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iiimiiiniiiii 

3 tias DS7 ■^•^3 las 



CENSUS OF INDIA, 1901. 
VOLUME I. 



INDIA 



ETHNOGRAPHIC APPENDICES. 



H. H. RISLEY, I.C.S.. C.I.E.. 

OFPrCBR OP THE FRBWCM ACAI'EMV. 
CORRGSPOMHNU MBMBSR OF BCRUN ANTItROPOLOtilCAL SCaBTV. 




i 



OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF ?UVEkNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 
1903. 



Price Rs. J or 4s. 6d. 



|CL#i>5TANr9RDj? 

UNIVERSITV 




THi oirr OP 



a 



over- t 



SJV 



rv.d 




• ■. » 



0E7SISUS OF INDIA, 1901 

Volume I. 



INDIA 



ETHNOGEAPHIO APPENDICES. 



Agents for the sale of Books published by the Superintendent of Qovertment Printing, 

India, Calcutta. 



• Iv Englaitd. 

£. A. Abvold, 87» Bedford Street, Strand, London, W. G. 
CoNSTABLX & Co., 2, Whitehall Gardens, London, 8* W. 
Samfsov Low, Mabstov & Con St. Dunstan's Hoose, Fetter 

Lane, London, E. C. 
P. S. Eivo & Sov, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, WestminBter, 

liondon, 8. W< 
LuzAO & Co , 46, Great Bussell Street, London, W. C. 
Eboak Pattl, Tbbhch, TbObvbb & Ca, Charing Cross 

Boad, London, W. C. 
Bbbbabd QuABiTOH, 15, Piooadilly, London, W. 
Williams and Noboatb, Oxford. 
Dbightob Bbll & Co., Cambridge. 



Ebvbst Lbbouz, 28, Rae Bonapftrto, Paris, Fraooe. 
Mabtinus Nijhoff, The Hagne, Holland. 



Ob thb Cohtibbbt. 

B. Fbibdlabdbb & SoHB, 11, Carlstraase, Berlin, Ger- 
many. 
Otto Habbabsowitz, Leipzig, Germany. 
Kabl W. Hibbsbmabb, Leipzig, Germany. 



Ib Ibdla. 
Thaoebb, Spibe & Co., Calcutta and Simla. 
Nbwm AB & Co., Calcutta. 
8; K. Lahzbi & Coo Calcutta. 
B. Cambbat & Co., Calcutta. 
HioaiNBOTHAM & Co., Madras, 
y . Ealtababaxa, Itbb & Co., Madras. 
Thaokbb & Co., Ld., Bombay. 

SUPBBIBTBBDBBT, AMBBIOAB BAPfUI MlSSIOB PbBSS, 

Bangoon. 
Bai Sahib M. Gitlab Sibgh & 8obs, Mofid-i-Am Press, 

Lahore. 
A. J. Combbidgb & Co., Bombay. 
D. B. Tabafobbyala, Sobs & Co., Bombay. 
Badeabai Atxabax 8ackh>b, Bombay. 
G. A. Natbsab & Co., Madrasf 
N. B. Mathxtb, Superintendeafc, Nazir-Kanun Hind Press, 

Allahabad. 



CENSUS OF INDIA, 1901. 
Volume I 



INDIA 



ETHNOGRAPHIC APPENDICES, 

BEING THE DATA UPON WHICH THE CASTE CHAPTER OF THE 
REPORT IS BASED. 



BY 

H. H. EISLET, 1^.8., O.I.E., 

OOBIISPOBPIHa HIMBIX 07 BIUIN jUTTHBOTOUMIOAL MOHTT. 




OALCTDTTA: 

omCB OV TBB SUFEBIBTBIISENT OF GOYEBinCKNT FBINTIKO, IBDIA. 

19Qa 






OAIOUTTA I 
90TSBNXIHT Of IVDIA CSNTBAL PBIHTINO OVVTOB, 

89 HA8TIH08 iTSSlf. 



•:;• 



« « • » 



«; 



110534 



" •• • 

« to ■ • • 

• < 
« • • • • 






• tt • a • 

*. ,«• • • • 

4. » • •, 

J.. 



* •• k 






This volume contains in the form of Appendices the principal data upon 

which the caste chapter in the first volume is hased. In accordance with 

the order of treatment adopted in that chapter the physical evidence has been 

set oat first. It consists of summaries of measurements and diagrammatic 

seriai^ons of the individual data which serve to establish the types. The social 

grouping comes next, followed by a general map locating the main physical 

lypesi and a number of small maps illastrating the distribution of the more 

important tribos and castes. Appendix IV, which occupies the greater part of 

the volume, comprises a number of accounts, derived from various sources, of 

some typical tribes and castes of the various ethnic regions. The selection has 

been made with the object of covering as much ground as possible, and giving 

within a it>oderate compass yet in faiily full detail a description of some of the 

chief constituent elements of the population of India. Last of all are quoted 

at koglit the theories of caste by Mr. Nesfield, Sir Denzil Ibbetson, and 

M. Emile Senart which have been referred to in the main chapter. 

H. H. BISLET. 



J ■ ■■ (.'v 






CONTENTS. 



— 

PA,«li 

APPENDIX I.^AiiTHBo?oxmio Data lto47 

Sen atioTisdf tke'Tarko-Iraniaiil^rpe— Jat .*.*.*, . . ' . , 2 

Do. do. • do. do. Balooh* .*.'.*. .*. . , 3 

Do« do. ' do. do. flir JaU *.'. .*. . \ . 4 

Do. do. • do. • do. Dehwir ..'.*.*.'. . . 5 

Do. do. do. do. Eftkar . .*.','. , . , ^ 

Do. do. do. do, Med . . . ' • . . . . 7 

Sammary of measurements of the Turko-Iianian Ty^es— Westero t^nnjab; North- Weal 

Frontier ; and Baluchistan — In order of Gephalio Index • * • • « . 8 

SeriatloxM of the Indo- Aryan l^pe — Bijpnt •'• ,. . . , 9 

Do. do. do. do. Chnhra • • • • • • • « 10 

Summary of measnrem^nts of the Indo-Aryan Types— Punjab and Bftjpntina— In order 

of Cephalic Index . . • . ' , , . , , * , .11 

Seriations of the Soytbo-Drayidian Trpe— Nigar Brahman 12 

Do. do. do. do. Prabha • . . ' . , , ,18 

Do. do. do. do. Coorg •••..«, 14 
Summary of measurements of the Sojtho-DraTidian Typea^Bombay and Coorg— In 

order of Cephalio Index 15 

Do. do. do. Drayidian Forest nomads in Scytha-DraTidian Tra^t 16 

Do. do. do. Madras-Decoan • . * iq 

Seriations of the Dravidian Type— Vell»ll . . • . . • . .17 

Do. do. do. Mokkuran - . * . • ... . « 18 

Do. .do. -do. 3hil • . « . • * • .19 

Do. do. do. Santftl • .••••... 20 

Do. do. do. Paniyan (Jungle Tribe) . • ' . . , . 2 1 

Summary of measurements of the Drayidian types— In order of Nasal Index— Madias 28 

Da. do. do. do. do. X]SeyIon and Southern India • .23 

Do. do. ' do. ' do. do. Bajputana • • . • « 2^ 

Da do. do. do. do. Chotli Nagpur and Western Fengid • 93 & 24 

Seriations of Aryo-Drayldian Type— Brahman of the United ProTinoes ... 26 

Da do. da ChamAr of the United Proyinoes • • ' . « 26 

Summary of measurements of the Arjo-Drayidian Types- United Frotinces, Bihar and 

Ceylon fin order of Nasal Index) • . . . ' . . 27 

Seriations of the Hongolo-Drayidian Type— Eoohh * . * • . 28 

Do. do. da Brahman of East Bengal* . 29 
Summary of nressurements of the Hopgolo-Drayidian Types— Bengal and Orissa— In 

order of Cephalio Icdex- * 30 

Seriations of the Mongoloid Type— Chakma 81 

Do. do. do. Lepoha . • ... • .32 

Do. do. da Easia . . • • • . , • 88 . 
Summary of measurements of the Mongoloid Type, Bastern Himalaya» Chittagonic Hill 

Tracts, and Assam (in order of Orbito-nasal Index) 84 

Seriations of the Negrito Type— North Andamans « . .86 

Do. da do. South Andamans •••..•• 87 

Summary measurements of the Negrito Types — North and South Andamans ... 38 

Indiyidual measurements of the Negrito-Types, Male Andamans of North Andamans • 39 

Do. da do« do. Female Andamans of North Andamans • 41 

Do. do. do. do. Male Andamans. of Sooth Andamans . 44 

Do. do. do. do. Female Andamans of South Andamans • 46 



APPENDIX IL— Social Statistics . . . • • ... . . . 40—60 

Social grouping of the Turko-Iranian Tract* Baluchistan and North-West Frontier Proyinoe 60. 

Do. do. Indo-Aryan Tract, A jmer-Merwara, the Punjab and Kashmir . 60 

Soy tho-Drayidian Tracty Bombay*. Baroda and *Coorg\ • . 61 

do. do. Lingftyats « 52 

Drayidian Tract, 1 Madras Presidency* 2 Mysore^ 3 Hyderabad, 

4 Trayancore and 6 Cochin ••,•«•• (8 



Do. 


do. 


Do. 


do. 


Da 


do, 



ii 

Pasm 

8oeU Gronpixig of tbe DnTidian Tbot— 1 MadrM» etc., 8 GhoU Nagpor, ete., 8 Central 

Piorinoeti and Beiar • . • 54 

Do. do. Aryo^Dravidian Traot, The United ProTineee and Bihar • 65 

Do. do. Mongolo-DraTidian Traet, Bengal and OriaM • • • • 57 

Do. do. Mongoloid Trac^ AaMon, SiUdm, Kooh Bihar and Hill Tippera . 68 

APPENDIX IIL-MAP8 

Elhnogfaphic Map of India •••••••••• 

Maps Hloflarating the diitrlhation of ieleeied Oaites •••«•• 

Ahir 

Brahman •• ••••••••••• 

Chnhxa and Bhangi •• ••••«••«•• 

Bhils '• 

Chamtr and Mnohi •••••••••••• 

Dom •• ••••••• 

Doflidh • . . • 

Gond •••••••••••••• 

Jftt 

Gola . . . ' 

Gnjar .••••••••.•••• 

JolSha • • • 

Eaibariha and Eewat • • • • • 

Kayagiha «•••••• 

Koli and KcoA ..•:•••••.••• 

Eftpn • 

Eoiri and Kaohh! 

Kmnhftr« •••• •• 

Kormi ••.•••••••••*• 

MalAr 

Marftiha • • • •• • • • • •.• • • • 

Lodha 

Mai .•••.. 

Meo •••• ••• 

NamaBodxa and Pod •.•••• 

Palli 

Pftai . . 

Nftyar 

Faiilyan. • •.••••• 

Pathan •• • •• 

fiajhansiEoeh 

Salad 

Tell and TDi • 

B»ipnt and Ehatri • • 

Santftl 

Vellala 

APPENDIX IV.— Ttpioal Tbibm a>d Oaotis 68 to 280 

1. Of f HB TUBKO-lBAiriAII TbiOT— 

Baloch-Marrie ^ 

Scheme of Internal Stmeture of the Marri Tribe ^ 

Brahni (General Aoconnt) ••• ^ 

Brihai— Mnhammad Shahis • •.* •.•70 

Boheme of Internal Stmotoie of the Niehiri TVihe of Bithnia 78 



2. Of THB Ibdo-Abtih Tbi€T— 

jtt '* 

Sdieme of Internal Stmotore of Che Jits . . • 80 

Bajputa ®^ 

Seheme of Internal Strnctore of the Rijpnta . ... • • • • 84 



8. Of THB SOTTHO-DBATIMAir TbaCT— 

Prahhn . • ....'.•• 8« 

Scheme of Internal Strnctore of the Prahhna .90 

MarathI (proper) • . 82 

Beheme of Internal Stmotare of the Maiithia (proper) .•.;.• 100 
Dcebarta Bmbman IW 



Ul 

8. Or TBI SoTTBo-DsiTiDiiv Ttict—eonU. 

Sahemo of Intenul StirncttiTfl of the Deahkita Btthmani >.>.•• UO 

Eftthl 1» 

Selmne of Intenul Stneton of the Kithu 128 

4. Or no Dbatisjav Tuot— 

ShBius U8 

veiteu lao 

NkjVB .181 

Scheme of Intenel Stniotare of the HtyMe 140 

IihftTii 141 

SebeoH of Inteiul Btraetaie of (be Iibtrle US 

Sutsi us' 

Seheme of Intenul Strnofatn of the SentiUi US 

Bhnmii U0 

Seheme of Internal Straetnre of the Bhnul] IH 

Mnnds 16S 

Seheme of Intcmel Stmetnie of tlie UnadM . < , US 

BhU 18S 

Baheme of Internal StraotDre of the Bhila . IM 

Khuger lOS 

Bebame of Internal StmetDTe of the Ehingtn • • • • • . . US 

6. Or fBi ABTo-DuTiniut Tuor— 

Chomlr 187 

B&bhtn or Rhtiiahir I7d 

Seheme of Inteiiwl Btruetnie of the Bfthhwu V9 

8. Or THI HoHSOLO-DBATIDIUr TBiot — 

BsgtU ^ 

Sobame of tntcmal Strncture of the BSgdle .•..••• • lU 

Btiijt 186 

Scheme of IntamKl StsroetuTQ of the Beidyes ,,,,..>. 187 

Bengal EHhmu 188 

Bohema of Internal Strnetare of tba Bengal Bilbmana IM 

7. Or THi Moxeoiois Timt— 

Efasei 188 

Umbo sot 

Soheme d Internal Btmeture of the Limbu . >M 

Aogimii 207 

ia 811 

Wi Sid 

Lnebd 228 

APPENDIX T.—MoniBM TawBiu or Oini 281 to2Gl 

Mr. J. C. Ntefield 282 

Sir Deniil Ibbet«>n, E.0.8J tU 

H, Smile S«iart MB 



• • 



« t 



APPENDIX I. 



Antliropometric Data. 



SERIATIONS. 



Tnrko-Iranian Type* 

Type Specimen : Jat. 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 

(Cephalle Index.) 

Arerage • . • . • 79-8 

■axtmvm 92 

Hintmun 70 

Range %% 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 

(Nasal Index.) 

Average . , ^ , 68*1 

Maximum . « . ... 84 

Minimnm 42 

Range 42 



RfiLATITE PROMINENCE OF ROOT OF NOSE. 

(Orbito-Nasal Index.) 

Ayerage 125*0 

Maximum 142 

Minimum ..«•.. 104 

Range ••.«•• 89 



IlTBIOBB. 



HEAD. 



YlSr XOVO EBAD8 

(Hyper-dolieho* 
eephalie). 

LOVOHBADi 

(Dolieho- 
eephalie). 

MbDIVX HBAD8 

(MeetHsephalie). 



( Under 70 



{ 
{ 



BBOID EB1D8 

(Braehy-eephalie). 



NOSE. 



Fm voiBS 
(Lepterhine). 



MBDXinC V08B8 

(McBorhine). 



fUnder 60 
60 and nnder 55 
66 and under 60 
60 and under 66 

yfiS and nnder 70 
70 and under 76 
[75 and onder SO 
.80 and nnder 85 



ROOT OF NOSE. 



PlATT-ono 
(Flat). 



} 



Under 110 



ftO«0flO 

(PiwBiBenl). 



Number 

of 
subjects 



70 and under 72*5 • 

72*5 and under 75 . 

76 and under 77'5 • 

77*6 and under 80 . 

'80 and under 82*5 . 

82*5 and under 86 • 

85 and under 87*5 . 

87'5 and over • » 



• • 



/ 110 and under 118 . 

118 and nnder 116 . 
116 and nnder 119 # 

119 and nnder 1S2 • 
1S2 and nnder 126 • 
126 and Qttder UB « 
liSiBienrw • 



2 



6 
18 
17 
82 
18 
6 
2 



2 

8 
21 
32 
17 
15 
2 
8 



2 



2 

6 

11 

U 



10 



Percentage on number of ■ubjects. 

15 20 25 80 



35 



♦ ♦-2 



4 ♦♦♦♦- 



♦^♦♦# 



♦♦-2 



♦♦-2 



♦♦-2 
♦♦♦-8 



♦♦-2 



♦♦♦-8 



—13 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦-!! 



♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦-17 



♦♦♦-18 



♦-21 



♦♦-17 
-15 



♦♦♦♦ 



#!## 



♦ ♦-82 



♦♦-32 



3 
SERIATIONS. 



Tnrko-Iriintan Tjiie. 

Type Specimen i BAUWB, 
ContMtng of Marri, Bugti and Sind, etc,, from the country round Stbi, 



PB0F0RTI0N3 OF HEAD. 


PBOPORTIONS OF NOSE. 


BELAnVE PROMISEKCE OF 
ROOT OF NOSE. 


STATOBB. 


(C«l>ha11e 


iBdCX.) 




Oiwal Index.) 


(Orbtto-Na«al IndM.) 


CJL 


iTerage . 


. M'4 


ATirage 


. 71!-6 


Averse .... 118-4 


ATeimge .... Ul-t 


Hulmam 


. >0 


Hailnnm ... 94 


Mutmnn . . tSS 


Haxlmnm . . 1U4 


BlDtniDn 


. TO 


Hlnlmam ... 67 


ninlmam . . .Ill 


Unltnam . . . lU-l 


Ruwe . 


. XO 


Range 


. ST 


RungB .... IT 


RkDKe .... S4-( 


Ixsiois. 


Number 

of 
■ubjecta. 


Percentage oa number of aubjecti. 
6 10 16 20 36 80 35 




HEAD. 




















Lno BUDS 


( TO »nd under 72B . 


i 


♦-1 


















12 


♦♦♦♦- 


4 














lIiDnnc Hiiss 


r76ind under 77-B . 


88 


♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 


14 










(MwiHMpli^lc). ^77.5»nd-iiidt.r80 . 


62 


1 ' ^ . 


♦♦♦-w 










/80 and under 8SG . 


70 


♦♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦ «♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦-26 






Bs6adbui» 


We Mid under 86 . 


69 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


«♦♦««♦«♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-22 








<Bndve«Fl»U«)- j86..d«Dd.r87-6 . 


81 




♦♦♦-e 
















CeT-6u>d under 90 . 


6 


♦♦-a 


















NOBE. 






















^Onder 60 . 


6 


♦♦-a 
















(LeptorhlaeJ. 


•iCO and unda 66 


41 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦« 


-16 












CeG and under 70 . 


67 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -21 










no »nd under 75 . 


76 




♦*♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-18 






(iHorUne). 


■<76 and under 80 
(eo end under S6 . 


68 
23 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦- 


♦♦«♦♦ 

9 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -21 








BVOUI ItfMIB 

(Platjrblne). 


] 8G and ov« . 


11 


♦♦♦♦- 


4 














BOOT OF KOBE. 




















VUOTID 

(■edlBw}. 


] 110 and ander 119 . 


12 




-6 
















/lis and under lia . 


B6 


♦♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦«♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -21 








I'SO'OTtO 


U16 and under lia . 


63 


♦♦♦«♦ 


#*♦«♦!♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦- 


M 




jU9 and ander 12£ . 


74 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-« 








(iSZandovw . 


86 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-IB 














STiniRE. 






















CcntluetrM. 




















Ebobt 


( nnder 160 . 
•i £'8- 


89 






♦-U 












Bkiaw uxai 


f 160 and under 166 . 
•\ 6' 8"- 6' 6* 


60 


♦♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-IS 










AsonMus 


C 166 and under 170 . 
•\ 6'6'-6'7" 


9* 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦«♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-W 


'ku . 


/ 170 and under 17G . 
) 6' r-B- B* 
>;i7G*iidoVGT . 
( 6'9' 


64 
U 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦#♦ 


♦♦-12 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦- 


24 

\ 




\ . 



8ERIATIONS. 



Tirko- Iranian TyiM). 

Type Specimen : HiR Jats. 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 


PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 


RELATIVE PROMINENCE OF ROOT OF N06 


(Cephalie Index.) 


(Naaal Indca.) 


(Orbito^Naaal Index.) 




AT«rage 81*2 


Ayerage 61*7 


Ayerage . • . • • 


. 12' 


Plfr'giinnin , •96 


■aximnm 75 


■aximnm . • • • t 


• 18' 


Minimvin * ■ .78 




Hinimnm 40 

Range 85 


■Inlmnm 
Range 




• 11 


RttBffA • .28 


A ^ * A 


• %i 








Ihdiobs. 


Knmber 

of 
enbjecte. 


Percentage on nomber of snbjecU. 
6 10 16 80 85 90 86 


HEAD. 

• 








• 












^^.uXUphaUe).}"'**-''-'^" • 


5 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-10 












MiBim BBiDB f««nd«Bdep7r6 . 


6 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-18 












(MeKheephaUe). ^ „,, ^„j ^^^ ^ ^ 


8 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦-17 










/ 80 and under 82'5 . 


9 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 


19 








XsS'S and nnder 86 • 


9 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 


19 








"oS^^imOle). |6-<i-'>«87-6 . 


7 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-16 










Vs^'S and under 90 . 


2 


♦♦♦♦- 


4 














\90nndoTer . 


2 


♦♦♦♦- 


4 














NOSE. 




















/ Under 60 • 


2 


♦♦♦♦- 


4 














XfiO and nnder 55 . 

Fin V08B8 ] 

(Leptorhlne). < 65 uid nnder 60 


4 
11 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-8 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-28 


1 






760 ftnd nnder 65 . 


15 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-88 




V 65 and under 70 • 


8 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-17 










HBi^iirK F08B8 r 70 and nnder 75 . 
(HeMrbine). { 75 wd nnder 80 . 


5 
8 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


—10 




. 








ROOT OF NOSE. 










! 

1 
1 










HUOFIO (Hedlvm) . 110 and nnder 118 . 




♦♦-8 












• 






^118 and nnder 116 • 




♦♦-a 


















116 and nnder 119 . 




♦♦♦♦-|* 














PBO-ono 


119 and nnder 121 . 
122 and nnder 125 , 


11 
16 


♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-« 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


^^^ .^^^ .^^^^— tt^fe 






^128 wdA •fw • 




U 


^ ^ ^ ^^ 




li 


^#♦♦4 


♦♦♦-M 









SERIATION& 



Tnrko-lranlan Type. 

Type Specimen: BALOGh, 
ConsUUng of Marri, Bugti and Bind, ete., from the country round Stbi. 



PBOPORnONa OF HEAD. 


PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 


RELATIVE PttOMlNF-NCE OF 
ROOT OF NOSE. 


STATURE. 




(CephaUo Index.) 




O'Bsal Index.) 


(Orblto-Naeal Index.) 




CJfc 


knnge .... 80-1 


Axersg* 




. la-B 


AverBgo .... ltS-1 


ATerage . 


. UT-a 


■ulmnM ... SO 


Buimam 


. Si 


Hailranm . . . liS 


■aximnm 


. ISM 


Hinlmam ... TO 


Etnlmnm 


. GT 


Hlnlmnio . . .111 


Xlnlnam 


. isa-i 


BMXgt .... 10 


Bange 




. 37 


Range .... IT 


RuiKe . . . 


. li-i 


Irsiois. 


Nnmber 

of 
■object.. 


PercenUge on number of subject.. 
E 10 IS SO 35 30 35 


HEAD. 




















LonuiDI f 70 »nd under 72B . 


* 

la 


♦-1 
♦♦♦♦- 


4 














M^mn...... r76.nd.„d.r77-6 . 


S8 


♦♦♦♦♦)♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦- 


u 










(«««^phal.c). ^„.6,„dnud.rS0 . 


62 




***** 


***-» 








/SOsnd under 82-6 . 


70 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


***** 


***** 


♦-26 






B.0^.1U.. y2 5.„..„d«r85 . 


G9 
21 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦-8 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


***** 


**->! 








C87-6«nd under 90 . 


G 


♦♦-2 
















KOBE. 




















f Under 60 


6 


♦♦-2 
















'^^^.). ]60.nd..d«6fi . 


41 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


—16 










(6Gandni>der70 


67 


♦ #**^'4#^#* 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




*-!l 








r70uidniid8r75 . 


76 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦« 


♦♦««♦ 


***** 


***** 


♦♦♦-« 






"S^rS* ]"— ^""O 


68 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦« 


♦«♦♦♦ 


***** 


*-21 








(eOinduPderSG . 


23 




♦♦♦♦- 


9 












Bboid HMBb ^B6»ndDTer . 
(PUtjrUiie). j oo «! w 


11 


♦ ♦♦♦- 


4 














BOOT OF NOSE. 




















"^Sh. ]"0"an„derll8 . 


12 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-6 














/lis «nd under Hi) . 


66 


«♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


#♦♦♦« 


***** 


*-21 








\ll6 and Qnder lia . 


83 


♦ ♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦«♦ 




***** 




****- 


u 


(PniinliiMit). Jlie and under 128 . 


74 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


***** 


***** 


♦♦-w 






(iBBundoTtt . 


86 


♦♦«♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-18 












STATCBE. 




















Centlnetri*. 




















^^ J Under 160 . 


29 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


»♦♦♦♦ 


♦-11 












.^ 060 and under 166 . 


GO 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




***-lB 










riee and nndw 170 . 


S4 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 






***** 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


***** 


-' 


(■170aDdnndBrl?6 . 

TAW . . -JiTBandover . . 
( 6'9' 


64 
84 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦*♦ 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦« 

♦♦-12 


***** 

\ 


****- 

\ 


34 


\ 


\__ 



SERIATIONS. 



TnrKo-Iranian Type. 

Type Specimen : KlKiE« 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 

(Cepbalio Index.) 

Average • • • • 81*9 

Haximum • • .90 

Hlnlmum • • .74 

Range • • • .16 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 

(Nasal Index.) 

Average . • • • 69*6 

» • • • 

Maximum . . .88 

• » • 

Minimum • • .60 

• • ■ 

Range . • .28 



RELATIVE PROMINENCE OF 
ROOT OF NOSE. 

(Orbito-Nasal Index.) 
Average . . • • 116*1 

Maximum « 124 

Minimum • • .107 

Range ^^ ... 17 



STATURE. 



Average. 
Maximum 

Mtwimniii 

Range 



CM. 
. 168*8 
. 188*S 
• 157*0 
. 81tS 



IVDIOBS. 



HEAD. 

hoM HRAD3 ) ^^^^^ yg 



(Dolidio-cephalio). C 



Mbdixtv hbads 
(Meso-eephalie). 



^ 76 and under 77*5 

( 77*5 and under 80 

.80 and under 82-5 

Bboad bbadb j®2^ *"^ '^'^^^ ^^ 

(Brachy^ephalic). ^gg ^^^ ^^^ g^.g 

87*5 and over . 



NOSE. 



FlKB V08XB 

(Leptorhine). 



MlDimC KOSBS 

(Metorhine). 



Bboad vobbs 
(Platyrliino). 



i Under 65 « 
65 and nndor 70 
70 and under 75 
75 and under 80 
.80 and under 85 

85 and over • 



ROOT OF NOSE. 



PlATT-OPIO 

(Flat). 

Mbsopio 
(Medium). 



} Under 110 



Pno-oFio 
(Prominent). 



I 



% 

I 110 and under 113 

US and under 116 
|116 and under 119 
|ll9 and under 122 

122 and over » 



Shobt 

Bbiowubav 

asotimbav 

Tasl 



Number 

of 
subjects, 



STATURE. 
Centimetres. 

C Under 160 • 

C 160 and under 165 • 

C 165 and under 170 • 
•I 6'5*-.6'7«' 

i 170 and under 17i . 
maud 



2 

6 

18- 
40 
22 
19 

5 



22 
88 
88 
10 
8 



13 

33 

36 

20 

8 



9 
25 
84 

86 

9 



10 



Percentage on number of subjects. 

15 20 25 80 



85 



♦♦-2 



♦♦♦♦-4 



—5 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦-1 



2 



♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦-7 



♦-16 



-17 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
9 



-12 



♦♦♦♦♦ 



-20 



—90 



♦ -86 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦-18 



♦ ♦♦♦-84 



20 



♦♦♦-88 



♦♦♦♦♦ 



29 
♦♦-82 



-80 



8ERIAT10r4S. 



Tnrko-Iranian Type. 

Type Specimen t Hsd. 



irita 



PROPOBTIimS OF HEAD. 
(Cephmlie Isdex.) 



iTerage 



■tMlM 



820 
92 
7S 
20 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 
* (Nasal Index.) 



RELATITE PROEINENCE OP ROOT OP NOSE. 



Average 



$81 
OS 



lUngt 



80 



(Orbito*Natal Index.) 



Ayerage 
Haximnm 

MtiilMiiiH>l 

Range 



1S7-8 
140 
118 
27 



Imdvoeb, 



HEAD. 

LOKGHBIDO r70 and under 72-6 

(DoUekoH^epkaUe). ^^^.g ^^ ^^^ ^^ 



Mimric BBA]>8 
(Heao-eephalle), 



• C77 



BboAB B1AD8 

(Hraeky-eephalle}. 



75 and nnder 77^6 
5 and nndcr 80 
80 and under 82*5 



82'5 and nnder 85 
85 and nndcr 87'5 
87'6 and over • 



Pm V08X8 

(LeplorliiBe). 



MxDiinc vons 
(HeaorliiBe). 



NOSE. 

50 and nnder 55 • 

|55 and nnder 60 • 

|60 and nnder 65 > 

.65 and nnder 70 • 

70 and under 76 • 

75 and nnder 8Q • 

80 and under 85 • 



BsdAD »oiii "> an .„ , ^^^ 

(PlmtjrhlBe). ] 85 and over 



ROOT OP NOSE. 



MiOOPBIO 

(Hedinm). 



1 110 and under 113 



; 118 nnd under 116 
116 and under 119 
119 and under 122 



Fio-ono 
(PlraaiiBeni) 



• 



122 and nndcr 125 
125 and nnder 128 
128 and nnder 181 
181 and 'under 184 
184 and under 187 
\l87 and over • 



Number 

of 
inbjects. 



1 

1 

5 

18 

25 

18 

10 

6 



6 
8 
11 
24 
19 
12 
2 

2 



1 
8 
8 

14 

10 

^ 

4 

2 



10 



Percentage on number of i nbjoctt. 
15 20 23 



80 



35 



♦ -1 
♦-1 



♦ -6 



♦~16 



-13 



♦♦♦-8 



♦♦♦-3 



♦♦♦-3 



-7 



14 



♦♦♦-23 



♦♦-2 



♦♦-2 



♦♦♦-3 



-15 



-32 



♦♦♦♦♦•80 
24 



14 
14 



-7 



♦♦-17 
♦ -16 



-25 





n 




■nmmiaiH 




ss 


ssss 


s 


2 


3 


ssgg ag 


gssgs 


2333 = 




■wnBimH 




as 


2ssa 


S 


S 


SS 


sssa gg 


sssss 


|ags g 




■eSneiY 




sS 


SsSS 




1 


1 


iisi is 


iilil 








rum oitqiMH 
■(as* 

I»Il(lJO|BIUBHa 




IS 


isii 


S 


1 


3 


sill ii 


iilii 


ea^^n ^ 






11 


ooooo 

§SS3 


s 


1 


s 


iisS is 


ilill 


ISIS s 




1 


■mnnnaiH 




ii 


lili 






! 


■ ii| eI 


:i||: 


II : I 




•nininiiflH 




11 


liil 


: 


i 


: 


■m :| 


•Sll: 


ill : : 


^ 


■•SwiMT 




S| 


Bill 


: 


: 




^^sl ^i 


^lli^ 


■11= I 


1 


1 

r 


5 


■BuminiH 




ss 


SSfeS 


« 


S 


S 


ssss ss 


SS8S2 


S3iS S 




■mnmmn 




8S 


ggssg 


s 


g 


SS 


ssss &s 


giSSS 


sssss s 


1 


■a^Msiy 




SI 


IBIi 


s 


3 


1 


SSIa Ii 


sIgiS 




% 


1 

1 

1 


s 


•mnminiH 




iSS 


Sfe^s 


s 


S 


JS 


sssss; Ss; 


ggssa 


x^ss s 


1 






SS 


ssss 


t 


S 


« 


SS«3 SSI 


sssss 


SS5S s 


5 


■aSflioAv 


Eh 

s 

s 

g 


POT 


Ills 


i 


^ 


t~ 


*isi ss 


IliSi 


sSll a 


1 


n 


-mnm,i,.„ 


as 

Ii 
as 


assfe 
ssss 

51SS 
Esaa 

ssss 

HIS 


3 


5 


3 


■33SS SS 


sssss 


5SSS s 


'tanramn 


S 


i 


s 


gsss gs 


gss^g 


gssg a 


n 


■a2W94¥ 


5-1 


't- 
is 


i 


Sill II 


feSISI 


SSSS 8 


ii 


a 


•mtlLDIDIH 


1 s 


s 


s 


ssgg sa 


gggga 


gaas s 






1 • 


s 


s 


SS88 883 


sas8s 


asss s 


...„„. 




£ 


g 


SISI IS 


S2SS^ 




1 1 


o 

S 
n 


'I 


■mnmimK 


gs 


3333 


S 


s 


S 


sISs 11 


gggsg 


gggg 3 


j 


•muraiMK 


ss 


sggg 


s 


1 


.o 


SSSS |g 


sssji 


ggss 1 


■eAusiv 




IS 


ilii 


1 


N 


a 


sill 11 


IlisI 


nil 1 


-it 






SS 


asss 


s 


g 


s 


siss la 


Issaa 


SsSH S 


1 
s 


■mnoni»K 




Ii 


SiSi 


s 


i 


s 


isSi Si 


iSSSi 


sags s 


■b3b1»*y 




Si 


1115 


i 


9 


g 


ilii II 


nils 


gSIs 1 


S 


! 






•1 '■% 
|5fl|ll 


1 
s 


1^ ■■■|ii ■fill 


prill" 




1 




s 
JJ 


4: 


13' 


5 


|SS3 Is 

2111 21 


....I 
llsll 


Hi* 




si 

9° 




II 


III! 


i 


U 
1! 


la 11 







SERIATIONS. 



Indo-Aryan T^pe. 

Tjiie gpeclmeii ; Bajput. 



FBOPORTIONS OP HEAI*. 
(CepluLlle iBdM.) 


PROFOBTIONS OF NOSE. 
(Nual Index.) 


RELATIVE PROMINESCB OF 

ROOT OF NOSE. 

(Orblt»-NMUil Index.) 


STATURE. 


ca. 


Irmgti 


. 7«-* 


ATWBge 


. 7I*« 


ATenwe .... Ill-B 


ATerage 


. m-8 


■UIMU 


. SI 


■axluDn . . .SI 


HnxfniBm . lU 


MuiuaiB 


. IK-I 


■IllUBM 


. M 




. 63 


■Inlmam . .101 


■iBlBBBi 


. lU-t 


Buge . 


. 11 


IUn«« 


. 38 


Ruge . . . . « 


B.W . . . 


. n 


ITOIOBB. 


;Mnmber 

of 
inbiect* 


Feraentags on nosiba- of mbjecU. 
6 10 15 20 85 80 W 




HEID. 




















TnT vom HBUB 
cephillc). 


V Under M . 


71 


♦♦♦♦« 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


**-" 










LoHamuDB 


(70«.dnnder7a-6 


lei 




♦ ♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦'♦♦♦♦♦ 




♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦-J0 


•"•""■"^f^^in-s^d.ntejj . 


109 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦'♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦—26 






VBoroM BBIDB 


f 76 ftDd under 776 


66 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




-16 












UJ-Bw.dmider80. 


IS 




-6 














■^'.".S'SJ....*!"--'- • ■ 


6 


*-** 


















KOBE, 






















/UnddCO . 


11 


♦ ♦♦-8 
















nnvoni 


^SO BDd nndcT eS . 


89 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦-9 














(es kndnndarTO * 


88 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-a 










/70»nd under 7S . 


18A 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦♦♦[♦♦•♦^ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-M 




UlDIUlI ItOIH 


•^75 kod under 80 . 
6o«ndnodet86 . 


79 
M 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦[♦-ii 


♦ ♦♦♦- 


ID 








Bbou) xotu 
(PUtTTklBe). 


1 86 ud eier . 


IS 


♦♦♦-s 
















BOOT OF NOBE. 




















pLiTi-ono 
(Fl«t). 


jUoderUO . ^ . 


' 


♦-1 
















(■«dlmB). 


] 110 ud DiidcT lis 


E6 


♦ ♦♦*♦ 


♦ -G 
















.113M)dnad«113 


90 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦-!! 








pfto-orio 


1116 and nnder 119 


114 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦- 


u 


{PrMOHnt). 


^UQftndandcrlaj 
>-l!B and over 

9TATDBE. 


103 
66 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦-13 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦- 


21 






Ceutlmetrt*- 




















Abotx mux. 


n66«ndoiiderl70 |^ 


68 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


.♦♦- 


14 












/ITOandnnder 176 . 
j 6'7'-5'9" 


160 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦«♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-» 


T*M. 


J 17B .nd nntUr 180 


IS6 
47 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦•♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-n 




180 and 0»»r 
\. B-ll-mdover. 


♦ •♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦,♦-11 













16 

6ERIATIONS. 



Indo-Aryan Type. 

Type Specimen : Chuhra. 



PROPORTIONS ^F HEAD. 

(Cephalic Index.) 

ATerage .... 78*1 
■axlmvin .82 
■iniinvm • • ttS 
Range 14 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 



(Nasal Index.) 



Average 
Haximnm 
Hinlmnm 
Range. 



. 76*2 

. 94 

. 60 

• 84 



RELATIVE PROMINENCE OF 
ROOT OF NOSE. 
(Orbito-Nasal Index.) 
Average . • • . 115*8' 

Maximum . 128 

Minimnm . 108 

Range . • . • . 15 



STATURE. 



ATferage 
Maximum 
Minimnm 
Range .. 



C\M. 

168-6 
. 180*8 
. 152«4 

. 2T-9 



IlTDIOBS. 



HEAD. 
Vbbt lovo 

cephalle). 



LOK« HBAD8 

(Doliobo- 
eephalie) 



m no 

• ( 72- 

r 

(77-1 



70 and under 72*5 . 
5 4nd nnder 76 . 



HiDimc BIAD8 ( 75 and under 77*5 . 
(Meso^epha- 
lie). ( 77*5 and nnder 80 . 



Bboab bsadb 

(Brachy- • 

eephalie)* 



1 



80 and over 



NOSE. 



' nl»fSfrVta«^ 5 60 and under 66 
(Leptorhine). ^ gg ^^ ^^^^ ^0 



MXDTVM V0SB8 

(Meeorhiiie). 



f70 
J75 
(.80 



70 and nnder 76 
and under 80 
and under 85 



BbOAP V0898 

(Platjrhine) 



.} 



85 and oyer 



BOOT OF NOSE. 



_ • 

PlATT-OFIO 

(Flal). 

MB8-ono 
(Medium)* 

Pbo-opio 
(Promiuent)i 



> Under 110 • 

j 110 and uudeir 113 

118 and underlie 
116 and nnder 119 

119 and under 122 
122 and ojet , 



STATURE. 
Centimetres. 



Bbobt . 

BiLOW MBAK 
ABOTB MBAV 



{Under 160 . 
6' 8" 

( 160 and nnder 166 

1166 and nnder 170 
5' 6"- 6' 7" 



TaU 




/ 



IROnnd.mrer. 

rii* 




8 



1 
3 

7 

31 
12 

20 



3 



8 



17 

26 

26 

7 

1 



8 
17 
24 
25 



6 



10 



Percentage on number of Bubjccts. 
15 201 25 30 



36 



40 



-10 



♦♦♦♦♦♦-6 



♦-1 



♦-1 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦--* 



♦-1 



-8 



♦♦♦-• 



--t 



-10 



—26 



-22 



-15 



♦—36 



♦-21 



♦ -21 



-25 



f 



83 
33 



-80 



♦-81 



♦ ♦-42 






II 



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H 

z 
111 

s 

UJ 

CO 

i < 
til 

; s 

Ll 

o 

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s 
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3 
10 



^ I 
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a 
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■niQinin.ji 


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39 

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8 


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3 




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s 


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s 


£ 


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s 


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s 


■eSiMAT 


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s 


9 




1 


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is 


TonmioiH 


s 


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8 


s 


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t 
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a 


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S 


a 


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■OSVMV 


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1 


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3 


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s 


S 


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§ 


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% 


1 


1 


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1 


s 


s 


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1 


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1 

1 


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5 


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a 


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s 


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§ 


§ 


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s. 


a 





r 


■ 


SERIATIONS. 




1 


1 


1 


1 




Scytho-Dravidian Type. ^^^^^^^| 




Tjiw Siiecimen : Nag.ui BRAnHAif. 


H (Ceplulle iBdex.) 


PROPORTIONS OF NOSB. 
(Nual Index.) 


RELATIVE PHOaiNESCE OF 

BOOT OF NOSE. 

(Orblto-KuMl Indei.) 


STATURE. 

CM. 


H^T«r.Ce .... TB-I 


ATerage .... 7M 


AveraKO ... Iia-7 


ATcrags . . . 1044 


^UftilMBm . . . M 


Xuimnn . . . » Kaxlinum . I!« 


■ulmnBi . . . m-t' 


^ KlBlmnn .71 


Mlnlmam . .67 mnlmnia . . .108 


KUUnBin . IBI4 


RkBge .... IB 


R<u>ffe 


. S3 Rang la 


R>i>se ... «T'5' 


^H IroicEs. 


Number 

ot 
(object* . 


Pwccutage on □umljer of .objecU. 


■ 


G 10 IS !0 EG 80 8B 


H BEAD. 






















4 
11 


♦ ♦♦♦- 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


***** 


♦ -U 










j 




13 


♦ ♦♦♦♦'♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-IS 










^J 


£6 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -26 




^M 


/■BOx-duDdeiSa-G . 


ii 


«♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-22 






^H 


li«.„..u,. W"^."k,« . 


10 

u 


***»* 
»»*** 


***** 


-10 

♦ -1I 










fl 


^k (sT-fiMdovef . 


a 


♦ ♦♦-3 














^1 


^P BoeE. 


















^M 


(UptcrUln.). l8I.«d.«d.p70 . 


la 






***-u 










^H 


80 


• **»* 


***** 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


-10 






^H 


^70«iduuaer7e . 


So 


***** 


♦ *«•* 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


-«6 




^H 


"srs"! «.««"»'"» . 


m 




***** 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -18 








^1 


(go ud iuid«r 86 


20 




• «♦*« 


♦♦♦♦♦ 




-80 






^H 


Bboid MoaBB ■( ae ,od over 


6 


***** 


♦-6 












H 


^^ ROOT OF NOSE. 


















H 


^KM)"'' j 107 »nd uuder 110 . 


2 


♦ ♦-» 














.H 


"•(V^U-). jnO«>dnnd«.I8 . 


9 


***** 


♦ ♦♦♦- 


9 










H 


pis »nd under 116 . 


23 


********** 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




♦ ♦♦♦- 


!9 


^^1 


U16 kud under 119 . 


3* 


***** 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦- 


M^^^l 


(proBiloenl). Via .ud under IK . 


21 


***** 


*»*♦* 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦—SI 






^H 


(l82Mdo»er . 


t 


***** 


-G 












^M 


STATURE. 


















^M 


Cemtlmetres. 


















^H 


t -DndDT 156 . 
f 6'1- 


3 


***-s 














^M 


hnw . . A 

"^ / 155 »nd tnd.r 160 . 
*. 6' 1'— 6" S» 


23 


***** 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-23 






H 


__ ( 160 »nd under 166 . 


S3 


***** 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦-» 


H 


f 165 »nd unrlcr 170 . 
Aton «*» . • J 6' 6--6' J* 


ii 




♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦-22 






^M 


-170.i.antidCTl76 . 

f B'j--6'a- 


16 




**«*• 




♦ -18 








H 


' ' ■/ 175 Md over 


S 


***-> 














V 





18 
8ERIATION8. 



Type Speeinen i PiiBHD. 



PROPORTIONS OP HEAD. 

(CephsUe Index.) 

ATensB TS-S 



Wnlmnm 
RnWB . 



TO 



PROPORTtOIiS OP NOSE. 
(Noul Index.) 
Artinge TS-8 

■Kximatn as 

Klnlmna ... 60 
Bangn . ... Si 



(OrbiUfKaul Index.) 
Average llt-l 



■Inlnium 
Range . 



Itl*4 



Pfrcentage on noinber of lubjecti. 



HEAD. 

( 70 and under 7S'S . 

''■ (Ta-GandanderTG . 

r 76 and under iT'S . 

( 77'G and under 80 . 

BO and under 82-6 . 

\ e2'5 iind nnder SS . 

''* i 85 and nndeT 8. -5 . 

^ 87B and oyer . 




ROOT OF NOSE. 



f Under lOi 
( 107 and n 



nnder 110 
1 110 and nnder 113 
^113 and under 116 
-^IIG and under 119 
dig and nnder ISS 



Bbu>w mxui 



nATUBE. 

CeBtlinetTes. 

^Dnder IGS 

. .1 '■'■ 

/ tEG.nd UDdcT I 
^ 6' 1'— 6' 3" 

( 160 .nd nndn 1 
• I 6' 8"— 6' 6' 

( ISG Md Dndef 1 
"t 6-B»— 6'r 

flTO and iiiwin 1 
6' 7"—*' »• 
17S>ndwm . 



♦♦♦-S 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

««*♦♦*«••♦ 
****•«**«♦ 



♦♦♦-11 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦ ♦♦♦♦ 



I 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 

♦♦-a 



♦♦♦♦♦♦-8 
♦♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 

♦♦♦♦♦-5 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦' 
♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦:♦♦♦♦♦< 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦« 

♦♦♦♦♦-> 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 

♦♦- 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦- 

♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦*♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-« 

♦♦-! 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦- 
♦ ♦♦-!» 



♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-» 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦«♦- 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦« 



♦♦♦♦♦♦-n 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦« 



14 
SERIATIONS. 



Scytho-Dravldlan Type. 
Type Specimen : CooBfl. 



PROFORTiONS OF HEAD. 
(Cephalic Index.) 
Average . . , . IB-I 
■axlmnnt ,89 

MlnlmBm . 
Banto 



. 14 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 

(NmbI Index.) 

IveFngB .... 7 



Mlviniiiii&, 



RELATITE PBOMWESCE OP 
ROOT OF NOSE. 
(Orbito-Nainl Index.) 

Average . ItO 

Baxlaiau 130 

Hlnlmnm .... 108 
Range . . . , tl 



■aJUmnm 
■in Imam 



■ lU 

.lU 



FercenUga on Qamber of lubjecta. 



BbOjld hosbs 
(PUtjrUne). 



(Flftt). 



I 72'fi aad under 76 
C 76 »nd nnder 77'6 
I 77-6 ind under 80 
/ SOanduDder g2-G 
J B2'C and under 96 



I 60 and under 06 
( 66 and under 70 
^ 70 and under 76 
< 76 and under GO 
>, SO and aad«r 86 

] 86 and over . 



j 110 and nnder lla 

/lis and undar 116 
I 116 and nndor 119 



(Prominent}. 




122 and under 125 
IIG and nnder IE8 
USandcrer . 




STATURE. 






Smokt . 


r Under ISO 
■ ■{ B'8- 


Bsiow MiiH 


t leOandnndfrlBB 
■ i 6'3"-6'6- 


AnoTi MBM 


f 166 ai.d nudfr 170 
■ i 6' 6"~6' 7- 




/170«idnndcrI76 
I 6' r- B' 9" 


Uis 


J 176andvndeTl80 
■ •;] 6'8"-6']l- 






IWudover . 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
***** 



***** 
***** 

***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 

***-s 



***-» 

***** 
***** 
***** 

***** 
***** 
***** 



***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 



***** 

***** 



***** 
♦*** 

*-« 
***** 
***** 
***** 



***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 
* 



***** 

***** 
***** 
***** 



***** 
***** 



****- 

*****< 

****- " 

*- 



***** 
***** 
***** 



***** 
***** 
**** 



***-!» 
***** 
***** 
***** 

**-II 



***** 
***** 
***** 
***** 



***** 

***** 



***** 
***** 



*--31 
***** - 



****** 

-16 
*****4 



***** 
***** 



**-M 
•****< 



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8 


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1 


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S 


8 


a 


3 


s 


3 


S 


i 


S 


g 


S 


2 




-•Sus^T 


s 


1 


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17 
SERIATIONS. 



DraTldlun Type: 8. India. 

Type Speelmfln : TbllaiI (Good Sndra). 



FROPORTIOXS OF HEAD. 
(Cfpli»He Index.) 


PltOPtiRTlOKS OF NOSE. 
(<lB>al Index.) 


STATURE. 




iTerxe I4-I 


ATWftge TS-I 


Average 


. 1U<4 


MulMma Bl-I 


■ulBBm Bl-e 




. 17B-8 


UBlman ST-S 


MiBlmiUD ao-s 


linlmam 


. lBl-1 


Kag« IS-S 


Rftntre )0>I 


Bwise 


IB'S 


NDmb«T 


Percuitage on Dnmlw of nbjecU. 
e 10 16 20 S6 SO 85 


* 




















VOY »TO HUH ■> 

(HTper-doIicho. \ Under 70 
eephallc). ) 


X 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


— B 














Lone HBAoa ( 70 and under 72-S . 


IB ♦♦♦«♦ 


***** «*«♦«'*♦•*•'♦•**« *•*•*-> 1 






**••*****«•*••*****• ******«-3: 




Mmnrn BiABB ( 75 »nd nndor 77-6 . , 8 ,♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦;♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦-2s 1 




{■«».«pluillc). {,:.5„d»ndereO . 


8 .♦♦♦«♦ 


-6 












BBMD HItSB ] 

(Brncb]'. [ SO uid Biider 82-6 . 


* 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


—6 














NOBE. 




















lU^^^^i. i^'"'"'" 


U 


♦♦♦♦* 


***** 


♦**•« 


***** 


***** 


♦ ♦♦«♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


-,-6 


1I.D1I7K XnBM (70»'innd«7B . 


10 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


***** 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 




***** 


-26 I 




<"««"^"*)- i:6»ndnndcrB0 . 


18 


♦♦♦♦♦ 










♦♦♦♦♦-ao 




Bbo«d ao«ii ( ^^ '"^ '"'^"" **• 


s 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


***-> 














(Pl.trrl.lne). ioo.ndnnd.rDB . 


1 


♦♦-s 
















BTilHRE. 




















I Under 16S 
\ 6' 1- 

h6B»ndnadtrl60 . 
t 6' I'- 5' B- 


3 


•**«* 


«♦-> 








' 




11 


***** 


««•*• 


• *♦«« 


***** 


***** 


♦ ♦♦-28 

1 




Bmnr miv .^ 6- 8"-6- 6" 


12 


***** 


*•*•* 


***•* 


***** 




♦♦«♦♦ 


-80 






11 


***** 


*•«*• 


***** 


***** 


***** 


♦♦♦-ss 






-,_ 1 170«ido»w . 


8 


***** 


♦♦-» 















18 
SERIATIONS. 



DraYMian Type : 8. India. 

Type Specimen : Hukkutah, 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 



(CephoUe Index.) 



iTerage 
Maxtmwm • 
MInlMBw . 



. 75*1 
. 8S«5 



68*6 
I4«» 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 

(Nasal Index.) 

ATerae^e ..•••. 81*0 

Haximnm •,...• 104*8 

Hlnimnm ....«• 88*5 

Range • . • « • t 48*8 



Arerage « 

Mlnlmnm 
Range 



STATURE. 



• • 



• • • 



• • • • 



C. M 
18S*] 

I77*i 
81- 



IlTDIOIS. 



HEAD. 



VlBT lOVa HB1D8 

(Hyper-dolicho- 
eephalic). 

LOHO HBADS 

(Dolicho- 
eephalic). 

Mbdium heads 
(Heso-ceplialio)« 

BnOAD BBAD8 

(Braeliy- 
eephallo). 



i Under 70 



I 

I 



70 and under 72*6 
72*5 and nnder 75 
f 75 and nnder 77*5 
77*5 and nnder 80 
80 and nnder 82*5 
82'5 and nnder 86 



NOSE. 



Fnri Kos BB 
(Leptorhine). 



IIBBIUX 1I08B8 

(Mesorhine). 



i Under 70 



Bboap mosbs 
(Platyrhine), 



70 and nnder 76 
75 and nnder 80 
,80 and nnder 85 
^ 85 and nnder 90 
1 90 and nnder 95 
195 and nnder 100 
100 and over . 



Shobt 



BbijOW mbah 



ABOfTlMlAV 



•^ • 



STATURE. 

Centimetres, 
r Under 155 

1 155 and nnder 160 
6' r- 6' S" 

fieO and nnder 166 
6' r'-s' y 

{166 and nndrr 190 
r 8^-6' r 

•I rr 



Nnmber 

of 
subjects. 



7 

10 

12 

8 

1 

1 



6 
9 
11 
6 
2 
1 
2 



2 

9 

18 



10 



Percentage on number of subjects. 
16 20 26 



85 



♦♦♦-8 



-2 
2 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦-7 



♦♦♦♦♦'-5 



♦♦-2 



—5 



♦♦♦-18 



—15 



-16 




♦♦♦♦♦ -25 



-20 



♦♦♦-28 



♦♦♦-28 



—80 



-80 



•^' 



19 
SERIATIONS. 



Prarldkiii Type: Rajpntana. 
Type Specimen : Bhil. 



PBOFORItOHB OF HEAD. 
(Cepfa»Ue iBdu.) 



PROPOBTIOHS OF NOSE. 

(Maaal IndBS.) 

Armge M-1 

■ kxlmBm lOB 

■IniAaiB H 

Buwa U 



STATURE. 

lucloiiiin . 
llnlmnm . . . 



TnT io«a HX1I4 ) 

(B7P«r-dollek*- > under 70 



(Dolleho- 
MphAlle). 



CIO tad Doder 72'6 
( 7)l'6 and Doder 76 
»77-6 
dnnder SO 
( 8G and nnder Si-b 
I2'G ftnd under 86 



{ 76 and wu 
'■*-t77-S»ndni 
rSGai 



PerMnt^e on number of lubjeeta. 



|Duder70 . 
/70aDdnDdcr7& ■ 
<76 uid nnder 80 . 
(so ud under 8C . 



fiSn 



»90 



>90 ukd nnder M . 
]PB and under 100 



f 170 Mi «*<r 



♦♦-B 

♦♦«♦♦]♦♦♦♦♦! 
♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦{♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 
»♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦■•♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦-» 
♦♦♦♦- 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«♦♦ 



43 ♦♦♦♦♦!«♦♦♦« ♦«♦«« 

ft ♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

4S ♦♦♦♦♦«♦♦♦♦'♦♦♦♦♦ 
2D ♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦« 

16. «^«««;«^4-s 
» ♦♦- 



♦♦♦-8 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦-11 



♦♦♦♦♦♦-3» 

♦♦♦♦♦;♦♦♦♦♦,♦- 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-M 

U 



.—17 
♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-tt 



20 

SERIATI0N8 



Draftdian Type: Chota Na^par* 

Type Specimen : Santal. 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 
(Cephalie Index.) 

Areriiffe • • • • 76*1 

■axlmnm 88 

HiBimiim .69 

Rai«6 .... 19 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 

(Nasal Index.) 

ATeraffe . • . ' . . • 88*8 

Haximnm ••.... 110 

Hinimnm 74 

Range S6 



STATURE. 

CI 

Average . . . Itl 

Maxln^nm ....•• 171 
Hlnimiim . .. . • • ISl 
Range. 8< 



IVDICBS. 



Kumber 

of 
•abjectt. 



HEAD. 

VSBT LOKO HBADB ) 

(HypeMoUeHo- [ Under 10 
eephidle). 



# 



LONO HBADB 

(Dolioho- 
eephalle) 



MbDIUIC BBAD8 

(Heao-eephalie) 



BBOAB HBAD8 

(Braeliy- 
eepliaUe). 



no 

. ( 72- 
•(77- 



70 and under 72*5 

5 and under 76 
76 and under 77*6 

6 and under 80 



80 and under 82*6 
82*6 and under 86 
.86 and over • 



NOSE. 



Mbdium kosbs 
(Heserhiae). 



Bboad vobxb 
(Platyrhine). 



70 and under 76 • 
76 and under 80 . 
.80 and under 85 . 
.85 and under 90 • 
|90 and under 96 • 
|96 and under 100 
100 and over 



Shobt 



BiKOW mbas 



Aaotb hmmm 



STATURE. 

Centimetres. 

Under 166 
6'1* 



166 and under 160 
6 1*— 6' 8* 

{160 und under 166 
y b*'— 5' 6* 

C 166 and under 170 



Tiiaii 



nromid 
•I 6'r 



"mm 



11 

25 

28 

21 

8 

6 

1 



1 
10 
20 
26 
16 
16 
12 



12 
25 
48 
17 

a 



♦-1 



♦ -1 



♦-1 



10 



Percentage on number of tubjects. 
16 20 26 80 



86 



40 



♦♦♦♦♦♦-11 



♦♦♦-8 

—5 



—10 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-!« 



♦♦-12 



- 




m 


• 


( 




♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-26 






X 


♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-28 








♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -21 










♦♦♦♦♦ 


—20 








» 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


4—26 








♦ -16 












-16 


• 
• 




% 


\ 




♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-^25 


- 






♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦- 


♦♦-»? 




• 




• ff 






i 


* m 




a 

r 








ft «* 







19 
SERIATIONS. 



DniTtilian Type : Kajpntuna. 

T}'p« Specimen ; BHIL. 



PROPORnOXS OF HEAD. 




PROPORTIONS OP N03K. 




(Cepballe Index.) 




(NaMl iBdex.) 




Hftxlmnni 


. M 


iKxlnnm 


. lOB 


HlalmDU 


. flS 




. «s 


Buee 


. 16 


Ba-se 


. it 



STiTUUK. 

r. N 

ATer*ee I«M 

Naslmani Ilfl-1 

Xininani ttl-t 

Ranga .... . . S8-8 



TlBT lOJIO B»*BH ) 






(Dollcho- 
ecplullc). 



BftoiD nskss 
(Braehj- 
eephAliv). 



TO u>d nndn 72'6 
7E'S &nd Dodfr 75 j 
' 7S Bill] nnder 77'S j 
[ 77-3 and nndw 80 
' 80 and under 88' J ' 
Laa-Sandni 




PereeaUge on nnmbcr of mblect*. 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦j-10 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«« 
♦♦♦«♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦;♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦ 



♦«♦««♦♦♦♦♦ 4 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-8 

♦♦♦-18 
14 



6 ««#-3 

fl ♦♦♦♦- 

^ ♦♦♦♦♦;♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦« 

43 ♦♦♦♦♦!«♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«««♦♦♦♦- 

16. #«4^«|«««- 



STATCRE. 

CcBtlmetiea. 

/ Under 1GB . 
\ 6' 1" 



AaOTXVlAJt 



(166»Ddandfrl70 



♦♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦-I 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦:♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦-u 



♦♦-17 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ * 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-M 



22 



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21 
SERIATI0N8. 



DraYldian Type : 8. India. 

Type SpeeimeB : Pahitih ( Junffle Tribe)< 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 

(Cephalie Index.) 

ige • t • • • * • 74*0 

iivm •••••• 81*1 

Attm • 68*4 

e 1«*7 



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6 

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18 



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(Nasal Index.) 

Average 96*1 

Haximnm 108*6 

Hinimiim 72*9 

Range 86*7 



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25 
SERIATIONS 



Aryo DroTldian Tyi»e. 

Type S))eeimeii : BRiniiyji of the United Protince& 



PROPORTIOliS OF HEAD. 
Cephalie ladex. 

73*1 

84 

66 

18 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 
Nasal Index. 



Ayerage 

llAxImnin 

Minimiim 
Range 



. 74-6 
. 100 
. 60 
. 40 



ffTATURE. 

CM 

ATerage , lM*t 

Maximnm 187*1 

Hinimnm I42«j 

Range ...... 45^ 



IVDIOBB. 



HEAD. 
VEKT LOVO BB1D6 ) 

(BlTper-Mielio >UDder70 . • 
ecpluilie). J 

LOTO MiD§ ( ^^ •"^ ^^^^ ^^'* 

(DaUehiHcepliaUe). { ^^.^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^g 



If BDIinc HBADl 

(■eao-eeplwlle). 



r76 
C77- 



76 and under 77*6 
6 and under 80 



(B^Mhy-oepiiaUe). J ^^ ""^ ^^•' 



Inn voiif 
(LeplorlilBe). 



Vbdium voBia 
CHoMTldBe). 



Bboad voni 
(PlalyrldBe). 



0HOBT 



BiLOW mur 



AaOTB MMMM 



TlSL 



HOSE. 

r 60 and nnder 66 . 

i 65 and nnder 70 . 

70 and nnder 76 . 

76 and nnder 80 . 

,80 and nnder 85 • 

85 and nnder 90 • 

i90 and nnder 96 • 

|95 and nnder 100 

100 and OTer 



GTATURE. 
Centimetres. 
< Under 160 



(160 and nnder 166 
tsr s-'-e' 5^ 



{165 and nnder 170 



1170 and over 
ft' 7* 



Nnmber 

of 
subjects. 



16 

24 

84 

15 

9 

8 



10 

17 

26 
24 
13 
6 
4 
1 
1 



13 



18 



87 



83 



10 



Percentage on numt)er of subjects. 
15 20 25 



80 



86 



♦♦-2 



-5 

-4 



♦-16 



9 



—10 



—16 



♦♦-17 



—13 



♦-1 
♦-1 



♦♦♦♦-24 



-26 
— 24 



-12 



♦♦♦-18 



♦♦♦♦-84 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-37 



26 

SERfATrONS. 



Aryo-Drayidian Type. 

Type Specimen : Chjjiaa of the ijiiitkd Protirges. 



mt 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 
Cephalic Index. 



Arerage 

Milifiniim 



72*8 

81 
67 
U 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 

Nasal Index. 
Irerage 86*0 

Haximnm 109 

Hinimnm • • • . . .64 

Range 45 



STATURE. 



Average . 
Minimum • 



. 166*0 

• 176S 

• 152-4 



Range 



24-1 



IlTDIOBS. 



Number 

of 
subjects. 



S(tAD« 

VlBT LONG^ HBADS 1 

Oiyper-dolieho > Undergo • 
eephalio). } 

Lova HEADS ( 70 and under 72*5 . 
(Dolioho- 
eephalie). 1 72*5 and under 75 . 



r70 
U C72- 
Ds ( 75 
U (77 

IDS ) 

He). ) 



MsDiTTic HBADs ( 75 and under 77*5 . 
(Heso- 
eephalio). i 77*5 and under 80 . 



Bboad beads 

(Braehy- ^ 80 and over . 
cepliiilie)t 



NOSE. 



^{ 



FlHB HOSES \ ^°^^ ^^ • 

<^P*«'^*>-C66andunder70 

'70 and under 75 

MlDIUH HOSES )^K ««^ ««^«. fin 
(Heeorhine). ^^ «nd under 80 

.80 and under 85 
^85 and under 90 

BBOAD HOSES J^O •'^^ ^nder 95 
(PUlyrhine). S^g ^^ ^^ ^^^ 

V 100 and over . 



8 HOST 



STATURE. 
Centimetres. 
C Under 160 



B . »«^.w ( 160 and under 165 . 



A—.— w« f WS »»d '">^«' 170 . 

AaOTB XBAV . ^ ^ g»_g/ IJ9 



fAXflb 



(170 and 

I vr 



17 

23 

38 

15 

5 

2 



1 

1 

5 

13 

19 

25 

27 

8 

6 



11 



82 



89 



18 



10 



Percentage on number of subjects. 
15 20 25 



80 



36 



♦♦-17 



♦♦♦-28 



♦♦-a 



♦ -1 

♦-1 



-5 



-15 



-6 



♦♦♦-3 



♦ -6 



♦♦♦-18 



♦-11 



♦♦♦^# ♦♦♦♦♦^♦♦♦♦^ 



•1 



♦♦♦♦-19 



♦♦♦-88 



-25 
♦♦-S7 



-Ui 



♦♦-82 



UJ 
DC 

(0 
< 

UJ 

S 

IL 
O 

>■ 
< 

s 
s 

D 
(0 

i 


■ 

1 

B 

! 

a 

i 


1 

1 

e 
a 
C- 

u 

w 
e 

s 

Si 

1 

a 
1 


■ 

da 

O 

1 

5 


1 


■BuinpnH 


P <po .p . .9 ^ 


1 
1 


■wnnniBH 


P Pp p . p p 


■tfKMv 


, : M : M M Ml ; M M |6 1 i E§ M : M M :5 


aw tun i»iw*>-[a 


; M • M =.= : = 1 : : ■ - III ■ 1 : i : : ■ = : -I 


iRPBMiimivoiTOi^iia 


: 1 ■ : • = • : - i| : : : : : :|| :| -1 • - 1 , : = 1 


i 


--■- 


■mnmioiw 


lilllilsiiiiaiiliiilillliiiiiiiiil 


'"""°!"M 


EilliliegSiSiissseftiSEisfilSSSgKggl 




'sauuv 


iSiisilliisliSiiiSiSiHSgliSiiiiil 




1° 


M 

SB 


■nnmnoiR 


SSSSSSSSS-iSSSSSSSSSKS^SSSSieiSSSES 


■muBnwji 


SSS8||S|SSSliS8SSSS§S83gSSSSS=3SS3 


oAuaiv 


saSaSgfeSsSJsgassssssgsassssssisssss 


i 

O 

to 
2 

1 


f 

s 


■wnminiK 


SSS8SSSSS88S8S3S8SSiSSS8SSSSSSSt;8SS 


nomiMH 


3SS3^!8SSSS3S3SSS?SSSS;53S33S3333SS 


■eSniBiv 




1 


•mnrnnnH 


SSgSSS;SSSSSSS\SSS;SSSSS5SgS5SSSSSSSSg 


■mumpBH 


SSSSSSS3SSSg3SS3SSISSSiSSgS38SS3gSS2 


■eiuuv 


SS8SSSS5S*33*S§SS533SSSS*S3S;3S33S 


§(3 

is 
1= 






S8Si3SgSgSS£g8SSSSgSSgiiSSSS3gSBSfg 
KSSSSSSSgSSSSSgSSSESESSgSSsasSSSaS 


TnntnrtOK 


•a3aiuv 


gj:g&£gagE8SECSESESSS8sesSg5SEaSSSg 


d 

i 
i 
s 


II 


■nnim,nm 


ssss;aas8ssasssass|gss88assa3assss8 




■muoiiiOH 


3S=S3SS23g**83SS9S35SSS«Sg33S2!|SSSS 




■eauaAf 


^00 — »l.ai.*'005««iOOiOi6t-m(Np^7-t-B3ll3t-01CinWOOiaD:»a)tt<p 


1 


■mnmnnn 
^omnnnii 


ssEsa^eggsgsggsssgf:ggs8tsssgggsggE 




2igSiii»2SiiiiSi22iS2giSigsssai22i 


•B»Ma*l' 


6i5S5S5SgSSS8g3SSSgS3Sg3SSS3g3SSggg!Ssa 




j 




rrr-:.r-;r--;jj::i : 

ilsi II 11 II iaiU l|l 1 




1 


1 


||.||sillsl^^s||'^^|Ji||illll'^f-| 




fc- 
•s 

1 


1 

S 


s 


liilkliHM^^^^ 



28 
SERIATIONS. 



Dfongolo-DraTidlan Tjiie. 
Typ« Spectmeiii Kochh, 



PBOPORTIOSa OF HEAD. 


PHOPORTIOKS OP NOSE. 


RELATirEPEOMINENCE OP BOOT OF SOflE. 


BTATUSE. 




Cephalic Index 




Nual Indei. 






Orbilo-Katiil Index. 








Ktolej. 


WaddelL 


Btoley. 


ViidJell. 




RUler. 


Waddell. 


RWey. 


WaddeU 


ATerag« . 76-2 


78-7 


Average . 78-8 


80-0 


ivoraKo 


. 1 10-8 


110-0 


Average . 180-7 


IGS-1 


■■xSmnm . H 


87 


IkxlniDiB . S3 


lOS 


naxlmnm 


. ISI 


121 


Bailmnm . 1I1-8 


189-5 


■inlmnm . 6S 


71 


■inlmBm . ei 


67 


HiDlmnm 


. 104 


0S 


BlDlmum . m-0 


150-2 


BwiK«. . IS 


I« 


Bange . . 31 


ts 


Range 


. 17 


88 


Range . 30-6 


IB-a 







BI8LET 
WADDELL . 


. 


♦♦♦♦♦ 












Number 






mbjecU, 


Percentage on number of nibjerti. 
B 10 15 SO !E 80 3E 


HEAD. 




1 i 








( 75 and under 77'B .J 
(Meso-cepballe). 1 

(Braeby-cephallO-jSO"^"""- ■ •! 


12 

26 
84 
32 
20 


♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦**♦*« 
9999a 9@®a@ aaa® 

BffB»'»»»e9 99999 
♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 

99®aa »»aa» a«9»« 


♦♦♦♦- 

♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®@ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 

@®®®® 


19 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

©®®®® 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®@ --^s 


9)»»99 
♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


99999 
**-Si 


®®®-3S 


16 
16 
8 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

99999 #9a9» 
*****'***-b 
99999999-8 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ -16 

®«-17 










NOSE. 


















60 and under 6S . 
rm »oai9 J 

(LeptorWne)). jsj and nnde, 70 .{ 

/70 aud under 76 . j 


I 

12 
6 

23 
8 


♦ -I 


♦♦-11 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦ -83 








"SSiS.' j'-'"^'" -i 


81 
19 


********** 

99999 99999 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

@®®®@ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®®@© 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

9-21 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦-•1 




(eo and under M . { 

/ 86 and under 90 . J 
BloAO lOBBS ) 

(Platjrhlne). ) . 
tsOandoTer . .j 


IS 
2B 
5 

13 
9 

n 


♦ ♦♦♦♦'♦♦♦♦♦ 

«.».9,.a« 

9989999099 

♦ ♦♦-» 1 


®®@®® 

@©©®© 

©@©@® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®©©® 

-15 
@-lB 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

s«®«® 


• •••• 


••9-39 




BOOT OF HOSE. 


















/Under lOl . 


4 


9e»99-t 














VlOl and under 104 . 


2 


99-2 














PtJiTT'Ono J , 
(Flat). jl04 and under 107 .J 


8 
16 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-» 

99999 a9a9» 


®®®®® 


®®-I7 










X107 and under no .f 

MB8OPI0 1 ( 

(Medium). j 110 nnd under 1:3 . J 

PBO-o,.o 113 and under 116. 
(Prominent). 

116 and over . .[ 

BTATURE. 
Centimetres. 


30 
1:4 
40 
27 
19 
10 

8 
G 


ISSIS;ilSSS 

w ^ ^ ^^. V^v W w 

tutiiuu 

♦ ♦♦-3 

9999® 99 -7 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
»©«»« 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦- 


nut 

19 


tV-t,* 

Stat 


-30 


♦♦♦##-40 


/ Under 1B5 , .i 

Bbost , . .\ 61' J 

)1EG and under 100 . 

t 6- 1"- 6' «• t 


13 
13 

ao 
31 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®®@®®@@®® 

©©@@@©@®®© 


♦♦♦-13 

®®®@© 
«♦♦♦♦ 

®®@®® 


-IB 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®©®® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®® 


***** 

99999 


-30 
®®®®« 


_» 


B.LOW««. .[^"".^Vl^l-*-^ 


S3 

26 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®@@@®®@®® 


♦♦♦♦♦«♦♦«♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

®@®®@ ®@@®® ®®®®® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

eaaag 


♦ ♦♦-88 

-30 




*««««. .[""^-^^^-j™-! 


21 

18 


♦♦♦♦«♦♦♦♦♦ 

©©®®®®®®@® 


e@®®®i®@@®®-io 








^ . . .[™-^^««. . 


S 


♦♦*-a| 
















89 

SERIATI0N8. 



MongoIo-DniTldiaii Type. 

Type Speoiuieu : BRAfflu uf But Bexuil 




PaOPORTlOXS OF N03F.. 
NaMl ladBX, 



Xlninnm 
Range 



Kaximam , 
Minim Dm 
Rkago 



U7-4 
Sl-B 



Ptroeabige on namber of labjeoU. 





HEAD. 


(DoUcho. 

MpluUle). 


( 70 ud nader T3-B 
02'B*nd under TS 


Mbdiph nti&i 


f 76 ind nudet 77S 
(776«ndnndfrBO 


Bkad buds 
(Bn«b7- 


r80andDDderB2-6 
^82-6 and under 86 
(86 and over 



60 and undn efi 




6S and under 70 




TO and under TS 




76 and under 80 




SO and under Sfi 




SB and nvtr . 





STATURE. 

Centimetres, 

/CnderlM , 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



.♦♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦♦» 
♦♦«««*♦•*♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦«♦ 



• ** 



♦ •♦♦♦•♦♦-IS 



♦ ♦♦♦♦:♦♦♦♦• ♦♦•♦♦,♦♦♦-28 



♦ ♦♦♦♦•♦♦♦♦♦-»1 



♦ ♦♦-3 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 



♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦•• 



♦ -" 

♦♦♦♦♦; 



» ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦-» 



80 



(0 

I- 

z 

UJ 

s 

UJ 

oc 

3 
CO 

< 

Ul 

S 

O i 

>■ 
OC 

< 
S 
S 

3 
CO 





O 

i! 


11 
1 


■mnmiQiK 


2^1 Mi M 2S§ ; • IS ssSsSISSssSISS 








3sS Mi 11 =22 1 i i3 aSSSSSSSSsSSSS 






'•^BIMT 


59?" -P^P . .<? «qot-.*9wy=.pt«Maj^n 

S23 — - '■ '• =32 = i =S 22S = 22SS^33S = S 






OHp9*no!nqM.[a 


III : i : : i SIS ' ' iS E|iiS|||i|||s| 








t,09 . . OM» _ _ .9 »99«CTm.«9999..ot.oi 

IIS • ^ ■ ^ ^ SSg ' ^ ^1 SSS|8S8gg32|=S 










SisiiS Si iiSsiSl ISiSSiSSIiiSls 












■oiniiilMH 


SissSS ia iiaiaSE SSsSSkrIsSSSHs 






eSiuaAV 


iSiiiS IS SiSiiiS issgissSSsSiil 












id 




m..p.,K sssssfs ss sssissgg sasBssasssssga 
— ^,;;;;^ ssgasss sa sssssss ggsssssasisssg 






■*»" gllSSS II sSSSSSS aislIlssaSsSlg 






i 

1 


1 




gsssss ss sasasaa ss^ssaasassisss 






3SS5S3 «5 tSSSSSSS 33gg333SS3S:3a3 




1 


■alHSAT 


felfeIJi SI ISSSiSI lESssssilissSs 




J 1 




■mnmiQin 


sssssfe as ssssssg ssssssssssssss 




II 

a % 
i '' 

a i 


1 i 
S S 


■«..„.« ssssss S3 sassssa ssssfessssssaag 




! tT.ot.CT09 P-- -^^«ip==9 , p.y^.p^?o.ooa3^ao9 


^ 


i 

go 


2 . 

P 


.■»««,K| a gcsKES 8S sasasss S sgses^sssssgss 


i 


™m,«„ assssfe as sassssa ssssssssass^s^s 


J 


a 

s i 


•-^'i KfeSesE fcS elsssll SllsfcESsKESgls 


? 


Q 

g 

in 
o 

Q 


! 


■•™p,„ asSssS Sa SssS^SS SSISSSSssSSSss 




■WIIDIIXWJI 


ssssss gs sJsssSS Ss§233sS2s23Ss 




1 iQOio«-'-< — o Tft, — oaas^^ pm«>oiOTo>9ot.',Q^»,m«s 

'i SiSSai Si 3*23523 S3S33538332322 






ii 


■ranraiaiB 


gSSSSS S£ SSSSSSS S8gSaE^8S3S.-;SS 












■umwii^ 


iiSs»s S2 sSISsSS SSIiSiSiSSISSi 






■aSMUf 


l||li| 11 iiiiiii ili|i|iiiii||| 






t 


i"li'iii 'i'i?' "■'■'. 






1 -^i-^ -i^-i «ar 






8 








1°'^°^° 33 iiiiil ^&i&A&iAiiiiii 






1 


l-^,Mm ,.:j||Jj, 





SI 
8ERIATIONS. 



HonKol*id<-Tyv«. 

Tfiw SpceiBMB ; CHAKU, 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 

Ceph»llc iDdei. 
r»ge . . . . 81-3 


PROPORTIONH OP NOSE. BELATIVB PROBUNEItCE OF 
ROOT OF NOSE. 
NMal IndM. Orblto-Nwal Indw. 
ATenwe • ■ . M-G 1 ATeni^ii .... 108-4 


STATURE. 

CM. 

Average . . ISS-6 


imnm . 


. 96 


Maxlmam . . .105 


lUzlmnm . .US 


KMlnnm . 1SB-* 


mnm . 


- TJ 




Unlmntn . . lOt 


MUlmom .... 14SH> 


EC 


. IS 


RsDge . . >G 


Butge .... LA 


Range . . . . i»-» 






11 






Isoiois. 


Psrceutage on numlwr of inbjecta. 






t 10 IR SO £5 80 U iO 




HEAD. 
























JIUK BSADS ( 77 and nodw 775 . 
cephalle). i 77-5 >iid undtr BO . 


IB 


♦ ♦♦-8 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-16 
















80 and DDdcr 82-5 . 


16 


♦♦♦♦♦ 




♦♦♦«4*-i6 














TCphalle) 


B2-5 Md m,.1« 86 . 
', 85 und nnder b7-5 . 


21 

13 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦#♦ 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦- 


♦ -ai 

19 












/ 87-6 mJ under 90 . 


18 
R 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦ *♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦-8 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-18 
















,«. 


























(70 uid nnder 76 . 


8 


♦♦-s 




















Itso- 
rhinv). 


<76 and nnder 80 . 


28 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


«♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦-28 










(so nnd nudpr 85 


20 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


«♦««♦ 




-ao 












• 85andDndCT90 . 


81 




♦♦♦♦♦ 






♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


► -ai 








UDBOBhS 
rUD.). 


90 and under 98 
95 sod nnder IHO . 
, 100 nod over . 


9 
6 

« 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦ ♦♦*♦ 
♦♦♦♦- 


♦ ♦♦«- 

♦-C 


a 
















HOOT OF NOSE. 


























, 101 »nd nnder 104. 
.^104 and under 107 . 
(lOTftndnndfrllO . 


U 




♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦- 


14 














TT-OPIC 

Put). 


46 
37 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 
«♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦«♦ 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦*♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦-37 


***% 


- 


■•dlnm). 


[no and under 118 
BTATOBE. 


4 


♦♦♦♦- 


i 




















19 
33 
S8 






















tST . 


/166 and under 160 . 

1 160andanderlS5 , 
■ ( 6- 8--6' 6" 
























♦*♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦«♦«« 








-.-« 




irinin 


i 166 ud nnd» 170 . 


10 »♦♦♦« 


♦«♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦4 


—16 















S2 

SERIATIONS. 



Hongoloid Type. 

Type Specimen : Lxpcea. 



PROPORTIONS OF HEAD. 



Cephalic Indext 
iTcrage . 
Hazlmniii 
MlalwHin • 
Ruij^ • • • 



. 79'9 
. 90 



78 
17 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 



Nasal Index. 



Arerage. 
Haximnm 
MlBiBmin 
Range . 



67*2 
88 
69 
U 



RELATITE PROMINENCE OF 
ROOT OF NOSE. 

Orbito-Nasal Index. 
Arerage .... 108«1 

Maximum . .118 

Minimvm .... 108 

Range . . % • 10 



IVDXOBl. 



^ u II X ; 77-6 and 
eephalle). / ^^^„ ^ 



Mi 

is* 



STATURE. 



ATerage 
Maximum 
Minimum 
Range 



C. 

. 16 

. 18 

• 14 

t 



:o 



16 



8 



Percentage on number of mbjecU. 
20 86 80 86 



iO 



->8 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦-7 



BmOAD HBADi 

(Braehj- 
eephalle)* 



80 and 
I under 82*6 
182*6 and 
under 86 
^86 and 
OTer . 



NOSE. 



FZVB 90818 

(Lepto- 
rhlne). 



MlDIVM 1I08B8 

(Meso- 
rhine). 



Under 60 
i60 and 

under 66 
1 66 and 

under 70 

70 and 
under 76 

176 and 
under 80 

^80 and 
under ^ 6 



18 



16 
10 



46 



♦♦•« 



ROOT OF NOSE. 



PLATT-ono 

(Flat). 



101 and 
under 104 

1104 and 
under 107 

107 and 
under 1 10 



8 
19 

19 



6 



14 
27 



Mitotic CllO and 

(Medium). ( under 113 11* 



STATURE. 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦-12 



-18 



14 



-7 



♦-11 



Ceirtlmetreiu 



•host 



Under 160 
4'11'' 

160 and 
under 156 
i4'll*'-6'r 

166 and 
under 160 
6' 1*'- $• £«^ 



BnoWKBAV 



iBOIfllHAM I Ute 



(160 an 
< under J( 

lies 
Irr- 



and 

190 

rr 



14 



18 



16 



-6 



-20 



-10 



♦♦4-28 



♦♦-82 



♦-26 



♦♦♦-88 



-26 



♦♦-32 



[60 



.88 

8ERIATION8. 



Hongoloid Type, 

Type Specimen : Kasia. 

Lt.-Col. Waddblu 



nummnoNS of head. 



tCeplialic Index.) 



• 78*6 
. 84 

. 72 

• 12 



PROPORTIONS OF NOSE. 
(Nasal Index.) 
Ayerage , . 86*8 

Maximnm .108 



Hinimnm 
Range 



. 78 

. 85 



RELATIVE PROMINENCE OF 

ROOT OF NOSE. 

Orbito-Nasal Index. 
Arerage . 108*4 



Haximnm 

Mlnlmnm 

Range 



119 

101 

18 



STATURE. 



Arerage 
Haximnm 
Hinimnm 
Range 



e. m. 
. 158-8 
• 170*0 
. Ul-7 
. 88*8 






IVDXOBf. 



1^ 



HEAD/ 



LOVO BlASl 

(IMielio- 



A 



70 and under 72*6 . 



Oephalie), ( 72*5 and under 76 • 



Ifnvxinc HiADl c 76 and under 77*6 . 
(HeM- 
eeplialie), ( 77*5 and under 80 . 



J>ir76i 
K (77*i 
B t 80i 
U C82'i 



Bboad HBAsa 1 80 and under 82*5 • 

(Braeiiy* 
oepltfilio). (82*5 and under 86 . 



HOSE. 

/70 and under 76 

(HiiorldBe). y"**" ««»*«'^«^ 
(so and under 85 

'85 and under 90 

BBOiDVOiBi jW and under 95 
Cn*^J»W»«).l )96 and under 100 

100 and over 



BOOT OF HOSE.t 

. 101 and under 104 . 

PULVT-OPXO 

(Flat). •^104 and under 107. 



2 
5 
22 
86 
9 
6 



107 and under 110. 



Miaopio 
(Hediui) 






110 and under 118 . 



118 and under 116. 



Pbo-ofxo 
C^~»*»«»*)- hie and over 



STATURE. 
Cestimelrca. 

Under ICO . 

^'ir 

J 160 and under 1 65 . 

SBOBT • • \ ^/ U*.^5' 1* 

155 and under 160 . 

Bblow H1A» . J 5/ 1*— 5' 6* 

^ ^ .^.^ 5 166 and under 170 . 
AlCTB WUM .J 6" 6*.»5' ;' 



2 
18 
18 
14 
16 
12 

6 



4 

16 

8 

17 

1 
2 



10 



Percentage on number of lubjecte. 
15 20 25 80 



85 



40 



♦♦♦-8 



4fl 



♦-6 



♦♦♦-8 



♦♦-7 



♦♦♦-28 



♦-11 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦-22 
♦-16 
-17 

—20 



♦♦-7 



♦♦♦-a 



♦♦♦♦♦-16 



♦♦-2 



Toft 



1170 tad Off «r . 



20 

88 

20 

8 

1 



-17 



—5 



♦-1 



84 



—26 



—25 



[45 



35 



♦♦♦♦♦ -40 



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SERIATION& 



Negrito Type. 

NORTH AHDiHilfS. 
HALE « AKO FEMALE ® 



nPORTIONS OF HEAD. 






(CephaUn Index.) 






■ale. 


Feiiwla. 




. 8£-0 


81 •• 


4r.n«. 


. S8 


■8 


■ulHrnm 


78 


18 


■Inlmun 


. 10 


10 


Huge 




8T1TDKE. 

r. ■. 



IH'S 



It 



Penmtage on nQinb«r of tnbjectf. 



MOkO HUM 

(Bnehj-cephA-^ 
Ue). 



11 ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

n ♦♦♦♦♦.^^^^^ 

i» ®®®®®®®®®® 

12 ,♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

14 ®®®®® ®®®®® 

I ♦♦♦♦♦:♦♦♦♦♦ 

8 ®®®®" - - 

1 ♦♦^a 



soil) ITMII 
(PUtrrUne). 



90 Md f li 

under 06 { ' 16 

SGind r 7 

under 100 V ^ 

100 and ( 11 
over .{ 16 



♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®® 

♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®® 

♦♦♦♦♦ 



BTITITRE. 

Cestlnetrta. 
/under 185 
186 and nnder 110 



\ 146 aod under 160 
4' »"-4' ir 



♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®® 

♦♦«♦♦ 



I 

V 

®®®®® 
♦♦♦♦♦ 



90-S 



«♦♦♦♦ 

It 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 
®®®®® 

♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®® 

♦ ♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦ 

®— 16 

♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦-S< 

♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦-?» 





■ 




I 


r 


SERIATIONS. 


■ 


n 


■ 


■ 


■ 


1 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H ^^^^l^^^H 


SOCTn AMDASiHS. 1 


HALE 4 AND FEJULE SERIES. 


PROPOIITIONS OF HF.AD. 


PROPORTIOSS OF NOSE, 


STATURE. 


(tfpballe IndcJL,) 


(Nasal laitx.) 


CM. 


Hale, Frmftle. 


Male. Female. 


■ale. 1 


nca . . . 8S-0 82-J 


ATF»Bfl . , SS-i SB-l 


Areraga . 1481 . 


iHtua ... 90 S7 


HBSlmam . . .108 11) 


Hutnnn . 1S9-I ^J 


tm*m . . . 7S 39 


HiRlmnm ... 14 30 


XinlnDM . lis-* J^M 


«• . ... 11 « 


Runge . . . SS 13 


lUnee . . . tW ^H 


IXDICU. 


i 


FerccnUei; on nunibar of lubjwts. 




fi 10 IS SO 2% 30 Si 40 46 


BEAD. 
























lt>sa.«Bplu>lle)' i °»der 80 { 


1 

4 


♦♦-2 

0000© 


®®©-B 


















SO >iid r 1 so 

Qnder82-Bi,| SI 


♦♦♦♦♦[♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

©000® ©S©®© ®©®®0 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®®S® 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®©©® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®©0©© 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

©0®®® 


***** 

®®®®® 


—JO 
®®-12 




^...,„. .,.™a^^j 


23 
IS 


1 
©®©®®®®©©®®©®®® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

©®00® 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

®©®®© 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

®00®0 


♦♦♦♦♦ 

®®©®0 


&-8e 


****- 


U 


uodsr 87'6 1 
87'5 and 
over 


G 
1 


♦♦♦*♦ 

0®®0© 
♦♦-3 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

000©® 


♦ ♦-12 
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14 














HOSE. 




























®®-a 




















/ 70Hid { 
J tuid«75l 




♦♦-a 

©0-2 




















liDiirM »o«M ( 76 MJd ( 




♦♦♦♦♦ 

0000® 


®0®®® 


®©®®- 


14 














I BOud r 
nnder 85 1 


16 



®®®0© 


«♦♦♦♦ 

®®©®® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®-12 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


-80 








/ 85 Md f ' 10 
under 60 I B 


♦ ♦*♦♦ 

®©®®® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®Q 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®®®®® 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 

®-16 


-20 












90 and f , M 
/ udAt 95i! 12 

(PlMjrlilne). pj ,„d , g 
Qnder 100 I 2 


***** 

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1&0 rnidutid^rlES 
4' U'-6' 1- 


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Individual measurement^. 



Ne^to Type. 

MALB AlfDAMUIES OF NOBTH AlfDAMlN. 

CAFliiX W. U0LB8W0»B, I.M.S. 



Serial 
Mfl. 


HAM! or Tbtbe 
»a Cabti. 


L.,.BT.agBot 
Dialeat. 


Locality. 


Lanirth 
Qlubello- 
ocoipitaL 


Breadth 
ExtTomB 


Cephalic 
Index. 


Height 

of ^OM. 


BreadLh 
of No.e. 


Naaal 


Statue. 


1 


7i-K6iii (Ariauto) . 


Ti-Keas 


Amit-la-Ted . 
East Const of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


17-5 


I63 


87-4 


4-7 


4. 


861 


161-6 


S 


Chiriar (Ariantol . 


Ch(£ri(tr 


Paina-tong 

KoHh-WestCosrtof Nortli 
ADdamaii. 


168 


U'2 


840 


4-Q 


4-1 


836 


1560 


3 


Ch&ri^ (Irikiitol . 


CMxiit 


Kota-puf 

North-Eiat Coast o 
Andaman. 


Korth 


181 


14-6 


80-6 


4-1 


3.8 


Q26 


161-6 


4 


Td-E^da Uriwto) . 


Td-E^a 


Bdret-prir-taoro 
InteiTiow lilanil. 




17-0 


16-0 


88-2 


4-1 


4-7 


114-a 


164-1 


G 


T&u (Arlaato) 


J^rn . 


Arnt 
Soitth-Weit of 
Andaman. 


North 


17-5 


14-1 


80-5 


4-4 


3-6 


79 6 


146-0 


6 


KedB (AriMto) 


Kedd . 


Lnk-ter-Wot . 
Weit Const of 
AndainiiQ. 


Middle 


17-8 


U'2 


79-7 


4-2 


4-2 


100-0 


144-0 


7 


K«#{iri«ito) 


Km . 


Baolnntd 
Interview Island. 




17*2 


14-6 


84'S 


4-6 


4-0 


8t)-9 


166-8 


B 


JAru (firemUga) . 


Jeru . 


Arat . . 
Sonth-West of 
AadHinan. 


North 


17-7 


14-4 


fll-8 


4-7 


4-0 


85-1 


148-4 


9 


Hn (firemUga) . 


J^ni . 


TuTio - 

Ncrth-We«t Corner of 

Middle Andaman. 


]7'2 


147 


86'4 


4-3 


4-2 


97-6 


148'6 


10 


J<!ra (Ariauto) 


Jfiro . 


Taibi-Chini . 
Wert Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


n-8 


IS'l 


84-8 


4'4 


3-fl 


88-6 


160-1 


11 


J^ (&en>Uga) . 


J^ru . 


Arat . . . , 
South- West Cornet of North 
Andaman. 


lfl-7 


13-5 


80'8 


4-1 


3-8 


92-6 


140-0 


12 


J€rD (£remUga) . 


J4ru . 


Bioha-Tjng . 

North and Middle 
man. 


between 
Anda- 


180 


14-2 


79'9 


4-4 


4-1 


93-1 


162-4 


18 


J^rn (firemUga) . 


J^ro . 


Tanle-biirjn , 
Stewarts Sound. 




17-9 


146 


82-0 


4-2 


40 


95-2 


146-6 


14 


Cbifriir (Arianto) . 


Ch^riBT 


Taunmn.Kft 
WMt Coarf of 
Andaman. 


North 


17-3 


14-2 


81-1 


4-4 


34 


77-2 


154-8 


le 


Kfdd (£temt&ga) . 


K6i6 . 


Pil-tong 

Western side of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


180 


14-2 


78-8 


3-8 


33 


921 


162-7 


16 


Jin (EremUga) . 


Jem 


Toto-li-chir 
Port CornwalliB. 




17-0 


14-1 


82-9 


8-6 


3-6 


lOO-O 


1481 


\7 


J^ (BremUga) . 


J^ru . 


Tao-kit 

Wwt side of 
Andaman. 


North 


17-7 


141 


79-6 


4-4 


3-7 


B4-0 


149-7 


18 


KHe (fir^mWp.) . 


K6dB 


Rao-lnnta 

Interview Island. 




17-1 


14-S 


86-5 


4-3 


3-8 


89-3 


147-6 


19 


XMtf (firemtaga) . 


K6d& . 


B^-tr^kodi . 
Stewait's Soond. 




168 


18-7 


816 


3-9 


3-9 


100-0 


141-6 


20 


J&o (Ariaato) 


J6ru . . 


Toicb^ . 
North-West of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


17-7 


44-6 


Bi-g 


3-9 


3-9 


100-0 


149-3 


SI 


J^ro (irlMto) 


J&n . 


Tao Bnrin 
Wert Coa«t of 

Andaman. 


'sortii 


175 


13-8 


78-8 


4-2 


8-7 

i 


880 


1467 



40 



INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



N601to Type, 

Hue ANDAUmS of HOBTH AHOkUAS—contd. 

C1FT4IM W. MoLIBirOBTH, I^.S. 



"^^ 


Hi.KR or Tbibi 
OB Casts. 


Lflngoagaor 
Dial«Qt. 


Loodlltj. 


Length 
Olabello- 
oeoipitaL 


Breadth 
Eitceme. 


Cephiilio 
Icdei. 


»l 


Brendth 
of Moea. 


NaBal 
Index. 


Statnre. 


23 


S6d6 (EremtigB) . 


EedS . 


Bibnt-Koi-i-to 
North-KuBt of 
AmJainaDi 


Middle 


18fl 


14-1 




819 


3-8 


39 


102-6 


1470 


83 


S.6i6 {G^mtiea) . 


K£de . 


Pornij tot-chaS 
Id tori or of 
ADdaman. 


Uiddle 


J 74 


14'1 


Sl'O 


3-9 


3-7 


94-8 


16S-4 


24 


KMiS-(Ariauto) 


Kede . 


Beret- pur-taro 
V/eet Coaat of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


177 


14-1 


79'6 


4-5 


3-8 


81-4 


1481 


i& 


J^rn (iriaiito) 


Jfim . 


Maorok-tol 
West Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


17'8 


13-7 


77-8 


3-9 


3-5 


89-7 


154-0 


20 


K4da (Ercmtj^a) . 


K63e . 


Pil-tong 

Nortli-Weit ot 
Andaman. 


iliddlJ 


17' 8 


14-3 


80-3 


3'9 


S'S 


89-7 


1S8-3 


27 


J^rn(Arianto) 


Uta . 


T6t-ch6-kat . 
Stewart's Soond. 




170 


13-8 


817 


4-2 


40 


S6-S 


142-3 


2S 


Jim{Aii»alo) 


J^IU . 


Mcrd-terti-pong 
Stewart's Sound. 




17-4 


14-2 


81-0 


4-3 


3-a 


81-3 


144'9 


29 


J^ru (Ariauto) 


Joru . 


Chowalii-lur-L-hettu 
West Coast uf 
Axdamnn. 


Korth 


lC-8 


U2 


8i-5 


4-1 


3-9 


95-1 


165-3 


80 


E^da (AruuM 


K^da . 


Klt«r-tot-chett8 
Uaat Coast of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


17-1 


140 


86-3 


4-1 


38 


S2'6 


143-4 


SI 


J&u (jiuato) 


J^ . 


TIp-lanta 
Stewarfa Soand. 




17'3 


14-2 


82-0 


4-1 


40 


97-6 


144*0 


as 


Jdru (Eremtdga) . 


J^ru . 


Arat. North of 
Andoman. 


Middle 


16-6 


13-5 


81-3 


40 


3S 


875 


141-1 


88 


36n (Amnio) 


J^ra . 


Tip.tot-chethi 
Ea.t CoMt of 
Andaman. 


North 


la-a 


13-7 


81-6 


4-3 


3-7 


»-o 


1417 


Si 


Chard (Ariauto) 


Cham . 


K<?-tQ-paT 
Cadell Bay 


' 


17-3 


14-3 


62'6 


4-1 


3-7 


903 


152-3 


S5 


E£da (Iriaalo) 


K6i& . 


Kidor-totHshotla 
East Coast of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


178 


140 


80-9 


4-2 


4-2 


100-0 


143-4 


36 


ChirifEr (Amulo) . 


Chfiriiir 


B5rko-pob . ' 
East Coast of 
Andamao. 


North 


16-9 


13-5 


80-3 


3-S 


3-9 


97-4 


150-7 


87 


Kddd timnto) 


K6i6 . 


Choko-kaon . 
IntMview Island. 




16-8 


14-0 


83-3 


36 


8-8 


105 -5 


145-8 


38 


J^ [iriaQto] 


Jura 


E&ntu-par 
Eaat Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


17-3 


140 


80-9 


3-8 


8-6 


94-7 


140-1 


SU 


K^JS (Amuto) 


KSde . 


Karugo-tumiko 
Wo«t IJouat of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


17-9 


U'6 


Sl'O 


3-8 


4-0 


111-1 


144-e 


4u 


Jica (Eremtfiga) . 


J,5ru . 


Jiro-pung . 
I uteri (IT of 
Andaman. 


Nortli 


171 


l:i-9 


79-8 


3-8 


3-0 


92- 1 


1620 


41 


J^iD (EremUga) . 


36xn . 


Kao-bdiu 
Wert part of 
Andaman. 


"North 


17-3 


14-G 


84-3 


4-2 


3-8 


SO-4 


160-0 


At 


KOiCtnmUp.) . 


KMS . 


Hatia-ten-chKog 
North.Ea.t ^f 


Middle 


178 


IS-*! 


8'8 


4-6 


Sfl 


8fr0 


JB2-8 


i 


., 


' 


An-l...". 

















41 



INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



NtgHtB Type. 

HUE audamanes of North AroiJiAiis— oonolil. 



Captain W. Molbswobth, I.M.8. 



Serial 
No. 



48 



44 



46 



Namb of Tbibb 
OB Casts. 



46 



47 



48 



49 



60 



J^ (Ariauio) 



J^ (^remioga) 
ChibriAr (Ariauto) 



Ch^ar (Ariauto) 



Jdru (Ariauto) 



J^ (Eremt&ga) 
J^ftt (Ariauto) . 



J^ (Ariauto) . 



Qband Total 



Atbbagb 



2 



8 



6 



7 



10 



11 



Lan^na^e or 
Dialeet. 



J^ 



J^ru 



Ch4ri&r 



Ch&ri&r 



J^ru 



J^ru • 



J^ra • 



J^m (^remttfga) 



J^ru (Ariauto) • 

Km (Ariauto) 
J^ (^Iremtaga) 
J^m (£remtaga) 



J^ru (£remtliga) • 
KMa (.Ariauto) 



Jeru^(Eremtdga) 
J^ (£remttfga) • 



J^ruX/Criauto) 
K^da (AriMito) 



Jtfru • 



J^ru • 



J^ra • 



K6^6 . 



J^m 



J^m 



J^ru 



Kdda • 



J^ru • 



J^ru • 



J^ru 



K^ • 



Locality. 



Tip-chetta 

West Coast of North 
Andaman. 

Chop-paiil^ 
North Andaman. 

Taibi-chiru • 
We»t Coast of North 
Andaman. 

Kid^r-tong . - # • 
Stewart's Sound. 

Kaulo-toi • • 

West Coast of North 
Andaman. 

Chongpaul^ • • • 
Stewurt's Sound. 



Length 
Olabello- 
ocoipital. 



16-8 



17-3 



16-7 



E-chin-tau 
West Coast of 
Andaman. 

Tip-lung -tau • 
North-East of 
Andaman. 



North 



Middle 



Breadth 
Extreme. 



14*8 



14*4 



13-8 



Cephalic 
Index. 



Height 
of Noae. 



861 



17-1 



17-0 



17*0 



17-2 



17-7 



14*2 



13-3 



14-0 



13-6 



14*6 



864*8 



172-9 



7090 



141-8 



83*2 



82*6 



82-9 



78-3 



82-3 



78-9 



82*4 



82-0 



FEMALE ANDAMANES OF NORTH ANDAHAN. 



Ch6ma-lura-Chetta • 
West Coast of North 
Andaman. 



Chakali-M it«Koieto 
Stewart's Sound, 

K^ngo-tong-ta 
Int^iew Island. 

Ta-b6ronga 
Fort Comwallis. 

Meo-p<5U • • • 

West Coast o( North 
Andaman. 

Burto-Chirel-totu 
Stewart's Sound. 

Kar-taura 
North-West of Middle 
Andaman. 

Tot-ch^ . 
Stewart's Sound. 

Tubu ... 
South-West of North 
Andaman. 

V^pong 
Stewut's Sound. 

Chat*lo*loich • 
North-East of Middle 
Andaman. 



17 18-9 



16-6 



16-9 



17-1 



16-0 



16*6 



16*6 



16-1 



16-3 



18*4 



14-0 



13*8 



141 



81-7 



18-4 



13-6 



16-7 



16-9 



13-3 



13-2 



80-7 



82*8 



80-7 



88*1 



80*7 



81-9 



82*6 



80-9 



131 



18-9 



78*4 



82-2 



3*9 



4*0 



3*9 



Breadth 
of Noae. 



4*1 



4*1 



41 



4*0 



4-6 



207-0 



41*4 



3-6 



8*4 



3*4 



3*8 



3-8 



3*9 



3-8 



40 



3-8 



3*6 



8-4 



4-2 



Nasal 
Index. 



8-9 



3*6 



3-7 



8*7 



46 



3-6 



4-0 



191-8 



88*8 



82 



3-8 



8*6 



86 



3*7 



107*6 



97*6 



92-3 



Stature. 



146*3 



90-2 



90-2 



109-7 



90-0 



88*8 



162-6 



144*3 



166-1 



161-0 



146-7 



148*2 



143-0 



... 



92*6 



91-4 



97-0 



102-9 



1090 



97-3 



3*2 


82-0 


3-6 


921 


3-4 


86-0 


3-8 


100-0 


8-4 


97-1 


8-4 


lOOK) 



7427-8 



1486-6 



187-7 



144*0 



140-8 



139*8 



140-6 



134-7 



186-0 



141-6 



134-9 



189-8 



141-8 



:^ 



4i 
INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Negiltv Type. 

FIHAIB ANDAHANIS OF NOBTH AHVlHiK— OOnld. 

CAFTAtB W. HOLBSWOSTH, l.M.S. 



Setbl 


If AUE or Tbibb 
OB OhB-Ct. 


DiSfot." 


Locality. 


Length 
Olabetla- 
occipilftl. 


Brsadth 
Extreme. 


Cephalio 
Indo». 


Height 

of Noae. 


Breadth 
ot No»e. 


NaB.l 

Indai. 


Stature. 


12 


i&n. (Xriauto) 


J^ru . . 


Eid6r-tot-Chatto 
East Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


16-3 


13-9 


85-8 


3-7 


3-5 


94'5 


143-8 


18 


K&la (^remUga) . 


Eeda- . 


Totok-tumiko . 
East aide of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


163 


13-3 


81-6 


3-6 


3-6 


100-0 


1349 






















14 


J^ru (Ariauto) 


J^ru . 


Tip.!unta 
Stewart's Sound. 




IG'8 


13-7 


81'5 


37 


3-7 


100-0 


38-8 


16 


K6i6 (Amnio) 


K6A6 . 


Betra-kudo 
Cnthbert Bay, 




16-3 


I3'3 


80-9 


3-4 


8-0 


88-2 


140-5 


16 


Kidd (eremtaga) . 


K6d& . 


Pute-poroij 
Wert side of 


JTiddle 


lQ-8 


13-5 


80-3 


3-6 


3'e 


102-8 


139-3 


17 


EMe (irkuto) 


ESdd . 


S^go-tnmtau-tdta 
Interview Island. 




16-3 


135 


83-3 


3-6 


32 


88-8 


Ul-2 


16 


J^ru (Ariauto) 


J^ . 


Chakam-lat-kou-to 
Stewart's Sound. 




16'4 


13-6 


82-fl 


3-8 


3-3 


100-0 


134-0 


19 


J&a (AriEuto) 


Jcru . ' . 


Bara-li-Chir . 
West Coaat of 
Andaman. 


Ncrth 


16-7 


13-6 


81-4 


3-3 


36 


106-0 


188-7 


20 


J^ru (Ariauto) 


J&u 


Laroifc-Chettu , 
West Coast of 


■Norti 


16-4 


lS-6 


82-9 


8-6 


S'4 


97-1 


136-8 


21 


Keda (Ariauto) 


K«a . 


Eider-t«t-Ch(tta 
East Co^ of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


177 


14-3 


80-7 


8-4 


8-3 


flr-0 


139-1 


22 


Jgru (Eremt&ga) 


Jeru 


Mikot-tot-Chittol 
Interior o£ 
Andaman. 


Kortii 


16-3 


13'B 


83-4 


38 


3-5 


92-1 


139-2 






















23 


E^d^ (£remt£ga] . 


K^o . . 


Bus-tao . 
Interior of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


16-9 


13-8 


816 


3-4 


3-3 


97-0 


1471 


24 


KiA& (Ariauto) 


^m . 


Amit-tera-Tft . 
East Coa»t of 
Andaman, 


iliddl^ 


16-6 


139 


83-7 


87 


8-3 


89-1 


136-3 


26 


Chiriar (Ariauto) , 


ChAridr 


Taunmu-ket 
North-West of 
Andaman. 


North 


16-7 


13-3 


7e;6 


88 


3-7 


1121 


138-2 


26 


.J^ru (Ariauto) 


J^ni . 


Arat 

MortU-Wert of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


16-8 


13-6 


80-S 


3-6 


3-4 


94-4 


133-0 


27 


KfAd (Arianto) 


Kii6 . 


Reng-Iam-tafi . 
InUrvitw Island. 




16-6 


13-8 


83-1 


39 


8-7 


94-8 


134-2 


28 


Jftu (Ariauto) 


Jeru . . 


Farat . 
Wert Coart of 
Andaman. 


Korth 


IC'9 


13-6 


70-8 


3-8 


3-8 


loo-o 


144-0 


29 


K6i4 (Ariauto? 


KiWa . 


Tanro-poroicb . 
Wert Coast of 


Middle 


16-5 


13-6 


82-4 


3-2 


3-0 


112-6 


137-7 


30 


J^m (Ariauto) 


Jeru . 


Mft^-teta-pung 
Stenart'B Sound. 




16-9 


14-1 


884 


8-6 


3-6 


1000 


140-8 


81 


^m (firwntAga) . 


K&M . . 


Torok-t^ra-Chang 
Interior of 
Andanuin. 


Middli 


16-6 


18-3 


80-6 


4-3 


8-8 


76-7 


ui% 


J 


J^ (iriMito) 




Ckimino 

Wert Coart of 
An 


'North 


164 


18-8 


8»4 


4rl 


i " 


87-8 


187-6 



43 



INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Negrito Type. 

FBKiU ANDAMillCS OF NORTH AHDiHJUl -OOnCl^. 

OlFTlIH W. MOLBSWOBTH, I.H.S. 



farial 
No. 


Kami of Tbibb 
OB Cabtb. 


Langnacre or 
Dialect. 


Locality. 


Length 

GlabeUo- 

oooipital. 


Breadth 
Extreme. 


Cephalio 
lodex. 


Heiffht 
of Nose* 


Breadth 
of Nose. 


Nasal 
Index. 


Statim. 


83 


K4da (Ixianto) 


K^da . 


B^-tera-kodo • 
East Coast of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


15*9 


13*0 


81-7 


4-0 


3*7 


92-5 


188-0 


84 


Chknkt (Iriaato) . 

• 


CMri&r 


Tong-ma • 
North-West of 
Andaman. 


North 


16-8 


13*6 


83-4 


8*8 


3-7 


97-8 


135-3 


85 


J^ (Iriaato) 


J^ 


Tno-terai-Jnl^ 
West Coast of 
Andaman. 


