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Full text of "Census of Great Britain, 1851: Religious Worship in England and Wales"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




TRANSFERRED 

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7 CENSUS OF OREAT BRITAIN, 1851. 



/ 



RELIGIOUS WORSHIP 

ENGLAND AND WALES. 



ABRIDGED FROM THE OFFICIAL REPORT 



MADE BT 



HORACE MANN, Esq., 



TO 



(George Graham, Esq., Registrar-Gteneral. 



SEVENTEENTH THOUSAND, 



(REVISED.) 




LONDON : 
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND CO., 2, FARRINGDON STREET. - 



PRINTED BY GEORGE E. EYRE AND WHXIAM SPOTTISWOODE, 

PBTKTBB8 TO THB QUBEN'S HOST EXCELLENT MAJESTT. 



One Shilling. 






HARVARD COLLEGE LlBltARy 

DEfC-SITFP BY f HE LlrtR^RY OF THE 

GItADUATE S:(:OOL OF BUSINESS AOMINtSTRATION 



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7^ 

CONTENTS. 



Pages. 

PEEFACE ..-.. • - .T 

REPOET:— 

• > Letter from the BegiBtnr General to Yiflooant Palmcrstaii. « « ziii 

Report from Mr. Horace Mantf^to the Registrar General ^— 

Origin of the inquiry and mode of its prosecution • • - 1 
Number of Sects in England and Wales • • - • 2 
' / Necessity for expUuning their history and peculiar principles • 3 
Introductory sketch of the progress of religious oplmons in Eng- 
land till the period of the Bevolution of 1688 - • ' ib, , 

PARTicuukiL Notices of thb difitbbbnt Churches : 

Chiurch of England - - - - - 11 

Presbyterians - - - - - 15 

Independents .. . . • - - 17 

Baptists -- - - - - -20 

Society of Friends - - - - 22 . 

Unitarians - - - - - 24 

Morayians - - - . - - - 25 
Wesleyan Methodists : — 

Original Connexion - ' - - - 27 

New Connexion - - • •JO 

.. Primitive MelkodisU - - - - - - 32 

BihU Christians - - • - - 33 j 

Wesleyan Methodist Association - - . - - i6. 

Weskyan Reformers - - - - 34 

Calyinistic Methodists : 

Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion - - - 35 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodists - • • • 37 

Sandemanians « - - • - 38 

New Church ----- - 39 

Brethren • - - - - • 41 

Boman Catl^oUcs - * - - - - 43 

Catholic and Apostolic Church • - - - 45 

Latter Day Saints, or Mormocs - - - - 47 

Isolated Congregations - - - - - 53 

Foreign Churches - - - - - - 55 

Spiritual Pbovision aud Destitution : — 
1. Accommodation:-^ 

Estimate of the number of persons able to attend worship - 57 

Estimate of the number of sittings required for these persons ib. 

Actual provision according to the Census , - • - 60 

Effect of -unequal distribution in diminishing the value of 

existing accommodation - - - - 61 

Comparative provision in town and country districts - 62 

Bate at which the supply is increasing . . 65 

Extent to which the existing accommodation is available 68 

Proportion of the accommodation which is free 69 
c. a 2 



iv CONTENTS. 



EEPORTv- Pages- 
Spiritual Pbovision and Destitution : — 

1. Accommodation: — continued. 

Amount of provision made by each religious body - - 72 

By the Church of England - - - • 73 

By the principal Protestant dissenting bodies - - 78 

By minor Protestant bodies - - ' - 81 

By Boman Catholics - - - - - i6. 

Genenil result of the inquiry as to Accommodation - - 83 

What is being done to supply deficiency ? - - - t^- 

2. Attendance: — 

Superiority of the test supplied by amount of attendance to 
that supplied by amount of accommodation - -86 

* Proper mode of computing the amount of attendance - t6. 

Number of non-attendants - - - - 87 

Is there suflBicient accommodation for the non-attendants ? - 88 

Frequency trf attendance - " - - 90 

Number of attendants in connexion -with each religious body ib. 

Comparative frequency of attendance in each religious body - 91 

Portions of the day at which attendants are most numerous - 92 
Principal result of the inquiry as to attendance ; the alarming 

number of non-attendants - - - - - 93 

Some of the causes of the neglect, by the labouring classes, 

of religious -worship - - - - - - , ti. 

Need of increased amount of a^fcncy - - - - 96 

Different schemes suggested: 

Sub-division of parishes - - - - 98 

Lay-agency - - - - - tft. 

Extension of the Episcopate - - - - 101 

Prominent facts elicited by the whole Inquiry - - 102 

SUMMARY TABLES AND TABULAR RESULTS :— 

Summary Tables of ^n^f/anrf ancf TFaZeff. (Table A.) - - - 106 
Estimates for defective returns. (Supplements to Table A.) - - 109 
Accommodation in Dioceses. (Table E.) - - - .112 
Accommodation and Attendance in Large Towns and Boroughs. (Table F.) 113 
Accommodation in town districts as compared with the rest of Eng- 
land. (Table FF.) - - - - - - 134 

Comparative strength of different bodies in each county. (Table G.) - 136 
Selection of districts with most and least accommodation respectively. 

(Table L) .---.--- lag 
Comparative position of the Church of England and the Dissenting 

Churches in different parts of the country. (Table K.) ... 139 
Number of services held by each religious body at different portions of 

day. (Table L.) .... - - - 140 

Extent to which each body makes use of its accommodation. (Table M) 141 

 Number of attendants at tiie most frequented services. (Table N.) - 142 




PREFACE. 



Eeligious parties of every denominatioD, in tke estimates they 
have endeavoured to form of their comparative strength ia this 
conniry, have hitherto felt the great disadvantage resulting from 
the absence of ofScial returns on the subject of public worship. 
It has been attempted, by means of the information preserved 
by particular communities, in some measure to supply this 
deficiency, but the statistical information obtained by any one 
denomination has never been deemed authentic by any other; 
and, after all the efforts made by particular bodies, it has been 
found that the results have been of little practical value, not 
ohly because their accuracy was suspected, but also on account 
of their meagre and limited character. For the ^r«^ time in the 
history of this country a Census of Beligious Worship has been 
obtained by the Government. We are now able to ascertain the 
entire number of places ,of worship, the particular sects to which 
they respectively belong, the number of sittings provided by 
each sect, and the actual attendance on a given day. 

In consequence of the deep interest known to be taken in 
the subject, and the general wish to possess impartial and authentic 
information upon it, arrangements have been made for placing 
within reach of the public generally all the more important parts 
of the Eeport, in which the restdts of the Census inquiry are 
embodied, at a price which should secure the object of its wide 
diffusion with the least possible delay. Appreciating this design^ 
Major Graham, the Eegistrar General, has kindly sanctioned the 
publication of this abridgment, and has allowed it to go forth in 
the present cheap and popular form with his express authority. 

To form a just estimate of the value of the following Tables, 
it is necessary to know the extensive and costly apparatus by 
means of which they have been obtained. This will bestappear 
from the following statement of the " Mode of Procuring and 
Digesting the Ketums," as given in the Appendix to the Repoit, 
from which will also be seen the great attention which has 
been devoted to the work of supplementing defective returns^ 
and rendering them as nearly as possible an exact and faithful 
picture of the religious state of England and Wales : — 



vi PREFACE. 



^' For the primary object of the Census, that of simply numbering the 
'^ people, England and Wales was divided into 30,610 separate plots 
'^ or districts, each of which was the sphere of a single person called 
*^ an Enumerator, who in his turn was under the direction of a Registrat 
^ of Births and Deaths, of whom there are 2,190 in England and Wales. 
' To these 30,610 officers was assigned the additional duty of pro- 
*J curing the returns relating to public worship." 

^^ The first proceeding was to obtain a correct account of all existing 
" edifices or apartments where religious services were customarily per- 
'* fprme^. The enumerators, therefore, were directed each to prepare, 
^ in the course of the Week preceding March 30th, 1851, a list of all 
•* stich' places within hi^ districl^ setting oUt the name and residenciB of 
^^ the minister or o^er official party competent to give intelligence* To 
•^ each such party was delivered or transmitted a schedule of inquiries-^ 
^^ ehi^y respecting the accommodation furnislied in the building, and 
*^ the number of! the congregation upc*i Sunday, March the 30tb« The 
;^^-. schedules were of two descriptions : one for churches connected with 
.".,the Established religion, and the other for places of worship 
^* belonging to the various bodies not connected with the Establishment. 
" For the sake of ready identification, the two descriptions of schedule 
*^ had each a distinctive colour, the former being printed black, and the 
^* latter red. Tlie difference in the questions was slight : in the GhurcK 
** of England form the additional queries had relation to the date of 
'^consecration — the agency by which, and the cost at which, the fabri^^ 
^^ was erected, and the amount and sources of endowment. But, in 
f^ deference to expressed objections, this last question was abandoned 
^< ^fter the forms were issued, and the clergy were informed that no 
" reply to it was wished for. In the other form, the further particulars 
f*' inquired about were — the precise religious denomination of the parties 
" making thp return — ^whether the service was conducted in a separate 
"building or in a portion merely, as a room — ^whether it was used 
** exclusively for public worship — the date at which it was erected or 
** first appropriated to its present use — and (with exclusive reference to 
^ Boman Catholic chapels) the space allotted as standing-room for 
^^ worshippers. In both of the forms a statement of the number of 
«** free, as distinguished from rented or appropriated, sittings, was 
;** requested ; and in both there was a column for the insertion of the 
f' average number of the congregation, to provide for cases where th^ 
" church or chapel might be closed upon the Sunday of the Census, or 
" where, from peculiar circumstances, the attendance might be less than 
'« usual." 

; " When delivering the schedules to the proper parties, the enumer 
" rators told them it was not compulsory upon them to reply to the 
" inquiries ; but that their compliance with the invitation was entirely 
^ left tp their own sense of the importance. and the value to the public 
*** of the information sought." 

« 

V " The schedules were collected by the enumerators in the ,course of 
^ their rounds upon the Census day, vi^., March the 3lst, 1^51. They 



^ 



PREFACE. 11 rk 



^* were then transmitted to the registrar ; who, haTing inreyioiisly 
'^ received the list above referred to, would compare the number of 
^* returns collected with the number mentioned in the list, and would 
" take measures to procure, if possible, the returns, if an j, which were 
" missing.'' 



4t 



*^ Having finished his revision, the registrar despatched retains and 
** Hsts together to the Census Office, London, where the 30,610 lists and 
'^ about 34,000 returns were numbered in paiynshial order and collected 
'^^ into books. A further comparison of lists and returns was then pro- 
^^ ceeded with ; the Clergy List being also used to check the complete- 
** ness of the Established Church returns. The result of these com- 
^ parisons was the discovery of a still considerable number of diefi- 
** eiencies ; principally of returns from places of worship in connexion 
** with the Church of England, — several of the clergy having enter- 
^* tainedsome scruples about complying with an invitation not proceed-^ 
'* ing from episcopal authority. In all such cases, a second application 
** was made direct from the Census Office, and this generally was 
** favoured by a courteous return of the particulars desired. The few 
^^ remaining cases were remitted to the Registrar, who either got the 
*' necessary information from the secular officers of the church, dr 
** else supplied, from his own knowledge, or from the most attainable 
*^ and accurate sources, an estimate of the number of sittings and of the 

usual congregation." 
By these means, a return was ultimately, and after considerable 
*' time and labour, procured from every place of worship mentioned 

in the enumerators' lists, viz., from 14,077 places belonging to the 
** Established Church, and from 20,390 places belonging to the various 
'^^ dissenting bodies, making 34,467 in all." 

" The returns, when thus made as complete as practicable, were tabu- 
** lated in parochial order. It was then discovered that many of them 
^ were defective, in not stating the number of sittings, and that others 
*' which gave the sittings omitted mention of the number of attendants. 
^ Full information- as to sittings seemed to be so very essential to a 
** satisfactory view of our religious accommodation, that an application 
** was addressed to every person signing a return defective in this point, 
" requesting him to rectify the omission. The intelligence thus fur- 
" nished was incorporated with the original return. There are still, 
'^ however 2,524 cases where no information could be got : these, 
** wherever they occur, are mentioned in the notes to the district which 
" contains them. Where the number of attendants was not stated for 
^' the 30th March, and it appeared that there was, nevertheless^ a 
" service held upon that day, the number specified as the usual average 
** was assumed to have been the number present on the 30th, and was 
** inserted in the columns for that day. Where neither in the colimms 
** for the 30th March, nor yet in the columns for the average congraga* 
** tion, was any number given, the deficiency was mentioned in the 
" foot notes, as in the case just mentioned of omitted sittings. And 

so, where neither sittings nor attendants were supplied. It appears 

that the number of omissions which, in spite of the endeavours 

made to get the supplementary information, were obliged to be 



■U 



viii PREFACE. 



X6 



*^ submitted to, are as follow : number of sittings not mentioned in 
^^ 2,134 cases ; number of attendants unspecified in 1,004 cases ; and 
*^ neither sittings nor attendants given in 390 cases. Estimates for these 
*' omissions have been made for certain of the Tables, on a principle 
" explained in the Report. They have not, however, been interpolated 
** in the regular Tables, but are given in separate Tables by them- 
** selves. This course seemed most free from objections ; as the Tables 
" now contain nothing beyond the original, authenticated figures — 
" the omissions being stated in the notes, from which each reader can 
** make his own computation, if desirous of so doing." 

" It was also found that, frequently, an ambiguity prevailed in the 
" answers given to the inquiries respecting 'free sittings.* Several 

of the returns from ancient parish churches, where, of course, no 

pew rents are received, describe the whole of the sittings as being 
\ " therefore 'free.' But this was not the sense intended to be con- 
*' veyed by the question, which contemplated the case of sittings not 
" only free from any money payment, but also free from any particular 
** appropriation, whether by custom or by the allocation of church 
" officers, or otherwise, — sittings, in fact, devoted especially to the 
*' poorer classses, and which they might in freedom occupy at their 
" own option and selection. In all such cases, therefore, it was deemed 
*' advisable, in order to secure an uniformity of meaning throughout 
" the returns, to mention merely the total number of sittings, making 
" no apportionment of them into * free ' and ' appropriated.' The 
" effect of this was to ensure that all the sittings which are men- 
" tioned in the Tables as * free,' (3,947,371) are really free in the 
" manner above described ; that the ' appropriated * sittings (4,443,093) 
" are those which, either from a money payment or from customary 
*' occupancy, are not accessible to anybody indiscriminately ; and that 
" the residue (1,077,274), not adequately described, may belong to 
** either of these classes, but most likely in greater proportion to the 
" latter." 

** It will be perceived that one of the questions pointed to a distinc- 
" tion desirable to be made between the 'general congregation' and 
*' the * Sunday scholars.' In many of the returns the distinction was 
*' not made, the total numbers only, including both these classes of 
*' attendants, being entered. As, therefore, no correct account could 
" be obtained of the whole number of Sunday scholars usually mingling 
** with our congregations, it is thought to be the better course in every 
" instance to include them in one total. In several returns a service 
*^ was returned as attended by Sunday scholars onfy ; in these instances 
*' the numbers have been disregarded, on the theory that such ser- 
*' vices partook more of the nature of school duties than of formal 
** public worship. Sunday scholars have been reckoned as attending 
'' religious service only where, upon the same portion of the day, some 
** numbers are inserted for a ' general congregation.' " 

''Another point upon which an explanation of the course adopted 
** may be useful is the following : it was wished to show, with respect 
" to all the 30,240 places of worship, how many of them were open for 
<' service at each portion of the Sunday morning, afternoon, and 



PREFACE. >X k 

if 






*' evening, ai;d how many were closed on 'each of those occasions. 
^' This, of course, was ascertained bj the insertion of figures denoting 
'^ a service, or of a cross ( X )» denoting that no service was held. But 
" in several cases, where the other particulars were given, the return 
'^ was altogether blank upon the subject of attendants ; and the question 
was, in what way to regard such cases. The course adopted has been, 
where the church or chapel is located in a toton, to assume that a 
" service was performed both morning and eveningy and where the \ 
^^ church or chapel is situate in the rural districts, to assume that 
" services were celebrated in the morning and afternoon.^ 

The limits necessary to the present " Abridgment " compel the 
Editor to curtail the admirable "Introductory Sketch of the 
Progress of Religious Opinions in England till the Period of the 
Revolution of 1688/' The thread of the narrative, however, has 
been preserved, and the sketch, in its reduced proportions, will 
serve to show how the country has grown* into that state of 
comparative religious freedom which so strikingly contrasts with 
the ages which have passed away. 

It is always found difficult to describe churches in terms 
which are perfectly approved by their members ; still it may be 
hoped that the various notices given in the Report will be found 
impartial, this having evidently been the object of its Author, 
who has selected his information from the sources which ap- 
peared to possess the greatest authority. One of the most 
interesting and valuable portions of the Report will be found 
in the Author's remarks upon " Spiritual Provision and Desti- 
tution." So important, indeed, has it been deemed by the 
Editor of the present Abridgment, that he has considered it best 
to give it entire.. 

In selecting from the numerous Tables contained in the Report, 
the object has been to extract those which were most likely to 
be popularly usefiil for religious and statistical purposes, and to 
render the possessor of the Abridgment as much as possible inde- 
pendent of the larger work, — to which, for more detailed informa- 
tion, it may be found necessary in some few cases to refer. 

A successfiil commencement having been now made in the 
important service of learning for ourselves, and showing to other 
nations, the . religious statistics of our own country, we may 
anticipate at each succeeding decennial period that the returns 
on " Religious Worship " wiU form a valuable part of the Census, 
and serve as a powerful aid to the highest interests of the 
community. 

Londoriy 
Jcmuary 5, 1854. 



1 . 



REPORT. 




TO THE RIGHT HON. THE VISCOUNT PALMERSTON, M.P., G.C.B. 

HER MAJESTY'S SECRETARY OF STATE FOR 
THE HOME DEPARTMENT. 

Census Office, lOth December 1853. 
My Lord, 

When the Census of Great Britain was taken, in 1851, I received 

instructions from Her Majesty's 'Government to endeavour to procure 

information as to the existing accommodation for Public Religious Worship. 

Every exertion has been made to obtain accurate Returns upon which 
reliance may be placed ; and the duty of arranging these Returns in^ a 
tabular form, accompanied by explanatory remarks, has been confided by me 
chiefly to Mr. Horace Mann. He has devoted much time and labour to the 
subject ; and I trust that your Lordship will be of opinion that the task 
delegated to him has been weU executed. 

I have the honour to be, 
My Lord, 
Your faithful servant, 

GEORGE GRAHAM, 

Registrar-General. 



REPORT. 




TO 

GEORGE GRAHAM, Esq, 

^c» ^e* Sfc* 
BEGISTBAR GENERAL OF BIRTHS^ DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES. 



In fulfilment of the task with which you have entrusted me, I have now q^^^ ^^^^^^ 
the honour to present^ in a digested form^ a Summary of the Returns collected Inquuy as to 
at the recent Census, showing the amount of accommodation for worship pro- ship ; andMonuer 
Tided by the various reUgious bodies in the country, and the extent to which ".y^* prosecu- 
the means thus shown to be available are used. 

It may, perhaps, be advantageous to preface the observations which, with 
your permission, I propose to ofPer on the state of religion in England, as dis- 
closed in these returns, by a brief account of the origin of the Inquiry and the 
mode in which it has been prosecuted. 

It will, doubtless, be within your recollection that, when making preparation 
for the General Census, and determining what information was most worthy to 
be gathered by the aid of the complete machinery then specially to be provided, 
it appeared to you exceedingly desirable to seize upon so rare an opportunity in 
order to procure correct intelligence on two important subjects of much pubhe 
interest and controversy, viz., the number and varieties and capabilities of the 
religious and the scholastic institutions of the country. In pursuance of this 
scheme, a set of Forms (reprinted in the Appendix to this volume*) was prepared 
and issued to the various enumerators, with instructions for their distribution 
and collection. 

These proceedings were adopted under the impression that the language of \^ 
the Census Act — conferring on the Secretary of State the power to issue ques- 
tions, not alone respecting the mere numbers, ages, and occupations of the 
people, but also as to such ''further particulars" as might seem to him 
advisable — ^would amply ^varrant so important an investigation. When, how- 
ever, in the House of Peers, objections were preferred against the contem- 
plated Inquiry, and doubts expressed upon the applicability of the penal sections 
of the Act to parties who might choose withholding information on these 
subjects, it was deemed desirable to submit the question to the legal advisers of 
the Crown, and their opinion proved to be confinnatory of this view. 

As you, however, still retained a firm conviction of the great advantage to 
the public of the object for which preparations so extensive had already been 
matured, and for the satisfiactory pursuit of which so great facilities existed, 
it was recommended by you to the Secretary of State that the investigation 
should be nevertheless continued; thevailous parties ^mwhom information 
was to be requested being made aware that they were not by law compellable to 
furnish the particulars referred to in the Forms supplied to them. It seemed to 
you that a reliance on a general willingness to meet the wishes of the Govern- 
ment in so conspicuously valuable an object would be amply justified by 
liearly universal acquiescence; and that the necessary employment, for the 



* It haa not been deemed necouuaj to reprint, with this Abridoinent. the "Forms" hero 
referred to. CEditoe]. 



C. 



2 CENSUS, 1861.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 

ordinary purpose of the Census, of a staff of nearly 40,000 persons, visiting on 
two distinct occasions every house throughout Great Britain, offered an oppor- 
tunity for procuring accurai» statistics much too rare to be neglected— such 
indeed as could not possibly recur till, after another ten years' interval, the 
Census should again be taken in 1861. 

The Secretary of State assenting to these views and your proposal, printed 
Forms were carefully distributed by the enumerators to the proper parties. In 
the case of returns for places at refigious worship, the forms were left with the 
clergyman or minister, warden or deaoo^, or other officer connected with each. 
place of worship. 

The esetent to which returns, in ^niwer to thiB.a|)plication,. were receiyed,. 
affords abundant evidence of the hearty co-operation of the clergy and the 
ministers of all denominations in this voluntary labour. Such returns have 
been obtained ^m 14,077 churches belonging to the Church of England, and 
from 20,390 places of worship belonging to all other religious bodies. From 
this simple fact alone it will be mantfest that these returns are nearly as com- 
plete as could be wished for ; and that now, for the first time, there is giv^n to 
the country a fidl picture of the state of its religion as exhibited by its religious 
institutions. 



Jfumber of Sects. There are in England and Wales 35 different religious communities qx; 

sects, — ^27 native and indigenous, 9 foreign.'*' The following arrangementv 
shows them, under certain obvious consid^uble and minor classes^ in the order^ 
of historical formation : 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES: 

BRITTSST: 

Churdi of England and Ireland. 

Scottish Presbyterians : 
Church of Scotland. 
United Presbyterian Synod, 
Presbyterian Church in 
England* 

Independents, or Congrega- 
tionalists. 

Baptists : 
General. 
Particular. 
Seventh Day. 
Scotch. 
New Connexion General. 

Society of Friends. 

Unitarians. 

Moravians, or United Brethren. 

Wesleyan Methodists : 

Original Connexion. 

New Connexion. 

Primitive Methodists. 

Bible Christians. 

Wesleyan Association. 

Independent Methodists. 

Wesleyan Reformers. 



PROTESTANT CHURCHES— 

continued. 

BBITISff:-iSonthaAeA. 

Calvimstic Methodists : 

Welsh Calvimstic Metho^ 

dists. 
Countess of Huntingdon'^ 
Connexion. 
Sandemanians, or Glassites. 
New Church. 
Brethren. 

FOMmGN: 

Lutherans. 

German Protestant Refonnecs, 

Reformed Church of the 

Netherlands. 
French Protestants. 

' 4 

4 I 

OTHER CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. 
Roman Catholics. 
Greek Church. 
German Catholics. 
Italian Reformers. 
Catholic and Apostolic Churchi. 
Latter-day Saints or Mormons. 

JSWS. 



* These include all the bodies which have assumed any formal organization. There are, lu 
addition, many isolated congregations of religious worshippers, adopting various appellations, 
but it does not appear that any of them is sufficient^ numerous and consolidated to be called a 
-sect." 



. AND Wales.]. REPORT. 



The existence of so many separate sects will be considered an advantage or 
an evil, in proportion as the active exercise of private judgment, or the visible 
unity of the Church, if both be unattainable together, is esteemed the more 
important acquisition. Much too of the feeling, favorable or adverse, which 
the contemplation of such multiphed diversities must cause, will be dependent 
on the question whether, notwithstanding much apparent and external difference, 
substantial harmony with laiith may not extensively prevail. 



id 



Of great importance evidently, therefore, is it to supply some sketch, however Necessity of 
slight, of the prominent characteristics of each sect; partly for the sake of ^^ 
justice to the sects themselves, in order to reveal, in some of them, accordances, 
perhaps not generally hitherto suspected, with admitted truth — ^and partly for the 
sake of the community at large, in order to reveal the progress of erroneous 
doctrines, likewise, it may be, hitherto unnoticed. 



PROGRESS OF RELIGIOUS OPINIONS IN ENGLAND. ol^l^v^ 



opiirioirB 

IS BNGLAirD. 



From A. D. 681 to the present time, an inten*al of more than eleven centuries, T)efliiit>~eBta- 
Chnstianity, in one form or another, has maintained itself as the predominant blishment of 
religion of the English people. Naturally, in the course of this protracted England. *" 
period, the ever-varying condition — social, intellectual, material — of the country, 
as successive generations made new acquisitions of enlightenment and hberty 
and wealth, effected corresponding variations in the aspect, both political and 
doctrinal, of the religious faith of the community. Thus we behold, in earliest 
limes, particular articles of Christian faith and practice gathering the undivided 
homage of the people, and receiving sanction from the civil power, which also 
punishes diversity. In course of time these ancient tenets lose their hold upon 
the national affections ; the civil sanction is transferred to other doctrines, and 
the civil penalties are now enforced against all opposition to the new belief. . 
Gradually, however, these restraints upon opinion are withdrawn; existing ' 

creeds take form and practical embodiment ; and further sects arise and organise 
and multiply, till, favoured by almost unbounded toleration, sects perpetuaUy ' 

appear and disappear, as numerous and varied as the opinions or even as the 
femcies of men. Some slight review of these mutations in the national mind and 
in the fortunes of particular Churches seems almost essential to a satis&ctory 
appreciation of the present state of England in regard to her religious 
institutions. 

Christianity, when introduced among the Saxons, at once assumed an State of Christi- 
organized character. This was, of course, accordant with the episcopal model to t^^!** ^^^^ 
which the missionaries were themselves attached. The conversion of the king of 
a Saxon State was immediately followed by the elevation of his benefactor to 
a bishopric, the territorial boundaries of which were generally conterminate with 
those of the kingdom itself. In course of time, as some of the dioceses were 
manifestly too extensive, divisions of the larger sees were made, and additional 
bishoprics created. The first partition of this kind was effected by Theodore, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, about a.d. 680; and the Council of Hertford, 
held in 693, enacted, or at least a£&rmed, that sees should become more numerous 
as the number of the faithful increased. In this manner the larger ecclesiastical Bishops and 
divisions of the country were soon settled on a permanent basis ; for, with the ^^^^'^^^s* 
exception of some changes made in the reign of Henry VIIL, and a few of very 
recent origin, the present bishoprics are the same as those estabhshed in the 
Anglo-Saxon times. The Bishops were ostensibly nominated by the clergy of 
the cathedral church, but the sovereigns generally influenced, if they did not 

B 2 



CENSUS, 185 J. —RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



I>SOaBESS 
09 SELIGIOUS 

opiirioirs 



Eeveuues. 



Condition of the 
Church subse- 
quent to the 
Norman Con- 
quest. 



1384r-1509. 



altogether motiopolize, the appointments. The authority of the prelates was very 
considerable. They ranked ivith the Earl, and each of their oaths was equivalent 
to those of 120 ceorls. Apart from their spiritual jurisdiction, they sustained an 
important position in the conduct of civil a£Pairs, — possessing seats in the national 
Witena-gemot, and assisting the sheriffs in the local administration of justice. 

The funds for the support of Christianity were derived from various sources. 
At first they seem to have been exclusively supplied by voluntary offerings, 
of which the bishops had the sole disposal.* Affceiwards, upon the erection of 
a church or the foundation of a religious establishment, it became the custom 
— ^probably in imitation of a practice which appears to have prevailed in nearly 
every age and every country of the world — for the founder to devote a tenth of 
all his property to purposes of religion and charity. Tithes thus appear to have 
had their origin in voluntary pajrments, and as such they were, doubtless, veiy 
generally rendered in the early periods of Anglo-Saxon rule, when the payment 
was considered applicable both to the provision for religious worship and to the 
relief of the poor. It was not till the middle of the sixth century that tithes 
were demanded by the clergy of Christendom as a right; nor were they declared 
to be such by any General Council prior to that of Lateran in 1215. In 
England, however, it was not long before a custom so generally adopted began 
to be regarded, first as a religious, and then as a legal, duty ; and, accordingly, 
the legislature in the tenth century recognized the obligation, and provided for 
its due discharge, first, by declaring that defaulters should be liable to spiritual 
censures, and, ultimately, by enacting ci^'il penalties for disobedience. Several 
minor customary payments, under the various names of Church-shot, Light-shot, 
and Plough-alms, seem also to have gradually acquired a legislative sanction. 
Monasteries, and similar religious institutions, were, in general, well provided 
for by the endowments settled on them by their founders, and by grants and 
gifts continually made to them by later benefactors. 

For nearly 160 years immediately following the Conquest, the history of 
Christianity in England shows an almost continual advance of the power of the 
clergy and the Holy See. William the Conqueror, though personally little 
incUned to yield the smallest portion of his spiritual jurisdiction, nevertheless 
contributed materially, by steps adopted for political advantage, to augment the 
influence of Rome. While he himself maintained with spirit his supposed 
prerogatives, — not suffering any interference with the Church without his sanction, 
and requiring that no Pope should be received as such without his previous 
consent, — the various acts by which he introduced or strengthened precedents for 
papal intervention could not fail to be the efficacious means by which, in more 
perplexing times, or under less determined ruleri^, England would be brought to 
more complete dependence on the Court of Rome. Among these measures, not 
the least effectual was the separate ecclesiastical tribunal which he instituted for 
offences and disputes in which the clergy were concerned. This exclusive juris- 
diction, and the further advances made in enforcing clerical celibacy, tended 
much to erect the priesthood into an independent power in the state, asserting, 
first an equal, and at last a superior, position to the civil government. 

Nearly every Parliament from the time of Wycliffe to the reign of Henry 
VIII. (1384 to 1609) adopted measures to resist pontifical supremacy; and, 
not restricting their hostility to Rome, they even several times suggested to 
the sovereign the appropriation of Church property to secular objects. Two 
parties hence arose in the ranks of the Reformers. — one desiring both political and 
doctrinal reformation, the other limiting their aims to merely secular changes. 

* Kemble, ii. p. 478. LiiiganJU vol. i. p. 180. 



andWales.J report. hi 5 

From 1534 this country may be said to have possessed a Natiomd Church ; pitoonsss 

for ever since, with the brief exception which occurred in the reign of Mary, opiirioirs 

all the civil laws by which, in England, Christianity has been established in ByoLAif d, 

and expounded, have derived their force entirely from the sanction of the Establishment 

native government of the state, apart from any, the slightest, interference of a church. **"* 
foreign power. 

In 1536, the Convocation passed, and the King adopted, certain Articles, Changes ®^^^<^ 
by which the faith of the Church of England was, for the time, authoritatively ^ 
settled. In these, the Bible and the three creeds are set forth as the foun- 
dation of belief; baptism, penance, confession to a priest, belief in the cor- 
poral presence, are declared essential to salvation; justification is said to be 
obtained by the union of good works with faith. Images were to be used as 
examples, but not as idols ; saints were to be honoured, but not worshipped ; 
the use of holy water was allowed, but its efficacy was denied; indefinite 
prayer was permitted for the dead ; and the existence of an unspecific purgatory 
was affirmed.* All the clergy were directed to explain these articles to their 
flocks. Latin and English Bibles were to be set up in the churches ; and the 
children of the parish were to be taught, in the mother tongue, the Lord's 
Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the Creed. f In the following year, 1537, 
the King put forth a f\A\&e exposition of the orthodox beUef in the shape of a 
book adopted by the Convocation and entitled '* The Institution of a Christian 
Man,'' and in 1543 he published, of his own authority, a second edition of this 
work, with certain alterations favouring the ancient doctrines. These books 
were, each in turn, accepted as the standard of belief : but the test by which it 
was attempted to secure an uniformity of faith was the ''Law of the Six 
Articles," passed in 1539. By this law were estabhshed, (1) the doctrine of 
the real presence, — (2) the communion in one kind only, — (3) the perpetual 
obligation of vows of chastity, — (4) the utiUty of private masses, — (5) the 
celibacy of the clergy, — ^and (6) the necessity of auricular confession. Death 
by fire, and forfeiture of all possessions, were the penalties of controverting the 
first article; imprisonment or death the penalty of opposition to the rest, 
according as the opposition was withdrawn or persevered in. In 1544, the 
Legislature somewhat mitigated the severity of this enactment ; but the number 
of persons who were executed under its provisions was yet very great. 

During the brief reign of Edward the Sixth the progress of the doctrinal Refor- Edward VI. 
mation \yas more rapid, and its character more definite. The law of the Six 
Articles was repealed; the celebration of private masses was prohibited; the 
laity were allowed the communion of the cup ; marriage was permitted to the 
clergy; images were removed from all the churches; altars were converted to 
communion tables; and finally, in 1553, Forty-two Articles of Faith were 
issued by authority, establishing the doctrines of the Church of England nearly 
as they stand at present. A new Communion Service, differing but slightly 
firom that now in use, was produced in 1547 ; and the English Liturgy, first 
introduced in 1549, and afterwards revised and somewhat altered, was confirmed 
by Parliament in 1552. To spread the new belief among the people, measures 
were adopted to promote and regulate the practice of preaching, which began 
to be a very powerful means of influencing popular opinion. Bishops were 
required to preach four times a year— to stimulate the parish clergy in this 
exercise — ^and to ordain for the ministry none who were unable to perform 
this necessary duty. As, however, the supply of preachers was, for some time. 



• Hume's History of England, vol.iv. p. 165.— Short's History of the Church of England, p. 109. 
t This permission to read the Scriptures was restricted, in 1543, to gentlemen and merchants. 

B 3 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



PSO&BBS0 
ow BlLieiOUS 

' opiBioirs 

17 EJS&LASJi 



unavoidably deficient, a Book of Homilies, composed in chief by Oanmer^ was 
appointed to be used in churches, together with the Paraphrase of Erasmus. 
The singing of psalms and hymns tom Scripture was also now, for the first 
time, authorized. 



Mary I. 



Itoaetionto 

Soman 

Catholicism. 



JSiizabeth. 



Re-establish- 
ment of Pro- 
testanism. 



Maiy, a sincere and zealous Romanist, succeeding to the sovereign authority 
at a time when the almost universal voice of the community affirmed it as 
the duty of the civil ruler to decide the nation*s creed and to enforce compliance, 
naturally at once reversed her brother's policy — ^restored the former faith and 
practices — and put in energetic force against the Protestants the persecuting 
principles which they themselves so generally sanctioned. All the acts of 
Edward touching on religion were repealed; the doctrine of the corporal 
presence in the mass was re-affirmed; the Prayer Book and the Catechism 
were pronounced heretical ; the celibacy of the clergy was prescribed, and every 
married clergyman ejected from his cure ; severe enactments against heresy were 
passed ; and a sort of inquisition to discover heretics was instituted. All the 
prominent reformers either fled across the sea or suffered in England at the 
stake. About 300 had already paid for their opinions with their lives when 
Mary's brief reign ended in 1658. 

Elizabeth at once replaced the Church in the position it had occupied before 
the reign of Mary. Parliament again affirmed the sovereign's supremacy as 
head of the Church, and punished with extreme severity all those who ques- 
tioned this prerogative.* In 1559 the Act of Uniformityt restored with little 
variance the Book of Common Prayer, and made it penal to be absent without 
reasonable cause from a church where it was used. In 1563 the second Book 
of Homilies was printed, and the Larger Catechism sanctioned. And the 
Articles of Religion — ^which, in 1563, had been subscribed (then numbering 
thirty-eight) by the Convocation — ^were, in 1571, adopted in their present shape 
and number, ratified by the Queen, and confirmed by Act of Parliament. % 
Thus, Protestant Christianity was re-established as the national religion ; and 
severe coercive measures were enacted to secure unanimous profession and 
obedience. 



Progress of 
Puritanism. 



No sooner, however, had the ^nctory been thus completed over one of the 
two great parties hostile to the settlement eflPected in the reign of Edward, 
than a vigorous and long protracted conflict with the other party was renewed. 
Both for their numbers and sincere activity these new antagonists were 
formidable foes. As, in deciding on the changes which should be admitted, 
Cranmer and the other founders of the Church displayed the cautious policy 
of statesmen rather than the pauseless ardour of religious partizans — more 
anxious to condliate opponents and secure the utmost innovation practicable, 
than to contend uncompromisingly for all the progress they might think 
desirable — it followed, almost of necessity, that multitudes, deriving their 
opinions fi»m the exercise of private judgment on the Scriptiu^s recently un- 
sealed to them, and urged, by natural reaction, to the utmost distance from the 
Church of Rome, would find their ardent expectations of the new establishment 
unrealized, and would lament as well the absence from its constitution and its 
ritual of much which they desired as the continued presence there of much 
which they disliked. 



• The Queen preferred the title of " Supreme Governor** of the Church to ** Sunreme Head." 
All the bishoDS except one refktsed to take the oath and were in consequence deprived : 178 of 
the inferior cleray imitated their reftisal with a sunilar result. 

1 1 Eliz. cap. 2 X IS Eliz. cap. 12. 



AND Walbs.] report. 



i 



K 



Tbe Pturitans, were not wholly presbytemn. The natural tendency of the 
religious movement in the public mind was to develop constantly new theories ^'o^SSSfT^ 
of ecclesiastical government^ each fresh advance distinguished by a nearer nrsvoLiini 
approach to a democratic system. Although the Pre8b3rterians, therefore, for 
a long time formed the vast minority of the opponents of the Church establish- 
ment, opinions much less ' favourable than theirs to clerieal authority and 
State control in matters of religion soon began to gain adherents. Most 
<;im8|^etiou8 among the sects which entertained such notions were the 
Independents, who, rejecting equally the presbyterian and episcopal machinery, P^Jlff^ . 
mtuntained that every individual congregation is a separate Church, complete 
amd perfect in itself, and altogether independent of external oversight. They 
also held that the province of the civil magistrate did not extend to spiritual 
tilings, Ihe State possessing no infallible means of distinguishing truth from 
error, and the true religion being best discovered and established by the unforced Baptists. 
2iM of its disciples. — Similar opinions were maintained by the Baptists, who» 
d[>out this period, began to grow into importance. 

. The reign of Charles the First beheld the crisis of the controversy. All the CharlM I. 
various severe repressive measures which were put in force proved ineffectual to 
check the spread of puritanic principles, and only served to render yet more bitter 
the hostility of their professors towards the ruling hierarchy. At last this long 
protracted opposition triumphed. Parliament, in 1641, abolished the Court of 
High Commission, and deprived the bishops of votes in the House of Peers. In 

1643 episcopacy was itself abolished, and the chief direction of the Church 
intrusted to the " Westminster Assembly,** a body chosen by the Parliament, 
and consisting of 120 clergymen and 30 laymen. This assembly, where the 
Presbyterians predominated, issued a Confession of Faith, a larger and a shoker 
Catechism, a form of Presbyterian Church government, and a " Directory " for 
public worship. Parliament, in 1645, suppressed the Prayer Book, and enjoined 
the use of the Directory — an outline service, which each minister was authorized 
to supplement at his discretion. Part only of the Confession (which was 
Calvinistic) was adopted by the legislature ; and the form of government was 
not established, save in Lancashire and London, and not there without the 
safeguard of an ultimate appeal to Parliament. An ordinance was passed in 

1644 by which the clergy were required to take the Covenant, and thus engage 
to uphold Presbyterianism ; 3,000 of them refused, and were ejected from their 
benefices, being allowed one fifth part of their income for their future mainte- 
nance. In the absence of episcopacy, the discipline of the Church was adminis- 
tered by the Assembly, who ordained and appointed ministers. In this reign Bweof the 
the Quakers first appeared, originated by George Fox. 

. By Cromwell'^ assumption of supreme authority in 1649 the influence of the The Protectorate 

Preisbyterians was much diminished. The power of ordination was removed 

from the Assembly and intrusted to a committee of thirty-eight persons of 

different sects called Triers (nine of whom were laymen), who examined all the 

nominees for ministerial functions. In Wales, itinerant preachers were employed 

by a Commission out of revenues at its disposal. Tithes were continued to the 

clergy ; but the proceeds of the bishop's lands, and tenths and first fruits, were 

made over to the Commissioners, with the design of aiding ftom the fund thus 

ifii^ed the stipends of the smaller livings. 

The principle of toleration was first recogmzed in this administration ; free 
exercise of their religion being guaranteed to all "who professed faith in God 
^' in Christ Jesus;" and it was further added, ''that none be compelled to 
** <?onform to the public religion by penalties or otherwise, but that endea- 

B 4 



s 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



FBOeSESS 

ov Bsxjeiovs 

OFIHIOHB 



i( 



yonra be lued to win them hy sound doctrine and the example of a good 
" conversation." 



The Restoration. But the change m the national rdigion whidi was tiius effected during the 

Interregnum, by the advance towards a Puritan establishment, was nearly a& 
evanescent as was that which had been caused hi tiie reign of Mary by the 
retrogression towards the andent faith. With the lasting restoration of the 
monarchy, episcopacy also was enduringly restored. The ascent of Charles 
the Secpnd to the vacant throne in 1660 seemed to have effiiced from history 
the period of the Great Rebellion, and the Episcopal Church regained the 
dominant position, fenced by penal statutes, it had occupied in the days of 
Liaud. 

A previous professed endeavour to conciliate the Nonconformists failed* 
Like Mary, like Elizabeth, like James the First, so Charles ^e Second also, 
on the eve of his accession, promised tenderness to conscientious scruples ; but 
the Savoy conference between the Nonconformists and Episcopalians, convened 
pursuant to this promise, ended in no tangible result. An Act of Uniformity, 
more stringent than the similar enactment of Elizabeth, was passed in 1662, by 
which all ministers refusing to assent to everything contained in the Book of 
Common Prayer, as recently amended, were to be ejected from their benefices on 
the next St. Bartholomew's Day ; and accordingly 2,000 ministers were then 
deprived of their preferments. Several other statutes, varying in rigour, were 
enacted in this reign against the Nonconformists, for the purpose of pro- 
tecting the Established Church. In 1661, the Corporation Act excluded 
all dissenters from municipal appointments. Two Conventicle Acts, in 1664 
and 1670, made it penal for five persons, in addition to the occupiers of 
a house, to assemble for religious worship ; and in 1665 the Five Mile Act 
imposed a penalty of 40L on every Nonconformist minister who came 
within five miles of any corporate town, and also upon all, whether ministers 
or laymen, who, if not frequenting the Established Church, should teach in 
a public or private school. In 1673, the Test Act, aimed at Roman 
Catholics and Nonconformists equally, excluded them from civil offices 
and military commands. In 1678, in consequence of Oates*s plot, the 
Roman Catholics were prohibited from sitting in Parliament. The King made 
several attempts to grant a toleration, but as these endeavours were supposed by 
Parliament to spring from a desire to favour Roman Catholics, they uniformly 
failed.* Still, towards the termination of this reign, a feeling of the impolicy of 
treating harshly nonconforming Protestants began to be ^ displayed ; and 
gradually the sentiment extended through the nation that a trivial diversity in 
modes of worship might be well allowed them without danger to the national^ 
establishment* 



James II. 



This feeling was much strengthened in the reign of James, when the Non- 
conformists declined to receive the toleration which the King, by an illegal 
stretch of his prerogative, held out to them. Several of the bishops, grateful for 
assistance rendered at a critical conjuncture, entertained a plan of compre- 
hension, which, proceeding on an alteration of some portions of the liturgy, 
might bring again within the pale of the Established Church the mass of those 
who had abandoned her communion. In the troubles and excitement of the 
times, however, no advance was made in this direction ; but a disposition to 
indulgence was excited in the ruling party, not unlikely to be fruitful when a 
favorable opportunity occurred. This opportunity was soon presented, when King 

* It is stated that above 8,000 Protestant dissenters were imprisoned in the reign of Charles 
the Second : and that as many as 60,000 had in various ways» m the same period, suflSered for 
religion. See Short's History of the Church of England, p. 669. 



AND Wales.] REPORT. / t 9 

_ ^lV 

James the Second^ partly for political and partly for religious causes^ was, in 1688, pKoasssfi 
expelled the throne. The claim of the Dissenters to a milder treatment could ^^opiifioifs ^ 
not well be disregarded, either by the . monarch they had helped to elevate, or '? bts&lasd, 
by the Church they had assisted to defend. Accordingly, the Toleration Act* The Revolution, 
bestowed, on all but Roman Catholics and such as denied the doctrine of the 
Trinity, full liberty of worship, upon paying tithes and other dues, taking the 
oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and certifying their places of worship to the 
bishops or the justices of the peace : Dissenting ministers being also required 
to sign thirty-five and a half of the Articles of the Established Church. The 
scheme for a comprehension was proceeded with, but proved abortive. A 
commission, i^pointed by the King, suggested sundry alterations in the liturgy; 
but these the Lower House of Convocation was unwilling to concede, and this, 
the last, endeavour to procure by comprehension greater uniformity was finally 
abandoned, and has never since that period been renewed. 

The Revolution settled the Established Church upon its present basis. Final settleraent 
Several alterations, have indeed, been since effected in its relative position ^^^h. *^ 
towards other sects ; but not the slighest change has been effected in the Church 
itself, in its doctrines, polity, or worship. The principal effect of the Toleration 
Act was on the character of the Church as a national establishment. Before 
this statute, no discrepancy was deemed conceivable between the Church and 
the community : the one was looked upon as altogether co-extensive with the 
other. To dissent from the belief or mode of worship sanctioned by supreme 
ecclesiastical authority was much the same as to rebel against the civil power ; 
and all who placed themselves in this predicament were either to be brought 
by fines and other punishments, to yield conformity, or, if intractable, were to 
be burnt or banished, and the absolute identity of Church and Nation thus 
restored. The Toleration Act in part destroyed this theory. The Episcopal 
Church was stiU considered ''national," as being recognised as orthodox by 
national authority — endowed by law with the exclusive right to tithes and 
similar unvoluntary contributions — gifted with a special portion of the State's 
support — and subject generally to the State's control ; but those who differed 
from her creeds and formularies were allowed, while aiding to support the legal 
faith, to worship in the way they deemed most scriptural and proper, subject for 
a time to some disqualifying statutes which have gradually been repealed or 
modified.f 



 1 W. & M. C.18. 

t The principal of these were, the Conventicle Act, 22 Car. II. c 1. (repealed in 1689), which 
made it penal to attend a Nonconformist meeting of more than five persons ; the Corporation 
Act, 13 Car. II. c.l. (renealed in 182^), which disqualified for offices in. corporations all who 
should decline to take the sacrament according to the rites of the Established Church, and to 
swear that it is in no case lawful to take arms against the king ; the Test Act, 25 Cai*. II. c.2. 
(repealed in 1828), which disqualified fh)m holding any place of trust or public office those who 
should refuse to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, subscribe a declaration against 
transubstantiation, and receive the Lord's Supper in accordance with the usage of the Church ot 
England; the Act of 13 & 14 Car. II. c.4., by which dissenters were prohibited from keeping 
schools (modified in 1799, by allowing them to teach upon taking the usual oaths and subscrib- 
ing the usual declaration) ; the provision (repealed m 1818) in the Toleration Act, excepting 
from its benefits all persons who denied the Trinity ; the Occasional Corifonnity Act, 10 Anne. 
c.2. (repealed in 1718), by which no person was eligible for public employment unless he entirely 
conformed: the/S'cAMm^c^, 12 Anne, st.II. c.7. (repealed in 1718), by which all schoolmasters 
were to be licensed by the bishops, and to be strict conformists. 

The chief disabilities which, for the safeguard of the Established Church, are still imposed on 
other bodies, are the following :— all persons holding certain responsible civil and military offices, 
and all ecclesiastical and collcgiato persons, preachers, teachers, and schoolmasters, high con- 
stables, and practitioners of the law, are reqmred to promise, by oath or affirmation, allegiance 
to the Crown, and acknowledge its ecclesiastical supremacy, ana also to abjure allegiance to the 
descendants of the Pretender, and to maintain the Act of Settlement.— N'o Dissenter can hold 
the mastership of a college or other endowed school, unless endowed since 1688, for the immediate 
benefit of Protestant Dissenters.— All meetings for religious worship of more than twenty per- 
sons besides the family, if held in a building not certified to the B^strar Greneral, are subject to 
a ])enaJty of 20^.- Every person appointed to any office, for admission to which it was necessanr 
under the Test Act to receive the sacrament according to the custom of the Church of England, 
is to make a declaration " upon the true fiuth of a Christian," that he will never exercise any 

gower. authority, or influence obtained by virtue of such office, to injure or disturb the English 
hurch or its bishops and clei^. (Stephen's Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 108.)— Mayors or other 



10 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOtrS WORSHIP. - [England* 



PBOOXEBS 
OV SBLIOIOUB 
AOPIKIOKS 
ik BVOLAITD. 

Seoedhig 
Churches. 



The era o{ the Revolution, therefore, is the birthday of religious sects in Eng- - 
land. For a long time previously they had been struggling into being ; but 
from henceforth they obtained embodied life. The hasty glance bestowed upon 
the various phases of the land's religious history will not be deemed superfluous; i 
if it serve to indicate with any clearness through what intellectual conflicts and 
political convulsions most of the extant varieti^ of creed have worked their Way* 
towards a separate embodiment and legal recognition. But from 1688 the 
history of our religion, ceasing to be identical with the history of the State, must 
not, as formerly, be looked for in the national annals or the pages of the statute • 
book, but in the records of each individual church. A brief view, therefore, of - 
the origin and course and principal peculiarities of these seceding bpdies, will 
complete the sketch by which it seemed advisable to introduce the denomina- 
tional statistics. In this view I purpose to bestow the Chief attention upoii* 
Protestant seceding churches ; as requiring, from the little that is popularly • 
known concerning them, a fulness of explanation which the notoriety attachiixg 
to the leading features of the Church of England and the Church of Rome 
makes quite unnecessary in the case of those communities. 



1688-1851. 



MethocUsm. 
ISwedenboi^. 



Disniptions of 
the Methodists. 



Jndng. 



"The Mormons. 



From this proposed review it will be seen that four of the existing sects, — the ' 
Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, and Society of Friends, — derive their 
origin directly from the conflict of opinions which produced and followed the ^ 
Reformation. — ^The prolonged reaction which succeeded to the Puritan enthu- 
siasm was not, as we shall see, disturbed till near the middle of the eighteenth 
century, when a marvellous re^dval of religious sentiment broke in upon the 
slumbers of the general Church, and in the fonn of Methodism, came to be 
condensed into the largest of the nonconforming bodies. — Next, as the author 
of a new belief, a Swedish noble and philosopher affirms himself to be divinely 
authorized to pubhsh a fresh revelation both of truths communicated to himself 
by angels, and of truths before concealed beneath the hidden meaning of the 
Scriptures, but made manifest to him. — ^Towards the termination of the century, 
the patriarch of Methodism quits the world and leaves the vast conmiunity 
which hitherto had been consolidated by his influence and skill, a prey to 
discords, which, recurring at repeated intervals, detach considerable sections 
from the parent body, — this, however, scarcely pausing in its growth. — In recent ' 
days, the startling oratory of a Scottish minister convinces many that the pro- 
phesied millennial advent is at hand ; and a church at once is founded claiming 
to possess the apostolic gifts which are to be exhibited upon the eve of such a 
consummation. — More recent still, and more remarkable, another clainumt of 
celestial inspiration has appeared across the Atlantic; and the book of the 
prophet Mormon, like another Koran, is attracting its believers even from this 
country, whence continually little bands are voyaging to join, at the city of the 
Great Salt Lake, beneath the Rocky Mountains, the " Chiurch of the Latter- 
day Saints." 



principal miigistrates, appearing at anv Dissenting place of worship witii the insignia of office^ are 
disabled from holding any official situation.— Persons professing the Boman Catholio relifioii, 
must, in order to sit in parliament, or vote at parliamentary elections, or become members of lay 
corporations, take an oath abjuring any intention to suDvert the Churoh establishment, and 
another, promising never to maike use of any privilege to disturb the Protestant succession or the 
Frote^ant ffovemment. The latter oath must be taken to enable them to exercise any friuichise 
or civil right, and to hold any office from which they were excluded by the Test Act. No B/^man 
Catholic can present to any benefice, nor hold the office of B^nt of the United Kingdom, Lord. 
High ChaDoellor, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Hi^h Commissioner of the General Assembly of 
Sootlaud, nor any office in the Church or the ecclesiastical courts, or in the universities, ooUeges, 
or public schools. 



AND Walks.] REPOBT. «. / il 

1 g^ 

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. '^J^^^'"'' 



Doctrines. 



The doctrines of the Church of England are embodied in her Articles and 
liturgy : the Book of Common Prayer prescribes her mode of worship ; 
ahd the Canons of 1603 contain, so &r as the clergy are concerned, her code of 
discipline. 

Bishops, Priests; and Deacons are the ministerial orders known to the epi- Orders, 
seopal establishment of England. In the Bishop lies the power of ordination of 
inferior ministers, who otherwise have no authority to dispense the sacraments 
or preach. Deacons, when ordained, may, licensed by the bishop, preach and 
administer the rite of baptism ; Priests by this ceremony are further empowered 
to administer the. Lord's Supper, and to hold a benefice with cure of souls. 

Besides these orders, there are also several dignities sustained by bishops and by Dignities, 
priests; as (1) Archbishops, each of whom is chief of a certain number of bishops, 
who are usually ordained by him ; (2) Deans and Chapters, who, attached to all 
cathedrals, are supposed to form the council of the bishop, and to aid him 
with advice ; (3) Archdeacons, who perform a kind of episcopal functions in a 
certain portion of a diocese ; (4) Rural Deans, who are assistants to the bishop 
in a smaller sphere. 

These various orders and dignities of the Church have all (except cathedral Territorial Divi- 
deans) attached to them peculiar territorial jurisdictions. The theory of the 
Establishment demands that every clergyman should have his ministrations 
limited to a specific district or Parish; and, when England first became divided Parishes, 
into parishes, the number of churches would exactly indicate the number of 
such parishes, — each parish being just that portion of the country, the inha- 
bitants of which were meant to be accommodated in the newly-erected church. 
In course of years, however, either prompted by the growth of population or by 
their own capricious piety, proprietors erected and endowed, within the mother- 
parishes, firesh edifices which were either chapels of ease to the mother chxirch 
or the centres of new districts, soon allowed by custom to become distinct 
ecclesiastical divisions known as "chapelries." In this way nearly all the 
soil of England became parcelled out in ecclesiastical divisions, varying greatly, 
both in size and population, as might be expected from the isolated and 
unsystematic efforts out of which they sprung. Of late years, as new churches 
have been built, some further subdivisions of the larger parishes have been 
effected by the bishops and commissioners empowered by acts of parliament. 
The number of ecclesiastical districts and new parishes thus formed was, at 
the time of the census, 1,255, containing a population of 4,832,491. 

In the andent Saxon period, ten such parishes constituted a Rural Deanery. Rural Deaneries. 
The growth^ however, of the population, and the increased number of churches, 
have now altered this proportion, and the rural deaneries are diverse in extent. 
Ai present there are 463 such divisions. 

Archdeaconries, as territorial divisions, had their origin soon after the Norman Archdeaconries. 
Conquest, previous to which archdeacons were but members of cathedral 
chapters. Several new archdeaconries have been created within recent years, by 
the Ecclesiastieal Commissioners, by virtue of the act of 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 77' 
The total number now is 71. 

Bishoprics or Dioceses are almost as ancient as the introduction here of Chris- IKoceses. 
tianity. Of those now extant, all (excepting seven) were formed in Saxon or in 



12 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



XHB CHUBCE ov British times. The Saxon bishoprics were generally co-eictensive with the several 
3sirei|AirD. kingdoms. Of the excepted seven, five were created by Henry the Eighth, out 
of a portion of the confiscated property of the suppressed religious houses, and 
the other two (viz. Manchester and Ripon), were created by the Act of 
6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 77. There are two Archbishoprics or Provinces : Canterbury, 
comprehending 21 dioceses, and York, comprising the remaining seven. The 
population of the former in 1851 was 12,785,048 ; that of the latter 5,285,687. 



patronage. 



Incumbents of parishes are appointed, subject to the approval of the bishop, 
by patrons, who may be either corporate bodies or private persons. Of the 
11,728 benefices in England and Wales, 1,144 are in the gift of the crown; 
1,853 in that of the bishops; 938 in that of cathedral chapters and other 
dignitaries; 770 in that of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and 
the colleges of Eton, Winchester, &c. ; 931 in that of the ministers of mother- 
churches ; and the residue (6,092) in that of private persons. Incumbents are 
of three kinds ; rectors, vicars, and perpetual curates. Rectors are recipients of 
all the parochial tithes ; vicars and perpetual curates are the delegates of the 
tithe-unpropriators, and receive a portion only. These appointments are for 
life. The ordinary curates 'are appointed each by the incumbent who desires 
their aid. 



Revenues. 



The income of the Church of England is derived from the following sources ; 
Iftnds, tithes, church-rates, pew-rents, Easter offerings, and surplice fees (i. e. 
fees for burials, baptisms, &c.) The distribution of these revenues may be 
inferred from the state of things in 1831, when it appeared to be as follows : — 

£ 
Bishops - . - 181,631 

Deans and chapters - 360,095 

Parochial clergy - - 3,251,159 

Church-rates - - . 500,000 



jg4,292,885 



StipendB of the 
Clergy. 



Augmentations 
of small livings. 



In the course of the twenty years which have elapsed since 1831, no fewer 
than 2,029 new churches have been built, and the value of Church property 
has much increased ; so that, after the considerable addition which must be 
made to the above amount, in order to obtain an accurate view of the total 
income of the Church in 1851, it is probable that it will be considerably 
upwards of 5,000,000/. per annum. 

The number of beneficed clergy in 1831 was 10,718: the average gross 
income, therefore, of each would be about 300/. per annum. At the same 
date there were 5,230 curates, the total amount of whose stipends was 424,695/., 
yielding an average of 81/. per annum to each curate. But, as many incum- 
bents possessed more than 300/. a year, and some curates more than 81/. a 
year, there must evidently have been some incumbents and curates whose 
remuneration was below those sums respectively. 

For the purpose of raising the stipends of incumbents of the smaller li^-ings, 
the Governors of Queen Anne's Bounty annually receive the sum of 14,000/., 
the produce of First Fruits and Tenths ; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
apply to the same object a portion of the surplus proceeds of episcopal and 
capitular estates. 



AND Wales.] 



REPORT. 






13 



THX CHVBCIC OV 
BITOLAHD. 



The progress of the Church of England has, in recent times, been very rapid ; 
and conspicuously so withm the twenty years just terminated. Latterly, a 
sentiment appears to have been strongly prevalent, that the relief of spiritual K***'^* progress, 
destitution must not be exclusively devolved upon the State ; that Christians in 
their individual, no less than in their organized, capacity, have duties to discharge 
in ministering to the land's religious wants. Accordingly, a spirit of benevolence 
has been increasingly difPused ; and private liberality is now displaying fruits, in 
daily rising churches, almost as abundant as in ancient times— distinguished, 
also, advantageously, from earlier charity, by being, it may fairly be assumed, 
the offspring of a more enlightened zeal, proceeding from a wider circle of 
contributors. The foUomng statistics will exhibit this more clearly : — 

In 1831, the number of churches and chapels of the Church of England 
amounted to 1 1,825. The number in 1851, as returned to the Census Office, 
was 13,854; exclusive of 223 described as being "not separate buildings," or 
as " used also for secular purposes ;" thus showing an increase, in the course 
of 20 years, of more than tiioo thousand churches. Probably the increase is still 
larger, really, as it can hardly be expected that the last returns were altogether 
perfect. The greater portion of this increase is attributable to the self-extending 
power of the Church, — the State not having, in the twenty years, contributed in 
aid of private benefactions, more than 511,385/. towards the erection of 386 
churches. If we assume the average cost of each new edifice to be about 3,000/. 
the total sum expended in this interval (exclusive of considerable sums devoted 
to the restoration of old churches) will be 6,087,000/. llie chief addition has 
occurred, as was to be expected and desired, in thickly-peopled districts, 
where the rapid increase of inhabitants has rendered such additional accommo- 
dation most essential. Thus, in Cheshire, Lancashire, Middlesex, Surrey, and the \ 
West Riding of Yorkshire, the increase of churches has been so much greater ^ 
than the increase of the population, that the proportion between the accommoda- 
tion and the number of inhabitants is now considerably more favourable than in 
1831. (Table A.) 

Table A. 



County. 


Population. 


Number 

of 

Churches 

(separate Buildings). 


Proportion of Churches 

to 

Population. 




1831. 


1 
1851. 


1831. 


1851. J 


1831. 


1851. 


Ghsshihi; 
Lancashtre 
Middlesex - 
Subset - . - 
ToKK (West Riding) - 


834,391 

1«836,854 

lfiS%J330 

486,434 

984,609 


1 
450.725 

2,081,236 

1,886,576 

683,062 

1,325,495 


142 
292 
246 
159 

287 


244 
521 
405 
249 
556 


One Church 
to 
2,355 

4,578 

5,622 

3,059 

3,431 


OneChurch 

to 

1868 

8899 

4658 

2743 

2384 



It is true, indeed, that in the whole of England and Wales collectively the 
proportion shows no increase, but a decrease — being, in 1831, one church to 
every 1,175 inhabitants, while in 1851 it was one church to every 1,296; but 
the latter proportion is not inconsistent with the supposition that, in consequence 
of better distribution of the churches through the country, the accommodation 
in reality is greater now than was the case in 1831. But this must be more fully 
treated in a subsequent part of this Report. 



14 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [J^ngland 



JESt0JAJSI>. 



The following view of the periods in which the existing structures were 

erected^ will display, to some eictent, the comparatiye increase in the several 

decennial intervals of the present century. Of the 14,077 existing churches, 

chapels, and other huildings belonging to the Church of England, there were 

:.lmilt — 



Before 1801 

Between 1801 and 1811 
1811 and 1821 
1821 and 1831 
1831 and 1841 
„ 1841 and 1851 

Dates not mentioned 



>f 



i» 



»i 



- 9,667 

55 

97 

" ^76 

- 667 

- 1,197 

- 2,118 



This does not, indeed, with strict exactness, show the real number of 
churches built in each of these decennial intervals; for, possibly, some few, 
erected formerly, have been replaced by other arxd larger edifices, which would 
thus perhaps be mentioned with the later date. The tendency is, therefore, 
slightly, to augment unduly the numbers in the later, and unduly to dimimsh 
the numbers in the earlier periods ; but this disturbing infiuenqe has probably 
been more than counteracted by the cases where the date has been left unmen- 
tioned. The statement, therefore, is perhaps a tolerably fair criterion of the 
progress of church-building in the nineteenth century. If the preceding esti- 
mate be acciu'ate respecting the number of churches built since 1831, and if 
it be assumed, as is most likely, that the greater portion of the 2,118 chiurches, 
of which the dates of erection are not specified, were built before 1801, leaving 
perhaps 60 or 70 built in the period 1801-31 ; it will follow that, firom 1801 to 
.1831, there must have been above 500 new erections, at a cost, upon the average, 
of probably 6,0001. apiece, being altogether 3,000,000^., of which amount, 
1,152,044/. was paid from parliamentary grants, originated in 1818. Subject 
to the above-mentioned qualification respecting the dates of churches renovated 
or enlarged, the whole result of the efforts made in the present century may 
be represented thus : — 



 ^- 


Number 

of 

Churches 

huilib. 


Estimated Cost. 


PeriocUk 


Total. 


Contributed by 




Public Funds. 


Private 
Benefaction. 


1801 to 1831 
18S1 to 1851 


600 
2,029 


£ 
8,000,000 

6,087,000 


£ 
1,162,044 

611,385 


£ 

1,84/7,966 

5,676,616 


1801 to 1851 


2,629 


9,067,000 


1,66S,42& 


7,428,671 



In the 13,051 returns which furnished information as to sittings, accommo- 
dation is stated for 4,922,412 persons. Making an estimate for 1,026 churches, 
for which no particulars respecting sittings were supplied, it seems that the 
total accommodation in 14,077 churches was for 5,317,915 persons. The 
number of attendants on the Census-Sunday (after an estimated addition on 
account of 939 churches, from which no returns of the attendants were received) 
was as follows : — Morning, 2,541,244 ; Afternoon, 1,890,764 ; Evening, 860,543. 



AND Wales.! REPORT. f>\ U 




UNENDOWED CHURCHES. umsHDowBD 

^_^___^___^^_^^^_^ PSOTXBTAirT 

—————— CHX7B0EBS. 

UNENDOWED PROTESTANT CHURCI|ES. 

Introduction. 

^ When the Refonnation had suocessfully (at least in part) established the PrindpaL Divep- 

Important principle that the Bible» interpreted by individual judgment, is the 

Only rule of faiths it followed necessarily that of the many minds applied to 

the investigation of the book thus opened for their study, some were found 

to differ from each other and the rest respecting its essential meaning and 

requirements. Naturally, also, those who held identical or closely similar 

opinions upon any of the points of difference were gradually led to connedt 

themselves together in more or less intimate association. Tlius were formed 

the Lutheran, the Calvinian, and the Anglican Establishments ; and thus, when 

libeHy of separate combination was obtained in England, various churches, 

differing on various points of faith and order, were originated as distinct 

ecclesiastical communities. The principal diversities which thus obtained (in 

combination, more or less, with other differences,) a permanent embodiment, 

jnay be included and arranged in three considerable classes : — 

I. Diversities respecting the essential Doctrinbs of the Gospel. 

II. Diversities respecting the Rites and Cbremonies enjoined by the 

Scriptures. 

III. Diversities respecting the scriptural Organization op the Church. 



1. PRESBYTERIANS. ^' 

The origin of Presbyterianism is referable to the period just succeeding the OrigliL 
£rst triumphs of the principles of the Reformation. When those principles 
had so far triumphed as to have detached considerable numbers from the 
Romish faith, it then became essential, in order to provide for the spiritual 
oversight of these new converts, to establish some ecclesiastical machineiy in 
lieu'of that they had forsaken when forsaking the communion of the Church 
of Rome ; and it was therefore necessaiy to investigate the subject of Church 
Government as indicated in the Scriptures. Accordingly, Calvin, when invited 
to assume the post of ecclesiastical legislator for the city of Geneva, bent his 
mind to the construction of a perfect system of church poUty in harmony with 
.the supposed directions or suggestions of the Bible. The result of his 
enquiries was the production of a code of laws which, have since been univer* 
Mlly recognized as the basis of the Presbyterian system. The fundamental 
principles of this system are, — ^the existence in the church of but one order of 
ministers, all equal (spoken of in Scripture under various appellations held to 
be synonymous, as 'bishops/ 'presbyters,' and 'elders'), and the power of 
.these ministers — asse mbled, with a certain proportion of the laity, in local and 
in general synods — to decide all questions of church government and discipline 
prising in particular congregations. 

The Scottish Kirk adopts the Confession, Catechism, and Directory prepared xn SootlaiML 
by the Westminster Assembly as its standards of belief and w(»8hip. Its dis- 
cipline is administered by a series of four courts or assemblies. (1) The Kirk 
Session is the lowest court, and is composed of the minister of a parish and 
a variable number of lay elders, appointed from time to time by the session 
itsdf. (2) llie Presbytery consists of representatives from a certain nimiber of 



16 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



1. FRB8BT- 
TESIAirS. 



In England. 



conti((uous parishes, associated together in one district. The representatives 
are the ministers of all such parishes and one lay elder from each. This 
assembly has the power of ordaining ministers and licensing probationers to 
preach before their ordination : it also investigates charges respecting the 
conduct of members, approves of new communicants, and pronounces excom- 
munication against offenders. An appeal, however, lies to the next superior 
court; viz. (3) The Provincial Synod, which comprises several presbyteries, and 
is constituted by the ministers and elders by whom these presbyteries themselves 
were last composed. (4) The General Assembly is the highest court, and is 
composed of representatives (ministers and elders) from the presbyteries, royal 
burghs, and tmiversities of Scotland, to the number (at present) of 363; of 
which number rather more than two fifths are laymen. 

llie National Church of Scotland has three presbyteries in England ; that of 
London, containing five congregations, — that of Liverpool and Manchester, con- 
taining three congregations, — and that of the North of England, containing eight 
congregations. 

Various considerable secessions have fr^m time to time occurred in Scotland 
from the National Church, of bodies which, while holding Presbyterian senti- 
ments, dissent from the particular mode in which they are developed by the 
Established Kirk, especially protesting against the mode in which church 
patronage is administered, and against the undue interference of the civil power. 
The principal of these seceding bodies are, — the " United Presbyterian Church ,'* 
and the *'Free Church of Scotland j'* the former being an amalgamation 
(effected in 1847) of the " Secession Church '* (which separated in 1732) with 
the "Rehef Sjmod" (which seceded in 1752); and the latter having been con- 
stituted in 1843. 

The ** United Presbyterian Church " has five presbyteries in England, con- 
taining seventy-six congregations; of which, however, fourteen are locally in^ 
Scotland, leaving the number locally in England 62. 

The '* Free Church of Scotland" has no ramifications, under that name, 
in England ; but various Presbyterian congregations which accord in all respects 
with that community, and which, before the disruption of 1843, were in union 
with the EstabUshed Kirk, compose a separate Presbyterian body under the 
appellation of the " Presbyterian Church in England," having, in this portion of 
Great Britain, seven presbyteries and eighty-three congregations. 

Any more extended notice of these three communities will more appropriately 
appear as an introduction to that portion of the Census publication which refers 
exclusively to Scotland. 



The supremacy of the Independents in the army, in the time of the Com- 
monwealth, prevented the enforcement of the system universally or stringently ; 
and when the restoration of King Charles the Second was effected, the entire 
episcopal regime was re-established in its full integrity, — ^the Presbyterians not 
being able to obtain, as a compromise, even that modified synodical episcopacy, 
as designed by Archbishop Usher, to which they expressed themselves not 
indisposed to yield. The Act of Uniformity was passed, and 2,000 ministers 
were forced to quit the communion of the Church of England. 

In 1691, a formal coalescence was accomplished between the Presbyterian 
and Congregational ministers of London, and at that time, and for nearly 
30 years succeeding, it seems clear that the doctrinal tenets of the two bodies 
were the same, and thoroughly in harmony with the doctrinal portion of 
the Articles of the Church of England. But about a century ago, a most 
important alteration seems to have been silently effected in the doctrines 
held by Englbh Presbyterian churches ; and instead of the Calvinistic tenet« 
held 80 firmly by the Puritans, the later Presbyterians began to cherish, most of 



AND Waub.] BfiPORT« tl i 17 

ih<<p»i ATminlwii maiiT of them Unituiiiit sentimfliits. Hmnw who adhcMd to i^nmr- 
the standards of the Westminster Assembly are now either mi^ed in Congie- — 

gational churches, or connected with the Scottisli Presbytenans. The rest, 
possessing neither presbyteiy, synod, nor assembly, and departing widely from 
the doctrines of the Westminster Confession, can be scarcely now denominated 
'^ Presbyterians " at all, — ^their only point of concord with that body bdng the 
simple manner, common to nearly all dissenters, of conducting public worship. 
Therefore, in the tabular returns which form part oi this volumei, the tenn 
" Presbyterian '' will be restricted to its ancient meaning, and all churches formed 
of penons who do not receive the doctrine of the Trinity, (excepting General 
Baptists,) will be found included in the single dass of " Unitarians." 



2. INDEPENDENTS, OR CONGREGATIONALISTS. . 

large and jarosperous body called, indifEerently, sometimes "Independents," iovalistb. 

sometimes '^ Ck>ngregationalists," has reference to the scriptural constitution of ^Sf^ Ootbtii- 

ft Christian church. Rqecting equally the episcopal and presbyterian model, 

Ccaigvegational dissenters hold a " Church " to be synonymous with a " select 

congregation ;" and a CkritHan churdi to be therefore ft congregation of true 

hdievetM, They assert that Scripture yields no evidence to justify the application 

of the term {Ugkiffaia) to any aggreffote of individual assemblies, whether such 

aggregate consist of all that may be foimd within a definite locality, (as in the 

case of every NatUmal Church), or of all that manifest an uniformity of fiiith 

and discipline (as in every rq[»esentative Free Church). In confirmation of 

this view, they quote the language of the Bible, where the plural — " churches " — 

is, they say, invariably employed when more than one particular association is 

referred to, saving only where the reference is to the invisible and universal 

church. 

