported dicta even of this learned genealogist, 
in points of descent removed so for from his own 
time. He considers the signature of an eminent 
Herald, in the exercise of his official capacity, to 
be strong (not conclusive) evidence of those parts 
of a pedigree, which have occurred in his own time, 
and perhaps for two or three generations above; 
though many of the records of the Heralds' College 
compiled during the ejqstence of Visitations, may 



391 

be proved by abundant and irrefragible evidence 
to be not onl^' unaccountably omis^ive, but not un« 
frequently positively erroneous. But in the earlier 
parts of these pedigrees, they are often so bare, so 
palpably false, and full of such ridiculous blund*»r8, 
as almost to exceed the belief of any man not very 
conversant with them. Olover seems to have been 
the first who set the example of examining the re* 
cord offices at the Tower, at Westminster and the 
KoUs ; but all his MSS. prove that these researches 
were yet in their infancy ; and that he was over- 
whelmed with the multiplicity of materials, that were 
thus opened to his enquiries. He could not upon 
every occasion abandon the use and the authority of 
those meagre pedigrees, by which his predecessors 
had been guided. They who are in the habit of 
bowing to a name, without examining the basis on 
which it stands, will stare at this assertion ; but the 
ivriter has not made it without repeated proofs of 
its truth. 

To proceed then to the case before us. The char- 
ters in the register of Lewes Priory, demonstrate 
that the 3d Earl Warren had a brother Reginald, 
and that the last had a son William de Warren ; and 
hence it seems that for two generations we stand 
upon the mere dicta of these heralds, which, as they 
profeiss to have made out this genealogy upon public 
and private evidences, yet cite neither records nor 
deeds, I consider to be so slight, as to be nothing 
more than a guess. The son of William de Warren 
is said here to have been Sir John de Warren, Kt. 
who married Alice, daughter of Roger de Townsend 
of Norfolk, (a marriage not found in the Townshend 



392 

pedigree) and to have had John de Warren, who by 
Joan daughter of Sir Hugh de Port* of Etwall, Kt. 
had Sir Edward de Warren, Kt. 
V This is the point at which the principal dispute 
arises. Flower and Glover say that Sir Edward 
de Warren, Knt. married " Matild. de Nerford, dn a 
de Skegton, and Boton, 20 Ed. II." daughter of 
Richard de Skegton, and sister and coheir (with 
Alice Hautejn) of Sir Ralph de Skegton, Kt. Now 
here at least occurs an unlucky confusion of names; 
for Dugdale cites unquestionable records to prove, 
that John the last Earl of Warren was divorced from 
Joan his wife, upon pretence of a former contract 
made by him with Maud de Nereford, a person of 
a great family in Norfolk ; and that he had two sons 
by the said Maud de Nereford, John and Thomas, 
who were surnamed Warren." This John, he adds^ 
bore for his arms, cheeky or, and azure, a canton 
gules with a lion rampant ermine thereon, the 
proper coat of Nereford; but it must be recol- 
lected that this last merely stands on the dictum of 
Vincent. 

" This tends to shew," says Dr. Watson, " that 
there were two Maud de Nerefords," — and in truth 
some of the arguments, which he uses, go some 
way in establishing this opinion ; for it is clear that 
the Earl of Surry made an entail of Coningsburgh, 
Sandal, and many large estates on the issue male 
of his sons by Maud de Nereford ; and if the fact 
be, as Dr. W. asserts, that those estates reverted to 
the Crown, on the Earl's death, (which by the 
bye was only the next year) then the inference can 

"^ Q«. whether the Ports were settled so 6arly at Etwall ? 



393 

scarcely be disputed, that these bastards roust then 
have been dead without sons, and therefore could 
not be ancestors of the Warrens of Poynton. On 
the other hand. Dr. W. gives extracts from records 
to prove that the 2d Sir Edward Warren held lands, 
20 Edward III. (the very year before Earl Warren 
died), in Skegton and Boton, which were formerly 
the lands of John de Skegton ; and moreover that 
he inherited these lands from his father, which cer- 
tainly seem strong evidence that Maud de Nereford, 
who was heiress of Skegton, left not only issue, but 
legitimate issue ; and the words " descendebat post 
mortem domini Edwardi patris nostri" might have 
arisen from the father^s surviving his wife, and 
having held the estates as life-tenant. 
J' Vincent seems to place strong reliance on the 
distinction used in the arms of the Warrens of 
Poynton, a canton^ with the coat of Nereford. But 
Dr. W. argues that it was not the coat of Nereford, 
but of Moubray, which differs from the former only 
in having the lion silver^ instead of ermine. 

Sir Edward Warren the younger, of Boton in 
Norfolk aforesaid, married Cicely daughter and 
heiress of Sir Nicholas de Eton, Kt. by Joan his 
wife the heiress of the Barony of Stockport in Che- 
shire, to which estate his son Sir John de Warren 
succeeded 44 Ed. III. and from him the descent 
of the late Sir George Warren, who died possessed 
of that inheritance, is beyond all question. 

It is far from my intention to encumber this work 
with genealpgical discussions : they are not the taste 
of the day ; nor do I wonder at it ; they recal re- 
flections too painful ; they remind us too acutely of 



394 

the strange inversions which society has so rapidly 
undergone within these very few years; of the 
^qvick decay of families; of the uncertainty of 
wealth; and the little advantage of birth and 
station ; of the prosperity of contractors and adven- 
turers; and of the daring insolence of the half- 
bred and mongrel great, who are still more anxious 
to suppiess and extinguish the genuine stocks of 
ancient nobility and gentry, than to insult and de- 
gpise the newest upstarts from India or the Stock 
JSxchange. It is not nrcehsary to point out more 
particularly the kind of people to whom 1 allude; 
but I may add, that 1 mean those whose names 
were never heard of in history, or in important 
offices for more than two or three generations ; who 
having been suddenly drawn, by an accidental 
alliance or unexpected fortune, from some obscure 
manor-house, beyond the circuit of which their 
celebrity had never before travelled, have by a per- 
severance in intrigue and servility and interested 
connections, accumulated a fearful preponderance 
in estates and places and titles ; or those, who hav- 
ing obtained through the medium of some of our 
dependencies, local rank and consequence, have 
fastened themselves to some good name of the 
mother- country, and obtruding with officious want 
pf feeling among its aristocracy, have been inebri- 
ated by the fumes of the undeserved prosperity, 
which they have acquired by their assumption and 
manceuvres. 

I stated in a former part of this article, that what- 
ever was the real line in which Sir George Warren de- 
scended from the jEarls of Surry, the mode of his de- 



395 

scent from the time of Edward III, when bis ancestor 
Sir Edward De Warren married the heiress of the 
barony of Stockport, could admit of no question* 
His son Sir John married Margaret daughter of Sir 
John Stafford of Wickham, and died 10 Kic. II. 
leaving Nicolas, who dying about 1413, left by 
Agnes daughter of Sir Richard de Winnington, Sir 
Laurence de Warren, who married Margery daugh- 
ter of Hugh Bulkeley, and died 1444, leaving John 
de Warren, who married Isabel daughter of Sir 
John Stanley of Lathora, K, G. and dying 23 Hen. 
VII. had Sir Laurence, who died V. P. and left 
two sons, of whom William the younger was an- 
cestor of the present Admiral Sir John Borlace 
Warren, Bart, and K. B. and Sir John the elder 
married Eleanor daughter of Sir Thomas Gerard of 
Bryn, and dying 1518, left Laurence de Warren, 
who married Margaret daughter of Sir Piers Legh 
of Lyme, and had Sir Edward Warren, who rebuilt 
the mansion in Poynton Park, and married Dorothy 
daughter of Sir William Booth of Dunham-Massey : 
he died 12 Oct, 1558, and was father of John 
Warren, whose wife was Margaret daughter of Sir 
Richard Molineux of Sefton, and whose death 
happened 7 Dec. 30 Eliz. A portrait of him, set, 40, 
1580, is inserted in this History. His son and heir 
Sir Edward Warren, married Ann daughter of Sir 
William Davenport of Bramall, and died 13 Nov. 
J(609. This Knight's portrait is. also here inserted 
T^both engraved by Basire, His son, John Warren, 
died 20 June 1621, leaving by Anne, daughter of 
George OgnellofBilsley in Warwickshire, Edward 
his son and heir, commonly called Stag Warren, on 



396 

account df his great size and strength, who died 
1687, leaving by Margaret daughter of Henry 
Arderne of Harden near Stockport, John Warren, 
born 1630, who was one of the Judges of Chester, 
Flint, Denbigh, and Montgomery, 1681, and dying 
20 March 1705 — 6, left by Anne daughter and 
heiress of Hugh Cooper of Chorley, Edward 
Warren, born 1669, who married Dorothy daughter 
and heir of John Talbot of Dinkley, by whom he 
had Edward Warren, Esq. who married 1731 Lady 
Elizabeth, daughter of George Earl of Cholmon- 
deley, and dying 7 Sept. 1737, was father of the 
late Sir George Warren, who was made K. B. 26 
May 1761, and died within these few years, leaving 
by his first wife Jane daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Revel, Esq. of Mitcham in Surry, an only daughter 
and heir, married to the present Viscount Bulkeley, 
who has no issue. 