*North 


16-3 


13*9 


85-2 


4*0 


8-4 


850 


148*7 


86 


J^ (irianto) 


J^ra • 


Cheraot-Chetta 
West Coast of 


North 


15*9 


13*4 


84*2 


8-8 


8*5 


98-1 


138-5 


87 


J^ (£remt4ga) • 


J^ra 


Faor-tot-ddla '• 
Interior of 
Andaman. 


North 


16*4 


13*2 


80-4 


3-8 


8*3 


86*8 


182-8 


88 


J^rn (£remt4ga) 


J^ra 


Parata-li-Chir • 
Stewart's Soond. 


• • 


16-3 


13*3 


81*6 


8*6 


3*4 


94*4 


142-4 


89 


J^ (Ariaato) 


J^ra 


J^r-tian • 
Stewart's Soond. 


t • 


161 


12*8 


84-7 


8*7 


3-5 


94*5 


127-r 


40 


J^ (£remt&ga) 


•J^ra • 


Bilik-aor-pang 
Stewart's Sound. 


• • 


16*4 


132 


80-4 


8-6 


8-6 


100-0 


188-7 


41 


J^ (Xrianto) 


J^m 


Tau-tai-ino • 
West Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


16*2 


13*3 


81*4 


4*0 


8*6 


90-0 


188*3 


48 


J^ (Ariaoto) 


J^ 


Meo-kat 

West Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


15-9 


13*4 


84*2 


86 


3-4 


94*4 


182*5 


48 


GhAnir (iriauto) • 


Ch/LriAr 


Pnmo-tong • 
West Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


17-2 


137 


79-6 


8*8 


8-8 


100-0 


1500 


44 


K6dA (irianto) 


K^da . 


Kider-tot-Chette 
East Coast of 
Andaman. 


Middle 


171 


13*6 


79*5 


4*0 


3*8 


95*0 


188*7 


45 


J^ (Ariaato) • 


Jdra 


Tip-tu-mauto , 
Stewart's Sound. 


• • 


16-4 


13*2 


80*4 


3-7 


3-4 


91-8 


187 7 


46 


J^ra (Ariaato) 


J^ru 


Maurok-toi 
West Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


16 7 

• 


13-3 


79*6 


4*4 


8-4 


77-2 


135-0 


47 


J^ (Ariaato) 


Jdra 


Lai-paul^ 
East Coast of 
Andaman. 


North 


171 


13-7 

1 


801 


3-6 


8-8 


91*6 


1441 


48 


J^ {txemUgtk) 


J^ra 


Ohali-Eot-Chetta 
Interior of 
Andaman. 


North 


16*8 


13-1 


77*9 


4-1 


8-6 


87-8 


186*4 


49 


J4ni (£remttfga) 


J^a • 


Ptfta*jmng • 
Interior of 
Andaman. 


North 


15*9 


13*6 


85*5 


3-7 


8-4 


91*8 


137-5 


50 


J4ni (Ariaato) 


J^ra • 


Arat • 
South-west of 
Andaman. 


North 


16*6 


13*8 


88-1 


8*8 


8-4 

• 


89-4 


187*4 




Obavi) Total 

« 

ATiBiei 


• • • 

• • • 


• • • 
> 


• • 

• • 


826*2 


676*6 


• •• 


184-5 


174-1 


• #• 


5926-8 


( 


165-2 


185*3 


81-9 


86-9 


848 


94-8 


18S5*8 



41 
INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Nefrito Ty|l«. 



MUE ASDUUSES 01 SODIE JIDUU, 

ClPTAlir W. HOLBSWOBTH, I.H^r 



%']^ 


N*K« ox Tbibb 

OK OlBTI. 


DUeot. 


Locality. 


lenglh 
Glabetlo- 
oeoipital 


Breadth 
Eitrdnie. 


Cephalia 
Indei. 


Height 

of NUBO. 


Bread th 
of Ndm. 


Naaal 
Indoi. 


Siatnre. 


I 


Fuahik-WiT (£;Teai* 
t&g.) . . . 


FuBhik-Wtfr . 


Yoretil-Iuterior of Middle 
Andaman . 


18-8 


138 


83-1 


43 


3-7 


86-0 


146-0 


2 


Aku-BSM . . 


Ikat-mi . 


Dnba-Wbar — Outiam 
Island .... 


17-1 


14-2 


82-9 


60 


3-7 


74-0 


14S-e 


3 


Okko-juwfti {firem- 

Ug») . . . 


Okko-juwal . 


Taolo-boicbo-Interior of 
Middle Andaman 


1--2 


U-0 


81*3 


41 


3-6 


87-8 


H93 


4 


Ak«-Ka-d» (Arifluto) 


Abi-B6a-da . 


Kfd Inland 


16-0 


14'4 


900 


3-9 


8-6 


89-7 


146-3 


5 


Puohik-Wir (Ariauto) 


Puebik-W^r . 


Bir-lika-bll— West Coast of 
Middle Andaman 


17-7 


14-7 


83-0 


4-8 


4-3 


1000 


ISO'S 


a 


ika-B*a-da (Ariauto) 


Aka-B^-da . 


KjJ Island . 


18-3 


15-0 


era 


3-7 


3-7 


100-0 


146-3 


7 


Akar-BS16 (itiftuto) . 


Akar-BAS . 


North Button Island . 


17 -S 


14-3 


81-7 


3-9 


3-2 


81-9 


145-8 


8 


Akar-Bilfi (Ariauto). 


Akat-B&l^ . 


Lawrence Uland 


17-7 


1.1-7 


88'0 


4-7 


s-g 


82-9 


155-4 


10 


Puohik-Wir (Ariauto) 
Okko-ju-ai (firem- 


Pnchik-Wdr . 
Okko-juwai . 


Yoljig-Saatb-Ettat of 
Middle Andaman . 

Bal-U-paga— Inlarior of 
Middle Andaman 


lC-8 
16-7 


1^3 
14'4 


86-1 
86-2 


41 
41 


4-2 


102-4 
90-2 


164-3 
1620 


11 


Puehie-Wir (Ariauto) 


Pucbik-WSr . 


Maut Kuner— Middle Ab'- 
dtiaiati .... 


17-3 


148 


B4-3 


43 


4-1 


97-0 


147-5 


ta 

13 

U 


Akar-Bttld (Atiaato) . 

Okko-juffai [&tem- 
Uga) . . . 

Pucbik-War (ktem- 
tiga) . . . 


Akar-B£U . 
Okko-juwai . 
pDcLik-W/ir . 


J^dar-Wbar-Lawr«nee 

lilaud . . 

Taulo-Bi>icbo— Interior of 
Middle Andaman 

WitB-Ydmi— Interior of 
Middle AiidauiBn 


17-6 
17-2 

:7-i 


U-2 
11-8 
U-2 


81-1 
S6-0 
82-9 


4-4 
40 

4-0 


8-7 
8-9 

3'B 


84-0 

9r-5 

96-0 


1522 
147-0 
14i'o 


15 


Aka-BSa-da (Ariauto) 


Aka-Bda-da . 


Mai-Lcpta -North- WRit 
end oE Suntb Andaman . 


17-3 


15-0 


86-7 


4-3 


4*3 


1000 


138'0 


16 


Akac-Bal^ (Ariauto) . 


Akar-Bd1< . 


Tod ma BoToij— Lanrenoe 
Uland .... 


16» 


14-3 


83-9 


4-9 


38 


77-5 


H8-7 


17 


Akar-BdM (Ariauto) . 


Akar-Bal6 . 


Neitl Island . 


16-7 


141 


84-4 


4-3 


S6 


81-3 


1506 


18 


Paoliik.Wit (Ariauto) 


pDobik-Wdr . 


Charka-Colebroke Island . 


181 


14-6 


BO'6 


41 


4-0 


a7-5 


161-3 


19 
20 


Pu«bik.Wir(Ari»Qto) 

Okko-jniTu (Erem- 
U(P) . . . 


Pacbik-W&r . 
Okko-jnwai . 


M»iJt Kpnu— Middle An- 
daman 

Bsi-Ia -pi jn— Interior of 

Middle Andaman 


17 '3 
17-4 


14-2 
14-5 


82-0 
83-3 


4-2 
4-4 


S'8 
36 


90-4 
81-8 


i«-0 
144-6 


21 


Aka-BJa-4a (Ariauto) 


Aka-Bfia-da . 


Mai-LeptD— North.Weat 
ooroer of South Aoda- 


17-6 


14-3 


81-2 


4-7 


3-9 


82-9 


153-4 


22 
23 


Pnabik-W^ (Ariauto) 

Paoblk-Wir (firem- 
tfiga) . . . 

Okko-juwai (Erem- 
tig»J . . . 


Pucbik-W4r . 
Pucbik-Wtfr . 
Okko-juwai . 


Pariob— Sonlb-WeBt of 
Middle Andaman . 

Eafco-burin— Interior of 
Middle Andaman 

Middle AndamaQ 


180 

17'3 
16-7 


14'6 
14-7 

13-B 


811 
82-5 
83-2 


4-8 

4-8 
4-6 


40 
38 
40 


83-3 
81-2 

86-9 


1504 

148-0 
lU'S 


86 


Kol(Ari.uto) . 


Eol . 


Longlalud . 


17 6 


14-1 


82-2 


4-8 


S-7 


77-0 


169-4 


S« 


Puohik-Wir (firem- 
Uga) . \ . 


Fuebik-Wir . 


Tili Chirat— HomiraT 
8t«it . . . . 


17-3 


14-8 


82-6 


4-3 


8» 


90-6 


1491 


27 


kU-TUk-iA (AriMto) 


Aka-B<ipdft . 


Luruft-BluSIaland. 


17-3 


14-0 


S(r» 


4-8 


8-9 


79-1 


147-0 


28 


Eol (gremUga) 


Eol . . 


Middle Andaman 


17-3 


K5 


83'8 


4-6 


3-8 


84'* 


146-B 



4B 



INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Nesrtto Type. 

Hiu AioAHins n SouTB Aroiiii— eoMoM . 









Captain W. Moliswobth, I.M.9. 












UrkA 
Mow 


Namb ov Tbibb 
OB Oaatb. 


Lftngaafeor 

JWaleot. 


Loeali^. 


Length 
OUbello- 
oooipital. 


Breadth 
Extreme. 


Oephalie 
Index* 


Height 
of Noee. 


Breadth 
of Hoae. 


Natal 

Index. 


SiatBre. 


29 


Aka-B4B-dB (krwoito) 


XkB-B^-Dft * 


KBQa-lant4-bBraij— Interior 






1 




• 














i7-8 


14-0 


80-9 


4-6 


4-0 


86-0 


142-8 


30 


Kbl(iriMto) . 


Kol 


LoDglaland . 


17-3 


14-7 


84-9 


3*9 


8-8 


97-4 


141-6 


tl 


AkapB^-4B (£rem- 


^ 




















Ug») . 


ika-B4a-da . 


Btii-limt4— Port Campbell 


18-0 


14*7 


81-6 


4-1 


3-8 


92-6 


166-0 


32 


XkB*B^«-dB (£rem- 


• 




















Urb) . . . 


ika-B^a^a . 


Pnta-tong^Middle StraiU 


171 


14-0 


81-8 


4-1 


3-4 


88« 


160*4 


33 


AkMB4ft-dB (ISrem- 


Xka-B^-aa . 


64ja-j^«dB — I n t e r i r , 






















Sootb AndamaD 


16*8 


14-1 


83*4 


4-0 


3-4 


86-0 


145-4 


84 


kkn-BM (ijUuto) . 


Akar.B414 


Q61ng-M&— HaTeloek Island 


18-1 


14-9 


82-3 


61 


4-4 


86-2 


163-6 


35 


AkB-B^-dB (XrUuto) 


Aka.B&i-dB . 


Ptfp-lnnttf-^Middle Strait* . 


17-3 


14-8 


82-6 


4-6 


3*9 


86-6 


163-6 


36 


AkBr.B414 (iriBoto) . 


ikar-641^ 


Neill Iiland 


18-4 


16^ 


83-1 


42 


3-6 


86-7 


143-1 


37 


XkB-Ma-dB (imato) 


AkB-B^-da . 


Port Campbell 


17-0 


14-8 


84-0 


4-4 


8-6 


81-8 


146-9 


38 


t4gB) . 


Akn-Bda-da . 


G6p-14ka*baDg— Interior of 






















South Audaiuau 


18-1 


161 


83-4 


4-3 


8-6 


81-3 


160-6 


30 


Akir-BM (Irituto) . 


XkHr-B«4 . 


Outram Idand • 


16*6 


14-8 


85-6 


3-9 


87 


94-8 


140-0 


40 


Okko-jnifBi (&6m- 
t4gB) . 










* 












Okko-juvBi 


Bai-14-plgB— Interior of 
Middle Andaman • 








• 














17-4 


14-0 


80-4 


4-3 


3-6 


837 


149-6 


41 


Poehik-Wir (tirem- 


PaehikWtfr . 


Y4relil-Interior of Middle 


















^^ ^ 




Andaman • • 


17-3 


14-7 


84*9 


4-3 


3-9 


90-6 


149-2 


48 


Aka-B^-dB (Ariftaio) 


IkB-B^da . 


LekefB*lant&— South end of 






















Middle Andaman 


17-8 


14-1 


79-2 


4-6 


37 


82-8 


149-2 


43 


Pnchik-Wir (&«m- 

t4gB) . 


PnehikWir . 


Parl6b— Soath-Baat eotner 


















*# r 




of Middle Andaman • 


17-8 


14-3 


80-3 


37 


3-7 


lO&O 


1460 


44 


OUwjami (£nm- 


Okko-JQwai 


Tal-baieban — Interior of 














• 






• 


Middle Andaman . 


17-3 


14-1 


81-6 


4-2 


3-6 


83-8 


149-6 


4ft 


PBeluk>W4i (tnm- 
Ugm) . . . 


Poehik-Wtfr . 


Parldb, — Sonth-East corner 


















^* » 




of Middle Andaman 


170 


14-3 


84-1 


3-8 


3-4 


89-4 


148-6 


46 


Poehik-Wir (&em- 
tiga) . • . 


Po€hik-W4r . 


Tdl-t6ng-ta.— Interior of 








■ 














Middle Andaman • 


16-8 


IB'8 


81-6 


4-2 


8-9 


92-8 


148-2 


47 


PBdiik.W4r (tnrn- 

t4fB) . . . 


Pnehik«W4r . 


Pop«tnag-ttf^Interior of 






















Middle Andaman • 


16-3 


14-0 


86-8 


37 


3-6 


97-2 


144^ 


49 


Okko-jowBi (fewm- 
t4gB) . . . 










• 












Okko-jnwai . 


K6pB-tB-K6dB— Interior of 
Middle Andaman • 




1 




1 












• 


16-6 


13-P 


887 


3*6 


8^4 


94-4 


189-2 


48 


Xka-B^B-dB (Xrinnto) 


XkaB^-da . 


Mai-Lepfen^Vor t h-W e § t 
end of Soath Andaman 




I 


















IM 


14*1 

1 


82-4 


1 4-1 


8-9 


96-1 


146-i 

1 


60 


ikB-B6irdB (Arimto) 


Aka-K^-da . 


Poknta-UralincB — W e § t 
Coaat of Sontb Andaman . 




1 


1 


1 






1 

1 








17-3 


14-4 


83-2 

1 


4-0 

1 


3-8 


96-6 


147-0 

■ 




866-6 


1 

7l»7 


••• 


213-7 


188-6 


••• 


. 7408-6 




Gbabd Total 
Atbbaob 






1 

1 




1 








1 




• • • 

a A A 




1 




173-1 


, 1487 


I 

88-0 


427 


377 


88^ 


14817 




■ V V 







46 
tNDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



KegTlto Type. 



FHAU AIID4KUII8 OF SOUTE ARDtUB. 

CaFTjIN V. MOLXtVOBTH, I.M.8. 



"V^ 


NiHB OV TBIBI 
OB OlSTB. 


D»Uot. 


LocUtr. 


ooeipital. 


Bnadth 
Eitrrate. 


CflphUia 
Index. 


5^J^ 


Breadth 
a[ Noie. 


Haul 

Indei. 


Statare- 


1 


Okko-JBWBi (£mi- 
























Mr^i . . . 


Okko-JBUBl . 


K&raiB'Uko-F^ 
Vat Cc«.t of 

AndBIDBB. 


Uildk 


16-7 


18-6 


81-4 


3-8 


8-6 


92-1 


1380 


3 


Okko-JBWBi (^rem- 
























««»! . . . 


Okko-iuBii . 


Benei-brdDgB . 




16-9 


13-8 


81-6 


4-0 


3-2 


80-0 


14&9 








lotcrior of Middlo Asd- 






















BIBBn. 


















8 


FBBbik-w<r Itim- 
























ug.) . . . 


PDOhik-»b . 


KBBBBk-tang-tang 




17-8 


137 


7&-1 


3-9 


88 


974 


1433 


i 


ik.r-MM (imulo) . 


Iku-BiM . 


°j1:i^ri5.'s^' 




ie-6 


18-7 


82-6 


4'3 


3-7 


88-1 


1393 


< 


Poebik-wir {grem- 
























Up) . . . 


PmHk-Bir . 


lUr-tnng-ti . 
Interior of 
Andamui. 


Hiddk 


16-6 


11-0 


843 


4-1 


3-6 


87-8 


136-8 





KoUliwnt.) . 


Kol . . 


Chird . . 
Long IdwA. 




l«-8 


18-3 


82-8 


4-3 


8-6 


83-7 


137-1 


7 


ilm-l)iU(iiiato) , 


Ak.r-B<M . 


Ptfati Br- jin ([a -dogoU 


X7-2 


141 


81-9 


4-4 


36 


79-6 


148-6 








Lawrence Island. 


















S 


Okko-JBVBi (Siem- 
























Ug.) . . . 


Okko-JB.Bi 


Kopnk-Wra-ktfd* 

Interior of 

Andaman. 


Middk 


160 


18-S 


84-3 


4-2 


3-6 


867 


1827 


9 


Xkaz-Bdl^ (IiiButo) . 


iiMJ-Btii . 


Lawitnoe Island 




17-0 


13-6 


80-0 


4-6 


8-6 


76-0 


138-4 


10 


XbB-6&-dB(lriatittf). 


Ak.-B<»I. . 


Port CampbtU. 




16-8 


14-1 


83-9 


4-0 


3-4 


86-0 


143-1 


11 


Pnobik-wir itnm- 
























Ug.) . . . 


Fucbik-«& . 


Teretil . 
Interior of 
Andaman. 


Hiddl. 


16-8 


13-7 


82-6 


3-1 


8-5 


IIM 


141-3 


11 


P«.ldk-i.ir (Srm- 
























1*B) . . • 


FBehlk'wir . 


Yerrti] . 
Interior of 
Andaman. 


Hiddl. 


16-3 


13-4 


82-3 


8-4 


8'5 


102-9 


1407 


11 


Pwhik^wir (£rnn- 
























««•)•■• 


PBchik-wir , 


Parlob , 
Interior of 
Andanmn. 


mddte 


16-9 


lS-4 


792 


41 


3-3 


flO-1 


1S8-8 


u 


IkB-B^^dB tillBBto). 


ik.-B«.-d. 


Alaba^htfng 




15-7 


137 


8?-2 


4-7 


38 


702 


1417 








Eaat Cowt, SoDtli Andaman. 
















16 


ik.-B<..dB(iriBBt(4 


ik.-Bj.>d. . 


Mai Lrptn . 
North-WeBt of 
Andaman. 


'eoBth 


16-3 


13-2 


88-9 


»B 


8-4 


89-4 


142-6 


U 


AkB-B&-dB (irisBto) 


Jk.'Bj..d. . 


Knro-pniig 
Fott &mpbell. 




l«-4 


14'« 


87-8 


4-1 


3-6 


88-3 


1388 
























17 


Poohik-w&i (iilBDto). 


PBchik-WB^ . 


Homfray Bti»it 




16-7 


is-« 


81-4 


89 


32 


830 


146-8 


18 


&kBi.B^(imflto) . 


Ak.r.B&Id 


Jnrn-ina 




16-8 


18-6 


80-4 


3-6 


3*4 


96-4 


14J-6 


■ 19 


i[kB-B&-dB(AriaBtD) 


ik..B<B'd> 


Kjd laknd . 




16-7 


14-0 


83-8 


4-4 


8-8 


86-3 


140-6 


20 


Foohik-wii {turn- 
























%.) . . . 


PBBhik-w^ . 


Parish . . 




16-0 


18-0 


81-a 


8-8 


3-4 


89-4 


1291 


SI 


PoDkik-w&r (tnm- 
























«8B) . . 


Pn.klk.»ir . 


Para-tong-U . 
interior ol 


Uiddl. 


16-9 


13-9 


822 


4-0 


8-6 


90-0 


1461 


22 


IkB-BA4B (AriRflM 


lkB.Bd.Hl. . 


Ifaja-tilft-warni!* 
Inlnrior of 

Rnii-liinta-)>ud 


'SoBlh 


17-4 


14-4 


81-3 


3-8 


8-6 


82-1 


146-6 


» 




ikB-Bd..dB . 




16-7 


187 


88-0 


8-7 


8*6 


9*-6 


144-6 








Pott Campbell. 


















H 


ikB.Ei.Hl. (JlkBlB) 


lk>.BdrdB . 


Eoiob-li-t^ga 
Wenl Coaat «( 
Andaman. 


'ft»lb 


lT-7 


14-4 


81-8 


87 


8-4 


91-8 


142-8 


» 


ikB-B<rd>Uibiilo). 


ih.B<B.d> . 


'•nik 


U1 


IW 


«W 


4-8 


»t 


74-4 


UM 








>■ 



















47 



INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Negrito Type. 

FEKiU ANDAHiHSS Of SOUTH AjnUMO—OOneld, 

Captain W. Holxswobth, I.M^. 



SkUI 
No. 


Nina ov Tbibb 

OB 04 8TB. 


Lanffnaflre or 
Dialect. 


Locality. 


Length 
GlabeUo- 
ocoipital. 


Breadth 
Extreme. 


Oephalio 
Index. 


Height 
of likMe. 


Bieadtii 
of Noae. 


Nasal 
Index. 


Stature. 


18 


Okko-jawBi (firem- 






















t4g») . 


Okko-jnwid • 


Boroja-Ch4Dg • 
Interior of Middle 
Andaman. 


16-8 


18'3 


78-5 


3-8 


80 


102-6 


1458 


27 


Aka-B4ft^ (Iriauto) 


Aka.B4a-da . 


Laraa • . • • 
Spike Island. 


16-6 


13-6 


81*9 


87 


3-7 


lOOO 


189-2 


28 


Akft-B^-dft (iriauto). 


Aka-Bda-da . 


East Coast of South 


















^ 




Andaman 


17-1 


187 


80-1 


8*6 


80 


108-9 


1447 


28 


Paobik wtfr (firem- 


Pnobik-wfa • 


Interior of Middle 






















Andaman 


17-8 


14*4 


83*2 


3*6 


3-6 


100-0 


142*2 


80 


Paohik-w4r (Ari4nto) . 


Panhik-w&r • 


Eiring Kaoba • 
Strait Island. 


16-3 


137 


84-0 


4-4 


34 


77-2 


145-7 


81 


ikB-P4a-da (Ariauto). 


Aka-B4a-da . 


Kjd Island 


16-7 


137 


87*2 


4*3 


3*0 


697 


134-9 


^32 


ika-B^da (ArUuto) 


Aka-B^a-da . 


Rao-Inn ta-bnd 
Port Campbell. 


16*4 


14-3 


87-2 


3-4 


35 


1029 


135-2 


33 


ika-F^-da (Ariiuto) 


Aka-B^-da . 


Port Campbell 


18-7 

• 


140 


83-8 


3-4 


3*2 


94*1 


1411 


34 


Kol (&^mt4ga) 


Kol 


Amit-la-T^ . 
Middle Andaman. 


16-4 


13*4 


81*7 


3-8 


8*5 


921 


144-0 


U 


Akar.B414 (Xriaato) . 


Akar-B&l^ 


Gereng leber 
Lawrence Island 


17-2 


14*6 


84*8 


3-9 


42 


107-6 


140*2 


86 


Aka.B4aaa (Iriauto) 


Aka.B4a-da . 


Mai Leptn 

Nortb-West of South 
Andaman 


16-2 


13-5 


88*3 


8-4 


3-4 


100-0 


133-8 


37 


Poehik-w^r (&em- 












■ 










t4ga) . 


Pnohik-wtfr . 


OUi Cbdrat 
Homfraj Strait. 


16-4 


131 


79-8 


4*0 


3*1 


77-6 


134-2 


38 


ikar4a-da (Iriaato) 


Aka-Bda-da . 


West Coast of Sontb 


















j# 




Andaman • • 


15*4 


13-8 


86*3 


8-8 


3-5 


921 


1359 


20 


Okka-juwai (Erem- 






















t4ga) . 


Okko-juwai 


Tanlo-boioho . 
Interior of Middle 
Andaman. 


16-9 


14-1 


83-4 


4-0 


3-1 


77-5 


1397 


40 


Piiehik.w4r (iriauto) 


Pnehik-w&r • 


MantKunu 
Middle Andaman. 


16-2 


13*6 


83-9 


3-4 


3-1 


91*1 


130-5 


41 


ika-H^-daCXrianto) 


Aka.B4i-da . 


Port Campbell 


16-9 


18*8 


867 


4-3 


3*4 


790 


141*4 


42 


Okko-jiiw4i (£rem- 






















t4ga) . . . 


Okko-jawai . 


Eorain-tdkko-pu 
Interior of Middle 
Andaman. 


16-1 


132 


81*9 


3*8 


3-5 


92-1 


189*0 


43 


Paohik-wir (Arianto) . 


Paohik-wtfr • 


Wota Umi 
Middle Andaman. 


16*3 


13-3 


81-6 


8*8 


32 


84-2 


136-8 


44 


Puebik-w4r (fcem- 






















t4ga) . 


Puobik«w4r . 


Parlob .... 
South -East end of Middle 
Andaman. 


161 


137 


85*0 


3*3 


8-7 


1121 


134-3 


45 


Aka-Bda-da (Arianto). 


Aka-B^-da . 


Port Campbell 


16-6 


13-8 


83-1 


86 


86 


100-0 


141-6 


46 


Faehik-w4r (Arianto) . 


Packik*w4r 


Strait Island . 


16*6 


14-1 


84*9 


4-0 


8*3 


825 


1417 


47 


Aka-B^-da (&em- 






















t<ga) . . . 


Aka-B^da . 


Baja-jag-da 

Interior of South 
Andaman. 


17-0 


13*8 


81-1 


37 


37 


100-0 


144*5 


48 


Akar-riU^ (Arianto) . 


Akar.B4I^ . 


East Island 


167 


14-0 


88-8 


3-8 


3-2 


96*9 


141-1 


40 


i(kar.&4kS (Arianto) . 


Akar*B41^ . 


Lawrenee Island 


16*6 


18-6 


819 


4*0 


3-0 


75-0 


189-5 


la 


Poobik^r (&em- 






















tfga) . . . 


Pnchik-w^ . 


Pilrlob .... 
South -East corner of 


167 


18*9 


83-2 


8-4 


8*5 


102*9 


136*1 




Obasb Tof al 


A A A 


Middle Andaman. 


















880-2 


687*0 


... 


198*6 


1781 


•.• 


7012-4 




Atxbaab 


• • • 

A * A 






166-0 


137-4 


827 


887 


34-6 




t4MkV 


wm 


flS W ^PiP^B(^P^» 


• • • 




. V^P**^ 



APPENDIX II. 



Social Statistics. 



B 






60 



Social Grouping of tlie Tarko-Iranian Tract. 



GROUP I, 



BiLUCHISTAN AND NORTH-WEST FROHTIIR PR0TIHCE« 



HUSAIHlNS. 
CLASS I. 



HUSALMlNS— eonM. 
GLASS nL— Baloeh— 0onM. 



Saiyad . 
Shekli . 



Total 



92,499 
28,619 

116,018 



CLASS n.— Af);]iaii8. 



Ghalzfti . 
Kftkar . 
Luni 
FSni 

Sliiiftii! . 
Tirin . 
Oihen • 



Total 



18,961 

107,826 

2,825 

20,682 

17,101 

40,841 

461,926 

670,161 



Domki • 
Magftssi* 
Mftrri • 
Bind . 

Others • 



Total 



4^88 
10,848 
20,453 
19,816 
28,253 

104,498 



HUSALMlNS— contd^. 
CLASS lY^Br&hni— «»»fd« 



CLASS lY.— Brahni. 



CLASS HE.— Baloeb. 



Bngti . 
Baled! • 



15,426 
5,769 



Bangalzfti 
Biz&njo • 
Gnrgnftri 
Eambiftni 
Eard . 
Lftngay • 
Lehri 
Mengftl • 
Mohammad Hftsni 



11,229 

17,018 

4,083 

4,928 

4,018 

18,628 

6,278 

79,288 

67»489 



Qalftndrftni 
Sftjdi . 
Shawftni 
Zehri 
Others • 



Total 



6,816 

6,708 

8,148 

50,176 

22,251 

296,898 



HUSALHlNS— confd. 



CLASS TL 



Makiini • 



2,282 



CLASS TIL 



CLASS T.-^(L&8i). 

Angftna • 
Gadrft • 
Gongft • 
Jftmot . 
Bonjhft • 
Sanghar • 
Othen • 



Dehwftr , 
Ghnlftm . 
Jat 
Khetiftn 



Total 



2,7S9 
7,898 
2,010 
2,946 
8,773 
2,685 
16,117 



Total 



GROUP TOTAL 



7,083 

14,676 

139,288 

14,716 



175,713 



1,402,228 



Others unclassified . 1,820,917 



GRAND TOTAL . 3,733,145 



87.168 



Social Grouping of tbe Indo-Aryan Tracts 



Group II. 



AJHER-HERwIRA, RlJPUTlNA, THE PUNJlB, AND KASHMIR* 



Hindus. 

CLASS L— Brfthmaiis. 



Brfthmans 



• 2,880,682 



CLASS 11.— Kshatriy&s and castes 
allied to Kshatriyft ^ho are con- 
sidered of high social standing. 



Hindus— coned. 



Hindus— coned. 



CLASS IT.— Castes from whom CLASS Y«— Castes from whom some 
members of the higher castes can Brfthmans take pakki and 

Rftjpnts take kaehhi^^ontd. 



Elatri . 


• 


489,085 


Bftjpat • 


• 


. 1,199,953 


Others • 


• 


. 2,117,761 



Total 



8,766,799 



take pakki and water. 
Ahir . . . 866,636 
Gnjar . . . 667,506 
Jftt . • . 2,491,923 
MftU . • . 440,949 
Sonftr or Snnftr » 201,976 



Nfti 

Babfti or Bftika 
Others • • 

Total 



301,427 
18 

228,666 

2,197,012 



Hindus- contd. 

CLASS Tl. ' Castes from whose 
lota the twice-born will not 
take water- e^ntd^ 



Thftkkar 
Others . 



CLASS m.— Talshy&s or trading 
castes. 



Agarwftl • 

Khandelwll • 

Maheswari • 

Othi>irs indading 
-Banift" . 

TCftAX, 



215,781 
68,790 
88,691 

441,888 



Total 



102,066 

470,810 

4741,866 



CLASS YL— Castes from whose lota 
the twioe-bom wiU not take 
water. 



Lodhft • 

Lohir and Tftrkan 

M ah tarn 

Mina 

Bftwat 

Saini 

Teli 

Others 

Total 



58,482 
416,688 

48,682 
478,612 

42,557 
106.011 

60,926 
196,848 

2,251,549 



CLASS T.->Castes from whom some 
Brahmanstake pakki And RaJ- 
pnts take kaehhi. 



^ 



816,060 



Arora . 
Pani . 
Ghiiiih 
Einet • 
KnmUft 



692,688 
66,968 
169.117 
887,806 
409.081 



Baiiftgi 


76,886 


Chimhft 


62.695 


Daghi and Koli 


266,012 


Dhftkar . 


78,944 


Dhohi . 


66,543 


Domna . 


67,711 


Eamboh. 


66,297 


Khiti . 


167.968 


Jm^^^MM^ ^ 


86JM4 



CLASS YIL->Castes nntonehable. 



Bhil 

Ghftmftr 

Ghohift 

Dhanak 

Ehfttik 

Pftsi 

Begar 

Others 






Total 



GROUP TOTAL 

Indefinite gioap un- 
ftiiiiiffied 



845,170 

1,864,824 

947,982 

98,791 

68,888 

1,899 

14287 

297,904 

8,688,745 
19,781,592 



188,681 



fiSAIH TWAI . 19fiKiin 



5i 



Social Groapiiig of the Indo-Aryan Tract - cotud. 



Group ll 



AJHER-HERWlRA, RUPUTlHi, THE PrHJiB, AID KlSHMIR— COflfd. 



HUSALHlNS. 

CLASS L— (Aflbrif.) 

Better elasB Mnli&iiimadaiis. 



Moghal • 
Pathin • 
Saiyad . 
Shekh • 



Total 



126,169 
425,966 
838,009 
681,774 

1,516,918 



HUSiLHlNS— contd^. 

CLASS n.- (AJlftf)-<N»nld, 
Lower olaas MuhftmmadaiuB —eonid. 



Bftjpnt • 
CHhers • 



Total 



1,449,601 
54,802 

5,668,649 



CLASS IL— (AJlftf.) 
Lower elaai Hvliftmmadaiis. 



iwftn • 
Balooli • 
Gujar • 
Jftt 

Khokar • 
Meo • 



448,801 
469,393 
747,272 
2,080,267 
108,314 
815,199 



CLASS nL— (ArJftL) 

Deg:raded elan, moet of them are 

conyerts* 

Snb-elaw (a). 



HUSALMUIS— coned. 

CLASS in. - (Arjftl) - e9nid, 
I>egraded class, most of them are 
eoiiTerts— 0onf<l. 
Sob-olass (a)~'eonUL* 



Teli 



Total 



455,902 
2,428300 



Snb-elass (5). 



Darzi 
JolAhft • 
Kasfti . 
Koinbhftr 
LoUr • 
Nfti and Hajjftm 
Gmrkhftn ^ . 



Dhobi . 
Dom 



Mirftsi . 



198,585 
599,902 . 
20,970 
366,871 
241,314 
228,720 
816,536 



Mochi . 



Total 



135,384 
58,718 
283,137 
447,666 
874,850 



HUSALHlNS— coned. 

CLASS IIL-(ArJftl)> ttontd. 

Degraded class, most of them are 

conyerta — nontd* 

Sub-class (c)— 0«nf(i. 



Cbnhra • 
Fakir . 
Jhinwftr • 
Zamboh. 
Eishmiri 
Eboja • 
MftobU . 
MaUfth . 
Mewftti • 



Arain 
Bhaifti • 
Chimba • 



Snb-class (e)« 



1,005,830 
70,923 
60,051 



TOYAL 



Others unolassified 



226,338 

297,459 

142,208 

73,880 

' 250,540 

99^76 

286,742 

70,450 

9,419 

2,542316 

2,302,694 



GRAND TOJAL . 15,334,787 



Social Gronpin; of the Scytho-DraTidlan Tract. 



GROUP III. 



BOMBAT, BiRODA, AHD COORG. 



Hindus, 

CLASS L^Brfthmans. 



Brihman 



1,200,431 



CLASS IL— KahatriyAs. 
(a) Writer elaas. 
Pxabha • • . 28,913 

Others • . , 7,060 



Total 



35,973 



(5) Warrior or Pseado-warrlor 



Hindus— coned. 

CLASS nL— Taishyfta. 
(a) Traders. 



Guda « 


28,629 


btbi . 


27,805 


Khatris . 


94,770 


Maxttba. 


. 1,408,687 


BiJFit . 


446,604 


TbAkore. 


129,826 


Otben • 


69^98 



TofAL 



Dififtval • 
Gajjar • 
Kapolft • 
Khadijata 
Ud 

Meshn • 
Modh . 
Nftgar • 
Fancbam 
Porwid . 
Shirmftli 
Sortbia • 
Others • 

Total 



14,001 
19,770 
17,817 
24^723 
82,480 
11,176 
32,308 
15,945 
12,509 
12,774 
46,484 
12,364 
4,080 
255,926 



3,188,719 



(5) AgrleidtiirlatB. 
Knnbis • • . 2,417,581 
Otbers • • . S2/;i8 

« 

• T6f AL • 1^440^049 



Hindus— coned. 

CLASS III.>-Tai8h7ft8— Mitlti. 
(o) Cattle-breeders. 
Ahir . . . 109,204 



Bkarwidand 
Dbangar 

Cbftrans 

Babftri • 

Otbers . 

Total 



788,887 

85,888 

148,308 

863 

1,082,600 



(^ Artizana. 

BbftTFir. . . 26,221 

Eansftrft 39,920 

Lobftr . . . 184,667 

Pftnchkalsi . . 9,842 

SftM and Koshti . 106,426 

Souftr and Soni . 202,457 

Sotir • . . 283,787 

Teli • . . 129,088 

Othera • • . 74,589 

Total . 956,897 



Hindus— con^. 

CLAlte lY.^Sodraa. 

(a) (Clean Sndras) Those render* 
Ing personal seryiee. 



Bhoi . 
Dars! • 
Dhobi . 
Goxaya . 
Hajjftm • 
Mftcbhi . 
Others . 

Total 



61,707 
164,600 

87,121 

65,019 
212,942 

37,987 
108,175 
737,551 



(5) Those who do petty business. 
Bbandftri . • 168,908 



HaHpaik 
Kombbir 
BftYalla • 



Otheii • 

Total 



52,059 
280,640 
59,588 
88,120 
V,188 
tmAM 



52 



Social Gronping of the Scytbo-Drayidian Tract— c<m«ci. 



Group ID 



BOMBAY, BiROBl, kSb COORG— OOn^d. 



Hindus— conid, 

•riiASS lY.— Sodras— 0on<ci. 

(c) Those engaged In labour and 
Agricnltnre. 



Chodrft • • 
Gavandi • 

Gavli • • , 
Khftrva • » 
Koli • 
Konkani • 

MftU . 

Yanjftri and Laxnftn 
Others • • 
Total 



80,972 

4.9,829 

41,525 

37,931 

1,994600 

349,183 

294,393 

lS3,lo4 

280,193 

8,211,782 



HUTDUS— conld. 

CLASS IT.—Sndras— tfonid- 

(/) Criminal Tribes. 

DnblftorTalavia. . 110,475 



Others • 



2,945 



Total 



113,420 



(d) Performers and aetors. 
Dftdhi or Dbadhi . 91,743 



Others t 



Total 



13,748 
105,491 



(e) Mendicants and beggars. 
Bftrift . . . 49,065 



Gosfti • 
Josbi • • 
Others • • 
Total 



59,196 

11,100 

148,670 

263,031 



CLASS v.— Depressed class, whose 
touch is supposed to poUate. 



Berad • 

Bhangi • 

Bhil 

Ch&mhhSr 

Dhed (or Mahftr) 

Kabaligar 

Kftthkari 

Mftng • 

Meghwftl 

NsikdS . 

PSochftl • 

Others • 

Total 

GROUP TOTAL 

Unclassified and ani 
mistio • 

GRAin) Total 



177,082 

105,072 

482,188 

311,303 

1,320,936 

35,612 

59,872 

250,729 

34,962 

54^661 

60,489 

586,278 

8,479,084 

, 16,7S4,952 

3,762,667 
S0,487,619 



HUSALMlNS. 



CLASS J.— Arabs. 



Khnreshft 
Saijad . 
Shekh . 
Others . 

Total 



28,006 

138,239 

994,676 

125,036 

1,285,956 



HUSALMlNS—conld. 

CLASS YL— The Sindhi or abori- 
ginal tribes. 



Jftt 

Mfthnr 

Sftma 

Sindhi 

Sumra 



CLASS IL-Af);h&ns. 

Path&n . . . 182,789 

CLASS nL-Moghals. 

Moghal . • . 29,030 

CLASS FF.— Baloch. 

Bnrdio • 
Obftndia 
Domki • 



Total 



86,713 

32,426 

793,806 

688,016 

124,130 

1,725,091 



Jstoi 
Khosa • 
LighSri 
Makrftni 
Others • 

Total 



68,409 

74,461 

48,432 

53,487 

46,434 

4C>,585 

3,837 

211,269 

547,914 



CLASS T.^-Brfthnl. 
Bifthui • « • 



48,180 



CLASS Tn.— The Sheikh Neo-Mnslin 
(new conyerts to Isl&m). 



Bohrft or Bohorft 
Kbojft • 
Meman . 
Mohanft . • 
Others • • 

Total 

GROUP TOTAL 



143,679 

52,658 

104,721 

113,079 

21,936 

436,073 

4,265,0SS 



Others unclassified • 524,511 



GRAND TOTAL . 4,779,544 



liingftyats. 





CLASS n.— Non-Panchamsftli with 


CLASS n.— Nou-Panchams&li with 


CLASS n.— Non-Panehamsftll witl 








AshtaTama Rights. 


AshtaTama Rights- 


-eontd. 




Ashtayarna Rights— leonM. 


Hypergamous. 






Endogamous. 


















Endogamous- Mnftf. 




Endog^amous-n0onfi{» 


1. Jyya or Jangam 


150,180 


1. 


Adibanjg . 82,828 










, 










13. Hngar or Mai* 




24. 


M&lav . • 1.207 


2. ^afl^'i^Athnikar 


93 


2. 


Badiger . 


1,320 


gar • • 


38,053 


25. 


lUthftpatti , 


1 387 


Ohilmi 




3. 


Baligar • • 


870 


14. Jir 


978 








Agni • 


6 












26. 


Haskin Milav • 


676 






4. 


Clatter • 


1,718 


15. Kabbiligar 


243 








Dhul p a- 














27. 


Niglig . 


10,269 


vad . 


10,678 


5. 


Deodfts • 


563 


16. Kammftr or 
















- 




Lobftr . • 


1,451 


28. 


NiJgar . 


868 


Dikshi- 




6. 


GanScbftri 


10 












▼ant • 


6,902 


7. 


Gsniger • . 


99,489 


17. Kumbbftr 


18,246 


29. 


Nonebar • « 


10,458 


Ukalalki 


6,667 


8. 


Gayli . 


4,806 


18. Enrrinshetti • 


18,678 


80. 


Padsftli . 


1,746 


ShiWant . 


21,752 


9. 


Gavandi oi 




19. KadeTakkHlig . 


19,723 


81. 


Padamsftli < 


1,694 


Unspeoi- 






Uppar • 


2,204 


20. Kurub • t 


2,405 


32. 


Panchichlri , 


2A28 


fted • 


97,001 






















10. 


Gum 


4^837 


21. Kuxtli . 


881 


83. 


Fikttesftli 


3,688 


3. PanchamsiU • 


431,127 






















11. 


Hindezaut 


8/M7 


28. Knnlli • 


784 


84. 


Pujir . 


616 


Total 


72M06 
















4 


• 




BliidsfaTafa • Um 


St. Ulgcnto 


MM 


8S. 


BMldi . 


4^060 



63 



Lingayats— con#<i, 



Group m. 



CLASS II.— Non-Pattchams&li with 


CLASS III.— Non-Panohams&li 


CLASS m.— Noa-Panohams&ll 


CLASS IY«— Low Caistes.^ 


lihtayarna Rights- 


'&anid* 


1 


without AahtaTarna Rights. 


without Ashtayarua Rights ~ 
















contdt 


1 


1. Cbalwftdi • '53 


Endogamovf— «an«d. 






















Endogamons* 






Eudogamous— eonfd. 


2. Dhor or Dobori 655 


88. Saddar 


57,669 




















1. 


Agftsft . 


11,771 


7. 


Hftodeyazir 


8,543 


3. Holia or MahAr 884 


37. ShiTsbinpigar • 


7,725 




















2. 


Ambig t • 


940 


8. 


Ilgar . . 


511 


4. Halsar • • 4 


38. ShiTJogi 


238 




















3. 


Basavi . 


7 


9. 


Kftehftri • 


231 


5. Jingar • • 26 


39. Bungar 


80 




















4. 


Burud or Medar 


430 


10. 


IjJftyaiii 


240 


6. Samgar • • 1,959 


40. Tilmboli 


360 




















5. 


Deyang. ' 




11. 


KSmftthl 


5 


Class Total . 8,580 


41. Tilari 


9,151 




Hatkar 


















or Jada 


30,371 


12. 


Nsdig . 


24,621 


Uuspeoified . 132J.38 


42. Tnrkar 


1,163 










• 








• 




' Bile Jada 


2,405 


13. 


8aib 


617 


GRA9D TOTAL . 1,422,898 


48. Yftni 


61,423 




Unspeoi- 




14. 


Sftli 


917 


^ ' 




* It is not unusual to denj tbat 


44. Vattrada?ani • 


4 




fled. 


11,710 








these enstes are members of tbe 
Liogftjat rommunitj at tbe pre- 
sent day. 


Glass Total • 


468,624 


6. 


Div&tgi*. '. 


226 




Class Total 


93,545 



MoTB.— A tentttlTe eUviflcfttion foanded on imperfeot enqairiM and labjeet to reTiaioa upon the oompUtiOQ of the iDTMtigatioof now in profiMi. 



Social Gronping of tbe DraTidian Tract. 



Group IY« 



1. Madras Presidehct, 2. Htsore, 3. Hyderabad, 4. Tratancore, Aim 5. Cocniir. 



HIKDUS. 

CLASS L— Brfthman and allied 
castes. 






Brftbman 



2,158,261 



CLASS IL^Kshatrlyft and allied 
eastes. 



Ksbatriyft 
Fatnul Karan 
Bftjput 
RAzu 



Otbers 



Total 



139,635 
89,299 
66,266 

113,528 
41,768 

450,496 



CLASS nL— yaishy& and allied 
castes. 



Komftti 



672,590 



Otbers (includiog 
Vini) . . 405,549 

Total . 1,078,139 



CLASS IV.— iSol w good Sndras. 



Ambalavasi 

Balijft 

Bant 

CbetU 

Qsudo 

GoQft 

Idaijan 

KaliBgi 



24,866 
1,016»122 
118,528 
312,337 
103»08d 
998,470 
695,302 
186,546 



Hindus— conid. 

CLASS IT.-^As« or good Sudras 
— oonld. 



Kamma > 

Kftpu 

Kummara 

Kosadan 

Nftjar 

Satftni 

Yakkaliga 

Velftmft 

YelUU 

Otbers 



Total 



973,728 
2,576,418 

222,193 

145.077 

1,043,894 

61,843 

1,376,592 

567,945 
2,442,959 
4,732,321 

17,538/254 



CLASS Y.—Sudras who habitually 
employ Brfthmans as pnrohits 
and whose touch is supposed to 
pollute. 



Agamudiyan 

AmbalaKaran 

Kaikolan 

Maravan 

Nattaman 

Palli 

Silver Sib 

Telagi 

Totliy&n 



318,166 
162,474 
350,632 
345,915 
151,278 
2,557,816 
556,370 
447,544 
151,007 



Hindus— confd* 

CLASS Y.— Sndras. who habitually 
employ Brfthmans as pnrohits 
and whose, touch is supposed to 
pollute -0on(ii. 



Yanij&n 
OtberM 



Total 



185,067 
1,618,634 

6,84i,303 



CLASS YL— Sudras who occasion- 
ally employ Brfthman pnrohits, 
but whose touch does pollute. 



Ambattan 

Bestba 

Deranga 

Gamsllft 

Gownd&lft 

Gudalft 

Idiga 

Kalian 

Kumba 

Man gala 

Hutraeba 

Tsakala 

Uppara 

Yalaiyan 

Yannan 



Otben 



Total 



218,657 
194,394 
279,164 

150,977 
843,792 
4.437 
279,567 
487,284 
592,350 
198,489 
176,060 
360,215 
259,605 
860,296 
810,931 
835,838 
4^851,646 



Hindus— conici. 

CLASS YIL— Sudras who do not 
employ Brfthman pnrohits and 
whose touch pollutes. 



Agftfift 

Kurftyan 

Kurumban 

Odde 

Yanode 

Otbers 



Total 



107,885 
153,899 
155,000 
502,698 
103,979 
1,146,863 

8,169,774 



CLASS Ym.- Castes which' poUnte 
cTcn without touching, but do 
not eat beef. 



BiUftvft . 

Cbeniman 

lUnvan 

Kammalan 

Fallen 

Sbftnan 

Tiyan 

Others 



142,895 
253,847 
787,250 
104,083 
838,958 
608,385 
578,458 
890,461 



Total • 4^193,788 



^% 



54 



Social Gronpin^ of tbe Drayidian Tract— coned. 



GROUP IV< 



1. HABRiS, ETC., 2. CHOTl-NlGPUR, ETC., 3. CENTRAL PROTINCES AHB BERIR. 



1. Madras Presidency, 

2. Mysore, 3. Hyderabad, 

4. Travancore, and 5. Cochin 



HlHDUS — eantd. 
CLASS DC^CaAtes eating beef. 



Boya 

Khond 
Sayara 
(Hlieri 



Total 



397,34.8 
816,568 
183,159 
357,601 
1,254676 



1. Chot&-Nfijn»nr, 2. States 
of Chotll-Nll^Qr, 3. States 
of OrissS. 4. Angul and 
KbandmaMls. 



Hindus— conid. 

CLASS L 



Brfthman 



214,677 



CLASS n.— Castes of twioe-born 
rank. 

Bibhan 



Kftyasth 

Bftjpat 

Ofehen 



CLASS X.— Castes eating beef and 
polluting withont tonehing. 



Cbakkilijan 

Holeyi 

Madigft 

Mftlft 

Parftiyan 

Otbers 

Total 



487,445 
748,853 
1,034,927 
1,645,084 
2,231,655 
1,612,937 
7,756,901 



CLASS XL— Castes denying the 
saeerdotal anthority of Brftli- 
mans. 



Jangam 

Eammilan 

Earn Sala 

Lingftyati 

Panchftla 

Others 

Total 



102,121 
640,310 
271,583 

1,106,714 

215,471 

92,315 

2,328,614 



CLASS XIL^Castes insaffleiently 
Indieated and not eorresponding 
with the other prorinoes. 



Vadagan 
Ofcbers 



Total 



95,924 
1,764,265 
1,860,189 



CLASS XIIL^Castes nnspeoifled 
and religions mendicants. 



Total 
GROUP TOTAL 

Animists and an* 
diitified • 



142,691 
62,626^66 



196,057 



fiRAHD TWAL • 6e,83JS,4S8 



Total 



36,360 
27,601 

108,333 
25,0i7 

196,341 



CLASS m. • Clean Sndr as. 



Snb-elass (a). 

Ahir (Goala) . 



Ghero 
Kftbftr 
Ebarwftr and Bhogta 
Koiri • 

Karmi » 

Others • 

Total 
Snb-class 



Bftrh! 

Hajjim 

Rarobhftr 

LobBr (Kamir) 

Mftli 

Bftatia 

Sarak 

Sonftr 

Others 

Total 



(A). 



CLASS IT.— Inferior Sndras. 

9,986 



Ealwir 

Kewit 

Jhort 

Mallfth 

Nonii 

Baaniftr 

Sanri 

Teli 

Others 



TotAJ, 



371,209 
21.996 
76,948 

142,900 
83,362 

463,476 

73,779 

1,233,666 

42,630 

47,077 

136,206 

149.098 

17,152 

89;471 

13,298 

16,022 

6,994 

466,848 



61,697 

7,469 

12^1 

8»282 

8,712 

73,218 

169,092 

10,324 

862|080 



Hindus— coned. 



CLASS T.- Unclean Sndras. 



Bathndi 

Bedeft 

Bhniyi 

Bhamij 

Cbimftr 

Chik (Barik) 
Pan 

Dhobi 

Dosadh 

Gbisi 

Gond 

Kandh 

Eharift 

Korft 

Mibii 

Mil 

Mundft 

Bftjwir 

Savar 

Tatwi 

Turi 

Others 

Total 



and 



44,670 

22,669 

346,981 

236,984 

92,470 

308,930 
67,078 
60,448 
51,206 

201,647 

121,011 
88,872 
27,115 
33,118 
14,095 

826,753 
69,620 
15,746 
81,411 
36,762 
48,037 
2,293,612 



1. Central Provinces anc 
2. Bemn 

Hindus— conid. 

CLASS I (a).— Castes of anoien 
twice-born. 



Brfthman • 
Prabhu and Eftyastb 
Bftjput « • 

Others • 



Total 



464,806 

30,690 

387,620 

327,081 

1,210,197 



CLASS I (&).— Castes not of twiei 
born, bnt claiming high pes 
tion on acconnt of their hig 
position* 



Baiiigi 

Bhit 

Religions mendicants 

Otbers . • 



Total 



87,711 

22,653 

24,264 

1,872 

86,400 



CLASS n (a).— Higher enltiTatoi 



CLASS YI.— Scarengers and 
fllth-eaters. 



Dom 

Hiri 

Ho 

E:inr 

Nigesia 

Oiaon 

Santil 

Oihers 



Total 



GROUP TOTAL 



Animists and un 
classified • 



39,648 

41,510 

883,604 

62.418 

80,137 

448,999 

676,029 

62,047 

1,644,187 

6,400,860 
1,193,798 



6RAHD Total 7,5M|ias 



from whom 
take water. 

Agbiria 

Ahir and GoilS 

Chisft 

Dftngi 

Domal 

Gondhalis 

Gujar 

Kaobhi 

KaUl 

Eiiftr 

Kolti 

Knnbi 

Karmi 

Lodhi 

Hill 

Mbftli 

Maiithft 

Other* 



a Brfthman wl 

31,764 

938,32^ 

21,411 

22,90: 

40,69{ 

3,39( 

50,131 

105,891 

15,85< 

41,521 

127,371 

1,282,901 

279,68! 

276,171 

538,411 

83,9& 

60,90: 

64961 



TOTAK 






55 



Social Grouping of tlie Drayidian Tract— coned. 



GROUP IV 



1. Cehtral Protihces and BERlR— coned. 



1. Central Proyinces and 
& Ber^T—conUi. 

Hindus— conid. 

CLASS n (6).-Higher artizmis or 
trading castes from whom a 
Bribman will take water. 



Hindus— coniii. 

CLASS ni (&).— Lower artizanB 
from whom a Br&hmaa will not 
take water. 



Barftl 






66,767 


BarUi 






67,170 


Sonftr 






124,808 


Satir 






30,114 


W»ni 






41,110 


Others 


• • 
Total 


47,721 


1 


866,680 


CLASS n (r). 
whom ii 
water. 


—Serving 
Br&hman 


castes from 
wiU talce 



DMmir 
Kewftt 

Nil 
Others 



Total 



223,723 

191,080 

136,621 

37,926 

589,350 



Bahna 

Banjftrft Yanjiriyand 
Labhloi • 

Bhalia 

Darzi and Shimpi 

Dhangar • 

Gadaria . 

Kftlftr 

Eoshti • 

Lohir • 

Teli 



Others 



Total 



CLASS lY.— Low DraTidiaB Tribes. 



CLASS m (a).— Lower caltiyating 
castes from whom a Br&hman 
will not take water. 



Bhoyftr 
Chftdar 
Maniar 
Others 



Total 



46,905 

26,042 

40,168 

141,582 

264687 



Baig* 

BhSna-BhnmiS 

Bhil 

Binjhwftr 

G^nd ' 

Hftlhi 

Ksndh 

Kawir 

Kisan 

Sawaia 

Others 

Total 



21,309 

140,180 

26,070 

46,069 

94467 

33,062 

149,200 

149,072 

150,343 

788,710 

164,679 

1,768.111 



Hindus— coned. 



CLASS f.— Castes who cannot be 
touched. 



24,744 

33.661 

28,155 

71,099 

1,997,654 

90,093 

168,641 

122^19 

32,788 

144,468 

72,713 

2.786,436 



Andh 

Balihi 

Bftsor 

BeldSr 

Bhoi 

Cbftmir 

Dhobi 

Gandft 

Ghftsia 

KoU 

Kfttia 

Kori 

Kumbftr 

Mahftr 

Mftng 

Mehtar 

Pankhi 

Others 



Total 



GROUP TOTAL 

Animists and nil' 
classified • 



HUSALHlNS. 



1. Madras, etc., % CliotI 
N&j^pnr, etc., 3. Centra 
Provinces and Berftr. 



89,679 

44,272 

4^,759 

88,889 

27,193 

763,298 

153,925 

277,830 

38,726 

46,713 

31,924 

35,971 

119,316 

860,967 

69,230 

91,816 

137,855 

49,848 

2,345,210 

1S,882,398 
676,687 



CLASS L- (Ashr&f) Better class 
Mnhftmmadan. 



Moghal • 
Pathin 
Saijad • 
Shekh 



.• 



Total 



61,766 

881,479 

353,962 

2,030,368 

2,777,566 



CLASS n (AJl&f) Lower class 

Mnh&mmadan. 



Dadcknla 

JoUhi 

Jonftkan 

Labbfti 

Mappilli 

Meltan 

Tnlakhan 



Total 



Others 



GRAND TOTAL • 14|00S^085 



GROUP TOTAL 

Unolassified • 



74,53^ 
157,391 

91,63< 
426,781 
910,84] 

66,2L 

62,20 

1,767,61 

188,88 

4,688,61 

d02,9C 



GRAND TOTAL • 4|06«»«; 



Aryo-Drayidian Tract 



GROUP 



The United Protinces and BihIr, 



United Provinces, 



Hindus. 



CLASS L 



Brahman 



Oiheis 



Total 



• 4,706,832 
48,922 



4766,254 



Hindus— coned. 

CLASS n.— 'Castes allied to Br&h- 
mans and who are eonsidered 
to be of high social standing. 



Bhftt 
Bhuinhlr 
Tftgft 
Others 



Total 



131,881 
206,961 
109,678 
12^961 
460,861 



Hindus— eoned. 



CLASS nL^BjhatriyAs. 



Khatri 
Rijput 
Othsxs 



Total 



49,618 

8,364068 

693 

9^404269 



HlNDUS^conecf. 



CLASS IV.— Castes aUled to Ka 
triy&s, thovgh their daloi 
not nniversallj admitted* 



Uyastha 
Othen 



Total 



616,6( 

a7« 



S6 



4Tyo-DraTldiaii Tract— omtd. 



The CHITED PROTOICES ASD Binln — contd. 



■ ' 1 

United Provinces— coiierf. 


IIlKDVS — conld- 


UlKOrs— coHfrf. 


nmuva- contd. 


HINDCS— con(d. 


tuas tX.-rHBtfs from whom 
soma of tho twice-born take 


CLASS XII.— Lowest castes eat- 
ing beer and Tsrmln. 


Sub-ciaaa 


(i). 


CLASS v.— J 


lehj&R. 


water while others wonld not. 


fihangi . . 353,530 


AmBt 


67,263 


Aguirila 


291,143 


BhMblinnjft . . 309,655 


CUmSr . . 6,800,639 


£krhi 


217,753 


BStlieni 


i3,833 


Darri . . 161,741 


Dom . . 233,915 


Hajjsm 


332,011 


TTmsr 


4S,422 


GfldsriyS . . 941,803 


Othera . . 316,737 


Kumbtr 


281,78 


Otheri 


107,895 


Kc^at . . 429.291 




Loblr 


285,927 


Total 


4(t4,293 


Ktmhsr . . 705.689 


Total . 6.594,821 


M&li 


67,689 




Mallsh . . 227,840 




Sonar 


173,468 


CLASS TI.-Cn8tM Billed lo 
TalHhyH, hut their olaltD Is not 


Othe» . . 207,851 


MESDICASTS. 


Otbera 


110,669 


nniveriMJIr Bdmittiid. 




Fakir . . 291,253 








Tout . 2.023,870 




Total 


1,616,516 


AgrahSri . . 86,603 




GROUP TOTAL . 10,«4B,381 






CLASS X.— CaitM from whoso 








Kanda . . 157,638 


hand the tnlce-born cnunot 




CLASS IT. --Iiiffeirior Sndru. 




take water, bnl who are not 


fied , . 107,746 






Xasaacdhan . . 96,128 






BeldBr 


91,630 


Other. . . BOr.875 


Snb.claM (a), with respectabio 
occupation. 


Grahd Totj 


X . 40,:i>r,i.'i: 


Bind 


129,531 








T0T*L . 848,139 


Bwijilra . . 45,828 


Bihar. 


Cbaiii 


79,933 


CLASS Tn.-CiuitM0f good Mela! 


BhBr . . 381,197 


niNDDS. 


Gonrhi 


137,086 


pcaltlon, iuporlor to lUuE of 
the remaining classes. 


KalwM , . 321,375 


CLASS L 


KaJrtr 


211,186 


JU . . 781,878 


Teli . . 732,367 


Br«hman . . 1,094,509 


KiitSt 


183,065 


Hftlnti . . 63,778 


Others . . 78,823 


CLASS n.-OUier castes of twtce- 


Mftll&h 


353,357 


Often . . 12.826 


Total . l,5a3.S90 


born rank. 


NnniB 


291,109 


ToTiL . 863,4(^2 


Bnb-clflss (I,), more or len 


BibLan . . 1,108.433 
Kayasth . . 828,^63 


Hluiar 
Stturi 


68,601 
109.339 


CLASS Tni.-C8stei from Tiboa 


Arak . . 73,702 








■ome of the twlco-born would 


Eljpnt . . 1,163,176 


Teli 


676.302 


tftke water nnd pakki, nlthoDt 


Kol . . 49.653 








qneitlon. 


Othen . . 61,334 


Tijir 


61.256 


AhM . . 216,137 


Lunij* . . 399.886 


Total . 2.661,400 


Turaha 


74.075 


Ahir 




8.823,668 


Otber. . . 180,482 


CLASS IIL-tloan Sndrns. 


Others 


45.233 


Buli 




138,418 


Tout 703,7:i3 








BulAi 




648,816 


praoUech 


Ahir 


. 2.832,518 


Total 


2,607,602 


CInjar 




283,952 


Kanjar . . 27.S76 


Atitb and Jog 


66.870 


CLASS T.-Cnd 


anoaatcs. 


Kiohbi • 




711,765 


JSeo . . 10,646 


Birui 


. • 117,343 


Bbuiyi 


268,671 


EtbSr 




1.237,881 


Othei't . . ]0,2:6 


Dhsnak 


581,427 


Cbttmlr 


941,822 


EilOQ 




369,681 


Toiii . 4^,193 


GBngaata 


82,378 


Dlioba 


196.676 


Koeri 




605,097 


CLASS XI.-Castes that are un- 


aareri 


89.174 


Do=»Jh 


l,OS7,045 


Enrmi 




1,963,767 


touchable, bnt do not eat beef. 


Qoar 


65.631 


Gang*! 


64,694 


LodbS 




1.063,741 


Dbanuk . . 127.581 


Halwti 


133.681 


ICbatwe 


102,871 


Lotiir 




631,740 


Dhoti . . 609,445 


KBhsr 


. 443,201 


Ma^ihit 


692,402 


Utli 




265,&13 


Dnsadli . . 72,124 


Kandu 


482.161 


PRsi 


136,462 


Mono 




645,920 


Kbitik . . 199,691 


Koiri 


. I.166/)77 


lUjwlr 


77,603 


SKi 




670,239 


Kori . . 990.027 


Kumii 


780,819 


Tatni or Tanti 


424.689 


Soitr 




283,980 


Ps*i . . 1,239,282 


Bijhwir 


77,608 


Othera 


84,143 


OOmn 




448,824 


OthOT . , 216.987 


Othen 


. 178,648 


















ToliT. 


18,738,607 


ToTil, . 8,464.037 


TOTAI 


. 7.092,633 


TOTAI 


3,96^7«8 



6? 



4ryo-DraTidiaii Tract— coi»«<i< 



Group Y. 



The mnTED Protdices and bihir— coined. 



Ulh^T—contd. 



HIHDUS— eonfd. 



CliASS TL— Seayen^en and fllUi- 
ealera. 



Dom 
Othen 



Total 



124984 
24,331 



149,315 



United ProTinces and 
Bihilr. 

HUSiLHlNS. 

CLASS I-(A8brftf) Better elasB 
Mnh&mmadaiiB. 



HtuSAIHlNS^con ' d. 

CLASS II.-(AJlftf) Lower class 
Mah&mmadaiis— 0ontJ. 

tf0,904 



GROUP TOTAL . 18,988,70S 

Animists and un- 
classified . . 1,667,327 



Hoghnl 
PathSn 
Saijad 
Sbekh 



Total 



86,254 

919,464 

362,603 

3,221,739 

4,690.080 



Bhang^ 

Darzi 

Dhobi 

Lohir 

Nfti 

TeU 



Total 



190,789 
138,733 
77.786 
219,898 
207,863 
1,861,983 



HUSALHlNS—cofieci. 

CLASS UI -(Arznl) Deg:raded 
Class ~0o»M. 

Fakir 



JolAhft 
Knnjrft 



GRAin) TOTAL . S0,656,030 



CLASS IL-*(AJlftf) Lower class 
Mahftmmadans. 



Barbi 
Behnft 



79,433 
356,677 



CLASS nL— (Arznl) Degraded 
Class. 



Bhisti 
Dbnnii 



Sab-class (a). 






82,194 
196,533 



Gftit 
Mewfttl 



Total 
Sab-class (&)• 



Total 
GROUP TOTAL 

Unolassified . 

Grand Total 



395,227 

1,546,959 

258,320 

190,790 

2,670,028 

58,952 

51,028 

104,980 

8,727,048 

1,567,400 

10,1304,446 



Social Gronpiof^ of the Mongolo-Dravidian Tract. 



Group TL 



Bengal and OrissI. 



Beng^al* 
Hindus. 

CLASS L— Brfthmans, 



Brftbman 



1,238,011 



Hindus— coned. 

CLASS m.— Clean Sodras— eonfd. 



CLASS n.— Castes ranking aboTC 
dean Sadras. 



Baidya 

Eftyasiha 

Ehatri 

Bftjpnt 

Ugra-Kbiktriya 
Aeari 



or 



Total 



80,348 
977,730 

23,174 
111,493 

88,415 

1,281,160 



Tftmli or a^mboli 
T«nti 
TeliandTil! . 



Others 



Total 



52,446 

304,144 

498,106 

•239,377 

3.132,536 



CLASS lY.— Clean castes with 
degraded Br&hmans. 



Hindus— coneci. 

CLASS YI.-LOW castes abstaining 
from beef, pork and fbwls. 



CLASS nL— Clean Sadras. 



Binii 

Gandha-baaik 
Elamir • 

Komhir • 

Malftkar 
Majift (Madak) 
Nftpit 



Sadgop 



161,265 
117,769 
287,647 
273,910 

83,414 
124,973 
422,832 

59,348 
557,805 



Chisi Eaibarta 
Goilft or Ihk 

Total 



1,936,951 
622,504 

2,659,455 



CLASS T.— Castes whose water 
Is not taken. 



Bkuiyft 

Jtigi and Jogi 

Sbihft (Snnri) 

Swamakiror Sonir 

Subama-banik 

SntEadbftr • 

OthaiB 

Total 



47,118 

885,529 

424.774 

56,899 

105,121 

166,748 

t415,008 

1.551,197 



B»g^ 

Chain 

Dhobi 

Jalia Kaibarta 

Eftia 

KapSli 

Eot4l 

Malo (Jhftle) 

Nama Sadra 
(Cbandal) 

Patni 

Pod 

Bftjbansi 

Tipiri 

Tiyte 

Others 



Total 



1,014752 
49,064 
220,332 
262,418 
114,163 
11^,900 
lft627 
221,758 

1^36,742 

60,830 

464,733 

1,560,516 

25,725 

200,544 

229,375 

6,418,474 



Hindus— conid. 

CLASS YIL^Undean feedera^ 



Kior& 

Korft 

Mftl 

Muchi 

Others 



Total 



111,948 

45318 

120,018 

411,596 

66,881 

1,192,592 



Scayengers. 



Dom 
Hiri 



Total 



GROUP TOTAL 

Animists and nnclas" 
sified 



184,170 
168,485 

352,655 
17,721,080 

1,898,457 



CLASS TIL-Uncleaa feeders. 



Blori 
Chtntfr 



809,268 
127,129 



GRAND TOTAL . 19,619,5S7 



OrissS. 
Hindus. 

CSLABS L— Brttmau. 



Bithman 



415440 




184,9tS. 
MliglOM 



5d 



Social Grouping of tlie Moii$;olo-Dra?idiaii 'Vraict—contd^ 



Group VI, 



Bra«iL and OniB&l-'^ontd. 



OrissS—coned, 

Hindus — eontd. 



CLASS IL— Twice-borns. 



Earan 
OtlierB 



Total 



117,64.9 

602,556 

29,647 

749,752 



CLASS in. -Clean Sndras. 

Snb-dan (a). 

Chisft . . 581,627 



Mill 
Bftja 
Svdhft 



Sub-class (6), 



Barhi 

Bhandftri 

Gaor 

Ghirfa 

KftmSr 

Otihtn 



Total 



21,318 
47,085 

41,802 



44,012 
81,149 
267,115 
113^38 
33,646 
82,583 

1,264.770 



CLASS lYt^Uneleaa Sndras. 



Gol& 
Tlnti 

OUiers • 

Total 



47,485 
134,764 

47.828 
230,072 



HlNDUS-^coneci. 

CLASS T.— Caste whose (ouch 
defiles. 



Jyotisb 

Kewftt 

Kumhftr 

Teli 

Others 



Total 



23,877 
116,541 

52,804 
155,362 

80,348 

428,932 



CLASS YI.— Castes eating fowls 
and drinking spirit. 



Sab-class (a). 



Cbftmftr 
OtherB 



Total 



25,273 

6,030 

31,803 



Hindus— contd. 



CLASS VlL—Beef-eaters and 
scayengers. 



Hiri 

Fin 

Others 



Total 



GROUP TOTAL 



Animist and un* 
classified 



23,156 

170,845 

10,613 



204,614 



S,766,527 



276,690 



Grand TOTAL . 4,043,117 



HUHlHHADANS— conld. 

Snb-class (2). 
JoIih& . • 435,440 

Others • '. 6,934 



Dfti 

Dhawft 

Knla 

KikSri 

Others 



Total . 442,374 
Snb-class (8). 

21,264 
18,337 
118,606 
44,801 
16,480 



Total 



218,988 



Snb-class (6). 



Bftnri • 

Dhobi 
Qokhft 

Others • 

Total 



167,548 

81,736 

43,951 

9,442 

292,677 



Snb-class (c). 
Eandift . • 142,861 

Others . • 6,406 



Total 



149,267 



Denial and OrissiL 

HUHlHHADANS. 

CLASS I.— (Asbr&f) Better class. 

Mallik . . 13,999 



Moghal 

Pathftn 

Saiyad 

Shekh 

Others 



Total 



14,316 

245,192 

126,968 

19,580,667 

505 

19,980,547 



CLASS IL^AJUf) Lower elaou 
Snb-class (1). 

N«8j» . . 158,120 



Snb-class (4). 

Bedijss . . 26,481 

Hajjftm . . 7,424 

Nagirohi . . 18,320 

TontiA or Tutift . 8,201 

Others . . 7,781 

Total . 68,207 

CLASS m.— (Anal) Degraded 
class. 



Kasbi 
Others 



TotAL 



GROUP TOTAL 

Unclassified . 



GRAND TOTAL 



6,252 
846 



7,097 



20,845,888 
544,075 

21,419,408 



Social Grouping of tlie Mongoloid Tract. 



Group Til. 



ASSAH, SIKKIH, KOCn-BEHAR, AND HlLL TiPPERA. 



Assam (Surma and 
Brahmaputra Valleys) and 
Hill Districts and Plains. 

Hindus. 

. CLASS L— Castes of twioe4iorn 
rank. 



Bxihinan 



Oihen 



TOTAK 



109,446 

20j586 

871 

18Q352 



HlNDUS^contd^. 

CLASS n.— Good castes from 

whose hands Brahmans will 

take water. 

Baidya . . 5,154 

Das . . 71,092 

Eftyasth . • 86,918 

Kalita . • 208,108 

Kewit and Eaibartta 1493^ 

Kooh . . JSljni 



Hindus— eofitci. 

CLASS II.— Good castes ftrom 
whose hands Brfthmans will take 

water— tfoMid. 



Bftjbansi 
Others 



120,071 

204,183 

1,061,019 



Total 



CLASS m.— Castea fipsm 
lUMds BrttnuuM wffl not 
tako water. 



iJkom 



178^lMB 



Hindus— coned. 



CLASS m.— Castes from whose 

hands Brfthmans wUl not 

take water— 0«»td- 



Jngi and Katani 


161,167 


MftU (Bhoin-mftU) . 


60,055 


Nadijral (Dompatni) . 


194,842 


JT^ama Sndra (Ohan- 
dal) . . 


109,576 


Sbilia (fitaDirf) 


640OO 



69 



Social Gronping of the JVongoloid TvAct—cwtd. 



GROUP Til 



ASSAM, SIKKH, KOCH-BEHAR, AHD HiLL TiPPERi— coned. 



Assam (Surma and 
Brahmaputra Yalleys) and 
Hill Districts and Plains. 

HlHDUS— conM. 

CLASS in.— Castes fjrom whose 
hands Brfthmans wlU not 
take water->0»n(<i« 



Others 



Total 



285,609 
1,098,898 



GROUP TOTAL . 2,285,769 

Animiflt aod onclassi* ^ 

fied • . 2,212,024 



GRAHD total . M97»793 



Sikkim, Koeh-Beliar, 
and Hill Tippera. 

Hindus. 



CLASS L— nigh eastes. 



Br&hxnan 

Kbas 

Others 



Total 



11,828 

8,258 

402 

15,483 



HINDUS— contd. 
CLASS n.— Intermediate castes. 



Qurang • 

Limbu • 

Manger • 

Bftjbansi (Koch) 
Others • 

Total 



4,503 
5,916 
2.441 
838,309 
8,580 

359,740 



CLASS m. -Low castes. 



Ohakma • 

Kami » 

Khamhn • 
Knki 

Lepoha • 

Nama Sndra • 



4,510 
2,838 
9,648 
7,547 
7,982 
8,543 



Hindus— coned. 

CLASS nL— Low Castes^tfoniil. 



Others 



Total 



GROUP TOTAL 

Unclassified • 



66,300 
107,368 



482,600 

75,787 



Grand TOTAL . 558,387 



Assam, Sikkim, Koeh- 
Bekar, and Hill Tippera. 

HUHlMHADANS. 

CLASS L-(Ashrftf). 

Better class HnhAmmadans. 



Saijad 
Shekh 



10.954 
1,661,928 



HUHlHHADANS- cantd. 
CLASS I.— (Ashrftfj— 0Mt<A 
Better elass Mnh&mmadaiis— vonM 



Pathin 
Others 



Total 



11,454 

1,426 

1,685.757 



CLASS IL-(AJUf) 
Lower class Hnhftmmadana. 
Sab-class (a)* 
Nasya . • 42,607 



Sab-class (5). 



Jolaha 
Others 



1,929 
1,710 



Total 



46,246 



GROUP TOTAL • ,1,782,001 



Unclassified • 



62,894 



GRAND TOTAL • l^TMiSM 



/ 










Note. — In Ihoe Maps Ibe four Sub-PrOTincet of BcdbbI have breo shown separately, and Sind has bnn 
with apart (rom the rest of the Bomba; PreadeiKy. 




Nora.— In lbe*e Maps (be (bur Sob-PniTiiices of BeiiKal have been itamn 
wilb Mpnn from tbc reil of the Bosibaj' PresldeDC7. 



icpamtely, and Sind bo* been ( 



. ■ • 



KAlBARTHAtKEWAT 




ONCSTOKEWAT 






-(^\ '^ KOLI&KORI 


\f\ 


2&^^ 




■jS^'^-A-^^" t » \iM [i 




T'cfi^'^y^^ 




TT^yX^ 




\Si' V' / IHt SOLID MCTANftLES 
yy ■» J BEFEB TD KOU INII TKS HOUA 



tbese Map> ibe four Sub-Provincca of 
with apart from tbe red of Ibe Bombay 





NoTE.~-[n tbese Mapi the four Sub- Provinces of Bengal haw been 
with apart from the rest of Ibe Bombajp Presidency. 



shown leparaleljr. and Sind tixs been deoll 




NpTE.— In these Maps ibe four Sub-Provinces ol Brngal have been iho* 
with apart from Ibe rest of Ihe Bombay Prebideacy, 



separalety. »nd Sind has been dealt 



i 



APPENDIX IV. 



Typical Tribes and Castes. 



6t 



APPENDIX IV. 



Typical Tribes »iid Castes. 

(l> Of tbe Turko-Ininlan Tract. 



THE HARRIS. 

[R. TIUOBSS-BuLLER, l.CS.^ 

In taking the Mania rs a epecimen of a B&locli tribe, t have, perhaps, adopted a some- Tho ood- 
what exaggeriktcJ example. 1 have taken it, however, hecanae it is not only one o£ the best atitution oFil 
known oE the Baloch tribes in the Provinoe, but also the one about the eonetitntion of which f-S^'**'^ 
I have had the hest opportunity of enqiiiring. 

In respect of the periodical division of their lands and m their formation for predatpry 
pnrpoBeB, it may be that other Batooh tribes differ from the Marris; but in respect of their 
^owth from a numbei of alien fjronpSj there can be no dnubt that there ia groat similarity, 
i'or instance, among the tribe of next importance, the Bugiip, there are the Notbanis, Kiaz&is, 
Jafaranis, and KoriSnis, none of whom belong to the stock from which the Bngti nucleus came. 
The Nothaiiis and Kiazais are said to be the original inhabitants of the Bugti country, and 
must have been there, according to local tradition, before the Buledis and the Afgh&ns. who 
preceded the Bugtis, posseceed it. The Jifar&nis come from the Lund Baloch tribe of the 
Punjab and the Korianis from the Buledis. There are other groups among the Bugtis who 
came from the Lagharis. I have no doubt that many more alien elements could be found on 
more careful investigation, the information which I have given above having been derived 
from the moat cursory enquiries. Investigation also shows that the Maoassie and Binds are 
equally heterogeneous in constitution. If my informants are to be believed, the present Chief 
of the Rinds of Shoran, the bluest blood among the Baloch, is a Bfibi Afghan by extraction. 

The Marri tribe is divided into three laikaras or clans, the Gazni, Loharani-Shirani, and The aub- ^ 
the Bijarani. Each of these clans is divided into a number of phalUs or sections, and these ^^fi**"*."'^ 
seetions are again snb-divided into sub-sections called Para or lirqah- The distribution of the ^^ ' 

sections into these three great clans is said to have been made by a Chief, Doda Khan by name, 
five generations ago. About the same time the land belonging to the whole tribe was distri- 
buted into three portions, the Chief being assigned certain plots in tbe centre of each, Thus 
distributed, each clan, which consistB of a group of sections, proceedctl to the distribution of the 
portion allotted to it ; the land was divided into five shares, and one share or more was assigned 
to a group of sections according to their numerical strength. The process is illnstmted in the 
scheme of internal structure annexed where the i^hare allotted to each group of sections is 
shown. Arrangements were alao made for the redistribution, after every decennial period, 
of tbe land apportioned to each share. 

This, then, is the present constitution of the Marris, Now let us look at its history. Tribal Their HIM 
accounts state that the nucleus of the tribe was left behind by ChSkar the Rind when on his ***'• 
way to Satghara in the Punjab, and that it consiftted of small groups known as the Bijar&ni, 
Fird&dani, Nodbbandfigbanl, and Aliani, representatives of all of which will be fonnd in the 
specimen table. They lived near Mnmand to the east of Thalli in tbe Sibi Tahsil of Thal- 
Chotiali. Gradually these small groups increased and began a caretr of raiding and conquest. 
They weie joinedby a I'uledi, 'iazenby name, who in time acquired tbe Chieftainship o£ the tribe. 
Bnt the strength of the nucleus being constantly lessened by the raids and incursions on which 
it was engaged, it became necessary to recruit from outside. The results may be seen in the 
notes which I have entered in the scheme on p, 7 as to the origin of the various units. Brabnis, 
Baloch from the Punjab, Baloch from other parts of Baluchistan, Khctrans, Afghans, Jate, all 
gained easy admission to the tribe. As soon as a man joined the tribe permanently he became 
a participator in good and ill. Then, having shown his worth, he was given a vested interest in 
the tribal welfare by acquiring a portion of the tribal lands at the decennial division, and his 
admission was sealed with blood by women from the tribe being given to him or his sons in 
marriage. 

As the members of the tribe increased and new lands were conquered from the Haanis, the 
Barozai Afghans, and others, Doda's arbitrary division into clana became necessary and, as I 
have said, ahout the same time all the tribal land was permanently divided among them. The 
division into clans and the permanent distributiou of the tribal land were both matters of practi- 
cal convenience, for the clans made useful and easily commanded units for predatory expeditinns, 
whilst tho suhstitntion of a distribution among smaller units for one which included the whole 
tribe must have providetl an easy in place of a clumsy process. Starting, therefore, with the 
principle of participation in common good and common ill, participation in the tribal land came 
to be the essence (i tribesmanship among the Marris. Tbe process is easy to follow : Admis- 
fJoD to participation in common blood-fend ; then admission to participation in the tribal land ; 
and lastly admission to kinship with tbe tribe. It was not until after a man or group had been 
given ft share of tribal land at the decennial distribution that women were given to him or 
them in mnrringe. 



64 

The tys- At the time of the deoeimial division of land ^he number of males^ of whatever age^ in every 

dt^iid^ f ^b*^^^^ 0^ ®^b section, is counted. In some eases the division only takes place among the 

land* ^ ^ married men of the sectioi^^ a system which is adopted by the Jongwani and Shambwani 

sectiDns of the Loharilni clan. Lots are then drawn. This is effected by the representatives of 

every section each marking a piece of dried goat's dung. The pellets are thereupon shaken in 

the hands^ and the representatives take their choice according to the order in which their pellets 

escape from the hands of the holder. 

The forma- I have already alluded to other reasons of a less peaceful nature^ which appear to have 

tilb ^f *^'^ actuated those who were responsible for the arbitrary division of the tribe into clans^ namely^ 

offensive ^Eicility of combination for semi-military or predatory purposes. 

purposes. At the head of the tribe was the Chief or Tomandar with whom were associated the 

m^ ^^^^ Moqaddams of clans as a council of war. An expedition having been decided upon, the duty of 

Officers. collecting the clansmen, lor so many as were required, devolved on its Moqaddams, who also 

chose the commander of the men supplied from their respective clans. If a large expedition 

were organised and provisions were scarce, the contingent from each clan would move separately* 

It may be mentioned here that the office of Moqaddam of a clan is hereditary. 

To perfect the org:anisation, however, some leaders or officers intermediate between the head 
of the clan and the sub*section were required, and we therefore find that at the head of each sec- 
tion is a JTaderd, whose office, like that of theclan^ is hereditary, the whole section combining 
to place the paggri on his head, just as the whole tribe combines in nominating a new Chief on 
the death of a former one. With the Waderd is associated a Moqaddam, who acts as the 
Waderd*8 executive officer, his business being to communicate the Waderd' s orders to the 
Moiabars, i.e., the headmen of sub-sections. The office of Moqaddam of a section is not 
necessarily hereditary, a man of judgment or ability being quickly distinguished and selected. 

Thus, we have between the Moqaddam of the clan and the individuals composing the smaller 
groups a chain of leaders ready to carry out such instructions as the former might issue. 

There was another officer to whom duties were assigned during raiding expeditions. The 

Bdhzan, who held an hereditary office, accompanied all expeditions, and it was his duty to kill 

any Marri who fled from the line of battle. Besides an extra share in plunder, his principal 

privilege was that he incurred no liability to blood-feud or payment of compensation. 

rivision of ^^ ^1^^ ^^7^ before the British occupation a share of ail plunder was first set aside for the 

plunder. Chief or Tomandar ; it was known as jpanjak or one- fifth. Portions were then distributed to the 

families of the dead and wounded, and afterwards to the Hahzan. The Moqaddams next 

received their portions known as Rez, The remainder was divided among those who took part 

in the expedition, one share being given for each man, one share for a horse, and half a snare 

for a gun. Spies, who risked much in obtaining information about the country to be raided^ 

were given two shares. 

Tribal A Baloch marries, so far as possible, within the kindred group to which he belongs, the 

endogamy, jjea being still strongly prevalent among them that numbers are strength, and that the loss of 

a woman from among a group involves the loss of possible offspring. In this respect Baloch 

custom differs absolutely from that prevailing among the Afghans. Again, unless there are 

stipulations to the contrary at the time of mariiage, a woman on the death of her husband 

reverts to her &ther or to his heirs. That is to say, the temporary use of the woman rather 

than absolute possession is made over to the husband. 

Sf^^tHh^^ A process of disintegration, as much as of integration, was constantly going on among 

the Harris in former times, and probably does so now. A group which considered itself 

wronged or which had conomitted an offence against trib^ custom would abandon its 

privileges^ leave the main body and seek shelter with some other tribe, imless it happened to be 

strong enough to stand by itself. The process was facilitated by custom, a son having a right 

at any time to demand a division of property with his father. At such a division a son was 

entitled to one share as against his father's two share?. 



65 



SCHEME OF INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF HARRI TRIBE. 



_ J Thingi&ni — 



!Mirkb&Di 
Jadawftiii 
Jltbi&Di 



(Said to h« dire^ dttcendanlg o 



( 



Baddftni (a) — 
(one ibare) 

(Mohandftoi (5) 



I ^J^"^^ 



Nahftrxii 



Do. 
Do, 
Do. 
Do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



9fTkin^) 



do. 
do, 
do. 



(Mlrkhiid. 



I 

si 



o 

^ 






CSonlsfti. 
^^< Mhftudiiii. 



Jhing (e) 

Chbalgari (d) 
(one share) 

(Lftnghftoi (0)- 



/TanRAT£ii. 

I Malairh&Di. 

\ QaUrftBi iFunfmk Balooh). 

J CbAkar&oi. 

j HejHirliii {MaadH Balook). 

i LoDdwlal. 






Uliftni(/) 



s - 



/ Maz&r&ni (g) 
(one share). 

fNodhbandftghftni 

Churi — — 

yMehkftni(A) — 
vLori Kush' 



f MftDriikinl (JVo» Khuraiou). 

I CbappftTtBi. 

( Tir Hubammadsii {Direct detotndanti). 
"" \ 8b»b*bi«l. 

( GowabrtmxiL 
— ISohlltoL 

r DomblniU. 
""iKabirlziL 



( AUcnlniA 
) KontvUI. 
] DiUwItiat. 
iKatfini. 



{Direct deteemdant ofQoun), 

(one share) ( Mab&rsksU« 

\ MlthaziL 



IMurghiftiii (j)- 
Ii}fftni — — 



— ')Mehr«bsiL 

VKhiD MobsmmAdsM. 



I 



/'Msxirinl. 
} Mnridiol. 
]8hldiIiiL 
\8h&dhinxil. 



Song of Bhlwalin. 



{Thiro it otdy one npnsmtativt eftkc RkMm UnSammmdBdi, mk§ U AiUUt$). 

( Hotk&ni. 

< Tbanniiii. 

tNokhiftnL 



(All direct ditecndamtt cf Mttrykidmi, 7ft« Ta9M»itgi 
on alio §oUed Hodki, i.f ., carc-^mllcrt.) 






Jarwftr (k) — 
(one share). 



SHslilIni . 
Mir Mabsmmsdzll 
BiUobftni 
^ LodbUnl 

^CboUni . 
J Simwinl 
/ Kfbarini 
I Hirhs • 



(Direct descendants oflsaf), 

( Ditto ). 

IMaedri Baloch\. 

{Probably Afsbdns who wre here before the Jfarrii), 

(Detcendants ofBami, but bom out ofwedlo^), 
{Descended from slaves who were set free by the Thin^Umis), 
{Baloehfrom near 8ibi), 



{BsklDiii. 
T^hUnl. 
HswtUui. 



QQ 



i- 



— Muhammadani (Baloch/irom the Z^ghdri Toman). 
(one share). 



— Jongwftni — • 
(one share). 

— ^Shambwani 
(one share). 

^SftriDgftiii 



^^fKhinrtni. 
(JaUmbini. 



/GoarlDi. 

(Somarinl. 



U'S ^— Jandwftni 

Si— Dorkhftni {Camefirom the Punjab) 



(Mirkbinsii. 
Sbidihiniii. 
SUhpftL {Bom from a slam girl mother, by a Shiristifaihn) . 
ilamkhinsii 
Gandal Gwar, (Le., weavers efJUnrndah coats}, 

Walididini. 

(Came from the direction of the GmrchOmi Bnlcch}, 
Baiu. 

{Son efJando), 
Giber. 

{8onofJando)» 



•^Meiohar (i.e., mixed) 
(two shares). 



Bbakalini 

(Said to have come from Ouib ami to ban lived near ike Shir^edc I 

Bnanirwir ' 

{Came from India and mere ceUUi Mkancmdr becanm ihen vcrc 
bhdnjfeaters), 
Bind-Kini 

{Came from ike Bind Bdloch). 
Kanilini 

{Said to have come from Zheib). 



c Powftdhi (a) — 
^Kangoitiii (h)- 



CMIini. 
— { Siahoxii. 
CuharrUnl. 



{Afch&ns. The JmU are ^ihc Miami ttock). 
tdamefrom the Powadh HiUe\. 
( Ditto ). 



(one share). 



(Shahei»(c) — — 



} 



Khalwini (d) 

(one share). 

rQalandrtni (e)^ 



C Dhombinzil. {Original Shaheja stock) , 

3LII0ZIL 

i NambUnl. 

CSaidUni. {Bngtis), 



(NibiUuai. (SonofQalandar). 
jKambarOl. ( ZHtio \. 

— }Blriln«l, ( Ditto ). 

(.QaUxiui. {Pmt^ab Salock), 



I HtMOfH. (Sen ofXungar). 
iBbakallni. ( Diitc ). 

I AUinl, {Tide Alidmi GacmO. 

. < Kbosa. {Pnnfab Baloch). 

JLadbiiol. {Came from Bind). 

I Waoeobi. {AfgbdnsfromSanfdwi), 

JplzliiL 



ti a cedien qfJais in JBachki called Qnkd), 

{Descendants ofXkallo). 
( , DHio ), 

{Origin «iiA«o««, tal not diredly dggcemdcd ftom 

Xhallo) . 



Salftitni 



SomJlrftDi (/)• 



/ Sabialill. 

J {Son (^Salar), 

1 BnrJbUid. 

( (Said to be Af^hdnt from Upper Zkob) 



T 



ifiljaa laCDimfljr dcfcendedfrom Bcmar). 
JaUlb|lQBli.( Ditto V 

l>aalatBii. ( Ditto 1 

OobriiaUL (BrIoM to ike Emnialdwi Sevi 

tfike Pan fab), 
SomrixiL {FromSind). 



iPirdftdinl — 
Bftm K»ni 



/'Sohrabtli. 
3 Sbiloili. 
— 1 Fateblni. 
VKiemini. 



{Direct desccndanie ofPirdad ). 
( Ditto ), 

{ DiUo ). 

( Ditto )• 



rDorkhini. 
VKbaroUnl. 
^Mihanli. 

ILihriiit 



(Ihree shares), 

I. (a) Came from Kborlsin and sre said to be Bxihaif . 
" Said to be Khetrint. 

Jhing wae a ilare of Gaien. No eeetioiia. 

Chbalgaiii are to be foand in Sanjawi among tbe t^rln Afgliina aod also near Lahrl. 

Seid to be defoeoded from Mir Ch&kar Bfaad oy a slave wife. 

Some of these AUlnis constitate a sob-eeetion of the Kaogorini leetion of the BUarini clan« 

Tbe Kbctrin Chief is a Slaxirini and preeamably of the same stock as the Mam leetioB. 

The Mehkanls are said to be mendicants from the Zarkans. 

Direct descendants of Gaxen and the seetioD to whlsh the Manl Chief belongi. 
;') Descendants of a GsslI woman called Mnighl. 

ft) The Jarwir are said to hare come from the Khosa Baloeh of the Indas YalUy. 
(0) (3sme from the Powadh Hills between lislochistan and the Punjab. 

SCame from Ranjan in the Dera Ismail Khin District. 
Said to be Afghsns from Hamli. 
Khallo and Langha axe said to bare been ilaTe Moa of (^hftkar the Bbid, 
Ic) ii^slandor was eon of Biiir. 
~ Dtreetdeacendantfof^Wikr. 



(PuniabBalcck). 
{AfgkSne). 

{Nihars who are pro b abl y Ndfhmr Afghdns, 
ore to befoumd amcaa ike KkHfdms e/se). 
ininoi descen d a d s ^Mh^r), 



m. 



HI 



Ui' 



/ 



• » 



66 



THE BRAHUIS. 

IB. HUQHE8'BULLERy I.C.8.] 

The question^ " Who are the Brahiiis ? '' is one which still remains unsolved^ though it is 
to be hop^ that the ethnological enquiry which it is proposed to undertake^ and the anthopo- 
metric measurements which have already been taken in connection with that survey^ will 
asdet us in coming to some more or less definite conclusion regarding them. I only propose 
to give here a brief sketch of the little that we know regarding the ancient history of the 
country round Kalat^ and to show that the welding together of the tribes now composing the 
Briihui confederacy into a homogeneous whole was a comparatively recent event. 
The From the references in Sir H. Elliot's History of India^ Vol. I., it may be pretty certainly 

S^SIt. concluded that the Br^hui kingdom as it now exists is co-extensive with the countries which 
were known to the early geographers as Makran, Turan^ with its capital nt Khozdar^ and 
Nudha (otherwise called Budha by Elliot)^ with its capital at Kandabel or Kandailj the 
modern Gandava. 
f *il^Sff ^^* ^^® principal population of these countries consisted of Jats and people resembling the 
mnaDit- Kurds. Now both General Cunningham and Colonel Tod agree that the Jats were of the 
Scythian stocky and the name Turan is used by Persian historians to distingmsh the countries 
beyond the Oxus river from those to the south of it. Is it not possible^ therefore, that the 
country round Kalat was designated Turan from the fact of its being colonized by tribes ff om 
beyond the Oxus ? 

Again^ the Mengals^ Bizanjos^ and Zehris^ the three largest of the Br&hui tribes^ are termed 
Jadgali or Jagdal^ i.e., Jats, by the more intelligent among the Br&huis^ and Mr. Tate mentions 
that the Zaghar Mengal, who are looked on as the superior division of the Mengal tribe^ 
universally believe that they came from a district called Zughd, situated somewhere near Samar- 
kand in Central Asia. He also points out that Gal is a collective suffix in Balochi, and con- 
cludes that Mengal means Min tribe. The word Men or Min occurs on the lists of the Behistum 
inscriptions as the name of one of the Scythian tribes deported by Darius^ the Achoemeniaui for 
their turbulence. 

Another Brahui -tribe which still retains a Scythian name is the Sajdi, one of the principal 
clans of which are the Saqa^ both names being identifiable with the Sagetoa and Said of 
ancient writers. 

Although no definite conclusions can be based on such evidence, and though the Brahuis 
have now assimilated a number of heterogeneous groups, there are at least reasons for thinking 
that in the early part of the Christian era the inhabitants of the country now occupied by the 
Br&huis were of Scythic stock. ' 

In order to follow the sequence of events, I will now return to my historical summary. 
At the end of the tenth century A.D. we hear of Khozdar being governed by an Arab, Muin- 
bin-Ahmed. He or his suoce.isors appear to have made a bid for independence, and in 978 A.D. 
the Amir Nasir-ud-din Sabuktag^ found it necessary to invade Khozdar. A little later 
Mahmud of Ghazni was compelled to chastise the rebellious State. Khozdar continued to be 
under the Ghazni dynasty, until the Ghoris possessed themselves oE all the territories which 
had been held by the Ghaznivides, and we hear that the authority of Sultan Shams-ud-din 
Altamash was recognised in Khozdar. From this time forward Khozdar with Kalat-i-Nichar&, 
the present Kalat, Shal (Quetta) and Mastung were included in the province of Kandahar. 

It appears to have been during the anarchy which prevailed in Afghanistan in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries that the seed of independence was sown, which resulted in the 
rise and consolidation of the Brahui power. 
Deriva- The derivation of the word l^rahui is obscure, and some people believe it to be a corrup- 

*^^5^^*^® lion of the Persian words £d i2oAe, a hillman. The more probable explanation of the word, 
Br&lmi. however, is that it is an eponym from Braho, otherwise Brahim or Ibrahim. Br3ho, it may 
be mentioned, is a common corruption of Ibrahim amono: the people of this country. If we 
accept this explanation, it also accounts for the statement which every member of the Brahui 
confederacy will make, that the Kambranis with their sub-groups the Ahmadzai, and the 
Iltazai, the Sumalanis, Gurgnaris, and Mirwanis are the real Brahuis, that is to say, direct 
descendants from Braho or Ibrdhim. Who Braho or Ibrahim was I have been unable to as- 
certain, but he and his following appear to have come from the west, and I have heard it stated 
that they were connected with the Nohani, a sub-division of the Binds living in the Kolwa 
Valley. Like most Muhammadans of influence and power, they claim Arab descent : but this 
is, at any rate, not proven. 
TbB Whatever their origin, the stock from whom the Brahuis took their name appears to have 

Btders. fifradually acquired power, their leaders being first known as " Bais,^' then as *' Mirs,'' and 
later as ^' Sardars,'^ until, in the time of Nasir the Great, they finally assumed or were given 
the title of '^ Khkn.'' Their traditions tell us that they acquired Kal&t from the Baloch, and 
that they were assisted in doing so by the Baisanis and the Dehwars. The alleged acquisition 
of Kalat from the Baloch is important as showing that the Baloch migration from the west, 
which set in about the fourteenth oentniy, had extended to Kal&t ; the assistanoe given by the 
Raisftnis is also to be noted because the Bais&nis are indisputably Ai^hAns, and we see, there- 
fore, that there was a cuizeot of migration nt the same tim^ BetUn^ from^fhe e^ptwa^df 



67 

Aiitbentio hUlory WgiiiB wltlt Mir ALmadjwTin dales from about the tniddle of tlin seven- 
teenth century. 'I'hia Chief entered on a caR>er of raiding, in the omrne of wliich be took 
JJ&dbar from the Barosais of Sibi. Ilia successor Mir Siunandar, fc'llowetl Mtr Ahmad's 
example, and extended his rule to Karachi. He was followed by Mir AbduUa, who wns sub- 
wquently kiHed in an action fought with the Kalhoras of Sind, It was in onnipensation for 
the blood of this Chief and bie following that the lands now held by the Br&huis in Kachhi 
were acquired from the Kalhorils. The award was made by Nadir Sbah, whose sozerainty the 
Kalat Chiefs always appear to have acknowlcdj^d. 

Ibe next ruler, Nasir the Great, took the title of "Khan," and was invested with the 
title of Bcglar Bep (Chief of Chiefs) by Nadir Shah. It was in the time of this Chief tba,t 
the power of the Brahnis reached its climas. lliu kingdom extended caslwanl to Harand and 
Uajal in the Dera Cihazi Khan district of the Punjab and westward to the coniinos of Makran, 
the revenues of which he divided with the conquered Gichikis. 

But to us the principal interest of Nfislr's reign must lie in the steps which he took to NSsir the 
combine the varionG conflicting elements among the tribes, who had joined him, on the very ®''??t 
basis which still exists. He distributed the tribesinto two great dii-isionB, tlie Sarawfins on the jifgiiiUs 
north and the Jb^Uwans on the south. At the head of each of these main divtsinus was placed 
a leader — the Raisani Chief in the case of the Saraw&ns, and the Zchri Chief iu the case of 
JhaUwans. Nasir then proceeded to organize each tribe on a system of feudal service with a 
two-fold object ; the first wa* the supply of men to his Suzerain, the Buler of Eandaiinr, and 
the second the supply of men for the purpose of the confederaey. The system was nndouht«dly 
boiTowed from the Afghans, for Ahmad Sbah Abdali had introduced the same syetem into 
Fishin, and instead of levying revnue in that district, aasossed each trilie at so many men-at- 
arms, the total amountiog to 895. This assessment was known as Gham-i-naukar. 

The system of distrihulion of the Suzerain's san, as it was called, followed the same lines 
as the internal distribution of the men-at-arms required for the internal purposes of the con- 
federacy. In the latter ease each ti*il)e was assessed to a certain number or men-at-arms pro* 
portioned to its numerical strength. Thus, the Baisanis found three hundred men, the 
Shahwanis five hundred, the Bangulzais seven hundred, and so on. Each tribe then proceeded 
to divide the number of armed men which it was bound to produce amongst its various clans. 

Concurrently with the dietrihntion of the armed men among the tribes, Nasir proceeded to 
a division of the land lately acquired in Kachhi, and it is from this time that the possession of 
Mitliri by the Raisanis, Eri by the Shahwanis, Zardad by the Muhammad Shahis, and of the 
various locaHties ocnipied by the Brahui tribes commenced. Some of the Khuriisan lands were 
also distributed ; but I cannot say whether this distrihulion dat«s from Nasir Khan's time. 
In addition to their share of land, each of the two leading Chiefs in the great divisions, that is, 
the Baisani and Shahwani Chiefs among the Sarawans, the Zehri and Mental Chiefs 
among the Jhalawane, received payments in kind when attending the Khan with their followers 
and a yearly present of cash. 'I be same system was followed on the smaller scale in the case 
of the minor Chiefs. '1 hese payments were made out of the Khan's own share of land in 
Kachhi. 

I have entered at some length into these matters, because they seem to me to have a direct Th© 
bearing on the comtitntion of the race now known as the Brahuis. The Brabuis consist, in fact, Br&huts, 
of a number of confederated units comtituted en the lines of a Brabui or Bidoch tribe. The con- aoonfed- 
federacy is a congeries of heterogeneous and independent elements possei^siug common land and "*°y- 
uniting from time to time for purposes of offence or defence, hut again disuniting after the 
necessity for unity has disappeared. 

Thus the two bonds which unite the confederacy are common land and common good and 
ill, which is another name for common blood-feud. 

At the head of the confederacy is the Khan, who, until recent times at any rate, appears to 
have been invested in the minds of the members of bis confederacy with certain theocratic 
attributes, forit was formerly customary for a tribesman on visiting Kalat to make offerings at 
the Abmadzai Gate before entering the town. Below the Khan, again, are the leaders of the 
two main divisions, who are also the leaders of their particular tribes, and at the head of each 
tribe is a Chief, who has below him his suburdiuate leaders of clans, sections, etc. 

Such a system might work well so long as there was a strong ruler in Kalat, but once hia 
power diminished, the natural result was civil war. It was this state of things which gave Sir 
Robert! Bandsman hia opportunity of stepping in and composing the differences between thn 
Khan and his confederates, smce which time there has been a tendency for the British Govern- 
ment to be regarded as having taken the place of the Klian as head of the confeileracy. 

As may lie FUpposed, homogeneity of race uas by no means a necessary element of the Their 
semi-military formation in which the llraliuis were constituted, and it is heterogeneity nither hetero- 
than homogeneity which is the striking feature of their com^wsition. As indicating the mixture scuoicy. 
of races among the BriihaiB, the clnssifieation of the tribes which I have obtained from the E^- 
Khau of Kalat is of interest. He describes the AhmadzSi and lltnzai, who are branches of the 
Kambrani tribe, the Mirwani, Gurgnari, Sumalani, and Qalandrani, or Qalandri, as the real 
Hrfthuis who came from Aleppo. 'Iho Bonuulzai, the Lfingar, and the Lehrl are described as 
branches of the Rinds, that is, of the Baloch, and the Ex-Khan notes that they were iu 
Baluchistan before the Brahuis. The Raisani, Sarparra, and Shahwani are said to be Afghans, 
while the Kiirils and Muhammad Hasiii or Mam&sani came from Persia. The ISizanjo, MeogaU 
Sljdi, and Zehri are put down as .Tadgftls or Jagdals, i.e,, Jats, but the Chief of the Zehria is 
said to be an Afghan. Finally the Muhammad Shahi and Nicbiri are described as very ancient 



68 



The 

Bariw&n 

Diviiion. 



The 
Baififtnia. 

The Shftb 
winis. 



The Ma- 
hammad 
Bhfthia. 



The 

Bangui- 

lais. 



inhabitants of the country, wlio were living in it previous to the advent of the Binds. Now 
the historians whom I have quoted speak of the Jats as originally inhabiting the country^ and 
indicate that they were followed by the Kurds and Baloch. At the same time there are indica- 
tions of an influx of Afghans from the east^ for we find the Raisanis^ who are Afghans^ assisting 
the Brahui rulers to get possession of Kalat from the Baloch. The details therefore given by 
the Ex-Khan are of special interest ; in that they tally almost exactly with the waves of migra- 
tion which we know to have passed over the country. 

I will now give a short account of each of the more important tribes included in the two 
miun divisions of the Brahuis. 

The nucleus of the Baisanis came from the Spin-Tarin Afgh&ns^ and their home was at 
Amadun^ north of Kach Kwas, in the Thai Chotiali district. Ihey appear to have been in the 
country before the Brahuis rose to power, for^ as I have just mentioned, they assisted the latter 
to conquer Kalat from the Baloch. The tribe is typical of the process of fission whicl) is con* 
stantly going on among the inhabitants of Baluchistan. There were four sons of Bais — Sar&j^ 
Rustam, B&hueen and 8iahi. The descendants of the first three sons still form one gronp, but 
the Rustamz&is have long been at feud with the other two, and have now^ to all intents and 
purposes^ set up for themselves under a separate Chief. The descendants of Sifihi, the Siahizai^ 
nave joined the Mengals in the JhSlUw&n division of the Brahuis. 

The lands of the Bais&nis of the Sar&wan division are situated at Dul&i and Kahnak in 
Mastung and at Mithri in Kachhi. Those of the Jhalaw&n Baisanis are at Wad and N&L 

This tribe held the position of the head of the Sarawan division of the Brahuis until 
ousted by the Baisanis. The nucleus of the tribe is variously stated to be of Baloch and Afghan 
origin, whilst another story is to the effect that they came from Sharwan in the neighbourhood 
of the Caspian. Like all other Brahui tribes, they have affiliated a large number of outside 
elements. They live in Mast\ing, Iskalko, and in Shahbaz Kalat, south-west of Panjgur. 

The Muhammad Shahis, according to local accounts^ are some of the oldest inhabitants of 
the country, and are admitted to have been living in it before the rise of the Br§hui con- 
federacy. They hold land in the Mangochar Valley and at Bhag, in Kachhi. I have taken the 
constitution of this tribe as generally typical of that of the Sarawan Brahui tribes, and further 
details are not required here. 

Next to the Langavs the Bangulzais are the most numerous among the Brahuis. The 
tribe has been largely recruited from outsiders^ and one of its clans, the Garrdnis^ speak 
Balochi^ whilst the rest speak Brahui. Their head-quai*ters are situated at Isplinji, which is 
said to have been conquered from the Kurds, and they also hold land at Mastung and in 
Kaohhi. ^ 

Ghroups bearing this name are to be found scattered throughout Baluchistan^ and I am told 
that there are some among the Punjab Baloch also. It is a curious thing, that, among the people 
of Las Bela^ Kurd is the appellation in general use for the Brahuis and Kurdi for the Brahui 
language. The Kurds in Baluchistan are^ without doubt, descended from the Kurds of Kurdis- 
tan in Northern Persia^ but they early appear to have migrated southward, and we bear of a 
portion of them inhabiting Kirman in 984 A.D. 

The importance which the tribe has acquired among the Br&huis is due to its position in 
the Dasht-i-bedaulat at the head of the BoJan Pass, whence they had ample opportunity for 
exercising their predatory habits. One of their largest clans, the Satakzais^ is now practically 
independent of the main body. 

The L&ngavs are looked upon as a subject race, and although they were and are still 
bound to furnish the Khan with armed men, they were assigned no portion of the Kachhi lands 
at the time of Nasir. Khan's distribution. They fill various subordinate positions in the Khan's 
household. Their Chief is the only one of the Sarawan tribal Chiefs who has adopted the 
custom, common among the Jhalawansj of taking revenue from his tribesmen. He is not. 
however, on an equal footing with the rest of the Sar&wan Chiefs. 