The personal compontion of the congreg^ion thus supposed to be the only 
proper " church " is, as already mentioned, that of a society of " true behevers ;" 
thai IB, persons who both openly profess their feith in the essential doctrines of 
the Gospel and evince the earnestness of theur belief by a corresponding change 
of disposition and demeanour. 

To express the total freedom of the body from eicterior control, the term 
"Independency " is used; to convey the idea that every member of the churdi 
participates in its administration, " Congregationaliem" a more modem i^pella- 
tion, is adopted. ' 

Two descriptions only of church ofBlcers are viewed as warranted by scriptural 
authcaity; viz., bishops (or pastors) and deacons; the former instituted to 
promote the iq>iritual, and the latter to advance the temporal, welfere of the 
church. The various expressions, '^bishop," "elder," "pastor," " presbyter," em- 
ployed in Scripture, are employed, it is affirmed, indifferently and interchangeably, 
intending always a precisely similar office. Whether there should be in any 
congregation more than one such bishop, is conceived to be a matter undecided 
by the Scriptureis, and left to the discretion of the church itself. The only valid 
" call " to the pastorate is held to be an invitation to that office by an individual 
diurch ; and where a person is invited thus, no licence, as in Presbyterian, nor 
ordination, as in Episcopal churches, is considered to be requisite in order to 
confer authority to preach or to administer the sacramenta. Still, after tlus 
election by an individual church, an ordination of the chosen minister by minis- 
ters of neighbouring churches is esteemed a fitting introduction to the pastoral 
office; and the custom always has been gencnl, throughout the Independent 
body, of inangnratiDg newly chosen pastors at a special service, when they 
c« c 



18 



CENSUS, 1861.-*^KELl6fouS WORSHIP. PiiofeAto 



nnDBPXKDSirrs 

or OOKGSEeA- 
TIOITJLLIBTS. 



TeaetH. 



make profession of their orthodox belief and reedve fraternal reeogzotion'lipom 
the other pastors {^resent: But such 'ordhiatidn is not looked upon at^ rmpaic&Ag 
pastoral authority'; this flows exdusividy from the election by a chnr^, ^n^otit 
whose previous sanction cvdinfttion is regierded wr of no avail. And, in i^ 
selection of its tiiitdster, a 8hurch is not restilicted ta a special class prepared by 
education fofth^'office : any person who, by Christian character and aptitude for 
preaching, 'so <%&mends hitiisdf ius to receive an invitation to the niinistiy> is 
recognized as being lawAilly a pastoi^. Yet is ail educated mitustiy conddered 
r^ desiraMe; and, practically^ the ibigority of Cong'regational ministers in modem 
tones receive foreparatoiy training at the various Theological Academies I and 
Colleges belonging to the geneial body.' ' But winle ncriptuml authority is tlius 
asserted for the existence of a ministerial order, no restriction to this order of 
the exclusive privilege of preaching is contended for ; religious exhortation is 
permitted and enoourag;ed in all those who, haying gifts appropriate, feel 
prompted so to use them. 

The theory whidi Independents cherish of the scriptural model of a dhrisptian 
diurcb induces them, of course, to look with disapproval on i^ tStgte^EitnliKllh- 
mebts of religion. Hostile, as already intimated, to the slighteBt fMsiteettoe 
tnki external bodies-^even where^ as in the Presbyterian eommiaiiitie0» dlse 
partly popular assembly may be not unMrly taken to refleet witii'iiMAhftillieSs 
the best ideas and abilities of all the imfividual tshurches — Ind^ndentdf^ aj^ 
inevitably still more hostile to the interference of a seoular and imsceMaiieMis 
body like the national parliament, to whose decision Hiey assert all questions of 
dispute in national establishments must actually or virtually' be r^enwd, Ajod 
not alone upon the ground of interference with 8elf'govemment4o'|ndepe&diBts 
disapprove of national churches ': evendf tiie State were to alk>w4h&Mlec^1fifeedom 
and confine its opertEtions to the mere provimon of the necessary funds fo^ public 
w6rfifhip, there would still remaiu insuperable consdentious scfuples'spr^igilig 
from their notions -of the impropriety of all endowments for religious- piiirpoifeB. 
Religion, they contend, should be committed, for its maintenance and propaga- 
tion, to the natural affection of its votarids. . . 
' Although the Congregational body thus dbnsilSfts of many wholly ind^n- 
dent churches, unamenable to any higher court (»r jurisdiction liian theiAseh^ee, 
and disavowing all subscriptioU to confessions, crc^s, or aartidles of nierely 
human composition, it is nevertheless (according to its eulogists), distmgmshed 
in a singular degree by uniformity of frdth and practice; From the period of 
its origin to the present time, no memorable separation of a part of this ooni- 
munity from the remainder has occurred; and the doiitrines poached wt^en 
IndependencrjT was first announced in England were the same as those now heard 
from nearly every Congregational pulpit.' 

A convocation of this nature met, in 1658, at the ^roy^ aild- published an 
epitome of faith aniPorder as bbtaimng then among ^e Independent drarohes; 
and in 1831 was founded the '^ Congr^ational Union Of England alid Wale8,=^a 
delegated conference of ministers and laymen, meeting t«nce a year for cohsultatioti 
on the state ^nd prospects of tiie body, and to such co-operative aeilon as oan«be 
adopted fbr its welfare without violation of the principle of Indep^fideilcy. 
Th6 conMitution of the Union, therefore, provides that it *^ shtfll no^ in any 
case assume a legislative aiithority, or become a court of appeal." The Inde- 
pendents think that by these voluntary councils they obtain ibe benefits 
without the disadvantages of l^al combination : unity, fratem^-, and ootmnon 
action are, they say, '<rtmndantly secured, whfle no churdh feels the Irritating 

fetters of a forced cbiflfermity. » . • 

•' - '  '  . , .1 

Th^'doetiines 6( the Congreg«tioiiai«hurdies are almost identieat with'ihiMe 
embodied in the^ Artiolea of the EstBbMshed Chuich^.dnterpratpd atfcMdii|g to 



tbeif CflhiBMe Munftjf. As InA^peiideiito do not mo^ite 1tei«ivMlBge ^ ^ j^ 

to Bftmnal «Ked, illb infeteiice is iAnwfii ^^ ' wm ^k i mmm ^ISESS^ 



of cmbseriptioii to Bftmnal «Ked, illb infeteiice is iAnmifii ^«i ifMMMpaii^ ^S^^!m 
tion niber ttiati from any eellocafion of a o ftet itie w i i ilteri e<Midi»to. ' fteifeieiMfa^ fkoimisT- 
howe^er, to tBe ^'Deekrafion of Mlh, CMer «nd Dbc^t^e^^ iwved bfihe 
Congregational Union in 1896,r-«plMi, thotigh liot'lMHbg tipon'^Hqr^ ttte 
churches, is believed to be dissented from by none, — will fdrnish ample evidence 
of this snbstan^Bal harmony. 

' ^e origin of Indapendeaof is .Mftralle to tbe latter portion tl fte mfceanth History, 
eenttny. It Is probable that some conventldee irere secretly established soon 
after the accession of Klimhrth, hoi the first proiiiinent advocaia of. congre?. 
gaMonal pnadples appeared in 1580 in the person of Robert Brown, a man of 
andent family, related to Lord Treasi|rer Bnrleigii. Zealous and jmjpetoous' 
of spirit^ he difi5ised'his sentiments by preaching from place to place, principally 
inihe counliy of/tfdfMk:, After reidding' Ibr three years in ZeaJaiadp where be 
formed an Independent chnrch, he retumed to Kwglan/i m 1^85^ and again 
itineraited'^liroiigh the conntiy with considerable success. At length,, having 
snfEered thirty-two incarcerations in as many different prisons, he conformed, to 
the Established Chmrch, and obtained the rectory of Oundle. But his followers 
rapidty incMsed, so much so, that an act of paitiament was passed In 1593, 
directed spedially agninst them. Sir Walter Raleigh, in the course of the 
discussion on this measure, estimated the niunber of the BroWnists (as ' the;^ 
then were cafied) at upwards of 20,000, exclunve of women «iid diiidnn; 
They were treated with great rigour, and several martyrs to these opinions jwere 
exerted in tixe reign of Elizabeth. A church had boen formed in Lo^on, uk 
15d2,.in. Mcholaa Lone; but this peieecution drove many to the continent, 
where several churches were established in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Leyden ; 
that at Leyden being under the pastoral charge of Mr. Robinson, who is Often 
spoken of as the real founder of Independency. Mr. Jacob, another of the 
exiles, returned to England in 1616, and then established an Independent 
chturch in London. During the Long Pai^iament, the Independents gained a 
season of comparative freedom; meeting openly^ and gathering ,stre]gigth, 
espeicially in the character of thdr converts, — for the Independent leaders were 
amongst the foremost of the age for talents and sagadty. When Cromwell, 
therefore, (himself an Independent,) had assumed supreme authority, their 
prindp]es obtained a potent recognition; and a general toleration, one of their 
distinguishing ideas, was in great degree effected, notwithstanding strenuous 
redfitance by the Presbyteiians, whose system was thus prevented from obtaining 
wide and stringent application. From the Restoration to the Revolution, 
Independents suffered much, in common with the other bodies of dissenters*; 
but sdnoe the latter period they have gained considerable and constantly increas"- 
ing liberty and now piesent the aspect of a large and united communi^, second 
to none amongst seceding churches for position and political importance. 

The earliest account of the number of Independent congregations refrns to gtsAirtiflsof 
1812; before that period. Independent and Presbyterian congregations were 
letumed together^ In 1812, there eeem to have been 1,024 Independent 
churches in England and Wales (799 in England, and 226 hi Wales^. In 
1838y. an estimate gives 1,840 ehurehes in England and Wales. The present 
Censns makes the nmnbor 3,244 (2,604 in Engknd and 640 in Wales); with 
accommodation (after making an aUowance for 185 incomplete returns) for 
1,063,136 persons. The attendance on the Census-Sunday was as follows— 
after rnalHaM an addition for 59 chi^)els for which the numbers are not given — 
itfomw, 524^612 > 4ftemwm, 232,285; Evening, 457,1^2. . ^ 

c 2 



so 



CENSUSI 1861.— RSLIGIOUS WORSHIP. LKkoi^»*>^ 



1 Tba toSikmag TM» ahows the various institutuHeiB iot leUguHu oljects 

^SSSSSHf imppQitail wbollf or chiefly hy the CongF^gaitioQ»l body; others with which 

novAUBTs. the Independents are intimately connected will be limind in the list of Genera] 

Societies at page exvii oi the Report. The Mducaiiumai Institutions of the Con- 

gregatianslists are vetoed to in the Census Rqnirt on that sulgect. 



Nav» ov IvsnTiTVioir. 



maX Union of Eng- *) 
andWal^ - -i 

London CongregationAl Cha-*) 
pel Bunding Bocioty - -> 

Congregvtioniil Fund Board - 

Ministers' Friend or Associate \ 
Fund - - - -J 

Bbitish Missioks. 
Home Missionary Society 

Irish Evangelical Society 

Ck>lonial Missinnaiy Society « 

Fossiav MiBsioKB. 
London Missionary Society - 



«N s 



Ordinary 
Annual 

Income. 
[From 

the latest 

Returns.] 



A.D. 

ISSO 

184B 

ie»5 

1823 

1819 

1814 
1836 

1795 



£ 
438 

3,366 

2,000 
805 

' 6,143 
2,484 
5,144 

65,817 



Nams 07 lV8TiTunoir« 



Thbokooioal Goijubqbs. 
Western College, Plymouth 



Rotberham 
College 



Independsnt^ 



Airedale College, Bradford,*) 
Yorkshire - - - -J 

Haolaiey Theological Seminary 



Lancashire 
College 



Independent > 



Brecon Independent Coll^je 

Spring Hill Coll^e,Birming- \ 
ham ----.-> 

New College, St. John's') 
Wood S 



o 



(^rdinarv 
Annual 
I 



AJ>. 
1752 
1766 

1784 
1803 
1810 
1813 
1838 

1860 



c 



thahitest. 

Returns.] 



e 

600 
827 

1,601 
805 

2^683 
600 

1^1 

3,760 



3* BAraSTS* 

INitfiiettTe 
Tenets. 



3. BAPTISTS. 

The distinguishing tenets of the Baptists relate to two points^ upon which 
they differ from nearly every other Christian denomination; viz. (1), the proper 
subjects, and (2)^ the proper mode, of baptism. Holding that the rite itself was 
instituted for perpetual celebration. Baptists consider, (1), that it was meant to 
be imparted only on profession of belief by the recipient, and that this profession 
cannot properly be made by proxy, as the custom is by sponsors in the Esta- 
blished Church, but must be the genuine and rational avowal of the baptized 
person himself. To illustrate and fortify this main position, they refer to many 
passages of Scripture which describe the ceremony as performed on persons of 
undoubtedly mature intelligence and age, and assert the absence from the 
sacred writings of all statement or inevitable implication that by any other 
persons was the ceremony ever shared. Adults being therefore held to be the 
only proper subjects of the ordinance, it is also held that (2), the only proper 
mode is, not, as generally practised, by a sprinkling or affusion of the water on 
the person, but, by a total immersion of the party in the water. The arguments 
by which this proposition is supposed to be successfully maintained, are gathered 
from a critical examination of the meaning of the word pean-i^M — ^from the 
drcumstanoes said to have accompanied the rite whenever its administration is 
described in Scripture — ^and from general accordance of the advocated mode wiih 
the practice of the ancient Church. 



JNibmit Meets 

€« JMInlSlii. 



These views are entertained in common by all Baptists. Upon other points, 
however, differences' prevail, and separate Baptist bodies have in consequence 



AND Wales.] 



REFOirr. 



tfs 



21 



1 



•.Bifratt 



\itm fcnnei}. In England the f<^lowing eooipnte the whole of ihe variotu 
sections winch msledly compose the Baptist denomnulion : 

General (Umtanan) Baptists. 

General (New Conneidon) Baptists. 

Particular Baptists. 

Seventh Daj Baptists. 

Sootdi Baptists. 

The '' Seventh Day Baptists " differ from the other Greneral Baptist churches Seventli Day 
simply on the ground that the sevenths not the first, day of the week should ^^*^^^'"^* 
he the one still celebrated as the sabbath. They established congregations 
very soon after the first introduction of Baptists into England, but at present 
they have only two places of worship in England and Wales. 

The '^ Scotch Baptists " dcnve their origin from the Rev. Mr. M*Lean, gcotcb B^iaCs 
who, in 1765^ established the fimt Baptist Church in Scotland. Their doctrinal 
sentiments are Galvinistic, and they differ from the English Particular Baptists 
dnefiy by a more rigid imitation tit what they suppose to be the apostolic 
usages, such as love feasts, weekly communion, pluiality of pastors or elders, 
washing each other's feet, &:c. In England and Wales there are but 15 congre- 
gations of this bo<i^» 

The Baptists, as an organized community in England, date their origin from Hivtory. 
1606, when the first Baptist church was formed in London ; but their tenets have 
been held, to greater or to less extent, from very eaiiy times. The Baptists 
claim Tertullian (a.d. 150-220), and Gregory of Naaiansen (a.p. 328-389), as 
supporters of their views, and contend, on thdr authority, that the immersion of 
adults was the practice in the apostolic age. Their sentiments have ever since, 
it is affirmed, been more or less received by nearly all the various bodies of 
seceders which from time to time have parted from the Church of Rome ; as the 
Albigenses and Waldeiises, and the other innovating continental sects which 
existed prior to the Reformation. From the agitation which accompanied that 
great event, the opinions of the Baptists gained considerable notice, and the 
holders of them underwent considerable persecution. 

In 1832 the Calvinistic Baptist Churches are reported at 926, which ntunber, 
by the addition (say of 200) for the General Baptists and the New Connexion, 
would be raised to 1,126. In 1839 the Calvinistic Baptist congregations 
were computed at 1,276, and allowing 250 for the other Baptist Churches, 
the total number would be 1,526. These several estimates rdate exclusive^ 
to England. Wales, for the periods for which accounts are extant^ shows that 
in 1772 there were 59 congregations (of all kinds of Baptists) ; tibat m 1808 
there were 165 congregations (also of all kinds); while in 1839 there were 
244 congregation^ of Cakinistic Baptists. At the recent Census the numbers 
were: — 



Baptist CoNGBBOATiONa 


1. 






Ensland. 


WalM. 


TOTA£. 


General Baptist (Unitarian) .... 
General Baptist (Xew Connexion) 
Plsrticular Baptists (Calvinistic) • - - 

Seventh Day Baptists 

Scotch Baptists ....... 

B^listt Undefined ...... 


9^ 

179 

1674 

2 

12 
492 


8 

8 
873 

• 

S 

68 


98 

182 

1,947 

2 

15 



c 3 



Q2 



CENSUS, 1861.-^iaM©IOUS WORSHIP. ,. [Ek^i^nd 



Baptists; others to wjaek ihcgr.in post* o^aMbnMe lire li^^ 
Greneanl Societies on page cxvil 6iiiht Report. 



N1.ME 07 Society 

OB 
iNBTITUTIOir. 



• "( .  •. 
fiapHst Vman  • < - ^ 

. JBath<Sf>ci^y^i:^ a^fed Minis- \ 
teirs -. ' - '- ' - .J 

♦Baptist Tract Socieiy - "- 

Bible Translation Society 

Bbitish Missions. ' ^ 
BiA]!^t^ »»me ''tfiS8iauiny> 
, $WfJf •;. t' , ' O 
3^j^list\;bfialiS(H}ietiy.^- . -f 



i 

1^ 



A.D. 

1819 

1841 
1840 
1824- 

I 
>'T ' 

iai4 



Income 

% 
the X ear 

1851. 



.» 



^ 



& 

150 
1,777 
795 J 



>fi 



3,895 



If AVE 07 SOOIBIT 

• ' o»' 
IssTiru^i^. 



FoBBiair Mipsioir^. 

*Baptist Missionary Society- 

tGeneral Baptist Missionary J - g, „ 
Society ». . - . -'^ji*^^'^ 






THEO£OOICAX COLLEfflSs: 

♦Bristol - - - . 

"Stepney-* • • 
♦BMdted 

*P09lt]f|}00l.,:- 9 

♦HayerfonlweBt *. 
tLeioester - 



^6 

%4 S 



AJO. 
1792 



1770 



Income 

for 
the Tear 

1851. 



I ^ 


1810 


• 


9 


.iflOi- 


. • 


> V' 


vm 


'i' 


* 


1^ 


. 




:(84a 


•'• 



19,065 

_ 1 * , 

.2^17 

1,120 
1.S12 

i^eiM 

fiOl 







-i..u- 



ftfl .!'Ja 



4 IHB 80CIBTT 

G9 ntiavDs, 

or QUAEES8. 

Orig;in<^the 
Sodusty. 



>fr. 



George Fox. 
Hisopiiiions. 



\ • 4. fHB gOOHS^T OF. FRIENDS, oH QUAKERS. 

liie ''^ Socieiy Of Friends *' is the youngest of the four surviving sects which 
tra6e thieft origin to that prolifi6 period which 'closed the era of the Reformation, 
and present s fen exnbodiment of perhaps the extremest protest made against the 
cerembiiial religion sanctiQtteA hy the Church of Rome. Its f6under (whose 
bjiirifeiis are, \vith those of others his contemporaries, stiH received as the 
standard of drthodoxy) was George Fox, the son of a Leicestershire weaver, who, 
in 1646, at the age of 22, commenced the public proclamation of his sentiments. 
Concei^dng that, in spite of the advance which had been made towards more 
spiritual worship, fax too much reliance was still placed in forms and ceremonies 
and mere human agency in the work of man's redemption, he put forward, as 
the proinihent topic of his preaching, the necessiiy of the imme(fiate influence of 
ifee Spuit of God upon' the souls of men; without which influence, he taught, 
neither coiilA the truths of Swipture be correctly understood nor effectual faith 
excited. 

BivineRuidaDce. Fok and the early Friends believed that the direct (fiviiie suggestions could 

unfiulingly be recognized as such by those receiving them, and thus distinguished 
from the usual promptings which result from ordinary motives. It was, doubt- 
less, owing much to this conviction that they shewed such extraordinary 
courage in the propagation of their views, and such unshaken fortitude in suffer- 
ing the consequent perseeotion. Bdimng that the course of conduct which 
seemed rights them was acturiiy instigated and commanded by express divin 
authority, no threWehings nor deoigers could divert them from pursuing it. 
The magistrates in vain precluded themi from preaching in a certain neighbour- 
hood": they were; sure to* be fbund, the next day," labbiiring in that precise 
localiiy, li vaiii their meetings were dispersed by the civil force^ and the 
persons preslent carried off to p^rison : cm their next appointed day of worship 
anotjier congregation was invariably found to occupy the vacanj^. .ajifipp. I«4 
follod^j unreistingjy their predmssors to the gaol.. Qbedienwia ila ^tm. jKpifi 
CoiiY^«fci<>n of imperious chi<y led, them often intn nhnrnKfta^ f^ pcoclakB^^iK^m 



i • r *± 

J > »^ • • • 



0VE^v?s^n 



4. TBI 800ZXTT 



9I19l»!l^u^rW^'0i£ew4 theve ^U<a]ictiye.isriQ«ig|^;.and soin^m^^ iji indeed 

them tQir«4^v^B9 fspMitl^a of i^Ti<;Q.to sovooigika oi' judjjes^ ui^og tlipm to govern 

justly and administer the laws with righteousness. The Journal of George Fox ' "^^ 

i|l|o9ads io p^sag^ in^i^jriBg that hoth iie and his asgogal^ believed thom- 

Si^ves to be directed in theii inovements bj dime inspiration, and even tliat 

they soraetunof thus obtained the power to piophesjip^.. 

4-B miNit ai the oionea be^kpired by custom on the days and inonths derive NMMsofdt^ 
tbaiir:oi9gia£»9i.P^igaa fiqp«istitioQ, Fiieads object to uae them; substituting *>'^™M*l>e< 
*.*&Bi day," ".s^ooaid day," "first n^ontb," "second month,".|or /* Sunday/' 
"Mpodsf ,"." Jaauarji" ^nd " Februaiy," respectively ; and so.on of the rest. 

ffhe whale cofnuwHiHy of Friends is modelled somewhat on the Presbyterian Diieii^lfBs* 
syatoo. Tluree gxadations of meetings or i^nods, — ^monthly, (^^furteiJiyA, an(i 
yeady,<— adaunister the affiars of the Society^ including in their supervision 
mattttorahotihof spiBf^ual disoipline and secular polity. The monthly mebtinos, 
oompoaad of all the^amgiegatienf within a definite circuit, judge of. tl;^ fitness 
<lf mew caadidaites £ar membership, so^y certificattes to such as move to other 
^tiatriots^efaoose fit pennons to be Mlden to watch over the ministzy, attempt 
the reformation or pronounce the expulsion of all such as walk disorderly, and 
generally seek to stimulate their members to religious duty. They also make 
provision for the poor of the society, (none of whom are, consequently, ever 
known to require parochial reUef,) and secure the education of their duldren. 
Oveneers B]ao are appointed to assist in the promotion of these objects. At 
tBimtblj' meeHisi^ nim, mavriHges ara saaotbiied . previous to th^. «(ten- • 
t^flatiott at a meetifig for woniup. — Several monthly meetings oomppsea 
at^ARTRRLY MBRTmo, to whftoh th^ forward general reports of their conditjejij 
and at-whic^ appeals are heard from their decisionB. — TheYSARitfY MRaviMO 
hoMs'the same vdative position to the qaatteriy meetiiigs as the latter do to the 
mon^y meetixigs, and has the genend superiiitendeiuie of the epdefy in » pais 
tieidar totxaltiey t l^t held in Londoa comprehends the <|uart0Ely meetiags of 
Qteat Hn^bain, by all of which rqxresentativea are appointed and repmia 
addressed to the yearly meeting. Representatives also attend from a yearly 
feMtkig lap IrelRRd Md in Dublin. ' It likewise issues aanual epistles of acbeice 
imd eaotion, appetnle cooasnittees, and acts as a court of ultimate .ap|^ from 
Quarterly and monthly meetings. 

A ^similar series ef meetings, tmder. regulations framed by the meaVr yeiNily 
inefcting, aad ooDtadned in the Book of Discipline, is held l^ the ieiaaie i)iemliaw» 
^ose procisedings are, however, mainly linfited to mutual edification. 
' Cbtmected with the yearly meeting is a mrbtinq for suFntBtiffiw, oqm- 
posed of ministers, elders, and members chosen. by the quarterly meetings. Its 
IMAginal object was to prevail upon the govemmeat to gfant relief from the 
many injta^es to which the early Friends were constantly eicposed. . .It has 
gradually had the sphere of its operations esctended, and is now a standing 
committee re|)re8enting the yearly meeting during its recess, and fkttendiag 
generally to all such matters as affect the welfare of the body. 

There are also meetings of preachers and elders for the purpose of mutual 
ccnsultaiion and advice, and the preservation o£ a pure und orthodox i^inistzy, 

lu .ease of disputes among Friends, they .are not to appeal to^ th0 ordinary 
courts "Of Iftw, bat to submit the matter to l^e arbitration of two or mote -of their 
Mow-^^fttbers. if eith^ party refuses to obey the award, the Monthly Meeting 
to w^h he belongs-may proceed to expel him from the society.. 

» 

.-Ifmm. the. period of the Revolution, <jf 16^8 the Friends .haye r^eived the Prownt poUtlcal 
heneitB^oCitha.Toktatiaii.Aslr. .:%r*be atatut^ of 7. 4? » W91 JIL, c. 34, and ^ 

c 4 



24 



CENSUS, 1851.— RKLIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Bmolamb 



4. MBryganiCT 3 &4 Wm. IV., c. 49., thdr soleom aifiniittlaoiui an accepted in lieu of oatSw ; 
wqvjSanuH <^^ ^^^ abrogiition at the Test Act rendera them eligible for public offieee. 



Pro^f C M of th« 

Society. 



The iSrst assembhes of the Friends for separate public worship were held in 
Leicestershire in 1644 In 1652 the Society had extended itedtf throughout 
most of the northern counties, and before the RestonKlion, meetings were 
established in nearly all the English and Welsh counties, as well as in Ireland, 
Scotland, the West Indies, and the British prorinces of North America. The 
Society in the United Kingdom is not now increasing its numben. The WnendB 
themselves account for tiiis, in part, by the constant emigration of members io 
America, where the body is much more numerous than in Enghmd. But they 
do not hesitate to admit that much is attributable to the feebler endeavours now 
than formerly to gain proselytes. Since 1800 their number, if computed by 
the number of their meeting-houses, has diminished. In 1800 tliey poeaesaed 
413 meeting-houses, while the number returned to the Census in 1851 was only 
371. Iliey say, however, that tins does not inevitably indicate a smaller number 
of professors ; since, of late, there has been a conrtderable tendency amongat 
them to migrate from the rural districts, and to settle in the larger towns. Small 
communities are to be foimd in parts of France, Germany, Norway, and 
Australia. 



s. uimABuvs. 



5. UNITARIANS. 

Differences of opinion respecting the person of Christ are v&ry andant. Ariua, 
a presbyter of Alexandria, whose name is most funiliar in connexion with the 
anti-lVinitartan dispute, existed early in the fourth century, but Sabellius had 
preceded him in the third, in propagation of very similar sentiments. The 
" Arian heresy ^' provoked extensive discord in the general church ; and we read 
of states and princes choosing sides in this mysterious controversy, and under- 
taking sanguinary wars for its decision. Tlie "heresy" previ^led to acNoe 
considerable extent in Britain in the earliest period of Christianily, before the 
arrival of the Saxons. 

In the sixteenth century, another fcnrm of anti-Trinitarian doctrine was 
originated by Lselius and Fanstus Sodnus, and obtained a wide success in 
Poland. From these two prominent maintainers of tiieir sentiments, the modem 
Unitarians are often called '' Socinians ;" but they themselves repudiate the 
name, — ^in part because of a diversity of creed on some particular pdnts, and 
partly from repugnance to be held as followers of any human teacher. In 
Switzerland, Sorvetus, by the instigation or consent of Calvin, was burnt, in 
1553, for entertaining tiiese opinions. 

In England, also, similar sentiments prevailed about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, and subsequently two Arians were biunt to death in the reign 
of James the First. John Biddle was imprisoned for the offence in the time of 
the Commonwealth, and died in prison in 1662. Milton was a seml-Arian. 
But little progress was effected till the opening of the eighte^ith century, when 
many of the old Presbyterian ministers embraced opinions adverse to the 
Trinitarian doctrine. A noticeable controversy on the subject was begun in 
1719, in the west of England, and two Presbyterian ministers, in consequence 
at tiieir partidpation in these sentiments, were removed from their pastoral 
charges. Nevertheless, the Presbyterian deigy gradually became impregnated, 
although for some time they gave no particular expression from their pu]]»ts to 
their views in this respect. In course of little time, however, their congregations 
either came to be entirely assimilated with themselves in doctrine, or in part 
seceded to the Independent body. Thus, the ancient Firesbyterian chapels and 



andWaus.] REPOBT. rj i 25 



t 



ead&wmfu&B hrnn, m gvait dflgne» beeoHM tiie property of mJiutenMis, whote s. irvmaunu 
ovigiB, w ft &tiiM* oonumunty in Engtomi, may be datod from ^ flnt *'"' 

ooeuRMioe of raeh Tiiiiial tmuhn, vu., from aboirt the period just eubieqaeiit 
to 1730. 

The modem Umtaneos diffor from the ancieiit AntUl^nnitarieiie, chiefly by Teneti. 
ftMributing to tiie Sevioor lees of divine and move of human nature. In- 
deed, He if described by several of their most conspicuous writers as a man 
" constituted in all respects like other men." His mission was, they say, to 
intvodnee, by €k>d's appmntment^ a new moral dispensetion; and His death tiiey 
look upon not as a sacrifice or an atonement for sin, but as a msrtyrdom in 
defenoe of truth.* Not admitting the ess ent isl sinMness of human nature, they 
do not admit the necessity of an atonement : tliey consider that a conscientious 
dBigent discharge of moral duties will be adequate to secure for men tiicir future 
happiness. In consequence of their disbelief in the divinity of Christ, they avoid 
all personal addresses to Him, whether of prayer or praise. The Scriptures they 
believe to contain authentio statements ; but they do not allow the umversal 
inspiration of the writers. Many of the modem Unitarians believe that all 
nMmkmd will uttimately be re s tored to hq>piness. This creed is very prevalent 
amongst the Unitarians of America^ where upwards of 1,000 diurches are re- 
ported to profess it. It is there called " Universalism." 

Persons denying the doctrine of the Trinity were excepted from the benefits of civil poritkn. 
the Toleration Act. and remained so until 1813, when the section in that statute 
which affected them was abrogated. Since that period they have been exactly 
in the same position as all other PMitestant Dissenters witii respect to Hieir poli- 
tical iimnimities. 

The form of eodesiaslical government adopted by the Unitarians is substan- Chundi govern- 
tiaUy " congregational ;" each individual congr^^on ruling itself wiliiout ™^ 
regard to any courts or synods. 

Returns have been received at the Census Office from 229 congregations Nunben. 
connected with this body. 



6. UNITED BRETHREN, or MORAVIANS. a. vvrm 

Christiamty was introduced into Bohemia in the ninth century^ from Greece ; xoeaviavs. 



but it was not long before the Papal system, aided by the Emperor^ became 
established firmly in that country. Still, the inhabitants were not disposed to 
yield their cherished sentiments; and, stimulated by the writings of WydiflPe and 
the preaching and martyrdom of Huss and Jerome, they afterwards distinguished 
themselves, though unsuccessfully, as firm adherents to the doctrines of the 
Reformation. In the persecution which resulted from the triumph of the Em- 
peror in the war with the Elector Palatine, the Pft>testant clergy were banished 
^m the kingdom. They retired to Poland ; where, in 1632, Commenius was 
appointed " Bishop of the dispersed brethren from Bohemia and Moravia." In 
Moravia,, ostensible conformity with Romish worship was enforced ; but many of 
the brethren, cherishing the Protestant fiuih, met secretly together for devotion, 
and, as opportunity occurred, fled thence into the Protestant states of Germany. 
Ten of these, in 1722, obtained permission from Count Zinzendorf to settle on 
a portion of his lands. The little settlement thus formed was called " Hem- 
hutt," the watch of the Lord. Count Zinzendorf himself soon eame to be the 

•BeMuMtt'sCMmliiqiiiiy, iyp.4«7-456 



Origin. 



26 



CENSUS, 1851.— KBU^iQUS WORSHIP. IM»»M^^ 



or 

MOSATIAirB. 



bead of t^ nev ehurch^wiooh, m 1727, bad ipquQ^^to .|fPO p^tsim** . TlMgr 
dobi^ thwi about a«Goiabi«ttbk)n with tbe LiuthmA'Chiirihi b^t tfie de(«fq|9& 
oi tb« lot, to wbiob tbe^ appealed upon tbe matlary was in favour of. tb^ eoi»« 
linuanoe as a distinct society. Tbey, tberefore, formed tbemselves into a jnfffABg 
community, witb tbe designation of " Unitas Fratrum,'' and began to establish 
oongrogationa in various ports oi Europe, loid to «eiid f oiKiib loissifluwwf toK« 
motest seMementfl. Tbor first establisbmeint in England mans to have ooouimd 
im 1743.* 



DootrrineB. 



Orders* 



Biflcipline. 



Goy«nuiifint* 



The doctrines oi tbe United Bretbcea are in: barmcMiy wi^ thoie pfopotpwdad 
in the *' Confession oi Augsburgb," At a general synod hflld atr 9a^» in 
1775, tbe following declaration was adi^vted : *' Tbe chief doctrine to which 4ie 
Chureh of tbe Btethren adheres, and which we must preswve as an invahuMe 
treasure conunitted unto us, is this — that bff the Mcrifieafor m made bf^Jetm 
Chritts.and bp that aUmity grace and ddiv»anc;e fifpm sia ase to be, oWjainad 
for all mankind. We will, therefore, without lessening the impozt&tioe of aiqr 
:other artide of tiie Cbrislaan faith, steadfEustly maiutaiin! tbe foUpwmg ftro 
points : — 

'^ L Tbe doctrine of tbe unlTOEMil depravity of man; that theK is^nnrhaiKh 
in man, and that, since tbe fall, be has no, power whatever left to help binsell. 
<' 2. Tbe doctrine of the divinity of Cbriat: tbait God, the creator of all 
things, was manifest in tbe flesh, and reconciled us to himself; that be is 
before all tbix^s^ and that by him all things consist. < 
'^ 3. Tbe doctrine of the atonement and satisfaction made fcr us by Jesua 
'< Chrisi: that, he was delsvered for our ofFencei^ and raised agato for our jmsti- 
" flcation : and that, by bis merits alone, we recdve freely the foigiv^tess of sin 
^' and sanctifLcation in soul and body. 

'' 4. Tbe doctrine of tbe Holy Spirit, and the operations of His grace : that 
'■5 it is He who worketh in us convictian of sin, foitb in Jesus, and purenoilin 
heart. 

'' 5. Tbe doctrine of tbe firuits of futh : that foi^ must evidenoe iliuUf \ff 
willing obedience to tbe commandments of God, from love and gratitude.*' t 



(( 



« 



« 



<f 



(C 



« 



« 



« 



c< 



<( 



(( 



Tbe Moravian church is formed according to tbe episcopal modsL The biabQ|M 
have been ordained in regular descent from those of tbe ancient Bohemian 
church. To bishops alone belongs tbe power of ordaining ministers. Tbe other 
orders are presbyters and deacons. 

The discipline of tbe church is regulated by certain written " Congregational 
Orders or Statutes," with which every one admitted as a member of tbe church 
expresses bis concurrence. It consists of a series of reproofs and admoni- 
tions ; the ultimate and highest punishment being that of excision Ifrom the 
community. 

The chief direction of the affairs of the church is committed to a board of 
elders, appointed by tbe general synods, which assemble at irregtilar intervals 
varying from seven to twelve years. Of these boards, one is universal, and tbe 
others local : tbe former being resident at Hembutt, and maintaining a general 
supervision over every part of tbe society — the latter being specially connected 
witb particular congregations. Bishops, beyond their power of ordination, have 
no authority except what they derive from these boards. There are/«iiafc elders^ 
who attend at the boards ; but they do not vote*. 



* See Southe^B Life of Wesley, (duster & . . 
t Bee GoBders.yiew Q( if\ BApgipqSi pi«ar26S. 



Ai«)rWJ«iKi.] ' RBPORT. l/f^^ 27 




-^Th»tDWki]» 'of • pwNiiis aetin% OMOiUrsjof the ^' Um^r '? does not «xoeed« ^.3BSp 
1%0D0 m the whoie el Euiope, nor 6,000 in Amenca; but sfe kast 100»000 ^J^jSn?' 
flooc^y it ifl oenflideied, am m TiHnal connexion with the society and under the ynmbm" 
•6]»lilinl gnidaiioe of its preadiers. I1m» wmdMr of their chapels in fingknd 
and Wales, reported by the Censas offieera, was 32, wkh 9,305 nttings. 

The United Bsethren hare always been dktingmshed by thev efforts to esta- HiMknu. 
blish missionary stations in the most remote and neglected portions of the globe. 
In 1851 they had 70 settlements distributed amongst the Hottentots, the Green- 
landenf, tiie Bsqnidnianx, the Indians, the Anstrafian aborigines, and the Negroes 
of tiie Wesfc Iiidies and Amferioa. The number of missionaries was 294 ; aild 
tile 'Con¥srts(iiot msK wmimal p rofes s ors) tiien belonging to l^e missionaiy 
eoni^regations amoonted to 69,149. The eiq)ense of the mission is about 13,000/. 
ammaHy $< tinpse ibiffths of which are raised by other Chrisliaa bodies (piindpa% 
by the CSrarch of England) who t^pieciate the eminent \afaie of these labours. 



7. WESLEYAN METHODISTS.* 7. wmmtah 

nTHonisTs. 

Under the genertj term of "Methodists" are comprehended two principal DUhrentUnda. 
and several subordinate sections, having totally distinct ecclesiastical organiza- 
tions. The two grand sections differ from each other upon pomts of doctrine j 
one professing Arminian, and the other Calvinistic, sentiments. The former are 
the followers of John Wesley, and from him are called " Wesleyan Methodists '* — 
the latter were originated by the labours of George Whitfield, but their founder's 
nam^ is not perpetuated in their title, which is, generally, that of " Calvinistic 
Methodists." Each of the two grand sections is divided into several smaller 
seclaons, <^iffp"^ g from each other upon points of church government and dis- 
cipline : the Wesl^an Methodists comprise the " Original Connexion," the "New 
Conop^don," the " Primitive Methodists," and the " Wesleyan Association "— 
the Calvinistic Methodists comprise . the body bearing that specific name,, and 
also the churches belonging to what is known as " The Countess of Huntingdon's 
^ Connexion." 

The Original Connexion. 

As at present settled, the form of church government somewhat resembles Ohuroh Govwu- 
that of the Scottish Presbyterian churches in the order of the courts, in the 
rekti^. they bear to eadi other, and in their respective constitutions and 
functions. The difference is in the greater degree of authority in spiritual 
aoHltters exercised by the Wesleyan ministers, who preside in their courts not as 
iH^BE^ chainnen or moderators, bnt as pastors. This is ssdd by them to secure 
aja equitable balanoe of power between the two parties, lay and. clerical, in these 
eouctpj m^ i^T^ to provide againat abuse on either side. How far this is 
ths oas^ will bcj^siare dearly seen by a description of these various courts, 
liKfiing theppi upwards from the lowest to the highest, — ^from the Class to the 



.1 



'Fhe Classes were the very first of the arrangements introduced by Mr. Wesley. Otaeses f 
They consist, in general, of about 12 persons ; each class having its appointed 
" leader," (an experienced Christian layman, nominated by the superintendent 



• fl^. Vat80n*a " life of W 
tiMOonliBrBD^^U6?^-5S-S % 




r '.'■> 



28 CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Englakb 

y . WM MSTAy • of a ciicuit, and appointed hj a leaden' meeting,) whoee doty is to meet his 
iiA*»op»ia. gjjjgg ^jjjjg gygiy ^^ — convene with each dass member, hear from him a 

statement of his spiritual condition, and give appropriate oonnsd. Every 
member of a class, except in cases of extreme poverty, is expeoted to oontrihiiite 
at least a penny par week towards the funds of the society. Out of the 
proceeds of this contribution, assisted by other funds, the stipends of the 
ministen are paid. The system of class meetings is justly considered the very 
life of Methodism. 

Iljjjjgfj^^g^ The public wonhip of these societies is conducted in each circuit by two 

descriptions of preachen, one clerical the other lay. The clerics are separated 
entirely to the work of the ministry — ^are memben of, or in connexion with, 
or received as probationen by, the Conference — and are supported by fbnds 
raised for that purpose in the classes and congregations. From one to four of 
these, called ''itinerant preachen," are appointed annually for not exceeding 
three yean in immediate succession to the same circuit. Their ministry is not 
confined to any particular chapel in the circuit, but they act interchangeably 
from place to place, seldbm preaching in the same place more than one Sunday 
without a change, which is effected according to a plan generally re-made every 
quarter. Of itinerant preachen there are at present about 915 in Great 
Britain. The lay, or " local " preachen as they are denominated, follow secular 
callings, like other of their fellow subjects, and preach on the sabbaths at the 
places appointed for them in the above-mentioned plan ; as great an interval 
being observed between their appointments to the same place as can be 
conveniently arranged. 

Mode of worship. '^® public services of Methodists present a combination of the forms of the 

Church of England with the usual practice of Dissenting Churches. In the 
larger chapels, the Church Liturgy is used ; and, in all, the Sacrament is admi- 
nistered according to the Church of England rubric. Independently of Sabbath 
wonhip. Love Feasts are occasionally celebrated ; and a midnight meeting, on the 
last day of each year, is held as a solemn " Watch Night," for the purpose of 
impressing on the mind a sense of the brevity and rapid flight of time. 

At present there are 428 circuits in Great Britain. Besides preaching in 
the various chapels in their respective circuits, the itinerant preachen administer 
the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper. One or other of them, 
according to an arrangement amongst themselves, n^eets every dass in his 
circuit once in every quarter, penonally converses with every member, and 
distributes to all such as have throughout the past three months walked 
orderly a ticket, which authenticates their membenhip. One of the ministen 
in every circuit is called the " superintendent," whose duties, in addition to his 
ordinary laboun as a travelling preacher, are, to see that the Methodist 
discipline is properly maintained, — ^to admit candidates into memberohip 
(subject to a veto by a Leaders' meeting), — and to expel from the society any 
member whom a Leaden' meeting shall pronounce guilty of any particular 
offence. Appeal, however, lies from his decision to a District meeting, and 
ultimately to the Conference. There is also a " cbcuit steward," whose duty 
is to receive from the society stewards the contributions of class memben, and 
to superintend their application for the purposes of the circuit. 

The Ck>iifereitoe. The Conferbnce, the highest Wesleyan court, is composed exclusively of 

ministen. It derives its authority from a deed of declaration, executed by 
Mr. Wesley in 1784, by whidi it was provided that, after the decease of himself 



andWalibs.] REPOBT. if 29 






Mug 



and his biodier Charles, 100 penoiifl» named in the deed, " Wsing preachero and 7. wauaxur 
'^ expounders of God's holy word, under the care and in connexion with the ic^s^i**** 
** said John Wesley," should exercise the authority which Wesley himself 
possessed, to appcMnt preachers to the various chapels. Vacancies in the 
" hundred" were to be filled up by the remainder at an annual Conference. In 
pursuance ci this deed, a Conference of 100 ministers meets yearly in July, with 
the addition of the representatives selected by the district meetings, and such 
other ministers as are appointed or permitted to attend by the district com- 
mittees. The custom is, for all these ministers to share in the proceedings 
and to vote; though all tiie decisions thus arrived at must be sanctioned by 
the legal *' hundred," ere they can have binding force. The Conference must 
sit for at least five days, but not beyond three weeks. Its principal transactions 
are, to examine the moral and ministerial character of every preacher — ^to 
receive candidates on trial — ^to admit ministers into the connexion — ^and to 
appoint ministers to particular circuits or stations. Independently of its func- . 
tions under this deed poll, the Conference exennses a general superintendence 
over the various institutions of the body; including the appointment of 
various committees, as, (1) The Committee of Privileges for guarding the 
interests of the Wesleyan Connexion ; (2) The Coinmittee for the management 
of Missions ; (3) The Committee for the management of Schools for educating 
the children of Wesleyan ministers; (4) The General Book Committee (for 
superintending the publication and sale of Wesleyan works) ; (5) The Chapel 
Building Committee (without whose previous consent in writing no chapel, 
whether large or small, is to be erected, purchased, or enlarged) ; (6) The Chapel 
Relief Committee ; (7) The Contingent Fund Committee ; (S) The Committee 
of the Auxiliary Fund for worn-out ministers and ministers' widows ; and the 
committees for the various schools, theological institutions^ &c. 

The Conference has also assumed to itself the power of making new lows 
for the government of the Connexion ; provided that, if any circuit meeting 
disapprove such law, it is not to be enforced in that circuit for the space of 
one year. Any circuit has the power of memorializing Conference on behalf of 
any change considered desirable, provided the June quarterly meeting should so 
determine. 

The doctrines held by the Wesleyans are substantiaUy accordant with the Bootrines. 
Articles of the Established Church, interpreted in their Arminian sense. In tiiis 
they follow Mr. Wesley rather than Arminius; fot although the writings of 
the latter are received with high respect, the first four volumes of Wesley's 
Sermons, and his Notes on the New Testament (whieh they hold to be ^ neither 
Calvinistic on the one hand nor Pelagian on the other") are referred to as the 
standard ot their orthodoxy. The continued influence of thesr founder is 
manifested by the general adherence of the body to his opinions on the subject 
of attainment to Christian perfection in the present life-— on the possibility of 
final ruin after the reception of divine grace — and on the experience by every 
eimvert of a clear asmranee of his acceptance with God through fidth in Jesus 
Christ. 

The Census Accounts show 6,579 chapels in England and Wales, belonging 
to this Connexion in March 1851 ; containing (allowance being made for defective 
returns) accommodation for 1,447,580 persons. The nimnber of attendants on 
the Census Sunday was: Morning, 492,714; Afternoon, 383,964; Evening, 
667,850 : including an estimate for 133 chapels, for which the number of attend* 
ants was not stated. 



m 



CENSUS, 1851.--ttaa^lOIOUS WORSHIP. .. [E^LA^li 



7. v r moMrA x 
Societies. 



Oentenary. 



Origin. 



The fb&owing' Table shows the principal socieiies and institutions forTeligmud 
objects suJ)ported by the Wesleyan Original Connexion. *^heps, in part sup- 
ported by Wefileyans, are mentioned in the Ctneral List at page cxvii Of the 
Report. ' 



'\ 



Name d» Socibty 

OE : 
IlTBTITUTIOir. 



Contingent Fund . • - 

Auxiliary Pimd - - 

The Children*8 Pund - 

'W^eyan Theological Instl- 
tutioB - - . . - 

Qeneral Chapel Fund - - 






X.J). 
1756 

1813 

1818 

1834 
1-1818 



Annual 
Income. 



10,065 
7,163 
3:^0 

4,638 
3,884 



Nahb op Societt 

OB 

XnrsTiTUTioir. 



WeflAeyan Seamen's IMSs- 
siou . . . , 

Wesleyan Missionary So- 
ciety - i - - 

Eingswood andWoodhouse C 
Grove Sehool - - -c 

Education Pund 




1817 
1746 

-mu 

1837 



Anniu! 
incoimi." 



260 



105,870 

}. 8.048 

•tf 2^800 



In 1839 was celebrated the Centenafy of the existence of Wesleyan 
Methodism ; and the gratitude of the people towards the system under which 
they had derived so much advantage was displayed by contributions to the 
large amount of 216,0002.^ which sum was appropriated to the establishment of 
theological institutions in Yorkshire and at Richmond — the purchase of the 
*' Centenary Hall and Mission House " in Bishopsgate Street — ^the provision' of a 
missionary ship — ^the discharge of chapel debts — and the augmentation of the 
incomes of the Methodist religious societies. . l 

Of late years a considerable agitation (to be more particularly mentioned when 
describing " Wesleyan Reformers ") has diminished to a great extent the num- 
ber of the members in connexion. It is stated that by this division the 
Original Connexion has sustained a loss of 100,000 members. 



« 



(( 



(( 



« 



The Methodist New Connexion. 

4 V 

For some time after Mr. Wesley's death in 1791, oonlidsnble agitation was 
observable throughout the numerous societies which, under his control, bad 
rapidly sprung up in every part of England. The more immediate subjects of 
dilute had reference to (I), "the right of the people to.hold.theop public 
<' religious worship at such hours as were most oonireni^t, without being 
restricted to the mere intervals of the hours app(Hnted for servioe in the 
ilgstaldished Quuch," and (2), 'Hhe right of the people to receiviil the 
ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper £ropi the hiMids of their, own 
piinisters, and in their own places of worship ;" but the prinidpal and foiuk* 
mental question in dispute concerned the right of the laity to participate in the 
spiritual and. secular government of the body. Wesley himself had, in his lifii*- 
time, alvrays execrcifled an absolute authority; and. alter hift deoease the t»TciUing 
pieachers daimed the same extent of power. A vigorous op^fiositioB wis, haw-^ 
ever, .stopn oril^nated, which continued during several years; tiie-Confemee 
attempting various unsuccessful measures for restoring harmony. A " Fkui of 
Pacification" was adopted by the Conference in 1795, and was received with 
general satis&Kstion so far as the oidinances wer&concen^ed; but the qu^irtion 
of lay influence remp^ed untoudied till 1797, {When th^ Conference <!QQ^«d 
that, the Leader^' ixte^tii^B.fihould have the right to exercise an absolute vei^ 
upon the admisnon of new members to the Society,^ and that no member 
should be ewpelled for immorality, "until such immoraii^ had ^ been proved ai 
a Leaders' meeting." Certain lesser rights were at the same time oaDuc^d/Bd 
to the quarterly meetings, in which the laity were represented by the presence 
of their stewards and class leaders. But this was the extent of the conoes- 



A*l>iWWyBB.J "'i' •• ' • ■'' tlAPbtHfV: 




tude by the ]ff»cherB; mad all ptopofiNaons' for lay-jfekig»^n to the ''.^SSSSS 
Conference and the district meetings were conclusively rejected. uMsmnm^. 

Foremost amongst many who remained unsatisfied by these concessions was 
the Rev. Alexander Kilham^ who^ singularly 'enough, was bom at Epworth in 
LinM^Mihiie, the birthplace of the Weskys. Mr: Kilham-, first aoquimg promi* # 
niBRee as an assertor of the right of Metiiodists to meet for womhip in ehurdh 
hours and to recdive the saoraiftjtlts from their own ministers, was gradnalty led 
to take an active part in advocacy of the principle of lay participation in the 
govemmenit of the Connexion. 

Originated by a movement for a certain and specific alteration in the constitn- Biatinottve 
iion of Weslejan Methodism, the New Connexion difClers from the parent body 
only with respect to those ecclesiastical arrangements which were then the sub- 
jects of dispute. In doctrines, and in all the essential and distinctive features of 
Wesleyan Methodism, there is no divergence : the Arminian tenets are as finnly 
hdd by the New as by the Old Connexion ; and the outline of ecclesiastical 
machinery — comprising classes, circuits, districts, and the Conference — is in both 
the same. The grand distinction rests upon the different degrees of power 
allowed in each commimion to the laity. It has been shown that, in the 
" Original Connexion," all authority is virtually vested in the preachers : they 
alone compose the Conference — theb influence is paramount in the inferior 
courts — and even when, as in iinAnriftl mailt;ers, laymen are appointed to com- 
mlttooi, such i^pointmmitB are entirely in the hands of Conference. The 
'* New Connexion," on the contrary, admits, in all its courts, the principle of 
lay participation in church government : candidates for membership must be 
admitted by the voice of the existing - members, not by the minister aioile ; 
offending members cannot be expelled but with the conceonence of a Ijeaflkrs' 
meeting ; officers of the 'bod^^ whether leaders, ministers, or stewards^ are 
elected by the church and minister^ coigc^tly ; and in District Meetings and 
the annual Conference lay delegate (as many in number as the ministers) 
are present, freely chosen hf the members of the churches. 

The progress of thft New Connexion since its origin has been as follows, in Profreas. 
the aggregate, comprising England, Ireland, and th& colonies :* 
Tsar. * - Members. 

1797 * - 5,000 

1860 - . 5,280 

Mia . - 8,oe7 

1823 - - . 10,794 



1833 . - - 14,784 

1840 - - " £1,886 

1846 - - - 20,00at 

1853 - - - 2l,884t 



r. 

At present (1853) the state of the Connexion, in England and Wales, is 
reported to be as follows : § 



Members - - - 16,070 

Sabbath schools - ' - 273 

Sabbath-school teachers - 7,335 

Sabbath-school scholars - 44,337 



Chapels - - - 301 

Societies - - - 298 

Circuit preachers - - ' 95 

Local preachers - - 814 

(.Returns have been leoeiTBd at the Cerisvtt Office from 287 ehapahi and siailidns 
(m08% in the var&nem qounties) bekmgingtothis Comiesion^ confining aocnn- 
modatioi]^ after an estimate for 16 ditfedsve retmns^ for 96|,964 perlons. The 
number of attemkmU on idie. Census Sunday was : Moimng 36>801 ; Afternoon, 



.k u. 



t The diminntion of xHunben m thiB yewv »» owa p wieA with 1840, vv owvag to t^e foct that 
V0iJtrieABw*we*el6btbbtweeiitlie years TOIl arid 1W8. as ttfe result df expelltiig a populsr 
preacher on>u»ount of unaouud doctrine. See Minutes of Conference, 1841. ... - i 

1 Minutes of Conference, 1863, p. 11 ; and Missionary Beport for 1863. 

§ Minutes of Conference, p. 10. 



32 



CENSUS, 1851.— BSUGIOUS WORSHIP, tEiioi«AHi> 



7. wBBxaYAir 22,620; ETening, 39,624 : induding an estunate for thi«e chapeU, ilie attand- 
lOTHODiBTs. njKjg i^ which was not stated. 



Tnndi. 



Origin. 



In 1847 the Jubilee of the connexion was celebrated, and it was resolved to 
^ raise a fimd of 20,000/., to hk approj»iated to the relief of distressed ch^[)els, to 
the erection of a theological institution, the extension of home and foreign 
missions, and the provision for aged and retired ministers. 



Dootrinsiind 



Primitivb Methodists. 

About the commencement of the present century, certain among the Wes- 
leyans (and conspicuously Hugh Bourne and William Clowes) began to put 
in practice a revival of these modes of operation, which had by that time been 
abandoned by the then consohdated body. The Conference of 1807 affirmed 
a resolution adverse to such unprescribed expedients ; and the consequence of 
this disf^>probation was the birth of the Primitive Methodist Connexion, —the 
first class being formed at Standley in Staffordshire in 1810. The following 
table, furnished by the Conference itself, will show the progress made by the 
connexion since that period. 





Chapels. 


Preachers. 


Class 
Lea. 
ders. 


Members. 


Sabbath Schools. 


Periods. 


Connex- 
ional. 


Rented 
Booms, 


Tra. 

veiling. 


Local. 


Bohools. 


Teaohera. 


Seholan. 


1810 


. . 




. . 


• • 


• • 


10 


* 


. . 


. . 


1811 


• . 




2 


• • 


• • 


200 




. * 


. . 


1820 


• • 




202 


1,486 


• % 


7,842 




• . 


• . 


18S0 


421 




240 


2,719 




35,733 




• » 


. • 


1840 


U40 




487 


6,550 


• • 


78,900 




11,968 


60,506 


1860 


1,665 


8,616 


619 


8,624 


6,162 


104,762 


1,278 


20,114 


106^0 


186S 


1,789 


8,666 


868 


9,694 


6,767 


108,926 


1,686 


22,792 


121,894 



These statistics refer as well to the foreign stations of the Connexion as to 
England and Wales ; but the deduction to be made upon this account wiU not 
exceed two or three per cent, of the above figures. The number of chapels, &;c. 
returned by the Census officers was only 2871 so that many of the above 
must probably be small rooms, which thus escaped the notice of the enumerators. 
The number of connexional circuits and missions is, altogether, 313, of which, 
13 are in Canada, 2 in South Australia, 1 in New South Wales, 1 in Victoria;, 
and 3 in New Zealand. The '^ Missions,'' whether abroad or at home, are 
localities in which the labours of the preachers are remunerated not from local 
sources, but finm the circuit contributions or from the general funds of the 
connexion appropriated to missions. 

The doctrines held by the Primitive Methodists are precisely similar to those 
iniH«^iii»<i by the Original Connexion, and the outhne <tf their eodesiaatical 
polity is also similar, the chief distinction being the admission, by the fonncr 
body, of lay representatives to the Conference, and the generally greater 
influence allowed, in all the various courts, to laymen. 

Camp meetings, though oocarionally held, are much less frequent now than 
formerly : the people, it is thought, are more acoessible tiian 60 years ago to 
other agencies. 



AND Walks.] 



REPORT. 




V 



33 



7. WESIBTAK 
ICIiTHODIBTS. 



Bible Christianb. 

The ''Bible Christians" (sometimes called Brjanites) are included here 
among the Methodist communities, more from a reference to thar sentiments 
and polity than to their origin. The body, indeed, was not the result of a f 
secession from the Methodist Connexion, but was rather the origination of 
a new community, which^ as it grew, adopted the essential prindples of 
Methodism. 

The founder of the body was Mr. William O'Bryan, a Wesleyan local preadier 
in Cornwall, who, in 1815, separated from the Wesleyans, and began himself to 
form sodeties upon the Methodist plan. In a very few years considerable 
advance was made, and throughout Devonshire and Cornwall many societies 
were established ; so that, in 1819, there were nearly 30 itinerant preachers. In 
that year, the first Conference was held, when the Connexion was divided into 12 
circuits. Mr. O'Bryan withdrew irom the body in 1829. 

In doctrinal profession there is no distinction between *' Bible Christians '* 
and the various bodies of Arminian Methodists. 

The forms of public worship, too, axe of the same simple character; but, in 
the administration of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, " it is usual to recdve 
" the elements in a sitting posture, as it is believed that that practice is more 
'' conformable to the posture of body in which it was at first received by Christ's 
'' Apostles, than kneeling ; but persons are at liberty to kneel, if it be more 
'' suitable to their views and feelings to do so."* 

According to the Census returns, the number of chapels belonging to the body Statistics, 
in England and Wales in 18dl was 482; by far the greater number being 
situated in the south-western counties of England. The number of sittings, 
(after adding an estimate for 42 imperfect returns,) was 66,834. The attendance 
on the Census-Bunday was: Morning, 14,902; Afternoon, 24,345; Evening, 
34,612 ; an estimate being made for eight chapels the number of attendants at 
which was not stated in the returns. The Minutes of Conference for 1852 1 
present the following view :— 



Chapels 

Itiuerant llfinisters 
Local Preachen 
Members 



In Circuits. 


In Home 

Missionary 

Stations. 


TotsL 


293 


HO 


403 


61 


62 


113 


714 


846 


1,069 


10,146 


8,716 


13,86s 



The Wesleyan Methodist Association. 

In 1834 a controversy was originated as to the propriety of the proposed Origin, 
establishment of a Wesleyan Theological Institution ; and a minister who dis- 
approved of such a measure, and prepared and published some remarks against 
it, was expelled from the Connexion. Sympathizers with him were in similar 
manner expelled. 

The "Association " differs from the " Old Connexion" only with regard to 
the specific subjects of dispute which caused the rupture. The only variations. 



• «« 



'A Digest of tiie Bales snd Regulations of the people denominated Bible Chnstums, 
i;ompiled by order of the Annual Conference," 1838. ^ 

t Extracts from the Minutes of the 84th Annual Conference of the ministers and repre- 
sentatives of the people denominated Bible Christians/' 1852. 

C. D 



34 



CENSUS, IdSL-^RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. LEkglamd 



7. WBBtBYXS 
' METHODISTS. 



Annual 
Assembly. 



Discipline. 



^Statistics. 



therefore, are in constitutional acrangemeatfl, and the principal of these are as 
follows : — 

The Annual Assemhly (answering to the Old Wesleyan Conference) is 
distinguished by the introduction of the laity as representatives. It consists 
of such of the itinerant and Iqcal preachers, and other official or private members, 
as the circuits, societies, or churches in union with the Association (and con- 
tributing 60/. to the support of the ministry) elect.* The number of repre- 
sentatives IB regulated by the number of constituents. Circuits with less than 
500 members send one ; those with more than 500 and less than 1,000 send 
two ; and such as have more than 1,000 send three. The Annual Assembly 
admits persons on trial as preachers, examines them, receives them into full 
coimexion, appoints them to their circuits, and excludes or censures them when 
necessary. It also directs the appHcation of all General or Connexional Funds, 
and appoints a committee to represent it till the next Assembly. But it does 
not interfere with strictly local matters, for ''each drcuit has the right and 

power to govern itself by its local courts, without any interference as to 

the management of its internal afibirs."t 



(S 



(f 



(t 



S( 



As was to be expected from the reason of its origin, the Association gives 
more influence to the laity in matters of church discipline than is permitted by 
the Old . Connexion. Therefore it is provided, that "no member shall be 

expelled from the Association except by the Section of a majority of a 

leaders' society or circuit quarterly meeting."J 

According to the Minutes of the 17th Aimual Assembly, the following wius 
the state of the Association in England and Wales in 1852, no allowance having, 
however, been made for several incomplete returns : — 

Itinerant preachers and missionaries - *-■ -^90 

Local preachers - - - - - - 1,016 

Class leaders . - - . . . 1^353 

* ' Members in society - - - - -19,411 

Chapels - - - - - - - 329 

Preaching places, rooms, &c. - - - - 17I 

Sunday schools i - - - - . 322 

Sundily-school teachers ----- 6,842 

Sunday-school scholars - i - - - -43,389 

The Census Returns make mention of 419 chapels and preaching rooms 
containing (after un estimate for the sittings in 34 cases of deficient infor- 
mation) accommodation for 98,813 persons. The attendance on the Censlis- 
Sunday (matdng an allowance for five chapels the returns from which are 
silent on this point) was: Mommgy 32,308; Afternoon, 21,140; Evening^, 
40,655. 



Wesleyan Methodist Reformers. 
In 1849, another of the constantly recurring agitations with rei^ect to 
ministerial authority in matters of church disciphne arose, and sdll xxmtinues. 
Some parties having circulated through the Connexion certun anonymous 
pamphlets called " Fly Sheets," in which some points of Methodist procedure 
were attacked in a manner offensive to the Conference, that body, with a view to 
ascertain the secret authors (suspected to be ministers), adopted the expedient 
of tendering to every minister in the Connexion a " Declaration," reprobating 



* «« 



Connexional Relations of the Wesleyan Methodist Association ; " 3d edition, p. 3. 
t " Connexional Regulations of the Wesleyan Methodist Association;** Sd edition. 
t Ibid. p. 10. 



AKD; Walks.] 



REPORT. 




V 



a5 



tbe obnozioiia dieolan, and repudiating sU connesioii vMk the aitlliDnMp. 
Several ministers refused submission to this test, as beingmi unfiair attempt to 
make the offending parties criminate themselves, and partaking of the nature 
of an Inquisition. The (Conference, however, held that such a method of > 
examination was both scripturallj proper, and accordant with the usages of 
Methodism; and the ministers persisting in their opposition were expelled. 
This stringent measure caused a great sensation through the various societies, 
and nieetings were convened to sympathize with the excluded ministers. The* 
C!onfecence, however, steadily pursued its policy— considered all such meetings, 
violations of Wesleyan order — and, acting through the superintendent ministers 
in all the circuits, punished by expulsion every member who attended them. 
In consequence of this proceeding, the important question was again, and with 
increased anxiety, debated, — whether the admission and excision of church, 
members is exclusively the duty of the minister, or whether, in the exercise of 
such momentous discipline, the other members of the church have not a right> 
to share. 

The agitation on these questions (and on some collateral ones suggested 
naturally by these) is still prevailing, and has grown extremely formidable. It 
is calculated that the loss of the Old Connexion, by expulsions and withdrawals, 
now amounts to 100,000 members. The Reformers have not yet ostensibly 
seceded, and can therefore not be said to form a separate Connexion. They 
regard themsdves as still Wesleyan Methodists, illegally expelled, and they 
demand the restoration of all preachers, officers, and members who have been 
excluded. In the meantime, they have set in operation a distinct machmery of 
Methodism, framed according to the plan which they consider ought to be 
adopted by the parent body. In their own returns it is represented that they 
had in 1852, 2,000 chapels or preaching places, and 2,800 preachers. 

At the time of the Census, in March 1851, the movement was but in its 
infancy; so that the returns received, though possibly an accurate account of 
the then condition of the body, will fail to give an adequate idea of its present 
state. From these returns it seems there were at that time 339 chapels in con- 
nexion with the movement; having accommodation (after estimates for 51 
defective schedules) for 67,814 persons. The attendance on the Onsus-Sunday 
(making aa allowance for five cases where the numbers were not given) was 
as follows : Morning, 30,470 ; Afternoon, 16,080 ; Evening, 44,953. 



7. ynSBSMTAM 
XBTKODIftfS 



field. 



8. CALVINISTIC METHODISTS. 8. 

CALvnnsTic 
George Whitfield, bom in 1714, the son of an innkeeper at Gloucester, where Josthodisxs. 

he acted as a common drawer, was admitted as a servitor in Pembroke College George l^hit- 

Oxford, in 1732. Being then the subject of religious impressions, to which the 

evil character of his early youth lent force and poignancy, he naturally was 

attracted to those meetings for religious exercises which the brothers Wesley 

had a year or two before originated. After a long period of mental anguish, 

and the practice, for some time, of physical austerities, he ultimately found 

relief and comfort ; and, resolving to devote himself to the labours of the 

ministry, was admitted into holy orders by the Bishop of Gloucester. Preaching 

in various churches previous to his embarkation for Georgia, whither he had 

determined to follow Mr. Wesley, his uncommon force of oratory was at once 

discerned, and scenes of extraordinary popular commotion were displayed 

wherever he appeared. In 1737 he left for Georgia, just as Wesley had returned. 

He ministered with much success among the settlers for three months, and then 

came back to £ngland, for the purpose of procuring aid towards the foundation 

of an orphan house for the cftony. The same astonishing sensation was created 

D 2 



36 



CENSUS, 1851.—RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



8. 
^CiXVIKISTIC 
JiSTHOSISTB. 



Sepuratiou of 
'Whitfield and 
Wesley. 



Present position 
of Whitfield's 
followers. 



by his preaching as before ; the churches overflowed with eager auditors, and 
crowds would sometimes stand outside. Perceiving that no edifice was large 
enough to hold the numbers who desired and pressed to hear him, he began to 
entertain the thought of preaching in the open air; and when, on visiting 
Bristol shortly after, all the pulpits were denied to him, he carried his idea into 
practice, and commenced his great experiment by preaching to the colliers at 
Kingswood. His first audience numbered about 200; the second 2,000; the 
third 4,000, and so from ten to fourteen and to twenty thousand.* Such 
success encouraged similar attempts in London; and accordingly, when the 
churchwardens of Islington forbade his entrance into the pulpit, whidi the 
vicar had offered him, he preached in the churchyard ; and, deriving more and 
more encouragement from his success, he made Moorfields and Kennington 
Common the scenes of his impassioned eloquence, and there controlled, per- 
suaded, and subdued assemblages of thirty and forty thousand of tiie rudest 
auditors. He again departed for Georgia in 1748, founded there the orphan 
house, and, requiring funds for its support, again returned to England in, 
1761. 

Up to this period, Wesley and Whitfield had harmoniously laboured in con- 
junction; but there now arose a difference of sentiment between them on the 
doctrine of election, which resulted in their separation. Whitfield held the 
Calvinistic ^nets, Wesley the Arminian; and their difference proving, after 
some discussion, to be quite irreconcileable, they thenceforth each pursued & 
different path. Mr. Wesley steadily and slulfiilly constructing the elaborate 
machinery of Wesleyan Methodism ; and Whitfield following his plan of field 
itinerancy, with a constant and amazing popularity, but making no endeavour 
to originate a sect. He died in New England in 1769, at the age of 55.t 

His followers, however, and those of other eminent evangelists who sympa- 
thized with his proceedings, gradually settled into separate religious bodies, 
principally under two distinctive appellations ; one, the " Countess of Hunting- 
don's Connexion," and the other, the " Welsh Calvinistic Methodists." These, 
in ftkjt, are now the only sections which survive as individual communities ; for 
most of Whitfield's congregations, not adopting any connexional bond, but 
existing as independent churches, gradually became absorbed into the Congre- 
gational body. 



Origin. 



The Counte'ss of Huntingdon's Connexion. 

Selina, daughter of the Earl of Ferrers, and widow of the Earl of Huntingdon, 
was one of those on whom the preaching of Whitfield made considerable 
impression. In 1748 he became her chaplain; and by his advice she assumed 
a kind of leadership over his followers, erected chapels, engaged ministers or 
laymen to officiate in them, and founded a college at Trevecca in South Wales, 
for the education of Calvinijstic preachers. After her death, this college was, in 
1792, transferred to Cheshunt (Herts), and there it still exists. 

The doctrines of the Connexion are almost identical with those of the 
Church of En^^land, and the form of worship does not materially vary; for the 
Liturgy is generally employed, though extemporary prayer is frequent. 

Although the name " Connexion " is still used, there is no combined or 
federal ecclesiastical government prevailing. The congregational polity is 
practically adopted ; and of late years, several of the congregations have 
become, in name as well as virtually. Congregational churches. 



• Southey's Life of Wesley, vol. i. p. 201. 

t Whitfield during his tiiirty.four years* ministry is said to have preached no feiver than 
1S»0(K) sermons, being more tlian ten per week. • 



AND Wales.] REPORT. / yO ^7 




tt 



The number of chapels mentioned in the Census u Klonginf? to this calvixisxic 
Connexion, or described as " English Calvinistic Methoaists," was 109, con- methodists. 
taining (after an allowance for the sittings in five chapels, the returns for which 
are defective,) accommodation for 38,727 persons. The attendants on the 
Census-Sunday (making an estimated addition for seven chapels the returns 
from which were silent on the point) were : Morning, 21,103 ; Afternoon, 4,380 ; 
Evening, 19,159. 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodists. 

The great revival of religion commenced in England bv Wesley and Whit- 
field had been preceded by a similar event in Wales. I1le principal agent of 
its introduction there was Howel Harris, a gentleman of Trevecca, in Brecknock- 
shire, who, with a view to holy orders, had begun to study at Oxford, but, 
offended at the immorality there prevalent, had quitted college, and returned to ' 
Wales. He shortly afterwards began a missionary labour in that country, going 
firom house to house, and preaching in the open air. A great excitement was 
produced; and multitudes attended his discourses. To sustain the religious 
feeling thus awakened, Mr. Harris, about the year 1736, instituted '^Private 
Societies,'' similar to those which Wesley was, about the same time, though 
without communication, forming in England. By 1739 he had established 
about 300 such societies .in South Wales. At first, he encountered much 
hostility from magistrates and mobs ; but after a time his work was taken up 
by several ministers of the Church of England; one of whom, the Reverend 
Daniel Rowlands, of Uangeitho, Cardigan, had such a reputation, that *' persons 

have been known to come 100 miles to hear him preach on the Sabbaths of 

his administering the Lord's Supper;" and he had no less than 2,000 
communicants in his church. In 1742, 10 clergymen were assisting in the 
movement, and 40 or 50 lay preachers. The first chapel was erected in 1747) 
at Builth in Brecknockshire. 

In the meantime. North Wales began to be in similar manner roused ; and, 
in spite of considerable persecution, many members were enrolled, and several 
chapels built. The Rev. Thomas Charles, of Bala, one of the founders of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, was, towards the termination of the century, 
a prominent instrument in effecting this result. 

The growth of the movement, both in North and South Wales, was 
extremely rapid ; but the process of formation into a separate body was more 
gradual and slow. At first, as several of the most conspicuous labourers were 
clergymen of the Established Church, the sacraments were administered ex- 
clusively by thiem; but, as converts multiplied, the number of Evangelical 
clergymen was found inadequate to the occasion : many members were obliged 
to seek communion with the various dissenting bodies; till, at last, in 1811, 
21 among the Methodist preachers were ordained, at a considerable Conference, 
and from that time forth the sacraments were regularly administered by them 
in thev own chapels, and the body assumed distinctly the appearance of a 
separate Connexion. 

A county in Wales corresponds with a Wesleyan " Circuit," or to a Scottish Monthly Meet- 
Presbytery. All the church officers within a county, whether preachers or '***' 
leaders of private societies, are members of the " Monthly Meeting " of the 
county. The province of this meeting is, to superintend both the spiritual and 
secular condition of the societies within the county. 

The " Quarterly Association " performs all the ftmctions of the Wesleyan Qwarteriy Asso- 
** Conference," or of the " Synod " amongst Presbyterians. There are two ^ ^"** 

* D 3 



38 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



8. 