Thus ends the principal branch of the truly ancient 
family of Warren of Poynton, while the collateral 
branch dignified by the heroic actions of Sir John 
Borlace Warren seems to promise little more sta- 
bility; his only son having fallen gloriously at the 
landing in Egypt, in 1801. 

How vain therefore were Sir George Warren's 
anxieties for the revival of the ancient honours of his 
family, which would have been already extinguished! 
Vain, even if successful, would have been the in- 
genuity and earnestness with which Dr. Watson 
pleaded the cause of his friend and patron, when, 
towards the close of his work, he wrote the follow- 
ing passages, among others. 
ri " Why, at the decease of the last earl John, with- 



V 



397 

out lawful issue, did none of the family lay claim to 
this title, if it really belonged to them ? To this I 
answer, that they might have a reason for not doing it 
then, which reason may have no existence now. 
Their finances, as the estates were left from them, 
might not be thought adequate to the necessary ex- 
pences of so elevated a station ; and therefore they 
might either not attempt it, or might meet with dis- 
couragement from the crown on that very account. 
The kings of England, while the subjects held their 
estates by military tenure, found it was not their 
interest to permit men of small property to succeed 
to such great titles, when no lands belonged to them. 
In reality they did not partake of the nature, nor 
answer the end of an English barony, which was id 
supply the king with assistance against the enemies 
of the realm; for the earldom of Warren not having 
an inch of land annexed to it, and consequently not 
being obliged in any case to bring a single soldier 
into the field, could only be made use of for mere 
aggrandizement; which, whatever it may be now, 
was then a very impolitic reason on the part of the 
state to admit, where it could be avoided ; neither 
was this very difficult to manage, when the crown 
had so much power. Whatever notions we may 
at this day entertain of British liberty, it was not 
an easy thing in the reign of King Edward III. for 
a private man, let his pretensions have been ever 
so just, to have prosecuted an affair of this sort 
against his sovereign's inclination ; they were 
most favoured who could muster the strongest 
phalanx. 
« But let all this be as it would, their want of 



398 

claiming this title, does not exclude their right ia 
it ; nor would their being denied it on proper ap* 
plication^ take away their just pretensions to it ; for 
with regard to the first, there are plenty of in- 
stances where titles have lain dormant for gene- 
rations^ or remained in abeyance, as hereditates 
jacentes, in expectation that the next in blood 
would sometime sue for the same, and have at last 
been recovered ; and with respect to the second, it 
is well known that one prince has granted what 
another has refused. No perpetual bar therefore 
either ought or can be put to applications of this 
sort. Titles should not be extinguished without 
very substantial reasons, but no substantial reason 
can be given, why that of the earl of Warren should 
undergo this fate, so long as there has neither beea 
forfeiture nor want of blood. 

^' And though an infringement was made upon 
the family right by conferring the title in question 
on such who had no pretensions to it in the reigns 
of Hen. VI. and Edw. IV., yet those kings were 
excusable in what they did, because as the family 
of Warren had neglected to claim it, they could 
not be supposed to know any thing about it. Those 
acts however cannot prejudice the present claimant, 
for whether the grants were made in tail male oV 
tail general, the remainders are spent. When a 
man's property is put into a wrong hand, he losed 
but the possession of it, not his right to it ; * and 

» ** This is evident from the case of Lord Willoughby of Par- 
bam; for Sir William Willoughby, Kt. being by letters patent, 
dated 16 Feb. 1 Edw. VI. created Lord Willoughby of Parham, 
to hold to bim and the heirs malt of his body, be was succeeded 



319 

tbou^h in the cage of titles, it would be impolitic 
to divest a person thereof when once allowed to 

in that title by Charles his son, who had five sons ; viz. William, 
Sir Ambrose, Sir Thomas, Edward, and Charles ; the three first 
of whom only left issue male, which failed in the line of Wil- 
liam in 1679, on the decease of Charles Lofd Willoughby, who 
ought to have been succeeded in that honour by Henry, grand- 
son of the above Sir Ambrose, but he settled in Virginia, and 
died there in 1685, ignorant of the failure of issue male in the 
elder branch of the family; and not appearing to assert his 
claim, Thomas, son of Sir Themas Willoughby above-named, was 
summoned to Parliament by the title aforesaid, on a presumption 
that Sir Ambrose and his two brothers Edward and Charles were 
all dead without issue male j and the descendants of the said 
Thomas enjoyed the honour till the death of Hugh Lord Wil- 
loughby of Parham, who died unmarried in Jan. 1765, at whose 
decease. Col. Henry Willoughby claimed this title, as the di)re«t 
descendant of the above Sir Ambrose, and obtained it." — ^Watson. 

I take this opportunity of adding to this note the following from 
Cole's MSS. in Brit Mus. Vol. XVIII. p. 155. «< Hugh Lord Wil- 
loughby of Parham died at his house in Craven Street in the Strand 
in Jan. 1765. He was a very ingenious man, but so bigoted a 
Presbyterian, that I heard Mr. Coventry of Magdalen College iu 
Cambridge, the author of Philemon to Hydaspes, who was well 
acquainted with him, say, that his conscience was so nice, that 
he could not bring himself to receive the sacrament in the church 
of England on his knees without scruples, and thought it idolatry. 
He had a very small estate, and when it came to him with the 
title, he was in a very humble capacity in the army. I think he 
left several valuable curiosities to the Antiquarian Society, and died 
at the age of fifty-five years." 

On the death of Col. Henry Willoughby, his successor, the title 
went to his nephew George, on whose death iu 1779 it became ex- 
tinct, so that this unfortunate branch had scarce attained their 
Tight before they expired. — In the General Evening Post, 18 Nov. 
1779, there was inserted the following character of the last peet: 
*** The late lord Willoughby of Parham was bom about the year 
1748-9, was educated at Warrington academy in Lancashire, and 
removed from thence to Queen's Colleji^e, Cambridge, where he 



400 

him, jet when the limitations are over, as in the 
instances before us, the claim is again laid open as 
full and free as it was before. There are even these 
advantages attending what has been done, that when 
the Crown conferred the title of the earl of Warren, 
it was looked upon as something fit to be continued, 
and being bj creation, it evidently proved, that nei- 

t»as admitted pensioner about 1770. He resided there about two 
y^ars; from about May 1770 to about July 1772. Here he was 
distinguished for his amiable disposition, for his integrity, steadi- 
ness in his friendships, and that beautiful philanthropy, for which 
his friends and acquaintance so much esteemed him. Upon the 
death of that venerable old man, the late lord Willoughby of 
Parham, about 1775 or 1776, he succeeded to the title, and 
though attached from principle to the measures of administration, 
yet he always gave his vote in the House of Peers according to his 
coqscience." 

If the obtainment of their birthright was to be fortunate, this 
branch of the Willoughbys were more fortunate than the collateral 
branch of another noble family has since been, who, with better 
proofs and better pretensions, have had the contest with them pro- 
longed beyond that of the siege of Troy, by means which it may 
be imprudent here to characterize, considering the strictness of the 
press in these days, and have at length incurred a decision against 
them, which yet can never alter their right. But mark how fickle 
are all human enjoyments ! They no sooner acquired the end of all 
their long wishes, than they died, and have scarce left a trace of 
them behind. It is remarkable that of these two families, so very 
singularly circumstanced, the last possessor of the honours of the 
one, and the claimant to those of the other, were intimate friends 
and companions. But why should I call the latter less fortunate ? 
His family are not likely to be extinguished ; and it may operate 
as a spur upon their industry j it may excite them to exalt their 
hearts, to cultivate their talents, to win by their own deserts the 
due rewards from a more grateful posterity, and elevate themselves 
above the world and those who would depress them, by the force of 
paramount abilities! 