The L&ngavs cultivate the Mangochar Valley, in which they live^ principally on behalf of 
the Kh&n, the Rais&nias, and the Muhammad Shahis. 

Narmukh is the head-quarters of this tribe. The nucleus of one of their principal clans, 

the Brahimzai> and also that of the Haidarzai^ is said to be of Domki stock. They expelled 

the Khullois from Narmukh^ some of whom are still to be found among the Bind Baloch. 

^^^ The Sarparras live in the Gurgina Valley, and a few of them are also to be found in Chagai. 

Sarparraa. ij^^ Bodinis, who have been classed as a separate tribe among the J h&la wans, are variously 

asserted to be connected with the Sarparras and with the Mirwani?. The name Sarparra is 

said by the people to mean ^' decapitator,'' and it is a curious fact that Strabo in his geography 

speaks of a tribe with a similar name living further west. '^ b'ome tribes of Thracians, sur- 

named Saraparae, or decapitators, are (aid to live above Armenia, near the Gouranii and the 

Medes. They are a savage people, intractable mountaineers, and scalp and decapitate 

strangers : for such is the meaning of the term Saraparae.'' 

ipjjQ Among the Jbalawan tribes, the Kambr&ni, Ahmadzai, Iltaz&i, and Mirwani may be dis- 

Jhfiliwan cussed together, as they are all of the same stock. The Ahmadzai are the ruling family of 

Diviaion. Kalftt, and the term " tribe '^ is not strictly applicable to them. The same remark applies to 

The - . the Iltazai, who are collaterals of the Ahmadz&i. Both are connected by blood with the Kam* 

ntftsftif brani tribe, but, having acquired wealth and influence, they have now set up for themselves and 

Kambrini daim a distinct origin. The Ilt&z&is are the only group among the Brahuis to whom the 

2^<^ - . Ahmadz&is will eive their daughters in marriage, and in consequence it is the wife of the Chief 

Xirwam. ^y^o directs all Ilt&Efti affairs and decides all important oasee. 



The 
Kurds. 



The 
Lingava. 



The 
Lehris. 

The 



Tte KamlirSDiG are a younger LrancL of tLe Mirw&nis ; but ttey, too, lave broken away 
from the parent Block and now claim to be an independent tribe. 'Ibey are said to be numeri- 
cally BtroDger than Ihe Mirwanis; but outside the Abmadzais and lltazais they poascss little 
influence. They live in Cbati, Nimargb, and Mangcchar in the Sarawan country, and at Tok 
in the Jhal&wan country. 

The Bizanjo is a tribe of great influence among the JbaUwaQB, and is only numerically The 
less than the Muhammad Hasnie and the Mengals, Its bead-c|UarterB lie at Nal, near Wad, Biaaajoij^ 
and the tribe extends well int" Slakran. A few itizanjos aie also to be found in Las Bela. 
Tbey are looked upon as Jadgtils or Jagilals, i.e., Jate, by ihe rest o£ the Brahuis, from which 
we may infer (hat ihey are of Scythian origin, and contain the nucleus of some of the oldest 
races in the country- 

The Guigcari ie included by all anthoritiee in the category of true Brahuia, that is to Bay, The 
they are direct descendautB of Braho, or Ibrahim. Their Chief lives at Clhad, near Gidar, and Gorgnfirii 
they are princiimUy cattle-owners and grazierB. 

The Mengais, the strongest of the Urihui tribes, are divided info two portions— the The 
MengalB proper and the Zafihar Meniials. 1 have already alluded to the probable Scythian '^^''E*! 
origin of this tribe, and to their connection with the Wins, who arc mentioned in the Behietuu 
iDKcriptiouB. The Jhalawan Mengais inhabit the districts of Wad, Wahir, and part of tha 
Kalu Pass. Some are also to be found iu Las Bela. 

The Zaghar MengalB are one of the moet prominent tribes in Cha?ai. The correctnesa 
of classing them with the Jhalawi'iu Mengais ia doubtful, e^pei'ially if common blood-fcud ia 
taken as the criterion of tribal imi'y, aa the Zaghar Mengais are led by thdr own Chief, and it 
is doubtful if they would jcin their brethren of the south even under exceptional conditionB. 

Included among the Jlialawan Mengais are acme Chhuttas, who live in the valley of 
the Hab river, better linown as the Levy tracts. Their connection with the Mengais is, 
however, disputed, the Jam of Las Bela claiming suzerainty over them. Sir llobert Sande- 
man held the Jam's claims to be correct, and the Chhntta*, who were cenaused by the Las Bela 
authorities, have beenclas^d by my inEtructtons as a acparate tribe. Owing to the system of 
enumeration which was followed, it is possible that some of them have been enumerated 
twice. 

The Muhnmmad Hasnis are aUo known by the name of Mamas&ni and extend thronghout ^*'® Mu- 
the whole of "WcBtern Balueliiaian, including Chagai. They are also to be found in Syistan, hmSb! 
Luristan, and along the valley of tbe Ilelmand. Alexander is said to have encouutered a tribe 
of the same name in Upper Bactriana. , 

This tribe gave its name in former days to the Bi&hui capital, which is mentioned in the HiehBrii. J 
Ain-i-Akbari as Kalat-i-Nich&ri. Later it became known as K alit-i-Baloch. The Nicbarie 
apo now nnmerically insignificant, but are undoubtedly a very ancient tribe. 

The tradition among the Sajdia with regard to their origin is that they came from the^he 
north miiny generations ago, and it would be of particular interest to follow up this clue. The J**'^- 
Sajdb are Zikris, otherwise known as Dais. The Dai, Sagetm and Saki are mentioned by the 
ancient geographers as Scythian tribes, and a clan called Saqa is still to be found among the 
Sajdis. The coincidence of the asEociation of the three names of Dai, Sagette, and Sa^a in the 
ancient geographers and now is very remarkable. 

This is the only other Jhalawan tribe to which reference ia required here. It consists The 
of a number of heterogeneouB elements, and takes its name from the valley which is the *''"'• 
residencejof the hereditary Chief, who is alto the bead of the Jbaliw&n division of the Brahui 
confederacy. He is faid to be of Afghan extraction. Four of the clans belonging to the tribe, 
the Khidrani, Jatak, Mnsiani and Sasoli, though t^haring in the good and ill of the Zehris, 
may be regarded as now forming practicslly independent units. 

The Uehwars are an industrious and inoffensive people, whose name is derived from the The 
fact that tbey live in deh», or collections of mad houses. They do not migrate annually to DehwSre. I 
the plains like the Brshuis, among whom they live. They furnish no quota of troops to the 
Kh&ti of Kulat, but tacitly accept a position of subordination to the Biahois. As is usual 
in snch caseB, the hypergamous test applies as between Brahuis and Dehware, and no Brahui 
will give them nomen in marriage. The DehwSrs in Maetungand Kalat are nearly all cnlti- 
vatoi's of the lands belonging to the Khan. Those who reside near Kalat are bound to serve 
the Khan without pay, provide his guests with necessaries such as fuel and grass, and furm'sh 
messengers and couriers when refiuired. The head of the whole body is l.nown as "Arbab," 
the headmen of clans as *' Maliks," and the headmen of sections as '' Rais." 

Tradition says that it was chiefly through the assistance of the Dohwars that Ihe Btahni 
Khan acquired Kalat. Their nucleus is undoubtedly of Tsjik origin, and, like the Tajiks, they 
alt speak Persian. These Tdjiks or Farsiwftns etill inhabit the northern and western sides of 
the kingdom of Afghanistan as it is known to ns. In their eariier invasions the Arabs drove 
the Tajiks out of the ojien tracts ; but, like the Afghans of the Snleman Kange, they remained 
unsubdued in the more difficult country. Later they appear to have regained poasesaion of 
the pl^na, but had again to ^ve way before the Afghans, as increasing nnmbera forced the 
latter to spread out. 

In recent times the Dehwara are said to have assimilated a large number of Afghans, 
including Alizaie, from round Kandjiliar, and Vusafzais of the same stock as those found north 
of Peshawar. They also include aume Aehakzais, Amadunis, i.e., Kakars from the Kach-Kwaa 
Valley, and many other sections with Afghan names, whilst deuomiDations such as KabuUz&i 
aud Mugholzai speak for thumsulves. 



70 



BRAHU I— MUHAMMAD SHAHI. 



The oon- 
ititutionof 
a Brahui 
tribe. 



The Mu- 
hammad 
ShShis. 



The 

dUtribu- 
tion of 
armed 
men in the 
tribe. 



The diTi- 
sion of 
tribal 
land. 



The tribal 
leaders. 



Bcoruit- 
ment from 
aliens. 



[22. HUGHES-BULLEBj 7.(7.5.] 

A scheme of the internal structure of a Brahui tribe will be found in the table below. I 
have adopted the Muhammad ^hahi3 because they were the only tribe for which information 
was easily available. Even as it is, I cannot claim that the Scheme is complete, and it is 
probable that each Dabgana or section is again subdivided into sub-sections, but I have had no 
time to complete my erquiries. However, it will, I hope, seiTC the purpose for which it is 
intended sufficiently well. 

The Muhammad Shahis are divided into eight takkan or clans, the first four of which 
are alleged to be descendants of the oiiginal nucleus of the tribe, while the rest were affiliated 
to them afterwards. Each of these clans is divided into a number of sections. I have taken 
the Bambkazais as my example of a clan. They are divided into six sections, locally known 
as Dahffana, i.e,, a group of ten. It is probable that each of these sections is again subdivided 
into sub-sections, but, as I have said, I have been unable to obtain information on this point. 

In the general account of the Brahuis I have described the distribution of men-at-arms 
on the various tribes which was made by Nasir Khan the Great. The Muhammad Sh§his were 
ordered to find S60 armed men, and they proceeded, therefore, to divide the number among their 
eight tahkars or clans. Presumably the numerical strength of each of these clans was nearly 
equal at the time the distribution was made, for it will be geen that the Bambkazais alone of all 
the clans had to find more than forfcy men. Next, the armed men to be furnished by the clan 
had to be distributed among the sections, and in this case the internal distribution will be seen 
to differ considerably. Ivo doubt the reason for this is to be found in the number of armed 
men being proportioned to the numerical strength of each section. The Chief, it will be 
observed^ is responsible for twenty armed men, but, as a matter of fact, his responsibility was 
a fiction, and he usually enjoyed the share of land assigned for twenty armed men without 
having to produce them. 

Following the distribution of armed men among the clans and sections came the division 
of the lands which had been acquired in Kachhi. The share of land of each clan was propor- 
tioned to the number of armed men it had to produce, and the same system was followed in 
the case of each Bahgdna or section until the individual was reached. Previous to this^ 
however, a portion of land was specially set aside for the Chief, in addition to that to ' which 
he was entitled on account of his responsibility for twenty armed men. 

No individual is allowed to part with his land or his share of land, and if a seotion 
happens to be reduced to such small numbers as to be unable to undertake the burden of 
supplying the armed men assessed on it, a redistribution of the armed men is made among the 
remaining sections of the clan. A similar process is followed if a section becomes extinct. 

And here ii must be mentioned that the land acquired in Kachhi was not actually taken 
over by the Br&huis for purposes of cultivation. The Jats, who had cultivated the land in the 
time of the. Kalhoras, continued to cultivate, the Br&huis merely taking one-fourth share of 
the produce. For this purpose a Naih or deputy was generally deputed by the tribe to look 
after its interests and to supervise the distribution of the grain on the threshing floors. 

Each tribe has its own staff of officers or leaders. The Chief, who is responsible to the 
Khan, decides, like a Baloch Tomanddfy on matters of offence and defence, superintends 
the division of produce from the common lands, and settles petty disputes. At the head of 
each clan is a Mir or Moqaddaniy who is responsible to the Chief, and at the head of each 
seotion a Motabar. Thus, should a certain number of armed men be required, the Chief, in 
consultation with his Moqaddams, would arrange the distribution among the clans, and the 
Jloqaddnm, with the help of the Motabars, would arrange the distribution among the sections. 
Kone of these offices appear to be of necessity hereditary, but a process of heredity, combined 
with Fclection, takes place. That is to say^ the office generally devolves on the person here- 
ditarily entitled to it, but, if found absolutely incompetent, he is superseded by common con- 
sent by the individual who possesses not so much the power to rule as the power to lead. 

Among the Sar&wSn division of the Hrahuis a Chief receives nothing in virtue of his 
office, beyond the extra share which he holds in the land. In the Jhal&w9n country, however, , 
the Chiefs have acquired greater power, and they receive what is known as mdlid from their 
tribesmen. This consists in a poll-tax on married men, a share in the flocks, and also a 
small payment when deciding cases of a civil nature. 

The Brahuis, therefore, consist of a series of confederated groups. The tribes form the 
BrShui confederacy, the clans form the tribal confederacy, and the sections form Ae clans. 
The lowest unit of all is the family. 

In considering this formation, we must remember that it took its growth from a time 
when constant fighting was going on either between the confederacy as a whole and outsiders, 
cr between combinations or isolated groups within the confederacy. ArtiQ^sial means, were, 
therefore, required to maintain each unit at its necessary strength, and so a system of recruit- 
ment from individuals or groups outside the tribe was adopted. Thus, we find the Raisftnis who 
are admittedly Spin Tarin A%h&ns, rising to the head of the Sar&wan division of the confede- 
ral, whilst in the case of the Muhammad Sh&hi tribe the Ehidr&nis, Dodais, the Goharftnis 
and the Eurs are elans who have been affiliated with the tribe. The SheakzAis among the 
]p»ustomz&i8| who were originally Balod!, aie anoth^ instance in p(ant» 



But with the process of integration WHS involved another, vr^., diGinte^rntioB; and eo w4 ^H 

find groape of tribesmen breaking away from the parent stock and either setting np for them- ^H 

selves, like the Kurds at the head of the Bolftn, or attaobing tht^maelvea to some other tribe. ^| 

The Rustomzais who have now, for sU practical purposes, severed their connection with th« ^H 

Bai^anis, offer a simitar example. ^H 

Disintegration ov li^sian, followed by absorption into another gronp, generally takes place ^| 

on the foltowing lines. A group, or in Eome cases an individual, diesatiBGed with its Gorround- ^H 

ings, breaks away from the pa-ront stocb and comes t" settle with some section of another tribe, ^H 

From this time it is understood tliat, so long as the new-comers remain witli tlie adojited group, ^H 

they must undertake their share of its good or ill. After tbe lapse of a kind of test period, ^| 

during which the strangers are known as Aamtayah, admission to the tribe is oomph-ted, the ^| 

strangers receiving a share in land and women in marriage from the adoptive tribe. ^H 

There is another feature of maintaining tribal unity of which mention must be made, and Endo- ^| 
this is the system of marriage with a kinswoman as nearly related to the husbnnd as possible, 8*my. ^H 
BO long as she is outside certain prohibited degrees. The number of these degrees is very small. ^| 

Such mariiages ate said to he more in vouue among the Sarawans than among tbe Jhalawans, ^H 

the latter being in the habit of taking iaii or walwar, i.e., a price paid by the bridegroom to ^H 

the father of the bride. ^H 

Among the Sarawfins a man will, if possible, marry bis first cousin, or if one is not avail- ^H 

able, be will seek out a woman from among his own group. Several reasons may be assigned ^H 

for this deeire of coDsanguincons marriage. In a primitive state of society there is ahvays a ^H 

wish among the smaller groups to grow numeriL'ally larger, namerical strength meaning an ^H 

easy means of protection. The loss of a woman, therefore, involves the loss of one who, if ^| 

retained, will probably add to the nombeps of tbe group. There is also a strong belief in Bain- ^| 

chistan that, wliile among animals heredity follows tbe father, among human beings it follows ^H 

the mother. It is argned, therefore, that there is more hope of the stock remaining pure if a ^H 

man marries a woman who is nearly related to him. 

The criterion of unity, therefi^re, which pervades all the groups of a Brabni tribe, is not The ortte- 
common descent but common good or ill. That is to say, when an alien is admitted to thejj?'?^' 
tribe, or when a male cbdd is born within the tribe, be becomes a member of it, " for better or J^itV 
for worse," or, in ihe words in common use among the tribosmen, he becomes " J^eki atr Ladi among the 
men siarii." The tie thus formed is generally cemented by jiiirticipation in the common land BrSHoia. 
and by permission to marry within tbe tribe. 

To put it in another way : Common blood-fend is the bond of unity throughout, in the 
oonfederacy, in the tribe, in the clan, and in the smallest group. Outsiders, such as the 
Kalhoras of Sind or the rulers of A^hanistan, attack tbe Brahuls, and the whole confederacy 
combines for offence and defence. But no sooner is the common danger parsed, than all the 
units disintegrate aird revert to their former condition of independence, tribe taking up its 
former fend against tribe, clan against clan, or group against group. For this purpose, agiun, 
new and well recognised combinations occur between tribe and tribe, betrweon clan and clan, 
or between group and gronp. Thus, the Muhammad Shahi aod Sarparra tribes are in the 
habit of comliining in face of common danger, whilst the four clans of direct descent among tbe 
Muhammad Shahia unite when necessary against the four units o£ alien extraction. I have 
noticed similarly recognised combinations in speaking of thS Lasis. 

It is difficult to determine the cause or causes which involve participation in blood-feud. Blood- 
It may be said, however, that blood-feud involves the rendering of ossistance by others, and it ff. raaSSn., 
commences, therefore, with the group to which an individual belongs. It is only through such gibilit^*. ■ 
assistance that the compensation, whether in blood, cash, women or kind, which must inevit- 
ably be demanded for wrong done, can be obtaiued. It follows that, where a quarrel ending in 
murder takes place between members of one family, a blood-feud does not necessarily arise, for 
no one will assist the murderer. This principle has been extended among the Brahuis, and 1 
am given to understand that blood-feud does not follow where a man is killed by an alien in 
the course of a private quarrel on Ms own field. 

But ordinarily, if an iidividual of one group is killed by an individual of another group, 
it is at once incumbent on tbe group to which the miu'dered man belongs to take blood for 
blood. Thus, if tlie antagonists belong to different groups within the tribe, wa have two 
interna] groups engaged in blood-feud, and owiog to the system of oombinations which I have 
described, eacb is hkely to be joined by other gronps, until the whole tribe is engaged in a 
fratricidal struggle. Or, if the murdered man is of a different tribe to the murderer, the feud 
may be taken up by the whole of two tribes, each of which may again he joined by otiier tribes, 
80 that a small spark soon sets a large conflagratiou ablaze. Nor is the feud composed until a 
reckoning of death for death has been made and compenfatioa paid to tlje group in which the 
largest number has taken place. 

These are the gener:(l principles on which common good and ill, i.e., common blood-fend, 
rests, and although 1 have dealt with them at length iu the case of tlie Brahuis ouly, they also 
to the Baloch and the Afghans. They reanlt in a series of combinations, beg in niog with tbe 
&roily »& tbe smallest unit, continuing through a number of intermediate associations and 
ending in the confederacy. Of each combination tbe motto might be: "Union is stfcngih." 

Among the Br&buis, tiie Ahmadzais, as member* of the reigning dynasty, take precedence Social pre* 
above all others.- Closely oonnectc<l with them are tbe Iltazais. Ths a icial superiority of both oedenoe 
of these groups is due to their connection with the ruling f.imily. BrSbuiB. i 

At ^e head of the two large divisions, into which the m.'mbers of the Brahui oonfederacy ' | 

liave been divided by the Khfins of Kalat, we have the Rataanis as the head of the Sariw&ns, I 



and the 2arakz&is of the Zeliri tribe as head of the Jbalawansi but their superiority does not 
extend socially beyond the group surrounding the Chief of each of these divisions. In other 
respects social pr^^edence among the Brahuis seems to follow that observed among the Baloch, 
the Chief and the group to which he belongs coming first, and after them the Moqaddatr ^ or 
Mirs, as the heads of their respective sections. Below these social equality is the rule. 

As in the ease of the Baloch^ there are certain g^^oups among the Brahuis the members of 
which are looked on as a subject race with whom no self-respecting tribesman will intermix. 
These are the Dehwars^ who are said to be of Tajik origin^ the Loris or blacksmiths^ and the 
Lingavs and Doms^ professional musicians. Even lower in the social scale come slaves and 
freed slaves. £n passant it may be remarked that the social status of a slave is not raised by 
manumission. 



INTERNAL 8TRVCTVRE OF THE NI€H1RI TRIBE OF BRlHVIS. 



Tribe. 



Clan. 



/ 



Ghnl&mzlU 



Nl€HlBl 



. 



Section. Sob-SeetioxL 

( Nnr Hnhammadzais 
/ (BahSdnrkliftnzftis) l Hnndarz&is 

(Tarkaliz&is 
Wall Hnhammadzftis 
Shfidikh&nz&is • 
Sh&d Huhammadzftis 
Dilmnrftdz&is 
AlihftnziUs 

r Karamaliz&iS 
• < Sher Hnhammadzftis 

( Hftji Ch&karz[Lis 

( Husseinkhftnz&is 



(Palliz&is) 



(HitlianrzSis) 



(HirozSis) 

(Jftmzais) 
(Sh&hoz&is) 






(Dftiziis) 



(Sh&Uziis) . 

(Hiindfidzftis) 

(Baskhozftig) 
(ZanfizSis) . 

(LiskSnis) . 
(Tarklzftiii) . 

/ ^HnsSziis) . 



BamadinziU . / 



(SaliShdadziis) 

(q&dziis) . 

(Shft-ab&uzSis) 

(HaibatzSls) 
(AfghSnzftig) 



. 



\ Khftn Huhammadziis 
( GhanikliftnzlLis 

Nil 

Nil 
/Rustamzais 

Nihangftnzftis, also called 
inz&is. 

Bashkliuz&ig 

Karamz&ig 

Gohftrftni 



Dost 






NindaTzftis 

Daulatkhftnzftis 

Dilsh&dz&is 

PaUizftis 

GondaMis 

VHnsseinzftis 

( Khairftz&is 

• ] Hadagizftis 
( Goriz&is . 
( Hftji ShSdikhftnzftis 
\ H&Ji Bhftikhftnzftis 

O Rnstamzftis 

LHotiz&is • 

r Sobh&izftis 
' I Nindavzftis 

( Gnrginzilis 
A Batavz&is 

( L&shkftrzSis 

( Gul HnliammadzSis 

• i DSd Mnhammadzftis 
. Nil . 

!HlUi Isftkliftnzftis 
Jamsherkhftnz&is 
H&Ji KamUkliftnzftis 
Hallokz&ig « 
( Danlatzftis 
. I H&ji Hnhammadz&is 
( Sahtakzftis 
C Ghulftm Huhammadzftis 
'iQ&simzftis 
rUlsh&rizftis 

• < Lashkariz&ls . 
CBahlidarzais . 

{Yftr HaliammadziUs 
AUahdftdz&is . 
( SiddiqzSis 
' \ Khlr-liattaizftis 



\ 



/ (a) 



) W 



(0 



} (0 
} (0 



^ TlMNklM bflloiiffioihtJlMlawaadiiidMiof ilMBilliiiik 



n 



Tribe. 



Claiu 



/ Ramad&nz&i- 



oonold. 






Section. 

(HammojaT) 

(RfthozSis) • 
(HaliUiizftis) 



(Bhftikh&iizSis) 
^ (NimSzkli&iiziUs 



NiCHlRl f 



Batinzfti 



J 



(Handigftrzftis) 



XKhushdftdz&i J 



(NansliirwftnzUs) 
(Nindozftis) . 
(Pftranddinzftis) 

(Hftjizftis) • 
(Shft-abftnzftis) 



(N&kamz&is) 



(Bahmaliz&is) 



Sub-Seotion. 

(<ialandaTziU8 . 

• < Jamsherkhfinzftis • 
(Hl^JiJanfcizftis 
( Hehrftnzftis 

* C Hnhammad Hassanz&is 

• HaliUliz&is (This is only i 
. small section. No sub-seo 

tions) • • 

( DaryftkliftnzSis 

• < Ganjalizftis 
( Dost Huhammadziis 

• Ynsaffzftis (Two other aeotions 

namely, Alifkhansais and 
Hj&tkhanz&isi terminated with 
out issne) • 

rHftjiHakamd&dzUg 
. ] ShSdikhfinzftis . 
( Hftndavz&is 
r Lashkarizftis • 
* } Somftilz&is 
. Mil . 

Rahimdftdzftis . 
Abdar-ralimftnzftig 
Sinifozfti • 
Husseiiikh&nzfti 
(Dild&rz&is 

• < Hir&iizftis 
( Hehrfinzftis 

iHur&dkhilnzftis 
Khod&bakhshz&is 
HiraUzUs 
Dostinz&lg 
( Kindavzilig 

• ] Khnd&baklislizftis 
( Razftizftis 






\ 



(«) 



1 



(0) 

(p) 



(a) 



(r) 



} (•) 






(•) 




I 



) 



(•) 



^4 



2. Of the Indo- Aryan Tract 



JAT. 



From Bffort of the Census of Punjab^ 1881, by Sir Ssnzil Ibbbtbon, K.C.SJ. 

The origin of the Jftt. — Perhaps no question connected with the ethnology of the Punjab 
peoples has been so much discussed as the origin o£ the Jat race. It is not my intention 
here to reproduce any of the arguments adduced. Suffice it to say that both General 
Cunningham and Major Tod agree in considering the J&ts to be of Indo-Scythian stock. The 
former identifies them witii the Zanthii of Strabo and the Jatii of Pliny and Ptolemy ; and 
holds that they probably entered the Punjab from their home on the Oxus very shortly s^ter the 
Meds or Mands, who also were Indo-Scythians, and who moved into the Punjab about a 
centnry before Christ. The J&ts seem to have first occupied the Indus Valley as far down as 
Sindh^ whither the Meds followed them about the beginning of the present sera. But before 
the earliest Mahomedan invasion the Jats had spread into the Punjab proper^ where they were 
firmly established in the beginning of the 11th century. By the time of Babar the Jats of the 
Salt-range Tract had been subdued by the Gakkhars^ Awans, and Janjnas> while as early as 
the 7th century the Jats and Meds of Sindh were ruled over by a Brahman dynasty. Major 
Tod classes the Jats as one of the great Rajput tribes, and extends his identification with the 
Getse to both races : but here General Cunningham differs, holding tjie R&jputs to belong to the 
original Aryan stock, and the Jats to belong to a later wave of immigrants from the North- 
west, probably of Scythian race. 

It may be that the original Bajputs and the original J&t entered India at different periods 
in its history, though to my mind the term Rajput is an occupational rather than an ethnolo- 
gical expression. But if , they do originally represent two separate waves of immigration, it is 
at least exceedingly probable, both from their almost identical physique and &cial character 
and from the close communion which has always existed between them, that they belong to one 
and theaame ethnic stock ; while whether this be so or not, it is almof>t certain that they have 
been for many centuries and still are, so intermingled and so blended into one people that it is 
practically impossible to distinguish them as separate wholes. It is indeed more than probable 
that the process of fusion has not ended here, and that the people who thus in the main resulted 
from the blending of the Jat and the Bfijput, if these two ever were distinct, is by no 
means free from foreign elements. We have seen how the Pathan people have assimilated 
Saiyads, Turks, and Mughals, and how it was sufficient for a Jat tribe to retain its political 
independence and organisation in order to be admitted into the Baloch nation ; we know how a 
character for sanctity and social exclusiveness combined will in a few generations make a 
Quresh or a Saiyad ; and it is almost certain that the joint Jat-B&jput stock contains not a 
few tribes of aboriginal descent, though it is probably in the main AryoScythian, if Scythian 
be not Aryan. The Man, Her, and Bhular Jats are known as asl or original Jats because they 
claim no Bajput ancesixy, but are supposed to be descended from the hair {Jd6) of the abori- 
ginal god Siva ; the J&ts of the south-eastern districts divide themselves into two sections, 
6hivgotri or of the family of Siva, and Kdsavgotri who claim connection with the R&jputs ; 
and the names of the ancestor Bar of the Shivgotri and of his son Barbara, are the very 
words which the ancient Br&hmans give us as the marks of the barbarian aborigines. Many 
of the J&t tribes of the Punjab have customs which apparently point to non-Aryan origin, and 
a rich ahd almost virgin field for investigation is here open to tiie ethnologist. 

Jits and But whether Jits and E&jputs were or were not originally distinct, and whatever aborig^- 

Bijpnts. nal elements may have been affiliated to their society, I think that the two now form a common 
stock, the distinction between J&t and Rdjput being social rather than ethnic. I believe that 
those families of that common stock whom the tide of fortune has raised to political im- 
portance have become Rajputs almost by mere virtue of their rise ; and that their descendants 
have retained the title and its privileges on the condition, strictly enforced, of observing the 
roles by which the higher are distinguished from the lower castes in the Hindu scales of prece- 
dence ; of preserving^their purity of blood by refusing to marry with families of inferior social 
rank, of rigidly abstsuning from widow-marriage, and of refraining from degrading occupations. 
Those who transgressed these roles have Mien from their high position and ceased to be 
B&jputs ; while such families as, attaining a dominant position in their territory, began to 
effect social exclusiveness and to observe the rules, have become not only Rftjas, but also U&jputs 
or '^ sons of Rajas.'' For the last seven centuries the process of elevation at least has been 
almost at a standstill. Under the Delhi Emperors king^making was practically impossible. 
Under the Sikhs the Rdjput was overshadowed by the Jdt, who resented his assumption of 
superiority and his refusal to join him on equal terms in the ranks of the Kh&lsa, deliberately 
persecuted him wherever and whenever he had the power, and preferred his title of Jdt Sikh 
to that of the proudest Bajput. On the frontier the dominance of Pathans and Baloches and 
the general prevalence of Mahomedan ^' feelings " and ideas placed recent Indian origin at a 
discount, and led the leading families who belonged to neither of these two races to claim con- 
nection, not with.the Kshatriyas of the Sanskrit classics but with ^e Mughal conquerors of 



76 



India or tlie Qureshi cousins of tho Ppaphet ; itisomueh that even admittedly Rajput triljca of 
famous ancestry, such as the Khokhar, have begun to follow the example. But in the hills, 
where Itajput dynaGtios, with genealogies perhaps more ancient and utihrolceu than can be 
shown hy any other roytd ramilies in the world, retained their independence till yesterday, and 
where many of thorn still enjoy as great social authority as ever, the twin processes of 
degradation from and elevation to Kajpnt rank are still to be seen in operation. The R^ja 
is there the fountain not only of honour but also of caste, which is the same thing in India. 
Sir James Lyall writes : — 

" Till lately the limits of caste do not seem to have been bo immutably fixed in the hille as 
in the plains. The R^ja was the fountain of honour, and could do much as ho liVed. I have 
heard oIJ men quote instances within their memory in whith a R*ja promoted a Girth to be a 
Rathi, and a Thakar to be a R;ijput, for service done or money given ; and at the present day 
the power of admitting back into caste fellowship persona put under a ban for some gmve 
act of defilement, is a source of income to the Jagirdar Ksjas. 

" I believe that Sir Geoi^ Campbell has asserted that there ia no each thing ae a 
tUstiuct Rajput stock ; that iu former times before caste distinctions had become c-rystallized, 
any tribe or family whose ancestor or head rose to royal rank became in time a Rajput. This 
is ceitainly the conclusion to which many facta point with regard to the RiSjputs of these 
hills. Two of the old royal and now essentiaUy R^ijput families of this district, viz., Kotlehr 
and Bangahal, are said to be Brahman by original stock. Mr Barnes says that in Kangra 
the son of a Rajput by a low-caste woman takes rlace as a Itathi : in Seoraj and other places 
in the interior of the bills 1 have met families calling themsrelves Rajputs, and growing into 
general aci eptanca as Rajputs, in their own country at least, whose only claim to the title was 
that their father or granilfatlier was the offspring of a Kanetni by a foreign Hrahman. On 
the border line in the Himalayas, I>etween Thibet and India proper, any one can observe ca^te 
growing Ijefore his eyes; the noble is changing into a Hajput, i he priest into a Brahman, the 
peasant into a Jat, and so ou down to the bottom of the scale. The tame process was, I believe, 
more or less in force in Kangi'a proper down to a period not very remote from to-day." 

'ihe reverse process of degradation from Rajput to lower rank is too common to require 
proof of its existence. In the eastern districts, where I'rahmanism is stronger than in any 
other part of Ihe I'un jab, and Delhi too near to allow of families rising to political independence, 
it is probable that no devation to the rank of Kajpnt has taken place within recent times. But 
many Rajput families have ceased to be H&jputs. Setting aside the general tradition of the 
Punjab Jdts to the effect that their ancestors were Kajputs who married Jats or b^an to 
practise widow-marriage, we have the Gaurwa Rajputs of Ouigaon and Delhi, who have indeed 
retained the title of Rajput because the caste feeling is too strong in those parts and the change 
in their cuetome too recent for it yet to have died out, but who have, for all purposes of 
equality, communion, or inter- marriage, ceased to be Rajputs since they took to the practice of 
tareioa or KidoiB-marriage ; we have the Sahnsars of Hushyarpur who were Rajputs within the laat 
two or three generations, bat have ceased to be so because they grow vegetables liUe the .\rain; in 
Kamal we have Rajput who within the living generation have ceased to be Kajputs and 
become Sikhs, because poverty and lose of land forced them to weaving ae an occupation; 
while the Delhi Chauhan, within the shadow of the eily where their ancestors once ruled and 
led the Indian armies in their last struggle with the Musalmin invaders, have lost their caste by 
yielding to the temptations of iareaa. In the Sikh tract, as I have taid, the Jat is content to 
be a Jat, and has never since the rise of Sikh power wished to be anything else. In the Western 
Plains the freedom of marriage allowed by Islam has superceded caate restrictions, and Eocial 
rank is measured by the tribe rather than by the larger unit of caste. But even there, families 
who were a few generations ago reputed Jats have now risen by social ezcluviveness to be re- 
ct^nised as liajputs, and fomihes who were lately known as Hajputa have sunk till they are 
now classed wiih Jats, while the great rulintr tribes, the Sial, the Goadal, tie Tiwana, are 
commonly spoken of as Kajputs, and their smaller brethren as Jats. The fame tribe even is 
Kajput in one district and Jat in another, according to its position among the local tribes. In 
the Salt-range Tract the dominant tribes, the Janjua, Mauhas, and the like, ars Rajputs when 
they are not Mughals or .Arabs; wbUe all agricultural tribes of Indian origin who cannot 
establish their title to Hajput rank are Jats. Finally, on the frontier th' Pathan a"d Baloeh 
have overshadowed Jat and Bdjput alike ; and Bhatti, Punwar, Tunwar, all the proudest tribes 
of Rsjput&ua, are included in the name and have sunk to the level of .-'at, for there can be no 
Rajputs where there are no Rajas or traditions of Itajiis, I know that the views herein set 
forth will he held heretical and profane by many, and that they ought to be t'upported by » 
greater wealth of instance than I have produced in the following pages- But I have no time 
to marshal my facts; I have indeed no time to record more than a small proportion of them ; 
and all I cau now attempt is to state the conclusion to which my enquiries have led me, and to 
hope to deal with the subject in more det^l on some future occasion. 

The Jat is in every respect the most important of the Punjab peoples. In point of numbers Position e 
he surpasses the K&jput who comes next to him in the proportion of nearly three to one; while the Jats 
the two together constitute a 7 percent, tt the whole population of the province. Politically^ *^-bk 
he ruled the Punjab till the Khalsa yielded to our arms. Kthnologicfclly he is thf jieculiir '"y*"- 
and most prominent product of the pWne of the five rivers. And from an economic and 
administrative puint of view be is the husbandman, the peasant, the revenue-payer ;)or ej^ce'le-'ct 
of the Province. Hi« manners do not bear the impress of generations of wild fieedom which 
DUukB the races of our frontier mountains. But he is more honest, more industrious, mora 
rturdy, and no less manly than they. Sturdy independence, indeed, and patiert, vigorous labour 
are his strongest characteristics. The Jat is of all Punj&b races the most impatient of tribal 



76 

or communal coBtrol, and tlie one wliicli asserts tbe freedom of tlie individual most strongly«^ 
In tracts where^ as in Rohtak^ the J at tribes have tlie field to themselves^ and are compelled^ 
in default of rival castes as enemies^ to fall back upon each other for Isomebodj to quarrel with> 
the tribal ties are strong. But as a rule a Jat is a man who does what seems right in his own 
eyes and sometimes what seems wrong also^ and will not be said nay by any man. I do not 
mean^ however, that he is turbulent : as a rule he is very far from being so. He is independent 
and he is self-willed^ but he is reasonable^ peaceably inclined if Id^t alone^ and not difficult 
to manage. He is usually content to cultivate his ti elds and pay his revenue in peace and 
quietness if people will let him do so^ though when he does go wrong he '^ takes to anything^ 
&om gambling to murder^ with perhaps a preference for stealing other people's wives and cattle.'' 
As usual the proverbial wisdom of the villages describes him very fairly^ though perhaps somewhat 
too severely. " The soil> f odder> clothes^ hemp^ grass^ these six are best beaten ; and the seventh 
is the Jat.'' ^'A Jat^ a Bhat^ a caterpillar^ and a widow woman, these four are best hungry. If 
they eat their fill they do harm." " The Jat, like a wound, is better when bound." In agricul- 
ture the Jftt is pre-eminent. The market-gardening castes, the A rain, the Mali, the Saioi,— are 
perhaps more skilful cultivators on a small scale ; but they cannot rival the Jat as landowners and 
yeoman cultivators. . The Jat calls himself zaminddr or '^ husbandman " as often as Jat, and his 
women and children alike work with him in the fields : — ^' The Jat's baby has a plough h&ndle for 
a plaything." '' The Jat stood on his corn-heap, and said to the King's elephant-drivers, ' Will 
you sell those little donkeys V " Socially the Jat occupies a position which is shared by 
the Bor, the Gujar, and the Ahir, all four eating and smoking together. He is of course fs^ 
below the R&jput, from the simple &ct that he practises widow-marriage. The Jat &ther is 
made to say, in the rhyming proverbs of the countryside — '^ Come my daughter and be married ; 
if this husband dies there are plenty more." But among the widow-marrying castes he stands 
first* The Banya with his sacred thread, his strict Hinduism, and his twice-born standing, 
looks down on the Jat as a Sudra. But the Jat looks down upon the Banya as a cowardly, 
spiritless money-grubber, and society in general agrees with the Jat. The Khatri, who is far 
superior to the Banya in manliness and vigour, probably takes precedence of the Jat. But 
among the races or tribes of purely Hindu origin, I think that the Jftt stands next after the 
Br&hman, the Rajput, and the Khatri. 

There are, however, Jats and Jats. I shall briefly describe each class in the remarks 

prefixed to the various sections under which I discuss the Jat tribes ; and I shall here do 

nothing more than briefly indicate the broad distinctions. The Jat of the Sikh tracts is of 

course the typical Jat of the Punjab, and he it is whom I have described above. The Jat of 

the south-eastern districts differs little from him save in religion ; though on the Bikaner border 

the puny Bagri Jat immigrant from his rainless prairies, where he has been held in bondage 

for centuries, and ignorant of cultivation save in its rudest form, contrasts strongly with the 

stalwart and independent husbandman of the Malwa. On the Lower Indus the word Jat is 

applied generically to a congeries of tribes,— Jats proper, Bajputs, lower castes, and mongrels, 

who have no points in common save their Muhammadan religion, their agricultural occupation, 

and their subordinate position. In the great western grazing grounds it is^ as I have said, 

impossible to draw any sure line between Jat and Bajput, the latter term being commonly 

applied to those tribes who have attained political supremacy, while the people whom they 

have subdued or driven by dispossession of their territory to live a semi-nomad life in the 

central steppes are more often classed as Jats ; and the state of things in the Salt-range Tract 

is very similar. Indeed the word Jat is the Punjabi term for a grazier or herdsman; 

though Mr. O'Brien says that in Jatki, Jat the cultivator is spelt with a hard, and Jat the 

herdsman or camel grazier with a soft t. Thus the word Jat in Bohtak or Amritsar means a 

great deal ; in Muzs^argarh or Bannu it means nothing at all, or rather perhaps it means a great 

deal more than any single word can afford to mean if it is to be of any practical use ; and 

the two classes respectively indicated by the term in these two parts of the Province must not 

be too readily confounded. 

Distribu- Beyond the Punjab, Jats are chiefly found in Sindh where they form the mass of 

tion of the the population, in Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Marwar, where they probably equal in numbers all 

JfttB. the Rajput races put together, and along the upper valleys of the Ganges and Jamna from 

Bareli, Farrukhabad, and Gwdlior upwards. They are especially numerous in the central 

Sikh districts and States, in the south-eastern districts, and in the Derajat. Uuder and 

among the hills and in the Rawalpindi division Rajputs take their place, while on the 

frontier, both upper and lower, they are almost wholly confined to the cis-Indus tracts and 

the immediate Indus riverain on both sides of the stream. The Jats of the Indus are 

probably still in the country which they have occupied ever since their first entry into 

India, though they have been driven back from the foot of the Sulemans on to the river by the 

advance of the Pathan and the Baloch. The Jats of the western plains have almost without 

exception come up the river valleys from Sindh or Western Bajputlna* The Jats of- the west* 

em and central sub-montane have also in part come by the same route ; but some of them retaia 

a traditional connection with Ghazni, which perhaps refers to the ancient Gajnipur, the site of 

the modem Rawalpindi, while many of them trace their origin from the Jammu Hills. 

The Jats of the Central and Eastern Punjab have also in many cases come up .the Sutlej 
TaUey ; but many of them have moved from Bikaner straight into the M&lwa, while the great 
central plains of the Mftlwa itself are probably the original home of many of the Jftt tribes of 
the Sikh tracts. The J&ts of the south-eastern districts and the Jamna zone have for the 
most part worked up the Jamna valley from the direction of Bhartpor, with which some of 
them still retain a traditional connection ; thoogh some few have moved in eastwards from 



»7 

Bikaner and the Mslwa. The Bhartpur Jata are theiUBelves eaidto be immigrants wlio left 
the bELuks of tho Indus in thtt time of Aurangzeb, Whether the Jats of tho ^''^^t plftins are 
really as late immigrants as they rejiresent, or whether their story is merely founded upon a 
wigh to show recent connection with the countiy of the Rajputs, I cannot say. The wholfl 
question is one on which we are exceedingly ignorant, and which wonld richly repay detailed 
investigation, 

Mr. O'Brien writes as follows of the Jftts of Muzaffargarh : — 

''In thiE district the word Jat inclndea that confjeries of Mnhammadan trihee which are jftta ot the 
not Saiyads. Baloches, Pathans or Qnreshis. According to this definition Jats would include westorn 
Rajpute. This, 1 believe, is corratt. The Jots have always been recruited from the^^**''*' 
Rajputs. There is not a. latin the district who has any knowledge, real or fancied, oE hia 
ancestors that would not say tliat he was once a Rajput. Certain Jilt tribcii have names 
and traditions which seem to connect them more closely with Hindustan, Some be.ir the 
Rajput title of Rai, and ether-, though Muhammadans, associate a Brftbman tvith the MuUa 
at marriage ceremonies, while the Punwars, Parihars, Bhattis, Joyas. and others bear the 
names of well-known tribes of Rajputana. The tact is tliat it is impossible to define 
the distinction between Jats and Mussalman Rajpnts. And the diificulty i* rendered greater 
by the won! Jat, also meaning an agriculturitt irrespective of his laee, and Jatalci agriculture. 
In conversation about agriculture I have been refened to a Saiyad Haiiilar with the remark — 
" Ask Anwar Shah ; he is a better Jat. than we are." 

The Jat tribes are exceeJingly numerous. There are 16-j in the SanaJQWan tahsU 
alone. They have no large divisions embracing several small divisions. Nor do they trace 
their origin to a common stock. No tribe is pre-eminent in birih or caste. Generally Jata 
many into their own tribe, but they have no hesitation in marrying into other tribes. 
They give their daughters freely to Baloches in marriage. Hub the Balm^hos say that they 
do not give tbeir daughters to Jats. This is, however, a Ualoth story ; many instances of 
Jits married to Baloches could be named" 

Besides this, the word JSt, spelt with a soft instead of a hard t, denotes a camel graner 
or camel driver. "The camel cannot lift its load; the camelman (Jat) bites its tail. Tho 
fact seems to he that the Baloches who came into tho districts of the lower frontier as a 
dominant race, contemptuously included all cultivating trilies who were not Baloch, or of some 
race such as Saiyad or Pathan whom they had been accustomed to look upon as their equals, 
under the generic name of Jat, until the people themselves have lost the very memory of 
their origin. It is possible that our own officers may have emphasized the confusion by 
adopting too readily the simple classification of the population as the Baloch or peculiar people 
on the one hand, and the Jat or Gentile on the other, and that the so-called Jat is not so ignorant 
of his real ori^n as is conainotdy supposed. But the fact that in this part of the Pnnjib 
tribe quite overshadows, and indeed almost supersedes, taste, greatly increases the difficulty. 
As Mr. Roe remarks :— " If you asi; a Jat his caste he will generally mime some sub-division 
QT clan quite unknown to fame." However caused, the result is that in the DerajSt, 
MuzafFargarh, and much of Multan, if not indeed still further east and north, the word J&t 
means little more than the beadiog " others or unspecified " under which Census officers an 
BO sorely tempted to class those about whom they know little or nothing, A curious instanoa 
of the manner in which the word is used iu these parts is afforded by the result of some 
inquiries I made about the MSchhi or fisherman caste of Derah Ghazi Khan. The reply sent 
me was that there were two castes, M&chbis or fishermen, and Jat Machhis who had taken to 
agrimlture It is probable that not long hence this latter will drop the Machbi, perhaps 
forget their Machbi origin, and become Jats pure and simple; though they may not im- 
probably retain as their claa name the old Macbhi clan to which they belonged, or even the word 
Machhi itself. 

Furlher to the north and east, away from the Baloch territory, the difficulty is of a some- 
what different nature. There, as already explained, the tribes are commonly known by their 
tribal names rather than by the names of the catte lo which they belong or belonged; and 
the result is thatclaimsto llaj|jut, or now-a-days not unseldom to Arab or Mughal origin, 
are generally set up. The line between Jats and Rajputs is a diliicult one to draw, and 
the queaiion has ti) be decided for c-nsus purposes in a rough and arbitrary manner. Thus 
the Sial are admittedly of pure Rajput origin, and they are classed as Rajputs, as they are 
commonly recognized as such by their neighbonrj. The Sumra are probably of no less pure 
R&jput estraction, but they are commonly known as Jftts. As a fact these people are generally 
known as Sial and Sumra rather than as Jats or Rajputs ; and the inclusion of them 
under cither of the latter headings is a classification based upon generally reputed origin or 
standing, rather than upon any current and usual designation. Mr, Purser thus eiprcases the 
matter as he found it in Montgomery : — 

" There is a wonderful uniformity about the traditions of the different tribes. The 
ancestor of each tribe was, as a rule, a Rftjput of the Solar or Lunar race, and resided at 
Hastinapur or Daranagar. He scornfully rejec'ted the proposals of the I'ulhi Erojieror for 
a matrimonial alliance between the two families, and had then lo fly to Sir^a or Bhatner, 
or some other plai.« in that neighl>ourhood. Next he came to the Kavi and was converted 
to Islam by Makhdum Uaha-ul-Haqq, or Baba Farid- 'ITien, being a stout-hearted mwi) j 
he joined the Kharrals in their marauding expeditions, and so his descendants became Jatii4 
la Kamr >^i^gh's time they took to agriculture and abandoned robbery a little; and noi 
under the English Government they have quite given up their evil ways, and an honest « 
weU*dispoBed>" 



78 

Mr. Steedman writing from J hang says :— 

'^ There are in this district a lot of tribes engaged in agriculture or cattle-grazing who have 
no very clear idea of their origin, but are certainly converted Hindus. Many are recognized 
as Jats, and more belong to an enormous variety of tribes^ but are called by the one com- 
prehensive term Jat. Ethnologically I am not sure of my ground ; but for practical con- 
venience in this part of the worlds I would class as Jats all Muhammadans whose ancestors 
were converted from Hinduism and who are now engaged in, or derive their maintenance 
from, the cultivation of land or the pasturing of cattle." 

The last words of this sentence convey an important distinction. The Jat of the Indus 
and lower Chan&b is essentially a husbandman. But in the great central grazing grounds of 
the western plains he is often pastoral rather than agricultural, looking upon cultivation as an 
inferior occupation, which he leaves to Arains, Mahtams, and such like people. 

On the Upper Indus the word Jat, or Hindki, which is perhaps more often used, is applied 
in scarcely a less indefinite Fense than in the Derajat ; while in the Salt-range Tract the 
meaning is but little more precise. Beyond the Indus, Jat or Hindki includes both Rajputs 
and Awans, and indeed all who talk Punjabi rather than Pashto. In the Salt-range Tract, 
however, the higher Rajput tribes, such as Janju&, are carefully excluded; and Jat means 
any Muhammadan cultivator of Hindu origin who is not an A wan, Gakkhar, Fathan, Sai^ad, 
Qureshi, or Rajput. £ven there, however, most of the Jat clans are returned as Rajputs also* 

Major Wace writes : — 

^' The real Jat clans of the R&walpindi division have a prejudice against the name Jat, 
because it is usually applied to camel-drivers, and to the graziers of the bar whom they look 
down upon as low fellows. But there is, I think, no doubt that the principal agricultural tribes, 
whom we cannot class as Rajputs, are really of the same race as the J&ts of the Lower Punjab/' 

The Jat in these parts of the country is naturally looked upon as of inferior race, and the 

fosition he occupies is very different from that which he holds in the centre and east of the 
unjab. Mr. O'Brien gives at page 78 of his Multoni glossary a collection of the most pun- 
gent proverbs on the subject, of which I can only quote one or two : — '^ Though the Jat grows 
refined, he will still use a mat for a pocket-handkerchief.'' '* An ordinary man's ribs would 
break at the laugh of a Jat/' " When the Jat is prosperous, he shuts up the path (by plough- 
ing it up): when the Kirar (money-lender) is prosperous, he shuts up the Jat.'' '* Though a 
J&t be made of gold, still his hinder parts are of brass." ''The Jat is such a fool that only 
God can take care of him." The Pathfin proverbs are even less complimentary : — " If a Hindia 
cannot do you any harm, he will leave a bad smell as he passes you." '' Get round a Pathan 
by coaxing; but heave a clod at a Hindki." ''Though a Hindki be your right arm, cut 
it off." '' Kill a black Jat rather than a black snake. ' The Jat of Derah Ghazi is described 
as lazy, dirty, and ignorant. 
Jftts of But directly we leave the Salt-range behind us and enter the Lahore and Amritsar 

t^^ Sikh divisions — directly, in fact, we come within the circle of Sikh influence^ as distinguished from 
mere political supremacy, we find the line between Jat and Rajput sufficiently clearly marked. 
The Jat, indeed, here as elsewhere, claims for himself H&jput origin. But a Yaraich does not 
say that he is now Rajput. He is a Jat and content to be so. The &ct is that within the 
pcJe of Sikhism Rajputs were at a discount. The equality of all men preached by Guru 
Govind disgusted the haughty Bajputs, and they refused to join his standard. They soon paid 
the penalty of their pride. The Jats^ who composed the great mass of the Khalsa, rose to abso- 
lute power, and the Rajput who had despised them was the peculiar object of their hatred. 
Their general policy led them to cut off such poppy-heads as had not sprung from their own 
seed ; and their personal feeling led them to treat the R&jput, who as a native-born leader 
of the people should have joined them, and who would, if he had done so, have been a very 
important element of additional strength to the cause, with especial harshness. The old Settle- 
ment Reports are full of remarks upon the decadence, if not the virtual disappearance, of the 
Rajput gentry in those districts where Sikh sway was most absolute. Thus the Jats we aie con- 
sidering are far more clearly marked off from the Rajputs than are those of the western plains, 
where everybody is a Jat, or of the Salt-range Tract, where everybody who is not an Arab 
or a Mughal called himself a Rajput ; indeed there is, if anything, a tendency here to call those 
Jats who are admitted to be Rajputs further west. Only on the edge of the group, on the 
oonmion border-line of the Sikh tract, the Salt-range, and the ^eat plains, do the Mekan, 
Gotidal, Ra^jha, and Tarar claim some to be Jats and some to be Rajputs. 

The most extraordinary thing about the group of Jut tribes found in Sialkot is the laige 
number of customs still retained by them which are, so far as I know, not shared by any other 
people. They will be found described in Mr, Roe's translation of Amin Chand's History of 
Sidikoty and I shall notice one or two of them in the following paragraphs. Nothing could be 
more instructive than an examination of the origin, prskctice, and limits of this group of 
customs. They would seem to point to aboriginal descent. Another point worthy of remark is 
the frequent recurrence of an ancestor Mai, which may perhaps connect this group of tribes 
with the ancient Malli of Multan. Some of their traditions point to Sindh ; while others are 
connected with the hills of Jammu. The whole group strikes me as being one of exceeding 
interest, and I much regret that I have no time to treat it more fully. 

The group of Jats we have now to consider are the typical J&ts of the Punjab, 

including all those great Sikh Jat tribes who have made the race so renowned in recent 

history. They occupy the central districts of the Punjab, the Upper Sutlej, and the great Sikh 

States of the Eastern plains. . All that I have said in the preceding section Hoarding 

he absence dE any wim on the part of the Jats dt the Khftlsa to be aught but Jftts^ applies 



tract. 



TO 



Iieie with etill gteaiet force. A Sidlrn claims indeed Bfijput origiu, and apparently with 
good reason. Bat ha is now a Sidhii Jat, and holds that to be a prouder title than Bhatti 
Bajput. The only tribe among this group of which any considerable numbers hare returned 
themstilTCB as Rajputs are tbe Virk ; and among them this has happeued only in GujraawaU, 
on the extreme outskirts of the tract. These men are the backbone of the Punjab by character 
and physique as well as by locality. They are stalwart, sturdy yeomen of great independence, 
industry, and agricultural skill, and collectively form perhaps tbe finest peasantry in India. 
They are essentially husbandmen, and the standard of agricultural practice among those at 
any rate of the more fer^o noTthera districts is as high as is reacbed in any portion of the 
Province. I would call special attention to the curious traditions of the liholar, Alan, and 
Her tribes, an examination of which might produce interesting and valuable results. 

The small group of Jats which I shall next describe lie to tho north of the ^ikh 
J&ts just discussed, all alonw under the foot of Ihe hills, from Ambula to (iurdas- 
pur. There is no deKnite line of demarcation lietween tbem and the ^ikh Jats to the 
south, or the Jats of tho western sub-montane to tbe west : and perhaps the only rual 
distinction is that, epeaking broadly, the first are Hindus, the second Sikhs, and the 
third Musalmana, though, of course, followers of all three religions are to be found in almost 
every tribe. In character and position there is nothing to distinguish these tribes save that 
they have never enjoyed the pohtical importanco which distinguished the Sikh Jats under 
the Kh&!sa. There is no oonfosion between Jits and Hajputs, though tbe reason of the 
precision with wbioh tbey are distinguished is exactly the opposite of that already dii^ussed in 
the case of the western sub-moutano and Sikh Jats. In tbe Sikh tract the political position 
of the Jat was so high tbat he had no wish to be called Rajput : under the hilU tbe status 
of the Rajput is so superior that the Jat has no hope of being called Bajput. Tbe only one 
of these tribes of which any considerable number have returned tbemselros as J&ts as well as 
Rajputs is the Manj, and that only in Gurd&spur on the extreme confines of the tract. 

The last group of Jat tribes that I have to discuss is that which occupies the 
Jamna districts, Jind, Rohtak, and Hissar. They call themselves Jat, not Jat, and are 
the same people in every rt^spect as the Jat of tho Jamna-Ganges Doab and the lower 
Jamna A-alley, differing, however, in little save religion from the great Sikh Jat tribes 
of theMalwa; though perhaps the latter, inhabiting as they do the wide unirrigated plains 
of tho central States, are of slightly finer physique tlian tbeir neighbours of the damper 
riverain. Tbe eastern Jats are almost without exception Hindu, the few among them who 
are Musalman being known as .Mula or "unfortunate," and dating their convorsiou almost 
without exception from an ancestor who was taken as a hostage to Delhi and there forcibly 
circumcised. Indeed those men were not unfrequenily received hack into caste on their 
return from captivity, and their descendants are in this case Hindus, though still known as 
Mula. Their traditions show them to have come up either from Bikaner and Kajputana, or 
northwards along the Jamna valley, and very few of them appear to have oome from the 
Punj&b to the Jamna. Tho Jots of Gurgaon indeed still look upon the Raja of Bhartpur 
as their natural leader, and the fall of Bhartpur made such an impression on their minds 
that old men still refer to it as the era from whicli tbey date events. 

The Jftt of these parts is, if anything, even a better cultivator than the Sikh Jat ; and 
that chiefly because his women assist hiin so largely in the field, performing all sorts of 
agricultural labour, whether light or heavy, except ploujjhing, for which they bave not suSldent 
strength, and sowing, which is under all circumstances a prerogative strictly confined to the 
male sex. Directly we leave tbe south-eastern districts, and pass into the Sikh tract, women 
cease to perform the harder kinds of field-work, even among the Jats : while in Musalman 
districts they do not work at all in the fields. So esscntiaUy is tbe Jat a husbandman, and 
to especially i^ be He husbandman of these parts, that when asked bis caste he will quite as 
often reply tamiuilSr as Jat, the two names being in that sense used as synonymous. The 
social standing of tbe Jat is tbat which tbe Gnjar, Ahir, and Ror enjoy ; in fact these four 
castes eat and smoke together. They stand at the head of tbe oastes who practise iarewa or 
widow- marriage, a good deal below the Bajpnt, but far above the castes who grow vegetables, 
such as Arain and Mali. If the social scale is regidated by the rules of tho Hindu religion, 
tbey come before Banyas, who are admittedly better Hindus. But the manly Jat despises the 
money- grabbing Banya, and all other castes and tribes agree with him. 

In the extreme south-eastern corner of the Punjab the Jats who have come in from the 
north and west, from Rajputana and tbe Punjab are known as Dhe, to distinguish tbem from 
the original Jat tribes of the neighbourhood, who are collectively called Hele, the two sections 
abstaining from inter-marriage and having in tome tospects different customs. In Sirsa, 
again, that meeting place of races, whore the Bagri Jat from the Bikaner prairies, the Sikh 
Jat from the Malwa, and the MusalmSa Jat from the Sutlej valley, meet tbe Jat of His^ar, 
the last are dittinguished as Desc or local and the Musalmaa Jats as Paekhade, cr western ; 
but these terms appear to be unknown to the people in their respective homes. There the 
superiority of the Sikh and Dei^e Jats over the ttunted Bagri and tbe indolent, enervated 
Jat of the Sutlej is most strikingly apparent. 




80 



INTEHNAL STRCCTUBE OF THE JlTS. 



WESTTERN PLAIKS. 

' WESTWARDS OF THl TALLET OF JAHLAM- 
GHAHlB. 

Tahim. 

Bhntta. 

Lanfffth. 

Ghliina. 

Snmra. 

East of the tallet of Jahlam-ChahIb. 

Chh&dar. 
Sipra. 

WESTERN SUB-HONTANB TRACT. 

Tarar. 

Varaich. 

SaU. 

Hinjra. 

Chima. 

Bajwa. 

Deo. 

Ghnman. 

Kalilon. 

Sarai. 

Goraya. 

Dhotar and Lodike. 

Chatta. 

8IKH Tract. 

Dhillon. 

Virk. 

Sindhn. 

Bhular. 

Han. 

Her. 

Buttar. 

Odi. 

BaL 

Panimn. 



Sikh Tract -cwita. 

HaliaL 

Anlak. 

Gil. 

Sidhn. 

Barar. 

Dharival. 

Sara. 

Haiu^t. 

Dhindsa. 

Gandhi. 

Chahil. 

EASTERN SUB-HONTANE TRACT. 

Hanj. 

Randhawa. 

Kangc. 

Sohal. 

Bains. 

Bnta. 

Ithwal. 

SOUTH-EASTERN DISTRICTS. 

Ghatwal. 

Daj!:ar. 

Jakhar. 

Sangwan. 

Sahrawat. 

Dehia. 

Golia (or Gawalia). 

Rathi. 

Khatri. 

Dalai. 

Ahtawat. 

Deswal. 

Dliankar. 

Pliogliat. 

Sangwan. 

Pawania. 

Bahniwal. 

Nain. 



2. Of the Indo-Aryan Tract. 



IB. n. liisLST, cj.s. i,c.s.] 

Ksliatriya, Chhatri, Clihettri, the fighting and land-holding caste of Northern India, Origin. 1 

who claim to be the modern representatives of the Kshatnyos of classical tradition, and who are in 
many cases entitled to appeal to their markedly Aryan cast of feature in snpport of their claim. 
Besides these Aryan [{ajputs, the large group designated indifferently by the name Rajput or 
Chhatri includes many families of doubtful or non-Aryan descent, whose pretensions to member- 
ship of the twice-born warrior caste rest solely npon the circumstances that they have, or ars 
supposed to have, some sort of proprietary dominion ovei land. It would be out of place to 
attempt to give here an exhaustive account of the Kajput community as it exists in Kajputana 
and North-VVestem India. The peculiar characteti sties o£ the pure-blooded Rajput have been 
described by BUVLTal competent observers. Among the most conspicuous are a pride of blood, 
which delights in endless genealogies and ranks every one according to descent ; a strot^ 
passion for iield sports, combined with an equally pronounced distaste for peaceful and prosaic 
means of earning a livelihood ; and an exaggerated idea of the saving virtues of ceremonial 
purity and precision in the matter of food and drink. 

'ITio traditions of the tribe go back to the dateless antiquity in which so many royiJ Traditioni 
pedigrees seek refuge. According to ihe usually accepted version there are two branches of 
Kajputa — the Surajbansi or Solar race and the Chandrabansi or Lunar race, 'i'o these must 
be added the four Agmkulas or Fire tribes. Surajbansi Rajputa claim descent from 
Ikshwaku, son of the Manu Vaivasnat, who was the son of V'aivaswat, the sun. Iksbnaku, 
it is said, was bom from the nostril of the Manu as he happened to sneeze. The elder branch 
(tf the Solar race sprang from Ikshwaku's eldest son Vikubshi, and reigned in Ayodhya at the 
beginning o£ the second ot Treta yn^a. Another son named Nimi founded the dynasty of 
Mithila. The Lunar race affect to be descended from the moon, to whom they trace through 
Ayus, Fururavas and Budha or Mercury, the son of Soma by llohini or by Tori, wife of 
Brihaspati. The Agnikulas or Fire tribes are supposed to have been brought into existence by 
a special act of creation of comparatively recent mythological date- After the Kshatriya had 
been slain by Parasu Rama, gods and men, and more particularly the Brahman, began to feel 
the consequences of the loss of their natural protectors. The earth was overrun by giants and 
demons (Uaityns and Asuras), the sacred books were held in contempt, and there was none to 
whom the devout could call for help in their troubles. Viswamitra, once a Kshatriya, who had 
raised himself to be a Brahman by the might of penance, determined to revive the race that had 
been exterminated, and moved the gods to assemble for this purpose on Mount Abu in 
Rajpatana. Pour images of iJhvha \_Cjimdoit liacfylon] grass were thrown into the fire 
fountain, and called into life by appropriate incantations. From these sprung the four Fire-tribes, 
Pramar, Sulanki, Farih&r and Chauhan. 

Turning from mythology to fact, the first point to be noticed about the Rajput tribes is 
that, in theory at any rate, it has no endogamouB sub-divisions. All Rajputs are supposed to 
be of one blood, and no distinctions are formally recognized among them as forming a conclu- 
sive bar to inter-marriage. The groupings Surajbansi, Sombansi and Agnikula refer only to 
traditions of origin, and there is nothing to pruvent a man belonging to one of these divisions 
from marrying a woman who belongs to another sub-division. It is no doubt the case that 
eome exogamous divisions are of highei' rank tban others, and that to give a daughter in 
marri^e into one of these groups degrades her family in respect of future marriages for a 
period of seven years. Hut, with a few doubtful exceptions in outlying districts, the principle 
of hypergamy has not been pushed to the point of forming strictly endogamous groups. 

The original septs of tbe Rajput tribe appear to be for the most part of the territorial internal 
type, that is to say, their names seem to denote tbe tract of country in which tbe sept or its Btructurfi. 
founder had their earliest habitat. Sesodia and Hhadauria may be taken as examples of this 
type. Other names again, such as Jadubansi, clearly refer to descent from particular families 
or stocks. In addition to their original septs, long lists of which are given below, the Rajputs 
of Bih&r also recognise tbe Brahmanical gotrat, and tbe tendency is for tbe latter series to 
supplant and take the place of the latter. Usually where the original sept names are still 
held to govern inter- marriage, tbe rule is that a man may not marry a woman who belongs to 
the same £ept as his father or his mother, and the prohibition is often extended to the septa 
of the paternal and maternal grandmothers. Notwithstanding this rule a case baa been 
brought to my notice iu which the son of a Salanki Rajput of Bihar married a woman of the 
Chandel eept, although his ' father had married into the same sept. At the time of the 
betrothal a question was raised as to the correctness of the procedure, and the Brabmans held 
that, ne tbe son's betrothal, though of the same tribal sept aa his mother, belonged to a 
different Brahmanical gotra, the rule of exogamy would not be infringed by the marriage. 
The standard formula for reckoning prohibited degrees is also recognized by the Bihar Rajputs, 
vho in theory considered if binding down to teveral generations on the father's, and five oq 
the mother's side. A man may marry two sisters, but he must take them in the order 
of age, and he cannot marry the elder stater if be is already married lo the yonsger. 



82 



iBOgamy 
and 
hyper- 
gamy. 



Marriage. 



In theory^ as has been already stated, the whole body of Rajputs constitutes a single tribe 
divided into a very large number of septs or clans of descent, each of which is suppose? to be 
descended from a common ancestor. Marriage within the sept is of course interdicted to its 
members, and in theory a Rajput belonging to any given sept has the whole community to choose 
from in seeking a bride for his son or a brideg^om for his daughter. In fact, however, the 
field of selection is greatly restricted by the operation of the laws of isogamy and hypergamy. 
In a society so organised as to give the fullest play to the idea of purity of descent and the 
tradition of ceremonial orthodoxy, it must needs be that offences should come and should be 
deemed to affect not only the offender himself and his family in the narrower sense, but 
also his entire sept which is conceived as an enlarged family. Thus in course of 
time is developed an infinite series of social distinctions giving rise t6 complicated and 
burdensome obligations in respect of marriage. In the case of tbe Rajputs these distinctions 
have not led to the formation of endogamous groups, as commonly happens among other castes^ 
nor have they hardened into fixed hypergamous groupings, such as are exemplified by the 
Kulinism of Bengal. But running through the entire series of septs we find the usages of 
isogamy and hjpergamy which have exercised and continue to exercise a profound influence on 
Rajput society. Isogamy or the law of equal marriage is defined by Sir Denzil Ibbetson as 
the rule which arranges the septs of a given locality in a scale of social standing and forbids a 
father to give his daughter to a man of any sept which stands lower than his own. 
Hypergamy or the law of superior marriage is the rule which compels him to wed his daughter 
with a member of a sept which shall be actually superior in rank to his own. In both cases a 
man usually does not scruple to take his wife, or at any rate his second wife^ from a sept of 
inferior standing. It will be readily seen how the working of these rules must have 
given rise to all sorts of reciprocal obligations as between septs, and must have restricted the 
number of available husbands in any particular locality. The men of a higher sept can take 
their wives from a lower sept while a corresponding privilege is denied to the women of the 
higher sept. Hence results a surplus of women in the higher septs and competition for 
husbands sets in, leading to the payment of a high price for bridegrooms, and enormously 
increases tbe expense of getting a daughter married. Under these circumstances poor families 
are under a strong temptation to get nd of their female infants by poison or intentional neglect 
in order to be saved the expense of finding them suitable husbands or the dii^raoe of being 
compelled to marry them to men of lower degree. 

The demand being for husbands, not for wives, it follows that the negotiations leading to 
marriage are opened by the father or guardian of the girl, who sends his family priest and family 
barber to the boy's house to make inquiries and to answer any questions that may be asked. 
Sometimes a professional match-maker^ agud or giatak, is employed. In any* case these 
preliminary negotiations are known as agudi bartvhari. If these results are satisfactory^ and the 
girl's family find that their offers are likely to be accepted, the same emissaries pay a second 
visit to the boy's house, accompanied by the girl's father and bringing with them her 
horoscope^ which is compared by the Brahmans of the two families with tbe horoscope of the 
boy in order to ascertain whether the match is likely to be auspicious. When this point has 
been satisfactorily settled the question of the bridegroom-price (fUak and dahy) to be paid by the 
girl's family is discussed^ and a certain proportion of it, usuallv half j is paid on the spot by way 
of clinching the bargain. This is called bar chhenka or phalddn and by receiving it the boy's 
people are deemed to bind themselves to marry him to no other woman. Sometimes the ftither 
of the boy also pays a small sum {sagan) as earnest-money to the family of the girl. This prac- 
tice however is said to be unusual, and is only resorted to when it is thought that the girl's 
family may be disposed to evade f ulBlment of their obligations. The first instalment of the 
tilak or bridegroom-price is paid by one of the girl's relations to the boy himself in the presence 
of the familv Brahman. At the same time a cocoanut is presented to him and a mark (tilak) 
is made with curds on his forehead. Both the gift and the mark are supposed to bring good 
luck. The balance of the bridegroom-price is paid in two equal instalments later on^ one before 
and one after the marriage. On the occasion of paying the first instalment of tilai, presents 
are made to the Brahmans and barbers who have taken part in the proceedings, and a date is 
fixed for the celebration of the marriage, an interval of fifteen days being usually allowed. 

A few days before the wedding dhanhatti takes place, a barber is sent from the girl's house 
to the boy's with a present of unhusked rice. The boy's guardian takes this, mixes with it some 
rice of his own, and has the mixture parched. Two days before the wedding the women of the 
family scatter this parched rice about in the courtyard, singing songs which are supposed to bring 
good luck. On the next day^ that is the day before the wedding, thd rite of ghidhdri is per- 
formed in the houses of the bride and bridegroom separately. The parents and nearest relations 
of the latter put on yellow clothes, and in the presence of the family priests worship Ganesh, the 
deity who presides over success in life. The bridegroom is then smeared with oil, turmeric, and 
ghiy offerings are made for the family gods, and the hair of the bridegroom's mother or his 
nearest female relative is anointed with oil. The same ceremony is gone through in the house 
of the bride, the only difference being that her family clothe themselves in red for the occasion. 
On the day of the marriage^ but before the wedding procession is arranged, the ceremony of 
belonki mangna is often, though not necessarily^ performed. The parents of the betrothed 
couple distribute cakes to theneighbourd^ demanding in return small presents of money {belonki). 

The marriage procession is rormed at the house of the bri^le^room, and makes a somewhat 
noisy progress to the house of the bride. There the entire party is entertained. Tbe bride and 
bridegroom are seated under a martsa or wedding canopy, and after the recital of appropriate 
«ii«^ra« or texts, the family priest of the bride's household fills the bridegroom's right band 



83 

mtb tindur, and makes a mark with it on the bnde's forehead, the women of the family mean- 
while singing songB to celebrate the event. Among- the Rajputs of Tirhat this is deemed the 
binding portion of the rit«ial. and the practice of walking round the sacred fire, nsually considered 
esBential in the marriage of the hiifhcr castes, is said to be unknown. The married couple then 
leave tlie marva and go to the iohhar or house, where the family deity has been placed for the 
occasion. They worship and malie offerings to him, and this conohides the marriage. The 
bridegroom then returns to the janieasa or lodgings reserved for hia party, while the bride 
remains in her own house. Early nest momine they are brought out and each is made to chew 
betel with which has been mixed a tiny drop of blood dmwn from the other's little finger. 
This usage in which we may trace an interesting survival of primitive ideas is called tiiteh jorna, 
the joining of love. When it is over the bride is taken to ber huabami'a house where she 
remains. On the fourth day after her arrival abe and her husband stand together on a yolie 
Buch as is used for oxen, and a washerwoman pours water over them. This symbolii'al washing is 
Biipposed to be the first occasion on which the couple see each other by daylight after m.irriage. 
Among the Eajputs of North -WesteTu Tndia, and in some parts of Bihar, the bride and bride- 
groom do not live ti>gtther until after a second ceremony {called ffauna, or with reference to the 
bride's ' going ' to her husband's house) has been performctl, which may take place one, three, 
five or even seven years after the marriage, and is fixed with reference to the physical develop- 
ment of the bride. InTirhut, however, the custom of premature consummation, mentioned by 
Buchanan as prevalent among the Ba jputs of Bibar, seems to have been introdnced, and it is said 
to be unusual for a bride to be kept at home until she attains puberty. Another custom 
connected with marriage, whieh stmlents of comparative ethnography will also recognize hs a 
survival of more primitive ideas, may be referred to here. In Hajput families of Tirhut it is 
considered coutrary to etiquette for a young married couple to see each other by day so long as 
the husband's parents are alive, and in particular they must avoid being seen tc^ether by the 
bnsband's parents, and must not speak to one another in their presence. It is of course extremely 
difficult to ascertain how far a rule of this sort is actually obstrved, but I am assured thitt young 
married couples are very careful to avoid infringing it, although as they grow older their Eolici- 
tude on this point is apt to wear off. 

The remarriage of widows is strictly forbidden among the Rajputs of Bihar. Dirorce is 
■Ifo prohibited, and when a woman is taken in adultery, she is summatily exyielkd from tho 
caste, and either becomes a prostitute or joins herself to some religious sect of more or less dubi- 
ous morality- In certain cascj, however, where a married couple find themselves unable to Uve 
in harmony together, a separation is arrived at by mutual consent, each agreeing to look upon 
the other as a parent. In such cases the wife retimts to her father's house, and the husband 
marries again. This is not, however, looked upon as a divorce. 

Rajputs are orthodox Hindus, and worship the Hindu divinities favoured by the sect Religion.* 
to which they happen to belong. By the Surajbausi divisiouj special honour is done to the sun ; 
whom they regard as their eponymous ancestor. Among minor gods Bandi and Narsingb 
appear to be most in favour. Ancestors are worshipped with offerings of milk, flowers and rice. 
Mondays and Wednesdays are believed to be the most propitious days for this worship. On 
the 1 5th day of Asin married women offer cakes and oil to the souls of their mother-in-law, 
grand mother-in-law and great grand motber-in-law. This custom, known as the Jiliyn puja, 
has obviously been copied from the sraddA celebrated in honour of the three immediate ascend- 
ants. The popular explanation of it is that it is intended to express the gratitude that every 
married woman ought to feel for her good fortune in getting a husband. Mr. Grierson, in 
Bihar Peasant Life, speaks of the Jt'djia paja as "a fast and worship performed by women on 
the 8th of the dark half of KHrtih (late in October) for the benefit of their children." P'urther 
inquiry on the subject would perhaps bring out points of interest and might clear up the dis- 
crepancy of date. 

For religious and ceremonial purposes Bajputs employ Brahmans, who are received on Dispoea 
equal terms by other members of the sacred order. The dead are homed and the ashes thrown of ilie 
into the Ganges or one of its tributaries. Sraddh is performed on the thirteenth day after "^^**- 
death, and on the fourteenth a feast is given to the Brahmans of the neighbourhood. It is 
followed by the barki traddh on the first anniversary of the death, when the members of the 
dead man s family shave their heads and faces, and present a p'mda to the deceased, while the 
Brahmans recite manlrdt. Then the priests and the members of the family partake of a fea^-t. 
It is said to be a tradition that the expenditure on this ceremony must not exceed half of tbut 
incurred on the original triddh. After the harki, the iarpan or nii-larpaii, a daily offering of 
water is presented regularly by all the sons of the deceased, and particularly by the eldest. 
This practice, however, is observed only by highly educated Rajputs, who know their religious 
obligations in this matter. On tho first fifteen days of Bhadarpala the pitri paksh or 
anc^tor's fortnight is obEcrved with offerings of water to all deceased ancestors. If a man 
dies sonless, leaving a wife and daughter, the iraddh and the barki are performed by one of 
them, the other ceremonies being omitted. Failing these the nearest agnate gotia will take 
upon himself these pious duties. In the event of a man djing away from his people and being 
burned or buried without the proper rites, his body is burned in effigy by his relatives, and the 
ether ceremonies are performed in the usual fashion. When a man has died a sudden or violent 
death, it is thought right for his son to make a pilgrimage to Oaya and perform the traddh 
ceremony there in order to secure the repose of liia soul. 

The high-flown titles — Bbupal, Bhup:iti, Bhu=ur, Pahujft — in use amonsr Rajputs, and the pooupa- 
name Cbhatri itself indicate the exalted pretensions of the tribe and their traditions concern- b^^^° 
ing their original occupation. Many Rajputs etill cling to the behef that governing and status 



84 

bearing arms are their proper business ia life ; and these notions lead them to regard ednoation, 
and more especially the higher education; in much the same light as a medieval warrior looked 
upon the clerkly studies of his time. For this reason the Rajputs as a body have rather 
dropped behind in the modern struggle for existence^ where book learning counts for more than 
strength of arm^ and the more intelligent members of the tribe are quite conscious that their 
position is by no means what it was in the classical ages of Hindu tradition. Their relations 
to the land still help them to maintain a show of respectability and importance. Many of 
them are zaminddn, and those who hold cultivating tenures claim in virtue of their caste a 
remission of rent of their homestead lands* ThejetA^raiyat of headman of a Bihar village is 
frequently a Bajput. He collects the rents and receives in retam a yearly allowance, known 
tispagri, from the zamindar. Rajputs are never artisans^ and it is unusual to find them en- 
gaging in any kind of trade. In theory their social status is second only to that of the 
Brahman^ but in Bengal Proper^ where great Rajput houses do not exists popular usage would, 
I think; place them below the Baidya and the Kayasth. Even in Bihar the Babhans claim 
precedence over Rajputs on the ground that they themselves will not touch the handle (parihafh 
or lagna)oi the plough, and that they use xjiq ixxiX vpanayan ritual when investing their 
children with ^<djaneo or sacred thready whereas the Rajputs plough and milk cows with their 
own hands, and shuffle on thejaneo in a rough-and-ready fashion when a boy gets married. 

In respect of diet the Rajputs conform generally to the practice of high caste Hindus. 
The flesh of the goat, the deer and the hare, the pigeon^ quail and ortolan may alone be eaten, 
and these animals, if not killed in hunting, must be slaughtered in a particular way (jhataka) 
by cutting the head off at a single stroke. Fish is lawful food. "Wine is supposed to be for- 
bidden. As regards the taking of food from members of other castes, the following rules are 
n force :— 

A Rajput cannot take iachehi food, i.e.y rice or ddl or anything that is cooked with water, 
from anyone but a Brahman. Pa^H food, such as parched grain, sweetmeats and the like, he 
mav take from a man of ^ny caste higher than his own or from a Dhanuk, Kurmi, Eabar, 
Lon&r, Bftrhi, Kumhar, Goala, Mallah, Hajjam, Mali, Sonar, Laheri, or Oareri, provided that 
no salt or turmeric has been used in the making. These condiments he will add himself. 
Water is governed by the rules applicable to jDa^i:t food. Bajputs may not use the hukdhi 
of any other caste, but may smoke tobacco prepared by men of any caste except the Dosadh, 
Dom, Chamar, Musahar and Dhobi. 



INTERNAL STBVCTCRE OF THE BUPCT. 

RlJPUT, Ksliatriya, Cbliatri or Chhetri, Bahi^a, Bhnp&l, Bhupati, Bhusnr. 

TiTLBS :—Babu, Baraik, Barman^ Khan, Malik, Mandal, Rai, Raut. Samant, Simrh, 
Sipfthi, Thaku^. ^ ^ i -Hb , 



SaVtriboB. 




Septs. 




In Bihar— 








Snryabansi, 


Amaithiil 


Kachhwfth. 


RSnil. 


Suralbansi. 


Baghail or Baghel, 


Kftkan, 


Rananni. 




Baratil. 


Kanwar. 


Siln^r. 




Baraia. 


Karnwilr* 


Sarnia. 




Barfrftir. 


Kh&ti. 


Sirnait. 


• 


Bes&in.^ 


Klnw&T. 


Simla. 




Bhadaria, 


KnlchnUa. 


SisodhiS. 




Bharsnriil. 


Knlharift. 


Somwar. 




Birwi. 


Kurminia, 


Snkalnakl. 




Chandail. 


Hanlwar. 


Snkarbftr. 




ChanbariSt 


Nikumbh. 


SuTkhi. 




Chanbh&n. 


Nimnndlh. 


Surwar. 




DandwftT. 


Paman 


Tarwar. 




Gaharw&i; 


Parihar. 


Tilauta. 




Gaafam. 


Raghubansi. 


Tongar. 
IJJafn. 




Harihobans. 


Bahtanr. 




Jasatb&r. 


Raksain. 




Chandrabansi* 


Bais. 


Kailwftr. 


Oh-lr. 


Sombansi. 


Banaudhti. 


Kapnr. 


Sabarnia. 




Bam&T. 


Kaasik. 


Sakarwilr. 




Budhbansi, 


Kusbansi. 


Sengar. 




Damarwftr. 
Danirar. 


Hahranr.^ 
Narauni. 


Snbansi. 
Sulankhi. 




Eh-lr. 


Nanthni or Lantni, 


Tekha. 




GaUantt 


Nistn. 


Tetift. 


Agnikid. 

Bnojpnril, 

Jadnbansi. 





















^^^^JB-ita, GbMbhM. M4 «Ar»weMa«t l^teriMr^, 



86 



8Qb*trib€iL 

In dot a Ndgpui 

HUwe or Hir-BiUpnt. 

In Bardtoan Diviiion^^ 

BOgOTi. 
BaradSh 

. Hulki. 



Septs. 



Chandhrii. 
Hahto. 



mm. 



The following septs 

lUr-P&ik. 

Ataift. 

Ithral. 

BftchhiL 

Banftmpur. 

Ban&phar. 

Bardhia. 

Bardift. 

BarhwatiS. 

Barnift. 

Basbarift. 

Basharift. 

Bern&r. 

Bhadanift. 

Bhalesnlt&n. 

Bhand&ri. 

BharoliuihS. 

BhattfUnft. 

Bhora. 

Bhnthft. 

Bichila. 

BiJhnnlS. 

Binrift. 

BisoklS. 

BnndelS. 

Chakwftn. 

Chalhuk. 

Dhftn. 

Dhanl. 

DhekhL 

Dhor. 

Dikghit. 

Donwftr. 

Dorowar. 

Danpbansi. 

Gftigwftr. 

Gain. 

Gajkesar. 

GandhauriiU 

GanhwariiU 

Ganpbansi. 

Garhwftr. 



aie oommon to all the suh-tribes of Rajpats in Bihar :— " 



Gaudhanii. 

Gaulftni. 

Gaura. 

Gehnanil. 

H&rft. 

HnddS. 

Jftdan. 

Jftdaw&r. 

Jadnbansi. 

Kachnarift. 

Kakir. 

KUhans. 

K&mar. 

KanakwSrt 

Kandwftr. 

Karan^rhyil. 

KarcholiS. 

Kaijhulift. 

Karmw&r. 

Karsft. 

Khftnnft. 

Kharbahift. 

Khftt. 

Khechar. 

Korwftr. 

Knchhainft. 

Knkft. 

Knknrbans. 

Kundail. 

Knsbhab&ni. 

Lahtaur. 

LfthuUi. 

Lftkat. 

LohtamiS. 

Luknm. 

HadhwU. 

Hahu&r. 

Hftndiftr. 

Haralbal. 

Harhw&r. 

Hariar. 

Mannachh, 



Hannas. 

HehrK. 

Hehri. 

Hendra. 

Nftirbansi. 

Nimri. 

Pachhanlft. 

Pachtarift. 

Pailw&r. 

Pftlki. 

Phetift. 

Pundult 

Purnbansi. 

Raehhn&nl. 

Raikwftr. 

R&jkuar. 

Ralw&r, 

Rekhaur. 

Baksel. 

RankwAr* 

Rorah. 

Sankarwilr. 

Sepil. 

SihogriS. 

Silew&r. 

SindnriL 

Sinirliinlft. 

Sirmanr. 

Simet. 

Sisonlft. 

Sombansi. 

SuknlbanSt 

Surnair. 

Taift. 

TftmSn 

Tannftn. 

Taunr. 

Tendon. 

Tiftr. 

Tilakcliandi. 

UUt. 



The Rajpats also nse the Brahmanioal gotroB or sections, o£ which the following are 
generallj found in the caste:— 

Parftsara. 
Prasidha. 
Sftndllya. 



Baii&glirapad. 
Batsya. 
Bharadwiya. t 



Kftsyapa. 
Kansika. 



g9 



86 



3. Of the Scytho-DTaTidian Tract. 



PRABHU. 



ITftme. 

Distribu- 
tion. 
Internal 
Btmoture. 



Vraditioas 
of origint 



[Bombay Ethnographic Survey i\ 

This oaste is also called ^^ Chilndra Seniya Prabhu ** and inoorreotly Parblin. 

It figures in the Sanads and State papers of past dynasties under the form Prabhu. The 
oaste is distributed throughout the Presidency, but the greater portion are residents of Thana 
and Eolaba districts, or Bombay City. The total for the Presidency at the census o£ 1901 was 
21,941, of which 5,162 were found in Thana, 6,782 in Eolaba and 2,922 in Bombay City. 

There are the following exogamous divisions :— • 



(1) K&shyapa. 
(3) Krip. 

(3) Dewal. 

(4) yaidhruTa. 

(5) Bh&Tsrawa. 

(6) SMndilya. 

(7) Paingya. 

(8) Atrl. 

(9) YisTftmitra. 



1 



GOTRAS. 

(10) Garga. 

(11) Bh&rdy&ja. 
hS) Gantam. 

(13) Jamdagni. 

(14) Tasishta. 

(15) Bhrign. 

(16) Agasti. 

(17) Raibhya. 



Bhftgnr, 

S&nkhyftyaib 

HaitrftyaB. 

GandhamUan. 

Tyftghra. 

KapiL 

Pnlaha. 

Samin 



The ^' OotroB** anlike those of the Brahmans, do not indicate that a fomily included in 
any one of them is fche descendant of the particular BUhi whose name it hem, but the 
members of the Ootra claim to be merely disciples of the epony tpous Bishi, 

The caste claims to rank as Kshatriya and to be one of the three twice-bora eastes 
the members of which are authorized to perform the Upanayana ceremony. The custom 
of not allowing marriage in the same Ootras, therefore, is obeyed out of reyerence for the 
Bishis whose guidance was required in early times as Gurus for performance of the Dpd' 
nayan ceremony by the ancestors of this community. 

There are no endogamous divisions. Formerly Dame Prabhus were considered to be an 
endogamous sub«division and did not inter-marry, though they might take foodj with the 
Chandra Seniy'a. But after satisfying themselves that the Davne Prabhus were originally 
Chandra Seniya Kayastha Prabhus who had gone to Daman to reside, and had thus acquired 
the name Davne^ the Chandra Seniya branch resumed marriage connections with this division. 
They are now treated on an entirely equal footing. The re-union of the branches is of 
comparatively recent date, and may be taken to exemplify an interesting tendency in certain 
societies towards the removal of barriers due to geographical causes, barriers which improved 
means of communication is likely, in many instances, to undermine. A member of the caste 
must marry within the caste, and outside the Ootra or exogamous sub-division. Inter- 
marriage is forbidden Between those who are related as Sapindds, This relationship extends 
to six degrees when the common ancestor is a male, and to four degrees when this common ances- 
tor is a female. In reckoning degrees of relationship, the person under consideration is excluded. 
Thus, beginning from the bride or bridegroom, six or four degrees exclusive of the couple^ i.e., 
six for the male ancestor and four in case of a female, must be counted without encountering a 
common progenitor, if marriage between the parties is to be permitted. 

The caste claims descent from Chandrasena, a Kshatriya king of Oudh. According to the 
Benuka Mahatmya of the Padma (?) Skandha Puran it is alleged that after Parashurftm, in ful- 
filment of his vow to destroy all Kshatriyas^ had killed Arjuna and King Chaindrasena, he ^ 
discovered that Chandrasena's wife had taken refuge with Dalabhya, one of the Rishis or Seeis, 
and that she was with child. To carry out his vow Parashur&m went to the ^age, who asked 
him to name the object of his visits assuring him that his wish would be fulfilled. Parashuram 
replied that he wanted Chandrasena's wife. The sage without any hesitation brought the lady 
and Parashuram delighted with the success of his Fcheme promised to grant the sage anything 
he might ask. The sage asked for the unborn child, and Parashuram agreed to give him the 
child; on the sage engaging that it and its offspring should be trained as clerks, not as 
soldiers. The child wa^ named Som Baja and his sons Yishwan&tha, Mah&deo, Bhanu, and 
liuxumidhar and their descendants were called Prabhu. They were called K&yastha Parbhu 
by the Sudras who could not pronounce the word Prabhu, and Br&hmans, taking advantage 
of this mispronunciation, declared that their true name was Parbhu, that is, bastard or people 
of irregular birth. The word, however, is epelt Prabhu in letters and deeds granted to those of 
the community who served the Satara and reshwa governments ; and it must be noted that the 
claims of the Prabhus to the position and rites of Kshatriyas were admitted even as recentiy as 
in the days of the Peshwas. 

The descendants of Chandrasena are believed to have ruled over Oudh and all old documents 
agree in placing the original home of this caste in Oudh. There is further evidence on this 
point of origin mthe admitted fact that the or^^inal saoctuaiyol the goddess ''Vinsfti^' or 
Vindhyachsdawasini wonUpped by some fiunilies of the oommmuty is situated on a hill known 
M Vindhy&chal situated near Mirzftpur in the United FiovineoBf In ^liia same ptovinoe ijb^ 



87 

celebrated li6rmitftf»e of the Buge Dalabhya, who was the proverbiftl protector oF tbe oaste 
from the persecution ot Para^huraiD, in memory of which fact the easte Has adopted a common 
Ootra Dilabhya in addition to the special one, ie situated on the banks of the Ganges, 16 
mileB from Raibsreh and 14 miles to the north of Fatehpur, From Oudh eome Prahhns seem to 
have gone to Nepal and Kashmir, while aome took refug'e at Mount Aba, Oihers again settled 
near 'lal Hhopal and a few in Prabhas, Allhough the Prabhua found in Nepal and elsewhere 
have no Bocial intercourse with the Kayastha Prabhus of jWestorn India, it seems jirobable 
from the foregoing account that they are all come from one etocW. They all claim a K^hatriya 
origin. Thofe who Bought an asylum in Kashmir eetahlishei their poBition there and acquired 
estates for the service they rendered to the State. The anthor of the Kajatarangini, a Sanskrit 
bislorical poem which narrates the history of Shriharsha and other KaBhmir kiog^, was the son 
of a Prabhu minister of Kashmir, Mahamatya Champak Prabhu. This sug^eEta that the 
ministers of Kashmir were styled Prabhu, i.e., lord, a synonym for Kshatriya. Neatly eighty 
Prahhn families are eaid to have come from Oudh to Tal Bhopal, and the author of ths 
Prabhuratnam&Ia and other antiquarians are of opinion that the Gopta dynasty which ruled 
over Central India for more than eight centuries sprang from this stock. The surnames of 
some families such as Gupte, Raje, Pradhan, Chaturbal aliat Chaubal, Banadip aliag Riindiro, 
Dalapati alias Dalavi, Thaknr alios Thakare, and otbera seem to have been adopted by those 
families from the positions they held in tin. '^□pta period, just as the surnames of CliitniB, Fadnie, 
Fotnia, Karkhanis, Sabnis, Jamenis, and ol re seem to have been accepted by eome families 
from the occupation or office they held unt. the Maratlia mle. The Uuptas had estabhshed 
tbeir power in 319 A.D, and made their capita, -t various places. That their rule spread over 
a great part of the country is proved by the stone scriptions, and coins and copper p^tes found 
atvarions places. That this ^Tupta dynasty had connection with this branch of the Haihaya 
Kehutriyas is saggesttid by the fact that their coins bear the mark of the goddesd Saraswuti 
riding on a peacock with a IriiAul or trident in her hand, a goddess iield in threat reverence 
by the caste to this day, Cunningham also says that the Gnpta kings of Mahakoeal wer6 
Haihaya kings of the Lunar IJynafity. He is successful in tracing a family which, though calling 
itBelf ThabuT, claimed to be Ksbatviyas of the Haihaya branch of the Lunar Kshatriya race 
which ruled over Mahakosala. Instances of names such as Guptas or Gupte and Thakurs alias 
Thakare are common. A Haihaya prince of the Lunar Kshatriya race is considered an ancestor 
of the caste giving f^e!^h gronnd for the belief that the caste may originally have been 
connected with the Gupta dynasty. TheSilbarand other kin^s in tlie Deccan and southern 
parts of India once admitted the suzerainty of the Gupfas. Many Prabhus held high poBts at the 
courts of the Silbar princes and controlled the civil and military administration of the countty. 
In a stone-inscription found at Cheul, dated 108S A.D., the name of one Velji Prabhn is found. 
In the same way in a stone-inscription of the time of aSilhar prince Aparadity a, dated 1182 A.D., 
it is mentioned that Anant-raya Prabhu was the officer who governed Sahasaehti, now Salsette^ 
pargana or taluka ; and the Prabhus have a Sashtikar family among them. The inscription 
is eaid to have been written by a Kayastha by name Valig Pandit. Pandit in those days 
meant a writer. The Prabhus who settled about this time in the Konkan, Maval and Malifi- 
rashtra controlled the civil administration of the country. These were the jTeople who kept the 
accounts of the land revenue and were entitled Boshapandita. 'Ihe word Deshapandita was 
afterwards changed into Deshapande. These Dcshapandits now known as Deshapandcs, had 
to colonise the waste lands in the country and were also held responsible for the civil admiiii»- 
tratioo and the revenues of the land. It was their business to write the documents pertaining 
to the land as is the practioe even now. It is therefore not unnatuial that the stone- inscription 
above referred to should have been written by Valig Pandit of the Kayastha Prabhn caste. 
Almost all Deshapandita or Doshapandes in the Maval and Konkan are Kayastha Prabhus. 

The history of their Watans or hereditary land grants of Prabhu families also shows that 
they were acquired before the Maiomedan power was introduced and estabhshed in the Konkan 
and the Deccan. The fact that the Puran " Sahyadri Khand," which is eaid to have been 
written about the 10th century, makes mention of the Chandraseniya Prabhus as Kayasihas 
to signify their new profesBion is also corrobomtive evidence of the fact that the Ch&ndra* 
seniya Kayastha Prabhus had settled on the slopes of Sahyadri mountains at or about this 

riod. There is another inscription of the time of the Silhar princes. It ia a grant made 
aSilhar king, Hirftpal, to a Brahman, and the name of his minister, Lak^hman I'rabhu, 
u mentioned in it. From the genealogies of some of the families in this community, we 
learn that the ancestors of some of them served the Kings of Chitor anJ other Bajpat 
dynasties- The name of Shripat Prabhu ot the ancestors of the SatSra Chitnis family is 
inscribed upon the pillar at Chitor in connection with a ^-ictory gained by R&na Lukshman 
Sinha. This information is also given in the genealogy in the possession of the family. 
Tbf^re is an endorsement on it that the genealogy is embodied with the genealogies of forty 
other families in the Vanska FriMa which is in the records of the Haja of Satara. The 
Konkan, that is the Thana and Kolaba districts, the old northern boundary of Ratnagiri, 
the Maval, «.f., the slopes of the Sahyadri including Poona, f^atara, Kolbajiur, Daman and 
Baroda State, are the chief centres of this community, and it is generally believed that 
these places with the exception of Barnda were the first eottlements of the caste when they 
came from the north. The reiresentatives of the ciste in the Baroda State are so numerous 
that, were it not for the history of the Marathas which does not support such a conclusion, it 
might be inferred that this caste settled there diiring their progress from north to south. 
It would be interesting to discover which of the places already mentioned were first selected 
by the community when they came from the north, and at what period the immigrenta 



miYei. It is a oommon saying^ among the old men of the community that their anoeeftora 
arrived in numbers from Chitor and the vicinity to settle in the Eonkan and Maval^ and 
joined those who had already settled there when Mandavgad was sacked by Alla-ud-din in 1295. 
In the year SIS, when the Gupta Emperors took Malva from the Shaka kiugs and there 
established their rule, the fort of Manda must have passed into their hands ; though evidence 
on the point is wanting, there is ample proof that the Qaptas had fall sway over the coantry 
up to the borders of Khkndesh. Various branches of the Guptas were established in this tract 
of countnr* The Guptas of Mahakosasl are well-known to be one of them. This house was 
connected with the kings of Yakatak or Vindhya Shakti. In the same way there may have 
been some connection between the Kings of M&ndavgad and the Guptas. From an inscription 
found at the Ajanta Caves and Toran-Mal, it appears that Fravarsen, son of Prabhawati Ghipta, 
the daughter of Shri-dev Gupta, was lord of the fortress Toran-Mal. The Vindhya Shakti 
princess, of whom this Fravarsen was born, subsequently became very powerful, and extended her 
rule over Malva as &r as the confines of Ehandesh. The caste was at one time widely diffused 
in the west and south of India. There are instances of families who even now say that they 
formerly inhabited Hyderabad, in the Deccan, and came to this side after the establishment of 
Maratha rule. The Tamhanes and Fanases originally served the Mahomedan Emperors at 
Bedar and Bijftpur. They subsequently entered the service of the Nizam and then came over 
to the Mar&thas. Sanads in their possession prove this. There are families living in the Nizam's 
territory who claim to be Kshatriya Eayasthas and follow the Vedic religion. They allege 
that thev came from the north and took service with the Musalmans. Some Frabhus in the 
EamafaJk have adopted the Jain religion, but they still style themselves Frabhu and are the 
holders of estates such as Deshmukh or Deshpande Fatans. They are known as Desais. 
From this it may fairly be concluded that the Eshatriya Frabhus, nick-named Kayasthas, who 
were able to maintain communication with their caste- fellows in the Eonkan or Maval, formed 
one caste known as Chandra Seniya Eayastha Frabhus. 
History. The history of this caste is readily traceable since the introduction of Mahomedan rule in 

the Deccan. They served that government diligently in civil and military affairs. Feace 
was secured in the country by the Mahomedan rulers by renewing the Vatans of the 
Deshmukhs and Deshpandits or Deshp&ndes in ratifying their grants. After the great 
famine in 1396, very signal service to the country was rendered by these Deshmukhs and 
Deshpandes by re-colonising it and by helping in the restoration of peace. At this time 
they had to perform military service in order to quell the rebellious mountainous tribes. 
The Emperor of Bedar sent Mulk-ultij&r in 1429 with an army to help these Deshmukhs and 
Deshpandes in the settlement of the country. Titles were bestowed upon some of the 
Deshmukhs which are enjoyed by those families to this day. The title Abhangrao (invincible) 
of the Farbhu Deshmukh at Atwane, and the title of Sarjerao (distinguished) of the Deshmukh 
of Nate, as well as the title Adarrao (worthy of high respect) of the Frabhu Deshp&ndes of 
M&val are well-known. In this way they helped the Mahomedan rulers in maintaining civil 
order and protecting the fortresses from foreign aggression. The vatans continued to the 
Chanbals of Cheul, Nadkars of M&h&d, Deshmukhs of Nate and Nizampnr in the Eonkan^ and 
Vaidya and Dighes of the Mavals, and many other Deshpandes and Eulkamis bear ample 
historical testimony to the fact. We find the name of one Farasharam Frabhu Eamik in a 
8anad as far back as about 1426 granted by the Emperor of Bedar to the Yajaseniya Brahmans. 
He was a courtier of the Emperor and was appointed to settle the disputes of the Brahmans. 

The caste distinraished itself during the Maratha rule, and was one of the chief sources 
of the strength of Shivftji and his successors. Murar Ba ji Deshpande of Mahad, Vishvasrao 
Ninaji, Bftbaji Boaji, Dadji Baghunath and others were eminent military and civil Frabhu 
officers of Shivaji. Balaji Aoji Chitnis was his chief adviser and secretary. Shivftji was 
favourably disposed to the caste. On one occasion he dismissed all the Brfthmans who held 
high iiosts and engaged Eayaatha Frabhus in their places, and in reply to complaints he 
lemarKed that wh£e all the Mnsalman places of trust held by Brfthmans had been given 
up without a struggle, those held by Frabhus had been most difficult to take, and that one of 
them, Rajpuri, hi^ not yet been taken. The brothers Lingo Shankar and Yis&ji Shankar 
helped Baiaram in safely conveying his &mily to Jinji. Ehando Ball&l played a great part 
in Marauia history in the reorganization of the Maratha power. Fray&gji Anant, the 
ancestor of the famous Raoji Apftji of later Maratha history, defended the fort of Satara, and 
Mahftdaji B&ji, blather of the illustrious Murftr Bftji Prabhu and the ancestor of the Sardftr Fotnis 
&mily^ recovered Sinhgad and other places from the Musalmans when Bajaram was at Jinji. 
These and others were the chief supporters of the new Hindu dynasty that was established in 
Mahftrftshtra. The Sanads granted by the Nizam to Yyankat Frabhu T&mhane testify to the 
gallant service he rendered to the State with five thousand horse in several campaigns. 
Yyankat Prabhu was granted in his old age the Faujadri Mahal Jftghir of the districts of 
Fatiabad (now Dharur) and Ehujista Buniad (now Auiungabad). His sons Lakshman, 
Mahadeo, and Govind succeeded to the Jaghir, Of these sons, Lakshman Frabhu was after- 
wards very useful to the Bhoslas of Nagpur and Akalkot in the establishment of their power. 
Even during the rule of the Peshwfts the warlike brothers Sakh&ram Hari and Baburao Hari 
Ghipte, of whose unswerving loyalty to their master Nana Fadanavis was extremely jealous, and 
Nilkanthrfto Page played a conspicuous part in the maintenance of Marfttha rule. Murar Rfto 
Daulat rendered gallant service to Sindia in capturing Gulam Eadir of Delhi, upon which 
the well-known '' Diwani Mutftlki Sanad '' wasobtainedfrom the Emperor of Delhi; B&oji 
Appftji made the Oftekwftr's role secore in Gujarat ; Vithairfto Devftji's name is still held in 
great reverence and respect in Eftthiftwftr; Bftpnji Kaghunftth Dighe was a popular Divftn 



ftt Dhar. At the pTeeent day members of the Pmbba caete hold places of tnut both in 
Native States and uader the British Government to whom they have always oshibitad 
conspicuous loyaJty. 

As a nile ^rls must be married after the completion of the eighth year aud before Hu 
attaininj; puberty, the boys generally heinf; from four to aix years oldLT, Polygamy is allowed, 
but it is reBort<?d to mainly iu cases of Failure of male issue. It is highly unpopular 
and has very largely died out. Polyandry is strictly prohibited. The first of tbe eight 
forms of marriage, kuown as Brahma, ie followed by this community, and the procedure is 
conducted according to the Rig Pmyoga. The Brahma form coiisiats in the gift of the 
daughter clothed only with a single robe to a man presumably learned in the " Vcdaa " whom 
her father voluntarily invites and respectfully receives. In the actual marriage ceremony 
there are numerous stages of which the following are the principal : — 

(I) " ViSjniischaja," i.e., settlement by word. 

(S) ," Siiuantpujau," t.e,, reception and adoration of the bridegroom at tbe eutranoo of 
the town. 

(8) " ■Vadhug:riha(raiaail," i.e., going to the place of the bride. 

(i) " nadhu parka," i.e., a res-pectful offering made to a guest or the bridegroom on his 
arrival at the door of the father of the bride. 

(6) "Paraspaianiriksliau," t,tf., l be ceremony of gazing at each other through the 
screen calkd " Autarpat/' and of garlanding tbe bridegroom by the bride. 

(6) " Rauj'fidiU," ie., the ceremony oE giving away the girl in marriage. 

(7) " Vivahahonia," «.fl., offering 01 oblation by tlirowing ^^» into the consecrated (ire 

in honour of the marriage, 
(o) " Pailii^rahana," i.e., ceremony of taking by the hand. 
(6) " LftjUliolua," i.e., throwing parched grains into the consecrated fire. 
(c) "Sajltaiiadi," i.e., the ceremony of bride and bridegroom wallring together 
seven steps round the sacred fire after which the marriage becomes 
irrevocable. 
The VivahaAoma ending in Saptapadi is the operative and essentiaJ portion of tlis 
ceremony. On completion of the last step the actual marriage is considered to be complete. 
While using the Brahma form the Prabhns have retained cer^in special customary ohEervoncca 
which go to prove or rather to keep in remembrance their " Kshatriya " origin, such as :— 

(1) The marriage of ihe Prabhus must necessarily be in a mandap (pendalj and in tho 

presence of all relations and friends like the SKayamtcar in a Salha of the 
olden Kshatriya period, whereas the Btahmans perform their maiTiages in the 
inner part of the house. 

(2) Two unsheathed ewords are crossed over the head of the couple from behind. 
The remarriage of widows is not permitted nor is divorce allowed, A woman maybe 

abandoned by her husband on the ground of misconduct or of a change of religion, etc., a wito 
80 renounced cannot marry again. A man can be divorced by his wife for a ohange of religion, 
but she cannot marry again in such a case. 

The Hindu law of inheritance is followed by the caste. Inheri" 

Tbe members of the caste follow the Vedic form of rehgion, and are Shaivat, They Religioita 
worship Siva in preference to other members of the Hindu Trinity, a usage based on "* 

immemorial custom and the asanmed BUi^erior potency of this deity. They are followers of 
the Advita school of Sankaiacbarva, but also worship Vishnu, Ganpati, and other gods. 
Such of the minor gods as are admittedly manifestations of the supreme spirit are recognized 
by the Prabhus. Khandoba and Bhairao are regarded as incamation of Siva, and the 
goddesses Ekavira, Vinzai, Vyaghrambari as manifestations of Parvati, the wife of Siva. 
Brahmans are employed for religious and ceremonial purposes and for the recitals of 
manlras, but the actual ceremony is performed by the membera of the commimity. These 
priests are received on terms of equality by other Brahmans. No other class of Hindus 
can serve them as priests. Piabhua burn their dead, but infants who have not cut thoir teeth as 
well as pereens dying of'small-pos are buried. The ashes, whenever possible, or a few bonea 
at least are linally disposed of in holy waters. In the caae of burial the Lead is placed towards 
the south. The Shrdddkaa and funeral obsequies a^e the only ceremonies performed for the 
salvation of ancestors. No particular ceremonies are prescribed for the propitiation of 
childless ancestors or pers'^ns who have died a violent death. The funeral obsequies are 
performed during the first thirteen days after death. Oblations of cooked rice are offered every 
day in consequence of which the soul of the dead attains a spiritiial body limb by limb till on 
the thirteenth day it is enabled to start on its journey. During the first year after death the 
ofEering is repeated every month as tbe soul accomplishes each portion of its journey. In twelve 
months the journey ends and a Shraddlia ceremony is performed on an extensive scale 
on the anniversary of the death. Ibis ceremony is repeated on each successive uiniiveraary. 
In the dark half of bhaJrapada a SAraddia ceremony technically called Paksha or Maha- 
laya Shraddha is performed for the benefit of the deceased on the day of tbe month on 
which he ^ed. If tbe JUaAalaya ShrUddka is not performed on the proper date n-ithin the 
fortnight, it may be postponed till any day before the sun enters Vrischik or Capricorn. The 
Mahalaj/a HiTaiid/ia of a person dying a violent death is performed on tlie thirteenth cf tbe 
fortnight which is called Giaj/ii Trayodaaki, i.e., the thirteenth day for a violent death. 
Beddes this, daily oblations of water are oftered to the dead after " Sandhya " adoration. The 
leading rite in the Siraddha is the offering of the funeral ball made of cooked rice. Three stioh 



do 

balls are offered to the three paternal ancestors^ three to the three maternal ancestors^ and the 
rest of the ancestors receive a smaller ball^ while the remote relations only receive oblations of 
water. 