ClXTIiriSTIC 

XSTHODIBTB. 



meetings held every quarter; one in North Wales, and the other in South 
Wales. The Association consists of all the preachers and leaders of private 
societies in the Connexion. "At every Association, the whole Connexion is 
supposed to he present through its representatives, and the decisions of this 
meeting are deemed sufficient authority on every subject relating to the body 
through all its branches. It has the prerogative to superintend the cause of 
Christ among the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists through Wales and England, 
to inquire into the affairs of all the private and monthly societies, and to 
direct any changes or alterations which it may think requisite." It ia 
at this meeting that the ministers are selected who are to administer th& 
sacraments. 



<€ 



t( 



ti 



Ci 



it 



tt 



Ministers. 



The ministers, among the TiVelsh Calvinistic Methodists, are itinerant. They 
are selected by the private societies, and reported to the monthly meetings, 
which examine into their qualifications, and permit them to commence on trial. 
A certain number only, who must previously have been preachers for at least 
five years, are ordained to administer the sacraments, and this ordination takea 
place at the Quarterly Associations. The preachers are appointed each to a 
particular county ; but generally once in the course of a year they undertake 
a missionaiy tour to distant parts of Wales, when they preach twice every day, 
on each occasion at a different chapel. Their remuneration is derived from the 
monthly pence contributed by the members of each congregation ; out of which 
fund a trifling sum is given to them after every sermon. In 18379 & college for 
the education of ministers was established at Bala, and in 1842 another was 
estabhshed at Trevecca. 



Doctrines. 



The doctrines of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists may be inferred from the 
appellation of the body, and be said to be substantially accordant with the 
Articles of the Established Church, interpreted according to their Calvinistic 
sense. 



Staitistics. 



The number of chapels returned at the Census as pertaining to the body was 
828; containing (after an estimate for 53 chapels which made no return of 
sittings) accommodation for 211,951 persons. The attendance on the Census- 
Sunday was: Morning, 79,728; Afternoon^ 59,140; Evening, 125,244. It is 
computed that the body have expended in the erection and repairs of their 
chapels, between the year 1747 and the present time, a sum amounting to nearly 
a million sterling. From the " Dyddiadwr Methodistaidd*' for 1853 we leani 
that the number of ministers was 207, and of preachers 234. The number of 
communicants was stated on the same authority at 58,577. 

The principal societies supported by the Connexion are those connected with 
Home and Foreign Missions; the contributions to which amount to about 3,000i. 
a year. The operations of the Home Mission are carried on among the EngUsh 
population inhabiting the borders between England and Wales. The Foreign 
Mission has a station in Brittany (south of France) — the language of that country 
beings a sister dialect of the^Welsh — and stations^at Cassay and Sylhet in India, 
the presidency of Bengal. 



'9. 
or OLASBITBB. 



9. SANDEMANIANS ob GLASSITES. 

The Sandemanians — sometimes called Glassites, both appellations being derived 
from the names of the founders of the sect — first came into notice in Scotland 
about 1728 or 1729; when Mr. Glass, a minister of the Scottish National 
Church, avowed opinions on Church Governmeq^ approaching very nearly 



AHD Walks.] REPORT. //, 39 



T ^ i 



tliofle nudjatained by ConipregatioiuJiftB. Robert Sai^einan appealed in t. 

advocacy of the same opinions about 17&/^ and fonned a congregation in ^ot^gSSsitbs!^ 
London in 1762. — 

The prominent doctrine of the Sandemanians, on which they differ from 
most other chiuvhes, relates to the nature of justiiying fluth, which Sandeman 
maintained to be '^ no more than a simple auent to the divine testimony, passively 
" received by the understanding." 

Sandemanians, also, observe certain peculiar practices, supposed by them to 
have been prevalent amongst the primitive Christians, such as weekly sacra- 
ments, love feasts, mutual exhortation, washing each others feet, plurality of 
elders, the use of the lot, &c. 

The number of Sandemanian congregations in England, reported by the 
Census officers, was six ; the number of sittings (alter an estimate for tn'o 
chapels where the information was not given) was 956; and the number of 
attendants on the Census-Sunday was : Mornmg, 439 ; 4ftemoon^ 256 ; 
Evenmg, 61. 



10. THE NEW CHURCH. w. th« few 

CHUBCH. 

This body of Christians claims to possess an entirely new dispensation of — 

doctrinal truth derived from the theological writings of Emanuel Swedenborg ; 
and, as the name imports, they refuse to be numbered with the sects of which 
the general body of Christendom is at present composed. 

* Emanuel Baron Swedenborg was bom at Stockholm in 1688, and died in Origin. 
London in 1772. He was a person of great intellectual attainments, a member Baron Sweden- 
of sevend of the learned societies of Europe, and the author of very voluminous '** 
philosophical treatises. In 1745 he separated himself from all secular pursuits, 
relinquished his official labours in the Swedish State, and commenced the career 
which led to a religious movement. In that year, and thenceforth, he was &voured, 
he reports, with continual communications from the spuritual world, being often- 
times admitted into heaven itself and there indulged with splendid visions of 
angelic glory and felicity. The power was given him to converse with these 
celestial residents; and from their revelations, sometimes made directly to 
himself and sometimes gathered by him from the course of their deliberatiohs, 
he obtained the most important of his doctrines. His own account of the 
matter is thus stated in a letter to a friend : — '* I have been called to a holy 
office by the Lord Himself, who most graciously manifested Himself before 
me. His servant, in the year 1745, and then opened my sight into the 
spiritual world, and gave me to speak with spirits and angels, as I do even to 
this day. From that time I began to publish the many arcana which I 
" have either seen, or which have been revealed to me, concerning heaven and 
'* hell, concerning the state of man after death, concerning true divine worship, 
*' and concerning the spiritual sense of the Word, besides other things of the 
** highest importance, conducive to salvation and wisdom.*' 






The general result of these communications was to convince the Baron that Doctrine of Cor- 
the sacred writings have two senses — one their natural, the other their spiritual, respondences. 
sense; the latter of which it was his high commission to unfold. The natural 
sense is that which is alone received by other Christian Chiurches — ^the words of 
Scripture being understood to have the same signification (and no other) which 
they bear in ordinary human intercourse ; the spiritual sense is that which, in 
the judgment of the New Church, is concealed within the natural sense of 
these same words, — each word or phrase possessing, in addition to its ordinary 
meaning, an interior significance corresponding \vith some spiritual truth. 

D 4 



40 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. TEngland 



10. TfKE NEW 
CKITBCH. 



The principal tenets he dedneed from this interior meaning of the Holy Word, 
and which his followers still maintain, are these : — That the Last Judgment has 
already been accomphshed (^dz. in 1757); — that the former "Heaven and 
Earth *' are passed away ; that the " New Jerusalem," mentioned in the 
Apocalypse, has already descended, in the form of the " New Church ;" and 
that, consequently, the second Advent of the Lord has even now been realized, 
in a spiritu^ sense, by the exhibition of His power and glory in the New 
Church thus established. 

The usual doctrine of the Trinity is not received; the belief of the New 
Church being, "that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one in the person of 
" our Lord Jesus Christ, comparatively as soul, body, and proceeding operation 
" are one in every individual man." 

The New Church also rejects the doctrine of justification by faith alone, 
and the imputed righteousness of Christ: salvation, it inculcates, cannot be 
obtained except by the combination of good works with faith. " To fear God, 
" and to work righteousness, is to have charity; and whoever has charity, 
" whatever his religious sentiments may be, will be saved." 

The resurrection, it is believed, will not be that of the material body, but of 
a spiritual body ; and this will not immediately pass into a final state of being, 
but be subject to a kind of purgatory* where those who are interiorly good will 
receive truth corresponding with their state of goodness, and thus be fitted for 
heaven ; while those who are interiorly evil will reject all truth, and thus be 
among the lost. 



Bites. 



The Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper are administered in the 
New Church. The former is believed to be " a sign and a medium, attended 
with a divine influence, of introduction into the Lord's Church; and it 
means that the Lord will purify our minds from wicked desires and bad 
thoughts, if we are obedient to His holy word." The latter is believed to be 
a sign and a medium, attended with a divine influence, for introducing the 
Lord's true children, as to their spirits, into heaven ; and it means that the 
" Lord feeds their souls with His divine goodness and truth." 



(( 



ss 



(( 



ts 



tf 



Mod« of worship. The mode of worship adopted by the followers of Swedenborg resembles in 

its general form that of most other Christian bodies : the distribution of sub- 
jects in their Liturgy, and the composition of their hymns and prayers, being, of 
course, special; but no particular form is considered to be binding on each 
society. 



Polity. 



The general affairs of the New Church are managed by a Conference, which 
meets yearly, composed of ministers and laymen in conjunction ; the proportion 
of the latter being determined by the size of the respective congregations which 
they represent : a society of from 12 to 50 members sending one representative, 
and societies of from 50 to 100 members and those of upwards of 100 members 
sending each two and three representatives respectively. There is nothing, 
however, in Swedenborg's ^vritings to sanction any particular form of Church- 
government. 



Religious So- 
cieties. 



The principal societies for disseminating the doctrines of the New Church 
are, the " Swedenborg Printing Society," established in 1810, and the 
" Missionary and Tract Society," established in 1821. The income of the 
former, for 1852-3, from subscriptions and donations, was 3331. ; and that of 



(( 



• This vrord scarcely expresses the exact belief of the New Church on the point, 
iutermediftte state " would perhaps have been a more correct expression.— [EpitobI. 



An 



AWD Wales.] REPORT. /m i 41 




the latter, for 1851-2 was 235/. The number of tracts i88U|^ Was 23,942. 10. the hew 
Missionaries are employed in cMerent parts of England. T ^^ ^^^' 

Among the first disciples of the new iaith were two clei^iymen of the Church Numbers. 
of England, the Rev. Thomas Hartley, (who translated the work on " Heaven 
and Hell,") and the Rev. John Clowes (who translated the " Arcana Coelestia^" 
&c.). In December 17B3, eleven years after Swedenborg*s decease, an adver- 
tisement brought 5 persons to meet together for reading and conversation; 
which number had increased to thirty in 1787. About this time the fom^ttion 
of a definite religious society was commenced ; provision was made for public 
worship; and a system of ministerial ordination was adopted. At the 15th 
conference, held in Manchester in August 1822, there were 8 ministers an4 37 
del^;ates, representing 24 congivgations. At the Census of 1851 the niunber 
of congregations was ascertained to be 50; of which the greater number 
were in Lancashire and Yorkshire. It is considered, however, by members 
of the body, that the mere number of their chapels gives a very inadequate 
idea of the prevalence of their opinions : many, they say, ostensibly con- 
nected with other churches, entertain the prominent doctrines of the New 
Church. 



1 1 . THE BRETHREN.* _ ":u.,» 

THE BRETHBE H. 

Those to whom this appellation is applied receive it only as descriptive of *"* 

their individual state as Christians — not as a name by which they might be 
known collectively as a distinct religious sect. It is not from any common 
doctrinal peculiarity or definite ecclesiastical organization that they have the 
appearance of a separate community ; but rather from the fact that, while all 
other Christians are identified with some particular section of the Church of 
God, the persons known as *' Brethren" utterly refuse to be identified with 
any. Their existence is, in fact, a protest against all sectarianism; and the 
primary ground of their secession from the different bodies to which most of 
thein have once belonged, is, that the various tests by which, in all these bodies, 
the communion of true Christians with each other is prevented or impeded, 
are unsanctioned by the Word of God. They see no valid reason why the 
Church (consisting of all true believers) which is reaUy one, should not be 
also visibly united, having as its only bond of fellowship and barrier of 
exclusion, the reception or rejection of those vital truths by which the Chnstian 
is distinguished from the unbeliever. Looking at existing churches, it appears 
to them that all are faulty in this matter ; national churches by adopting a 
too lax — dissenting churches by adopting a too limited — criterion of member- 
ship. The former, it appears to Brethren, by considering as members all 
within a certain territory, mingle in one body the believers and the unbelievers ; 
while the latter, by their various tests of doctrine or of discipline, exclude from 
their communion many who are clearly and undoubtedly true members of the 
universal Church. The Brethren, therefore, may be represented as consisting 
of all such as, practically holding all the truths essential to salvation, recognize 
«ach other as, on that account alone, true members of the only Church. A 
difference of opinion upon aught besides is not regarded as sufficient groimd 
for separation ; and the Brethren, therefore, have withdrawn themselves from 
all those bodies in which tests, express or virtual, on minor points, are made 
the means of separating Christians from each other. 

In the judgment of the Brethren, the disunion now existing in the general 
Church is the result of a neglect to recognize the Holy Spirit as its all-sufficient 

 Commonly called the " Plymouth Brethren."— [Editoe]. 



42 CENSUS, 1851.--KELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Engi^and 

   I   .i^^...  M i  i I  I < I 111 .1 I II 

TBS buxhUsk. guido* Instead, they say, of a rdiaaoe on His promised presence and sovereignty 
— as Christ's vicar on earth, ever abiding to assert and maintain His Lordship in 

the Church according to the written Word, men, by thdr creeds and articles,, 
have questioned the sufficiency of Scripture as interpreted to all by Him, and,, 
by their ministerial and ritual appointments, have assumed to specify the 
channels through which only can His blessings be communicated. All these 
various human forms and systems are believed by Brethren to be destitute of 
scriptural authoiity, and practically restrictive of the Holy Spirit's operations. 

Chiefly with regard to ministry are these opinions urged ; the usual method 
of ordaining special persons to the office, being held to be unscriptural and 
prejudicial, lliey conceive that Christians in general confound ministry (i.e. the 
exercise of a spiritual gift) with local charges, as eldership, &c. Such charges, 
they infer from Scripture, required the sanction of Apostles or their delegates,, 
to validate the appointment (Acts xiv. 23., Titus i. 6.) ; whereas the " gifts " 
never needed any human authorization (Acts xviii. 24-28, Rom. xii., 1 Cor» 
xii-rvi., Phil. i. 14., 1 Peter iv.'9, 10.) Further they urge that while Scripture 
warrants the Church to expect a perpetuity of " gifts " — as evangelists, pastors,, 
teachers, exhorters, rulers, &c: — because they are requisite for the work of the 
ministry (Ephes. iv. 7-13) — it nowhere guarantees a permanent ordaining power, 
without which the nomination or ordaining of elders is valueless. All believera 
are, it is affirmed, true spiritual priests capacitated for worship (Heb. x. 19-25)^ 
and any who possess the qualifications from the Lord are authorized to 
evangelise the world or inslsruct the Church; and such have not alone the 
liberty, but also an obligation to employ whatever gift may be entrusted to 
their keeping. Hence, in their assemblies, Brethren have no pre-appointed 
person to conduct or share in the proceedings ; all is open to the guidance of 
the Holy Ghost at the time, so that he who believes himself to be so led of 
the Spirit, may address the meeting, &c. This arrangement is considered to 
be indicated as the proper order in 1 Cor. xiv. — ^to flow from the principle laid 
down in 1 Cor. xii., — and to be traceable historically in the acts of the Apostles. 
By adopting it the Brethren think that they avoid two evils by which all 
existing sects are more or less distinguished ; the first, the evil of not employing 
talents given to believers for the Church's benefit — the second, the evil of 
appointing as the Church's teachers men in whom the gifts essential for the 
work have not yet been discovered. The Brethren, therefore, recognize no 
separate orders of ^'clergy" and "laity" — all are looked upon as equal in position 
(Matt, xxiii. 8., 1 Cor. x. 17, xii. 12-20, &c.), differing only as to " gtfts " of 
ruling, teaching, preaching, and the like (Rom. xii. 4-8., 1 Cor. xii. 18, 28, &c.). 
The ordinances, consequently, of baptism, when administered, and the Lord's 
Supper, which is celebrated weekly, need no special person to administer or 
preside (Acts ix. 10-18, x. 48, xx. 7, 1 Cor. xi.) Another feature of some im- 
portance is, that wherever gifted men are found among the Brethren, they, 
in general, are actively engaged in preaching and expounding, &c. on their own 
individual responsibility to the Lord and quite distinct from the Assembly. So 
that though they may occasionally use the buildings where the Brethren meet,, 
it is in no way as ministers of the Brethren but of Christ. 

The number of places of worship which the Census officers in England and 
Wales returned as frequented by the Brethren was 132; but probably this 
number is beldw the truth, in consequence of the objection whicih they entertain 
to acknowledge any sectarian appellation. Several congregations may be 
included with the number (96) described as " Christians " only. 



AND WaLBB.] 



wspoht. 



/. 



^ 



43 



UNENDOWED CHURCHES, NOT PROTESTANT. 



1. ROMAN CATHOLICS. 



/ 



' The Toleration Act of 1688, by wlaidi the Protestant Dissentera were relieved 
from many of the disabilities that previously attached to them, procured no 
change in the position of the Roman Catholics. They still remained sul]|}ected 
to the penalties inflicted by the vanoas statutes which, since Elizabeth's accession, 
had been passed for their discouragement. These were exceedingly severe. 
Apart from the punishments awarded for ihe semi-political offence of denying, 
or refusing to admit the Sovereign's supremacy, the Acts of Recusancy (1 EHz. 
c. 2., and 23 Eiiz. c. 1.) exposed them to considerable faits for non-attendance 
at the service of the Established Church ; and by other statutes they were not 
permitted to estabhsh schools in England, nor to send their children to be taught 
abroad — they were excluded from all civil and military offices, from seats in 
either House of Parliament, and from the practice of the law, — they were not 
allowed to vote at Parliamentary Elections — ^proselytes to popeiy, and those who 
were the means of their conversion, were subjected to the penalties of treason — 
and, by various oaths and tests as well as by express provision, they were 
hindered in the exercise of their religious worship, and prevented from promul- 
gating their doctrines. Their condition was, in fact, deteriorated in the reign 
of William HI. — ^some enactments of especial rigor being sanctioned.* 

Whetiier from the effect of these enactments, or from the natural progress of 
the piindples of Protestantism, it is certun that at this time the number of 
professing Roman Catholics in England, who, in the reign of Elizabeth, were, 
according to Mr. Butler, a majority, or, according to Mr. HaUam, a third of the 
population, had considerably declined. A Report presented to William, divides 
the freeholders of England and Wales, as foUows — 

Conformists - - - - 2,477,264 

Nonconformists - . - _ 108,676 

Papists ----- 13,856 



2,599,786 



And the number of persons of the Roman Catholic faith is said to be only 
27,696. This statement, allowing for all probable deficiencies, sufficiently 
exhibits the great diminution which, from various causes, had occurred since the 
period of the Reformation. 

Not much alteration in the position of the Roman Catholics took place for 
nearly a century after the Revolution. As the temper of the times grew milder, 
many of the penal laws were not enforced ; though, while the throne remained 
exposed to the pretensions of the Stuart family, the laws themselves continued 
on the Statute Book : indeed, some further measures were enacted during the 
agitations consequent upon the Catholic Rebellion of 1715. When, however. 



umMDow ip 
OHUBOHis, not 

PBOTMTAVT. 



1. xoiLur 

CATHOUCB. 



• «« 



In 1690, the 11th of William, tui Act passed, for Fwther preventing the growth qf Popery, 
of pecidiar severity. A reward of one himdred pounds is offered for apprehending any priest or 
Jesuit. Paoists not taking the oaths in six months, after eighteen years of age, are declared 
incapable of inheriting lands, &c« ; and the next of kin, a Protestant, is to enjoy the same : also, 
Plapists are made incs4)able of purchasing lands. Ambassadors are not to protect priests that 
are subjects of England. Sending a child to be educated abroad in the Komish religion is 
punishable by a forfeit of one hundred pounds. Popish parents are obliged to allow a main- 
touanoe to their children, becoming protestant, at the Chancellor's detennixiation."M)harl66 
Butler's Historical Memoirs of the English Catholics, yoL ii. p.64. 



y^ 



44 



1. BOH AX 

CATHOLICS 



CENSUS, 1851.-^RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Englani> 



in the person of George III., the Brunswick dynasty was firmly settled on the 
throne, a course of mitigating legislation was commenced, which gradually 
relieved the Roman Catholics from all restraints upon their worship, and from 
nearly all the incapacities attached to their religion. In 1778, the first remedial 
Act was passed, repealing the provision in the 10th and 12th of Wilham III., 
by which the Catholics were disabled from taking lands by descent. The 
Gordon Riots of 1780, rather aided than retarded the advance of public senti- 
ment towards additional relief; and, in 1791, Mr. Pitt, (having obtained from 
the chief continental universities, unanimous opinions that the Pope possessed 
no civil authority in England, that he cannot absolve the subjects of a sovereign 
from their allegiance, and that the principles of the Roman Catholic faith do not 
excuse or justify a breach of faith with heretics), procured the passing of another 
bill, by which, upon taking a form of oath prescribed, the Catholics were 
secured against most of the penalties pronounced by former Acts.* They 
were left, however, still subjected to the Test and Corporation Acts, by which 
they were excluded from all civil and military offices ; were prohibited from 
sitting iii either House of Parliament, and were disabled frt>m presenling to 
advowsons. The removal of the chief of these remaining disabilities was 
zealously urged upon the Parliament for many years successively. In 1813 an 
important measure^ framed with this intention, was defeated in the Commons 
by a minority of only fourj while, in 1821, a bill to the same effect passed 
through the lower House but was rejected by the Peers. At length, in 1828, 
the Test and Corporation Acts were abrogated, and in 1829 the Catholic 
Emancipation Act bestowed on Roman Cathohcs substanlially the same amount 
of toleration which was granted to the Protestant Dissenters. 

Concurrently with the alleviation of their civil state, the number of the 
Catholics appears to have been gradually augmenting. In 1767 a return 
reports their number to be 67,916; and another return in 1780 enumerates 
69,376. About this time, the number of chapels was about 200. The following 
is extracted from a Roman Catholic work :t it shows the progressive increase in 
the number of such chapels in England and Wales since 1824 : 



Year. 


Number 

of 
Chapels. 


Year. 


Number 

of 
Chapels. 


Year. 


Number 

of 
Chapels. 


1824 - - 

1825 - 

1826 - . 

1827 - 

1828 - . 

1829 . 

1830 - • 

1831 - 
1832 
1833 - 


346 
370 
384 
382 
387 
394 
392 
397 
403 
411 


1834 - . 

1835 - - 

1836 - 

1837 - - 

1838 - 

1839 - . 

1840 • 
IMl - - 

1842 - 

1843 - - 


417 
417 
423 
431 
429 
444 
463 
466 
479 
497 


1844 - - 

1845 - - 

1846 . 

1847 - - 

1848 - 

1849 - - 

1850 - 

1851 - - 

1852 - 

1853 - - 


506 
512 
520 
536 
543 
652 
574 
583 
60S 
616 



Upon the same authority, the number of colleges belonging to the church is 
now (1853) eleven, and of religious houses 88, (of which 16 are for men, and 



* Persons taking the oath were exempted fh>m the operation of the Acts of Recusancy; were 
allowed, under certain regulations, to meet for worship and to establish schools; were relieved 
Arom the oath of supremacy and the declaration against transubstantiation; were not compelled 
to register their decnUi and wills ; and were delivered from the double laud tax thitherto imposed 
upon them. 

t OathoUo Statistics 1823 to 1853. 



AHO WaLJBS.] 



REPOBT. 



Id. 



46 



73 for women) ; while the number of the priests is 875. The following Table 
(B.) displays the inoease, as to priests and religious houses, since 1841. 

Table B. 



Tear. 


Number of 
Reli^ous 
Houses. 


Kumber 

of 
Priests. 


Year. 


Number of 

SeligiouM 

Houses. 


Number 

of 
Priests. 


1 1 1 1 
I 1 1 


17 
21 
28 
28 
S3 
38 

42 

 


567 
606 
648 
650 
666 
685 
689 


1848 

1848 

1850 

1861 - - 

1852 - 

186S - - - 


47 
58 
64 
68 

78 
88 


719 
774 
788 
826 
856 
876 



The number of chapels from which returns have been received at the Census 
Office is 570; with sittings (after an allowance for 48 chapels making no return 
upon this point) for 186,1 11. The niunber of attendants on the Census-Sunday 
(making an estimated addition for 27 chapels the returns from which were silent 
on this pomt) was: Morning, 252,783; J^temoon, 53,967; Evening, 76,880. It 
will be observed, that in the morning the number of attendants was more 
than the number of sittings : this is explained by the fact that in many Roman 
Catholic chapels there is more than one morning service, attended by different 
individuals. 



2. THE CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC CHURCH.* 

The i<)Uowing sketch, supplied by a member of this body, will perhaps convey^ 
with certain qualifications, a correct idea of its sentiments and position : — 

" The body to whidi this name is applied make no exclusive claim to it : 
" they simply object to be called by any other. They acknowledge it to be 
" the common tiUe of the one Church baptised into Christ, which has existed 
in all ages, and of which they claim to be members. They have always protested 
against the application to them of the term ' Irvingites ;' which appellation 
they consider to be untrue and offensive, though derived from one whom, 
when living, they held in high regard as a devoted minister of Christ. 
" They do not profess to be, and refuse to acknowledge that they are, 
separatists from the Church established or dominant in the land of their 
" habitation, or from the general body of Christians therein. They recognize 
the continuance of the Church from the days of the first apostles, and of the 
three orders of bishops, priests, and deacons, by succession firom the apostles. 
They justify their meeting in separate congregations from the charge of 
" schism, on the ground of the same bdng permitted and authorized by an 
" ordinance of paramount authority, which they believe God has restored for the 
*' benefit of the whole Church. And so frur from professing to be another sect in 
" addition to the numerous sects already dividing the Church, or to be 'the One 
Church,' to the exclusion of all other bodies, they believe that their special 
mission is to re-unite the scattered members of the one body of Christ. 
''The only standards of frdth which they recognize are the three creeds of 
the Catholic Church — ^the Apostles' creed, the Nicene or Constantinopolitan 
creed, and that called the creed of St. Athanasius. The speciality of their 
religious belief, whereby they are distinguished from other Christian com- 
munities, stands in this : that they hold apostles, prophets, evangelists, and 
pastors to be abiding ministries in the Church, and that these ministries. 



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1. SOKAV 
CATHOUCSi. 



THE CATHOLIC 

AKD APO BTOUC 

CHUSCH, 



 Commonly known as ** Irvingites.'*— [Editok.] 



46 CENSUS, 1861. ^MSLIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Bmolakd 

«  I II 111 I ■■...-■■■-- ... .... 

2i *' tocetber witii the pow«r and gifis of ihe Holy Ghost, dispensed and ^tattbated 

AHD AsouoLic *' among her members^ are necessaiy for prepannjp^ sad perfecting the Chun^i 

ujmjiCH. « £qj, ^jjg second advent of the Lord ; and that supreme rule in the Church 

ought to be exercised, as at the fbst, by twelve iq>ostIes, not elected, or 
ordained by men, but called and sent forth immediately by God. 

The congr^^tions which have been authonzed as above stated are placed 
under Ihe pastoral rule of angels or bi&^ops, with \irhom are associated, in the 
work of the ministry, priests and deacons. The deacons are a distinct and 
separate order of ministers, taken from the midst of, and chosen - by, the 
respective congr^ations in which they are to serve, and are ordsdned either 
by i^ostles or by angels receiving commission thereunto. The priests are 
first called to their office by the word through the prophets, (''no man taking 
this honour to lumself,") and then oidained by apostles ; and from among 
the priests, by a like call and ordination, are the angels set in their peaces. 

With respect to iiie times of worship, the Holy Eucharist is celebrated, and 
the communion administered, every Lord's day, and more or less frequently 
during the week, according to the number of priests in each particular 
congregation ; and, where the congregations are large, the jBrst and last hours 
of every day, reckoning from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., are appointed for divine 
worship; and, if there be a sufficient number of ministers, there are, in 
addition, prayers daily at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., with other services for the more 
special object of teaching and preaching. 

In the forms of worship observed, the prayers and other devotions to be 
found in the principal hturgies of the Christian Church are introduced by 
preference, wherever appropriate ; and in all their services the bishops and 
clergy of the CathoHc Church, and all C^unstian kings, princes, and governors, 
are remembered before God. It may also be observed, that in their ritual 
observances and offices of worship external and material things have their - 
plaecv . . They contend thatj as through the washing of water men are admitted 
'* into <he Christian covenant, and as bread and wine duly consecrated are 
'< ordained to be used not merely for spiritual food but for purposes of sacta- ' 
m^tal. and symbolic agency, so also that ike use of other soaterial things, ^ 
such as oil, lights, incense, &o., as symbols .and exponents of spiritual 
realities, belongs to the dispensation of the Gospd. 

Besides firee-wiU offeriogs, thp tenth of thdr increase, including ineome of 
eveiy description, is broi^ht up to the Lord (it being regarded as a sacred 
duty that tithe should be dedicated to His service alone), and is apportioned 
among those who are separated to the ministiy. 

In England there are about 30 congregations, comprising nearly 6,000  
communicants; and the number is gradually on the increase. There are also 
congregations in Scotland and Ireland, a coAsiderable number in Germany,* 
"; and several in France, Switzerlandi, and Ammoa." , 

Oflate years, ibis said^ the church has made considerable progress, so that 
from 1846 to 1851 the number of communicants in England has increased by a 
third, while great success has been achieved on the continent and in America. 
Returns from 32 chapels (chiefly in the southern counties of England) have 
been furnished to the Census Office. These contained (allowing for one 
chapel for which the sittings are not mentioned) accommodation for 7>437 
persons. The attendance, on the Census-Sunday, was (making an estimated 
addition for two chapels with regard to which no information was received) 
Morning, 3,17s ', Afternoon, 1,669; Evenir^, 2,707 . 



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3. THE LATTER DAY SAINTS, oa MORMONS.* . ,„,.«,. 

DAT 8AIWI, or 

Although, in ori^, the Monnon moirement is not Eng&h, but American, mobmova. 
yet, as the new creed, hj the misaionaiy zeal of its disciples, has extended into 
England, and is making some not inconsiderable progress with the poorer . 
classes of our countrymen, it seems desirable to gire, as far as the inadequate 
materials permit, some brief description of a sect, the history of whose opinions, 
sufferings, and achievements, shows, perhaps, the most remarkable religious 
movement that has happened since the days oi Mahomet. 

JosepAi Sniith, the prophet of the new bdief, was bom in humble life m 1806, ^[^^J^Jf^ 
at Sharon in the stale of Vermont, firom whence in 1816 he xemored with his *^'^^'^^^' 
parents to Palmyra, New York. When about 16 years old, being troubled by 
convictions of his spiritual danger, and perplexed by the multitude of mntnally 
hostile 8<k;ts, he saw, he siiys, while praying in a grove, a vision of ''two 
penonages," who informed Mm tiiat his sins were pardoned, and tiiat all . 
existing sects were almost equally erroneous* This vision was repeated three 
years afterwards, in 1823, when an angel, he reports, informed him that the 
American Indians were a remnant of tiie Israelites, and that certain reoordi^ 
written by the Jewish prophets and containing history and prophecy, had, when 
the Indians fell into depravity, been buried in the earth at a spot whidi the 
angel indieatedt Smith was further told, that he had been selected as the 
instrument by which these valuable records riioiild be brought to light; tiiei 
revelations tiiey eofftained befatg- necessary ibr the restoration of tiiat purity • 
of creed and worship ham which all the modem churches had alike departedr 

• AeoordBngly^ upon the '22d ot September 1823, Smith, the story mna, dis- 
covered ill tiie side of a 1^ about four miles from Palmyra in Ontario Gounty, 
a. stone bokj jasib covered by the earthy in -which was deposited the " Record," — 
a eolleodon of tlun plates of gold, held together by three golden rings. ^ Part of 
this golden book was 4Mtaledy but the p(»tion open to inspection was engraven ' 
thickly wftli ** Rc^nrmed Egyptian ** diaracters. Together with the book he 
found two crystal kinses ^ set-in. the two rims -of a bow," appavently resemblmg 
an enormous pair of "speotaoles ;• this instrument he said was the Urim and 
Thummim used by ancient seers. 

The simple inepection of these 'twiaaurea was the whole extent of Smith's 
achieveB^ents ton hkr ftmt <dlBeoveiy «f them ; he was not permitted by the angel 
to remove them until four years: alterward% on the 22d of September 1827. 
During the interval he received oocairional instruction from his supemataial 
visitant. 

- The news of his discovery attracted such attention, and procured him so much* 
obloquy, that, according to the nanative of his biogn^hers, he was ei^iosed'. 
to p««onal violence, and was obliged to fly to Penn^lvama^ canying his golden 
{dates concealed in a banrail of beans.t When thus in some security, he, by the 
aid of the Urim and Thummim, set to work upon the translation of the unsealed 
portion, which, when complete, composed a bulky vokime, which he called tiie 
*^ Book of Mormon ''— '' Mormon,'' meaning, he explained, more good, from. 
" mor/* a contraction fbr more, and " mon/' Egyptian for pood, "Mormon," 
too, was the name of a supposed prophet living in the fourth or fifth century, 

* See "The Mormons, a oontempoTary HlstoiT;" ** Remarkable Vision^ by Orson Pratt, one 
ef the twelve apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Samta;" " The Voice of 
Joseph, a brief account of the Bise, Prosress, and Persecutions of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter Day Saints, with their present position and property in Utah Territory, by Lorenzo 
Snow, one of the twelve apostles ;" ** A Voice of Warning, by Parley P. Pratt;" " The only Way 
to be Saved, by Ix>renzo Snow :" " The Seer ;" " Book of Doctrine and Covenants of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, selected fix>m the Revelations of God, by Joseph Smith, 
President;'* third European edition. 1852. 

 t A Voice of Warning, p. 87. 



43 CENSUS, 1651.— REUGIOUS WORSHIP. [Englanq 

vA^AiiiTs^r ^^^* ^'^^^ ^® principal portion of the American Israelitea had fallen in battle, 

jiOBMoir& and the whole of them become degenerate, engraved on plates a summaiy of 

"""^ their history and prophecies. These plates, his son, Moroni, in the troublous 

times which followed, hid for safety in a hill then called Cumonb, about the 

year a.d. 420. 

Mormons defend the authenticity of this recital, by asserting the improbability 
that Smith, an illiterate person, could invent it, and, unaided, write so large 
and peculiar a volume. To the objection that the golden plates are not pro- 
duced, they give Smith's own reply to the applications made to him by his 
disqples for a view — ^that such an exhibition of them is prohibited by special 
revelation. Nevertheless, in further proof of Smith's veracity, three '* witnesses " 
were foimd to testily that they had actually seen the plates, an angel having 
shewn them ; and a similar testimony was borne by eight other '' witnesses,* 
— four of tliese belonging to a family named Whitmer, and three being the two 
brothers and the father of Smith. Tlie utmost that Smith did towards allowing 
access by indifferent parties to the plates, was to give to one of his inquiring 
foUowers a copy upon paper of a portion of the plates in the original hiero- 
glyphics, viz., the '^ Reformed Egyptian." This was submitted by the yet 
unsatisfied disciple to Professor Antiion of New York, who, however, did 
not recognise the characters as those of any ancient language known to him 
The Mormon advocates appear to think these evidences iiTesistible.t — Upon 
the other hand, it is asserted, by opponents of the Stunts, that about the years 
1809 — 12, a parson of the name of Solomon Spaulding, who had been a 
clergyman, conceived and executed the design of writing a religious tale, the 
scenes and nanative of which should be constructed on the theory that the 
American Indians were the lost ten tribes of Israel. This work, when finished, 
he entitled " J%e Meautseript ftmnd j" and the purport of the fiction was, to 
trace the progress of the tribes from Jerusalem to America, and then describe 
theb subsequent adventures in the latter country, — ^' Mormon " and his son 
" Moroni " being prominent characters, and Nephi, Lehi, and the T^wm»^H-iw 
(names frequently occurring in the Book of Mormon) being also mentioned. 
The MS. of this production, it is further stated, found its way into the hands 
of one Sidney Rigdon, who was intimately connected with Smith from the 
commencement of his career. 

The " Book of Mormon " was succeeded by a " Book of lioetrme and 
Covenanta," being a collection of the special revelations made to Smith and 
his associates upon all points connected with the course and welfare of tilie 
church. This was continually enlarged as further revelations, consequent 
upon the varying fortunes and requirements of the body, were received. 
Amongst these was one by which the " Aaronic Priesthood " was revived — 
anotiier by which baptism by immersion was commanded — a third for the 
institution of " Apostles" — and others for the temporal regulation of the church 
from time to time.* In these productions the peculiar phraseology of the 
sacred scriptures was profusely imitated. 

It appears that at the end of about three years after Smith's announcement of 
himseLP as a prophet, about 30 persons were convinced of the reality of his 
pretensions, and from this time forward converts rapidly increased. Smith 
removed to Kirtland^ in Ohio, and set up a mill, a store, and a bank. 

It was not without opposition that this progress was effected* As appears 
to be usual upon the rise of new religious sects, the Mormons were accused of 



• The"doctnne" of thw book is contained in scren lectures on Faith, origfinally deUvered 
before a class of elders m Kirtland. Ohio. Some of the ** revelations " are very minute : as. for 
instance, one authorizing Newel R. Whitney to retain his store for a little season ; others directing 
Titus Billings to dispose of his land— Martin Harris to lay his monies before the Bishop of the 
Church— Sidney Rigdon to write a description of the land of Zion— Joseph Smith to roceivo 
support firom the Church, and to have a house built in which to live and translate— &c. 



/o} 



anbWales.J report. ((/J 49 

holding man^r outrageous and immoral doctrines, and, amongst them, that of a pA'^^Snraoa 

community of wives. The popular hostility was often violently manifested, MosMoiirB, 

and the saints were subjected to much ill-treatment. Smith himself, in 1832, 

was tarred and feathered by a midnight mob; and, in the following year, 

the whole of the Mormons in Missouri (amounting to above a thousand persons) 

were expelled from Independence, Jackson Ck>unty, which had been described 

by Smith as the Zion appointed by revelation for the resting-place of the saints. 

They removed to Clay County, where, in 1837, they were joined by the prophet 

himself, whose bank in Kirtland had failed. Meantime, the prejudice against 

the Mormons followed them to their new habitation, and, in 1838, after several 

sanguinary outbreaks, Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were imprisoned, 

and the whole community of Mormons were expelled from their possessions in 

Missouri. They took refuge in the neighbouring state of Illinois. Here, in 

1839, their prophet, who had managed to escape from prison, joined them. 

They now numbered 15,000 souls. 

In Illinois, they chose the village of Commerce as their readence, which soon 
became converted into a considerable town, of which the prophet was appointed 
mayor. This town they called Nauvoo, or " Beautiful," according to the 
language of the Book of Mormon. A body of militia^ called the Nauvoo 
Legion, was established — Smith being " General." In 1841, a " revelation " 
ordered the construction of a splendid temple, towards which object aU the 
saints were to contribute a full tithe of their possessions. It is said that they 
expended on this structure nearly a million of dol^. 

In Nauvoo, the Mormons seem to h^e increased and prospered greatly : the 
town extended fast; the temple gradually rose; and the prophet was the 
absolute head of a comparatively powerful community, which hardly recognised 
the ordinary laws of the state. In 1843 he became a candidate for the Pre«- 
dency, and put forth a statement of his views. In 1844, however, occurred 
the final catastrophe of his life. A Nauvoo paper, having printed certain 
scandal of him, was, by order of the council of the town, suppressed, and 
its office rased; on which, the editors retired to Carthage, and obtained a 
warrant against Smith and his brother. This warrant Smith refused to recog- 
nise : liie county force prepared to execute it ; and the Saints prepared their city 
for defence. To save the town, however. Smith surrendered on the promise of 
protection from the governor. This promise proved of little ^Tvlue ; for, on the 
^th of June 1844, a mob broke into Carthage prison, and Joseph and Hyrum 
Smith were shot. 

Upon the prophet's death there were two competitors for the vacant supre- 
macy — Sidney Rigdon and Brigham Young. The former was the earliest 
associate of Smith, and professed to be acquainted with '* all his secrets ;" 
but, as the prominent advocate of the '^ Spiritual Wife " doctrine, he wius looked 
upon with disfavour as the virtual author of much of the suspicion and hostility 
with which the Mormons were regarded. Brigham Young succeeded therefore 
to the post of '* Prophet " (which he still retains), and Rigdon was expelled 
from the community. An interval of scarcely interrupted progress followed, 
during which the temple was completed ; but in 1845 the troubles were renewed : 
perpetual conflicts, in which blood was shed, occurred, and the city of Nauvoo 
itself was regularly besieged. At length the Mormons, conscious of their 
inability alone to cope with their antagonists, and seeing that no confidence 
could be reposed upon the law for their protection, undertook (since nothing 
less would satisfy their enemies) that they would altogether quit the State — 
commencing their departure in the spring of 1846. 

This time it was no mere temporary, neighbouring refuge which the Mormons 
sought. The elders of the church, aware of the hostility to which it would be 
c. K 



4b CENSUS, 1851 .-^RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. < [England 



i>i?^^W OT ^o^siantly exposed in ally portion of the populated States, resolved, wiiii e<(a8(L 
Hoiufoim. policy and daring, to escape entirely from the settled territozy, and to seek te 
off, beyond the Rocky Mountains, some secluded and unoocuined retreat in 
which they could, secure from molestation, build their earthly '^ Zion,'' and* by 
gathmng thither &om all quarters of the world the converts to their £utb«. bep(«n9t0 
a thriving and a powerfdl community, too potent to be further inteifered mi^. 
This remarkable pilgrimage, involving the removal of some thouaanda of men,, 
women, children, cattle, and stores, over thousands of untrodden miles-HMar06&^ 
wide unbridged rivers — ^by the difficult passes of snow-capped mountains— ^and 
through deserts, prairies, and tribes of predatory Indians — ^waa at once commenced. 
A party of pioneers set out from Nauvoo in Februairy 1846, when it was still 
printer— the waggons CTOssing the Mississippi on the ice. These were to pr^are 
the way for the msdn body of tiie citizens, who, according to stipulation, might 
remain in Nauvoo lall these preparations were completed. Their depajrtur0:wa6, 
however, hastened by the fresh hostility of their opponents, who— <»noludiiig 
from the progress still continued in the decorations of the temple that the 
Mormons secretly intended to elude their promise and return — attacked the 
town in September 1846, and expelled the whole of its remaining population. 
These then followed and overtook the pioneering party, which, after dreadfill 
BUffbrings from cold and heat, from hunger and disease, had, finding it lot- 
possible to reach their destination till the following year, encamped upon the 
banks of the Missouri, on the lands of the Omahas and Pottawatamies. Here 
they had sown the land to some extent with grain, the crops of which were to be 
reaped by their successors. After a fLreary winter, spent in tMs location, they 
began their march towards their fuial settlement. In April 1847 the first 
detachment of 143, with 70 waggons, crossed the Rocky Mountains ; arriving 
at the basin of the Great Salt Lake, in the latter portion of July, in time to sow 
the land for an autumn crop. The second party started in the summer with 
666 waggons and a great supply of grain. The others followed in the course of 
1848 — ^their passage much alleviated by the tracks prepared by thdr predecessors 
and the harvests left for them to gather. ' i 

' llie valley of the Great Salt Lake is a territory of considerable extent, endosod 
on all sides by high rocky mountains. The Lake itself is nearly 300 mUes m 
circumference, with islands rising from its surface to an elevation of some 
thousand feet : its shores are covered in some places with the finest salt, and its 
water is as buoyant as the waves of the Dead Sea. Portions of the land are 
desert ; but a vast expanse is wonderfully fertile and abounds in all facilitieft for 
pasturage and cultivation. Here, the Mormons have now firmly fixed them- 
selves, and made, since 1848, continual progress. Further settlements have 
been established, and several cities founded : that of the Great Salt Lake itself 
has a plot of several acres destined to support a temple whose magnifioenee 
shall fiur exceed the splendour of the former Nauvoo edifice. Relying on the 
inexhaustible resources of the region to sustain innumerable inhabitants, the 
principal endeavour of the rulers is to gather there as many inmugraats as 
possible professing the same faith. They calculate that thus, established in asi 
almost inaccessible retreat, with numbers continually augmenting, they will 
soon be able to defy external enmity and rear upon a lasting basis their eode- 
siastical republic. Missionary agents are despatched to almost every portion of 
the world to make fresh converts and facilitate their transit to America. In 
England these endeavours have been followed by no slight success : it is 
computed that at least as many as 30,000 persons here belong to the com- 
munity, and nearly 20,000 have already, it is said, departed for the Great 
Salt Lake. This settlement itself, has now, by the name of '' Utah " been 
admitted to the United States Confederacy ; but it seems, from a report of the 



"T 



u 



« 



at 



ANB Wales.] . . REPORT. ' iQ if *1 

ja<^ea sent tbeit l^ ihe recent Preflddent, that the aathority of the federal s. TSSivixTBit 
gOTsmmeiit is virtually set at nought ; the laws and their administration being ^^<Sum^L^*^ 
always found accordant with the pleasure of the Mormon rulers* , "^^ 

.Apiinted " Creed" presents the following sumraaiy of their opinions, but 
omits some rather material points : — 

^ ^' We beUeve m God the eternal Father, and his Son Jesus Qurist, and in the 
^' Holy Ghost. 

*' We believe that men will be punished for theur. own sins> and not for 

Adam's transgressionB. 
We believe that through the atonement of Christ all mankind may be 

saved, by obedience to the laws and (Ordinances of the Gospel. 

'* We believe that these ordinances are : 1st. Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. 
*' 2d.. Repentance. 3d. Baptism by immersion for the remission of sins. 

4th. Laying on of hands for the ^fb of the Holy Spirit. 5th. The Lord's 

Supped. 
We believe that men must be called of God by inspiration, and by haying 

on of hands by those who are duly commissioned to preach the Gospel and 
'* administer in the ordinances thereof. 

'^ We believe in the same organization that existed in the primitive church, 

vis.^ apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, &c. 

'' We believe in the powers and gifts of the everlasting Gospel, viz., the gift 
■■** of Mth, discerning of spirits, prophecy, revelation^ visions, healing, tongues 
'•'' and the interpi^etation of tongues, wisdom, charity, brotherly love, &c. 

*' We believe in the Word of God recorded in the Bible. We also believe 
■'" the Word of God recorded in the Book of Mormon and in all other good 
^ books. 

*' We believe all that God has revealed, all that he does now reveal ; and 
(^' we believe that he will yet reveal many more great and important things 
^' pertsdning to the Kingdom of God, and Messiah's second coming. 

^^ We believe in the literal gathering of Israel, and in the restoration of th& 

ten tribes ; that Zion will be established upon the Western continent ; thai 

Christ will reign personally upon the earth a thousand years; and that the 

earth will be renewed and receive its paradisaical glory. 

'^ We believe in the literal resurrection of the body, and that the dead ic 

Christ will rise first, and that the rest of the dead live not again until the 
** ^ousand years are expired. 

We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty God according to the 

dictates of our conscience, unmolested, and allow all men the same privilege, 

let them worship how or where they may. 

We believe in being subject to kings, queens, presidents, rulers, and 

magistrates, in obeying, honouring, and sustaining the law. - 

We believe in being honest, true, chaste, temperate, benevolent, virtuous, 

and upright, and in doing good to all men ; indeed, we may say that we 

follow the admonition of Paul, — ^we * believe all things,' we * hope all things,' 

we have endured very many things, and hope to be able to * endure all things.' 

Every thing virtuous, lovely, praiseworthy, and of good report we seek after. 



t( 
tt 



(C 

. <c 
tt 

<t 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 

" looking forward to the * recompense of reward.' " 

A rather more specific outline of some points of their belief is given by one 
of their apostles. According to him, the Saints believe that all mankind, in 
consequence of Adam's sin, are in a state of ruin : from this, however, they are all 
delivered by the sacrifice of Christ, and are made secure of everlasting happiness, 
unless they commit any actual sin. Infants, therefore, being irresponsible, will 
be eternally redeemed ; and such among the people of the earth as have not had 
the benefit of revelation will receive a mitigated punishment. The rest, in order 

E 2 



52 



CENSUS, 185L— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



S. THE liATTES 

DAT SAIITTB, Or 

M0SM0V8. 



Numbers in 
EnglancL 



to be saved from endless ruin, must comply with four conditions : — (1) they 
must believe in Christ's atonement ; (2) they must repent of their transgressions ; 
(3) they must receive baptism by immersion for the remission of sins, adminis- 
tered only by one authorized of Christ ; and (4) they must receive the laying on 
of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost — this ordinance also being, like that of 
baptism, only to be administered by duly authorized apostles or elders. All who 
comply with these conditions obtain forgiveness of their sins and are made 
partakers of the Holy Ghost — enjoying, too, the gifts of prophecy and healing, 
visions and revelations, and the power of working miracles.* 

Among the prominent opinions, not included . in these statements, are their 
doctrines of the materiality of the Deity ,t and of the twofold order of the 
priesthood, viz., the Melchisedek and the Aaronic. They are also charged by 
their opponents with the practice and the sanction of polygamy ; and evidence 
is not unplentiful of their allowance of something closely similar ; and in their 
various publications very peculiar doctrines on the subject of marriage are pro- 
pounded.;]; Their standard books, however, specially denounce the crime. § 

' In England and Wales there were, in 1851, reported by the Census officers as 
many as 222 places of worship belonging to this body — ^most of them however 
being merely rooms. The number of sittings in these places (making an allow- 
ance for 53, the accommodation in which was not returned) was 30,783. The 
attendance on the Census-Sunday (making an estimated addition for 9 chapels 
from which no intelligence on this point was received) was: Morning, 7ySl7 ; 
Afternoon, 11,481 ; Evening, 16,628. ITie preachers, it appears, are far from 
unsuccessful in their efforts to obtain disciples : the surprising confidenpe and 
zeal with which they promulgate their creed — ^the prominence they give to the 
exciting topics of the speedy coming of the Saviour and his personal millennial 
reign — and the attractiveness to many minds of the idea of an infallible church, 
relying for its evidences and its guidance upon revelations made perpetually to 
its rulers, — these, with other influences, have combined to give the Mormon 
movement a position and importance with the working classes, which, perhaps, 
should draw to it much more than it has yet received of the attention of our 
public teachers. 



• Bemarkable Visions, by Orson Pratt, pp. 12-16. 

t The Materialism of the Mormons examined and exposed, by T. W. P. Taylder. Absurdities 
of Immaterialism, or a Reply to T. W. P. Taylder's Pamphlet, by Orson Pratt. 

t Report of Judges of the State of Utah, 1851 ; Captain Stansbury's Description of the 
Mormon Settlement, &c. In the pages of " The Seer." a periodical conducted by Orson Pratt,* 
the doctrine of i>lurality of wives is openly advocatca. Marriage, however, is there said to be 
the exclusive privilege of the righteous — the wicked who marry doing so at their own periL 
Whether a man is righteous or wicked is a point to bo determined by the prophets of the 
Mormon Church : and as this can only be ascertained by the aid of inspiration, it is argued that 
no marriage can be safely contracted in communities which do not believe in a continuaace of 
revelations. 

§ Book of Doctrine and Covenants, sections LXY. and CIX. 






^ 



AND Wales.] REPORT. I U \ ^ 



ISOLATED CONGREGATIONS nni.S?it?;?nir« 

(not connected with any particular sect). "~" 



In addition to the congregations which belong to the preceding regularly 
organized bodies, there are individual congregations, mostly altogether inde- 
pendent of each other, or at all events without the formal coalescence which 
is requisite to constitute a " sect." Five classes may be noticed of these 
congregations : 

1. Those in which the members of some two or more of the preceding sects i. Ck>mbiiuttioii8 
uiviJte in worship — probably from inability alone and severally each to support a ** 

place o£ worship and a minister. Of these amalgamated congregations the 
most numerous are those (to the number of 61) in which the Independents join 
with Baptists, The whole of these combinations, and their frequency, are 
shewn as follows : — 

Independents and Baptists, 61 congregations; Independents, Baptists, and 
Wesleyans, 2 congregations ; Independents and Wesleyans, 3 congregations ; 
Independents and Calvinistic Methodists, 1 congregation; Independents and 
Primitive Methodists, 1 congregation ; Baptists and Wesleyans, 2 congregations ; 
Baptists, Wesleyans, and Moravians, 1 congregation ; Presbyterians and Par- 
ticular Baptists, 1 congregation ; Mixed (constituent sects not stated), 54 con- 
gregations; Wesleyan Christian Union, 1 congregation; Neutral, 1 congrega- 
tion. 

It must not, indeed, be thought that these are the only instances in which the 
members of, or sympathizers with, particular conununities, are found together, 
worshipping in common : few congregations are without a certain number who, 
while strictly claimable by other bodies, find their difference of sentiment on 
ritual observances no obstacle to union when the fundamental doctrines 
preached are similar. But the congregations named above, it is assumed, are 
not, as in the cases just supposed, ostensibly connected either with the one or 
with the other of the bodies to which, in theory, the various attendants are 
attached; but, on the contrary, exist apart and independently, by special 
understanding and arrangement of the two or more uniting parties. 

2. Another class of miscellaneous congregations is composed of such as are 2. Congregations 
formed by the adherents to some doctrine to which special value is attached, and profesdonof 
which is thus maintained with greater prominence than by the regular churches. pe<^li*r doc- 
To this class the following may be referred : — 

Calvinists, 81 congregations; Calvinists (supralapsarians), 1 congregation; 
Huntingtonians, 1 congregation ; Universalists, 2 congregations ; Millenarians, 
5 congregations ; Predestinarians, 1 congregation ; Trinitarian Predestinarians^ 
1 congregation. 

3. A third group may be made of congregations, which, disliking to be iden- 3. rnflectarian 
tified with anything appearing to be sectarian, refuse to call themselves by any <'°"8'®8***o'*s» 
but a very general or a merely negative appellation ; as. 

Christians, 96 congregations ; Christian Association, 8 congregations ; Ortho- 
dox Christians, 1 congregation; New Christians, 1 congregation; Christ's 
Disciples, 3 congregations; Primitive Christians, 1 congregation ; New Testa- 
ment Christians, 2 congregations ; Original Christians, 1 congregation ; United 
Christians, 1 congregation ; Gospel Pilgrims, 2 congregations ; Free Gospel 
Christians, 14 congregations ; Believers, 1 congregation ; Non Sectarian, 7 con- 
gregations ; No particular Denomination, 7 congregations ; Evangelists, 4 

E 3 



54 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. ' [England 



4. Sect not parti- 

ciilaxized. 



5. Missiotwtif 
congregations. 



I30I«A.TED _ 

coirasBGATioirs congregations ; Gospel Refugees, 1 congregation ; Freethinking Christians, 
.,,., ;^ ^ 2 congregations. 

4. Others, while admitting a connexion with some one of the more extensive 
sections into which the Christian Church is now divisible, have either forgotten 
or declined to specify a more minute assodation ; such are, 

Protestant Christians, 3 congregations ; Evangelical Protestants, 1 congrega- 
tion; Protestant Free Church, 1 congregation j Trinitarians, 1 congregation; 
Protestant Dissenters, 24 congregations; Dissenters, & congregaldons ; Evan- 
gelical Dissenters, 3 congregations ; Episcopalian Seceders, 1 congregation. 

5. A fifth class of separate congregations may be formed of those which are 
the offspring of the Missionary operations of the other bodies, acting either 
individually or in combination ; such are the congregations raised and sup- 
ported by the 

London City Mission, 7 congregations; Railway Mission, 1 congregation; 
Town Mission, 17 congregations; Home Mission, 1 congregation; Mission 
Society, 8 congregations; Seamen's Bethel, 11 congregations; Christian Mis-, 
sion, 3 congregations. 

Doubtless, these will not include the whole of the congregations gathered and 
sustained by the agency of these societies and others having kindred objects : 
many, it is likely, are returned widi some particular denomination. 

C Hiscellaneons. 6. A residue will still be left of congregations difficult to classify. Such are the 

following: — 

Free Church, 8 cougregrations ; Teetotalers, 1 congregation; Doubt^ 43 
congregations; Benevolent Methodists, 1 congregation; General, 2 congrega-. 
tions ; Israelites, 1 congregation ; Christian Israelites, 3 congregations ; Stephen- 
ites, 1 congregation; Inghamites, 9 congregations; Temperance Wesleyans, 1 
congregation ; Temperance Christians, 1 congregation ; Freethinkers, 2 congre- 
gations; Rational Progressionists, 1 congregation; Southoottians, 4 congre- 
gations. 

The last of these, perhaps, deserves some notice. It derives its name firom 
Johanna Southcott, who was born in 1750 in humble circumstances in Devon- 
shire. In 1792 she commenced a career as a prophetess, making various 
-announcements of events which were, she said, about to happen, and of revela- 
tions made to her respecting the millenial advent of the Saviour. Several 
thousand persons, it is said, believed her mission, amongst whom she distributed 
sesded packets which were thought by their possessors to contain the virtue 
of " charms." Being afflicted with a malady which gave to her the aspect of 
pregnancy, she prophesied that she was destined to become the mother of a 
Second Shilohj and accordingly a splendid cradle and some other considerable 
preparations for the birth were made by her disciples ; but her death, which 
happened shortly afterwards, displayed the baselessness of their anticipations. 
Neverthdess her followers would not resign their confidence that her prognosti- 
cations would be certainly fulfilled ; asserting that, for the accomphshment of 
her predictions, she would shortly re-appear, restored to life. It seems that there 
are still in England four congregation^ of persons entertaining this belief. 



ANB Walks.! • REPOBT. // 55 



k 



FOREIQN CHURCHES. vobeiov 



The previous notices comprise the whole of the Re%ious Bodies which are 
native to this country, or which act upon the native population. Of the Foreign 
Churches, it is only necessary to enumerate the congregations which helong* 
to each. Foreign Protestants have eleven congregations; thus distributed — 
Lutherans, 6; French Protestants, 3; Reformed- Church of the 
Netherlands, 1; German Protestant Reformers, 1% Other Foreign 
Christian Churches have 5 congregations, namely — German Catholics, 1 ; 
Italian Reformers, 1 ; and Greek Church, 3. 

The Jews (a nation and a Church at once) have 53 synagogues, with 
Accommodation (after an estimate for three defective returns) for 8,438 wor- 
shippers. 



If the preceding sketch has given any adequate idea of the ffidth and order of f^S^JS^of 

the various churches which possess in common the rehcrious area of England, it ^oft of the 

.__,__ * " .T , BoaiiM previously 

will probably be seen to what a great extent, amidst so much ostensible con- described. 

fusion and diversity, essential harmony previdls. Especially is this apparent if 

we limit our regard to Protestant communions; which, indeed, comprise 

together nineteen-twentieths of our religious population. With respect to 

these, the differences which outwardly divide are not to be compared with the 

concordances which secretly, perhaps unconsciously, unite. The former, with 

biit few exceptions, have relation almost wholly to the mere formalities of 

worship — not to the essential articles of faith. The fundamental doctrines of 

the Reformation, as embodied in the standards of the Church of England, are 

professed and preached by Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, Methodists, and 

manyminor sects, comprising more than nineteen-twentieths of the Nonconforming 

Protestant community ; and though the (tifiPerent organization of these several 

bodies seems to present externally an aspect of disunion, probably a closer 

scrutiny will show that they are separated only as to matters whose importance, 

even if considerable, is not vital, and that thus they may, without excess of 

charity, be recognized as truly, though invisibly, united to the general Church 

of Christ. Perhaps in a people like the Enghsh — ^trained to the exercise of 

private judgment, and inured to self-reliance — absolute agreement on religious 

subjects never can be realized ; and certainly if, at the trifling cost of a merely 

superficial difPerence, the ever various sympathies or prejudioes of the people can 

obtain congenial resting place, we scarcely can behold with discontent a state of 

things by which, at worst, external rivalry is substituted for internal disaffection ; 

while this very livaby itself — perhaps in part, and growingly, a generous 

emulation — tends to diffuse the Gospel more extensively, since thus religious 

zeal and agency are roused and vastly multiplied. Rather, perhaps, we shall be 

led to recognize with some degree of satisfaction the inevitable existence of such 

co-operative diversity ; and shall perceive, with Milton, that " while the Temple 

of the Lord is building, some cutting, some squaring the marble, some 

hewing the cedars, there must needs be many schisms and many dissections 

made in the quarry and in the timber ere the House of God can be built : 

*' and when every stone is laid artfully together, it cannot be united into a 

continuity, it can but be contiguous in this world; neither can every piece of 

the building be of one form ; nay, rather the perfection consists in this, that 

out of many moderate varieties and brotherly dissimilitudes, that are not 

E 4 



t€ 

*( 



4< 



56 CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 






vastly disproportional, arises the goodly and graceful symmetry that commends 

the whole pUe and structure."* Nor has this wrtual union been, in recent 
times, unfruitful of much manifested concord. Common objects are increasingly 
pursued by common efiPorts ; not a few of our existing and perpetually rising 
institutions for promoting moral and religious. progress being founded on the 
ample basis which permits the members of the different churches to commingle 
in associated labour. 

Amongst the constituencies, in the committees, and upon the platforms, of 
the various religious societies, are found, conjoining in harmonious action, 
ministers and members of perhaps a dozen different sects ; while one considerable 
organizationt has for its exclusive object the promotion of fraternal sentiment 
and intercourse between the various Evangelical Communions. Other indications 
likewise are not wanting, which, combined with these, may reasonably raise 
the hope that many of the Protestant communities are gradually tending to 
a closer union and a more combined activity, proceeding from a heartier appre- 
ciation of the \\t6l doctrines all alike profess and a diminished ardor on behalf 
of those subordinate arrangements of church discipline and order with regard 
to which they find themselves obliged to differ. 

•Much, no doubt, of this substantial concord is attributable to our system of 
religious freedom, which, allowing the unchecked development of all ecclesiastical 
peculiarities, has thus conferred on none the artificial value which results from 
prohibition ; and perhaps the expectation may be reasonably entertained that> 
under this same influence, the spirit of uncompromising peace will gain yet 
further potency — ^that liberty to separate on minor, will beget still more the dis- 
position to unite on greater, questions — and that thus the Toleration Act will 
prove, in its results, to have been the most effective Act of Uniformity. 

If these remarks have in them any considerable share of truth, it will be 
evident how necessary was the task of showing, in connexion with a statement 
of existing means of spiritual instruction, how many of the various bodies are 
pursuing, though by (Merent paths, the same grand objects; so that, when 
endeavouring to estimate our actual deficiency, we may not prematurely and 
despondingly exaggerate our all-too-formidable need, but recollect that though, 
in certain districts, there may be an absence of machinery belonging to particular 
communities, the same essential truths may be both faithfully and effectively 
imparted through the agency of other churches. Many spots there are, 
imhappily, in England, where the whole provision made by all the churches put 
together is inadequate to the occasion : such a deficiency as this it is which 
properly betokens '' spiritual destitution " ; and the actual extent of this defi- 
ciency we now may, aided by the previous explanations, safely pass to indicate. 

• Areopaffitica ; or Speech for the Liberty of tJnliceused Printing. 

t The ^' Evangelical Alliance," founded in 1846. The basis of this association is an agreement 
in holding and maintaining what are generally understood to be evangelical views in regard to 
the most important matters of doctrine ; and its great obiect is " to aid in manifesting the 
unity which exists among the true disciples of Christ." This object is sought to be attained 
principally by annual conferences of members and by continual correspondence with Christian 
bretlm>n m different parts of the world. 



andWales.J report. Jij ,' W 



SPIRITUAL PROVISION AND DESTITUTION. 




^ 



/ 



There are two methods of pursuing a statistical inquiry with respect to the 
religion of a people. You may either ask each individual, directly, what 
particular form of religion he professes ; or, you may collect such information 
as to the religious acts of individuals as will equally, though indirectly, lead to 
the same result. The former method was adopted, some few years ago, in 
Ireland, and is generally followed in the continental states when such investiga- 
tions as the present are pursued. At the recent Census, it was thought 
advisable to take the latter course; partly because it had a less inquisitorial 
aspect, — ^but especially because it was considered that the outward conduct of 
persons furnishes a better guide to their religious state than can be gained by 
merely vague professions. In proportion, it was thought, as people truly are 
connected with particular sects or churches, will be their activity in raising 
buildings in which to worship and their diligence in afterwards frequenting 
them ; but where there is an absence of such practical regard for a religious 
creed, but little weight can be attached to any purely formal acquiescence. 
This inquiry, therefore, was confined to obvious /acf« relating to two subjects. — 
1. The amount of Accommodation which the people have provided for 
religious worship; and, 2. The number of persons, as Attendants, by whom 
this provision is made use of. 

1 .—ACCOMMODATION. 

If, by a happy miracle, on Sunday, March the dOth 1851, an universal feeling Maximum of 
of devotion had impressed our population, and impelled towards the public SSIdationki**™* 
sanctuaries all whom no impediment, of physical inability or needful occupa- places of worship. 
tion, hindered ; if the morning or the evening invitation of the service-bell had 
called, no less from the crowded courts of populous towns and the cottages of 
scattered ^^llages than from the city mansions and the rural halls, a perfect 
complement of worshippers; for what proportion of the 17,927,609 inhabitants 
of England would accommodation in religious buildings have been necessary ? 

The reply to this inquiry wi^ determine mainly the extent by which our actual ^ 
supply of spuitual ministration is inadequate to the demand. 

Various computations have been made respecting the number of sittings Various esti- 
proper to be furnished for a given population. With respect to tmons, it has °^*®^* 
been thought by some that accommodation for 50 per cent, would be sufficient ; 
while others have considered that provision for not less than 75 per cent, should 
be afforded. Dr. Chalmers took the mean of these two estimates, and con- 
cluded that five eighths, or 62^ per cent., of the people of a town might attend 
religious services, and ought to have facilities for doing so.* 

The maximum for rural districts is put lower than that for towns ; the distance 
of the church from people's residences operating as an unavoidable check upon 
attendance. But, as, for the purpose of this estimate, the rural population will 
consist of only those who live remote as well from villages containing churches 
as from towns, — ^in fact, of only those who are remote from any place of worship, 
— ^the proportion deemed to be sufficient for a town may be applied, with very 
slight reduction, to the whole of England — town and country both together ; 
and, according to the best authorities, this proportion seems to lie between 50 
and 60 per cent, of the entire community. 

* Christian and Economic Polity of a Nation, vol. i. p. 123. Mr. E. Baiu«s (an excellent 
authority on subjects of this nature) assumes that acc(»Dmodation for 50 per cent, of the gross 
population would be ample.— Letters on the Manufbcturing Districts. 



58 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Enoi/And 



Ooiuddenble 
deduction to be 
madeAromtiie 
total population. 

1. Young ehil- 
dren. 



H. Invalids and 
aged persons. 



3 Persons in 
charge of houses 

Ac. 



4. Persons em- 
ployed on public 
conveyances. 



Result of these 
deductions. 



From many valid causes, there wiU always be a considerable ntunber of per- 
sons absent from public worships First, a large deduction firom the total 
population must be made on account of iitfants and young children ; of whom 
there were in England and Wales, in 1851, as many as 4,440,466 under ten 
years of age — ^2^348,107 of this number being under five. Of course, opinions 
vary as to the earliest age at which a child, in order to acquire a habit of 
devotion, should be a^en to a place of worship : some begin occasional atteur 
dance before they reaca five years of age, while others are retained at home 
much later. Many parents too, no doubt, conceive that the attendance of thei^ 
children at a Sunday-sdiool is a sufficient tax upon their tender strength. 
Perhaps it will not, therefore, be unreasonable to assume that, either on account 
of immaturity or Sunday-school engagements, about 3,000,000 children wiU be 
always justifiably away firom pubhc worship. 

There will also always be in any large community a certain number kept at 
home by siekneis. It is estimated that the proportion of persons constantly sick, 
or incapacited by infirmities of age for active duties, is about %:ve. per cent, of 
the population ; and, as the degree of indisposition which in general detains 'a 
prudent person firom church or chapel is much slighter than that contemplated 
in this calculation, we shall probably not err in taking nearly seven per cent, 
of the 15,000,000 (which remidn after deducting the 3,000,000 children w'ho 
have already been supposed to be absent), and putting down 1,000,000 persons 
as the number usually and lawfiilly away firom public worship on the ground of 
sickness or debility.* 

Another large deduction must be made for those who are necessarily left in 
charge of houses and in attendance upon the two preceding classes. There were, 
in 1851, in England and Wales, 3,278,039 inhabited houses. If some of these 
in country parishes were left untenanted, locked up, while the inmates were at 
service, others doubtless were in charge of more than one domestic ; so that we 
may safely take the whole 3,278,039 houses as representing so many individuals 
legitimately absent finm religious edifices on account of household duties. Many 
of these, no doubt, would discharge a double occupation, as guardians of the 
house and attendants upon children or invalids ; but some addition must 
unquestionably be made for a distinct array of nurses, or of parents unavoid- 
ably detained at home, and also for the medical practitioners, whose Sunday 
services can scarcely be dispensed with. 

A fourth considerable class, of which a certain number will be always absent 
firom religious worship, is the class employed in connexion with the various 
public conveyances; as railways, steamboats, omnibuses, coaches, barges on 
canals, &c.t It is impossible to form an estimate of the precise extent to which 
employment in this way may be admitted as an adequate excuse for noa<- 
attendance on religious ordinances ; since opinions are extremely various as to 
the extent to which the use of conveyances upon the Sunday is to be considered 
a work of " necessity or mercy." It cannot, however, be doubted that, prac- 
tically, whatever views are fikely to prevail upon the subject of Sabbath labour, 
very many persons will be constantly engaged in ministering to the public ne^d 
of locomotion. 

Not attempting any numerical estimate of various minor classes, and de- 
signedly not making any deduction on account of Sunday traders, or the 



* The number of persons in England and Wales in 1861, aged 70 years and upwards, was 
508,306 : aged 75 and upwards, there were 258,143 : aged 80 and upwards, there were 107,041 : 
aged 85 and upwards, there were 38,201 : upwards or 90, there were 7,796 : above 96 there were 
1,546 : and 216 were upwards of 100. 

t It is estimated that the number of men engaged, in London alone, upon omnibuses, on the 
Sunday, is as many as 6,000. 



I 



AND Wales.J report. y' ^ f 59 

(luminal population — since tbe object is to show the amount of accommodatioa 
needed for those who are able, not merely for those who are willmg, to attend — 
it seems to follow from the previous computations that about 79^!^»000 persons 
will, of necessity, be absent whenever divine service is celebrated; and, con- 
sequently, that sittings in religious buildings cannot be required for more ih&n 
10,427^609, being rather more than 58 per cent, of the entire community. It 
win be convenient for the subsequent calculations to deal with 58 per cent, 
exactly, and assume that the number always able to attend is 10,398,013. 

It by no means results, from this, that the adult portion of the remaining Effect of double 
42 per cent, of the population (7,500,000 in round nmnbers) is entirely without 
opportunities of frequenting public worship ; for, as there is generally more than 
one service on the Sunday, it is practicable, and in fact customary, to carry 
on a system of rrfi^— some who attend service at one period of the day occu- 
pying at the other period the place of those who were before prevented ; thus 
enabling these to attend a later service in their turn. This system is especially 
adopted in the case of domestic servants ; consequently, though there is pro- 
bably always about the same number (viz. 7,500,000) detained at home by lawfid 
causes, this number will not always be composed of the same persons. 

The custom of double, and sometimes treble, services each Sunday intro- 
duces an important element into the question of the number of sittings needful 
for a given population. It has been shown above, that sittings cannot be 
wanted for more than 10,398,013 persons (being the full number able to attend 
at one time). But does it therefore follow that there should be as many sittings 
as this number of persons? It is obvious that if attendance upon public 
worship once a day be thought sufficient for each individual, it is possible to 
conceive a case where, all the churches and chapels being open tivice a day, the 
whole population could attend, though sittings should exist for only half their 
number. For instance; if in a district, with ten thousand persons able to 
attend, the places of worship (open twice upon the Sunday) should contain 
5,000 sittings, it is possible for the whole ten thousand to attend them, simply 
by the one half going in the morning and the other in the evening: and 
if three services are held, a further diminution of the number of sittings 
might be made without depriving any person of the opportunity of attending 
once. This, though of course an extreme illustration, cannot fail to show the 
necessity of settling, ere a trusty calculation can be made of the accommodation 
needful for the country, whether it is to be assumed that a single sitting may 
be occupied by more than one person on one Sunday, or whether we must aim 
at a provision so extensive that every person may be able (if incHned) to attend 
each Simday twice or oftener — in fact, at every senice. Practically, I believe 
it will be found that very many persons think their duties as to Sabbath worship 
adequately discharged by one attendance ; and most likely we may safely count 
upon the permanent continuance of a large class thus persuaded. Still, as no 
definite conception can be formed of the extent to which this practice is 
adopted — and as it might reasonably be contended that neglect of any oppo- 
tunities for worship should not be presumed, but that such an extent of accommo- 
dation should be.fumished as would utterly exclude excuse for non-attendance — 
it will be the better plan if, merely indicating the existence of .the practice as an 
element in the question, I assume that the provision needful for the population 
should consist of at least as many sittings as there are individuals not in- 
capacitated by the causes previously mentioned, viz., 10,398,013, or 58 per 
cent. Indeed, whatever diminution in the estimate may be supposed to be 
allowable on account of double services will probably be more than counter- 
balanced by the absolute necessity there is that nearly every building should 
possess some surplus of accommodation ; for as, practically, it is impossible that 



60 CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 

each religious body can compute so nicely its position and attractiveness as to 
provide exactly as many sittings as are wanted from it, and no more, — as some 
will naturally leave a margin for anticipated progress, which perhaps may not 
be realized, while others will miscalculate the other way^ and grow beyond their 
utmost expectations, — ^there must needs be a certain excess of supply beyond 
demand, continuing as long as there exists a variety of churches, and the 
liberty for people to prefer one church before another. I am therefore incUned 
to consider that accommodation for 58 per cent, of the population is no more 
than would be absolutely needful if all persons able to attend were also wiUing. 