401 

ther Mowbray nor the Duke of York had any ri»ht 
to it within themselves." 

The descent of the present Admiral, Sir John 
Borlace Warren, K. B. is thus deduced by Dr. 
Watson. William, 2d son of Sir Laurence de 
Warren of Pointon, Kt. in the time of Edw. IV. (by 
Isabel Legh) settled at Caunton in Nottingham- 
shire, and had two sons, of whom John the eldest, 
died in 1525, and William the second was seated 
at Corlingstock in Nottinghamshire, and about 
1526 purchased the manor of Thorpe-Arnold in 
Leicestershire. He left a son William, of Thorpe- 
Arnold, who died in 1592, and was father of Sir 
Arnold Warren, Kt. an eminent loyalist, who, by 
Dorothy daughter of Sir Arthur Wilmot of Osmas- 
ton in Derbyshire, had Arthur Warren born at 
Thorp- Arnold, 1617, who died in 1678, leaving, 
by Catharine daughter of Sir Rowland Rugely, 
Arthur Warren, Sheriff of Notts, 1662, who sold 
Thorp-Arnold, and bought Stapleford, &c. in 
Notts. He married in 1676 Anne daughter and 
coheir of Sir John Borlace of Marlow, Bucks, Bart, 
and died in 1697. His son Borlace Warren was 
M. P. for Nottingham, 1734, 1741, and dying 1747, 
left, by Anne daughter of Sir John Harpur of 
Calke, John Borlace Warren, born 1699, who died 
1763, leaving by Bridget daughter of Gervase 
Rossil, Sir John Borlace Warren, created a Baronet 
1775, and formerly M. P. for Marlow, and at present 
for Nottingham, who married Caroline, youngest 
daughter of Sir John Clavering, K. B. 

But these two volumes do not merely contain the 
genealogy of the Warrens of Poynton and Staple- 

VOL. IV. D D 



402 

^rd ; the whole of the first volume and a part of 
the second is taken up witli memoirs of the ancient 
carls, in which much more historical matter is 
involved. There are also a variety of prints of 
their ancient castles and seals, as well as of Poy nton 
Hall and Widdrington castle, the residences of Sir 
George Warren. 

Dr, Watson, the compiler, died 14 March, 1783. 



403 



VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. 



Art. CCCXXXIX. The principal Navigations^ 
Voi/ages^ Traffiques^ and Discoveries of the Eng- 
lish Nation, made hy sea or over land, to the remote 
and farthest distant Quarters of the Earth, within 
the compass of these 1500 years. Divided into 
three several volumes, according to the positions of 
the regions whereunto they were directed, 7'he 
first volume containeth the worthy discoveries, Sfc, 
of the English towards the North and North- East 
by Sea, S^c, With many testimonies of the ancient 
foreign Trades, the warlike and other shipping of 
this realm, with a Commentary of the true State of 
Iceland, the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, and 
the Victory at Cadiz, By Richard Hakluyt, M, A, 
Sometime Student of Christ-Church, in Oxford* 
Fol, 1598. ♦ 

* This first volume -was published in 1589. Printed as above. 
SeeHerberty 11. 194. 

Hakluyt had previously published " Divers Voyages touching the 
discoverie of America^ and the Hands adjacent unto the same, made first 
of all by our Engliihmen, and afterward by the Frenchmen and Britons : 
and certain notes of adverthemeitts for observations, necessarie fur such 
as shall hereafter make ike like attempt: with two mappes annexed for 
D D 2 



404 

The second Volume comprehending the principal 
Navigations^ S^c. of the English Nation to the 
South and South East parts of the World, as well 
within as without the streight of Gibraltar ; within 
the compass of 1600 years. Divided into two several 
parts. By R, Hakluyt, 8^c, FoL 1599. 

Both volumes are bound tog^ether; the former 
consisting of 620 pages ; the latter of 312, the first 
part, and 204 the last ; besides dedication, preface, 
and contents. Both are printed hy Geo, Bishop^ 
Ralph NewheriCj and Rob. Barker, 

The third and last Volume of the Voyages, ^c. of the 
English Nation^ Sfc, within and before these 100 
years^ to all parts of the Newfound World of 
America^ or the West Indies from 73 Degrees of 

f Northerly to 57 of Southerly Latitude, Sfc. CeU 
lected hy Richard Hakluyt, S^c, Imprinted (as 
before). FoL 1600. pp. 868. 

Art. CCCXL. Pilgrimage : or Relations of the 
World and the Religions observed in all ages, and 
places discovered, from the Creation to this present, 
Sfc. in ^ parts. London. 1613. Fol. Again, 1614. 
FoL and 1626. FoL , 

the plainer understanding of the whole matter. Imprinted for Thotnas 
tfoodcock by T. Dav.s(m, 1582. Ato." See Herbert II. 1 108. 

Also, ** A notable Historie, containing four Voyages, made by certayne 
Trench Captaynes unto Florida : wherein the great riches and fruitful' 
ness of the countrey with the maners of the people hitherto concealed 
are brought to light, written all, saving the last, by Mons. Laudonnier, 
who remained there himselfe, as the French King's lieutenant, a yere 
find a quarter. Newly translated out of French by R. H. Imprinted by 
Thfi^Dfumon, 1587, 4/o." lb. 1126. 



405 

Hakluytyi Posthumus ; or Purchas, his Pilgrimes^ 
in 1 volumes^ each containing 5 books. London, 
1625. FoL 

These five volumes contain the valuable and 
very scarce collection of Purchas, which forms the 
continuation of Hackluyt. 

I shall not enumerate the contents of these verjr 
curious volumes, because as to Hakluyt's, that 
has been done by Oldys in his " British Librarian,'* 
and as to both, it has been fully executed by Mr. 
Locke in his " Explanatory Catalogue of Voyages," 
reprinted in " Clarke's Progress of Maritime Dis- 
covery." 

Oldys remarks of the former, " that this elaborate 
and excellent coUection, which redounds as much 
to the glory of the English nation, as any book 
that ever was published in it, having already had 
sufficient complaints made in its behalf, against 
our suffering it to become so scarce and obscure, 
by neglecting to translate it into the universal 
language, or at least to republish it in a fair im^ 
pression, with proper illustrations, and especially 
an index, wherewith the author himself supplied 
the first edition, printed in one volume folio, 
1589. " We shall not here repeat those com*" 
plaints; because we must necessarily wait for the 
return of that spirit, which animated the gallant 
adventurers recorded therein to so many heroic 
exploits, before we can expect such a true taste of 
delight will prevail to do them so much justice; 
or that envy of transcendent worthy will permit a 



406 

noble emulation of it so far to perpetuate the re- 
nown of our said ancestors, as to render, by this 
means, their memory no less durable and extensive, 
than their merits have demanded. For it may, 
perhaps, be thought impolitic, thus to display the 
most hazardous and the most generous enterprizes 
which appear in this book, for the honour and ad- 
vantage of our country, till the virtues of our 
predecessors will not reflect disadvantageous com- 
parisons upon the posterity who shall revive them. 
But there may be still room left for a more fa- 
vourable construction of such neglect, and to hope 
that nothing but the casual scarcity or obscurity 
of a work, so long since out of print, may have 
prevented its falling into those able and happy 
hands, as might, by such an edition, reward the 
eminent examples preserved therein, the collector 
thereof, and themselves, according to all their 
deserts." 