The caste is not named after anv animal, plant, weapon, or implement. Arms are 
now worshipped on the Dassara holiday which is tbe commencement of the military year, 
an apparent survival of a worship appropriate to warlike times. On the fifth day after the 
birth of a child sword and pen, paper and ink are worshipped, the sword being the symbol of 
the Kshatri} a origin and the *pen, paper, and ink that of ihe present occupation of a writer. 
The cow is regarded as sacred and is worshipped. It is not used for labour of any kind and is 
oniversally regarded as a symbol of the deity Gayitri. The only other animal worshipped by the 
Prabhns like other Hindus is the serpent. The serpent worship has a legendary justifica- 
tion in the ancient myth that the earth rests on the hood of a thousand headed cobra, called 
" Shesh " whose mighty coils form also the resting place of the great Lord of the Universe. In 
hononr of this In(£an Atlas, the divine cobra, the cobras are worshipped once in every 
year on Nagpanchami day, and in some families a golden image of a cobra is chosen as 
object of special worship, along with the Shivlingam (where it represents V&suki). 

Tulas, Pimpal, Vady A'valit SAami, Umbar are considered sacred trees and are worshipped 
generally on particular days assigned for the worship of each of them. The ttdas is found 
before every " Hindu '^ house and is daily worshipped by women. 
Oooupa- The original occupation oE a Prabhu was that of a soldier until by force of 

tion. circumstances he became a writer. Hetween these extreme traditions of war and peace they 

continually worked in politics and rose to be great generals, ministers, politicians and secre- 
taries. They have not ^ven' up these occupations up to the present time and they either 
serve in the army in high capacities in the Native States, or are Gk)vernment servants. The 
only new professions which they hitherto have been induced to take up are those of lawyers, 
doctors^ and engineers. A great number hold responsible posts under the British G^overn- 
ment^ and in the Native States^ or are eminent professional men. Some of them are 
JaghirdarSt Inamdars and land-owners. 

Some of them are agriculturists being— 

(1) '^ EAots'^ analogous to Zamindars. 

(2) Tenure-holders such as Deshmukhs, Deshpandes, Patils, Kulkamis, Mirasdars, 

Inamdars, Jaghirdars, Mokashis, N&dgoudas, Sar- Deshmukhs, and MalguzarSi. 

(8) Occupancy or non-occupancy rdyats claiming partly or wholly remission in respect 
of the grant for the land they hold. 

(4) There are no nomadic cultivators. 

(6) There are no landless day-labourers. 

Formerly tbe Sword and now the Pen can be deemed to be the implement characteristic 
of this caste. 
Food. The caste does not eat the leavings of any people, not even their own. The Prabhus of 

the present day are, as a rule, vegetarians, and in public dinners of the caste animal food of 
every kind is strictly excluded. But in private dinners mutton and fish with scales appear on 
the table. Prabhus living up-country very rarely eat flesh. As regards wine and other alcoholic 
drinks, many of the caste allow them, but only in private. The caste does not eat Kaeki, 
Faiii, drink or smoke with any lower caste. No Prabhu would smoke a cigar or cheroot or 
pipe, etc.; used by his cabte fellow, much less by a man of any other caste. The Brahmans 
genemlly do not object to take pakki food from the hands of Prabhus. Except from vege- 
tarian Brfthmans of Maharashtra, the Chandra Seniya Kayastha Prabhus will not take Faiii, 
Kaeki or water from any other caste. 

Oujar&ti Br&hmans are sometimes employed at some places by local custom as water- 
bearers, but not as cooks. 



INTERNAL STRVCTURE OF THE CHlNDRASENI PRABHVS. 

The Gotras and Kulas (ancient) and fionily surnames with their modified variations form- 
ing exogamous groups. 



KlshyapScliftrya. 

tilamde, The eagles among men. 
Gupte, The masters of valleys, or caves. 
^Bahire, The deaf. 
KripSchftrya. 

Donde, The big bellied. 

Kapilichftrya. 

^KSmathe, (Kale) Head of the Kamathis 
or camp followers. 

Krip&chftrya. 

Dlkshity (Dighe) Performers of the Yajna. 

Raiby&cliftrya. 

Gadakaii) GovemorB of forts. 



Devalicliftrya. 

Kshipre, (Kshatriya, Bftje) Rulers or resi- 
dents of the Kshipra valley. 
^Shathe, The cunning. 

Agastyftchftrya. 

Jayavantf The victorious. 

Shringftrpure, (Tungare) Besidents, or 

rulers of Shringarpur. 
Jftvalekar, (Javale) BeeidentB of Javal. 

Bh&rgavicliarya. 

Karnfttaki, (Kamik) Residents of Kanara. 
PradhSn, Ministers. 

ShftnkhySyanSehSrya. 



^Rftiraniy Heads of the Ravs (Bat + Fam) J RaBidiTe^ I4ghtB of tibe battle-field. 



91 



Oolt*IM— ^lonolnded. 

ShftnkliylyaitiloliSrya— ^ottdlfkbd. 

Snie, Owneni of the tulf or hangmen. 
Sfttpnte, Seven brothers. 
P&tankar, Besidenta of Pftttan. 

Tashlshth&ch&rya. 

T&mhaiie, (Tftmbe) Tamhan is a sacrifioial 
pot. Tambe means copper. 

Gautam&chlrya. 

Phanase, Jack fmit. (Bough outside and 
sweet "within.) 

Jamdaflrnyach&rya. 

^Kh&tik, Butohers-^mercilesB marauders. 

Haltr&yan&ch&rya. 

Bendre. (Durve). 
Kanshik&ch&rya. 

Yaidya, Physicians. 
^Pansrule, Lame. 
Horde, Dry. 

Gandhamildanilchlrya. 

Ukhite, Writers. 

Tyajrhr&ch&rya. 

*TiYilde, (Helbhat) Holders of discussion. 

Pnlh&chftrya. 

Davane, Besidents of Daman. 

Samlr&chftrya 

•Vairhuie, (Vaghal) Tigers. 

Shandily&cUrya. 

Chitre, Painters, or beautiful like a pic- 
ture. 

Atreyachftrya. 

Jlohile, Enamoured. 

^Yakh&re, Keepers of store houses, or com- 
missariat godowns, 

NaidhrnTftcharya. 
^Huke, Mute. 

GarfTftcharya. 

^Ulkand, Shooting stars. 

Bliarnry&charya.* 

BlliS6, Lotus stocks. 

BhlrdYlllilcharya. 

Chaubale, (Chaubaly ohavak) Commanders- 
in-Chief. 

Painjry&ch&rya. 

Knale, Shrouded like the moon behind the 
douds. 

* TiTekar, ( Tilekar) Residents of Tive or 
Tile. 

* DeTlipfttre, Givers, bestowers of favours. 

* Extinct or obsolete, although found in 
ancient texts. Possibly changed into official or 
titular names acquired from time to time, which 



are often taken in addition to the ancient family 
names as follows :-« 

AbhanipraT, Tenacious^ or invincible. 

Idar-rftT, The respectable, high. 

Idhikiri, ''Authority.'' 

Chitnis or Cihitnayis, Secretary. 

Deshmnkh, Chief Bevenne Officer. 

Desp&tlde, Bevenue Officer. 

Diyan^ Minister. 

Daftarad&r, Chief Accountant. 

FarasUh&ne, Head of the palace ^' Jatmlchia- 



na. 



Hafirnis, Keeper of the roll. 
JameniSi Accountant. 
Karkhanis, Departmental heads. 
Kotwal, Police officers. 
Kulkarni, Village Accountant. 
Kathiawad-Diwaidi, Minister for Kftthia. 

wad. 
Khasi^yle, Hereditary ministera of the regal 

Jahagir. 
Hulki. Revenue Officers. 
Inamdar, Free tenancy landholder. 
Mokashi, Sub-Divisional Officer. 
Hnzumdar, Revenue Officer. 
Nftzar, A Judicial Officer. 
PotniSf Treasurer. 
SarjeraT) Distingaished. 
Subnis, Accountant. 
Tipnis, Customs Officials. 
Or into territorial names assumed in addi- 
tion to the titular names as :«— 
Alibajrkar, Officers. 
Ambedkar, Jah&gird&r. 
AmbefTftTkar, iD&mdar. 
Andurkar, Landlords. 

Anjurkar, Landlords. 
Asirkar, Officers of the fort of Asir. 
Dahannkar, Hereditary Patel. 
Dharkar, Minister and Jahagird&r. 

Junnarkar, ijandlords. 

KMrkar, Landlords of Ehftr. 

Kanekar, Landlords 

Medhekar, Landlords. 
Hahadkar, Landlords. 

Hulherkar, Landlords. 
Ovalekar, In&md&r. 

Paikar, Landlords. 
Penkar, Besidents of Pen. 
Sashtikar, Officers of the Fort of Salsetle^ 
Satarkar, Resident State servants. 
SkrlTardkankar, Besidenta 
Tkanekar, Ijandlords. 
Talekar, Landlords. 
Vilekar, Jahdglrd&rs. 



92 



9. Of the Scytho-Drayidian Tracts 



MAKATHAS. (Propbe.) 



from the Bombay Gazetteer by Sib J AMES Campbell, K.C.I.E. 

Oonstitn- The Kolhapur Marathas have a special interest, as their head, the Maharaja of Kolhapur, is 

tlon. the only representative of Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha power. As in other parts of the 

Bombay Deccan, the fighters among the Marathi-speating middle classes claim to be called Mara- 
thas. Some femilies perhaps have an unusually large strain of northern or Rajput blood, but as a 
class Marathas cannot be distinguished from Marathi-spealdng Deccan Kunbis with whom all eat 
and the poorer inter-marry. The names in common use among men are Chandrarav, Janojirav, 
Manajirav, Prataprav, Suryajirav, and Udajirav, and among women Bayajabai, Hansabai, 
Lalubai, Pritabai, Rajasbai, and Sakvarbai. Many men affect Rajput names as Jaysing, Ram« 
sing, and Phattesing, and others have Kunbi names as Esba, Gyanba, and Narba. Kolhapur 
Marathas claim to belong to four branches or vanshas, Brahma vansi or the Brahma branch, 
Siesh vansh or the Serpent branch, Som vansk or the Moon branch, and Surya vannh or the Sun 
branch. The following are said to be the surnames in commonest use among Kolhapur Mara- 
thas: Bhonsle, Chavan, Gavde, Ghatge, Ghorpade, Gujar, Ingle, Jagdale, Kadam, Kale, 
Kharde, Magar, Mohite, Nalavde, Phadtare, Povar, Rananavre, Salunke, Shende, Sinde, Sisode, 
Sitole, Suryavanshe, and Yadav. Besides its surname, every Maratha family has its devah or 
family guardian, of which as complete a list as could be obtained is given below. In matters of 
marriage the guardian is more important than the surname and sameness of surname alone does 
not bar marriage. As a rule Marathas are middle-sized, regular«featured, and better made than 
Maratha Brahmans ; a few are handsome and warlike, but as a rule except that they are fairer 
and better mannered they cannot be known from Kunbis. The women are often &irer and slen« 
derer than Kunbi women. Both at home and abroad they speak Marathi almost as correctly as 
Brahmans, and some of them speak Kanarese fluently but not correctly. As a rule Marathas 
live in &irly aired and lighted middle-class houses, two or three storeys high, with stone and 
burnt brick walls and tiled roofs. The entrance door, which is often spacious and imposing and 
furnished with a small room called devdi for guards or watchmen, opens on a yard in which 
is a cattle shed and a stable for horses. One or two rooms in the upper storey and one or two in 
the ground floor are whitewashed and well punted and decorated with pictures of G^npati and 
Shiv, and fancy pictures of gymnasts wrestling, of a warship, or two tigers and a huntsman. 
These rooms are used for receptions and business. Other rooms are set apart for diningf, keeping 
stores, sleeping, and cooking ; and at the back of the house is a sweet basil or tulas pillar. Ex- 
cept a few special apartments the house is seldom clean or tidy. The houses of poor Marathas 
are smaller and have fewer rooms. All eat flesh and fish. The well-to-do eat mutton or fowls 
daily. Middle-class families use them about once a week, while the poor use them only occasion* 
ally on JDasara in September-October and Shimga in March, and during marriages. Marathas 
seldom use liquor, though no caste rule forbids either liquor or narcotics. They eat the usual 
kinds of flesh except beef and pork. At the houses of the well-to-do the food is cooked and served 
generally by servants called savaleharis or clean men, and in middle and poor families the women 
cook and serve the food. Before dining Marathas are careful to bathe and put on a fresh-washed 
cotton waistcloth. Women take their food after the men, but the Brahman practice of eating 
from their husband's plate is not strictly kept. 
Character- As a class Marathas are simple, frank, independent and liberal, courteous, and, when kindly 
iatios. treated, trusting. They are a manly and intelligent race, proud of their former greatness, fond 

of show, and careful to hide poverty. The Maratha is proverbially davli or fond of show. A 
Maratha may dress in a rag at home but he has always a spare dress which he himself washes» 
keeps with great care, and puts on when he goes to pay a visit. He hires a boy to attend him 
with a lantern at night, or to take care of his shoes when he goes into his friend's house and 
hold them before him when becomes out. They say that war is their calling and few Marathas 
of good family, however well educated, willingly take service as clerks. They never keep shops. 
As a rule a well-to-do Maratha has in his service a Brahman clerk called divanji or minister, 
who often takes advantage of his master's want of education to defraud him, sometimes ending 
in making his master his debtor. Maratha women are kind, afiEable, and simple, and, with few 
exceptions, are good wives and managers. Marathas are husbandmen, grantholders, landowners, 
and State servants. Besides the Maharaja of Kolhapur several Marathas are chiefs or sanstha- 
niks. A Maratha almost never rises early and seldom goes out in the morning. He rises about 
seven or eight, washes, and attends to business if he has any or idles till ten, chewing tobacco, 
smoking, and talking. About half past ten he bathes, dresses in a freshly-washed cotton cloth, 
marks his brow with white or red sandal, bows before the family gods which the priest has al- 
ready worshipped, repeats the names of the deities Ambabai, Ganpati, Pandurang, and Shankar, 
and bows after each name. Religious Marathas pass an hour or two in readin? sacred books as 
the Ghirucharitra or life of Dattatreya, Dnyanoba's commentary on the Bhagvatgita, Shiv's play 
or Shiv Lila, and Bukmini's choice or the Rukmini Svayamvar. Most of them lay sandal and 
flowers on their gods and drink the holy water or Hrth used in washing the god's feet. Then 
the male members of the family sit in a row and take their food. Alter dinner they dbew*befolt 
smoke tobaooo^ and enjoy a short midday rest Theiy rise a(b tiu^^ and play aft cardsi 4io9 or 



es 

obesB- In tba eveniow they drive, ride or wait, or visit a friend, i«tnrn nhont eight or nine, tmH 
retire to bod at ten or eleven. Marathas who have estates to manage lead regnkr, fairly busy 
lives; those who have no special business pass a life of monotonous weariness in idle talk, bet«jl- 
ohewing, and smolcin^. Many are food of hunting', and buot and shoot several days in every 
moDth. Others spend much of their leisure under the influence of opium and herap-water. 
Maratha women seldom leave the honse, and in well-to-do families, as they have neither to eoolc 
nor to mind the house, they have much leisure. A Maratha matron generally spends her morn- 
ing in washing, combing, and decking her hair with flowers, in feeding her children, and in bath- 
ing. Elderly Maratha women water the sweet basil plant and lay sandal and flowers before 
Balkrishna or Mahadev, but young women are generally careless about religious rites. After 
their midday meal they hear a Furan or holy book read by a priest, take a midday nap, look 
after the children, talk, play with dice and sometimes with aagargotat (the seeds of Casal ptnia 
bondveella), chew betel and tobacco, sup after the men, and rc^rire about ten. Some Maruthfi 
women embroider, and a few have learnt to read and write. 

The name Maratha which rose to importance under Shabaji (159'1-I6<)4) and his sonHlstorrl 
SbivSji (1627-1680) in the seventeenth century and under the Peshwas became famous through- 
out India in the eighteenth century, has a threefold application. It is applied first to the 
section of India Eouth of the Narbada and north of the Karnatak in which tho Marathi lan- 
guage ia spoken; second to the whole Marathi-speaViug population ; and thinl, in a narrower 
and more correct sense, to the bulk of the old fighting and now cultixating middle class of tba 
country whose language is Maratbi. Tho generally received origin of the name Maratha, an 
ATplaoation which has the support of Mr. ileet and Dr. Hhagvanlal, is that it comes from 
Maharastra, the Great Country, a name which the early Sanskrit-knowing settlers in U|iper 
India are supposed to have given to the unknown land to the south of Hindusthiin. To this 
explanation the chief objection is the absence of any reason why the people of Northern India 
should honour the south of India with the name of Great Coimtry or why if the name Great 
Country was at tirst applied to the whole Peninsular India> it should come to be restricted to the 
present Marathi-speaking portions of tho peninsula. If any people can be found with a suit- 
able name it seems more likely that the country took its name from the people than that the 
people took their name from the country. This view was held by the late Dr. John Wilson 
who proposed to trace Maharashtra to Mhar-rasbtra, the land of the Mhars. But though the 
Mhars are a lai^ and important class in the Maratbi-speakin<: country their tlepreseed Hate 
makes it unlikely that the country should have been called after them. One derivation, which 
has the approval of Professor Btiindarkar, remains that Maharasthra is the Sanskritised form 
of Maharattah, that is, the country of the Maharatthis or Mahiratths, that is, the (ireat Ratthis, 
a tribe which onder the name Batta or Ratthis and its Sanskrit form Bashtrakas or Kashtrikaa, 
from very early times have at intervals ruled in the Bombay Deccan, and Bombay Karnatak. 

In the middle of the third century before Christ, in the copy of his rook-cut edicts which 
is preserved at Gimar, the Mauryan Kmperor Asbot (b,c. i\h\ states that he sent ministers of 
religion to the Rastdkas, the Petenikas, and the Aparantas ; according to Professor Bhandirkar 
the Aparantas are the people of the Bombay Konkan, the Petenikas are the people of Paithan, 
about 6fty miles north-east of Ahmadnagar, and the Kastikas or (Sk.) Hashtrikas are the 

Eople of Mah§rasbtra. According to Professor Bbandarkar one branch of the tribe of Bssti- 
3 or Rattas took the name of Rnshtrakutas and governed the Deccan and Konkan before 
the fifth century after Christ. They then lost power bnt won it hack about 700 and continued 
supreme in the Deccan and Karnatak till about 970. Mr. Fleet favours the opinion that the 
name Bashtrakuta was not a Sanskritised form of Batta, but was acquired by the holders in 
virtue of their ofBce of manners of a rashira or province. But the case of the Rattas who 
ruled in the Belgaum district from the ninth to the thirteenth century (875 — 12r){)) and who 
claimed to be a branch of the Raabtrakutas strongly supports the view that Bashtrakuta is a 
Sanskritised form of Ratta. In the Kanarcse districts the Hattas seem to be now represented 
by the Haddis. one of the leading classes of Kanarese husbandmen. The fact that the list of 
Maratba surnames, which includes Cholke that is Chalukya, Selar or ^ilahara, Kadam or 
Kadamba, Yadav or Jadav, and almost all the early rulers of the Deccan, does not include Ratta, 
favours the view that the memory of the Rattas is preserved in the general term Maratha. 
The suggestion that a branch of the Rattas in very early times took tho name of Maharatthis 
or Great Rattas ia supported by the practice of the Bhoja rulers of the Konkan and West 
Deccan who are styled Bhojas in AshoV's thirteenth edict (d.c. 240) and Mahabhojas in rock- 
cut inscriptions in the Bcdsa caves in Poona and the Kuda caves in Kolaba of about tho first 
century after Christ, The earliest known mention of the name Marathi is an inscription of 
about B.C. 100 over a statue in the Nana pass rest chamber. This inscription runs Alohardlha' 
franiko Viro, which probably means " The hero, the leader of the Marathas or Great Rattas." 
An inscription in the Bedsa caves in the Poona district of aliout the first century after Christ 
mentions a gift by a Maharathi queen and three other inscriptions of the same or of a slightly 
later date, one at tho Bhaja caves and two at Karle, both in the Poona district, mention gifts 
by persons who call themtelvea Maharatthis, Mahavanso, the Ceylonese chronicle of the fifth 
century (a,d. 480) twice mentions the country of Maharattba. About the middle of the 
seventh century (a.d. 6''i4) the famous inscription at Aihole or Aivalli in South Bijapur notices 
that the Great 'Weslem Chalukya king Pulikeshi II (610 — 635) gained the sovereignty of 
the three Mahar&slilrakas which together contained 99,000 villages. About tho same time 
the Chinese pilgrim Hiwen Thsang {629—645) describes tho kingdom of Mo-ho-lach'*, 
apparently Maharattha, Maharashtra, as nearly sis thousand lU or twelve hundred miles in 
circait The capital wllioh was towuds the west near a laiye river, had a circumference of 



94 

thirty lis or Ai mfles. Hiwen Thsang^ describes the people, apparently tlie warlike Mara£h& 
tribe, as tall, boasthil, and proud. Whoever does them a service, he says, may coont on 
their gratitude, but no one who offends them will escape their vengeance. If any one insults 
them they will risk their lives to wipe out the affront. If any one in trouble applies to them, forget- 
ful of themselves they will hasten to help him. When they have an injury to avenge they never 
fail to warn their enemy ; after the warning each puts on his cuirass and grasps his spear. In battle 
they pursue fugitives but do not slay those who give themselves up. When a general has lost 
a battle, instead of punishing him corporally they make him wear women's clothes, and so 
force him to sacrifice his life. The State maintains several hundred dauntless champions; who 
every time they prepare for combat, get themselves drunk with wine ; and then one of them, 
spear in hand, will d^ ten thousand enemies. If they kill a man whom they meet on the 
road, the law does not punish them. Whenever the army goes on a campaign these braves 
march in front to the sound of the drum. They also intoxicate many hundreds of naturally 
fierce elephants. At the time of coming to blows they drink strong liquor. They run in a 
body, trampling everything under their feet. No enemy can stand bdtore them ; and the 
king proud of possessing these men and elephants despises and slights the neighbouring 
kingdoms. About 1020 the Arab geographer Al Biruni mentions Marhat Des as a country 
to the south of the Narbada. In 1820 the French friar Jordanus refers to " the kingdom of 
Marath§ as very great.'' In 1840 the A£rican traveller Ibn Batuta notices that the people of 
Daulatabad or Devgiri were Marhathas whose nobles were Brahmans. 

IVom the beginning to the end of his Deccan history (1290 — 1600) the historian Ferishta 
often mentions the Marathas. In his account of the MumJman Turk conquest under Ala-ud-din 
Khilji and his generab, Ferishta refers to the Marithds as the people of the province of MhfirSt 
or Mherat dependent on Daulat&bad and apparently considered to centre in Paithan or as it is 
written Mheropatan. In 1818 Harapil, the son-in-law of the Devgiri chief, rebelled and forced 
the Musalmans to give up several districts of Marath. In 1870 J&dhav Maratha, the chief 
of the Naiks, revolted in Daulatabad, persuaded its Musalman governor to join him, raised the 
Bathod chief of BagUn and other local leaders, and coUeeted a great army at Paithan. Till 
the end of Brahmani supremacy (1490) some Marathft chiefs, among them the Bfijas of GhJna 
and Baglan in Nasik, were practically independent, paying no tribute for years at a time. After 
the close of Brahmani supremacy (1490), under the Ahmadnagar and to a less extent under 
the Bij&pur kings, one or two Maratha chiefs remained nearly indep^ident. Othars were 
continued in their estates on condition of supplying troops, and others took service with their 
Musalman rulers and were granted estates and tiie Hindu titles of Deshmukh, Sar Deshmukh, 
Naik, B§v, and B§ja. In several cases the daughters of leading Marathas were raised to be 
the wives of Musalman kings. Of the lower ranks of Marathas many were employed as mer- 
cenary troops, most of them as cavalry but some also as infantry. On one occasion (1607) the 
bulk of the people between Paithan and Chakan in Poena are spoken of as rebellipus Marftthas; 
Besides by their correct name the Marathas are often called Bargis, a word of uncertain * origin. 
Shakespear seems to derive it from the Sanskrit Vargiya as it originally means a man of chtss 
Ivarg.) or family. Grant Duff describes it as a word of unknown origin apparently a slang term 
of contempt used of the local levies * by the r^ular foreign cavahry. In .another passage Orant 
Duff states that all the troops officered by MarathSs were formerly called Bargis and that when 
he wrote (1826) in many parts of India tiie Marathas were still known by that name. The 
following are the leading instances of the use of the term Bargi by the Musalm&n historians. In 
the fifte^th century, according to the author of the Mirat-i-Ahmadi (1760) the Marithft chiefs of 
B^Un in North NSsik had for generations borne the title of the Bahaiji or Birgi chiefs. 
The word Bargi is applied to the Marath& ^ cavalry under Bijapur in 1549 and again in 1660. 
It is frequently applied to the Telugu troops and estate-holders under the KUnarese kii^om of 
Vijayana^ar (l-'^c^O — 1564), and to the Bijapur troops after Bijapur (1670) extended its power 
over much of the territory formerly held by Vijayanagar. In 1618 the Emperor Jahingir 
in his autobiography calls the Mar&th^ skirmishers of Ahmadnagar '' Bargiyan.'' In 1616 
the Bargis of Ahmadnagar are described as a very hardy race .and Jidhav Bai, apparently 
Shivaji's maternal grand&ther, is cidled Bargi. These quotations show that thcMusahn&n 
historians applied the term Bargi both to Telugu and to Maratha cavahry. This double use of 
B&rgi suggeste that the origin of the word is the Tamil Vaduga, that is northern, a term whic^ 
in the Tamil country is commonly used of the people of Telingana which is also used of Kanarese 
immigrante to the Nilgiri hills, and which might, with eqiuJ correctness, be used of the people 
of Mahdrishtra. 
Beligion. Marathas worship all Brahmanic local and boundary gods and keep the usual Brahinanio 

faste and festivals. Their priests are Deshasth Brahmans, who conduct their ceremonies and 

• . — i _ 

* sir JMDwCunpbenwBf mifUkenia nppoiing th« origin of thaword toU mieertiin. The foUowlaff notlo* of it Id ili« s*w 
•dltlonof HoteoiKJoftfoiiiDakogtho matter oleurt^" A trooper of Irregalur etTBlry who ii Dot the owner of bii troop hone and erma 
<•• If the normal praetioe) bat is either pat in bj another p^non, perhaps a native officer In the regiment, who sappUes horses and 
arms and reeeiTei the man's fall pay. allowing him a redaeed rate, or has his horse from the State in whose serriee he is. The P 
word properly means 'a losd taker.' 'a baggage horse.' The transfer of ase is not qalte elear. ["Aeeoiding to a man's repatation 
or eonneenons, or the namber of his foUowera^ woold be the rank (sMwsoft) assigned to him. As a rale» his f ollowen bfoaght their own 
horses and other eqoiproent; bat sometimes a man with a little money woald bay extra horses, and meant reUttons or dependents upon 
them. "When thiswas theease, themanrlding his own horse was ealbd. in later parlanee, %SHdkhia^ tliterallj, '•qaipBMBt-hoUBr*>aiid 
one riding somebody else's horse wasa hargie ('barden-taker'). IF. Jrvim, The Axmy of the Indian Mo^oK J. S. A. S, July UM^ 
pt. 8I9.J 

It was the practice of the Maratha $aridr$ to aUow tbeir mercenaries to itaUse aiiear pay by looting the eonntiy, and the werd 

^^^ ftJl* ^H*f^j?!? J^P°^!f^^. .H *^* designation of a MaiithI trooper. In Ben^ it appears under the fonn htrgi in the nnaety 
nyme initnded to nri^ten a lestless child— 

OhUU fihmslo, fdUJmddlo, hargi§lo dttikt % 

which naj te rendcied'-' 

The baby is sleeplnfr, the villagetiiMfll, 

The heraii are riding aroond. o ^ q 
The bolbais hsfeieaten the grtfn Inlihe lar- 

Ohl hewli«hu«ttobtfoaaar«** 



95 

perform the daily worsTup of the house gotls of the well-to-do. Their chief holidays aw the 
Hindu New V car's Da,y or Fanhpratipadi xaA. Hdmnavfiti in March-April, Ahhaj/lrttiga or the 
Undying Third in May, Nd</paiieAami, SiravAi'l'aurnimH and GoiittasAtami iu July-Auguat, 
Qancih-chaturtii in August, JJaaara in Septomboi^Ottober, Vinuli in October-November, 
Sankrant on the twelfth of January, and S/iimga in Maruh. Thair popular fasts are the elevenths 
QTtkadiukiii in the bright half of .-Uhadh or Jaly-August and Kirlik or October-November, and 
Shiv's Night or SMoratra in February. The Marithis, especially the descendants o£ Shivaji the 
founder of the Marathi empire, who was raised to be a Kshatriya oa paying £4U,0()0 
{tti,0O,00u) to Gajja Bhatt of Benares, claim to belong to the Kshatriya or second of Manu's 
classes and say that their ceremonies arn the same as thoM of Brahmaas. Brahmans admit this 
claim in the case of the ruling family and perform their ceremonies with Vedic texts. The well- 
to-dn among the Kolhapur Marathas claim to perform the sixteen Brahman sacraments or 
tamkdr*, but the bulk of the people perform no ceremonies except at btrth, thread-girding, marriage, 
coming of i^,ftnd death. A girl goes for her Hrst confinement to her parents and a poor Maratha 
midwife waits on the pr^nant woman. At the time of her delivery she cuts the navid-cord, 
bathes the mother and child, and ]a,y» them on a cot. When a son is bitrn the joyful news is 
carried to friends and kinsfolk and packets of sugar are handed among them- The priest, who is 
asked to repeat jtAiiiitipdlA or soothing verses every evening from the hrst to the tenUi day, n.'pBats 
verses over a pinch of ashes and rice, and hands the ashes to the midwife to be applied to the fore- 
head of the mother and chdd. A bght is kept burning the whole night for the first ten days. 
A few days after the birth thejdliarna or birth ceremony is perfurmed, when the priest and friends 
and kinsfolk are asked to the house, musicians are cng^ed tu play their instruments, bote! is served 
to men guests and packets of vermilion and turmeric are handed among the women, and a feast 
to the guests ends the ceremony. Now only a few keep this practice. As a rule all Marathas 
are particular about the fifth or sixth-day worship, as those days are believed to be full of danger 
to the newborn child. Marathas share the common beUef that convulsive seizures and most other 
forms of diseases are the work of spirits. They think that only by worshippiug Mothers Fifth 
and Sixth can the child be saved from the attacks of evil spirits whicli are said to hover about 
the lying-in-room and lie in wait for the child especially during the fifth and sixth days after 
birth, probably because from the sloughing of the navel-cord tho child is at that time liable to 
tetanus and convulsions. Klderly matrons in the house take the utmost care to keep a light 
always burning in tho lying-in room day and night especially from the tiftb to the tenth day, 
and during that time never leave the mother alone in the room. On the fifth day a few friends 
and relations are asked to dine at the house. In tho lying-in-room a betohiut and a sword or 
sickle are set on a low stool and Howers, sandal-paste, burnt frankincense, and food are laid 
before the low stool in thename of Mother I^fth or Fdnekvi. The mother bows before the 
goddess with the chUd in her arms and prays ' Mother Fifth ' to save the baby from the attacks 
of evil spirits. The guests are treated to a dinner and men guests pass the whole night singing 
ballads or lavuit and women guests watch by turns in the lyiiig-in room, ' Mother Sixth ' or 
Satvai \b worshipped on the sixth day with the same details as ' Mother Fifth' and a few friends 
are feasted. The mother is held impure for ten days and no one except the midwife fcjuches her. 
The midwife rubs the mother and the child with oil and bathes them. Then she bathes, takes 
her food, and waits upon the mother. During the first ten days tbe midwife eats nothing unless 
she has bathed from head to foot both morning and evening. The family are held impure for 
ten days in consequence of a childbirth. Durmg this time tbey are allowed to touch others, 
though they cannot worship the house gods. On the eleventh the clothes of the mother are 
washed, the room is eow-dunge<l, and tiie family are purified by drinking water which is given 
them by the family priest. On the eleventh the men renew their sacred threads and lay sandal, 
flowers, burnt frankmcense, and siveetmeats before the house gods. On the evening of the 
twelfth a few women are asked to the house, musicians play, and the child is cradled. The 
women dress the babe in a child's hood or iuaeii and name it saying, 'cut off ties and chains 
and join the umbrella and palanquin.' The anniversary of the child's birthday is kept by a feast 
to friends and kinsfolk, and on that day the ceremony called ckaiU karm or hair-clipping is 
performed by the well-to-do, ■end the child's hair is clipped for the first time. Well-to-do 
Marathas especially the families of chiefs and iarddn or nobles gird their boys with the sacred 
thread between ten and twelve with nearly the same ritual'as at a iirjhman thread-girding. 

Boys are married between twelve and twenly-five and girls generally before they come of age, jjnrri«B», 
though coming of age is no bar to a girl's marri^e. A Maratba marriage is very costly. Tlie 
bride's father must give a large dowry to the bridegroom, and in return the bridegroom's father 
must present valuable ornaments to the bride. So the girls whose fathers belong to high families 
but cannot offer a large dowry with their daughter's hand remain unmarried after they come of age 
and have sometimes to marry men who are unecjual either in age or social position. Even to the 
well-to-do, to have many daught^s is a curse. In proportion to the position of the family, the father 
has to spend on his daughter's marriage, running into debt from which he seldom frees himself. 
As a rule the offer of marriage comes from the boy's side. Ueforc the marriage is Hied it must bs 
ascertained that the boy and the girl are not of the same clan or hd : tliey may both bear the same 
surname, but the crest or devak on the male side must be different. i?ameness of crest on the 
female side is no bar to marrii^. Aft*!r talking the matter over and faing on tho most suitable 
girl, the boy's father sends a Haul or Bhiit to see the girl. He goes to her house and is treated to 
a dinner. After a dinner and some betel the Haul or Bhat tells the girl's father why he has com* 
and asks if they are willing to marry their girl. The girl's father answers either that they are 
willing or that they are not willing, and the Bhat or Raul returns home with a present. If the 
girl's father says he is willing, some poor women relations of the boy or a female servant are 



d6 

wodf » ntsOkm of faioid^ topiter with Im pxkst and tbe Biatt) the gid's to pnpoae Hie 
ouieL I¥gr go to tlie gU's hooae asd as wckomed b J the gU's £«l]^ IhejaiegifeAvalv 
to vadi fiieir hands and £tti, faetd and tobateeo an senreil to them, and thej aae tieatod to a dm- 
acK. The head ot the hooae IdDf a goal or at least a fowl, asks a friend or tvo to dine with &e 
giKatf^ and gires uneookad pnmaiaDs to die priest who either cooks for Iiimaelf or has his diaaer 
tookei and served bj a Btihinan. After dinner all at in the hall, betel is serred, and the Bhit 
fmnaOjr dedtiae ihm object in eomjng. If the girl's fiiher agrees to the match, he caDs in his 
fffieii jHid hands him the gxrf s bofoseope. Both prierts oompaxe the hofXMXipes of the boj "" 
flbe pAf falffitite the pcMotioDs of the staxs at the time of their birth and saj vhetfaer the ■ 
win be Inek J* If the aetxsologeis or priesto saj the match will be mdnekj, no farther step 
taken* When the bor's and the girl's paonto axe anxknis for the match^ the/ do not depend on 
the words of the astxokger and eren do not consult him^ bat at once setde die mam 
chief of which aie the sum to be paid to the bojr bj tiie girl's frther at the time of the giri 
giring or KamfodM, tbe ckthes and ornaments to be presented to the girl bj the boy's hi^ha'j 
and the ckdies to be presented to the rdations of each bj the other. SometimeB if the girl is 
ttnnsnalljr handsome and intsUigent the boy's parents bear the whole marriage expenses even of 
the girl and do wA nodwe a f^i^«*ig from the girl's parents if ther cannot ocmvenientlj paj. 
At Mua UjkeB if the girl's parent* ar^ well-t>-do and wish to give tbeir dax^ter to a poor bat 
h^fa limilj bcrjr the/ pay the boy's marriage charges and presoit the girl with ornaments and 
the boy wita a kirge dowry, A short time befcnre tl^ terms are eettled the girl's father sends 
some rdatims to see the boy at whose boose a feast is held for tbe goests and tdey retom with 
presents of tarbans and waistoioths or at the least with a waistdoth or cash. At the hoase of 
some Marithas, the presence of a Nhavi is required at the tame of settlii^ the marriage. When 
the terms are setUed the falhers exchange ooooanots^ and the barber's doty is to hand the coooa- 
imt to each as the sign of the marriage settlements ; for this he is called mhdla or the marriage 
settler and boih parties present him with cash or a tarban. Tbe boy's and girl's fathers ask the 
village astrologer or gramjo$hi to name three hicky momsnto on three dif^rent days, &r the tor* 
merio'Tabbing^ marriage^ and vardi or home-taking* As a role tbe bridegroom most visit the 
girl's boose ffjf the marria^ ; hot if the girFs parents are poorer than the boy's parento or the 
tpoj's jpwoiM K^OMe to vint the giri's hot agree to pay her marriage charges, the girl's parento 
take i£ejpA to the boy^s village and lodge at a separate house which has been prqared for 
thenu Tb take the girl to the boy's boose is thought incorrect among Marathas and forms a 
spedal item in the marriage agreement. A little be^e the tormeric-robbing the boy's rehtions 
and the priest go vrith music to tiie bride's and are received at her house. Music pkys and the 
priest poto a robe and bodice and ornaments and a packet of sugar into her hands. A vrheat or 
rice square is traced round two low stools set in a line close to each other and on another stod 
before them are pbced five waterpots or kala$hd$ with cotton thread passed round their necks. 
Ihe priest repeats rerBes, lays a betelnut and leaves in each pot, and covers their mouths with 
balf'cocoanuts. He then sets a betelnut on a couple of leaves laid on the low stools and offers 
sandali flowers^ burnt incensei and sweetmeato to the betelnut tianpati and the waterpot Farum 
and wares lighto round thenu The bride and her mother are rubbed with wet turmeric powder 
mixed witii fragrant oil by tiie boy's women servants. The girl then comes before the 
waterpot Farun and the betelnut GanpatL The priest repeats verses and the girl is toki to 
walk live times round the betelnut Ganpati and tiie waterpot Farun and sits on one of the two 
stools in the wheat square ; her mother &Ad on the other stool and while music plays they are 
a^pain rubbed with sweet«scented oU and turmeric and bathed by five women neighbours and rela- 
tions* The bride is helped to put on a new yellow robe and bodice and her future mother-in-law 
presents her with ornaments. What remains of the turmeric a party of bis friends take vrith 
music to the bridegroom's* Tbe boy is rubbed with turmeric and bathed vrith the same rites 
as at the girl's house and the turmeric-rubbing ends with a feast at tbe boy's and girl's* 

Next comes the marriage g^rdian or devai worship. A day or two before the marriage 
a man at the house of the boy and of the g^I bathes, and with music and a band of friends 
goes to the tree, which is the fetmily g^rdmn, offers sandal, flowers, burnt frankincense, and 
sweetmeats to it, cuts a branch, lavs it in a winnowing &n and brings it home with music He 
tokes it to his god-room and worships it alone with his family gods which are represented by 
betelnuts in a winnowing fan. Meanwhile five unwidowed girls wash a grindstone otjaie and 
lay sandal, flowers, and sweetmeato before it and a fetmily washerman worships the stone slab 
or patd and a feast to married women and a few friends and relations completes the g^uardian or 
devak wor8hi|». Invitotion cards are sent to distont friends and the houseovmer asks a few of 
his near relations in person who come to the house on the marriage g^uardian or devak worship 
day. Aftor dinner the invitotion processions stort as among Brahmans^ from the boy's and 
girl's, and ask local friends and kinsfolk to the marriage. After the dinner the boy is well 
dressed and seated on a bw stool laid in a square mark^ by the washerwoman with wheat or 
rice, and married women with a dish of turmeric, vermilion, and rice grains, rub him with tur- 
meric, mark his brow with vermilion, and stick the rice grains on the vermilion. His head is 
hung with flower garlands or munddvalis and he is token to his family goddess or kuldevi, 
Is^s a cocoanut and bows before her, and asks her to be kindly, and storts on horse-back for the 
girl's with friends, relations, priesto, and musicians. W hen they reach the girl's village they 
stop and visit the village Mftruti. The boy dismounto, bows bdfore the god, and asks hun to be 
kixuily. Here they are met by the bride's party with music and friends and ^simdntjnif'an or 
boundary worship is performed. If the girl is token to tiiie boy's viUagSj the ceremony is pe»* 
formed at the house of a friend or neighbour. All are seated and the bride's fairer marks 



the boy's brow with vandal and sticks grains of rice on it, bnrns frantincenBo before him, gives 
him Eweetmeats to eat, and presents him with a tarban and a gold scarf or ihela. The guests are 
then escorted to a lodging or yanpnj^^af prepared in the bride's neighbourhood. The >[aratha 
mgnigehaga or trotb-plighting is the same as among Brahmans. The boy's father meets tho 
girl's lather at his honse with his priest and is seated ; the girl's father sits near him and his 
priest attends him. The priests then worship the betelnut Ganpati and the mcW-pot Farun and 
repeat verses. The Hirl's father offers his daughter in marriage to the boy and in presence of 
his and the girl's relations the boy's father accepts the offer saying, ' I take her.' The fathers ei' 
change cocoanuts and a distribution of sugar ends the ceremony. 

Shortly before the bridegroom starts for the bride's, tho bride's parents send a feast or 
Tukhvat with a few friends and mnsic to the boy's house. Tho boy is seated on a low stool set 
in a wheat square, and the sweet dishes brought from the bride's by the village Nhavi are ar- 
ranged in rows about the stool. The dishes are usually of two kinds, for show and for use. 
The show dishes include sweet nbeat and gram flour balls and sugar-coated betelnut and almond 
baits, aa large as or larger than uuhusked cocoanuta ; the dishes for use are of ordinary size 
and are prepared with great care. The bridegroom is preBcnted with a turhan, his 
brow is marked with vermilion to which grain is stuck, lights nre waved about him by 
married women, and he is told to help himself to the dishes. "When the boy's feast or 
rukhvat is over, the girVs par^ with friends and musio go to tho boy's and tell them 
that tho marriage hour is near. The brid^room is dressed in rich clothes, his brow is decked 
with the marriage coronet or baahing, a dagger is set in his hands, and he is seated on a horf« 
vhich is led by the village barber or Nhavi, Mosiciana walk in front, behind them walk all the 
men of the bride's and bridegroom's parties, and then the bridegroom. Uebind the bridegroom walks 
hisrister. usually a young girl closely veiled with a goldfcarf or<^e/ii with the*Ao:i«nd(uaor lucky 
lamp laid in a dish, and another veiled woman follows her with a metal or earthen pot called 
themkoTii holding rice, betelnut, and water, and covered with a mango branch and a cocoanut 
and set on a heap of rice in a bamboo basket. If the pair are poor, the women of their house 
walk veiled behind the bridegroom ; if the families are rich, the women ride in closed palanquins 
or walk between cloths which are held round them by women servants. On reaching the bride's 
the bridegroom dismounts, the priefct throws cumin seed or jiri {Cumniim cyminum) on the booth, 
the bride's mother meets him at the booth door with a dish holding two wheat flour lamps, waves 
small rice balls and wheat flour lamps round the bridegroom, throws the rice balls to one side and 
lays the wheat flour lamps at the bridgroom's feet ; another married woman of the bride's houEe 
pours a difh full of water mixed with lime and turmeric on his feet. The bridegroom presents the 
woman with a robe and bodice, the bride's father bauds the bridegroom a cocoanut and leads him 
by the hand to a place prepared for him near the altar. The men gnests are seated on carpets in 
the marriage hall. The women alight from their palanquins hid by curtains held round them by 
their women servants, and are welcomed to their seats in a hall separated from the men's ball by 
a cloth wall near the raised altar or io^aP, Dancing girls amuse the guests in the marriage 
ball and the servants load their muskets and hold themFelves ready to announce the lucky- 
moment by firing their guns. Shortly before the lucky moment the girl is seated in front of 
the family goddess or kvldem and throws rice at the kvldevi and prays her to grant her a good 
husband. The astrologer is busy watching his water-clock, and has a horn-blower or tiiiigi 
ready to blow his hrm as soon as be gives the signal by clapping bis hands. As the 
lucky moment draws near, the girl is brought out of the house and made to ttand before the 
bridegroom face to face feparated by a curtain marked by a lucky (fylfot) cross. The priests stand 
on either side of the curtain and tell the pair to fold their hands, to look at the lucky cross, and 
pray to their family gods. The priests repeat lucky verses and throw red rice at the pair, crying 
Savdhaii or ' Beware,' and the musicians play. One of the priests lunds red rice to the guests 
and another holds an empty dish before them and gathers the red rice to be thrown over the 
pair at the lucky moment. The astrologer tells the moment by clapping his hands, the horn- 
blower or iMngi blows his horn, the guns are fired, and the musicians redouble their noise. The 
priests draw aside the curtain, touch the bridegroom's eyes with water, pour red rice over the 
pair, and they are husband and wife. The bridegroom is taken to a seat near the earthen altar 
and the Iride goes into the house. The bride's father and mother sit on two low stools in front 
of the bridegroom face to face, the father washes the feet of the boy, and the mother pours 
water on them. The father marks the brew of the bridegroom with sandal, sticks grains of rice 
on the sandal, bands him a flower lo smell, bnms frankincense before Mm, and ponrs honey and 
curds over his hands to sip and (he ceremony of honey sipping or madkuparh ia over. The girl's 
maternal uncle, or some othtr near relation, gives the girl's right hand to the boy who clasps 
it fast in both his hands. The priest lays both his hands over the boy's and mutters verses. 
The girl's father sets sandal, flowers, burnt frankincense, and sweetmeats before the betelnut 
Ganpati and the waterpot Fotum, and pours water with some coins in it over the clasped hands 
of the boy and girl and the katigadan or girl-giving is over. The guests in the hall are treated 
to betel and fragrant cotton sticks called piSvdt, and fake leave soon after the girl-giving it 
over. The priest then asks the bridegroom to tie the lucky neck-thread or mangaUuIra round 
tho bride's neck and ties together the hema of the pair's clothes. They are seated on low stools 
eet on the eaithen altar, the bride ss a rule sitting to the bridegroom's left. The sacrificial fire is 
lit and fed with clarified hotter, secame seed {Sesamnm indieum), cotton sticks, and palat [Butea 
/rondeio) or other Facred wood with nearly the same rites as at a Brahman marriage. The bride's 
brother squeezes the bridegroom's ear and is presented with a turhan by the bridegroom's party. 
The pair then leave their seats, walk raven times from right to left round the foxreA fire, and the 
ceremony of Feven sttps or tapt padi is over. Turmeric root wristlets are tied to the hands of each 



loo 






INTEBNIL STBVGTVBE OF THE HABATHAS (PBOPEB). 



/CHATIN 



9 



t 

m 



LID 



TlVDE . 



HOHITE 



^■ORE 



(IM. 

TftYde. 

Moliite. 

Th&kuT. 

P&rte. 

Gayhftne. 

Hande. 

Pftnsare. 

BEjc-rftT, 

Teje. 

Sftmbftre. 

Bhftpkar. 

Kh&ndekar. 

Dliure. 

Ranadive. 

KUbhftr. 

n&kde. 

T&mbe. 

Dhadam. 

y&range. 

Dalpade. 

Havale. 

Dhokale. 
% ( Devge. 
^ Pftrdhe. 

Dhataive. 

Hambir rftv. 

Yadkar. 

Dare. 

Dhavftle. 

Bh&telng:. 
Dusiiij^. 
Btaovar. 
Lftngde. 
Sinftb. 
Kftpde. 
Pokharkar. 
Kasaple. 
Pendnftre. 
Ked&r. 
Bache. 
Lotankar* 
Kh&mbkar. 
Is&pute. ' 
Tftmbolkan 
Klmlale. 
Itale. 
V BhandSre. 

• Lftd. 

(sagai. 
Dhftvde. 
Chirphule. 
Nftnifade. (WeU-known.) 
J&mble, (Porplei or jambhul 
fruit.) 

/IDi&mbar, 
Bftnde. (Striped.) 
Thote. (One-iianded.) 

Tavte. 

K&mre. 
/ Kftte. 
^ Kltvate. 

Achate. 

Bh&re. 

Dhudhule. 

Kulugnde. 

(Hadhure. (Sweet.) 
L Devkaii te. (Olorious like 
I Harphale. goda.) 

/ Pftlande. 

• \ Dhiyabar. 

Darbftre, (From Darb&r.) 

Harftthe. 
Diidiiskar» 



/ 



/ 



■OBE-*conM, 






3 






I 

00 



PAYlB 



BlGYE 






MakhnHkhale. 

Morbhe. 

Ible. 

Hede. 

Bhndke. 

Darekar. 

AdaTle. 

Avachare. 
, Kesarkar, 
( Kalpftte. 

Dukre. (Pig keepers.) 

Devkar. 

Songlre. 

Dhekle. (Olod of eartb.) 

Nimse. 
VftyM. 

Hnrde. 

BrahmaeliUak. 

DUrde. 

'BS^e. (Gardeners.) 

Jagdale. 

Dhnvale. 

Paive. 

lehftre. 

Vajh.. (Tigera) 

Bennse. 

Jagdhane, 

RasftL (Juicy.) 

Dhone, 

Gujan 

TishTSsrftv. (Faithful) 

Kodag:* 

lAniie. (Wolves.) 

Bftlpiiodet (Destroyers of 

gardens). 

TBffhehaiire. 

Orhe. 

Sakle. (With chains.) 

Kodhe. 

Kftlge. 

Haran. (Antelopes.) 

Karftlkar. . 

AushadharllT. (Medicine 

man. 1 
Dhftrrftv. (Scabbard men.) 

vagje. 

Vbftde. 

■Upavftr. 

Bane. 

Dokliande. (Bisected or 

bisector.) 
Bokde. (Beady money.) 

Patyftne. 

Jag;pftl» (Protectors of the 

uniyerse.) 
BhnJbaL (Strong-armed.) 
Chftndne. (Mooxdight.) 
Ghnrre. 
Pftndbbavar. 

AgWfe. (Incendiaries) 

Harmade. 

Abote. (Fingerless.) 

Kharnlr. 
Dalpe. (MiUtaxy.) 
Bhnsor. 
HftlTade. 
Jftpedkar. 
^ Kanase. (Corn-ear.) 

(Divate, (Torches.) 
MokSsU. (Beyenue officials.) 
BarFe. (The good.) 
Bftndi^e. 
Jbapite. 
Kanre. 






VUI 





/StanUipIl. 






JaiTpll. 




Khandifle. 




PIttl. 




HstiliiilK. 




Gbarat. 




AvanniU. 




SUbam. 




BiTaHde.' (Bom of Bill 




Kitratfl. 






AprUbe. (OSeiders.) 




or lordi.) 






JairaimiT&s. 




Sberte. 




Gadiiearr. 




Botsre. 




Gandcopil. 




Pndbile. 


BATDOD or 


Bllalu (Spenrmeii.) 




Bor&te. 


ROTEE. 


Blia;II8nr, (Ure^ul.) 




YirbbSie. (Brave-looking.) 




Bkore. 




Sinjde. 




BUale, (Cloidod.) 




■ot. 




Labolc. 




Premde. 




Abhon. 




JADAY— 


Cblse. 




PancUum, (Lion.) 




mnta. 


Kbadtnc 




Slamore, 






Bober. 




IMmle. 






KiUale. 




Dltondl. (DoiUe-mouthedO 






Yliare. (rorgetlnl.) 




Chaiil. 






Kapat. (Deoeil.) 




Dnrdhare. 






Arare, 




kokftte. 






BbaleriT. (Spearmen.) 




AmbT«. (Uango.) 






ObaTUkar. 




Site. 






KSmte. 




Pol. 






Tbatte. 




Cbatnr. (Olevsr.) 






AbboT. 




Halvat. 






Tape. (OM-eateni.) 




Tltpite. (Adopted bj .How- 






Sini:ne, 




jng food in one 






Tanpare. 


SIKPIL or 


dirf..) 
■q-bans. (Bnsni.) 




TAGBLE 


Jc^S^ 


SUIKKHPIL 


PSapate. 




.nhBr 




JbnnJSr. {KsttoB.) 

Oilir! 

Code. (8.WI.) 


1 




Jo(le. 

Jire. 

Data. (Grinden) 

JasTant. (Vidoiinu.) 

Dbnmak. 




Arsade. 
Cornle. 
Crftde. (Big.cbMt«d.) 


QD 

13 


VABAY . 


GbOEle. 
Amrnte. 
A;bek, 




JUbar. 




Sirplre. 




vsdaT. 


S 




Sobsen. ' 




Sblrke. 




Cbetadii. 




Pbllkd. 






»wit. 




Dbekle, 






Gbone. (Contiped...) 




HidbaT, 






Knkar, 




Abbanr. nnvisoilile.) 






Hadlair. 




Adbak, 






Pbikde. 




Bbojak^ 






BUsvSo. (Gudenen.) 




KnmUe. 
Abnid. 




8B1BKS. 


Bbole. 
Hokal. 




Arare, 




^ 


KapUe. 




Klrdant. 






Kombe. 


OBiMPU OB 


royal preient.) 






Plnicle. 

Dharadhece. 

Arte. 


IBIB. 


Viralatt. (Bom of brave 

men.) 
Kantnkf. (Wonderful.) 
KoHre, 
Kaalt. 

TMe. (PJmji») 
lUnvade. 






Klsbiide. 
noble, cmi".) 


• 






Klmse. (Half.) 

Dbile. (Shield men.) 

Surkar. 

Dbonue, 

Tajrilo. 

Cbeke. 

Sorde. (Dry.) 

Koikal. 

Gftdebar 

Stbbre. 

Abblre. 

Karre 




CiradoreiTdii. (Viltagm) 

Kalysnluir. 

nbomre. 

Hilbavde, 

SarsflB. 

Homnftne. 




JACtlP 


'.■ 


OttOft, 




Cbandbin. 


/ 


YatUa. 




Bible. 


riPAT . ./ 


BboTin. 




Kumro. 


"■ \ 


Khadlare. 


,.■ ■' ■ ■ 


Ilipe. 


.. 1 


PItUn. (Bill mm.) 




I 


aoTde. 



:ios 



JAQTIP- 

eontft. 



Sn rkar, 

YeTle. 

MarkaL 



CHiLKE OR 
CHlLlIKYA. 

76obr«. 
KALCHURI, /Kharsai. 
OR ( PadT&r. 



Vaid. rPbTndans.) 

Visile. ' 

Nlsad. 

Chaprftkhe. 

Talaidn. 

Kh&mle. 

valach. 

DerbAbl«, 

flbolap. 

Disaratfl. 

DhlB&l. 

P&dt) (PSdlve). 

Kllrarna. CBlw.) 



(KAGURE). iJlitve. (Naked, node.) 

\B&8kar. 



'nhnmll, 
. Anicne. 

Hftle. (Blaok.) 

Phadtare. 

Bfrath. 

Ghordfl. 

Hftlal. (LampUiMk.) 

vadke. 

Var&dfi, 

Akiiaiid. (Entire.) 

4rade. 

Sodre. (t-ftUuB, olub-men.) 

Bhise. (Lotiu atalk.) 

Bni&te. 

Bliirsalgadft 

n»tliar. . . . 

Kbadpe. 

KJlvle. (Crows.) 
Bftiae. 
Bftrse. 
Bh&se. 
NSbre. 

nunce. (Ants.) 
Gftte. 
Takte. 
Bob&te. 
Rftrarale. 
MahlpSl.' (BtUsn.) 
Ci&t&de. 
Berre. 
IlkdeTdt. 
DhadsUrke. 
B&lekar, 
Jftyatniifl, 
Mokle. 
Bhadhftd. 
Hire. (Diamond.) 
fihnlap. 
Hftsle. 
Il»hnle. 

Bhnre, (Smoldiig.) 
N^ne. 
Arire. 
nilcblmne. 

Vese. 
rCrhdA (Bare.) 
•iHlnre. (GraeD.) 
/ Tovar. 
/Nisal. 
./ B&bar, 

\ Dindse. (SowAa.) 
\ Samkfl, . ' 



NIKAH- 

eonttL 



2 



KlUTOKH . 



KannBtttblL 
Banre. 

Kakai«. 

Kolile. 

Ri^rat. (Blood.) 

Dharte. 

Kharltft (Broomi; inanspi- 

ciona.) 
Nlkalank. (BlamelHa.) 
Onje, 
Gadhe. 
BadSre. 

Narkhftmb. ( Pfllan of men.) 
Gnnd. 

Bhofnfl, (Diimen.) 
Haltnr. 
RaiUHUTe. Oightm of the battle 

field.) • 

Nikam. 
Avtilde. 
Haniu'. 
Vaoa^T. 

KutOTi (Sosb of royal fiuni- 
Uea.) 

GalmU. 

RftndliaTnt). (Oooki.) 

Kambtukania. (Sleeparh) 

HathArmak. 

Jiraiiik, 

Chlnm. 

Cb&Tdhe. ^ (Eeepera of tha 

(jQitrii-houae.) 
KiimliliP. (Pot) 
ParliatriT. (Monntauia at 

coQiAi-e.) 
Bhirre. (aannora.) 
Bakne. 
Bli&pde. 
Plmpalkar 
Bhargade. 
T&ke. 
Bftrekar. 
Trlmbaire. 
Bonirre. (Uoantainoen.) 

Bankar. 

Khalftte. (Bald.) 

nh&nue. 

Bade. 

Maskar. 

Hadikar. 

Hadhukar. 

Tftmate. (Ooppenmitlu.) 
Balakfl. ' 

Torye, 
Snrre. 

GAyakavild, 

Ksliirsa^ar. (Ooeanof mflk^ 

fihatye. ' 

Shltole. ^^' 

Kinkade, 

PhStak. 

ZujnArrSv. 

Ranar&irnre, 

Karmukhe, 

Jicbak. 

Snryaransl, 

Arachlre. 

RAcbode. 

Jitkar. (Tiotorione.) 

Hhade, 

Gore, (Fair.) 

Khnle. (IdiotB.) 

GumsAIe. 

Bhadolkar. 

CMse. (fiartliMpot.) 



lOS 



/SDBTE . 



/ KUt. 

KUk. (Clwh.) 
iGhid. 

I Ulke. (FalK.) 
I Harpe. (Bnmt to ooftls.) 
I Dolphodfli (BiMkera of 
I bettda.) 
I Bill. 

Bll&TT&t> (Followers of 

Vuhmi,) 
Khalr. (Aeaoia ardtnea.} 
BUM. (Belloin, or B 

ntera.) 
Hadrar. 
KaTlte. 
Derre. 
BIS«. 
Hnre. 
TUan|. 
DhavUkar. 
Karle. 

r.i;aki (Singon.) 
Kiite. 
Pardt, 

Talrale. 

eiyaL 

VUke. (Thin, lasn.) 

Mnlke. 

Bodke. (Thin, lean.) 

KMI& 

Bolke. (TalkaliTe.) 

Sablfi. 

Khandale. 

Pilkar. 

Dhlbar. (Tiahermen.) 

Kbapade. 

Adsaiv. 

isare. 

K^le, (Soot, lunpbbok.) 

Sitl 



Sltm. 
Balin. 



I 



KSHIBSiSAR 



GAV8G OR 
flATAS. 



BlHE 



DlTte, (ToToh-baaren.) 

Dhare. 

Bodke, (Bar»-hMd«d.) 

KftnehaUt (fovKMia fur- 
pnria.) 

JXChllL (Tronbleflomn.) 

Zhlle, (Babiee.) 

nhte. 

Ctode. (Sweet) 

Ghakke. 

ShardoL (MTtholoffioKl bird.) 

V&Tde. (Pftper kHfl.) 

ParrUe. 

TftnUude. 

DUre. 

Hoke, 
r Ghodtalei (Honemsn.) 
. ) Ghodkfl. (Honet.) 
iGXd. 
(.Kerdtii (FandamiM odoriHui- 

MIU,) 

{AfUre. (Incendiaries.) 
D&DfTe. {Pepo.Vuc«rbilaFigpo.) 
/Pratlhir, (Defender.) 
Parihir. {ServaniB.) 
RasU. 
' Daire. 
\ 8alldhftr. 
Isardare. 

niiolf. (Bunptioiu.) 
I T&dsrare. 

fHIiilihdllDle). (lUdduh.) 
J nndbA iOmuriitapigpo,) 
'1 Sirran. 
{ P&tak. 



SlLDNKHE . 



IKIIekkr. 
Shelke. (SelMtad.) 
Shetre. 
Karbftle, 
Kalu&th. 
ntafttr«. 
Visai. 

( Hanaoje. 
iTbukrul. 

Bhoite. 

Shisode. 

Hhidik. 

BbMnm. 

Shlrs&tke. 

Kfttf. (TbwDB.) 

Kbarit«. (Broonu.) 

muiTde. 

Dankar, 

nftdr. 

P&udlu-e. (Whits.) 

Pftiaukar. 

Pfttole. 

Pftl&de. 

Sarpare. 

Vftpbniftre. (Tlgor-ilayem) 

SheTU«. (Mmb.) 

Itkftrl. 

SSkle. 

BUiar. 

Jh&d. (Tree.) 

Padral. {TnoonuUhet fp.) 

Mote. 

BftTTe. (Terrified.) 

Ilmbe. (Ooi^r.) 

TftkBD. 

GbandansliiT. 
Hafar. ■fCrooodile.) 
Baoajot. (Ughia of the battle 

fiellj 
Banadhlr. (Bold ; ooora- 

geouB.) 
BanbftTie. (Mad in the bttUe- 

fiflld.) 
Banapise. „ » „ 
Dbadbc. 

SaktTant. 

Shlrkbflr. 

Sonvane. 

GnnjU 

GhanyftrOi 

LaUne, 

KalyinrftT. (ThebleMed.) 

Arirar (AneraT). 

Adkatrir. 

Tyarh&re. 

Bakliaiikar. (Onards.) 

Narln. 

Nibl& 

Gidsll. 

BoUre. 

Sarkale. 

Usane. (Benowed.} 

RankhAmbfl, (PiUanofUte 
battle-field.) 

SonTftn. 

Londe. 

KhSdre. 

IncaTle. 

BhiHle. 

Kalaskar. 

Vtijr. (Uennai.) 
/ ShHSr. 

BAlmr. 
I Tanlftre. 

K&iuble. (Blanketo.) 
> lasiiikar. 

GUftd. 



OM 



TiiU. 



,glTl5T— 



GBCUU 



.. 



O 






O 



i 






■198 



6H0RPADB 



8HI80DE 









KatlMr. (CmeL) 

KsMn 

Balai. 

Jbidrzr. (R«l« ol e«*.) 



lOiUiL (OiBoen.) 
ShiTk. 



Karac; (Blown of 



) 



lALATM 



Mnrc (Dnukwds.) 
riff; 



/ Tadkhale. 
Majire. (The 

Tfwindantg of — ) 



BHOGLE 



BHOITE 



CHlNDLE 



HHIDIK 



»TMt. 

Ittialktf. 

KauBarre. (Bridegnwrn* o 

Ithe battle-fieldB.) 
aau. 
Hayar. 
ItabaL 
■ihile. 
Dii:aL (Spotted.) 
Cvjftre. 
JHUTamt. 

4SlMrpaie (Keepers of ign- 
anaa) 

iBfre. 
■iltiire. 

LoUaaie. (Inm.) 
KamL 

; BIT. (Lordfl.) 

\ MaUse. (Map-mmken) 

*lBaiiabiffoL (Bats m the 
battle-fields.) 

MindUUL 
Gidfkan 
Kalase. 
OdhUe. 

'Itewmimt. (Hononredbygods.) 
Bifmftae. (Honoured bj 
kings.) 

iBhujakalriT. 

'PaTle. (Corals.) 

Nftnekar. 

(Milap. 
* iPirdke. (Hnnters.) 

Bhosle. 
8aaT(gMTe,gUTi).!(Wcaver8.) 

Apridhe. (Offenders.) 

1Bho?ar. 
Joshi. (Asiarologers.) 
jSedval. 
SiiL 
Giattdhirei 

( Itole. 
. < Bhoir. 
( Ghftrre. 

. BhattL 

/ H&ne. 
. I DUihide. 

iDhamile, (Bnmptions.) 
iGarad. (Eagles.) 
/ Dhanik. (Bich.) 
\ KftTdhe. 

fBhogle. 
• } iDdap. 
CfiaT-lk (Oowkecds.) 



•iBMira 



MABO 



> IMIAMILB 



o 



■iTle, 

SikMe. (HeadKnwDieBi.) 



rXarle. 

3JaMfiie. (ThesftoBi.) 

iKipM. (CoitaL.) 

' CBeTile. 

MMke. (Umdiable.) 
KiapUle. (With l» 
sue. 
Piuakle. 



;9 



•HABHBU 



Ki}-haBS€. (Swans.) 



AHAIIG 



SlBDB 



• « 



a 



SHIDEorSliin- 
de (the Sind-\ 
hia). 



Clele. 
J Snikar. 
A GidTade. 

ChitraTade. 

Kishhie. (Wooden.) 

flahlte. 

Bndhe. 

Ta^bre. 

DuritaM; (Yicions.) 

Sarkate. 

«adehaL 

Baaarikshas- (Gianisofas 

battle-field.) 

GaJMaL 

TayUe. 

/ DhayiL 

\ Karide. 

I ddkae. (Tenadons.) 

IHalTade. 

[SAbde. 

• Sable. 
\SAbde, 

.^OiAvde. (Keepers of gnard 
I hooses.) 
VCUpokat, 

/ DalTi. (Gonunandants.) 
Lid. 
iagUp. 
HAf-tilake. 

Kada. (Bitter.) 

IJpise. 

Nigre. (Nnde.) 

NAgYade. 

KharAle. 

Hone, 

KhnrAdhe. 

Tanave. 

JAvle. 

Lavte. 

Talekar. 

NAg-dive. 

Bhnje. 

Phaniyar; 

SATle. 

KAnade. (Canaiese.) 

Dhone. 

DcytAv. 

Nilke. 

HaryAL 

Kavde. (Shells.) 

Tirlle. 



IDS; 



Kormnre, 
Vfisiadkar, 
Sin&bftn, 

Klrftb, 

Karkare, 

Phfiike, 

KEDlRlHfr' 
Snnssne, 
Latke, 
HbarkliaTe, 
Ud. 

Harmade, 

Sassne, 

Kagde, 

Katmate, 

Honnnr. 

LlHGOTE — 

Duamdhan, 
G&nde. 
CHHIBPnOLE— 
IHar&the, 
8&the, 
Gate, 
Lote, 
Knsmn8«. 

DHlTDB— 

Handlsar, 

Sosate, 

Kitkltfl, 

Bhand&re, 

Dafaire, 

HftTle, 

V&fThe, 

Kadn, 

Unde. 
Jim— 

YeTle, 

niarkal, 

Vmbar, 

Ohayrad, 

fiorakh, 

Kombe, 

BoTftte, 

Jire-Jiie, 

Dhnmftte, 

Garat, 
fSkin— 

GlniTt 
KhandUfl, 

Hf>i 

Sarfttfl, 
T^bale. 
Sen&pati, 
Dhekne, 
nUrar, 
Oand. 
Ibchti — 
lliTadaiii:et 
Vftlancbfl, 
Bab&Ie, 
Pbftkde, 
Kapot, 
Bh&lerar, 
Dnndnne, 
Abbore, 

KITE— 

Sone, 

PI tale, 

Ked&r, 

Bobb&te, 

Balding 

Tbengfl, 

HEDE— 

TaiBhya, 



HORE— eontri> ( 



HEDI — eon(<t 
AmyS, 

AmdSbftdkar, 
Sorale, 

KALPlTB— 

R&|mnnde, 
sane, 
Hokre, 

Araie, Bhnlr, Klr&ne, 
Dorlk, 
Kaypate, 
Mhaaet 

Mhaske, DbarUe, 
R&Je, 
Derrnkli 
JblDge. 
Darkkar— 
Nftn Sftraat, 
ShlTlfl, 
Cbane, 
fihelke, 
Dongre, 
Hhand&le, 
Ifil&mparkar, 
Sh&ba, 
Disrate, 

UI, 

Kombbakarna, 

Donge. 
NlKLE— 

Lend-parir, Saplt«, 

Ana^U, 

Jltekar, 

Arlcbftre Karnakre, 

Db&rrftr, 

Gande, 

vsrhnl, 

Sbfllke,! 

Kftle, 

Pltale, 
^ Knt«iiiftii. 

/BlME— 

AmberiT, 

Sftkhle, 

Gam^ 

In^al, 

Karde, 

K&le, 

G&mdbaL 

JnAPlTK— 

Nakhaniale, 
Hnuojp, 

Titvate, 
KSitmirkar, 
Gohlle. 
'HahIkihb— 
PadhSre, 
Hnsenglr, 
Dbninak, 
B&TTe, 
Thab, 
BbUnlce, 
Gbode, 
Dire, 
Harnci, 
Tblrdfl, 
Desbmakb, 
Bob&sbl. 




IJOff • 





r 

1 


riBHim— 
Cb&vat, 
Madke, 
Dbekne, 
KnrfUe, 




DHIHPIL . < 


Kharftte, 
Sansane, 
Maripule, 
Mobare, 


' 




Ambire, 




, 


Pinde. 

Bqjbuje. 

Ranaobir, 

Ranajit, 




ANGNE - . / 


Sbinj^e, 

Budbe, 

Galftb, 

Jasrdftle, 

Pftvle, 




1 


€b&;be. 






JA6PlL~ 

Mobile, 

R&.vaTal, 

Takle, 


• 


■ 


Dbisftl, 

Kbadtare, 

Dboudse, 

Gajrade, 

Tilak, 

Devriv, 

Atole, 

Khobre^ 


ftS 


: 


Botbar, 






IJjCbade, 


§ 




IM 


l" 


Vfijrje, 


1 


IJndre, 




Mftnirhorpade, 


Hinge. 


m 

at 




PlTEL— 




Kavle, 




■ 


Divse, 




Gobre, 






SUve, 
Kftnpblte. 






KlTHATATC— 






Sarkate, 






Pbanirftm, 




JlDHAT . { 


Dhekne, 




Chftndle, 






Benkftr, 






Tftmbte. 






SlTHAM— 






KbarUe, 






APAKlDHB— 






Tnriye, 
Gav8e, 
G&nvde, 










Dhnde, 






Shende, 






Khambot, 






H&lnsare. 






BHOG-SlTE— 






Cbimbi, 






P&brav, 






Vftted, 






KbEdvad, 






Anelon, 






Dndhnikar, 






Derlikar, 






Dhumke, 






Makbmale, 






Vsgavkar. 






SHKVTE— 






Kalabhonkar, 






Giije, 
^ DeTdal, 




• 
1 









m 



JADHAV ( 



TIGULE 



. 






OQ 



YlDAT . 



i 



RlTHOD 



/SHSTTE— eoMld* 
Mine, 
Chinchoti, 
Bhinsftrkar, 
Dnne, 
Nirmore, 
T&t&rkar, 
Shirsftt, 
DiTe, 
Karpate. 

BORlTE— 

Bhfttftne, 
Chtadip, 
MnlsftTJuur. 

GOHILE— 

Snpftre, 

Mnthvali 

Pise, 

Bbavftle, 

Teuikar, 

Punekar, 

Kamekikar. 

V1GHEL4— 

Kosbmibe, 

Bandre, 

KbftvUe, 

T&le, 

Knnde, 

DnjfM, 

■fibulkari 

Kon. 

/GHlCf— 

RftJ-bangei 
D&Tli, 
KabUe, 
Plinide. 

JOGLE-* 

Rftthod, 

Talavnikarj 

Gore, 

Anjire, 

P&tarlika, 

K&mbekar« 

AHRUTS-- 

KSngle, 
KUvftr, 
Knkse, 
MnthaTalf 
Sayftd, 
Koman. 
> Mardeskar. 

■ACflHLE — 

Sakvftr, 

KUbboni 

Aehoie, 

Divftn, 

KoUiftr, 

Shirsftt, 

Snpftre, 

Tftsre, 

Dbftmne, 

Bbftpkar, 

Devrnnsei 

Itftde, 

Vale. 

Bb&dTad, 

Knbe, 

Lavde, 

Bbftd&ne. 

ATANGPiL-- 

Bode, 

Sftkle, 

Ctaftve. 

ANiNGPlL— 

Gftnde, 

Gor&t, 

Sore, 

Pendse, 

Vftgjc, 






107 



RlTHOU 

eotttd. 



- 



1 



\ 



a 



DHAHlUB 



. 



LABLB 






/ AIAMPIL— coiKA 

Jhunjhttnei 
Jhamkire. 

RlT-JlOS— 

Dor, 

Daredei 

Phanse, 

Bliumne, 

Thekrl, 

H&nmadi, 

Jhamkirei 

ChikhUkar, 

Satftre, 

Iliii|rne« 

GlND€H>PlL^ 

Hftdkei 

Ikok, 

Sinipftr, 

Khedkari 

Shiiide, 

Safcfama, 

Kal^e, 

H&npurkari 

Kot&rei 

Gande. 

BHlLE— 

Aptikair, 

Ghote, 

Gohe. 

DUTONDE — 

Kandlrli 
Vense, 
SUtanii 
Viubre, 

RETlLE— 

Umbarde, 

KIi&Ylkar, 

B&kikar, 

V&ii|hoIe, 

Kharas, 

Shirkoi 

GanOf 

Gidhave (Donkeys), 

IJnchle (Piokpookets), 

Nig^andei 

Parab, 

Karodikar, 

Gftndhe (Draggieis), 

Chokhad, 

DhamUe (Bnmptioiis), 

Gftndei 

Ire, 

Ghandrabal, 

Unde (Tailless). 

Pftklire (Birds), 

Hinre (Green), 

Manyel, 

Kathore (Crael), 

Anlire (Figs), 

Giitede, 

Shlrtgadkar, 

Narret 

/SlBLE-^ 

AJftle, 

Igalftve (Incendiaries), 

Larde, 

Tugftrei 

Devlikar, 

DUhkhadei 

Hirgavhtn, 

Sin^re, 

■ftndTei 

Yelamb, 

BhiTne, 

Pftchre (Wedge), 

GhapMUte. 

SlieTde. 



SABLE— eoneci. 



HARU 



. 



/ 



CeIpoitkat— 
Chochftle^ 

Pftng^ere (Bombjx Mala- 

barionm), 
Davande (Town Grrers), 

K&th&re 

H&kde (Monkeys). 
NlTLE— 

Nftsrde, 

Viftsle, 

Ranasingy 

HorkUei 

S&ns^, 

Bftival, 

Jaicd&le« 

JAMDIDE— 

■ire, 

Deshmnkh, 

Vehle (Piokpookets), 

Dere (Tentmen), 

Pete, 

Tftjchm&re (Tiger-slayers), 
Sarde (Chameleons), 
Neble (Cowards). 

DnoKE— 



QC 



Ovlikar, 
]HftgS,tft, 

Kollie (Jaokal), 

■ainde, 
Karanje, 

Dtaotftde (Despised). 
SUE— 

Dahifc&Tkar, 
YSval, 
Ctaitode, 
Sftujcvi, 
Bliadve, 
Plpre, 
Jftmte, 
Hinicne, 
Harandodi, 
I Sliengte, 

^ Hirde, 
Kl&ctaole, 
Bhuske. 

GOLE— " 

Lftnde (Tailless;, 

Yoghe, 

Gamd (Eagles), 

■akhmel, 

Kapot (A bird), 

Avre, 

Timbe (Copper), 

Sonkadam, 

BftgT&n (Gardener), 
Klmpre(Broken, nnglaaed 

oeramio ware), 
Hire (Diamond), 
Hotichur (Sngar balls). 
/ LlD — 

Dukre (Pigs), 

Gftdhve (Donkeys), 
IJmbre {Fu>u$ glomeraia), 

Gftdbe, 

■indve (Marriage booth), 

Shinde, 

Rakte, 

Dharte, 

Hhaske, 

Ningne, 

Gnjre, 

GMndle, 

Hajftre (Thousand, com- 
mandants of — ), 

Bh&gle (Runaways, or 
tired), 

Indirtt^ 



Lin 



• 



itfifi 



/ 



LID— mmtd. 



i 

i 



noRE 



80RTE 



kites), 
'bila pepo) 



Kntte, 
H&par. 
Dftndekar, 
Solankhc, 
Bhatte, 
Dhantk (Rich), 
Rede (Bofialoes), 
Petle, 
Gtrme, 

Peve (Gnnuiea). 
^HADHCItE— 

K&lbhar, 

DiTte (Torch-bearer), 

Sapftte, 

Dorkar, 

Patn«, 

S3,tpDte (Seven sons), 
T&kte, 
Hing^ode, 
Hantore, 
H&ndale, 
Karne, 
Cbingharkar, 
Kada (Bitt«r), 
Vavtikar, 
Madik&r, 
Vavde (Papi 
Bhople (Oii..»,....,uj,oy 
Bhilmte (Fickpooketa). 
HOBBBE — 

llariie (ADtelnpcB), 

Ivavde (Shells), 

niiitkre, 

Kittak' (Sweet potato), 

Paiiplire (_Bombyx main* 

Kaduskar, 

Rav (Peers), 

Berde, 

P&dle, 

P&nde, 

Bah&dure, 

CUne, 

DDble (Weak), 

Palknte, 

RSkliiifl (Guards), 

Jlannke, 

Bhate, 

TSmbe (Copper), 

Code (Sweet,) 

H&vn (Bridegroom), 

Palase iButea frondoia), 

Sere. 

Aocbar, 

Nimse (Half), 

T&kte, 

PharkAnte, 

Barde, 

Nadhole, 

DanlatrfiT. 
,RlDT— 
' Talrate, 

Pnne, 

SSrtar (Bom of a 
et«pmother), 

Korbftde (Axe), 

Hame (Antelope), 

Kharar, 

Vajhe. 

TiUiaie, 

SiTsUe, 

Ksliirsagar (Ocean of 

milk), 

Sote (Club-men), 

Pbakde, 

Bfde (Buffaloes), 

Gil^t, 



I 



RUrr-^cMOd. 

Bible, 

GSrandlial (VDIagera). 

Cadre (Bate), 

Sarde (Chameleon), 

Sar&te (Broom). 

Kliarde, 

Dabir, 

Gh£ne (Oil miU), 

TinchoTkar, 

Sote, 

LaUte, 

Bh&kde, 

N&ke (reopen of oat- 

posts), 
Gbirte, 



GiYAKATiD 



Jlaiuhir-rftr, 
nadlui (Corpse), 
Kiirkiire (Murnmrers), 
Lab&d (Idan), 
Slrs&t, 

SJnUe (Immoml), 
-Dhere (Big bellied), 
TMke (Lean), 
/ K&nthe. 

HAKPI— 

Tftdkar, 
Hone. 

RiyeT&dluir, 
RAsne, 
Hale* 
Garli&ne, 
Denrne, 
NliE— 

SllCttde (Tufted hair), 
Kliopde (Cottagers), 
Jiait' (Thorns), 
(jiidire (Rats), 
Hbsrant:, 
Nftiyri, 

Ptaknse, 

As&Te, 

Kemte, ^ 

Hiloiile, 

Rftnde (Coirardfl), 

NArdDbe, 

Anadadl, 

Lovale, 

Kinlale, 

HDObri, 

Kalbnsi. 

ISiTiTE— 

S&ple (Tiap), 
Sonrade, 
KoBde (Hndc), 
Sarad (Cold), 
JIftrl, 
T&mn&le, 
Nibble, 

Derle CTemple men), 
Bhadkambe, 
Pdm, 
Ikhle, 
Shivne, 
Horde, 
Haij&ri, 

Kosambe (NaueUa 
Cadatnha). 
SiTRE— 

Budve (Temple keepers), 
Lavaade^ 
Bane (Rnlera), 
Blarekar (Hired mnr- 

derera), 
. Belradfe 
Harde (Sbelk), 
KlTklre (MqriDimnJL 



^P^H^^^H^H 1^ ^^B^^^^^^^^^^l 


^ ^^r^^^^^^^^K^Ki ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




1 


tt8TM— contd- 




Khnie (Kat>), ^^H 






MMiMuiiire (Cilru. f.). 




Bhiisislr, ^^H 






Saklre (Marfim). 
BliamSle (Big belhod). 




Gore (Pair), ^^^H 
Vaidj'a(Pb;Biciau). ^^H 






RMre, 

Mane, 

Khere. 
BITJl- 
Binisur, 


GAIAKAVID 1 


Blusde. ^^H 
Kutre (Dogs). ^^H 
Vazb (Tigei^). ^^H 
M.Vdke (Earthen pel), ^^H 








Cliandre (Mees), ^^H 
Hoke, ^^B 
BliraniTfl (Biooloured), ^^H 
Bhore (Cattle). ^H 






Surkhe, 

SUsnkll (Oonoh «tell« or 
Jool.), 








Kevde (FandaiMf otbritii- 




GODE— ^^H 






GSnde, 




Tcloiike, ^^H 






Dhundlllip&l, 




PrabUn (Lords), ^^M 






Mire, 




Ughde (Open), ^^H 






NartniLtli, 




naisiiiu. ^H 






eavBdhal (TiUsgari). 




^H 






Karte COrpbans or ci«in»- 




Kllber (Qod of Wealth), ^H 






tioB ground Bervanta), 




Raiicbbod, ^H 






neude, 




Malap, ^B 






Murkar, 




liauu?, ^^H 






Haimat, 




Aviade, ^H 






Kioe (Sqimt), 




Navdbl (Nine Oeeans), ^H 






OSdhave (Donkoy«), 




Viujbol, ^H 






Takte, 




Karte, ^^^| 






Sarate (BiwmB), 




Pharde, ^^B 






Jliankire, 




Ba^rud, ^H 






SlieinMeCWitli dirty now), 




Mbasale, ^^H 






Raoade, 




Paiu, ^^B 






Lokre, 




Dbayate (OMtlsa /omen- ^^H 


•Q 




Madlie, 




^^B 


1 




Ijivde. 2 




Harul, ^H 


f 




IlliamSlc (Big Wlied). -. 
Patre, 


KSUlBSlGiB 


Bbope (Temple Berrants ^^H 
of BhaTsni), ^^H 


(D 




Mahalnnge (Ciinu .y.), 




^^B 


2 


CiVlKlTiD 


MSnse, * 
Kanade, " 




Raari (Foresters), ^^B 
Gbodke (Horae). ^^B 






Dukro (Pigs) , ' 




SHiBDDL— ^^H 






Menc, • 




Sbalrad, ^^B 


i 




Harathe, a 




Cbando (Moon). ^^B 




Dhoke (Unreliable), t 


! 


Sonoti, ^^B 






Cinde. 




Ranadbir (Pillaia of the ^^M 






KHAPiUK— 




battle-field), ^H 






Menirune, 




satam, ^^B 






Mhatare (Old), 




Hadere, ^^H 






I'alpute (Eunmp.), 




Cbibchol, ^H 






nhaslk. 




Sure (Dagger-men), ^^M 
Kiiale (Oomplaineni), ^H 






Bulkar, 








Bliamte (Piotpoctete), 




BbSpe, ^H 
Pbtlkte (Gratis), ^H 






Karkar, 








Dliasde, 




Bbambbirde, ^H 






redhare, 




Hacbre (Impatient), ^^B 






Datlr, 




Hbasradkar, ^^B 






Batre (Pronunenl teeth). 




Tarsaude, ^^H 






BUse (Loftui etJk), 




sade, __^^U 






Bama, 




nitatre. ^^^^^^1 






Hase (PiBb), 
Sacale, 
BaJ-ro8, 
Garade, 




GEODKi:- ^^^^^1 
naiod, ^^^^H 

Bedbe, ^^^1 






Gandur, 

I-tngde (Lama), 

naiiar, 

KSSto (NJied), 

Kamre, 




Habarkarkar, ^^B 
Sau^oe, ^^H 
Karaute, ^^H 
Kapate, ^H 
Gatbol, ^H 






naliale, 
Phale, 


CHITOE 


Sakble (Chain keepers), ^H 






Biie (Irritable), 




Takte, ^^B 
Tadlr, ^H 
Markale, ^M 

Hbarate (Bi^oomi), ^H 
NaHade (Spoilers), ^^H 






Kahar (Fisbermeo), 

Pbade, 

June (Old), 

Jlre (CHffltnum cymt- 








mum), 




Bbadure (Biove). ^H 


1 




Padvar, 
Komde (Cocks), 
vasUe CB»te), 




Sheadide (Cowanh), ^H 
Jotte. ^H 



no 



\ 



s 



Pirckar 



likte, 

fOinkhe (PUlaa, or 
Mnobitd). 



■arithe, 

Pfeile, 

f —if (T—d). 



•\ 



Pariuue CPettiawla), 
Pile, 

Ctbre, 
Cak, 

iUUre(SdMon). 

Klrle, 

KarsBte, 

Kariade, 

Kise, 

Philke, 
Phisae, 
VaAiac^ 
Hikde, 

Ehaaiuk, 
Siagate, 

Parir. 

PfM (ihd), 

■aalekar (yOMgea), 



1 
I 






/ 



\ 







UtiT, 



■ani, 
UMde, 

CUMi 



Ki^ik. 
KADm— 
Shivae, 
Gathnc^ 
Baadge, 
Oakfae^ 
SiTal, 
niak, 
■hitre, 
KaAUe (A»). 



tv 



nt 



3. OftheScytlio-llTiivldianTnul. 



DESHASTH BRAHMAN. 



Ftom the Somhay Oitietfeer hf Sir Jambs Campbbll, S.C.I.B, 

Desliastbe, generally guppoeed to mean Upland, but more probably meaning Local Brah- fjon^*' ^ 
mans, are settled both in towns and in viDagee. Almost all village accountantB or iiiliarnia 
are DeshastliB, Except some Joshii or astrologers, Jajieg or bead-counters, and Pvjaris or 
miuistrants who say that about 700 years ago they came there to conduct the worship of Ambabai 
in Eolhftpur, they have no memory of any former settlement. Desbaetbs are of two main classes, 
RigveditKaiy Yajvnedii. ^tf;rerfi> are divided into Smarts aud Faisknavn and Tajvrvetlii 
into followers of the white and of the Hack Yaiur\ed. These four classes of Deshasths and 
Yajurved Dravids and Telaugs eat together, but families who follow different Veds do not 
intermarry. The names in common nse among men are Anant, Goviud, Shankar, and Vitthal; 
and among women Bhavuni, Durga, Ganga, Lakshnii, Kama, and Yamuna. Among men, 
euch compound names as Manobar, Gauri-Shankar, and Yajneshvar are not uncommon. 
When a woman loses sereral infants, to deceire the evil spirits and make them think the child 
is little valued and is not worth carrying away, she calls her next child J)ioiuiu, that is stone, 
or Kern, that is rubbish, ^'hen a son is greatly wanted, if a girl is born she is called Thaki, 
that is deceiver, or Jmfn, that is sour. Men add rrir, baho, iatya, Mku, and hhdu to their 
names and women lui to theirs. Alost Desbasth surnames are either offiie or calling names or 
place names, such as Deehmuhh, Kulkarni. and Ajiekar. They belong to the Agaeti, Angiras, 
Atri, Bhrigu, Kashyap, Vasishth, and Vishvamitra gotrai or family stocks. Among members 
of the same section inter-marriage cannot take place if the family stocks or gotrat are the same, 
but persona bearing the same surname can inter-marry if the eumame is merely an office or 
calling name and the family stock is different. Their family gods are Ambabai of Kolbapur, 
Banshankari of Badami, Durga, Gajanau, Jogeshvari, Jotiba of Vadi-Batnagiri in Kolhapur, 
Khandoba of Jejuri in Poona, Ram, Shiv, and Vishnu. 

As a rule Ueahasths are dark, strong, and regidar featured, rougher, harder, and less aoute DotnestioJ 
than Chitpavuns. The women like the men are dark, rough, and not eo goodloolung as Chit- ^^^'i'"- 
pa van women. Both at home and abroad they speak less correct Marathi than the local 
Chitpavans and pronounce the words more like Kunhis. In their speech they add the termina- 
tion ^f to every verb and change the initial i to vi and ri to t. They epeak a broad Marathi 
with a drawl and without the Chitpavan nasal twang. Most Deshasths live in houses of the 
better class generally two storeys high with brick w^ls and tiled roofs. Asa nde their houses 
ate dark and badly aired. The rooms are low and the staircases steep and narrow. The houses 
of the rich are large and comfortable ; but many of the poor are badly housed or plantains are 
reared in front of and behind the house whei'e the dirty water is allowed to gather, 'ihey are 
strict vegetarians and i;ood cooks, their staple food being millet bread, pulse, claiiGed butter, 
curds, milk, and condiments. They eat rice only on holidays. Escept the Skukf» or worship- 
pers of female spirits, and som<i English-taught youths, they do not use lii^uor and few among 
them either smoke tobacco or hemp, or drink hemp-water. Snnff-taldng and tobacco-chewing 
ue common ami betel-eating is universal. 'I'he men shave the head except the top-knot and 
the face except the moustache »nd sometimes the whiskers. The women dress their hair neatly, 
smooth it with oil, and plait it in a braid which they wear at the back of the head in a sort of Gie- 
ciau linot. They generally wear false hair hut do not use Uowers. The indoor dress of a Desh- 
astb man is a waistcloth and a shouldercloth and sometimes a shirt. When he goes out be puts 
on a coat, a turban or headscarf, and a pair of sandals or «hoes. While taking food or perform- 
ing his twilight or Sanilhya worship he dresses in a silk cloth or miiila or fresh-washod 
untouched cotton cloth and lays a small piece of cloth on his shoulder. Desliasth women dress 
in the long Maratha robe and boilice passing the skirt back between the feet. Married women 
as a rule mark the brow with vermilion and put on the lucky necklace and toe-rings or Joilvu, 
while widows shave their heads and cover them with one end of their robes and never put on 
bodices. A school boy on ortlinary days wears a coat and a cap or headscarf, and on holidays ft 
Bmall turban and waisU-toth, When the thread-girding ceremony is performed he pats on a 
loincloth or a waistcloth. A girl before she is ten wears a petticoat or parkar and a bodice ; 
after ten she wears a small robe or iddi without passing the end over her Ehouldcr like a grown 
op woman and either leaves the bosom bare or covers it with a bodice. When she is married the 
husband draws the end of the robe over her shonlders and she then dresses like a grown up woman. 
Both men and wopien have a store of rich clothes and ornaments, many of which have been 
handed down two or three generations. As a class Deshasths are indolent and untidy, but thrifty 
and hospitable and franker and less cunning than Chitpavans. Their want of enterprise has given 
. them the name of TJkdmyat or etay-at-homes and their slovenliness is so great that Deshaetb 
disorder is a bye-word. They are writers, bankers, moneylenders, moneychangers, traders, leeches, 
landholders, priests, and b^gare. The prieste and beggars are poor ; the rest are well-to-do. 
They clum to be superior to all clasps, and profess to look down on Chitpavans as new Brahmani 
Sfs X^iashoram triihli that is Parashuram's nmking. At the same time they freely aesociate 
■pd eat with Chitpiivaus and Karliadis, tlinugh, except in a few caj^es, ihey do not marry with 



112 



obtorv- 
inooi. 



Inl^iM^y, 



thom. They are both Smftrts and Bh&gvats^ worship all Br&hmanio and local gods and 
flfoddemoni and koop all fastfl and festivals. Their priests belon^r to fiheir own oaflAe and fhcj 
make pilKfimafi^s to all Br&hmanic sacred places and rivers. Their high priest ia Shankaiir 
oliArySi tho ^(^at Sm&rt pontiff who lives at Sankeshvar. They worship all local and bonuidaiy 
gods, and boliovo in witcncraft and soothsaying and lucky and unlucky omens. 

Under tho head of customs come the sacraments of samidrs, which are of two Unda, 
Hf/yA or usual and nafMf //fi( or special. The sixteen usual sacraments most be peifonned; 
the performanco of the twenty-four f pecial sacraments is a matter of choice, llie sixteen 
sacramontH are thp garbkafihan or conception which is performed soon after a girl oomea of 
ago ; tho putmavan or Fon-giving that the child may be a boy ; the. anavalobhan or loogingp- 
putiNfying during the seventh month of pregnancy when the juice of the sacred grass is dropped- 
fjown tho girl's left nostril that the unborn child may grow, the simdnionnayan or oanring^ 
to tho limit in tho Hixth or eighth month when the ^ Oman's hair is parted down the middla 
and a /''7/^4«// thorn ifl drawn along her head and fixed into her hair behind; the Vi*hnu hmli 
or Viphnii offering during tho eighth month to free the child from sin and ensure a safe birfih; 
tho /f7//*/in/i or birth c(*n*mony when before tho navel-oord is cut^ honey is dropped into the 
ohiUVs UKMith ; tho ndnikaran or naming on the twelfth day when also the child is cradled ;^ 
tho atifyavalol'an or I'Un-i'howing in the child's third month when the mother^ -holding a 
ohurning rod in hor hand, shows tho child to the sun ; the nisMraman or going out in the 
third month when tho child is taken to a temple and well-water is worshipped ; the uparesian 
or sitting in the fifth month when the child is first allowed to rit on the ground ; the anmm' 
prtUiaH or food-oatingi thp first feoiUng on solid food in the fifth or sixth month ; the eJiamt 
(^r shaving in tho fourth or fifth year ; tho upanayan or initiation also called the mui^; from 
thograsM Saeeharam munja\ the girding with sacred thread in the boy's seventh or si^th 
yoat \ tho namCtvarhn literally returning or freeing Arom being a Itahmackdri or unwed stxraent 
on tho twelfth day aftor tho munj or thread-girding ; the vivdk or marriage at any time after 
tho eighth year ; and the svarptlvrokan literally heaven-mountings that is deatK The ohieiE of 
tht^so saoramonts arc those at birthi thread-giiding^ marriage^ girl's coming of agOi pregnancy, 
and dtHith. During the first ten mominsvg after the birth oi a child the father employs Kimbi 
womon to pi>ur \rat^r on the threshold of the house in honour of the birth. Sometimes the 
fathor 18 mailo to bathe in cold water, and dad in his wet clothes to drop a little honey from 
a gi^ld ring into tho ohild^s mouth and then bathe in warm water. The midwife oats the 
ohiUrs navolnvnl, waves a silver coin round the cut cord and buries it outside the hooee alon^ 
with another ct^ppor or silver coin. The midwife is presented with the silver coin which was 
wavtHl round tho navel-oi>rd. She attends the mother ten to ninety days. Every ev^iing: 
at tho mothor's house tho family priest recites soothing verses or skamiipdH over a piniji of 
ashes or avoirs and hands it to some elderly wonum to be rubbed on the brow of the motiher 
ai\d child as a guard against attacks of the evil eye or of spirits. On the fifth nif^ht the 
mati^mal unolo li^vs a sickle washed with lime and covered with a piece of bodiceeioth <m a 
low stool in the Iving-in room« and lays before the sickle sandal-paste, flowos^ tuim e iitt 
past^ Tfrmilion.and foodin thenameof the Pascirt or Mother Fifth. A bluik sheet of 

1^)M^r and a rwtl pen and ink are set beforo the goddess and the priest bums asafostida or 
li>jr» rv)vats «ai'nHl verses over some ashes and gives them to be rubbed on the chfld and Ihs 
mother, ami on other vonng children in the honse. On the sixth night the child's futher wor- 
shipjK Mothvr Sixth with the same rites as the maternal uncle used on the fifth night ; a light 
it kept burning the whole night in the lyinsHn room, and the women of the house pass the 
two nights awake playing games of chance before the goddess and singing songs, for tfas 
&fth and sixth nightsars a critical time to the newborn child. The family of the. child's 
(tftther is held iminii^^ for ten days after a birth. 

(>n the tenth d«^ K4h the mother-in-law and the mother of the confined woman pn 
her with swwt (rievl ri^^ cakes or yt2ryJ^« l^r in her lap wheat and a coeoanut and a nAe 
Kvlkvoloth. give her tunmHio paste and vermilion to rub en her bee ard brow, and wmms m 
Kght TvHind her head. The mother takes her food, dip? her fingers in a silver cvp with milky 
«fii«^«i :;taj9j^ i'^«/t•^^a JL-.^r^^^m^ and silver coin, and three tenches her I^ ribs witii her liit- 
jeer^ ^he nv;het'$ melher takes the silver coin and leaves the room. On th« morning of the 
«le>enth the ehr.xl is Nsth^. the hvHt» is ^^>wdun^^^i, the mother's olotces are washed, and she is 
KsiKinI in wmrttt wuter. Iy«»d^ br this bath the mother is cWcsed frcm die imnmitf off 
ehildbitth br the pctest drvYpis^ w^ier fnnn Tn'si leaves on her head. The men of the hoase 
waster wivf^ with the ^ve pcv^ncts of the vvw and renew their ^^iored :hnpad!L On Ae twel 
da^ a (iMSl is $tvetx to IVi^sttOs and marrvd wcoown asd fneads. and kia^^k aie tnjatail ti m 
ixocs^t^ \Yv*Ktett neichbcun are asked to the hocse a> arteod :he T».cm;^j. cr Unrnm 
$mhh AH3M« tv^ the ho<»e and piecves the child's aar kteiiw Orraosents and ddhes^ 
a ehiVi's heed or f».«cli and a small vvai. a:^ nr^e readv fcr the child, acd kisisvuB 
iMchvitha Kxlx\v\>ch for :hemocher aadahcvd or'cs-virii fcrthe ccild. In^e 
Tvvm a cniklV i:^ ^^jjs^t ^> ^^ onlis^ asd a vur^ ^ srKed Tioiier :^ 
ieliitio<» Mkke taeir ^vats on the carc^. and tile mother ^aks her sea: 
yhtVx iTfc her arm^ The wvawn oae ?y oce £11 tiw aarcher's tip wi^ « 
Wdxeviofta *5d :ie Kvd fc'c tb^ chi c» mari ^ bf:w with 




aKtwrtc Msar vhich she ttkIS^ on ber fa^*^^ ami anaa^ thMuelnw ix ;vt,^ ^j 

ef the etauuMv Thfr tahe a vNveanut clad m a child's h^xd or fa«cli\ cov«r la^e hetesa si 

«aiieviiAL a pastAk^'AnuNd i^i. azNi pa» the c^^ <»nnr a&d Most &» csafie&w li 

▲ vMmn in en# of the $mitf» h^ lh» c^Meanoi ix lh» ccsile and nm.'^' 

a vman UK the e^HT ^cwf takss it «(ini^ *^ Giie Gsvni.'^ Afltt^if kava 




nt 



timeB some mafrtn taVa tfae ohild in her arms and lays it in tbe arable bidding the motlier 
repeat the child's oama in ita ear. In most cases the women consult the child's mother and 
settle among themselves what should be the name of the child. The mother then loudly 
repeats the name in the child's ear, ending with the meaninv'less sound i»r-f-r. The gufsta 
then gently amng the cradle and sins a ci^le son* or patna lulling the child to sleep with a 
chorus, " Sleep, my darling:, sleep ". The cradling ends with the dietribution of boiled gram and 
packets of sweetmeat, and the guests retire, after receiving from the houeeowner vermilion and 
turmeric pasts which they rah on their brows and cheeks. Widows are not allowed to take any 
part in a cradling. 

When the child is a month old comes the ceremony of growth or vardhpan when the 
mother lays eandal-paste, flowers, and sweetmeat before a pillar in which dwells the deity who 
presides over the child's growth, bows before it with the child in her arms, and slides the child 
up the pillar. This is repeated at the end of every month till the child is a year oM. The 
mother keeps her room for three full months. At the end of the third mouth the mother wears 
nevr banp^les, dresses her hair, puts on a new robe and bodice, and visits the village lemplu with 
the child in her arms. She lays a bodicecloth and a coeoanut before the village god and bows 
to him with tbe child in her arms, offers tbe thaihthi devi or Satvai another bodioeclotb and 
cocoauut and returns home. Next comes tbe feeding or annapraikan when some ]iriests, 
friends, and kinsfolk, and married women are treated to a sumptuous dinner. The child's 
maternal uncle dips a gold ring in a cup holding kkir or rice boiled in milk mixed with sugar, 
and lets a few drops of milk &11 from tbe ring into the child's mouth. From this day the 
child is fed with cooked food. The anniversary of tbe birth is marked by a feast, and soon 
after tbe child is a year old, hair-clipping or rhuda is performed because a second child may 
he coming on and it is a rule that no child should see its elder brother's first hair. On a lucky 
day, a plot in the verandah is cowdunged, on it a square is marked with wheat flour, and 
in the square is set a low stool covered with a bodicecloth, which also is marked with a square 
of wheat, Tbe boy is seated on the bodicecloth and the ullage barber shaves bis hair leaving 
a lock on the crown and one above each ear and in return is given the bodicecloth and the 
wheat. The hoy is bathed and dressed in new clothes, married women wave lights round hit 
bead and the bair-oltpping ends with a feast to Brahmans and married women. 

As a rule, a boy is girt with the sacred thread in bis eighth year. Before tbe lucky day Initla* 
chosen for the thread-girding tbe boy's friends and relations give feasts called ffad/jaaen or *^oo. 
ielvaitf, meaning merry-makings. The kinsman or friend visits the boy's house and puts a 
coeoanut into his bands as a sign that he is asked to tbe dinner. Tbe boy goes to his rela- 
tion's house, his brow is marked with vermilion, grains of rice are stuck on the vermiliou, and 
he is feasted with a few of his friends. A day or two before the tbread-sJrding an invitation 
procession consisting of the houseowner's friends and relations of both sexes starts in the 
evening with music and visits the local temple of Ganpati where the boy's father lays a cocoa- 
nut b^ore tbe god and boWB to bim, and the priest prays to the god to be present at the 
ceremony together with his two attendants Riddhi and Siddhi, tbe goddesses of plenty and 
success, and by his holy presence remove obstacles which might come in the way of complet- 
ing the ceremony. The priest lays yellow rice before the god as a si.en of invitation and 
Bome married women do the same and ask his attendant goililesi«s. The procession moves 
from door to door, the boy's father holding bis hands before every houseowner and the priest 
telling him the day and the hour, asks him with bis family and attendants to attend the cere- 
mony at his master's house. The married women who come to ask go into the house, are 
seated, and ask the women of the family to attend the ceremony. 1 he mistress of the house 
lays a coeoanut and rice in the askcrs' laps and marks their brows with vermilion as a 
sign that the invitation is accepted. In token of accepting the invilation the houseowner 
presents the boy's father or his priest with a betelnut and the procession leaves the house. 
The askers do the same at every bouee, while by degrees the men and women who at first 
formeil part of the procession steal away one by one until the boy's father and bis family with 
the priest and mndoians are alone left. To ftiends and relations who live in distant villages 
invitation cards ara sent marked with vermilion. A platform of earth and bricks is raised in 
the booth built in front of the boy's bouse and adorned with a canopy. The front of the plat- 
form is decked with plantain tree5 set upright at both ends and at each corner five earthen pots 
smeared with whitewash and red stripes are piled surrounded by eugarcanes. The raised platform 
has an earthen ba^k with steps rising one above the other and a cone of earth at the top. Ibis 
raised mound or altar they call vedi or hahuh. Then follows the guardian establishing or devak 
tihapana, which, among Rigvedi Smarts, is tbe same as among tbe other Hrahmans. On 
the morning of the lucky day married kinswomen and neighbours meet at the boy's bouse, 
where the boy and his parents are dressed in their best and seated esch on a low stool covered 
with a sheet and red doth marked with a lucky cross or ivattik strewn in wheat grains. Two 
pestles are tied together with a bodicecloth and a basket filled with wheat is set before the 
boy and his parents. "The married women then wat^h the feet of the hoy and his jjarents and 
wave lights round them. Wheat and fruit are laid in the mother's lap, betel is served to the 
boy's father, and a cocoannt is put in tbe boy's hands. Not less than five married women 
take the two pestles in their bands, and set them upright in the basket, and move them up 
and down as if to pound the wheat in the basket. They suig songs and native music plays. 
A married woman takea a handful of corn and grinds it in a handmill to which a bodicecloth 
is tied. Fragrant oil is nibbed on the boy and his parents, and the business of tbe married 
women is over. The bo/a head ia shaved by tbe barber, he is bathed and taken to tbe dining 
hall where his mother seata lim on her lap, and feeds him eating from the same plate. After 



114 

this tho boy is not allowed to eat £rom his motlier's plate. The hoy'a head is ag^in shaved^ 
and he is bathed and takea to his father in the booth. As the lucky moment draws near^ the 
friends and kinspeople invited to the ceremony meet at the house and take their seats in the 
booth. The father sits on a low stool placed on the altar or vedi with his face to the east^ 
while the boy stands before him facing west^ and the priests hold between them a curtain 
marked with a vermilion lucky fylfot cross or svastik. The boy's sister stands behind the boy 
with a lighted lamp and a cocoanut in her hands. The priests repeat lucky verses and the guests 
throw red rice at the boy and his &ther. At the lucky moment the musicians redouble their 
noise^ the curtain is drawn on one side^ and the boy is girt with the sacred thread and dressed 
in a loincloth or langolu The boy is given a deer skin to wear^ 2k palai {Butea frondoiaj 
staff is placed in his hands^ and a triple sacred-grass cord or munf is wound round his 
waist. 