The maximum of But, of course, in order to be adequate to the wants of the community, the 
ifa^^edby'its buildings which should contain these 10,398,013 sittings must be so located on 
distribut^ over the surface of the country as to bring the accommodation they afford within the 

reach of all by whom it is required. If many churches and chapels be clustered 
in a narrow compass, or if several thinly peopled parishes have each a church 
with more accommodation than is wanted, it will follow that in other portions 
of the country there must necessarily be some deficiency, unless the aggregate 
of sittings be raised above 10,398,013. So that what is wanted is, not merely 
such a number of sittings as shall equal the total number of persons capable of 
using them, but also such a distribtUion of these sittings «s will render them 
available by all requiring them. A pro^dsion of 10,398,013 sittings for the whole 
of England would only be sufficient if in every part of England there should 
prove to be accommodation for as many as 58 per cent. It ^vill presently 
be shown how far the actual distribution of religious buildings in this country 
affects the question of the adequacy or inadequacy of existing accommodation. 

By what religious Having advanced thus far, we meet a question much more difficult and 
the^^^^T delicate than any which has hitherto encountered us ; this is, assuming that 
accommodation 10,398,013 sittings ought to be provided, would the provision be satisfactory 
^"^^ supposing that that number could be furnished by the aid of all the various 

churches and congregations in the aggregate ? or is it essential that they should 
belong to one particular church exclusively? or to a certain number of 
churches which agree upon particular fundamental doctrines? These are 
questions which are obviously beyond the range of this Report, and which must 
be discussed and settled for themselves by the different readers of the Tables. 
In the meantime, while endeavouring to estimate in some degree the actual 
extent of " spiritual destitution," it may fairly be allowed, perhaps, to take the 
whole accommodation in the gross ; since it is probable that yet for many years 
to come each church will continue to retain a hold upon the sympathies of a 
portion of our population, which then, of course, as now, will not require, as 
they would not accept, accommodation in the buildings of other denominations. 
The course of argument, however, will be of general applicability, and can 
easily be adapted to the Church of England or to any other body. 

Actual proviidon What, then, is the number of. sittings actually furnished, by the agency of all 
Mwrding to the the various churches, towards the accommodation of the 10,398,013 persons 

who, if only willing, would be able constantly to occupy them ? The returns from 
31,943 places of religious worship, many of them of course being simply rooms in 
houses, give an aggregate of sittings to the number of 9,467,738. But as 2524 
other places have omitted to retium the number of their sittings, an estimate for 
these, computed from the average of complete returns*, will raise the total 

* In this calculation a separate average has been taken for each denomination ; but it has not 
been thought essential to proceed so mmutely as to distinguish whether the places of worship 
supplying defective returns are situate in town or country localities, nor how many of them are 
separate and entire buildings. It is not probable that any closer scrutiny would materially 
alter the estimate. Where, However any reliable indication of the number of sittings has been 
furnished by a statement of the number of attendants, this has been adopted rather than the 
average. 



AND Wales.] REPORT. ^ ^ : 61 

number of sittings reported to the Census Office to 10,212,563/ This, when 
compared with the number calculated as desirable (10,3i>8,0td), shows a 
d^ciency in the whole of England and Wales of 185,450. 

The point, then, to which we have arrived is this : assuming that the joint Ad«nua(gr of 
provision made by all the sects together may be reckoned in the computation, SS^twnlf*'^* ' 
the deficiency, upon the whole of England and Wales, will be only to the e<^uii3^dis- 
extent of 185,450 sittings (or for only 1*03 per cent, of the population), if the 
entire provision now existing is found to he so well distributed over the country as 
that no part has too Utile and no part too much. We must, therefore, now 
inquire how far this necessary distribution has been realized. 

Every portion of the country, I assume, should have accommodation for 58 Effect of unequal 
per cent, of the inhabitants.* It would clearly be of no avail that one part 
should have more than this per-centage if another part had less; for since, 
according to the estimate, no more than 58 per cent, of the population could be 
present at one time at a religious service, it is evident that if in any pWe the 
nvmiber of sittings would accommodate a much greater proportion than 58 per 
cent., there would be in that locality a surplus of unused and uselesi? sittings, 
generally inaccessible to residents in other neighbourhoods, and quite as unavail- 
able as if they had never been provided. What is required is, not alone an 
aggregate per-centage of 58 per cent, in an eictensive area (such as the whole of 
England, or the whole of an English county) ; for this would not be any proof 
of adequate provision, since the jural portions might possess an unavailable 
abundance, while the urban portions suflfered under an extreme deficiency ; but 
that same per-centage in localities of size so circumscribed that inequalities 
of distribution could but slightly operate. Then, what localities, of definite 
character, of this appropriate size, can be selected for comparison, by which to 
estimate more accurately our requirements? Of course, with regard to the 
Church of England, there should be accommodation for the 58 per cent, in 
every parish, since the very theory of a parochial arrangement is that the people 
of a parish should attend the parish church and none besides ; but probably 
it is not needful to investigate so carefully as this. The Registration Districts, 
opFoor Law Unions, (of which there are in England and Wales 624,) will afford 
convenient limits for comparison ; and if in any of these we find a total amount 
et accommodation adequate for 58 per cent, of the inhabitants, we shall 
probably not err to any great extent, (although, no doubt, we shall to some 
extent,) if we conclude that there is room for 58 per cent, within the reach 
of all the dwellers in the District. The selection too of Districts as the 
standards of comparison will obviate the difficulty which, if parishes were taken, 
would arise with reference to the members of Dissenting Bodies, who, ignoring 
altogether the parochial system, ofken cross the limits of the parish where they 
dwell in order to attend a chapel situate beyond its boundaries. By taking the 
somewhat wider area of Districts, the disturbance to the calculations from this 
cause will be reduced to unimportance. 

While the total number of sittings in England and Wales is as many as 
10,212,563, leaving at first sight a deficiency of only 185,450 as compared 
with the number requisite to provide for 58 per cent, of the population, yet by 
the unequal distribution of these 10,212,563 there is really not accommodation 
within reach of those who want it, for a greater number than 8,753,279, leaving 
an actual deficiency of 1,644,734 sittings. Probably, indeed, the deficiency is 
even larger. 

* This Toxy be taken as sufficiently near. In some parts, however, from peculiar circumstances, 
it is evident that this proportion will in some degree be varied. There may be a greater number 
of children or a greater number of servants, &c. — circumstances adequate to alter to a trifling 
extent the proportion of persons able to attend a place of worship. 



S2 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



\>:' 



Particular illus- 
trations of un- 
equal distri- 
bution. 



Ck>mparatiTe 
accommodation' 
in Town and 
Country Dis- 
tricts. 



> The objectioii, which prevails against a comparison of the total acconi^ 
modation of England with the total population of England, also applies in 
some degree against a comparison of the total accommodation with the total 
population of a district. Unequal distribution may exist in the latter case as 
well as in the former, though, no doubt, to a much less e3ctent.^ The means of 
course exist by which a computation could be made for each particular pamA«- 
but as this would be a formidable task, and as the calculation, for the reason 
mentioned, would be strictly applicable only to the Church of England, it will 
probably be well to base the estimate on districts; thus assuming that the 
whole provision of a district is diffused throughout the district in an equal 
proportion to the population, and merely introducing the preceding observa- 
tions to show that the above computed deficiency of sittings in the country, 
quite sufficiently alarming, is an under statement. 

By a reference to the District Table (pp. cclxxvi-ccxcv of the Report), we obtain 
some curious illustrations of the widely varying condition of particular localities': 
some fortunately basking'in excess of spiritual privileges, others absolutely '^ pe- 
rishing for lack of knowledge." Probably a more instructive collocation cannot 
be pr^oduced than that presented by two neighbouringdistricts of the metropolis 
— the City of London, and Shoreditch. These stand respectively Nos. 19 and^ 
in the topographical arrangement of the London districts; the former has accom- 
modation for 81 per cent, of its inhabitants, the latter for 18 ; the former has a 
superfluity of 13,338 sittings*, the latter a deficiency of 43,755. Table (I.) in 
the Summary Tables gives a limited selection of the most conspicuous caS^s 
of abundance and of poverty : from which it will be seen how widely the pro- 
portions vary; Shoreditch having only 18 sittings to every 100 persons, while 
Machynlleth, in North Wales, has as many as 123 to every 100. It will be 
noticed, indeed, how favourably Wales in general is circumstanced — nearly all 
the districts having a considerable surplus of provision. 

As was to be expected, it is chiefly in the large and densely-peopled towns 
that a deficiency is felt ; the rural districts are suppHed in general with 
adequate, sometimes with superabundant, provision. It appears from Table 3. 
that the urban parts of England, containing an aggregate population of 
8,294,240 persons, have accommodation for 3,814,215 or 46 per cent, of this 
number ; while the rural parts, containing a population of 9,633,369 have pio- 
rision for 6,398,348 or 66-5 per cent. 



Table 3. 
Comparative Accommodation in Urban and Rural Parishes. 



• 


Population, 
1861. 


Number 

of Sittings 

provided oy 

all Eeligioas 

Bodies. 


Proportion 
pef" Cent. 

of 

Sittings 

to 

Population. 




TJEBAif Parishes 

BU JLAL Pi.BISHES 


8,294,240 
9,63S,369 


8,814,216 
6,398,348 


46-0 
66-5 


England and Wales - 


17,927,609 


10,212,663 


67-0 



• An ingenious proposal has been made, with reference to the city churches, by the Rev. Charles 
Hume, Eector of St. Michael's, Wood Street. He suggests that, as the city has too many churches 
while the suburbs have too few, the very buildings tnemselves might be removed from the one 
place to the other. His scheme embraces a provision for the endowment of new districts for 
these churches in their new localities ; the patronage remaining as at present. 



ANB Wales.] REPORT. / * 

it L 



6a 



i^t L 



These " urban districts '^ here^ however, include small country towns, which 
seem to be as well supplied as any other portion of the oountiy. If we take the 
large towns only {See Table 4.)> and include small country towns with the 
rural parts to which they virtually belong, the proportion per cent, in urban 
districts will be 37 as compared with 73 in rural districts. And the proportion 
is io inverse ratio to the size of the towns ; so that while in towns containing 
betweai 10,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, the proportion is 66 ; in towns contain- 
in-between 20,000 and 50,000 it is 60 ; in those containing between 50,000 and 
100,000 it is 47} and in those containing upwards of 100,000 it is 34. {See 
Table F.F., in the Summary Tables, j^ftst, p. 134.) This view suggests 
with singular force the mixture of sentiments which led to the erection <)f the 
greater portion of our sacred edifices. Hety and local attachments — ^benevolence 
and longing for perpetual remembrance — principally, doubtless, a sincere desire to 
hbnOUr God, and yet, with this, a natural desire to raise a lasting monument to 
themselves, — ^these were the mingling motives to the influence of which may be 
attributed the existence of some thousands of our churches. Hence, it was in the 
very spot where the founder had his dwelling that his church was built : no other 
neighbourhood possessed such hold on his affections. Thus arose our village 
e)rarches, and a multitude of structures in those ancient towns and cities where, 
in former times, the merchants were accustomed to reside. But ou^ modern 
populous towns, — erected more for business than for residence — mere aggregates- 
of pffices and workshops and over-crowded dwellings of the subordinate agents- 
of industry, — ^are inhabited by none whose means permit them to reside elsewhere. 
I^e wealthy representatives of those whose piety supplied our ancient towns with, 
churches fly from the unwholesome atmosphere of our new cities, and dispense 
their charity in those suburban or more rural parishes in which their real 
homes are situated and their local sympathies are centred. The innumerable 
nlultitudes who do and must reside within the compass of the enormous hive» 
in which their toil is daily carried on, are thus the objects of but little of 
that lively interest with which benevolent men regard the inhabitants of 
their immediate neighbourhood, and which produces, in our small-sized country 
parishes, so many institutions for their physical and moral benefit. The masses, 
thisrefore, of our large and growing towns — connected by no sympathetic tie 
With #tho8e by fortune placed above them — form a world apart, a nation by 
themselves ; divided almost as effectually from the rest as if they spoke another 
language or inhabited another land. "What Dr. Chalmers calls ^' the influence 
of localily," is powerless here : the area is too extensive and the multitude too 
vfist. It is to be hoped that the influence of trade-connexion may ere long 
sufficiently accomplish what the influence of locaUty is now too feeble to 
secure ; that heads of great industrial establishments, the growth of recent 
gienerations, may perform towards the myriads connected with them by com- 
muiiity of occupation, those reUgious charities or duties which the principal 
proprietors in rural parishes perform towards tho^ connected with them by 
vicinity of residence. Much, doubtless, has already been effected in this way ;'*' 
t)ut the need for more is manifest and urgent. The following Table (4.) shows 
the present accommodation in seventy-two large towns or boroughs, and the 
i^ditional amount required, if 58 per cent, of the population ought to have 
within their reach the means of public worship. It will here be interesting to 
compare the andent towns with those which have been called into existence or 
activity by modem enterprise and industry. 

« 

* See an interesting account of the various measures— including the provision of a church 
and chaplain— adopted for the benefit of their workpeople, by Price's Patent Candle Company. 
•HScqport to the Shareholders, 1862. Mr. Peto, I believe, supplies the numerous labourers engaged 
in executing his extensive contracts, with a library and means of religious worship and instruo* 
tion. J>oubtle6s many other cases might be mentioned of a warm regard displayed by masters 
for the moral welfare of their men. 



CENSUS, 1851. --RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 







Table 4. 










ItBLiGious Accommodation in Large Towns.* 












1 












3 












■! . 












4 


aj 








38,048 




}i 


ji 




80^78 


11,828 


386 


6,064 


M«*le«flc]d 


16,481 


*4;4 


8,187 












MBidslone  - 


20,740 






4342 


Bith - - 


S*,HO 


33,110 








803382 


»6;»29 




80,083 




m.m 


66.814 




68,236 


■M^l^T^dfll* '■ 


370,857 


10.1,208 


i7;o 


11*047 


BlKkbum - 


M,B3e 






8,808 


68,080 








BoltOD 


«,iji 


41 [801 




13,678 












Bodfoid -  


IIW.7J8 


34327 




47364 


Jtewaaae 




30310 




20386 


■Brighton 




24.088 


t4;a 




Newport (Sfcm- 










RfiWl 


isrissa 


72,516 






mouth) - - 


10,383 


10,706 






•Bury -  - 


Sl^tliL 


18.484 


43'0 


♦,699 


Norwioh 


48.857 


14,268 

S03« 


»;4 


i.ies 
M4a 


Csmbridge - - 


27,8tS 


lt3« 




1326 




571407 


47381 




8,036 


Carlisle 


2e.sio 


11,407 


48-4 


33B3 














48.424 


13,089 


46;o 


33OT 


Oldliam 


54,840 


18,976 




13,860 






10319 






Oilbid 


27,843 


18,788 


60'2 




Cheater 


hItw 






1,928 












ColoheBter - 


19;44S 


14,234 






PljTHOuth - 


82,221 


23,805 


46-6 


8,483 




3e,ii« 


15,»a7 


42-8 


8,464 


Prealon 


73,096 


46,608 


S8;e 


16,408 
18,882 


^Derby 


*>,«» 






3,418 














fl0,159 




46-6 


6.720 


Readiiig 
EoohddB - 


41,486 


11.401 


63; 1 


1,0« 


^DBT^pOrt _ - - 


24,2*4 


11338 


54;3 


ia«6 


»,196 


13333 




3,400 


Dudley -   


a7,«ei! 


UMl 




6,107 






















Salfoni 




24,774 


38-8 


12,281 


Eieter 


34,819 


10,68« 


se-7 




Sbefflrld 




Km 


33-8 


34,891 














05 


17,869 




4318 


•Fini*iU7 - - 


323.772 


84,165 




83323 


South ShWlds 




14,198 


49;c 


4307 














jes 


6fl*)7 




80,0» 


OitedieHl 


 85.563 








Stockport - 




22,588 


42'( 


8338 - 




10,638 


6!532 


30-3 


3|iia 


■Stoke-upon-Trent - 




40.723 


48-6 


8,013 


areat Tumoiali  


80378 


14.448 




3^687 




31364 


48 ;( 


hx 




108,784 




338 


26358 












Holiflu 


S3,S8a 


10,192 


30-3 


9,486 


'Ton-er H(unl«ts 


638,111 


157,941 


48 '6 


174,768 


•HuddersOeM 


30360 


1S,787 




4.127 


Tyuemonth 


48,170 


12.864 




4,005 


HuU  - - 


8*890 


87,413 


442 


11,707 


■wkkcfldd - - 


22,068 


16,649 


70-9 




Ipiwich - 


84,814 


16,017 




8,073 




4.1380 


]o;bos 


40-0 


4381 












Warrtnpton ' - - 


423M 




Mi*( 


3,198 




18.464 


0,849 








441,611 


76,181 




^363 


King's Lynn 


IB^JW 


9,004 


49-1 


1,744 


■S!ffi,w« : 


» 


9.777 


30-t 
40-5 


8548 
2039V 


•Lunbeth - 


4111,348 


64,307 




83,478 


Worcwlw " -  


47,848 


16|l74 


68-7 




Lmd^ - - - 


172,27B 


78,486 


46-0 


20361 












L<doest«r  


eo,B8* 


28,008 


4i;! 


10,131 


■iork - - - 


36303 


23.850 






LiTerpool 




681330 




83,092 
18.706 












tsaeu. 












71SJW1 


iS-1 


669,61* 


Total; - 


8389,089 


i32»,*16 


37'8 


1334,898 





* The Jfttnicijut limits of the Towns here mentioned have been generally taken : an sateriak 
(•) Indiortee the eicontloni— where the Farliammtary boundnrCw hare been followed. Esti- 
mates hare been made of the number of sittings in those places of worship the BiOtunkB tor 
which omit to give this iofarmatlon. For other particulars relating to these towns, see post, 
BunuST Taslbb, p. 113. 

t This li the Hnnidpal and Parliamentuy dtf of London ; comprising the three Poet Law 
Unioiii of Bast London, West Ixmdon, and Caty of London (within the walls). The latter Union 
oorresponds with the ancient City of London, and oontiina ■anmmodation (br 81 per cent, of 
the inhiUtaiita, or for 13338 more than could at any one time attend. 

t Tbii propoitlDii of sitttnes to populatlan Ibr the Mutropolis is calculated upon the number 
which remains after deducting 18338 atttngs, a siu^lus eiisCing In theCityotLondon (within 
the Valla) over aud abore tbe number requtsite fbr 68 per cent, of the population of the dlstrlot. 

{ In dcalinsvithXDisdrw in this total,the entire Hetropohs has beentiAen: theflgurestli««- 
fore which relate to the Boroughs of Knttmrg. Greeinnich, JximMA, LoiuUxi Cit^, MaiyMmtt, 
SouilvBtvrk, 2buer HamlBta, and Weatrnwuter have not been noticed in the addition^ betiig 
Included in the numbers which represent the Metropolia. 



1 



AND Wales.] REPORT. i / 65 

. — — - — ^  \ 

This Table clearly shows how great and overwhelming a proportion of the 
wbole deficiency of England is assignable to our great modem to^vns, since thus 
it seems that out of the total number of 1 ,644,734 additional sittings reckoned 
to be necessary, 1,332,992 or 80 per cent, are required for these seventy- 
two boipughs, or rather for sixty of the most recent, the remainder, for 
xeasons obvious when their names are seen, being fortunately blessed with 
more than adequate provision. This gives a vivid picture of the destitute 
condition of our great-town population, and speaks loudly of the need there 
is for new and energetic plans of operation ha^dng special reference to 
towns. The'absence of that local interest which leads to individual benevolence, 
snd the evident inadequacy of all that can be reasonably expected from the 
great employers of industry, appear to call for the combined exertions either of 
the whole inhabitants of a particular neighbourhood, or of the Christian Church 
4it large, as the only other method for relieving such deplorable deficiency. 
And this has been to some extent perceived and acted on. With reference to 
the Church of England, many churches have been raised by the united liberality 
4>f the inhabitants of populous town parishes, encouraged by assistance from the 
funds of central bodies, such as the Incorporated Church Building Society ; 
«nd amongst the Dissenters many chapels have been reared in similar manner. 
But it cannot, it is feared, be said that these mere local efforts promise to 
diminish very sensibly the grievous lack of accommodation for the masses of our 
«ivic population. Hitherto the action of those central bodies which dispense 
the bounties of the general Christian public has been made dependent on the 
previous action of the local bodies in whose midst the additional church 
or chapel is to be erected ; and unfortunately it but raxely happens that such 
local action is aroused, except to obtain accommodation for an increase of the 
middle classes, who already appreciate religious ordinances and are able and 
disposed to bear the pecuniary burden requisite in order to obtain them. 11^ 
effect has been that the considerable addition made in recent years to the 
religious edifices of large towns has been in very near proportion to the rapid 
growth, in ihe same interval, of the prosperous middle classes ; but the far more 
rapid increase in this period in the number of artizans and labourers has 
4aken place without a oonesponding increase of religious means for them^ The 
oiily prominent example, within my knowledge, of a vigorous effort to relieve 
a local want without waiting for local demand, is the movement which, some 
years ago, the Bishop of London originated and successfully, beyond anticipa- 
tion, prosecuted, for providing fifty new churches for the metropolitan parishes. 
And yet it really seems that, without some missionary ente^nses similar to 
this, the mighty tai& of even mitigating spiritual destitution in our towns and 
tnties hardly can be overcome.* 

A most important question is, the rate at which; with our existing modes of Rate at wfcich 
operation, firesh accommodation is provided, as compared with the continual iJcr^S** 
increase in the numbers of the people. To display this accurately we require 
correct accounts of the provision in existence at particular former periods. No 
authentic records are available, however, of the state of each religious body in 
preceding years. The nearest estimate that can be made is furnished by the 
infonjEiation which the present returns afford with reference to the €kites at which 
existing edifices were erected, or appropriated to religious uses ; but, for several 



* I am not awneof any special agencies^ connected with the various Dissenting bodies, which 
.Attain the objects here described. The necessarily sclf-supportini^ character of all the insti- 
tutions foandedbs- JDisaenters renders it, in their case, almost nidispcnsable to make the erection 
of a chapel dependent on the prospect of an adequate pecuniai^ return. Hence,, though the 
OongregationaLand. fia^ist bodies haye established recently their " Chapel Building Societies," 
.the operation of tliQse oentnd boards is nractically limit>ed, if not by an actual local demand, yet 
ligr the prospect of a speedy local sympatliy among the middle classes. 



C« 



66 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [ENGLANt> 



reasons, the conclusions to be drawn from this source must be subject to a 
certain degree of hazard. In the first place, as the facts relate entirdy fo 
existing buildings, there is no account of those which may have been in use in 
former times and since abandoned. In the second place, in consequence of an. 
oversight in the framing of the question, several places (parts of buHdings), 
erected m former years, but only kitterly employed for religious services, haVe 
l)een Tpetumed with flie earher date. And thirdly, with respect to as many as- 
4,546, out of the 34,467, no date whatever is inserted in' the retumil. 
Fortunately, for the purpose of an approidmate inference, the errors arising from 
these three sources do not all tend in the same direction, so that there is some 
probability that an error in the one direction may be counteracted by an evrdr 
in the other.. Thus the influence of the first of these inaccurades is to mal^ 

' the earlier periods seem to have less than their correct accommodation ; while 
the influence of the second error is, upon the contrary, to attribute to tlfe 

' earlier periods a greater, and to the recent periods a less, amount of accom- 
modation than is really due to them. Of the 4,546 buildings without da^s 
assigned, 2,118 belong to the Church of Englaind, and t»f these the greater 
portion probably were built in the earlier periods ; while, on the other hand, ilfe 
lairger number of the 2^428 whicli belong to the Dissenting bodies were eredWi 
probably in recent years. Perhaps the best course therefore to pursue, in order 
to preisent a tolerably accurate s1»tement of these dates, wiD be to disttibi^'tlie 

'4,546 plb,ces of worship over the six intervals, according to the proportnbb 
which the number actually assigned to each of these intervals bears tdwtods 
the total number having dates assigned at all. If this be done, and if ''^e 
iiverage numbers, as now ascertained, of sittings to a place of worsMp (Vie. 5J7 
for places belonging to the Church of England, ahd 240 for those belongiiig 
to Dissenters), be supposed to have been the average number at each form^ 

interval ♦, we obtain the results which appear in Table 5. • -' 

'   <« 

Table 5w .''  

' Amount of Accommodation at diffSerent Penods, in the whole of I^nolani^ 
^ and Wales. ' ' ' ' -' 



» 




' 




■M^aMM^M 


- . - • 




Periods. 


Population 
' at . 
eadiBeiiod. 


Number 

of 

Races of 

Womh1t»at 

eaeh 

Period. 


H 
1 

Estimated 

ofSittiDgsfkt 
each. . 
Period. 


1 

• Sate of 
Iiicitea8e))etween 

the Periods 
Oif^Popidatioa fOid , 

Sittings , 
^respectively. 

1 • . . . . 


Kiimktr> 

ofSiUinei^ 

ie0Penoi|& 




Population. 




eaciL.Penod. 


1801 


8,892,536 


15,080 


6,171,123 


1 


• • 


— ' ^-^ 

> 

68'1 * 


1811 


10,164,256 


16,490 


6,524,348 


1 i4»3 


6-8 


64*4 • 


1821 


12,000,286 


18,796 


0,094,480 


18*0 


10-3 


60-8 ' 


- 1831 


1»,896,7»7 


22,41d 


7,007.091 


16*8 


16-0 


60*4 • 


" 18«1 


16,914,148 


28,017 


8,664,696- 


14^6 • 


2&'6 


63*8 •'; 


1861 


i7,«7,«oe 


84,467 


10,212,663 


12-6 

1 • 


.19'4 


e7-o . 


; 















* It will not do to apply the general avera^ (296) ; as the relative position of the different 
bodies was not the same in the early portion Of the century as now ; the Ohtvch of Bngund 
having in 1801 (according to the estimate from dates) as many as 11,879 churuhes, whereas the 
Dissenters then (aooording to same estimate) had only 3701. This, however, is scarcely probable, 
and seems to prove that manv Dissenters' buildings, existing in former years, have since beigointt 
disused or have be3n replaced by others. As so much depends upon the extent to which this 
disuse and substitution have prevailed, these calculations, in the absence of any fiicts upon those 
points, must necessarily be open to some doubts. 



ANO Wales,] 



REPORT, 






67 



■■» ). 



'From iMs it appears that^ taken in the gross, our rate of progress during the 

last thirty jears has not been altogether unsatisfiictorj. Previous to 1821, the 

population increased fester than accommodation for religious worship, so that 

^while, from 1601 to 1821, the former had increased from 8,892,536 persouft to 

12,000,236 (or 34*9 per cent.), the latter, during the same interval, had enlf 

increased from 5,171>123 sittings to 6,094,486 (or 17*8 per cent.), and the 

prbpdrtion of nttings to population, whidi in 1801 was 58*1 per cent.; had 

"dedined in 1821 to less than 51 per cent. But from 1821 te the predtftt 

time the courise of things has changed : the rate of increase of the popuhttioh 

'has continually declined, while that of religious accommodation hAs stendS^ 

-advanced; so that while the number of the people has been yttised-'fiNMn 

12,000,236 to 17,927,609 (an mcrease of 49*4 per cent.), the ntionbeir of .i^Stingis 

-hto been raised from 6,*094,486 to4d,212,563 (or an increase of 67'6^f cent;), 

'and the proportion of sittings to population, which in 1821 was £0*8 per eeift), 

"had risen in 1851 to 67 per cent. 

\ As ftr then as regards the increase of aceommodafion in the Oggregateil^eh Oomponridve 
'seen!n to be some cause for gratulaMon ; but in the matter of our rate d iii(^aifb aai?othc^piS^ 
as weH as in that of our actual existing silpply, the question of c^stribntiDtt ik 
Important ;' and we want to know how hx the prog[kss thusr litanilMted in the 
^ross, is taking place in those parts of the countijr shown t6 be behind thi r««ti 
It is therefore necessary to inquire to what: extent Ihe great towns liAV^ 
participated in this augmentation, and the foVLtiwmg Table (6L)j'con]MT!ict^;ia 
the same tray as the last. Will show the reiipeciive rates iat wMch tlie popiiUttiHl 
and religions ^roviinon are increaedng in the registraMon dittrictfe #Mdi ootttaM 
laltM iowYiB, and, compared with this, the same inforraatioh ab'to aS the )r€sl; 
of England : — 

Ta9XK 6. 

:'I]Ke^BASE of i^oco^uiotiATio^ ^ different Periods in Large-Town Dbtric^n,* as compared 
^^y with the Repidiie of Epglaod and Wale9. ^ 



*'' ' ' ' LJLkOB ifowH Dunticn. 1 


JatKtbvmWEnGtiktm. 




_ — — ,. . 
PopvlKtiaii 

Perfod. 


• , 1 rr  -. . 

K«ml>«r orPhees 
orWonUn ^ 
and Sittings at eadi 
Perfod. , 




Ko. 

of Sit- 

U> 

IM 

Per- 

80tt«ltt 

_eaeb 
PeiM. 


1 

PMldda. 


f 
Papulation 

at.. 

eaob 

^«?oa. 


. .EBtimated 
AiimtordrPlaoM. 

of .Worship 

aUdSittfagsAteaeb 

Penod. 


Bates 
^ of InerwuM 

'aodgittibn 
rrespMtlT^. 


1 

Ka. 

of Sit- 
tin^i 

to 

100 


4'. 


FlaoM 
•hip, 


fiftdnft* 

1 


Nite. 


8it^ 
ting*. 


PfiMsa 

. of 
Woi^' 

ship, . 


Sfttlan.: 




Sit- 
tings. 


Par- 
sons at 

eaeh 
Period, 


1801 


3,608,024 


3,600 


l,606b922 


ptrCmt 

• • 


• • 


41>8 


1801 


6,284,612 


11,680 


8,664,201 


ptrCmL 


ptrOemt. 

• • 


69-8 


1811 


4;mm 


9,806. 


VI8fl^ 


r$\ 


8-7. 


5S'«i 


1811 


6,90t,#6 


'i%6a& 


3.886,106 


11-7 


6-1 


66-8 


^jxa. 




.Asai 


UB87«901 


»;Q 


M'9 


37-0 


1821 


6,768,341 


14,296 


4{,166,686 


14*6 

1 


7*0 


61-5 


ym 


,S^JK& 


6,870 


2,4tigB13 


2)$'8 


26*0 


38*0 


1831 


7,480,844 


16,743 


4,566,878 


10*4 


9-8 


61-2 


1841 


7,786,136 


7,891 


«,182,188 


90*2 


30.3 


41-1 


1841 


8,lit9,012 


20,686 


5,372,448 


9*6 


17-7 


66-7 


. 18» 


9,229,120 


9,586 


'4,127,244 


19'3 


29''7 


44-7 


1861 


8,618,489^ 


24^881 

1 


.a^^aiiaio 


6*3 


13-3 


70-0 








•  1 J 


1 


■1 'i,> 1 









It hence appears that the Towns have bj iio means had a ?hare pBOpar tio i ia te 
to their, need, in lihe liberalty wbach^ during the last' hillf oentuiy,; has tkided 
19,387 places of worship and 5,041,440 sit^gs; to ^le acbommodation existing 
in 1801. ; For althpugh the; increase ;of provision in toi|Tis has be0n 174 per 
cent, in the 60 years, while liie' increase in ihe ! country p^ffts has n(|t exceeded 
^p!ir-o?ntL; y*^t wfibL.hA&.h6en the iQore.iApiii increase of j^ojouZo^ion i]Q J^ 

• The Town Districts included in this Table are aH such as contain Toimshwtii)^ upwards- 
of 10,000 inhal^taaitB. 

F 2 



.68 



CENSUS, 1851. -RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



fonner than in the latter (156 per cent, against 65 per cent.) that the accom- 
modation in towns in proportion to the population is scarcely less deficient 
than it was in 1801 — ^viz. 45 sittings to every 100 persons instead of 42 ; while 
the accommodation for the rest of England will still sufi&ce for as many as 70 
vout of every 100 of the rural population. 

Extent to which The result of the previous course of ohservation, as to the amount of present 
dation is actually t accommodation, seems to he this : Assuming that all religious sects, whatever 
available. their variety, are to have their share in ministering to the people ; and applying 

\to the absolute total number of sittings a correction for imequal distribution} 
the eidsting provision furnished by the entire religious community is adequate 
j :to supply the spiritual wants of 8,753,279 persons, or 48*8 per cent, of the 
I whole ; «.«., there are places of worship within the reach of that number, and 
V .capable of holding them. It is obvious, however, that a church or chapel may 
be within the reach of a neighbourhood, as far as proximity is concerned, and 
yet not available for the use of those by leisure able to frequent it : it might not 
be open, llie practical value therefore of these 8,753,279 sittings, computed 
to be within the reach of that same number of persons, is dependent on the 
extent to which they are ofiPered for the occupation of the public. Now, many 
places of worship are opened only once upon the Sunday : and where this is the 
case, although there might be sittings in them equal to 58 per cent, of the 
populaticm, this supply would practically be inadequate ; for it is only on the 
supposition that persons necessajrily detained at home at one period of the day 
are enabled, by the system of relief, to worship in another period of the day — ^it 
is only upon this supposition that a proportion of sittings to population of 
58 per cent, can be considered adequate ; for it must be recollected that 58 
per cent, is not an estimate of the total number of persons able to worship at all 
upon the Sunday, but of the total number able to worship at one time on the 
Sunday. The aggregate number of people who might worship on the Sunday — 
some at one period, and some at another — ^is probably as great as 70 per 
cent, of the entire community. If, therefore (to suppose a case^, in any district, 
all the churches should have only a single service in the day, the accommodation 
in that district would be, practically, less by some 12 or 15 per cent, than in 
another district where the actual number of sittings might be just the same, but 
where in all the churches two services a day were held. We must, therefore, 
before assuming that the state of things would be satisfactory if a certain 
number of sittings (58 per cent.) were furnished, ask to what extent they would, 
when furnished, be available. The following Table (7.) will a£Pord a view of 
the extent to which the present accommodation is jnaAe use of : — 

Table 7. . 
AVAILABLE Accommodation in England and Wales. 



Total Number 
of 
Places of Worship 


Number of Places open for Worship, at each Period of the Day, 

on Sunday^ March 30, 1861 ; 
and Number of Sittings thus made available. 


and 
SittingB. 


Places of Worship open. 


Available Sittingft.* 


Places 

of Worship. 


Sittings.* 


Morning. 


Afternoon. 


Evening. 


Morning. 


Afternoon. 


Evening 


9^m 


10;212>568 


23,689 


21,371 


18,055 


8,406;S20 


0,267,928 


5,723,000 



Indudiug an estimate for Betums which omitted to mention th« number of sittings. 



ANB Walks.] 



REPORT. 



m 



r 



69 



. So. ihaty while the actual number di sittmgt ia 10^12,563, there is never at 
any one time that number available to the public. In the momii^, 1,714,043 
of. them, in the afternoon 3,944,635, in tiie evening 4,489,563, are withdrawiit 
from public use. 

But here no allowance has been made for the effects of unequal distribution, 
and unless we can assume that aU the places closed were situate in districts 
where there was a surplus of accommodation, equalling exactly the number of 
their sittings, there must be a slight deduction made from the numbers given in 
this table, ere we can arrive at a eorrect account of the available provision of the 
coontiy ; i.e., sittings bodi open far workup and within reach of parties able to 
make use of them. This deduction will take place wherever the number of 
available sittings in a district exceeds 58 per cent, of the population, and the 
amount of such deduction will precisely correspond with such excess. The 
result is, to reduce the number of sittings available for mormng service to 
8;322,Q66; the number available for afternoon service to 6,192,061; and the 
number available for evening service to 5,712,670. 

Of course, the number of services per diem is mainly affected by the situation 
of the place of worship, whether it be in town or country. The effect of this 
is seen in Table 8. ; from which it appears that the 34^467 places of worship 
were made available for the holding of 63,095 services ; being an average of 
not quite two services to each place of worship. In the towns, more use was 
made of the accommodation than in the country: every 100 places in the 
former being used for 208 services, while 100 places in the latter were not used 
for more than 175 services. 



Table 8. 

Number of Services per Day in the Town and Rural Portions respectively^ 

of England and Wales. 



EiTGLAin) ASD Wales 



Town Portion • - 



Biinl Portion 



Total 
Nombor 

of 

Places 

of 

Worehip. 



34,407 



7,463 



27.004 



Number of Places of Worship open at different 
Periods of the JDay. 



s. 



s o 



8802 



4B6 



3814 




3079 



277 



3302 



It 



2634 



277 



2237 



111 

O "" © 



9031 



1077 



7954 



I 



cl'i 



6700 



304a 



8712 






5 



> 




4685 



622 



4063 



4076 



1674 



2402 



An important question meets us now : how much of the accommodation "What proportion 
proved to be existing is available for the use of that great part of the community dation iaj^ee? 
most needing spiritual education, and least able, by pecuniary outlay, to procure 
it ? What proportion of our present provision is at the service of the poorer 
classes, without price? For the purpose of ascertaining this, inquiry was made, 
as to every place of worship, how many of the sittings were " free ;" the meaning 
of the term being " free to any persons wishing, without payment, to occupy 
them." The answers to this question were, unfortunately, not in every instance 
framed in accordance with this interpretation. In the case of ancient parish 
churches, sometimes all the sittings were returned as free — ^the meaning evidently 



•The" 



Town Portion" here given comprehends every place which, either from possessing a 
market or from some other cause, is entitled to be called a '* Town." 

F 3 



7»: CENSUS, 1851.— REUGIOUS WORSHIP. [EnatAw^j^ 

. *i" • I " , • - . . - — .--- — - ^ - - - -^  - -  .- - - .. —  -■ 

hSxag thftt no money payment was recei'ved 'inm the oeeupanto $ bat, as many 6f 
them ware» no donbt, appr&priated, either by custom or the autibdnty of othorcfe • 
officers, to particular persons, it is clear they would not be available indis-f* 
oriminately to the poor, so as to make them '^ free sittings " in the sense above '. 
r^erred to. And with reference to Dissenters' chapels, it seems not . uhl&dy 
that the t^rm ''firee sittings " has been taken as including sittings merely jmfti} 
and not confined to sittings specially and permanently set apart for the use- at'/ 
the poorer classes. In the case of the Chnroh of England, a correction («ar> 
eiEplained in die Appendix) was made for the erroneons constnietion of the; 
question ; so that the nmnber of sittings now asaRgned to <that commumty as .> 
''^e,'' will pxobably express with tolerable accuracy the aocommodation c 
provided by the Church of England .expressly for the poor; but, no materials .. 
exiisting for a siimlar correction in the case of Nonbonibnnist chapels, the., 
statement of ftee sittings given in the Tables as provided in such chapels wiU < 
beeubjectto this drawback. So that, probably, the view presented in thesc) < 
Tables of the means of worship specially provided for the poor is somewhat too 
finroiwabk. However, taking it subject to this reseorvation, the reaolt of ihe 
infbfmatidn is* as follows : out (tf the total of 10,212,563 sittings, 8,390,464 were > 
di^tingmshed ^into the two classes of ''free'* and ''appropriated," while the 
remaining 1,822,099 were not distinguished at all. Of the 8,390,464 which / 
iMTT distinguished, 3,947>d71 were described as Jree^ and 4,443,093 were • 
described as approptioted,: Ify therefore, we- assume that the undescribed 
1,^22,09^ were apportioned between the two classes in the same degree as* 
were the 8,390,464 which were properly described, the estimated statement as ^ 
to all the sittings \(dll be thus : — 

Free sittings - - - - 4,804,695 
Appropriated sittings - - 5,407,968 



Total - 10^12,563 



•i 



-But here again, of course,-the ^ment pf distribution is important in deter- 
miiiing how far these 4,804,595 free sittings kre avftilfible to those requiring 
them. The previous observations as to distribution, in coimexion with the total 
number of sittings, seem to show that out of an apparent supply of 10,212,563, 
only 8,753,279 are in fact available, as being within reach of those who 
might use, them. If, therefore^ we ascl^me that the proportion of "free" to , 
''other" sittings is the same in one part of the country as another, it will follow 
that, from unequal distribution, 686,535 of the 4,804>595 free sittings iifiU 
be unavailable, as being beyond the reach of those ' requiring them; thus 
leafing only 4,118,060 practically useful. iJaBle 9., however, wffl convey 
some iaformation of the comparative provision of free sittings in the towtt-a»d- 
.. rural portions of the land respectively : — 



^ND ?WaI»8.J . 



R£POBT. 






n 



Table 9. 

Proportion of Free Sittings in Town Districts, compared witb the ^ 

Proportion in Rural Districts. 



•■ f • 






Townipistricts  
Bural Districts t 

Total - 



Poptt* 

lation. 



I 



• Nmnber of Sittings. 



Pree. 



Appro- 
pnated. 



Total. 



9,229^20 



8,698,469 



I 



/* " ' 



1^99.879 



3,004.716 



njmm 4»8M,W6 



K 



2,327,365 



8,080,603 



^127,244 
6,0S5,31li 



MA7,968 10,212,963 



Prt^rtion 
t>erC6iit.of8ittiiiffi ' 
vbich are 



xr66« 



intet< 



^^ 



^ 



48-6 



40-4 



47*0 



06*4 



50*6 



MtO 



- ^ ^« ^»«« 



Prdviskm made by each Religious Body, 

Hitherto the questioii of accommodation has been' treated w if all the- various Asportioiiment 
ctorcbes w^re to be accepted as appropriate contributors (owards the Ipiritual ^J^^SSaS^' 
teadiing of th^ p^pfe. Such a view, however,, can be evidently satisfiictory to the various 
none ; for while, with f eference to some communities, a oonoord on Essential 
pdnts prevails to audi extent that neither of them would depreciate l^e^ labours 
of.ihe lest^ y«t ^ettakriy'^ d tfPe t enpw bei'w t ien flome bodies-sre so fiaaidameatak  
that the widest charity eould not look favourat)ly on all, n(^ help regarding the 
provision famished by ^ certain few as utterly io be igiior0d in any estimate of 
the religioiits destitutioif of the country. But, of course, it is not-^e itiat any 
jvdgmmt can be giv«n on such delicate and dabious Questions, l^ei^ reader 
noust for himself sek^ the churches whose exertions he may think* commend- 
able and those wh^te etforts he may fear to be upon the whole ii^junoufi. The 
proper/ aim of this Report is -merdy to supply to every reader the fadities for 
making sueh selection, and for ascertaining whajk. is the amount of aocommo- 
dation afibijded by each individuid sect, and what the rate at which eacfi sect, if 
aotiv^,'is advancing. • * 

• The precise amount of the provision maae by eadi Religious Bpdj^ will be . 
seen in Table 10. ; in considering which it must, of course be recollected that 
astr^ung differenpe prevails between the kind of accommodation provided byl 
the Church of England and that provided by taany of the Dissenting bodies ; I 
the former almost always consisting of substantial fabrics and commodious I 
pews or seats, while much of the latter is composed of rooms in /dwelling ) 
houses,- with temporary seatsf or benches. Thus, only 223 out of 14,0?7 places 
of worship in connexion with the Church of England were " not separate build- * 
in]gs>**' while the number under this head out of 20,390 places of wi)rship in 
connexion with' Dissenting churches was as many as 3,285; and probably this 
munber is below the fact, since the published statistics issued by thes^ various 
communities make mention of. a greater number. Not that this diminishes the 
yalue of such provision as affording opportunities of spiritual instruction: 
wiher> perhaps, the character of this accommodation has a special fitness for the 
dasses who avail themselves of it ; but it is a fact that must be borne in mind 



< * The districts taken as Town Districts, for the purpose of this Tablo, an all snofa as contain 
tTowns having upwards of 10,000 inhabitants. 

' t The distncts taken as Mural Districts, for the purpose of this Table, are all that remain in 
England and Wales besides those taken as Town Distncts. 

F 4 



7S 



CENSUS, 1851. -^RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Englani> 



when considering in other aspects the comparative accommodation furnished 
by the different churches. 

This Table (10.) then, shows the aggregate provision made by every individual 
sect ; and what proportion the provision made by each sect bears towards the 
total accommodation (58 per cent.) conceived to be essential. So that, if it 
be thought desirable that any particular church (the Church of England, for 
exmnple,) should provide for the religious teaching of the whole community, 
this table wiU afford a view of the extent to which the provision made falls 
short of that which would on such a supposition be required : and so of other 
churches. 

But, of course, the questions just discussed with reference to all the sects 
unitedly are equally important with respect to each sect individually : the 
question of distribution must be answered ere the true am(^nt of accommo- 
dation can be settled ; and a reference to dates, to special localities, to the 



M 



Table 10. 
Propobtion of Accommodation provided by each Religious Body. 



Religious 

DSMOmNATIOXS. 



Number 
:of Places of 

Worship 
and Sitting*. 



^ 

•s 



60 



CQ 



Proportion 
per cent. 

of 
Sittings. 



I 



§• 



S 



III 

H 



Religious 
Denominations. 



Number 
of Places of 

Woreliip 
and Sittings. 



a. 
I 



•I 

(A 



Protestutt Chuecheb : 
Church of England 

Scottish PreHbyterians : 
ChMrch qf Scotland 
United Presbyterian 

Church 
Presbyterian Church 

in England 

Heformed Irish Fresby' 
terians 

Independents 

Baptists: 
General 
Particular 
Seventh Day 
Scotch 
NewConnexionGeneral 
Und((fined 

Society of Friends 

Unitarians 

Moraviaiis 

Wesleyan Methodists : 
Origindl Conneanon 
2few Connexion 
Primitive Methodists 
BibUe Christians 
W, 3f. Association 
Independent Metho- 

dista ' , • 
Wesleyan Riformers 



14,077 

18 
66 
76 

1 
3244 

98 

1947 

2 

15 

182 

550 

371 

229 

82 



6579 
297 

2871 
482 
419 

20 
839 



6^17,915 

13,788 
31^1 
41,552 



120 

1,067,760 

20,539 

582,953 

390 

2,547 

52,604 

98^10 

91,599 

68,554 

9,306 



1,447,580 

96,964 

414,030 

66,834 

98^1 



20-7 

•1 
•2 
•2 

• • 

6-0 



•1 
3'3 



•3 
•6 

•5 

•4 




8-1 
•5 

2*8 
•4 
•6 



•4 



52*1 

•1 
•3 
•4 

• • 

10-5 



•2 
5*7 



•5 
•9 

•9 

•7 
•1 



14*1 
1*0 
4*0 

•7 
1-0 



•7 



Peotestant Chueches— 
continued, 

Odvinistic Methodists : 
Welsh Calvinistic Me- 
thodists 
Lady Suntingdon*s 
Connexion 

Sandemanians 

New Church 

Brethren 

Isolated Congregations - 

Lutherans 

French Protestants 

Beformed Church of the 
Netherlands 

German Protestant Re- 
formers 

Otheb Chbistiak Chs. i 
Boman Catholics 

Greek Church 

German Catholics 

Italian Beformers 

Catholic and Apostolic 
Church 

Latter Bay Saints 
Jetos - - . 

TOTAX • 



828 

109 

6 

60 

132 

539 

6 

3 



570 
3 
1 
1 

32 
222 

63 



84,467 



211,951 

88,727 

956 

12,107 

18»529 

104,481 

2,606 

560 

360 

200 



186,U1 
291 
300 
150 

7.487 

80,788 

8,438 



Proportion 
percent. 

of 
Sittings. 




Q 






1<V2IV63 



2 



If! 



67'Ot 



2'l: 

•4 

• • 
•1 

l*a 



1 ft 



•1 
•1 



100 



* Including an estimate for defective Betums. 

t This column casts only to 66*9~the remaining 0*1 per cent, belonging chiefly' to the 
Moravians, the Catholic and Apostolic Church, and the Jews; neither of which bodies 8ing]j 
provides accommodation for so much as a tenth per cent, of the population. 



andWai«k8.] report. 7S / \ *. 

frequency of services, and to the number of free sittings, must be made before ' *  
we can determine, with regard to every church, its rate of progress, its pecoliar 
strongholds, its availahle provision, and its conduct towards the poor. The 
neoessarf Emits of this Report will not, however, suffer me to notice in this 
manner more than two or three great bodies. 

Tlist, the Church op England. We have seen already that the National ^^'^^JSS^t^J*^ 
Church provides, in the gross, accommodation for 5,317,915 persons out of Church or 
tiie 10,398,013 able to aittendst one tfane a religions service. But, upon the^"^^^ 
theofy of dtstribution, as esqilained before, 21,673 of these sittings are super- 
flaou8« being situate in distoicts where there is accommodation in connexion with * 
the Established Church for a greater number than 58 per cent, of the district 
population*; so that, practically, the accessible provision made by the Esta- 
blished Church is enough for only 5,296,242 persons, or but 29*5 per cent, of 
the inhabitants of England and Wales. To enable the Church of England to 
provide for all the peculation, an additional accommodation to the extent of 
5,101,771 sittings would be requisite, nearly doubling the present supply; but, 
probably, considering the hold which several other churches, not extremely 
di£Eiering from the Church of England, have upon the affections of the people, few 
will advocate the present necessity of so extensive an addition. Tliere exist, 
however, if the previous course of argument be accurate, as many as 1,644,734 
persons wholly unprovided, by the agency of any church whatever, with the 
means of religious worship ; and to this extent, at all events, there is an urgent 
claim upon the Church of England for augmented effort. Without doubt, the 
destitute condition of this vast propor t ion of our countrymen appeals to the 
benevolence of Christians indiscriminately ; but the claim for sympathy and 
succour is preferred with special force upon the Church of England, to whose 
care the spiritual welfare of these myriads is peculiarly entrusted, and whose 
labours for their benefit need not be limited by any courteous fear of trespassing 
on ground already occupied by other Christian agents. Not that this number 
constitutes the only class for whom the Church should furnish additional 
accommodation ; doubtless, the t^taught and the irron^/y-taught demand her 
aid as well as the iin-taught, but the utterly neglected evidently claim her first 
exertions ; not to mention tiiat they form a class which is much more easily 
defined than are the other two. 

Confining our attention, therefore, to the wholly uninstructed multitude in 
whom the Church of England has an incontestible possession, the inquiiy is 
suggested — ^Where, principally, are these claimants on her ministrations to be 
found? To what localities must her attention chiefly be directed, and her 
meaanres of relief applied? The previous tables have prepared us to expect 
that towns, especially lar^e towns, will prove to be the scenes of most of that 
deplorable privation of religious means, the formidable aggregate of which has 
just been mentioned; and the following Table (11.) will show that this 
antidpation is abundantly correct. 

^ These districts, where the Established Church alone provides room for more than could 
at any one time be present, aa:e— Alresford; Beaminster; Billcsdon; Bosmere; Brackley; 
Bridge ; Bridmiorth ; Brixworth ; Catherington ; Docking ; Dorchester ; Erpingham ; Market 
HarboTough ; Marlborough ; Melton Mowbr»n Meriden; Oakham ; Pershore; Bomney Marsh ; 
Samford; Skirhiugh; Steyning; Tetbury; Thakeham; Thingoe; Tisbury; Tunstead; West- 
hampuett ; and Winchcomb. 



34i 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [EtiaLANO 



,, n - 



Tablk 11. 

Accommodation furnished by the Church of England in Tovn an^ 

Coun^Distriots regpectively. 



"v ■« ' I 



I I l I <|i> i«» »i 



Popniation. 



j\ #iyyi wT'ft" ilftt^iy « 



 



ChurohM. 



Sittings.t 



percent. 

of 

Sittingi 

to 

Fopulation. 



FnAerer. 
Penont ftble 

toattend • 
Worship at 

onetime, 

aoyReUgioafl 
• Body. 



Liscv Tocmr DisntiOTs * 
CfeuibaTDistEicTs* «» 

Eholakd akd Wales 



8,098,489 



17,927,609 



8,1157 
10,<fiS0 



I,99i,n9 
$,$22,189 



'M ' , 



14,077 



5,317,916 



81*6 

88*2 



29-t 



1,2111446 



418,iM)§ 



« n > 



>*A 



1,641,254 



'To cofne to a more specific mention of localities : in Table 12. will be fottiid 
a collection of districts in whidi the Church of England, if ddrermined Id^ 
p*bvide for all now tinprovided fbr, will have the hardest task. 

Table 12. ' 

Districts in which there is most need of f\irther Accommodation.!]; 



*ft : —^ — ' 

I 


»..■ . . .- . , 

Number of 
' Sitongs 


Sittintfs ' 
req,virea,ln 
order to 


-:—•-! -^ 


Nnmberof , 
Sittinga 


H-- 

Additional 

Sittintt 
required, in « 
Order te 


Durtfticn. 


already pro- 
theChmrhof 


pEOTlde for 
those not 


DisTmtoTs. 


theChwtthof, 


provide for 
Hhoeenai^ • 




; accommo^ 


. 


•sn??^ 




England. 


dated by 




England. 


1 




any KeJigioiM 


t , . 


. 


anyBeUgiow 






Body. 




. 


Body. 


.— : > ■-. I>.,.. .- 

<B0. Bhoredfdch 


9,314 


43,766 


84. Bot^erMthe - 


4,4»> 


4818 ^ 


J8. St.QM];Ke-iii'tlie< 


' , ' 


i  . 


481. Liveiipool • 


88^021 


1Vj8tt • 


.East • , - 


5,880 


18,019 


884. BirmiilghaaL • 


9»k798 


46k67a , 


30. Newingtou 


6.878 


22,194 


8. 8t.G«org0. 




. , 


26. St. Saviour • - 


3,717 


12,()17 


Hanover Square 


'19,590 


19,406 


15. Clerkenwell 


6,805 


21,506 


472. Salford - - 


11,163 


22,98»' ^ 


439. Badford - 


2,801 


8,8te 


471. Ohorltbn 


16,687 


88,808 ' 


'31. Lambeth - 


22,589 


46,991 


14. Holbom - ' - 


8,188 


18,188 . 


S2. Wliiteofaapel - 


10,868 


26^7 


466. Wigan * 


12,426 


isgsLl 


7. MarylBtaone 


23,288 


SifiSt 


4^3. Manehfiiter - 


88,216 


86^4 . 


25. Poplar 


4,852 


15,365 


475. Oldhan - 


1M89 


auw, . 


^. SteiHiey - 


11,242 


$«J,67» 


36. Greenwich 


. 16,907 


iAM% 


98. Benuondsej. - 


6,313 


15,460 


4. Westminster - 


16,766 


15,774 . 


1. Kensington 


22,506 


38,046 


552. Newcastle 


10,866 


20,692 


13. Strand 


6,858 


13,794 


29. St. George 






6. St. James West- 






Southwark • 


6,348 


ii3ift 


minster 


5,364 


11,218 


17. East London • 


7,909 


9^888 


la. West London - 


7,331 


•«^723 . 


64l8..jChQfter^le- 

Street - 






JSi* Bethnal Qreen - 


14,851 


26,668 


ZfiSl 


4^608 


2. Chelsea 


10,093 


16J513 


508. Sheffield 


16.837 


22,087 ' 


16. St. Luke • 


6,500 


15,649 


96. Portsea Island - 


12,230 


15,225 


10. Islington * 


15,548 


27,688 


86. Brighton 


13,401 


18,667 


$95. Aston 


11,520 


18,966 


379. Wolverhampton 


2M18 


21.280 . 


12. St. Giles - ^ 


9,692 


16,305 


468. Bolton - - 


20»018 


28»01» 


.88. CHnberwell 


, 11,212 


15,216 


462. West Derby - 


88,806 


- 80,688 


898. King's Norton - 


6,902 


8,667 


27. StOUve, 

Southwark - 


4i,170 


8,887 


9. St.Pancras 


32,190 


45,559 


194. West Ham - 


9,148 


4888 


807. Eodesall Bier- 












low 


5,829 


10,335 









* The Large Town Districts referred to in this Table are the Districts which contain lk>wiis 
having more than 10,000 inhabitants : the Country Districts are the icmaindfflr of England and 
Wales. 

t Including an estimate for defective Returns. 

X The districts are arranged according to their destitution as compared with the population, 
commencing with the most destitute. 



akhWalbs.] 



KEPOBT. 



n\ 



. Tile eatwe list of districta in which additiooal aooommodatioii is needed will 
be fiHiad in the Scmmary Tabi«ss. 



•«' 



(/ 



This much as to the position of the Church of 'Engknd in reUtion to our ^^"^S^^^^ 
wholly unaccommodated population. It will now be interesting to observe imdinnliH^ 
the position of the Church, in diffehsht portions of the oountij, in relation to to other bodlee. 
ttner^thbr churches. In Table K;, (Summary TASiiSs, pott, p. 139} is given %i ^ 
Otanparsitive view of the provision fumtehed \tj ths Qiurch and bj Dsuendting I 
Bodies in each county of England and Wales ; from which it will be seen trhat I 
porraons of-^ieeouiiirj are peeulisr tstrongbolds *of any partiewdar body.- D i s" 
senters most abound m WaUs, Momumthshire, Y&Hk th l te, CcrnwaU, Cheshire, 
Lancashire, . Derbyshire, Northumberktnd, Nottinghamshire, and Bedfordshire j 
in -all which donnties their sittings ^xceed i|» number thos^* provided by the 
Church of England^ while in IVales, and Monmouthshire theyai^ more than 
double. - In all-the otiier counties the Establishment has » prepondenywe, ^most 
cpnspiicuous in Herefordshire, Sussex,'said 0;^or<Wr», ivfaaie the! sittings ^of the 
Caim^ aro moKthaa doal^sr timsB of the DissenterK - The two^psrtieB are verp 
nearly balanced in Limeolnskire, Stt^ordshire, Leieeatershire^ Cumhsriamiy ai|d ' i 
CambriigssUrs. On the whole Of f nglaxid and Wales^ for ev^iy 100 flittin|{» | 
prbvided by the Church of England, P^enters fumSsh $3; 

vFhct fttte at which the Qhureh of England is advmn/^Qg.in t)be putiv ^f ^^^^QnmAn^f^ 
exben#en, so fo as this q!>esti6n. can be settled by a Irelerenc^ td the ^es 9k gopgy^"^ 
whidi existing churches were erected, is displayed in Table 13, the- method of- 
cMttnieting .wiidi hat been. expUunsid beftyre (p. 66, ii4iere also will be foimd 
sonte other racplanatioas applicable to tins TaUe). It is probable l^t an infeiHMS > 
as i»- the position of affiini in former times can be drawn ^m the dates ot. 
eidstmg biuldings with moro oonectness in the case of the Church of England, 
as the edifioes aro more permanent and less likely, to changehands than an th&/ 
bdfliihigs used by the Dissenters. Still there is a possibility that too g?eat aa . 
atnount of acHdoamodsiioB has been ascribed to the eailier periods. Subject to*) 
a* -certain degree of qualification from tiiis cause, the Table shows tiiat in thtf; 
last half centmy the Chuarch of England has increased' her psovision by 24 per. 
cent; i but the rapid growtii of population in the same time (101*6 per cent.): 
has materially altered her position as compared with the wh(de eoinnninity ; for^ 
whereas, in 1801, she sujijplied accommodation for very nearly half the people* 
(48*^ per cent.),' she now contributes less tiian a third (29*6 per cent). The 
increase between 184L s&d 1851 » however, is vesy striking, being no less than' 
11 '3 per cent., and nearly equal to the whole increase of population in that 
interval (12.6 per cent). 

Tablk 13. 

CoMPARATiVB INCREASE of Po?ui«ATiOK and Church PROVISION in the 

whole of England and Wales, during the past Half Century. 



'Vj 





Population 
at 

•aoh Period. 


Kvmber of C9nirBh« and 
Sittings at each Period. 


i 

Rate per oent. 

at which 
the Population 
1 increased. 


1 1, 

Rata per eenfe. 

at which 

theSittfntfi 

increased. 


NnmberoC 

Sittings to 100 

People at eaeh 

Period. 




Churahet. 


Sittings. 


1801 - 

isn • 

1821 - 
18S1 - 
18<l - 
1861 - 


A,ft92,ft86 
10464,256 
12.000,236 
13,896,797 
15,914,148 
17,927,609 


11.379 

11,444 

11.558 

11,88S* 

12,668 

14,077 


4.289.888 
4A14.888 
4,857,366 
4,481,891 
4,775.836 
5.317.916 


. • 
14*8 
18*0 
16*8 
14*6 
12*6 


. • 

•6 

1*6 

2*9 

6-6 

11*8 


48*2 
42*4 
36*8 

82;;^ 

80*0 
29*7 



* This' number approaches very near to that returned in the Population Abstract of 1891 (viz. 
IIJBBS); and, considering that the latter number 'referred exclusively to separate consecrated 
buildings, while the number given above includes an estimate for licensed rooms, &c., it seems 
probi^le thak these estimates are not far fiK>m the truth. 



7r 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [ENOLANiy 



Number of seiv 
vices. 



The rate of i»ogress in large town districts, where the additionkd accommo- 
dation is so much required, will be shown in Table 14; which, if accurate 
displays in a striking manner the continually increasing activity of the Church 
in recent times. 

Tablb 14. 

Rate at which Church Accommodation has increased in Large Towk 
Districts, as compared with the Rate of Increase in the Rest of 
England. 



s 


Lakqb Town Duteicts. 1 


BBHSUJB or THE COUXTAT. 


: Feriodfl. 


Population 


Number 

ofCtiurelieaand 

Sittings 


Bate 
of Inerean 

per cent. 


P(Vtilation 


Number 

ofGhaicheaand 

Sittings 


Rate 

<tf IncreaM 

per cent. 




at each 
period. 


at 
eaeli period. 


at 
each period. 


at each 
period. 


at 
each period. 


at 
each period. 


tf 


Churefaes. 


Sittinga. 


Popu> 
latlon. 


Sit- 
tings. 


Churohes. 


Sittinga. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Sit- 
tings. 


1801 - 


s,eoe,os4 


2,163 


1,246,702 


•  


ft • 


5,284,612 


9,216 


2,882,963 


• ■• 


•* 


1811 - 


4,260,846 


2,188 


1,263,134 


18-1 


1-2 


6,90a,408 


9,266 


2,696,406 


11-7 


.4 


1821 • 


0,241385 


2,246 


1,296,618 


23*0 


2-7 


6^758,341 


9,812 


2,913,013 


14-5 


•e 


18S1 - 


6,435,053 


2,486 


1,406,305 


^•8 


8-6 


7,460,844 


9,447 


2,956,249 


10*4 


1-4 


18«1 - 


7,785,136 


2,784 


1,007,206 


20*2 


14-2 


8,179,012 


9,884 


3,091,949 


9*6 


4-7 


1851 


9,229^20 


8»457 


1,996,729 


19-3 


24*2 


8,698,489 


10,020 




6*8 


10*7 









Pursuing still with respect to the Church of England the inquiries made- 
already with respect to all the churches in the aggregate, the. next point is — 
How much of the accommodation shown to have been belonging to the Church, 
of England on the Census Sunday (viz. 14,077 churdies and 5,317,915 sittings) 
was aoailable to the public on that day? or, in other words, how many of the. 
buildings were cpenfor worship at each period of the day ? The answer is, that, 
but of 14,077 buildings, 11,794 were open for service in the morning; 9,933 in 
the afternoon ; and 2,439 in the evening. The number of sittmgs thus avail- 
able was— Morning, 4,852,645; affcemoon, 3,761,812 ; evening, 1,739,275. The 
much larger proportion of sittings to churches in the evening than in the other 
peiiods of the day is itself sufficient to suggest that the evening services must 
have been held in the towns, where the edifices are much larger than are those 
in rural districts; but the following Table (Id.*^ shews at once the irequmcj 
with whidi services were held, and the influence of locality in aiding or diminish- 
ing this frequency. 

' Table 15. 
FREauENCY of Services per Day in the Town and Country Portions of 

England respectively. 





Popvlatioo, 

isa. 


Number of Churohes in which Serrioes were held in the 






Homing 
only. 


After- 

noon 

only. 


Erening 
only. 


Morning 
And 
After- 
noon. 


Morning 

and 
Evening. 


After- 

noon 

and 

Erening. 


Morning, 

After- 
noon, and 
Evening. 






Total. 


TownPOTtion* 

Countiy Por- 
tion 


8»294.240 
9,638»369 


186 
2,826 


110 

1,866 


46 
222 


637 
6,626 


766 
604 


7 
46 


466 
286 


2,21s 
11,864^ 


AVD Wales i 


17^,609 


2JS10 


1,966 


266. 


7.168 


1,869 


68 


762 


14,077 



* The " Town Portion *' referred to in tlus Table ineludeg all Towns without legard to dse* 



AND Walks.] 



REPORT. 



This presents a singular contrast with the usage in regard to Protestant 
Dissenters' services, which are generally held in the later portion, rather than 
the earlio*, of the day. This will be seen more clearly in Table 16. 




Table 16. 





NiimlMgrafna«Mofwo»lii|»t<Nitof«T«r7lW^iawhidl 1 










Serrioefl were neld in the 


1 








Bforning 


After- 


Erening 


Moniinff 
and 


Morning 


After- 


MomSag, 
Aft«r- 


TOTAJL. 










onljr. 


Booa 
only. 


onlj. 


After- 
noon. 


and 
Evening. 


noon and 
Erening. 


Evening. 


rChurch of 
















i 


Towiff 1 Bnghmd. 


8 


5 


2 


29 


85 


• • 


21 


100 


POBTIOF 1 x)i«^„ting 






 












V. Churches 


5 


S 


S 


7 


46 


12 


28 


100 


rOhnrch of 












' 4 






CoUHTBTj 
POBTIOS ' 


Enghuid- 


19 


17 


2 


55 


5 


• • 


2 


100 


Bistenting 


















L Churches 


6 


10 


14 


8 


21 


27 


14 


100 


rChupchof 


















BKOIiAirD 


EngliMid  


18 


U 


2 


61 


10 


*• 


6 


i 100 


AWD ■{ 


k 


















VfAI^BS 


DiMentliig 
















1 


L Churches 


6 


8 


12 


8 


27 


23 


16 


100 



The effect of this upon the available number of sittings at each portion of the 

day is, that while the available accommodation provided by the Church of 

England was highest in the mominff, lower in the afternoon, and lowest in 

-ihe evening, that provided by Dissenters was highest in the evemng, lower in the 

.mommg, and lowest in the eftemoen : as will, be seen by reference to the 

foilowing figures : 





Sittings arailable in connexion wiik 


 


f 

Ghnrch of 
England. 


Other Protestant 
Englisli Churclies. 


Total Protestant 
English Chnrches. 


Homing « - - 
Afternoon - - - 
Sreaing ... 


4,862,646 
S>761,812 
1.789,275 


3,428,666 
2,367,379 
3,865,394 


8,281,310 
6,129,191 
6,594,669 



The way to show how much (to use a ficuniliar expression) is got out of their Use made of 
buildingsc iby .ike Church of England and by Dissenters, comparatively, is to by^v^^sn 
take an average 1,000 of the sittings belonging to each, and ascertain how a'ndDi^nterB 
many of them were available at each period of the day. The result is this : 



Sittings arailable (out of an arerage 1,000) in connexion with 



r 



CSiorehirf 
England. 



Other Protestant 
English Chnrehes. 



Total Protestant 
English Churches. 



Homing • 


• • • 


912 


736 


830 


Afternoon 


- 


708 


508 


614 


Evening 


... 
Total 


827 


837 


661 




649 


690 


668 



78 



CENSUS, 1861.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP- [EnglaiCd 



So that on the whole the Dissenters make rather more of their aoconmiodfition 
rthan does the Established Church ; for while the latter, in the morning and 
afternoon, makes use of its buildiiif^s to a greater extent than do the former 
(most of the Dissenting chapels being used in the afternoon for Sunday School 
iafitraetion), yet the very limited extent to which thechurchea are thrown, open 
for worship m the evening y when the chapels of Dissent^ are most occupied, 
gives to Dissenters an enormous superiority for that par^ of the day, and even 
makes their t^tal accommodation (adding the three columns toge^er) exceed 
by a litlde the total available accommodation provided by tlf e Church of England. 
Xhat is, .pioportionally ta the total acnnmmndafcinn . belonging to each.; Jcar> 
absolutely, the Churdi of England had, ; in aU< three portions of the day, 
lQ,35d,t32 sittings |kvai]ab])e .against 9;651,4a8 belohgbg to Protestant 
Dissenlaers. *. ' ' ,•<■ 



SumxnaKj view 
ofthepontiou 
occupied l^ the 
Church of. 
England. 



The general result ^ regards the accommodation funiished by the Church 

of England is that in ;14,,077; buildings there are 5,317>9ld sH^tingB^ equal to 

29*6 p^ cent, of the population; that^ of these, 21,673 lai^ practici^y «ape^- 

%ous as being out- of; tbs reiak^h of any persons \fho coiild fill them; tliat the 

residue ([5,296^42) is equal to the wants of only 29 '5 per c^t. of the population; 

and thai, in '^ consequence of a number of places hot bein^ op^m th^re are only 

4;Ste,645 i^ttmgs aHaitobU'ioT n^tymihg,-' 3,761,842 jPor^ift<|r»)on;tind 1,79^,376 

for eveidng seipdce. -4 Of the total number of $,317,9]5ilt^iga; 1,853^773 

were d^bcribedlas^^frte"; aid 2,123,396 i|s ''apptoiikatid"; 1,'390,747 being 

'sitogetlier Tmdes^bed.^-:^^^ Inference tcrbe* drown iS ro m ihe in for i a a t io tt-as-to 

,lAi<s. pe^ods at: which existing cl^lrchef^ wfsre.erepted shpws » iqi^t of progrew 

^j^not unsatisfiaotory altogethfir, bi^t hifi^^^i^ ^ t(mfn$^ . , . . ^ > 



Chief Protestant 

Dissenting 

Bodies. 



-' The moiit Atnn^^us religion's bbdies, next to di^ Ebtabliehed Ghurdi, aae^te 
WesfeyiEm Metko^sts, Hie independtnts^nr CongregaiionaliBts, and the BafriMi. 
The first and the last of these denominations are respective^ dia)>ened uto 

^several sections'; but the Independents form a' compact and undivided" body. 
If we .consider the Wesleyans and the Baptists in their aggregate combined 
capacity, the three denomi&ationa will oontiibute each as fbllows towards the 

,4B;eiieral. religious accomnrndfttiQajaiiihe CQijftt^u^- :-jr-- — - • — -x 

; Baoesof 

'• w^hip.;. . SittiBifS. • 

Wesleyan Methodises - - 11,007 - 2,194,298 

Independents -{ -' ^- '3,244* -' 1,067,760 

-Baptbts - ; . . *2,789 ' - * 752;^3 

Many of these places of' worship tiw, however,~Tnerely yawtf -of buildiBgs, 

roomJ& in houses used a& mission stations in poor ndgHbeuAodds unable to 

flupport a regular chapel. 'Hie number misniioned in the letailit » ^ndt 

separate buil^ngs'' is, — Wesle3ir«n Methodists, 2,-15^$ Independents^ 284 ; aod 

Baptists^ 804 i but there seems to be some l!ea8on' fear ceijeetaring that Aeoe 

fupe under-statemenits, that the number of '" separate and entire** rdigicros 

edifices has been somewhat exaggerated, |uid the number of rooms, &c. 

oonresppnditigly reduced.* The Wcsleyan Mbthodists are found in greatest 

*^ - ' J* . '^ * ' _. I " i I i-i _ ii^ _fi' I 1 _ I'n I I i' I Mil II  ■■! I «i.ifi r>rr-i~nii«^r^iMnM m »i j^^i i  mi ip n i i   ^nm 

* ]l£iv £. Baine9, in his evidence before the Select Gommittee on Church Bates, gave an esti- 
mate of the chapds belonging to thtoe bodies as follows 1— * ' . «, , 




AND Wales.] 



REPORT. 



7& 



•'/' 



f6rce in ComwaU,Yorkshire, Linookishire, Derbyshire, Durham, and NotHnffham- , 
shire J their fewest numbers are in Middlesex, Surrey, Sussex, Essex, Wanoick^ 
shire, and Hertfordshire, The Indbpendektb fiouiishmost in South Wefes, 
North Wales, Essex, Dorsetshire, Monmouihskire, and Suffolk; least in N&rthmii- 
herland, Durham, Herefordshire, KadWorcestershire. The Baptists are strongest 
in Monmouthshire, South Wales, HuMimgdonshire, Bedfordshire, Northampton- 
Mre, Leicestershire, koHl BuMtighamMrt ^ wtekest in Curndferlandy NortMrnhH^ 
hnd, Westmorland, Cornwall, Stqfofrdshvrt, and Lan^ashire^,. 