Oldys further observes, that, " as it has been 
so useful to many of our authors, not only in cos- 
mography and navigation but in history, especially 
that of the glorious reign in which so many brave 
exploits were atchieved ; as it has been such a 
leading star to the naval histories since compiled ; 
and saved from the wreck of oblivion many exem- 
plary incidents in the lives of our most renowned na- 
vigators ; it has therefore been unworthily omitted 
in the English historical library. And lastly, though, 
the first voliime of this collection does frequently 
appear, by the date in the title page, to be printed 
in 1599, the reader is not thence to conclude the 
said volume was then reprinted, but only the title 



407 

pag^e, as upon collatings the books we have obserted j 
and further, that in the said last printed title page^ 
there is no mention made of the Cadiz voyage ; to 
omit which might be one reason of reprinting that 
page : for it being one of the most prosperous and 
honourable enterprizes that ever the Earl of Esse^^ 
was engaged in, and he felling into the Queen'^ 
unpardonable displeasure at this time, our author^ 
Mr. Hakluyt, might probably receive command or 
direction, even from one of the patrons to whom 
these voyages are dedicated, who was of the coii-= 
trary faction, not only to suppress all memorial of 
that action in the front of this book, but even cancel 
the whole narrative thereof at the end of it, in all 
the copies (far the greatest part of the imprecision) 
which remained unpublished. And in that castrated 
manner the volume has descended to posterity ; not 
but if the castration was intended to have been coin 
eealed from us, the last leaf of the preface would 
have been reprinted also, with the like omission of 
what is there mentioned concerning the insertion of 
this voyage. But at last, about the middle of this 
late King's reign, an uncastrated copy did arise, and 
the said voyage was reprinted from it; whereby 
many imperfect books hfeive been made complete." 

Locke says that the Collection of Hakluyt '* k 
scarce, and valuable; for the good there is to be pick^ 
ed out : but it might be wished the author had beert 
less voluminous : delivering what was really authen- 
tic and useful, and not stuffing his work With sd 
many stories taken upon trust ; so many trading 
voyages that have nothing new in them ; so many 
warlike exploits not at all pertinent to hi& ttnclet'' 



408 

taking ; and such a multitude of articles, charters, 
privileges, letters, relations, and other things little 
to the purpose of travels and discoveries." 

He saj's of Purchas, that " he has imitated 
Haklujt too much, swelling his work into five 
volumes in folio." But he adds, that '* the whole 
collection is very valuable, as having preserved 
many considerable voyages, that might otherwise 
have perished. But like Hakluyt, he has thrown 
in all that came to hand to fill up so many volumes, 
and is excessive full of his own notions, and of 
mean quibbling, and playing upon words ; yet for 
such as can make choice of the best, the collection is 
very valuable."* 

Richard Hakluyt was descended from an ancient 
family seated at Yetton in Herefordshire, elected 
student of Christ Church from Westminster school 
in 1570, took his degree, and then removed to the 
Middle Temple, where, it is supposed, he studied 
the law. Afterwards he entered into orders, and 
became Prebendary of Westminster, J 605, and 
Rector of Wetheringsett, Suffolk. His genius' 
leading him to the study of history, especially of 
the maritime part of it, which was encouraged by 
Sir Francis Walsingham, he kept a constant intel- 
ligence with the most celebrated navigators of his 
day ; and from them, and from many small pamphlets 
and letters, that were published, and went from 
hand to hand in his time, concerning the voyages 
and travels of several persons, he compiled his col- 

* The price both of Hakluyt and Purchas is high, but of the latter 
extravagant : Mr. Clarke names fifteen guineas, I suspect it is now 
much higher. 



409 

lection. He died the 23d of November 1616, and 
was buried in St. Peter^s church, Westminster. 
Anthony Wood records the follow! ng^ publications 
by him, viz. " The Discoveries of the World from 
the first original to the i/ ear of our Lord^ 1555. Lon- 
don. 1601. ito. corrected and much amended, and 
translated into English from the Portugueze of 
Anth. Galvano, Governor of Ternate, the chief 
island of the Moluccas. 

He also translated from the same language into 
English " Virginia richly 'valued by the description 
of the main land of Florida, her next neighbour, 
London. 1609. 4to.'^ He likewise illustrated by 
diligent observation of time, and with most useful 
notes, " Peter Mert. Anglericus, his eight Decades 
de novo orbe, Paris. 1587. 8w.*" 

Samuel Purchas, by some styled our English 
Ptolemy, was born either at Dunmow, or Thaxted, 
in Essex, and educated at Cambridge, from whence 
he became minister of East-wood in Rochford hun- 
dred, in his native county. But being desirous to 
prosecute his natural turn for collecting and writ- 
ing voyages and travels, he left his cure to his 
brother, and by the favour of the Bishop of Lon- 
don, procured the rectory of Saint Martin's church, 
within Ludgate. Besides his great work, he pub- 
lished " Purchas his Pilgrim, Microcosmus, or the 
History of Man, S^c. London. 1619. 8w." Also 
" The King's Tower and Triumphant Arch of Lon- 
don. London. 1623. 8w." and " A Funeral Ser- 
mon on Psalm xxxxx. 5. 1619. 8tJo." 

♦ Wood's Ath. 1. 413. 



410 

By the publication of these books he brought him- 
self into debt, and is reported to have died in pri- 
son. But this is not the fact, as he died at his own 
house, about 1628, aged 51, a little while after the 
King had promised him a deanery. 

John Bosart in his Bibliotheca thus speaks of him : 
" Samuel Purchas Anglus linguarum et artium divi- 
narum atque humanarum egregie peritus, philoso- 
phus, historicus, et theologus raaximus, patriae 
ecclesise antistes fidelis, multus egregiis scriptis et 
imprimis orientalis occidentalique Indiae vRr'ns volu- 
minibus patria lingua conscriptis celeberrimus." 
Another Samuel Purchas, A. M . who published " A 
Theatre to Political fiying Insects^ Sfc, London, 
1657. 4<o." was his son, as appears by the last copy 
of verses before that book.* 

Art. CCCXLI. English Collections of Voyages 
continued. 

To bring into one point of view the principal 
collections subsequent to Hakluyt and Purchas, I 
here take the liberty of borrowing the materials 
offered to me in the preface of Clark's Progress of 
Maritime Discovery. 

In 1704 a collection of repute was published by 
Churchill. This, when complete, with the two 
volumes of scarce Voyages, printed from Lord Ox- 
ford's Collections, the first of which appeared in 
1732, amounts to eight volumes in folio, and bears 
a high price. A new edition appeared in 1732 and 
1752. 

* Wood's Fasti, L 200, 



in 

Harris's Collection, in two volumes folio, entitled, 
" Navigantium atque itinerantium Bibliotheca" fol- 
lowed in 1705, and was considered as a rival publi- 
cation. It has since been reprinted with considerable 
additions by the learned Doctor Campbell, ia 1744, 
1748, 1764. 

" In all these Collections," says Mr. Clarke, " the 
impartial reader will find much more to commend 
than to blame, and the collective mass of informa- 
tion is extremely valuable;" but he adds, that if 
any one deserves the palm, that person is the modest 
and anonymous compiler of the work, which is 
known by the name of Astley, its bookseller ; it is 
entitled " A New and General Collection of Voyages 
and Truvels^^ in four thick quarto volumes, the first 
number of which appeared in December 1744, and 
the last in 1747. 

The unassuming author was Mr. John Green, of 
whom nothing is known. Mr. Charles Green, the 
astronomer, who accompanied Captain Cook on his 
first voyage, had an elder brother, the Rev. Mr. John 
Green, who kept a school in Soho, but the similarity 
of name is all that can be offered. Mr. Clarke has 
been informed, that Mr. Green had projected a more 
extensive work, but that the impatience of his pub- 
lisher brought it to a conclusion at the end of the 
fourth volume. 

*^ The superior merit of this Collection was ac- 
knowledged, even by foreigners, and before the 
completion of the first volume, the Chancellor of 
France deemed it worthy of attention. He accord- 
ingly requested the Abbe Prevost, Chaplain to the 
firince of Conti, to translate it. The execution of 



412 

this occupies the seven first volumes of his Histoire 

General des Voyages^ and part of the eighth. But 

it is to be lamented, that in the performance of this 

task Prevost has taken very unwarrantable liberties ; 

has shewn throughout a desire to supplant the fame 

of the original work, which is not once named in 

the title; and by affixing his own portrait to the 

first volume, few readers to the present day are 

aware that the original exists in their own language. 

Such was the confusion the Abbe produced in his 

translation, by transposing passages he afterwards 

inserted as his own, and by the mistakes, which he 

made, that M. Piere del Hondt, an excellent judge 

of the merit of Astley's work, brought forward a 

new translation at the Hague, in which he restored 

the mutilated parts. An edition was also printed by 

Didot at Paris, in 12mo. 1749; and some of the 

volumes at Dresden : the whole amounted to fifty 

volumes." 