The priests kindle the sacred fire on the altar and throw into the fire offerings of clarified 
butter^ sesame and seven kinds of wood. Money presents are given to the priests, and cocoanuts^ 
betel leaves and nuts^ flowers^ and perfumes are handed among the assembled guests, who take 
their leave. At noon Brahmans and married women are feasted. In the evening the bhikshdvala 
or b^ging procession goes to the temple of Maruti as he is said to be the great bachelor 
or brahmaehdrij the boy attended by his priest bows before the god> and the procession returns 
home with music and company. Fire-works are let off. On returning home the boy is seated 
on the altar or vedi^ the priest sits near him, and places a bamboo basket or a winnowing fan 
before him. The mother (A the boy comes and stands before him on the altar. The boy says 
to her in Sanskrit, ^^ Bhavati hhihshdm dehiy* '^Lady, give me alms/' and holds the 
bamboo basket before her. The mother blesses him and puts sweet balls, rice, and cocoa- 
kernel into the basket. Other married women follow her example ; the boy repeats the 
same words to each, and each presents him with sweet balls or money. The contents of the 
bamboo basket go to the priest who gives part of the sweetmeats to the boy and keeps the rest 
for himself. The ceremony ends on the fourth day, when, as on the first day, the betelnut 
Ganpati and the metal pot Varun are invoked and at the end laid on a bamboo winnowing fan 
and bowed out and the back of the fan is beaten with a stick to show that the ceremony is over 
and it is time for friends and kinsfolk to leave. This practice has given rise to the Marathi 
phrase *^ Sup vdjle " or the winnowing fan has been struck that is *' All is over.'' The boy is 
now called a Brahmach&ri that is an unwed or religious student. Widows and married women 
lay sandal-paste, flowers, and sweetmeats before him, present him with money, and sip tho 
water in which his feet have been washed. Every morning and evening the boy is taught 
Vedic texts. After some months the samvarian or returning ceremony is performed. The boy 
puts off the triple sacred-grass waistcord 'or mi/n; and his loincloth or /air^e^^e, puts on a silk- 
bordered waistcloth, a coat, a shouldercloth^ a turban, and a pair of shoes, takes an umbrella, and 
sets out as if on a journey to Benares. The priest meets him on the way and promises to give 
him bis daughter in marriage so that the boy may marry and become a grihaBth or householder. 
Until after the samdvartan or return ceremony is performed the boy is not affecteil by birih or 
death impurities but after the return ceremony is performed he has to remain apart for some 
days if any of his family had died or given birth to a child between the thread-girding and the 
samdvartan or returning. After the return ceremony the boy may marry or not, and is subject 
to the lilies of impurity observed by married Brahman family men. 
Sxogamy. The Deshasth Br&hmans of the Deccan form a community believed to represent the 

oldest stock that migrated to the south with their families and got mixed in various ways 
with the Dravidian raoes by long intercourse extending over centuries. They retain the oldest 
records of the Hindu texts and speak a language closely allied to Sanskrit. Their rules 
of exogamy are so complicated that it would be difficult to believe in them except for the 
assurance that any breach directly involves excommunication from the parent stock. The 
internal structure given below will speak for itself. People of the same Oana (standard gotrds 
numerically arranged) cannot intermarry ; they also cannot marry among people of the same 
pravara or group of allied gotrds^ and again the^ must not marry any one out of the 
gotra mdliiai — strings of gotrds given in juxtaposition with the pravards. This necessarily 
involves double and sometimes triple restrictions on the marriages of people belonging to 
certain gotrds. Marriage should be contracted between people whose family history is 
known, and who are connected by relationship. Selection should be made from families of 
a^na^o^m or those who keep the perpetual Vedic fire. This rule is now relaxed as owing 
to the spread of modem ideas very few families keep the Vedic fire always burning. People 
who have married into Earhada or Konkanasth Brahman families are considered degraded 
but poor parents are often bribed to violate this rule. The descendants of paternal and 
maternal aunts should be avoided for seven generations, but as it is difficult to trace such 
genealogies exceptions do occur through ignorance. There can be no marriage with the daughter 
of a hfllE-sister of a step-mother. A wife's sister cannot be accepted while the wife is 
living, nor can her daughter. A man may not marry the sister of a paternal or maternal 
uncle's wife nor his maternal aunt nor his first cousins. All girls of the family in which a 
paternal aunt is given in marriage^ and all prls from families in which a sister or half-sister 
ate barred, nor can two sisters of one family be married to two brothers of 'another family. 
The marriage of a disciple with the daughter of his guru or preceptor is considered objectionable 
and the daughter of a disciple is taboo to the preceptor. A girl should not be selected 
from a fanuly into which a paternal first cousin has married. Thero exist maiiv gotrds among 
the Deshasth Brahmans, but the 28 serially numbered aie oonsideired the ohier and are styled 
fanas. AU others Idon^ to one or other of thei»B prino^ial gmupsi The pravar&i serve fis 



gaidee in- trading th» affinity of ago/rd iMt inentioned in the cUfeiiic&tion. The nomber 
Gigotras in each pravard or aJlied eept mast be ejlher 1, i, » or B, It is iuterc*tii)ff to note 
that the ^o«(M numbered 20, 23, 24, and 25 ate called I)teis;oira3 or double goirag, and J*'os. 26 
and 27 tri gotrH or-triple gotriit, becaose the jtravardt of theae gam can be traced to two or 
three gotras. To trace a ffotra to ils gana it is nbsolntaly necessary to find out its 
pravam, PravarS. therefore is the key that traces each gotra to its gana and decides 
which of tbem are taboo to a given sept. The Shukia or wbit« Yajarvedi sect depart 
from tliis mie and exclude only a mau'e own gotra and bis immediate maternal gotra. 
They therefore do not require ganas or pravarat. For instance, if a bridegroom is a 
Kathyap by gotra and hia maternal uncle vatkistha, he has only to avoid these twn 
groups. 

Boys are marrie<l between eight and twenty-five and girls generally before they are twelve. Harrisxa. J 
As soon as a girl is five years old, her parents begin to look ont for a suitable husband for her. 
Whenever the mother meets other women either at home or abroad her chief talk is regarding 
her daughter's husband, and widows who move more abroad than married women are consulted 
as to the merits of the different boys. When a boy is cliosen, the girl's horoscope is put into 
the bauds of the boy's father either by the girl's father or through some common friend. The 
boy's fatliet bands the girl's and his sou's boroscopes to an astrologer, who, from hia almanac, 
tells him whether the hoy's and girl's stars are in hi^mony and if the marriage will be lucky. 
The custom of consulting aud comparing horoscopes is gradually falling into disuse as the 
parents of the couple hold that considerations of dowry or good looks are more important than 
the agreement oE stars, and settle the marriage according to tho^rtVt m'caA or love form in which 
no consultation of horoscopes is required. Thus at present a girl is sometimes chosen for her 
good looks or for money and sometimes friendship determines the choice irreepeative either of 
money or beauty. The father or some near relation of the boy is asked to the girl's bouse to 
Fee the girl and is welcomed by the girl's father. If any of the boy's kinswomen comes with 
the father slie goes into the house aud is received by the girl's mother. The boy's father and his 
friends are seated on a carpet in the verandah and the girl is called by her father. She comes 
out dressed in ber best and sits near the boy's father with her head hung nearly between her 
knees through modesty and fear. One of the guests asks her. What her name is, How many 
brothers she has. How old she is, Whether she goes to school, What her place in the class is, and 
she is sometimes asked to read a piwe from her hook. They then tell her to look up and walk 
away. The boy's kinswoman strips the girl if she is under eight, or takes her bodice off if she 
is ten or more, and eiaminea her closely to eee if she is healthy and has no bodily or mental defect. 
Beauty is specially attended to as it is difficult at so early an age to conjecture what the mental 
attainments of the girl will be. Birtel is served to the boy's father and his relations and they 
withdraw. As soon as ihe t;irl is selected the fathers of both the girl and the boy draw up an 
agreement regarding what money the girl's father should pay to the hoy and what ornaments 
and dresses the boy's father Ehould present to the girl. The lucky day for the wedding is fixed 
and both the familie'^ busy themselves with the wedding preparations raising booths before their 
liooses and buying or piocuring rice, pulse, and other provisions. Invitations are rant to friends 
and relations as before a thread-girding and the boy and the girl are feasted by their kinspeople. 
Two or three days before the wedding day the girl's parents are treated to a dinner at' 
the hoy's ns they are not to take food at their daughter's unless she is blessed with a son. A 
day or two before the marriage the guardian-pleasing is performed at the houses of both 
the boy and the girl when a beteluut Ganpati and a motal pot farun are worshipped 
in a winnowing fan with sandal-paste, flowers, turmeric paste, and vermilion and the fan 
is set before the house gods. Friends and kinspeople meet at the bouses of the boy and the 
girl and are treated to a dinner. 

On the marriage eve the bridegroom goes with music and company to the girl's village 
aud halts at the local temple, lays a coeoanut before the god and bows to him. The girl's 
father meets him at the place with music and a band oi friends and both the fathers present 
each other with cocoanuts. The bridegroom is seated at the temple or taken to the bouse of 
some friend of the girl's father. The guests are welcomed to a seat on the carpet and the 
bridegroom is worshipped by the girl's fether attended by his priest, with sandal-paste, flowers, 
sweetmeats, ami clothes. 'I'his they call aimant pujan or boundary worship. The guests are 
treated to betel, Sowers, and perfumes, Ihe women of the girl's house esj^cially the girl's 
mother wash the boy's mother's feet and mark her brow with vermilion, laying lo her lap a 
coeoanut and bodicecloth with wheat. Other women guests are given cocoannts and betel 
and the girl's party escorts the boy's party to some house in the girl's neighbourhood and 
return home. On the morning of the marriage, married women pound some wheat in a 
basket and rub tho girl with turmeric paste. The married women take part of the paste 
that remains to the hoy with music and a band of friends and rub him with it, After the 
turmeric-rubbing the boy is balhed and dressed in new clothes. As the lucky hour draws 
near the girl's friends and kinspeople, acoompanied by a band of kinswomen, visit the 
hriilegroom with music. The bridegroom is dressed in a rich suit, his brow is decked with a 
marriage coronet, and ho and bis friends are fed with sweetmeats. The girl's mother 
gives him a packet of betel leaves and nut which he chews and spits into a dining dish. He 
mounts the wedding horse and is escorted by the bride's party to the girl's with music aud a 
company of friends aud kinsfolk. His mother and her friends and relations follow attended 
by the girl's mother. On the way eoeoanuts are broken and thrown away as offerings to«vil 
spirits, Ou reaching ihe bride's the boy di^muuDte and hifa feet Hie washed by one of (be 



Ills 

women servants oi the house. He enters the booth and is led by lihe bride^s lather %o tlie 
raised earth altar or vedi. At this time the bride^oom's mother^ as she- most not see her 
fatore daughter-in-law till a particular moment^ feigns anger and goes to a neighbouring 
house. The bridegroom takes off his turban and ooat but keeps his marriage ooronet on his 
brow and stands near the raised altar with his &ce to the east. The bride is clad in a yellow 
waistcloth called asktaputri and a shortsleeved backless bodice and with folded hands is 
seated before Oauri-Aar that is an image of Shiv and his wife Gbiuri whom she prays to 
give her a good husband. As the lucky moment draws near her maternal ancle takes the 
bride to the altar and sets her facing the bridegroom with a curtain marked with the lucky 
cross or avaitik held between them. The brideg^room's sister stands behind the bridegroom 
and the bride's sister stands behind the bride as the maids of the pair each with a lighted 
lamp and a cocoanut. The priest repeats lucky texts^ and the guests throw red rice over 
the pair. The astrologer tells when the lucky moment comes^ the musicians play^ the curtain 
is drawn to the north and the couple who up to this time have been silently looking at the 
lucky cross or svastik, throw garlands of flowers and sweet basil or tuhi leaves round each 
other's necks. Thus the pair are husband and wife and the guests are given betel and 
flowers. The bridegroom's party retire to their place^ taking stealthily with them the metal 
pots used in worshipping Qauri-har. The priest then hands the lucky necklace to the bride- 
groom who ties it round the bride's neck. This lucky necklace is of two small trinkets and 
green glass beads strung together by a courtezan who is called janma savdskin or the 
unwidowed till death. After this the bride's mother prays the bridegroom's mother to go 
back to the bride's presenting her with a robe and sweetmeats ; and the bridegroom's father 
and his relations are asked to dine at the bride's by the bride's father attended by music and 
friends. The bride's father is seated and the priest asks the bridegroom's party one by one 
who^ in token of accepting the invitation take a pinch of red rice from thh cup which the 
priest holds before them. 




of wheat flour and red powder are traced about the low stools/ and plantain leaves are laid one 
before each low stool witibi two leaf cups or drom one for clarified butter and the other for 
sauce or curry. When all is ready^ the bridegroom's party is brought with friends and music 
and welcomed by the houseowner. All wash their lumds and feet at a place prepared for the 
purposCj put on their sacred waistcloths^ and take their seats on the low stools according to 
their rank.' The bridegroom is seated at the head of the party close to his father or some 
relation. The bridegroom's mother goes into the house and is seated by the bride's mother on 
a low stool along with other married women belonging to the bridegroom's party. When 
all are seated a place is reserved for the bride to the left of the bride^oom and frankincense 
sticks are burnt in the halL The pair are told to feed each other and all beg^ to eat. The 
musicians pl&y and the host moves through the hall prating his g^uests to pardon the slowness 
with which the feast is served. When the courses are half done the boys sing verses and the 
.company ends them with a chorus " SUdidnt smaran/* or ^^ Ear har mahadevy The bride- 
groom after numerous entreaties from the bride's &ther^ brothers, and other kinsmen has to 
recite a poem and his mother-in-law stands anxiously behind the door of the hall to applaud 
him. When the dinner is over^ betel is served, and the party of the bridegroom leave, a few 
of the women remaining at tiie bride's. In the women's hall^ to eat the various dainties 
the bride's mother constantly presses the bridegroom's mother, who is most difficult to please, 
bang ready to take offence at the slightest neglect or want of attention on the part of the 
bride's mother. The bride is made to eat from the same plate with her mother-in-law who, 
as a rule, takes from two to four hours to finish her meal. The bridegpx>om'8 women claiming 
superiority over the bride's party point out the faults of the girl's household in rhyming 
couplets called uihdndt, and the young girls of the bride's house answer them. The 
musicians play and at last the bridegroom's mother finishes her meaL She is given sugar to rub 
on her hands and cloves to cleanse her teeth, and after the service of betel and peifumes she 
leaves. Every morning during the ceremony the bridegroom and bride are seated face to 
face in the hall attended by uie sisters and friends of each. The bride puts a roll or vidiot 
betel leaf between the teeth of the bridegroom who holds it fast and the bride tries to bite it off. 
Some one of the bridegroom's friends gives him a push and the bride fails and is laughed at. 
Then the bridegroom's turn comes. Pieces of cocoa-kernel and cloves are substituted for rolls 
of betel leaf and the pair are &cetiouslj warned to take care not to bite off each other's lips. 
The bridegroom holcTs fast a betelnut m his left hand and the bride tries to wrest it from him. 
The bride then holds a betelnut between her two hands and the bridegroom takes it from her 
using only his left hand. Then follows hide and seek. The bride bides a betdnut in her clothes 
and the bridegroom tries to find it out. If the bridegroom finds it all is well. If he ffdls her 
girl friends twit him and advise him to pray his wife to be good enough to give it back. Then 
the husband hides and the wife seeks it. If the wife fin& she is applauded and if she fails 
she is excused. The pair then put on their bathing dress, and the sisters of each rub turmeric 
and fragrant oil on them. The pair go to the bathing {dace and are bathed, first in red water or 




attend and eat m&k tha pair, who feed each other from the saine 



117 

In the GV6iiiug the bi-idt:groom Ceigns aiiger and goes away Bteatttiily to ft Deigltboariue 
honse. The bride's brother or father soes in eoarch of him, presents him with a metal pot tuia 
■weetmeats or ISdu gadm, nnd brings aim book. He sits before the house gods and Gauri-har, 
and the bride, richly dressed and decked with ornaments ^nde by him with her left foot on hie 
lap. Saffron water i^^ eprinliled over the mango twigs near the gcxl, and the biidegroom talces 
one of the images of the house gods, putu it into hia pocket, and leaves the place. 1 he pair how 
before the house gcds nnd the elders and the bri<legR>om mounts bis hor^e seating ibe bride befon 
him. Music plays and the procession moves from the girl's to tbe local temple, bows before the 
god, and starts for the bridegroom's bouse. Cocoanuts are broken as before in oSerine to evil 
spirits, and fireworks are let off. \Mien tiiey reach the bridegroom's, thu pair dismount 
Dear the door. The miiEJciana step forward and bar the entry and go on beating their 
drums until, in addition to their regular wages, tUey exact a money present from the bride- 
groom's father. Then the moid who stands at the door with an earthen pot full of water 
empties it at tbe feet of the pair who enter the house followed by friends and relations. A 
measure of corn tilled with wheat is placed at the door and the bride upsets it with her fuot' 
Tbe priest conducts the pair through the naming at which the bridegroom gives his wife a new 
name by which she is hereafter known in his house. Sugar is distributed among the guests, 
and they are told the bride's new name. ITic bride is given a cup of milk and the bridegroom 
drinks what is left from the same jwt. Meanwhile his sieter hiis tied the nkirts of their 
garments, and' refuses to untie tbe knot until the pair utter each other's uameq. The bridegroom 
at once speaks out bis ivife's name hut the bride bides it in some such couplet as. " Tbe sweet basil 
plant lay at the door and I watered it ; lirst I was the darling of my parents, now I am the queen 
of Hamrav." The other married women present are not allowed to leave the place until they 
mention their bnsbands' names. A wooden meaaure or a metal pot is brought from the store 
room. Tbe bridegroom's mother tries to empty it and the bride to ka'p it full till at last she 
lays her band on an ornament which has been hidden in the grain. The bride's mother leaves 
one of her relations with the bride, as a maid of honour. Next day the couple are bathed 
at the bridegroom's and the friends and relations of the bride are feasteii. 

The next is the last day of the ceremony when the bride's mother asks tbe bridegroom's 
mother and sisters to her house and bathes them. The married women of the bridegroom's 
house dress in white and with music and a baud of friends goto the bride's accompanied by 
the bride's mother. As they leave the house, tbe washerman spreads his cloth or piii/ghadi on 
the road and the bridegroom's mother and relations walk over it. A long roundabout way is 
chosen, and, on tbe way, low stools are placed, in order that the bridegroom's mother and hv 
party may rest if weary. If they halt they are given turmeric powder and red powder to nib 
on their bodies and cocoanuta and wb«it are put in their kips. Now and then red powder is 
thioivQ over them, and, before reaching the bride s bouse they are red from head to foot. Ou 
reaching tbe house they are bathed in warm water and new glass baubles are put on their 
wrists. A piece of silver is put in the metal pot, the water in the pot is boded, and the coin 
goes to the servant. All bathe and go home. Sometimes the bridegroom's jnother is seated 
on a swing which is gently swung. As it moves women fervanls standing on either side of 
her pour water over her. She then singa a song with the chorus, " The desires of the heart are 
not fulfilled, oh friends," On that day the bridegroom's party are feasted with pancakes or 
karartjas and piitvadta or rolls of gram flour. After dinner the guests dress in rich clothes and 
seat themselves on carpets. B«tel is served and saffron water sprinkled on their shoulder- 
cloths. The pair remove each other's marriage'threads and put them in a pot illled with milk. 
The women take away tbe earthen pots round the altar or vedt and also the canopy over it. 
The earth altar or vedi remains and seeds and creepers are planted on it at the beginning of 
the rains that the family of the bride and bridegroom may grow and spread like the creepers, 
bathings and dinners continue at the bridegroom s on tbe eighth and sixteenth and at tbe 
bride's on tbe tenth and thirteenth. On the anniversary of the marriage tbe bride's father 
gives a dinner to the bridegroom and presents him with a gold ring or a waistclotb. Early 
marriage and polygamy are known^ and practised among Deshasth Brahmans, polyandry 
is unknown, and widowmarriage is forbidden on pain of loss of caste. 

On the morning of the first Jyeihth that is Jnne-July full-moon after the wedding, ^ft^p 
when all married women worship the fig tree or vat to secure long life to their husbands, the marriag* 
newly-married couple are bathed and seat^ on low stools. The priest attends and music eeremo- 
plays- The young wife lays sandal, flowers, turmerioj and vermilion before a picture of the "•■■ 
banian tree drawn on tbe wall, burns frankincense, presents live special offerings or rayaiit to 
five unwidowed women, each offering including a wooden comb, two small turmeriu and 
vermihon boxes, a pair of glass bangles, a piece of bodicecloth, and some wheat or rice, all 
laid in a bamboo tray. If the yoimg wife is at her mother's she has to distribute to Brahmans 
five more special o&erings or myani given to her by her mother-in-law. In the evening she 
has to listen to a Brahman j»iim»tji or reader who reads the tale of S&vJtri and her husband 
Satyavan, at the house of some rich lady or at tbe village temple. The young wife has to 
aat nothing on that day but light food or ^4cra/ and next morning after bathing breaks her 
East with ordinary food. In the month of Jifiddh and Shrcivan or July and .Vugust tbe 
pair interchange presents of toys. On every Tuesday in Shnivan the new wife and her 
Busband worship the goddess of Inck or j/tfMpii/oj/atu-i and Oauri's husband Wip whom she 
invokes on the previous day, offering him a handful of grain called SAivmutA or Shiv's 
handfuL If tbe young wife meets any unforeseen obstacles, as illness or mourning, on the first 
Monday in SArdvan, she puts off the worship till the next Sirdvatt, In the morning with 
girl friends she goes to fetch ficwers and leaves or ;i'rfW<, and a silver image of the goddes» 



118 

Annapuma or the food-supplier is brought from the goldsmith and laid on a low stool. The 
pair are bathed and seated on two low stools^ the girl to the right of the boy in front of the 
goddess before whom they lay sandal paste^ flowers^ leaves^ and food^ bum frankincense^ and 
wave lights. Other married girls join the newly- married pair and worship the goddess and 
are treated to a dinner at the girl's, fief ore dinner the girls exchange copper coins and plates 
and remain strictly silent during dinner. Boys mischievously inclined keep coming in and with 
ntimberleds questions and devices try to make the girls break the golden rale of silence. After 
the meal is over the girls chew tulsi or basil leaves and begin to talk as usual. In the evening 
tlie young wife does not eat her usual food but takes a light repast or pharal with other girls 
who are asked to the house and tvith whom slie passes the night repeating the tale or hahani 
of MangalagOfUfi and playing games. At dawn all bathe^ lay flowers^ vermilion^ and food 
before the goddess and bow her ont^ take a slight breakfast^ and sleep. Every married 
gitl worships Mangalagauri in Shravan or July-August for five years after her niarriage. 

On the third day of Bhddrapad or August-September, the newly-married wife worsliips 
Hartdliia, fasts the whole day and n^ht from all food but plantian, passes the nig^t with 
other girls in playing games, and breaks her fast early next morning. When the sun enters 
the thirteenth constellation of the Zodiac called Has^ or the elephant, newly-married girls 
fasten on a wall in the house a piece of paper, marked with pictures of elephants facing each 
oiber with garlands in their trunks and with men and women dressed as kings and queens in 
oats on tbeir backs. As long as the sun is in the elephant or Hast, married girls meet and 
sing and dance before a low stool in the hall, marked with wheat or rice figures of elephants. 
Sonie day a light feast or hhdtukali is given to the girl by her friends and relations. On 
the eighth of Askvin during the first five years after her Wedding the young wife has to 
worship Mahalaksbmi. Married girls who are asked to the house meet and worship an em- 
bossed image of Annapurna or the food-supplier at noon, and at night a large sitting or 
standing female figure of dough is made, set in the hall, and decked with gold and Eolver 
ornaments. Flowers, vermilion, and food are laid before the goodess, and tiie girls taking 
small metal or eathen jars make music by blowing across the jar-mouths and dance in a circle 
before the goddess. During the dance, one of the girls begins to blow the jar and dances 
better than the rest, a sivre sign that the goddess has entered into her. She presently swajrs 
her hands and is seized with the power of the goddess. • Her friends ply her with questions 
and for some time the goddess in the girl answers the questions. Then the goddess l^ves her 
and the girl &lls iti a swoon. On the bright tenth of Ashvin or September-October, viz^, 
the Daiard day the newly-married girl's husband is asked to dine at the girl's father's and 
pi^esents the girl's &unily with dpta {Baukinia racemoea) leaves which on that day are called gold. 
On his reitum from crossing the boundary or simollanghan the giii waves a light round her 
husband who presents her with gold ornaments and dpta leaves. On Divdli in October-November 
the new son-in-law is asked to bathe and dine at his father-in-law's. On the bright first or pddva 
before or after the meal^ the young wife waves a light round her husband and is presented with 
gold ornaments. Next day he <^ls his wife's brothers to dine at his house, his wife waves a 
light round her brother, and is presented with u robe and bodice and some money called ovdlni 
or the waving gift. On the day of Makar Sanhrdnt or the twelfth of January, for the first 
five years after her wedding, a newly-married ^irl presents her friends with pieces of sugarcane 
and sweetmeat called haha. firahman unwidowed women are asked to the house and each is 
given an earthen jar or 9ugad covered with a bodicecloth. For nine years after the age-<;oming 
ceremony a girl presents five married pairs with five rolls of betel leaves, each roll of nine leaves 
nhie betelnuts nine cloves, nine cardiunoms, nine pieces of mace, and nine nutmegs. Next day 
or kinkrdnt seven rolls of betel leaves are served to seven married Brahman women. On this 
day all married women meet at the village temple or at the house of some rich lady and 
present eadi other with turmeric-paste and vermilion or hdad kunku. Their laps are filled 
with sprouting gpram and coUyrium is rubbed on their eyes. In the month of C!iaeVf a or April, 
manried women hold the ceremony of Aalad kunku or turmerio and vermilion when a female 
figure or mask is set in the women's hall and called Annapurna or the food-supplier. It is 
decked with flowers and lip;hts are set before it. Women neighbours and friends are asked 
and presented with vermilion and turmeric, and sprouting gram and fruit are laid in their laps. 
This is done at every house. During the whole month women are busy paying viats to 
neighbours and relations followed by Kunbi maidservants loaded with sproutmg gram. . To 
wcHuen vermiUon or kunku is very sacred. If the supply in the vermilion box is finished 
instead of saying it is done they say it has ' increased'. The bright third of FaisMkh or May 
is the last day of the haUd kunku or turmeric and vermilion ceremony when the goddess 
Oauri is said to go to her mother's house or mdher. On this day a married woman is feasted 
at every house and women friends and neighbours are presented with turmeric, vermilion, and 
betel. Next day the goddess is said to go to her husband's and remain there till New Year's 
Day or Fafsk Pddva m Ckaitra or ApnI. 
Puberty. "When a girl comes of age, a man-servant with a dish filled with packets of sugar is sent to 

the houses of friends and relatbns. He visits every house, hands the head of the house one of 
thesBgar packets, and tells him the glad news that the girl has come of age. If the girl is at 
her other's, a servant carries the news to her husband's with a packet of sugar and a cocoa- 
nut and is presented with a turban or waistcloth or some money. As soon as the good news is 
sprei^ among the mrFs husband's friends they tease him with demands of sweetmeats orpedkds in 
hoBomr of the birw of >a dumb eon or muka muiga as the wifo'a oomfing of ase is generally called. 
A gaify deoked wooden frame is pretered^ a square is marked in it^ and a Tow stool set fai the 
sqMie I tiie girl 10 decked with jewels and seated ia the square, and a Ma^tt>a maid-^ervaot 



in 



attends her day and night. Every morning sbe re given turmeric and vermilion, nmsic flays, nnd I 

a cocoanat and wheat are laid In her lap. Women friends and neig^hhours feed the girl with I 

sweet dishes which they prepare at their homes, nnd lay a bodicscloth, whcati and a cocoanut in I 

her lap presenting her with tnrmerio and vormilion. Tlie girl is nibliod with swoet-scente<l I 

oil and turmeric and bathed on the morning nf the fourth day and is pure. The marriage con- I 

summation or gaThhS-iiait is performed on a lucky day before the aixteunth day after the age- I 

coming. On the morning of the lucky day.to the soundof munc,the pair are rubbed with tnrmeric I 

and oil and bathed by married women. Both go to the god-room and lay a cocoanut, bow before I 

the gods and the eMers, and ask their blessing. Married friends and neighbours are asked to the I 

house. The pair are seated on two low etools, the girl to the right of the boy, and by the I 

aid of the priest ihey lay sandal, flowers, and sweetmeats before the metal-pot Farutt and the I 

betelnut Ganpali, and kindle the sacred fire. If the girl's sickness begins at an unlucky time, I 

to remove calamities and tronbles, the quieting of Bhuvaneshvari or Bhuvaneehvari-sirtnW is I 

performed, and a sacred fire is lit. The pair than make a cooked rice ball, offer it to the spirit, I 

and bathe in water, poured by the priest through a sieve or rona/i from Bhuvaneshvari'a pot. I 

They dress in fresb clothes and perform the holy-day blessing or pungaharnchan with the I 

same details as before the marriage, bow to the house gods and elders, and are seated before I 

the sacred fire. The fire is kindled and rice cooked over it, and the husband places the rice I 

with a few mango leaves on his right. Tlio husband feeds the sacred fire with rico and the I 

girl pours clarified butter over it. When the service of the sacred fire is over they wash their I 

hands and sit on the low stools as before. The boy's sister hands the boy a quantity of bent I 

grass or durva pounded, wetted, and tied in a piece of white cotton, and be, standing behind I 

the girl and drawing back her head between his knees, with his lettliand, gently lifts her chin I 

and with his right hand squeezes into her right nostril enough bent grass juice to pass into I 

her throat. The girl leaves her seat, washes her hands and feet, and takes her seat as before to I 

the right of her husband. The boy then tenches either her breast or one of her shoulders and I 

lays in her lap a cocoanut, some wheat, a betelnut, and a turmeric root. Women friends and I 

neighbours lay articles in her lap aud present her with clotbes and ornaments. When the I 

lap-filling is over the boy whispers his name into the girl's right ear, money is presented to I 

the priest who leaves with a blessing on the heads of the pair, and the pair with the hems of I 

their garments knotted together, bow before the house gods and elders. Married men and I 

women are asked to dine at the house at noon. The girl, dresses in a silk cloth called muHa I 

which she is to wear thenceforth at her every-day meals, is given a cup of butter, and serves I 

its contents to the guests. At night friends and kinspeople meet at the house after supper, and I 

a room is lighted and fumishedlwith cushions and carpets for the guests to sit on. Both the boy I 

and the girl are presented with fine clothes and ornaments which theylput on aud arc seated on I 

the carpet spread in the room. The girl washes her husband's feet in warm water with the I 

aid of her elder sister or some friend and on his feet paints vermilion and turmerio shoe?. The I 

women dress a cylindrical stone-pm in a bodice, call it Gopala, and bring it in. This they I 

call the future Fon and ask the girl to hand it to her husband. She gives it to him saying, I 

" Please jtake care of this child, I am going to fetch water." The boy says, " You keep the I 

child, I am going to my business." Then the married women repeat their husbands' names, I 

the stone-pin is placed in the boy's bands, and the guests withdraw. The bedding is spread I 

and water mixed with saffron is sprinkled over it. Close to the bed are Bet a lamp, a metal I 

water-pot, a metal plate for bet«l leaves with a nutcracker, a betel-leaf can called pSiipuda, I 

lime and catechu boxes, betel leaves, nuts, cardamoms, cloves, and nutmegs. The servant I 

who prepared the beddin? is prcseuted with a turban. The boy is already in the room and at I 

the luc^ moment, the girl who teisiis great unwillingness i.'^ dragged to the door and pushed I 

in by her female friends, and the door is closed after ber. She then drinks a little from ;t cup I 

of milk and hands the cup to her husband who drinks it and chews the betel which Ihis wife \ 

serves to him. Lastly they eat a piece of cocoanut and sugarcandy and go to bed. Neit ' 
i morning the girl's mcther brings rice, wheat, a cocoanut, packets of vermilion and tui ineric, 
[ puts tbem in the girl's lap, and presents her with uncooked provisions enough to feed twenty 
people. During her first pregnancy, the girl is given a longing feast or dohale jevan and 
mends and kinsfolk ask her to dine. 

When a Deshasth is on the point of death, he is laid on a white country blanket or Death. 
ghengdi and a basil leaf it gold and some holy water are put in bis mouth. If the son is 

present he takes the dying head on his lap, and, when all is over, the women sit round the dead J 

wailing and weeping. The dead is laid on a bier and taken to the burning ground by four I 

kinsmen preceded by the chief mourner with the firepot in his hand. If kinsmen are not I 

av^lable Brahmans are hired to carry the body to the buning ground. As soon as the dead I 

ia removed those who remain at home dig a pit on the spot where the dead hrcathul his last, I 

set in the hole a lighted lamp facing south, and keep the burning lamp for len days. A pile is I 

heaped, the body is laid on it, and cremated. A married woman who dies before her husband is I 

bathed iu warm water, her liair is smoothed with butter, her body is rubbed with turmeric, I 

and her brow is marked with vermilion. She is dressed in a new robe and bodice, the lucky I 

necklace is tied round her neck, toerings are put round her toes, and her hair is decked with I 

flowers. A betel roll sijueezed between the plams of two hands is put in her month, and a I 

cocoanut, wheat, packets of turmerio and vermilion are laid iu her lap. Married women are I 

presented with rice, oocoanuts aud packets of turmeric and vermilion, and the boily is laid I 

on the bier, carried to the burning ground, and bomt. Widows are treated in the same way 1 

&B men ; they are not entitled to the honours shown to married women, I 
Deshuhtbs have a caste council. The Brahman caste council includes the availoble men gooial 

dlcputat. , 



120 

of the Chitpavan^ Deshasth^ and Karhadu castes and settle social disputes at caste meetings 
or according to the votes of learned men or shdstris. Smaller breaches of social rules are 
punished by the caste council and serious breaches are referred to the Smart high priest Shahka- 
racharyaof Shankeshvar, The high priest still gets his dues from his followers but his power is 
growing weaker day by day. 



INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE DESHASTH BRIHHANS. 



Gana. Pravara. Gotra. 

!• Kftshyapat 

NidhruT. 

K&sliTapa. 
(a) Ktshyapa I SMndi^a. 
(6) ATatsar. ( Rebh. 
(c) NaldhruTa \Lau|(ftksli. 

Kohal. 

Ildmedli* 



& Tashisth. 



(a) Tashistlia , 

(b) Shakti .( 

(c) Parftshar . 



Tashishtha. 

Knndin. 

IIpamanyaT. 

Par&sliar. 

Jfttakarnya. 

Raki. 

Lanhitayan. 

Guggnlak. 

Kandasliaya< 

Vaji. 



S. Agasti. 



(a) Agastya 
(6) Darghya- 

ehuta 
(c) sambliaTah 



4. Atri. 



I 



a)Atri 
b) Archan 

(o) Spavasya 



• 



/ Agastya. 

IwmaTaiia. 

Sambhyaha. 

SomTaha. 

Yadnavaha, 

DarbhaTaha. 
( Sanraha. 

Pnrnamas. 

Himodak. 

Panika. 

Tishai. 

Sphainayan. 



/Atri. 

' Tadblmtak. 

GaTishtir. 

Hudgal. 

Dhanaqjaya. 

Bhuri. 

Chhandi. 



6. TifthTamitra. 



(a) Kanshik. 
(6) TisliTaiiii* 

tra. 
(o) Aghamar- 

Bliaii« 



Bhaiandan. 
Shaiisandhi. 
Arnay, 
Atithi. 
Tamarathya. 
Smnagali. 
VTaiJayap. 



/Knshik. 
Kanshik* 
Lohit. 
Raukshak. 
Kamkayan. 



(A)a. 
\ Kata. 



Dhananjaya. 
Aghamarshana. 
Puran. 
Indrakanshlk. 



(a) Kanshik 

(b) Yishyami- 

tra. 

(c) Aghamar- 

shaiia. 



5. Tishyamitra.— eofitd. 

Parnajangh. 

Kudakya. 

Rohita. 

Deyslirayas« 

Deyrat. 

Parthiya. 

BandhuL 

i' Asmarathya. 
sahui. 
Gathln. 
Hariyya-retas. 
Snyama-retas. 
Kapot-retas. 
Shaiankayan^ 
Ranhina. 
Tainaya. 

6. Bhrigu or Bhargay. 

/Bhargay* 
Tatsa. 
Vida. 

Harkandeya* 
mandukeya. 
Shaila. 
Ayata. 
Arshtisliena. 
Nairlt. 
Gramayan. 



(a) Bhargay 
(6) Chyayan 
(a) Apnayan 
(o) Anrya 
(o) Jamadag- 
nya. 



7. Yask. 



f«ay .( 
ahayyaj 



Yask. 
Yash. 
Hamia. 



(a) Bhar 

(OSayetas .(Hutal! 

& Hitrayn. 
(a) Bhargay r Hitrayn 

(6) Yaijhyash-^ 5i*S?yayaii. 



9. Tainya. 

(a) Bhargay 
(6) Vainya 
(c) Partha 

10. Shnuaka. 

(a) Bhargay ^ 
lb) Shannaho- 

tra. 
(c) Grutsa* 

mad. 

11. Yed-yishya. 

(a) Bhargay . 
(6) Yedaylsha 
(v) Jyotish 

IS. Shathar. 

(a) Bhargay 

(b) Shathar 
(e) Hathar 



( Yainya. 
•3 Partha. 
'1 Bashkala. 
*C8hyeta« 



I Shunak. 
> Gratsamad. 
V Yadnapati. 



) Yed-Yishya. 
C Jyotish. 



') Shathar. 
;JHathar. 



• rrom tttit fiipfttii tv Bkia SldflH of lodoct. 



m 



(a) Gantam 

(b) Ingiias 

(c) iyasya 



Gantam. 

Ajasya. 

Slirouiredli. 

JHudbaratli. 

Sltftradvata. 

Abhiiita. 

Ranlilnya. 

Kaoinaiid. 

IH&niaiitb-reshan. 

IMaguraksh. 

ItirslitamaB. 

Karen upfll. 

VftstaTfa., 

Sbrettya. 

TftmadeT. 

AnshanaB. 

Dishya. 

Prasbasta. 

RahuiraRa. 

SoiiiTlijah. 

Brtiliatliikt)). 

litathya. 

R&fClintva. 



14. BbKradwlJa, 



(a) BUradwiy, 
(ft) AngriraB . 
Barbagpa- 
tya. 



S 



BbftradwAla- 

KBh&my&yan. 

DlTftshra. 

Garca. 

!«&mbliarayaiia. 

Sakhiiiaya. 

Riikali. 

Itankli^yana. 

Kaplla. 

Kapl. 

Swastltaii. 

Dandin. 

ItDubhnTa. 



(a)Aiirin8 OHSrlta. 
(bjlmbrUli .fSaobha^ 
(c) YaTiiiftBli> CNalyagarya. 
va. J 



(a) Angiras 
(() n&ndhftt 
(e) Kntsa 

17. Kaara. 

(a) ABirlraa 

(b) ijamld 
(e) HaoTa 



.) Kanra. 

. \ Aapa-maikat. 

.)B&8bkaI&jaB. 



(a)iliiflra8 .)Ratliltar. 
(b) Talmpa . \ Hastlda. 
(0) Kathltar .) NafUrakshl. 

19. TlshnvTriddh. 

(a)lirtTa8 .-) 

(b) Panniknt- (Vlshnnrrlddli. 

sa Clhatha. 

(o) Trasaddsyn j 

80. HndgaL 

(a) Anfiraa .] 

(b) BUrmyft- f MudfaL 

sbra. > SfttyaiBiifrifa. 
(«) Iftudacal- 1 HlmtyaiUBib. 
y». J 



ei. Shannr-ShaiBblr. 

KnBblk. 



(a) AniriraB . 

(b) Birbaspa- 

tya. 
(<f) BliXradwSl 
((I) Sbaonir 
(«) Sbatsblr . 



KauBbik. 

Lohlt. 

RankBbak. 

K&mkayaii. 

Aja. 

Hata. 

nbaiianjaya. 

AirbainarBhana. 

Pnrati. 

Iiidra-kausliik, 

Pania-langb. 

Hodakya. 

Robita. 

DerasbraraB. 

Derrat. 

Pftrtblva. 



ismarathya. 
/ S&bnl. 
\ CiAthiii. 

liiraiiya-retas. 

Siivania-retas. 

Kapot-rplas. 

SliillaiikiLyan. 

Raahlna. 

Tainara. 

Bb&radwiUa. 

Kgb&myftyaiii 

DerftBbTa. 

Garg^a. 

siiniliharJiyaua. 

Sakliiiiaya. 

Kiiksh. 

Raiikhftyaiia. 

Kaplla. 

Hapi. 

Svastitarl. 

Dandin. 

Itmabbara. 



i-SankrlU. 
. \ Pntlm&Bha. 



es. Bankrlti. 



(a) iBilras - , . . 
(b)6anilTltl ..^Tandi. 
(o) Sankritya / Lan^ksb and Oiom 

I ooder No. 2. 

es. Lanrkksbi. 

(a) Kksbyapa .1 

(b) AvatBir. .ISamkrltl and Uiom 
(«) TashlBhttaa} under Noe. 1 and 2. 



KnBblk. 

KanBblk. 

Lobll. 

Kanksbak. 

K&mk&yan. 

Ala. 

Kata. 

Dbananjaya. 

Ajrliamarsbana. 

Puran. 

Indra-kansbik. 

Pania-jansU. 

Kiidakya. 

Robita. 

DeraBbraTaB. 

DcttU. 

Pftrthlva. 

Undbnl. ■ 

ABDurathja. 

S&bnI. 

GfttblB. 

Harinya-retag. 

Hapot-retas. 

SaTarna-ntai. 



(.1) TisbTiml- 
tra. 

(4 



IS 




(a) 

(0) 



TishTami- 

tra. 
DeiTat. 
Audala. 



S4f Bevnt^eonid 

Shaiankiyan. 
Banhina, 
Tainav. 
BhSryar. 
Yatsa. 
Tida. 

markandeya. 
H&ndukeya. 
Shaila. 
Avata. 
Arshtisliena. 
Nairita. 
Gr&mayan 
S5. Dhanaqjaya 

(a) Tishyftmitra. ^ All those mentioQed 

[b) HadhllCllliaiia [ nnder Noa. 4 and 

[o) Dhananjaya .) 5. 
2C. Jatukarnya 

(a) Tashislltlia . ) All those xnentioiied 
lb) Artriya . ^ under Noa. 2 and 

(c) J&takarnya 







. ) AH t 

. > nn 



e?. Baliya 

IBUeya. 
Kandreya. 
Shaubhreya. 
Yamarathya. 
and^ all those men- 
tioned nnder Noa. 
2, 4 and 5. 

88. Kapiia 

(a) Angriras . | 
(6) Barhaspatya. I 

(p) BUradw&j . ) All those given nnder 
(d) Yandamnftt • / No. 5 and part 2 

(e) Yaehas ./ of No. 13. 

39. Kata. 

(a) YisbTftmitra) 

(h) Kata . . > Ditto. 

(c) Aksihl .) 



* The following is an attempt to group the more modern family names or iuh under 
their respective gotras, 

GOTRAS OF RIGTEDI SECT OP DESHASTH BRIHHAIIS WITH THE gURKAHES III EACH. 



Gotra. 



Atri 



KaplI 



K&shyapa 



Kanndanya 



Kanshik 



Jftmadai^ya 
Yatsa. 



Bharadw&J 



Snrname. 

Joshi* (Astrologers.) 

Thete. 
Atre. 

Sillipare. (Territorial.) 
HundiwUe, (Bankers.) 
Borkar. (Territorial.) 

Babade. 

Kulkarni. (Official.) 

Deshap&nde. (Official.) 

( Satbhai. (Seven brothers.) 
.]Patki. (Medalists, or MiH- 
(. tary Commandants.) 

(DeshapSnde. (Offioial.) 
Pol. (Bulls.) 
Bhonde. 
Kulkarni. (Official.) 
YishwasraT* (The trtist- 
worthy.) 

Kuknur. 
Brahme. 

Kasture. (Musk.) 
Kendurkar. (Territorial.) 

Jakhalekar. (Territorial.) 
Ksbiras&gar. (Ocean of 

milk.) 

(Paithankar. (Territorial) 
* C Lohekar. 

f Apashankar. 

\ Bftmd&si. (Of the cult of 

y Bamdas.) 

V Yiprahas. 

Ekabote. (One fingered.) 

Karajgi. 

Xakalkar. (Territorial.) 

Topeniftr* 
Deshapftnde. (Official.) 

Belsare. 

Hakashr. 

Y&lvekar. (Territorial.) 

.\ S^hirolkar. (Territorial.) 

Sant. (Saintly or calm.) 
Kabirs&gar. (Ocean of milk.) 
DlTftn. (Minister.) 
Yakade. (Crooked.) 
Gal&nde. (Pushed out.) 
P&til. (Official.) 
Y^lnopaTit. (The sacred 

thread.) 



Gotni. 

■ndgal 



Surname. 

(Paithankar; (Territorial.) 
. < P&nse. 

(Sant. (Saintl) or^alm.) 

(K&thaTate. 
■onnabMrpiy < Ylladkar. 

• ( Yyipari. (Merchants). 

Apashankar. 

Ekabote (One fingered.) 
B&mad&si (Of the Bamdas 

Yatsa • •( cult.) 

lAnige. (Wplves;.) 

Kulkarni. (Official.)' 
Yarkhedkar. (Territorial.) 

^ Deshap&nde. (Official.) 

BftyUi. (Royal.) 
Y&dekar. (Territorial.) 
Snd&me. (The lean.) 
Kshiras&l^lf. (Ocean of 

milk.) 

Lonkar. 

Khire.. (Milk porridge.) 
Gitip&thi. (Gita i^dera.) 
Parakhi. (Examiner of 

gold and jewels.) 
Sh&ligram. (Ammonite.) 

Bendre. 

Sfttpute. (Seven sons.) 

Pnndalik. 

Joshi. (Astrologers.) 

DhUe. (Shields.) 

Nirirndkar. (Territorial.) 

Deshamnkh. (Official.) 

Inftmdar. (Free holders.) 
rHirikar. (Territoi-ial.) 

CKhal&dkar. (Territoria].) 

Gaikaw&di(Servants of the 

Gaikawilds.) 

Hatvalne. (Trained 

hands.) 

Khftsnig. (Official.) * 
Kulkarni. (Official.) 

Pandit. fLeamed.) 
DdiS. CMekmchdly.) 

Dole. 



Yashishtha 



/ 
\ 



Sh&ndilya 



Bh&rfar 



* From wiateriali tnftpUed by the offiee of the Pxerineiil fiiqitriiitaideiit of Stfmoen^y, Bombaj. 



tu 



Gotra. 
Gftr^ya . 



GaQtam 



Agasti 



Surname. 

( Kftlvil. (Black buck.) 
. ] Joslli. (Astrologers.) 

( Kulkarni. (Officifd.) 

(Kadlie. 
Dashaputre. (Ten sons.) 
Anrnak. 
Chaudhari. (Official.) 
Rftlurkar. (Territorial.) 

( Korade. (The dry.) 
] Agrarkar. (Territorial). 

') Raleraskar, 
Q Sarnftik. (Official.) 



Gotriu 
Haritam 

Haritas • 



Jamada^ni 



Dhananfaya 
Vaiaya 



Sarname. 

• Joslli. (Astrologers,) 

. Knlkarnl. (Official.) 

(Babhulfftumkar. (Terri< 
torial.) 
Kulkarni. (Official.) 
Hedhekar. (Territorial.) 
Lewalekar. (Territorial.) 

. Kulkarni. (Official.) 

. IpiTekar. (Territorial.) 



GOTBAS OF YAJURTEDI SECT OF DESHASTH BRlMAllS WITH TH SVRHAHES FOUHD IN BACH 



Gotra. 



Itri 



Vpanianyu 



Kutsa 



Krishaatra 



Kaundanya 



Kausliik, 



Garga 



Gantam 



Kftshyapa ./ 



Surname. 
( Kukade. 

' ( Tftmboli. (Betel-leaf seUer.) 

( Advant. 
.) Dhami&dkikar]. (Chief 

1 Priest.) 

V^Saptarishi. 

/ Kasture. (Musk.) 

Joshi. (Astrologers.) 

Desliapftnde. (Official.) 

Kisftl. 

Parashurftmi Popbale. 

(fietel nut) 

Bodliani. 
Blianage. (B^gars.) 

Mftnde. (Thigh or pancake.) 
Mftliakeshwar. (Terri- 

torial.) 

Rftdhane. (Cook.) 
Mule. 
\ Kulkarni. (Official.) 

. Bhirapataki. 

IKamalapurkar. (Tern 
torial.) 
Kulkarni. (Official.) 
Tftmboli. (Betel-leaf seller.) 
Dekhane. (Good looking.) 
Ilese. (Local.) 
Desliapftnde. (Official.) 

Chikte. (Tenacious.) 
jDighe. (Performers of a 
sacrifice.) 

'Pftnasare. 
Habu. 

Kadekar. (Territorial.) 
Dftrare. (Left-handed.) 
nmboli. (Betle-leaf sellers.) 

Barole. 

Sfttbhai. (Seven farotheis.) 
Sftpkar. (Territorial.) 

\ Buehaki. 

^Hutftlik. (OfiBcial.) 

Dftufe. 

(Beshmukli. (Official.) 
Nimbftlkar. 
Bulftke. 
Ronghe. 
Wftbale. 

Kotasthftne. (Territorial.) 

Gathane. 

Ninbftlkar. (Territorial.) 

Nisanrand. 
BasftL 












Gotra. 



Surname. 



fHushftrif. 
Vaiskar. (Territorial.) 
Hirave. (Green, Raw.) 
Sukapure. (Territorial.) 
Ekalahare. ( Venomous.) 
Davalbhatjoshi. 

JayaTantayan Bhftlerao. (Lancers.) 

Dharanya . Vaidya. (Physicians.) 

/ Kate. 

I Kftle. (Black.) 
I Gongale. 
J Nagarkar. (Territorial.) 
^ Hungi. 

Suvarnapataki. (Gold me- 
dalist.) 
\ Khole. 



Parftshar 



Bhftrgar 



BhftrftdwaJ 



■aharshana 
■ftrkandeya 

■udagal 



■ounasa 



Lounftkaha 



Vatsa 



Haehave. (Ship.) 

Rishi. (Saint.) 
Tekade. (Hill.) 

Dftravekar. (Territorial.) 

Dhaneshwar. (The rich.) 

Nagarkar. (Territorial.) 
Pftthak. (Teachers.) 

Pimpalwadkar.(TerritoriaL) 

• \ Bhope. (Priest.) 
Hahftjan. ( Respectable.) 
Kftle. (Black.) 

Lembe. 

RAJahansa. (Swans.) 

Shani. (Saturn.) 

Srftte. 

• Dhakephal. 

• VftShmftrer (Tiger slayers 

C Arati. 
» jDeshapftnde. (Official.) 
(Bere. 

C Khisti. 
3 Shukte. 

• 1 Hatnurkar. (Territorial.) 

(, Kliftparde. 

( Puntftmbekar. (Territorial.) 
*(Shukla. (The white.) 

Kftpase. (Cotton.) 
Korade. (Dry.) 

Godase. (Sweet.) 
Ghumare. (Bell-wearer.) 
Joshi. (Astrologers.) 

Tliombare. 

Pftthak. 

Pamak. 



124 



Ctotra. 



Vatsa— confi, ./ 



Surname, 

/ Badave. (Temple servants.) 

Barananiasarkar* (Tor* 

ritorii3.) 
Hule* (Raddisli.) 
Bhimi^rkan (Temtorial.) 
Rekhi. 
Shrotrt. (Chief saorificer.) 

Sole. 
Tavase. 

Gite. (Gita readers.) 
Purftnik. (Pnran readers.) 

A marapnrkar. (Terri- 

\ torial.) 



Tashishtha • { JjSnl.^^^^"''''''^ 



Shftndilya 



( Joshi. (Astrologers.) 

\ Devachake. 

• I Harip. (Cunniiig.) 

(. Barasode. 



Gotra. 



Shonnak 



Shalaksha 



Sarname. 



ShriTatsa . Sranakalye. 



. Dev* (Goc(s.) 



Sanlmaiil . Edake. (Rams.) 
Silukhyilyan . Adakaft 
Tyilghrapad • Sherade. 



Hodagi. 



1S6 



».— Of the Scytho-Dravidlan Tract. 



KATHIS. 



[J.J. Dalal it.J.,l^.B.] 

The Kathit,^ Btrong und robust race inbaMting the peniaBnla named after tbeni) Were 
feudal chiefs. Their warlike propensities are well bnown. They are said to be of Indo- 
Scythio origin. They first settled ia Sindb in the course of their migratioa ; but being banished 
from there by the Snmnri kiog they took shelter in the dominionB of a Baja of the Vala race, 
who then ruled at Uhanlj, near Dhoraji, in Sorath, and established themselTes in the region of 
the Sauras where their inflneace became so predominant that the name of K&tbiawar superseded 
the ancient appellation of Saur&Btra. In modern times they are mostly serfs on the soil, hariDg 
lost their pahimony by lai^ expenses and indolence. Those who have not lost all are renowned 
(^ium-eatera like the Rajputs. Still through all their poverty and indolence shine the tall 
statures, handsome faces, and blue eyea in both sexesj distinguishing them prominently from the 
Various other castes and tribes of Kathiawar. 

The Kathia give their traditional origin as follows : — Aurfitl* 

When the Paudavas lost all in the great game of gambling at Haetiuapor, they bad, KSthis. 
according to the terms of the game, to betake ttemselves to a foresfrlae for twelve years, and at 
the end of that time to pass one year so secretly that their whereabouts may not be discovered 
by the Kauravas. If the places were discovered they had to pass thirteen years more in 
exile. The Pandavas after the expiry of twelve years of forest-life concealed thenaselves in the 
Virata country (lying about Dhoika in Gujarat). The Kauravas suspected this and, in order to 
ascertain the truth, they went there, but were unable to get hold of the Pandavas- Duryo- 
dhana then suggested cow-lifting to force the Pandavas to come to the rescue. As they could 
not do the act themselves owing to their being Ksbatriyas, he asked Kama to devise some 
means of putting that scheme into execution. £arna struck the earth with a wooden stick and 
produced a man. This man so brought into existence by a KathfJia (wooden stick) was named 
Kathi (a corrupted form of the original Sanskrit word). He was asked by Kama to lift the 
cows and was enjoined to maintain himself on plunder and cattle-tifting thenceforth. For the 
service the Kathi was rewarded by his master Duryodhana with the gift of the Pawar prin- 
cipality of Dhir in Central India. Here be mamed an Ahir girl and had by her eight sons, 
who became the progenitors of eight 8hakka» or families. They are Pafffar, Farm, Manjaria, 
Toria, £et, Jebalid, Nekar, and Natka. All these eight families are known as the Aurfttias, 
meaning inferior. These Aur&tias are really speaking the pure Kathis as opposed to 
the other Kathis known as the Sakhayat, meaning noble Kathis ; but as they give their 
daughters in marriage to the latter they are considered lower in the social scale. The 
Sakhayat trace their descent as follows : — When Kama of Mababharatfame went t« fight SBkhSyat J 
in the great battle of Kurukshetra, he was accompanied by his son Vritket (Vrishaketu). Seeing KStma. 
how affairs were being shaped in that battle, Kama prevailed upon his sou to save bis 
life by returning home. From that day his descendants were called Vala KAjputs, from Volga 
returned. One of his descendants by name Dhdno Valo was nUing in Dhank in Kathiawar, 
when a large crowd of Kftthis from Dhar came there to escape the severity of a famine. Among 
the refugees there was a Kathi named Bijal belonging to the Patgar branch, with his family. 
His daughter named Rupdi was very beautiful and Vera Val4, son of Dhana Vala, married ber. 
'When the fact became known, the Rajputs excommunicated the Prince and his wife, who there- 
upon joined the Kathis. Me bad three sons by name Valo, Khuman, and Lalu by bis K£thi 
mfe. These three sons became the progenitors of three branches, the Vala, the Khum&n, and 
the Kbachar. These are known as the Sfikb&yats. A third accession to this race was also 
of the Rajputs belonging, as they profess, to the celebrated HiLthod clan of Kanauj. They are Dhandbftl. 
known as the Uhandhols. It is a rule among these Kftthis that the Auratias and the Sakhaytas ^^tbis. 
canuot many within their own circle, but the Auratias have to give to and seek brides from the Marriage 
Sakhayats and vice verti. Similarly, there is no objection among them to take wives from ^o'^S 
among the Ahirs and the Babarias. Among them a brother's son or daughter can be married -jutBide 
to the children of his sister. There is no objection to polygamy and no limit is fixed as regards their ov n 
the age within which a girl should marry. Widow remarriage is not prohibited, though some circles. 
of the higher families do not generally practise it. As both these sections of the K&this trace 
their descent from Kama, whom the Mahabharat alleges to be the son of ^itfya (Sun), the 
Kathis worship the Sun aa their race deity and insert the attestation of the Son in all docn- 8nn-wat- 
ments. They also worship the serpent god Yasnki. ship. 

The Kathis are prohibited from killing or eating the fiesh of cow, deer, and peacock. 
Other animals ordinarily used for food are permitted. They also drink liquor and can eat the Y^** 
food prepared by any Hindu except the unclean ones. The same restriction holds as to drink- -^gj^jj^j^g^ 
in g water. They do not observe Stttaia .(monming) Uke the Hindus : similarly women are for food, 
not segregated, as among the Hindus, at particular seasons. 



4 



186 



2, Yajmal; 

5. Bo^a; 

8. Derail: 
11. KasturiE; 
14. Mjani; 
17. Tliebani ; 
20. Yel&ni : 
S3. Heramka; 
26. TajsU ; 
29. Yilshftiii. 

b.— KHiCHAR. 

2. D&nd ; 
5. Inand-purft; 
8. Godadk&; 
11. Theb&ni. 

2. Sftndsnr; 

5, Lunchad; 

8. Gich&ni ; 
11. S&ledift; 
14. Gol&ni ; 
17. Kanthadkft; 
20. N&sp&lkfi. 



3. Vikm&; 

6. GoT&lia; 

9. Karpad&; 
12. Harsurkft; 
15. Bh&y&ni ; 
18. Aldni ; 
21. Dbftndni ; 
24. Bbokani ; 
27. Selftrkft; 



INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE KlTHIS. 

Classified list of Gotras or Kulas, etc., amoiif? the Kftthis. 
Endoffamons DiTisions.— None. 
Sects.— Three. 

A. Sftkhilyat ; B. Anrfttift ; C. B&barift. 

A.— SlKHlTAT. 

Divisions. — 

1. Sftkhftyat old ; 2. Sftkhftyat new. 

NoTi. — All the three branches of the Kathig have got many aocretions to their stock ; hence there are iwQ 
dirisions in each of them — the old and the new. 

Al.— Sl&HlYAT OLD. 

Gotra, etc.— 

TA58A. — Surya ; Kui.— Bharat ; 

GOTBA.— K&syapa ; Goddess.— Yijaya-Shri ; 

SlKHl.— Autrikft ; Ganpati.— Dhnmra-Ketn ; 

Pravara.— 5.— (1) KJlsyapa, (2) Urn, (3) Upalavftn, (4) Jaiuadaf^ni, (5) Bh&rad< 

T&ja. 
Knlas.— 

a. YUa ; b. Kliftcliar ; c. Khnmftn. 

a.— YlLl SlKHlTAT KlTHIS. 

Other family names.— 

1. Yftikhft; 

4. S&k ; 

7. FJuyangiS; 
10. KajfdE; 
13. Kan&ni; 
16. Virani; 
19. Hok&ni; 
22. Ch&dka; 
25. Yad-dad; 
28. Lnn&ni ; 

Family names.— 

1. Hipa ; 
4. HoKfini; 
7. Sag-dad; 
10. Job&li& ; 

Family names.— 

1. Chandu ; 

4. Hoti&r; 

7. Chitrftni ; 
10.taRatank& ; 
13.}Total& ; 
16. YisHmaukft; 
19. Hipani ; 

A2.*-SlKHlYATiJNEW. 

Kul or Family.— 
1.— Han* 

NoTB. — Some saj that the Man Kftthis are genuine Sfthhftyats, while others declare that thej are an aocretion. 

B.— AURlTIl. 
DIVISIONS.^ 

1. Aur&tia old ; 

Kulas.— 

a.— Jiltwadft ; 
d.-Gali& ; 
g^.— H&njarift ; 

KULAS.- 

a.- The Parmftrs ; 
d.— The Y&dhels ; 



3. Lakhftni ; 
6. KQndalia; 
9. R&mani; 



8. Jamar; 
6. Day&ni ; 

9. Lom&ni: 
12. H&ng&ni; 
15. Sftyariil; 
18. NftgsnrkE; 



2. Anr&tift new. 

Bl.— AURlTIl OLD. 

b.— Garibft ; 
e.— Patjpar ; 
h.— BSyal. 

B2.— AURlTIl NEW. 

b.— The R&thods ; 
e.— The miscellaneons. 



c.— N&tft ; 
f.— Pftdvft ; 



c— The Chahnilns ; 



NoTB.— The AurfttiSs belonffuig to the old stock are said to be genuine Eathis $ whereas those belonging to the- 
now stock are Bftjpnt families of Tarions clans who allied themselres with the Kftthis originally for parposes of 
marriage and who now form part of them. Thns the fifth class ia here sijled Miaoellaneons, because it is not 
known to what casta or dan they originally belonged. 



127 



Other fault njiies.— 

1. Jebaliil ; 
«• Haitaril ; 

FAHILT.— DHlNDAL. 

other family names 

1. Ghajfhiliii ; 

4. Dh&n;adl&; 

7. Kheradiil; 
10. SUftnl ; 
13. HftUka. 

Other fault names.— 

1« Chahu&n ; 
4. ShekhaTft; 

1. Gid&; 

1. Ch&ncliad; 
4. PUan ; 
7. Barv&lift. 

Divisions.— 

1. Bffltorift old ; 

KUIAS.- 

a.— Kotiia ; 



B3 a4— PARMlRS. 

& Gig^aift ; 

b. -RITHODS. 

of the Dh&ndhals.— 

2. J&njarift ; 
5. B&mbhani ; 
8. JHUaui ; 
11. Hokh&ni ; 

C— CHAHUiNS. 

2. Yegad; 
5. Jala. 

d.— TlDHELS. 

2, Tara^-madift ; 

E.— Miscellaneous. 

2. H&nkad ; 
5. Itv&yft; 

C— BlBABIl. 

2. B&baiift new. 

CI.— BlBARIi OLO. 

b.— Dhftnkhadft ; 

013.— BlBABIl NEW. 



(These are now looked upon as Anratifts.) 

FAMILT NAMES.— 

I. Ghusftba; 2. Ghagrhft; 

4. Kdretft. 5. Kandhayalft; 

7. Tasarft; 8. Linkhadft; 

10. Gofpalft; 11. Khnndhalft; 

13. KhUft ; 14. Jilarift ; 

16. BaU; 17. Kahore; 
19. Basifi. There are 50 other Family names. 



3. Tisiil ; 
6. Khildak. 



3. Pftnkharlidiil ; 
6. Yiramkft; 
9. T&dh&ni ; 
13. S&brnkS; 



3. Bhicharia ; 



3. Titftsft. 



3. Tantar ; 
6. KiU& ; 



€.— Varn. 



3. Kfttiyil ; 

6. Laiyft ; 

9. Borisft; 
IS. Sodhlft; 
15. Dosarlft; 
18. HilvU; 



NoTB.~The Bftbarifts are beliered by the people of this part to be originally Bajpnts, but are at preflent to all 




ElOi^amous Divisions. — 'ihe Sakhayat Kathis cannot marry among themselves, but 
they have to give to and seek brides from the AarSti&s or the Babui&s. Similarly the 
Aur&tias cannot marry any female of the Auratia branch ; but they can give or take wives 
from the Sakhayats and the old Babaria. 

Among the old or original Babarias intermarriages are also allowed between the members 
of the different families, the only restriction being taken to a marriage within the &mily to 
which the marrying member belongs. 

The new B&barias can marry any women belonging either to the Sakh&yat branch or 
the old Babaria branch, but not a woman belonging either to the Aurati& or the new Babaria 
branch; because they are looked upon to all intents and purposes as Aurati&s. 

It therefore follows that the Sakhayats, the Auriti&s including the new Babarias, and 
each of the three divisions of the old Babarias are exogamous groups. 

NoTBS. — 1. The principle nnderl^g this probibition of marriages is the preeerration of equality of atatos in 
all the families formiDR the E&thi tnbe. The Sftkh&yats and the old Bftbari&a are Girftssias whereas the Anr&ti&s and 
the new B&bari&s are either Jiraidars of these Girftssias or common folk. Thns the women of the latter classes 
marry higher and gain a status ; and the women of the higher classes many lower and bring lands and wealth 
with them to tiieir husbands, and thereby raise the status ox their husbands from ordinary men to JiTaidars. 

2. The Oourt of the Judicial Amis^t to the Political Ag^nt of E&thiawftr has ruled ih more oases thaa one 
that the Hindu Law prop«r does not apply to the K&this. This ruling has been, it is said, upheld by iha Gofrern- 
ment of Bombay. It now beoomes a question whether the K&this can still be classed as Hind us. 



188 



4. Of the DTaTidian Tract. 



SHANAN (808, 189). 
[ JF. Fbasoib, 1.0.8. ] 



The great toddy-drawer caste of the Tamil oonntry. The Sh&o&ns have reoeatly oon 
special promiaenoe owing to the ' Tinnevelly ' riots of Jnne 1899, which were oocanonc 



oome 
into special prominenoe owing to the ' Tinnevelly ' riots of June 1899^ which were occasioned 
by their claims to be Kshatriyas and to enter the Hindu temples. The Sh&nans were 
the first to resort to violence, attacking the Maravans' quarters in Sivakasi on the 26th April. 
In Jnne the Maravans retaliated and 889 Shanans' houses were destroyed in Sivakasi and 1,684 
in the district as a whole. Lives were lost^ 870 persons were arrested> and a force of punitive 
police is still quartered in the district. 

The immediate bone of contention on that occasion was the claim of the Shftn&ns to enter 
the Hindu temples in spite of the rules in the Agama Shastras that toddy-drawers are not 
to be allowed into them, but the pretensions of the community date back from 1858, when a 
riot occurred in Travancore because female Christian converts belonging to it gave up the caste 
practice of going about without an upper doth. Shortly after that date pamphlets began to 
be written and published by people of the caste setting out their claims to oe kshatriyas. In 
1874i they endeavoured to establish a right to enter the great Minakshi temple at Madura, bat 
failed, and they have since claimed to be allowed to wear the sacred thread, and to have palan- 
quins at their weddiags. They say they are descended from the Cherai Chola and Fandya kiugs, 
they have styled themselves Kshatriyas in legal papers, labelled their schools ' Kshatriya 
Academy/ got Brahmans of the less particular kind to do purohitn* work for them, had poems 
composed on their kingly origin, gone through a sort of incomplete parody of the ceremonv of 
investiture with the sacred thread, talked much but ignorantly of their goiras, and induced 
needy persons to sign documents agreeing to carry them in palanquins on festive occasions. 
Their boldest stroke, however, was to aver that the coins commonly known as ' Sh&nans' cash ' 
were struck by sovereign ancestors of the caste. These are Venetian coins often found in the 
south and they are called ^ Shanans' money ' by the common people merely because they have 
upon them a cross which looks like a toddy palm. 

The whole story of their pretensions and claims is set out at length in the judgment in the 
' Eamudi temple case ' in the Sub-Court (East) of Madura, O. S. No. 88 of 1898. 

Apparently, judg^g from the Sh&n&ns' own published statements of their case, they rest 
their claims chiefly upon etymological derivations of their caste-name Shanftn, and of Nadan 
and Gramani, their two usual titles. Caste titles and names are; however, of recent origin 
and little can be inferred from them, whatever their meaning may be shown to be. Brahmans, 
for example, appear to have borne the titles of ' Fillai ' and ' Mudali,' which are now only 
used by Sudras, and the Nayak kings, on the other hand, called themselves ^ Aiyar,' which is 
now exclusively the title of Saivite Brahmans. To this day the cultivating Yellalas, the 
weaving Eaikolas, and the semi-civilized hill tribe of the Jat&pus use equally the title of 
^ MudaV Aixd the Balijas and Telagas call themselves ' Rao ^ which is properly the title of 
Mahr&tta Brahmans. Begarding the derivation of the words Shanan, N&dan, and Gramani 
much ingenuity has been exercised. Sh&n&n is not found in the earlier Tamil literature at all. 
In the inscriptions of B&jaraja Chola (A. D. 984-1018), toddy-drawers are referred to as 
Huvans. According to Pingalandai^ a dictionary of the 10th or 11th century, the names of 
the toddy-drawers castes are Falaiyar, Tuvasar, and Faduvar. To these the Ckuddmani 
NihandUf a Tamil dictionary of the 16th century, adds Saundigar. Apparently, therefor^ 
the Sanskrit word Saundigar must have been introduced (probably by the Brahmans) between 
the 11th and 1 6th centuries, and is a Sanskrit rendering of the Tamil word Uuvan. From 
Saundigar to Shanan is not a long stq> in the corruption of words. The Shftnans say that 
Sh&nan is derived from the Tamil word Sanrar or S&nrpr which means ' the learned ' or ' the 
noble.' But it does not appear that the Sh&nans were ever called S&nrar or S&nror in any of 
the Tamil works. The two words Nadan and Gr&mani mean the same thing, namely, ruler 
of a country or of a village, the former being a Tamil and the latter a Sanskrit word, ifdddn, 
on the other hand, means a man who lives in the country, as opposed to Uran, the man who 
rerides in a village. The title of the caste is Ndddn, and it seems more probable that it refers 
to the fact that the Iluvan ancestors of the caste lived outside the villages (South Indian 
IfueripHont, Vol. II. Part 1). But even if Nadan and Gr&mani both mean 'rulers ', it does 
not give those who bear these titles any claim to be Kshatriyas. If it did, all the descendants 
of the many South Indian Poligfirs, or petty chiefs, would be Kshatriyas. 

The social estimation in which the Sh&n&ns are held differs in different districts. In 
Tinnevelly and Madura they are considered of much less account than they are in Tanjore 
and Chingleput. The social cleuirification is based on the general opinion of the Hindu com* 
munily regarding ea^h caste, and it is well-known that in the Tinnevelhr riots practically 
•very oaste in the district except the Sh&n&n Christian converts sympathuied less with thei 
Shiuians' pretensions than with the efforts of those who opposed them^ 



Ifl9 



4.-0f the DniTidian Tract. 



VELLALA. (a, 378. 739; M. L) 



[r. fBJyciS, I.C.S.] 

The VelUlas are the great cultivating cnste of the Tamil countr/, anj by general 
ooQStsnt the Krst place in social eeteein among the Tamil Sudra castos is awardc-d to them. 
To give detailed deecriptious of the varying customs of a caste wliit^h numhera, as this 
does, over two and a quarter millioaa and is found all over the Presidency ta unnecearary, bat 
the iaternal construction of the eaate, its e elf -contained and distinct Eiib-di visions, and the 
methods by which its numbers are enhanced by accretions from other castes are so typical of 
the Gorreeponding characteristics of many of the Madras castes that it seems to be worth while 
to set them out shortly. 

The caste is first of all split up iuto four main divisions named after the tract of country 
in which the ancestors of each originally resided. These are {I) I'onditmain/alam, or the 
dwellers in the Pallava country, the present Chinglepat and North Arcot districts, the titles 
of which division are Mudali, Reddi and Nainar ; ['i) Soltya, or the men of the Chola country, 
the Tanjore and Trichinopoly districts of the present day, the members of which are called 
Pillai; (3) Pdndya, the inhabitants of the Pandyan Kingdom of Madura and Tinnevelly, 
which division also uses the title of Filial ; and (i) Kongti, or those who resided iu the Kongii 
country, which corresponded to Coimbatore and Salem, the men of which are called Kavandaiis. 

The members of all these four main territorial divisions resemble one another in their 
essential customs. Marriage is either infant or adult, the Puranic weddin;;^ ceremonies are 
followed, and (except among the Konga Vellalas), Brahmans officiate. They all burn their 
dead, observe 15 days' pollution, and perform the Karumantaram ceremony to remove the 
pollution on the sixteenth day. There are no marked occupational differences among them, 
most of them being cultivators or traders. Each division contains both Vaishnavites and 
Saivites and (contrary to the rule among the Brahmans) differences of sect are not of them- 
selves any bar to inter-marriage. Each division has Pandarams, or priests, recruited from 
among its members, who officiate at funerals and minor ceiemomes, and some of these wear the 
EBcred thread, while other Vellalas only wear it at funerals. All Vellalas perform graddka$ 
and observe the ceremony of invoking their ancestors on the Mahalaya days (a piece of ritual 
which is confined to the twice-bom and the higher elasses of Sudraa), all of them decline to 
drink alcohol or to eab in the houses of any but Brahmans, and all of them may dine together. 

Yet no member of any one of these four main divisions may marry into another, and, more* 
over, each of them is split up into sub-divisions ( having generally a territorial origin ) the 
members of which agun may not intermarry. 

Thus the Tondamandalam Vellalas are sub-divided into the Tnluvaa, who are supposed 
to have come from the Tulu countiy ; the Poonamallee Vellalas, so called from the town of 
that name near Madras ; and the Kondaikattie (those who tie their hair in a knot without 
shaving it). None of these three will intermarry. 

The Soltya Vellalas are sub-divided into the Vellan C^hetlis, meaning ' the Vellila mer- 
chants ' {who are again further split up into three or four other territorial divisions); the 
Kodikkals (betel-garden) who grow the betel-vine j and the Kanakkilinattar, or inhabitants 
ot Kanakkilinadu. These three similarly may not intermarry, but the last is such a sma'l 
unit and girls in it are getting so scarce that its members are now going to other sub-divisions 
for their brides. 

The PUndya Vellalat are sub-divided into the Karkattas or Karaihattus, who, notwitb> 
standing the legends about their origin, are probably a t«rritoTiaI sub-division named from a 
place called Karaikadu ; the Naugudis and Paujais, the origin of whom is nut clear ; the 
Arumburs and Sirukiidis, so called from villages of those names in the Pandya country j the 
AgamudaJyans, who are probably recruits from the caste of that name ; the Nirpusis, meaniug 
the wearers of the sacred ashes ; and the Kottai Vellalas or ' Fort Vellalas.' These laet are a 
small sub-division the members of which live In the Srivaikuntam Fort and observe the strict- 
est ^osA a. Though they are, as has been seen, a sub'division of a sub-division of a caste, yet 
their objection to marrying outside their own circle is so strong that, though they are hai 
dying out because there are so few girls among them, they decline to go to the other sub-divi- 
sions for brides. 

The Konga Vellalas are sub-divided into the Sendalais (red-headed men), Fadaitalaii 
(leaders of armies), VeUikkai (the silver hands), Pavalamkatti (wearers of coral), Malaiyadi 
(foot of the hills), Tollakadn (ears with big holes), Attangarais (river bank) and others, the 
origin of none of which is clearly known, but the members of which never intermarry. 

lu addition to all theEe liivisiona and sub-divisions of the Vellala caste proper, there are 
now-a-daya many groups which really belong to quite distinct cartes but whiih call themselves 
Vellalas and pretend that they belong to that caste, although in origin they had no connection 
with it. These nominally caimot intermarry with any of the genuine Vellalas, but the caste 
is ED widely diffused that it cannot protect itself against these invasions, and after a few 
generations the origin of the new recruits is forgotten and they have no difficulty in passing 
themselTeB off as real members of the commimity. The same thin^ occurs in the Nayar caste in 



180 

Malabar. It may be imaginated what a mixture of blood arises from this practice^ aiid how 
piizzling the variations in the cranial measurement of Yellalas taken at random are likely to 
oecome. Instances of members of other castes who have assumed the name and position of the 
Vell&las are the Vettuva Vell&las, who are really Vettuvans ; the Fuluva Yellalas, who are * only 
Puluvans ; the lUam Yell&las, who are (Panikkans ; the Els^turai) lord of the shore Vell&las, 
who are Karaiy&ns; the Karukamattai (palmjrra leaf stem) Yellalas^ who are Sh&n&ns; the 
O&zulu (bangle) Yell&las, who are Balijas ; the Ouha (Rama's boatman) Yellalas, who are 
Sembadavans ; and the Irkuli Yellalas, who are Yannans. The children of dancing-girls also 
often call themselves Mudali, and claim in time to be Yellalas^ and even Faraiyans assume the 
title Pillaij and trust to its eventually enabling them to pass themselves off as members of 
the oaste. 

This account of the constitution of this caste will show how difficult it is to decide what 
shall be considered to be a ' main caste ' at the present day, and how puzzling the work of 
clubbing the caste sub-divisions returned in the schedules may sometimes become. And every 
day these difficulties increase as (except among a few of the better educated classes) sub-divisions 
within a caste are becoming yearly more minute, while the limits which formerly separated aae 
main caste clearly from another are growing less and less distinct. 



131 



4.— Of the Dravidian Tract. 



NAYARS. 



[ N. 8. AiYAE, M.J., M.B.J CM.] 

The Nayars form the bulk of tbe Sudra population of Malabar and hold a position in 
respect of caste next only to the Brahmins^ Eshatriy&s, and the higher classes of the 
Ampalayasis. As compared with the Narars^ the Ampalavasis claim a position of superiority on 
the basis of their strict yegetarianism. !But this is sometimes questioned. The term Nayar, 
according to some, is a corruption of the Sanskrit '^ Nayaka'' with the vernacular ending "an " 
and is cognate with Naick, Nayudu, and Nayauar. As, according to this derivation, a whole S??**^^' 
race has to be taken as originally composed of leaders and their descendants, it has been con- 
sidered by some more correct to derive Nayars from Nagars (snakes or the serpent-worshippiug 
N&gas or Scythians) from the adoration to snakes which has been the characteristic cult of 
that community. The term Malayali is sometimes used, especially by Pandi or East Coast 
Sudras in contradistinction to themselves. But being territorial in connotation, it cannot 
rightly apply to any particular caste. 

Titular suffixes : — {a) The titles of Naprs in Travancore include several varieties. 
The most general is Pillai which was once a distinction $rranted as a mark of 
Royal favour.' The ceremony of investiture was known as Tirumuhham 
Pitikkuka and the honour it conferred on the person was so highly esteemed that 
even a Brahmin Dewan Sanku Annavi, had it bestowed on him and his &mily. 
It is enjoyed to this day by his descendants now living at Vempannur in tne 
Eraniel Takul. An individual so honoured is, however, not addr^ed in formal 
communications by the suffix Pillai, but by the title "Kanakku" prefixed to 
the name, e.ff,, Kanakku Raman Krishnan. 
(i) A higher title than Kanakku (Pillai) is Chempakaraman, This corresponds to the 
knighthood of the medieval ages and was first instituted by Maharaja 
Martanda Varma. The person whom it was the king's delight to honour was 
taken in procession on the back of an elephant through the four main streets 
within the fort and then received by the Prime Minister, accorded a seat by his 
side, and presented with pan supari. Rare as this investiture is in modem days, 
there are many ancient houses in Travancore to which this honorific appellation is 
attached in perpetuity. The title Kanakku is often enjoyed along with it, e.g., 
Kanakku Chempakaraman Krishnan. 
((?) Tampi (literallv younger brother) is another title found in various parts of Travan- 
core. It IS the distinctive suffix attached to the names of Nayar sons oE 
Travancore sovereigns. But in ancient times the title used to be conferred upon 
others too, as a recognition of rare merit and devotion. According to the custom 
of the country, Tampis alone among Sudras proceed in palanquins and appear 
before the king without a head-dress. The Maharajah's consorts are usually 
selected from these families. If a lady from outside has to be taken, she is 
generally adopted into one of these families before^ or soon after, the alliance. 

(d) Kartd is another title found attached to the names of many families in North 

Travancore. The word Kartd means ^^ a doer'' and appears to have been used 
as an honorific suffix by some of the Madura kings. The Tekkumkur and 
Vatakkumkur Raj&s in Malabar are said to have first conferred this title on 
certain influential Nayar families and constituted them petty chieftains subject 
to his suzerainly. AU the Kartas belong to the Illam sab-division of the N&yar 
caste. 

(e) The title Kuruppu, though sometimes assumed by castes other than Nayars^ de- 

notes really an ancient section of the Nayar people charged with functions of 
varied interest. Some are, for instance, the instruotprs in arms of the Tra- 
vancore Royal &mily, while others are Superintendents of maid-servants in the 
Royal Household. When the Maharajah of Travancore enters into matrimonial 
alliance, it is a Kuruppu that has to call out the full title of the Royal consort 
"Panappillai'Jmma*' as soon as the presentation of silk and cloth, which con- 
stitutes the wedding-rite, is over. 

if) The word Pdnikkar comes from the vernacular word pani meaning work. It was 
the Panikan who formerly kept Kalaris (gymnastic and militaiy schools) in 
North Travancore. In modem days when Kalaris have mostly become things 
of the past, the Fanikkars have betaken themselves to the teaching of letters 
instead of arms. We often hear of these Fanikkars as experts in sword exercises, 
The^ are referred to by early Portuguese writers as the strength of the country* 
Besides these, there are other kinds of Fanikkars who are entirely devot< d to 
temple service. The title Fanikkar does not indicate any particular section of 
Nayars, for in olden times it was obtained more by bravery than by birth. 

(/) The Eaimmals (derived from ^' kai** hand, sign^hring power) are according to tradi- 
tion the fighting masters of Malabar. The ELaimnaal of the Vaikkattinam house 



132 



History. 



Sub-divi. 
•iont. 



was once a petty ruler. Kaiinmals generally held charge of the Royal treagury 

which^ by a respected custom^ could not even be seen by the kings except with 

the Kaimmals in attendance* '^Neither could they (the Idags)" observes 

Barbosa^ ^^take anything out of the treasury without a g^reat necessity and by 

the couDcil of this person (Kaimmal) and certain others." 

(A) and (i) UnniUan and Faliyatdn are two other titles. Tan in Malayalam is a title 

of dignity, Unni meaning small and valiya great. It is supposed that as the 

Nayar sons of the ruling kings of Malabar were called Tampis^ the sons of those 

Kshatriyas who had no territorial sovereignty were called Unnittdns and 

Valiyatdns. 

{j) Emdn, an obvious corruption of Yagamanan or lord^ is another title found affixed 

to the names of certain persons in central Travancore. Certain families of 

Illakk&r in each Kara were in former times so wealthy and powerful that the 

commonalty, tacitly recognizing their overlordship, called them Yagamanans or 

masters. They were to a certain extent self-constituted justices of the peace and, 

like the ancient feudal barons of Normandy, settled all ordinary disputes. 

{i) ifenavanf contracted into Menon. The word Menavan means a superior person 

{Mel above and avan he). This was conferred upon several Nayar 

families by the Rajas of Cochin and corresponds to Pillai, further south. As 

soon as a person was made a Menon, he was presented with an Ola (palmyra 

leaf as a ^ writing sheet) and an iron style, as symbolical of the office he was 

expected 'to fill, i.e., of an accountant. Even now in British Malabar, each 

Amaam or revenue village has a writer or accountant who is called Menon. 

{1} The title lUenoHi, literally one who looks over or supdtintends, is found only in 

British Malabar, as it was exclusively a creation of the Zamorin. 

To the question who are the Nayars^ various answers have been suggested, some of a 

traditional and others of a quasi-historiesJ character. The Keralam§h&tmya would make the 

N&yars the olTspring of the union of the junior members of a Namputiri family, (where the 

eldest son is alone permitted by custom to marry in his own caste) with Deva, OandAarvOf and 

Rdkshasa women brought in from extra-terrene regions by Farasur&ma himself The 

Keralolpatti regarded them as the Sudras who accompanied the original Br&hmin immigrants 

from outside Kerala. Some believe that the Nayars were the snake-worshippiDg Scythians 

who had settled in Malabar before the Brahmins arrived. Authorities like Dr. Ferguson 

and Colonel Eirkpatrick argued that the similarity in the marriage customs and architectural 

and other peculiarities of the Nayars of Malabar and the Newars of Nepal suggest a racial 

identitv between them. 

There is the theory that the Nayars are the Dravidians of Southern India on whom the 
influence of the Brahmins has been so powerful as to impress on them characteristic difFerences 
between them and the members of the parent-stock in the old country. The latest speculation 
is by Mr. Fawcett who, in his recent work on the Nftyars of Malabar says : ^^ The resemblance 
between the Uriyas of Gumsur and thereabouts, a fine fighting stock, and the N&yars of 
Malabar is very striking.'^ That the N&yars are of the same stock as the Fallavas has been 
accepted by Mr. Logan in his Manual of Malabar, Palakk&t (Palghat) being the Fort or the 
centre of the Fallavas and Valluvan&t in British Malabar being really the ndt or the country 
of Valluvas (a corruption of Fallavas). The Eiriyam N&yars who belong to British Malabar 
aie, according to a current tradition, connected witii the sixty-four families of Vellalas whom 
Dr. Oppert has tried to identify with the Fallavas. 

The Indian orthodox view that the N&yars as Sudras constitute one of the four Aryan 
divisions forming the ancient spirituo-economic scheme of caste has also its votaries. Their 
matriarchal system of inheritance and their peculiar marital relations are considered mere modifi- 
cations of a common patriarchal system, rendered necessary by various social and political 
dispositions. And although in consonance with the theory of their non*Aiyan origin, their 
Aryan colour has been put down to the climate and to the abundant shadiness of their homes 
and the similarity of their facial contour to the close blood-connection that has existed for 
centuries between the Br&hmans and the N&yars, vitiating perhaps the results of anthropometry 
to some extent, sufficient evidence does not appear to have been gathered to entirely negative tlie 
possibility of their Aryan origin. As the Brahmin immigration into Malabar is to be taken 
as a proved &ct in history, it is quite conceivable, as the Eeralolpatti says, that the Sudras as 
their aooessory adjuncts came with the Br&hmans from where so ever that might be. 

To say that the N&yars are a caste is not quite correct. It would be better to call them a 
tribe; so numerous and varied are the divisions comprised under the general head, N&yar. 
And as if these divisions were not themselves enough, all the titles of distinction that have 
been created from jiime to time have come to be looked upon as so many sub-divisions. 
In the schedules over a hundred and thirty such classes have been returned which by a process 
of resolution may be compressed into 44. They are (I) Eiriyam, (2) lUam, (8) Naluvitan, 
(4) Svampam^ (6) F&damangalam, (6) Tamil F&dam, (7) V&tti, (8) Daivampftti, (9) Fayyamp&ti, 
(10) Itattara, (11) Cheruk&ra, (12) Futtur, (13) Nallur, (14) Natamukki, (15) Itachcheri, 
(16) Antalavam, (17) Fonnara, (18) EaruveUm, (19) Euravan or Arikuravan, (20) Ettuvitan, 
(21) Fattuvitan, (22) Ftotiantu Vitan, (2S) Fkllichchan, (24) Vantikk&ran, (26) Euzhappara, 
(26) Euttina, (i7) Pulkika also called VxUxjBmf and Vdojram, also called Ealkr and Matavan 
(28) Otam or Eala, (29) Mantal&yi, (80) Earichohaj (81) Aravan^ (82) Eoyippuram, (88) 
M&ngng&lakkali (84) Ilakntiyan, ^86) Oppamtara, (86) Atikunnam, (87) Ilampi, (88) 
Eokkara» (89) Manavilam, (40) Vattekk&tan and Chakk&IaD, (42) Anti (48) Manitfi&mam, 



133 

(^l) Adidichan. The maiu divisions are only five^ namely, Kiriyanii Illam^ Sviliupam^ 
Padamanpralam, and Tamil Padam. 'i liese ai*e mostly endo^mous sab-divisions. The caste 
that considers itself higher may take a girl from the lower, but never g^ves one to it. 

1. The Kiriyam jN ayars belong more to Cochin and British Malabar than to Travancore 
and are supposed to represent the highest class. 

2. The Illakkar are found in very lar^e numbers in Travancore and may be taken as the 
highest class of Travancore Nayars. The word Illam indicates a Namputiri Brahman's house 
and tradition considers every Illam family as having once served an Illam. The Illakkar are 
not to use Hsh, flesh or liquor— a caste injunction which like many others is not now universally 
respected. In several [parts of Malabar they have by close daily contact with the Brahmans 
moulded many of their personal habits in the truly Brahmanical style. In the schedules some 
of the Illakkar have returned themselves as belonging t> particular Brahman Illams such as 
Azhv&ncheri^ Fattazhi, Sripadam, Kmnaranallur^ Kollur, Netuvazbi, and Tennur. Of these 
the Pattazhi Illakkar, consider themselves as ranking higher than sdl the rest^ by the special 
favour of the local Goddess — (Mannati Bhagavati of Patt&zhi Desam in Pattanapuram Taluk). 
The Srip&dam Illakkar are those on whom that rank was conferred by Bani Farvati Bh&i. 
Sripadam (or the foot of Lakshmi) is the name of the Travancore Hani's palace and has within 
its walls one of the sacred waters of the classic Anantasayanam. Priestly service at the hands 
ot the Ilayatu and purificatory rites by the M&ran are taken to distinguish the Illam Nayars 
from the other sections of the caste. Like many others, these differences are now mostly 
obsolete. 

3. The Naluvitans (literally those belonging to the four houses) enjoy a status equal to 
that of the Kiriyam Nayars. 'Ihey are a differentiated section of the Illakkar. 

4. The Svarupakkar are the attendants of the Kshatriya families of Travancore, as the 
Illakkar, of the Brahmans. Of these the Parur Svarupam (Palace) have their purificatory 
rites served by the Maran. It is said that they were once the Illakkar servants of one 
Earattetattu Namputiri who is said to have been the feudal lord of Parur (near Quilon) and 
afterwards became attached to the Boyal household that succeeded to that estate, thus 
becoming Parur Svarupakkar. The !Svarupakkar are only next in rank to the lUakk&r and 
consist of various local denominations such as Kaippizha, Pattazhi^ and Vempan&t. The 
castes in British Malabar corresponding to the Svampam are the Akattu chema and Purattu 
cherna. 

5 and 6. Pftdamaujralam and Tamil Padam :— There is a suppoation that Padaman- 
gaUm and Tamil Padam Sudras were not originally N&yars but late immigrants from the 
iamil country. Being confined to a few localities in Travancore, they are not known to the 
Nayars of Cochin and British Malabar, and until recently there was a distinctive difference 
in regard to ornaments and dress between them and the ordinary N&yars. The occupation of 
the Padamangalakk&r is temple service such as sweeping, cleaning, carrying lamps during 
processions, etc. 

7, 8, and 9. The Vatti, theDaivampati,and the Payyampftti are all very closely connected, 
but are not even mentioned in the G&tinirnaya, The Yattis are called variously V&ttikkiuppu, 
Pattukuruppu, and'Nantunikkuruppu. The word Vatti is a corruption of Vazhtti meaning 
'< blessing'' and refers to the occupation they have followed from time immemorial. Nantnni 
is a kind of musical instrument peculiar to Malabar which the castemen use. The Daivampftti 
and the Payyampati are, as their names imply, singers of sacred songs and bear the title of 
Kuruppus like the Vatlis. Some of them living in the Taluk of Vilavankod follow the 
Makk(jUaffam system of inheritance. 

10 and 11* Itattara and Chernkara — Are not important as caste sub-divisions. They 
are so called merely on account of their having once served under well-known Brahman or 
Kshatriya families bearing those names. 1'hus Itattara Nayars are those who served the 
Itattara Potti, a South Travancore Biahman chieftain of considerable prowess during the 9th 
century of the Malabar era. 

Natamukki Nftyar : — Their traditional occupation is to spread washed cloths for the 
Namputiris to walk from the bathing ghat to the Illam on the last day of death pollution. 

15, Itachcheris are otherwise called Pantaris in South Travancore. They are herdsmen 
and engage themselves in selling butter, milk, and curds. 

16* Antalaran :^These are personal attendants of Ndyar chieftains. 

17, The Ponuara sub-division is allied to the preceding one and enjoys certain special 
privileges in the Sirkara temple in the Chirayinkil Taluk. They hold a rank equal to that of 

18, ™e KairuTclattu N&yar :— They seem to be a specialized class of Svarupakkar and 
cherish the proud duty of guarding the Crown Treasury knovm as Karuvelam. 

19, Arikuravan :— (Literally those that reduced the rice) are those NSyars who, havmg 
reduced the quantity of rice out of the paddy given to them for husking at the Mahftdeva 
temple at Kazhkkuttam, were so accosted by the local chieftain. 

30 SI, and ^. Ettuvltan, Pattuvitan, and Pantrarauvitan -.-Literally the eight, the 
ten. and the twelve houses, are so called because so many Nayar houses, have been entrasted with 
functions at certain important temples in Travancore. Ettuvitans are the members of the 
eight houses whose duty it is to clean the inner courtyard and attend to the gold and wlver 
v^ls at the Sri Patmanabhasvami's temple at Trivandrum. The Pattuvitans or people of the 




miniature Sri Fatman&bhasvami temple. 

k2 




184 

^, Palliehchail : —They are the bearers of pilanquias of Bralhrnans and Malabar chief- 
tains. They were also employed as their attendants to carry the sword and shield before them 
as their insignia of l^dship. They are said to be lapses from the lUakkar. 

24. Vantikkaran (literally cartmen):— It is said that these Nayars were once Illakkar. 
But as they began to work as cartmen for taking fuel, they lost equality in status with the 
rest o£ the Illakkar. 

25. Kuttiiia Mftyar : -The Kuttina Nayars are found only in the Minachil Taluk. The 
peculiarity about them is that even to this day their girls are married in a cow-shed, 

26. Palikkappanikkan :— In some parts they are known as PuUyattu N&yar and in other 
pLices as the Veliyattu Nftyar. Their other names are Kallur^ Nayar and Matavar. The 
Puliyattu NSprs are believed to have been good marksmen in ancient days. They help 
the Atikal (a class of the Ampalavasis) by drawing the image of Bhadrakali and are useful 
to the Chakkiyar in carrying his dress and accoutrements. The late Pachu Muttatu, a re- 
nowned Hindu physician at his Highnesses Court, says in his vernacular work on Malabar Castes 
ihat ''no other section of the Nfiyars bear so many names and follow such diverse occupations 
as the Matavars.'' 

87. Otattu Nftyar :— They are also called Kusa Nftyar. Their occupation is to tile 
temples and Namputiri houses. Connected with the Otattu Nayars is another class called 
Chempukottis, whose traditional function is to lay copper-sheets for the roofs of Hindu temples. 

28. Hantalayi :— They may hi looked upon more as a class of Nanchin&t VelUlas 
than NSyars. They are found exclusively in the Ponmana Proverti of the Kalkulam 'i'aluk, 
where a tract of land called Mantalachchi Eonam has been granted to them by the Sircir 
from very early times. ITiey are the paid mourners of the State and have to attend at the 
Trivandrum Palace when death occurs in the Royal family. 

89. Karichcha Mayarj— In their occupation they are similar to the VantikkJrans. 

30. Aravaus (literally those who belong to a paddy granary): — They are the descend- 
ants of persons once employed at the granaries of certain temples in Travancore. 

31. llailg:agaU:~-They have to carry the Ashtamangalya plate in front of the Nayar 
bride at the Talikettu ceremony. 

a8. Ilkatiyaus :— Their occupation was to cultivate and supply vegetable substances, 
such as plantains and betel leaves. 

33. Oppantara :— This is not a caste name, but a title bestowed by the Cochin Raja upon 
certain families in north Travancore when that territory was under his sway. 

34)35, and 36. Atiknuua, Hampi, Kokkara:— These are the names applied to those 
Sudras whose position, as Mfirans or Nayars, cannot be definitely stated, and who use the 
instrument called kokkara. This is formed of a plate of iron turned into a tube, the edges 
strongly serrated and not closely united. It is about 9 inches in length and one and a half in 
diameter. From it hangs a chain and an iron pin or spike, which is rubbed along the dentate 
edges of the iron cylinder, making a gmting noise 

37. IHauigr&iiiam : — They are believed to represent Hindu recoveries from early prosely- 
tism to the Christian chmrch. 

38. A^Chchan : — They are the attendants on the Atikals who oflSciate at the temples 
dedicated to Bhadrakali. 

Appear- The appearance of the well-nourished Nayar is perhaps one of the finest in all India, 

ances and The climate and the nature of their occupation, added U> the situation of their house? which 
fefUures. *^^'^® *® ^* ^®^® under a canopy of trees, are such as ought ordinarily to promote complexion 
and general appearance Scrupulous attention to personal cleanliness is a conspicuous feature 
of the Nayars of both^sexes. And, barring the tendency that is becoming almost universal 
to imitate Western customs, however unconventional, needless, and expensive, the fibre of 
the incAa bark, which on an evening many a tank-going Nayar girl may be seen separating 
and arranging as she walks along, is still the national soap of Malab&r and a very efficacious 
one too. The growth of the haeir is very profuse, especially on the head, and both sexes take 
great pains to preserve its fineness and length. To the baldness of care and age and the hair- 
lessness of certain temperaments, the Nayar is of course no exception. But in regard to strength 
and endurance, the average Nayar of to-day stands inferior to his analogue on the opposite 
coast. 

Clothing ^6 general feature of Nayar clothing is its moderateness, sometimes bordering on scanti- 

and oma- ness. The washerman is always in requisition and no dirty clothes are ever worn if at all 
WBtitB* possible. The oldest ornament of the Nayar lady is the ndgapatam (snake's hood) from the 
shape of its gold pendant. Unlike her sister of the opposite coast, she wears no jewelry on the 
head. The only ear-ornament is the takka or its modem representative, the tota, which is a 
two-b'pped, biconvex disc holding the inside of the ear-lobes in its circumferential groove. On 
the ^nt surface of the Ma precious stones, such as rubies, emeralds, and diamonds, may be 
set. The nose-pendants of the Navar woman are the mukkutti and gnattu. No jewel adorns 
the right nasal cartilage. For the neck the inseparable ornament of modem days is the 
addigal. The other ornaments are the ndlupanti, iafitkasarapn, and the arumpumani. But 
these are being gradually displaced. Gold or silver zones around the waist are in great favour. 
Golden belts called kachchappurams are now yielding to the oddydnam of the East Coast. 
No anklets are generally used by adult women, but the younger folks are taking to the kolusu 
and the padoiaram, Ine Nayar woman is generally averse to profusion in clothing and 
omaments, though Visscher wrote : '"ihereis not one of any fortune who does not own as 
manv as 2^0 or SO chests full of robes made of silver and other valuable materials.^' What 
would that Visscher have said if, crossing to the other side of the gidls, he had beheld the 



186 

nautch girls of tlie Coromandel coast wlio are> to use the words of a Sanskrit poet, '^ walking Tattooing. 
flesh-trees bearing golden fruits.'' 

To Malabar tatooin^ was little known in olden times. Even to-day it does not find 
any favour with North Travaneoie Nayars. It is only in the case of Nayar women living 
to the south of Quilon that the custom seems to prevail : some accounts trace it to the influence 
of a Moghul Sirdar who invaded Travancore in 1680 A. D. 

The houses of the Nayars standing in the midst of separate compounds have been Habita- 
by many writers supposed to be designed with special reference to the requirements of defence, tion. 
The saying common in England, ihskt every man^s house is his own castle is well verified 
here. An ancient Nayar house generally faces the east and commands a beautiful panorama 
of cheering verdure. At the entiunce is an out*house with sometimes an upper storey which 
in medieval times must have served as a guard-room. In poorer houses^ its place is taken 
by a roofed door-way provided in most cases with a stile to keep out cattle A Nayar house 
is usually divided into four parts^ the Arappura or the main building, the Patippura or 
the gate-house^ the Tehketu or the southern portion^ and the Vaiaketu or the northern, which 
is the kitchen. Inside the house-garden^ one meets with various kinds of useful plants 
and trees such as '^Ihe shady jack^ the graceful areca^ the stately oocoanut palm> the 
luxuriant plantain^ the solid tamarind, the mighty mango, and useful talipot/' On the 
south-western comer is the usual serpent Kdvu and by its side a tanU. Among Nftyar houses, 
storied buildings were in ancient days extremely uncommon and tiled roofing was un« 
known till a hundred years ngo. ^' The greater part of the houses in Malabar/' writes 
Bartolomeo, ^' are built of teak wood which is much harder and heavier than oak nnd with 
which it stands corruption for a very great length of time. I have seen several houses more 
than 400 years old which during that period had suffered little or no decay. The palm leaves 
with which they are covered and the above wood have the property of attracting moisture and 
of suffering it again to escape as a breath of air begins to blow or the sun to shine. Hence 
it happens that these houses are much healthier than those of stone and lime, which, if not 
allowed to dry properly, evaporate for a long time after they have built a great many calcareous 
and highly pernicious particles." 

The Nayars are not strict vegetarians. Fish in many houses is an article of daily con- FoNod and 
sun)ption, and even though the upper classes generally shun it, the partiality in its favour ^l^^* 
is so strong with some that it is very of ten smuggled in. It is believed that the appetizing 
properties of fish are of no mean order. The kanji or rice gruel is a favourite food of the 
Malabar Hindus, and of the Nayars of the working classes in particular. According to a 
well-known writer at the commencement of the sixteenth century, drinking was unknown in 
Travancore. liut as days advanced, that virtue seems to have unfortunately declined so 
that in 1787 A. D the then Mahar&ja had to formally prohibit the use of Takara or palm 
brandy under pain of forfeiture of property. 

The Nayars with the other indigenous castes of Travancore formed a huge militia, Ocoupa- 
but engaged in agricultural and other occupations during times di peace. A large standing ^^^^* 
army containing many Nayars was also maintained. So late as the end of the eighteenth 
century, there were with Maharaja Rama Varma, '' a hundred thousand soldiers, Nayars 
and Chegos, armed with bows, spears, swords, and battle axes.'' In the Velakliy a kind 
of mock fight, which is one of the items of the Ufsavam programme in every important 
temple in Malabar, the dress worn by the Nayars is supposed to be their ancient military 
costume. Even now among the Nayars who form the Maharaja's own Brigade, agriculture, 
to which they are by a most judiciously conceived arrangement enabled to attend during all 
their off-duty days, goes la^lv to supplement their salaries. Various other occupations all 
equally necessary for society, have been, according to Keralavak&sakrama, assigned to the 
N&yars and would seem to have determined their original sub-divisions. Tney are (1) 
lllaiidr, or servants at the Illami (houses) of Br&hmans, (2) Svarupakidr or servants 
of the SvarnpatM or kingly houses, fS) Padamangalakkdr, temple servants, (4) Tamil Padak- 
k&r, miscellaneous employls, (5) I^hcheri Nayars or dealers in dairy produce (6) Marans 
or temple musicians and priests, (7) Chempukottin or coppersmiths who prepare and lay 
copper-sheet roofing, (8) Olattu Ndyars or tile-makers, (9) KalamkoUU or potters, (10) Fa^- 
iakkdtans or dealers in oil, (1 1) Pa//fcAc^a»« or bearers of palanquins, (12) Jstkikhurichehis 
or undertakers, (18 j CheUU or traders in vegetables and other domestic necessaries, (14) 
Chdiiyans or weavers, (15) r^/if^^e^»« or waiSiermen, and ( 1 6) Vilakkitialavans or barbers. 
Other books eive other names of caste sub-divisions, but aU of them agree in their functional 
basis. But m&ee traditional occupations are fast ceasing to be followed by their respective 
sub-divisions under tiie ferment of uie new civilization which, while it brings relief to a few 
castes, spells death to many. 

The chief festival of the N&yars in which aU the naturalized Malavalis including the Belisioaa 
East Coast Brahmans join is the Onamy a contraction of Tiruvonam the asterism of the festival 
second day of the festival. It occurs in the last week of August or in the first week of and 
September. It is a season of joy and merriment. ''About the 10th of September the rain ^owihip. 
ceases in Malabar. All nature seems then a^ if renovated ; the flowers again shoot up 
and the trees bloom; in a word, this is the same season as that which the Europeans call 
spring.'' According to some, this is the annual celebration of the Malabar new year which 
first l)egan with Cheraman Ferum&l's supposed departure for Mecca ; but according to the 
orthodox majority, it is the day of the great Mah&bali Chakravarti's annual visit to hi« 
dear country. 'Ihere is also a belief that it is Mah&vishnu that paya a visit on the 
Onam day to this mundane universe for whose Stkiti or just and proper maintenanoe be 



136 



Marriage- 
oustoms 
and 

ayBtem of 
inheri- 
tance. 



The Eettu 
kaly&nam 
ceremoDy 



Descrip- 
tion of a 
Eettuka- 
lyftnam. 



among the Hindu Triad is specially responsible. In certain North Malabar title-deeds and 
horoscopes^ as Mr. Logan notices^ the year is taken as eading with the day previous to the 
Onam. The presentation of' cloths to relations and dependents is special to the Onam day. 
On this occasion evea the poorest man tries to dine like a prince. As a Malabar proverb 
goes, the Onam must be enjoyed even by selling one's Kanam (estate). Various field-sports 
of the indigenous type, of which football is the chief, are lustily gone in for, by the Onam 
enjoyers. In more martial times, the recreation was of a more dangerous description. To 
quote Fr. Bartolomeo, once more, who lived and wrote at the end of the eighteenth century : 
*^ The men, particularly those who are young, form themselves into two parties and shoot at each 
other with arrows, 'these arrows are blunted, but exceedingly strong and are discharged 
with such force that a considerable number are generally wounded on both sides. Thes^e games 
have a great likeness to the Ceralia and Juvenalia of the ancient Greeks and Romans/' So 
says Forbes also in his oriental memoirs. ^'Even to-day in British Malabar/' says Mr. 
Fawcett, ''each player is armed with a little bow made of bamboo about 18 inches in length, 
and arrows, or what answer, for arrows being no more than pieces of the midrib of the cocoatint 
palm-leaf roughly broken off, leaving n little leaf at one end to take the place of the feather, 
in the centre of the spot, but on 1^ ground, is placed the target — a piece of the heart of the 
plantain tree about 3 inches in diameter pointed at the top in which is stocked a small eheppu 
as the mark, which is the immediate object in view of the players so-called They shoot 
indiscriminately at the mark and he who lifts it (the little arrows shoot straight and t^tick 
in readily) carries off all the arrows lying on the ground.'^ In the earlier centuries the 
amusement must have been much more serious. Even to-day the bow is an instrument of re- 
verence on the Onam days. 

Marriage among this caste may mean either the formal ceremony of lying a tali around 
the neck of a girl, accompanied by festive celebrations for four days, known as Tdlikettu 
or Kettuitilt/anamf or the ceremony of actual alliance as husband and wife, extending for a 
few hours in the night, conducted quietly in the midst of a comparatively small gathering 
and with instrumental music religiously eschewed, known as Sawhandkam or Muntukotnkkuka 
[cloth-giving] . The former is a public family ceremony while the latter is more a private 
and personal transaction, but solemn if unostentatious. In the generality of oases, the Nayar 
wife does not live in her husband^s house but in the house of her birth, which alone she looks 
upon as hers, at all stages of her life. 

"As a religious ceremony '' said the late Sir T. Muttusw&mi Aiyar, "the Kettukalyanam 
is taken to give the girl a marriageable status." " But in relation to marriage,^' says the 
• great jurist, " it has no significance save that no girl is at liberty to contoust it before 
she goes through the Tdlikettu ceremony . . .In some parts of ^outh Malabar, 

however, there is a belief that it is a marriage ; but even there the custom is to tear up a 
cloth, called the Kachcha cloth, on the fourth day of the ceremony, as a symbol that the 
marriage has been dissolved. A cerennony which creates the tie of marriage only to be 
dissolved at its close su^ests an intention rather to give the girl the merits of a Samskdr or a 
religious ceremony than to generate the relation of husband and wife/' If as a marriage rite 
the Kettukalyanam of the Nayar has no significance, it is not less so than the ceremony of 
Samdvartana or the formal tennination of the Brahmachdri Asrama among Brahmans ; and if 
the retention of the Samdvartana sl8 a ceremony to be gone through immediately after the 
commencement of the Vidydrthi or pupil stage (corresponding to the date of the liiread- inves- 
titure) or a few years after, irrespective of the progress made or of the expected sequel, is taken 
to indicate n passed time when, after the lull course cf instruction had been run out, a person 
exchafiged that Isrnma for that of the grihasth (married man) or of a Sndtaka which is, in other 
words, an endless post-graduate course of study and pious service, the Kettukalyanam with many 
of its ceremonial details similar to those of the Namputiri, refers to a period when that rite wag 
with the Nayars as much a sacrament as with the Namputiris themselves. If, on account of 
certain dreum stances, the fuU Brahmachdri course had to be cut short, it is not unreasonable to 
assume other circumstances of an equally if not more justiBable character which required that 
the relationship created by a Kettukalyanam ceremony should be cancelled soon after. The 
absence of the Pdnigrahanom and the Sapfapadi or the walking of the seven steps and Boma 
or sacrifices to fire in the Kettukalyanam rite is taken to show that the whole ceremony was an 
interpolation. But it may be safely assumed that these being the solemnly binding items of 
the programme were honestly omitted. In place of the Vedic chants of the Brahmq.ns the 
vernacular hymns and invocations of the Brahmans (a section of the Ampalav&sis) are sung in 
probable imitation of the Fedasvaram (Vedic chant }. 

The details of this ceremony vary widely in different parts of Malabar. But the essential 
parts of the ceremony appear to be the same throughout. 

After the age of eleven a N&yar girl becomes ineligible for this ceremony. As in all 
castes and communities of the Hindu * persuasion, ' so among the Malabar people^ the ages 
represented by the odd numbers, seven, nine, and eleven, are considered auspicious. A number 
of girls may be married at a time, and the marriage being now a mere ceremonial may in- 
clude even infants, an arrangement prompted by obvious considerations of economy. The 
masters of the ceremony at a Nayar Tdlikettu in Travancore are the Machchampikkar. They 
are the members of the ancient Nayar families appointed for this purpose by the Mahardjas of 
Travancore. Each Kara has three or four such families, who divide among themselves the 
eustomaiy services in that Kara. 