The following statement^ derived from the column of dateSj will show, as far Inereaieof tho^ 
as can be gathered frop that aource^ the rate at whi(^ each bodj |ias progressed Half^en!^. '^ 
in the present century. But great reliance cannpt safely be reposed in 
iilfereQpes from dates in thecjase of dissentkig places of worship, ^since unertain 
liumber (merely rooms) have undoubtedly, though only ocpipied In recent years 
for religious purposes, been retained with the. date of their' erection — not that of 
'iSicir^zst a ppropri at ion to such -uses;^ So^ too, vA, ' cfaspds 'whidi have^pMSid 
from one denomination to another : the date supphed has fiiequently been 
that of the original construction of Ijhe edifiipe. The effect, as exp^ned already, 
is to throw upon the earheii years a number of chiapels which should properly 
b^'^re^kohdd' as fhe offspring of ouir own day. ^e chanoB of possible 
4MGura<7 is the probability lliat several plaj>es used m foirmer times have since 
bseu discoatinued. Thi&s Would a^^^as aicounteirpoise .in< flonlB s<^ to ihe 
former error. Subject to .: whatever reservation may be thought essential. 
Table 17* will display the progress of these three bodies since 1801. 

■•'. • ' , ' '■ ' •' ^ .' »..„*_ 

•;.-, . i: . . '• : . TABi*Bl7. . . * • J • '; a . . 

,Bate of Incbea0s» in Deceanial Periods, of the Whslbyak Mstho'dxivv^, 
jlifDKPBN^BKTs, and Baptists respectively, in the whole of EKoi«AND,|tAd 
i Waxes. k a 



PnuoDs. 



WstLEYAH MvrHomtn. 
(AlllwaiiebM.) 



ISwoobgjcoi 

PfaMM of W«nli^ 

aadStttinfs 



PlMWOf 

Wonliip. 



Stttin^^. 



Bate of 



poroAit. 
•teaeh 
Period. 



Ihdepemdxnts. 



CAIl bnmchcs.) 



l^nmbfr of. 

PbtcetofWonttip- 

•ml SittbuEt 

ftt ctth Pnibd. 






PlacMof 
Worship. 




Rate of 



pereent.j 

eteaeh 

Period. 



I Piaeet ofWonlili^ 
andSi^ikftf , 
At each Ftrfod.' 



Plaeeeof 
Wonh^. 




BateoC 

IiieMM 

pereeat, 

aiMall 

Period. 



1801 
1811 
18S1 



ISA 
1851 - 



826 
1485 

S74B 



781» 



165,000 
640,800 

Mi4eo 



U,007 ;2,194,296 



80*0 
850 
88-« 

oo*a 

40*3 



914 
1140 
1478 



8S44 



299,792 
•873.920' 
464,784 
088;072 
854^708 
1,087,700 



24-7 
29*2 

»•« 
80*4 
«4-9 



1 

652 


176,692 


868 

1 


282,51$ 


1170 


517,070 


1613 


487,123 


1 2174 


589,154 


2789 


752,848 



J 

•• • 

81-6 
86*4 
87^ 
84'7 

27-7 



From this it appears iiiat neither of these bodies is advancing at a rate so 
rapid as formerly. But then it must also be remembered, that neither is there 
room for such a rapid increasq^ since the aggregate rkte of increase during the 
^laif century has been so mucl^ more . rapid than, the increas<$ of the population 
that; wheiiea^ in 1801, ih» niimber of nttmgs provided for evary 1,000 persons 
wasi-by Wesle^ns IS, by Independents id4, aUd by Baptists 20 ; in 1851, the 
peovisi^n Was— A>y Wesleyaiis'12d, bj independtents $9, and 1^ Baptists 42. 

— ; 1 '. i 1 — j u 

* ^istoncfes of tliu may beseen iii tbe oaas ot Urn Wosfevan Befiomiers: HI of their plai^ of 
worraip ftapg retumed as erected prior to 1841, alHiough the mo^rement out of whidi tne partly 
originated ma not A>inineii0e till 1840. So, th# Primitive MethpdistM, who did not appear till after 
a810,.liaarB fetomed 228 -of the-^npek beftvre ihat neiiod; the Bibie €/firiHkm§, who artwe^n 
1815, letum 27chapela as erected before 1811 : and tne WesUwm Methodist ^''m^^^o'L (B'hkb 
waaftif i m ied In 1886) reports 86 chapels as exisBng prior to 18Si. In llie Table (17.) a correcnon 
has been made for these oonqmcuoiiserrarB; an4 the ehiqwls hafre^been distributed over the 
period subsequent to the formation of these sects. 



\ 



M 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



Coj^?*'**i\l ^® ^*^® ^^^ ^^^ ^^ *^® Christian churches generally and the Church of 

l^es in the England in particular provide for the religious teaching of the masses in large 

€oimt^dia« towns. A similar view of the achievements of the three important bodies 

tricts. ' named above is presented in Table (18). 



Tablb (18). 

» 
Comparative View of the Accommodation in Rural and Large Town 

Districts, provided by the Wesletan Methodists, Independents, and 

Baptists respectively. 





WbSUETAM MZTHODIBTS. 


IMDBPSNDKVTS. 






Number of 

Places of Worship 

and Sittings. 


Propor- 
tion per 
eent. of 

' Sittings 
to Popu- 

1 lation. 


Number of 

Places of Worship 

and Sittings. 


1 

, VrapoT- 

1 tionper 

cent, of 
' Bittinjn 
1 to Popu- 

hition. 


Number of 

Places of Worship 

and Sittings. 


Proper-; 
tioa per 
cent, of 






Places of 
Worship. 


Sittingfl. 


Places of 
Worship. 


Sittings. 


Places of 
Worship. 


Sittings. 


Sittings 

toPopu.* 

lation. 


Large Town") 
Districts -J 

Countiy Dis-") 
tricts - '} 


S050 

7M7 
1 


896^72 
1,297,926 


9-7 
14*9 


1 

986 

t 

i 

2808 


454,729 
613,031 


1 
4-9 

7*1 


1 

839 
1950 


818,018 
484,330 


8-5 
«0 


Snjdandond') 
wales -i 


11,007 


2,194,296 


12-2 


3344 

i 


1,067,760 


6-0 


2789 


i 
752^48 ' 


4-2 



Available With respect to the use which these three bodies made of the accommodation 

Accommodaticn they possessed, it wiU be found, that out of a total number of 11,007 places of 

worship belonging to the various sections of Wesleyan Methodists, only 4,990 
were open for morning worship, 6,796 in the afternoon, and 8,930 in the 
evening. The Independents, out of a total of 3,244 places of worship, opened 
2,261 in the morning, 1,406 in the afternoon, and 2,539 in the evening. The 
Baptists, out of 2,789 places of worship, had morning service in 2,055, afternoon 
service in 1,550, and evening service in 2,127. A general view of the extent 
to which these bodies severally use their chapels will be seen in the following 
Table (19). 

Table (19). 

Extent to which the Accommodation provided by the Wesleyan 
Methodists^ Independents, and Baptists respectively, is made 
available. 



Absohiie Nnmhm 
of Places of 

Worship 
and Sittings. 



Places 

of 
Wor- 
ship. 



Sittings.* 



Number of Fteets open for WorOiip at each 

period of the d^ ; and Number of 

Sittings t&us airaalable. 



Plaoes of Worship. 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 



Sittings.* 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Eren- 
Ing. 



Number of SifctiAgs 

available 

out of every IgOOO 

provided. 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 







I 














j 




Methodists i 


11,007 


2,194,298 


mKs 


0796 


8960 


L,807,^ 


1,267,798 


1,924,468 


52 


58 


Ind^Mndents 


A244 


1,087,700 


2281 


1400 


2669 


901,862 


447,800 


881,768 


86 


42 


BapHsto - 


2,789 


762,S4fi 


2055 

• 


1650 


2127 


636,864 


397,168 


619,804 


85 


53 



88 
83 

82 



* Including an Estimate for defective Betums. 



AND WaLBS.] 



REPORT. 



81 



fh' 



f 



^4 



/ 



The number of Jiree nttmgs provided by these denominations, and the Free p;i(i>vision. 



proportion which the free sittings bear to the whole number, are as follows : 



/ 





Aetaal 
Nttmber of Sittings. 


Proportioii 
percent. 




Total. 


Tree,* 


Total Sittingfi. 


4 

Wesleyan Methodists ... 
Independents ... 
Baptists • ... 


2,194.296 

1,007,700 

752,343 


1,066»812 
488,211 
377,671 


48-6 
41*0 
60*2 



This, however, must be taken, subject to the possibility abeady hinted, that 
under the term otfree sittings may be included sittings merely unlets 



Next to these three denominations of Dissenters f come, in the order of Minor Protestiuit 
magnitude, the Cdhinistic Methodists, divided into two classes, the Welsh and ^^"^ ^* 
the English — the latter being known as the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion. 
Together they supply 250,678 sittings, mostly in Wales. The remaining 
Protestant sects thus range themselves : 



Society of Friends 

Scottish Presbyterians 

Unitarians ... 

Brethren ... 

New Church - . - 

Moravians ... 

Sandemanians 

Reformed Irish Presbyterians 
And then a great crowd of what are called, for want of a better term, " Isolated 
Congregations," revising to acknowledge connexion with any particular sect, 
make up together as many as 539 places of worship with 104,481 sittings. 



Places 
of Worship. 

- 371 

- 160 

- 229 

- 132 

- 60 

- 32 
6 
1 



Sittings. 
91,669 
86,692 
68,664 
18,629 
12,107 
9,305 
956 
120 



In the aggregate, the Protestant Dissenting churches ol England provide Aggreff&te pro^ 
accommodation for 4,667,422 persons, or for 26 per cent, of the population, protwtant *^ 
and 45*6 per cent, of the aggregate provision of the country. The proportion 5^^^* 
of this accommodation which is available at each period of the day is — morning, 
3,428,666 sittings, ; afternoon, 2,367,379 sittings ; evening, 3,856,394 sittings ; 
making a total, at all three portions of the day, of 9,661,438 sittings. 

Of the Christian churches not Protestant, the most important is the Roman Otsek Chris- 
Catholic, which provides 670 places of worship, containing 186,111 sittings. ^^^^[^^*' 
This, however, represents a greater amount of accommodation than would the 
same number of sittings in a Protestant body, inasmuch as, by the custom of I 
Roman Catholic worship, many persons stand. ;|: Out of these 186,111 sittings ^ 



* Of the total number of sittings belonging to these Bodies there were undistinguished as to 
this point — ^170,208 belonging to theWeslepan Methodwts ; 86,032 belonging to the Independents ; 
und 69^71 b^ouging to the Baptists, It has been assumed that the proportion of '* Free" to 
*' Appropriaited is the same^ amongst these undescribed sittings as amoAgst those actually 
distinguished. 

t Some of the Wesleyan Methodists, however, though fiur firom conforming with the Church 
of England, object to be called Bissenters from it. 

t ^ere was a column in the Schedule for the numbers who could be accommodated by 
standing ; but it was thought better not to make use of it in the Abstracts. The above number 
therefore (188^11) will be strictly sittings. 



C. 



G 



CENSUS, 1861.— BKUGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



there were, in the okuiches which w^e qpe» on the Census Sunday as many as 
176,309 (<w 94 per cent.) in the monrng^ 103,042 (or 65 per cent.) in the tfier- 
* noon, and 89,268 (or 48 per cent.) in the eveninff. The number of sittings 
described as free is 77,200 ; the number mentioned as appropriated is 73,210, 
and 36^701 afe undistinguished. — ^The fi)llowing Table shows in what parts 

of the country^the Roman Catholics most and least abound. 
■""-■ J 

Table. '20. 

Accommodation provided by the Roman Catholic Church in each 
County of England, in Wales, and in certain large Towns. 



InereMeofthe 
Boman Catholics 
dnring the half 
century. 



COUNTISS. 



Number of  
Plaoee of Worship 
«ad Sittings. 



Plaeee 

of 
Worriiip. 



Sittings.* 



Proportion 
per Cent. 

of 
Sittings 

to 

Popola- 

tioa. 



-GouMTun 

AND 

Labgk Towvs. 



ITomber of 

Places of Worsliip 

and Sittings. 



PlaeeB 

of 
WonUp. 



Sittings.* 



Proportion 
percent. 

of 
Sittings 

.Popvla- 
tion. 



Waies 


m 


186411 


1-0 


Rutlandshire - 


• • 


 • 


• • 






Shropshire 
Somersetshire - 


11 

8 


1837 
2368 


•8 


BedforcUhire 


1 


21 




•5 


Berkshire - 


. 6 


1192 


•7 


Staffordshire 


34 


9766 


i-e 


Buckinghamshire 


•1* 
4 


527 


•3 


Suflblk - 


4 


544 


•1 


Cambridgeshire • 


8 


360 


•2 


Surrey 


14 


8046 


1'2 


Cheshire 


17 


61^ 


1.-3 


Sussex 


8 


1216 


•4 


Cornwall 


7 


1446 


•4 


"Warwickshire - 


26 


6891 


1-5 


Cumberland 


8 


2877 


1-5 


Westmorland - 


2 


700 


' 1-2 


Derbyshire 


8 


2454 


•9 


Wiltshire 


3 


790 


•3 


Devonshire 


8 


1250 


•2 


"Worcestershire • 


12 


2834 


1-0 


Dorsetshire 


7 


1762 


•9 


Yorkshire 


66 


16,420 


•9 


Durham 


20 


4816 


1-2 


North Wales - 


5 


885 


•2 


Essex 


9 


2354 


•7 


South Wales - 


7 


1938 


•3 


Gloucestershire • 


14 
13 


4109 
2904 


•9 
•7 










Hampshire 








Herefordshire • 


5 


900 


•8 


London • 


86 


24,366 


. 10 


HertfEVdshire 


4 


456 


•3 


Liverpool 


16 


14,6.32 


8*» 


Huntingdonshire 


• • 


 • 


• • 


Manchester 


7 


6860 


i 2-2 


Kent 


13 


3661 


•6 


Birmingham 


4 


1549 


I -7 


Lancashire 


114 


58,74^ 


2-9 


Leeds 


2 


1220 


•7 


Leicestershire 


12 


2537 ! 


1-1 


Bristol - 


6 


2264 


1-7 


Lincolnshire 


13 


2333 1 


•6 


Sheffield - 


1 


950 


.7. 


Middlesex - - 


S2 


17,846 ! 


''t^ 


Wblverhampton 


4 


1896 


1« 


Monmouthshire • 


8 


2764 1 


1-7 


Bradford - 


1 


380 


•* 


Norfolk • 


6 


1466 1 


•3 


Newcastle 


2 


1744 


2*0 


Northamptonshir 


e 6 


706 


•3 


HuU 


1 


628 


•7 


iDforthumberland • 


20 


4914 


1*6 


Bath 


3 


770 


1*4 


Nottinghamshire - 


5 


1982 


•7 


Brighton - 


1 


400 


•6 


Oxfordshire 


8 


1335 

1 


•8 


Oldham 


1 


490 


•9 



The rate at which the Roman Catholics have increased in the last half century 
will best be seen by reference to the statistics for the period since 1824, given 
ante, page 44. instead of relying upon the doubtful indication supiplied by the 
dates at which existing edifices were erected. From this source it appears that 
in 1824 there were 346 Roman Catholic chapels in England and Wales, while in 
1853 the number had increased to 616. If we assume that the proportion of 
sittings to a chapel was the same (314) at each of these periods as in 1851, the 
number in 1824 would be 108,644, and the number in 1853 would be 1,93,424 ; 



Including an H^tiraate for defective Returns. 



▲NO WaIiIS.] 



ABPOBT. 



83 



tke nte o£ incNSse in the 30 yc«ra being 87*2 p« cent. During reary newly 
the flame interval (viz. finNn 1821 to 1851) the uttings of all Pioteataii^'j badies, 
unitedly, i&Gteaaed imsk 5,985,842 to 9,982,533, the nJbd being 66 8 per cent. 
For every 1000 of the population, the Roman Catholics provided 8 sittings in 1 
1824, and 10 sittings in 1853. The Ph^testants provided for eveiy 1000 
pcnoofl, 499 sittings in 1821, and 557 sittings in 1851. The proportion of 
nttinga belonging to Roman Catholica to tiiose behmging to Protestanta was 
1-8 to iOO at the former period, and 1*9 to 100 at tiie latter. 



The only other prominent sect which appears to poasese a noticeable degree 
of influence, is the *'CtmdtL of the Latter Day Saints,'* known better by the 
name of Mormoks, Within the short period since the introduction of this 
singular creed, as many as 222 chi^wls or stations have been established, with 
acoommodation for 30,783 worshippers or hearers. The activity of the discipbs 
of this fidth is evidenced by the frequency . with whi^ they occupy these 
meettng-plaoca : out of the total number of 222, as many as 147 -(got 66 per 
cent.) were open in the morning, 187 (or 84 p&e cent.) were open in the 
afternoon, and 193 (or 87 per cent.) were <^n in the evening. Comparison 
with similar statistios' of ^ other cfauiches will show that tlus is much above 
the average frequency of services. 



/^ 



The summary result of this inquiry with respect to accommodation is, that ^^J^^^^^Sj* 
there are in England and Wales 10,398,013 persons able to be present at one (dation. 
time in buildings for religious worship. Accommodation, therefore, for that ) 
number (equal to 58 per cent, of the population) is required. The aetuat \ 
accommodation in 34,467 churches, chapels, and out-stations is enough for 
10,212,563 persons. But this number, after a deduction, on account of ill- 
proportioned distribution, is reduced to 8,753,279, a provision equal to the 
wants of only 49 per cent, of the community. And further, out of these 
8,753,279 sittings, a certain considerable number are rendered unavailable by ; 
being in churches or chapels which are closed throughout some portion of the I 
day when services are usually held. Tliere is therefore wanted an additional . 
supply of 1,644,734 sittings, ^ the population is to have an extent of accommo- ( 
dation which shall be undoubtedly sufficient.* These sittings, too, must t 
be provided where they are wanted; i.e. in the large town districts of the j 
country, — ^more especially in London. To furnish this accommodation would ". 
probably require the erection of about 2,000 churches and chapels; which, \ 
in towns, would be of larger than the average size. This is assuming that | 
all churches and sects may contribute their proportion to the work, and that { 
the contributions of each may be regarded as by just so much diminishing \ 
the efforts necessary to be made by other churches. If, as is probable, this ^ 
supposition be considered not altogether admissible, there will be required a 
further addition to these 2,000 structures ; the extent of which addition ^ust 
depend upon the views which may be entertained respecting what particular 
sects should be entirely dis regarded. 

Of the total existing number of 10,212,563 sittings, the Chiux^h of England 
contributes 5,317,915, and the other churches, together, 4,894,648. 



If we inquire what steps are being taken by the (Christian church to satisfy What is lotiag 
this want, there is ample cause for hope in the history of the twenty years just e^Jti^^!Siitsr 
terminated. In that interval the growth of population, which before had far 



* It mi^ be siiid that this contemplates an optimist condition of socie^ ; but it has been 
thought better to take as a standard the actual wants of the people, rather than their probable 
oonduot. Readers can make their own deductions. 

o 2 



84 CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 

outstripped the expansion of religious institutions, has been less, considerably, 
than the increase of accommodation, — ^people having multiplied by 29 per cent., 
while sittings have increased by 46 per cent. ; so that the number of sittings to 
100 persons, which was only fifty in 1831, had risen to fifty-teven in 1851. 
And although this increase has not been confined to one particular dinrch, it 
will scarcely less perhaps be matter for rqoicing $ since, no doubt, the augment- 
ation has occurred in bodies whose exertions cannot ful to have a beneficial 
influence, whatever the diversities of ecclesiastical polity by which, it may be 
thought, the value of these benefits in some degree is lessened. Doubtless, 
this encouraging display of modem aseal and liberality is only pait of a 
continuous effort which — ^the Christian Church bong now completely awakened 
to her duty— will not be relaxed till every portion of the land and every class 
of its inhabitants be furnished with at least the tneans and opportmnUies of 
worship. The field for future operations is distinctly marked : the towns, both 
from their present actual destitution and from their incessant and prodigious 
growth, demand almost a concentration of endeavours — the combined exertions 
of the general Church. Without an inclination for religious worship — certainly 
without ability to raise religious structures — ^the inhabitants of crowded districts 
of populous mties are as differently placed as possible from their suburban 
ndghbours, who, more prosperous in physical condition, possess not only the 
desire to have, but also the ability to get, an adequate provision for religious 
culture. New churches, therefore, spring up naturally in those new ndghbour- 
hoods in which the middle classes congregate; but, all spontaneous efforts 
being hopeless in the denser districts peopled by the rank and file of industry, 
no added churches, evidently, can be looked for there, except as the result of 
mUsUmofy labours acting from without. No agency appears more suited to 
accomplish such a work than that of those societies, possessed by most 
religious bodies, which collect into one general frind the offerings of the 
members of each body for church or chapel extension. The Established 
Church is represented in this way by the Incorporated Society, the Metro- 
polis Churches' Fund, and by several diocesan societies; the Independents, 
and the Baptists idso, each possess their Building Funds; but the support 
which these societies receive must be enormously increased if any vigorous 
attempt is to be made to meet and conquer the emergency. Compared with 
the amount contributed for foreign missionary operations, the support received 
by organized sodeties for church and chapel extension here at home appears 
conspicuously inadequate*. The hope may probably be reasonably entertained, 
that while the contributions to the former work continue undiminished, the 
disparity between the treatment of the two may speedily disappear. 

Mora frequent 'i^ext only in importance to the question, how new churches are to be 

■ervtoei. provided, is the question whether any increased advantage maybe got from 

existing structures. When it is considered that there are probably as many as 
25,000 edifices specially devoted to religious worship, — that the vast nu^rity 
of these imfold their doors on one day only out of every seven, — ^that many 
even then are only opened for perhaps a couple of hours, — ^there seems to be 
a prodigality of means as compared with ends which fordbly suggests tiie idea 
of waste. Of course, in many cases this cannot be helped, and nothing more 



Annual Income. 

£ 

* Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospelin Foreign Parts - - 88,000 
Church Missionaiy Society - 180,000 
London Missionary Society • 65,000 
Baptist Missionary Society - 19,000 



Annual Income. 
£ 
Incorporated Society for Church 

Blading .... 16^000 
Congregational Chapel Building 

Society .... 8,8M 
Baptist Building Tund - - 706 



Of course, some addition (probably as much as 20,000y must be made to the sums here 
mentioned as uiplipable to Church BuUoing, on account of Diocesan and other local fUnds; but 
even allowing for this addition, the contrast will be sufficiently striking. 



AND Walks.] REPORT., 86 



- Iv 



oould be aooompliAhed than ib done; but where the popuLilion gathers thickly 
as in towns and cities, it is thought that greater frequency of services would 
answer nearly the same purpose as a multiplication of churches. If, where two 
services are held, a third should be established, wiUi the special understanding 
that the working class alone is e2q)ected to attend, and that the sittings upon 
that occasion are to be all free, it is considered that the buildings would be 
worthily employed, and that accommodation would be thus afforded to probably 
a thurd beyond the present ordinary number. So, too, upon week-days, it 
is thought that many opportunities are lost of attracting to religious services 
no inconsiderable number of those who rarely or never enter church or chapel 
on a Sunday. Week evening services, undoubtedly, are common now; but 
they are principally of a character adapted mainly to the regular attendants, 
and they generally terminate about the hour at which the workmen leave their 
labour. It appears that in the Church of England daily prayers are read in 
somewhat up^nirds of 600 churdies in England and Wales.* 

AnuHigst the Dissenters — ^who attribute no peculiar sanctity to buildings in b^boob 
which worship is conducted, nor regard a consecrated or other specially appro- ^|^|^j||j»"«cular 
priated edifice as necessary for public service — an opinion has been gaining 
ground in favour of the plan of holding services in such of the pubhc halls and 
rooms as are of general use for other purposes. To these, it is expected, 
wwking men will much more readily resort than to the formal diapel. The 
experiment has been repeatedly tried : it is reported with complete Buooess.t 

Whether, by these various means, — ^the erection of more churches — ^the Would an in- 
increased employment of the present buildings — ^and the use of places not ^^^S^iSS^J^ 
expressly dedicated to religious worship ; whether by an increase of accmmM^ "'m^ ^ 
dation merely, without other measures, the reluctant people can be gained to 
practical Christianity, is what will be in some degree decided by inquiring, next, 
what number of attendants, on the Census-Sunday, used the accommodation 
actually then existing. 

* Hasters's Guide to the DaOy Fmgren of BngUmd* HValee, and Sootlmd. 

t Exeter HaU. durinf; the period of the Ezhibition, wu eninwed for this purpose, and wss 
generally cro¥irded witn hearers. Recently (in Pebmary and March, 1858) a series of such 
services was held at Norwich, in Bt. Andrew's Hall, with similar results. Other instances are 
not uncommon. 



p3 



86 



CENSUS, 1851.-.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



Attendance at 
relii^ouB services 
a better test of 
religious dispo- 
■Itioiifthaa 
amount of ac- 
commodation. 



Number of 
attendants to be 
compared both 
with accommo- 
dation and 
population. 



2. ATTENDANCE. 

Thus &r, in considering the aspect of the English people towards religions 
institutions, our regard has been directed wholly to that proof of the existence 
or the absence of religious ^ling, which is furnished by the ample or inadequate 
supply of the means of public worship. It is scarcely, however, with this 
evidence that one, desirous of obtaining a correct idea of the extent to which 
religious sentiments prevail among the masses of our population, would be 
satisfied. For, though the existence of a tmatt provision, only may be fairly 
taken as a proof of feeble spiritual life, since a people really governed by religious 
influences will not long remain ^thout the means of outward worship ; yet the 
converse of this proposition cannot be maintained, since mudi of the provision 
at the service of one generation may be owing to the piety of a former, whose 
religious zeal may not perhaps have been inherited by its posterity along with 
its rich legacy of churches. Even, too, a great contemporary addition to the 
number of religious edifices does not positively indicate the prevalence of a 
religious spirit in the body of thepeofde: it may merely show the presence of 
a missionary spirit in a portion of the general Church. An inquirer, therefbre, 
anxious to discover more predsely the extent to which reHgious sentiments 
pervade the nation, woidd desire to know not merely the amount of accommo- 
dation offered to the people, but also what proportion of the means at their 
command is actually used. A knowledge, therefore, of the number of 
ATTENDANTS ou the various services of public worship is essential. 

We have seen that, in the gross, there are 34^467 plaoea of worship in 
England and Wales, with 10,212,563 sittings. But, as many of these places 
of worship were closed upon each portion of the day, and the sittings in them 
consequently unavailable, it is with the provision in the open buildings that we 
must compare the number of attendants. In those open for the morning service 
there were (including an estimate for defective returns) 8,498,520 sittings ; in 
those open in the afteraoen, 6,267>928 sittinga; in those open, in the evemng, 
5,723,000 sittings. The total numb» of attetidants (also including estimates 
for omissions) was, in the morning, 4,647,482; in the afternoon, 3,184,135; in 
the evening, 3,064,449. From this it seems that, taking the three services 
together, less than half of the accommodation actually available is used. But 
here, again, the question of distribution is important. For if, in any locality, 
the amount of accommodation existing should be larger than that required, we 
cahnot expect to find the number of attendants bearing there so large a 
proportion to the sittings as in other localities where the accommodation may 
be insuffident. There may really be a better attendance in a district where the 
churches are half empty than in one in which they are completely filled : that 
is, a greater number out of a given population may attend in the former case 
than in the latter. Therefore, before we can assume a lax attendance in 
particular districts, the niunber of the population must be brought into account. 
To prove a disregard of spiritual ordinances, there must be exhibited not 
merely a considerable number of vacant sittings, but also a corresponding 
number of persons by whom, if so disposed, those sittings might be occupied. 
But if, according to the previous computation, 58 per cent, of the popidation is 
the utmost that can ever be attoiding a religious service at one time, it is 
evident that where, as in some districts, the available accommodation is 
sufficient for a greater number, there must necessarily exist, whatever the 
devotional spirit of the people, an excess of sittings over worshippers. If^ for 
example, we refer to the City of London (within the walls), which, with a popu- 
lation of 55,932, has sittings for as many as 45,779 — or for 13,338 more than 



AND Walbs.] BEPORT. 87 



p^CTBwni— — sr- 



lll^ 



eonld posnbly, at any one time, attend — it is obrions that a gteat mai^ sittingft 

must inevitably be unoccupied; and this without regard to the ques^n 

whether, in fulfilling their religious duties, the inhabitants be zealous or remiss. 

The best plan, therefore, seems to be, to compart the sttendants, in the first 

place, with the population ; and then, secondly, with the sittings. The former 

view will give us an approximate idea of the extent^ito which religion has a 

practical influence over the community — exhibitn^ tbslhumbeni who appreciate 

or neglect religious services ; the latter view will show in' what degree neglect, if 

proved, may be occasioned or excused by the supply of insuffidfiODt means of 

worship. If, for instance, in a certain district, the pi o portion of the popa- 

lation found attending some religious serrice should be small, while at the same 

time there should be within the district ample room ftir the remaander : this 

would show conclnsivd^ that in that district a considerable n»mber of the 

people were without religious halnts, and indiflbrent to public wo^)iip. -And 

the same condumon might be drawn, although the actual promion were 

inadequate, if even this inadequate accommodation were but sparely used. 

» 

Returning, then, to the total of England and Wales, and comparing the Number of non- 
number of actual attendants with the number of poMons able to aM»nd,.we find *^^^*^^^^-' 
that out of 10,398,013 (58 per cent, of the total population) who would be at 
Uberfy to worship at one period of the day, there were actually worshipping but 
4,647,482 in the morning, 3,184,135 in the afternoon, and 3/)64,449 in the 
evening. So that, taking any one servii^ of the day, there- were actually 
attending public worship less than half the number who, as fw as physical 
impediments prevented^ might have been attending. In the morning there 
were absent, without physical hindrance, 5,750,531 ; in the afternoon, 7«213,878 ; * 
in the evening^ 7,333,564. Tliere exist no d(da for determining how . many 
persons attended twice, and how many idiree times on the Sunday; nor, 
consequently, for deddiog how many altogether attended on some service of 
the day ; but if we suppose that half of those attending service in the afternoon 
had not been present in the morning, and that a third of those attending service 
in the evening had not been present at either of the previous services^ we should 
obtain a total of 7,261,032 separate persons who attended service either once 
or oftener upon the Census-Sunday .f But as the number who would be able 
to attend at some time of the day is more than 58 per cent, (which is the 
estimated number able to be present at one and the same time) — ^probably reaching 
70 per cent.— it is with this lattw number (12,549,326) that this 7,261,032 must 
be compared, and ^nd result of such comparison would lead to the conclusiojn 



* tfany of these, no doubt, were teaobeis oud scholars enlaced in Sunday schools; which 
partake, indeed, of the character of religious services. The numoer of Sunday scholars on the 
Genau8>Sunday wt» about 2,290,000 : andthe number of teachers was about 802,000, Qf theae, a 
considerable proportion must have been engaged during the time for Afternoon service. 

t The calculations in the latter part of this paragraph are raainly conjectural. The extent to 
which the congregations meeting at different portions of the day are conQ>osed of the aorm^ 
persons, can be ascertained only by a series of observations not yet made, so fkr as I am aware, 
we Imow, from the actual B«tum8, that the number could not be less than 4,647,462 (the 
number of attendants in the morning), nor more than 10.896,066 (the aggregate of all the 
services) ; and .these are the Ihnits within which must lie the number of attendants at aoms 
service. The mean of these extremes is 7,771,774i, which is not considerably different &*om the 
result of the previous estimates. Opinions have been expressed that the number of individual 
attendantx U about two thirds or the number of aUendanets, The latter num)*er is, as 
above, 10,896,066; two-tMrds of which arc 7,264,044. Another supposition is, that, taking the 
number attending at the most frequented service in each church or chapel, the adcBtion of 
one^&iird would give the number of persona, probably attending the other services of the day 
but not that. From Table N. impost p. 142) we see that the fonner number (including Suiiday 
Scholars attending service) is 6,356,^22, which, increased by a third, amonnts to 8,4^4^698. From 
this of course a considerable deduction must bo made on account of those places of worship in 
which oiJy oiie service was held ; the number of such places being as many as 9,1)16. So that 
there appears to be some ground for thinking that the computation haaarded above is not f&e 
from the fiEkct.— I believe tlut 70 per cent, of the total population may be taken aa a fair estimate 
of the number able to worship at one period or o»o^^ of the day. ^ 

o 4 



i 



88 CENSUS, 1861.-RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 

that, upon the Census-Sunday, 5,288,294 persons, able to attend religious 
worship once at least, neglected altogether so to do.* 



Ii there Buffldent This being then the number of persons failing to attend religious services, 
forthonon- we now inquire now far this negligence may be ascnbed to an inadequate 

attendants P accommodation. If there were not in all the various churches, chapels, and 

stations, room for more than those who actually attended, it is dear there would 
be no sufficient reason for imputing to the rest indifference to public ordinances : 
they might answer, theywere quite inclined to worship, but were not provided 
with the means. Upon the other hand, if sittings, within reach of any given 
population, and available for their acceptance, were provided in sufficient 
number to accommodate (say) 58 per cent., it is no less manifest that absence 
in such case could only be attributed to non-appreciation of the service. In the 
latter case, however, the provision made must evidently be within the reach of 
the people and open to their use — ^accessible and available ; for otherwise a portion 
of it might as well not be at all. As said before, a surplus of accommodation 
in one district cannot be regarded as supplying a deficiency in another. There- 
fore, before we can, — in order to compute the numbers who neglect religious 
worship, spite of opportunities for doing so, — compare attendance with accommo- 
dation, we must, when dealing with the whole of England in the gross, deduct 
from the total number of sittings, the number which in any district may exist 
above the number requisite for 58 per cent, of the district-population;— the 
excess beyond that number being, if the supposition is correct, entirely 
imavailing both to the dwellers in the district and to the inhabitants of other 
districts : to the former, since no more than 58 per cent, could possibly attend ; 
to the latter, because out of reach. The number thus assumed to be superfluous 
is 1,459,284; and this deducted from the total number (10,212,563) leaves a 
residue of 8,753,279. This will be the number of sittings which, if all the 
churches and chapels were open, might be occupied at once each Sunday if the 
people within reach of them were willing ; and whatever deficiency is shown by 
a comparison between this number and the total number of attendants may be 
safely asserted to consist of persons who, possessing the facilities, are destitute 
of the inclination to attend religious worship. The gross number of attendants 
being 4,647^482 in the morning, 3,184,135 in the afternoon, and 3,064,449 in 
the evening, it would follow, if the places of worship were all open, that 
4,105,797 persons were, without excuse of inability, absent from the morning, 
5,569,144 from the afternoon, and 5,688,830 fh>m the evening service. But, as 
the churches and chapels are not all open every Sunday at each period of the 
day; 10,798 with 1,714,043 sittings being closed in the morning, 13,096 with 
3,944,635 sittings being closed in the afternoon, and 16,412 with 4,489,563 
sittings being closed in the evening ; we are met by the question whether we 
should consider that the churches are closed because no congregations could be 
gatiiered, or that the people are absent because the churches are closed. If 
the former, the attendants may be properly compared with the total number 
of sittings in aU places of worship (after making the deduction for imequal 
distribution) whether open or not ; but, if the latter, the attendants cannot be 
compared with any but the number of sittings in the places of worship open at 
each period of the day. Perhaps as this is a question not to be decided hero, 
the better course will be to make the comparison upon both hypotheses. The 
result will be observed in Table 21 . 

* It must not, however, be supposed that this 6,288 2M represents the number of habitual 
negleoters of religious services. This number is absent eveiy Sunday; but it is not always com- 
posed of the 9am0 persons. Some may attend occasionaUy only ; and if the number of such 
oocaAonal attendants be considerable, there will always be a considerable number of absentees 
a» any gwmi BuMday, The number of habUual non-attendants cannot be precisely stated 
Arom these Tables. 



AND Wales.] 



REPORT. 



89 






Table 21. 






1. All Plaoen of Worship. 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 



Total. 



2. Places of Worship opeii. 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 



Total. 



Total Number of Sitting within 
readi* - - . - 

Total Kumber of Persons able to 
attend 



8,753,279 



10,398,013 



8,753,279 



10,398,013 



8,763^9 
10,898,013 



1^,269,837 



B322,066te,192,061t 



X 

12,649,326110,398,013 



10,398,013 



6,712,670t 
10;n6,0LS 



t 
20,828.797 



12,549,826 



Number of Sittings f^^P*®*^ • 
within reach -lunoccupied 



4,617,482 
4,105,797 



3,184,135 
5,669,144 



3,064,449 
5,688,830 



10,896,066 
15,863,711 



4,647,482 
3,674,584 



3,184,135 
3,007,926 



3,064,449 
2,648,221 



10,806^066 
9,880,731 



Number of Persons ('^**«»^'« • 
able to attend -Ubsent - 



4,647,482 
V60,531 



3,184,136 
7,213378 



3,064,449 
7,333,664 



^,261,032 
t5,288,29l 



4,647,482 
5,760,631 



^184,135 
7,213,878 



3,064,440 
7,838,664 



t74Ml,0S2 
^6,288,294 



Excess or Deficiency ori 
unoccupied Sittings Excess 
as compared with the > 
Number of Persons Deficiency 
absent • -J 



1,644,784 



1,644,734 



10,075,417 



1,644,734 



2,0754)47 



.4^,205,962 



4,686,843 



4,042.487 



This shows that if all who were absent from each sendee desired to attend 
that service, there would not be room for them on either supposition. On the 
first hypothesis (assuming that the buildings would all be open if the people 
wished to attend), there would be wanted 1,644,734 additional sittings ; and the 
number of those who, in excuse for non-attendance, might plead absence of 
accommodation would be just that number ; leaving, however, destitute of that 
excuse, 4,105,797 persons who neglected morning service, 5,669,144 who 
neglected afternoon service, and 5,688,830 who neglected evening service. On 
the second hypothesis (assuming that the churches closed are closed from necessary 
circumstances, and could not be opened even if it were desired), there would be 
wanted an additional supply of sittings to the extent of 2,575,947 in the morn- 
ing, 4,205,952 in the afternoon, and 4,685,343 in the evening ; and the number 
of persons who could plead the above excuse for non-attendance would be 
just as many. But this assumes that at efiery service 58 per cent, of the 
population would attend : a state of things which, however desirable, is scarcely 
likely to be realized. If we refer to the fourth and eighth columns of the 
Table, we shall see the computed number (7^261,032) who at the close of 
every Sunday can say that they have during the day attended a religious service ; 
some thrice, some twice, but all at least m,ce. As this would leave 5,288,294 
altogether absent every Sunday, and as the aggregate of sittings is in the one 
case 26,259,837, and in the other 20,226,797, of which only 10,896,066 would 
be occupied ; it is clear that, unless they should all select the same service, there 
is ample room for all the 70 per cent, who, according to the estimate, are 
able to attend at least once upon the Sunday. So that it is tolerably certain 
that the 5,288,294 who every Sunday, neglect religious ordinances, do so of 
their own free choice, and are not compelled to be absent on account of a 
deficiency of sittings. 



* See ante, page 88. t See ante, page 87. 

t These numbers are not the aggregate of the three preceding columns; but the computed 
number of separate persons who either attended at gome senrioe on the Census-Sunday, or were 
altogether absent. 



90 



CENSUS, 1861 .--RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [England 



■a I t » i^fc ^ 1^1 i 



Nor will this conclusion be invalidated by a reference to the portion of 
accommodation which is free. We have seen that out of a total of 10,212,563 
sittings, 4,804,5^5 are thus described ; and the v€fy fact that the others are, in 
greatest measure, paid for (and therefore likely to be used), appears to indicate 
that it is principally these '' free '^ sittings that are thus unoccupied. 

If therefore we were to measure the required additional supply of accommo- 
dation by the extent of the present demand for it, the use now made of our 
existing provision, as revealed by these few statements of attendance, would 
appear to indicate that very little more is wanted. The considerable number of 
available sittings which are every Sunday totally unoccupied, might be adduced 
as proof so manifest of unconcern for spiritual matters on the part of a great 
portion of the people, that, until they are impressed with more solicitude for their 
religious culture, it is useless to erect more churches. It will probably, however, 
be considered that, from various causes, many persons might attend new 
churches who would never attend the old ; and that church and chapel exten- 
sion i^ the surest means of acting on the neighbouring population — bringing 
into contact with it an additional supply of Christian agency, intent upon 
securing an increased. observance of religious ordinances. 



Comparftliiva 
flrequenosr of 
attendainoe in 
Town and 
Ooumtfy. 



The frequency and regularity with which the people should attend religious 
services might naturally be expected to depend considerably upon locality. In 
rural, thinly-peopled districts, where the distances to be traversed are often long, 
with many impediments to locomotion, we should not anticipate so constant an 
attendance as in towns, where churches are within an easy walk of eveiybody's 
house. It seems, however, that facts will scarcely justify this supposition. The 
following Table (22.) will exhibit the comparative proportion of attendants in 
the thinly and the densely populated portions of the land : — 



Table 22. 



Number of 
Attendants in 
oennezion with 
eadh religious 
body. 



Actual Number of 

Attendants (including 

an Estimate for 

defective Returns). 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 



Proportion per cent. 

of Attendants to 

Population. 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 



Proportion per cent. 

of Attendants to 

the Total Number of 

Sittings. 



Morn- 
ing. 



After- 
noon. 



Even- 
ing. 



Rural Districts* 



Lar^e Town Dis- 
tricts * • • 



2,4)44^9 



2,203,918 



2,213,996 



970,140 



1,647,203 



Ifill^ 



28-1 



28*9 



26-6 



30'6 



17-8 



16-8 



40*1 



68*4 



36*4 



28*6 



26*4 



30*8 



The estimated number of attendants at the service of each religious body will 
be found in the Summary Tables (post, page 109). The statement 
given there supplies the number attending at each period of the day ; and 
if we may accept the supposition previously hazarded, that one-half of those 
attending in the afternoon and one-third of those attending in the evening are 
enlarely new, the 7^261,032 individual persons who attended some religious 
service on the Census-Sunday will be thus distributed among the various bodies : 
(Table 23.) 



* The Large Town Districts are those containing Towns of more than 10,000 inhabitants; the 
Bural Districts are the residue of the country.'. 



^AJTD Wa;lE8. I 



Il&PORT. 



- !>h 



Tabls 23. 



Estimated 

Totia 

Nvmber 
of 



■ati. 



P r u pgr thm 
per 1000. 



•a 



I 



It 



Estimated 

.Totd 

Viimber 

of 
Attend- 
ants. 



Propertion 
per 1000. 



FBOTBSTAST OHtJBCHBli : 

Church of England - 

Soofetuih Fl^sbyteriADS : 

Cimreh <^ Scotland ^ 

UnHed Presbtfteriau 
Church 

Prabvttrian Church 
inmtgUmd - 

Independonts 

Baptists r 

General - 

ParUeuiar 

Seventh Iki/g -' 

ScoU^ 

New Connexum 

General 
Undefined 

Sodety of Friends 

tTnitarians . . - 

Moravians . . - 

Wesleyan Hethodists : 

Original Connexion' 
New Connexion 
Primitive 

Bible Chrietiane • 
WeOepan AteoeioHon 
Tndependsnt Metho- 
dine - . . 
Weelegan S^ortnen 



8,712 

23,207 

28,212 
798,14S 

12,828 

471,283 

S2 

1,246 

40,027 
63,047 

18,172 

37,156 

7,864 



907,313 
61,319 

266,665 
38,612 
56,480 

1,669 
53,404 



210 

1 

1 

2 
44 



1 
26 



2 

4 

1 
2 
1 



51 
3 

15 
2 
3 



3 



520 

1 
3 

4 

109 



2 
66 



5 
9 

3 

6 

1 



126 

8 

37 

5 

8 






PSOTESTAJTT CHiniCHBfl 

— continued, 
Calvinistio Methodists: 

WeUh Cdknnietie 

Methoditte 
Lady Huntingdon 

Connexion • 

Sandemsnians - 

New Chureh 

Brethren - 

IsoUtted Congrega- 
tions 

Lutherans 

French Protestants 

Befonned Church of 
the Netherlands 

German Protestant 
Biefintners 

OTHXB CHBIffEIAJT CHB 

Roman CalhoUos 

Chreek Church - 

German Catholics 

Italian Bieformers 

Catholic and Apostcdio 
Church • 

Latter Day Saints 
Jews ... 

Total . 



161,046 

29,679 

587 

7,062 

10,414 

68,572 
1,284 

291 

70 
140 

806^93 

240 

567 

20 

^908 
18,800 

4150 



7,261,082 



8 
2 

 • 

1 

4 



17 



406 




21 

4 

• • 
1 
1 



42 



1 
8 



(^ 



1000 



The comparathre frequency with which the memben of the yarious sects Oompflnttf* 
attended service will be found illustrated in Tables L. and M., among the SttSadMrnhi 
Tabular Results (pott, pp. 140, 141), from which it appears that while, in S!^'*^'''*^^ 
the aggregate, out of every 100 sittings, 45 are occupied in the morning, 31 in 
the afternoon, and 30 in the evening, considerable diiference exists between the 
different bodies both as to the total number of their attendances, and as to the 
periods of the day at which they most attend. Thus, while the Table just pre* 
sented shows that the Church of England has attending its three services more 
penons than all the other bodies put together, (3,77d,47itf against 3,487>558,) 
it appears from the Table on page 109, that the number of attendances 
given by the 3,773,474 persons is actually less than the number given by the 
3/487)568 ; the former having attended 5,^2,551 times, while the latter attended 
5,603,515 times. Qr, if we assume that a service, on an average, occupies an 
Aour and three^qmrten, it would seem that the 3,773,474 Churchme]b.devoted 
9,291,9^ hours to religious worship, (or two hours and a half eaoh,)t«lule the 
3,487,558 Diseenters devoted 9,806,151 hours to a similar duty (or two hours 
and thre^-quartefs each). If we come to particular bodies, we find from 
Table M. tiiafc^ of those bodiei whose sise is sufficient to justify an inferenee, the ' 



92 



CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. {England 



most assiduous in attending public worship are the Wesley an 'Reformers — 45 per 
cent, of their accommodation (assuming that the chapels ndght be open for three 
services) being used in the course of the Sunday ; next to whom, in diligence, 
are the Particular Baptists, using 42 per cent, of their provision ; and the scale 
falls gradually till we come to the Society of Friends who only avail themselves 
of 8 per cent, of their accommodation. The following List contains the prin- 
cipal Bodies, arranged in the order of their frequency of attendance (the Roman 
Catholics, however, being omitted, as the greater number of their services prevents 
comparison) : 



EELiaious Dekohinatioit. 



Wesleyan B-eformers 

Particular Baptists 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodists 

Primitiye Methodists 

General Baptist, New Connexion 

Moravians 

Independents 

Lady Huntingdon's Connexion 

Mormons 

Bible Christians 

General Baptists 

Wesleyan Original Connexion 

„ New Connexion 
Catholic and Ai)ostolic Church 
United Presbyterian Church 
Church of England 
Wesleyan Methodist Association 
Brethren 

Presbyterian Church in England 
Church of Scotland 
New Church 
Unitarians - • 

Jews - - - 

Society of Friends 



Proportion per cent. 

or Attendants to 

Sittings. 



45 
42 
41 
41 
41 
39 
38 
38 
38 
37 
36 
36 
34 
34 
34 
38 
32 
32 
SO 
28 
28 
24 
24 
8 



Portioas of the 
day at which 
attendants are 
most nnmeroos. 



With reference to the particular periods of the day preferred by different 
bodies^ Table M. will show that the members of the Church of England choose 
the earher, while the members of the principal dissenting churches choose the 
later portion of the Sunday for attendance at religious worship. Thus^ while 
the number of sittings out of every 100 occupied by the former is 48 in the 
morning, 36 in the afternoon, and only 16 in the evening; the number, out 
of every 100, occupied by the other Protestant Churches in the aggregate, 
is 40 in the morning, 26 in the afternoon, and 45 in the evening. This ffust 
exhibits strikingly the different social habits of the members of these bodies ; 
and, even if we did not know as much already, would suffice to prove their 
difference of social station. 

If must not be overlooked, when considering the amount of cfiernoon 
attendance, that, amongst Dissenters more especially, that period is occupied to 
very greftt extent by Sunday-school in^ruction. Of the number of children thus 
instructed at this portion of the day we have no account but as the total 
number of Sunday Scholars in attendance every Sunday is as many as 1,800,000^ 
the number present every Sunday afternoon must be considerable. The 
religious knowledge thus administered to children is by no menu ineffective : 



andWalbs.} REPOKT. 9$ . 

probably, indeed, this mode of spiritual teaching is tax better suited to a child's / ^'A 
capadty than is the more elaborate service of the church or chapel. kJ 

The most important fact which this investigation as to attendance brings Most important 
before us is, imquestionably, the alarming number of the non-attendants. Even JiI^^Sj^m^ 
in the least un&vorable aspect of the figures just presented, and assuming (as atteodanco. 
no doubt is right) that the 5,288,294 absent every Sunday are not always the same 
individuals, it must be apparent that a sadly formidable portion of the English 
people are habitual neglecters of the public ordinances of religion. Nor is it 
difficult to indicate to what particular class of the commimity this portion in the 
main belongs. The middle classes have augmented rather than diminished that 
devotional sentiment and strictness of attention to religious services by which, 
for several centuries, they have so eminently been distinguished. With the 
upper classes, too, the subject of religion has obtained of late a marked degree 
of notice, and a regular church-attendance is now ranked amongst the recognized 
proprieties of life. It is to satisfy the wants of these two classes that the num- 
ber of religious structures has of late years so increased. But while the labouring 
myriads of our country have been multiplying with our multiplied material 
prosperity, it cannot, it is feared, be stated that a corresponding increase has 
occurred in the attendance of this class in our religious edifices. More espe- . 
cially in cities and large towns it is observable how absolutely insignificant a 
portion of the congregations is composed of artizans. They fill, perhaps, in 
youth, our National, British, and Sunday Schools, and there receive the 
elements of a religious education ; but, no sooner do they mingle in the active 
world of labour than, subjected to the constant action of opposing influences, 
they soon become as utter strangers to religious ordinances as the people of 
a heathen country. From whatever cause, in them or in the manner of their 
treatment by religious bodies, it is sadly certain that this vast, intelligent, and 
growingly important section of our countrymen is thoroughly estranged firom 
our religious institutions in their present aspect. Probably, indeed, the pre- 
valence of infidelity has been exaggerated, if the word be taken in its popular 
meaning, as implying some degree of intellectual effort and decision ; but, no 
doubt, a great extent of negative, inert indifference prevails, the practical effects 
of which are much the same. There is a sect, originated recently, adherents to 
a system called " Secularism " ; the principal tenet being that, as the fact of a 
future life is (in their view) at all events susceptible of some degree of doubt, 
while the fact and the necessities of a present Me are matters of direct sensation, 
it is therefore prudent to attend exclusively to the concerns of that existence 
which is certun and immediate — not wasting energies required for present duties 
by a preparation for remote, and merely possible, contingencies. This is the 
creed which probably with most exactness indicates the faith which, virtually 
though not professedly, is entertained by the masses of our working population ; 
by the skilled and unskilled labourer alike — by hosts of minor shopkeepers and 
Sunday traders — and by miserable denizens of courts and crowded alleys. They 
are unconscious Secularists — engrossed by the demands, the trials, or the plea- 
sures of the passing hour, and ignorant or careless of a future. These are never 
or but seldom seen in our religious congregations ; and the melancholy fact is 
thus impressed upon our notice that the classes which are most in need of the 
restraints and consolations of religion are the classes which are most without 
them. 



As was to be expected, in an age so prone to self-inquiry and reform, this Causes of the 
attitude of our increasing population towards religion and religious institutions ^}?iMti^" 
has occasioned much solicitude and many questions ; and the Christian church tions:— 
has not been backward to investigate the causes of her ill-success with these the 



94 



CENSUS, 1851.— BEMCHOUS WORSHIP. ' £En0^a.^d 



1. Social dis- 
tiiiotfong. 



2. Indifferonoe 
oftheohurohes 
to the social 
condition of the 
poor. 



more espedid objeets of hea* misaion. It is only puiposed hese to p<»nt out 
some of the more prominent results of this investigation. . 

1. One chief cause of the dislike which the labouring population entertain for 
religious services is thought to be the maintenance of those distinctions by 
wliich they are separated as a class from the class above them. Working men, 
it is contended, cannot enter our rehgious structures \idthout having pressed 
upon their notice some memento of inferiority. The existence of pews and 
the position of the free seats are, it is said, alone sufficient to deter them from 
our churches ; and religion has thus come to be regarded as a purely middle- 
gJass propriety or luxury. It is therefore, by some, proposed to abandon alto- 
gether the pew system, and to raise by voluntary contributions the amount now 
paid as seat rents. The objection and proposal come from churchmen and dis- 
senters too; but from the former much more strenuously than from the latter; 
and with this addition in their case — ^that they point out the offertory, prescribed 
by the Rubric, as the specific mode in which the voluntary contributions should 
be gathered. — ^To other minds, the prevalence of social distinctions, while equally 
accepted as a potent cause of the absence of the working classes from religious 
worship, is suggestive of a difiPerent remedy. It is urged that the influence of 
that broad line of demarcation which on week days separates the workman from 
his master cannot be effaced on Sundays by the mere removal of a physical 
barrier. The labouring myriads, it is argued, forming to themselves a world 
apart, have no desire to mingle, even though ostensibly on equal terms, with 
persons of a higher grade. Their tastes and habits are so wholly uncongenial 
with the views and customs of the higher orders,that they feel an insuperable aver- 
sion to an intermixture which would bring them under an intolerable constraint. 
The same disposition, it is said, which hinders them from mixing in the scenes 
of recreation which the other classes favour, and induces their selection pre- 
ferably of such amusements as can be exclusively confined to their own order, 
will for ever operate to hinder their attendance at religious services, unless such 
services can be devised as shall become exclusively their own. An argument in 
favour of such measures is supposed to be discovered in the fact that the 
greatest success amongst these classes is obtained where, as amongst the 
Methodists, this course is (more perhaps from circumstances than design) pur- 
sued. If such a plan were carried out by the Chmrch of England, and by the 
wealthier Dissenting bodies, it is thought that some considerable advantage 
would result. It has consequently been proposed to meet so far the prejudices 
of the working population ; and to strive to get them gradually to establish 
places of worship for themselves. Experiments have been already put in 
operation with the persons lowest in the social scale; and Ragged Churches* 
are in several places making a successful start. In several places, too, among 
Dissenters, special services in halls and lecture rooms are being held, intended 
wholly for the working class ; and the success of these proceedings seems to 
prove that multitudes will readily frequent such places, where of course there is 
a total absence of all dass distinctions, who would never enter the exclusive- 
looking chapel. 

2. A second cause of the alienation of the poor from religious institutions is 
supposed to be an insufficient sympathy exhibited by professed Christians for 
the alleviation of their social burdens — poverty, disease, and ignorance. It is 
argued that the various philanthropic schemes which are from time to time 
originaljjed, though certainly the offispring of benevolent minds^ are not 
associated with the Christian church in such a manner as to gain for it the 



* The objections to this term are felt as much hy the founders of 'these institutions as Iqr 
ethers ; but considerable difficulty is felt in providing any substitute. 



ANi>WAfc»8.] REPORT. 86 ^ /» 

/?.5 

gntitude of those who thus ate benefited. This cause, however, of whatever force ^ #^ ^ 
it may have been as yet, is certaiiily in process now of mitigation; for the clergy 
everywhere are foremost in all schemes for raising the condition of the poor, and 
the ministers and members of the other dmrphes are not backward in the same 
good labour. 

3. A third cause of the iU-sunBess of Christianity among the labouring classes 3. KiBoonoep- 
is supposed to be a misconception on their purt of the motives by which j^^SfUot^ 
Chiistian ministers are actuated in thdr efibrts to extend the influence of the ministers. 
Gospel. From the fact that deq^mea and otiber. ministers receive in exchange 

for their services pecuniary support, the hasty ilifarenoe b often drawn, that it is 
wholly by considerations of a secular and seUSi^ kind that their activity and seal 
are prompted.* Or, evoi if no sordid motives are imputed, an impression is 
not seld<wi felt that the exhortations and the pleadings oi the ministry are 
matters merely of professicHial loutine^the requisite fulfilment of official duly. 
It is obvious that t&ese misapprehensi<»is would be dissipated by a more familiar 
knowledge ; but the evil of the case is, that the influence of such misapprehensions 
is sufSdent to prevent that doeer intunacy between pastors and their flocks 
firom which alone such better knowledge can arise. The ministers are distrusted— 
the poor keq> stubbornly aloof: how shall access to them be obtained? The 
employment of Lay-aoency has been proposed as the best of many methods 
by which minds, indifferent or hostile to the regular clergy, can be reached. It 
is thought by some that that unfortunate suspicion, by the poor, of some con- 
cealed and secretly inimical design, by which the regular ministers are often 
baffled in their missionary enterprises, might be mudi allayed if those who intro- 
duced the 'message of Christiamty were less removed in station and pursuits 
from those whom it is sought to influence. 

4. Another and a potent reason why so many are forgetful of religious ^Jj^^'^'^^ 
obligations is attributable to their pooeriyj or rather, probaUy, to certain ungg. 
conditions of life which seem to be inseparable from less than moderate incomes. 

The scenes and associates from which the poor, however well disposed, can 
never, apparently, escape; the vice and filth which riot in their crowded 
dweUings, and from which they cannot fly to any less degraded homes ; what 
awfblty efiEective teaching, it is said, do these supply in opposition to the few 
ii^requent lessons which the Christian minister or missionary, after much 
exertion, may impart ! How feeble, it is urged, the chance, according to the 
course of human probabilities, with which the intermittent voice of Christianity 
must strive against the fearful never-ceasing eloquence of such surrounding 
evil I — Better dwellings, therefore, for the labouring classes are suggested as a 
most essential aid and introduction to the labours of the Christian agent.f 
And, indeed, of secondary influences, few can be esteemed of greater power 
than this. Perhaps no slight degree of that religious character by which the 
English ipiddle classes are distinguished is the consequence of their peculiar 
isolation in distinct and separate houses— thus acquiring almost of necessity, 
from frequent opportunities of solitude, those habits of reflection which cannot 
be exercised to the entire exdusion of religious sentiments ;" but, certainly, 
however this may be, no doubt can be admitted that a great obstruction to the 

* " A very oommoii olidectioii taken afainst miniitera b^ men of this fthe labouring] class is, 
that they would not preach or lecture if they were not paid for it ; attributing the most sordid 
motives to all who call the attention of their Mlow men to rehgious subjects. Absurd and 
untruo as is this objection, yet it is extensively entertained and avowed."— Twenty-seventh 
Annual Beport of the Sodety for Promoting Christian Instruction. 

. t The " fietropoUtan Association tor Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes " has 
already expended SO^OOOI. in providing better residences for the poor, and has realized a dividend 
upon its capital. 



96 



CENSUS, 1861.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Englano 



progress of religion with the working class would be removed if that condition 
which forbids all solitude and all reflection were alleviated. 



Inadeqiiftte 
■apply of Chris- 
tiamgencj. 



Neoesrityof 
aegreeslTe mea- 
sures. 



Probably, however, the grand requirement of the case is, after all, a multipli- 
cation of the various agents by whose zeal religious truth is disseminated. Not 
chiefly an additional provision of religious educes. The supply of these perhaps, 
will not much longer, if the present wonderftil exerlions of the Church of 
England (aided in but little less degree by other Churches) be sustained, prove 
very insufficient for the wants of the community. But what is eminently 
needed is, an agency to bring into the buildings thus provided those who are 
indifferent or hostile to reli^ous services. The present rate of church-and- 
chapel-increase brings before our view the prospect, at no distant period, of a 
state of things in which there will be small d^ciency of structures where to 
worship, but a lamentable lack of worshippers. There is indeed already, even 
in our present circumstances, too conspicuous a diiference between accommo- 
dation and attendants. Many districts might be indicated where, although the 
provision in religious buildings would suffice for barely half of those who 
might attend, yet scarcely more than half of even this inadequate provision is 
appropriated. Teeming populations often now surround half empty churches, 
which would probably remain half empty even if the sittings were all free.* 
The question then is mainly this: By what means are the multitudes thus 
absent to be brought into the buildings open for their use? Whatever impeding 
influence may be exerted by the prevalence of class distinctions, the constraints 
of poverty, or misconceptions of the character and motives of the ministers of 
religion, it is evident that absence from religious worship is attributable mainly 
to a genuine repugnance to religion itself. And, while this lasts, it is obvious 
that the stream of Christian liberality, now flowing in the channel of church- 
building, must produce comparatively small results. New churches and new 
chapels will arise, and services and sermons will be held and preached within them ; 
but the masses of the population, careless or opposed, will not frequent them. 
It is not, perhaps, sufficiently remembered that the process by which men in 
general are to be brought to practical acceptance of Christianity is necessarily 
aggressive. There is no attractiveness, at first, to them in the proceedings which 
take place within a church or chapel : all is either unintelligible or disagreeable. 
We can never then, expect that, in response to the n^ute invitation which is 
offered by the open door of a religious edifice, the multitudes, all unprepared by 
previous appeal, will throng to join in what to them would be a mystic worship, 
and give ear to truths which, though unspeakably beneficent, are also, to such 



* Dr. Chalmers thus narrates the fate of an endeavour to induce, liy the offer of sittings at a 
low rate, and even gratuitously, a better attendance of the working classes: — ** An experiment 
may often be as instructive by its failure, as by its success. We have nere to record the fate of a 
most laudable endeavour, made to recal a people alienated from Christian ordinances to the 
habit of attendance upon them. The scene of this enterprise was Calton and Bridgeton, two 
suburb districts of Glasgow which lie contiguous to each other, bearing together a i>opulation of 
above 29,000, and vrith only one chapel of ease for the whole provision which the establishment 
has rendiered to them. It was thought that a regular evening sermon might be instituted in this 
(duupel, and that for the inducement of a seat-rent so moderate as fh>m fid, to 1«. 6d. a year, to 
each individual, many who attended nowhere through the day might be prevailed upon to 
become the r^;ular attendants of such a congregation. The sermon was preached, not bj one 
stated minister, but by a succession of such ministers as could be found; and as variety is one 
of the charms of a public exhibition, this also might have been thought a favourable circum- 
stance. But besides, there were gentlemen who introduced the arrangement to the notice of the 
people, not merely by acting as their informants, but by going round among them with the offer 
of sittings: and in order to remove every objection on the score of inability, they were autho« 
rlzed to offer seats gratuituousljr to those who were unable to pay for them. Had the asperiment 
succeeded, it would have been indeed the proudest and most pacific of all victories. But it is 
greatly easier to make war against the physical resistance of a people, than to make war against 
the resistance of an established moral lukbit. And. accordingly, out of 1,600 seats that wore 
offered, not above 60 were let or occupied by those who before had been total non-attendants on 
reUgious worship ; and then about 160 more were let, not, however, to those whom it was wanted 
to reclaim, but to those who already went to church through the day, and in whom the taste for 
church-goin^ had been already formed. And so the matter moved on, heavily and languidly, for 
some time, till, in skL months after the commencement of the scheme, in September 1817, it was 
finally abandoned."— Christian and Economic Polity, vol i. p. 128. 



r^ f 

AND Walks.] REPORT. // 97 

' I ' I « I I I I y I P !■ I I .11—  II ^ 

persons, on their first announcement, utterly distasteful. Somethinrfmore, then, 
it is ar^ed, must be done. The people who refuse to hear the gospel in the 
church must have it brought to them in their own haunts. If ministers, by 
standing every Sunday in the desk or pulpit, fiiil to attract the multitudes 
around, they must by some means make their invitations heard b^ond the 
chiurch or chapel walls. The myriads of our labouring population, really as 
ignorant of Christianity as were the heathen Saxons at Augustine's landing, are 
as much in need of missionary enterprise to bring them into practical 
acquaintance with its doctrines ; and until the dingy territories of this alienated 
nation are invaded by aggressive Christian agency, we cannot reasonably look for 
that more general attendance on religious ordinances which, with many other 
blessings, would, it is anticipated, certainly succeed an active war of such 
benevolent hostilities. 

Nor, it is urged in further advocacy of these missionary efforts, are the ThexuMaeino 
^ople insusceptible of those impressions which it is the aim of Christian ™***®"»*"«» 
preachers to produce* Although by natural inclination adverse to the enter- 
tainment of religious sentiments, and fortified in this repugnance by the habits 
and associations of their daily life, there still remain within them that vague 
sense of some tremendous want, and those aspirings after some indefimte 
advancement, which afford to zealous preachers a firm hold upon the conscience 
even of the rudest multitude. Their native and acquired disinclination for 
religious truth is chiefly of a negative, inert description — strong enough to 
hinder their spontaneous seeking of the passive object of their dis-esteem — too 
feeble to present effectual resistance to the inroads of aggressive Christianity 
invading their own doors. In illustration, the conspicuous achievements of the 
patriarchs of Methodism are referred to ; and a further proof is found in the 
success of Mormon emissaries. It is argued that the vast effect produced upon 
the populace by Wesley and Whitfield, in the course of their unceasing labours, 
shows that the masses are by no means inaccessible to earnest importunity; 
while the very progress of the Mormon Mih reveals the presence in its votaries 
of certain dim, unsatisfied religious aspirations, which, to be attracted to an 
orthodox belief, need only the existence, on the part of orthodox evangelists, 
of zeal and perseverance similar to those displayed by Mormon " prophets '* and 
** apostles." 



Various are the schemes proposed in order to accomplish this more constant Different 
and familiar intercourse of Christian teachers with the multitude. The Church gugyestod 
of England is at present considerabk* restricted in its efforts this way by 
canonical or customary regulations. Nevertheless, so deep is the impression of 
the urgent nature of the case, that propositions have been made for adapting to 
the purpose of religious services a greater number of rooms, licensed by the 
bishops ; and it has even been suggested that " street-preaching," imder proper 
sanction and control, would not be a toov energetic measure for the terrible 
emergency. The employment of additional agents, over and above the augmen- 
tation which is necessarily occasioned by the building of additional churches, is 
also urged ; but hitherto not much has been achieved in this direction as com- 
pared with what is needed. The necessity, if proper pastoral supervision in town 
districts is to be accomplished, of a greater number of agents than of churches 
will be evident on very slight reflection. For many reasons the churches in 
large towns are constructed of considerable size, and rarely with accommodation 
for less than 1,000 persons. Under present circumstances, a congregation which 
should moderately fill an edifice of such dimensions, must be drawn from a 
neighbourhood conttdning 4,000 or 5,000 persons. But it evidently is impos- 

C. H 



98 



CENSUS, 186.1 -RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Ekoland 



Sub-division of 
parishes. 



Lay-a^ncy in 
the Church of 
England 



9ibl0 for wiy minister^ compatibly with the severe exertions which the present 
age imposes on him in respect of p\ilpit*-duties^ to perform with reference to 
any large proportion of these 4,000 or 5,000 persons, that perpetual visitation 
which is necessary first to gather, and then to retain, them within the Chmpoh's 
fold. The choice, then, seems to be-^-either a much minuter subdivision of 
existing districts, with the erection of much smaller churches s or (if large 
churches are to be retained) the employment, in eaoh district, of a number of 
additional agents as auxiliaries to the regular incumbent. Both of these plans 
have been adopted in different portions of the coiutiy. Under the various Acts 
for creating ecclesiastical districts and new parishes, 1,255 such subdivisions 
have been legally effected] and many '^conventional'' districts have been 
fonned by private understanding. Of the lj255 legal districts many are stiU of 
very considerable size, and clearly quite beyond the management of any one 
incumbent. The varying populousness of the whole (excepting three, of which 
the population has not been ascertained) is seen as follows :— 





rXeM than • 


100 persons 


1 


1 


r IMO and less than 9000 9«nraiia 


as 


*l 


100 and Im than aoo 


M 


s 


aOOO » 80QO u 


m 


1 


aoo 


300 


M 


18 


'i 


3000 H ^ M 


ISO 


1 


800 


400 


1) 


as 


1 


40OO ., 6000 M 


104 


1 


400 


500 


M 


33 


1 


6000 ^ 10,000 ^ 


U7 


500 


760 


»» 


101 


10,000 „ 16,000 „ 


63 


•1 


750 


1000 


»» 


91 


1 


16.000 „ 20,000 „ 


90 


Liooo 


1500 


»l 


127 




120,000 persons and npwards - 


14 



So that xnaoy of these districts are themselves too largCi and need to be again 
the subjects of partition. But this plan of subdivision, so unquestionably useful 
in wide country parishes and very large town parishes, becomes perhaps of 
doubtful application to a moderate-sized town parish (4,000 or 5,000 ii^bitants), 
where a single church with 1,500 sittings will suffice for all who would attend. 
The erection of anotb^ church in such a case would seem to be a^ ii^udicious 
measure ; and yet, in such a parish, the exertions of a single clergyman, however 
active, cannot but be far firom adequate. The awkwardness arises i&rom the fact 
that the area which a minister can cover in the course of pastoral oversight is for 
^m co-extensive with the sphere which he can influence by his ministrations in 
his church : he can preach to 1,500 people, but he cannot visit and effectually 
supervise the third of such a number. If this be correct, we seem to be 
driven to the employment, in such cases, of additional agents rather than the 
erection of additional churches. These additional agents may, of course, be of 
two kinds — clerical and lay ; and vigorous efforts have been made, of late years, 
to provide a satisfactory supply of both. The " Society for Promoting the Em- 
ployment of Additional Curates in Populous Places," founded in 1836, with 
a present income of 18,000Z. per annum, aids in providing 323 such curates. 
By Sir Robert Peel's Act (6 & 7 Vict. c. 37.) the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
have power to assign new districts, and provide by endowment for the appoint- 
ment of clergymen to minister therein without churches ; and these Commis- 
sioners have made 232 such districts ; but all these appointments are in con-^ 
templatum of a church being sooner or later provided. There appears to be 
no scheme for giving to a clergyman the cure of souls, within a small and 
definite locality, apart from the very onerous duties which attach to the 
possession of a church. 