These circumstances, in consequence of this public 
mention of them by Mr. Clarke, have operated to re- 
store Astley's collection to its due credit, and have 
much increased the price of it. 

A valuable " Historical Collection of the several 
Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific 
Ocean^^ was given by Alexander Dalrymple, Esq. 
in 4to. 1770. To which was afterwards added, in 
1775, another volume, consisting of " A Collection 
of Voyages and Observations in the Ocean between 
South America and Africa.*^ 



4tS 



Art. CCCXLII. A Voyage to the South Sea,. and 
along the Coasts of Chili and Peru, in the year 
1712, 1713, and 1714. Particularly describing 
the genius and constitution of the inhabitants, as 
well Indians as Spaniards : their customs and man' 
ners ; their Natural History, mines, commodities, 
traffick with Europe, 8fc, by Monsieur Frezier, 
Engineer in ordinary to the French King, llius- 
trated with 37 copper cuts of the Coasts, Harbours, 
Cities, Plants, and other curiosities. Printed for 
the author'' s original plates inserted in the Paris 
Edition. With a Postscript by Dr. Edmund 
Ilalley, Savilian Professor of Geometry in the 
University of Oxford. And an account of the 
Settlement, Commerce, and Riches of the Jesuites 
in Paraguay. London. Printed for Jonah BoW' 
yer, at the Rose in Ludgate Street. MDCCXVII. 
^to.pp. 335, besides Preface and Index. 

This is a book, of which, at the present moment, 
it may be seasonable to revive the notice. 

Louis XIV. having been at a vast expense to sup- 
port his grandson upon the throne of Spain, thought 
this a proper opportunity of getting a full informa- 
tion of the least known parts of the Spanish West- 
Indies, before the French, as well as all other 
nations, should be excluded those seas by a peace. 
For this end, he pitched upon our author, an expe- 
rienced Engineer and mathematician in his service, 
whom he knew to be every way qualified to make 
Hydrographical Observations for the use of Mariners, 
and for the correction of the Charts; and also to 
take exact plans of the most considerable Ports 



414 

and Fortresses along the Coasts whither he wa§^ 
going"; to direct to their best anchorages, and to 
point out their respective dangers. He sent him at 
his own charge on board a merchant-ship, in 1712, 
to pass as a trader only, the better to insinuate him- 
self with the Spanish Governors, and to have all 
opportunities of learning their strength, and what* 
ever else he went to be informed of. Monsieur 
Frezier executed this plan to the King's entire 
approbation. He says, in the dedication to the 
Duke of Orleans, (for the King was dead before 
the book appeared) " it is a collection of the ob- 
servations which he made in navigation, on the 
errors of the maps, and the situation of the har- 
bours and roads he had been in ; together with a 
description of the animals, plants, fruits, metals, 
and whatsoever the earth produces of curious in the 
richest colonies of the world ; and lastly, a most 
exact account of the commerce, forces, government, 
and manners, as well of the Cr'eolian Spaniards, as 
of the natives of the country, whom he treats with 
all the respect which is due to truth." 

The author says his principal " business was to 
take plans, and to bring the navigators acquainted 
with the seasons, general winds, currents, rocks, 
shelves, anchorages, and landing-places, wherever 
he came." There are excellent plans of Callao, 
Lima, and most of the principal ports on the Conr 
tinent of South- America. But no chart of the 
River La Plata, and its shores, which he never 
entered. 

" One objection," says the translator, " does 
indeed lie against Monsieur Frezier, arising per^ 



415 

haps from his ambition to be thouglit to correct the 
General Sea- chart of our countryman, Dr. Halley; 
but besides that the reputation of this chart is esta- 
blished by the experience of our navigators in most 
voyages, beyond the powers of Monsieur Frezier to 
hurt it, we must remember that our author is a 
Frenchman; and therefore we need give no further 
account of their difference, than is contained in the 
letter, which Dr. Halley wrote to the publisher on 
the occasion." 

Letter of Dr, Halley. 

Mr. Bowyer, April 6, 1717. 

" I am glad to hear you have undertaken to print, 
in English, the voyage of Mr. Frezier to and from 
the Coasts of Peru and Chili. Our people are very 
much unacquainted with those seas ; and those that 
are, commonly want either wiU or language to 
inform the world properly of what they find worth 
notice, and of what may be of use to those that 
shall hereafter make the like voyages. The French 
have the faculty of setting off their relations to the 
best advantage ; and particularly your author has 
informed us, in a very instructive manner, of several 
things, that are not only very entertaining, but also 
what may be of eminent service to us, either in 
case of trade or war in the seas he describes. On 
this account, 1 cannot doubt but your design must 
answer your expectation, especially since you be- 
stow on the book so elegant an edition. But how- 
ever it may have pleased me in other respects, J 
find myself obliged to desire of you the liberty to 



416 

subjoin a small postscript in defence of my chart of 
the variation of the compass (whereb)' I hoped I 
bad done service to the sailors of all nations) against 
the groundless exceptions of your author, who seems 
to seek all occasions to find fault, and is otherwise 
unjust to me. If you please to grant me this favour, 
you will, without any prejudice to yourself, very 
much oblige 

" Your very humble servant, 

Edw. Halley." 

To Mr. Jonah Bowyer. 
These. 

AsT. CCCXLIII. Europec Speculum: or a View 
or Surcey of the State of Religion in the Westerne 
part of the World. Wherein the Romane Reli^ 
gion^ and the pregnant policies of the church of 
Rome to support the same^ are notably displayed: 
with some other memorable discoveries and comme- 
morations. Published according to the Author'^s 
original copy, and acknowledged by him for a true 
copy, 

** Multum diuque desideratum." 

London: Printed by T. Cotes for Michael Sparke^ 
and are to be sold by George Hutton^ at the Turn- 
ing Stile in Holborne, 1637. ^to. pp. 248. 

This book is dated "from Paris 9th April, 1599 ; 
and copied out by the author's originall, and finish- 
ed 2d Oct. 1613." 



" The well-meaning Publisher hereof to the under- 
standing Reader of what ranck& or degree soever. ^^ 

•' Whereas not many yeares past;, there was pub- 



417 

lished in print, a Treatise entituled " A Relation 6( 
Religion of the Westerne parts of the World," 
printed for one Simon Waterson, 1603 : without 
name of author, yet generally and currently passing 
under the name of the learned and worthy gentle- 
man Sir Edwin Sandys, Knt. Know all men by 
these presents, that the same booke was but a 
spurious stolne copy, in part epitomized, in part 
amplified, and throughout most shamefully falsified 
and false printed from the author's originall; in sO 
much that the same Knight was infinitely wronged 
thereby ; and as soone as it came to his knowledge^ 
that such a thing was printed and passed under his 
name, he caused it, though somewhat late, when, 
it st^eems, two impressions were for the most part 
vented, to be prohibited by authority ; and, as I 
have heard, as many as could be recovered, to be 
deservedly burnt, with power also to punish the 
printers. And yet, nevertheless, since that time 
there hath beene another impression of the same 
stolen into the world. Now those so adulterate 
copies being scattered abroad, and in the hands of 
some men, I, yet studious of the truth and a lover 
of my country, and having obtained by a direct 
means, of a dear friend, a pertlect copy, verbatim, 
transcribed from the author's original, and legiti- 
mate one, of his own hand-writing, have thought 
good to publish it unto the world; first, for the 
good of the church ; secondly, the glory of our 
English nation ; thirdly, for the fame of the inge- 
nuous, and ingenious, and acute author, a gentle- 
man, who deserved right well of his country. And 
lastly, that the world may be no longer deprived of 

VOL. IV. ^ E E 



418 

so rare a jewell, in its own lustre, nor abused by 
the other counterfeit one before named. 

" I cannot see how any should be offended hereat, 
but such as are sworne slaves to their Lord God 
the Pope, whose Romane kingdome, and Babylo- 
nian tottering tower, hath sucli a blow given it 
hereby, as I know but few of such force ; and not 
many such blowes more will make the same king- 
dome and tower fall downe to the ground, with utter 

desolation. 

" Vale in Christo, 

Et Fruere." 