InangngaM or relations may also act the part of bridegrooms. When an Aiyappattar or 
Tmmnilp&t is jpyited to ti» tiio tSli in Mistocn^tio-lioitt^ldsj tbero may be bat one tdli-ixtx 



187 

^en for a number of girls. Generally there are as many bridegrooms as there are brides. 
This has led some European writers to assume the existence in Msdabar of what is known to 
sociological sdence as group-marriages. This is evidently wrong. At the construction of 
the mBiTisge-pandalf the villagers take a responsible interest and render substantial aid. The 
actual wedding takes place in a mandap which being decorated with katiru, or ears of com 
is called Kntim mandapam. The first item in the marriage-celebration is a sumptuous ban- 
quet called the Ayaniyunu, given by the bride's people to the bridegroom. The girl goes to 
the bathing ghat on the morning of the first day of the marriage ceremony. She does so 
in a r^ular procession. One of the Machchampi females, well-dressed and wearing oma* 
ments of price> walks in front of the girl with a vessel containing the girl's wearing apparel 
to be used after bath, a mirror^ and other toilette articles in the left hand and with a changngal' 
avaltaka or a metal hand-lamp peculiar to Malabar> in the right. Often the tender feet of 
the girl are protected from touching the ground below by broad cloths spread on the way. 
Silk umbrellas are also^ according to the social station of the family^ held over the head 
of the girl. On reaching the house she is placed in a separate room and all the assembled 
guests are served with a rich feast. Within the Katirumandapam the Brahmans are ac- 
commodated. One of them then ties a string round the left hand of the girl (kappuket* 
f'Uka in vernacular or j9;7?^f9ar(7ia;i//^am in Sanskrit) > as symbolical of a solemn resolve to do 
a particular act. A song called Suhhadrdveli, which is the account of the famous marriage 
of Subhadra by Arjuna, is then sung by the Brahmans. Invited by the bride's mother 
who proceeds to his house and places a garland round his neck, the ManavaJan (bridesrroom) 
starts at the au3piciou8 time (Muhurtam) in procession^ riding on an elephant or walking on 
foot according to the wealth and status of the party concerned. The brother of the bride 
waits at the door to receive the bridegroom and his party. The bridegroom arriving takes 
his seat in front of the bride and on the right side but facing the same direction as the bride, 
t.^., the east. The bridegroom then receives the minnu, the wedding jewel with the string 
or fdli, at the hands of the Asdn or the village school-master and places it around the neck of the 
bride or brides, who^ when there are more than one^ are seated in a row holding in their hands an 
arrow and a looking-glass. This practice^ it may be remarked in pasf ing^ is not universally 
followed. A song known as Ammdch^.haii Pattu or the song of the maternal uncle^ is then 
snng, which is presumably the invocation by the uncle of prosperity to the married couple. 
On the second day the pratisaram (string tied round the left wrist of the bride) 
is removed^ the function determined on having been duly fulfilled. On the third day is 
the JvalMH, when confected beaten rice is served to the bridegroom and party This^ 
too, forms the occasion for a festive procession With a few other ceremonies of compa- 
ratively minor importance and a finishing bath or NirdUu known to all Brahminical ceremonies 
as Avabhrita sndtta, the programme is fuUy acted out. 

In cases where a idli-ketiu is beyond the means of a tarwad — a contingency rarely, if at all> 
accepted in practice — ^the ceremony may be gone through along with a similar ceremony at 
the house of a well-to-do relation or friend^ m front of a Saiva temple^ generally that of Tiru- 
nakkara at Kottayam or at the PanfdratnatAam, ue., in the house of the village chieftain. 

Samband/fam constitutes the real marriage^ de facto as well as de jure. The word Samban- 
aamhandham means alliance or connection In different parts of Kerala^ it is differently dham. 
known as Ounadosham^ meaning a union for good and evil and Vastraddnam or Putavakota, 
meaning the giving of cloth. The most common words in Travancore are Pittavakofa in 
the south and Samhandkam in the north. It may be performed without any formal 
ceremony, and in several ancient families^ including the most aristocratic, as a private trans- 
action confidentially gone through In some cases the bridegroom and a few of his select 
friends asEemble in the house of the bride, and the bridegroom presents her with a few un- 
bleached cloths. Presents are made to Vaidikds and to the relations and servants of the 
bride. After supper and pan aupdri the party disperses. Just before the acceptance of the 
cloth> the girl makes due obeisance to uncles, mother, aunts, and other elders, as if by way of 
seeking and obtaining their formal assent for the transaction she is going to enter into. 
Another day is generally fixed for the actual consummation ceremony. On that day, too, the 
bridegroom goes with betel and nuts to the bride's house accompanied by a few friends who 
are entertained at supper. 

Perpetual widowhood is not an institution among N&yars. Divorce is theoretically 
unrestricted but practically not very frequent. 

While among the Nayars the ceremonial declaring of a man and woman as husband ^ei^eraL 
and wife even at a Pufavakota is not usually regarded as having any ritualistic religious 
sanction^ i.e., beyond that of ordinary propriety and general social morality or as giving 
rise ipso facto to rights of the kinds recognized by the other communities, it hasi to be 
noted^ in the words of Logan^ that '' the very looseness of the law makes the individual obser- 
vance closer ; for people have more watchful care over the things they are most liable to lose.'' 
That fraternal polyandry once prevailed in Malabar on a noticeable scale and still prevails to 
a very small extent in certain parts of the country is not improbable. But to trace the custom 
to primitive bestiality is not only unkind in the extreme, but unscientific in the highest degree. 
On the other hand; this form of marriagOi says Westermarck^ seems to require a certain degree 
of civilization. It was probably in most cases an expressi<m of fraternal benevolence on the 
fart of the eldest brother^ a benevolence and an absence of jealousy which, viev ed from the 
modem standpoint^ can perhaps only evoke a good-natured smile. And wh.'itever be the 
relation in time or sequence between inheritance and the character of the marital tie, the re- 
odgnition of a sister as much if not a more; natural kinswoman than a giil of another family 



188 

wedded and introduced into one's own, will not^ on calm reflection, seem so eontrary to the run 
of even the highest human nature^ as maj at first appear. Bat various ancharitable interpre- 
tations have unfortunately been put on the family life of a good and loving people and several 
arguments have been urged by way of vindication. Like every other caste for which ordi- 
nances are prescribed in the Hindu Smritist the N&yars, too, must have been once governed by 
the Makkathayam system. The political conditions of a people have a great deal to do with 
their marriage customs and forms of inheritEmce and all possible present-day abuses. What 
Montesquieu says"*^ with reference to the circumstances under which N&yar women began to be 
polyandrous or at least ceased to conform to the conventional rules of marital life^ deserves to 
be noted and will account even more directly for tiie prevailing system of property inheritance. 

But all this is now ^ust changing. Polyandry is not hefod of except perhaps in certain 
remote country-parts and in these peaceful times and altered conditions of society^ the contdnoa- 
tion of such strange customs is rightly regarded as devoid of all justification. The practice at 
least among all decent sections of the Nayar people is one of strict monogamy with all the 
constancy of a Makkaihayam union and the right to divorce at will is sparingly exercised. 
Even the remarriage of widows except at tender ages is considered not quite the proper thing, 
if it coald at all be helped. The KeHukalydnam or the idli'tyiug, which at present is a mere 
ceremony^ is banning to be recognized as a relic and record of a different past and the trend of 

Eublic opinion is in the direction of restoring it to its original binding value. The responsi* 
ility for the due care and proper maintenance of one's children is not only felt by the parents 
in a greater measure than formerly {i.e. in medieval times) but is beginning to be enforced by 
society and to some extent by the State* The need for legislation, in view to sanction, render 
stable and even stimulate, this gradual tendency towards reform, has been felt ; and it is more 
than likely that when the actual change in conviction and in sentiment spreads wider and 
sinks deeper, legislation will stand clear of all charges of meddlesomeness or of being revolu- 
tionary and merely by a formal declaration of a well established public opinion intended only 
to serve as a recorded authority for judicial tribunals. 
Cere- The first ante-natal ceremony of importance which the enciente woman p^^rms at 

monies the seventh month, sometimes at thie ninth, is the pulikuti towards whose expenses the husband 
aftOT^ * ^ *^ contiibute. The essential part of the ceremonv consists in the brother of the woman 
marriage. ^^ ^^ ^^^s absence a Maran dropping tamarind juice tliree times over a knife into her mouth, 
she standing on a plank with her &ce toward-^ the sun. The Jnnaprdsana, the Ndmakarana, 
and the Karnavedha have all to be performed but in the amantrie wtkj, i.e., without the 
recitation of Mantras. It is the barber woman that officiates as midwife. PoUuldon is observed 
for 15 days after child-birth. The Punydha or purification is then performed by the Mftran. 
The Ndmakarana lakes place on the twenty-seventh day. At the sixth month the rice-giving 
ceremony takes place. '1 ne ear is bored at llie end of the first year. When a girl attains matu- 
rity there is regular festivity for full four days. The ShaBhthipurtiy ue,, when a person arrives 
at the 60th year, is the only important latter-day ceremony. 
Peatb and The dead bodies of persons above 16 years of age are burnt, while of those below 
auooeed- that age are buried. The cremation ground is one's own compound. '1 he ceremonial is simple. 
mon?^^ The pollution period is fifteenth day or 900 ndzkikaB. The Sanckayana or the collection 
of the cremated remains takes place generally on the fourth day. The mourning expressed in 
the form of a religious convention called Dikska is generally observed especially in the 
northern parts of Travancore and lasts till the 42nd day or for six months or even a full 
year. In cases of death in fields of battle or under inauspicions circumstances an image of the 
deceased is ufed to be placed in the Tekketu (southern out-house) and worshipped. 
?^^fk- '^^^ names of the Nayars are of diverse kinds. The most popular are Rama, Krishna, 

names? * Keshava, Narayan, Oovinda, Velayudha, Ayyappa, Samkara^ and Gopala. The names of 
female deities, too, such as K&li, are sometimes to be found. Such names, however, as 
Kali^ Umini, Kochchappi, Adichchan, and a host of others are gradually losing favour, 
and comparatively new names such as Chandrasekhara, Aohyuta, and Vasudeva are coming 
to be recognized. Contractions and abbreviations are most freely induk;ed in. The names 
of women also, of late^ have undergone considerable alterations. In oXAqvl times, as if by an 
unwritten law, all N&yar women had purely vernacular names. Thus names in ordinary 
use were, NangDgeli, Cochhupennu, Chiruta, Nani, a corruption of Narayani, Paru, a 
corruption for Parvati and Ichch&ri, a corrupted form of Isvari. Names like those of Ganaki, 
Gouri, Lakshmi and Kalyani were of a later growth and latest of all names hitherto rare such 
as Bhavftni, Bhargavi, Budrfini, Sarasvati, Devaki, and Bharati have also come into vogue. 
Amuae- '^^ Nayars participate in all the amusements of i the Namputiris. The Kathakali was 

ment and much in favour with them till recently, but this has now given place to the Ndtakam or the 
reoreation. drama proper. Karislokam or songs describing cooking and serving are passionately studied and 
recited. Hunting is a rather common source of recreation for the Nayars. The Kaikotiippdttu 
and Tiruvdtirappdttu are songs recited by Nayar women in groups. The Tiruvdtira day comes 
in the month of DAanu (December-January). The festival has a quad-religious aspect about 
it, for it is supposed that it is annually celebrated in commemoration of the death of Kamadeva, 
the Indian Cupid, at the hands of Siva. Every Nayar woman gets out of her bed at about 



* " In this tribe the men can have only one wife while a woman on the contrary is allowed many hnshandi. 
The origin of this cnttom is not difficnlt to disoover. The Nftyars are the tribe of peoples who are the sddiert 
of the nation. In finrope soldiers are not enoouraged to many. In SAalabar where the olimate requires greater 
indnlgence they are satisfied with rendering marriage as little burdensome as possible, they give one wife 
amongst many men, which eonsequently diminishes toe attach ment of a family ana Uie earee of house-keeping 
and MAves them in the free yomemkm of a militatj sjdrit.'* 



ise 

4 A.u. tliat day and goeo to batho in tHe nearest tank. A number of ladies, both young and 
middle-aged, assemble and, planing into the water, take part in the song HuA is alx>ut to be 
recited. In that season, they also enjoy the Uzhingal or swinging to and fro, for which special 
songs are studied and recited. 

In the matter of edncation the Nayars occupy a pronuaent position in the scale of castes. General 
Almost every Nfiyar girl is eent to the village school to le^a the three R's quite as much as a Bduoation, 
matter of course as tbe schooling of boys. This constilutes a feature of Malabar life that 
makes it the most literate country in all India, especially in respect of the female sex. In 
regard to Sanskrit study, the East Coast Brahmans, wlio, at no period of their history, were so 
uncompromisingly orth(^os as their West Coast brethren, are believed to hare givea the earliest 
aid. After B&manujan Ezbuttachchhan developed and enriched the Mal&yalam language, 
numerous Atant at village teachers came into existence in ditEarent parts of Malalisr. After a 
preliminary study of SlalAyalam eiich of them as desired higher, i.e., Sanskrit, education got 
discipled to an Jtupalavati or a Sashtii. Even to-day the very estim^ible desire to study 
Sanskrit is reen in sevend Nayar youths who have readily availed themselves of the benefit of 
the local Sanskrit College. In respect of English education the N&yarg occupy an important 
position. The facility offered by His Highness's Government for the stady of Knglish is being 
la^ly avMled of by Nftyars and it is a matter de^erviog to be prommently recorded that 
between the years 191)0 and 1901 three Nayar giils have pa^ed the Matriculation Examination 
of tile University of Madra?. 

The records of N&yar character left by European writers such as Day in Cochin and Mat«er Oharao- 
in Travancore, are as nnsympsthetic as they are unmerited. The social and political conditions t^'- 
of a people have to he studied before a just estimate of their national character can be formed. 
Tbe traditional features of the ancient N&yars have undoubtedly been sweet frankness, reverence 
to authority, uncalculating hospitality, patient industriousness, and manly affection ; and though 
with the jilteied conditions of external life these features possibly have undergone some 
modifications, none with any pretensions to familiarity with Malabar and its people could fail 
to be struck with love and regard for this good and int^sting community. 

The present economic condition of the Nayar is not free from anxiety. Agricuitnie, which Eoonomio 
is the only stand-by left for Sudras, generally is his chief means of subsistence Though the «or»a*ttor»' 
Native Christians, especially of the Synau denomination, have from very early times joined the 
i6le of fenners in certain parts, the bulk of the country's agriculture is in uieir hands, But 
the conditions of ^riculture have alt£red greatly. The disorganization of indigenous induBtries 
has thrown on land a large portion of its popuktion, who not having the enterprise and the 
capital necessary to exploit fresh areas, tlie pernicious policy of sub-division of the existing sgri* 
cultural holdings ending in poor cultivation, low yield, gndual depauperisation and loss of land 
if not unnoticed extinction has been the result. The precarionsness of the seasons and the 
i^teadily diminishing rainfall have added to the anxiety of the cultiiator. The Pulayas and 
d^ressed castes have long declined in strength and number and the few left are under various 
infiuences giving up their traditional partiality for agricultural labour. The wages have hence 
risen beyond tlie capacity of the land and with tbe steady advance of occupation, though not of 
cultivation of jungle and other waste lands, the pasturage has considerably shrank in area and 
live-stock have begun to deteriorate, though figures which in regard to such matters are of tlie 
utmost value cannot be given. Along with the loss of animal manure, leaf-manure has become 
scanty. And added to all this is the false idea of indignity of particular kinds of labour. As 
if by a cruel irony, unproductive labour such as ofiicial and professional has been elevated to 
the supersession of the agricultural and industrial. All tliese, it will be Been, are circumstances 
that do not make for the prosperity of a dependent country. With the large number of 
cultured and still moneyed men, there is no reason to fear that an early diagnosis will not 
be made and prompt remedy adopted. Under present conditions i^ricultnre must be lai^ly 
supplemented by industries of all sorts, so organized as to leave intact the independent, self- 
reliant habit of the earlier people who would not object to do any kind of work if at their 
anceetral acre. Material want is the chief enemy of religion, morality, and general chaiiicter, 
and all efforts at improvement rbonld go forth in that direction under the ennobling stimulus 
of internal harmony and universal love. 

The total number of Nayars in Travancore, including the Adichchans and C'hakkftlas, is 
586,186. The Adichchans (7i] are found only in one tdlui, pi*,, TiruvaUa, where they are 
cngt^d in the service of tbe Fanayann&rkavu temple. Of the 15,17.') Chakkalas, as many a' 
11,388 are found in the Western Divi:^ion. 'Ihey are found in the largest number in four taluh 
of tbe State, namely. Karunagapalli (2,07?), Neyyatiokara (1886), Vilavankod (1,56!») and 
Quilon {1,495;. In many North Travancore Idlnig such as Ettumaaur, Minachil, Shertallay, 
Muvattupazha, Kunnatnad, Alan gad, and I'anir, very few of them are found. All the remtuning 
divisions of the Nayars together number 520,941 souls. The Nayurs are scarce only in the 
throe Tamil-speaking taluit of Shcneottah, Tovala, and Agastisvaram. hive^a/w^'jTrevandmm 
(»7,85t), Neyyatinkara (36,457), Mavelikara (32,-14*}, TiruvaUa (31,378), and Quilon (»1,385), 
eont«n more thau 30,001) of them each. The Illam (a26,2UH), the Svarupam (104,839), the 
Kiriyam (25,164) and the Itachcheri (22,944), are tiie roost numerically important sub-diri- 
sioDs. The Fftdamangalam (6,175), the 'Jamil Padam (358), etc., appear to hold only ver/ 
few adherents. In 1891, the strength of the Nayars was 4HS,723. 



140 



INTERNAL STRVCTVRE OF THE NAYARS. 

NAYARS. 

TITLES. PIUAT. CHEHPAKARAKAir, KAHAKKD, TAMPI (jonnger brother); KABTA. 
KUBUPPU, PAHIKKAR, KAIHSAL, UNIIITTAII, VAIIYATTAH, EHAN (jajamanau), HEHATA 
(Menon), MeNOKE. 

Sub-diyisions. Septs. 

A. MAJOR. 

1. Kiriyam (those who have no service of any kind). 

2. Illani (Servants of Illams or honses of Br&hmans, containing local distinctions snch as 

Azhvftnch^ri, Pattazhi, Sripftdam, KumaranallQr, etc.). 

3. Svarnpam (Servants of Svampams or the palaces of kings, having the local distinctions of 
Paror, Kaippizha, Pattazhi, Vlmpanad, etc,). 

4. P&damailgralam (Temple-servants). 

5. Tamil P&dam (Miscellancoas employes). 

6. 7, and 8. Vatti, Daiyampfttti (from DatVam ~ God and Pa^u/ca=To sing) and Payyamp&ti 

(Singers in temples). 
9. Idacheri (Dealers in dairy produce). 

10. Poiinara (Temple-priests). 

11. KarOTelam (Palace treasury employ^). 

12. Knrarail or ArikuraTan (Those degraded from the Illam Sept for a traditional ofPenoe). 

13. PallicllChan (Palanquin-bearers). 

14. Vailtikkftran (Gartmen, fi'om vanti^ a cart). 

15. Pnlikka, called also Pnliyam and Veliyam, Kallnr and Hatavan (Miscellaneous 

employes). 

16. Knttina (Those marrying their girls in cow-sheds). 

17. Otattn or Kala (employed to tile houses and temples). 

18. JHantalSryi (Professional mourners in the palace). 

19. KarichClia (Cartmen). 

20. Ilakntiyan (Vegetable-dealers). 

21. Kokhara (Ezorcisers). 

22 and 23. Vattakk&tan and Chakkftla (Dealers in oil). 

24. JHanigrSrUiam (I^ayars who had connection with Christian churches). 

25. Idichchan (Attendants in a Bhadrakali temple). 

B. MINOR. 

1. NUnyitan. 

2. Itattara (LtV., men of the middle place from /i^a= Middle and Tara= Place). 

3. Chernkftra (I^'^.» one who has joined from Oheruha, to join). 

4. Puttnr (Ptteu= New and l7rt#= Village). 

5. Kallnr (Nalla=^Good and l7ru- Village). 

6. Natamnkki (A^a^a= Passage, and jSfttik^t=One who covers). 

7. Antalavan. 

[8. Ettnvltan (TM., One belonging to the eight houses). 
9. Pattnyitan {Lit. , One belonging to the ten houses) » 
10. Pantrantnyitan (Lit., One belonging to the twelve houses). 

11. Knzhappara. 

12. Arayan. 

13. Koyippnram. 

14. Hanj^lakkal. 

15. Oppamtara. 

16. Atiknnnam. 

17. Ilampl. 

18. Manayalan ( Lit., Bridegroom.) 

19. Anti. 



Ul 



4. Of the Dravldlaii Tmct. 



[A. S. JiTAR, M.A., M.B., C.M.I 

The caste ot people known as Izhavas io South and parts of Central Travancore and Cho. DeslniK. 
vas in parts of Central and in North Travancora, form au integral portion of the indigenous tion. titles 
mpidation ot this country. Tliey are believed to be akin to the Tamil-speaking Shanars of gooietr 
Tinnevetly and Soath Travaucore and to the Tiyas of British Malabar. Here the Malayalam- and aub- _ 
epeabins castes will alone be referred to. The word Tiya is said to be a eormption of the ^''•'ona. 
Sanskrit word Dvipa (island), showing that they orginally came from an island, while the word 
Izhavas has been taken to indicate that that island is Izham, a corruption of Simhalam, under 
both of which names Ceylon was known for geveral centuries. The word Chora is said to be a 
corruption of Sfftiaiu or work-man and shows the position held by these men in the country of 
their adoption. This derivation ia not unlikely, as (in some old boat-songs current in Malabar) 
the word Chora occurs in a less corrupt form as Cbeva^e. The honorific titles of the caste men 
in Travancore are Ch&nn&n, tbeMalay&lamword for ShanSr and Panikkan. Many Izhavas are 
doctors, astrologers, and general teachers and call themselves Vaidyan, Gyoteyan, and Asan. 
Being a largo and progressive community they hold in many places an equal pogition with the 
artisan classes. For social purposes, however, the artisans and the Izhavas stand apart. Thew 
are many sub-divisions among the Izhavas, But, broadly speaking, they may be divided into 
three classes, the P&ndi Izhavas or the Izhavas of the I'amil Diiitrict, the Malayalam Izhavas 
or Chovas, and theTiyas of British Malabar. They are divided into several itlami or family " 
groups, such as Mnt i^/am, Choti ittam, Mariyanftt itlam, M&tampi Ulam, etc. The real 
significance of this division is not clear. 

There are numerous traditions in vogue regarding their early history. In the Mackenzie Qigtorr of 
mamiscripts, we read that a Gaudharva woman had seven sons from whom the Izhavas were the oaate. 
descended. Another story says that a Pandyan Princess known as Alii married Narasimha, 
a Haja ol the Carnatic, The royal couple migrated to Ceylon and there settled themselves 
as the Bovere:^n8 of the country. When that line became extinct, their relations »nd adherents 
retomed to the old country where they have since remained. But apart from tradition, 
it is possible that the original habitat of the Iziiavas was the island of Ceylon, as the 
etymology of their caste-names goes to show. As Dr. Caldwell observes, " The general and 
natural course of migration would, doubtless, be From the mainland to the island ; but there 
may occasionally have been rcBex waves of migration, even in the earliest times, as there 
certainly were later on, traces of which survive in the existence in Tinnevelly and the Western 
coast, cj castes whose traditions, and even in some instances whose names connect them with 
Ceylon." In his Kssay on the Tinnevelly Shanara, he says, " It is tolerably certain that the 
Izbavas and Tiyas who cultivate the cocoanut palm of Travancore are descendants of Shinftr 
eolonists from Ceylon. There are traces of a common origin among them all, Shan6rs, for in- 
stance, being a title of honour among the Travancore Izhavas. 'I he other portions of the 
immigrants, esteemed a lower division of the caste, came by the fea to the south of Travancore, 
when.' vast numl>ers of them are still found and whence having but little land of their own 
they have gradually spread themselves over Tinnevelly, on the invitations of the Natans and 
other proprietors of land, who, without the help of their poorer neighbours, as chmbers, conid 
derive but little profit from their immense forests of palmyra." There is even a tradition that 
they brought from Ceylon the cocoanut and the Palmyra palms to the continent. There is, 
however, no <|UcBtion that much of the planting industry of the sea-port Tftluks is due to 
their persevering toil. During the middle ^es, the Izhavas were largely employed as 
soldiers, along with the Nayars, by the mlers of the different chiefshipa in Travancore. The 
chief of them was the Raja of Ambalapuzha. J. C. Vischer writing about him says, " 1 he 
Rija of Porkad has not many ' Nairs ' in the place of whom he is served by Ch^os," Even so 
late as in the days of Maharaja Rama Varma (who died in M.E. 973), large numbers of 
Chovas were employed as soldiers by the State, if we may believe in the account of Friar 
Bartolomeo, who is generally an accurate writer. 

The males of the middle and richer classes of Izhavas are neat and comely in their Appear- 
appearance and cannot always be distinguished from Nayara. The women are seldom well- anoe. dress 
favoured and in this respect furnish a contrast to the Tiya women of British Malabar, ^^if^*' 
The Tattu form of dressing is not prevalent among Izhava women. The ornaments of 
the Izhava womeu were, till recently, quite unlike those of the Nayara. Bangles of brass — 

and silver alone were in use. The Pdmpatam, a Tamil ear-jewel, took the place of the Nayar 
lota as eai-ornament. A change in the direction of Niyar jewelry is fast progressing 
as in the case of Niyars in imitation of east-coast BrabmauB. Bat the mukku'li and the 
gnallu are not yet worn, The Izhava and the Nayar women may further be distinguished from 
each other by the tie of the hair-lock j the Izhava women usually bring it to the centre of the 
forehead, while the Nayars bring it on either side. This distinction is also going out. Tattooing, 
as among the Kayars, is very common in tne south. In North Travancore, on the other band, 
it may be eaid to be rate. 



Inhflri- 



Ooeop*- 
tton* 



BelfKloos 
wopship* 



Ceremo- 
niet. 



142 

Tlie IzhaTasy like tlie lert of tiie practically indigenous population of Ifahlwr^ inhesit 
in the female line. In certain parte of Travaneore, however, a portion of the paternal property^ 
never exceeding one-half, is given to the childien. This custom is absent in the northern paits 
of the State, where the form of inheritance is as strictly MafumalhdhBjam as that of the 
Nftyars. 

The cultivation of ilie cocoanut and rarely of the palmyra palm is their chief oocupatiaQ. 
They make toddy and distil arrach. Some of them are boatmen and weavers. Among 
this community, women are as much the earning members of the &mily as men. In ibis 
community are also found teachers, astrdlogers, and doctors and Vaidyan is an honorific saflSx 
in the case of some. Sanskrit is freely studied and a goodly number of Sanskritists adorn 
the caste. 

The Izhavas constitute one of the orthodox Hindu communitks in Travancoie. They 
furnish few converts to alien religions as compared with the Shanar^. In many places tli^ 
have got their own temples with a member dt their own community as priest. The dnty 
usually worshipped is Bbadrak&li« Propitiatory offerings are also made to Sasta, Virabhadxan, 
and Mitan. The usual festivals in honour of Bhadrakali, namely, Tniian, KuUiveitam^ 
and the Bharani, are observed by the Izhavas* As the cult of Bhadrakali is taken to require 
animal sacrifice, the image of Bhadrakfili in many Central and South Travancore temples 
has been, at the instance of one Nanu Asan, a good Sanskrit scholar and pious rdigious 
reformer of that communiiy, replaced by that of Subrahmanya. The worship of Anchutampur&- 
kkal or the five masters, now identified with the Panehapandavas €f the Mahabh&raia 
commonly met with among Pulayas, was once prevalent among the Izhavas. At Maiyanatu in 
Quilon there is still an Izhava temple dedicated to those Anchutampur&kkaL 

Among the Izhavas there is, as in the case of the Nftyars, the formal tali- tyiog when 
the girl is yet young. This does not entitle the person who tied the tali to husband the g^Is. 
The dotii-giving ceremony or the actual wedding usually takes place after the girl attains 
puberty. As a rule the person who ties the tali is paid a small sum, generally 25 Travancoie 
fanam$ (8} rupees) together with the expenses incurred by him in connection with the 
ceremony. Cases where the tdli-tjet becomes the real husband occur but rarely. In those 
cases no money-gift is paid to the bride and the cloth-presentation ceremony is dispensed 
with. 

As in the case of the higher castes, shaving was originally not a mere personal toilette but 
a sacrament and the priestly function was not inaptly combined with that of the barber. The 
Izhavattis who are the barbers of the Izhavas are, therefore, their recc^nized priests. It is a 
barber woman that ties the pratiiaram or the ^tibia-string around the bride's wrist and 
formally hands over the bridegroom the tali to be tied. In regard to this relation between the 
barber and the priest, it has, of course, to be noted that the theory is now entirely repudiated, 
though tiie practice survives as its relic and record. For a week, the married couple remain at 
the house of the bride. On the seventh day the marriage is over. On the occasion of the 
cloth-presentation ceremony, a money-present is made to the bride's party^ the amount 
depending on the wealth and the social position of the parties concerned and varying between 
Bs. 10 and Bs. 100. Divorce is free as with the Nayars. Both burying and burning €i 
corpses are resorted to. Pollution lasts for 16 days. 

The total number of Izhavas in Travancore is 491,774. They form 17 per cent, of the 
total population of the State. Of these, 843,265 are found in the Western and 148,509 in the 
Eastern Division. The largest number of Izhavas (59,711) is returned from Shertallay. At 
the 1891 Census, 414,217 persons were recorded under this heading. 



HKTERNAL STRIICniRE OF THE IZHAYAS. 

Tt7/ef.— CHAHNAH (shanar); PAHIKKAH (Pam^work ; Panikhan is the same as PanikkSr that 
we saw among N&yars. But the latter is the honorific form which is denied to the 
Izhavas); VAIDTAN (Physicians), GTOTSTAH (Astrologer); ISSlN (Teacher). 



Seo^ton«— 



Pavdi. 

■ALATlLAM (GHORAS and TiTAS). 

■UT. 

CHOTI. 

■ARITAHAT. 

HATAHPI. 



143 



4. Of the Draviditin Tract. 



santAl. 



[ H. B. RiSLEY, CLE., I.C.S.} 

Sontkal, Saontar, a lar^e Dravidiaa tribe, classed on linguistic pounds as Kolaiian, OrlgL 
wliich 18 found io Western Benfjal, Northern Oi'igsa, Bbigalpur and tUe Santa! Parganis. '°^ 
According to Mr. Skrcfsmd the name Stintal is a curraption o£ Saontar, and was adopted liy ''*'*•"<"'*■ 
the tribe after their flojoura for several generations iu the country about Saont in Miduapur. 
Before they went to S&ont they are said to bare been called Kbarw&r, the root of which, 
khar, is a variant of hor, ' man , tbe name which all ^antals use among themselveB. As re- 
gards the derivation of ihe name of the tribe from Saont, an obscure village^ Bomewhat oS the 
main line of tbeir recent migrations, it may be observed that Colonel Dalton suggested a 
doubt whether the name of the place may not have been taken from the tribe, and this view 
seems to derive some suppQrt from his diaoovery of a small tribe of Saonte in Sarguja and 
Keunjhar. The point, however, is not one of great importance. At the present day when a 
Santal is asked what caste be belongs to, he wUl almost invariably reply 'Manjhi' (literally 
'village headman,' one of the commonest tides o£ the tribe), adding ' Santal Manjht' rf 
further explanation is demanded of him. 

In point of physical charactoristica the SantaU may be regarded as typical examples of the 
pure Dravidian stock. Their complexion varies from very dark brown to a peculiar, almost 
charcoat-lilce, black ; the proportions of the nose approach those of the Negro, the bridge being 
more depreseed in relation to the orbits than is the case with Hindus; the mouth is largo, 
the lips thick and projecting ; the hair coarse, black, and occasionally curly ; the zygomatic 
arches prominent, while the propDrdons of the skall. approaching the dolichocephalic type, 
conclusively refuto the hypothesis of their Mongolian descent. 

Santal tradition traces back the origin of the tribe to a wild goose [hatSak) which laid 
two eggs. From these sprang Pilchu Haram and Pilchu Burhi, the parents of the race, who 
begat the Erst seven sub-tribes. Their earliest abode was Hihiri or Ahiri Pipiri, a name which 
Mr, Skrefsrud derives from ^tf origiuj and which others identify with pargana Ahuri in 
Hazaribagb. Thence they went westward to £hoj-Kaman, where all o£ them were destroyed 
tor their wickedness by a deluge of fire-rain, except a single pair who were saved in a cleft of 
the mountain Ha ra. From Hara tbey went to Sasangbera, a plain on the banks of a great 
river, and alter that to Jurpi, where is the great mountain Marang Bur, through which 
they could find no pass. Here they offered sacrifices to the mountain god, and prayed bim to 
let them ihrougb. After a while tbey found a pass leading into a country called AJjiri, where 
they dwelled for a time, passing on to Kendi, Ch&i, and finally Champa. In Champa they 
sojourned many generations and the present institutions of the tribe were formed. At last the 
Hindus drove them oot of Champa, and tbey established themselves in Saont, and ruled there 
for two hundred years. Again preseed by the Hindus, tbey wandered on under a Raja called 
Hambir Singh tothe eastern part of the Manbhum district near Pachet. Here after a while 
their Rajas adopted the Hindu religion and set up as Rajputs, so that at the present day tliey 
intermarry with the family of the Raja of Saryuja. But the people would not change their 
religion, so they left their chief to rule over Hindus, and wandered on to the Santal Par- 
ganaa where they are settled now. 

Neither as a record of actual wanderings nor as an example of the workings of the 
myth-making faculty does this story of the wandering of the Sautals appear to deserve serioui^ 
consideration. A people whose only means of recording facts consists of tying knots in strings 
and who have no bards to hand down a national epic by oral tradition, can hardly he expected 
to preserve the memory of tbeir past long enough or accurately enough for their accounts of 
it to possess any historical value. An attempt has indeed licen made by Mr. Skrefsrud to proTfl 
from these legends that the Santals must have entered into India from the north-west, just as 
Colonel Dalton uiiea the same data in support of his opinion that the tribe came originally from 
Asaam. The one hypothesis is as tenable or as untenable as the other, and all that can he said 
is that there is not a fraction of substantial evidence iu support of either. If, however, the 
lef^ends of the Santals are regarded as an account of recent migrations, their general purport 
will be found to be fairly in accord with actual facts. Without pressing the conjecture men- 
tioned above, that Ahiri Pipri may be no other than parga*a Ahori in the north-west of 
Hazavibagh district, it is clear that a targe and important Santal colony was once settled in 
Pai^anas Chai and Champa in the same district. A tradition is noticed by Colonel Dalton of 
an old fort in Cbai occupied by one Jaura, a Santal ftaja, who destroyed himself and his family 
on hearing of the approach of a Mubammadan army under Sayyid Ibrahim AU aliai Malik 
Baya, a general of Muhammad Tughlak's, who died in 1353. This tradition, so far us it re- 
fers to the existence of a Santal fort in Chai Champa, is to some extent corroborated by the 
following passage from the legends of the Southern Santals collected by the Revd. J. Phillips 
and published in Appendix ti to Annala of Rural Bengal, ed. 1S69 : — " Dwelling there (in Chu 
Chsmi)&) they greatly multiplied. There were two gates, the Ahin gate and uie Bahini gat«, 
to the fort of CEiai Champa." If, moreover, the date of the taking of this fort by Ibi&him 



144 

Ali were afisaiited to be aboat 1340 A. D.^ the subsequent migrations of which the tribal legends 
speak would fill up the time intervening between the departure of the Santals from Chai 
Champa and their settlement in the present Sant&l Parganas. Speaking generally, these recent 
migrations have been to the east^ which is the direction they might prima fade have been expected 
to follow. The earlier settlements which Santal tradition speaks of, those in Ahiri Pipri and 
Chai Champa^ lie on the north-western frontier of the tableland of Hazaribagh and in tiie 
direct line of advance of the numerous Hindu immigrants from Bihar. That the influx q£ 
Hindus has in fact driven the Santals eastward is beyond doubt^ and the line which they are 
known to have followed in their retreat corresponds on the whole with that attributed to them 
in thmi tribal legends. 
Internal '^^^ internal structure of the Santal tribe is singularly complete and elaborate. There aie 

strootare. ^W^^ exogamous septs^ (1) Hasdak, (2) Murmu^ (Sj Kisku^ (4) Hembrom^ (5) Mamdi, (t>) 
Sareo, (7) Tudu, (8) Baske, (9) Besra, (10) P&uria, (11) Chore, (12) Bedea. The first seven 
are believed to be descended from the seven sods of Filohu Haram and Pilchu Burhi or Ayo. 
The five others were added afterwards. All are exogamous. In order that members of the 
various septs may recogoize each other when they meet, each sept, except Piuria, Chore, and 
Bedea, has certain pass-words peculiar to itself, which are supposed to be the names of the 
original homes of the septs in Champft or in one of the earlier settlements of the tribe. The 
pass- words are as folbws: — (i) Hasdak — ^Tatijhari, Gangijauni, E&r& Ghija, Sohodoro ; (£) 
Murmu— Champagarh, Bagsumbha, Naran Manjhi; {^) Eisku— Kundagarh; (4) Hembrom — 
Kunda, Ehairigarh, Jalaghatia ; (5) Mamdi — Badoligarh, Jelen Sinjo, Dhano Miiijhi ; (6) 
• Saren — ^Anbali, Barha, Pero Pargana; (7) Tudu — Simgarh, Sukrihutup Bara Manjhi; (8) 

Baske — Banga, Chunuk-jhandu ; (9) Besra — Dhokrapfllania, Ghilu, Phagu M&ojhL Theee 
pass-words or shibboleths seem to serve among the Santals the purpose for which Australian 
and North American savages tattoo the totem on the body. They preserve the memoiy of the 
tie of blood which connects the members of the sept, and thus furnish an additioual security 
against unconscious incest. They further go to show that the sept in its earlier form must have 
been a group of purely local character analogous to the communal septs. If due aUowanoe is 
made for the causes which must tend in course of time to scatter the members of any 
particular sept over a number of different villages, it will be seen to be a remarkable circum- 
stance not that so few local septs are now to be found, but that any traces of such an 
organization have survived to so late a period. 

Concerning the origin of the five additional septs the following stories are tokL The 
eighth tribe, Baske, at first belonged to the seven, but by reason of their offering their bveak- 
fiast (ha9ke) to the gods while the Santals were still in Champa, they were formed into a sepa- 
rate sept under the name of Baske. The Besras (No. 9) were separated on account of the immoral 
behaviour of their eponym, who was called Besra, the licentious one. The tenth sept^ Pauria, 
are oalled after the pigeon, and tiie eleventh. Chore, after the lizard ; and the story is that on tiie 
(Kioasion of a famous tribal hunting party the members of these two septs foiled to kill any- 
thing but pigeons and lizards, so they were oalled after the names of these animals. The 
twelfth sept, the Bedea, was left behind and lost when the Sant&ls went up out of Champa. 
They had no &ther, so the story goes— at least the mother of their first ancestor could not say 
who his &ther was, and for this reason they were deemed of lower rank than the other septs. 
This sept is believed to have arisen during the time of Mando Singh iu Champft when tiie 
Santals had begun to oome in contact with the Hindus. Some Santals say the father was a 
R&jput and the mother a girl of the Kisku sept. There wordd be nothing antecedently im- 
probable in the conjecture that the well-known gypsy tribe of Bedea may owe its origin to tiie 
liauon of a B&jput with a Santal girl ; but the mere resemblance of the names is a slendtf 
foundation for any such hypothesis. Santals are very particular about the honour of tlieir 
women^ so far at least as outsiders are concerned, and it is qmte in keeping with their ideas that 
a sept formed by a liaison with a Hindu should have been looked down upon, and eventually 
banished from the community. Any way it seems to be clear that the legend need not be taken 
to indicate the prevalence of the custom of female kinship in the tribe. 
Marriage. No Santal may marry within his sept (fdris), nor within any of the sub-septs {Hunt) 

(shown below) into which the sept is divided* He may marry into any other sept, including 
the sept to which his mother belong^ A Santftl proverb says :— No one needs a cow 
track or regards his mother's sept. 

Although no regard is paid in marriage to the mother's sept, the Sant&ls have precisely the 
same rule as the Kandhs concerning the sub-sept or khunt. A man may not marry into the 
sub-sept or khunt to which his mother belonged, though it is doubtful whether the Sant&ls 
observe this rule for as many generations in the descending line as is customary among the 
Kandhs. Many of the sub-septs have curious traditional usages, some of which may be men- 
tioned here. At the time of the harvest festival in January the members of the Sidup-Saren 
sub-sept set up a sheaf of rice on end in the doorway of their cattle-sheds. This sheaf thqr 
may not touch themselves, but some one belonging to another sub-sept must be got to take it 
away. Men of the S&dft-Saren sub-sept do not use vermilion in their marriage ritual ; they 
may not wear clothes with a red border on §uch occasions, nor may they be present at any cere- 
mony in which the priest offers his own blood to propitiate the gods. The Jugi- Saren, on the 
other hand| smeiMr their foreheads with iindnr at the harvest festival, and go round asking 
alms of rice. Willi the rice they get they make little cakes which they offer to the gods. The 
Mftnjhi-Khil*Sai«^ so called l)ecause their ancestor was a Mftnjhi or village headmani are for^ 
bidden, like the MA-Saren, to attend when the priest offers up his own blood. The Nslln- 
I Khil-Saren, who daim descent from a nUki or village priest may not enter a house the in- 



14fi 



mates of which are ceremonially unclean. They have a j<'thir!hSn Of eacred grove of their 
own, distinct from the commoii jdhirihait of the village, and they dit^pcRse with the serrices 
of the priest who Berves the rost of the village. The Ok-Saren safriliee a goat or a pig inelde 
their houses, and during the ceremony they ahnt the doors ti^^ht and iiilow no smoke to escape. 
Tho word ok means to suffocate or Btifle with smoke. The Mundu or Badar-Saren offer their 
sacrifices in the jungle, andalJow only males to eat the flesh of the animals that have been stain. 
The Mai-Saren may not utter the word tnal when engaged in a religious ooremony or when 
sitting on a partch&ffat to determine any tribal questions. The JJhu-Saren may not kill or eat 
the ;t^» or babbler bird, nor may they wear a particular sort of neeklice known hi jihu 
mala trom the resemblance which it bears to the babbler's eggs. The Jiiu is saM to hare 
guided the ancestor of tlio sept to water when he was dying of thirst in the forest. The 
Sankh-Saren may not wear shell necklaces or ornaments. The Barchir Saren plant a -epear in 
the grotmd when they are engaged in religious or ceremonial observances. The Bitol-Sarea are 
BO called because their tomidcr was eicommunicated on account of incest. 

Girls are married as adults mostly to men of their own choice. Senial intercourse before 
marriage is tacitly recognized, it being understood that if the girl becomes pregnant the young 
man is bound to marry her. Should he nttempt to evade this obligation, he would be severely 
beaten by the Jag-matiihi, and in addition to this hia father would be rec|uirei to pay a heavy 
fine. It iscurious to hoar that in the Santa! Parganafl, shortly after the rebellion of 1R55, it 
became the fashion among the more wealthy Santals to imitate the usages of high-caste Hindus 
and many their daughters between the ages of eight and twelve. This fashion has, howc?er, 
since been abandoned, and it is now very unusual for a girl fo be married before she attains 
puberty. Polygamy is not favoured by the custom of the tribe. A man may take a second 
wife it his first wife is barren, or if his elder brother dies he may marry the widow. But in 
either case the consent of bis original wife must be obtained to the arrangement. Instances no 
doubt occur in which this rule is evaded, but they are looked upon wth disfiavour. 

There seem to be indications that fraternal polyandry may at some time have existed 
among the Santals. Even now, says Mr. Skrefsrud, a man's younger brother may share his wife 
with impunity ; only they must not go about it very openly. Similarly a wife will admit her 
younger sister to intimate relations with her husband, and it pregnancy occurs scandal is avoided 
by his marrying tho girl as a second wife. It will of course be noticed that this form of polyan- 
dry need not be regarded as a survival of female kinship, 

The following forms of marriage are recognized by the Santals and distinguished by separ- 
ate names: — (1) Regular marriage (iop/n or hiring Se^u, literally bride-purchase); (2) Ghardt 
jatcae ; (3) Kul; (-1) Nir-bolok; (5) Sanga; (6) Kiring jawae or hnsbaud-purchase. The 
negotiations antecedent to a regular maiTiage are opened by the father of the yoimg mau 
who nsually employs a professional match-maker to look for a suitable girl. If the match- 
maker's proposals are accepted by the girl's parents, a day is fixed on which the girl, attended 
by two of her friends, goes to the house of the Jag-manjhi or supcrinten<lent of morals, in order 
to give the bridegroom's parents an opportunity of looking at her q^uietly. A similar visit of 
inspection is made by tho bride's parents to the bridegroom's ht>«se, and if everything is found 
satisfactory the betrothal is concluded and an instalment of the bride-price is paid, 'i'he ordinary 
price of a girl is Hs. S and the bridegroom must also present a cloth [sdri] to the girl's mother 
and to both her grandmothers if alive. If more than this is paid, the bridegroom is entitled to 
receive a present of a cow from bis father-in-law. In the ca.se known as a golat marriage, when 
two families, each having a daughter and a son of marriageable age, arranjje a double wedding, 
one daughter is set off against the other, and no bride-price is paid by either party. For a widow 
or a woman who has been divorced the bride-price is only half the standard amount, the idea being, 
as the Santals pointedly put it, that such women are only borrowed goods, and must be given 
back to their first husbands in the next worid. As the second husband has the u?e of his wife 
only in this world, it is clearly fair that ho shouU get her for half-price. In an early stage of 
tho marriage ceremony both bride and bridegroom separately go through the form of marriage to 
a mahm ifee [Bama lalif'oiia) . In the case of the bride a double thread is passe<l three or five timea 
from the little toe of her left foot to lier left ear, and is then bound round her arm with some 
blades of rice and stems of dkuha gra?8(Cy«PiJa« ilacfylmi) grass. The conjecture suggests itself 
that this may be a survival of some form of communal marriage, but from the nature of the case no * 
positive evidence is available to bear out this hyix)thesis, or to throw any light upon tbe sym- 
bolism of the usage. The essentialand binding portion of the ritual is tindurdaii, the smearing 
of vermilion on tbe bride's forehead and on tho parting of her hair. This rite, however, is sup- 
posed to have been borrowed from the Hindus. I'he original Santal ceremony is bslievel to have 
been very simple. The couple went away together into the woods, and on their return were shut 
up by themselves in a room. When they came out they wore considered to be man and wife, 
A practice closely resembling this ^va8 found by Colonel Dalton to be in vogue among the Bir- 
hors, and it is quite in keeping with what is known of the doings of primitive man in the 
matter of marriage. The mcmoiy of it, however, only survives among the Santals in the form of 
a vague and shadowy tradition upon which no stress can be laid. Simlurdan, on the other hand, is 
nothing but a refined and specialised form of the really primitive usage of mixing the blood of a 
married couple and making them drink or smear themselves with the mixture, and although it is 
poseible that the Santals may have borrowed mi/«''<'a« from the Hindus, there are certainly 
good grounds for believing that tbe Hindus themselves must have derive*! it from the Dra* 
vidian races. 

Tbe geeond mode of marriage, ghardi jame, is resorted to when a girl is ugly or deformed 
and there ia no prospect of htr being asked in marriage in the ordinary way. An instance has 



146 



iBherit- 
snoe. 



B«ligii>ii» 



been reported to me in which a girl who had on one foot more than the proper number of toes 
was married in this fashion. The husband is expected to live in his &i^er-in-law's house and to 
serre him for five years. At the end of that time he gets a pair of buUocksj Fome rioe and 
some agricultural implements, and is allowed to go about his business. 

The third form^ itui, is adopted by pushing young men who are not quite sure whether 
the girl they fancy will accept them^ and take this means of compelling her to many them. 
The man smears his fingers with vermilion or^ failing that, with common earth, and, watching 
his opportunity at market or on any similar occasion, marks the g^l he is in love with on the 
forehead and claims her as his wife. Having done this, he runs away at full speed to avoid the 
thrashing he may expect at the hands of her relations if he is caught on the spot. In any case 
the girl's people will go to his village and will obtain from the headman permission to kill and 
eat three of the offender's or his father's goats, and a double bride-price must be paid for the 
girl. The marriage, however^ is leg^^ and if the girl still declines to live with the man, she must 
be divorced in full form and cannot again be iparried as a spinster. It is said that an itut marriiige 
is often resorted to out of spite iu order to subject the girl to the humiliation of being divorced. 
The fourth form^ nirboloh (nir^ to run^ and bolok to enter) may be described as the 
female variety of ituL A girl who cannot get the man she wants in the regidar way takes a pot 
of hdndia or rioe-beeri enters his house and insists upon staying there. Etiquette for- 
bids that she should be expelled by main f orce^ but the man's mother^ who naturally desires to 
have a voice in the selection of her daughter-in-law^ may use any means shoiii of personal vio- 
lence to get her out of the house. It is quite fair, for example, aud is usually found effective, 
to throw red pepper on the fire, so as to smoke the aspiring maiden out ; but if she endures this 
ordeal without leaving the house, she is held to have won her husband and the family is bound 
to recognize her. 

The fifth form, sauga, is used for the marriage of widows and divorced women. The bride 
is brought to the bridegroom's house attended by a small party of her own friends, and the bind- 
ing proportion'of the ritual consists in the bridegroom talang a dimbu flower, marking it with 
iindur with his left hand, and with the same hand sticking it in the bride^s back hair. 

The sixth form, Kiring jdwde, is resorted to in the comparatively rare case when a prl has 
had a liaiion with, and become pregnant by, a man of her sept whom she cannot marry. In 
order that scandal may be avoided, some one is procured to accept the post of husband, and in 
consideration cf his services he gets two bullocks, a cow, and a quantity of paddy from the 
family of the man by whom the g^rl is pregnant. The headman then calls the villagers toge- 
ther, and in their presence declares the couple to be man and wife, and enjoins the girl to live 
with, and be faithful to, the husband that has been provided for her. 

A widow may marry again. It is thought the right thing for her to marry her late hus- 
band's younger brother, if one survives him, and under no circumstances may she marry his 
elder brother. Divorce is allowed at the wish of either husband or wife. If neither party 
is in &ult, the one who wants a divorce is expected to bear the expenses. The husband, for 
example, in such a case would not be entitled to claim a refund of the bride-price originally 
paid, and would also have to pay a fine and give the woman certain customary dues. If, on the 
other hand, it is the wife who demands a divorce without just cause, her &ther has to make good 
the bride-price in addition to a fine for her levity of behaviour. The divorce is effected in the 
presence of the assembled villagers by the husband tearing asunder three sal {Siorea robmia) 
leaves in token of separation^ and upsetting a brass pot full of water. 

In the matter of inheritance Santals follow their own customs, and know nothing of the 
so-called codes which govern the devolution of property among Hindus. Sons inherit in equal 
shares ; a daughter has no claim to a portion as of right, but usually gets a cow given to her when 
the property is divided. Failing sons, the father takes ,* failing him, the brothers ; after them, the 
male agnates. Failing agnates, the daughter inherits with succession to her children. If a 
man dies leaving young sons, his widow manages the property till all the sons are old enough to 
divide and start separate households. She then takes up her abode with the youngest. Should 
the Widow marry outside the family, the mail agnates take the propeiiy in trust till the sons are 
of age, and she gets nothing. If a man has male relatives, he cannot give away his property 
even to a son-in-law. Wills are unknown. 

According to Mr. Skrefsrud traces may be discerned in the background of the Santal 
religion of a faineant Supreme Deitv called Thakur, whom the Santals have long ceased to 
worship for the sufficient reason that he is too good to trouble himself about anybody and 
does neither good nor ill to mankind. Some identify him with the Sun, whom the Santals 
regard as a good god and worship every fifth or tenth year with sacrifices of slain goats. 
But this point is uncertain, and I am myself inclined to doubt whether a god bearing the 
Hindu name Thakur, and exercising the supreme powers which mark a comparatively late stage 
of theological development, can really have formed part of the original system of the Santals. 
However this may be, the popular gods of the tribe at the present day are the following :->- 
(I) Marang Bum, the great mountain or the high one, who now stands at the head of the 
Sant&l Pantheon, and is credited with very far-reaching powers, in virtue of which he associates 
both with the gods and with the demons. (2) Moreko, fire, now a single god but formerly 
known to the Santals under the form of five brothers. (3) J&ir Era, a sister of Moreko, the 
goddess of the sacred grove set apart in every village for the august presence of the ^ods. 
(4) Gosain Era, a younger sister of Moreko. (5) Parganft, chief of the fiongas or gods and 
more especially master of all the witches, by reason of which latter functions he is held in 
especial reveience, (6) Manjhi, a sort of seoond-in-command to Parganft^ a personage wlo is 
supposed to be particularly active in restrai^mg the gods from doinff hi^ to men. "" The twQ 



147 

latter are clearly deities oonstractetl on the model of the communal and vtlla^ oESciaU vhoee 
names thoy bear. The idea is that the gode, like men, need eapervUing oSiciiiU of this Bort to 
look after them and keep them in order. All the foregoing Rods have their allotted place in tha 
sacred grove {JdAirlian), and are worshipped only in public. Marang Bnru alone ie also wor- 
shipped privately in the family. 

Each family also has two special gods of its own — the Orak-bonga or household god and the 
Abge-bonga or secret god. The names of the Orak-bongaa are (1) Baepaliar, [i] Deaivih, 
(8) Sas, (4} Goraya, (6) Barpahar, (fl) Sarchawdi, (7) 'I'huntatursa. The Abge-bongas are 
the following:— (1) iHiarasore or Dharasanda, (2) Ketkomkudra, (■•*) Cbampn,-denagarh, (4) 
Gwhsinka, (5) Liiathandi, (6) Dhanghara, (7) Kudrachandi, [k) Bahara, (9) Duarseri, (10) • 

Kudraj, (11) Gosain Era, (12) Achali, (13) Deawfili. No Santal would divulge the name of 
his Orak-bonga and Abge-bonga to any one but his eldest sonj and men are particularly 
careful to keep this sacred knowledge from their wives for fear lest they should acquire undue 
influence with the hongas, become witcliea, and eat up the family with impunity when the pro- 
tection of its gods has been withdrawn. The names given above wore disclosed to Mr. 
Skrefsrud by Christian SanlSla, Wben aacrificee are offered to the Orak-bongoB the whole 
family partake of the offerings ; but only men may touch the food that has been laid before 
the Abge-bongas, These sacrifices take place once a year. No regular time is fixed, and each 
man pcn^orms them when it suits his convenience. 

There still lingers among the Santals a tradition of a ' moutain-god ' (Buru-bonga) of un- Hum%a 
kDown name, to whom human sacrifices used to be offered, and actual instances have been sacrlfloe. 
mentioned to me of people being kidnapped and sacrificed within quite recent times by influen- 
tial headmen of commnnes or villages, who hoped in this way tc gain great riches or to win 
, lome specially coveted private revenge. These are not the motives which prompted human 
sacrifice among the Eandhs of Oiiesa, a tribe whose internal struoture curiously resembles 
that of the Sant&ls. The Kandh sacrifice was undertaken for the benefit of the entire trilie, 
not in tbe interest- of individnal ambition or malevolence. It is curious to hear that one of the , 

men credited with this iniquity was himself murdered during the Santal rebellion of 1 855, by 
being slowly hewn in pieces with axes, just as liis own victims had been— a mode of execution 
which certainly recalls the weU-fenown procedure of the Kandhs. 

The chief festival of the Santals is the Sobrai or harvest festival, celebrated in Poth Fustivali. 
(November-December), after the chief rice crop of the year has been got in. Public sacrifices 
of fowls are offered by (he priest in the sacred grove ; jfigs, goats and fowls are sacrificed by 
private families, and a general saturnalia of drunkenness and sexual license prevails. Chastity 
IS in abeyance for the time, and all unmarried persons may indulge in promiscuous intercoarse. 
This license, however, does not extend to adultery, nor does it sanction iatercourse between 
persons of the same sept, though even this offence, if committed during the Sohrai, is punished 
less severely than at other times. Next in importance is the Baka paja, kept in PAalffun 
(February -March) when ihesul tree comes into fiownr. 'rrib.il and family saeiiBcea are 
held, many victims are slain and eaten' by the worshipper:?, every one entertains their friends, 
dancing goes on day and night, and the best songs and flute-music are performed. A peculiar 
fealiure of this festival is a sort of wiiter-bottle in which men and women throw water at each 
other until they are completely drenched. 

Mention may also be made of Erok-sim, the sowing festival kept in j-Uar (May-June.); 
Hariar-sim, the feast of the sprouting of the rice in Bhadra (September- October); Trignndli* 
aanai, the offering of the first fruits of the millets tri (Panioum millaceum) and gundli (Pani- 
cum frumentaceum) also in Bhatlra ; Janthar pnja in Jghran (October- November), the first 
fruit of the winter rice crop, Sankrdnt puja on the 1st day of PosA, when bread and Chira 
and molasses are offered to dead ancestors; Miigh-sim in the month of Magh, when the 
jungle grass is cut. This is the end of the Sant&l year. Servants are paid their wages and 
fresh engagements are entered into. On this occasion all the village officials, the Manjhi 
Par&mauik, Jag-Manjhi, J og-paramanik, Gorait, Naiki, and Kudam-naiki go through the 
form of resigning their appointments, and all the cultivators give notice of throwing up 
their lands. After ten days or bo the Manjhi or headman calls the village together and says 
he has changed his mind and will stay on as manJAi if the village will have him. His offer 
is accompanied with free drinks of rice-beer, and is carried by acclamation. One by one the 
other ofliciala do the same; the ryots follow suit, and after a vast amount of beer has been 
consumed the affairs of tbe village go on as they did before, 'ihe Sima-bonga or boundary 
gods are propitiated twice a year with sacrifices of fowls offered at tbe boundary of this village 
where these gods ai'e supposed to live. Jumtha puja is an offering of two goats, or a goat and 
a sheep, to the sun. Every Santal ought to perform this sacrifice at least once in his life. 
After a year's interval it is, or ought to be, followed by Kutam daiigra, when a cow is offered 
to the household god, and an ox to -Marang Bum and to the spirits of dead ancestors. Mak- 
more pvja, literally ' cut five' is the sacrifice uf three goateand many fowls offered to .More-ko, 
the god of fire, supposed to have been originally five brothers, on* occasions of public calamity, 
each as a failure o£ the crops, an outbreak of epidemic disease, and the like. 

The communal organization of the Santals is singolaily complete. The whole number of CommaBal | 
villages comprising a local settlement of the tribe is divided into certain large groups, each organiM- 
nnder the superintendence of a fflryfl«iii( or circle headman. This official is tha head of the '°°* 
social system of tha inhabitants of his circle; his permission has to be obtained for every 
marriage, and he, in consultation »ith a paticAdyai of village headmen, expels or fiines persons 
who infringe the tribal standard of propriety. He is remunerated by a commission on the 
fines levied, and by a tribute In kind of one leg of the goat or animal cooked at tbe dinner 



148 



whioh the culprits are obliged to give. Eacli village has^ or is supposed to have^ the following 
establishment of officials holding rent-free land : — 

1. ifa;y At.— ^Headman, usually also ijardar where the village is held on lease under a 

zamindar, collects rents^ and allots land among the ryots^ heing paid for this by 
the proceeds of the man land which he holds free of rent. He receives Re, 1 
as marocha at each wedding, giving in return a full handi of rice-beer. 

2. Paramanii. — Assistant headman, also holding some man land. 

3. Jag-Manjhi, T Executive officers, respectively, of the manjhi and the para* 

\ ntanik who, as the Santals describe it, *^ sit and give 

4. Jag^Taramanih, y orders/' which the /^^-i/^Ty At and /a^-Para^zawt/t carry 

V. out. 

5. Naiku — Village priest of the aboriginal deities. 

6. Kudam iVat At.— Assistant priest, whose peculiar function it is to propitiate the spirits 

(bhuts) of the hills and jungles by scratching his arms till they bleed, mixing 
the blood with rice, and placing it in spots frequented by the bhuts. 

7. Qorait. — Village messenger, who holds man land and acts as peon to the headman. 

The gorait is also to some extent a servant of the zamindar. His chief duty 

within the village is to bring to the manjhi and paramanik any ryot they want. 

The communal circles of the Santals seem to correspond closely to the muta^ of the 

Khands and the parkas of the Mundas and Oraons. It is a plausible conjecture that among all 

these tribes this organization was once connected with marriage as it is among the Khands at 

the present day. 

INTERS^AL STRUCTURE OF THE SANTlLS. 

SAN TAL, Sdontaff Khartioar, or Safd-llor, 
Titles : — Buna, Mandal, Manjhi, Pardhan^ Sardar. 
Sub-tribes :— Deswali Santal, Kharwar or Safa-Hor. 



Septi. 



BlSEI 






Sab-Septs, 



BSDITl (sheep P) Nil. 

Bimdra. 



BSSRI. hawk 






Chonrs 



Kahn, crow. 
Kftrft, buffalo. 

Nij. 
S&dS. 

Sibala. 
Son. 
I Sung. 

Nil, 

Barwilr. 

Chilbindhfl, eagle-slayer. 

Jihn, a bird. 

Kerwar. 
HftnjU-Khil. 



eontd,. 



HUBMIJy nilgai 



HANSDA, HAS- 
DAK, wild goose. I Ni&ki-Kliil. 

Nij. 



HEHRON, HEMBA- 
BAH, betel-palm. / Knm&r. 

A Laher. 



Roh-Lutari ear-pierced. 

S&da. 

Dilntelay so^ called from 
tbeir breeding pigs with 
very large tusks for saori- 
ficial purposes. 

Gnft, areca nut. 

Jahnr. 



KI8KU 



■iBIBIi grass 



N&ikft-KhiL 

Mij. 

' Roh-LatUTy* ear pierced. 

Uh. 

Abar. 
Ah. 

Kachni, tortoise. 
LSrt, bake meat in a leaf- 
- platter. 

• ( BfSg, cobra. 
Nij. 

Roh-LutuT. 
S&d&. 

^Somal) deer. 
r Burn-birit, of the hills. 

• < Kekra, orab, 
(Laher. 



Septn. Snb-Septt. 

H&njhi-Khil. 
r Naiki-KhiL 

HlBirDI, grass— \ NiJ. 

i Roht) panjaun tree. 

( S&da. 
Bit&l. 
Boar, fish. 
Chopeftr. 
G&nr, fort. 

. H&ndi) earthen vessel. 

( Hnro. 

Sij. 

S&d&. 

Sangda. 

SikiySr. a chain. 
Tikka. 
PAUBil or mi* 
PaullL 

''Barchi, spearmen. 

HUt. 

Jogi. 

L&t. 

*ftS;ti%r / 2nidn or Badar. . de™» 

Sankhf conch ehelL 
Sldnpor Siduk, a bundle 

of straw. 

Tnrkn. 

Agarlft, charcoal-burners. 

Chigi, Chiki, impale. 

Dftntela^ breed pigs with 
very large tusks for sacri- 
ficial purposes. 

LSrt, bake meat in a leaf- 
• ( platter. 

^ Maiyhi-KhiL 
Naiki-Khil. 
Nij. 

Roh-Lutnri ear-pieroed. 
S&d&. 
Sung. 
Adeb 

AIND| a kind of 
eel. 



TUDU 



149 



4. Of the Dravidian Tract. 



BHUMIJ. 



IH. H. It 18 LET, C.LB.'] 

A non-Arjran tribe of Manbhum, Singbhum^ and Western Bengal^ classed by Dalion ^d -Origin. 
others, mainly on linguistic pounds, as Kolarian. There can be no doubt that the Bhumij . 
are closely allied to^ if not identical with, the Mundas ; but there is little to show that they 
ever had a distinct language of their own. In 1850 Hodgson published a short vocabulary 
prepared by Captain Haughton, then in political charge of Singbhum ; but most of the words 
in this appear to be merely Ho. The most recent obperver, Herr Nottrott, of Gossner's Mis- 
sion, says that the Bhumij resemble the Mundas most closely in speech and manners, but gives 
no specimens of their languasre, and does not say whether it differs sufficiently from Mundari 
to be regarded as a separate dialect. I am inchned myself to believe that the Bhumij are 
nothing more than a branch of the Mundas, who have sf>read to the eastward, mingled with the 
Hindus^ and thus for the most part severed their eonnexion with the parent tribe. This hypo- 
thesis seems on the whole to be borne out by the facts observable at the present day. The 
Bhumij of Western Manbhum are beyond doubt pure Mundas. They inhabit the tract of the 
country which lies on both sides of the Siibarnarekha river, bounded on the west by the edge 
of the Chota Nag^ur plateau, on the east by the hill range of which Ajodhya is the crowning 
peak, on the south by the Singbhum hills, and on the north by the hills forming the boundary 
between Lohardag^, Ilazaribagh, and Manbhum districts. This re^on contains an enormous 
number of Mund&ri graveyards, and may fairly be considered one of the very earliest settle- 
ments of the Mimda race. The present inhabitants use the Mundari language, call themselves 
Mundas, or, as the name is usually pronounced in Manbhum, Muras, and observe all the 
customs current among their brethren on the plateau of Chota Nagpnt proper. .Thus, Jike all 
the Kolarians, they build no temples, but worship Burn in the form of a stone smeared with 
vermilion, which is. set up in a ^^r;»a or sacred grove near the village. A sarna is invariably 
composed of purely jungle trees, such. as sal and others, and can therefore be recognised with 
certainty as a fragment of the primeval forest, left standing to form an abiding place for the 
aboriifinal deities. They observe the sarhul festival at the same time and in the same way as 
their kindred in Lohardag& and Singbhum, and the layd or priest is a recognised village official. 
Marriages take place when both parties are of mature age, and the betrothal of children is 
unknown. Like the Mundas of the plateau, they first bum their dead and then bury the 
remains under gravestones, some of which are of enormous size. On certain feast days smalt 
supplies of food and money are placed under these big stones to regale the dead, and are 
abstracted early the next morning by low-caste Hindus. 

On the eastern side of the Ajodhya range^ which forms a complete barrier to ordinary 
communication, all is changed. Both the Mundari language and the title of Munda have 
dropped out of use, and the aborigines of this eastern tract call themselves Bhumij or Sard&r^ 
and talk Bengali. The physical characteristics of the race, however, remain the same^ and 
although they have adopted Hindu customs and are fast becoming Hindus, there can be no 
doubt that they are the descendants of the Mundas who first settled io the country, and were 
given the name of Bhumij (autochthon) by the Hindu immigrants who found them in posse»- 
sion of the soil. 

The early history of the tribe and its general characteristics are sketched by Colonel Dalton 
in the following passages :— 

''The Bhumij of the Jangle Mahals were oiice, under the nickname of ekuar (robbers); Early 
the terror of the surrounding districts, and their various outbreaks were called ekudris. On ^^story. 
several occasions since they came under * the British rule they have shown how readily a ehuari 
may be improvised on very sli^^ht provocation. I do not know that on any occasion they rose, 
like the Mundas, simply to redress their own wrongs. It was sometimes in siupport of a 
turbulent chief ambitious of obtaining power to which, according to the courts of law, he was 
not entitled ; and it was sometimes to oppose {he Government in a policy which they did not 
approve, though they may have had very little personal interest in the matter. Thus, in the 
year A.D. 1798^ when the Panchet estate was sold for arrears of revenue, they rose and 
violently disturbed the peace of the country till the sale was cancelled. After .hostilities had 
continued for some time, in replv to a very pacific message sent to them by the officer oom^ 
manding the troops, they asked if the Government were going to sell any more estates. I do 
not think that the settlement of any ode of the Bhumij Jungle Mah&ls was effected without a 
fight. In Dhalbhum the Bftja resisted the interference of the British power, and the Gt>vem« 
ment set up a rival ; but after various failures to establish his authoritv they set him aside 
and made terms with the rebel. In Barabhum there was at one time a disputed sacoession. 
The oourte decided that the eldest bom of Raja Yivikft Narayan, though the son of the second 
wife^ should succeed in preference to the son of the first wife, the Pat K&ni. The Bhumij did 
not approve of the decision, and it was found necessary to send a military force to oanr it 
out. Thi9 was the origin of the last disturbance^ faiown as Qanga N&rayan's rebellion^ which 

_ ■ I. 8 ' 



160 

broke out in 1 882. Lakshman, tbe son of the Pat Rani alluded to above^ eontinmng to oppose 
big brother, was arrested, and died in Jul, leaving a eon, Ghing& Nftrayan. ^ On the death of 
Baja Baghunath Sins:h he also was succeeded by the son of Us second Bani, who was declared 
by the Supreme Court to be heir, in opposition to a claim against set up by Madhab Singh, the 
younger son, but the son of the Pit Rftni ; but failing in his suit, Mftdhab Singh resigned 
himself to his fate, and was consoled by being appointed diwdn, or prime minister, to his 
brother. In this capacity he made himself thoroughly unpopular, more especially by becoming 
an usurious money-lender and extortionate grain-dealer, and soon Oanga Narayan found that, 
in opposing a man so detested, a majority of the people would side with him. Accordingly, 
in the month of April 1832 he, at the head dt a large force of phdttcdli, made an attack on 
Madhab Singh and slew him. This foul crime was committed with great deliberation, cunning, 
and cruelty. Madhab was seized and carried off to the hills to be sacrificed. Oang& Nftrayan 
himself first smote him with his battle-axe, then each sarddr ghatwH was compelled to dis- 
charge an arrow at him, and thus all the leading ghdtioalB became implicated in the plot. A 
system of plundering was then commenced, which soon drew to his standard all the eiudrSy 
that is, all the Bhumij of Barabhnm and adjoining estates. He attacked Barabazar, where 
the Baja lived, burned the MunsiFs kaehari and the police station, from which the police had 
fled, but three unfortunate peons (runners) of the MunsiFs court were caught and killed. The 
officials and the police fell back on Bardwan, and for some time Gang& Narayan had the 
country at his mercy. He sacked every place worth plundering, but in November following 
a force was collected, consisting of three regiments of Native Infantry and eight guns, and 
military operations against the insurgents commenced. They were soon driven to take refuge 
in the hills, but being pressed there also Oang& Narayan fled into Singbhum, and endeavoured 
to enlist in his favour the reputed invincible and irrepressible Larkfts. They were just then at 
issue with one of the chiefs, who claimed supremacy over a portion of them, the Thakur of 
Kharsawan ; and though they were not unwilling to join in the row, they wished, before they 
committed themselves to Oang& N&rayan's leadership, to test his capadty to lead. They 
therefore demanded that he should in the first place make an attack on the fort of the Thakur 
of Kharsaw&n. In complying with this request he was killed, and the Thftkur had tbe pleasure 
of sending his head to Captam Wilkinson with a letter quite in the style of Ealstaff. 

''I have not been able to discover that the Bhumij possess any independent traditions of 
migrations. Those who live in proximity to Chutia Nasrpur recognise no distinction between 
themselves and the Mundas. They intermarry and associate and coalesce in all matters indicat- 
ing identity of race ; for, though it may be said that they are not much troubled with caste 
prejudices, there is no portion dt the old Indian population which is quite free from it. The 
Bhumij &rther east have become too Hinduised to acknowledge the relationship. The Dhal- 
bhum Bhumij consider themselves autochthones, and will not admit that they are in any wav 
connected with the Mundas, Hos, or Santals. It is pretty certain that the gaminddrs of all 
these estates are of the same race as their people, though the only man among them whom I 
found sensible enough to acknowledge this was the Baj& of Bftghmundi ; the others all call 
themselves Kshattriyas or B&jputs, but they are not acknowledged as such by any true scion 
of that illustrious stock. In claiming to be B&jputs they do not attempt to connect themselves 
with any of the recognised families of the tribe, but each family has its own special legend of 
miraculous production. The family legend of the Baj& of Barabhnm may be given as a speci- 
men of their skill in making pedigrees : — ' Nath Var&ha and Kes Varaha, two brothers, quar- 
relled with their father, the B&j& of Vir&t, and settled at the Court of Vikramaditya. (This 
has some connection with the tradition of the adjoining estate of Patkum, the Rftja of which 
claims descent from Vikramaditya.) Kes, the younger brother, was sawn into two pieces ; and 
with his blood Vikram gave a iiia or mark on the forehead to the elder brother, and a pair 
of umbrellas, and told Um that all the country he could ride round in a day and night should 
be his. Nath mounted his steed and accomplished a circuit of eight yqfanas within the time 
specified in what is now Barabhnm ; and this must be all true, as the prints of his horse's hoo& 
are still visible on the southern slopes of the hills.' With one or two exceptions all the ghdtwali 
(captains of the border and their m^n) of the Bhumij part of Manbhum and Singbhum districts 
are Bhumij, which is a sure indication of their being the earliest settlers. They were the people 
(like the Mundari Bhuinhars in Chutii Nftgpur, the Bhuiyas in Bonai, Oingpur, Eeun jhar, etc, 
and Gonds in Sargujft and Udaipur) to whom the defence of the country was entrusted. The 
Bhumij ghatfoah in M&nbhum have now, after all their escapades, settled down steadily to 
work as guardians of the peace. The Baja of the extensive zaminddri of Dhalbhum is no doubt 
of Bhumij extraction, but for him the Heralds' College of the period fiuled to manipulate a 
B&jput descent. His ancestor was a washerman who afforded refuge to the goddess Kali 
wheui as Bankini, she fled from a demon in Panchet. The goddess^ in gratitude, gave the 
washerman a young Brahmani, a ward of her own, to wife, and the Baj&s of Dhalbhum are 
the descendants of this union. The origin of the story appears to be that a Bhumij chief of 
Dhalbhum, probably at the instigation of a Brahman, stole from its shrine in Panchet an 
image of Bankini and set it up as his own tutelary deity. The shrine from which the image 
was abstracted is shown at the village of Para, near Puruli& in Manbhum, and it became the 
popular object of worship in Dhalbhum for all classes of people there. Bankini especially 
rejoiced in human sacrifices. It is freely admitted that in former years children were fre- 
quently kidnapped and sacrificed at her shrine; and it cannot be very positively asserted 
uiat the practice of offering such victims has hng been discontinued. At the shrine of 
this goddess a very cruel scene was enacted every year till 1866, when, with the concurrence 
pf the gimind&Tf it was pat a stop to. It was oaUed ilie BiMdaparabs aid Oangi N&r§yan 



161 



probably bail it in Lib min«l wlie.i liu so cruell/ Jisposoil nf Mailli>ib Singb. At tUis parai 
two male buffaloes are drivaii into a Eraalt ouoloinre, and od a laised etage adjoining and ! 
oTerlookin^ it the Raj& and suitj tako up their )>osition. After somo oeremoniuB the Baji 
and his purohii or ^milj priest dIsi;havgo ari'0\vs at the buffaloes, others follow thrir 
example, and the tormented and enraged beasts fall to and i^orc each other, whilst 
arrow after arrow is discharged. When the animals are jmst doing very mnch mis- 
chief, the people rueb in and hack at them with battle-axes till they ai-e dead. The 
Santals and wild Kharriaf, it is said, took delight in this festival} bull have not heard a 
muraiur at its diseontiuuauoe, and this shows it hiid no great hold on the minds of the people. 
Many of the Bhumij tribe am well off. Some of them, who are sardar ghSticiila, are in virtue 
of their office propnetoi^ of estates, comprising each from one to twenty manors ; but as most 
Eiibstautial tenants under (hem are also hereditary ghatwala rendering service and {raying besides 
but a very low iixed rmit, these ghatwUi estates are not so valuable to the proprietor as villages 
on the ordinary tenure would be. The Bhumij live in commodiouH, well-built houses, and have 
all abimt tbem the comforts to which the better class of cultivators in Bengal are accnstomcd. 
Those who live quite amongst the Bengalis have retained few of their ancient customs ; none, 
perhaps, e>:cept the great national amusement, the gay meetings for dance and song both at 
their villages and at jdlras, whioh are characteristic of all Kols, In appearance tbej are 
inferior to the Hos of Singbhnm and to the best of the Mundas of Chutia Nagpur. They are 
short of stature, but strongly built, and, like the Santals, rather inclined to fleshiness. In 
complexion they are variable, like the Mnudas, ranging from a dark chocolate to a light brown 
colour; they observe many of the Hindu festivals, but retain their ssored groves, in which 
they still sacrifice to the old gods. They have generally left o£E eating cow's flesh, in which 
their uurefonned brethren in Siugbhum and Chutia Nagpur indidge, but eat fowls. The 
Bhumij have in a great degree lost the simplicity and tnithmlness of character for which their 
cognates are generally distinguished. They have acquired from the Bengali Hindus the propen- 
sity to lie, but they have not the fame asaurance or powers of invention, and their lies are so 
transparent that they are easily detected." 

The internal structure of the Bhumij tribe is shown below. The sub-tribes are nu- Internal 
meroua, and vary greatly in different distriots. With the possible exception of the iron- ^*^"<'*"'*" 
smelting Shelo in Manbhum, the names of these gronps seem to have reference to their supposed ^ 

original settlements. It deserves notice that the tendency to form endogamooB divisions'eeems 
to be stronger in outlying districts than it is at the recognized head-quarters of the tribe. 
Thus in .Manbhum and Singbhum we find only one sub-tribe, Shelo, which obviously got 
detached from the parent group by reason of its members adopting, or perhaps decliniug to 
abandon, the comparatively degraded occupation of iron-smelting. In Midnapur, on the other 
hand, where the Bhumij settlements are of comparatively recent date, we find five territorial 
Bub-tribes in addition to the functional group of Shelo. The reason seems to bo tbat when 
the stream of emigration is not absolutely vontinuous, successive sections of immigrants into 
distant parts of the country are affected in various degreesby the novel social inflnencesto which 
they are t^xpoEcd. Some groups become more rapidly Hinduised than others, and thus there 
arise divergences of usage in matters of food and drink, which constitute a bar to intermarriage, 
and in time lead to the formation of sub-tribes. These divisions often outlast the differences 
of custom and ritual from which they took their origin, and in some cases the prohibition of 
intermarriage comcB to be withdrawn, and tlie names alone remain to show that such a prohibi- 
tion was once in force. The csogamoua divisions of the tribe are totemistic, and closely resemble 
those met with among the Mundas. 

The rule of esogamy is simple. A man may not many a woman of his own sept, nor a MarriagS. ' 
woman who comes within the standalrd formula for reckoning prohibited degrees, calculated a« 
a rule to three generations in the descending line, but sometimes extemied to five where i&aiyadi 
or mutual recogiution of kinship lias been maintained between the families. 

The aboriginal usage of adult-marriage still holds its ground among the Bhumij, though 
the wealthier members of the tribe prefer to marry their daughters as infants. The extreme 
view of the urgent necessity of early marriage is unknown among them, and it is tliought no 
shame for a man to have a grown-up danghter unmariied in his house. Sexual intercourse before 
marriage is more or less recognised, it bmg understood that if a girl becomes pregnant arrange- 
ments will at once be made to marry her to the father of her child. Brides are bonght for a 
price ransring usually from Rs. S to Rs. Vi, and the wedding may take place, according 
to arrangement, at the houBO of either party. When, as is more usual, it is celebrated at the 
bride's house, a square space {marwa) is prepared in the courtyard [angan] by daubing the ground 
with rice-water. In the centre of this spwce branches of moAtt« and tidha trees are planted, 
bound together with five cowrie shells (Cypnea nuneta) and five pieces of turmeric, and at 
the comers are set four earthen wat^r-vessele connected by a cotton thread, which marks the 
boundary of the square. Each vessel is half filled with pulse and covered with a concave lid, 
in which » small lamp burns. On the arrival of the bridegroom with hia following of friends, 
he is led at once to the marwa and made to sit in a bit of board (ytVa). The briJe is then 
brought in and given a similar seat on his left hand. A sort of mimic resistance to the intro- 
duction of the bride is often offered by her more distant female relatives and friends, who 
lei-'cive triflinu presents for allowing her to pass. 

After the bride has taken her seat and ceitain viantrat or myslnc formulce lave been 
pronounced by the priest, usually a Bengal Brahman, the bridegroom proceeds to light the 
lantps at the comers of the squsre. As fast as each lamp is lighted the bride Hows it out, 
dnd this is repeated three, five, or ceven times, us the case may be. The couple thou retain to 



162 



Widow- 
marriage. 



DiYoroe. 



StLOoes- 
f^ion. 



Beligion* 



iheir Beats, and. the bride is formally giveu to the bridegrroom, appropriate wa»^ra* being 
recited at the time^ and their right hand b^ing joined together by the officiating priest. Last 
of all, the bridegroom smears veroiilion on the bride^s forehead and his clothes are knotted to 
hers, the knot being kept intact lor threCi four, five, seven, or ten days, according to the 
castom of the family. At the end of that time they most rub themselves with turmeric and 
bathe, and the knot is solemnly untied in the presence of the bridegroom's relations. No priest 
is present on this occasion. 

The Bhumij recognise polygamy^ and in theory at least impose no limitation on the 
number of wives a man may have. The tribe^ however, are for the most part poor, and their 
meagre standard of living proves an effectual bar to excessive indulgence in the luxury of 
polygamy. When a man has no children by his first wife he usually marries again if he can 
afford to do so ; and it frequently happens that the second wife is a young widow, whom he 
marries by the 9anga ritual, paying a nominal bride-price and incurring faf less expenditure 
than would be necessary in the event of his marrying a virgin. Widow-marriage is freely 
permitted by the %anga ritual, in which a widow smears on the bride^s forehead vermilion whicn 
the bridegroom has previously touched with his great toe. It is deemed right for a widow to 
marry her late husband's younger brother or cousin, if such an arrangement be feasible ; and in 
the event of her marrying an outsider, she forfeits all claim to a share in her late husband's 
property and to the custody of any children she may have had by him. Traces of the growth 
of a sentiment adverse to the practice of widow-marriages may perhaps be discerned in the fact 
that the children of widows by their second husbands experience some difficulty in getting 
married, and tend rather to form a class by themselves. 

The Bhumi] of Manbhum allow divorce only when a woman has been guilty of adultery. 
A council of relations is called, who hear the evidence and determine whether die charge has been 
proved. If their finding is against the woman, her husliand solemnly draws from her wrist 
-the iron ring, which is the visible sigpi of wedlock. Water is then poured on a sal leaf, and 
the husband tears the wet leaf in two to symbolise Eeparation. This ceremony is called jpdt 
pdni chird, 'the wet leaf rent' and besides making the divorce absolute, relieves the husband 
from any claim by the wife for maintenance. He is himself socially impure after the ceremony 
until he has shaved and performed certain expiatory lites, the most important of which appears 
to be giving a feast to the relatives who came together to adjudicate on the case. A woman has 
no right to di?orce her husband, and if neglected or ill-treated her only remedy is to run away 
with another man. Divorced wives may marry again by the sanga ritual, but their offspring by 
their second husbands are at the same social disadvantage in respect of marriage as has been 
noticed above in referring to the children of widows. In both cases the sentiment is 
unquestionably due to the influence of Hinduism Jn modifying the original usages of the 
tribe* 

In mi^tters of inheritance and succession the tribe usually affect to follow the school of 
Hindu law in vogue in their neighbourhood, and hardly any vestiges of special tribal custom 
can now be traced. Almost all Bhumij, however, give the eldest son an extra share (jet hangs 
or bara angs) when the property is divided; and the ghdtwali members of the tribe follow the 
local custom of primogeniture^ the younger sons being provided for by small maintenance 
grants. If a man leaves no children, his widow takes a life-interest on the property. 

The religion of the Bhumij varies, within certain limits, according to the social position 
- and territoriiJ status of the individuals concerned. Zamindars and well-to-do tenure-holders 
employ Brahmans as their &mily priests, and offer sacrifices to Kali or Mahamaya. The mass 
of the people revere the sun under the names of Sing^Bonga and Dharm, as the giver of 
harvests to men and the cause of all changes of seasons affecting their agricultural fortunes. 
They also worship a host of minor gods, among whom the following deserve special mention : — 

(1) Jfthir-Bnm, worshipped in the sacred grove of the village (jdhir-thdn) with offer- 

ings of goats^ fowls, rice, and ghee at the Sarhul festival in the months of Baisakh 
(April-May) and Fhaigun (Januaiy-February). The Idyd presides at the sacri- 
fice, and the offerings are divided between him and the worshippers. Jahir-Buru 
is supposed to be capable of blasting the crops if not duly propitiated, and her 
worship is . a necessary preliminary to the commencement of the agricultural 
operations of the year. 

(2) Kar&kSrt&y . (jfaras=^ buffalo,' and JTa^as'to cut') another agricultural deity, to 

whom buffaloes and goats are offered towards the commencement of the rains. 
The skin of the buffalo is taken by the worshippers ; the horns form the pe^-quisite 
of the Idyd ; while the Doms, who make music at the sacrifice, are allowed to 
carry off the flesh. In the case of goats the Idyd^s share is one-third of the flesh. 
If Karakata is neglected, it is believed there will be a &ilure of the rains. The 
cult of this deity, however, is not so universal as that of Jahie-Bueu. 




the homestead or on the high land {idnr) close to the village. In the former 
case the head of the family otiiciates as priest; in the latter the Idyd's services 
are enlisted, and he can claim a share of the offerings. 
(4) Grftm-Deotft and Dcoslmii, gods of village life, who ward off sickness and watch 
over the supply of water for drinking and irrigation of the crops. They are pro- 
pitiated in ^«^^r.( July- August) with offerings of goats, fowls, and rice, at which 
^i^df Reside. 



1S8 

(6) Oiirn, B monnt^n deiij assnciated with m&ny diffeient IiiIIb tbroag^liout tbe Ohumij 
counlry, and worshipped for recovery from si'ikness and geuoral {irusperity on the 
iirst or Beooinl Magh, The head of tb- Eamily or a lai/a serves aa priest, 

(6) Kudra aud Bittaychaudi are maligaant ghosts of catmibalistic prapunsities, whom 

tiiG /(iyiis propitiate in the interests of the community. Private individuals do 
not worship ihem. 

(7) Pillicti-iiahiui and B9ra<Ielft are loc^il deities worsKlpped by the BanUura Bhumij 

in much the same fashion as Jaliir-Buiu, the chief difftTence being that the 
offerings tki Panclibahini are elie-goats and a kind of ecent called mathaghaika., 
wUi'e only foivla are presented to BAradi.-t&. 

With the Bbiimij. as with other non-Aryan tribes of Chota Nagpur, tbe Karam festival FeitiTftltlj 
»eeins to be especially popular. The Bhumij of Bauknra district celebrate this feast in 
the latter half o£ the month Bkiilra, currespondins roughly to the Iirst half of Saptember. A 
branch of the Karaua-tree [Naueica parvi/olia) is planted by thu liit/a in the centre of the 
village dancing-ground cUAri). At tbe fuot of this branch is a vessel paitly filled with earth, 
into which, on tbe first day of tbe fi-stival, the unmnrried girls uf the village throw various 
kinds i-f seed grain. These are carefully tendftl and watered from time to time «) as to 
germinate by the SaHhranli, or last day of the month, when the girls give tbe sprouUng 
blades to each other, and wear them in their hair at the dance, wiiich usually lasts the whole of 
that nigbt. 

The sacerdotal arrangements of tbe tribe have already been incidentally referred to. The priests, 
apper classes employ Brahmaus of their own, and ignore the cult of the earlier gotia; while the 
mass of the tribe are guided in tbelr regular obaervaiicis by the teaeliings of the Hi/at or priests of 
the forest gods, iind only call in the a!-siEi.ance of Brahmans on the comparatively rare occasions 
when it is deemed necesfcary lo propitiate one of the standard Hindu deities. But the Brahman 
who serves tbe Bhumij satninddr or tenure-bolder as a family priest takes a higher place in tbe 
local community cf Brahmans than the casual Brahman who ministers to tbe spiritual needs of 
(be ordinary cultivator. The fonner will call himself a Rarhi Kutin, and will be received on 
equal terms by all other members of the sacred ordi-r ; while the latier belongs to a much lower 
class, and ai-aociatcs with the comjiaratively degraded Brahmaus who work for Kurmis and 
Dhobfts. 

The funeral ri'es of the Bhumij are cliaracteristio, and lend strong support to the opinion Thodifl- 
tbat the tribe is merely a branch of tbe Mundas. On the death of a Bhumij bis body is laid posal of 
<vith the bead to the south on a funeral pyre, which is kindled by his male relatives. When tbo dead, 
the pyre is well alight, the males go home, and the wife, sister, or other female relative of the i 

deceased comes to the burning- phice, carrying an earthen vessel of water. There she waits till 
the fire has burned down, quenches tbe ashes with water, and picks out and places in the 
vessel tbe fragments of boue left unconsumcd. Some of these fragments are int«^rred at tbe 
foot of tuUi plant {Ocymum saucfum) in ihe courtyard oE the dead man's house, others are 
laken in the vessel to the original cemetery of his family.* 'I'bcre a bole is dug and the vesstjl 
of bones placed inside, supported by three stones. The earth is then hlted in, and a large Hat 
stone laid over alt, on which a fowl is sa^riliced to ensure the ri-pose oE tbe dead. The spirits 
of those whose bones rest in the same place are solemnly informed that another has been added 
to their number, and are enjoined not to quarrel, but to abide peacefully in tbe land of thu dead. 
The survivors then partake of a feast of rice, dal, and other vegetables prepared by the more 
distant relatives oE the deceased. This strictly non-Aryan ritual has of late years been to 
some extent overlaid by chservaoces borrowed from tbe regnlar Hindu Sra/WA. On the tenth 
day the mourners are shaved, and on the eleventh balls {pimla) of rice, sesamum, molasses, 
and plantain arc oSered to ancestors under the supervigion of a Brahman, who receives sucli 
presents as the means of the family permit them to give. A more primitive mode of appeasing 
the de|)aTted spirit is met with among tbe Shelo Bhumij. On tbe eteveiitli day after death 
the chief mourner beats a bell-metal drinking vessel with a stick, while another relation, 
standing by his side, calls loudly on the name of the dead. After a while a third man, uncon- 
nected with the family, and often a idt/ii, comes forward to personate tbe deceased, by whoso 
name be is addressed, and asked what he wants to eat. Acting thus as the dead man's proiy, 
he mentions various articles of food, which are put before him. After making a regular meal he 
^oes away, and the spirit of the deceased is believed to go with him. The relatives then finish 
ttie food prepared for the occasion. 

Mention is made in the article on the Mundas of the onstom by which the graves of tbe Pollo« 
biuinAart, or representatives of those who first cleared the soil and founded the village, are ■*'^^*'•■ 
marked by an upright stone pillar in addition to the horizontal slab which covers the bones 
of an ordinary raiyal not descended with from one of these pioneer families. Precisely the same 
distinction is made among the Bhumij ghatwali of Minbhiun between village tarddrt, or 
holders of entire j^afwa/t tenures, and the /tfii(/arj, or rural conetables, who make up the 
rank and file of the ghalm'tli force. The graves of the former are invariably distil igniehed 
by an npi-ight monolith, somttimes bearing traces of rude attempts at ornamental shapirg, 
while the tombs of the latter consist merely of a slab laid fiush with the ground. I his 

* Tbfl tboorj ii thkt the bonea ahuold bs UkeD to tto Tillige in irLioh tha auci'itora of tbu deccuedlud tba 
atfttiii of Ihvmhari <j flnt olecr^rs <.'f tke loil : but tliii la net inTuiuU; aoUc] up U bdiJ tbe ruls ia bvld tu ba ■iitU- 
eieDtlj coniptiad ffitb il a mjiii'i bonug &rg buried in Di nllnga irLcre bs ciT tia anceaCurs bkTe been lettled I>r » 
tolerablj long tima, It deierrei notica tb-it the Tatn&chii ithDniij of Midiiupat (ntDeport tlio bonoa ■'( their dmul 
tu tba gceal Mondu camateTj kt Uhokibatn. ' tha |ilatie uif mouruing ' ia par; ami TuD-ftrli of Lobarilo; &. Ho atrosSQr 
PTDot could well bs giTeo uf the identity of the BbDmii with ilio Uimdua. The Deal Bhanij o( Hidnkpur go to 
kaebonsi in SioBbham, vA eome of tbs Singbbnm Bhouij to Suiu, in Bagmandi ol UMbhnui. 



164 

singular correspondence of funeral nsage, coupled \ritli the &ct that many of the Manbbam 
ghatwais call themselvee by the title Ihuinhdr or hhuiny&y snggests the conjecture that the 
ghatwdli tenures in the south of that district are a survival under different names and 
changed conditions of the ancient tribal holdings kaown in Lohardaga as bhuinhari. Personal 
service of various kinds is one of the oldest incidents of the bhuinhdri tenure^ and it is not 
difficult to see how in a border district like Manbhum the character of this service migbt 
gradually be changed in accordance with local necessities until it came to take the form of 
the petty police functions which the ghattoais perform, or are supposed to perform, at the present 
day. Their duties, it is true, are now discharged under the orders of Government^ and not 
at the will of the ;?jmin(2af, but this change has been brought about gradually^ and is due 
partly to local disturbancesi in which the Bhumij took the lead, and partly to the fact that 
the zaminddrs of Barabhum, originally the heads of the Bhumij community, have within the 
last hundred years assumed the style of Kajputs, and have spared no effort to sever their 
connection with their own tribe. The antagonism thus set up between the chief and his 
retainers showed itself on his side by constant endeavours to resume their privileged tenures;, 
and on theirs by steady resistance to his authority and assertion of their direct subordination 
to the Magistrate of the district. Thus in course of time it has come about that a number of 
very ancient tenures^ representing in their inception the tribal rights of the first clearers 
of the Eoil, have been tranrformed into police jdgirSy and have recently been surveyed and 
demarcated at the cost of Government in the interest of the executive administration of 
the M&nbhum district. 
Oooupa- The original occupation of the Manbhum Bhumij is believed by themselves to have been 

^^^" military service, and there can be little doubt that the bands of Chuars or plunderers, who 

repeatedly overran the Midnapur district towards the end of last century, were largely recruited 
from this tribe. The circumstance, however, that they took a more or less prominent part in 
a series of marauding attacks on an unarmed and unwarlike population affords no ground for a 
belief in the existence among them of any real military instinct ; and in fact they are con- 
spicuous for the dislike of discipline, which is one of the prominent characteristics of the 
Kolarain races. For many years past agriculture has been the sole profession of, all the sub- 
tribes except the iron-smelting Shelo. A few have engaged in petty trade, and some have 
emigrated to the tea districts of Assam. Their relations to the land are various. The zaminddrs 
of Barabhum, Dhalbhum, Manbhum, Patkum, and Bagmundi probably belong to the Bhumij 
tribe, though they now call themselves Rajputs. Next to them rank the sarddr ghatwdls of 
the large service-tenures known in Manbhum as iarafs. Three of these admit themselves to 
be Bhumij, while the fourth^ Manmohan Singh, of Taraf Satarakhani^ now claims to be a 
Bajput^ regardless of the fact that a few years ago his grandfather wrote himself down in 
public documents as Bhumij. I mention this instance as an illustration of the facility with 
which brevet rank as a self-made Bajput may be obtained. Manmohan Singh keeps a 
Brahman to support his pretensions, and professes to be very particular in all matters of 
ceremonial observance. His descendants will doubtless obtain unquestioning recognition as 
local Rajputs, and will intermarry with families who have undergone the same process of 
transformation as themselves. The great bulk of the Bhumij who are simple cultivators and 
labourers, stand on a far lower social level than the landholding members of the tribe. They 
rank somewhat below the Eurmi, and members of the higher castes will not take water from 
their hands. In their turn the Bhumij, though eating fowls and drinking spirituous liquors^ 
look down upon Bauris, Bagdis, Doms, and Ghasis as more unclean feeders than themselves. 



INTERNAL 8TBVCTVBE OF THE BHCHIJ. 

Titles :^MdnM,^ Matkum,^ Mura,^ Sarddr.^ 



Bub-tribet. Septs. Septs. 

Desl. Badd&, Knrkutift, a kind N31(F, snake. 

Tamftrift, Hurt, or Hinki-Hura.^ of worm. ObarsUri, a bird. 

Slkharlyft or Heno.^ B&rdft. Pilft. 

Patkumlft.'' Bholya, fish. Sagmft. 

Shelo, iron-smelters. Chandil. Sairishl, sal fish. 

Barftbhnmift, .zamindar Bhumij.* Gnlll, fish. Sandilya, a bird. 

H&nsdft, wild goose. S&0I&. 

Hemrong, betel palm. Tesil, bird. 

J&rn, a bird. Tnmftrug, pumpkin. 

Kilsyab, tortoise. Tuti, a sort of vegetable. 
Leng, mushroom. 

^ This title is common among the Mnndas. 

' Applied to the Bhumij of Dhalbhnm. 

' Mnra is the common form of Ddnnda in Manbhnm. 

* PoBsibly borrowed from the 9/iait(?aK system, the leading exeootiye unit of which is the varddr or head of 
subordinate ghalwaU {tahidars) of a Tillage. 

^ The two latter appeUations clearly suggest Munda descent. 

* This group is supposed to come from Manbhum. 

7 The Fatkumift ana Tambift sub-tribe ocoasionaUy intezmszxy. 

s Probably descended from members of the Barabhum Mamindari family. 



ISB 



4. Of the Drarldlan Tract. 



[ B. n. RiSL-EY, CLE. ] 

Mara, Horo-hon, a large Dravidian triho of Chota Nawpur, classed on linguiatic gronnd* Origi 
as Kolarian, and closely akin to tho Hos and Santals, and pruhably also to the Kandhs. The 
name Mimda is of Sanskrit origin. It moans headman of a village, and is a titular or func- 
tional designation used by tho members of tho tribe, a^ well as by outsider, as a distinctive 
name much in the samo way as the Santals call thomsalvea Manjhi, the Bhnmij Sardir, and 
the Kharabu of tho Darjiling hills Jimd^r. The general name Kol. whioh is applied to l>oth 
Mundaa and Oraons. is interpreted by Herr Jellinghans to moan pig-killer, but the bettor opinion 
seems to be that it is a variant of hora, the M(md§ri for man. The chang,! of r to i is Eamili 'f 
and needs no illustration, while in explanation of tho conversion of h into i, we may cite htn, the 
Mundari for ' child," which in Korwa becomes Jcon and koeo, the Muasi form of horo, ' a man. ' 
It may be added that the Kharias of Chota Nagpnr call the Mundas Kora, a name closely ap- 
proaching Kol. 

The Mnnda myth of tho making of mankind tells how tho aelf-e^istant primev,al deities Traditi« 
Ote Boram and Sing Bonga created a boy and a girl and put them tc^ether in a cuve to pjople 
the world. At first they were too innocent to understand what was e^is^ed of ihem, hut the 
gods showed them hn*v to make rice-beer, which inflames the passions, and in course of time 
their family reached the respectable number of twelve of either aei. As is nsnal in myths of 
this class, the children were diHded into pairs ; and Sing Bon^a set before them various 
kindi« of fo">d for them to choose from bef'^re starti'ig in the world. The fate of their descen- 
dants depended on their ehuice. Thus " the first and soco-nl pair took hulloplts" anl buffaloes' flesh, 
and they originated the Kols (Hosl and thoBhumij (Matlaim) ; the "cxt took of the veafetablea 
only, and wre the progenitors of tho Brahmana and Ohhatris, others took goats and fish, and 
from them are the Sudras. One p lir tw'; shell -fiah and l>eoame Bhuiras; two pairs took piga and 
became Santals. One pair got nothing, seeing which the first pairs gave them of their super- 
fluity ; and from the pair thus provided spring the Ghasis, who toil not, but live by preying on 
others." 

The Mundas are divided into thirteen snh-tri!ies, several of which, such as Kharia-Munda, Btruotura.! 
Kfahiti-Mnnda. Oraon-Munda, appear to be the result of crosses with neighbouring tribes, while 
others again, like Bhninhar-Miinda and ManVi-Munda, have reference to the land ind commun.al 
system of the tribe. The Mahili-Munda aub-tribe has the pig for its totem, and f^r them p'lrk 
is tabooed. But appetite baa proved stronger than tradition, and the ta'w)^ ia satisfied by throw- 
ing away the head of tho animal, tho rest of the carcase being deemed lawful food. The septs 
or Hlii, which are very numerous, are raainly toti^mistic, and the totem is taboo to tho mem- 
bers of the sept which bears its name, A. list of the septa is aiven below. If it were 
possible to identify them all, and to ascertain precisely to what extent and in what manner the 
taboo of the totem is observed by oach, the information would probably throw much light upon 
the growth of early tribal societies. 

A Munda may not marry a woman of his own sept. The sept-narae goes by the father's Marnago.J 
side, and intermarri^e with persons nearly related throu'ijh the mother is guarded J4>ainst by 
ni'^koning prohibited degieea in the manner common in Behar. Adult niarriasre is still in fashion 
and sexual intercourse before marriage is ta-.'itly recognised, but i'l all respectable families 
matches are made by the parents, and the parties themselves have very little to say in the matter. 
The bride-price varies from tti to H:JO. Sindu'i/dn, or the smearing of vermilion on the bride's 
forehead by the bridetrroom and on the bridegroom's forehead by the bride, is the essential and 
binding portion. The practice described by Colonel Dalton of marrying the brido to a "•aJina 
tree [BajJtn latifoHa] and the bridegroom to a mango seems now to have been abandoned. Traces 
Btill survive among tho Mundas of a form of marri^e, resembling the Santali ntV holnk. It 
is called tlhuko era, meaning a bride who has ent«nMl the household of her oivn accord. The 
children of a woman thus married seem to have an inferior status in respect of their rights to 
inherit the landed property of their father. The late Babn Kakhal Das Haldar. Manager of the 
astate of the Maharaja of Chota Nagpnr, gave me an illustration of this fact, florae years 
ago the mumln or headman of one of the villages of tho Government estate of Barkagarh died, 
living an only son by a dhuko era wife, and a question w.i8 raised as to the lattcr's ri^ht to 
succeed. Under Co'onel Dalt:in's orvlers, a num1>er of headmen of villages were called together, 
and their opinions were tiken. No decided results, however, could W "rrived at. Some thought 
the son should get the whole property. Others proposed to exclude him altogether, and a third 
party considered him entitled to maintenance. Eventually the question was compromised by ad- 
mitting tho son's right to one-fourth of the land nnd the whole of the personal property. The 
cose is a curious comment on the uncertainty of tribal custom. Widows may marry again bv 
the ritual kno^vn as lavai, in which slii-'uniS," is performed with the I'ft h,'ind. Oivorce la 
allowed at the instance of either party, and divorced women are permitted to marry i.gain. 
Id cases of adultery the seducer ia required to pay to the husband the full amount of the 
bride-price. 



l66 



BMigiOB. 



Festiyals. 



/ 



Snooes- 
Bioo. 



Village 
oommunefl 
and 
ollioiala* 



At the head of the Munda religion stands Sing-Bonga, the snn^ a beneficent bat some* 
what inactive deity^ who concerns himself but litfcle with human affairs, and leaves the detaile 
of the executive government of the world to the gods in charge of particular branches or depart- 
ments of nature. Nevertheless^ although Sing-Bonga himself does not send sickness or cala- 
mity to men^ he may be invoked to avert such disasters^ and in this view sacrifices of white 
goats or white cocks are offered to him by way of appeal from the unjust punishments believed 
to have been inflicted by his subordinates. Next in rank to Sing-Bonga comes Buru-Honga or 
\farang-Buru, also known as P&t-Sarna, a mountain god> whose visible habitation is usually 
supposed to be the highest or most remarkable hill or rock in the neighbourhood. '^ In Chota 
Nagpur/' says Colonel Dalton^ " a remarkable bluff, near the village of Lodhma is the Marang- 
Buru or MahaBuru for a wide expanse of country. Here people of all castes assemble and 
sacrifice — Hindus, even Mahomedans, as well as Kols. There is no visible object of worship ; 
the sacrifices are offered on the top of the hill, a bare semi-globular mass of rock. If animalg 
are killed, the heads are left there, and afterwards appropriated by the pdhan or village 
priest." Marang-Bura is regarded as the god who presides over the rain&U, and is appealed to 
in times of drought, as well as when any epidemic sickness is abroad. The appropriate offering 
to him is a buffalo. Ikir Bonga rules over tanks, wells and large sheets of water ; Oarhaera is 
the goddess of rivers, streams and the small springs which occur on many hill sides in Chota 
Nagpur ; while Nage or Naga-era is a general name applied to the minor deities or spirits who 
haunt the swampy lower levels of the terraced rice-fields. All of these are believed to have a 
Iiand in spreading disease among men, and require constant propitiation to keep them out of 
mischief. White goats and black or brown cocks are offered to Ikir Honga, and eggs and tur- 
meric to the Nage. Deswali or Kara-Sarna is the god of the village, who lives with his wi& 
Jahir Burhi or Sarhul-Sarna in the Sama or sacred grove, a patch of the forest primeval left 
intact to afford a refuge for the forest gods. Every village has its own Deswali, who is held 
responsible for the crops, and receives periodical worship at the agricultural festivals. His appro* 
priate offering is a hard or he-buffalo ; to his wife fowls are sacrificed. Gumi is another of 
the Sarna deities whose precise functions I have been unable to ascertain. Bullocks and pigs 
are sacrificed to him at irregular intervals. Chandor appears to be same as Chando Omol or 
Chanala, the moon worshipped by women, as the wife of Sing-Bonga and the mother of the 
s^tars. Colonel Dalton mentions the l^^nd that she was faithless to her husband, and he cut 
her in two, ' but repenting of his anger he allows her at times to shine forth in full beauty/ 
Goats are offered to her in the Sarm. Haprom is properly the homestead, but it is used in a 
wider sense to denote the group of dead ancestors who are worshipped in the homestead by set- 
ting apart for them a smaU portion of every meal and with periodical offerings oE fowls. They 
are supposed to be ever on the watch for chances of doing good or evil to their descendants and 
the Munda fully realise the necessity for appeasing and keeping them in good humour. 

The festivals of the tribe are the following :— (1) Sarhul or Sarjum-B&ba, the spring festival 
corresponding to the Baha or Bah- Bonga of the Santals and Hos in Chait (March- April) when 
the 9al [Shorea rohusM tree is in bloom. Each household sacrifices a cock and makes offerings 
of sal flowers to the founders of the village in whose honour the festival is held. (2) &adlet& 
or Batauli in Asarh at the commencement of the rainy season. " Each cultivator," says Colonel 
Dalton, *^ sacrifices a fowl, and after some mysterious rites a wing is stripped off and inserted in 
the cleft of a bamboo and stuck up in the rice-field and dung-heap. If this is omitted^ it is 
supposed that the rice will not come tomaturily.'^ (3) Nana or Jom-Nana, the festival of new 
rice in Asin, when the highland rice is harvested. A white cock is sacrificed to Sing Bonga, and 
the first fruits of the harvest are laid before him. Until this has been done, it would be an 
act of impiety to eat the new rice. (4) Kharia puja or Kolom Singh, called by the Hos Deswali 
Bonga or Magh Parab celebrating the harvesting of the winter rice, the main crop of the year* 
Five fowls and various vegetables are offered to Deswali, the god of the village at tiie iali^ 
fan or threshing floor. Among the lies of Singbhum the festival is kept as a sort of Baiurnale, 
during which the people give themselves up to drunkenness and all kinds of debauchery. This 
is less conspicuously the case with the Mundas of the plateau who live scattered among Hindu 
and Christian neighbours, and do not form a compact tribal community like the Hos of the KoUian. 
The festival, moreover, is kept by the Mundas on one day only, and is not spread over a month 
or six weeks, during which time the people of different villages vie with each other in dissipation, 
as th^ do in the Eolhan. 

The funeral ceremonies of Mundad do not differ materially from those of the Hos. 