The employment of lay-agency has been a measure forced upon the Churdi 
both by the clear impossibility of worthily supporting, if entirely clerical, so 
numerous a body as is requisite for any really effective visitation of the poor, and 



4wWAi,ig.] REPORT. 99 / ^ 

'  — " — ' '■ il (I 

ako by the evidtntly readier nooesq which at firit is gnmted by that cla«8 to t v 
oyerturee fsom perBonA of their own oondi^on^ having no professional ^arb. It 
has been thought that by employing in each populous town parish, in subordina- 
tion to the elergyman, and with his sanction, a considerable staff of such 
asaiitants, much impressicHi might be made upon that part of his parishioners 
^diich imavoidably eludes hia personal attentions; that considerable numbers 
might be thus allured within the circle of his influence, and prepared for bis 
maturer teaching, who would otherwise continue utterly untaught; and that 
this might be effectually accomplished without even in the les«t infringing on 
the ministerial o£Bbce. iSrobably the force of these suggestions was assisted by 
the practical ei^perience of such a plan afforded by the Methodist community, in 
which some ten qr fifteen thousand laymen are employed not merely in the 
work of visitation, but also in that of preaching j and it might have been 
concluded that if such a wide responsibility could be conferred on Methodist 
lay-^ents, while the regular Methodist ministers lost none of their prerogatives, 
but rather gained augmented influence, the benefits which must result to the 
poorer classes frpm the efforts of lay visitors and Scripture readers in connection 
with the Church of England, were not likely to be coimterbalanced by the least 
depreciation of the functions of the regular clergy. And the actual result 
appeiMTS, according to the testimony of incumbents who have tried the plan, to 
justify these expectations, ^The ewtent to which lay«agency is now adopted by 
^e Church of England ts not easily computed. There are two Societies by 
whieh such agents are suppc^^d or assisted — ^the Pastoral did Society and the 
Scripture K^athrt Association j — ^the former aiding 128 lay agents and the latter 
328. Independmitly of these, however, there are doubtless many supported by 
individual and local funds. There are also many District Visitors. The I^y 
Assistants and the Scripture Readers are expected to devote six hours per day to 
their engagements. They are limited to conversation and the reading of the 
Bible and Prayer Book, They are not, on any account, to preach,* 

By the various Protestant Dissenting churches too, the questwn of the ^^^■•*®?^ 
readiest way to reach the working classes has of late had much attention, genten. 
Xicctures, specially addressed to them, and services conducted in the public halls 
or rooms with which they are femiliar* and to which they will resort without 
objection though deterred from church or chapel, are (as we have seen) amongst 
the means adopted to attract them to religious habits. In these various 
operations lay exertion is of course encouraged; but — excepting by the Metho- 
dists, with whom it has been long adopted to the utmost — not to that extent 
which, from the views which most Dissenting bodies entertain upon the subject 
of the ministerial office, might have been expected. The Independents and the 
Baptists have each a '' Home Missionary Society \ " and the members of these 
bodies aid in supporting such undenominational societies as the ** London City 
Mission." But the amount of lay exertion proceeding from individual churches 
(congregations), though consid^able, is much less, especially in hirge towns, thaxi 
might, from their professed opinions on the nature of the Christian ministiytf 
have been anticipated. This has not been unobserved by some amongst tbem- 

* The lArndtm City MinUm (founded in 1835) oocupies tv spuoe midway between the Church of 
Sngland and the Protestant Dissenting churcnes. Supported Ijy a combination of the two, its 
operations wo oonduoted without reference to the peculiarities of either. Its 300 missionanes 
visit the dwellings of the poor-— distribute tracts— and hold religious conversations: services 
for prater and exposition of the Scriptures, too, are held in rooms (not licensed or coni^ecrated) 
from tune to time. 

t '* So. neither does our polity reject the Uibours, In preaching the Gospel, of brethren not In 
the ministerial office. The order of the ministry, and the benefits of that order, are not de- 
fltroyed because somo are preachem who are not ministers. The world, the church, the ministry 
itwuf, need tlie aealous labours of fill who can aid to difiPUse the truth of God and to save the 
souls of men. We deeni the order of the ministry to be in excess and in abuse when to \t must 
be VKsri^ead all gifts and all activities not within its range — when no man n;ay say to hU 
neiffhbour* ^ know tho Lord,' if )ie belong not to an ei^^Mve 9rder 9t teschers/'— Congregational 
tJmon Tract Series, No. X, 

u2 



100 CENSUS, 1851.— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. [Englani> 

selves* ; and recently considerable agitation has been manifested on this subject 
in a portion of the Independent body. It is urged that ministers, especially in 
the larger congregations, have assumed too much authority, appropriated too 
exclusively the work of spiritual teaching, and discoiu*aged rather than assisted 
the development and exercise of those abilities and gifts which, though abun* 
dantly possessed, are little exercised by members of the Congregational churches. 
This monopoly of teaching, it is argued, has considerably hindered the diffusion 
of the truth amongst the masses ; as the single pastor of each congregation, 
overburdened with those duties which a proper oversight of his abready gathered 
flock demands, has neither time nor strength nor aptitude for those incursions 
on neglected portions of his neighbourhood which might with safety and with 
ease be undertaken and accomplished by selected members of his church. This 
party, therefore, urges a return to what is thought to have been the custom in 
the primitive church,— pZwroKfy of elders : thus, without depriving .pastors of 
their present influence, relieving them from their excess of toil, and greatly 
multiplying the amount of Christian agency available for spreading Christianity. 
At present, the grand employers of lay agency, amongst Dissenters, are the 
Methodists, who, in the aggregate, possess perhaps as many as 20,000 preachers 
and class leaders not belonging to the* ministerial order. Nothing, probably, 
has more contributed than this to their success amongst the working popu- 
lation. The commtmity whose operations penetrate most deeply through the 
lower sections of the people is the body called the Primitive Methodists; whose 
trespasses against what may be thought a proper order will most likely be 
forgiven when it is remembered that perhaps their rough, unformal energy is 
best adapted to the class to which it is addressed, and that, at all events, for 
every convert added to their ranks, society retains one criminal, one drunkard, 
one improvident the less.f 

Lay-a^iicv of In estimating the extent and power of lay exertion for religious objects, we ^ 

T^^^^i/"*^ must not forget the vast amount of Christian zeal and influence displayed and 

exercised by teachers in Sunday Schools. Of these there were, at the time of 
the Census, more than 250,000, instructing every Sunday in rehgious knowledge 
as many as 1,800,000 children.;|; It is difficult to overstate the value of these 
voluntaxy labours, much as the efiPect of them, unhappily, is lost, when, verging 
on maturity, the scholar ceases to attend the school without commencing or 
continuing to frequent the church. Few questions can be more momentous 
than the one which all the friends of Sunday Schools are anxiously endeavouring 
to answer, — By what means can the salutary influence exerted on so many in 
the period of their youth be still exerted on them when they shall become 
adults ? Some have suggested that the bond which imites a teacher with his 

* " Let me touch, as lightly and delicately as possible, upon another mischievous product of 
the professional sentiment — the strong temptation it sometin^es presents to repress or impede 
the development of lay talent and enterprise. • • • Wonderful, most wonderful, is the dearth 
of genius, of talent, of peculiar aptitude, of striking character, of plodding industry, of almost 
everything indicative of mind on the alert, in connexion with the spuritual action of tne unofficial 
bulk of evangelical chiurches. In no equally exteasive area of human interest, perhaps, oan 
such a level uniformity of unproductiveness be disc.)«rered. How is this? we ask. What will 
aocount for it? There cannot but be the influence of an unfriendly system constantly at work. 
I attribute the result to what I have designated professionalism — the monopoly, on principle, of 
spiritual functions by a special order dvemed to nave received their prerogative from the Head 
of the Church, and indisposed therefore, not necessarily from jealousy, but from deference to 
mistaken notions of polity, to call out lay-agenqy in the prosecution of strictly spiritual objects.'* 
—The British Churches in Relation to ihe British People. By E. Miall, M.P. 

t It may not be unworthy of consideration, also, whether the 1 ibours of such agents do not 
practically operate to prepare the classes which they influence, for the more refined and lesi 
exciting worship of the other churches. It is certain that the progress of the Church of Eng- 
land in attracting to herself the affections of the multitiide has been contemporaneous with the 
increase of Dissent ; and it may not be improbable that many, who would not have been ori* 
ginallY won by her advances, have, through the agency of such Dissenting teachers, as by a sort 
of preliminary education, been enabled to appreciate her services. 

X The total number of Sunday Scholars, on the books of the Schools, was about 2,400,000 ; the 
number given above is about the number <xttending eveiy Sunday. There are about two teachers 
to every yt/)f^«i scholars. 



AND WaL»S.J 



REPORT. 



101 



. , ..J A 

scholars need not be dissolved by their departure £rom the school; but that : \/ t 
the more experienced instructors— thus becoming a superior order of laj-agents — * j 
might erect, midway between the school and the congregation, a new species of { 

religious institution, which, while the school would be for it a natural preparation, 
would itself be no less natural an introduction to more regular and formal 
worship. 

Mention ought not perhaps, when noticing the need of further agency, to be Extension of th» 
omitted of an increase thought to be desirable in the higher kinds of spiritual ®P"^'*^*«- 
officers. The extension of the episcopate is thought to have been rendered 
necessary by the great increase of churches, clergymen, and population which 
has taken place since most of the existing sees were formed. 

The practical result of this feeling has been principally shown in the creation 
(by 6 & 7 Wm. IV. cap. 77.) of the two additional sees of Manchester and 
Ripon. The other efforts of legislation on the subject have been directed more 
toward the equalization than the multiplication of the sees, as the following Table 
(24) of the changes which have been effected since 1831 will show. It wiH 
be observed that some of the sees are still as large and populous as several 
continental principalities. Not fewer than 60 has been named as the 
number of bishops neccessary for a reaUy e£Pective superintendence of this 
aggregate population ; but in contemplation of some difficulties in the way of 
such a large extension of the present episcopate, suggestions have been made 
for the revival of suffragan bishops ^. 

Table 24. 



DiOCBSE. 



Population. 



1831. 



1861. 



DiOCBSE. 



Population. 



18S1. 1861. 



St. Asaph 


191A56 


2364S96 


Lincoln - - - 


899,468 


677,649 


Bangor . - - 


163,712 


192,964 


Llandaff 


181,244 


337,526 


Bath and Wells - - 


403,795 


424,492 


tLondon - - - 


1,722,686 


2,558.718 


Bristol - 


232,026 




Manchester 


• • 


1,395,494 


Canterbury 


405,272 


417,099 


Norwich 


690,138 


671.583 


tCarlisle - 


135,002 


272,300 


Oxford 


140,700 


608,04S 


tChester • - ,- 


1,888,958 


1,066^24 


Peterborough 


194,339 


466,671 


Chichester 


254,460 


336,844 


Ripon ... 


• • 


1,033,457 


St. Davids 


858,451 


407,758 


Rochester 


191.875 


677.298 


Durham 


469,933 


701,881 


Salisbuiy ... 


384,683 


879.296 


Ely - - - 


133,722 


482,412 


Sodor and Man « 


• • 


62.387 


Bxeter - - - 


795,416 


922,656 


tWinchester 


729,607 


666,034 


Glonoester 


815,512 


538,109 


Worcester 


271,687 


752,376 


Hereford - - - 


206,327 


216,143 


York 


1,496,538 


764,538 


Lichfield 


1,045,481 


1,022,080 


Total - - 


13,897,187 


18,070,735 



• " In the 26 Henry VIII. c.14. twenty-six places are mentioned for which bishops suffragan 
may be appointed. The archbishop or bishop is to present two persons to the king, of whom he 
is to nommate one to be a suffi-agan. The authority of such suffragans shall be limited by their 
commissions, which they shall not exceed on pain of prcBmumre, These commissions are to be 
given by the bishop's presentation.— This Act was repealed by 1 & 2 Phil'p and Mary, c.8. and 
revived oy 1 Eliz. c. 1.— Bishops suffragan are spoken of in the 35th Canon of 1604. It would b3 
very desirable that in populous dioceses they should bo appointed now, and there seems no legal 
reason why they should not be."— Short's History of the Church of England, p. 484. 

t The population of these dioceses is given within the limits which are to belong to them oh 
the next avoidance of the sees of Carlisle and Winchester. For the population, within existing 
limits, see post^ Summaet Tables, imge 112. * 



H 3 



m 



CENSUS, 1861.— RKLlGlOUS WORSHIP. [Kk6lahi> 



UK 



Prominent f ictB 
Blioited by the 
whole Inquiiy. 



Ability of the 
Churcn to pro* 
vide for the 
emergency. 



Prominent Facts elicited by the ithote Inquiry. 

The great ftu^ts whith appeals to me to have been elicited by this inquiiy are>*^ 
that; even taking the accommodation provided by all the aectii; including the 
most extravagant; unitedly, there are 1,644,734 inhabitants of England who^ 
if all who might attend religious services were willing to attend, would not be 
able, on account of insufficient room, to join in public worship : that this 
deficiency prevaiLs almost exclusively in towns, especially large tawnn : that, if 
these 1,644,734 persons are to be deprived of all excuse for non-attendance* 
there must be at least as many additional sittings furnished^ equal to about 
2,000 churches and chapels, and a certain number more if any of the present 
provision be Regarded as of doubt^l value; and that even such additional 
accommodation wiU fall short of the requirement if the edifices are so often, as 
at present, closed. Further^ it appears that as many as 5,288,294 persons able 
to attend, are every Sunday absent from religious services, for all of whom there 
is accommodation for at least one service : that neglect like this, in spite of 
opportunities for worship, indicates the insufficiency of any mere addition to the 
number of religious hvildings : that the greatest difficulty is to fill the churches 
when provided ; and that this can only be accomplished by a great addition to 
the number of efficient, earnest, religious teachers, clerical or lay, by whose per- 
jsuasions the reluctant population might be won. 

• 

That, having thus displayed before it the precise requirements of the times, 
the Christian Church will fail in adequately meeting the emergency, is what the 
-many recent proofs of its abounding liberality and zeal forbid us in the least 
to fear. The means, though latent, are at hand; the agents, though unknown, 
are ready : nothing more is wanted than the action of the rulers of the Church 
to gather and direct them. If the following pages serve to make the task less 
difficult of properly directing such exertions, no small portion will have been 
attained of the advantages which you considered would result from this inquiry. 

ThesCi Sir, are the 'observations which have occurred to me in introdudng 
these statistics. I am conscious that, although in illustration of the Tables I 
have been compelled, in order to secure an early publication, to shorten my 
remarks, they have upon the whole been too extended ; and I cannot expect 
that, in the unavoidable haste with which they have been written, by one 
previously unacquainted with the subject, they are free from error. But I 
do indulge a hope that they are free from bias. It has been my study strictly 
to fulffi the task of a reporter, — pointing out results, but not constructing 
arguments; describing fairly the opinions of Others, but not presuming to 
express my own. It is, however, in the facts and figures which succeed that any 
value which belongs to this inquiry will be found ; and these— much labour 
having been bestowed upon them— are, I think, sufficiently complete to justify 
whatever inferences may, by those accustomed to statistical investigations, frdrly 
be deduced. If this should be the case, the public will assuredly be gratef\il. 
Sir, to you for undertaking, and to Government for sanctioning, as part of the 
decennial Censui|, an inquiry which must certainly reveal important fiiets relating 
to that most important of all subjects — the religious state of the community. 
Inqiury upon such a subject will not, surely, be considered as beneath tiie 
notice or beyond the province of a Government, if only it be recollected that, 
apart from those exalted and immeasurable interests with which religion is 
connected in the destinies of all — on which it is the office rather of the Christian 
preacher to dilate — ^no inconsiderable portion of the secular prosperity and peace 
of individuals and states depends on the extent to which a pure religion is 



AND Wales.] REPORT. 103 

professed and piacticallj followed. If we could imagine the effects upon a v} /. 
people's temporal condition of two different modes of treatment — education ^ i J 

separate irom reliipon^ and religion separate from education* — doubtless we 
should gain a most impressive lesson of the inappreciable value of religion even 
to a nation's physical advancement. For, whatever the dissuasive influence, horn. 
crime and grosser vice, of those refined ideas which in general accompany 
augmented knowledge, yet undoubtedly it may occur that, under the opposing 
influence of social misery, increased intelligence may only furnish to the vicious 
and the criminal increased facilities for evil. But the wider and more penetrat- 
ing influence exerted by rehgious principle-- controlling conscience rather than 
refining taste— is seldom felt without conferring, in addition to its higher 
blessings, those fixed views and habits which can scarcely fail to render indi- 
viduals prosperous and states secure. Applying to the regulation of their daily 
conduct towards themselves and towards society the same high sanctions which 
control them in their loffcier relations. Christian men become, almost inevitably, 
temperate, industrious, atid provident, as part of their religious duty ; and 
Christian citizens acquire respect for human laws from haying learnt to reverence 
those which are divine. The history of men and states shows nothing more 
conspicuously than this— that in proportion as a pure and practical rehgion is 
acknowledged and pursued are individuals materially, prosperousf and nations 
orderly and free. It is thus that religion " has the promise of the life that now 
is, as well as of that which is to come." 

I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Cfflisus Office, Your very faithful Servant, 

8 December 1853. Horace Mann, 

* That is, tisiiig the term '* Education " with its popular meaning. 

t The founders of religious sects have generally oeen so conscious of the tenden<7 of religion 
to increase the temporal riches of their followers, that they have often expressed their appre- 
hensions of a future when prosperity should be tne cause of their declension. The Quakers, 
amidst all the persecutions of their early di^s, advanced so rapidly in wealth that l^ox gave 
frequent utteranoe to his fears on that account. John Wesl^, too, had similar misgivings with 
respect to his societies. 



H 4 



hi 



SUMMARY TABLES 



AND 



TABULAR RESULTS 



106 



CENSUS, 1861 :— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[Engl 



Table A. — AcooxMODAxioir 

PopuU 



*« 



RxLiGious Denomination. 



Namber of Places of 
Worship. 



8> 
Si 

t 



I 



Nnmber of Sittings.*^ 



I 
I 



I 

0. 

1.. 






Kmnber of At^enAxn 
at Publie Worship on 8a 
Mansh aoi ISSL 



» 



TOTiklb 

Pjiotebtant Chubchxs. 
BRITISH: 

Church of England and IreUmd > 

Scottish Presbyterians— 
Church qf Scotland 
United Fresbtftenan Chur^ - 
Pre^fifterian Churdk in England 

Reformed Irish Presbyterians 

Independents, or Congregationalisti • 

Baptists— 

General --»«.-• 
Particular - - - - 

Seventh Dav 

Scotch - - - - . 
Jfew Connexion General 
Jiaptitte {not otherwise defined) 

Society of Friends 

Unitarians - - - - . 

HoraTians, or United Brethren 

Wesleyan Methodists— 
Original Connexion 
Jfew Connexion - - 

Primitive MethodiMU 
Bible Christians - - - . 
Wesleyan Methodist AsooeUOion 
Independent Methodists I 
Westevan B^ormere 

Calvinistic Methodists— 

Welsh CalvinisUe Meikoditle 
Qmntess <tf HwUtngdopfs Connexion- 

Bandemanians, or Olassites 
NewChnroh - - - . 
Brethren - - - - . 
Isolated Congregations T 

FOBEIoy: 

Lutherans . . - . . 
French Protestants 

Beformed Church of the Ketheriands • 
German Protestant Beformen 

Othcb Chsutxan Chuschbs t 

Soman CathoUes - - . . 

Greek Church -' - 

German Catholics . • . . 

Italian Beformers 

Catholic and Apostolic Church 

Latter Day Saints, or Mormons 

Jews ----,-. 



SOiSfiO SifiOB 



13354 

17 
64 
78 

1 

8,960 

2 

11 
170 
441 

S43 

»7 



AiBSS 
269 

887 

840 
U 

177 



798 

98 

B 
42 

77 
872 

S 
8 
1 
1 



8 



SO 
88 

42 



84,467 



8,947371 



4^448/108 



l/)77374 



9^^88 



4^428388 



8380280 



23( 



223 

1 
2 
8 

• • 

284 



6 

m 

* • 

4 

12 

109 



12 
8 



954 
28 

882 

•S 

79 

5 

182 



86 
11 

1 

8 

85 

187 



84 

• • 

1 

1 

3 

134 

11 



14377 

18 
66 
76 

1 

8344 



1347 

2 

15 

182 

560 

871 

229 

82 



6379 



2371 

488 

419 

20 

830 



109 

8 

50 

182 



8 
8 
1 
1 

570 

8 

1 

1 

82 

282 

53 



1308,778 



2,422 
8375 



120 
402305 



10398 

9B0308 

890 

2321 

24,125 

49300 

80388 

83^53 

7,768 



886^434 
86380 

201365 

80484 

44385 

1398 

42^05 



76388 
18,694 

810 

8,782 

I43I8 

•4362 

981 
560 
850 
140 



77300 

291 

100 

150 

6300 

22355 

23O6 



8488395 



9308 
19356 



578383 

6389 
8BI359 

16 
863S8 

ao,4u 

980 

87,787 

456 



729328 
55386 

1853S7 

89308 

45394 

4.^1 

14376 



180^80 
81361 



7388 

1328 

81348 

1341 

• • 

80 
78,810 

 • 

800 

• • 

878 
884 

5353 



905344 



1300 
5370 
1390 



90;779 



1300 
8^90 



766 
8355 

8380 
500 

5361 

8474 
673 
810 

• > 

.445 



1389 
55 



800 

80 

8387 



14354 



840 
488 



432231^ 

12314 
80,401 
40358 

120 

1302307 



16382 
88^75 



2337 
51,159 
88,770 

89351 

68,770 

8/83 



1361,443 
91|7r6 
809316 
60341 
90,780 
8444 
57,186 



196348 
35310 



11365 
11^868 
90348 

8478 
560 
850 
800 



184364 

891 

800 

150 

6378 

88351 

7361 



8371,788 



6349 

17488 
88307 



6I537I 



5388 

886344 

2T 

649 



86385 

I43I6 

87318 

4381 

482,758 
36328 
96301 
14355 
8I322 
571 
8O3I8 

787» 
19366 

489 
4352 
«3U 

84,706 

960 

150 

70 

180 



9401^98 

840 

. 50O 

• • 

8377 
7313 

8348 



1/64341 



960 
438I 
3345 



888300 



7365 

172445 

40 

966 

15345 



6358 
8310 
8318 



876308 
22391 

178384 

84308 

211388 

1345 

U341 



jn440 
4390 

866 

S3O6 

4,441 

SS/96 

890 
81 



iiMas 



90 

1307 
II3I6 

1348 



* The Returns afibrd no information Im to the number of sittings in 2324 of the abore-mentioned 84.467 places of worship. The distri! 
these defective Betums among the various Denominations is as follows :— Church of England, 1386 : Church of Scotland, 1; United 
terian Church. 2; Presbyterian Church in England, 2; Independents, 185 ; General Baptists, 9: Particular Baptists, 108 ; 8eoteh|Ba 
(;eneral Baptists, Kew Connexion, 5; Bsotists (not otherwise defined), 68; Sode^ of Friends, 8; Unitarians, 16: M<»aTian8,2; 1 
Original Connexion, 386 ; Methodist Aew Connexion, 16 ; Primitive Methodists, 809 : Bible Christiai|s, 48 ; Wesleyan Methodist Associa 
Independent Methodists. 2 ; Wesleyan Beformers, 50: Welsh Calvinistic MetfaodiBts, 58; Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, 5; 
mamans, 2 ; Kew Church, 1 : Brethren, 19 ; Isolated Congregations, 72 ; Lutherans. 1 ; Soman Catholics, 45 ; CataoUo and Apostolic CJ 
Latter Day Saints, 52 ; Jews, 8. For an estimate of the number of sittings hi these plisces, see post, page 100. 

t The number of attendatUs is not stated in the case of 1394 of the above 84,467 places of worshn. Of these I388 there bdonst to the C| 
England, 089 ; United Presbyterian Church, 2 ; Presbyterian Churdi in England, 1 : Beformed Indi Presbgrteriana, 1 ; iBdependenta, 89 ; 
Baptists,8; Partiouhur Baptists, 88 ; General Baptists, New Connexion,f; Baptists (not otherwise denned), 28; Sodtttj of Frif0ndS| 



Walbs.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



IW 



Ldaitcx ih Ekglaitd ahd Walbs. 

1^,609. 



i 




























bof Plaeas men/or l^oraftijp, ^t each period 
itbe isj, on Sunday, llarah 30» 1801« 
pjKomber of Sittings thus avaSabU. 


Dfetas at whioh the BtaOdingt i^era ere«toi3 
aivrdirtiated to raligioufe piixpoBM. 


lor 




iifWonbip. 


SfMngt.! 1 


RSX.I0I0U8 DENOKINATIOir. 


1 

•< 


> 


1 


1 


1 


i 
1 


• 

9 
a. 

1 


• 

i 


3 S 

§ 1 


• 

l>4 


I 


• 

1 


O^in IfiiOU Llfi8,0»5 


5^46,180 


5,488/)17 


18,094 


M84 


8/lltt 


V*l 


4366 


8,504 


4346 


8I3G7 


TOTiklb. 


1 








^ 


















F&OTB8TAWT CitUBCHM. 
BElTtSH' 


MB 


1^ 


4;M0,flei 


3^98,289 


U^-USih 


9367 


55 


97 


871 


667 


i,m 


8018 


14^77 


Church of England and Ireland. 


4 

to 


12 
40 
44 


18,014 
89jn4 

40,858 


8^80 
7^ 
7,880 


9496 
18,8S» 
r,540 


8 
96 
87 


1 

8 
1 


 > 

10 

4 


8 
9 
6 


8 

9 

10 


8 

8 
84 


1 
8 

4 


18 
66 
76 


Soottuh Prasbyteriana- 
CknTch of Scotland. 
United Prt^nfterian CkitnA. 
PreAifterian Church in JSngUmd* 


1 1 


•  


180 


120 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• t 


• • 


• • 


1 


1. 


Reformed Iri<h Presbyterians. 


VD6' S;S39 


871476 


426,964 


844,705 


848 


810 


814 


484 


504 


5D8 


880 


8344 


IndepeiideDt0,or Congregatlonaliiti* 


64 

VI90 

{ 1 

14 

N 

K7 

1 


70 

1,S32 

1 

4 

140 

180 


9<49B 
:490^9 

aoo 

1,611 
80,078 
68|B84 


I8r'»9 

894,449 

800 

1,787 

88^9 

48/)78 


18/187 

4(l8r'V« 

800 

1,000 

48,335 

66,2<6 


SO 

419 

1 

8 

64 

75 


7 
149 

• • 

2 

9 

80 


8 

SOS 

 • 

1 

18 
01 


18 
898 

i 

88 
09 


8 
865 

• • 

7 

.19 
111 


16 
880 

1 

• • 


9 
184 

• « 

1 

18 
101 


93 

1347 

8 

15 
182 
550 


Baptists - 
General 
Particular, 
Seventh Daf. 
Scotch. 

ITfw Connexion General. 
BaptixU {not oiherwiae defined). 


> 112 


81 


88,799 


60,889 


^781 


965 


17 


14 


28 


20 


17 


13 


371 


Sodety of Friends. 


' 85 


U4 


ee^ss 


80,888 


88,878 


147 


8 


14 


18 


18 


18 


18 


229 




1 M 


18 


Bfi%3 


4,563 


6^51 


18 


8 


% 


4 


8 


8 


• • 


82 


Jf oraTians, or United Brtthiw* 


m 

m 

m 
m 
i( 

' 175 


852 
8,888 

asi 

945 
17 

K9 


888^0 
74,807 

178|087 
SMOB 

48AI6 


r88«815 
48,880 

ie9,908 

40/9B 

8B»448 

M87 

84,388 


1401,884 
84,775 
8aB/)74 
81456 
84,442 
2,068 
88,066 


644 
84 

106 
8S 
88 

• • 

46 


888 
19 

ao 

4 

12 

1 

8 


927 
80 
68 
18 
19 
1 
18 


1,076 
50 
838 
78 
89 
4 
18 


Mil 
02 

779 

164 

178 

2 

86 


940 
146 
109 
9 
U4 


788 
16 

827 

6& 

46 

8 

114 


iV879 
297 

8371 

482 

419 

20 

839 


Wesleyan Methodists— 
Original Connexion. 
New Connexion. 
PHmitivelfethodists. 
Bible ChrUtiana. 
Wetleyan Meihodiat AMOdaHoiu 
Independent Jfethodiete. 
Weeleyan Jtq^bnners. 


m 


too 

86 


180JB06 
8I4449 


8,880 


lf7/(80 
81,470 


174 
81 


77 
10 


109 
12 


177 
16 


168 
80 


108 
14 


86 

4 


828 
109 


Calrinistie Methodists- 
WeUh Gahtinietie Mt^Sodiete. 
Vomnteae qfJffuntingdon's OonMxibn, 


4 


1 


688 


488 


170 


8 


• • 


• • 


a 


..1 


• • 


• ft 


6 


Sandamanians, or QIasaitas. 


13 


80 


11^83 


4,818 


7,818 


8 


4 


8 


4 


12 


18 


8 


50 


New Church. 


61 


lOB 


1MB8 


l/KH) 


14470 


18 


8 


8 


8 


17 


84 


41 


182 


Brethran. 


I M9 


888 


87088 


48,868 


70361 


88 


18 


84 


86 


74 


149 


186 


830 


Isolated Congrecrations. 
FOBETGITi 


1 


1 


tfln 


i#n 


800 


5 


• • 


• • 


• k 


1 


• • 


• • 


6 


Lutherans. 


 1 


8 


890 


80 


590 


8 


• • 


•  


• k 


• • 


1 


• • 


8 


Freneh Prtftesta&ts. 


  


• • 


SBO 


• • 


• • 


1 


• • 


• • 


• * 


.. 


• • 


• • 


1 




 • 

( 
1 


1 


800 


• > 


200 


• * 


• • 


1 


• • 


• • 


• 


• • 


1 


German Protestant Befotmeft. 

4 

Otbsb Chbistiah CflnKCttfes 1 


!» 


810 


160366 


94^8 


8S304 


186 


88 


98 


88 


88 


181 


68 


870 


Roman Catholics. 


 « 


t > 


291 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


• k 


• • 


a 


•  


Greek Church. 




1 


800 


• • 


800 


• • 


1 


• * 


• > 


• • 


• • 


• » 


1 


German Gathollos< 


1 


• • 


• « 


150 


 • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


1 


Italian Reformefs. 


IT 


84 


6,818 


4^ 


6/)4S 


8 


« • 


8 


8 


16 


6 


4 


82 


CathoUc and Apostolfe Chittefa. 


187 


19S 


18JB88 


19,297 


IO388 


88 


8 


• « 


U 


18 


82 


118 


222 


Latter Day Saints, or MonniMis. 


81 


87 


7,788 


8,404 


8471 


16 


8 


1 


6 


7 


16 


4 


53 


Jews. 



l;M(va?iuiB,9; Wwtoyaa Qrigfaud Comiexion, 138 : Methodist New Connezl(m,8; PrimltlTe Mtsthodlsts, 61 ; Bible ChTtotfaun,8; 
IMethodiBt Asspeiation, 5 ; Indepetidant MethodlstSi 1 1 Wesleyan ReftMmers, 8 $ Countess of HttttUnirdon's Connexion, 7 1 K«w Ubtareii, 
Pn,>; Isolated Oongregations, 88 ; Lutherans,!: French Protestants,!; Roltufei Cathollee,2f; Catholic and ApostoUe Chttteh, 1 ; 
m asints, 9 ; J«wa, 7. For an estimate of the number of attetedante in these places of worsliip, see poat^ page 110. 

|l|3jfi99 places of worship cpen in the morning, 1,467 did not return the number o^ their aittinm, and a similar omissiofi Was ttiade wltl^ 
Fi|4S4 opt of the 21371 open hi the afternoon, and 998 out of the 18^ open in the erening. For the partioulw seeti aiSsotdd by thea4 
f'< and for an estimate ot the niitaiber of sittings included in the deibctlTe Returns, n6e poat, page 111. 

Snmbera for the Indi^endeBi Metfiodiats are inasenniie. By a mistake, disoorered too late for rAetiflealioii, s«»nie of their emcKga- 
'• been inelnded With those of other bodies. The total, hoWerer) k t«7 smAll, and too few to aflket the oompaimtiTe peaitioa of thast 
^ detailed particulars of these Congregations, see the next page. : 



CENSUS, 1851 !— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 

Table A contiamdt 



BnjOTDUl DIBOUINITIOK.' 



iBdapsndentiind It^itiiU 
Indepeadeitu, BRptUa, tnd t 
la^WidMM luii Wdbnu 

nSnnwlWiilgTiiDi 
BnnlWi, Wtdtnn, ud U« 
Pnil^uniiu Aad Pknleiilu 
Wedma Uhrimu UdIob 
NnUnl . - - 

II. 
ColT<nb<b - - - 



Ml I'rOBR^^Li^ti 



unb« orPLww opM/or IT 



I* 



tu I MVHS 11 svoe I : 



1^ » 1^ 



11,113 4^ Vl< 



put I* 



.|_»_|^^ 



MB I «r,1M U^93 I '«■ 



I* |i I* 



 TliaftppetliUkmalBtliiiLManclTenejjkctiTU tbej weHbHdhy thvpnlki jDH^lullieKvlurat. 

t TheBatniiuBlTardnobilbrmitionutolluanmlwrtifiiHfiidf lnn<ir the ■Kne-nMnUoned aS9 idmi oTvoTiblp. Tin dial i-Biutioi 
otIliiH dsfsedn Ketnnu urima lUJTtolu PinKimlMlinm li u Mlowli— I)>d»a>deiiB udBlinMi,l| IndepmAcntr, U^plin' 
■iri Walenni, 1 ; Indepinailnila and Waleniu,l ; lDdtHi>deiiuudniiiiHn*li«£tllUi|li IllU(l,E;Ci]tiiileti,Ui Milkuariuir 
Ji ClirinliuiB,lBi ChrlMlu BadHT, 1 1 Ognd Fnxriiiii.1 ; Fi»aHiidChitMliii»,a; ETtuwdhM, 1 : PnitHtiiitl>W«iitDi,l ; Tmn 



FnKrrCHlDDiaU, 1. 



AND Wales.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



!) t 



109 



Supplement I. to Table A. 



Showing the total Accommodatiox provided by each Retigious Body; including EsHmatesf^ for 

defective Returns. 





11 

Nnmber of 
Places of Wor^p. 


KamberofSitti]i«i. 


1 

1 Arerage 














, 


number of 




Retnms 


Retnnifl 






Estimate 




Sittings 




to 




complete 


defectire 


Total. 


In the 


for the 


Total. 


one Place 




as to 


as to 


complete 


defectire 


of 




SitUngi. 






Beturne. 


Retarns.* 




Worshlp.t 


TOTA& 


31,048 


2524 


34,467 


9,467,788 


744,826 


10,212,563 


296 


Fbotestaitt CHimcHBS: 
















iSITISff: 
















Church of England • • • 


1S,051 


1026 


14,077 


4,922,412 


896|608 


6,317,915 


877 


Soottiah Presbyterians : 
















Church ^Scotland 

United Presbyterian Church 


17 


1 


18 


12,914 


876 


18,789 


760 


64 


2 


66 


30,401 


960 


81,351 


475 


Presbtfterian Church in Eng- 
















land - . . - 


74 


2 


76 


40,458 


1,004 


41,662 


647 


Aeformed Irish Presbyterians • 


1 


• • 


1 


120 


• • 


120 


120 


Independents, or CSongrega- 
















tionalists ... 


8,058 


186 


8,244 


1,002,507 


65,263 


1,067,760 


828 


Baptists: 
















General - - • • . 


82 


9 


93 


18,532 


2,007 


20,639 


223 


Particular ... 


1,847 


100 


1,947 


660,775 


82,178 


82,953 


299 


Seventh-Day . - • • 


2 


•  


2 


390 


• • 


390 


195 


Scotch - - - . 


12 


8 


15 


2,087 


610 


2,547 


170 


Ifew Connexion, General 


177 


6 


182 


61,159 


1,445 


62,604 


289 


Undefined .... 


486 


64 


550 


82,770 


10,540 


93,310 


170 


Bodety of Prienda 


862 


9 


871 


89,551 


2,048 


91,599 


247 


Unitarians . • . . 


212 


17 


229 


63,770 


4,784 


68,654 


299 


Honmans ^ . . . 


30 


2 


32 


8,723 


682 


9,305 


291 


Wesl^yan Methodists: 
















Original Connexion 


6,193 


886 


6,679 


1,361,443 


86,187 


1,447,580 


220 


New Connexion 


2S1 


16 


297 


91,710 


6,248 


96,964 


828 


PHmUice Methodists - 


2/>62 


309 


2,871 


369,216 


44,814 


414,030 


144 


Bihle Christians ... 


410 


42 


482 


60,341 


6,493 


66,834 


137 


Wesley an Methodist Associor 
















tion - - - - 


885 


34 


419 


90,789 


8,024 


98,813 


236 


Independent Methodists 
Westeyan B^ormers - 


18 
288 


2 

61 


20 
339 


2,144 
57,126 


119 
10,688 


2,263 
67,814 


119 
199 


CalTinistic Methodists : 
















Welsh Cahdnistic Methodists 


775 


63 


828 


198,242 


13,709 


211,951 


256 


Lady Huntingdon's Con- 
















nexion ... 


104 


5 


109 


85,210 


3,517 


88,727 


839 


Sandemanians .... 


4 


2 


6 


638 


318 


956 


159 


New Church - . . - 


49 


1 


50 


11,865 


242 


12,107 


242 


Brethren . . . . - 


112 


20 


182 


15,869 


2,660 


18,529 


140 


Isolated Congregations - 


468 


71 


639 


90,U48 


14,433 


104,481 


192 


fOJtEiaS': 
















Lutherans -.«... 


5 


1 


6 


2,172 


434 


2,606 


434 


Preuch Protestants 


3 


« • 


3 


560 


• • 


560 


187 


Eeformed Church of the Nether- 














\ 


lands ...... 


1 


V 

• • 


1 


350 


• • 


350 


850 


German Protestant Reformers - 


1 


• • 


1 


200 


• • 


200 


200 


^^isbsl Ceristiav Chvsches: 
















Soman Catholics ... 


622 


48 


670 


164,664 


21,447 


186,111 


314 


Greek Church 


3 


• • 


3 


291 


• • 


291 


97 


German Catholics 


1 


• • 


1 


800 


• • 


300 


300 


Italian Eeformers , - - 


1 


• • 


1 


150 


• • 


150 


150 


Catholic and Apostolic Church 


31 


1 


32 


6,973 


464 


7,437 


232 


Latter Day Saints . . - 


169 


53 


222 


22,951 


7,832 


80,783 


136 


fews . ^ . . . 


50 


3 


63 


7,961 


477 


8,438 


159 



* The method adopted in preparing this estimate has heen to take the areraxe number of dttings for each body, for the whole of 
&igluid and Wales, and apply this arerage to each defectire return, where there is no more specific criterion ; but where the arerage 
*unber of sittings in any case is less then the ntimbw ot persons actually attending at one »errioe, the plan has been to put down the 
"QD^ber of sitthigs in that case at one fourth more than the number of attendants. 

T Calenlated fniolly bom the complete Betarnii. - 



no 



CENSUS, mi t^RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[SnOL4ND 



Supplement II. to Table A. 



Showing the total nmnber of Attendants at Public Worship, in oonnection with each 
Religious Body; incliidmg JEstimates* for defective Returns, 



f>— •  7 






1 




Number of Attendants 


1 






Number of 1 






 


f¥l_A_ 1 




Places.of Worship. | 






In the total Number of 


Total 


BF.TJQIOUS 








In the 


«_ •__ 


Places of Worship (including 
an Estimate for the Places 


A umber 

• 










PUUMS ofWOVSJUP 


of 




Jletums 


Betoms 




•ending oomplete JKetums. | 


which sent defective 


AttMnd- 


DENOMINATION. 


oomplQte 
as to 


defeod^e 
as to 


Total. 






Ketums.}'^ 


w 


















ances.; 




Attend- 


AtteDd- 




Morn- 
ing. 


After- 


Eveo- 


Morn- 


After- 


lEven- 






anoe. 


ance. 




noon. 


ing. 


ing. 


noon. 


ing. 




TOTjBlXi 


83,073 


i;394 


34^467 


4.4S6,S38 


3,080,280 


8,960.772 


4,64^,482 


3,184,136 


3,064,449 


10,896,066 


Pkotestaht Chxtrches : 








 


 












BRITISH: 






















Ghurcb of England 


13,138 


939 


14,077 


2,371,732 


1,764,641 


803,141 


2,641,244 


1,890,764 


860.643 


6.29^651 


Scottish Presbyterians : 






















Ctmrch ^Scotland - 
United Presbyterian 


18 


• • 


18 


6,949 


960 


3,849 


6,949 


060 


3,849 


11,758 


Church • - - 


64 


2 


66 


17,188 


4,931 


8,561 


17>«6 


6,086 


8.818 


31,628 


JPre^terian Chvroh 
in MngjUmd • 
Beformedlrish Presby- 






















76 


1 


76 


22,607 


3,346 


10,684 


22,908 


3,390 


10,886 


37,124 






















terians - - - 


• • 


1 


1 


• '• 


* • 


» • 


• t 


• • 


* • 


•  


Independents - 


3,185 


59 


3,244 


516,071 


228,060 


448,847 


mm» 


232^ 


467,169 


1,214,059 


Baptists— 
General 
















• 






90 


3 


93 


5,228 


7,865 


8,283 


5,404 


8,130 


8,662 


2?,096 


Particular 


1,909 


38 


1,947 


286,944 


172,145 


267,205 


292,666 


176,572 


272,584 


740,752 


Seventh Day - 


2 


*  


2 


27 


48 


16 


- 27' 


40 


16 


83 


Scotch - - - 


16 


• • 


16 


649 


986 


312 


649 


986 


812 


1,947 


New Connexion, 














-■ 








General 


180 


2 


182 


23,688 


16,645 


24,381 


23,961 


15,718 


24,662 


64,821 


Undefined 


626 


24 


650 


36,525 


22,826 


37,417 


38,119 


28,828 


89,060 


100,991 


Society of Friends 


362 


9 


371 


14,016 


6,458 


1,469 


14,864 


6,619 


1,406 


22,478 


Unitarians 


222 


7 


229 


27,612 


8,610 


12,406 


28,483 


8,881 


12,697 


. 60,061 


Moravians - - - 


30 


2 


32 


4,681 


2,312 


8,202 


4,993 


2,466 


3,416 


10,874 


Wesleyan Methodists : 






















Original Connexion' 


6,446 


133 


6,579 


482,753 


376,202 


654,349 


492,714 


383,964 


667,600 


1,644,528 


New Connexion 


294 


3 


297 


86,428 


22,391 


39,222 


36,801 


2,%jm 


39,684 


99,045 


Primitive Methodists 


2,810 


61 


8,871 


98,001 


172,684 


229,646 


100,125 


176,435 


284,636 


511,195 


£ible Christians 


474 


8 


482 


14,655 


24,002 


34,088 


14,902 


24,345 


34,612 


78,859 


W. M. Association - 


414 


5 


419 


31,922 


20,888 


40,170 


32,308 


21.140 


40,666 


94,103 


Independent Metho- 






















dists 


19 


1 


20 


571 


1,245 


1,148 


601 


1,311 


1,208 


3,120 


Wesleyan B^ormers 


334 


6 


339 


30,018 


15,841 


44,286 


80,470 


16,080 


44,963 


91,503 


Oalvinistic Methodists : 






















WeUh CdMnistio 












• 


- 








Methodists - - 


828 


• • 


828 


79,728 


59,140 


125,244 


79,728 


69,140 


125Ai44 


264,112 


Xjody Huntingdon's 






















Connexion 


102 


7 


109 


19,966 


4,099 


17,989 


31,103 


4,380 


19,169 


144,642 


Sandemanians 


6 


• • 


6 


489 


256 


61 


439 


256 


61 


756 


New Church 


48 


2 


60 


4,652 


2,308 


2,978 


4,846 


2,404 


3,102 


10,352 


Brethren - - - 


130 


2 


132 


5,613 


4,441 


7,272 


6,699 J 


4,509 


7,884 


17,592 


Isolated Oongregations 


606 


33 


639 


34,706 


22,726 


40,836 


36,969 


24,208 


43,498 


104.675 


FOREIGN: 






















Lutherans 


6 


1 


6 


960 


220 


• • 


1,152 


264 
.32 


• • 


1.416 


French Protestants 


2 


1 


3 


160 


21 


100 


226 


160 


407 


Beformed Church of 














.. 






the Netherlands 


1 


• • 


1 


70 


• • 


* • 


70 




• • 


70 


German Protestant |U3- 
















• » 






formers - - - 


1 


» • 


1 


120 


• • 


60 


120 


9 


60 


180 


Otheb Christian Chs, : 








• 














Bioman Catholics 


543 


27 


670 


240,792 


61,406 


73,282 


262,783 


53.967 


76^ 


383,63^ 


Greek Church 


3 


• • 


3 


240 


• • 


f • 


240 


• • 


2^W 


German Catholics 


1 


• • 


1 


500 


• • 


200 


500 


• • 


soo 


7uo 


Italian Reformers 


1 


• • 


1 


• • 


20 


• • 


• • 


• • 

"20 
1,659 


• • 


20 


Catholic and Apostolic 
Church - - . 


30 


2 


32 


3,077 


1,607 


2,622 


3,176 


2,707 


7,M2 


Latter Day Saints 


213 


9 


222 


7,212 


11,016 


16,954 


7,617 


U,481 


16,628 


85,626 


Jews - - - 


46 


7 


63 


2,848 


1,043 


1,673 

* 


2,910 


1,202 


1,918 


6,080 



* There ape various methods of making a computation of the probnble number of attendants at places of vrorship for which no 
Information upon this point was supplied. The plan adopted for this Table has been to assume that each of the places of worship 
making defective returns would have had as many attendants as -tihe average number shown to have been present at the places oi 
worship making oomolete retoms. Thus, for the Church of England, to discover the pit)bable momins attendance in Uae 0^ ebuivhesJ 
the returns ti-om which were silent on that pplntj^he proportion would be -as 13,138 i ^1,732 : : 9^. SUniliir Pfoportione would givi 
the probable afternoon and wening attendwo^. The same process has been repeated Vff eoch religious body { excepf; f«r ta^ Refdbmeo 
Ibish Pkesbtzesiams, m which case, there being qi)1foq4 «I)AP^ fm4 tii« •t(994ant8 tb«re not itai^d, no D»ateriii)ft f^ift for an| 
ealeulAtion, , ! 



ANP WaIKS.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



* -x ^ — J- 

4" - •»«•- 



m 



Supplement III. to Table A. 



Showing tht Total Number of Bitiingf in the Places open ftr Wankip on Sunday, March 30, 
1851; includbg an Estimate for thoae Cases in which the Number of Sittings was not 
returned.* 



Bmsioct 


Total Numbar 

of Sittings in Places 

&pmJor Wonhip. including an 

Estimate Cor 4eeHitiTa 


BWGIOUS 


Total Number 

of Sittings in Places 

open/or Worthip., including 

an Estimate for deteotiTe 


BSNOiaNATXONS. 


fiotnms. 


DlVOKIXATIONS. 


itetums. 




Morn- 


noon. 


Eveo- 
in«. 


Hom- 
ing. 


After- 
noon. 


Even- 
ing. 


TOTAXi - 

FBOTKaTAITT GH|7SCB38 : 


8,406,520 


6,267,988 


5,728,000 


PEOT388Ti.irT CUVBCHBfr- 
contimied. 
















Ofai»«h <tf BngUuid 




8,761312 


1,789,876 


Calvinistio Methodists : 








Soottldt 'JhwhjimBm : 


19,674 
3i;»8 


2,940 
8,883 


9,196 
19,296 


Wem 0alvini9tiQ Me- 
thodists 

Iiody SunUnffdon's 
Connexion 


188,468 
32,806 


tMI.989 

8,669 


186,«78 
32.826 


Pnw&y^man Church •» 


41,858 


7,250 


28.087 


gapdemanians 


956 


597 


170 


Befoxmed Irish Presby- 
terlanSs • « « 


120 


ISO 


t • 


Kew Church 
Brethren 


11,465 
14.613 


5.055 
9.590 


7,818 
15,850 


Independents » •• 


•01,858 


447,800 


881,769 


Isolated Congregations - 


74.876 


47.955 


78,349 


Baptists X 


10,125 


18,907 


16,366 


Lutherans - . • 


2.172 


1,202 


300 


PoKiffK^ar 


6H899 


809,997 


488.571 


French Protestants 


530 


80 


530 


Se^enih-Jkxp 

Scotch 


890 
2,121 


800 
2,297 


300 
1.000 


Reformed Church of the 
Netherlands 


850 


• • 


• • 


Undefined 


89,875 
«^954 


23,835 
46,838 


48.202 
' 70,866 


German Protestant He- 
formers , - - 


200 


• • 


200 


Sooiety of Friends 


9i805 


65,127 


6,781 


Otheb Chutbtiait Chs. : ' 








Unitiuriaiis « • 


60.044 


21,887 


39,264 


Roman Ci^thoUos 


175,309 


103,042 


89,258 


Honiviftns « « « 


8.648 


4,568 


6,761 


Greek Church 


291 


•  


M 


Wealeyan Metliodists: 




. 




German Catholics 


300 


•• 


300 


Original Connexion 
Ne%o Connexion -  


952,216 
76,553 


797,918 
46,100 


1.268,864 
88,383 


Italian Reformers 

1 


« • 


150 


• • 


Primitive - - • 
Bible Chrietimt 


191,177 
81,595 


.893,826 
43,866 


365,164 
65,044 


Catholic and ApostoUo 
Church 


6,545 


4,168 


6,275 


Wesleyan Mithadisi 
AfsociatUm 


67,319 


44,100 


88,714 


Latter Day Saints 


23,413 


.24,582 


26,697 


Independent Mefhodisti 
Wesleyan S^fbrmera • 


1,189 
47,336 


2.116 
80,864 


2.171 
61,683 


Jews - - - 


8,100 


5,663 


6,771 



* This Tabl0 is coippfled ft-om Table A. (page 106)— the snnunary of England and Wales in the Table of D«£MtiT« B«torp« and the 
ftferage of imlngs to a C9»a«b or Chapel of eaeh J>eaoiQiii«tiaii, as ibowa in Supplement I, (pag« 109), 



112 



CENSUS, 1851.-^RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[England 



Table E. 



Number of Places of Worship and Sittings in tlie several Diocsbes of 

England and Wales. 







Knmber of Placen of Worship. 


Xumber of Sittings. 


IfTuml 

Places of \ 

which no 


Vorship for 














Sittings 




Population, 


ProYided bj 




ProTidedby 1 


are returned.* 




The 

Chureb of 
England. 


Other 
Churches. 


Total. 


The 
Church of 


other 
Churches. 


Total. 


The 
Church of 
England. 


other 
Churches 


EKGLXITD JLSD WaIiES,^ 




















including the Channelf. 
Islands and the Isle off 


18,070.735 


14,152 


20,669 


84,721 


4,959,896 


4,688,847 


9,540,742 


1,037 


1,606 


Man - - --/ 






1 




1 !■ ' ' r 










Pnmnoe of Cantbbsuxy • 


12,785,048 


11,626 


15,231 


26,857 


3,805,926 


3,231,014 


7,086,989 


928 


«S2 


Province of YoBK 


5,285,687 


2,526 


5,338 


7,864 


1,153,970 


1,358,833 


2,512,803 


114 


554 

• 


PROVIirCB 




















OP CAIfTBEBUET. 




















Bangor ... 


192,964 


198 


677 


775 


45.303 


121,501 


166,804 


19 


24 


Bath and Wells 


424,492 


550 


566 


1,115 


172,223 


108,848 


281,071 


17 


26 


Canterbury . - - 


417,099 


403 


407 


810 


151,204 


79,148 


230,347 


44 


20 


Chichester - « - 


336,844 


350 


267 


617 


108,076 


52,912 


160,088 


68 


24 


Ely - • - 


482,412 


576 


643 


1,225 


164,941 


145,330 


810,271 


46 


IS 


Exeter - - - 


922,656 


814 


1,587 


2,401 


286,865 


310,418 


597,283 


96 


108 


Gloucester and Bristol 


538,109 


523 


612 


1,135 


181,734 


148,068 


824,802 


42 


29 


Hereford - - - 


216,143 


417 


355 


772 


94.678 


39,755 


134,433 


21 


81 


Lichfield . - - 


1,022,080 


699 


1,260 


1,959 


297.297 


264.604 


561,901 


16 


66 


Lincoln . - - 


677,649 


905 


1,226 


2.131 


213,772 


219.236 


433,008 


67 


94 


T,l}i.Tn1fl.fF . - 


^7,626 


282 


579 


861 


55,220 


160,316 


215,636 


24 


69 


London . . - 


2,143,340 


486 


658 


1.144 


393,825 


261,346 


655,171 


8 


21 


Norwich - - - 


671,583 


1,067 


971 


2.038 


264,240 


168,387 


432,627 


81 


83 


Oxford 


503,042 


709 


757 


1,466 


196,323 


124,960 


321,283 


66 


21 


Peterborough 


465,671 


634 


704 


1.338 


180,011 


148,290 


328,301 


43 


10 


Bochester - - - 


577,298 


628 


557 


1,185 


198,396 


136,062 


334,468 


61 


21 


St. Asaph . . . 


236,298 


172 


716 


888 


66.159 


118.707 


184,866 


6 


60 


St. David 


407,758 


485 


936 


1,420 


103.797 


217,999 


321,796 


40 


119 


Salisbiuy ... 


379,296 


556 


536 


1,092 


141.489 


98,622 


240,011 


89 


46 


■Winchester 


l,t)80,412 


668 


764 


1,432 


286.268 


171,982 


458,250 


69 


55 


Worcester • - - 


752,876 


504 


549 


1,053 


204.104 


139,628 


843,732 


21 


13 


Province op Yoek. 




















Carlisle . - - 


154,933 


147 


226 


372 


«r,341 


36,787 


84,128 


8 


82 


Chester - - - 


1,183,407 


618 


909 


1,427 


281,531 


232,448 


613,979 


19 


109 


I>urham - - . 


701,381 


327 


801 


1,128 


120,554 


192,754 


313,308 


15 


77 


Manchester . « - 


1,395,494 


352 


844 


1,196 


256,600 


305.747 


662,847 


9 


60 


Bipon - . - 


1,033,457 


478 


1,224 


1,702 


221,055 


837,243 


658,298 


28 


141 


Sodor and Man 


52,387' 


39 


93 


132 


14,978 


18,007 


32,986 


6 


4 


York - - - 


764.588 


665 


1,242 


- 1,907 


211,911 


235,847 


447,758 


89 


141 



• An estlniBte of the probable addition to be made on account of these defective Returns may be readily obtained by using the number* 
in these columns hi combination with the average number of sittings to a place of worship, as shown m the last «oIttma of Sup|»]«' 
ment I. to Table A. {fxni^ p. 109). 



AND WALteS.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 






113 



i ^ 



Table F. 



RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATION AND ATTENDANCE 

iir 

LARGE TOWNS. 



(Arranged Alphabetically.) 



■MMl 



KELIGIOUS 



DENOMINATION, 



2« 



Number 
of Sittings. 






& 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 

March SO, 1861 

[including Sun- 

day Scholars]. 



te 



J^-« 









» 



O P' 

^25 



Number 
of Sittings. 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 






o 



hb 



S- 



5« 






ASHTON-UNDBBrLYNB. 

{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 30,676. 



TOTJLL - 

Church of England 
Independents 
Particular Baptists 
Society of Prieuds 
Unitarians • 
Moravians • - • 
Wesleyan Methodists - 
Methodist New Connex. 
Primitiye Methodists - 
Wesleyan Assoda^on - 
Wesleyan Beformers • 
I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 
New Church - - - 
Brethren - - 
Isolated Congregations 

Other Ohbistiaw Ch». : 
Boman Catholics 

€ath. andApos. Church 

Latter Day Saints 

^ew8 * - • - 



16 



3 
3 
1 



6210 



1966 
080 



662 
362 



100 



1000 



6364 



10,673 



2066 

14ffO 

660 



860 
268 



150 



4021 

2450 

660 



1402 
630 



6680 3774 



1879 

1738 

192 



400 
603 



3300 



234 



4708 



1466 
1105 



BATH. 

{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 54,240. 



61 



14,18S 



260, 



1000 



270 



270 



90 



60 



600 



133 



_ 



452 
386 



360 
794 
263 



160 



242 



450 



194 



28 
2 
5 
1 
1 
1 
6 



9163 
470 
674 
300 



17,300 



10,477 

960 

1730 

• • 
800 



300| 

782, 1654 



1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
1 
3 

3 
1 
1 



32,668 



20,675 
1430 



21,802 



5114 



13,7043974 
1440 



2304 1288 



300 

600 

300 

2436 



127 

80 

450 

620 

• • 

40 
970 

70 

77 

250 

10 



305 
100 
441 
650 
300 

250 



60 
153 

« • 

80 



4n 

175 

390 
886 



432 
180 
891 
1070 
300 

4r 

1220 

270 
230 
260 



100 



15,070 



85 



437 

95 

770 

500 

150 

30 

1050 

645 

110 

70 



40 15 



70 
60 



8787 

, 1200 

1646 

21 

120 

200 

082 



580 

96 

120 

29 



630 

80 

666 

080 

• • 
12 

600 

170 

• • 
260 

28 



A8HTOir-Uin>xa-LTint.^The retoms omit to state the nnmber ot tittingn in one place of worship hdongingr to the 
TVesletaN M ETyODiSTs, Attended by a tnaximum nnmber of S.^) persons at a service ; and in one place belongini; to the 
KoMAN CATHotics, attended by a maxtmuni of fiOO at a service.— JTettiker sitting* nor attendanu are given tor one place 
of worstiip belonging tu an l8oLAT£0 Conokeoatiom. 

Bath. - The retams omit to state the nomher of nttings !n one place of worship belonging to the Chdech of England 
attoided by a maximum «r 69 at a serrice; and in one belonging to the Uoman Oatuolics, attended by a maximum ul iuif 
persons at a serrioe. 

C, t 



114 



CENSUS, 1861 i-RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



{England 



TabIlb F. — continued. 



EELIGIOVS 



DENOMINATION. 



Kumber 
of Sittings. 



II 



S 



Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUo Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[Including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 






^g 
^l 



► a 



Number 
[of Sittings. 



It 



o 



Number of 

Attendants at 

PuWic Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



O S3 



11 



1^ 



TOTii - 
FSOTSSTAHT CHVBOIOBS : 

Church of Ene^d 
United Presby. Church 
Preaby. Ch. in England 
Independents 
Particular Baptists 
Qen. Baptist New Con. 
Baptists (nof otkermse 
defined) m . , 
Society of Prlenda 
TJuitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 
Methodist New Oonnex, 
Primitive Methodists - 
Wesleyan Association • 
Wesleyan Bieformers - 
Welsh Oalv. Methodists 
I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 
New Church 
Brethren « 
Isolated Congr^ations 

Othsb CnxtisTiAir Chb. 
Boman Catholics 
Cath. and Apos. Church 
Latter Bay Saints 

Jews - - - 



BIBMINGHAM. 

{Muniei^Mtl Sor<mgh.) 
Population, 232,841. 



92 



25 

• • 

1 

12 
9 
I 



2 
6 

18 
3 
3 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
8 



X 
1 



30.50$ 



14,465 

500 
2110 
2387 

212 



744 

1634 

3268 

488 

428 

250 

270 

10 

200 

180 

250 

847 

600 

1600 

60 



35,311 



15,378 

200 
4647 
4362 

356 



1450 

4646 

900 

228 

350 

• « 

22 

320 

1550 

702 



300 



66,714 43,544 



30.843 20,402 



700 
6657 
6749 

568 



1M 
3084 

7814 
1388 
65( 
600 
270 
3S 
200 
600 

1800 

1549 

600 

1600 

360 



464 
3824 
3764 

460 



644 

1852 
4272 
574 
400 
569 
100 
130 
200 
298 
100] 
1273 

3383 

85 

665 

185 



6877 



8977 



529 
1049 



818 
336 
190 



•  



378 
60 

• • 

40 



83,564 



15,142 

277 
8298 
8990 

275 



681 
3775 
565 
463 
600 
155 



100 
132 

1350 

1346 
178 

1200 

"92 



BLAOKBUBN. 

{Municipal Borough,) 
Population, 46,536. 



26 



6997 



7 
1 



4 
8 



1 

2 



1 
1 
1 



2 



3429 
210 



865 
310 



600 



250 



360 
150 

400 



97 



226 



100 



U,243 



5104 
690 



1928 
704 



060 



400 
500 
300 



57 



1000 



18,240 



8533 
800 



2793 
1014 



600 



910 



760 
650 
700 



154 



1226 



100 



8845 



8919 
521 



1343 
304 



20 
64 



282 



650 
530 
820 



122 



800 



70 



3527 



1676 

674 



136 
280 



37 






184 



600 



90 



5163 



2189 



937 

140 



200 



600 

90 

415 



112 



600 



80 



 »^i n v p 



Total 



PeoTESTAKT C917BCHIS: 
Church of England 
United Presby. Church 
Presby, Ch. in England 
Independents 
GenmU Baptists 
Particular Baptists 
Society of Priends 
Unitarians 
Moravians 

Wesleyan Methodists 
Methodist New Connex. 
Primitive Methodists 
Wesleyan Association 
Wesleyan Beibrmers 
New Church 
Brethren • 
Isolated Congregations 

Otheb Chbistiak Chs. 
Boman Catholics 
Latter Bay Saints 



BOLTON. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

population, 61,171. 



86 



9 



1 
6 

» • 

2 
1 
1 



1 
1 
2 

2 



6619 



3024 



370 

163 

14 



1608 
600 
450 
150 

• • 

20 

70 

150 



12,597 



6132 



600 
2040 

377 

600 



1792 

306 
350 

850 

550 

600 



20,976 



9616 



500 
2410 

540 
800 
614 



3400 
600 
766 
600 

370 

70 

700 

600 



11,655 



4850 



100 
1410 

285 

70 

630 



1860 

68 

254 

169 

• • 

94 
25 
80 

1760 



6031 



8054 1489 



100 
90 

• • 

27 
•30 
180 



487 
179 
355 



47 



482 



5901 



1093 
240 



1191 

92 

317 

287 

306 

30 

165 

711 



BRADFORD. 

{Municipal Borough,) 

Population, 103,778. 



54 



12 

1 



6 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 

12 
1 
5 
3 
3 



1 
1 



I1.M7 



20,658 



4145 6299 
14 625 



690 
140 
672 

1000 

30 

200 

1571 
280 
640 
225 
810 



^0 
400 



2878 

460 

2153 

460 

86 

6499 

543 
1840 
1215 



100 



82,287 B0,438; 



10,026 
639 

3568 

600 

2825 

1000 

490 

286 

7070 

773 

1980 

1440 

810 



880 
400 



4n9 
430 

2510 
488 

2127 
167 
126 
149 

3548 
294 
867 
524 

1061 



967914,288 



3228 
200 



3479 



1164 

96 

852 

95 

156 
2321 

sis 

20 
128 



100 



350 



1967 
255 

2129 

277 

1242 

102 

mi 

286 

976 

896 

1463 



S9 



600 
450 



BiBMiNOHAM.-'The returns omit to state the number of 8itting$ for one place of worship beloD.i;ing to the BaxTBaEN. 
attended bgr a maximum of 55 at a service ; and for one included amongst those of the Isolated Congbegations, attended 
by a maximum of SI at a ievviee.<~The aumber.of attwUmta was not stated for one plaee of worship belonging tathe Cbuikjh 
OF England. 

QLACKBiiair.— The zetjmis amit to state the nomher of sittinifa in one place of worship helonging to the CHnacn of Eng- 
land, attended hj a manmum of 150 persons at a eervice ; In one plaoe belonfdng to the iBTDEPENDSNTa, attended bf a 
maxbnvm of 94 ata Hrriee ; and in one plaoe belonging to the Baptists (not otherwise deflned), attended by a maximum of 
IK) at a serYiee.— The nnmbnr of oKendanto is not given for two places of worship helonging to the Chuech of England. ; 

Bolton. — The returns omit io state the number of aittinsfa fn one place of worship belonging to the Boman Gatsolics, 
attended by a maximum of 506 persons at a service— ilTeAAer sittings nor attendants arQ given for one plaoe of workup bdoog- 
ing to an Isolated Congkbgation. 

Bbadfoed.— The returns omit to state the Bumber of sittings in one plaee of wonbip belonffing'to the Cauacai of 
England, attended by a maximnm of ISr pwsons at a servleej in one belonging to the lND£PX»DKNVS,Iattended 1»r a iMsi- 
mum of UO at a service ; in one belonging to the Genebal Baptists, attended by a maximum of 85 at a serviee ; in <me 
belonging to the WEstifeTAN Befobhebs, attended by a maximum of 6;j0 at a service ; and in one belonging to the Bbethbem, 
attended oy a m ax i m u m of 100 persons at a service.— The number of attendants is not given^for one plaee of worship belonging 
to the Chuech of England. 



AND WaLBS.J 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



Ill 



115 



Tablx F. — cotUmued, 



BELIGIOtJS 



BSNOMIKATION. 



Kmnber 
of Sitting!. 



I 




I 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Publio Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1861 
[including Sun- 
day Scha 



Iff Sun- 
oian]. 



li 



SB'S 



Number 
of Sittings. 






H' 



II 



I 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Simday, 
March 80,1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



g-3 






d • 



Total 

PROTBSTAJrr Chuxchxs 

Church of England 
Independents 
iPtarticular Baptists 
Baptists iwiM^fiated) 
Sodety or Priends 
Unitarians - 
Moravians 

Wesleyan Methodists 
PrimitiTe Methodists 
Bible Christians 
Wesle:^an Beformers 
Calvinistic Methodists 
I/Hmitingdon's Connex 
Brethren 
Isolated Congregations 

Othbr Chsistiav Chb.: 

Soman Catholics 
Oath, and Apos. Church 
Latter Day Saints 

Jews . - - - 



BBIQHTON. 

{Parliamentary Sorough.) 

Population, 60,673. 



38 



11,067 



12 

7 
4 



2 

• • 

2 
2 
2 



1 
1 
1 



6BS9 

1176 

865 



460 

600 
161 
240 



337 



200 



100 
800 
200 

20 



12,448 



6852 
1680 
1391 



662 

600 

100 

82 



63a 



300 



65 



24,086 



18,401 
2856 
2266 



11,061 
1826 
1020 



600 
1102 



1100 
261 
322 



»73 
200 



400 
300 
200 

76 



18,668 



135 
674 



671 

212 
120 



1000 



200 



620 

160 

40 

40 



6064 



4767 
330 
132 



12,061 



95 



35 
142 

87 



200 

100 

50 

16 



6112 

079 

1866 



242 



616 

286 
162 



1160 



160 



200 

200 

70 

40 



BRISTOL. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 137,328. 



119 



H,m 



42 

19 
9 
1 
1 
2 
1 

12 
2 
1 

10 
1 



6 



2 
1 



lt,97S 

1581 

1860 

60 

600 

320 

400 

^580 

935 

80 

4112 
340 



32,781 



170 
12735 



1620 



280 
80 



15,224 
6521 
3206 



670 

4662 
134 

640 
810 



71,94« 89,612 



,88418 



160 



634 



180 



31, 

11,102 

6866 

60 

600 

990 

400 

8242 

1069 

80 

4652 

1160 



170 
2886 



2264 



280 
260 



J.747 

6814 

3317 

36 

455 

690 

262 

2165 

469 

30 

2555 

702 



70 
073 



2882 



250 
95 



4061 



2244 
240 
275 



90 

• • 

176 



84,828 



890 



150 
17 



13,669 

6261 

2870 

60 

200 

320 

147 

2168 

650 

60 

3729 

726 



76 
1397 



1630 



260 
126 









BUEY 


• 




CAMBRIDGE. 






{Parliamentary Borough,) 




{Municipal Borough.) 








Population, 31,262. 




Population, 27,816. 


TOTAT. • 


21 


8664 


7766 


12,920 


6664 


4271 


2849 


26 


6907 


7127 


13,894 


8598 


3298 


6961 


Pbotsstaitt CmrRCHSB : 






, 






















. Church of EngUmd - 




1100 


2878 


6578 


2666 


1960 


782 


16 


1140 


4444 


9384 


6616 


1486 


4246 


Independents - 




130 


1720 


1850 


1213 


406 


296 


1 


600 


180 


680 


317 


94 


220 


Particular Baptists • 




860 


400 


760 


150 


414 


207 


3 


512 


1658 


2170 


1668 


1053 


1462 


Unitarians 




12 


690 


702 


334 


202 


• • 


• • 


« • 


. • 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• « 


Wesleyan Methodists - 




736 


744 


1480 


581 


100 


602 


1 


40O 


600 


1000 


669 


250 


653 


Methodist Newr Connex. 




328 


468 


796 


313 


312 


100 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Primitive Methodists - 




160 


150 


300 


• 


160 


234 


1 


35 


246 


280 


130 


196 


110 


Wesleyan Association - 




118 


676 


794 


411 


60 


478 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


New Church 




80 


40 


120 


60 


80 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• 


QTHSJ^ CHBIATIAIT CHS.: 


































650 


• • 


550 


812 


335 


• • 


1 


280 


• • 


230 


260 


200 


180 


Latter Day Saints 




• • 


.. 


• • 


100 


250 


250 


1 


150 


• • 


150 


38 


70 


90 


Jews - - - - 




• • 


• • 


• • 


14 


• • 


• . 


1 


 • 


•• 


• • 


• • 


. . 


• • 



BaiOBTOir.— The retmnis omit to state the number of MtttinffB in one place of worship beloogiog to the Indepxnbents 
attended hj a mu^wn of BO penons at a eeirice. 

Bbistol.— The returns omit to state the number ottitthiga In one place of worship belonging to the CniTitCH of England 
attended by a majdmum of 14 persons at a Berrioe.— The number of attendantg is not gijren for ^ree places of worship 
belonging to the Chubch op England.— iVetlA«r rittinfft nor attendants are giren for one place of worship belonging to the 
WssLSTAN HxTHODisTB \ One belonging to rhe Weslstan Refobubbs ; and one belonging to the Latteb Bat Saints. 

BuBT. — The returns omit to state the numoer of sittingt in one place of worship belonging to the Independents, attended 
by a nuucimam of 146 at a serviee ; in one place belonging to the Latteb Day Saints, attended by a maximum ot 250 
at a seorrioe ; and in one pkuse belonging to the Jews, attended by a maximum of 14 at a serrioe —The number of atundants 
ia not giren for one place of worship Defongintr to the Chubch of England. 

Cambbidob.— The returns omit to state the number of tittinga and attendants in two places of worship belonging to 
Chubch of ENor.AND, and in one plaoe of wonibip lelong isg ti> tJie Tews. 

I 2 



\ 



116 



CENSUS, 1851 :— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[England 



Table F. — continued. 



RELIGIOUS  
DENOMINATION. 


V4 

9 

OQ 

|| 
II 


Number 
of Sittings. 


Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUc Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851^ 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 


«i4 

9 

1 
11 

3  


Number 
of Sittings. 


Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 




• 


II 


1 


• 
1-9 






1 


• 

11 


i 










CABIilSLE. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Fopuhbtion, 26^10. 


CHATHAM. 

{Parliamentary Borough,) 

Population, 28,424. 


Total - 


18 


4629 


3089 11,078 


6152 


674 

1 

390 
64 

180 

• • 

40 


3376 


81 


$94» 


7325 


11>962 


7658 


2288 

1440 

• • 

• • 

188 

• • 

• • 

S40 

• • 

151 
14 

• • 

200 

• • 

• • 


5607 


PSOTESTAITT GUITBCHEB : 

Church of England 
Church of Scotland - 
United Presby. Church 
. Independents - 
General Baptists 
Particular Baptists 
' Society of Friends 
Wesleyan Methodists • 
Primitive Methodists - 
Bible Christians 
"Wesloyan Association - 
New Church 

Otheb Chbistian Cfa.: 

Boman Catholics 
Cath. and Apos. Church 
lAtter Day Saints 


5 

1 
1 
3 

• • 

1 
1 
2 

1 

• • 

1 

• • 

1 

• • 

1 


763 

100 
1217 

1000 
360 
200 

• • 

900 

• • 

• • 

• • 

89 


1816 
750 
870 
153 

• • 

• • 

800 

• • 

100 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


4039 
750 
470 

1870 

1000 
360- 
1000 

• • 

1000 

• • 

1000 

• • 

89 


1678 
160 
452 
439 

• • 

30 

94 

415 

120 

680 

• • 

1060 

• • 

24 


948 
116 

402 

• • 

60 

• • 

463 
200 

700 

• • 

456 

.. 
81 


10 

• • 

• • 

3 
1 
2 

• • 

6 

• • 

4 
2 
1 

1 
1 

• • 


2220 

• • 

270 
123 
264 

420 

23i 

231 

70 

120 

• • 


3702 

• • 

950 
163 
644 

iiii 

.. 
466 
138 

• • 

160 

• • 

• • 


6610 

• • 

1220 
286 
908 

1632 

697 

369 

70 

160 
120 

• • 


4013 

• • 

915 

94 

665 

1246 

220 
95 
20 

250 
40 

• • 


1994 

• • 

• • 

893 

85 

873 

1140 

• * 
324 

93 
40 

100 
60 

• • 





CHETiTENHAM. 

{Parliamentary Borough.) 

Population, 85,051. 


CHESTEIL 

{Municipal Borough,) 

Population, 27,788. 


Total - 


27 


6942 |l2.123 


19,065 


10,900 


4248 
3338 

• • 

46 

• • 

• • 

• • 

9 
107 

« • 

49 

• • 

• • 

• • 

400 
300 

•  


8067 


35 


1612 


8517 


13,529 


7112 


4022 


4601 


Pbotestakt Chusches : 

Church of England 
Presby. Ch. in England 
Independents 
Particular Baptists - 
Scotch Baptists 
Baptists {not otherwise 

defined) 
Society of Friends 
Unitarians ... 
"Wesleyan Methodists - 
Methodist Now Connex. 
Primitive Methodists > 
"Wesleyan Association - 
Calvinistic Methodists 
I/Huntingdon'sConncx. 
Isolated Congregations 

OTHES CHElSTLiN Chs.: 

Boman Catholics > 
Latter Day Saints 

Jews - - 


7 

• . 
4 
3 

. • 

1 
1 
1 

4 

• • 

• • 

2 

• • 

1 

• • 

1 
1 

1 


3398 

680 
800 

• • 

100 
100 
800 

489 

• • 

130 
200 

• • 

100 
630 

15 


7457 

1350 
1400 

• • 

• • 

• • 

926 

« • 

• • 

no 

650 

• • 

260 

• • 

70 


10,855 

2030 
2200 

• • 

100 

100 

300 

1415 

• • 

240 
750 

• • 

360 
630 

86 


6866 

losi 

1190 

• • 

30 
21 

72 
805 

• • 

44 
350 

325 
150 

16 


3200 

804 
1600 

• • 

30 

• • 

85 
756 

• • 

• • 

42 
700 

• • 

400 
600 

• • 


16 

1 
4 
1 
1 

• • 

2 
1 
3 
1 

1 

• • 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

• • 


2878 

580 
88 

• • 

800 

• • 

428 
350 
200 

100 

• • 

150 
88 

• • 

• • 


6069 

50 

880 

162 

•• 

• • 

250 
941 
620 
180 

266 

• • 

• • 

100 

• • 

• • 


7547 

50 

1400 

250 

• . 

600 
250 
1369 
970 
380 

866 

150 

138 

• • 

• • 


4242 

60 

776 

71 

8 

. . 

84 
102 
872 
146 
177 

120 

245 

89 

190 
80 


2880 
60 
40 
16 
12 

• • 

26 

• • 

857 
224 

m • 

125 

• • 

82 

270 
30 

• • 


1640 

899 
102 

• • 

• • 
. . 
67 

999 
156 
ISO 

179 

200 

29 

210 
250 

• • 



Carlisle.— The returns omit to state the number otsUtinm in one place of worship belonginjr to the Wesletan Mbthc 
DISTS. attended by a maximum number of 63 persons at a serVice ; and m one place belonging to the Pkimitive Metbodists, 
attended by a maximum of 200 at a Bervice.— The number of aUendanU is not given for one place of worship belonging to the 
CUORCU OS Enolams. 