Sir Edwin Sandys was second son of Edwin Arch* 
bishop of York ; younger brother of Samuel, ancestor 
of the late Lord Sandys, and elder brother of 
George the poet, already mentioned. He was edu- 
cated at Oxford 1577, and had for his tutor the 
celebrated Richard Hooker, the author of " Eccle- 
siastical Polity." On May the 11th, 1603, he was 
knighted by King James, and afterwards made a 
considerable figure in parliament, being a staunch 
patriot; on which account exposing himself to the 
resentment of the court, he was with the famous 
Selden, in 1621, committed to the custody of the 
sheriff of London; which being considered as a 
breach of privilege by the House of Commons, waa 
much resented by them. He was treasurer to the 
Undertakers for the Western Plantations, which he 
effectually advanced, and was considered as a solid 
statesman, a man of great judgment, and of a com- 
ipanding pen. 

H^ ik^ in 1629, and was buried at Northborne 



419 

in Kent, where he had a seat and estate granted 
him by James I. soon after his accession. His 
monument of marble, with two recumbent figures, 
but without any inscription, still remains in the 
iBouth transept of Northborne church, where the 
present editor surveyed it in a somewhat mutilated 
state, on the first day of the present year (1807). 
He had seven sons,* of whom Henry the eldest, died 
without issue. Edwin, the second, was the well 
known parliamentary colonel, of whom much may 
be read in Mercurius Rusticus, and other tracts of 
those days ; and who, receiving a mortal wound at 
the battle of Worcester in 1642, retired to North- 
borne to die, leaving the estate to his son Sir Rich> 
ard, who was killed by the accidental explosion of his 
fowling piece in 1663. His son. Sir Richard, was 
created a baronet 1684, and dying 1726, without 
male issue, was the last of the family who lived at 
Northborne ; where the mansion remained many 
years deserted, and at length, within the memory of 
old people, was pulled down. The editor has lately 
seen a very interesting letter of the late Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Carter, describing it as she could just remember 
it in her childhood, and as she had heard old people 
represent it, contrasted with its present state, and 
accompanied with many touching reflections on the 
instability of human affairs. This will soon appear, 
with several others, in the Life of that very ex- 
cellent and justly celebrated Woman, which is now 
in the press. 

* Richard, third son of Sir Edwin, was also a parliameAtary 
Qolone), and was the ancestor uf the late Admiral Charles Sandys, 
&c. &c. E. H. Sandys Esq. of Thorp-Arch, in Yorkshire, fc<u 

ee2 



4§0 



Art. CCCXLIV. A Relation of a Journey begun 
An, Dom, 1610. Foure Bookes, containing a 6?e- 
scription of the Turkish Empire of Egi/pt, of the 
Holy Land^ of the remote parts of Italy ^ and 
Islands adjoyning. The Third Edition. London. 
Printed for Ro, Allot, 1627. 

The first Edition was in 1615; others in 1621 
1632, 1652, 1658, 1670, 1673. 

A Relation of some years Travels into Africa and the 
Greater Asia, especially the territories of the Per- 
sian Monarchy, and some parts of the Oriental 
Indies and Isles adjacent, London. 1634: , 1638, 
Src. 1677. 

Which last is the fourth impression, wherein 
many things are added, which were not in the 
former. All the impressions are in folio, and adorned 
with cuts. 

This book is well known as the work of the ce- 
lebrated George Sandys the poet, a younger son of 
Edwin, Archbishop of York, who, dying at the seat 
of his niece, Margaret, the widow of Sir Francis 
Wyat, Kt. at Boxley Abbey in Kent, in March 1643, 
was buried in the parish church there, and has the 
ibllbwing entry in its Register of Burials : " Geor- 
gius Sandys, Poetarum Anglicanorum sui saeculi 
&cile Princeps, sepultus fuit Martii VII. Stylo 
Anglic. An. Dom. 1643." * 

It is dedicated in the following energetic words. 

* Wood's Ath. II. 46, 47. 



421 

« To the Prince. 

"Sir, 

'* The eminence of the degree wherein God and 
Nature have placed you, doth allure the eyes ; and 
the hopefulness of your virtues, win the love of all 
men. For virtue being in a private person an ex- 
emplary ornament, advanceth itself in a prince to 
a public blessing. And as the sunne to the world, 
so briugetb it both light and life to a kingdom : a 
light of direction, by glorious example ; and a life 
of joy through a gracious government. From the 
just and serious consideration whereof, there 
springeth in minds not brutish, a thankiiil corres- 
pondence of affection and duty ; still pressing to 
express themselves in endeavours of service. Which 
also hath caused me most (noble Prince) not furnished 
of better means, to offer in humble zeal to your 
princely view these my doubled travels ; once with 
some toil and danger performed, now recorded with 
sincerity and diligence. The parts I speak of are 
the most renowned countries and kingdoms : once 
the seats of most glorious and triumphant empires ; 
the theatres of valour and heroicall actions; the 
soils enriched with all earthly felicities; the places 
where nature hath produced her wonderfull works ; 
where arts and sciences have been invented, and 
perfited ; where wisdom, virtue, policie, and civility, 
have been planted, have flourished: and, lastly, 
where God himself did place his own commonwealth, 
gave laws and oracles, inspired his prophets, sent 
angels to convierse with m^ n ; above all, where the 
Sonne of God descended to become man ; where 
he honoured tlie earth with his beautiful steps, 



43f 

wrought the worke of our redemption, triumphed 
over death, and ascended into glory. Which coun- 
tries, once so glorious and famous for their happy 
estate, are now through vice and ingratitude become 
the most deplored spectacles of extreme miserie : 
the wild beasts of mankind having broken in upon 
them, and rooted out all civilitie, and the pride of 
a stern and barbarous tyrant possessing the thrones 
of ancient and just dominion. Who aiming only at 
the height of greatness and sensualitie, hath in tract 
of time reduced so great and goodly a part of the 
world, to that lamentable distress and servitude, 
under which (to the astonishment of the under- 
standing beholders) it now faints and groneth. Those 
rich lands at this present remain waste and over- 
grow ne with bushes, receptacles of wild beasts, of 
theevesand murderers; large territories dispeopled, 
or thinly inhabited ; goodly cities made desolate ; 
sumptuous buildings become ruines, glorious temples 
either subverted, or prostituted to impietie ; true 
religion discountenanced and oppressed ; all no- 
bilitie extinguished ; no light of learning permitted, 
nor virtue cherished : violence and rapine insulting 
over all, and leaving no securitie save to an abject 
mind, and unlookt on povertie ; which calamities of 
theirs so great and deserved, are to the rest of the 
world as threatening instructions. For assistance 
wherein, I have not onely related what I saw of 
their present condition; but so farre as convenience 
might permit, presented abriefe view of the former 
estates, and first antiquiiies of those peoples and 
countries: thence to draw a right image of the 
frailtie of man, the mutabilitie of whatsoever is 



493 

worldly ; and assurance that as there is nothing un* 
changeable saving God, so nothing stable but by his 
grace and protection. Accept, Great Prince, these 
weak endeavours of a strong desire : which shall 
be always devoted to do your Highness all accept- 
able service; and ever rejoice in your prosperity 
and happiness. 

Geo. Sandys." 



Additional Notices hy a Correspondents 

to the editor of the cen8ura litgraria, 

Sir, 

I AM fortunate enough to possess the copy of 
Sandys*8 Journey to Turkey, formerly belonging 
to the author himself, which is the fourth edition, 
and bearing a different date to any that you have 
described, namely 1637. 

Subjoined to the whole, and signed with the 
author's name, are the following lines, written in 
the clearest and neatest manner ; and as they may 
probably be interesting to the majority of your 
readers, I have here transcribed them. , 

Deo. Opt. Max. 

O Thou, who all things hast of nothing made. 
Whose hand the radiant firmament displaid. 
With such an undiscerned swiftnesse hurl'd. 
About the stedfast centre of the world : 



424 

Against whose rapid course the restlesse sun ; i 

And wand'ring flames in varied motions run. 

Which Heat, Light, Life infuse ; Time, Night and Day " 

pistinguish ; in our humane bodies sway : 

That hung'st the solid earth in fleeting aire, i 

Vein'dwith cleare springs, which ambient seas repaire; 

In cioudes the mountains wrap their hoary heads, 

lyuxurious valieies cloth 'd with flow'ry meads ; ! 