Succession among the Mundas is governed by their own customs, which appear to have 
been little affected by the influence of Hindu law. Property is equally divided among the son?, 
but no division is made until the youngest son is of a^re. With tnem, as with the Sant&ls, 
daughters get no share in the inheritance ; they are allotted among the sons just like the live- 
stock. *^ Thus if a man dies, leaving three sons and three daughters and thirty head of cattle, 
on a division each son would get ten head of cattle and one sister ; but should tiiere be onlv one 
sister, they wait till she marries and divide the pan '^ or bride-price, which usually consists of 
about six head of cattle. Among the Hos of Singbhum the brides-price is higher than with the 
Mundas, and the question of its amount has there been found to affect seriously the numb^ of 
marriages. 

According to ancient and universal tradition, the central tableland of Chota > agpur Pro- 
per was originally divided into parhoM or rural communes, comprising from ten to ^enty*five 
villages, and presided over by a divisional chief, called the raja or munda of the parka. In 1839j 
titalar rd;di of the parid weie still existing in the Fiscal Division of Kbukr& near Bftnchi, who 
retained congiderabl^ authority in tnbfi disputes^ and at tim^ of festiviil imd hunting But tMi 



U7 

element in tbe Munda villa^ eyabem. has bow f^len into decay, and survives only in tha./'tiif 
das at Sags of tiiCparAd villages, and in the peculiar titles bestowed on the cultivators them- 
aetves. The exclusive right to fly a particular flag at the great dancing festivals ia jealoualy 
guarded by every Munda village, and serious lights not uiifrequently result from the violation 
of this privilege- Besides this, individual villages in & parha Ijoar sfiecific titles, such as f aja, 
divan iiinuiiir, thakur, chholii lal, etc., similar to those which prevail in the household of the 
Tdigning family, which obviously refer to some organization which no loncrer exists. I am in- 
formed that these officials still make the arrangements for the largo hunting parties which tako 
place at cert&in seasons of the ^^ear. 

A Kol village commimity consists, when perfect, of tbefolIowiagoEIiccrs : — Munda, tnakato, 
pain, bianddri, gorait, goala, and Ivhar. Washermen, barbers, and potters have bean added since 
l!439, and even now are only found near much froquentod halting |>laces, and in villages where 
the larger Hindu tenure-holders live. 1 he Kols invariably shave themselves, and their women 
wash &e clothee. 

(1) j/ii»rfa.— Tho munda is the chief of the bhuinhara, or descendants of the original clear- 
ers of the vilhige. He is a person of great consequence in the village and all demands from tiie 
bhvinhdrg, whether of money or hkbour, roust \m notified by the owner of the village through 
^9 munda. He is remunerated for his trouble by the ''/(»(«^aj-i land, which he holds at a tow 
rate of rent, and receives no other salary. \n pargana Lodhma, and in the south-eastern portion 
of Lohardaga, he sorotimee iierfoiins tho mahalo's duties as woU as his own, and he then gets a 
small jitgir of half a patea of land rent-free. 

{i) Mahato. — 'ITia funolions of a mahato have been compared to those of a palwari or 
rillf^e accountant, but he may be more aptly described as a rural settlement officer. He allots 
the land of the village among the cultivators, giving to each man a^o'i or clod of earth as a sym- 
bol of possession ; he collects the rent, pays it to the owner, and settles any disputes as to the 
amount due from the raigats ; and, in short, manages all pecuniary matters connected with the 
land. He is appointed by the owner of the village, and receives ono piica of rajas land rent free 
■s ajaffir or service tenure. But the office is neimer hereditary nor permanent, and ihenid/iato is 
■'})Bble to he dismissed at the landlord's discTction. Dismissal, however, is unusual, and the ma- 
tiato is often succeeded by bis son. Where the vialiato collects the rents, he almost universally re- 
. OMves a fee, called bdtta, of half an anna from each cultivator, or of one anna for eveiy house in 
the village. In one vill^e bdtta amounts to four annas and a half on every pavd of land- 
Occasionally, where there is no hhandari or t^ent for the owner's rent-paying land, the mdiain 
gets three b\mdles (iaratt) of grain in the straw, containing from ten to twenty ten apiece, at 
every harvest. Thns during the year he would receive three bundles ni gondii [Sorg&vm vulgare] 
from the cold weather crop, and the same amount from the gord or early rice, and the don or la^ 
rice. In khdUd villages, which are imder the direct management of the Maharaja, the mdhato 
often holds, in addition to his oHicial^'J^ir, a single ^awa of land, called kkareha or rozina kht, 
from the proceeds of which he is expected to defray the occasional expenses incurred in calling 
npon cultivators to pay their rent, etc. 

The functions of tho mahato are shown in greater detail in the following extract from 
Dr. Davidson's Report of 1839: — " On a day appointed, the thikdddr or farmer proceeds to the 
akhra or place of assembly of the village, where he is met by the ndhato, pdkn, bhanddri, and as 
many of tho rayata as choose to attend. He proceeds, agreeably to the dictation of the mahato, 
to write down the aecoimt of the cultivation of the different ravyala stating the number of pdvda 
held and the rent paid by each. Having furnished this account, any new raiyata who may wish 
to have lands in the village, after having the quantity and rent settled, have a goU given to 
them. If any of the old raiyati require any new land, a god ia taken for that, but not for the old 
cnltivation. The tnakato collects the rent as the instalments become due, according to theabovo* 
mentioned account given to the farmer ; and all differences as to the amount of rent payable by a 
raiyaf, if any ever arise, which very seldom happens, are settled by the opinion of the mdkato. So 
well does this mode answer in practice, that in point of fact a dispute as to the amount of rent 
owed by a rityat is of rare occurrence. When a farmer wishes to cheat a raiyaf, he accuses hira cif 
having cultivated more land than he is entitled to, or of owing him ttaiwdr or grain rent for 
bnd held in excess ; and if such a thing as a dispute as to the amount of rent owed ever does 
arise, the mdhato'a evidence is generally considered conclusive by both parties. " 

(3) /'aAn.— The importance of the ^Min, or priest of the village gods, may be interred from 
the current phrase in which his duties are contrasted with those of the mahato. The pahn, it ig 
said, "makes the village " {gdon bandtd), while the mahato only " manages it" [^aon eAaldta), 
lie must he a hhuinhdr, as no one but a descendant of the earliest settlers in the village could 
know bow to propitiate the local gods. He is always chosen from one family ; but the actual 
pahn is changed at intervals of from three to five years bv the ceremony of the a»p or wiunow- 
ing^fan, which is used as a divining rod, and taken from house to house by the boye of the 
village. The bhitinhar at whose bouse the sup stops is elected ^>ii^». On the death of &pdkn, he 
is frequently, but not invariably, succeeded by Iiis son. Rent-free lands are attached to the office 
of ^(A« under the following names :—{!) Tdhni, the personal Jagir or service-tenure of the 
priest, generally containing one^fiica of land, {i) Ddlikatdii, for which the pahn has to make 
offerings to Janir Burhi, the goddess of the village. It is called dSUkatdri, as it is supposed to 
defray the expenses of tho Karm festival, when a branch (daU) of tho kaima tree is cut down and 
planted in tho fields. (3) Heaauti. a sort of lihulkheta or devil's acre, the produce of which is 
devoted to a great triennial festival in honour of Desauli, the divinity of the grove. This land 
is either cultivated by the pdUn himself, or by ratyata who pay him rent. (■*) Panbhdrd 
and tdhalv are probably the same. Lands held under these names are cultivated by the pihn 



15& 

• • • • • • . • 

himself or his near relations ; and whoever has them^ is bonnd to supply water at the TariouB 
festivals. ... 

(4) Bkanddri. — The bkanduri, or bailiff^ is the landlord's agent in respect of the 
management of the village. He is usnally a Hindu> and represents the landlord's point of view 
in village questions^ just as the pain is the spokesman of the bhuinkdrs, or original setUers. 
He generally holds onepdwd of land rent-free from the owner^ receivii^g also from every raiyat 
three karats or. sheaves of each crop as it is cut— one of goudlii one of early rice^ and one of wet 
rice. Instead of the landj he sometimes gets fiS or 114 in cash^ with Vl kats, or 4| cwt.^ of 
paddy. . . 

(5) GordiL-^TUhe gordit is^ in &ct^ the ciauiiddr, or village watchman. He communi- 
cates the owner's orders to the raiyafa, brings them to the mdhato to pay their rents, and 
selects coolies when required for public . purposes. As a rule he holds no service land, but 
receives the three usual karats, or sheaves, mm every cultivator. 

(6) Akir or Goala.-^The dhir^s duty is to look after the cattle of the village, and to 
account for anv that are stolen. He is remimerated by a payment of one kdt of paddy for each 
pair of plough-bullocks owned by the cultivators whose cattle are under his charge. He also 
gets the three iardis, or sheaves, at harvest time, besides an occasional 8itp or winnowing &n 
full of paddy. If cows are under the dhir'8 charge, the milk of every alternate dav is his 
perquisite. In the month of Aghan (December) he takes five sers of milk roimd to the culti- 
vators, receiving in return ^aHtm or 20 sers of paddy as a free gift. He always pays the 
dbwdb known as dddani ghiy and in some villages has to give the baithdtodtt ghi as well. In a 
very few cases the dhir holds half a pdwd of land rent-free. 

(7) Lohdr, — ^The lohdr, or blacksmith gets one kdt of paddy and the three kardis for 
every plough in the village, and is^also paid two or three a»Ma^ for every new ^^r or plough- 
share ; m a very few villages he holds half s^pdwd of land rent-free. 

The kotwdl fit constable, and the ckaukiddr or watchman, do not belong to the genuine 
Munda village system, and need not be mentioned here. 

In the Visdl Division of Tori the bulk of the inhabitants belong to the Eharwar sub-tribe 
of Bhogtas, and the village system differs from that which prevsSls on the central plateau. 
Here the pdkn is the only officials who holds service land, and he gets half a pditi, or not quite 
two standard bighds» He performs the village pujds^ and often does the work of a mdhato^ 
when the owner of the villac^ is an absentee. But even then the landlord sometimes employs 
a bailiff, called bdrkil, to collect the rents. 

In the tract known as the Five Parganas, including T&mar, Bundu, Silli, Rahe, and 
Baranda, as well as in the Mankipatti, or that part of Sonpur pargand which borders on 
Singbhum district, we meet with mdnkis and mundas, who are undoutsdiy the descendants of 
the original chiefs, and still hold the villages which their ancestors . founded. Here the par Ad 
divisions exist in their entiretv, as groups of from twelve to twenty-four villages each of which 
has its own munda or village head ; while the whole commune is subject to a divisional headman 
called mdnki, who collects the fixed rents payable by the mundas. The chief village officer is th« 
pdkn, who holds from one to five kdts of land rent-free as ddlikatdri. A kdt in this sense is 
a measure of land analogous to, if not identical with, the kkandi of the Kolhan in Singbhum, 
and denotes the quantity of land which can be sown with one kdt of seed. In this part of the 
country the munda sometimes has a deputy caUed diwdn who assists him to collect bis rvnts, 
and bianddris are occasionally met witii. 



INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE HUNDA. 



[MUNDAj MUSA, HOBO-HOK.] 

TUies cShuinhar, Dhangar, Kol, Konkpat, Mahato, 

Momhi, Nagha/nsi. 



Sub -tribes. 

Bhninliftr-llanda. 

Karangft-Hnnda. 

Khangar-Hnnda. 

Khartft-Hunda. 

Kol-Handa. 

Konkp&t-Handa. 

■ahaU-Handa. 

Hinki-Honda. 

Hunda-Hftnthi. 

Nigbansi-Hunda. 

Oraon-Hnnda. 

Sad-Hunda. 

Sarar-Handa. 



Septi. 

Alndf a kind of eel. 
Amba, mango. 

Ambras, a fruit. 

Area, a kind of fish. 

Aru, yam. 

Aral. 

Ash&r, a month— June. 

Asur, Lohara. 
Aura, fruit. 
Baba, rice. 

Bage, anything forbidden. 

Bagear, tiger . 
Baghelaj qua il. 
Baghtvar, a derotoe. 



Septt. 

Bahera, a fmit. 
Bahomar. 

Balamdftr, spearman. 
Balmos, a kind of insect which ia 
foand in the sand of rivers. 

Balum, salt. 

Baman, may not touch or be touched 
by a member of the Brahman 
caste. 

Banda, a kind of leaf. 

Bamdo, small Jackal. 

Bar, Mens Indica. 

Barabbaii, the twelve farothert* 
sept* 



/ 



169 

SnVtribet. Septs. SepU. 

Barha, hog. Gondii, a kind of grain. 

Bari, flower. Goria, red earth. 
Barjo, name of an ancestor's village Gna, areca nut. 

some miles sonth of Randhi. Gandkl) a kind of wood. 

Barioki, flg tree root. Gnndri, a bird. 

Baria) a frait. Garni, a kind of vegetable. 
BandLandaL Hhojkutium [$ohleioh§ra Gnrn, may not eat beef. 

Mjuga] tree. Habin, a tree. 

Barnnda, a Ug frog. Hadnng, big^ black treo-ant. 

Barnpendil, hutsum tree. Halerii a kmd of tree or bnsh. 

Barwa, small cocoon. Haluman, monkey. 

Basaroar, a kind of small hawk. Han, nest of ants. 

Batknar, a bird. Haqjait, a wild fmit. 

Beng, frog. Hanre, a bird. 

Besra, simJl hawk. Hansa, swan. 

Bhaji SSg, vegetable. Hanthi, elephant. 
Bhaonra, a large black bee or hornet. Hardwar. 

Bhenrra, a horse. Harrnira, bone. 

Bhiimraj, king crow. Han, ancestors did not wash their 
BhinjO, a yellow bird. months after eating. 

Bhnina. Harin, doer. 

Bhntknar. Hasada. 

Bihan, seed. Hasarft. 

Binba. Hassa ara, a kind of i^egetables. 

Bii\Jnar, a kind of ee). Hansakar* 

Bisrot. Heding, a bird. 

Bisrm, a kind of bird. Hembowar, ancestor. 

Bocbo, a bird. Hemram. a kind of fisb. 
Bodra. The ancestors of this sept Hemromi, ashes. 

did not wash their mouths after Heride, a bird. 

eating. Hernng, a kind of bird, 

Bojra, a kind of grass. Hodnar, a bird. 

Bndb, or Bndhwar, Wednesday. Hon^ah. 

Balm, a worm. ^^^' ^ ^^^^ ^' ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^* 

Bnkrn, a kind of bird. Horia, a wood bash. 
Chadil, place of worship of a head- Horo, a red ant on tree. 

man. Holarbaha, a flower nsed to flavour 
Chadn, a kind of bird. cnrry. 

ChaU, rice sonp. Hundar, wolf. 

Champia, a bird. Hani, moose. 

Chata, umbrella. Hntar. 

Ghanria. rats. Imli, tamarind. 

Ghelekcnela, a small bird. Indnr katea, house-rat. 

Gbilbia, kite. Ingaria, moonlight. 

Chirko, mushroom. Jagdar» 

Obitti, a kind of snake. JagO, tamarind. 

GbOCba, a bird. Jamtnti, a kind of grain or vego« 

CbOta, a kind of bird. table. 

Cbntia, a small rat. Jangatras, the bone of a cow. 

Ding, a big stick. Jatramat 

Jkabanga, torch-bearer. Jatria* 

Dangarwar, Jbnri, dried bushes. 

Danrn* Jia, a river fish. 

Demta, red tree-ant. JirboL a flower, used for carry. 

Dban, paddy. To this sept rice and Jitiapipar, a kind of fruit. 

rice soap are forbidden ; they eat Jonk Haper, leech. 

only jondli or millet. Kaebbnl^ tortoise. • 

Dheenoa, a kind of black bird. KakilL aant. 

Dbelakata, a kind of tree. Kamal, lotus. 

Dirwar, a wood fruit. Kanda, a kind of sweet potato. 

Bobonpn^ar. Kandir, a bird. 

Bodrai, a kind of bird. Kandm, fish. 

Dab 8lf , vegetable. Kandaina, a fruit. 

Damriar, figs. Karania,'a kuaum tree. 

Dnnda, a kind of eel. Karma, a tree. 

Bnngdung, a river fish. Katea, a field mouse. 

Bnra, a frait. Kana, crow. 
Erjpit. a kind of mouse which lives Kawnria, a water snake, 

in plum bushes. Kera, plantain. 

Gananra, a big Inrd. Kerketa, a bird. 

Garabing, a big river-snake. Khandania. 

Gari, a monkey. Khondoa* 

Garria, a kind of bird. Kboyea, a wild dog with a long tafl. 

Ghager, field bird. KblUUri, a kind of mushroom. 

Ghi, clarified batter. Kiri, rice weefiL 

Ghnnri, a kind of fruit Kissi. 

Gidh, a vulture. Koi, cocoon. 

Go]bola9li|tn, may not eat beff . Kodotf^i ^ ^^ ^ ^'^^^ vegetable. 



160 



8ab*lribM. 



Sepii. SapU. 

Kong^ddli crow. Knrrl, a kind of mnfilux>om. 

Kotah kaisi, a small vulture. RnUli, squirrel. 

Knjri, a fruit from which oil is made. Rnnda, leopard. 



Kukur, dog. 

Knkura, 

Kundula. 

Knrkuti, red ant. 

Knrsi, fruit. 

Knsumbaha, hustum flower. 

Lang^, a kind of bird. 
Lftpnn^, a small bird. 
Larapa, monkey«eater. 

Larsunar. 

Lenda, earthworm. 

Lilla) a wild cow. 

Lipo, a tree. 

Litiya, a bird. 

Lo^a Kotra, small deer. 

Lo^, a Hod of animal. 



Ruts, a tree. 
Sadom, horse. 
Sailom. poroupine. 

Saisarnndnar. 

Sal, a big pond-fish. 
Salkar. a kind of potato. 
Sain, a root ID pond. 

Samal or Samar, deer. 
Samdoar. 
Sandi, plough, 
Sandi^rnria, blaok monkey. 
Sandilf full moon. 
Sandipnrti, oock. 
Sandi Sarin, fowl. 

Sanga, sweet potato. 

Sang Chlria, a kind of biid. 



Lohraklinkhri, a kind of mushroom. Sangoar, sweet potato. 



liOnga, a bird with a long tail. 
Lugniar, rabbit. 
Lagmn, a tree. 
Lngnn, a tree. 

Lngnnki. 

Lupn, paddy husks. 
Luti, small black fly. 

' Hachli, fish. 
Hadhnras, honey. 
nahnkal, a bird. 
Haina, a bird. 
HaFi new rice soup. 

Harmu. 

Hatha Silg, a kind of vegetable. 
Hathia, brass bracelet. 

llangli, fish. 
nind. 

llli\jiir, peacock. 

Howl. 

nndak. 

Hundori^, a tree. 

Hondri, quail. 

IlQnga Sftg, a kind of v^etable. 

Hnnri, fried rice. 

Hnrnm, stag. 

Hnrl, a wild fowl. 

Husa or Hnsn, mouse. 

Hntii. 

Nadi SamP) a river snake. 

NSg, cobra. 

Nagdnar, a water-insect. 

Nagrna, a kind of mud. 

Nimak, salt. 
Nols. 

Oaria, verandah. 
Orea, basket-maker, 

Pakliora. 
Pamia, a tree. 
Pandar, a tree. 
Panduclione. 
Panduki, dove. 
Pankhi, a bird. 
Panr, a tribe. 
Pardliiel kokaw. 

Pars!, a tree. 
Parso, a bush. 
Peo, a bird. 

Peroan, pigeon. 
Plinrtl. 

Phntl, a rainbow. 
Pikord, a bird. 
Porti, crocodile. 

Pnssi, cat. 
Pntam, dove. 

Raja, a bird. 

Ramgharla. 

Rani Poka, aied worm. 

Rillt, ihe Bautia caste. 



Sanknra, kingcrow. 

Sanpari, a resident of Sanpur. 

Sarai, a tree. 

Sarnar, a curry vegetable. 

Semarkanda, root. 
Sengra, horse. 
Seornift. 

Serliar, a kind of bird. 
Setampa, dog-eater. 

Sewar, moss. 
. Siar Tuyio, jackal. 
Sikcharo, a bird. 

Sikra, hawk. 

Sindur, vermilion. 
Singh, horn. 
Sisnngi, a kind of fish. 
Soa, a kind of vegetable. 
Soai, a bird. 

Sobarnarekha, name of a rlr^ 
three miles east from Banchi. 

Soeka, a wood bush. 

Soltek, a kind of fish. 
Soi, spring. 
Sokoe, a kind of frnit. 
Soiai, fish. 
Sonarwa, a bird. 

Sone, maj^ not wear gold. 
Sonkhanhan,- a place where they 
worship before cutting grain. 

Son Haghia. 

Soso bheloa, afrait. 

Saga, parrot. 

Snkni, potato. 

Snlankhi, a kind of bird. 
Surlii, a vrood-cow. 
Suri, fly. 

Suril, do not propitiate the Churin 
Deota. 

Snrin. 
Susan* 
Taitnm. 

Tambd, copper. 

Tamgarihar. 
Tamghnria. 

Tarwar, may not touch a svrord. 
Tatia, a kind of biid. 
Telia, a tree. 

Tewan raja, a kind of bird. 
Thithlo, a bird with long legs. 
TirangO, a wood-bird. 
Tirki, a bird. 
Tirkiar, tree-mice. 
Tiro, a small bird. 
Tirtia, a bird. 
Tirn. a kind of bird. 
Tlrnnar, a kind of bird. 
Toeba, flower of parSs IBuiHk 
fnmdoio} ixee. 



161 



8iib4ribef« 



Septo. 

Toewa, a kind of faiid. 
Tonpsi, a bircL 
Tono, a big tree-ani 
Topna, tree. 
Topoar, a bird. 
Tow, a kind of bird. 
Tnlsiar, a kind of flower. 
Tnmbli, a red fljing-ant. 
Tundnar, a tree. 

Tnrania* 



EUpis. 

Tnrsia. 

Tarn, sqmxreL 

Tninar, a fmit— fettMttm [SMeichera 

irijuga^'J 
Tati, a kind of vegetable. 
Uchring, an insect. 
Udbarn, a tree, the oil of which is not 

nsed hj members of the sept. 

Urdwar. 

Vring, a wild bird. 



\ 



4. Of the DraTldian Tract. 



BHILS. 



[ Captain C. K ZVABD^ 



The particnlar g^ap of Bhils^ which I propose to take as an illustration in this instance^ 
are those who live in Barwani. They inhabit the Satporas^ which they have divided ,ap into 
Hads; each nominally under a Naik. 

The Bhil of this region has been little affected by civilization and lives a most 
primitive kind of existence. The report that a white man is approaching is often enough 
to cause immediate flight. My informant adds^ '^this Bhil is almost always in hot 
water and I do not think he would be happy vnthout a good deal of excitement {sic) J' 
There are no fixed villages in this part. The collection of huts which does duty for them is 
abandoned at the least alarm^ and each hut in such collections even is built far away from its 
neighbourj as the Bhil himself says, to guard against treachery and against too much attention 
being pid to one's wife by one's neighbours. 
oriiS? ^ "^^^^ group is a good instance of a tribe which has as yet absorbed little from contact with 

^^' its Hindu neighbours. The group is divided into 41 septs, which as a rule have each its own 
tutelary deity. There are eome points of ^neral custom which I will first touch on. All 
these septs reverence the 6or tree (ZizypAus jujuba). At a marriage the cAuIa on which the 
feast to the marriage party is cooked is always made out of earth horn round the roots of this 
tree. 

Some septs, however, have this tree as the object of their special worship. Septs with 
different names, but whose object of special worship is the Fame, cannot intermarry, e.g., the 
Kulbi sept cannot marry with the Kalamia sept. 

I'hey all pay reverence to their own totem, in the case of a tree by never cutting or 
injuring it, or as a rule employing it in any way, while in case of other objects they avoid 
injuring them in any way. They make obeisance to the totem when passing and their 
women do Ghungat, i. tf., veil the face when passing. Women desirous of cli^dren make 
an offering called Mdnnat to the totem. As a rule some spirit is supposed to live in the 
Septs. tree,i or other object. The names of the septs are as follows :— « 

(1) Ivft (called after a moth, ava). They never injure moths. 

(2) Avashya or Avya.— This sept derives its name from a locality. 

They belong to Avashya, a village in the Barwani State. Their tutelary deity called 
Nilai Mat& is supposed to live in a ie^r tree, which tree is therefore the object of their special 
worship, and they never injure it. 

(8) Avaya.— Named after the avid tree. 

(4) Badir (or Padir). — J'rom the village of Padvi in Gujarath. Tiger worshippers, wd^' 
deo, as they call him. 

(5) BaflfVll.— Worship the bor tree. Their women are not allowed to approach close 
to it. 

(6) Bftmnla. — ^Local name from Bamnai, a village in Oujarath. They worship the tiger. 
This sept is considered of higher social standing than the others and will not take food 

from the rest. This is a beginning of development into a caste as no restrictions exist as to 
food among the other septs. 

(7) Jtondar,— They worship a tutelary deity Bondar Levi, probably a local goddess. She 
lives in the sag tree {Teetona grandis) or sdli tree {Shorea robusta) which are therefore 
reverenced by this tribe. 

Bondar Devi is a local goddess whose chief place of residence is at Bijasan on the banks of 
the Narbada. 

(8) Chanhftnla— Clum descent from the Eajput tribe. But their object of reverence 
is the astara tree. This is another instance of the msertion of the wedge which will gradually 
widen the gap between themselves and the other septs. It is curious that they do not as yet, 
80 far as^ I have been able to ascertain, show signs of having adopted restrictions regarding 
food, marriage, customs, etc. 

(9) Channi^r. — Name not explained. Worship snake as Nag-deo. 

(10) Daoria.— Name not explained. Worship same as JDutia. 

(11) Dndwa. — Name not explained. Worship the agan tree. 

(12) Dntia. — Name not. explained. Worship the Bamboo. 
(18) Gadari. — (/t*. shepherd). Worship the /)$/?«/. 

(14) Gaolla-Chothftnia.— Named after a creeper called gaola. 

They worship this plant They never toucli it with the feet intentionally ; if they 
do so accidentally, they at once salaam to it. 

(15) Ghftt Baeria.— Worshippers of Ghat Baeria Devi in Dondwara in Pansemal Fer- 
gana, Barwani State, 

(16) Iskia.— Name not explained. Worhip the bor. 

(17) Jimnlat— Worship the Jdmun tree {Eugenia jambolana) which they respect. 



163 

(18) Jamriu— Name not exjplained. Worship bamboos. 

(19) Kharftli*— -No explanation, No special totem known. 

(20) Kliatta.— Worshippers of a fish called the khattia, which they preserve. 

(21) Khantia. — Worship the stem {khut) oiihe $dg [ Tectona grandis ] tree^ and neVer 
injure it. 

(22) Kikria — Name not explained. Worship the agan tree. 

(23) Kulbi or Kal&mia«— They ^Yorship the £a/am' plant {Convulvulus repen$). 

(24) ll&oli.— This sept worship a goldess whose shrine is on a hill called Ambapori Pahar 
at Bhily&ni (Rajpur^ Barwani). The shape of this shrine is the same as that of the grain basket 
known as kilya and in consequence they never make or use baskets of this shape. Women 
may not worship at this shrine. They may^ however^ offer mdnnat. No one is allowed to 
tattoo anything resembling the shape of a kilya on the body. The khakria {Butea frondo9a) 
tree is also connected with this goddess and is never cut or injured in any way. 

One section of this tribe is beginning to lay claim to Rajput descent and say that 
their ancestor was one Malia, a Rajpat who' kept a Bhil woman. This is a very modern 
development^ and is the beginning of a social rise, I have been unable to find any signs of 
the adoption of Hindu restrictions as to food or marriage. The tribe has two divisions, Mundia 
Maolias^ who wear no choti or tuft of hair^ and the Choiia Maoliiks^ who do wear it. 

(25) Heheda. — Worship the bahera {Beleria Myrololan) tree, whence they are said to 
have got their name. 

(26) Mori.— Worshippers of the peacock. They will not injure it. When they wish to 
worship it they go into the jungles and look for its tracks. On seeing, they salaam to them. 
They clean the ground near the foot-mark and spi'eading a pieise of red cloth by it, put their 
offering of grain upon it. They describe a swastika or fylfot cross beside the offering. 

No tattooing of any kind whatever is allowed in this clan, a curious prohibition, for which 
I have been unable to obtain any reason from the clan. A woman on seeing a peacock 
must veil the face or look away. If a Mori puts his foot on the trace of a peacock knowingly, 
he is sure to suffer from some disease afterwards. 

(27) Hujalda. — Called after their goddess Mujai Mata, whose shrine is at Nisarpur. 

(28) NingwU.— Named from the local god Ningwal Deo, who is said to live under the 
andi [Tamarindus indica) and ihuwar [Euphorbia earinata). As usual, their women may not 
pray to these trees, 

(29) Nlrgfti or Nirgawan,— Worship the Nirgun'shrub {Vitex negundo ot irifolia). 

Another section of this tribe have taken to worshipping the bor tree under which they say 
their goddess Nirgun Devi sits. This section also worship the orig^inal nirgun shrub, but 
the nirgun worshippers proper will not have anything to say to the bor tree worshippers. 

(80) Pavftr. — Worshippers of the bor tree and also reverence pigeons. 

(31) Piplia -Worship the ^i^*' tree. 

(32) Bastala. — They worship the Astera or Ipta tree {BauMnia tomentosa). 

(33) Sanyftr.— (The cat tribe.) Tradition has it that one of this sept was chasing a cat* 
It ran for protection under the cover which they put over the stone figure of their goddess 
known as a Ghuba. The cat then appeared in the shape of the stone which served to represent 
the goddess, and the deity herself appeared seated on this stone. The cat Sanjidr is thei efore 
reverenced by them. None of them will ever touch anything into which a cat has thrust its 
mouth. They must never touch a cat except to preserve it from harm. That a cat should 
enter the house is considered unlucky, and to guard, against this they as a rule keep a dog tied 
up near the door. 

(34) Semlia. — Worshippers of the SemeHxee {Bombax heptapkj/Uum). Thej will not 
touch a pot in which the flowers of this tree have been cooked* 

(35) Sisodyft. — Spurious Rajputs they claim to be. But save adoption of the name they 
have as yet advanced no further. 

(36) Solia.— 

(i) Ita Solia.^^ln this section the marriage always takes place at sunrise. 

(ii) Jdta Solia. — Marriages in this section always take place at sunset, 

(iii) Tarid «o2fa.— This section always watch the sky at sunset and as soon as they can 
count 16 stars they begin the marriage ceremony. 

(iv) Tdr solia. — The section of the tribe apparently connect their name with cotton 
thread, as they wrap several skeins of raw thread round the bridegroom and bride 
at the marriage ceremony. 

(37) Thakftria— Name not explained. They worship the sparrow. 
(88) Yalanka*- Worship the sdli tree. 

(39) Yaskala*— Worship the bamboo and other trees. 

(40) Yerla — Worship the nim [Mdia azadiraehla) tree* 

(41) Th&gella— Worship the tiger. 



164. 



INTERNAL STBVCTIJBE OF YINDHYAN BHII& 



JSndogamous. 



Exogamons 



SeotioxL BadL 

/ (1) B9miiia« 
Daoria. 
Budod. 
Sidmia. 
Mori. 
6) Hohnia. 
11} Baradia. 
(8) Chuhftn. 




}; 



{ > 

' /in 



Bh&bra. 

(10) Kadasia. 

(11) Dhedla. 
(lie) Waskala. 

(13) Ajn&ria. 

(14) Kaoeha. 

(15) Bftbria. 

(16) SasUa. . 

(17) Klkdia. 



SeotioiL BadL 

PipUa. 

Setia. 

Bhftyadla, 

Ganawa. 

Kliar&da. 

H&wl. 

H&kodla. 

Ajraonia. 

Deoradia. 

Betla. 

Gnthria. 

Wasunia. 

Kikria. 

Laklima. 

Hftkdia. 

maodia. 

Saknia. 




Seotion. BadL 

(35) Sin^adia. 

(36) Bhnria. 

(37) Pachaya. 

(38) Bilwal. 
39) SipUai 

(40) Hinftwa. 

(41) Dodwa. 
[413) Gamia. 

(43) Dasnia. 

(44) Dhanak, 

(45) Kiradla. 

(46) Jamra. 

(47) Parmap. 
48) Baria. 

[49) Hasania. 

[50) Paranda. 

[51) Banfi. 



Section* Ohho. 

(1) Bftnmia. 
iZ) Awaya. 
[3i llehba. 

(4) KanSgia. 

(5) Kftocha. 

(6) Chongad. 

(7) Dodwa. 

(8) Badod. 



165 



4. OftheDraildiaii Tract. 



. KHANGAB. 

[ Captain C. B. LvabdJ] 

The Khangar as found in Bundelkliand gives us an example of the evolution of a caste out Constitu- 
of a tribe, one portion being still to a srreat measure in a primitive state, while the other section tion. 
has been admitted within the circle of Hinduism. The Khangan appear to have been the 
oritrinal habitants and rulers of a large piurt of Bundelkhand before the Rajputs invaded the 
country. They were apparently of Dravidian stock. As we find them now they are divided 
into three large endogamous groups^ " Rdj-Kkangars/' *^ Jraiit/* and " Dkanuks,'* though 
there is some doubt^ however^ as to the last group, and they are at any rate insignificant 
locally. Each of these is again sub-divided into exogamous divisions. Of these divisions the 
first is now a caste proper, though not a high one^ while the other two are looked on as jungle 
tribes or at best but on the fringe of the caste system. 

There is the usual tradition to account for the rise of Raj* K hangars. It runs briefly thus : — Tradition. 
A Khangar chief ruled at Kurar now in the Orchha State. The Hundeias had b«'gun to enter 
the country and a Bundelft noble was living at tbe Khangar court. He had a beautiful daughter 
with whom the Khangar chiefs son fell in love. The Bundela hesitated to allow a marriage^ 
and said a consultation with his caste fellows was necessary. . He went off and on returning 
said the marriage might take place^ but that both sides must first of all dine together. The 
feast was attended by a large number of Rajputs who, when the Khan gars were stupefied with 
drink^ set upon them and proceeded to kill them to the last human being. One woman, however, 
who was near her confinement, escaped and hid in a grove of iatam trees. A Brahman of 
the Sandal caste interceded for her, and her life was spared on the condition that should a son 
be bom he would enter the BundeU chiefs service and become bis shoe-bearer. A son was 
born and entered the chiefs service and he and his descendants took and have since borne the 
prefix of " Raj." 

Later on an illegitimate daughter was bom of this same woman ; she was named Jraih 
and her descendants are so called. They took a lower social position and retiurned to their 
own jungles. 

Ihe Raj-K hangars, it will be seen, have become &r more Hinduised than the rest of the Hinduised 
caste. This section is occupied in agriculture, they are enli£ted as sepoys and they have Khangars. 
entirely abandoned predatory habits. Widow-marriage though not absolutely unknown 
among them is considered as degrading and is veiy seldom practised. They abstain from wine, 
employ Hr&hmans in all ceremonies, they thatch tbe Marwa or shed used at marriages with 
Jamun leaves, and they bore the noses of th(ir women for the uose-ring. 

The Ars^s, on the other hand,'engage chit fly in hunting, and are not allowed to be sepovs. 
Widow-marriag^e is the rule among them. Tht^y drink wine freeiy in public, never employ 
Br&hmans, thatch th& Marwa with /^an^ grass and do not bore their women'^ noses. They 
are well-known as thieves. Their worship is chiefly that of the snake, whom they call Kartdl 
Deo, while the Raj^Khangars worship Hindu Gods. 

There does not seem to be any trace of hypergamy among them as yet, though one 
might have expected to see it in the upper group, perhaps their exogauious sub-divisions have 
not as yet been in existence long enough. 

The Vhanuh section are not very numerous and are in habits akin to the Irakhs, but are 
said to keep pigs, and the other two gproups often disclaim connection with them. There 
appears to be no sort of doubt as to the blood connection between the two first groups, who 

admit it readily. 

The children of both Raj-Ehangars and Arakhs are always called after the father's pept, 
and on marrying, the woman adopts the husband's sept name as hers. The tottmism exhibited 
by the septs is shown in the scheme; 

We see that the Baj-Khangars have apparently kept their old sept names while becoming 
Hindus. Ihey are an example of the 4th class of conversion as given by Mr. Risley. We 
have here a whole section of a tribe converted to Hinduism without abandoning ti'e tribal 
name and retaining its totemistic exogamous subdivisions. It will be interesting to see if in 
10 or perhaps better 20 years this tribe will have forgotten its totems and taken to more high- 
sounding designations, their H indu customs being more and more rigid^ and hypergamy intro- 
duced. The Arakh too^ may bej will have risen in the social scale. 



K 2 



lee 



INTERNAL STBIICTIIEE OF THE KH1NG1II8 OF BUNDELKHlKD. 



RAJ-KHAN6ARS. 



l^Main diviiions — Raj^KhangarSf IraiA,] 

Exogamous septs :— - 

(1) Bel-gOtla« — ^Revere the Bel (JSgie marmelos,) tree, which they neyer cut op injure^ 

(2) Bela-ffjOtia. — Bevere the Bela j^nt and never cat it, etc. 

(3) Samad-aotig.— Hold the Samad tree sacred. 

(4) SnraJ. — Profess to be descended fx'om, and be worshippers of, the son. 
(5). Guac— Called after the ignana {Quae), which they never injure. 

(6) Nflp.— Revere the serpent and never destroy any snake. 

(7) Ghnr. — Revere the horse {Ohur, ghora). Never mount one and will not allow Ihem 

to be used in marriage processions. 

(8) Hftt hi .—Revere the elephant. 

(9) Gailf — Have the cow as a totem. 

(10) Hiif^r* — The alligator is their totem. Special acts of worship are paid to it air wed- 

dings, etc. 

(11) Chan&n-gnae* — Another species of iguana. They never injure it. 

(12) Knsam. — Revere the Kusam (Schheichera trijuga) tree and never use clothes dyed in 

its juice. 

(13) Nim. — Revere the Nim (Melia azadircushta) tree and never use its fruit or cut it 

(14) Karil. — Revere the Karil tree. 

(15) Chanwar,— Have rice as a totem. Never eat it. 

(16) Haldlt— -Revere the turmeric and never use its dye, etc. 

(18> £t— * ""} °"^"^ °* ^^^ ^* known. 

ARAKH. 

Exogamous septs :— 

(1) Lftllher Gotia. — Abstain from touching the Ldhera tree, which is their totem. 

(2) Ent. — Enty a brick. Never use biicks, all their housea are made with plain wattle and 

mud. , 

(8) Hftthi.— Revere the elephant, 
(i) Gau. — Cow is worshipped. 
(6) Pahan.-— Kot known. 

(6) dtandan. — Worship the Gha/ndan {Santdlum album) tree and never harm it. 

(7) Chanwftr. — Ohanwar, rice. They never ea<^ lice or touch it. 
(S) Ghor&«— Revere the horse. 

(9) Sftndal.—Thie is Eponymous, the sept being called after the iSeEn(2«7y a Brahman who 

saved the woman (vide tradition of Raj-Ehangars in text). It will be npt^ that 
Sftndal-gOtia occurs only among the jungly section of the tribe. 




5. Of the Ajyo-Dravlillnn Trtict. 



CHAMAB. 



[ T. Crooks, I.C.S.'\ 



md day-labourers found throughout Upper India. 
:rit charma-kara. a ''worker in leather." Tiadi- 



Origtn. 



1. The caste ot curriers, tannerB, 
Their name is derived from the Saoskrit < 

tioually the Chamax is the ofEsjirinfj o£ a Chandala woman by a man of the fiehorman 
caste. The KarSyara of Manu, "who cuts leather," is descended from a Nishada father and 
Vaideha mother. Tbe Nisbada, again, is said to be the child of a Brihman and a Sudra woman, 
and the V^deha of a Vaisya father and a Brahman mother. On this Mr. Sherriiig remarks: — 
" If the workore in leather of the present day are lineal descendants of the workers in leather 
in Mann's time, the C'hamars may fairly consider themselves as of no mean degree and may 
hold np their heads boldly in the presence of the higher castes." Mr. Sherring appears to 
have been impressed with the high-bred appearance of some Chamfirs. This may, perhaps, 
be to some extent accounted for by liaiiont with some of the higher castM ; but most observers 
will agree that Mr. Risley is right in his opinion, that " the averse Cham&r is hardly dis- 
tinguishable in point of features, statute, or complexion from the members of tboi« non- 
Aryan races from whose ranks we should prinii/'acia enpect the profession of leather-dressers 
to he recruited." Mr. NesBeld believes the Chamir to have sprung out ot several different 
tribes, like the Dom, Kanjar, Hftbnra, Cheio, etc., the last remains of which are still outside 
the pale of Hindu society. " Originally he seems to liave been an impressed labourer (begar) 
who was made to hold the plough for bis master, and received in return space to l<uild liia 
mud hut near the village, a fixed allowance of grain for every working day, the free use of 
wood and grass on the village lands, and the slcins and bodies of the animals that died. This 
is very much the status of the Chamar at tlie present ilay. He is still the field slave, the ^rass- 
cntter, and the carrion-eat«r of the Indian village." But it is, perhaps, at present, nntil the 
existing evidence from anthropometry is lari;ely increased, premature to express a decided opinion 
of their origin further than this, that tlie tribe is in all probability occupational, and largely 
recruited from non-Aryan elements. Among all the lodo-Aryun races the use of hides for 
clothing prevailed in primitive times. The Vishnu t'nrana enjoins all who wijih to protect iheir 
persons never to be without leather Bboes;and Manu warns the Brfibmans never to u^e shoes 
that have been worn by another. In the Ramayana, Bharata places on the vacant throne 
of Ajudhya a pair of Rama's slippers,* and worships them during his exile- The Charmal 
of Pliny's" list have been identified with the inhabitants of Charma Mandala, a district of the 
West, mentioned in the Mahabhftrat, and also in the A'ishnu Purana under the title of Charma- 
Khanda. ... 

2. One curious legend of the origin of the tribe has been referred to in connection with Traditfont 
the AgarwalaBanyas:— _ of origin. 

Once upon a time a certain Raja bad two daughters, Chamu and Bamu. These married, 
and each gave birth to a son who was a pi-odigy of strei^th {paklvait). An elephant 
happened to die in the Raja's palace, and being unwilling that it should he cut up, he Gcardied 
for a man strong enough to take it out whole and bury it. Chamu undertook and performed 
tlie task. Bamu pronounced him an outcaste ; so the Banyaa are sprung from Bamu, and the 
Chamfirs from Cliirau. Another legend tells how five Brahman brothers were patsing along 
towether. They saw a carcass of a cow lying on the way. Four of them tunied aside ; 
bu't the fifth removed the dead body. His brethren excommunicated him, and since then it has 
been the business of his descendants to remove the carcassea of cattle. Another tradition 
makes them out to be the descendants of Nona or Lona Chamarin, who is a ddfied witch much 
dreaded in the eastern jiart of the Province. Her legend tells how Dhanwantari, the phy- 
sician of the gods, was bitten by Takshaka, the king of the snakes, and knowing that death 
approached, he ordered his fon to cook and eat his body after his death, so that they might 
thereby inherit his skill in medicine. They aeoordiogly cooked his body in a cauldron, and 
were auoui to eat it, when Taks'aka appeared to them in the form of a Braliman, and warned 
them against this act of cannibalism. So they let the cauldron float ilown the Gan^-es, and as it 
floated down, Lona, the Chamarin, who was washing on thu bank of the river, not knowing 
that the vessel contained hnman Hesh, took it cnt and jiartook of the ghastly food. She at 
once obtained power to cure diseases, and eBpetially snake-bite. One day all the women were 
transplanting rice, and it was found that Lona could do as much work as all her companions 
put together. So they watched her, and when she thought she was alone she stripped off 
all her clothes (nudity being an essential element in all magic), muttered some spells, and 
throwinj: the plants into ihe air they all settled down in their propiT places. Finding she 
was observed, she tried to escape, and as she ran the earth opened, and all the water of the rice 
fields followed her, and thus was formed the channel of the Loni river in the Unao District. 

8. The Census Returns show eleven hundred and fifty-six sub-divisions of Chamare ; Inter- 
of these the most important locally are -.— national 

Kali&ranpar. — Ajmar, Balijan, Dbaranu, Mochi, Sagahiya, ^irswaI. " "*" ""' 



> Bat tbe7 wtrs mods of wood oud enlli^dpilrliiiu. (B, A. 0,) 



4 



168 

Bnlandshahr.— Bharw&riya^ Chandauliya or Chandauriya, Lalman. 

Aligarh. — Chandanliya^ Harphor^ Kathiyara^ Mocbi^ Ojha. 

Hathnra.— Chaurasiya, K»idam^ Tius^. 

■ainpari. — Loniyftiii Pajhasiya, Suji. 

Etftwah.— Amrutiya, Bisaili^ Nakchhikna. 

Etah, — Nagar, Nunera, 

BareiUy. — Bardwari, Bhusiya^ Chandauliya, Nona. 

Bijnor.— Sakt. 

Badftan. — Baharwar, Chauli&n, Kokapasi, Uriya. 

Horftdftbftdt — Bl^ayar, R&manandi. 

Gawnpnr* — Oangapari, Bangiya, 

Fatehpnr. — Desi, Dhuman, Domar, Pan war, Bangiya, Turkatwa. 

B&nda.— Barjatwa, Dhaman, Dhundhiya, Dhindhor, Janw&r. 

Rani^ya. — Seth, Sorahiya, Ujjaio. 

Hamirpar.-^Dhindhor, Ran^ya, Umre. 

Allahftbftd.— Autarbedi, Chand Bae, Ghatiya, Kahar, Turkiya. 

Lali tpnr • — Bhadaoriya, 

Benares. — Dhuriya. 

Hiijapar. — Turkiya. 

Jaanpiir,~BanaadIiiya, Turkiya. 

Gh&zipar. — Kan&ujiya. 

Ballia. — Kanaujiya. 

Gorakhpnr. — Bamhanlya, Belbheriya, Birhariya, Dakkhinalia. 

DesL— ' Ghorcliarha, Gnosiya, Kanaujiya, Mohahar, Rajkumari, Sarwariya, Siadas, 

Tatwa, Uttaraha. 
Basti* — Birhariya, Chhasoriya, Cham&rmangta. 
Dakkhinaha* — Desi, Mohahar, Sarwariya, Tanbuua, Uttaraha. 
Azampirh. — Gkia1> Kan&ujiya. 
Lucknow.^Chauh&n, Dus&dh. 
Unto. — Chauh&n. 
Rae Barelit—Chandel, Dhaman, Dhnndar, Dhuriya, Ghor-Charha, Gorait^ Haxphar, 

Khalkaidya, Kulluk, Nonft^ Tanbuna. 
Sitftpnr* — Chauhan, Pachhwahan. 
Snltftnpur, — Ban&ndhiyA, Dhaman, Non&, Tanbnna. 
Partabgarlt — Banaudhiya, Chandal, Dhaman, Dhingariyaj Jog6y<^> Nona, Surahiya, 

Tanbnna, Turkiya. 
Birabanki.— Jopya, Pachhwahan. 

8ub- 4. In the detailed lists we find the Chamars of the province classified into sixteen main 

oastes. sub-castes. Aharwfir (principally found in the Allahabad Division), Charoar (chiefly in 

Meerut) ; Chamkatiyas (mostly in Bareilly) ; Dhusiyas (in Meemt and Benares) ; Dohars (in 

Agra, Kohilkhand, AU^liSbad, Luoknow) ; Gole (in Etswah) ; Jaisw&ras (strongest in Benares, 

Allahabad, Gorakhpur, and Faizabad) ; Jatwas (in Meemt, Agra and BohilkluiDd) ; Koris (in 

Faizabad and Gorakhpur) ; Korchamras (in Lucknow) ; Kurils (in Lucknowand Ailah&bfid) ; 

Nigoti (a small sub-caste chiefly in Manipur) ; PatthHrufotis (in Agra) ; Purabiyas (in Lucknow 

and Faizabad) ; R&ed&sis (tolerably evenly distributed throughout the province), and ^akarwars 

(in Agra and Allahabad). But there is hardly a district which does not possess, or pretend 

to possess, the sevenfold division which is so characteristic of castes of this social stauding. 

Thus, in Ballia, we find Dhusiyas, Jaisw&ras, Kanaujiy as, Jhoghiyas, Jatuas, Chamartantoes, and 

Nonas; in Agra, Mathuriya, Jadua, Domara, Sakarwar, Batariya, Guliya, and Chandauriya. 

Some of these sub-castes are of local origin, some are occupational, and some take their name 

from their eponymous founder. Thus the Aharwar are connected with the old town ot Ahar, in 

the Bulandshahr District, or with the Ahar tribe : the Chamkatiyas take their name from their 

trade of cutting hides ((;^am ^^^»a). This 8ub-ca«te claims to have produced the saints Bfio 

Das and Lena Chamarin. The Jatna or Jatiya have, it is said, some unexplained connection 

with the tribe of .Uts. The Kaiy&n is also a sub-caste of the Bohras, and is said to be derived 

from their habit of always saying kaia, " what ?*' *' when ?'' The Jaisw&ras trace their origiQ. 

to the old town of Jais, though some have a ridiculous story that it is a corruption of Jinswdr 

in the sense that they are agriculturists and grow various crops {jins). The Koli, or Xori, a 

term usually applied, to the Hindu weavf'r, as contrasted with the Julaha or Muhammadan 

weaver, are connected by some with the Kola ; by others with the Sanskrit Kauliia, in the 

sense of "ancestral" or a "weaver." They say themselves that they take their name from 

their custom of wearing unbleached {kora) clothes. The Jhusiya, and also perhaps the 

Dhu^^iyas, have traditions connecting them with the old town of Jhusi, near Allahabad. There 

are, again^ the Azamgarhiya of Azamgarh; the Jatlot of Kohilkhand, who, like the Jatiya, say 

they are kinsfolk of thA Jfits; the Sakarw&r con^iect themselves with Fatehpur Sikri; in the 

Central Du&b are the Saksena who say they come from SankiRa, and the C handeriya froniL 

Chanderi In Mirzapur we find the Jaiswira, Jhusiya. Kacaujiya, Kurla, Dusadhu, kinsmen 

of the Dhus&dha, the Kori, the Mang^ or "beggars,' the Dolidhau^va or " palanquin-carriers,'^ 

the Azamgarhiya, and the Banaudhiya, who are residents of Banaudha, — a term which 

includes the western parts of Jaunpur, Azamgarh, and Benares, and the south of Gudh. To 

these Mr. Sherring adds : — In Benares the Rangua {ranp, " colour '') who are dyers ; the 

Katua or'' cutters,'' (iia^jia) of leather; and the Tantna, who manufacture strips or strings 

^ leather known us t&ntf Aooordin^ to i}^ 8%me f^nthority son^e of tliese ^ub-o^stes an 



lee 



differenti&W by function. Thna, manyjif the JajgwSra are BCrvants; tlie Phusiya or Ihaaiya, 
who trace their origin to Sayyidpur, in Ghfizipur, are shoe-makers and harness- makers ; the 
Kori, weavers, grooma, and Geld laboarers ; the Rurii, workers in leather ; and the JaUia or 
Jatiya, labourers. The Jaiswaras will not carry burdens on iheir ehoulders. but on their hcada, 
and are liable to excommanioation if they violate this rule. Tbey supply nii^frt oE our syces, 
and are liable to be cxjielled i£ they tie up a dog with a haltiT, which they worsliip. Anyone 
who offends in tliis way is fined live nipees and a dinner to the brethren. The MaOKatiyas or 
. Mangtas live on alms, which they take only Erom the Jaiswars. In Mirzapur ihey describe 
these functions somewhat Lliffen-nlly. There the Jaisnaras make shoes and work as day- 
labourers; the ■Ihusiyas are labourers at id keep pigs, whieh is also the occupation of the 
Dus&illiu; the Koris make shoes and weave cloth; the Dolidhaawas carry piilanquins; tht> 
Azamgarhiyas are menial servants of Europeans, and tend swine j the Hanaudhiyas tend 
swine and are day-labourer b. There is, a^&in, another local division of the Eastern Chamars into 
Uttarahas or "Northerners," Diikkinahiis or " Southerners," who live respectively north and 
south of the river Sarju, and do not intermarry. The Chandaur or CUanlanriya, of the 
Central Dnab, claim to be descended from Chanura, the famous wrestler of Kausa, who was 
killed by Enehna. 

5, These sub-castes are now all, or practically all, eadogamoas ; but there seems reason for Bulea of 
believing that this lission into endogamous groups may be comparatively recent. Thus there ^'O*?*"*?- 
seems no reason to doubt that in the east of the Province the Uhusiya and Eanaujiya inter- 
marry. The rule of exogamy within the eub-easte seems to vary. Those who are more advanced ■ 
say that marriage is prohibited within seven degrees in the descending line. Others say I 
that they do not intermarry as long as any previous relationship between the parties is I 
known or ascertainable. In Ballia, a careful observer states that they do not marry in a family I 
from which their mother, grandmother, or great grandmother has come ; nor do they marry I 
in the family of their parent's sister. A man may marry two eisters, but not a daughter of a I 
brother-in-law. The deaoendants of one common stock are called dagad, and among them I 
marriage is prohibited. Besides, this occupation plays a very important part in marriage I 
alliances : thus, those who remove manure or night-soil cannot intermarry with those who prac- I 
tise the cleanlier duty of horse- keeping. As a rule they many locally within their own I 
neighbourhood, if a suitable match can be so arranged. If a Chamar entice away the wife of I 
a clansman, in addition to the punishment inflicted by the tribal council, he is obliged to repay I 
her marriage expenses. If a girl is detected in an intrigue with a caete-fellow, her parents are ■ 
fined one and-a-quarter rupees, and in Mirzapur the same is the punishment inflicted on a man I 
who marries again while his first wife is alive. In fact, polygamy is discouraged unlei^8 the I 
first wife be barren, when a second marriage will usually be sanctioned by the council. Among I 
Chamars in particular it seems to be believed that rival wives do not get on together ; and I 
this sort of quarrelling has the special name laufjf/i dah — "the ill-will between the co-wives." ■ 
Other sayings to the same purport are" A'aM hi taut bH buri hoti iai". — "Even a co-wife of 1 
wood is an evil " ; and when one wife is being carried to the burning- ground, the other says : — 1 
" Mot jiya na palidwe; saul ia pair hUtajawe." — "I cannot believe that she is dead; I am sure I 
her legs are shaking still." In Ballia it is said that if a Chamar marries a second time, the first \ 
wife usually leaves him, and that her desertion for this reason is recognised ns acoordiiig to I 
tribal cnstom. 1 

6. Chamars have a particidarly well-organised and inflncntial tribal council or /xmoita^'aj^. Tribal 1 
The head of every family is supposed to be a member of iha panekayat, and nearly every village oouocil 1 
has aheadman {pra//idn,jainaddr). In large towns there is often more than one headman. In J 
small matters the village council is competent to decide ; but for the settlement of weightier J 
questions the councils of several villages assemble under their o^vn hesdnoan, and then a general ■ 
meeliug is formed. Custom varies as to whether the headman is a permanent official or not. I 
The moat usual rule is that, if the sou of the late headman is competent, he is generally ap- I 
poinled ; if he be found guilty of misconduct, the headman is ae liable as any of the luemberB to I 
fine and excommunication. The cases which come before the council may be clasalieJ as (a) I 
cases of illicit sexual relations or violation of tribal rules concerning food, etc. ; (_b) matrimonial I 
disputes; I c) potty quarrels, which would not come under the cognizance of a Court ; {d) 1 
disputes about small money transactions ; (0) cases in connection w^th jaJtHdni : this laflt is I 
very common. Every Chamar family has a'^signed to it a certain number of families of higher I 
caste, which are known as its jafmaa (Sans. Yajumana), for winch its members perform the I 
duties of cutting the cord at births, playing the drum at marriagi-s and other festive occasions, I 
removing and disposing of the carcasses of dead cattle, and in return for these services they I 
receive money fees, cooked food, and sometimes grain, flour, etc. In return they sometimes supply I 
shoes at marriages, a certain number of shoes annually in projwrtion to the hides thi^y receive, I 
and also do repairs to leather articles such as well buckets used in culiivatiou- These rights I 
are very jealously watched, and any interference with the recognised constituents of a family I 
is strongly resented and brought before the tribal councd. 'ITiese orders of the council in the I 
way of fine or entertainment of the clansmen are enforced under penalty of excommunication, I 
ot whicli the most serious result is that, until the ban is removed, all marriage alliances with I 
the family of the olfeuder are barred, and if anyone marries a member of such a family, he I 
at once becomes liable to the same punishment as fhat which they are unilcrgoing. Kvery ■ 
wurcil has a mace-bearer ['hliariddr), who goes round imd calls the members to the meetings, I 
and he is allowed a small money fee for this seivice. The amount of line varies from onu to I 
five rupees, and it is very seldom thai the process of esoommuDication has to be n^ed to enfcrce I 
payment. If a person think tit to lay a charge before the council he has to pay a fee of ou$ I 



170 



Marriage. 



Widow- 
murriage 
and tbe 
levirate. 



Birth 
cere- 
monies. 



^nd-a-^qxiarter mpees to the ohairman^ who will npt take np the ease until tke lee is paid. 
This money, which to the east of the Province is known as ndlbandi or lekri, is spent in 
purchasing spirits for the refreshment of the members. 

7. Chamjirs show an increasing tendency to the adoption of infant-marrjage. The usual 
age to the east of the Province is between four and eight, and it is not uncommon in Ballia 
for little girls of three to be married. It is very seldom that a girl remains unmarried alter 
the age of eight. There are no regular marriage brokers employed ; the negotiations aie con- 
ducted by a member of the family who is known as c^ua. As among other Hindu castes, marriage 
is looked upon as a sacrament^ and not based on contract. It is complete and binding once the 
prescribed ceremonies are gone through, and its validity does not depend on the express or implied 
consent of the parties. But no marriage is carried out without the consent of all the relations, 
even those who are distant, and the descent anl &mily connections of both bride and brideg^room 
are carefully enquired into before the engagement is made. In Mirzapur the bride-price pay- 
able to her relations is two rupees and five seers of coarse sugar. In Ballia they deny that 
there is a bride-price ; but it is admitted that, if the parents of the bride are very poor^ the 
father of the bridegroom may give as much as four rupees to defray the marriage expenses. 
As has been said, both bride and bridegroom are carefully examined as to whether they are 
free from auy physical defect^ and, as a general rule, if such be subsequently ascertained, it 
would not be a valid ground for annulling the marriage. If the husband become a lunatie 
after marriage, the wife in Ballia would not be entitled to leave him, provided his relations 
continued to support her ; and in the same way the husband of a mad wife is held . bound 
to support her. Impotence or such mutilation as renders sexual intercourse impossible 
is vaUd ground for dissolving the marriage. But, as a matter of fact, impotenoy, proved to 
the satisfaction of the council, is the only valid reason for a wife abandoning her husband. 
Divorce in the strict sense of the term is unkown ; but a husband may turn his wife out of 
the house for proved infidelity, while she cannot leave him even if he be un&ithful to her, 
provided he g^ves her food and clothes. A woman, whose expulsion has beeu recognised by 
the council, can remarry by the sagdi or kardo form. The offspring of such informal marriages 
rank equally for pur|>oses of inheritance with those of regularly-married virgin brides. As regards 
the ofbpring of illicit connections they follow the caste and tribe of the &ther unless the 
mother was a Musalman, or of some tribe lower than a Chamar in the social scale. Such people 
are known by the name of Suratw&l or Suratwala. When a Cham&r takes a woman from a 
caste superior to his own, their children will be recognised as members of. ttte caste ; but if she 
be inferior to him, their children are considered illegitimate, and will not inherit. Thk is 
always the ease when the woman is a Bhangi, Dom, Dhobi, Kunchbandhua, or Musahar. 

The child of a Chamftr at Ballia by a Dusadh woman is known as Chamar Dusadha^ and 
this is the only case in which a similar fusion of castes is known to have been recognised. The 
importance of such facts in connection with the problem of the origin of the mixed castes is 
obvious. 

8. Widow-marriage is, as has been said, fully recognised; but among Chamars who have, 
like those at Cawnpore, risen in the world, there seems a tendency to prohibit it. The levirate 
is recognised, but the widow can live only with the younger brother of her late husband If 
the widow be youn^, and her younger brother-in-law of a suitable age, they usually ammge to 
live together ; if this cannot be arranged, she usually marries some widower of the tribe by 
the ^agdi or iardo form. In this case the brother and father of her late husband have a right 
to the custody of the children of the first marriage : this rule is relaxed in the case of a baby, 
which accompanies its mother. In some cases the widow is allowed to take with her to her 
new home all the children of the first marriage. Any dispute as to matters of this sort is 
settled by the tribal council. If a widow marry an outsider, she loses all claim to the estate of 
her first husband, and so do any children she takes with her to the house of her new husband. 

In such cases the property passes to the brothers of her first husband. If, on the contrary> 
she mariy her husband's brother, she or her husband will inherit only if there was no male 
heir by the first marriage. At the same time, though Chamars are quite ready to lay down 
definite rules on this subject, the tribal custom does not appear to be quite settled, and when 
there are in the case of the levirate or widow-marriage two &milie8, the matter is usually left 
to the council, who make a partition. 

9. Among some branches of the tribe, as, for instance, at Sultanpur, when the first 
pregnancy of a wife is announced, a ceremony known as sathdi is performed, which con- 
sists of the distribution of cakes (puri) to the clansmen at their houses. But as Cham&rs are 
pttrtioularly exposed to fear of witchcraft and diabolical agency generally, careful precau- 
tions are taken to euard tbe woman from evil. To the east of the Province promises of offerings 
are made to Vindhybasini Devi of Bindhftchal, Banru Bir, Birtiya, and to the sainted dead 
of the family if they vouchsafe an easy delivery. Thorny branches of the bel tree 
{Aegle marmelos) are hung at the door of the delivery room to intercept evil spirits, who 
are also scared away by the smoke from an old shoe, which is burnt for the purpose. The 
woman sits on her heels during accouchement, and is supported by her female relatives. She 
is attended by a woman of the caste for six or twelve days, which is the period for impurity* 
When it is announced that the child is a boy, the women sing the $ohar or song of rejoicing. 
Much of this consists of the invocation of Mdtay the goddess of small-pox. After the cord 
is cut, if the child be a boy, the mother is bathed in warm water ; if a girl, she gets a cold 
bath. After the mother and baby are bathed, she gets a meal consisting of molassesj turmeric, 
and oil, and after twelve hours she is given halwa sweetmeat. Next day she gets her ordinary 
food. All through the period of impurity the singing of the ^ohar is repeated* At thf ifm o£ 



tbg deliTsiy room {satiri; Sans, suiaia) a tire is kept constantly bnmiag:, and into it some I 

afwaiit {linffiuticum ajoJOO't] is occaeionally thrown. At least for tlie first six days a liifht is I 

kept uDBstantly bnmin^. On the night of the sixth day the women sit up all nignt and wor- I 

ship Shafihti or Chhatbi, tbo goddess of the sixth, with an offeriag of cake^ made u( barley-floor I 

and rioe boiled witb BUgar. These are presented in a leaf platter (if ownn), and then eaten by I 

the members of the hoosehold. An iron cutting-instrument is also kept near the mother and I 

child during the period of pollution. If the child be a boy tlie father is expected to enter- I 

tain bis friends, which ia usually done on the twelfth day. 

On that day the parents or brothers of the mother — if they can afford it— send bera coat and I 

cap made of red cloth for the baby, and a yellow loin-cloth tor the mother. This present ie j 

sometimes accompauied by a special sort of sweetmeat known !iB suthaura [tonth, dry gingei), I 

made of £Ugar, ginger, and other spices ; sometimes with the tuihaura is sfnt some csndle I 

iacAitt:ani). There ia no distinct trace of the couvade, except that the husband has tc^ take I 

the first sup of tlie cleaning draught given to the mother, and that he does not shave for six I 

days after his wife's delivery. There are no special ceremonies in connection with twins, bnt I 

they are considered inauspicious. If dnriag the pregnancy of a woman an eclipse happen lo 
occur, she is made to sit quiet while it lasts with a stone pestle in her hand, and is not allowed 
to move or touch any cutting instrument. If she move, it is believed that her child will be 1 

deformed, and if she touch a cutting implement, that, it wilt be born mutilated. The child is 
named by the seuior member of the family. On the fourth or fifth day after the mother J 

rejoins her family, the child's head ia shaved (t/ianraH), and when about six months old, it is fed I 

for the first time on grain {annapraian) ; it is at this time that it is nsnally named. At I 

the age of five or seven it^ ears are bored (taKchAeilan), and this constitutes the initiation : after ] 

this the child must conform to the rales of the tribe regarding food. 

10. When it is proposed to adopt a boy, the clansmen are invited, and in their presence Adoption. 
the parents make over the boy to the adopter with these words, — " You were my son by a deed 

of evil ipdp) ; now you are the son of so-and-so by a virtuous act {dAarm)." As the boy 
is accepted, the members of the cast« sprinkle lice over him and the adopter gives a feast. 

11. The cnstoms of betrothal vary (omewbat in different places. Thus, in Mirzapur, BetrothaL 
when a marriage if proposed, the bridegroom's father with his uncle and other near relations 

vitit the bride. She is carefally examined to make sure that she has no physical defect, and, J 

if approved, the boy's father gives her a rupee, and some coarse sugar is distributed- then I 

her father entertains the party. Next follows the regular betrothal (barretM). This generally 1 

takes place at the villi^o liquor shop, where the two fathers exchange platters {da«ita) full of I 

liquor five times, and at the last turn the brlile's father [luts a rupee into the cup of his rela- 
tion-to-be. Liquor is served round, two-thii'ds of the cost of which is paid by the father of 
the boy, and one-third by the father of the girl. Oq this day the date of the wedding ie I 

fixed by the Pandit. In Ballia, on the contrary, ihe parents atid relations of the girl go to I 

the boy's house and present him with a rupee and loin-cloth. This is known as jpaupuja, I 

or "the worshipping of the feet" of the bndegroom. 

When these presents are received in the presence of the members of the caste, the engage- 
ment is complete. 

12. Marriage is of two kinds — tlie ahCidi, charh, charhaua. which is the respectable Marriage 
form, and \h.a dola, used by poor people. In Mirzapur the wedding invitation is distributed "*"*^- 

by the father's sister's husband of the boy. '1 he marriage pavilion {manro) Is then erected. In r 

the Gangetic valley it consists of four bamboos ; Cham&rs above the bills make it of nine poles 

of the »iddh tree {Kardwiekia hinafa) in obvious imitation of the Dravidian races by whom 

they are surrounded. On this day the Pandit ties round the wrist of the bride an amulet j 

formed of mango leaves and thread. The next day is devoted to feeding the clansmen, and I 

cakes of various kinds are offered to the sainted dead. Then follows the malmangara ceremony, 1 

Then as the procession starts, the bridgroom's mother does the wave ceremony (paraehiany to 

keep ofi evil spirits. With the same object the bride's mother puts eome lamp-black on the bride's I 

eyelids, and bangs a necklace of beads round her neck. At the same time, as an assertion or I 

acknowledgment of maternity, she offers Ihe girl her breast. The bridegroom's father is expected I 

to take with the procession five ankle rings {matkii/a) for the bride. The marriage is then per- I 

formed by making the pair revolve five times round the ploughbeam [haru], which is fixed in I 

the centre of the pavilion. There also is erected a rough wooden representation of a flock of I 

parrots {tuga) sitting on a tree. When the marriage is over all present scramble for the wooden ' 

parrots ; but the pole on which they were hung is carefully kept for a year. During the mar- 

ri^«, a special dance known as the naltta naek, is performed by meniiwrs of the tribe, i^ome of , 

whom dress in women's clothes. Chamars can give no explanation of this practice^ which may 

possibly be a symbolical ceremony done t\ith the hope that the first child may be a boy, as the 

Argive brides used to wear false beards when they slept with their husbands.* It ie specially J 

to be noticed that Brahmans are not employed in the marriage ceremony. The whole business ] 

is done by the uncle and brother-in-law {pkupha. bakiioi) of the bridegroom. Before they I 

leave the pavilion a goat or ram is sacri'lced to Paramesari Devi, and the flesh is cooked at the 1 

marriage feast. The marriage ends with a general carouse at the nearest Iiqnor shop. 

18. The dola marriage is done in quite a different way. The following is the ritual at I 

Ballia. The friends and relations are invited to attend at the bridegroom's house, and they 
are supplied with a meal known as ielewa, which ordinarily consists of rioe and pulse or 
^fohed grain {tallu) or wheat cakee. The men then proceed to the bride's honae and halt 

• Viuar, Totmbm, 79 1 VolkloN, tl, 181. I 



172 



Death 
cere- 
monies. 



aboat a mile off to take lefreshment. The boj's father sabscribes twelve pioe and the otkers 
two pice each with which liquor is purchased. The sum given bj the boTs father is known 
as batsari or nisdri, and that contributed by his friends behri. After drinking they go to 
the bride's house, which they reach usually about sunset. There the guardian of the boy 
pays twenty-four pice> known as neg, to the father of the bride, who supplements it with 
sufficient to provide another drink for the party. Then they are all fed/ and next morning 
they go away with the bride. The boy's guardian presents two sheets (sari), one for the bride 
and one for her mother^ and gives a couple of rupees to her fether^ who in return gives a loin 
cloth [dhoti) and a sort of handkerchief worn over the shoulder [kandhawar) to the boy, as well 
as a sheet for his mother. The barber, washerman, and village watchman, receive a prepent 
of two annas each on this occasion. Sometimes the owner of the village charges a rupee as 
marwachh or marwana [mdnro, the nuptial shed), which is paid by the father of the bride- 
groom, and may perhaps be a survival of a commutation of the fus prima nocla^ but is 
more probably one of the ordinary village dues levied from tenants by the landlord. This, 
however, is not invariably taken, and in return he usually supplies some wood, etc., for the 
wedding. The bride is supplied by her guardian with a sheet [aari)^ brass bracelets {mat hi) y 
and anklets {pairi), made of bell-metal. Her brother or some other person as her representa- 
tive accompanies her to the house of the bridegroom. It is a pecuhar custom that on this 
occasion he always walks behind the bride. In the dola form of marriage the bridegroom 
or his father veiy seldom goes to the house of the bride. The duty of escorting the bride 
home is left to some relation or clansman. 

14. After the bride has arrived, that very day or very soon after the date of the wedding 
{lagan) is fixed. The family barber takes ten pieces of turmeric, of which he gpives five to the 
bride and five to the bridegroom. With this he brings one and-a-quarter 9er9 of paddy, which 
he divides equally between them. The turmeric is ground into a paste, which is rubbed on the 
foreheads of the pair, and the paddy is parched and made into lawa for use in the ceremony of 
lawa parachhana. This part of the ritual is called haldi or haldidhdn. The next day or a 
day after comes the ceremony of matkor or '^ the digging of the earth." This commences by 
the bridegroom's mother worshipping a drum {dhol). If his mother be dead, this is done by 
his aunt or some other elderly female relation. 

Turmeric and rice are ground into a paste {aipan). The woman smears her hand in this 
and applies it to the drum. This is known as thappa lagdna. A leaf of betel, a betel nut, 
and two pice are also placed on the drum, which are the perquisite of the owner. Five marks 
{tika) are then made on the drum with vermilion, and the women form a procession and go 
into a field, led by the drummer playing away vigorously. The senior woman then worships; 
Dharti Mata or Mother Earth and digs five spadesful of earth, which are brought home and: 
placed in the courtyard. In the middle of the yard are placed an earthen pot full of water 
with its top covered with a mango leaf and an earthen lid. Near it is a ploughbeam ijkari^) 
and a green bamboo fixed in the earth. The earthen pot is known as kalia. In the evening 
there is a feast known as matiora. It may be noticed here that there are in all five marriage 
feasts — the haldidhdn and matkora already described and the bj/ahy marjddy and iankan or Hddi. 
From the commencement of the haldi ceremony up to the end of the marriage ceremonies the 
women sing songs both morning and evening. 

15. The actual marriage always takes place at night. No Brfthman is called in, but the 
village Pandit is consulted as to the auspicious time,' and he receives two pice for his trouble. 
For tiie marriage a square (chauk) is marked out in the courtyard with barley-flour, and the 
bride and bridegroom are seated within it, the bridegroom on a stool {pirha) or on a mat made 
of leaves {patal). The service is done by some one in the caste who knows the ritual. He 
begins by the gotra uehchdra or recital of the names of the couple, their fathers, grandfathers 
and great-grandfathers. Then the marriage jar {kaha) is worshipped, and an ofEering of 
butter, rice, and barley is made to the fire which is lighted close beside the jar, and a similar 
ofEering is made to a nre which is lighted in the oratory {deokuri) sacred to the household god. 
The bride's father then gives her away to the bridegroom (kanydddn). He accepts the gift 
and marks her forehead with a Une of vermilion, which is the binding part of the ceremony. 
The ceremonies in the dola and eharhaua marriage are practically identical. The only differ- 
ence is that in the former the ceremony is performed at the house of the bridegroom ; in the 
latter at that of the bride. 

16. Those who have been initiated into the Siva Narayani or Sri Narayani, Kabirpanthi 
or Bamanandi sects are buried, unless before death they have expressed a wish to be cremated. 
Their corpses are removed to the burial-ground on a gaily decorated bier without any marks 
of mourning and accompanied with shouts oiRdmt Rdm! Sat Aa»/— ''The Lord is the 
Lord of Truth.'' ( Ordinary Chamars are burnt in the usual way. Those who are poor only 
scorch the face of the corpse {mukAdg). The ashes, when the body is properly cremated, are 
thrown into some neighbouring stream. The chief mourner, who has fired the pyre, on tlie day 
after the cremation places outside the house an earthen pot fuU of milk and rice gruel {mdnr) 
with a pitcher of water for the use of the disembodied spirit. On the third day after deaih 
comes the tirdiri ceremony which consists of the offering of oblations and cakes of barley-iSour 
{fiinda) to the departed soul. On the tenth day {daaiDdn)y this ceremony is repeated, and the caste* 
nien are fed. On that day the person who fired the pyre [dagiha) is purified by being shaved, 0^ 
the eleventh the utensils and private pi opeiiy of the dead man are made over to his sisterfshudyanjl 
(i«jlii0»)^ who acts as the oflSciant pnest^perhaps a survival of the matriarchate. In some plaoMjl 
however, and particularly where CSiamarsare beooming rioh and influential, the Mahifarihmaa 



offers the eaored balls {pinia). When the service is done by a member of tha tribe he esVa— H 

Ar Gantfa,par Ganga; JJikari ka bcta,Hambakhtk ka ndti,pindadel j Ganga Mai 6ujbvji del— H 

" Qanges on this ride, Gango? on that aide j the son of BihSri (or whatever his name may be) the H 

grandson o£ Rnmbakh^ offers tlie cakes, but Mother Gaines ^ires oaly hubbies io return," H 

Some plant a few stalks of grass near a tank as an abode for the spirit which wanders abont H 

until the funeral ceremonies are complete. On this water is poured daily for ten daye. Soma H 

again givt; a tribal feast on the twelfth, some on the sixteenth day after death. On the auai- B 

vorsary o£a death twelve balls are offered, and, if the family can afford it, the clansmen are H 

fed. Some, again, after the iisnal balls and oblations during the fortnight {pitra paksha) sacred H 

to the dead, join in removing the eoipso and each of the five toncheB his mouth with a burning I 

brand, liy this procedure none of the live incui-s any personal defilement. I 

17. Chamars in the main conform to the popular type of village Hinduism. To the east Beligion- I 
of the Province all, eseept the richer and more advanced members of the caste, dispense with ■ 
the services of Brahmaus, escept in so far as they usually consult them about the marriage "^ 
auspices. To the west their marriage ceremonies are performed under the guidance of the low ^ 
Giirra or Cbamarwa Brahmaas. To the east, as they become rich and influential, they employ W 
Sarwsriya or Kananjiya Brahmans of a degraded type. To the west the mourners accompany- fl 
ing the corpse address the Creator in the words — I'uhi hai ; tain ne paida kiya, a%r tain ne H 
mar liya. "Thoa art He; Thou hast created and then destroyed." In Bohilkhand their clan H 
deities are Bhawani, Jagiswilr or " tho lord of the world," Kala Deo, Qaja Dewat, Zahir Pir, H 
and Nagarsen, In Agra they call themsulves of the Gorakhi sect, and worship Devij Chamara, H 
and Kuauwala, "he of the welL" In Ballia they usually worship a deity whom they call H 
Faro/nesiear or " the Supreme Being." Ihe godling is supposed to dwell in a mound o£ earth H 
erected in a room of the house. On the day of the Daeahru festival seven wheat^n cakes and H 
BOmc kalaa are offered^ and some cloves and cardamoms are ground up and mixed in water, H 
which is poured on the ground. This is known as i^/iAu^. Sometimes the offering consists of a H 
yonng pig and some spirits. When a person is absent from home, he does not erect any monnd H 
or oratory {deoktir) until he returns. In Mirzapur they have a special deity kuown aa Tera H 
Deva or " the crooked one ;" they also worship the Vindhyabasini Devi, of Bindhachal ; Banru H 
Bir, a demon of whom they know nothing hut the name ; Sairi Devi, Birtija, and the sainted H 
dead (pari^a /oy). All these deities are worshipped in times of trouble with the sacrifice of o ■ 
pig, the meat of which is eaten by the worshippers and with a libation of spirits. On the ,| 
Pachainyaa festival mUk and parohed grain are offered at the hole occupied by the domestic ■ 
enake. Those who have no children fast and worship the sun godling, Sitraj Narayan, in ths H 
hope of ofispring. Fire and the moon are also occasionally worshipped. To the east their chief H 
festivals are the snake feast at the Fnchainyan ; the Kajari, which is a sort of saturnalia held I 
in the rainy season, when women driok and the rules of modesty are held in abeyance; the Tij, ■ 
on which women fast for the welfare of their husbands and sons, and next day eat cakes I 
{[ntri) j the Phagva or Holi. A second wife wears an image representing the deceased, I 
known as tirajna, round the neck, and when she puts on fresh clothes or jewelry she touches I 
them first with the image as a sign that they have been offered to the spirit of her predecessor. I 
If this be not doue, it is believed that the offended spirit of the first wife will bring disease or I 
death. f 

18. But the most remarkable form of worship is that of tho deistic revivalist sect of the The Biu* 
Srinarayani or Siunarayani. The founder of this sect was Raedasor Eavidas, who was adiseiple narayan 

of Rimanand. Curiously enough in the Dakkhin quite a different legend has been invented and °' Brinai I* 
the so-called Rohidas is said to bave been born at Chambhargonda now Ahmadnagar, and is ?***' socit 

debcribcd sn a contemporary of Kabir in the twelfth or thirteenth century. The Northern India ■ 

legend, as recorded in tho commentary of Priya Das on the Bhaktmala, tells how a Brahman I 

disciple of Ramanand used daily to receive the necessary alms from the houses of five H 

Brahmans. This was cooked by his preceptor, and offered to the Creator before being eaten, I 

One day as it was raining and the houses of the Brahmans were at a distance, the Brahmachari I 

accepted the supplies from a Banya. When Ramanand cooked it, the Divine Light refused I 

to accept it, as it was unclean. The preceptor made enquiries and discovered that the Baoya I 

bad money dealings with Chamars and that the food was hence defiled. Ramanand, in his ■ 

displeasure caused Ha disciple to be reborn in the womb of a Cbamarin ; and so it happened. H 

When the infant was born, remembering its past life, it refused to suck from the breast of ite fl 

mother because she was not initiated. Then a voice from Heaven spoke to Hamauand and ■ 

warned him that the punishment he had iufiicted on his disciple was disproportionate to his H 

offence. He was directed to go to the hut of the Chamar and initiate the whole family. I 

He was compelled to obey this order. The child was [named by his parents Raedas. When H 

he leached the age of 18 he began to worship a clay image of Rama and J anaki. This was I 

displeasing to his father, who turned him out of doors. Raedas then set up business as a I 

ehoemaker and continued his mode of worship. lie used lo present all wandering ascetics with fl 

new shoes. One day a saint appeared before him and gave him the philosopher's stone. H 

Raedas took no notice of it ; but the Saint toucbtd bis shoemaker's knife with it and turned H 

it into gold. This had no effe^jL on lUedas, and the saint finally left the stone in (he H 

thatch of his hut. Returning sotee time after he found Haedas in poor circumstances, and H 

learned to his surprise that he had not ueed the stone. The saint then promised that before H 

morning 6 gold coins would appear in front ot the divine image which Raedas worshipped. fl 

These he also refused to accept. But he was warned in a dream not to continue to despise ■ 

wealth ; so he converted his shed into a magnificent temple and established regular worship. I 

This enraged the Brahinaue, who appealed to ihc Raja in a Sanskrit veisa which means. I 



99 



1^4 

^ TVliere unholy things are worshipped and holy things are defiledj, three tilings lollo 
Famine^ Death, and Fear/^ 

10. Raed&8 was summoned before the Raja and ordered to exhibit his miracaloos powers. 
' He replied that he could do only one miracle — that the Salagrama or ammonite representing 
Vishnu would at his word leave its place and come down on the palm of his hand. The Baja 
ordered the Br&hmans to perform a similar miracle. They failed and Raedas succeeded. Tius 
miracle so affected, the Rani Jhali, whom one version of the legend makes out to have been a 
Prinoess of CUiithor, that she became initiated. On this the' Brahmans refused to eat in the 

K>lace, on the grouod that it had been defiled, and some raw grain was given them which tbey 
gan to cook in the garden. But as they were eating they suddenly saw R&edas sitting 
and eating between two Brahmans. So they fell at his feet, and then he cut his skin and 
: showed them under it his Brfihmanical cord ; so he was proved to have been a Brahmau in his 

former life. 
Saored 20. Tbe Ghrantha or Scriptures of the sect are believed to have existed for eleven bundled 

bocte. and f(^y-fii^ yMM^ but to have been unintelligible until Sitala, an inspired Sannayasi, translated 
them. The^ present recension is the work of the Rajput Sivanarayana, of 6h&zipur, who 
wrote it about 1735 A,D. The most, important of these works are the Qurunyasa and the 
Santa Virasa. The former is compiled from the Puranas, and gives an account of the ten 
Avataras of Vishnu or N&rayana in fourteen chapters, of which the first six treat of the author, 
of faith^ of the punishment of sinners, of virtue, of a future state and of discipline. The latter 
is a tr^tise on moral sentiments. The. opening lines are,— ''The love of, God and his 
knowjiedge are the only true understfkuding. !^ 

21« Skm&rayanis have a meeting house known as Bhamghary or '^ House of Paradise ; 
Somaffkar, or '' House of tneetiog,'' and Girja Ohar, or church, a word derived through the 
Portuguese igre;a froni the &reelc ehUesia. It usually contains pictures of the Saints 
Gorakhn&th, Raed&s, Kabirdfts, Surdas, and others. The scriptures are kept rolled up in cloths 
on a table at the east. They are carefully watched and never giveA to any one but members 
of their own congregation. They meet here on Friday evenings, and any educated man among 
them reads and expounds passages .from the Guranyasa. The onlv occasion when the 
Santavirasa is read is at death ; it is then recited from the moment of dissolution until the 
corpse is buried. They are not allowed to eat meat or drink spirits before going to the vreekly 
service, but this is the only restriction. On the Basant Panchami, or fifty light half of 
Magh, a Halwai is called in, who cooks some halwa sweetmeat (which is known as manlhog, 
or ''food of the mind'') in a large boiler (hdrh^o). This is first offered to Siunarayana bdfore 
the Scriptures of the sect^ and until, this is done no Cham&r is.allowed to touch it. The 
explanation of this is that Siunarayana was a Cbhatri, and it would be defilement to him if any 
Chamar touched it before dedication. An offering of the same kind is made to Guru 
Nanak by the Sikhs. 
Admit out* 22, The title Bhagat which they take does not imply that they . abstain from flesh and 
sidem* spirits, but they are monothebts (Sanskrit SAfl'^^a ''devoted ^^)» They say that their chief 
conventicle is at a place called Barsari, in the Ghazipur District, about 'whidi they rq)eat 
the yeree,'^^* As fids Chandratoar men GAdzipur Sarkdr Bind^ nirauni karc^ tab Bag A Roe he 
pd%!^ " In the neighbourhood of Chandrawar, in the Ghazipur District, all meet together an4 
discuss the doctrine of Unity. This place is near the Rae's garden.'' 

28. Persons of any caste may join the Skinarayani sect. When a candidate wishes to 
* ' affiliate himself, they first warn him of the difficulties before him and test hi'yn for a few days, 

when^ if approved, he is directed to bring a present according to his means to the headmani 
known as Guru or Mahant. The candidate comes before the Guru^ who sits with the 
scriptures opposite him, and first makes a sacrifice by burning camphor and dasor^, or ten kinds 
of perfumes. These are thrown on fire, and the sweet savours whicfi arises is their form of 
worship. Then some camphor is burnt before the scriptures, and all present rub the smoke 
over their faces. The candidate then washes the big toe of the Ghiru and drinks the water 
{cAaranamrita). Next the Guru recites privately into his ear the formula (mantra) of initiation 
which is carefully concealed from outsiders. After this the initiate distributes sweets to the 
congregation. He is then considered Sant or initiate, and receives a small book which he is 
permitted to study, and which serves as a pass of admission to future meeting^. If he loses it 
he has to appear at the next Basant Panchami meeting, and pay two and-a-half rupees for a 
new copy, as well as a fine of five rupees for his negligence. At these meetings there is musio 
and singing, men and women sit apart, and after the Mahant has finished^ his reading, he 
•receives the contributions of the faithful. They are not allowed to drink} in the Dhan^har, 
but they may smoke gdnja^ bhang , or tobacco there. They never practise exorcisms {ofAdi)^ 
nor do they g^t into a state of religious frenzy and deliver oi*acles. As already stated the desbd 
are buried with signs of rejoicing. Some camphor is burnt in the grave before the body is laid 
there, and then a& present join in filling up the grave. All initiates, male and female, are 
buried in this way. Children and persons not initiated are interred without any ceremony. If 
the wife of an initiate die, her relatives can take away iier body and cremate it. They marry 
like ordinary Chamars, and get a Brahman to fix a lucky tune. A similar movement among the 
Chamars of Bilaspnr in the Central Provinces took place diider Ghasid&s between 1820 and 
1880, and in Bikaner' under Lalgir about fifty years ago. Their sole worship is said to consist 
in calling on the invisible lord {AlahA, Jlahh). 
Demon- 24. The ordinary Ch^unar believes that disease, death, and all troubles are due to demonia* 

ol08y«. oai influence. When a person falls ill a sorcerer {Ojah) is called in and he points out 
..diBpartioalar evil, spirit which is resjponsible for the miscloefi and the appropriate sacrifloe by 



1« ^^^ 

means oF viideh be caa be appeased. In the same way barrenness in women is lield to be Sua 

to her posBeasion by como demon. A widow i? very carefnl to worship the spirit o£ her 
decea'«d busbaud. In ibis case as with a decensod wife, noimaweis naod, but a piece of gronnd 
is plastered, nnd on it is placed a new loin-cloth {dhoO) and a waist chain {kardkant^. 
Sometimes a pig is eacrifipod. The Boal of a dead husband w called manuikya deva or " the 
man-god." Persons who die in any euddeii or unusual way become malevolent spirits IJthui), 
and mast bo cnrefnlly propitiated. Their offering is a young pig- and aa oblation of spirita. 
Chickens are offered to Ghazi MiyAn, goats to Devi, and pigs to the family godlings and evil 
spirits. These are offered at the house *hrinc, while offerings to godlitigs and saints are mada 
at their temples or tombs. The regn'ar feast in bononr of tbs dead is the Mabalaya AmAwas 
Fitrbimrjaa or FitTusaunan. Among trees thoy respect the pipal, tulati, and nim. The 
pipal is the abode of Vasndeva, the tulasi of Lakshmi, the nim of Sitala. Mother Uanges 
(Gauga mat) is a special object of reverence. The favourite method of propitiating evil 
spirita of those who have died by accident is to pour spirits near the place occupied by the Bkitt, 
and to light some jo»/a in a pipe-bowl. For ghosts of high eatte pcmone, the proper offering 
ia a fire eacrifioe [horn). The ordinary malignant evil spirit is eallei! Bhut or Baitya \ that of 
a Mnhammadan Shahid Mard ; the <//»» ia higher and more powerful than these. To the 
Skahid, Mard, and Jinn the sacrifice is not a pig but a fowl and flowers. 

25. The Chamar from his occupation and origin ranks even below the non-Aryan tribes Social 
who have been quite recently adopted into Hinduism. He ia considered impure because he fi^'slf*^"' 
beef, pork, and fowls, all abomination totho orthodox Hindu. He will eat cattle which die ° 
a natural death, and nnmorou* eases have occurred where Chamars have poisoned cattle for 
the sake of the hides and flesh. He keeps herds of pigs, and the Chamrauti or Chamar 
quarter in a Hindu village is generally a synonym for a place abounding in all kinds of 
abominable filth, where a clean living Hindu seldom, onless for urgent necessity, ca'ies to 
intrude. One proverb describes a man setting up to be Gopal, a respectable Krishna worahip- 
per, while his pots and pans are as filthy as those of a Chamar {_Nem tern Go-pal ai»anj ianri 
eharui Ciamdr ttitan), a.Tid another says, — "The worthy are dying and the unworthy living 
because Chamars are drinking Ganges v/&t(tT,"— Lajihi mare, dkitiaujiye j Ganffajal Ciatnariin 
pi^e). This repugnance to him is increased by his eating the leavings of almost any caste 
except Dhobis and Doms, and by the pollution which attaches to his wife (Chamorin, 
Chamain), who acts as midwife and cuts the umbilical cord. But in epite of his degraded social 
position, the Chamar is proud and puuctilioua and very conservative as regards the rights and 
privileges which he receives in the village conununi^. Their women wear, at least in the 
east of the Province, no nose rings ; they have metai bangles (wn/^aj'a) on their wrists; arm 
ornaments {baju) and heavy bell-metal anklets {pairi). Chamfirs swear by Rama, the Gum, the 
Ganges, Mabadeva Baba, the shoemaker's last {pharnhi), and tbeir sons' heads. They will not 
touch a Dom or Dhobi, nor the wife of a younger brother or nephew, nor will they call their 
wives by their namea. Women eat after the men. They salute relatives and clansmen in the 
forms Ram | Ram \ and paelagi. 

28. The Chamar pmctises a variety of occupations. His primary business is cnriug skins Ooonpa- 
and shoemaking, and the latter busincsa haa developed what ia really a separate castu, that of tions. 
the Moohi (Sans, mocAi'ia) ; in a village he provides all leathern articles used in husbandry, 
such as whips, thongs, well buckets, and the like. As a rule, he has a circle of consti- 
tuents lja/md)t) whose dead cattle be receives, and to whom he gives leather and a certain 
number of shoes in return. His wife has similarly a certain munber of families to whom she 
acts as midwifo and performs various menial services at marriages and festivals. The Chamar 
himself isthogeneral village drudge (ifly(if,;)^flrae() runs messages, and docs odd jobs, such 
as tliatchiog when he is called Ghararai, and the like. Sometimes he receives wages in cash 
or kind, but perhaps more generally an allowance of grain per plough belonging to the family 
he serves, or a patch of rent-free land. Another pai-t of his duties is to beat drums and blow 
trumjietB during a marriage or when cholera oy other epidemic disease is being exercised from 
the village. Large numbers of Chamars take to field labour, act as ploughmen, carters, 
grooms, or emigrate to towns, where they do various kinds of un&killed work. In Partab- 
garh they are said to have usurped the business of carrying palanquins, the hereditary 
occupation of Kah.^rs. The extension of the leather trade at Cawnpore bos made it a great 
Chamar centre, Many of them have become wealthy and aim at a st^dard of social respecta- 
bility muoh higher than their rural brethren, and some have begun even to seclude their 
women, which every niitive does as soon as be commences to rise in the world- 

27. The system of tanning pursued by the ordinary villi«;e Chamar is of the. most 
primitive kind. The skins are placed in a pit and covered with water, containing lime {ehuna) 
and impure carbonate of soda (sajji); after teu days tbey are taken out and the batr 
removed with an iron scraper (A/iarjjt)- They are again removed, sewn np in the form of a 
bag, which is again filled with the bark solution, and hang on a tree or stand. This prooess 
latta five days, when the tanning is con^derod complete. 



176 



5.— Of the AryO'DraTidian Tract. 



BABHAN. 



TraditioxiB 
of origin : 
what are 
B bhaoB P 



Not pro- 
moted 
non- 
Aryans, 



Norde- 
paded 

SrShmans. 



[H. H. BI8LE7, aiR] 

Sdikan, BAuinidr, Zaminddr BrdAman, Girhasth BrdAman, PachMmd Brdiman, Maga* 
hcqd Brahman, Jjagyah Brahman, Zaminddr, Chaudhriji, a large and influential caste which 
counts among its members some of the chief landholders of Bihar. Regarding the origin of the 
B&bhans, a variety of traditions are current. One story represents them as the descendants of the 
Brahman rulers whom Parasu Ram set up in the place of the Kshatriyas slain by him, and 
who in course of time abandoned their Brahmanical duties and took to the profession of land- 
holding. Another tells how a certain king of Ayodhya, being childlessi sought to remove 
his reproach by the sacrifice of a Brahman^ and bought for this purpose the second son of 
the Rishi Jamadagni, the&ther of Parasu Bam. By the intervention of Viswamitia, the 
maternal uncle of the victim^ the Raja was enabled to get a child without bloodshed ; but 
the young Brahman was held to have been degraded by the sale, and was called upon to settie 
down on the land and become the forefather of the Babhan caste."^ A third legend^ perhaps the 
best known of all^ traces the Babhans back to a sacrifice offered by Jarasandha, King of 
Magadha^ at which a very large number of Brahmans^ some say a lakh and a quarter, were 
required to be present. Jarasandha's Dewan^ a Kayasth of the Amasht or Slanm sub-caste, 
did his best to meet the demand^ but was driven to eke out the local supply by distributing 
sacred threads among members of the lower castes and palming them off on the king as 
genuine Brahmans* Jar&sandha's suspicions being roused by the odd appearance of some, of 
the guests, the Dewan was compelled to guarantee the respectability by eating food which 
they had cooked ; while the Brahmans thus manu&ctured^ failing to gain admission into their 
supposed caste, had to set up a caste of their own^ the name of which (Babhan or Brahman) 
is popularly supposed to mean a sham Brahman ; just as in some districts an inferior Bajpnt is 
oalled a Kaut, the corruption of the name betokening ^^ the corruption of the caste." 

The last theory is at once refuted by the appearance and demeanour of the caste. '^ Thej 
are/' says Mr. Beames, " a fine manly race^ with the dehpate' Aryan type of feature in foU 
perfection." This typo, I may add^ is singularly uniform and persistent among the Bftbhans^ 
which would not be the case if they were descended from a crowd of low.caste men promoted 
by the exigencies of a particular occasion ; for brevet rank thus acquired would in no case carry 
with it the right of intermarriage with pure Brahmans or Rajputs, and the artificially-formed 
group^ being compelled to marry within its own limits, would necessarily perpetuate the low- 
caste type of features and complexion. As a matter of &ct, this is what happens' with the 
sham Rajputs whom we find in most of the outlying districts of Bengal They marry among 
themselves, never among the true Rajputs, and their features reproduce those of the particular 
aboriginal tribe from wmch they may happen to have sprung. 

If, then, the hypothesis of a low-caste origin breaks down, there remains the question—Axe 
the Babhans Brahmans who have somehow been degraded and dropped out of ranks of their 
original caste ? There seems to be no primd facie improbability in Ihis theory. Within the 
Bx^man caste itselE we find plenty of instances of inferior sub-castes being formed owing .to 
the adoption of practices deemed inconsistent with the dignity of a Brahman. The Agradani^ 
Ach&rji and Varna Brahmans are cases in point. There is no reason therefore in the nature of 
the caste system why ithe Babhans should not be Brahmans who, having lost status for some 
reasons now forgotten, broke off entirely from the parent caste instead of accepting the position 
of an inferior sub-caste. The suggestion that they were degraded bj taking to agriculture mnst 
of course be put aside^ for, as Mr. Beames has pointed out, '^ there are many thourands :o£ 
Brahmans in the same part of the country who are engaged in agricultural pursuits, but 
without losiug caste, such as Tiwaris, Upadhyas, Ojhas or Jh&s, and others.'' 

All examination of the sections or exogamous groups into which the B&bhans are divided 
appears, however, to tell strongly against the hypothesis that they are degraded Brahmans. 
1 hese groups are usually the oldest and most durable element in the internal organization of a 
caste or tribe, and may therefore be expected to offer the clearest indications as to its 
origin. Now we find among the Babhans section-names of two distinct lypes ; th6 one 
territorial, referring either to some very early settlement of the section or to the birth-place 
of its ioxvndQv, BJidtiieothei eponymoui the eponym being in most cases a Yedic rishi or 
inspired saint. The names of the former class correspond to or closely resemble thoee 
current among B&jputs ; the names of the latter are those of the standard Brahmanical 
potroi. Lists of both are given below. 

Where the matrimonial prohibitions based on these two classes of sections conflict) as 
must obviously often happen where every member of the caste necessarily belongs to hoUb. 
setsi the authority of the territorial class overrides that of the eponymous or Brfthmanical 
class. Suppose, for instance, that a man of the Earanch territorial section and of the Sandilya 



•The l^eend referred to is that of Banah Sephaib 
tela in the JScMMNfaiia. 



dilimM 



rtxymoai Action wlfhea to niarry » woman of the Salcarwar territorial ieetion, tba 6»ct that 1 

also belongs to tha Sandilya eponymoue Bection will not operate as a bar t-i tlio marri:u»e. I 

Whatever (nay tie the theory of the puniliits of the caate, tlie Hrahmanioal gr>(ra is disraifarded 
in practice, am! dmibtfiil cases are decided in accordance with the mul av territorial «!ction to 
which the parties bebng. This circumstanee seems to indicate that the ierii/^riul sections are 
the older of the two, and are probably the original wctiong of the caste ; while the eponymous 
Bectiona have been borrowed from the Hrfihmana in comparatively recent times. It would follow 
that the Babh&ns are an offshoot, not from the Bruhmatis, but from the Rajputs. If Babliaris 
had originally been Brahraan», they would at the time of their separation from the parent oatte 
have been abeaJy fitted up with aco'npleteset of Urahmaiiical yofrot, and it is dilBcult to imagine 
any reason which could have induced them to borrow a strange and much more elaborate 
set of sections from a tribe of inferior status, and to relegate their own sections to an entirely 
subordinate position. Territorial sections, moreover, do not lend themselves to the process 
of borrowing. They areas a rule exceedingly numerous ; the meanings of their names are obscnrs 
and diHionlt to trace ; and, with the exception of a few names borne by famous Rajput 
clans, tbfy are wanting jn the note of social distinction. The Brahmanical gotrat, on the 
other hand, form a clearly-defined and not inconveniently nnmerous group to which welI-l;nown 
and honourable traditions attach; they can be borrowed cw taatie without any particular 
trouble and the influence of Brahman ^uro^tV* is suiBcient to diffuse them tbrongbimt any 
caste which affects a high standard of ceremonial parity and wishes to rise in the social scale. 
Xnmerons examples of the process of borrowing the Brahmanical eponymous gotrat can be 
found among most of the lower castes at the present day : I know of no instance of a caste 
adopting sections of another type. To take a familiar illustration ; it is as unlikely that a rising 
Caste would l>orrow territorial sections when the Brabmanical gotrai were to bo had for the 
asking, as it is that an English manufacturer who hns got on in the world and is about to 
change his name would select Billing, Wace, or one of the earlier English patronymics instead 
of some more bigb-sonnding name which may have come in with the Conquest. Kaayapa, i 

Sandilya, and the other Brabmanical section names do for the rising castes of Bengal what 
Vavasour, Braoy, and Montresor are supposed to do for the wealthy purveau in Bnglaud. 

It should be added here that alongside of the clearly territorial section names we find a 
few namea of another type, such ai Bagbauchhid, Belanria, Kastuar, which are said to have 
reference to the tiger, the Id tree {^gle marmelot), and the kas grass, and Har&ria, Kodaria, 
Bhusbarat, Domkatar {foundling, spade-wielder, husk-pieker, Dom's knife), which seem to be 
nicknames of the same kind aa we meet among some of the Himalayan tribes. In the absence 
of evidenoe that the members of the first three foetions regard with veneration tlio animal and 
plants whoiw name they bear, we are hardly justified in pronouncing the names to be survivals 
from the totemistic stage. Some suggestion of inferiority does, however, seem to attach to the 
last tour sections, and this point is more fully discussed below. For the purpose of oontrollbig 
connubial arrangements, both of these classes seem to posscsa the same value as the territoriu 
seoUon, eo that the argument stated above is not affected. 

The considerations set forth above appear to me to render it highly probable that FrobablT 
the Babhans are a branch of the Rajputs. It must, however, be admitted that abranoh 
evidence in favour of a Brabmanical origin is not wanting. Mr. Sherring lays stress ^'-f*'* 
on the fact that the Ehninhars of Benares "called themselves Brahmans; have the *■"'" '■ 
ifotrat, titles and family names of Brahmans, and praotise for the most part the usages 
of Br&hmans." In Behar, though the claim to be Brahmans is not invariably put 
forward, Brabmanical titles, such as Misr, Panre, and Tewari, are used along with the Rajput 
titles of Singh, Rai, and Thakur. In Shahabad and in parts of the United Proviiioes 
members of other castes accord to a Babhan salutation prandn ordinarily reserved for I 

Br&hmans; while the Babhan responds with the benediction asirbad. Further sooth, 
however, this practice is unknown ; and in Patna a Babhan would give the first greeting to a 
Kayasth, thereby implicitly recognising the superior status of tliat caste in the social system. 

Like the Rajimts, the Babbans exclude the section of both father and mother, or, in other Uarriagfti 
worils, forbid a man to marry a woman who belongs to the same section as he himself or his Bzogamy. 
mother. The operation of this rnle is further extended by the manner in which it is applied. 
Account is tekcn, not merely of the section to which the proposed bride herself belongs [i.e., bet 
father's section), but also of her mother's section; so that the marriage will be barred if the 
bride's mother belonged to the same section as the bridegroom's mother, though of com-se neither 
bi'ide nor bridegroom can be members of that section. In respect of prohibited degrees, they 
follow the rules current among the Kayasths. 

Among the Bftbhans of Bihar, as among the Bajputs, no endogaraous divisions exist, Endoga- 
and they also intermarry on tormg of equality with the Sabhans of the United my. ,- ; 
I'rovinces, Some sections, however, are reckoned inferior to the rest, nctebly the Hararia, 
Kodaria and Bhusbarat mentioned above, regarding whom there is a saying in Bihar — 

" Ilararia. Kodaria, Bhwharat mare, to firhut ka jtap hare" 
In the north of Manbbum the Bampaiand Dorakatar sections are in such low repute that 
memlxTft rf the other sections will not give their daughters in marriage to K^mpai or Uomkalar 
men, ahboiigh tbry have no objection to taking wives from tjiose seotiona tiicm^lves. 
f 'onraqnently in that part of the country Rimpai and Domkatar B&bhans can only get wives 
from each other, though their women can obtain hnsbands from all sections except their own. 
If the restrictions were carried a step further, and Babhaus belonging to other sections interdicted 
from taking Rampai and Domkatar women to wife, those sections would be wholly cut off 
Irom the ;'n> (rcnniiJtt, and would in fact, if not in name, have hardened into a sub^oaste. 



■fe 



178 



Age at 

marriage. 



Karriage 
oereniony 



Disposal 
or the 
dead. 



Beligion. 



Boiial 
atatusu 



I liave no evidenoe to shovf that this is at all likely to take place«-the Manbham praotioe indeed 
appears to be quite exoeptional*^bat the point deserres notice as tending to throw liglit on 
the obscQie problem of the formation of snb-castes. 

All Bftbhans who can afford to do so marrj tbeir dangbters as infants^ the bride's age 

being often no more than four or five years. The same rale holds good for boys, only ihcy 

are married comparatively later in life, and a son unmarried at the age of pdberty does not 

bring the same sort of reproach on the family as a daughter is supposed to do. Instanoes, 

however, are not wanting where for special reasons the daughters of wealthy fatmiliee have 

been married after they were grown up^ as was the case with the late Maharani of Tikari ; 

and it seems to be clear that even the most orthodox members of the caste do not take the 

extreme sacerdotal view of the necessity of infant-marriage. Ordinarily a price is paid for a 

bridegroom, but the purchase of brides is by no means uncommon. A man may marry two 

sisters, and the number of wives he may have is subject to no limit except his ability to 

maintain them. Some say, however, that a second wife is only permissible if the first proves 

barren, is convicted of unchastity, or suffers from an incurable disease. Whatever may be 

the rule on the subject, it is rare to find a man with more than two wives. Widows are 

not allowed to marry again. Divorce is unknown : a faithless wife is simply turnei out of 

the caste and left to shift for herself by becoming a prostitute, turning Mahoxnedan, or 

joining some of the less reputable religious sects. 

'ne marriage ceremony of the Babhans does not appear to differ materially'from the 
' standard type of a Bihar marriage, which has been very fully described by Mr. Grierson at 
page S62 of Bihar Peasant Life. It should perhaps be noted that a B&bhan mariwa or 
marriage shed has six posts. Hot four, and that the bride is held throughout the ceremony by 
a woman of the Kahar caste. I may further observe that whereas according to Hindu law 
the completion of the seventh step by the bride renders the marriage final JEind irrevocable, 
a number of Babhans ia Patoa assiured me with much particularit7 of statement that in 
their opinion tindurddn, or the smearing of vermilion on the parting of the bride's bair, 
formed the binding portion of the ceremony — not the circumambulation of the sacrifioial fire 
{bkantoar or bedi ghumaeh)^ which in Bihar takes the place of the "VqAiq iapfapadu Ky 
informants emphasised their statement by adding that if the bridegroom were to die after 
bkanwar hui, before Bindurdan the bride would not be deemed a widow, and would be permitted 
to marry another man. In another place I have endeavoured to trace the origin of 
iin^urddBf ^nd have ventured to put forward the theory that it has probably been 
borrowed from the marriage service of the non-Aryan races. 

Babhans bum their dead and perform the sraddi ceremony on the eleventh day after 
death in the &shion described by Mr. Grierson {Bihar Peasant Xt/tf, page 891). fiairagi 
Babhans are buried* In cases of extreme poverty the corpse is thrown into a river after the 
nearest relative has touched the mouth with a burning torch. At the trdddi ceremony, as 
in all other acts of domestic worship for which the services of a puroiii are required, 
Kanaujia Brahmans officiate without thereby incurring any deg^radation in comparison with 
the Brahmans who serve the higher castes. In some parts of Eastern Bihar Maithil 
Brihmans are employed by the B&bhans. These rank below Eanauji&s, and are looked down 
upon by the Srotnya Brahmans, not because they serve in Babhans' housesi but because their 
own origin is believed to be of doubtful purity. 