CHATriAH.— The returns omit to state the number of aittingt in one place of worship belonging to the CnuRCH of 
Enqland, attended by a maximum of AOO at a service.— iV'ei<Aer eittingt nor attendants are given lor one place of worship 
belonging to the Cuuuch of^Englamp. 

CnELTENHASf.— The number of attendanU ia not mentioned for two places of worship bfilonging to thfi CHtTBCtt OF 
£molanj>. 

Chester.— The returns omit to state the number of sittinas in one place of worship belonging to the lNDSPlNDE3iTi« 
attended by a maximum of &> persons at a service ; in one belonging to the Scotch Baptists, attended by a maximum oi 
12 at a service ; in one belongmg to Lady Uumtinodon's Connexion, attended by a maximum of 200 at a serrice ; and in 
one bdunging to the L attea Day Saimts, attended by a maximum of SSU at a serriee. 



AND WaL9S.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



Table 'F.^-continMecL 



-UQ- 



117 



SBUGIOITS 



DENOMINATION. 



'S 



I 



If 
11 



Number 
of Sittings. 



^1 



■a 
I 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 

March 30, 1851 

[including Sun- 

day Scholars]. 









t 

d 






P£) 



o.ff 

II 



Number 
of Sittings. 



AS 
•«1 A 



I 



Number of 

Attendants at 
Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 80, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



E • 



Id 

is 



> (3 



TOTAI - 

PEOTESTAirr Chubches : 
Church ot England - 
Independents - 
Particular Baptists • 
General, Baptists, New 

Connexion 
Baptists (not otherwise 
' defined) 
Society of Friends 
Unitarians 

Weslejan Methodists - 
Primitive Methodists • 
New Church 
Isolated Congregations 

Otheb Chbistiait Chb. : 

Boman Catholics 
Latter Day Saints 



COLCHESTER. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 19,443. 



34 



16 
6 
3 



1 
3 
1 



6401 



2586 

1460 

440 



300 
767 



270 
166 
150 



140 
102 



4603 



1172 
1185 
1170 






560 
256 
360 



18,796 



6460 
2665 
1610 



300 
767 



830 
422 
500 



140 
102 



6095 



3161 

1510 

660 



30 
68 



600 
183 

20 



73 



7260 



4033 

1631 

900 



50 

4S 



85 
283 
2001 



30 



4049 



1257 

1278 

457 



36 



330 
206 
300 



67 
120 



COVENTRY. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 36,208. 



20 6S88 



6 3714 



4 
2 



1 
1 
1 
1 



1 
1 



681 
240 

60 



300 

200 

100 

92 



361 



600 
250 



8949 



4267 

1867 

620 

260 



260 
650 
168 



667 



200 



15;X37 



7981 

2546 

860 

300 



300 
460 
750 
260 



1028 



800 
250 



6827 1827 



2871 

1360 

637 

397 



81 
325 
203 
193 



1214 
251 



fS892 



900 300 
20 67 



2503 
1344 

417 

170 



110 
242 
142 



1000 
64 





DERBT. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 40,609. 


DEVONPORT. 

{Parliamentary Borough^ 

Population, 60,159. 


TOTAl - 


31 


7414 


11,783 


19,647 


10,9W 


3776 

2299 
631 
111 

• • 

216 
30 

• • 

140 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

350 

• • 


9198 


42 


9030 


12,050 


28,180 


13,110 


2997 


12,248 


PBOTBSI'AWT CnUBCHBS : 

Church of England 
Independents 
Particular Baptists 
Gen. Baptist New Con. 
Baptists (not otherwise 

defined) 
Society of Friends 
Unitarians 

Moravians - - - 
Wesleyan Methodists - 
MethodistNewConnex. 
Primitive Methodists • 
Bible Christians 
Wesleyan Association - 
Wesleyan Reformers - 
New Church 
Isolated Congregation - 

Otheb Ohbistia27 Chb: 
Boman Catholics 
Latter Day Saints 

• 


11 
3 
1 
2 

2 

1 
1 

• • 

3 

1 
2 

• • 
• • • 

1 
1 

• • 

2 

• • 


3573 
496 

• • 

651 

372 

300 

• • 

750 
150 
660 

• • 

360 
100 

• • 

• • 

• • 


4991 

1090 

600 

699 

1128 

• • 

• • 

1499 
330 

6:)2 

• 

• • 

• • 

374 
240 

• • 

500 

• • 


8.564 

1688 

600 

1250 

1500 
300 
450 

2240 

480 

1192 

• • 

734 
340 

• • 

600 

• • 


4700 
847 
220 
472 

670 
42 

217 

104i 
256 
674 

• • 

• • 

543 
151 

• • 

1244 

• • 


2590 
780 
192 
610 

870 

107 

988 

384 

1310 

• • 

682 
85 

• • 

700 

• • 


13 
9 

4 

• • 

• • 

• • 

1 
1 
6 
1 

« • 

2 
1 
1 

• • 

2 

1 
1 


5005 

1439 

667 

• • 

• • 

• • 

300 

906 
40 

•  

83 
30 

80 

120 

60 
300 


3327 
8384 
1547 

• • 

• • 

300 

2397 
140 

397 
238 

• • 

• • 

320 

• • 


10,432 
4823 
2214 

• • 

• • 

300 

300 

3303 

180 

..• 

480 

268 

80 

120 

380 
300 


5528 
2099 
1409 

• • 

• • 

• • 

62 

190 

2683 

100 

339 
150 

• • 

• • 

• • 

600 
50 


1531 
473 

200 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

146 

• • 

• • 

161 
30 
70 

• • 

97 

250 
40 


3990 
2497 
1430 

• » 

• • 
« • 

40 

230 

2825 

ISO 

• • 

841 
140 

• • 

• • 

75 

250 
250 



CoLcnESTEK.— The returns omit to state the number of fittings in one place of worship belonging to the Church ot 
Knoland, attended by a maximum of 2iS0 at a service ; and in one belonging to the Independents, attended by a ronsinmm 
of 100 persons at a Bcrrice.— The number of attmdanU is not given for one place of worship belonging to the Ciiu&cu or 
England. 

CovENTBT.— The returns omit to rtate the number of tiuiagn in one place of worship belonging ie the Chukch of 
Knoland.— The numlier of afteivfatifs is not giren for one phice of worship belonging to the Church of England ; nor for 
one place belonging to an Isolated Conoreoation. 

Derby.— The retonu omit to state the number of tittinif$ in one place of worship belonging to the Church of Ehcland, 
attended by a maximum number of 200 persons at a service ; and in one place belonging to the Koman Catholics, attended 
by a maximum number of 44 persona at a service.— The number of atiendauts ia not stated lor two places of worship belonging 
to the Church of EmgIaiid. 

I>Eyoin>OBT.^-The returns omjt to state the number of titttnga fai one place of worship belonging to an Isolated Cok- 
^BEOATioN, attended by a maximum number of 30 persons at a serricct 

I w 



118 



CENSUS, 1861 :-RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, 



[Englaho 



■til 1 1^1 



Table Fd — continued. 



BELIGIOUS 



DENOMINATION. 






Number 
of Sittings. 



11 



i 

o 



Number of 
Attendants at 
Public Worship 

on Sunday, 

March 30, 1851 

[including Sun- 

daiy Soholars]. 



^ 



S-« 



It 



6 P* 
111 



1^ 



Number 
of Sittings. 




i 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 80, 1861 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 









» 



TOTAl - 
PBOTBSTAHT GHlTBCHBa : 

Church of England 
Presby. Gh. in Bnghmd 
Independents - 
General Baptists 
Particular Baptists 
Baptists {not othenoige 
. d^ned) - . • 
Society of Friends 
Unitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 
Methodist New Cionnex. 
Primitive Methodists - 

OtHBB Ohsistian Chs.: 
Boman Catholics *- 
Latter Day Saints • - 

v9W9 - - -  



DOVBB^ 

{Municipal Borough,) 

Population, 22,244. 



21 



8 
1 
1 

1 
1 



8 



1 
2 



6486 



4862 



279 
100 



180 



466 



• » 
SO 



4413 



2440 



m 

400 



684 



11,8S{ 6806 



7111 



1260 
600 
600 

889 
180 



1069 



800 

• • 

89 



4864 



464 

233 

294 
18 



8^ 



70 
60 



3811 



4807 



2766 



60 

100 
10 



295 



80 



2848 



477 

m 

268 



705 



130 
60 



DUDLBf. 

{Parliamentary Borough.) 

Population, 87,962. 



32 



7867 



a 



5 
1 
1 
1 
2 

1 
1 
1 
6 
6 
4 



8044 



12994 

200 

420 

50 

250 

860 
170 

• m 

862 

HOlO; 1640 

766 444 



2700 

450 

768 

50 

500 



1854 



200 
105 



288 

. • 

10 



16,911 



6694 
660 

1178 
100 
750 

350 

170 

500 

2216 

2660 

1200 



438 
106 

10 



9128 



2311 
390 
886 
224 
160 

360 
18 

190 
1542 
1630 

737 



880 

• • 

10 



4171 



1745 



60 

60 

270 



796 
661 
635 



86 
10 



7707 



1211 
300 

474 
100 
400 

260 

182 
1290 
1960 

990 



600 
50 

10 



TOTAX 

Protestant CHimcHBS; 

Church of Bngland 
Church of Scotland 
Presby. Ch. in Bngland 
Independents 
Particular Baptists 
Baptists {not otherunae 
defined) 

Society of Friends 
Unitarians 
Wesleyan Methodists 
Primitive Methodists 
Bible Christians - 
Wesleyan Association 
Wesleyan B^formers 
I/Huntingdon's Connex. 
New Chiurch 
Brethren 
isolated Congregations 

Other Christiait Chs. : 

Bioman Catholics 
Cath.&Apos. Church - 
Latter Day Saints 

Jews - - - - 



EXETER. 

{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 32,818. 



40 



26 



2 
3 



1 
1 
2 



1 

'i 



6984 



3661 



180 
140 



700 
100 
250 



SCO 



116 



11,943 



6649 



892 
890 



700 
1130 



600 



230 



200 
200 



100 



38 



18,457 



10,840 



1072 
1030 



700 

800 

1380 



800 



345 



800 



100 



52 



200 
1000 



200 



12,285 



6448 



7& 



2 



5438 



657 
960 



54 
364 
920 



130 
300 



150 
700 



250 



90 48 



• 00 



133 
290 



150 



166 



60 



8992 



4665 



507 
1050 



87 
250 
980 



220 
345 



120 
800 



• • • • 



12 



28 



FINSBURY. 
{Parliamentary Borough.) 
Population, 823,772. 



,127 IB»175 



46 
1 
'2 
24 
19 



21,415 
120 

665 
^12 
2388 

30 



20 
12216 
268 



305 
50 



7 1216 



1870 
300 
700 



61,674 



26,16448,879129 
480 600 
935 1600 
9968 15,070 
6098 8661 

30 



180 

4588 

962 



354 
150 

620 

660 



640 
* * 



89,129 60,899 



200 
6804 
1230 



669 
200 

620 

1766 



2010 
900 
700 



,694 

250 

870 

10,262 

6673 



130 

8818 

225 



617 

93 

2000 

800 



1882 



4945 
200 
140 



n,6ix 



6891 



1661 



1205 
93 






601 
160 
194 



47,620 



23,050 
100 
718 

10,689 
6661 

SO 



8884 
802 



882 

ISO 

126 
889 



1679 
180 
Sli. 



DovBS.— The retarns omit to state the number of siuings in one plaoe of worship belonging to the Latteb Day Saihtb, 
attended bj a maximum number of 190 persons at a seryioe.— The mraiber of aitendanti is not given for one nlaoe ot worshm 
belonging to the Gsnibal Baptists, and for one plaoe belongii^ito the Bomam. Catholics.— JTeAAer «imn0s mor aUead^ 
ants are given for one place of worsliip belon^ng to the Latter Day Saints. 

EXJBTSB.— 13m nnmbor otHuin(f$ a not giren for one plaoe of worship belonging to the Chusch of Englami), attended 




OF EWOLAND. 

FiMSBUST.— The number of ttittingn is not given for one plaoe ,of WorsMp^ bekm^liii^to tiie Ghuboh of Emo&amd, 
attended by a maximum number of 84(] " * ~ 

by a maximum number of 165 persons i 
attended by a maximum number of 1 

attended byamaximumBumherofSSO persons at asemoe ; ana tor one piaoe oeiongmg totneicoMAN yATHOLi08,aneiMi«t bra 
YnkT<miitn number of SOOpersons at a serrlee.— The number of attendcmtt is not given for four piaoes of wonUp palonglnttotha 
CHuacu OF Enoland; for one place belonging to the Indbpemdemts } and for one plaee bekmginf to the SpxAM (Unouos^ 




jtHT> Walks.] 



SUMMARY TABLES* 



jrAi*»» — 






11» 



7. 



Tablb F. — ctmHimed, 



HBLIGIOTTS 



DBNOMmATION. 



I 






I1 



Nambof 
•fSitiingi. 



II 

5a 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Wonhip 

on Sunday, 
March 80, 1861 
[including Sun- 
day Soholars]. 



»•- 



i 



1^ 



Koniber 
ofSlltingi. 






I 




Number of 

Attendants al 

Public Wondiip 

on Sunday, 

Mafeh8e,1851 

[includipfc Bim- 

day Sonolars]. 



u 



^ 



I 



!i 



■iMl  ,^^m0^^^ 



Total - 

PBOTB0TA9T OhUAOBXB : 

Ghuxeh of BngUmd 
Presby. Ch. in England 
Independents 
Particular Baptists 
Wealoyan Methodists • 
Methodists,NevConnex. 
Primitive Methodists - 
Isolated Congregations 

Othes Ghbibtiak CH8.: 
Soman Catholics •• 



GATESHEAD. 

(Munieipal JBcrouffh.) 

Population. 25,668. 



24 



7 
1 



6 
6 

4 



8890 



1606 



1078 
696 
812 



800 



8841 



940 
600 



880 

1831 

90 



9081 



600 



1968 

1906 

408 



800 



8519 



1588 
290 



516 
680 



500 



2424 



619 



256 

1000 

844 



200 



8467 



Q&AYESEND. 

{MiuUoipal Borough,) 

Population, 16^688. 



11 8104 



1168 
100 



664 
892 
140 



1086 



488 
480 
880 



80 



8078 



1114 8360 



678 
540 
630 



100 



91 



1101 
970 

860 



180 
80 

21 



8919 



1946 



690 
607 
481 



140 

16 

140 



986 



8281 



664 



200 

78' 



• * 



1801 



60(1! 

860 



180 



• • 





GB.BAT YARMOUTH. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 80,879. 


GBEENWICK. 

{PwrUcmeniaty Borough,) 
Population, 105,784. 


Total • 


21 


5699 


8232 


14,223 


7280 


4297 
2499 

• • 

• • 

484 

• • 

10 

« * 

246 

849 

600 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

169 
• < 


6716 


70 


M,«l 


17,880 


34,685 


25,548 


OWN) 

5087 

• • 

186 
104 

• • 

101 
11 

• • 

26 

• • 

8 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

72 

888 
180 

• • 


13;S48 


P]U>TBBTAJ!rT CHtTBCHSS : 

Church of Bngland 

Presby. Ch. in England 

Independents - 

Particular Baptists * 

Oeneral Baptists, New 
Connexion 

Baptists (no^ othertoiBe 

Society of Friends >• 
Unitarians - * 
Vesleyan Methodists * 
Methodist New Connez. 
Primitive Methodists ^ 
Bible Christians - 
Wesleyan Association - 
Wesleyan Beformers •> 
I/Huntingdon's.Connex. 
Isolated Congregations 

Otheb CrniiflTiAir Chs.: 
Soman Catholics 
Ltirtter Pay Saints 

Jeict - 


5 

• . 
2 

• • 

• • 

2 

• • 

• • 

1 


3200 

• • 
284 
ISO 

« • 

• « 
256 

60 
400 
250 
300 

• • 
. • 

150 
150 
480 

• • 

• • 

30 


3728 

• • 

816 

888 

• s 

• m 

• • 

850 

1060 

600 

700 

• • 

• • 

260 

470 

• * 

• • 

• • 

30 


6028 

• • 

1100 
480 

800 

• • 

255 
400 

1450 
750 

1000 

• • 

• • 

400 
680 
480 

• • 

• • 

60 


8785 

640 
816 

200 

• • 
.17 
210 
671 
347 
600 

« • 

• • 

400 

180 

• • 

» • 

• • 

14 


2163 

• • 
619 
870 

• • 

• • 

• * 

130 
680 
333 
900 

• » 

• • 

450 

150 

90 

• • 
28 


21 
8 
7 
9 

• • 

2 

1 

• • 
6 

• • 

8 
2 
8 

1 

• • 

7 

8 
2 

• • 


5611 
208 
790 

1100 

• • 

190 
148 

m • 

758 
• . 
255 
118 
873 

• • 

430 

850 
.100 

• • 


8184 
1128 
2868 
8614 

. • 

248 

•* 

• * 
1546 

• • 
177 
240 
481 

• • 

• • 

98 
950 

• • - 

• • 


18,845 
1776 
8868 

8614 

438 

148 

* • 
2820 

• . 
482 
858 
804 

• • 

• • 

640 

1300 
268 

• • 


14,716 
1867 
8499 
8708 

• • 

196 
25 

• • 
1865 

• . 
180 
181 
536 
111 

• • 

681 

1047 
818 


6803 

481 

1906 

8800 

. • 

187 

• • 

• • 

1169 

• • 

191 

166 

378 

00 

• • 

536 

740 
280 



GAT«SHBAD.-The number of ott«iddntt is not giTenlforttwo places of worship belonging to the CHtmcH or EffatAMn. 




to an IsoLATisn CoMoaxoATioir. 



I 4 



120 



CENSUS, 1861 t-^HELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[ENdtAKlB^ 



Tablb F. — continued. 



RELIGIOUS 



DENOMINATION. 



o.tr 

II 



Number 
0fSittiug8« 



I 



11 

< p. 



s 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1861 
[including Bun- 
day Scholars]. 



C to 



Is 






^ 






Number 
of Sittings. 



% 



t' 






I 



«■( 



Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUc Worshif^ 

on Sunday, 
March 80, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



off 



Si 



li 



> 
» 



Total - 

Pbotestant Chubches : 
Church of England 

Independents 

Particular Baptists - 

General Baptist New 
Connexion 

Sociefy of Priends 

Unitarians . - 

Wesleyan Methodists • 

MethodistsNewConnex. 

Primitive Methodists - 

Wesleyan Iteformers - 

Isolated Congregations 

Othbb Chbistiak Chs.; 
Boman Catholics 

Latter Day Saints 



HALIFAX. 

{Municii^ Borough,) 

Population, 33,582. 



13 



2458 



1880 



2 
2 
1 
1 



7384 



3081 



10,192 



4811 



50 300 



438 

JIO 

80 

400 



1028 

1500 

575 



350 



2366 

1610 

655 

400 



1 



5650 






2996 



208 



973 
57? 
434 
460 



2588 



311 
54 

289 
200 



4816 



2270 



HUDDEBSFIELD. 

{Parliamentary Borough,) 

Population, 30,880. 



26 



90 



808 
681 
441 
526 



7 
2 
2 



1)528 



2016 

460 
40 



11,259 



1 
1 
5 
3 
1 



1 
1 



429 
100 
668 
266 

200 



100 



250 



3775 

2460 

280 



16,787 



120 

2856 

946 

432 



400 



5790 

2910 

320 



429 

220 

3524 

1212 

632 



100 

400 
260 



8758 



3670 

1717 

82 



3309 



73 

120 

1763 

496 

348 



47 

400 
40 



2020 
261 

80 



41 

• • 

282 
286 
240 



6328 



70 



30 



2300 
908 

2ia 
9a 

1307 
525 
600 



800 
80 



TOTAIi - 
PKOTKSTAirT ChTJECHBS : 

Church of England 

United Presby. Church 

Xndcpendehts - 

Particular Baptists 

Baptists (not otherwise 
defined) 

Society of Friends »• 

Unitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 

McthodistsNcAvConnex. 

Primitive Methodists - 

Wesleyan Association - 

Wesleyan Ileformers - 

Brethren - - - 

Isolated Congregations 

Other Citristiaf Chs. : 
Roman Catholics 

Latter Day Saints 
Jew$ • - - 



HULL. 

(I£unicipal Borough.) 

Population, 84,690. 



61 



12,109 



16 
1 

8 
2 

2 
1 
1 
7 
2 
5 



1 
1 
2 

1 
1 



4860 
470 

1606 
140 



386 

90 

1862 

206 

620 



600 
383 
634 

428 

600 

36 



22,906 ,36,177 



20,921 ;2223 



6818 

180 

4872 

1000 



400 
6094 

875 
2180 



600 
827 



200 



60 



12,880 

600 

5978 

1140 



386 

4m 

7456 

1080 

2750 



1000 
710 
684 

628 
600 

95 



7057 
117 ' 

2988 
525 

60 
111 
220 

4123 
600 

2714 



18,828 



650 
880 
138 

1200 
70 

74 



811 < 5164 
89 
2888 
461 



610 



61 



60 



ISO 
.. 8988 

.. 380 
.. 2730 



400 
834 



9C 
17 



1000 
800 
LS7 

860 
160 

21 



IPSWICH. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 32,914. 



31 



16 



2656 



2 
4 



1 
1 
2 



1 
1 



1993 



10,274 



4862 



8167 



852 
546 



600 

60 
300 



100 

80 



60 
120 

200 



80 



1020 
2460 



800 
556 



200 
270 



100 



16,017 



1872 
8006 



600 
860 

856 



800 
860 



60 
120 

800 



87 



9721 



5722 



971 



7611 



4760 



997 



1880 1414 



111 
810 
299 



80 

88 



20 
80 

200 



10 



71 

• • 

72 



287 

60 



6106 

2946 

* • 

885 

1150 



450 
29C 



100 
80 



20 
85 

200 

• •• 



Huj>DERSFi£LD.— The number of attemlanta it not given ibr one place of worship belonging to the Wesletin Mztho-' 
DISTS. • 

Hui.L.~The nnmbcr of 8iUinfi$ is not glren for one pince of wonhip belonprinfr to the Baptists (not otherwiire deBned), 
attended I»t a maximum numlipr of flO persons at a aerrice.—^eithpr fittiriga ttor attmdnnU are ici^en lor two places of 
worship befongini; to the Chukch of England ; for one place belonging to the Baptists (not otherwise defined) ; and for ' 
one place bf longiqg to tho ^*bimitive >(ethopists. 



AND WAtEB.] 



tmrMMARY TABLES. 



ii) J 



12t 



Tablb F. — coMinwdS, 









Number of 






Number of 




^ 




Attendants at 


^ 




Attendants at 


f 




Number 


Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March SO, 1651 




Number 


Public Worship 
on Sunday, 


RELIGIOUS 


il 


ofSiUinga. 




ofSittmgs. 


March 80, 1851 




%i 




[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 






[including Sun- 
day Scholan]. 


DENOMINATION. 


(Number 
Worsh 






i Number 
Worsh 








• 


Appro- 
priated. 


1 


ss it 


Even- 
ing. 


m 


Appro- 
priated. 


s 


Morn- 
ing. 

After- 
noon. 


1 Even- 
ing. 


1 


KIDDERMINSTER. 




KING'S LYNN. 






{.Municipal Borough.) 




{Municipal Borough.) 


1 


Population, 18,463. 




Population. 19,356. 


Total - 


16 


3756 


6629 


9685 


5027 


801 


4066 


16 


5257 


5145 


9502 


6076 


1767 


8202- 


PROTESTAirr Chitbchbs: 




























Church of England 


5 


2606 


2689 


6645 


2789 


484 


2212 


4 


1824 


1640 


8714 


2090 


1814 


976 


Independents 


1 


100 


1000 


1100 


533 


• • 


300 


1 


26S 


700 


958 


638 


« • 


886 


PtartiGular Baptists 


1 


120 


280 


400 


224 


• • 


181 


2 


870 


750 


1120 


740 


• • 


616 


Society of Priends 


• • 


« • 


• • 


V • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


120 


• • 


120 


7 


1 


• • 


Unitarians - n 


1 


60 


600 


650 


311 


• • 


167 


1 


146 


104 


260 


120 


• • 


« • 


"Wesleyan Methodists - 


S 


340 


650 


890 


400 


167 


683 


1 


276 


884 


1160 


626 


100 


420 


Primitive Methodists • 


2 


110 


140 


250 


210 




233 


1 


113 


417 


630 


348 


281 


860 


Wesleyan Association - 


• • 


• • 


• m 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


150 


150 


300 


102 


71 


100 


."Wesleyan B^fohners - 


. * • 


• • 


• m 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


400 


500 


900 


281 


• m 


850 


I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 


1 


230 


470 


700 


260 


• • 


300 


• • 


* • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Otheb GuKiSTiAir Ghs.: 






























Soman Catholics 


1 


260 


• • 


260 


300 


160 


• • 


1 


* • 


• • 


360 


200 


• • 


• • 


Latter Day Saints 


• • 


* • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


100 


• • 


100 


80 


• • 


• • 









LAMBETH. 


mmm^ 






LEEDS. 






{Parliamenixvrif Borough.)- 




( 


[Municipal Borough^ 






- 


Popuh^ion, 251,346. 








Population, 172,270. 


Total - 


96 


22,848 


36,026 


61,664 


40,240 


6295 


82,426 


137 


28,201 


42,804 


76,488 


B9,392 


13,882 


29,280 


PBOTKHTAITT GuUKCJUIS: 




- 








1 
r 






Church of England 


36 


13,976 


22,468 


38,223 


24,723 


2804 


17,778 


36 


9760 


10,198 25,436 


13,530 


6106 8558 


Independents 


16 


2620 


7002 


9712 


6864 


1072 


5694 


11 


2050 


6256 


8805 


8428 


90 


2564 


Particular Baptists - 


12 


1078 


3216 


4374 


8568 


746 


3576 


9 


1246 


2696 


3941 


1350 


698 


1080 


Scotch Baptists - 


« • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• * 


1 


160 


• • 


150 


35 


48 


48 


General Baptises, New 






























Connexion 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• h 


• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


^ 


850 


1160 


469 


• • 


4.77 


Baptists (nototherunse 
defined) - . - 






























. 1 


100 


• • 


100 


«ha 


• • 


85 


1 


104 


436 


640 


236 


9 • 


150 


Society of Friends 


1 


334 


• • 


334 


117 


72 


• • 


1 


1100 


• • 


1100 


363 


169 


* • 


Vnitarians . • . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• w 


• • 


• • 


3 


690 


650 


1240 


606 


• • 


227 


Wesleyan Methodists - 


12 


2262 


3026 


6288 


3292 


15 


3719 


26 


7604 


12,871 


20,475 


9614 


2193 


8089 


Methodist Nei^Connex. 


1 


120 


462. 


582 


219 


• » 


160 


7 


642 


2076 


2717 


1578 


711 


1314 


Primitivo Methodists - 


6 


400 


50 


480 


105 


16 


134 


13 


1607 


2298 


3900 


1607 


698 


1698 


Bible Christians 


. 1 


140 


116 


256 


129 


• • 


258 


• • 


• • 


• • 


* . 


. . 


• • 


• « 


Wesleyan Association • 


1 


90 


70 


160 


87 


m • 


52 


10 


1438 


2916 


4364 


1796 


726 


1843 


Wesleyan Reformers - 


. 1 


100 


25 


125 


110 


• • 


110 


4 


200 


• 9 


20U 


660 


732 


1030 


I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 


1 


100 


400 


600 


340 


• • 


200 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


New Church. - . - 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• • 


%• 


• • 


• • 


1 


150 


700 


866 


80 


• • 


110] 


Brethren 


• • 


• • 


. . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


150 


♦100 


250 


271 


• • 


830 


Isolated Congregations 


5 


820 


• « 


820 


256 


60 


76 


5 


280 


• • 


280 


196 


181 


669 


Other Cheistiait Chs.: 






























Roman Catholics 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


400 


820 


1220 


3644 


865 


lOOOj 

• •• 


Cath. and Apos. Church 
Latter Day Saints 


1 


400 


• . 


400 


250 


300 


300 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• « 


3 


310 


• * 


310 


190 


210 


335 


1 


240 


« • 


240 


100 


150 


200 


Jews ... 


• • 


. • 


• * 


'• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


90 


50 


140 


46 


86 


• • 



KiDDBKMiNSTEK.-The nnmberofafteiHf ante is not giren for one place of worship belonging to the CHnacH of England. 
—Ktither Httinm nor attendanu are giren for one place of worship belonging to the Pbimitive Mxthodists. 

LAMBETii.~The returns omit to state the number otaittingn in one place of worship l>elonginff to the Wesletan Metho> 
BMTs, attended by a maximum number of 40 persnns at a service ; in two places belonging to the Pbimitive Methodists, 
attended by a maximum number of 46 persons at a perrice ; and in one place beionginir to toe Latteb Day SAiNTs.attended 
by a maximum number of 80 persons at a senrioe.— The number oXaitendanta is not given for two places of worship belonoin/; 
to the EsTARLisuED Chubicu ; for one place belonging to the Independents ; and for one place oelonging to an Isolated 

CONGBEOATION. 

Leeds.— The returns omit to state the number otsittitm in one place of worship beloniring to the EstabltsbeD Chobch. 
attended by a maximum number of 03 persons at a service ; in one place belonging to the Pabticulab Baptists, attended 
by a maximum number of 120 persons at a service ; in two places belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, attended by a 
maximum number of 109 persons at a service; in one place belonging to the Wesleyan Befobmebs, attended by a maxi- 
mum number 7fi0 persons at a service ; and in three places belontring to Isolated Congbegations, attended by a maxi- 
mum niunlier ot B&) persons at a service.— The number of attendai^$ is not given ibr two places of worship beiunging tojthe 
Establishbd Chubch.] 



122 



CENSUS, 1861 s—RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, 



[Enolano' 



Table V.-^-coiUintied, 



BfllilGIOUB 
DENOMINATION. 


(Number of Places of 1 
Worship. 1 


Number 
of Sittings. 


Number of 

Attenduitsat 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
Mansh80,1861 
[including Sim- 
day Sdholars]. 


Number of Places of 1 
Worship. 1 


Number 
ot Sittings. 


Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUc Worship 

'on Sunday, 

March 80» 1861 

[including Sun- 

dsy Scholars.] 

. . 1 — 




1 


■5'"& 


H 


It 


After- 
noon. 


It 


1 


Appro- 
priated. 


1 


Morn- 
ing. 


ki 


IEven- 

tog. 






LEICESTER. 
(Municipal Borough) 
Population, 60,584. 


( 


LIVERPOOL. 

[Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 876,966. 




Total - 


86 


11,110 


13,608 


26,008 


16,980 


6S86 


16;622 


166 


lltOt 


78,071 


ISMW 


B6«218 


9988 


61,663 


F&OTESTAITT CHXTBCHBS : 


























Church of England 


9 


4274 


4264 


8828 


6884 


4036 


6024 


69 


ll,4ll 


87,866 


60,546 


86,001 


4788 


26»4B8 


Church of Scotland - 


«  


• . 


• . 


• • 


• • 




t . 


2 


20 


2680 


2660 


780 


810 


800 


United Presbj. Church 


• • 


* • 


 . 


. . 


• « 




. . 


1 


60 


1100 


1160 


666 


. . 


486 


Presliy. Ch. in England 


. • 


* . 


. . 


• * 


« • 




* • 


4 


70 


8830 


8900 


2688 


688 


- 1160 


Itoformfid Irish Preiby. 


• • 


•  


•• 


. • 


• • 




« . 


1 


120 


> » 


120 


• . 


• • 


«. 


Independents 


3 


1144 


1490 


2684 


1700 




1287 


10 


2487 


6606 


7942 


3590 


246 


8489 


Particular Baptists - 


6 


1562 


1662 


8214 


2640 


200 


1715 


7 


L090 


8800 


4890 


1288 


140 


1441 


General Baptists, New 
Connexion 


S 


1424 


2006 


3429 


2260 


• • 


2143 


• • 


• • 


• • 


. • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


Baptists (not otherwise 
defined) 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• * 


• . 


• ft 


• 4 


4 


780 


1400 


2130 


4/76 


46 


720 


Society of Friends 


1 


280 


. . 


280 


78 


41 


• • 


1 


. • 


• • 


940 


289 


180 


• • 


Thiitarians •• 


1 


20 


460 


470 


860 


• • 


280 


4 


181 


1610 


1791 


986 


67 


828 


Wesleyan Methodists - 


2 


856 


1216 


1672 


750 


79 


800 


17 


3192 


5752 


8944 


6941 


1088 


6047 


HethodistNewCounex. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• m 


• • 


• • 


« . 


8 


620 


1400 


2020 


744 


. . 


686 


Primittve Methodists - 


3 


340 


781 


1121 


555 


285 


960 


3 


400 


900 


1300 


671 


20 


657 


Wesleyan Association - 


1 


160 


690 


760 


320 


200 


600 


4 


937 


1404 


2431 


808 


• • 


662 


IndependentMethodists 


1 


260 


* . 


260 


•-• 


140 


40 


1 


• • 


• • 


• • 


20 


• • 


SO 


Wesleyan Beformers - 


1 


260 


800 


1050 


683 




680 


• * 


• • 


• • 


• • 


. • 


• • 


• • 


Welsh Calv. Methodists 


> • 


• • 




s • 


• • 




* • 


6 


1118 


8128 


4241 


98240 


248 


£916 


1/Huntingdon'sConnex. 


. . 


• • 




• • 


• • 




. . 


1 


160 


• 4 


160 


1 


146 


ISO 


Sandemanians • 


• • 


• « 




• • 


• • 




• . 


1 


• • 


• • 


• • 


89 


82 


• . 


New Church 


• • 


. • 




• • 


• • 




• • 


2 


200 


400 


600 


181 


• • 


400 


Isolated Congregations 


1 


600 




600 


176 




400 


14 


1308 


787 


8096 


789 


87 


111$ 


OiHBB Chbibtiait Chs. : 






• 
























Boman Catholics 


1 


200 


860 


560 


686 


185 


497 


16 


7278 


6946 


14,218 


38,182 


1906 


15,806 


Cath. and Apos. Church 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• 
4 • 


1 


100 


. . 


100 


70 


• • 


60 


Latter Day Saints 


1 


250 


• * 


250 


• • 


120 


296 


1 


• 

9 


. . 


9 


• • 


• « 


20 


Jews ... 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• • 


8 


180 


680 


710 


181 


88 


4n 



LsiCESTBB.— The nnmber ofauendanu is not giren for two plaeesof woimhip belonging to the EsTABLlSHin Uhvbch. 

" .LmfBPooL.— The retitms omit to state the number of tUtinas in four places of worship belonging to the Establis&sd 
Chttbch, attended by a nuudmnm number of 1067 persons at a serrice ; In one plsoe belonging to tSt WESLlTAlt Mxth<h 
DiBTs, attended by a maiimum number of 10 persons at a serrioe ; in one place belonging to the PaixlTlvB HSTBODlSTt, 
attended by a tnarimwrn number of 80 persons at a serrice ; in one place belonging to the IBDCPBITDBRT MSTBODIStt, 
attended ter a maTJmum nnmber of 80 persons at a serrice ; in one place belon^^c to the Sandbm aniaks, afetsndM 
by a maziinum number of 88 persons at a senrloe : In one place belonging to an isolated CoKOBBOAlioir ; and la 
one plaoe belonging to the Boman Catholics, attended by a maximum nnmber of f 8 persons at a serTiee.>-The nnmber 
afaUendanti is not slTan for three plaoes of worship belonimig to the Establishbd Chvbch ; for one plooe belmiging to the 
SiroBMBD IBISH ntBSBTTBBiAvs ; foT one plaee bdon^ng to the PABTictLAB BAfTiSTs ; and for two pfaMSs bsiBiigiBf 
to the JBWB. 



AND WaLBS.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 






12a 



Table F.— coneifmedL 



fiBLiaiOTTS 



DENOMINATION. 



IS 



Number 
of SittingB. 



It 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
Maawh 30, ISftl 
[includuig Sun- 
diqr Schouurs]. 



H 



» 



5 PS 



It 



ll 



Numbor 
of Sittings. 



I 




1 



Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUo Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 80, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Sohouurs]. 






I 



I 



Total - 

Pbotbbtastt Ghuschbb } 
Church of England 

Tnited Presby. Church 

Freflb7. Ch. in England 

Independents 

General Baptists 

Fttrticular Baptists 

Baptists (no^ othervnM 

Society of Priends 

Unitarians 

Monmans • 

"^esleyan Methodists 

Methodist New Connex, 

PrimitiyeMethodists 

Wes. Meth. Associaition 

I/Huntingdon'sComiez. 

Siv ndpi*"*w^^*n '' 

'Isolated Congregations 

Lnthflnms • • 

Prendh Protestants 

Beformed Church in 
the Netherlands • 

OtHBB <iHBl6TIAV ChB. 

Soman Oatholios 
Oreek Churcli 
German Catholics 
Latter Bay Saints 

JetM •' 



CITY OP LONDON. 

(Municipal Boromgh.) 

Population, 127,869. 



115 18,387 



80,238 



78 
2 
2 

10 



11^40 
800 

1889 



16,053 

1200 

580 

5887 



787 



2 
2 

4 



800 

1100 

886 



67;J76 



1106 



31,575 



41,190 
3000 
1180 
7706 



18,700 

955 

460 

4790 



1982 



620 920 
1100 
1246 1632 



1 
1 
8 
1 
1 



1 
1 
1 



100 
200 
200 
120 
280 

850 



720 

• • 

845 

400 



602 



6724 



19,804 



6055 



160 



252 
248 
978 



106 
100 



600 






200 



1887 



820 
200 
1345 
520 
280 

350 



2500 
105 
800 



400 
200 
4^ 
90 
150 

70 



10,918 

1260 

370 

3340 



854 



50 



2467 



1350 
160 
500 



1104 



110 

126 

1080 



600 



143 



469 



100 



200 



713 



MACCLESFIELD. 

{Municipal Borough,) 

Population, 39,048. 



27 



7164 



3204 



8 
1 



347 
100 

• • 

100 
230 
100 



8748 15,906 



4225 



1210 
400 



•• 



727 

shsoo 



2 
1 



246 
150 



250 



1319 
800 
238 
160 



7429 



1567 
500 

• • 

100 
230 
350 



7782 



8233 



3584 



2297 



660 



2046 

2100 

484 

310 



550 

160 

16 

62 

37 
150 



1230 
522 
880 
151 



36 

• • 

24 

31 

21 

800 



6168 



1918 



684 

200 

• • 



140 



800 



990 



209 

165 

80 



120 



1377 
634 
241 
186 



880 



200 



LoNDON.—The returns omit to state the number ot sittings in one place oX worship belongrlng to the Chusch of Enqland 
attended br a maiimnm iramber of 190 persons at a service.— The nnmber of aUendanU b not given for four ptaees of 
worship beloaxioir to the Ohubch of England, and for one place belonging to tlie Pasticulas Baptists.— i^eftAsr 
fUthiff$ nor nUtndanu are glren for one place of worship belonging to the Ohubch or Emoland. 

Macclxsfield.— The returns omit to state the number of sittino* in one place of worship belongfaig to the PABTlct7i.A& 
Baftists, attended bjr a maximum number of 24 persons at a serrice ; and in one place belonmg to the Lattsb Day 
SaiktSi attended %gr a. maximum munber of SCO persons at a serrioe. 



124 



CENSUS, 1861 j-RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[Bngland 



Table F. — continued. 



BELIGIOUS . 
DENOMINATION. 


1 Number of Places of 1 
Worship. 1 


Number 
OfSittuigs. 


Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
'March SO, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 


If 

25 


Number 
of Sittings. 


Number of 

Attendints at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 

March 80, 1851 

[including Sun* 

day Scholars]. 




* 


11 


• 

1 


Morn- 
ing. 


1 After- 
1 noon. 


Even- 
ing. 


• 


11 


Total. 


Morn- 
ing. 

After- 
noon. 


1 Even- 
ing. 




MAIDSTONE. 




MANCHESTER. 




{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 20,740. 


1 

I 


{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 303,382. 


Total • 


17 


3522 


6105 


10,327 


6064 


3406 


3148 


122 


»,«87 


60,892 


95,929 


64.467 


8868 


32,048 


Paotestaitt Ghubcttks : 






















Church of England 


6 


2510 


2813 


5782 


3738 


2944 


1243 


32 


ll,«S 


24.622 


38,120 


fS0,060 


4819 


11,375 


Church of Scotland - 


• * 


• • 


• • 


• m. 


« • 


• • 


• • 


2 


• . 


1060 


1060 


280 


100 


100 


United Presby. Church 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


2 


200 


800 


1000 


820 


• • 


950 

• 


Presby. Ch. in Enghmd 


• • 


• . 


• • 


• • 


.. 


.. 


• . 


4 


550 


3070 


3620 


2060 


710 


1150 


Independents 


1 


200 


600 


700 


377 


53 


264 


19 


4306 


8392 


12,698 


6396 


210 


2664 


Particular Baptists - 


3 


225 


1002 


1227 


721 


262 


682 


7 


1780 


2470 


'-^SO 


1727 


65 


1855 


Baptists {not otherwise 
d^fhied) 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• m 


. . 


• • 


• • 


1 


36 


201 


240 


• . 


150 


200 


Society of Priends 


1 


• • 


• • 


250 


37 


20 


• • 


1 


1330 


• • 


1330 


453 


202 


• • 


Unitarians « 


1 


150 


250 


400 


138 


• • 


50 


4 


620 


2080 


2700 


1210 


160 


500 


Wesleyan Methodists - 


1 


236 


810 


1046 


488 


77 


387 


17 


1789 


8184 


12,973 


6403 


731 


5683 


Methodist New Connex. 


• 

• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


600 


650 


1150 


559 


• • 


191 


Primitive Methodists - 


1 


62 


130 


192 


53 


50 


22 


5 


715 


1141 

< 


1856 


1143 


105 


1150 


Bible Christians 


• • 




• « 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


150 


300 


450 


157 


177 


« • 


Wesleyan Association - 


• • 




• • 


• • 


• • 


« • 


• • 


10 


2335 


2936 


5271 


9362 


157 


1634 


WdshCalvinisticMeth. 


• • 




• • 


• • 


* • 


• • 


* • 


1 


40 


260 


300 


• . 


150 


146 


I/Hontingdon'sConnex. 


1 


• • 


600 


600 


500 


• • 


450 


1 


.64 


513 


577 


322 


• • 


433 


New Church 


• • 




• • 


• • 


* • 


• • 


• • 


1 


250 


500 


760 


350 


• • 


200 


Isohited Congrosations 


2 


130 


ft • 


130 


12 


• • 


50 


2 


220 


• • 


220 


85 


4 


lao 


Othss Chbistia^t Chs.: 






























Boman Catholics 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


. . 


• • 


• • 


7 


S400 


3450 


6850 


19,880 


1052 


S647 


Greek Church 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


86 


• • 


86 


60 


• • 


• • 


Jews « « • 


• • 


• • 


4 • 


• « 


• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


68 


860 


428 


150 


80 


11» 



* Maidstone.— The nnmber of ttttendanu is not girea for one place of worship belonging to the Chubch of 
England. 

Manchestes.— The nnmber of attendants Is not dren for fire places of worship belonging to the Chuboh or 
England, and for one place of worship belonging to the Indefendekts. 



AND Walks.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



//. 



125 



Table F. — continued. 



BELiaiOUS 
DENOMINATION. 




Number 
of Sittings. 


Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 


2; 


Number 
ofSitthigs. 


Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUc Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1861 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 




J** 


Appro- 
priated. 


■i' 


Morn- 
ing. 


1 After- 
1 noon. 


Even- 
ing. 


6 


• 

< ft 


• 


Morn- 
ing. 


After- 
noon. 


Even- 
ing. 






JlXUYLEBONB. 

{Parliamentary Borough.) 

Popuhition, 870,967. 


MEETHYE TYDFIL. 

{Parliamentary Borough,) 

Population, 68,060. 


TOTAT. - 


126 


55,752 


59,576 


96,753 


77,055 


18, 4n 


47,175 


84 


l«,707 


16,676 


34.629 


22,706 


4086 


28469 


Frotbstaitt CauSCHXS : 




 


















Church of England 


R5 


22,858 


36,102 162,085 


19,405 


IS,tM 


^,301 


10 


1602 


916 


3764 


1448 


76 


1837 


' United Presby. Churct 


1 


80 


600 


680 


210 


• • 


150 


• • 


• • 





• • 


• . 


• • 


• • 


Presby. Ch. in England 


2 


782 


1900 


2682 


1775 


• • 


1080 


• • 


• . 


• • 


• * 


• • 


• • 


. • 


Independents 


17 


8414 


8189 


11,603 


9205 


869 


8309 


20 


2969 


5477 


8466 


7902 


839 


8336 


Particular Baptists - 


10 


1036 


4388 


6324 


8096 


690 


3262 


19 


6681 


6183 


10,864 


9041 


809 


10,664 


General Baptists, New 
Connexion 


2 


450 


800 


1250 


1074 




1098 


. • 


• . 


• . 


• • 


• • 


. . 


• • 


Baptists (not otherwise 
deflned) 


1 


100 


400 


600 


200 




200 


. • 


• . 


. • 


. . 


• • 


• . 


. . 


(Jnitarlans 


1 


50 


450 


600 


800 




200 


2 


261 


200 


461 


263 


•• 


204 


Wesleyan Methodists " 


10 


1657 


3501 


5158 


8814 




3010 


10 


1429 


1881 


3310 


760 


176 


1619 


PrimitiTe Methodists • 


3 


130 


50 


180 


102 


68 


201 


£ 


160 


810 


400 


14fl 


80 


276 


Wesleyan Association - 


2 


138 


60 


196 


277 




836 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Wesleyan Reformers • 


1 


70 


• • 


70 


46 




60 


2 


120 


• • 


120 


40 


• • 


116 


Welsh Calv. Methodists 


« • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 




• . 


10 


2640 


2639 


6279 


1544 


1728 


3977 


I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 


2 


140 


766 


900 


525 




480 


• • 


* . 


• • 


• • 


. • 


• . 


• • 


New Church 


2 


60 


• m 


860 


196 




130 


• • 


. . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


a . 


• • 


Isolated Congregations 


6 


1040 


• • 


1040 


181 


52 


168 


1 


265 


40 


306 


226 


. . 


462 


OTHSS CHBIBTIAir CH8. : 
Soman Catholics 


6 


1394 


2070 


3464 


5693 


9^ 


1576 


1 


300 


. . 


800 


600 


150 


• » 


Greek Church • 


1 


100 


« . 


100 


2<> 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


a . 


. • 


• . 


• • 


Catholic and Apostolic 
Church 


2 


1100 




1100 


700 


400 


450 


• # 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• . 


• » 


Latter I>ay Saints 


2 


220 


• . 


220 


90 


120 


170 


6 


1260 


• • 


1260 


711 


1067 


646 


Jew$ 


1 


83 


800 


833 


148 


• • 


• . 


1 


10 


30 


40 


34 


21 


28 



MABTLEBoifE.-The returns omit to state the number of titHngs In one place of worship belonRincr to the Establtsbsd 
Crdbch, attended by a maximum number of SOU persons at a serrice ; and in one place belong&fr to the iNDBPKMDXitTS. 
attended by a maximum number of 102 persons at a senrice.— The number of attmdanU is not g^ren for foor places of worship 
belonging to the Established Chuboh : and tor one place belonging to the Koxan Catboucs.— JVeiMcr sttitiHe nor 
attendants are giren for one plaee of worship belonging to the Established Chubch. 

Mebthtb Tydfil.— The returns omit to state the number of titUngx in three places of worship belonging to the Tndetsk- 
DENTS, attended by a maximum number of 7U5 persons at a service ; in one place belonging to the PabtIcclab Baptists 
attended by a maximum number ot 200 persons at a service ; in one place belonging to the Wesley am Kefobmebb attend«{ 




are giren.for one place of worship belonging to the Wesley an Methodists. 



126 



cfeNSUS, 1861 :-.RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[Bnoland 



'- J •— - 



Table F. — canJixKMd, 



SBLIGIOTTS 



DENOMINATION. 



^ 



11 



Number 
of Sittings. 




% 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

' on Sunday, 
March 30,^851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



H 



» 



PS 




Number 
of Sittings. 



II 



^\ 



i 



Number of 

Attendants at 

PubUc Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 80, 1861 
[including Sun- 
day Schoiare]. 






li 



g 6b 



Total - 

Pbotbstaitt Chttbchbs : 
Church of Bngland 
Church of Scotland 
United Presby. Church 
Presby. Ch. in England 
Independents 
Particular Baptists - 
Scotch Baptists - y- 

• Baptists (ho^ otJterwise- 

 Society of Friends 

Unitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 

Methodist New Connex. 

Primitive Methodists - 

Bible Christians 

Wesleyan Association - 
•• Wesleyan fiefbrmers - 

Welsh Calv. Methodists 

New Church 

• • Isolated Congregations . 

OTHXS CHUISTIAlf Chb. : 
Homan Catholics 
Latter Bay Saints 



Jews 



NBWCASTLB-ON-TYNE. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population. 87,784. 



61 11,166 



11 
2 
8 
2 
2 
6 
1 



1 
2 
6 
8 

4 



2 



1 
2 



2877 

' 600 

600 

260 

86 

1648 

260 



612 
257 

1160 
080 

1066 



495 



850 
150 

410 



74 



16,981 



7061 



1310 
950 
860 



815 

2502 

782 

767 



50 



1334 



30 



28,806 18,710 



9928 
1600 
1200 
1670 
1036 
1898 
250 



612 
1072 
8662 
1472 
1823 



496 



400 
160 

1744 



104 



7202 
625 

1170 
704 
826 

1028 
44 



217 

461 

1270 

210 

806 



eso 



70 
8 

3389 



50 



4640 



2643 
225 

40 



112 

139 
145 
870 



06 



900 



11,730 



4691 
800 
275 
648 
618 
698 
42 



118 

1307 

280 

742 



780 



70 

67 

604 



NEWPORT. 

{Municipal JBorough,) 

Population, 19,823. 



21 4635 



3 



5 
3 



766 

riooo 



2 

1 



2 

1 
1 



906 



690 



60 



426 

160 



400 



300 



6383 



10,018 



631 



1068 
924 



1260 



180 



250 

80 



1000 



1636 



1823 
1924 



1840 



230 



075 
230 



460 



1300 



6866 



1177 



873 
012 



488 



71 



210 
260 



10 

1300 
60 



646 



128 



96 



200 
200 



6424 



820 



1007 
1160 



684 



84 



409 
201 



10 

700 
400 



TOTAl - 

PEOTBST AVT Chubchss : 

Church of England 
. Indtt)endents .- 

Particular Baptists 

General Baptists, New 
Connexion - 

Baptists {not otJierurise 
define^ 

Society of Friends 
. . Unitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 
. , Primitive Methodists - 

Wesleyan Association - 

Wesleyan Befbrmers - 
. I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 

New Church 

Isolated Congregations. 

Otuxb Cesistiak Chb. : 
Boman Catholics 
Latter Bay Saints 

JewB • - - 



NOB.THAMPTON. 

{Municipal Borough,) 
Population, 26,667. 



28 



11 
8 
6 



1 
1 
2 
1 
1 



6049 



2407 
839 

680 



400 

96 

466 

128 

86 



200 



400 



7622 



14,268 



8436 
1467 
1241 



195 
932 
172 
179 



6840 
1806 
2121 



400 
290 
1897 
800 
214 



200 

300 
400 



7381 



2987 
1618 
1546 



69 
280 
796 

79 
107 



30 



30 



2226 



1031 
675 



388 
92 



40 



7289 



2513 

987 

1495 



460 
160 
1236 
1^ 
120 



;oo 



100 



NORWICH. 

{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 68,195. 



80 M22 



41 
3 
4 



3 

1 
1 

5 

4 



1 

1 

1 

11 

1 
1 



10,330 



S066 
380 



160 

206 
408 
120 
696 
196 



120 

260 

12 

1740 



4D0 
69 



28,884 13,240 



2533 
1866 
1748 

150 



880 
1496 

858 



460 
700 
120 



30 



15,55i; 
2246 
2447 

300 

266 

408 

600 

2191 

1064 



670 

960 

132 

1740 



ie,sr<i 



6520 
1786 
.1639 

200 

116 
98 
491 
494 
607 



400 
89 



322 

160 

90 

407 

260 

* • 

26 



6381 
260 

817 

160 

138 
41 

606 
604 



117 
116 

974 



181 



7908 



2186 

989 

1169 

160 

18? 

186 
660 

788 



204 

80 

106 

1035 



100 
24 



Kewcastle-on-Ttne.— The returns omit to state the number of nttmg» in one place of worship belonging to the 
Umited Pbesbiterian CHcatm, attended by a maximum number of 97ft persons at a serrice ; and in <»e place beloaging 
to an Isolated Conobxoation, attended by a maximum number of 80 persons at a serrice.— The number of •Mmdavu 
is not given for one place (^worship belonging to the Established Chcbch.- A'cMer HttU^ mor lUtemknu are givea lur 
one plaee itf wonhip behmgiagto the Established Cbubch ; for one Iplace belonging to the Pabticulab Baptists ; and 
for one place belon^ng to tiie Baptists, not otherwise defined. 

Newpobt.— The returns omit to state the number of aittings in one place of worship belong^n^ to the Established 
Chubch, attended by a maximum number of 200 persons at a service ; and in one place belonging to the Lattsb Dat 
Saints, attended by a maximum number of 400 persons at a eervice. 

Nobthampton.- The number of attendants is not given for one place of worship belonging to the Establisbxd Chubch 
and for me idaoe b«louging to the JIomam Catholics. 

NoBWiCH.— The returns omit to state tlie number of Htiings in three places of worship belon^Bg to the Establxsbxd 
CHUBCH,attended bramaximum number of 960 persons at a serrice ; in one place belonging to the Pbimittve ALethooisTs, 
attended by a maximum number of 15 persons at a service; in one plaee belon^ng to an I80LA.TXD Conobeoation. 
"Attended by a maximum number of 59 persons at a service ; and in one place belonging to the Boman Catholics, attended 

a mt^Tn*"""* number of S50 persons at a service.— The number of attendants is not givoi for one place of worship belonging 
He Established Chxjbch.— ifeitiker tfuhHf* nor attendantt are given for one place of worship belonging to an Isolated 

aaSQATIOM. 



AND Wales.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 



!h 



/ 



IS 



Tabub F. — eoHtumed. 



IlBUGIOVa 



SBNOHINATION. 



Pi 
If 



Kumber 
of Sittings. 




I 



Number of 

Attendants at 

PabUc Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



i« 



I 



I 



9 




^ PI 



Number 
of Sittings. 



P4 



I- 



■^ ft 



3 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public "Worship 

on Sunday, 
HMroh80,1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 



S-^ 



ki 



S he 



9S 



M*Mi^H»^^«|«i«^^f« 



NOTTINGHAM. 
{Municipal jBar<mffh,) 
Population, 57, 407. 



PROTESTAVT CHVXCHJSS : 

Church of England 
Independents 
' Paartfeular Baptists 
General Baptists, New 
' Connexion - . 
Baptists (not otheruHae 
' • ddlned) 
Socloty or Friends 
Unitarians 
Moravians 

Wesleyan Methodists 
Metdiodist New Oonnex, 
Primitive Methodists 
Wesleyan Association 
Independent Methodists 
W^uevan Beformers 
New Church 
Isolated Congregations 

Othsb CmUflTIAXr CB8. ; 

Boman Catholics 
. . Cath. and Apoe. Church. 
Latter Day Saints 

J0¥>9 . • - 



S7 



U,484 



8 
6 
8 

3 

1 
1 
1 



8 
1 
8 
1 

• 

1 
1 

8 



14.763 



3528 

1067 
1050 

^6 

100 

550 

60 



1030 
138 
683 
140 



600 
800 
770 



600 
400 
824 

30 



86,947 



8880 

8774 
1320 

1708 



650 



8634 

850 

1267 

200 



« • 
* • 



623 



20 



16»864 



7040 
3841 
2370 

2181 

100 
650 
610 



3664 
982 

1850 
340 



600 
200 

770 



1123 
400 
824 

60 



5570 
2014 
1098 

1231 

30 

87 

606 



1830 
734 

1223 
165 



500 

60 

176 



1420 312 



146014.846 



506 
277 
60 

20 

14 

49 



45 



84 



83 



136 



87 15 



4184 
1345 
1285 

1419 

47 



2250 
493 

1900 
246 



700 
100 
147 



604 



233 
14 



OLDHAM. 
{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 52,820. 



7446 



9 
4 

8 



13896 
630 
280 



1 
1 
8 
1 
2 
8 
8 



48 
400 
370 

$4 
298 
200 
790 



600 



460 



8739 



1^784 



3975 

1/60 

490 



140 
84 
1820 
868 
484 
188 



40 



7870 

2390 

770 



188 
484 
1590 
448 
788 
888 
790 



7229 



4686 



8784 

1634 

600 



8469 
757 
108 



115 
179 
779 
148 
100 
180 
860 



600 



490 



650 



88 
298 
188 
228 
150 

284 



850 



4798 



980 

1048 

510 



185 
707 
146 
610 
860 
858 



60 





OXFORD. 
{Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 87,843. 


PLYMOUTH. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Populatiou, 62,221. 


TOTiX - 


38 

19 
8 
3 

t • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


6350 


5413 


15.618 


88^ 


2785 
2235 

• • 

• • 

• • 

600 
50 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


6488 


38 


9268 


13,647 


83,806 


13,176 


3056 

1648 

68 

114 

80 

• • 

78 

« • 

803 

• • 

• • 

• • 

8S3 

• • 

50 
24 


12,642 


PEOTBflTAirT CHtmcfmi : 

Church of England - 
• Independents 
Particular Baptists • 
Society of Friends 
XJnitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 
Primitive Methodists - 
Bible Christians 
Wesleyan Association - 
Wesleyan Beformers - 
New Ohuroli 
Isolated Congregations 

Othsk Cbbibtiait Chs. : 

Boman Catholics 
Cath. and Apos. Giurch 

Jews - - - 


4171 
894 

1000 
300 

186 
90 

• • 

95 
50 

• • 

40 

• • 

24 


3445 
560 
460 
250 

eio 

166 

• • 

• • 

• * 

• • 

40 

• • 

6 


11,296 
944 

1625 
650 

708 
246 

• • 

• • 

95 
50 

• m 

80 

. 

30 


6767 
606 

1053 
100 

• • 

448 
128 

• • 

• • 

86 

• • 

• 4 

60 

• • 

10 


3273 
444 

1070 

• . 

400 
190 

• • 

• • 

71 
40 

. . 

• • 

• • 


10 
6 
1 
1 
8 
6 

• • 

1 
1 

• a 

• • 

10 

.. 
1 

1 


3801 
786 
329 
400 
168 
810 

« • 

88 
136 

•• 

2460 
250 

•  


4684 

8838 

707 

606 
1466 

• • 

640 
178 

• • 

3050 

• • 
a a 

150 


0615 
2968 
1066 
400 
674 
8876 

688 
808 

• • 

6600 

250 
150 


6086 
1617 

797 
60 

213 
1487 

• • 

879 
77 

• • 

8887 

• • 

83 
50 


5074 

1440 

669 

209 
1863 

• • 

401 

44 

• • 

• • 

884B 

4 • 

60 

4 



Nottingham.— Tba Bnmber of amndanOa is not given for ona plaee of worship liekngiag to tha Catholic avd 
ArosTOLic Ghubgh.— ^ettlkor «ftttiH;w fwr aMendemts are giren for oae plaea of womhip betenglBg to tiia Rohan Cathozjcs. 

Oldham.— The rettums omit to state the number of aittwfp in one place of wonhip beloatring to aa laoLATSD CONQKSOA- 
TION attended by a nuoiimtm number of 00 persons at a servioe.— The number ot atumomia is not given for two plaoaB of 
voTS&ip belongmis to the EsTABLiSHsn Cburoh, and for Mie p]aoa belonging to an Isolatje]> CoN^axoATioN. 

Oxroaa.— The Munu omit tottate the niunber ^i sittiaot m one plaea of iK-onhq^ bdaogiBs to tha CHmcB 
England, attended by a m&ximumjnumber of 1000 persons ajl; a aernoa. 



128 



CENSUS, 1851 :—RELI(IIQUS WORSHIP. 



] England 



Table F. — continued. 



KELIGIOUS 



DENOMINATION. 



aa 

I 

t-Xi 

I 



Number 
of Sittings. 



s; 



p.« 

_p«*c 

< ft 



'a 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship, 

on Sunday, 
March 30,1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 









« bo 



1^ 



Number 
of Sittings. 



^1 



S 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 






5C 



> B 



TOTAl • 

Protest AiTT Chueches : 

Church of England 
Independents 
General Baptists 
Particular baptists 
Scotch Baptists - 
Baptists (not otKerwise 

dejined) 
Societjr of Friends 
Unitarians 

Weslevan Methodists • 
Primitive Methodists - 
Bible Christians 
Wesleyan Association • 
I/Huntingdon's Connex. 
New Church 
Brethren 
Isolated CongregiEttions 



OTHipE Cheistiak Chs.: 

Boman Catholics 
Latter Bay Saints 

Jew9 •■ • 



PORTSMOUTH. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 72,096. 



44 



12 
6 
2 

7 



9400 



6708 

1193 

350 

411 



130 



80 
735 

73 
140 



100 

40 



345 

100 



14,81^ 



26,013 



6027 

3370 

900 

1679 



520 

2166 

167 

418 



« • 



256 
150 

160 



12.230 
4563 
1250 
2090 



430 



600 

2901 

240 

558 



100 
40 



601 
250 

160 



17,044 



7878 

3108 

993 

1394 



30 



144 

2325 

116 

466 



65 
40 



931 
30 

35 



6039 



4076 
573 

291 



41 



319 
109 
517 



18 



13,601 



4465 

3251 

985 

1655 



131 



292 

1910 

130 

552 



40 



70f 80 
25 20 



PEESTON. 

{Municipal Borough^ 

Population, 69,542. 



29 9750 



10 
2 



2 
1 



1 
1 
3 
1 

• • 

1 
1 
1 



4900 
410 



164 
60 



14,892 



6900 
1220 



762 



24,642 



11.800 
1630 



916 
60 



628 

726 

300 600 



145 
1487 



150 
60 
60 



200 



2212 



340 
750 
200 



2596 



628 

145 

2213 

800 



490 
800 
250 



200 



4810 



11,803 11603 4293 



2479 
1065 



437 
23 



153 

86 

1505 

342 



254 
142 
100 



120 



5097 



951 



23 



69 



60 



600 



180 
760 



282 



40 

1480 
345 



328 
6^ 



80 



748 



' READING. 
1 * {Municipal Borough.) 
Population, 21,456. 


SOCHDALE. 

{Parliamentary Borough^ 

Population, 29,195. 


1 
Total - ; 21 


8953 


6914 


9977 


7068 


1434 

500 

487 
290 

80 

• • 

• • 

111 

* • • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

16 


.6198 


23 


5207 

1333 
240 
670 

400 
40 
620 
310 
346 
412 
436 

« 
500 


7634 


12,841 


6385 


3722 

1000 
803 

« • 

33 
330 
349 
125 
204 
656 

• • 
« • 

222 


4420 


PEOTESTAITT CHUEOHES i 

Church of England 
Independents - 
Particular Baptists • 
Baptists {not othencise 

defined) 
Society of Friends 
UnitfU'ians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 
Methodist New Connex. 
Primitive Methodists - 
Wesleyan Association - 
I/Huntingdon's Connex. 
Isolated Congregations 

Othbs Cheistian Chs. : 

Boman Catholics 
Latter Itay Saints 


7 
8 
2 

1 

.. 
3 

• • 

1 

• • 

• • 

1 

1 

1 


2871 
895 
140 

80 
414 

• • 

168 

• • 

89 

. . 

100 

96 
100 


2976 

1320 

660 

40 

• • 

621 

831 

... 
. . 

166 


5467 

1715 

700 

120 
414 

689 

420 

• • 

100 

262 
100 


3969 

1497 

510 

110 
80 

348 

291 

• • 

• • 

85 

220 

8 


3130 

1101 

640 

130 

58 

343 
590 

• • 

• • 

85 

140 
81 


3 
1 
3 

• • 

1 
2 
3 

1 
2 
5 

1 

• . 

1 

• • 


1567 

730 

1400 

« . 

380 
1100 

361 

286 
1191 

664 
« « 

65 

. . 


2900 

970 

1970 

400 

420 

1720 

671 

632 

1603 

1000 

* . 

555 


1350 
740 
641 

•• . 

60 
330 
596 
285 
220 
910 
800 

• • 

453 
«. 


700 
44S 

472 

« » 

• • 

16S 

845 

112» 

660 

•• 



** FoaTSUouTH.->The returns omit to state the number of sitdn^ in one' place of worship belonging to the PABTlcuLAm 
Baptists, attended by a maximum number of 476 persons at a service. 

pBESTOir.— The number of aUendanu is not given for seven places of worship belonging to the Cbubch of ENOLAifD 
•ad for one place belonging to the Boman Catholics. 

BsADiNO.— The returns omit to state the number of rittingn in one place of worship Kelonging to the Chubch of 
England, attended by a maximum number of 900 persons at a service \ and in one place Iwlonsing to the Pa&ticulak 
Baptists, attended by a maximum number of oO persons at a service.— The number of attvndanutu not given for one pUUM 
oi worship belonging to the Established Chubcu. 

* Bocbdalb.— The returns omit to state the number of tittinct in one pkce of worship belonging to the WESLCTAif 
Hei hodists, attended by a maximum number of lOl persons at a service ; and in two places belonging to the WeslbVait 
Association, attended xq a maximum number (of 75 persons at a servioe.— The number of -atfemfante is not given for 
Que pliee of worship belonging to the £sTA]U4SBE]> CBUBCHt 



aki>Wal]eb.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 









l» 



Table F,^-<iontmuecL 



ABLIGIOirs 
DENOMmATIOJf. 



P4 
II 

;25 



Nttttber 

ofSittings^ 




Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 












(njd 



Kumber 
of Sittings. 



wmmmmmtitimmmm 

I Number of 
/Attendants at 
(Public Worship 
on Sunday, 
March 80, 1861 
[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 




I 






|i 






TOTAl - 
Pft6TE8TAirT CsnTRCHBS: 

Church of England • 
Church of Scotland • 
Independents - 
Particular Baptists - 
General Baptists, New 

Connexion 
^Society of Friends 
unitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists - 
Methodist New Conner. 
Primitive Methodists - 
Wesleyan Association - 
JndependentMethodists 
Wesleyan Beformers - 
Welsh. Calv. Methodists 
New Church 
IsoUted Congregations 

Otheb Chsistiab^ Chs. : 

Boman Catholics 
Cath. and Apos. Church 

Jew9 • • . 



SALFOBD. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 6S,850. 



— 



8 
1 

4 
1 



9509 



Total • 

l^TtSTAlTT ChUBOHSS : 

Church of England 
tTnited Presby. Church 
Presby. Ch.in England 
Independents 
P&rticular Baptists - 
^ptists {not otherwise 
defined) ... 
Sociely of Friends 
ITnitarians 

Wesleyan Methodists * 
Methodist New Connez. 
Primitive Methodists - 
Bible Christians > 
Wesleyan Association - 
Isolated Congregations 
French Protestants - 

Other Chbistiae Chb.: 
Boman Catholics 
Oath, and Apos.Churdi 
Latter Say Saints 

Jew9 - - - 



4ooe 

800 

1019 

800 

150 



1240 



890 
410 
100 



284 



900 



11^878 



8970 
2757 

m • 

50 



28S8 



410 

466 

66 



216 
450 



180 



21,772 12,686 



8776 
800 

8776 
800 

200 



4098 



800 
876 
166 



500 

450 



1080 



4691 
196 

2139 
260 

140 



1518 



160 

427 
40 



180 
806 



2500 



68010,043 



800 



800 



80 



4702 
140 

1466 
120 

210 



1318 



200 

425 

60 



127 
160 



1100 



SOUTHAMPTON. 

{Municipdl Borough,) 

Population, 36,805. 



29 



10 



6977 



8913 



I 



815 
260 



1 
2 
1 



1 
1 

1 



70 
500 



159 
190 



460 
250 



150 
200 

20 



10,732 



6268 



1748 
660 



400 
600 



114 
90 



600 



800 



57 



17,969 10302 



10,181 



2558 

920 



260 

470 

1100 



273 
280 



950 
250 



800 
150 
200 

77 



6729 



1909 
460 



64 

267 
685 



178 
154 



285 



600 

80 

•80 

21 



2410 



1298 



873 

70 



15 
100 
208 



300 
60 
80 



8829 



4897 



1640 
887 



SHEFFIELD. 

{Municipal Borough.) 

Population, 185,310. 



70 



28 



10 
2 

2 
1 
1 

16 
5 
1 
2 



2 



2 



1 
1 



14,1 



6815 



[1112 
220 

250 
800 

50 

13067 

402 

850 

90 



850 



820 

500 



29,618 



11,797 



8974 
1250 

600 

850 

7412 

1550 

650 

680 



960 



44,189 20,300; 



19,562 



4486 
1470 

750 

800 

900 

10,479 

1952 

1000 

670 



860 



050 
820 

600 



6291 



831 

862 
136 
650 
5282 
1000 
977 
241 



SO 



£0 



2000 
140 

27 



4687 



2984 
4i3 



80 
960 



100 



100 



18,684 



6656 



1854 
624 

627 

860 
4819 
1188 
1650 

161 



«» 



2000 
26<^ 



886 

600 

246 
165 



SOUTH SHIELDS. 

{Municipal Borough."^ 

Population, 28,974. 



30 



S068 



9 
2 
2 
1 
1 



12866 

50 
486 

• • 

70 



5 
1 
S 



409 



80 
50 

17 



1 

i 



478 
100 
600 



480 
210 



270 

48 



8920 



2844 
650 
660 
900 



420 



1706 
400 
760 



460 
80 



100 



13,978 



6210 
700 

1096 

900 

70 

420 



2184 

500 

1360 



880 
240 



870 

48 



4768 



1650 

885 

427 

852 

40 

224 



295 
145 
670 



800 
89 



480 

ii 



2796 



164 
146 

•  

40 



112 
266 

727 



870 
144 



110 
23 



6881 



1960 

180 

280 

841 

40 

276 



625 

230 

1240 



589 
150 



SALFoaD..-The number of ofCeiufatite is not given for one place of worship helorging to the Kstablisheb Cbdrcu. 

Sbeffxxli).— -The retnms omit to state the number of tUdngt in one place of worship belonging to the £BTABLnRXX» 
CHuacH, attended hj a maximum number of 70 persons at a serriee ; in one plaoe belonging to the Weslstam Mbtbo- 
DI8T8, attended by a masdmum number of 25 persons at a reryice ; in one place belongfufr to the Msthodist Ksw 
Connexion, attended by a maximum number of 42 persons at a serrlce; and in two places belonging to the \YESLETAir 
Xefoemebs, attended by a maximum number of 100 persons at a serriee.— The number of attendanU is not given for two 
ulaees of worship belonging to the Establuhed Cuusch.— JITeMer tUtinga nor aUendantiran given for one place of worship 
belonging to the Established Chdech. 

SouTUAXFTOM.— The number of aU€ndant$ is not given for one plaee of worship belonging to the Fsbncb Fiotes- 

TANTli. 

South Shields.- The number ot aUendmita is not given for one place of worship beloncfaig to the Weslitaw Mstbo* 
^in:-^2fe(ih$r 9ittifig$ nor mttemkmts are givea for one place of worship belonging to the WnLSTAH Mjrbodxsts. ^ 

C. K 



CENSUS. 1861 jwREUGIOU S WORSHIP. 
Tablb F. — continutd. 



' [Enolamd 



UUiGIODS . 

nraoiOHAUOH, 


1 


NDmbar 

ofSlttluBa. 


...fas."'.. 

Publia Worabip 


s 

I 
p 


NambH- 

oTSitUnES. 


Number of 


1 


fl 


1 


|i 


It 


ii 


Illli 


ii 


M 


Is 






SOirrHWABK. 


( Jfuiiicips! .BoroiV^} 


TOTil - 


fa 


19.BCQ 


B3.70« 


40,800 


1137B 


6180 


S7,068 
11,077 
40 
000 
800 
187 

127 
4E0d 


M 
« 

£ 


?791 


14.177 


a,i«e 


12,110 


I4ST 


9B0£ 


OfBn Ohhbiiab Oat.: 

Bonun (^thollH 

Jtm •  •  




1 

ISM 

TOO 

MO 
SBO 

100 

lio 

1*0 

MO 
ISO 


1 

■00 
4M 

!* 

20 
80 


90C 
£50 

em 

1000 

BOO 

MBS 
100 

m 

100 
££0 

100 


iB,osa 

MO 

7S 
1070 

las 

« 

GO 


1681 
431 

SO 

20 

8G 
14 

eoo 


1023 
800 
MO 
160 

s 

MO 
100 
IM 


6278 
a££3 
610 

m 

204 
120 

1030 


8800 
30W 
STO 

460 
4031 
1S£> 
082 
804 

200 
lOBO 


4010 

340 
SO 

2H 

040 
£03 

2000 
80 


|o?a 

137 
30 

140 


3270 

iTii 

406 
40 

lie 

2101 




STOKE-TTPON-TRENT. 


eUNDEEHNa 

tMu«ieipal Borough.} 
Population, 03,807. 