Her trees yield fruit and shade ; with liberall breasts ; 

All creatures shee (their common mother) feasts. ^ 

Then man, thy image, mad'st in dignitie, ^ | 

In knowledge and in beauty, like to thee, 

Plac'd in a heav'n oo earth without his toyle ; ■ 

The ever-flourishinge and fruitfull soile 

Unpurchased food produc'd : all creatures were 

His subjects serving more for love than fear : 

He knew no Lord but thee. But when he fell i 

from his obedience, all at once rebell, • 

And in his ruin exercise their might : 

Concurring elements against him fighte ; j 

Troupes of unknown diseases. Sorrow, Age, j 

And Death assail him with successive rage ; ■ 

Hell let forth all her furies ; none so great \ 

As man to man. Ambition, Pride, Deceit, \ 

Wrong arm'd with Power, Lust, Rapine, Slaughter reign*d, | 

And flalter'd vice the name of virtue gain'd. j 

Then bills beneath the swelling waters stood. 

And all the globe of earth was but one floude, l 

Yet could not cleanse their guilte ; the following race, | 

Worse than their fathers and their sons more base 

Their god-like beauty lost, sin's wretched thrall ; I 

No sparke of their diviiie originalle, i 

jLeft unextiuguish'd. All enveloped , -> 

With darkness, in their bolde transgressions dead^ 



425 

When thou didst from the east a liglil display. 

Which rendered to the world a cleerer day. 

Whose precepts from hell's jawes our stepps withdrawe. 

And whose example was a li? inge law. 

Who purg'd us with bis blood, the way prepar'd 

To heav'n, and those long chaindup dooies unbar'd. 

How infinite thy mercy, which exceeds 

The world thou madst, as well as our misdeeds. 

With greater reverence then thy justice wins. 

And still augments thy honor by our sins ! 

O who hath tasted of thy cleniencie 

In greater measure or more oft than I ! 

My grateful verse thy goodnesse shall displaye. 

thou who wentst along in all my way, 
To where the morning with perfumed wings 
From the high mountains of Panchsa's springs. 
To that new found out world, where sober night 
Takes from the Antipodes her silent flight. 

To those darke seas where horrid Winter reignes. 
And bindes the stubborne floudes in icie chaines, 
To Lybian Wasts whose thirst no shoures assuage. 
And where swolne Nilus cooles the lion's rage. 
Thy wonders in the deepe have I behelde ; 
Yet all by those on Judah's hills excell'd. 
There where the Virgin's son his doctrine taught ; 
His miracles and our redemption wrought ; 
Where 1 by thee inspir'd, his praises sung. 
And on his sepulchre my ofl*erings huRg, 
Which way so e'er I turn'd ray face or feetc, 

1 see thy glory and thy mercy meete : 

Met on the Thracian shores, when in the strife 
Of franticke Simoans thou preserv'dst my life. 
So when Arabian thieves belay'd us round, 
Apd when by ail abandoned thee I found^ 



426 

That false, Sidonian wolfe, whose craft put o» 
A sheepe soft fleece, and my Bellerophon 
To ruine by his cruele letter sent. 
Thou didst by thy protecting hand prevent ; 
Thou saved'st me from the bloudie massacres 
Of faithlesse Indians, from their treacherous warres; 
From raging feavers, from the sultry breathe. 
Of tainted aire, which closed the jawes of death ; 
Preserved from swallowing seas, when tow'ring wares 
Mix'd with the cloudes, and opened their deep graves. 
From barbarous pirats ransom'd, by those taught 
Successfully with Salian Moores wee fought ; 
Then brought'st me home in safetye, that this earthe 
Mighte bury mee, which fed rae from my birth. 
Blest with a healthful age, a quiet minde. 
Content with little, to this worke design'd, 
Whiche I att length have finnish*t by thy aide. 
And now my vowes have att thy altar paid. 
Jam tetigi portum. Valere. 

Geoegb Sandts. 

Prefixed to Herbert's Travels, which follow the 
above work, is an engraven title page (indepen- 
dent of, and varying in point of matter, from the 
printed one which you describe) executed in a good 
free style, by W. M. (William Marshall.) This is 
the second edition, bearing date 163$. 

Locke, in his Explanatory Catalogue of Voyages, 
says of these travels, that " they have deservedly 
had a great reputation, being the best account of 
those parts written by any Englishman, and not 
inferior to the best of foreigners ; what is peculiar 
in them is the excellent description of all antiquities, 



427 

the curious remarks on them, and the extraordinary 
accidents that often occur/' 

I have an edition of Purchases Pilgrimage in folio, 
dated 1617, which is one that yoxi have not parti- 
cularized. 

I remain, Sir, 

Your most obedient Servant, 

James H. Markland. 

Ardwick, Lancashire, April 6, 1807. 



Art. CCCXLV. A Voyage into the Levant: or 
a brief relation of a Journey lately performed 
by Mr. Henry Blunty Gent, from England by 
the way of Venice into Dalmatia, Sclavoniay 
Bosnahj Hungary, Macedonia, Thessalt/, Thrace, 
Rhodes, and Egypt, unto Grand Cairo. With 
particular Obsenations concerning the moderne 
condition of the Turkes, and other people under 
that Empire. The Third Edition. London. Printed 
by J. L. for Andrew Crooke, and are to be sold 
at the signe of the Beare in Paul's Churchyard. 
1638. 4fo. pp. 126. 

The second edition was in 1636. Other editions 
were in 12mo. 

Sir Henry Blount was born at Tittenhanger, in 
Hertfordshire, in 1602, and educated at Oxford. 
On May the 7th, 1634, he embarked at Venice for 
Constantinople, in order to his voyage into the 
Levant, returned about two years after, became one 
of the Gentlemen Pensioners to Charles 1. and was 
by him knighted 21 March 1639. Anthony Wood 



428 

•ays, " He was esteemed, by those who knew him, 
a gentleman of a very clear judgment, great expe- 
rience, much contemplation though not of much 
reading, and of great foresight into governments ; 
he was also a person of admirable conversation, and 
in his younger years a great banterer, which in his 
elder he disused." He died the 9th of October, 1682, 
aBtatis 80.* His two sons, Sir Thomas Pope Blount, 
and Charles Blount, are well known : the lineal 
representative of the former is the present Lord 
Hardwicke, through his mother. 

Wood says these travels were so well esteemed 
abroad, that, as he was informed, they were trans- 
lated into French and Dutch ; but Locke observes, 
" they are very concise, and without any curious 
observations, or any notable descriptions ; his ac- 
count of the religions and customs of those people, 
only a brief collection of some other travellers, the 
language mean, and not all of it to be relied on, if 
we credit others who have writ better.'* 

Sir Henry Blount commences his work with the 
following explanation of his views : " Intellectual 
complexions have no desire so strong, as that of 
knowledge; nor is any knowledge unto man so 
certaine, and pertinent, as that of human affaires : 
this experience advances best, in observing of 
people, whose institutions much differ from ours ; 
for customes conformable to our own, or to such 
wherewith we are already acquainted, doe but repeate 
our old observations, with little acquist of new. So 
my former time spent in viewing Italy, France, and 

♦ Wood's Ath. II. 712. 



4d9 

some little of Spain, beings countries of Christian 
institution, did but represent, in a severall dresse, 
the effect of what I knew before. 

" Then seeing that the customes of men are much 
swayed by their naturall dispositions, which are 
originally inspired and composed by tlie climate, 
whose ayre and influence they receive, it seems 
naturall, that to our north-west parts of the world, 
no people should be more averse, and strange of 
behaviour, than those of the south-east : moreover, 
those parts being now possessed by the Turkes, who 
are the only moderne people, great in action, and 
whose empire hath so suddenly invaded the world, 
and fixt itself such firm foundations as no other ever 
did ; I was of opinion, that hee who would behold 
these times in their greatest glory, could not find a 
better scene than Turkey : these considerations sent 
mee thither ; where my general purpose gave mee 
four particular cares : first, to observe the -religion, 
manners, and policie of the Turks, not perfectly, 
(which were a taske for an inhabitant rather than a 
passenger,) but so farre forth, as might satisfie this 
scruple, (to wit) whether to an impartiall conceit, 
the Turkish waye appeare absolutely barbarous as 
we are given to understand, or rather another kind 
of civilitie, different from ours, but no lesse pre- 
tending: secondly, in some measure, to acquaint 
myself with those other sects which live under the 
Turks, as Greeks, Armenians, Freinks, and Zin- 
ganaes, but especially the Jews ; a race from all 
others so averse both in nature and institution, as 
glorying to single itself out of the rest of mankind, 
remaines obstinate, contemptible, and famous: 



430 

thirdly, to see the Turkish armj then goin;^ against 
Poland, and therein to note, whether their discipline 
military encline to ours, or else bee of a new mould, 
though not without some touch, from the countries 
they have subdued ; and whether it be of a frame 
apt to confront the Christians or not : the last and 
choice piece of my intent, was to view Grand Cairo, 
and that for two causes ; first, it being clearely the 
greatest concourse of mankind in these times, and 
perhaps that ever was ; there must needs be some 
proportionable spirit in the government : for such 
vast multitudes, and those of wits so deeply mali- 
cious, would soon breede confusion, famine, and 
utter desolation, if in the Turkish domination there 
were nothing but sottish sensualitie, as most Chris- 
tians conceive : lastly, because Egypt is held to have 
been the fountaine of all science, and arts civill, 
therefore I did hope to find some sparke of those 
cinders not yet put out; or else in the extreme 
contrairietie, 1 should receive an impression as im- 
portant, from the ocular view of so great a revolu- 
tion ; for above all other senses, the eye having the 
most immediate, and quicke commerce with the 
soul, gives it a more smart touch than the rest, 
leaving in the fancy somewhat unutterable ; so that 
an eye witness of things conceives with an imagi- 
nation more compleat, strong, and intuitive, than 
he can either apprehend or deliver by way of re- 
lation ; for relations are not only in great part felse, 
out of the relater's misinformation, vanitie, or in- 
terest ; but which is unavoidable, their choice, and 
frame agrees most naturally with his judgement, 
whose issue they are, than with his readers ; so as 



431 

the reader is like one feasted with dishes fitter for 
another man's stomache than his owne : but a tra- 
veller takes with his eye, and ease, only such oc- 
currencies into observation, as his own apprehension 
affects, and through that sympathy can digest them 
into an experience more natural for himself, than 
he could have done the notes of another : wherefore 
1 desiring somewhat to informe myself of the Turkish 
nation, would not sit downe with a booke knowledge 
thereof, but rather (through all the hazard and en- 
durance of travel,) receive it from mine own eye, 
not dazzled with any affection, prejudicacy, or mist 
of education, which preoccupate the mind, and de- 
lude it with partiall ideas, as with a false glasse, 
representing the object in colours, and proportions 
untrue : for the just censure of things is to be drawn 
from their end whereto they are aimed, without re- 
quiring them to our customs and ordinances, or 
other impertinent respects, which they acknowledge 
not for their touch-stone : wherefore he who passes 
through the several educations of men, must not try 
them by his own, but weyning his mind from all 
former habit of opinion, should as it were, putting 
off the old man, come fresh and sincere to consider 
them : this preparation was the cause, why the 
superstition, policie, entertainments, diet, lodging, 
and other manners of the Turks, never provoked mee 
so farre, as usually they doe those who catechize also 
the world according to their own home ; and this 
barres these observations from appearing beyond 
my own closet, for to a mind possest with any set 
doctrine^ their unconformitie must needs make them 
*eem unsound, and extravagant, nor can they com- 



432 

ply to a rule, by which they were not made. Never- 
thelesse, consideriag that experience forgotten is 
as if it never had beene, and knowing how much I 
ventured for it, as little as' it is, I could not 
but esteeme it worth retaining in my owne me- 
mory, though not transferring to others : here- 
upon I have in these lines registered to myself, 
whatsoever most tooke me in my journey from 
Venice into Turky." 



Art. CCCXLVI. A New Swroey of the West 
Indies. Bi/ Thomas Gage. London. 1648. Svo. 

This is a book with which I am unacquainted 
myself, but presuming it to be the same as Mr. 
Southey, in the notes to his beautiful poem of 
Madoc, calls Gage's account of Mexico ; I learn 
from him, that, though the author pretends to have 
collected his materials on the spot, the account of 
that place is copied verbatim from Nicholas's con- 
quest of West-India, already mentioned, (see Art. 
S59.) whence f also learn a confirmation of my sup- 
position, that Nicholas's book is a translation from 
Gomara, (ut. sup. p. 44.). It is much to the credit 
of this volume, that Mr. Southey 's notes contain 
large and frequent citations from it. 



Art. CCCXLVII. A Journet/ over Land, from 
the Gulph of Honduras to the Great South Sea. 
Performed by John Cockburn, and five other 
Englishmen, viz. Thomas Rounce, Richard Ba- 



433 

nister, John Holland, Thomas Robinson, and John 
Ballmain ; who were taken by a Spanish Guarda' 
Costa, in the Johan and Jane, Edward Burt, 
Master, and set on shore at a place called Porto^ 
Cavah, naked and wounded, as mentioned in several 
News- Papers of October 1 73 1 . Containing variety 
of extraordinary distresses and adventures, and 
some new and useful discoveries of the inland of 
those almost unknown parts of America : as also, 
an exact account of the Manners, Customs, and 
Behaviour of the several Indians, inhabiting a 
tract of Land of 2,^00 miles, particularly of their 
dispositions towards the Spanish and English. To 
which is added, a curious piece written in the reign 
of King James I. and never before printed, inr 
titled, A Brief Discovery of some Things best 
worth noteinge in the Travels of Nicholas With- 
ington, a Factor in the East Indiase. London: 
Printed for C Rivington, at the Bible and Crown, 
in St. PauVs Church-yard. 1735. %vo. pp. 352, 
exclusive of preface. 

The reality of the ship, her voyage, and cap- 
ture, as abovementioned, stand verified on public 
record; but many of the circumstances related in 
Cockburn's Narrative (which has been several 
times reprinted in a cheap form) have so much 
the air of romance, that it has been usually read 
in common with Falconer's Voyages, Singleton's 
Piracies, and similar fictitious publications. The 
copy in my possession furnishes the following MS. 
remarks, written on the guard leaf preceding the 
title-page. 

VOL. IV. F F 



454 • 

" This narrative appeared, on its publication, so 
extraordinar)', that it was looked upon by many who 
perused it, as little better than a romance. Of this 
number was the late Sir William Morden Harbord, 
Bart. K. B. (father of the present Lord Suffield,) 
who, upon being informed, some years after, that 
Thomas Bounce, one of the persons whose adven- 
tures compose the subject of it, and who seems to 
have been in a station superior to that of a common 
seaman, was then resident in Yarmouth, (his native 
place,) sent for him to his estate in Norfolk, and, 
after spending a part of several days in closely in- 
terrogating this man respecting every occurrence 
mentioned in the relation, he became, by means of 
/he replies he received to his questions, fully satis- 
fied of the truth of at least all the material circum- 
stances that are detailed in this remarkable account. 
There were also several persons still living in 
Yarmouth at that time who perfectly remembered 
the departure of Captain Underwood,, as mentioned 
in page 137, and that he had never been since heard 
of by any who knew him, until he was met with as 
is there related. 

" This Thomas Bounce had an unhappy son of 
the same name, who was tried at the Admiralty 
Sessions at the Old Bailey, found guilty of high 
treason in voluntarily fighting against his coun- 
try on board two Spanish privateers, and suf- 
fered death at Execution Dock, early in the year 
1743. The concourse of spectators was so great, 
that many were severely hurt by the pressure of 
the crowd. 

From authentic information^ 1785." 



435 

Withington's Narrative, although worth pre- 
serving, seems to have been added here by the 
booksellers, merely to make up a volume ; it might, 
with propriety, have afterwards been annexed to 
Terry's Voyage to East India, which was repub- 
lished in 1777, the connexion between these two 
with respect to time and circumstances being very 
obvious. 

Arcanus. 



END OF VOL. IT* 



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BAtltrARO AND FARLEY, 
Skiwtet'Ulreet, Lviuknt. 



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2012 
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V.4 



Brydges, (Sir) Samuel 
Egerton, bart. 

Censura literaria 2d ed, 



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:X. 



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