SMjU . 


T3 


17,100 


aim 


4o,7EJh5.oia 


MM 


i!.aoo 


63 


iiw 14,871 


IW,766 


,.,„,« 


i4*7a 


OtHIBChXIBIIABChB.: 

'BomuOatholIn 
Jkf. .... 


■i 

ii 

1 


100 

lea 

Mt 

40* 

MS 


no 

£M 

4a«o 
m 

m 


IT.1«S 
«0 

m 
so 

400 

7W7 

£008 
ISll 

is 
m 


UN 

£42 
1200 


tut 

ii 

M 
£! 


SMI 

■a 

40 

m 

£014 
1387 

a, 


2 

i 


as 

£6> 

1301 

721 

830 
60 


1100 

'Ii 

S831 
1171 

so 


1760 

700 
300 

660 
2000 

1180 
830 
80 


S 

814 

80 
IM 

3£8 

ia 

12 


m 

6B 
2«0 


302(1 

1 

462 
£000 

£0 
13 



plmoslElDiiglliBtauteRou^H CUaoLIO^ 




BORDnLlRD.— 1. 

-5Mr.1!SaS 



AWB W-MiM.] 



SUMMAJIY TAPt^S. 



•Jh. 



431 



Tablb ¥. — continued. 



'•m^ff- «4»a*IVAaM^«^ • ^ 



MliiOIQVS 



D9NOHIN4TIOir. 



I 

•22 



KwBbw 
of mttings. 



I 



K 



-ew 



Kipnberof 

Attwidants »t 

Public Worship 

(mSiinctaff, 

Maroh 30,1851 

[includinfl iun- 

day Iksholan]. 



* 



I 



P 



J 




Niimber 
of8|ttingB. 



ILJ.^-«1 



n 



I 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday 
March 30, 1851, 
ClndttdlDK Sim- 
day Scholanj. 






1^ 



. - TTa 



I J. J '..■ ■'■T««l-JL« 



¥»onMf Ajra CHimoHBi < 
^ureh of Engkmd 
Church of ScwUmd 

freBby.gh.ta5wlw4 

Indepen^nts 

General Baptisi^ * 

Particuiflj' Baptists 

ipaptifits • 
otA&noUe 



Sodiely o% 



Sodiely otTri^n^s 
tJnitanans • ? 
Wesleyai) Hef hodiflts ? 
MethodistKewOonnex, 
jPriimtive Hethodists • 
Bible OfaristiivQA ? 

Wesleyfkn Asspoiatifm - 
Wesleyan Eeibrmers - 
Welsh Calv. Methodist 
I/Hunt)in|^on'sConnex. 
• Brethren •" " - 

Isolated Congr^gf^tfons 
Lutherans p % 
German Pro, Eeformers 

Othb^ Omnvus Ohm.: 
Boman Cikthollipa • 
Oath, and Apos. Church 
]^ter I)|^ B%i|its 



SWANSEA. 

{Municipal Borough,) 

Population, 31,461. 



87 



7 
1 



1 
1 

4 



1 
1 



7*01 



1776 



1456 



U18 



MO 



140 



U50 
60 



150 



200 



ao 



10,188 



8507 



1654 



m 



160 



1860 
600 



12 



43 



18,880 



5067 



8755 
8067 



240 

400 

1416 



800 



3010 
660 



150 



212 



n 



6836 



1697 



1668 
122i 



22 
167 
472 



150 



758 
450 



300 



50 



2042 



678 



106 
186 



13 



863 



130 



• I 



70 



! t 



0401 



1176 



2466 
2150 



121 



260 



1460 
600 



1 1 

800 



200 



TOWBB HAMLBTS. 

{Par^iamewtary Borough.) 

Population, 689,111. 



214 M»^62^8 



65 
1 

1 

1 

22 
I 

6 
1 

2 

20 

8 

4 
1 

2 

4 

• • 

3 
2 

13 

! 




6 
1 
6 



82,805 
608 
460 

17,879 

460 

6975 



440 
660 
270 
^348 
290 
280 
100 
200 
180 

520 
160 
817 



585 

00 




70 
S6< 



60 



384 

600 
7881 
52 
606 
800 
200 
560 

|76i 

788 



761 

Id 



im,m 12,682 



67,126 
768 
630 

26,779 

;o,8|? 

800 



874 

Q60 

770 

11,789 

^ 
786 

400 

400 

78^ 

82fi 

ss 

2006 
700 
618 

60 



34,724 

$7^ 

18,921 

684 

6878 

15 



890 
66 

228 
6861 
111 
672 
220 
810 
886 

160d 

60 

1001 

670 



8840 
400 
117 

40 



laMi 



7632 
tt 

2079 

17^4 

40 



24 



866 



8 » 



tt 



470 



40 



68,890 



26,561 

So 

16,994 

450 

6423 

16 

196 



9688 

724 
200 
160 
870 

17*7 

46 

1860 

• • 

60 

2300 

?dl 
40 



z 



p 



m0mimmi^imS^i$mt^mmfmti 



J^B09«6f iLnG^:irBc^iift : 

Churcli of England 
' tTttited Presby. Church 

Prmby.ChajBuglimii 

Indep^dent^ 
- Paiticular Bwtists " 
' Socfaty of f^nda v 

XTnitarians • 
' ' Wpsleyan Methodists *> 

M«thodiflt N^ Oonnex. 

t'rimitive Methodists - 

W«deyan Beformers " 
. . Isolated Oongregatipq^ 

J0thi(9 QBOtifTi-iir Ch6.; 
Biomau Catholics 

^ew$ - - - 



TYNEMOUTH. 

{MfMinipffl Borough.) 

Population, 29,170. 



28 



8 
1 
1 
2 
1 
\ 



4 

8 
1 
2 
1 



8647 



965 
40 
100 
830 
100 
dAO 



400 
300 
200 
540 
100 

166 
6 



ftiAa 

owv 



12,086 



8Q00 
866 
700 
956 
690 



1240 

950 

250 

30 



334 
24 



8966 
406 
800 

1285 
600 
400 



1640 

1260 

460 

670 

100 

600 
SO 



2550 
253 
660 
651 
220 
78 



841 
630 

420 
15 



vm 



950 
868 



20 



300 

42 



17 



«764 



1500 



534 
260 



864 
660 
350 
494 
80 



17 



WAK£?IELI), 

{Mumcijpd^ ^oro^gh*) 
population, 22,065, 



26 m 



9 



im 



4 
1 

X 

1 

4 
1 
2 



• » 



120 
050 

605 
150 
180 



6894 



1892 



2 1550 



120 



2616 



600 
1766 

no 



160 



^ .41-. .-  ■. ^■i.: 'a j»e 8 » 



14321 



6494 



2636 
660 
600 
500 

2871 
860 
590 

1660 



270 



7900 



82^7 



3875 




300 



2?97 



969 

• • 



150 
80 



160 



4640 



xm 



762 
164 

• • 

.84 
491 
100 
480 
067 



SwAi^SBA..— The retams omit to state %he namber of sittings tin one place of worship belonging to the Lattek Day 
Saints, attended by a maximum upmbflF of 200 persons at a service.— The number of attendants is not given for one 
fiaoe of worship belonging to the rASTiGui.AB Baptists ; nor for one plaoeibelonging to the Jews. - - ' • 

TowEB Hamlets.— The returns <omit to state the number of sittings in one plaoe of worship belonging to the Esta- 
BLtsHED Cfiu&CH, attended by a maximum number of 900 persons at a service ; m four .iriaoes biiaagltjagto Ihe IvDWHtv- 
pENTS, attended by a maximum number of 2288 persons at a service : in one place belonging to the Pabticulab Baf T)sts, 
attended' by a maximum number of 120 persons at a service ; and m one place beTonffUig' to the Wbslbtan Kethodist 
^EFO^XEM, attended by a maxipaum number of 160 persons at a service.—The number or aOendatOtlM not givwi for six jf]aiu 
t>f worship oelonj^nK to tiie Established Chcbch. 

Ttnehddth..— The returns omit to state the number of s(ttinifs in one plaee of worriiip belongfaig ta tht Wesuhtak 
Usf uodists, attended by a maximum number of 85 persons at a service ; and in one iriaee belongtng to the MBTBonitT 
Kswi OoMNEXloif. attended by a m^mum number of dO persons at a service.— Th9 number of aUmdants is not given for 
ojte plaM of worsblp belonging to the Soman C^TtiQ^ics.— Jfeilfter slMnas nor attendams are given for one -plaee of 
worship belongingto the WeslBTAN Methodists. ^ "  . 

WAKEFiBLp.--Tlie niuDbe'r Qf sittings is not dven fbr one plaee of wordiip beknigiaf to the Gtofmen ef Birqi;Ai^. 
attended by a nuudmum number oir400 persons at a service ; aiad in ene pUiM MMghig ie the ImMMM»bMvs, attsndid V 
« loaximum number of 154 penons at a senice. 

K 2 



102 



CENSUS, 1851 J— RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[ENGLANb 



Table F. — continued^ 











Number of 






Number of 




M 






Attendants at 


u 




Attendants at 




O 


Number I 


Public Worship 


o 


Number 


Public Worship 




s . 






on Sunday, 


S 




on Sunday, 


KBLlaiOTIS 


2 


ofSittmgs. 1 


March 30, 1851 


a 


of Sittings. 


March 30, 1861 


J)BNOMINATION. 


umber of P 
Worship. 






[including Sun- 
day Scholars]. 






[including Sun- 
day Schcdars]. 


• 


tl 


• 

1 


Is 


t • 


h 


n 


m 


ppro- 
riated. 


1 


1^ 


• • 


h 




» 


fi 


<^ 


H 


s-^ 


2^ 


pq.tt 


^ 


i 


^'Q* 


fr« 


S-S 


^ ^ 


p,.a 






WALSALL. 1 


WABBINGTON. 




(Municipal Borough.) \ 


{Municipal Borough,) 






Population, 25,680. | 


Population, 22,894. 


Total - 


19 


4«97 


6906 


10,603 


5147 


2286 


3699 


15 


3601 


6154 


9665 


6686 


2664 


4£72 


PSOTBSTAirT GHmEtCHBS: 






























Church of England - 


4 


1955 


2862 


4917 


2158 


1396 


1076 


4 


1811 


8199 


5010 


3235 


1911 


2218 


Independents 
Particular Baptists - 
General Baptists New 


1 


200 


700 


900 


898 


• • 


307 


1 


• • 


* • 


• • 


120 


• • 


150 


2 


800 


520 


820 


436 


22 


280 


1 


120 


138 


258 


150 


• • 


90 






























Connexion 


1 


220 


110 


380 


115 


• • 


170 


* • 


• . 


• . 


#• 


• 9 


*• 


4* 


Baptists (not otherwise 
defined) 


1 


125 


• • 


125 


• • 


108 


• • 


• • 


* . 


. . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Society of Friends 


9 • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


355 


. * 


855 


72 


28 


• • 


TJnitarians 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• « 


• • 


• • 


1 


260 


260 


600 


198 


• . 


58 


Wesleyan Methodists - 


6 


985 


930 


1916 


865 


390 


1035 


1 


460 


956 


1406 


991 


• . 


lOOO 


Primitive Methodists - 


8 


404 


182 


686 


229 


80 


162 


1 


76 


194 


269 


260 


. • 


200 


Independent Method. - 


• • 


• • 


• • 


* • 


• • 


• • 


■• • 


2 


300 


250 


650 


425 


876 


184 


I/Huntingdon'sConnex. 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


* • 


1 


160 


550 


710 


360 


• • 


860 


Isolated Congregations 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• * 


• • 


• • 


1 


80 


• • 


80 


16 


• * 


22 


OTHEB CHSISTIAir Chs. : 






























Eoman Catholics 


2 


808 


602 


910 


946 


290 


670 


1 


• . 


617 


617 


870 


260 


• • 




• 


WESTMINSTER. 


WIGAN. 




{Pa 


\rliainentary Borough.) 


{MunUoipal Borough.) 


• 




Population, 241,611. 


Population. 81,941. 


Total - 


99 


24,514 


41,092 


74,349 


49,846 


14,fS2 


27,921 


16 


2920 


6679 


9449 


8687 


8194 


6108 


I^OTBSTAVT ChUBCHBS : 


























Church of England 


69 


18,278 


26,671 


52,142 


fW,019 


M,asi 


14,823 


8 


1029 


2204 


3233 


8302 


2308 


2212 


Church of Scotland - 


8 


854 


2160 


2514 


2250 


100 


1950 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• • 


• * 


• * 


• • 


United Presby. Church 


1 


100 


500 


600 


610 


• • 


• • 


• • 


* 
• • 


. * 


• • 


• • 


• . 


« « 


Independents 


U 


2022 


7588 


10,160 


7022 


• • 


6977 


8 


500 


1120 


1620 


907 


32a 


696 


Particular Baptists - 


4 


260 


1860 


1760 


749 


631 


860 


2 


460 


• • 


460 


286 


304 


« * 


Society of Priends 


1 


• • 


• • 


400 


106 


• • 


. 49 


* . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


4 . 


• r 


• ft 


Wesleyan Methodists - 


6 


450 


1021 


1471 


827 


• • 


884 


1 


267 


706 


972 


691 


• . 


«78 


Primitive Methodists - 


1 


• . 


• . 


• * 


20 


• • 


68 


• . 


• • 


• * 


• » 


• • 


• « 


• ft 


Independent Method. - 


• • 


• . 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


200 


150 


860 


200 


212 


4S 


'Wesleyau Beformers • 


1 


120 


120 


240 


212 


• • 


160 


• * 


• • 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• ft 


'^elsh Calv. Methodists 


2 


550 


150 


700 


400 


120 


130 


1 


100 


« • 


100 


80 


60 


66 


Isolated Congregations 


• • 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


1 


164 


. . 


164 


47 


• * 


46 


Lutherans 


3 


880 


620 


900 


800 


60 


• . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• * 


Italian Beformers 


1 


150 


• • 


160 


• » 


20 


• . 


9 • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


• . 


• * 


«• 


Othhk Chbistian Chs. : 






























Boman Catholics 


6 


1230 


1460 


2600 


4300 


610 


2000 


8 


200 


1400 


2550 


8226 


•  


1570 


J^ewe - - - 


2 


20 


602 


622 


130 


30 


30 


. • 


. . 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• . 


*• 



Walsall. -The number of attendants is not given for one place of worship belonging to the Pbimitivs M£THODIsT8. 

WAaaiNOTON. The number of nttings is not giren for one place of worship belonging to the IkdspjbNDEmts, attended 
\>Y a maximum number of 100 persons at a serrioe. 

Westminsteb. The returns omit to state the number of sittingf in one plaee of worship belonsinflr to the EsTABLISHfed 
CflUBCfl, attended by a maximum number of 300 persons at a service ; in one place belonging to the FEimitivx Methodists ; 
attended by a maximum number of 68 persons at a service ; in one plaee belonging to the Lutrerans, attended by a maad- 
mum number of ISO persons at a service; and in one place belonging to the Rohan Caiholics, attended by a maximnin 
number of 500 persons at a servioe.— The number of ^Utendants is not given in the case ofthree places of worship belongincT 
to the Established Chubch ; in one place belonging to the Lutheeans ; and in one place belonging to the Roman Catho- 
lics.— ifeitAer Bittinga nor aitendanta are given for one place of worship belonging to the Established Chubch, 

WiQAJi. -Tht nnmber of atundw^ i» not given for one place of worship belonging to the Imdxpbndsmts. 



Avo Walbs.] 



SUMMARY TABLES, 






133 



Table F. — continued. 



SBLIGIOUS 



DENOMINATION. 



il 



Number 
of Sittinci* 






o 



Number of 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 30, 1851 
[including Sun- 
day Scholan]. 






^8 






il 



Number 
ofSittfngs* 




I 



Number (tf 

Attendants at 

Public Worship 

on Sunday, 
March 80, IdSl 
[including Sun« 
day Scholan]. 



i 









pq-a 



Total - 

PBOTBSTAirT GhusohSs : 

Church of England 
Presby. Ch. in England 
t Independents - 
Particular Baptists 
Baotists (not otherwite 

apneas 
Society 01 Friends 
Unitarians 
Wesleyan Methodists 
Methodist New Connex. 
Primitive Methodists 
Welsh Calvimstic Meth 
I/Huntingdon*sGounex. 
Isolated Congr^ations 

Othxb Chbistiait Chb. : 
Boman Catholics 
liatter Pay Saints 

Jewa ... 



WOLVERHAMPTON. 
{Pa/frliatnentary Borough.} 
Population,110^748. 



97 



23111^28 
1 
6 
9 



2 
26 

7 

U 

1 



4 
1 



25.308 



1765 
1760 



200 



846 
4691 

860 
2061 

.180 



860 



802 
150 

10 



22,892 



48,465 27,015 



10,785 
100 
1700 
2146 



200 
4787 
1084 
1066 



1034 



20 



22.263 

100 

8465 

8906 

800 



646 
9678 
1944 
974n 

180 



860 



1896 
150 

30 



U,678 

28 

1986 

1404 

180 



840 
7140 
1178 
1481 



1645 



15 



ii,n9 



2455 

475 
1052 



280 
3507 
1207 
1607 

150 



1040 
41 

12 



24,660 



8966 

42 

1867 

1644 

160 



58 

7118 

1418 

1967 

150 



1750 
55 



WOBOESTEB. 

{Munic^fHtl Borough,) 

Population, 27,628. 



86 0299 



20 3919 



1 

1 



8 
2 



200 



252 
360 



666 



8278 



4698 



600 



444 



74 



651 
198 



89 



1106 



176 



1014 



840 



16,647 



9687 



700 



360 



1762 
280 



1565 

198 



429 



9296 



2090 



6468 



1680 



424 



441 

80 



550 
60 



640 
46 



500 
200 



59 



69 



60 



72 



200 



6887 



4709 



856 



805 



loe 



684 

84 








YORK. 




— ._ 


{Municipal Borough,) 




i'f "  


Population, 36,308. 




Total - 


. 40 


7922 


11,465 


28,650 


10,675 


3462 


8488 




Pbotbstaht Chttsches 














Church of England 


. 24 


2862 


5056 


12,181 


4427 


2714 


2028 




Independents • 




900 


1860 


2760 


1333 


80 


1018 




Society of Friends 




1000 


m • 


1000 


273 


170 


• • 




Unitarians 




10 


80 


40 


97 


• • 


60 




Wesleyan Methodists • 




1890 


2329 


8719 


1769 


120 


1833 




Primitive Methodists • 




120 


880 


500 


141 


92 


500 




Wesleyan Association • 




100 


460 


550 


157 


25 


194 




Wesleyan Reformers • 




1150 


550 


1700 


1058 


• • 


1317 




New Church 




60 


• • 


60 


• • 


• • 


18 




Isolated Congregations 




150 


• * 


150 


80 


• • 


150 




Othbb Chuibtiait Chs. 


• 
• 
















Roman Catholics 


• 2 


180 


810 


990 


1350 


251 


78o| 



WoLVKaHAMTTOK.— The number of attendant is not given for three phujes of worship belonfrincr to the Establisbko 
Church : for one place belonging to the Inpependents ; for one place belonging to the Pabticulas Bafxisxi; and for 
one phMse belonging to an Isolated CoiroaEOATioir. 

WoBCESTEa.— The returns omit to state the number of $ittinos in one place of worship belonging to the Kstablisheb 
Chubco, attended hy a maximum number of lao persons at a senrieei and in one plaee belonging to the Latteb DaT 
Saints, attended by a maximum number of 200 persons at a senrioe. 

ToBK.— The number of ntUndanta is not given for three places of worship bdonglng to the Estaslibred Chitbch 
fyf oae place belonging to the Wbslbtan Methodists ; and for one place belonging to tha Wbslstan Bbtobmebs. 



K 3 



134 



CENSUS, 1861 1— teLlGIdttS W^llSHIP. 



' Aj 



fito«a.AND 



tABtlfi F F* 



Adeominbdlkiaoti provided by ValiouB Religious Bodies in Laugb-Town DisTltiCTS, 

as compairid with the l^t of England. 



^mmt 



mmmmmm 



!ft|fe 



1851. 



riMHMlMfti 



Xtnmbdr of PUees of Wonftip 
^ttyridedbj 



/^ 



^ ■• -~-^"»--- ■--.---.■. . 









I 



I 
I 



M 



ts 



S 



e 

«9 






5 



riMitefc 



Itvmber of SifctJngs,* 
(proTided bj 



I 



W*¥m**i>mimiM^m^ 






mmtk 



11 



I 



I 

I 



iiw>aMii»i»M 



I 

S 

I 

s 



Lakge-Towv BisTEteTS t— 

10«Cm and less fliMi d^OO 



90^ 



Districts 

haring 

Towns 

with a 

Population) Sf^BM 



n 100^ 

lOOjIbOd aAd npWardI 

TotAX. or LiBGE-Tdim j^iSTBicrs - 

BeIXB ax or TBt'CoVttteT 



ENOUUNTD Aliv WASiES « 17^4896 



n/m 



iJM^Oi 18i4 






49 



788 



6il 



14 n 



896 418 



297 



0,S29»12I] 



8,098^ 



S4«7 



10^ 



Q5lA 



2S09 



230 160 BOO 



S14 



22 



1A88 



603 



8 18 



96 



60 



408 



69 189 



831 



839 



1949 



dOSO 



7951 



268 



801 



1036 



1744 



124 
4727 
2309 

2836 



7B8AU 
465^08 



737426 



0/)08 



141*146 



xam 



184,96e 



9586 



24^74 



1,995J29 



8yS22A86 



454;'29 



018,1081 



10^090 



180^ 



76,857 



lOOiSSB 



8,458 



864^55 



i86/(61 



4u 



27^6 



88^ 



818^18 



484,890 



686,872 



l,2v7yv9B 



118006 



67^ 



lor^m 



101^868 



SliOQO iitM4o 



844)905 



858|4U 



6M78 

1,534J07 
1^065,587 
Mi5,|B22 



4427,244 



6,668^00 



14,077 8845 



9786 ll^llfl60S780 84«409k8fr#15 1^067^60 758,34«2il94,S08 186»m 



687^ 



l.(ifil9fi4S 



* Including an Estimate for Defectiyc Betums. 



Proportions contained in the above Table. 







Kumbet of Sittings to 100 pttnons, 
provided by 








Church 

of 
England. 


Iilde- 
pendents. 


Baptists* 


Wesleyan 
Metho- 
dists 

(allseo- 
tions). 


Bomaft 
Catholics. 


Others. 


An 




Religious 
Bodies. 


Largx Towk-Dibteigts :— 


















/ lO/XM) and less than 20>M0 - 


82*0 


9-8 


li-6 


9*2 


*« 


8*4 


WS 


Diktriots 
iMTJng Towns i 
. witha ^ 
Population of 


20,000 M SOfiOO . 


30-0 


6*6 


5^1 ' 


14*8 


1-1 


4*9 


60*8 


toiOOO M lOO/KJO ^ 


20*0 


5*1 


8-8 


12*9 


1*7 


4'4 


46-7 


A 


UoOyOOOandupwaidi - . 


17 •8 


4*8 


2-4 


5*6 


I'S 


S*l 


88*0 


Total or Labos-Towv Dutucts 


21-6 


4*9 


8'5 


9.7 


1*8 


8-7 


44T 


BBnDim or THS COUNTBT . . . 


88*2 


7'0 


50 


• 

14*9 


•8 


4'1 


70*0 


-E 


.NGLAND Ain> WALES - 


29'7 


6*0 


4-S 


12*9 


1«0 


$•0 


57*0 



AUti Wales.] 



SUMMARY TABLES. 






** 



l» 



TablsG. 

Showing the Accommodation provided, in each County of England and Wales, hj the 

most numerous Religious Bodies. 



K 4 



)S6 



CENSUS, 1^1 :-^BBUGIOUS WORSHIP. 



.. ItamhkVB 



l-,U ' J8.IL ' - ' i"IXJ i !i! I 



Table G, 



Showing the Accommodation provided, in each County of EngUad 



CorNTUs. 



Number of Places of Wonhip. 



Chnroh 

of 
Ene- 
land. 



Soottbh 
Presby- 

teriaiu. 



Inde- 
pen- 
dents. 



B«p- 

tisto* 



Wes- 
leyaa 
Metho- 
dists. 



Calvin- 
istic 

Metho- 
dists. 



Roman 
Catho- 
lics. 



Others. 



Total. 



I^iimberof 



Church 

of 
England. 



Scottish 
Presby- 
terians. 



Inde- 
pen- 
dents. 



Bap- 

tisti. 



SFOLAJTDAim') 

Wales -i 



Bedford 

Berks 

Buckingham 

Cambridge 
Chester 
Cornwall 
Cumberland 

Derby 
Devon 
Dorset 
Durham 

Essex 

Gloucester 

Hereford 
Hertford 
Huntingdon 

Kent • 

Lancaster 

Leicester 

Lincoln 

Middlesex 
Monmouth - 

Norfolk 
Northampton 
Northumberluid 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Butland 

Salop 

S(nnerset 

Southampton 

Stafford 

Suffolk 

Smrey 

Sussex 

^Warwick 
AVestmorluid - 
Wilts - 
Worcester 

York (East Biding) 

CityJ ^ 

" thl 



>f 



(NorthRiding) 
(West Biding) 



North Wales 
South Wales 



14,077 



160 



3,2M 



2,789 



11,007 



937 



670 



1,688 



34,467 



5,317,916 



86,602 



1.067,760 



768,343 



133 


• • 


19 


66 


96 


• • 


1 


23 


206 


• • 


34 


41 


125 


4 


6 


19 


226 


« • 


56 


72 


120 


1 


4 


20 


176 


• • 


88 


72 


101 


1 


3 


.13 


252 


6 


66 


31 


402 


12 


17 


48 


265 


• • 


37 


26 


734 


3 


7 


38 


161 


17 


24 


9 


136 


• • 


8 


34 


250 


• • 


45 


39 


404 


2 


8 


28 


549 


* • 


142 


112 


379 


• • 


8 


107 


304 


• • 


69 


16 


1417 


• • 


7 


21 


169 


14 


25 


21 


361 


• • 


20 


21 


433 


•  


134 


69 


90 


2 


9 


39 


433 


• • 


96 


. 102 


214 


11 


14 


68 


243 


• • 


20 


16 


116 


6 


6 


22 


162 


• • 


47 


44 


60 


6 


4 


24 


96 


» » 


7 


30 


46 


• . 


• • 


17 


479 


3 


86 


107 


260 


5 


13 


54 


529 


22 


170 


100 


621 


19 


114 


152 


289 


• • 


41 


86 


201 


1 


12 


26 


657 


• a 


38 


62 


703 


1 


13 


27 


419 


19 


155 


102 


119 


10 


32 


106 


159 


• • 


51 


79 


100 


26 


8 


11 


719 


• • 


49 


91 


516 


2 


6 


68 


292 


• • 


56 


87 


118 


4 


6 


29 


154 


68 


14 


17 


198 


• • 


20 


17 


248 


• • 


21 


64 


273 


• • 


6 


29 


266 


• • 


43 


50 


116 


1 


8 


20 


63 


« • 


6 


12 


18 


• • 


• • 


2 


291 


«  


59 


31 


262 


11 


11 


14 


653 


• • 


110 


89 


309 


4 


8 


66 


389 


• • 


116 


60 


187 


3 


13 


41 


317 


4 


63 


35 


377 


1 


34 


32 


619 


■• • 


00 


91 


168 


« • 


4 


28 


262 


1 


84 


68 


73 


2 


14 


42 


360 


« • 


78 


60 


80 


6 


8 


46 


278 


1 


64 


60 


183 


3 


26 


38 


78 


1 


9 


4 


59 


• t 


2 


12 


362 


• • 


76 


101 


196 


2 


3 


24 


244 


1 


24 


46 


127 


9 


12 


26 


236 


1 


34 


14 


362 


• • 


10 


14 


24 


• • 


2 


• • 


8 


• « 


2 


4 


801 


1 


48 


13 


426 


• « 


22 


33 


683 


2 


158 


09 


1,060 


• • 


81 


128 


364 


• • 


273 


143 


324 


478 


6 


27 


616 


« m 


367 


297 


209 


803 


7 


«5 



327 
436 
499 

404 

833 

1,104 

389 

776 

1,297 

663 

621 

766 

9^3 

426 
847 
196 

997 

1,627 

666 

1,601 

962 
434 

1,441 
692 
488 
630 

604 

91 

679 
1,129 
818 
863 
806 
546 
617 

593 
165 
764 
489 

670 

40 

843 

2,056 

1,614 
1,863 



43,84£ 
60,868 
67,247 

69,703 
125,662 
102,341 

68,688 

89,714 

221.989 

94,097 

68,968 

147,807 

166,003 

64,590 
65,193 
25,453 

213,666 

389.646^ 

88,242 

165,087 

362,220 
86,131 

187.210 
92,793 
66,044 
76,960 

79,270 

13,362 

95,451 

181,484 
150,800 
163,866 
161,398 
161,662 
132,327 

128,525 
24,788 

117,258 
88,648 

70,921 

12,181 

86,149 

288,843 

116,880 
148,718 






2,167 
6,070 

• • 

6,650 



1.776 
16/715 



16^536 



32,300 



1,150 

900 

* • 

700 
400 

660 

600 

• • 

450 
730 



6,166 

0.506 

11,001 

12,195 

21,909 

9,067 

7,247 

13,307 

42,010 

10,296 

9,397 

47,809 

36,430 

2392 

13,880 

2,074 

.^,747" 

«3,aK 

12,972 
11,608 

o9,o99 
14,911 

16,519 

17,906 

6,060 

8,707 

8,869 

1,066 

11,918 
28,800 
82,241 
21,004 
31,408 
31,388 
20,780 

21,938 
1,800 

21,910 
7,788 

12,009 

2,760 

12,208 

74,126 

68,900 
121,984 



14.902 

9>906 

16»796 

18,168 
7,176 
6,934 
2,296 

11,477 

25,562 

8,814 

6.797 

16,892 

27,326 



15; 
1,01 
24,C^ 
10,224 



* In^ddiii^ w Estimate for Defeetir; Ketvu. , 



ANB WAua.3 



UVmUMTABUBS. 



; 



••»• 






137 



\ m 



Tabls G. 

»»  > 1  ^ 1^ I  



•ad Wale9> by the most numerotts Rdigioua Bodies. 



ShAixigs.* 








Profortioaper eont. ofSittiiigfl to PopojAtion. 


Popnlattaii 

in 

185L 




Hetho- 
dktf. 


Calrin- 
istle 

Metho. 
dttto. 


Catho- 


Otiwn. 


Total. 


Church 
of 

huts. 


Scofetbh 
vnwj— 
toruuu. 


denU. 


Ss: 


leyan 

Metho- 

duto. 


GalTin- 
totie 

Metho- 
duU. 


Roman 
Oatho- 

liflS. 


Ofebam. 


TOTJJi. 




2,1944S06 


250,678 


186^111 


866.766 


10,212,563 


29*7 


•6 


6*0 


4*2 


12*2 


1*4 


1*6 


2*0 


57*0 


17,927,609 




19,226 

17,768 
18,400 


1,089 
140 


21 
1,192 

627 


5,515 
2,996 
2,771 


89,661 
111,817 
116,972 


r 

35*2 

41*1 
41*1 


• • 

• • 


5-6 
5*6 
6*8 


12*0 

6*5 

10*3 


15*4 
10*4 
11*2 


• • 
0*6 
0*1 


• • 

0*7 
0*3 


4*4 
1*8 
1*7 


72*0 
65*7 
71*5 


124,478 
170,666 
1.83,728 




18,299 

80,624 

152,905 

26,489 


560 

2,600 

964 

• • 


360 
6,196 
1,445 
2,877 


2,497 

12,176 

6,674 

6,707 


111,762 
268,390 
279,230 
110,374 


82*2 

27*6 
28*8 
300 


0*6 

3*i 


6*6 
4*8 
2*6 
8*7 


9*8 
1*6 
1*7 
1*2 


9*9 
17*7 
43*1 
13*6 


0*3 
0*6 
0-3 

• • 


0*2 
1*1 
0*4 
1*6 


1-8 
2*7 
1*8 
3*4 


60*3 
66*6 
78*7 
66*5 


185,405 
455,725 
856,558 

9SAn 




72,065 
64,613 
21,197 
81,501 


430 

• • 

• • 
•• • 


2,454 
1,250 
1,762 
4,816 


6,728 

24,463 

4.049 

4,813 


195,195 

879,887 
144,207 
181,882 


30*3 
89*1 
51*1 
17*6 


• • 

• • 

• • 

1*7 


4*5 

7-4 

10*5 

2*4 


3*9 
4*6 
21 
1*5 


24*4 
11*4 
11*5 
20*9 


0-1 

• • 

• • 

-a • 


0*8 
0-2 
0*9 
1*2 


1-9 
4*3 
2*2 
1*2 


65*9 
66*9 
78*8 
46-6 


296,084 

184,207. 
d9M97 




16,257 


838 


2,364 


9,407 


239,364 


40*0 


• • 


18*0 


4*6 


4*1 


0*1 


0*6 


2*A 


64-8 


369,818 




44,843 


4,642 


^109 


13,440 


294,801 


36*0 


• • 


7*7 


6*0 


9*8 


0-8 


0*8 


2-9 


64*2 


458.806 




10,590 
9,742 
7,641 


966 
795 

• • 


900 
455 

» • 


8,148 
3,492 
3^636 


76,851 
96,127 
47,179 


47*8 
83*0 
39*7 


• • 


2*5 
8*2 
3*2 


8*3 

7*5 

13*0 


9*1 

6*8 

11*9 


0*8 
0*5 

• • 


0*8 
0*3 

« • 


2*7 
2*1 
6*7 


66*6 
67*4 
73*6 


115,489 

167,298 

64,188 




43^078 


2,297 


A661 


7,259 


327,268 


34*7 


0*3 


4*6 


4*6 


7*6 


0*3 


0*6 


1*2 


53*1 


^6,766 




177,8W 

33,441 

118,173 


10,13». 
170 
260 


W»747 
2,587 
2,333 


41,256 
4,725 
3,621 


813,335 
166,901 
315,044 


19*1 
38*3 
40*5 


0*8 

« « 


4*1 
5*6 

2*8 


1*8 

10*8 

3*5 


8*8 
14*6 
29*0 


0*6 
0*1 
0*1 


2*9 
1*1 
0*6 


2-0 
2*0 
0*9 


40*0 
72*4 

77*4 


2,031,236 
280,306 

407,222 




43,216 
23,487 


6,097 
7,691 


17,848 
2,764 


28,067 
1,880 


592,716 
116,228 


18*7 
22*9 


0-8 


4*8 
9*5 


2*1 
18-6 


2*2 
14*9 


0*3 

4*9 


1-0 
1*8 


1-5 
1*2 


31*4 
78*8 


1,886,576 
157,418 




76,637 
21,227 
41,632 
54,860 


1,670 
144 

• • 

• • 


1,456 

705 

4,914 

1,982 


9,621 
4,151 
3,890 
6,314 


812,913. 
160397 
148,283 
160,234 


42*3 
48*7 
18*1 
28*5 


10*6 

• • 


8*5 
8*4 
2*0 
3*2 


4*7 

11*0 

1*5 

5*3 


17*3 
10*0 
13*7 
20*2 


0-4 
0*1 

« • 

<• • 


0*3 
0*3 
1*6 
0*7 


2*2 

2*0 
1-3 

2*4 


70*7 
75*5 
48*8 
60*3 


442.714 
212,880 
308,568 
270,427 




15,180 


230 


1,336 


3,966 


115,895 


46*5 


•• • 


4.9 


4*4 


8*9 


0*1 


0*8 


2*3 


67*9 


170,489 




2,051 


• • 


•• « 


90 


18,630 


58*1 


• • 


4*7 


8*5 


8*9 


m • 


• • 


0*4 


80*6 


22,983 




33,267 
65,052 
30,203 
92,985 
23,886 
17,871 
12,872 


1,906 

1,160 

567 

180 

600 
1,963 


1,887 
2,382 
2,904 
9,756 
544 
8,046 
1,216 


1,993 
11,055 
6,430 
4,762 
6,100 
7,372 
9,420 


162,353 
801.811 
238,283 
304.292 
249,340 
237,898 
190,522 


41*6 
40*9 
37*2 
26*9 
47*9 
22*2 
39*3 


• * 

0*2 , 

o*i 

• • 


5*2 
6*4 
8*0 
8*5 
9*3 
4*6 
61 


2*6 
5*0 
3*7 
1*7 
7*7 
2*9 
3*6 


14*5 
12*4 
7*4 
15*8 
7*1 
2*6 
3*8 


0*8 
0*2 

0*1 

• • 

0*1 
0*6 


0*8 
0*5 
0-7 
1*6 
01 
1*2 
0*3 


0*9 
2*5 
1*6 
0*8 

1*8 
1*1 
2-8 


66*4 
67*9 
58*7 
60*0 
78*9 
34*8 
66*5 


229,341 
4i3,916 
405,370 
608,716 
337,215 
688,062 
886344 




26,843 

8,502 

28,208 

28,629 


732 

• • 

340 
3,854 


6,891 
700 
790 

2,834 


16,615 
8,037 
8,458 
5,128 


218,112 

40,239 

196.594 

147,095 


27*5 
42*5 
46*1 
82*0 


0*1 
0*7 

• • 

0*2 


4*5 
8*1 

8*6 
2*8 


3*3 
1*7 
9*7 
8*7 


5*6 
14*6 
11*1 
10*8 


0*1 

• • 

01 
1*2 


1*4 
1*2 
0*3 
10 


3*4 
5*2 
1*4 
1*9 


45*9 
69*0 
77*8 
53*1 


475,013 

58,287 

254,221 

276,926 




63,988 

6,469 

74,441 

278,211 


• • 

• • 

• • 


2,568 

990 

4,016 

8,846 


3,604 

1,250 

6,465 

25,774 


157,708 

23,650 

187,081 

716,777 


82'1 
33*6 
40*0 
21*7 


0*3 

• • 

0*2 
0*1 


6*6 
7*6 
5*7 
5*6 


1*8 

• • 

1*6 
80 


29*0 
17*8 
84*6 
21*0 


• * 

• • 

• • 


1*1 
2*7 
1*9 
0*7 


1*6 
8*4 
30 
1*9 


71*4 
65*1 

87-0 
54*0 


220,963 

86303 

215314 

1325,495 


> 


56,800 


111,372 


885 


5,326 


367,307 


28*1 


« • 


12*8 


5*9 


18*8 


270 


0*2 


1*8 


89.1 


412,114 




^138 


87,302 


1,988 


12,925 


500.118 


26*1 


• • 


20*6 


14*0 


7*4 


14-7 


9'8 


2*2 


84*2 


698,607 



































CENSUS, lM<W)MELI<3lOtra WORSHIP. 



[Bmomx* 



Tablb I. 
DieTBitTTB with MOST and iijTr *" — " rr respectivelj. 







h 


■B 








|j 


■s 


i^ 


DlMlMKrttll 


PW- 


ji 




W 


DI*trM>wllk 


Po»a- 


P 


I 


1 


mott 


i>do>. 


is 




UK 


Uut 


i«u™. 


il 


% 


i 1 

8 ^ 




U«l. 


^1 


g 


'i 




UH. 


If 


g 






H 


1 






l' 


I 


rl 






ii 


I 


Jill 






if. 


I 


1 1 




uaie 


i«r7B 


la 


6 7.988 


JO. 8ho»dltch - 


,»„ 


19,814 


17 


8 43,756 


gMkClMlelfafd - - 


8,MS 


10.180 


180 


S 6.880 


n.Bt.Geo.intbeBui 


48,S7« 


10,938 




8 18,018 




Ues 


8,881 




6 1J13S 


SO-NawineWn - 


04,816 


16,398 


23 


7 88,18* 


aa. BoIbbI]/ - 


iB.m 


16,048 


HB 


7JSSB 


10. HC, B«Tlour, South 




8.79T 




4 18,017 


410.Bm«adni  


ijm 


8,088 




7 S^ 


16. OlerfcenweU - 


64.778 


]«,0S6 




S 81,606 


(MBufltb  


VM 


ftSM 


U4 


6 4k71B 


439.Badlb[d • 


86.778 


B,6(M 


84 


8 8,868 


flM.Conww •  


11,«S0 


18,181 




3 «,*3T 


Sl-I-nibetli - 




3*818 




46,081 


fill.Ski(ta<ieh  - 


9W» 


10,«l 


US 


1 SJIO 


8a.WhibBoh»pd 


70,758 


19.003 


85 


sa^ 


toe. Bh»j»d»r - - 


t,m 


7.687 


ua 


a 3,785 


7.MftrylebcinB 


167,686 


30,666 




1 61JIS1 


eiK pwimeii . 


«,T»8 


M,OM 


110 


6 ll.«* 


t6.PaplN- 


47,161 


11,081. 


86 


* 16,866 


Slfl. Bal& 


•.TS8 


T,Utt 


108 


I 1.448 


8*. 8t«pi»r - 


U0.775 


28^178 


85 


8 36,672 


WO. Breokimjk - • 


IWT* 


lOJOJ 


106 


6 8,816 


ta-BermooAnr 


44128 


18,465 


86 


8 16,468 


iW9. Lbnl^llin  


iB.sas 


M.6TB 


106 


3 0.844 


LKeoidngtOT. 


180,004 


31,666 


86 


3 38,046 


0%. tunpetw - - 


m* 


io;tw 




9 4.635 


13.8tr»nd - 


44.460 


11,088 


87 


6 18.784 


nlFejlinHje ' 


ie.i»a 


i8,>oa 




6 T.6I0 


e.at.jNiie^«etta 


58,406 


9jgn 


87 


1 11,818 


{IW.CudlgBn  ' 


80,188 


81,076 


10* 


4 0,387 


IS-WertLondcn 


88,790 


7.981 


87 


7 8,723 


BIS. Bulhin  


lfl,SM 


17,188 


108 


7.413 


81. B«thiiia Green 


MJta 


86.744 


88 


B 86.sas 


31!.8cill7lB)aiiai • 


t,6tT 


B.8B3 


101 


* 1,1*8 




66JSS8 


18.878 




8 1^613 


«8. Melton MOTlHV 


aa.5S3 


£0,830 


loo 


S 8.787 


la. at. Luke - 


64,066 


15.703 


39 


16.648 




K.7M 


B1,8«S 


100 


5 10,088 




86,329 


87,662 


89 


87,630 


BTS-BHtWirt 


15.860 


IS, JOB 




5 6.780 


3S6.Aitoi 


88,862 


19,806 


80 


6 18,B« 




U1.8!e 


16,84a 


100 




18. Ht. Oilea • 


54.814 


16,130 


89 




HW.H*rlbanme1i  


10.SSS 


io,m 




1 *819 




6*887 


18.488 


30 


8 16,-£16 


»*6.j:«mworth - 


8,168 


8,077 




9 1,543 


3e3.£ing->NorteD 


50,871 


RS46 


SO 


S 8,667 


(MNewmtle-ln-Emlrr 


»4Ta 


19,001 


08 


7 8JMI1 


». St. Pane™ - 


189,868 


61,876 




7 46,669 




8,B80 


8,988 




7 3,405 


607. Ecclestll Bicrlov 


37,814 


11,665 


30 


7 10,536 


eii. LIurwit  


1£,tfO 


12.168 


07 


* 4.814 


34. Botharhlth* 


17,806 


6,615 


SI 


4312 


BSS.BrWgend - - 


t3,«3 


88.700 


«e 


9 8,116 


461. LiiBrpool - 


868,836 


90«O 


31 


1 80*41 


m.Bv 




10.67* 


96 


6 4,818 




173,861 


6*318 


81 


8 4CUt75 




isiffi* 


18,7« 


OB 


4 6.078 




. 73380 


85,088 




6 10,406 




6,810 






i 2,146 


4T8.Sidford - 


87,523 


87,776 




7 *2.989 


M9.W«ttu.7 . 


18.680 


U.B88 


86 


8 4^718 


471. Chorllon - 


123,841 


39.468 


81 


8 S83a« 




1B.099 






6 6,031 


14. Holbom - 




14.918 


88 


18,188 


6OT.IJKido.eiy - - 




1*.SSS 


86 


4 6,623 


486.Vlgui 


n,630 


86,B61 


33 


1 19311 


4§T. Balbergh - 


^67* 




86 


3 ],T04 


478. M»nobe<l«r • 


^8,433 


76317 


33 


2 66.674 


!m.LNma»tOTi - - 


18.773 


16,808 


8* 


8 8,170 


476. Oldham - 


8B.78S 


88,846 


33 


2 21.481 


304. Bodmin - 


MXttS 


IBSB 


9* 


7,372 


36. Greenwich - 


88,366 


38,818 




4 2*«3 


170,Brin™rth • 


M,m 


1S381 




6,31* 


*.V«lminBtcr 


B53» 


28,879 


34 


16,774 


«B. HmicSBtlB - - 


16.1)60 


83,6«B 


95 


9 8,017 


662. MewcMUtHm-Tjni 


88456 


31,018 




8 ao,6»g 




1T«8 


18,871 




9 0,460 


89.St.OM.SoulhwBi 


61,824 


18,809 


36 


1 11,849 


eiB, Ootwen - 


lS.ilB 


1*386 


93 


4 6,463 


17. But Landed 


44,406 


16,772 


36 






!8.1« 


56.377 


98 


i 13465 


648. Cheir(e^4e.alTeet 


80,807 


7,618 


38 


*B08 


sm, PMnrinston - - 


0.407 


8.780 




8 3,870 


508. Sheffield - 


108,886 


38,086 


86 


7 88,067 


(»l.CrlekhoW«ll 


11A7 


80.0*4 


08 


4 7,490 


98. FditNO bland 


78486 


86,-608 


36 


9 16,866 






18.977 




5 6^91 


86. Brighton - 


66.669 


8*368 


37 


8 18,867 


KM.B>idllQ«t>on 


lUKa 


UOJO 


81 


5 4^763 




10*168 


38,182 


87 


6 81,880 


«l. Louth 


»S*7 


30,348 


80 


8 1 0.960 


468. Bolton > 




43,617 




8 85,016 


M.Holivorthr 


114SS 


10,300 




6 5,008 


488. Wert Derby 


158,879 


58,814 


58 


30,688 




tijm 


18,107 


80 


8 6,798 


87.6l.01«Te,8onthi 


19.376 


7,361 




S,8S7 


4U.BlDghUii - - 


163U 


1*668 


») 


6 6,138 


104,'WertHla  


1*MI6 


MAIO 


86 


1 6380 



na flnju itnDxAd lo Hoh dbtriot re 



idiolheBirort. 



'' ' %^ Walbs.] 






6«fMMAttt TASL^. 






i3sf r 



■cafMu 



^— ...pfc >.-.»T.-»» .^^..^^^.^o 



"rtTTti-'-g^i 



Table K. 



CoMPAKATivB POSITION of the Chubch -OF EifOLAND and the Dissenting Churches, in 



J 4 



^ereitt Parts (tf tii» Countiy. 



/.'.i 



>■ « tT.A*m «^M . #LOiflLr«^r-K< ^i—-^ *^ . 



CODMTIH. 
I 



i»nafci„nft,ii,i,iiiiii,t,nii, 



Proportion 
cent. 

to 
Population. 




■Ma 



I' 



Propartfcm 
^eent. 

totalNomber 
ofHttings. 




Labob Towm. 



*■ ' 'ff ,t' ** !!g6 



Proportion 

percent. 

DTomnigB 

to 
Population. 



1^ 



Proportion 
sr cent. 



total Number 
of Sitting*. 



«9 t 



Bedford ^ 

jgerkft « 

BuddngBatn - 

Cambridge 

€SiOBter • 

(Domwall * . . 

Oumberlaild •> 

Derby ' - 

Devon - - - 

Dorset - 

DurhAm « •• 

Essex - 

Glouoester 

HerelbM 

Hertford - ^ - 

Huntingdon •• 

Kent - . « 

Laacftster • •• 

Leioeiter * « - 

linooln 

Middlesex . « 

Motunouth 

Norfolk - 

Noriihampton 

Northumberlaiia 

Nottiughttm - >• 

Oxford * 

Butland • • - 

Salop ^ 

Somerset 

Soutliimpti^ • 

Stafford 

Bairo& - 

Surrey - * 

Sussex "^ 

Warwick * 

Westmorlatid • 

WUts - - 

Worcester - 

York (Bast Biding) 
». (City) - 
M (NoftkBiding) 
H (WestBidiug) 

NoHih Wales ^ 
South Walfls - 



Elf OLAVD JJTD tlTlXBi 



86*2 
41-1 
41*1 
82*2 
87*6 
88'8 
80*0 
80-3 
801 
61*1 
17»6 
40-0 
86*0 

m'% 

83*0 
39*7 
84-7 
19-1 
88*8 
40*5 
18-7 
22-9 
4e'8 
43*7 
18-1 
28-5 
46*6 
58-1 
41-6 
40*9 
87*2 
26*9 
47*9 
22*2 
39*3 
27*6 
42*5 
46*1 
32*0 
32*1 
33-6 
40*0 
21*7 

28*1 
20*1 



29*6 



36*8 
24*6 
30*4 
28*1 
29*0 
49*9 
26*5 
35*6 
27*8 
27*2 
28-9 
24*8 
28*2 
19*2 
24*4 
33*8 
18*4 
20*9 
84*1 
86*9 
12*7 
00*9 
28*4 
31*8 
80*7 
81*8 
21*4 
22*5 
24*8 
27-0 
21-6 
28*1 
260 
12*6 
17*2 
18*4 
26*6 
81*2 
21*1 
39*8 
31*5 
470 
32*8 

61*0 
00-1 



27*4 



46*9 
62*6 
57*5 
68*4 
46*8 
36*6 

68*1 
46*0 
66'4 
65*3 
37*8 
61*7 
66*1 
71*1 
67-5 
04*0 
65*3 
47*7 
52*9 
02*3 
09*6 
81*0 
00*8 
57*9 
37*1 
47-3 
68*5 
72*1 
62*7 
60*2 
63*4 
53*8 
64*7 
63*8 
69*6 
60*0 
61*6 
59*6 
60*3 
40*0 
01*6 
46*0 
40-2 

31*0 
29*8 



51*9 



01*1 
37*4 
42*6 
46*6 
61*2 
68-4 
46*9 
54-0 
41*6 
84*7 
62'2 
88*3 
43*9 
88*9 
42*5 
46*0 
34*7 
62*3 
47*1 
47-7 
40*4 
69-0 
40-2 
42*1 
62*0 
52*7 
81*6 
27*9 
37*3 
89*8 
36*6 
46*2 
35-8 
86*2 
30*4 
40*0 
38-4 
40*4 
89*7 
55*0 
48*4 
54*0 
59*8 

68*5 
70-2 



48*1 



Ashton-under-Igrne 

Bath 

Birmingham - 

Blackburn 

Bolton . •• • 

Bradford 

Br^hton 

Bristol - 

Bury - • 

Cheltenham 

Coventry 

Derby * 

Devonport 

Dudley 

Exetor 4 . . 

Great Tannouth 

Halifax . . . 

Huddersfleld 

Hull - - - 

Ipswich 

Leeds * . . 

Leicester ^ •> 

Liverpool « 

London * - . 

Macclesfield *■ 

Manchester - 

Merthyr Tydfil 

Newcastle 

Norwich 

Nottingham 

Oldham 

Plymouth - 

Portsmouth 

Preston «. - - 

Rochdale 

Salford •• * 

Sheffield 

Southampton • 

Stockport 

Stokempon-Trent 

Sunderland - 

Swansea 

Wigan - - - 

Wolverhampton 

Worcester 



Total 



18*1 
88*6 
18*3 
10*1 
10*7 
10*0 
19*4 
28*0 
17*8 
31*0 
88*1 
22*0 
20*8 
10*0 
30*3 
22*4 
14*3 
18*8 
16*0 
24*8 
10*0 
14-6 
16*0 
17*6 
19*0 
12-6 

6*0 
11-7 
24*0 
12*3 
14*4 
18*4 
17*0 
17*0 

9*9 
13*7 
10*0 
28*8 
16*3 
20*4 
13*7 
16*1 
101 
18*6 
86*2 



17*2 



20*0 
22*0 
10*4 
80*6 
19*9 
81*6 
10*2 
20-8 
20*2 
20*0 
19*8 
28*1 
20*8 
26*9 
24*4 
23*7 
16*0 
32*3 
28*2 
28*9 
81*0 
26-7 
14*9 
12*1 
23*2 
19*0 
52*4 
22-8 
20*7 
35*2 
17*7 
27*2 
19-9 
18*4 
36*5 
25*1 
18-9 
22*1 
25*7 
28*1 
85-2 
42*8 
20*5 
21*9 
22*5 



18*8 



83*9 
63'2 
46*3 
47-1 
44-1 
81*6 
66*1 
44*6 
41*4 
04*9 
03*9 
43*9 
44*6 
36*8 
09*1 
48*6 
47*8 
86*8 
36*2 
00*9 
32-6 
35-4 
52*0 
59*3 
46*0 
89*9 
10*8 
33-9 
54*2 
25*9 
44*9 
40*4 
46*1 
48*0 
21*3 
36*3 
44*2 
06*6 
38*8 
42-1 
28*0 
27*8 
33*0 
46*0 
61*7 



47*8 



66*1 
36-8 
03*7 
08*9 
00*9 
68*4 
43*9 
00*0 
08*6 
45*1 
46*1 
56*1 
55-4 
64*2 
40*9 
61*4 
02*8 
63*8 
63*8 
49*1 
67*4 
64-6 
47*6 
40*7 
00*0 
80*1 
89*7 
66*1 
46*8 
74*1 
55*1 
59*6 
53*9 
52*0 
78-7 
64*7 
65*8 
43*4 
61-2 
57*9 
72-0 
78-7 
67*0 
54*0 
38*3 



rfbMi^i^ 



02*8 



» This Table nnjir be read thus t— In Bietdfordshire. Ibr every. 100 persons* the COinreh of fingUmd affords aooommoda- 
tion for 80,^ana the other churches for 87 ; while* in the same county, out of eveiy 100 HtHngt provided by all 



140 



CENSUS, 1861 J--BEUGIOUS WORSHIP. 



[fiNGMND 



■f^ 



Tab LB L. 



-•V 



Showing the Numbu of Sbrvicbs held b^ bach Religious B09Y at diffeitnt periode 

of the Day. 





Number of Flaoei of Worship open tor Serrice at difbrent periods of the Day. 




In Towns. 






In BuaAL DISTBICTS. 




Bslioxovs 




.^ 








1 _. 


4 










1 


1 


1 


1 1 




PwrpuvATioin. 




1 


• 

t 

H 


Morning and 
Afternoon. 


1 


1 Afternoon and 
Evening. 


\ 

m 

Total. 

• 


i 


i 


t 


Moraing and 


Homing and 
Erening. 


Afternoon and 
Erening. 


IS 

r 


Total. 


Total - - 


468 


277 


277 


1077 


8048 


622 


1674 


7463 


8314 


8302 


2257 


7954 


8712 


4068 


2402 


27,004 


FBOTBSTAirT GhuschBB: 
































Church of England 


im 


110 


43 


637 


766 


7 


466 


2218 


2325 


1866 


222 


6526 


604 


46 


286 


11,864 


Scottish PresbyteriMis : 


































Church qf Scotland • 


2 


• • 


• • 


• • 


8 


• • 


1 


11 


1 




1 


3 


2 






7 


United Pretbtfterian 


































Church 


6 


• • 


• • 


7 


19 




4 


86 


8 


2 


7 


A 


8 


' 


2 


81 


Presbf/terian C^rch 


































in England 


2 


* • 


a • 


6 


28 


• • 


• • 


36 


11 


• • 


2 


13 


IS 


• • 


1 


40 


Beformed Irish Presby- 


































terians ... 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


• • 


• • 


• t 


1 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Independents 


81 


88 


61 


86 


676 


65 


237 


1019 


171 


283 


830 


201 


679 


281 


830 


2225 


Bwptists: 
Oenei^ 


1 


1 


1 


8 


6 


1 


6 


* 

18 





5 


8 


4 


4 


88 


7 


75 


Particular 
Seventh Day 


18 

• • 


16 

• • 


16 


46 

• • 


829 


25 

• • 


237 
1 


687 
1 


1 


103 


107 


151 


^0 


126 


883 


1260 
1 


Scotch 


 • 


• • 


•  


3 


1 




1 


5 




1 




7 




1 


1 


10 


NewConnexionOeneral 


2 


2 


2 


8 


81 


8 


18 


66 


6 


20 


• • 

16 


10 


82 


82^ 


11 


126 


Und^ned 


V 


6 


6 


7 


46 


7 


46 


124 


62 


38 


93 


50 


50 


61 


72 


426 


Society of Friends 


63 


1 


1 


145 


13 


• • 


1 


214 


88 


7 


• • 


56 


4 


.♦V 


' T>»^ 


157 


Unitarians 


41 


4 


80 


«6 


63 


2 


1 


167 


9 


2 


6 


83 


6 


2 


15 


72 


Morarians ... 


• • 


• • 


* » 


1 


6 


• « 


2 


9 


8 


8 


• • 


8 


7^ 


«• 1 


6 


28 


Wesleyan Methodists : 


































Original Connexion • 


26 


48 


40 


24 


462 


193 


266 


1062 


231 


626 


838 


442 


1078 


1606 


881 


5497 


New Connexion 


• • 


1 


6 


1 


46 


18 


20 


91 


8 


n 


16 


24 


89 


60 


60 


206 


Primitive 


17 


16 


16 


13 


106 


181 


129 


476 


127 


285 


841 


106 


256 


OQA 

WO 


885 


2395 


Bible Chrietiam 


 


8 


6 


1 


19 


16 


21 


65 


19 


70 


41 


8 


87 


142 


48 


417 


Weeleyan AMocuUion 
Independent Metho- 


4 


7 


4 


• • 


69 


27 


19 


110 


9 


87 


67 


17 


65 


96 


29 


309 


dists - . - 


1 


1 


• • 


• • 


1 


4 


4 


11 




1 


2 






• 4 


2 


9 


WeaHega^ Reformers - 


1 


a 


7 


1 


49 


9 


12 


81 


6 


10 


48 


22 


64 


77 


88 


258 


CalTlnistic Methodists : 


































wash ' 


2 


8 


• • 


4 


69 


83 


10 


116 


84 


70 


41 


20 


809 


176 


00 


712 


Ladg Suntingdon*s 


































Connexion - 


S 


2 


8 


8 


86 


8 


8 


62 


2 


8 


6 


6 


22 


9 


6 


67 


Sandemanians 


1 


• • 


• • 


2 








s 


1 






1 






1 


< 


New Church 


4 


• • 


2 


6 


16 


2 


2 


80 






• • 


11 


• • 

6 


• • 

2 


1 



20 


Brethren . . - 
Isolated Congregations - 
Lutherans 


6 

17 

4 


• • 

16 

• • 


8 
24 

 • 


1 

11 

1 


34 

126 

1 


4 
20 


7 
44 


54 
257 

A 


7 
27 


6 
84 


6 
61 


10 
46 


16 
40 


12 
46 


21 
28 


78 
282 


Prench Protestants . • 


• • 


1 


• • 




2 






a 






• • 


• • 


• * 


•  


• • 


* • 


Beformed Church of the 
















o 


* • 




• • 


• • 


•  


• • 


m • 


• • 


Netherlands 


1 


• • 


• • 










1 


















German Protestant Re- 










• • 








• • 




• • 


• • 


« • 


• • 


• • 


* • 


formers ... 


• • 


• a 


a • 


• • 


1 


• • 


• • 


1 


• • 




•  


 • 


• • 


•  


• . 


»• 


Othes Christian Chb.: 


































Boman Catholics 
Greek Church - 


87 

2 


4 

• • 


, 4 

• • 


70 


100 


1 


64 


270 

2 


60 
1 


10 


5 


179 


25 


4 


17 


800 
1 


German Catholics 


• • 


 • 


 • 




1 






1 






• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


It«lian Beformers 


• • 


1 


• • 










1 




• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Catholic and Apostolic 


















• • 




• • 


* • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


Church , - - - 
lAtter Day Saints 


• • 

10 


• • 

1 


1 
7 


4 


18 

4 


• • 

21 


8 
40 


28 

87 


1 
11 


1 
1 


• • 


* • 

2 


• • 

8 


1 
46 


1 
73 


4 
186 


Jews - - . 


7 


• • 


• • 


7 


16 


 a 


20 


40 


• • 


2 


• • 


• • 

• 


• * 


1 


1 


4 



AlW) WALBg J 



TABULAR RESULTS. 



/ 



;» 



/ 1 



141 



TablbM. 

Compantive view of the frequency with which the various Religious Bodies make use of the 
Aooommodation provided for hy them respectively. [See Report, page 86.)* 





toCi 






Uingt. 


BELIOIOUS 
DElfTOMUIATIQirS. 


«i 








BELIGIOTTS 


!h th« occtfptieA 
beartotlM 
iIKunberofSi 


rroponion per erax. 
which the occupied Sittings 

bevtothe 
total Number of Sittincf. 


BEKOIONATIOKS. 


Moni- 
iBff. 


After- 
noon. 


ing. 


TMid. 


Morn- 
ing. 


After- 
noon. 


ETen- 

in*. 


Total. 


Churdi of Englaad 


47*8 


86*6 


16*2 


83*2 


Pbotkbtaitf Chvbchbs— 
amtUMed. 

OalTlnistio Methodists: 










Scotch Presbyterians r 
Ckwrch qf Scotland - 

United PrethuUrUm 
Church 


60-4 
66*6 


7-0 
16*2 


27*9 
28*1 


28*4 

83*6 


Welsh CaUnnietie Me- 
Modiste ' • 

JLadg Huntingdon's 
Connexion - 


37*6 
64*5 


27*9 
11*3 


69*1 
40*6 


41*5 
38*4 


Prethfterian Chwrch in 
SngUmd - 


55*1 


8.2 


26*1 


29*8 


Sandemanians « - 
New Church • 


46*9 
40*0 


26*8 
19*9 


6*4 
25-6 


26*4 
28*5 


tndependAiits • 

• 


40-1 


21*8 


42*8 


37*9 


Brethren 


30-8 


24*8 


89*9 


31*6 


fisiitistsr 
Oenerdt • • 


26*3 


80*6 


41*7 


85*9 


Isolated Congregations - 


86*4 


23*2 


41*6 


83*4 


Particular 


60-2 


30*1 


46-7 


42*4 


Lutherans « 


44*2 


10*1 


• • 


18*1 


Settentk-Iktif 


6*9 


10*3 


4*1 


7*1 


French Protestants 


40*2 


5*7 


S6*8 


24-1 


1 4Seotth - • - 
y&w GmniMiont Omteral 


25*5 
46-6 


88*7 
29*9 


12*3 
46*9 


25*6 

40*8 


Seformed Church of the 
Netherhmda 


90*0 


«• 


• • 


6*7 


Undefined 


40*9 


26*6 


41*9 


36-1 


German Ph>testant Be- 
formers 


60*0 


• t 


30*0 


30*0 


Society of Friends - 


16*1 


7*0 


1*6 


7*9 


OTHSB CBSlSTIAir Chb.: 










Unitarians • 


41*5 


18-0 


18*5 


24*8 


Boman Catholics 


136*8t 


29*0 


41*3 


68*7 


Ifonyians • 


53*7 


26*6 


36*7 


88*9 


Greek Church « 


82*6 


• • 


«. 


27*5 


'Wesltgran Methodists; 










German Catholics 


166*7 


• « 


66*7 


77*8 


OrigintU Qmnexum • 


34*0 


26*5 


46*1 


86*6 












JVino OiHmexion • 


88*0 


23*8 


40-9 


34*0 


Italian Beformers 


• 
• • 


13*3 


• • 


4*4 


JPHmitive 


24*2 


42*6 


66*7 


41*2 


Catholic and Apostolic 
Church 


42*7 


22*8 


36*4 


33*8 


Sible OhritHant 


22*3 


36*4 


61*8 


86*8 


Latter Bay Saints 


24*4 


37*3 


54*0 


88*6 


W6$le$anAt80ciaiion • 


82*7 


21*4 


41*1 


81*7 












Independent Methodiste 


26*6 
44*9 


67*9 
23*7 


63*4 
66*8 


46*0 
46*0 


Jeu>§ • - • 
Total - 


34*6 


14*2 
81*2 


22*7 


23*8 


We9le$a/n H^ormere • 


46-5 


30*0 


35*6 



* Thli Table may be read thne ;-0ttt of erery 100 sitthigs belonging to the Church of England, there were oeeupied, by attondante,— 
tethemorning|47; in the afternoon. 8fi ; and hi the evening, 16 ; while the total number of nttinga oocupied by ettend^nts m the eonrte 
m the whole day was 88 per eent. of the number which might haTO been occupied if all the chureheB had been open for three serricee. 
«And BO of the other Booiee. In many cases, of eourse, the sittings were not occupied because the buildings were dosed. 

t The apparent axeess of attendants orer sittings hi the morning among the Boouui Catholiee is explained by the faefe that ths 
•gen^Mlly hare letiral MTTiossi for diffinrcnt persons, at that period of the day. 



l^ 



CENSUS, 1851i^JlELIQIOV$ WQJISHIP.. [ENOLANir4V9 WM'P^: 



Table N. 



Number of Persons present at the most numerously attended Services, on* Sunday, 

March 30, 1851. 

■» '■*■ ' ' ' ' » 

IN 5;bgistbation counties and divisions, . 



BEGISTRATIOlir DIVISIONS 

AND 

OOUKTIES. 



=?r 






:maBBpBe 



Fopnladoni 
1861. 

IIF 



Div, 
I. tONDON - - * - - 
II. aOUTH-EASTERN' COUNTIES 

III. SOUTH MIDI4AND COUNTIES 

IV. EASTERN COUNTIES - - 
V. 80UTH-WESTERK COmrTIBS 

VI. WEST MIDLAND COUNTIES 

Vn. NORTH MIDLAND COUNTIES 

VIII. NORTH-WESTEEN COUNTIES 

EC. YORKSHIRE - ^ - - 

X. NORTHERN COUNTIES 

XI. WEI,S9 COUNTIES . - . - 

Division I. 

MiDDiESBX (rar$ <^f) - ~ . . « - 

SUERBT {Paartof) _ _ ^ - - 

KXNT {Part ctf) - - - p. - - 

DiruiOHlI. ^ , 

SUBBFT (fiixfro-Jfetropoliifon) - - - 

Kent {SKtror-MtitrnpoUuin) .. - - 
Sussex ____--- 

Hampshibb ---..« ^ 
Bebkshibe ------ 

Division III. 
Mll>l>LB8BX'(£«tiK»-Jfelrqpolili|ii) - 

Heetfobdshibb - - - - - 

buckinohamshibb - - - - - 

O^POBDBHIBB ------ 

NOBTHAMFTONSHIBl - . . - 

HUNTINODONSHIBE - - - - - 

Bedfobdshire ------ 

Cakbeisoeshij^b - - . - - 

DivisiovIV. 
Essex -------- 

Suffolk ------- 

NOBFOLK - - - ... - - - s- 
P.1VIHQN V« 

WlLTSHIBE ------ 

DOB8ETSHIBB ------ 

Devonsbibb ------ 

COENWALL ------- 

SOKEBSirrsHIBS - - - 9 

Division VT. 
Oloocestbbshibb --.-«, 
Hebefobdshieb - - - - - 

Sheopshibe ------ 

Staffobdshibb -_-,-- 

WOBGESTBltBHIBB • - - - • - • - 
WABWICKSHIB]^ - - _ - - 

DIVISION VII. 
LSTCE8T|eBSHIB|! ^ - - - - 

Rutlandshire ------ 

LiNCOLNSHIBE ------ 

NOTTINOHi^MSHIBB - . - -. - 
DBBBYSBIBE - - - »- 

Division VIII. 
Cheshibb -----,- 
Lahcasbihb ------ 

Division IX* 
"West Riding ------ 

East Riding (iriTH Tobk) - - - 
NoBVH riding - - - -. - - 

Division X. 
DUBHAM ------- 

Nobthum^ebland - - - - - 

cumbebland ----«-•• 

TVestmobland ------ 

Division XI* 
monhoutbshibb - . .^ . - 
South Wales ------ 

NobthWalbs ---«..« 



*«» 



13fiSllff» 



1/^8,386 
1,884,038 
1418^2 
1,803,891 
8088,960 
1^14,638 
8,490^ 

969A86 
1,188,8U 



i^4Si0ai 

482,435 
134,200 

902,521 
486,021 
389,604 
402^18 
199,224 

178,968 
148,660 
170,847 



60,819 
129,805 
19l;B9i 

344430 
336AS6 
488,71« 

240,966 
177/)95 
572,830 
856,641 
456,809 

244^898 

480420 

a84,W7 

24,272 
400,286 
294,880 

428,586 

8/ie7^i 

1,340^)51 
254,358 
184,044 

411,079 

808/W8 

195^488 

58,887 

177.130 
607,456 
404,888 



Cbvnh 

of 
England. 



* 



Protestant 
Dissenters. 



Roqian 
QathoUos. 



2^1,858 



|1VU0»788 



9= 



flttyB88 



Other 
««Ues, 



^ 



AU 
Denomina- 
tions. 



8^798 



 ,>,i"-,ri;. ,t 



376,885 



808,787 
277,732 

815^ 
284,240 
216,062 
106,385 
132,940 



186,331 
806,841 
249^920 
206,830 
381,501 
3^5,940 

278,090 
298,977 
374,820 
141^090 
481492 



6,929 

8,886 

5434 
88,790 

8,860 

118,688 

l80/$68 

17,061 

BfiSS 



5^4 

1^ 
1491 

768 

8,8U 

W» 
851 

8^688 



6^56f828 



TBWtfg. 



M4,n4 

«3^4 
568475 

488,656 
706^8 
785,621 

4oe/»7 

618,039 
[628,508 



197,841 
157,789 
21,255 

47,572 
106^488 
76,881 
924)38 
48496 

^5 
87,426 
44J)43 
56^43 
16,469 
81,218 
49467 

76,808 
100,854 
100,670 

63,726 
53,240 

188^538 
44,919 

116,484 

80^80 
21,659 
55,004 



75^06 

50,907 

6^ 

78,824 

nsjm. 

87,808 

61^430 
822^10 

188,33«1 
8^880 

ssfiaa 

87JB71 
29i604 
86,757 
I8403 

88J45 
69366 
88,780 



137,858 
85,240 
18,223 

15,047 
04,358 

63348 
86,380 

8^ 
81,691 
85,077 
46,471 
16,688 
42,281 

68489 
64484 
74,454 

57,610 
28,910 
08,610 
116,048 
80,514 

76,681 
, 0;766 
89,006 
107,788 
88,601 
54410 

54,236 

0^ 
68488 

61,08; 

68,392 
836,685 

878,280 

5#,7e 

46/ 

66,105 

49407 

20,057 

6,770 

584»U 
868,781 
I78ifi«8 



'. y*"^-' '' -J^?*> ? "-- ' IV -ggs^f ^ 



87,610 
7,068 

lfi4J 

IfiSi 
1,306 

Ires 

8470 



075 
865 
804 

XfiiS 
015 

• • 

50 
870 

1,886 

707 

508 
1^416 




1,083 



g 



406 

301 

40 



8.221 
104,902 

14,060 
768 



4^ 
665 
868 

80 
638 



404 



73 
808 
100 

46 

•g 

227 
140 

438 

428 
176 

480 

>i3ao 

81 

808 
, 850 

887 
1388 

805 
30 

078 H 
l/)70 
168 

768 
8,040 

1,216 

m 



04 

120 
>87 



8tf 

83I4 



867,775 
101362 

68388 
174,78r 
lUJflO 

06^8 
44304 

yQoe 
60311 

7L0B4 

38310 
78781 
81388 

140383 
16^476 
176348 

128372 
83,128 

mi 

108308 

17011700 
8I36S 
06,741 

m 

148387 

107380 

U386 

U83S5 

118375 
101381 

188805 
(W.746 

427,001 
8^806 

111312 

84,761 
40,780 
1I373 



The mode of compiling this Table lias been, to take for erery indiridual church or chapel tha sanies (wfaathar Moniing, AfiemooD, 
or Evening) at which most persons wera prsBent, and make an aggregate fm each of the bodies above mentioBed. In some eases the 
best attendance would be in the Morning, in others, in the Altemoon,ln otiiers, in the Evening. The total thus divided wovld sho«r 
* ' " "  - - - . Tbtke 




attended Dissenters' serrioes hi the evening had worshipped with we Chnrcfi of England in an eaiuer porfion of flie dajr. 



1k4 l,UfM ^IBf 



> 



•* 



3 2044 017 952 946 



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