The religion of the Babhans, like that of the ordinary higb^caste Hindu, conforms in 
its details to the ritual of whatever recognised sect he happens to belong to. Representatives 
of all sects are found amongst the caste in much the same proportion as in the population at 
large. Yaishnavism, however, is said to have been only recently introduced among them, 
and in north Bihar inost B&bhans are eitber Saivas or Saktas. No social consequences are 
involved by professing the tenets of any of the regular sects, and intermarria^ between 
their members g^oes on freely within the limits of the caste. Besides the stan^rd worship 
which a Babban performs in virtue of belon^ng to a particular sect, all householders offer 
he-goats and rams to Kali on the 24th or 25th of Kwar (September-October), sweetmeats, 
sandal-paste, flowers to Sitala on the 24th Chait (March-April), and sug^s^^ cakes to 
Hanuman on every Tuesday. On fhe Ist of Ckaii these^three deities are propitiated with pmM 
(wheat-flour and molasses cooked in oQ), bard [cakes of urid [Piaseolus mango) fried in oil], and 
kaehwanid (round balls of rice*flour, sugar, and butter)* These offerings are presented by fhe 
ro&CL of the family without the aid of a Brahman, and are afterwards divided among fhe 
members of the household. To the women is relegated the task of appeasing a lower oraer of 
gods— Bandi Mai, Sokha, and Ooraiya— with molasses and pithai a sort of boiled pudding made 
€a 9aUu Gt meaL 

Owing probably to the controversy about their origin, the social standing of the Babhans 
is not altogrther easy to determine precisely, and varies slightly in different parts of the area 
which they inhabit In south-eastern Bihar they rank immediately below Kayasths, but an 
Shahabad, S&ran, and the United Provinces they appear to stand on much the same 
level as Rajputs. The &ct that in Patna and Gya the Amashtha or Karan Kayasths will eat 
iaeheki food which has been cooked b^ a Babhan, while the other sub-castes of Kfiyasths will 
not, may perhaps be a survival from tmies when B&bhans occupied a higher position than they 
do at the present day. In Champaran, according to Mr. Beames, Babhans are not permitted to 
drink and smoke with nrdhmans, '' and only under some restriction with Rajpnts. Urns, a 
^ B&jpnt may eat rke with them only when it is without condiments ; he may not eat bsead, 
'' and ne may drink water onty from an earthen vessel, not from a brass Ma. Similarly, when 
*' be eats with tbem his food most be placed on a dish made of leaves, and not on the usual bnaa 



179 

*' tkali. The meaninp of the^e apjareotlj' trifling dittiBctioiis is that the Rajput, on an cmef- 
" ^eney, may eat IiaFtily prepared fooil w itb them, but nothing that implies a long piepantion 
" or deliberate intention." Babhans thomselvtis claim to observe a higher standard of ceremonial 
purity than Kajpiits, in that they will not touch the handle [parikath or tagna) o£ the plough, 
and that they uee the full upanayan ritual when inverting their children with the Janeo or 
eacred thread. In the matter of food they profess to take cooked food only with BrahmanB, 
and sweetmeats, curds, parched rice, etc. (junMO, from (lajpute and the gronp of castes from 
whose bands a BrSbman can take water. Aa regariia the latter claaa, they are c:vref ul to explain 
that, although they will take sweetmeats, ct''., os gnesta in tbeir bouses, they nili not sit 
down and eat with them. The Bahhan's own diet ia the same as that of all orthodox Hindu, 
and, lil^e Iheirs, depends in some reapecta on consideration a of sect. Thus Saivaa and Saktss 
eat flesh, while Vaisbnavaa are restricted to vegetable food. Spiritnoue liciuora are strietly 
forbidden, and can only be indulged in secretly. 

The characteristic occupation of the Babhan caste, aa indeed is indicated by the title Oooopa- 
Bhuinbar, is that of settled ngricnlturisfa ; but they will imder no circnmstancea drive thetion. 
plough with their own hands. Apart from this special prohibition, they do not appear to be 
unreasonably fastidious as to how they ^.'ct thcit living and will take service as soldiers, consta- 
bles, darwans, nagdia or lathiftls, cut wood, work as coolies, and do anything that ia not speci- 
fically unclean. Many of them trade in grain, but it is considered derogatory to deal in miscel- 
laneous articlea or to go in for general shop-keeping. Some Babhans held great estates in 
Bihar and the United Proviocea, among whom may be mentioned the Maharajas of Benares, 
of Bettiah in Champaran, Tikari in Oya, Hatwa in Saran, and Tamakhi in Ooiakhpur, the 
Hajaof Sheohar, and the Rsjkumar Babu of Madhoban in Champaran. They are found as 
tenure-holders of all grades, and occupancy and non-occupancy rayalt, while a very few havu 
sunk to the position of landless day-labourers. According to their own account, although 
ranking aa asAril/' or high caste cultivators, they enjoy no special privileges in respect of rent, 
and are not particularly sought after as tenants, because, ia common with Bi&hmans, Bajputs 
and Kayasths, they cannot be called upon for forced labour {began) or for specific sorvicea in 
addition to the money-rent. The fact seema to be that, as they will not plough themselves, and 
therefore muat emi'loy labourers [kamisat) for this purpose, they cannot pay so high a rent as 
men who worlv with their own bands; while their blood and overbearing character, and their 
tendency to mass thumselves in " alrong and putrnacious brotherhooda," render them compara- 
tively undesirable tenants in the eyes of an exacting landlord. It is Baid, indeed, that the title 
Bhuinbar, a term which Babhans never apply to themeelves, has passed into a by-word for 
sharpness and cunning. 

INTERNAL STRUCTCBE OF THE BIBUAN. 

Synonyms ;.—^_;a^y4ii Brahman, Bhuinhar, Chauilhriji, Grihanh BidAman, Maykaga. Brah- 
maa, Packhima Brahman, Zaminddr, Zamtndar Brakmnn. 

Tides:— ArUpe, Bharsi-NUr, €haiibp, Clinndr^l. niksliit. Diibr, HawSr, HiNr, (lyhft. 
Pftucliobe, P&iide, P&thak, Bai, Siugb, Sotrl, Thaknr, Tiw&ri, li|)adhiy&. 



Abkjllion. 

Apxi'clial. 

Asiuidliant (purified by fire). 

AUwftr. 

Ajaitift' 

Ambarift, 

Anarai. 

Anwftr. 

Araich, 

A raft. 

Arewar. 

Arnwaitt 

ABvariS. 

A I rah. 

Aniffh baid (physician). 

BadoniS. 

Badraiiiift. 

Ba^aucliia. 

Bairri. 

Balai&r, 

Baiiilibft. 

BaiiriS, 

BarliaiubiS. 

Barbamparj^ (territorial). 

Barn alt. 

Basniait. 

BaHwait. 

BituriliS. 

BtfampDriil (territorial). 



SEOTIOSS. 




(a)—TwUorial. 




BrlkDllr. 


Dbanlchhwir, 


BelDndiS. 


niiarnn. 


Brniv&r. 


BliarwJr. 


Bhailsuliii. 


Ubanranl. 


Blmju Chakuar. 


Blichwalt. 


Bhalrait (BpearniaD). 


Dji^hne. 


Bliatan. 


Diiiir. 


Bheloi'ls, 


Buiukatftr. 


Bhoniapnli. 


Boiiwftr. 


Bliuuasware. 


Budlinalt. 


Blialili. 

Bijalnuria (temtoriiU]. 


Duinr&lt. 


Dundwar. 


Btlkharl. 


CambliariS (fi-om the River 


CbakBlir. 


Cmbor, 0. I.). 


Chakuar. 


GaiiKtiaJt. 


('haudrswat (born of tbo 


«arUi. 


moon). 


Gaur. 


Cliasiwar. 


Ghatait (middlmian). 


Cliaiirj&r. 


Goalt. 


Cliaiisa. 


HarariS, (fonndling). 


Cliriii. 


llarianibS. 


Cliiksoria. 


Harlakia (from myrabolam). 


niiliiiiar. 


Hastiranie. 


CliluSr. 


Indr.war. 


D.ib]iliirhlitrtr, DabbaucU- 


Jailliaria. 


»sr. 


Jlil. 


Daliluire, Dullihar^ 


Jajlm. 


BariLale. 


Jaiiiraiau. 


Bbak&it (Dacoit), 


Jauwiar. 



I8d 



Jethtliair. 

Kadarai. 

Kalemnia. 

Kamhanbhftr. 

Kartnuft. 

Karnautia (Ganarese). 

Karn&yati (Ganarese). 

Kestwftr. 

Kataunift. 

Katewar. 

Kati&in. 

Kathantii. 

Kathwait. 

Kattliawa* 

KaHsoii^liift. 

Kinwftr. 

Koraclie* 

Kor&nch, 

Knlhft. 

KnmedWftr. 

Kmijalw&r. 

Ladilft. 

Lamsorift. 

Larwarift. 

Ifahbaria. 

Hahnari. 



Bhnsbarftt, hnsk-gaitlierer, 
Chailbbaifti born of four 
. brothers. 



(a.) — rerr»<or*aZ— <X)ntmued, 

hairift. 

Aatlkatillft, 

Halitwftr. 

Ha/narla* 

Hanchia. 

Handra. 

Han^rauiii. 

Hbrnkghaiia. 

Nanjorft, 

Naradw&r* 

Niktawar, 

Ndnaltwar. 

Okinw&r, 

Oniwar. 

Pachbhs^uft (left-handed). 

PachMtya. 

Panchobe* 

Parhape. 

Parsaria. 

Pilchwar. 

Piliksawftr. 

Pilkhait. 

RaiBl. 

Ramayil. 

Rampai. 

RsHsadiyft, 

(b) — Functional or Personal. 

EkBarift, bom of one brother. KodftrlS, workdr with the 
Jalewftr, holder of fishing spade. 

nets. Panchbhaii, bom of five 

brothers. 



Saltas]ianglii&. 

Sahdaulia. 

Sakanrftt. 

Sakhwalt. 

Sakmait. 

Salharlyft, 

Sandalift. 

Sapdohft. 

8anre» 

Sanbarnia (golden). 

Semrai&iu 

Sihogift. 

Sihorift. 

Siliajift. 

Siri&r. 

Sirsait. 

Sonbhadria (living 

banks of the Sone). 

Sorawftr, 

Snargane, 

Sarg^ift. 

Tetihft, 

Tetihia. 

niaehhwar, 

Vmatwftr. 



on tho 



{c)^^BrihmanieaL 



Agnihotra. 

Atbarb. 

Basisht. 

Bliaradw&j. 

Qarg. 



Gantam. 

Hftrlt. 

K&gyapa. 

KaundiH. 

Kausik. 



Parftsar. 
Sabarna. 
SftndiL 
T»sa. 



m 



6. Of the Hon^lo-BraTidian Tract. 



bAgdi. 



[ H. B, RiSLBT, CI.IS.] 

BSffdi, Saglit, Mudi,&c\i\tivhtmg, fishing, and menial oaste o£ Central and Western Bengal, Traditl, 
who appear from their features and complexion to be of Dravidian deaoent, and dosely akin to the **' origtaTI 
tribes whom, for convenience of description, we may call aboriginal. A variety of more or less 
indelicate legends are cnrrL'nt regardin£j the nrigrin of the caste. One story tells how Parvati 
dtsguiaed herself as a fif^herwoman and made advances to Siva with the object of testing his 
fidelity to herself. When the god had yieliled to the temptation, Parvati revealed her 
identity, and Siva, out of pique at her triumph, ordained that the child to be horn from her 
should be a Bagdi and live by (isliing. Another account lajs the scene of this adventure in 
Koohh Behar, where Siva is represented as living with a nnmber of ooncubinesof the Koch tribe. 
P&rvati was moved by jealousy to come in the disguise of a fiaherwoman and deslroy the 
standing crops of the Eochnis, and Siva could only induce her to depart by begetting on her a 
eon and a daughter. These twins were afterwards married, and gave birth to Hamvur, king of 
Biiihanpur in Bankura, from whose four daughters — Santu, Netu, Manta, Kfhetu — the four 
sub-cattes Tentulia, Dulifi, Kusmetia, and jMatia are descended. According to a third tradition, 
the first Bagdi was accidentally begotten by Hama on a widow raaid-servant in attendance on 
Sita, and, after nndergoing some persecution at the hands of hia reputed father, was recom- 
pensed by the promise tliat he and his descendants should be palanquin- bearers, and in that 
capacity should be tmsted to carry females of the highest classes. From Orisea comes the still 
more grotesque tale how once upon a time, the gods being assemlled in council, a goddess 
suddenly gave birth to three sons, and feeling embarrassed by the situation, hid the first 
ttndcr a henp of tamarind {tentul) pods, the second in a iron pan, and the third under a 
hermit's staff [danda). From these vicissitudes of their infancy the children got the names 
of Tentuha Hagdi, Lobar Maujhi, and i'andachhattra Manjhi. It will, of course, be 
understfod that theee traditions are quoted here, not* for any light that they may throw upon 
the origin of the fiagdis, but us contributions to the modern science of folklore. Apart from 
any value they may possess as illustrations of tlia working of the myth-making faculty among 
primitive folk, I may point out that all of them must have grown up nf ter the Bagdis had ceased 
to be a compact tribe. Such traditions could only have been invented by people who had already 
in some measure conformed to Hinduism and felt the want (f a mythical pedigree of the orthodox 
type. The last in particular furnishes an excellent example of a myth devised for the purpose of 
giving a respectable explanation of the totemistic name 'I'entulia. A parallel caae will be 
found among the Eumhars of Orissa. 

In the district of Bankura, where the original structure of the casle seems to have been Ii^tft"^*! 



irgularly well preserved, we find the Bagdis divided into the following 



: (1)" 



Tentulia, bearing the titles Bagh, Santra, Kai, Khan, Puili; (2) Kas&ikuliti, with the 
titles Manjhi, Masalchi, Palankhai, Pherba; [^ Dulia, with the titles Sardar and 
DharS; (41 Ujha, or Ojha ; (5) Michhua, Meehhua, or Mecho; (G) Gaiimanjhi ; (7) 
Dnndamanjhi; (8) Kusmetia, Kusmatia, or Kusputra; (9) Mallametia, Matia, or MitiaL 
Within these agwn ate a number of exogamous sections, among which may be mentioned 
A'wiiai, the heron ; Ponkruki, t)AG jungle cock; SalrisM or SalmacA the sal fish ; Patruhi, 
the bean; and f'nc^irMd^, the tortoise. The totem is taboo to the members of the section; 
that is to say, a Kasbak Bagdi may not kill or eat a heron; a Patrishi, like the Pythagoreans 
according to Lucian, may not touch a bean. 

A B^di cannot marry outside the sub-caste, nor inside the section to which ha belongs. 
Thus a TontuliS must marry a Tentalia, buta man of the Salrishi section to whatever sub- 
oaite he may belong, cannot marry a woman of that section. The section names go by the 
ma^e side, and the rule prohibiting marriage within the section requires therefore to be 
helped out by a separate set of rules, which to some extent overlap the rule of exogamy. 
Marriage with any person descended in a direct line from the fame parents is forbidden as 
long as any relationship can be traced. To simplify the calculation of collateral riilationshlp, 
the formula " Paternal uncle, maternal uncle, paternal aunt, maternal aunt, — these four relation- 
ships are to be avoided in marriage," is in nse. Ordinarily the prohibition extends only to 
three generations in the descending line; but if bhaiyadi, or mutual recognition of relationship 
is kept up, intermarriage is barred for five or, as some say, seven generations. In coouting 
generations the person under consideration is included. 

In the more eastern districts the organization of the caste seems to be less elaborate, and 
has clearly been affected by closer contact with Hindoism inducing the adoption of 
Brahmanical customs. In tho 24:-Parganas only five sub-castes are found — Tentuha, KusmetiS, 
Tiayodis, Manjhi, Noda; while thS sections are reduced to three— Kasyapa, tl&ncho, and 
Dasya— the members of which profess to be descended from Vedic Kishis, and have 
■bandoned the totemistio observances which are common further west. Traces of totemlsm, 
however, still servive in the names of sub-castes. Tentulias admit ihat they are called 
.(Etcr the tamarind tree, and Kosmetias that they take their name from the hud giaia 



182 



Marriage. 



Harriage 



(Eragfotii eyHOiuroidei)^ but neither show any reverence for the plants in ^estion. The flystem 
of exogamy has also be^ik developed in^ t)ie direction of eloBe^ bonfc^inij^ with the neages of the 
higher castes. The mother's section is excluded in addition to the father's^ and marriage 
with Sapindas is prohibited. 

In Bankura, Manbhum, and the north of Orissa, where the example of the aboriginal 
races is prominent^ Bagdis practise both in&nt and adult marriage indifferently. In the case 
of girls who are not married in infancy, sexual license before marriage is yixtnally tolerated, 
itl^ng understood that if a g^rl becomes pregnant sh^ will find some one to marry her. 
Further east, in&nt-marriage is the rule and adult the exception, while the Bagdia of the 
2r4-Pargadaas^ Jessore, and Nadiya pretend entire ig^oranoe of the custom 6f adnl&^inattiage. 
Polygamy is permitted. In theory, a man may marrjr as many wives as he can- afford. ^ t|^ 
maintain : practically, however, the standard' of living of the caste limits him to two. H^ 
iiay also marry two sisters at the same time. 

Among a mass of ritual borrowed from the Brahmanical system/ the marriage ceremony 
ceremony, ^^iiaka or byak as opposed to sanffa) of the Bagdis of Western Bengal has preserved someinter- 
esting usages, which appear to belong to a different and perhaps more primitive order of sym- 
bolism. Early on the wedding morning, before the bridegroom starts in procession for the bride's 
bouse, he goes through a mock marriage to a maifM tree (Bassia Tatifolia). He embriM^s 
the tree and bedaubs it with vermilion ; his right wrist is bound to it with thready and after 
he is released from the tree this same thread is used to attach a bunch of mahm leaves to his 
wrist. The iara^ or procession of the bridegroom's party is usually timed so a^ to reach 
the bride's house about sunset. On arrival, the inner courtyard of the house is defended by the 
bride's friends, and a mimic conflict takes place which ends in the victory of the oardt. 
Symbolic capture having been thus effected, the bridegproom himself is seated with his face 
to the east on a wooden stool (pird) placed under a bower of sal leaves, haying pots 
of oil, grain, and turmeric at the four comers, and a small pool of water in the centre. %W hen the 
bride enters, she marches seven, times round the bower, keeping it always on her right hand, an4 
seats herself opposite to the bridegroom, the pool of water being between th6 pair. The right 
hands of the bride, the bridegroom, and the bride's eldest relatives are tied together with thread 
by the officiating Brahman, who at the same time recites sacred texts {mantras) ^ the {>urport of 
which is that the bride has been given by her people to the bridegroom and has been acoepted 
by him. The priest then claims his fee, and, after receiving it, unties the thread and knots 
together the scarves worn by the married couple. TIus part of the ceremony is called 
gtSrdntar, ' the change of gotra* and is supposed to transfer the bride from her own section 
or exogamous group into that of her husband. It is followed by sindurddn^ when the bride- 
groom takes a small cup of vermilion in his left hand and with his right hand smeaH the 
oolour on the parting of the bride's hair. By the Bagdis, as by most of the aboriginal 
tribes of Western Bengal, iindurddn is deemed to be the essential and binding portion of the 
marriage ceremonyi and they know nothing of the '^ seven steps " of the Brahmanical rite. 
<jarlands of flowers are then exchanged by the parties, and the rest of the night is spent in 
feasting, the married couple leaving for the bridegroom's house early next morning. The 
r - f knotted scarves are not untied until the fourth day after the wedding. 

All sub-castes, except the Tentuli& Bagdis, allow widows to marry again by the ceremony 
known as Sanga, a maimed rite, at which (except in the Orissa hills) no Brahman officiates, no 
nuintras or Yedic texts are recited, and the sacred fire, which from the days of the Big-Veda has 
formed the distinguishing feature of the marriage ritual, is not kindled. In the Sa»ga ceremony 
as practised by the Bagdis of Central Bengal, the bride and bridegroom sit face to face on a mat, 
and each daubs the other's forehead with a paste of powdered turmeric and water. A sheet 
{eiadar) is then thrown over the heads of the pair, so as to cover them entirely, and under this 
the bridegroom puts an iron bracelet {loAdr Hdru) on the left wrist of the bride. The 
proceedings are finished by a feast to the caste brethren of the village. If the newly-married 
couple are too i)oor to afford a feast, they pay a fee of Ke. 1-1. A widow may marry her late 
husband's younger brother, but she is not compelled to do so. 

In the matter of divorce, the practice of the caste seems to vary in different parts of 
'BengaL Hinduised Bftgdis follow the example of the higher castes in denjriog that sudi a 
thing is possible. The general opinion, however, seems to be that, a wife may be divorced 
for barrenness, unchastity, or disobedience, duly proved to the satisfaction oi a oouncil of 
dders of the caste. When the council have given tiieir assent, the husband closes the proceed* 
ings by the symbolical act of breaking a straw in two, or by taking away the iron bracelet 
which every married woman wears on her left wrist. A divorced wife is entitled to olaixn 
^naintenancd from her late husband for a period of six months after the divorce. She may 
many i^in by the Sanga form, and in some oistricts such marriages are exceedingly common. 
Ca^es, indeed, have come to my notice in which a wife has taken stq>s to get a divorce with the 
avowed object of marrying another man« As a rule, however^ the initiative is supposed to be 
taken by the husband. 

Like the Biuris, all sub-castes of Bagdis, except the Tehtulia, admit into their circle 
members of any caste higher than themselves in social standing. No regular ceremony is 
appointed for such occasions : the new member merely pays to the caste panehdgat a sum of 
money, varymg from Rs. 10 to Bs. 15, to be spent on a feast, in which for the first time he openly 
eats with his adopted caste brethren. When admitted into the DuUa sub-caste, he is made to 
take the palanquin on his shoulder to signify his acceptance of the characteristic occupation of the 
body to which he has joined- himself. The orijpn of Ihe custom of adnaitting outsiders, ^^hieh is 
Wtirely oat of a^coni with the spirit of tl^ qisteq^stom^ at the pi^pient day, ia aj^parentl jr te bf 



WidewB. 



Divorce. 



Admission 
of out- 
siders. 



Btnignt in the lax views oE theBSgdie and Batirie on tlie eiibject of sexoal morality. In every other 1 

ca^te a woiDHQ who lias an intri^to with an outsider is paaished by expulsion from the caste; I 

but Bagdie and BfiuxiB not only allcw their women to live openly with men of other cai-tea, but I 

receive those men into theiriwn oommunity when, aa frequently happene, tliey are outcaated by i 

their own people for eatin<f rice cooked by their mistresBea. j 

The religion of the Da^is is compaimded of elements borrowed from orthodox Hinduism Beltgioiu.] 

1 and survivals from the mingled Animism and Nature-worship which prevails among the -'I 

■ ■boiiginea of Western Oenfja'- Siva, Vishnu, Dharmaraj (Yama), Durga, the Saktis, and the ' 

I myriad names of the modern Hindu Pantheon, are worshipped in a more or less intelligent fashion 

under the guidance of the degraded (/la^t^} BrJthmans who look after the sfiritaal welfare o£ J 

the lower castes. Alongside of these greater gijda we find the Santali goddess Goeain, Etk M 

and Barpahar, the "great mountaiti " god [Marang Bnru] of thesame trihe. According to the H 

B&gJts themselves, their favourite and characteristic deity is Manasa, the sister of the Snake- ■ 

king VAsuki, the wife of Jaratkam and mother of Astika, whose intervention saved the enake I 

race from destruction by Janmejaya. I 

Manasii is worshipped by the caste with great pomp and circumstance. On the 5th and I 

20th of the four rainy months — Asir, Sraban, Bh&dra, and Aswin (middle of June to middle I 

of October) —rams and he-goats are sacrificed, rice, sweetmeats, fruit, and flower* are I 

offered; and on the Nagpanchami (Bth of the light half of Sraban — end of August) I 

a fonr-armeil effigy of the goddess, crowned by a tiara of snakes, grasping a cobra I 

in each band, and with her feet i-esting on a goose, is carried round the village with I 

much discordant music, and finally thrown into a lank. The cnlt of Manasa is of conrse I 

by CO means confined to the Bagdie. In Eastern Bengal all castes, from the Briihman to the I 

Chaudil, adore her, and no class is more strict in attending to the details of her worship than I 

the Kulin Brahraana of Bikrampur in Dacca. Bagdis, however, regard her with peculiar I 

respect, and say that they :>lone among her votaries mabe images in her honour. Some add I 

that tbe /)Ky<i has the effect o£ securing the worshippers from snake-bite, which is naturally I 

more frequent daring the rains ; and this notion finds a curious echo in the promise given I 

1^ Vasnki to Astika in the Mahabharata. that those who call upon his name, be they Brfthnuns I 

or common folk, shall be B:ife from the attacks of the snake race. I 

On the last day of Bhadra (middle of September) the Bagdis of the Alanbhum and ■ 

Bankura carry in procession the efligy of a female saint named Bhadu, who is said to have I 

been the favourite daughter of a former Bnja of Paihete, and to have died a virgin for ■ 

the good of the people. The worship consists of songs and wild dances, jn which men, I 

women, and children take part. The story of its origin may well have some foundation in fact, 1 

it being notorious that the Kujas of Pachete, like most of the pseudo- Rajput families of I 

Chota-Nagpur, find great difficulty in arranging suitable alliances for their daughters, and I 

often have to keep them at h-^me unmarried until they have long passed the age of puberty. I 

Kegarded from the point of view, the legend ndds one more to the numerous instances which I 

may be cited in support of the theory propounded by Sir Alfred Lyall in his essay on the I 

origin of Divine Myths in IndLi. 1 
Bagdis burn their dead and thron the ashes into a stream or tank. The bodies of persons Disposal I 
who die of small-pox or cholera are either buried or exposed. Infante under three years are ^ *^® 

buried. In parts of Orissa the universal practice is to bury the dead on the left side with the ^®*'*' | 
head towards the north. The traddh ceremony is performed a month after death aoder the 
supervision of a Brafiman and in general conformity with the standard Hindu ritual. 

Bagdis profess to follow the Hindu law of inheritance, but their legal business, as wiih most Inheri- 
of the lower lastes, is of a very simple character, and is generally disfojcd of by their own caste tanoe. 
ccuocils (paueidyali) without the intervention of the Courts. In making a division of 
property the eldest son gets an extra share {jcth-anga) which seems lo be intended to enable him 
to support the female members of the family, who remain under his care. A similar provision 

was recognised by early Hindu law, but it h.is since become obsolete, and entire equality o£ J 

division is now the rule among all the higher castes, unless perhaps where some special family I 

onstom can be proved. ■ 
Opinions differ regarding the original occupation of the caste. Some say fishing, others Oooupa* 1 

personal service, but the question clearly is not one on which we can hope to arrive at any tion. 1 

dePmite eoncluMon. At the prssent day the Tentolia and KasiikuUi B&gdis work as masons, J 

and also prepare the lime which is mixed with betel and areca nut. Dulia Bagdis carry J 

palanquins or didU, and, in common with the other sub*castesj earn their livelihood by ■ 

fishing, making gnuny-bagi, weaving cotton, and preparing the red powder used in the I 

Holi festival. The Bagdi fisherman uses the ordinary circular cast-net described in the I 

article on Malo, but swings the net round his head before casting it — a practice which is I 

supposed by the regular lishiug castes of Bengal — Tiyar, Malo, and Kaibartta— to be I 

peculiarly dishonouralile. Most of the Bagdis are also to some extent engaged in agriculture, I 

usually as kurfa or under- raiyats, and comiiaratively few have attained the more respectable I 

position of occupancy tenants. In Western Bengal we find large numbers of them working I 

as landless day •labourers, paid in cash or kind, or as nomadic cultivators, tilling other men's I 

lands on the bhag-jot system, under which they are remunerated by a definite share of ■ 

the produce— sometimes one-half, sometimes less, as may be arranged with their immediate I 

landlord. I can recall no instance of a Bagdi holding a zemindiri, or even a superior tennre, I 

tuch B6 /iiiMi or Rttt^nfirt, of any importance; but some of the MuTilibara semindars, who fl 

sow claim to be R^jpnte, are said by Colonel Daiton to be really Bagdis, and the conjecture 1 

is likely enough to be true. In the neighbouring district of Bankura, B&gdis must have been | 



184 

among the earliesi settlerSj if ^not theaotaal aborigines, 6f that part of tlie coant]^, f or 
at the present time there are 14 Bagdis holding the tenure of sardar ffkatwdl, 6 are sadiah, 
2 are village sarddn^nStabiddrs, and Wl chdkrdn chaukiddn. In Manbhiim one B&gdi 
holds a village sardar^ s tenure^ and four are employed as tdbiddrs. In Central Beng^l^ BagdiB 
are frequently met with as ehaukiddrs, 
Sooinl Their social rank is very low. They are usually classed with Bauris and Bhuiy&s ai 

•tatat. dwellers on the outskirts of Hinduism. Some Bagdis eat beef and pork, and all indulge freely 
in the flesh of other kind, and are greatly addicted to drink. Tentulii Bagdi^ however, will 
not eat beef, and many members of this sub*caste have become Yaisnavas and abstain from 
all sorts of flesh. By abstaining^ from beef they consider themselves to be raised above the 
Bfturi Muohi, and Oraonj'and the beef^^ting pembe^s of their own caste. 

Dulia fi&gdis eat tortoises. In Westeifn Bengal the Bagdis eat and drink with the Mdl; 
in Orissa they eat rice with the Loliar Mftnjhi and sweetmeats with the Bhuiy&s. 



INTEBNiL STB1JCTUBE OF THE BlfiDIS. 

Bdgdi^ Bdgtit. 

Titles :—B^^:ll, Dh&ri, KhSn, H&njhi, HasUchi, Hadi, PalankhSi, PsrSmanik, PherU 
Pioli, B&i, 8&ntr[i, Sardftr. 

Sub-Castes. 
1« BSjSndftri&, found in Jessore* 

2, Dandam&njhi. 

3t Dar&ti&, found in Nuddea. 

4^ Dnlili, a palanquin-beariog sub-caste. 

5. GaUmSnJlil. 

6. Kas&i kulili, said to live along the banks of Easai river in Manbhum and ^idnapur. 

?• Kusmetia, Knsm&tii, or Knsputra, said to be named after the Kusd grass (Eragraiu 
eynoturoides), and apparently totemistic. 

8. I^t) found in Mun&edabad. 

9. Hftchhlii, ]Iecllhli& or Hecho, a fishing sub-caste. 

10. Halla metia, H&tilll, or H&ti&I) fishermen and earth- workers. 
> 11. Nodfty found in the 24-Parganas, said to have come from Bankura. 

12. Tentnlii) named after the tamarind tree, and apparently totemistic* 

13. TrayodftS) found in the 24-Parganas, said to have come from Bankura. 

14. IJjlia or Ojha) probably descended from the priests of the tribal gods, who would naturally 
tend to form themselves into a sub-caste. For a parallel case, see Mallik. 



BEOnOKS. 



(a) Totemistic— 
ArdL fish. 

Bftghrlshl, the tiger. 
Kachch&p, the tortdse. 
Kfisbak, heron. 

P&kbasanta, bird. 

P&trishl, the bean. 
PonkrisU, jungle cock. 
Silrishl or S&lmachh, the 
sal&ah. 



(fi) Eponymous— 

AlamySn. 
Kfisyapa. 

(o) Uncertain-* 

B[^n^. 

Dsiya* 
fiadibh&rat, 
K&l. 
B&ncbo. 



i. 



.i 



18K 



6. Of the Bfongolo-DraTidlan Tract. 



Iff. a. BlBlET, CLE.'] 

Baidys, Vatdifa (from Sanskril vid, to know) Ambatthn, BhUak, ChiHltak, a well-knomi Tradltloi 
and highly respected caste, found only in Bengal Proper, whose feat-ores and complesion seem of origf 
to warrant their claim to tolerably pnre Aryan descent. There has been much controversy 
regarding their origin. The name Vaidya does not occur in Manu, Lnt the Ambasthas are 
there said to be the offspring of a Brahman father and a Vaisya mother, and their profession to 
be the practice of medicine. According to tfaiB account the Boidyas are anuloma (born wilh 
the hair or grain, i.e., in due order), the father being of higher caste than the mother. Another 
tradition describes them as begotten on a Brahman woman by one of the Aswini Kumaras, 
the light-bringing and heating twin-horsemen oE Vedic mythology; and then, oddly enough, 
goes on to say that they were reckoned as Sudras because their mother was of superior rank 
to their father, and their generation was conEequently praiiloma, " against the hair/' or in 
the inverse order according to the succession of the castes. It would appear from this that 
the Aswini Kumaras were classed as K^hatriyas, and that, according to Brabmamcal ideas, 
cTen the gods were not equal mates for a Biuhman maiden. 

An expanded version of the pedigree given by Manu is found in the Skanda Purana. 
This legend teljs how Galava JIuni, a pupil or son of Vishwanaitra, being greatly distressed by 
thirst while on a pilgrimage, was given a draught of water by a Vaisya girl named Birbhadri, 
The grateful sage blessed the maiden that she should scon have a son. BicbUadra demurred to 
this boon, OQ the ground that she was unmarried ; but thL> rash oath, so characteristic of Indian 
mythology, could not be recalled, nor could Galava himself put matters straight by marrying 
the virgin whose kindness had involved her in so strange a difficulty. For, so it is explained, 
she bad saved his life by the draught of water, and therefore he looked upon her in the light 
of a mother. A miracle was clearly in request. By the word of i>ower of a Vedic mantra a 
wisp of kuaa grass {Poa Cfnosuroidei) was transformed into a male child, variously known as 
.Dhanvantari, Amrita Acharya, and Ambastha. He was the first of the Vaidyas, because to 
a Vedic (Tatf^t^) text he owed his birth. He was also Ambastha because he had no father, and 
therefore belonged to the family o£ his mother (.■tmbd). A number of analogous myths have 
been collected by Bachofen in his two letters on " Pueri juncini," and his method of interpre- 
tation, if applied to the present case, would lead to the conclusion that the tradition given in 
the Skanda Pnrana records an instance of female kinship. 

The Baidyas are now divided into the following four sub-castes :— (1) Rarhi, (i) Banga, internal 
(9) Barendra, (4) Paochakoti, according to the parts of Bengal in which their ancestors resided. Structure. 
All of these are endogamous, A fifth endogamous group, which, however, hears no distinctive 
name, comprises those Baidya families of the districts of Sylhet, Chittagong, and Tipperah 
who intermarry with Kayasths and Sunris, the children in each case following the caste of 
the father. This practice appears to be the only modern instance of intermarriage between 
members of dilferent castes. It is said to have arisen from the reluctance of the Baidyas 
farther west to give their daughters to men who had settled in the country east of the Brahma- 
putra, tailing women of their own caste, the latter were compelled not only to marry the 
daughters of Kayasths, but to give their own daughters in return. This interchwige of women 
is said to extend even to the comparatively degraded caste of Sunn, and it may be for this 
reason that the Chittagong, Tipperah, and Sylhet Baidyas arc cut off from community of food 
with the other sabcastes- The sections or exogamous groups in use among the Baidyas will 
be found below. All of them appear to be eponymous, the eponyms being Vedic Rishis or 
Saints. The restrictions on intermarriage are the same as among Brahmans. 

The evidence of inscriptions shows that a dynasty of Baidya kings ruled over at least a i,eReD<1 
portion of Bengal from lOlU to 1200 A.D. To the most famous of these, Ballal Sen, is ascribed of BalUl 
the separation of the Baidyas into two divisions, one of which wore the sacred thread and " 
observed fifteen days as the prescribed period of mourning, while with the other investiture 
with the thread was optiimal and mourning lasted for a month. Before his time, it is said 
all Baidyas formed a single group, the members of which intermarried with one another, as all 
were equal in rank. All wore the thread and observed the term of mourning characteristic of 
the Vaisyas. Ballal Sen, however, ingisited on marrying a ferryman's daughter, named 
Fadmikvati, of the Patni or Dom-Patni caste. H is son, Lakshan Sen, followed by a majority 
of the caste, protested against the legahty of the marriage, and, finding their remonstrances 
unheeded, tore off the sacred cord which all Baidyas then wore, aud retired into a distant 
.part of the country. These were the ancestors of the Banga and Barendra sub-oasles of the 
present day, while the Karbi Baidyas represent the remnant who condoned Ballal Sen's offence. 
It is difficult to icconcile this legend with the accepted tradition thai in the course of his social 
reforms Ballal Sen separated the Baidyas into three classes — Rarhi, B&rendia, and Banga — 
Mcoi'dtng to the place of their abode, and introduced the hypergamoua divisions of Kulin, Hyper- 
Bangsai, and M&DLiK. A Kulin must marry his daughter to a Kulin, but he himself may ^*'^^' 
marry eitliei a Kulin oi a Bangsaj wocuuii If be mariiea a Maulik woman, hie family 



id6 



t' 



Marriage. 



Beligion 



Oeonpa- 
tion. 



Social 
statuB. 



is to a oeriaan Orient cBalionoared, but the stain may be wiped out by manying bia aater di* 
daughter (o a Knlin. Hence tbe saying '' Bising and idling is tbe Saidja's lot, provided tbe 
origiDal stock remiuns sound/' Ballal Sen is said to have distributed tbe Baidjas of bis 
time into twentj-Eeven ithan^ or communes, beyond wbicb no one conld reside witbout 
losing caste. The principal settlements were at Senhati, Cbandam Mahal, Daspara, Paigramj 
Karoria, Shendia, Itna, and Bhattaprat&p in Jessoie ; Poragachha in Bikrampmr ; and Dasora 
and Chand-pratap in Dacca. To him also is attributed the institution of the three classes 
^^SiddAa, Sadkya^ and K<uhta^ which, like the Kulinistic groups, have reference to social 
esteem or purity of lineage. Thej differ from- the latter in being more rigid. Thus, 
a Siddha Baidya who takes a wife from the Sadhya or Kashta class sinks • at once to their 
level, and his descendants cannot recover their status by mar ying into a higher class. - , 

The Samaj-pati, or presidency of the Banga Baidyas, has for sevesal generationB beeu 
vested in the family of Baja Raj Ballabh of Bajnagar, who reside on the touth bank of the 
Padma river, .and though now poor and dependent, the members are 43tiU consulted on mattery 
afiFecting the caste. In the middle of last centary the influence of the family wais still 
stronger, and a Raja of that time induced many of the Banga and Barendra Baidyas to 
resume the sacred thread which their ancestors had mscarded. With reference to this tradition. 
Ward writes as if the entire caste had then for the tiist time obtained the right to wear 
thread by means of Haj Ballabh's influence. He says:-— '* Haj Ballabh, a peiaon of this 
(Baidya) class, stewanl to the Nawab of Mursbed&bad, about a hundred years ago first procure^ 
for Baidjas the honour of wearing the paiJta : he invited the Br&hmans to a f^ist* and 
persuaded them to invest his son ; from which time many Baidjas wear this badge of dis- 
tinction.'' 

Infant-marriage is the rule of the caste, rare exceptions being met with in highly-educated 
families, which have come under the influence of European ideas. Polygamy is permitted^ 
but is not practised on a large scale. Divorce is unlniown : a woman taken in adoltezy is 
simply turned adrift, and ceases to be a member of respectable Hindu society. Widows are 
not allowed to many again, and the practice of $ati was formerly very common. On this 
point Ward, writing in 1811, sajs: — *'Manj Baidya widows ascend the funeral pile. At 
Sonakhali, in Jessore, which contains manj families of this order, almost all the widows are 
regularlj burnt alive with the corpses of their husbands.'' 

The Baidja marriage ceremonj does not differ materiallj from that in vogue among 
Brahmans, except that sometimes the Kuiundikd ceremonj is performed on the marriage 
night. When equals marrj a curious custom is observed. A bond is executed certif jing that 
the bridegroom has received twelve rupees ; should a second son marry, he executes a bond for 
twenty-four ; and in the case of a third son the acknowledgment is for thirty-six. Bejond 
this it never goes, however many brothers the bridegroom may have older than himself. 

The religion of the Baidyas is that of the orthodox high caste Hindu. All old Baidya fami- 
lies are Sakti worshippers, but among the poorer classes Vaishnavas are occasionally found. 
Of late jears manj of the caste have joined the Br&hma Sam&j. Brahmans are employed for 
religious and ceremonial purposes ; but it is doubtful whether these are of the highest rank, as 
they also officiate for the Nava-sakha. They have also ghatakg oi their owui who were for« 
merly Biahroans^ but for many years past members of their own caste have discharged this im* 
portant social function. 'Ihe innovation is ascribed to one Yiswarath of Jessore, who is said 
to have been the first regular Baidja ghafak. 

The practice of medicine, according to the traditional Hindu method, was no doubt the 
original profession of the Baidja caste. From the time of the Sen kings, however, the tendency 
has been towards the adoption of other pursuits, and at the present daj hardlj one-third of tbe 
caste are believed to be engaged in their traditional avocation. These latter are still in pretty 
general request. Ceiiain passa^^es of the Shastras regard the taking of medicine from a Baidya 
as a sort of sacramental act, and forbid resort to any one not of tliat caste, so that some crtbo« 
dox Hindus when at the point of death call in a Baidja to prescribe for them in the belief that 
bj swallowing the drugs he orders for them they obtain absolution for their sins. Many 
Baidjas have distinguished themselves ab the Bar, and as agents, managers, and school-masters;, 
whilst others have taken to the study of English medicine and have entered Government ser- 
vice or engaged in private practice as medical men. Many again are found among tiie higher 
grades of land-holders, as zemindars, tenure-holders, * and a few are occupancy raiyati* They 
will on no account bold the plough, or engage in any form of manual labour, and thus neces- 
sarily carry on their cultivation by means of hired servants paid in cash or by a share of the 
crop. 

In point of social standing, Baidyas rank next to Br&btnans and above K&jastha. Strictly 
speaking they are inferior to Rajputs, but this point cannot be insisted on in practice, as 
there are comparatively few Rajputs in the area inhabited by Baidjas, and those are mostly 
immigrants from Upper India, who belong to a different social sjstem from Bengalis. There 
has been some controversj between Baidjas and Eajasths regarding their relative rank. Pat- 
ting aside the manifest futilitj of the discussion, we maj fairlj sum it up bj i^jing thit in 
point cf general culture there is probablj little to choose between the two castes, and that tbe 
Baidjas have distinctlj the best of the technical claim to precedence. On the other hand, it 
would, I think, strike most observers that the K2 vasths are the more pliant and adaptive of the 
two, and have thereby drawn to themselves a larger share of official p r efe rment than the more 
conservative Raidjas. 

Baidyas eat boiled rice and food coming under that categ<Nry only with metMiam 6i ibeir 
own easte. They will drink and onoke with the Nava Sftkha sod with castes -ja&king l^bbt 



18t 

than that group, bat will not nse the same drinking vessel or the same iuia. Brfthmans will 
eat sweetmeats in a Baidya's house, add will drink and smoke in their oompanj« subject to the 
restriction noticed in last sentence as to not using the same vessel or pipe. 



INTERNAL STBVCTVBB OF THB. BAIDTiS* 

Bai4yftf Vaidya^ Ambaiiha^ Bhisah^ Ohikitiak. 



Sab-castet (Endogamoos). 

Rirhl. 

Banga, Bangaja. 
Bareadrai Varendra. 

Panehakoti, 



Syp^gamoui groupt. 



Kulln. 

Banmja. 
■anttk. 



Family iitUs (padahU). 



Ms ) 

Gupta Uiddka. 

Sen ) 

Datta \ 

Kir i^^y^ 

Ear ) 



Chandra 
Kandu 

NKff 

Nandi 
Baia 
Bakshlt 
Soma 



Kastlia. 



Sections (Ezogamoiu). 

idya. 

Alamalaka, 

Angira. 

Atreya, 

Baisvinara. 

Basishtha. 

B&tsya. 

Bh&radw&Ja. 

Dhanvantari. 

Dhruba. 

Gautama. 

Ghritakansika. 

Hinsn, 

Kftsyapa. 

Kausika. 

Krishn&treya. 

HadhukuUya. 

H&rkandeya, . 

Maudgalya. 

S&barna. 

Saktri. 

Salankayana. 

«andilya, 

Yishnn. 






Titles or popular designations of. Baidyas practising medicine. 



Used by themselves 



Baldya-nidhi 

Kabi-ballabh. 

Kabi-bhushaii. 

Kabi-indra. 

KaMr&J. 

Kabiranjan. 

Kabi-ratna. 



Used by outsiders. Atai Baidya, dociior who defrauds the igoorant 

Ghteft Baidya, plough dootox. 
Deh&ti Baidya, village doctoir. 

Hatoria Baidya, a doctor who attends market, or, aoooi'diiig 

to Wise, a quack, a meddlesome fellow. 
Niri-tepii puW feeler. 



• « 



JL V 



^ ft 



6* Of the Mongolo-PraTidlan Tract 



BENGAL BRAHMAN. 



Ooxuitita- 
tion. 

Bfirhi. 



{H. E. RlBtisr, OJ.Jl.'] 

The Bengal Brahmans are divided into five main sub-castes— Barhi^ Barendxa> Vaidik, 
Saptasati^ and Madkyasreni. 

The Rarhi Biahmans derive their name from the Edrh, or the high-lying aUnvial tract on the 
west bank of the river Bhagirathi. Their claim to be of comparatively pure Indo- Aryan descent 
is to some extent borne out by anthropometric enquiries. The current tradition is that early in 
the eleventh century A.D., Adisura or Adisvara^ King of Bengal, finding the Br&hmans then 
settled in Bengal too ignorant to perform for him certain Vedic ceremonies, applied to the Baja 
of Eanauj for priests thoroughly conversant with the sacred ritual of the Aryans. In answer 
to this reque^ five Brahmans of Eanauj were sent to him — Bhatta Narayana of the Sandilya 
section of gotra ; Daksha of the Kasyapa ffotra ; Yedagarva or Yidagarbha of the Yatsa gotraf 
or, as other accounts say, from the family of Bhrigu ; Chandra or Chhandara of the S&vama 
gotra ; and Sriharsa of the* Bharadwaja gotta. They brought with them their wives, their 
sacred fire, and their sacrificial implements. It is said tiiat Adisura was at first disposed to 
treat them with scanty respect, but he was soon compelled to acknowledge his mistake and to 
b^ the Brahmans to forgive him. He then made over to them five populous villages, where 
they lived for a year. Meanwhile the king was so impressed with the superhuman virtue of 
Bhatta N&rayana, who was a son of Kshitisa, King of Kanauj, that he offered him several more 
villages. Tne Brahman^ however, declined to ^ke these as a gift, but bought them, as the 
story goes, at a low price. They were annexed to the village alr^y in Bhatta Ndii&yana's 
possession, and the whole area was relieved from payment of revenue for twenty-four years. 
Thus tradition chronicles an early HrakmoUar grant, the first it may be of the long series .*of 
similar transactions which have played so important a part in the history of land tenures, in the 
development of castes, and in promoting the spread of orthodox Hindmsm throughout ^Ben^aL 
Adisura did what the Bajas of outlying tracts of country have constantly done since and are 
doing still. A local chief, far removed from the great centres of Brahmanical lore, somehow 
becomes aware of his ceremonial shortcomings. Probably, as is narrated . of Adisura himself j a 
wandering Brahman brings home to him that his local ritual is not up to the orthodox standard* 
He sends for Brahmans, gives them grants of land near his own residence, and proceeds with 
their assistance to reform his ways on the model of the devout kings whom Brahmanical litera* 
ture holds up as the ideal for a Baja to follow after. The Brahmans find for him a pedigree of 
respectable antiquity or provide him with a family legend, and in course of time he succeeds in 
getting himself recognised as a member of some branch of the great R&jput community. 

Although the immigrant Brahmans brought their wives with them, tradition says that 

they contracted second marriages with the women of Bengal, and that their children by the 

rfthmans. ]|^tter were the ancestors of the Barendra Brahmans. The Barendra, on the other hand, claim 

to represent the offspring from the original Hindustani wives, and all^e that the Rftxhi 

Brahmans themselves spring from the misalliance contracted in Bengal. 

By the middle or the eleventh century, when Ballal Sen, the second of the Sen kings of 
Bengal, instituted his &mous enquirv into the personal endowments of the Rarhi Brahman8» 
their numbers seem to have increased greatly. They are represented as divided into 56 gaim 
or headships of villages, which were reserved for them, and might not be encroached upon by 
Brahmans of other orders. 

It is interesting to trace in Ballal Sen's enquiry the survival or reassertion of the principle 
referred to above as recognised in ancient times, that the Brahmanhood of the Brahman depends 
not merely on birth, but also upon personal endowments. It is a question of virtue, not a 
question of descent. Ballal Sen, of course, could not go so &r as this. The time had lon^ 
passed when a Kshatriya could transform himself into a Brahman by penance and self-den^L 
But the Sen monarch sought to reaffirm the ancient prmciple, so &r as was then possible, by 
testing the qualifications of each Rarhi &mily for the priestly office, and classifying them, in tlie 
order of their virtue, according to the results of this examination. The following nine qualitieB 
were selected to serve as the touchstone of sacerdotal purity : — JcAdr, ceremonial purity; vinaya, 
discipline; vidyd, learning; pratisAtAa, reputation for purity; tirtAadarsana, zeal in pilgrimage; 
nukthay piety; dvritliy observance of legal marriages; iapa, ascetic self-devotion; ddma, 
liberality. 

Tradition is silent concerning the precise method in which Ballal Sen carried out his some- 
what inquisitorial measures. It seems, however, to be certain that some kind of enquiry into 
the nine characteristic Br&hmanical qualities was held under his orders, and that the IM or social 
and ceremonial standing of each &mily was determined accordingly. Some say that twenty- 
two gdins were raised to the highest distinction. Lakshmana Sen discarded fourteen gains cm 
account of their misconduct, and they became gauna Kt^lins, an order which has now disappeared* 
Nineteen families belonging to^ the other eight gdins were made Kulim. The other fanuUes of 
these eight gdins were lost sight of. Thus two classes or grades of saoerdotaJ virtue weie 
formed :«-*(!) the Knlin, being i£osq who hi4 observed the eaw^ mite coqnsds of pef&aMaaj 



Zmmi- 
int 



Sm 



Ballil 

Sen's 

enquiry. 



169 

(2).tlie Srotriya, who, though regular students of the Vedaa, had loat avriClt by interamrrying 
witii families of inferior birth. The Srotriya were again subdivided into Siilifia or perfoci, 
SadAya or capable of attaining: purity, and KasMa or dif&oult. The last-named group was Abo 
called An or enemy, becanse a Kulin marrying a daughter o£ that group was disgraeed. 

The relations of these three classes in respiK^ of marriage were regulated by the principle HCanlagi 
laid down in the Institutes of Manu for members of the three twico-bom castas, a principle (or 
which Sir Denzil Ibbetson has adopted the conveiiietit and expressive name oE hypergnmy. The 
rule was that a man of the Kulin class could marry a woman of Us own class or of the two 
higher Srotriya classes ; a Siddha Srotnya could marry in his own group or in the Sadhya 
Ijrutriya group ; while the Sadbja and Kashta Srotriyas might take wives only within the 
limits of their own chesses. Conversely women of the Sadhya Srotriya class oould marry in 
their own class or the two classes above them ; the Siddha Srotriya women in their own class 
or in the Kidin class; while Kulin women at one end of the scale and Kashta women at the 
other were restricted in their choice of husbands to the Kulin and Kashta groups. Unoiual or 
irregular marriages involved loss of reputation and forfeiture of rank. On the other hand, the 
marriage of a girl into a good KoHq house conferred a sort of reflected honour on her own 
I fomily, and in course of time this idea was developed into the doctrine known as kula-gotra, 
I whereby the reputatioa of a family depended upon the character of the marriages made by its 
female members. 

This singular and artificial organization derai^d the natural balance of the sexes, and set 
up a vigorous competition for husbands among the women of the higher groups. The Bansajas 
are those Kulins w ho lost their distinction on account of misconduct, i.e., their want of charitj, 
discipline, and due observance of marriage law, three qualities which in later times constituted 
Kulinism. 

The growth of the Bansaja class introdnced a further element of complication. In the 
struggle for husbands, Kutin girls who had no brothers or whose mothtrs were widows were 
often given to the sons of Bansaja parents ; but families resorting to this device were excluded 
from the recc^nised cadiu. Thus the brothers of a girl who married beneath her at once became 
Bansaja, but tliB d^radation did not extend to her unules. Jf an original Kulin married a 
Bansaja maiden, he himself became a SKoiritu Bkunga or broken Brahman. His doscendante 
in the second generation were known as Umpwuiia, in the third as TriptmiAa, and in the fourth 
as CkatttTthapurviha. Aft«r this et^e special designations were dropped, and tlie branch was 
merged in the Bansaja class. Although in theory these lower branches were completely cut off 
from the original hierarchy formed by Ballal Sen, natural instincts could not be wholly eradi- 
cated from a number of closely related families, and girls of the Bhanga and Bangsaja groups 
used to marry their cousins of the elder branch. It might perhaps have been expected that 
these groups would have been admitted to the same privil^ee us the Srotriya, but this was not 
the case. 

The invasion of Bengal by the Muhammadans in 1203 and the instant collapse of the History. 
Hindu kingdom was not without ite effect upon the matrimonial o^anization of the Karhi 
Biahmana. Ballal Sen's reforms had been imposed upon the caste by the order of. a Hindu 
ruler, and their observanoe depended upon the maintenance of his supervising authority. ^ hm 
this check was removed, the system could no lunger hold together, and soon showed signs of 
breaking up completely. Artiticial restrictions had been introduced ; the natural balance of the 
sexes had been digturbed, and a disastrous competition for husbands bad set in among the three 
original groups. New and inferior groups had sprung up, and their natural ambitions still 
further swelled the demand for Kulin husbands. The pressure of necessity soon showed itdelf 
too strong for the rules. Poor Kulins sold their family rank and honour for the bridegroom- 
price, which had taken the place of the bride-price of earlier times ; they added to the number 
of their wives without regard to the respectability of the famihes from which they came; and 
they raised their prices as the supply of suitable hu&bands diminirhed and competition ran 
higher for a Kulin bridegroom. 

'Ihe reforms undertaken in the fourteenth century by Devi Vara, a ghatak or genealogist of Devi 
JesEore, extended only to the Kulins. These were divided into three grades— (ij •^WBAAiiua or ^■'*'' 
original Kulins, [ii) Bkanga, (iiij Baiiiaja. The SwaOhilva grade was further Enb-di>ided into " *"** 
Sti mels or endogamous groups,* each bearing the name of the original ancestor of the clan or 
of his village. This restriction of the marriages of Kulins to their own met was the leading 
feature of Devi Vara's reform. Its principle was adopted and cAtended, it is believed 
by the Kulins themselves, in the singular arrangement known as Palti'frakriti, or preservation 
of the type, by which families of equal rank were formed into triple groups as it were, for 
matrimonial purposes, aud bound to observe a sort of reciprocity. Thus MukhuU famihes were 
bound to marry iheir sons to the daughters of the Chattfirji and Banerji families, and i-i'ee vtrtd. 
All kinds of complications are said to have arisen from this understanding. If, for example, 
the Mukhuti had only oue marriageable son aud the Chatterji or Bauerji ten daughters ap- 
proaching puberty, the former must marry all ten or all must remain spinsters. Meanwhile the 
rush of competitiou for Kulin husbands on the part of Uhanga, Bansaja and Srotriya classes 
was as strong as before, while the proportionate number of pure Kulius had been reduced by 
the loss of those who had become Bbangas and Bansajas. In order to dispose of the surplus of 

* The uauMi of tbe mtli are an {dUovb :— FLalija, Eliotdftlin, tincitanBiidi, iiallabiiii Sunii, Acliirja, 
Sekhnri, Pandit, Eatni, Uscgsla, Gopala, Gbat»ki, CbfiyaOBteiidn, Pramadani, JJatkratlu, UhsUki, 
Subbaia-jukUni, NbtI^u, Kaja, BLsttxTftBhaii. Uel.iti, Chaji, YijlyBpaiidit, Cbftd&i, Uadhfti, Bidjidhiri, 
Pftrihal, tjii BangabUUi, Uiladkara Eiitni, Kftkamvi, Uaii UsjuiudSri, Sri baudtiPDi, bbaiiaia UbaUki, 
Acbaaibita, Dbaiftdbaii, VnI«, {i&gliaTa UhoailJ, Saogo i^MvrsDaiidr, Sadanandu K bfiai, Cbaodnvali. 



w<)men in tlie higlier gioaps polygamy was introduced^ and was resorted to on a very lafge scale. 
It was popular with the Kulins^ because it enabled them to make a handsome income by the 
aoddenc (^ their birth ; and it was .accepted by the par^its o£ the girls concerned as offering 
tiie only ^leans o£ complying with the requirements of the Hindu rel^on. Tempted by a pa » 
or premium j which often reached the sum of two thousand rupees^ Swabhava Kulms made ^glit 
of their iul and its obligations^ and married Bansaja girls, whom they left after the ceremony 
to be t^ken care of by their parents. Matrimony became a sort of profession, and the honour 
of marrying a daughter to a ^hanga Kulin is said to have been so highly valued in Eastern 
Bengal that as soon as a boy was ten years old his friends began to discuss his matrimonial 
VftoepectB, and be&re he was twenty he had become the husband of many wives of ages varying 
from five to fifty. 

With the spread of education amoug the upper classes of Bengal an advance in social 
morality has bem made and the gprosser forms of polygamy have fallen into disrepute. But the 
artiiicial organization of the caste still presses hard on a Kuliu father who is unlucky enough to 
have a large &mily of daughters. These must be married before they attain puberty, or dis* 
grace will fidl on the family, and three generations of ancestors will be dishonoured. But a 
ICulin bridegroom can only be obtained by paying a heavy premium, many of the meh instituted 
by Devi Vara have died out, and in such cases, reciprocal marriage being no longer possible, the 
son of a &mily left without a corresponding md must marry the only daughter of a widow ; 
while the daughter of a Kulin widow, for whom no husband of equal birth can be procured, 
may be married to a Srotriya, and a premium accepted without endangering the&mily prestige. 
According to Dr. Wise, a Kulin father in Eastern Bengal could only preserve his iul intact in 
one of three ways *•— By giving her to a Kulin of equal rank ; by making an eSipy {Jtusa-ianjfa) 
of her with iusa [Eragrotu cynosuroidet) grass and giving it in symbolic marriage to a KuUn ; 
by saying to a Kulin in the presence of ghatak witnesses : — ^^ I would give my daughter, if I 
had one, to you,'' and putting on his forehead the tilak or distinguishing mark which a married 
woman wears. 

Marriage The marria^ ceremonies of the Bengal Brahmans comprise five important stages, viz : — 

ceremony. i^ Purba'4t6dAa, consisting of — (1) The anointment, odled tel ialud. After preliminaries 

have been settled, and the j>atra iaran, or formal intimation of the. consent of t£e parties, or 
rather of their guardians on both sides, has been drawn up, an auspicious day is fixed for anoint- 
ing both the bridegroom and the bride with turmeric. The process must be undeigone by 
both on the same day — the bride a little while after the bridegroom, each in their own house. 
Usuallv a part of the turmeric prepared for the bridegroom is sent by his guardian for the use 
of the oride, but if the couple live at a distance, this is not deemed essentiaL In any case 
the time at which the ceremony should be p^ormed is fixed by letter. Those who can 
afford to do so distribute oil and turmeric among their neighbours on this occasion. 

(2) The entertainment, thubard or ayuhriddhdnna. From the day of the anointment until 
the day of tiie marriage the betrothed couple are daily entertained by their friends and neigh- 
hours, a piece of new cloth being presented at the same time. Presents of sweetmeats and cloth 
are sent to their houses by friends, and well-to-do people with a laige circle of acquaintanoee often 
prolong the interval between the anointing with turmeric and the wedding from two or three 
days to a month. The rule is that after ^ anointing the first entertainment is given by the 
parents, and after that neither the bride nor the bridegroom should again eat in their own 
homes until they are married* 

(8) The divine invocation or adkibds^ On the night before the wedding some married 
ladies, tiie neighbours and relations of the bride and bridegroom, are entertained with a repast, and 
given presents of betel leaves and areca nuts. This is supposed to render the occasion auspidoosy 
and to draw down the blessing of the gods through the good- will of the ladies entertainedj wlio 
are looked upon as a sort of fury god-mothers* 

(4) The propitiation of ancestors, Ndndimuki or briddki srdddk, is an ordinary ^rA/^i per- 
formed at noon on the wedding day in order to procure the blessing of the deceased ancestors on 
the couple. Four ancestors on the father's and three on the mother's side of both parties are 
thus invoked : if the father and grandfather of the iuteuded bride or bridegroom be hving, then 
only their two immediate (deceased) predecessors, and if only the &ther be living, then his 
three immediate predecessors onlv. The grdddk is performed by the father, or in his absence 
by the brother, or failing him agam by a pydti (agnate) of the bride or the bridegroom as the 
case may be* If a gydh be not procurable, then the fiunily priest may officiate. 

(5) Tke bridal proeemon {bar^dtrt). In the evening or, if he lives at a distance, earlier, 
the bridegroom goes in procession accompanied by a kolbar, or best man, who is usually his 
vounger brother, and ^ by a numbet of his relations, friends and neighbours to the house of the 
bride, whete he is received as in a darbdr, his approach being welcomed by the cry of ulu^u 
from the females of the bride's family. He sits on a ntasnad set apart for him in the centre of 
the hall, and there, surrounded, by those who accompanied him and by the bride's people 
(kanydjdtri)i he awaits the moment fixed by the astrologers as auspicious for the performanoe 
of the actual ceremony. 

(6) Jdmatd'baran, or the bridegroom's welcome by the bride's &ther. "When the proper 
time has come, the bridegroom is taken by the bride^s father into the inner apartments of the 
house, and is made to staiid on a piece of board painted with poimded or powde^ rice stirred up 
with water. The bride's father th^ offers him water for washing his feet (fiddya argkya) and 
also modkuparkj/a, a concoction of honey, in a small copper cup. These the bridegroom touehea 
in token of aoceptance. 



in 



(7) 5/r»-(«irtr, or woman's usage, commencea with the weloi^me given to the Irtd^^room 
by the bride's mother hy pouring some curds on hia feet. This is followed by— 

{a] Sattttii or the seven lights of Hymen. Seven marriwl ladies {including tho btide'f 
mother or, if she be a widow, one of the bride's aunts) in their host attira, each with a small 
tf rch made of ehifa twig and cotton stuepad. in oil, gi) round the bridegroom in procession, 
lod by the bride's mother, who carries on her bead a kitla, or Hat bamboo basket, on which 
are placed 21 small lights made of dhnhfa fruits. As thoy ga rouad, they sprinkle libations of 
watar, one of them bluwa a sholl trumpet, and all vociferate the hymeneal cry of «/n-o/«. After 
giiing seven times ronnd the bridegroom, the liirhts are thrown one by one over his head, so 
that they fall behind him. The kv!a is then picked up and placed in front of the bridegroom and 
the bride's mother ta»es her stand up')n it and touches {baran) the forehead of the bridi^room 
with water, paddy and durla {Ci/nodon dartt/loa) grass, betel and areca nut, white mustard seed, 
curds, white sandal paste, vermilion, a looking-glass, a comb, a bit of clay from the bed of tho 
Gangs?, a yak's tail, shells, a cluster of plantains, and certain other odds and end), whiU the 
rest of the women keep np the cry oE nlu-ul*. The bridegroom's height is measured with a 
thin thread which the bride's mother eata in a bit of plantain. She then phees a weaver's 
shuttle (maku) between his folded hands and ties them together with thread, and calls upon 
him, now that he has been bound hand and foot, to bleat once like a sheep to signify his humiU 
ity and subjection. Last of all, she touches his breast with a padlock and turns the key, 
whereby the door of speech is closed to tho parage of hard words against the bride. 

(i) Satitak, or the seven rounds of the bride. The bride is now brought out attired in a 
red silk cloth, and seatel on a painted board is carrieil by two men seven times ronad the 
bridegroom, who remains standing and then placed iu front of hitn. As they face each other, 
a cloth or cover is thrown over them, and their nattiral shyness being thus for the moment hid- 
den, tbey arelsupposcd to snatch the euhiailruili or auspicious glance, which will secure their 
mutual happiness during their married life. Then follows — 

(c) Malt/ad'iji, or the exchange of garlands, when tbo bride and bridegroom give each other 
garlands of flowers. 

II. SaMpraiitln, or the gift and acceptance. Tbo bride and hridogroom are neit brought 
to a plaoe set apart in the outer apartinent or courtyard of the house, where the bride's party 
and the bridegroom's party can witness the formal gift of the bride and her formal acceptanoe 
by the bridegroom. The bride's father or guardian repeats the mantrai recited by the family 
priest, and the bridegroom accepts the gift in these words in Hengali : — " Who gave her ? To 
whom did he give her? Love gave her. To love he gave her. Love is the giver. Love Is 
the taker. Love pervades the ocean. With love I accept her. Love I may this be thine." 

At the same time WL'dding presents [dan or dan mmagri] are given to the bridegroom, and 
after this the father or guardian is required to bear witness to the contract entered into by the 
bridegroom by acoepttog the bride, and as a token of his assent to the marriage accepts a present 
of five haritaki myrobolam fruits and a piece of cloth. This present is called the parihar. 

III. Bdiara or tbe bridal wake. The bridegroom isnext conducted alone with the brideto 
aroom in the inner apartment of the house, a corner of his chadar being tied to acomfr of her 
cloth. Tbe pair are there received by a bevy of young ladies, who make it their busiaeas to 
tease the bridegroom and try to keep bim awake for the rest of the night. 

IV. Kvsaadika includes the laptapadi ijaman, or pacing of the seven steps, which may 
be deemed the essential and binding portion of the marriage ritual observed by the higher castes. 
A Facred fire is prepared and worshipped with oblations of ghi. On the north aide of tbe lire 
seven points are marked off, and the bride setting her face westward walks along these points, 
pW-ing her foot on each iu turn. As she walks, her husband follows olose behind her, touching 
her heel with his toe and reciting at each step manfrag or sacred texts. 

Saptapodi gatnan is followed by gotra pariharttan, or the changing of the bride's gotra for 
that of the bridegroom, and tbe gindur-dd%, or the smearing of vermilion on the bride's fore- 
head and tbe parting of her hair. The latter ceremony ia performed by the husband with hi", 
own hand. 

Properly speaking, }cusandika owgbt to take place on the day following tbe marriage, but 
Tueetlays and Saturdays are considered unlucky days for tbo ceremony ; and if the day after the 
wedding ia Tuesday or Saturday, kmandika ia deferred till the day following that. It is 
usually performed at the house of tho bridegroom, hut if he lives a long way off, the ceremony 
is performed at the bride's father's house. The marriage proper ends with kutandika, but 
certain minor ceremonies follow which may be briefly mentioned here. 

V. The concluding ceremonies— 

[a) Phul-saJyS, or the bed of flowers. On the third night after the maTriage^ the 
married couple are laid together in a bed decorated with flowers. 

(5) Aihta-matigala. On tbe eighth day Ibo pair are made to enact with toys and coicrit 
shells a sort of pantominaic drama of their married life, i>laying tbe part of a faithful husband 
and wife, and affecting to bear with resignation tbe viciasitudea of fortune. 

{e) Baubhat or I'dlca-gparia. All tbe 9_f(i.'(>, relations and frienda of the bridegroom, are 
entertained at his house. Th^ acceptance of tbe invitation is deemed an admission on their part 
that tho marriage has been duly performed, and that the ceremonial purity of the bridegroom 
has iu no wise been affected. In token of their recognition of this fa^t, tbey are supposed to 
eat rice prepared by the bride heraelf. 

After the Faka ipana ceremony, the bride ia sent hack to her father's house until she 
attains puberty. When this time arrives it is <be costom of some families to perform the 



102 

Mremony known as garhlidhin (porifieation of the womb) or punarbibaka. This rite, to which 
some Hindu writers have attributed a sort of saorameDial character^ seems to be closely analogous 
to the pimetioes observed bj a number of savage races on a similar ooeasion. The idea seems to 
be, as Mr. J. O. Frazer has pointed out^ that dangerous influences emanate from a girl when 
passing through this physical change, and it is considered necessary to seclude her from the rest 
of the community, and subject her to a sort of penance which varies greatly in severity. 
Thus the Maeusi tribe of British Guiana hang a girl in this state in a hammock at the top of 
the hut, and make her &st rigorously so long as the symptoms are at their height. When she 
gets well the pots and drinking vessels which she has used are broken ; and after her first bath 
she most submit to be beaten by her mother with thin rods without uttering a cry. Another 
tribe, instead of beating g^rls who have just recovered from this state, expose them to oertain 
large ants whose bite is very painful The usage followed by the Karhi firahmans of Bengal 
is less severe, but of the same general character as the savage observances. Like the Australian 
blacks and tiie African Bushmen, they require a girl to live alone, and do not allow her to see 
the &oe of any male. During three days she is shut up in a dark room and is made to 
nndei^ certain *penances« She must lead the life of a Brahmachari, that is, rhe must live 
upon atap rice and ghiy fish and flesh being strictlv interdicted, and she may not eat any 
sweetmeats. Where this ceremony is observed, it is held to be a necessary preliminary to ihe 
commencement of marital intercourse. By a recent change in the law it has been made criminal 
to have intercourse with a girl under twelve years of age. 
Barendra It has been mentioned above that the Barendra Br&hmans claim to be descended from the 

BrShmans. five Kanaujiya Briihmans imported by Adisura by their original or Hindustani wives. General 
tradition, however, rejects the latter portion of the claim, and holds that the Barendra axe the 
ofhpring, not of the original wives, but of Bengali women whom the Kanaujiyas married after 
their seMilement in Bengal. The sub-caste takes its name from the tract of country known as 
Barendra lying north of the river Padma between the Karatojra and Mahananda rivers, and 
corresponding roughly to the districts of Pabna, Bajshahi, and Bogra. . Ballal Sen reorganised 
the Barendra at the same time as tha Rarhi Br&hmans, and divided them into three hyper- 
gamous classes : (1) Kulin, {i\ Suddka or pure Srotriya, (S) Kaskta or bad Svotriya. The 
first class was sub-divided into eight gains or communes : Bkadra, JBkddri, JBkima, Zakari, 
Maiira, Jtudra-Vagm, SddkwFdgiti, and Santdmani or Sdndilyai the second into seven groups 
of the same kind : Jikartki, Bkattatali, Ckampafij Kdmadevta, Karanjan, Nandditavdn, and 
Navsi ; and the third into eighty -four fiimilies, the names of which need not be enumerated heie. 
In additi(m to the gains we find am(mg the Kulins a further division into eight pdH or social 
grades; Atub'Kakni, Sainiy JBosnak, Janail, Kutb'Kakni, Nirabkil, PaHckuria, Rakala. 
The object of this grouping is not very clear. Every gain belongs to a pdii^ but the pdti is 
not always identical with the gdin^ for members of the same gain sometimes marry into different 
pdtis. The gains appear to be in theory endogamous. The system of reciprocal marriage 
Ipdlti^prakriii) which prevails among Raihi Br9hmans is unknown in the Barendra group. 
The rules governing the three main classes permit a Kulin to marry a Suddha-Srotriya girl, 
and the children of such a marriage rank as Kulins. Should he marry a Kashta-Srotriya, he 
loses his kul and becomes a Edp^ an irregular group occupying much the same position as the 
Bansaja among Rarhi Br&hmans. If a Barendira Kulin marries the daughter of a £dp, he 
himself is degraded to the group to which his wife belongs, but his children hold somewhat 
higher rank, and are deemed eligible for marriag^e to Kulins. No Kulin girl may marry below 
her own class. If a suitable husband cannot be found, she goes through the form of symbolical 
marriage to a fig^ure of hisa grass, and has red lead smear^ upon her forehead to ehow thst 
she is really a wife. The goiras of the Barendra sub-caste are the same as those of the Bftrbi, 
viz.i Bkdradiodjai Kdsyapa, Sdndilga, Savarna, and Fatsya. Their commonefii titles are BhattA- 
chftrya, Bhumik, Chakravaitti, Chaudhari, Majumd&r, Parihal, and Sikhd&r, 
Valdik Concerning the origin of the Yaidik Brahmans some differences of opinion exist. All 

Brihmanp* agree in honouring them for their adherence to Vedic rites, their zeal for Yedic studies, their 
social independence, and their rejection of polvgamy. From the fact that some of the moet 
important settlements of the sub-caste are found in the outlying districts of Orissa and Sylhet, 
some authorities have been led to describe them as descendants of the original Br&hmans of 
Bengal, who refused to accept the reforms of Ball&l Sen, and took refuge in regions beyond hia 
jurmdiction. Genealogists of rival sub-castes maintain that Ballal Sen excluded ihem from. 
his scheme on the gpround that they did not come up to his standard of purity of deseen*. 
Buchanan mentions a tradition lingering among the Yaidik Brahmans of Dinajpur that thej 
had been introduced into that ^trict^ by Advaita Subuddhi N&rayana, R&]& o^ Svlhet. £u 
Orissa, cm the other hand, the representatives of this sub-caste are said to have come direct from 
Kanauj, and to have made their first settlement in Puri about the twelfth century A. D. "Vhin 
opinion derives support from Mr. Sherring's statement that the Kanaujiya Brahmans of 
Benares recognise the Yaidik as a branch of "ttieir own tribe who have settled in Bengal. 

There are two main divisions of Yaidik Brahmans — (1) Pasekdfya or western, daimfng 
to have come from Kanauj, and (2) Dakshinatjra or southern, tracing their origin to the ori« 
ginal Bengal stock. The Pftschatya had originally eleven gotras, divided into two gfoups, 
known ae the paneka and ikask. The former included Bh&radwa ja, S&ndilya, Saunaka Savaina, 
und Vanstha ; the latter, Gautama, K&syapa, Krishnatreya, Rathikara, 6unaka> and VactiyMa. 
The Bharadw&ja gotra, however, became extinct, its place bem^ taken by the Sunaka fsCr« cf 
Hhe Shash group. In coarse of time other gotras, Ghrita Kausiki, Maitrayali, Tathikaica, and 
Upamanya, came to be formed; but the relations of these to the original el^en aie not Yery 
pfeciseljr define^r 



193 

Vaidik Brtlimana have no Kulins, ami tliuir r/iatait or ^iiealogiata are Bralimwis of 
other flub-«istM. Thcii titles are the same as those of other Bengal BrahmaiiB : Bhttttfchaiya, 
Chakiavartti, and Thakur are rammon designation a among them. The Paachutya branch la 
eaid to have been formerly distributed in fourteen jii^oiw op aettloments. Three of these — 
Dadhiehigram, Marichigram, and Santali, have now disappeared, and even their sites are no- , 
known. Of the remaining eleven, Chandradwip, Kotalipidii, Sanaanta S.ira. are in Baci'er- 
gnngc; Alambi, Brahma I'araka, Jayari in Rajshahi ; Akhara, Ganrali, Paoi Kantaka in 
Faridpur ; Madhyadesa in Jessore ; and Navadvipa in Nuddea. In theory, these Bcttlements 
Beem to have been of the game character as the mdi created for the Riirbi Brahmans by Devi 
Vara. It was intended that all Vaidik Brahmans should reside in one of these vill^es, and 
that marriage should be restricted to the local limits laid down. At the present day, however, 
many families live elsewhere and intermarry with families similarly situated. They can, 
however, rejoin the original SamaJ or association of communes on payment of a heavy 
fine. 

According to popular tradition, the Saptasati Brahmans are descended from the seven 8apt»8«ti 
hundred ignorant Bnthmans sent by Adisura to the Court of Kanauj for the purpose ot^'* in«i»» 
learning their priestly duties. Others trace their origin' to certain Brahmans who were exiled 
beyond the Brahmaputra river for resisting the innovations of Ballal Sen. It seems to he 
certain that they are peculiar to Bengal, and that they cannot claim connexion with any of the 
ten standard Branmanical tribes. This view is home out by the names of their gutriis, which 
differ entirely from the standard Brahmanical series, and appear to he of a local or territorial 
rather than of an eponymous type. The Saptasati themselves virtually admit their 
inferiority to the other orders of Brahmans. Men of education and respectability are reluctant 
to admit that they belong to this sub-caste, all distinctive practices are being abandoned) 
and the entire group seems likely to be ahscrbed in the Srotriya grade of Karhi Brahmans. 
The Saptasati have no Kulins, nor do thoy keep qhatnkt for the purpose of maintaining 
genealogies. Notwithstanding this, they give their daughters in marriase to Kniina of 
the Barhi suh-caste, and by paying a heavy dowry, often amounting to as much as one 
thousand rupees, may even obtain brides from families of the Srotriya class. It is further said 
that a Raihi Kulin will eat sad drink with the Saptasati, while a Bansaja, though of 
lower rank than a Kulin, would consider this a degradation. The ordinary title of the Saptasati 
is Sarmo, not Dev-Sarmma, as among the t«n recognised tribes. Chakravartti, Chaudhuri, 
Rai, and Sarkar are also common appellations. 

The Madhyasreni Brahmans profess to derive their name from the fact of their original Madbya- 
•ettlements being in the district of Midnapur, lying midway (Madbya-desa) between Bengal ^®^"'*''" 

and Orissa. They say that their ancestors were Rarhi Bnihmans who settled early in BalUl * 

Son's reign in paTgana Mayna in Midnapur. When Ballal Sen was engaged in classifying 
the Brahmans of the rest of Bengal according to their degree of virtue, he sent a. ^^a'oi or 
genealogist to the Brahmans settled in Mayna to include them in the scheme. They declined, 
however, to have anything to say to the institution of Kuh*nism, and there are no Etdins 
among them to this day. For their resistance to his orders, Ballal Sen ordered them to be 
cut off from the rest of the caste, and all intercourse lietween them and the Brahmans of 
Bengal Proper was strictly forbidden. The Barhi Brahmans of the present day, with whom 
the Madhyasreni thus claim kinship, are by no means inclined to accept this legend as true. 
They point out that it is priiwa/ac(V most unlikely that a colony of Rarhi Brahmans should 
have left their original seats for no particular reason, and have settled in an out-of-the-way 
place like /lar^flMa Mayna. Again, it is said, if the Madhyasreni were really Rarhi Brahmans, 
how is it that they have eight potrat, including ParSsara, Gautama, and Ghrita-Kausika, while 
the true Harhi have only five ? Gautama and Ghrita-Kausika are found among the Brahmans 
of Orissa, and Farasara is said to he characteristic of the Saptasati Brahmans of Bengal, 
whose ignorance of correct ritual compelled Adisura to import the ancestors of the Rarhi 
Brahmans from Kanauj. On these grounds it is conjectured that the Madhyasreni Brahmans 
may be a composite group made up of members of the Harhi. Utkal, and Saptasati suh-castes, 
who for some reason broke off from their own classes, settled in an outlying district, and 
iu course of time formed a new sub-caste. Some go so far as to euggest that the original 
Madhyasreni were eipelled {ram their own sub-castes, and quote a local tradition attaching 
to them the name Madt/odoshi, ' guilty of drunkenness,' in support of this view. Although the 
standard form of Kulinisro is not recognised by the Madhyasreni, those families among them 
who bear the Barhi Kulin names of Mukharji, Chatterji. Banerji, are specially sought after in 
marriage, which practically comes to much the same thing. Another curious form of hypeigamy 
is also in force among them. People who live in the fourviU^es (Bhamua in pargana Mnvna, 
Qokulnagar in Chetua. and Maharajpur and Bhngdanda in Kedar) supposed to be the original 
seats of the caste are held in great honour, and residents of other villages who many their daughters 
to them are expected to pay a heavy bridegroom-price. 

Most of the Madhyasreni are worshippers of the Saktis, but in the matter of religion and 
ceremonial observances generally they do not depart materially from the practices of other 
Brahmans. It should be observed, however, that widows among them are allowed to eat 
oncooked food on the eleventh day of either fortnight of the moon, while the widows of other 
Brahmanical suh-castes are not allowed to touch even water on that day. Some Madhyasreme 
again serve the GoalSs or Oops as their family priesta, and others are said to eat uncooked food 
at religious ceremonies performed by members of the Kaibartta caste, and tn accept gifts from 
them on those o 



IM 



m t« M HriOimui. 



INTGRHAL 8TRVCTCRE OF THE BENfiil BRAHN&NS. 

Titles (in Bengal) :— Bhatt&cfa&rH, filiatak, Chakrabartti, Bandra, Chatta, HnUiati, RU 
Hnnshi, Chaadhri, SarkHr, Ha)aiB<UrrHUd&r, Bidyiratiia, Bidy&bl^s, Smritiratna 

Sub-rutM. 
I» Bttgal. 

RirU. 

PlTili. 
B&rendra. 

Vttar Blrendra. 

PftDcliarli. 
HadtayasreBl or Hadyadoshl. 
Barna or Patlta BrUunan, 
AgraUni. 

IchSijl, Balbajna, Ganaka. 
Bhator Bhatta. 
BarnliwrS. 
Saptasati or S&tsatl, 
Taldlk. 

Pischfttya. 

Diksbinfttyi. 



Abya. 

Airastya. 

llamyaii. 

AiiftbrikHkBka. 

A n^ rasa. 

Atreya. 

Atri. 

Baljfthmapadya. 

Baty&8;hrapadya, 

Baslshtha, 

B&BDki, 

B&fsya. 

BharadwSja, 

Bbarsara. 

BlBhna. 

Blswftmitra. 

Briddka. 

Brlkaspati. 

GaT|:a, 

GantanuL 

Ghritakansika. 

Gotama. 

JftbXU. 

Jaimlnl. 

JXjnabalkya. 

JftiiiadMrnya> 

KalTlska. 

Kftnchan. 



Kaawa or H&nna- 

Hftsyapa. 

KAty&yan. 

Kaonulya. 

KaQBtka. 

Hanstar. 

Krlsbnfttreya. 

Knsal. 

Mandsalya. 

Haanas. 

ParSsara- 

Paobstya- 

Rikbab. 

RoUta. 

Sftbams. 

Saktrl. 

Sindilya. 

S&nkrftl. 

gank&llii. 

Sanpiyan. 

SuHaka, 

Uimmaiiya. 

-12 « ■ * 



a t " a S 



Swama-Kaiuik* 
Rajata-Kansik. 

/ GbTlta-Kanalk. 

\ Kanndllya-Kan- 
Blk. 

I Kauslka. 

CSaanaka. 

3 KAnwayan. 

y Ratkitan. 

C Arnibesma. 



Gill o> fiiiinla (56 01 


59) of tbe Bilrhi sub-caata under the fiye goirai :— 






«o.«j« Oriro (1«). 




Ba«dja. 




OhoshU. 


KadiL 


OKirl. 




Sajaji. 


Kosirl, 


Kturkunl. 




Htschatak, 


Knllii or KulkiU 


Knsimiluli. 




Baril. 


Mia. 


PUIUI. 
Kiibblil. 




Basuin. 

Kitifapa Otlra (1$). 


Dtrthiti. 


*"• .. 




Palsil. 


Pikrast, 


Amliill. 




Ear. 


SImlil. 


BhDTl. 

TdaHtl, 




Poriri. 
HIadhI, 


Pnshall, PniUlil. 
Bhatta. 


nttmiiiidl. 




KMrl. 


Bui. 


Glutta, 




Bkarddwija Ooln (4). 




HaklulU. 




Whalik. 




DlntrsUi. 




B»Jl. 

mma Oslra (JS). 




Siirill. 




Nandl, 


Siteswan. 


EvndAlil. 




Bill, 


Piriil. 


auiui. 




siiiik. 




Dijl. 




Piinjnlka. 

Biliii antra (8 er 11). 


Hijirl. 


■ibliiti. 




Pippalil. 


KinlliTl. 


GbcMhU. 




Patltuiida. 


Chaathluidi. 


HmlU. 




Pnrbba. 


Diifbil. 


BipDU. 




Kiidllil. 




The 6««« 








KM, (8). 




Italidja. 




ehoshil 


KinlUil. 


Clutta. 




Patltnnda. 


Kandalil. 


■nUulti. 




CinriU. 





...JPL 



195 

Ganna Kuli% [14). 

Riyl. PlppalU. PftrlhU. 

Gut. Gan^arl. Har. 

■ahintft. GhaateBwari. Pitamundi, 

Kalabhl. Kesarkant. Dlrghfttl. 

Cbantkliandl. Diapsftt. 

The remaining 94 ot 37 are SrotriyaB. 

Those Ghafait who reckon 56 Qaint, include PorSri amone Ganna Eolins and ezolod* 
Dishal, Ch&utkhandi, and Purbba. Those who reckon 69, exclude For&ri, Dighal, and Fntbba 
from Ganna Kuiin, and ihow S4 Srottijaa. 



reformer Deribar Ohi 


.t.k=- 




o™.,.. 




KnUn. 


Phnlli. 


Srlbarddbanl. 


Blung> Knlln. 


KliaTdalia. 


iatinaudkbiiil. 


Saddlu. 


Ballsbhi. 


Clibayl. 


Srotrlfi SMhya. 


Harbbinandl. 


Acbaniblti. 


UaAu. 


PandJtratia. 


Daaaratli Ghatakl. 


Bannda. 


Btiijiil. 


SnbbsTlMMiSnl, 




Sum. 


Halhlbarkbiiil, 




icMiJya-Sekharl. 
«opiI;iiiitakl. 


Blirhab «bosMll. 




Debatl. 




Cbatta BUbabi. 


Nartya. 




KikDstbl, 




Dbaridbarl. 




BIdvldhari. 


BiTl. 




Palihsl. 


Bhairab GbataU. 




Sriansabbatti. 


Parm&nauda Blsra, 




Pramodnl. 


Sania Sarbbinaadl. 
Hart Hajnmdirl. 




Bill. 




Cbmdrapatl. 


ChindU. 


GUn or erjai'ii 


(100) of the Bfirendra eub-oaete under the five gotrat s— 




Kai/afit Sttn (IS). 




■altra, 


BoUl. 


Madbyap&ml. 


BUlari. 


KIral 


■atbfrtml. 


Karanla, 


Bllknaja. 


Gaufiriml' 


BUa;atlitlii, 


SarplU. 


Beltrriml. 


HodliifiinU. 


8aU«rUd. 


ChaDiarraml, 


BaUklli. 


Katlgriml. 

Sanditfa ffotra {14). 


Asrnkotl. 


Budrabi«cliU. 


Kimeidra. 


Snbania. 


Uherl. 


SIbari. 


Totaka. 


SUInkanlilii. 
Champafl, 


Tintll Bial, 


PiuMna. 


Batas;i>l. 


Belnil, 


XandaniUii. 


dumpa. 




Sbuyll. 


amu. 


Sratabati. 


BUmkUl. 


DhodU. 


Akibarrtml. 


BkatUalU. 


Ttniill. 


SSbarl. 


KimkUI. 


Batsatrlml. 


KiUrTiml. 
KUlhU. 


Knrmnrl. 


DeidT 


BUtlU. 


MdiilU 


PaandrakUl. 


Ubha. 


Kukkatl. 


KUlDdl. 


JimmUil, 


BOThgrr&mi. 

Marndit^a felra {S4). 


Cbataribaiidl. 


Bhidai. 


Bila. 


Kichhati. 


UrnU, 


Sibatl. 


Urandlpiinl. 


JUmU Jbampatl. 
Ituithl. 


Simbi. 


Soplml. 


BaUL 


MMiatl. 


BU, 


Sarijil. 


K- 


BatnibaU, 


Kshetrarruul. 
DadUyfl. 


lIchcUiaTaUU. 


Kboijar. 




Putl. 

SoJa™»jrfra(30). 


Craxilambt. 


SlnpUir. 


TUoir. 


Kbandabatl. 


PUurl, 


Seta. 


Xikari. 


DadM. 


Sffl-' 


Samadra. 


Srlntrl. 


Ettiipliiil. 


Holarl. 
Vuniiil. 


KapUl. 
Tullart. 


Jasocrftmi. 
SlSS. 


VhuUlliill. 


Pawhattti. 





196 



Gain of Vttar-Bftreildras according to ''Qaore Brahman'^ :«^ 

Baisya. 



SSndilya. 


Kssyapa. 


Champati. 


Bh&durl. 


mjgehbL 


Karanjft. 


Lftbar. 


Simbi. 


NandanSb&si. 




Sihari. 




Bharadwsja. 


Ssbarna^ 


Rfti. 


Annftsani. 


Gopurba. 




SirasintliL 




jnnnnfti. 




Kulins made by Ball&l Sen : — 


Uheri. 


Haitra. 


B&(:clih1, 


Sanny&L 


Bhiduri. 


Hisra. 


Srotrivas divided b 


ly B&ja Kansa N§ 



(a) Siddha SrotHya. 

Karaiya. Larnll. 

Nandanftbftsi. Champati. 

BhattasSli. Jhampati. 

(b) Sddhya Srotriya. 

IlchcUiaraklii. Sihari. 

JSmniklii. R&l. 

Ratnibali. GoswiUambi. 



KU&yi. 

firihasodhani, 

Hadhng^&mi. 



KftUhSi. 
BhSdar. 



AturtU. 
K&lih&i. 



Bisi. 
Kar|)ari. 



{c) The rest are Kashta Srotriyas^ 

Hypergamous groups hhaba and sub-groups pat hi of Barendras formed by the learned 
social reformer Udayan&obarya Bhaduri :-— 

Gronpfl. Snb-gronpf. 

Knlin. JonSli. 

r Siddha, Nir&bil. 

Srotriya < SSdhya. Bhushnft. 

( Kashta. RohiU. 

KSpa, Chhagharift. Kutabkhftiii. 

All&khftni. 
Bhabftnipuri 
Beni. 



B&rendra titles :— - 

BSgh, tiger. 
Bherfti dkeep. 
Dhol, drum. 
Gappi, tell-tale. 

GoiJj P«g- 



Pftnjft, beap of bricks* 
P&thli, goat. 

Prachanda, furious. 

Tal&p&tra, bottom of a pot. 
Taulo, earthen x>ot. 



O&in of Saptasatis : — Arath^ Bftguri. Balthubi^ Bh&gai^ Dh§in^ Dhardhar^ Haluij Haturi| 
Jabagramij Jagai^ Kalui^ Edndare^ Kanthara^ Eanya^ Katadij K&tani^ Katuri^ Kusala^ Mulak-^ 
juri^ Nalsi^ Nanaksai^ Patari> Pharphar^ Pith&ri^ Sagain^ Sain> Sug&iuj U]al& Ulluk^ etc. 



PfischStya ( JonSri. 
Taidik. lKon&ri< 



Vaidik. 



SectiooB 


Greapi, 9amSj. 


h 


{ffoiroi.) 


( Jkharft. 
. \ Hadhyabh&g. 
( P&nkunda. 




SSndilya .. 










f JoSri. 


, 


Basishtha 


. jGaur&li. 
lAlftdhi. 
CVadhichi. 


1 


• 


( SSntam. 
• I Brahmapur. 
( HariehlgrSm. 




Sftbama 










rChandradwip. 
. ^Naradwip. 
(Kot&Up&rS. 




BhSradwija 




. 




Sannaka 


• SSmantasir. 

Local gfumpt. 






PurbbasthftU. 


- 




Bishnupnr. 






Bhttpiri. 
PuhMBanfa. 


. . . . - 



k 



197 



Brahmans of the following gotras came later on (1102 8ah or 1180 A. D.) and mixed np 
with the Paschatya Vaidiks : — 

Krishnatreya, Gautama^ Bathit&ra^ Easyapa^ Batsm Snnak^ and still later on (1403 Sah 
or 1481 A. D.) oame Brahmans of the Ghrita-Kansikn^ Kansika> Atreja^ Sankarshan^ Parasara^ 
Agnibesma^ Mandgalya^ U&rita^ and Upamanyu gofroi. 



DSkshln&tya Vaidik. KSsyapa. 

Gantama. 
iB&tsya. 

K&nw&yan. 

Kansika. 

Ghrlta-Kavsika. 

J&tnkarna. 

Stbama. 

The Dakshinatya Vaidiks have the following titles :— 



HypergainouB groopt. 

KaUn. 

Bansaja. 

Hanlik. 



Local groups or 8amHf» 



■ajilpur. 
B&Jpur. 



Tripatlii, Hisra, Pithak, Chakrabartt 



I 



oe2 



198 



7. Of the Mongoloid Tract. 



K HASI. 



From He Auam Ceutut Beport 1891, by E. A. GUT, I.C.8. 

The KidiU inliabit the western half of the district to which Ihej have given ilieir 
name. Thcnr were entirely independent nntil 1829^ when thqr were snbdned in the hostilitieB 
which resnfted from the treacherous murder of Lient^iaiits Bedingfield and Bnrlton^ who 
were engaged in supervising work on a road> which the Khasis had agreed should be constrocted 
through their coun^. The struggle was prolonged by the hiUmen, who were much assigted 
hj the mountainous nature of their country^ but eventual^ they yielded to the inevitable 
and a British officer was placed in general charge of their hiUs. They were not taxed and 
were left to manage their own affairs in their own way^ and even now the only occasions on 
wluch they are interfered with are when there are disputes between persons of different States 
or on the occurrence of serious crime. 
Physical The country is split up into a large number of small States^ each of which is managed 

oharao- ]yj {ts own head> or Seim, with an essentially republican constitution. The Khasis have no 
teristios. -traditions of an earlier home^ nor is anything known regarding the previous occupation or their 
present habitat by people of a different race. They are closely allied to the Syntengs, Lyng^ams, 
VjkoB, and Bhois, and have strongly marked Mongolian features^ — oblique eyes^ abroad bridge- 
less noBe> high cheekbonesi and a short head. In stature they are short and stnmpv^ but extremely 
well developed, especially about the calves, and even.the women are capable of carrying heavy 
loads which a native of the plains would scarcely be able to lift. They have little or no beards 
but the moustache is occasion^y fairly abundant. Their dispositioui more specially that of the 
women^ is cheerful ; they are industnous and by no means de6cient in personal courage. They 
are much addicted to gambling. 
Dress. The dress of the males consists of a sleeveless shirt, which reaches down to the middle 

and ends in a fringe reaching some three inches further. The women wear a striped cloth 
tied round the waist with another as an upper garment knotted over both shoulders. At festi- 
vals the women adorn themselves with gold and silver ornaments, and wear handsome dresses 
of silk. Coral necklaces are also in great request. 
Diet. They take two meals a day, and indul^ in dried fish and all sorts of meat except the flesh 

of the dog^ but, like the other tribes on this frontier, they will not touch milky which they 
look on as an excrement. They drink large quantities of liquor (both fermented and distilled)^ 
which they prepare from rice and millet, and are also addicted to the use of tobacoo and 
betel-nut^ and particularly the latter, which is chewed in large quantities by both sexes. They 
do not, however, consume opium or ganja. 
Proper- Whatever may have been the proportion of the sexes in the past^ recent censuses all 

tion of the ghow a large excess of females over males. Colonel Bivar was of opinion that the women 
sexes. 1*^^ longer than the men, and this explanation is, I thinks corroborated by the census fignres, 
which show a large excess of women between the ages of 15 and 86, and iJso of women over 
60. The slight deficiency of women between 86 and 60 is thus clearly accounted for by the 
feminine weakness of trying to appear very young, so long as it is not quite certain that they 
are very old. The only other explanation of the disproportion of the sexes which I am able 
to offer is that the men go frequently on trading excursionsi etc.^ to the ierau at the foot of 
the hills and die of fevers contracted there, and that large numbers are recruited yearly as 
transport coolies on frontier expeditions, or to work on roads in remote parts of the country. 
Casualties amongst these men would tend in some degree to increase the disproportion oi the 
sexes* 
Internal The Khasis are sub-divided into an immense number of exogamous clans or Fepts. The 

structure, theory is that these clans are composed of persons descended from the same female ancestor^ 
and intermarriage between members of tiie same clan is strictly forbidden. The mftatiiTig 
of the names used to denote these septs is not always known, but so far as I have been 
able to get translations, they may be divided into four main classes : 

(a) Totemisite, such as the pumpkin clan, the crab dan, the monkey clan, etc. In these 
cases it is supposed that the ancestor of the clan came from a pumpkin, crab, or a monkey, and 
I am informed that the Mem was formerly taboo to the persons designated by it. Nowadays, 
however, the old traditions are losing their hold upon the peoplci and the taboo is no longer 
strictly enforced. 

Cb) Names indicative of origin, such as Khar Shilot (' people of Sylhet '), Elhar Akor 
(< pohte Bengali '), etc. In former days before the British occupation, raids were constant^ 
being made on the people of the plains, and their women were carried off as slaves. The 
offspring of these slave women, who were also looked upon as slaves, were known by the name 
of tiieir mother, which thus became a new clan name. Clans with names denoting this origin 
are very conmion throughout the hills, and this no doubt accounts for the deviations from the 
gmeral Mongolian type of face which are occasionally to be noticed. 

{e) Nicknames applied to the original ancestor, such as Balit (white), DiikU (selfish)^ 
Klim (adultery) J Khrawjli (^reat abomination), ^. 



199 



(d.) OeeupalioHol, &s, for instance, the blacksmith cUd, the Baiiia cUn, and a few 
others. 

Each dan compriseB on an avera^ from 100 to 1,0(10 members, the larger ones being 
again divided into eub-clans. I have not been able to make out the utility or object of 
the latter, as the rale of cxogamy^ is invariably applied to the larger or main clan. 
I may note, however, that the same tendency of the old exogamoua gronps, to mib- 
divide themBelve§ into new ones is noticeable amongst many other trihes, c, g., the Mikirs, 
Garog, Lalangs, eto. 

Marriage ia a purely civil oontroot, and isusoally arranged by the parents or agents Marrieai 
of the parties. As a rale, no price is paid by either bride or birdegroom. There is no 
religions ceremony ; the bridegroom goes to the bride's house escorted by his friends and 
relations, and nest morning leads the bride to his own house, where he gives a feast to her 
and her relatives. After staying there for a day or two the newly-married couple return 
to the house of the bride, where they cohabit. Among the poorer classes, the bride remains 
in her mother's house, and the brid^room in his, but having free access to the bride 
whenever he may wish to visit her. When children are bom, if the husband is still satisfied 
ivith his wife he builds a separate house, to which he takes her and Uvea there with her and 
the children. 

There are very few restrictions on marriage. A man may not many a woman of his Beetria* 
own clan, nor may he marry his father's mother, sister, or aunt. Though not absolutely*'""".'^'* _ 
forbidden, it is also considered improper for him to many his father's niece during the ' 

lifetime of his father. 

A woman is the head ofthcKhasi family. So long as a man remains in his mother's Einabip 
house, whether he be married or unmarried, he is earning for his kur ((. e., his mother's family), ?'^**,?'^' ^ 
and his property goes on his death to his mother, or, failing her, to his grandmother. Should ® TJ 

the latter also be dead, his sisters inherit, and nest to them bis sister's children. In the 
absence of any of the above, the following relatives succeed in the order in which they are 
named, viz-, his brothers, ;)unts, aunt's children, great grandmother, great grandmother's 
sister or children. The brother's chddren can never succeed, as tbey belong to a different clan. 
When a Khasi has left his mother's bouse, and gone to live with his wife, his property defKienda 
to her and her children, with the exception of bis personal oruaments and clothing which go 
to his own brothers and aisteis. In the case of a female, the rales of inheritance are similar 
to those governing the descent of the property of a man living with his mother, except that 
in her case her children have a prior claim to succeed. All relationship is reckoned through 
the woman. 'Ilie child takes the clan of the mother, and even the Seim is followed by hie 
mother'* or sister's child. His own offspring enter the clan of his wife, inherit her property, 
and bear her family name. 

A man is thus, in practice, more nearly connected with his sister's children than with 
his own. It seems not unlikely that this is a relic of that promiscuous kind cf polyandry 
(vhich has been styled maternal, in which a woman of one clan might be visited by all or any 
of the men of another clan, and in which the paternity of children was consequently so uncer- 
tain that the only guide to kinship was through the woman. There are, however, no signs 
of polyandry at the present day, and no traditions of such a practice in the past, unless one may 
take as such the story that the group of monoliths near Subtynga was erected ages ago to the 
memory of a woman who had thirty husbands. 

Divorce is a very simple matter, and is effected simply by a public declaration, coupled Divorce, 
with the presentation by the man to the woman of five eowriei or copper coins, which she 
takes and throws away. Divorce is estremely common, and is resorted to for very trivial 
grounds, such as petty quarrels or n bad dinner, ^o stigma attaches to the divorced parties, 
and both are free to marry again. The marriage tie being so fragile, adultery or illicit inter- 
course is said to be very uncommon ; a man or a woman with a new fancy can easily dissolve 
any existing ties which may stand in the way of its legal gratification, while the very eoee 
with which this can be done not improbably tends to prevent the growth of those violent 
passions which often lead to mischief in more civilised communities. 

The practice of polygamy is usually said to be uncommon, and Colonel Bivar adds that 'itPolygam 
does not exist, in fact. ' It is, however, admitted that there is a great demand for husbands, 
and an educated Khuei, whom I have consulted, assures me that polygamy is by no means un- 
known. It was formerly considered meriterious for a Khasi to beget offEjiring by different 
wives, as he thereby increased the number of sacrifices to be offered to the shade of his mother 
when she died, and this was one of the reasons why so many woman were abducted from the plains 
in days gone by. Nowadays, however, there is no doubt that polygamy is falling into disrepute, 
and this and the excess of females over males is making it so difficult for parents to procure 
husbands for their daughters, that rospoctable families have often to many their girls to men 
far inferior to themselves in the social scale. 

The religion cf the Rhasis is a rado Animism or demon- worship. All ea^es of sickness or BeltgioQ. 
other calamities are attributed to the maligant influence of demons, whom it is necessary to 
propitiate. The particular evil spirit to be propitiated is ascertained by egg-breal^ing ; the offering 
which would be acceptable to the spirit is similarly ascertained, and the offering is tlien made. 
If the desired result does not ensue, the entrails of a fowl are examined ; if healthyj things are 
allowed to take their course ; if not, the whole process described above it* repeated. In some 
parts, the eacrifices are performed by a special class of priest called Lj-ngdohs, but no one who 
wishes is disqualified for performing these ceremonies. The Khasis have some idea of an after hie, 
but are very vague on the aubjcct. Some place their future in the sky, some on the earth, and 





300 

gfl^cn naia tibe caitL lliqr believe im a te-mkm of knAaad and wife 

exei^ wImbi thk I110 been ncdend mpoafible bj ti>e woman mMtijimg a^Uy 

the k ine to Uke if 1^ choc<ie« The Kmbbb aie tcij neep^e of ChmtiBni^^ 

cf die WcUi Mimm aaoi^rt Am Iwve been U^If Rineinfnl . A few ia Ik 

Sbdk knre beoome HhwfauondertiiepfoadjrtHmg nifhirnfM^ of a Eliaa 

ffe a fhfd a icit of YatefanannL* Smee us deaA, wkidi uctuiied a 

nniiber of Us etxrrerU bare b^wed to tbeir ocsgiiial bdeh. Tbe mnnher of 

4e KkUu is Teij maU, and oondirts ddeflf cf men wbo bare taken Kirice witk 

wate'Cariien or table oenrants, and bare been conrerted bj tbeir Mnnahnan fdlowr- 

Some few bare become conrerts to Biahmoism mider tbe teaddiig oi a small Biahio 

wUeb bas been estabfidied in ibe UDs and is aaid to be mtfUng witb feir soceem. 

Birtb Tbe mr/tber isDofcy asamongst Hindosy eonsideredtobeimekaaafte n ddld. 

mSl^^ Ia dauiemng it^ llie foDowing cereiiMnj is performed : A diriner altPiidis pvdfided wriHi a 
^oord faU of eovirtij qiirity a smaU qoantfty of powdered aod tormefiey a bow and tbee 

arrows. Three names are selected hj tbe maternal gnmd-moiberor other retire of the iniant, 
MnA the diriner th^n spreads the turmeric on a plantiin leaf, on which, after muttering acMhe 
incantations, he lets fall thre^ drops of eoontrj spirit. These drops rep r e s en t the time imaieB 
sdeeied and the one wbieh takes longest to £sdl from tbe gourd to the plantain leal^ indirateg 
which of the three names should be giren to the diild. The diviner then shows the hcmr and 
arrows to tiie babe, and exhorts him to beeome a brare warrior. In the caae of a fjemale 
child, a hatchet arid load strap take the jdace of the bow and arrows, ss symbdieal of the 'Saet 
that the woman ^s dntj in life is to work just as that of the man is to fight. 

Dlapoeal The Kb&sf bom their dead. Each clan Jias its own homing groond, whither the eocpse 

^Hy is carried wrapped up in a mat and bnmed hj the maternal relations. Before the eercmonj is 

performed, two arrows are shot, one to the west and another to the east, and a eoek ia then 
samficed. The arrows are intended to protect the dead on his jonm^ to another wodd, and 
tbe coek to show him his waj thither, and to wake him at dawn to parsoe his joomej. The 
bones are collected in an earthen pot and are eventoally placed in the common aepoldire 
of the clan, the removal thither being an occasion of much feasting and dancing, whidi eon- 
tinnes often for several days. Large upright ftones, groups of which are to be seen all orer 
tbe ELh&si HiUs, are sometimes erected in honour of the dead, the idea bong that their qpirits 
will be gratified by these memorials. Similar monoliths are mentioned by Colonel Dalton 
as being common amongst the Hos, Mundas, and Kirantis, and somewliat similar stones are 
aho eroded by the various Nag& tribes. 



201 



7. Of the Mongoloid 



LIMBU. 

IH. H. KlBLEYy CJ.B.'\ 

Limbu^ a laige tribe, probably of Mongolian descent^ ranking next to the Khambu and "^'^^^ItioAB 
above the Yakha among the three npper divisions of the Kiranti group. The precedence given ^'^K^n. 
to the Khambos is supposed to be due to their having a larger proportion of Khas and Newar 
bloody while the Limbus have interbred freely with the Lepchas. The Yakha are a minor tribe^ 
concerning which little is known. Unlike the other two^ they have no generally reco^zed 
honorific title, though they claim to be addressed as detoan and call themselves Yak Thon£a or 
yakherds^ with reference to the tradition that this was their characteristic occupation before the 
tribe crossed the Himalaya into Eastern Nepal. The name Limbu, or Das Limbu, from the* ten 
sub*tribes (really thirteen) into which they are supposed to be divided, is used only by outsiders. 
Tibetans have no special name for the . Limbus ; they call all the tribes of the Indian side of the 
Himalayas by the general name Monpa or dwellers in the ravines. Ihe Lepchas and Bhotias or 
Tibetans settled in Bhotan, Sikkim^ and Nepal speak of the Limbus as Tsong> because the five 
f'kums or sub-tribes includ^ in the class known as Lhasa-gotra emigrated to Eastern Nepal from 
the district of Tsang in Tibet. Lepchas call them Chang, which may be a cori-uption of Tseng. 
By other members of the Kiranti group they are addressed by the honorific title of Subah or 
Suffah^ a chief. 

The Limbus, according to Dr. Campbell, " form a large portion of the inhabitants in the Habitat, 
mountainous country lying between the Dud-Kosi and the Kanki rivers in Nepal, and are found 
in smaller numbers eastwards to the Mechi river, which forms the boundary of Nepal aud Sik- 
kim. X.U still fewer numbers they exist within the Sikkim territory, as far east as t!i e Tista 
river, beyond which they rarely settle. In Bhutan they are unknown except as strangers.'^ 
Hodgson locates them between the Arun Kosi and the Mechi, the Singilela ridge being their 
boundary on the east. The Limbus thems 3lves claim to have held from time immemorial the 
Tamba Khola valley on the upper waters of the Tamba Kosi river ; and the fact tbat one of 
their sub-tribes bears the name Tambakhola suggests that this valley may have been one of their 
early settlements. They have also a tradition that five out of their thirteen sub- tribes came from 
Lhasa, while five others came from Benares. The former gproup is called tha Lhasa-gotra, and 
the latter the K&si-gotra ; but the term gotra has in this case no bearing on marriage. All that 
can safely be said is that the Limbus are the oldest recorded population of the country between 
the 'Rlmra Kosi and the Mechi, and their flat features, slightly oblique eyes, yellow complexion, 
and beardlessness m^ perhaps afford grounds for believing them to be the descendants of early 
Tibetan settlers in Nepal. They appear to have mixed little with the Hindus, but much with 
the Lepchas^ who of late years have migrated in large numbers from Sikkim to the west. Dr. 
Campbell compares the two tribes in the following words : — '^ The Limbu is a very little taller 
in stature than the Lepcha, somewhat less fleshy, and more wiry in the limbs^ as tail in com* 
plexion^ and as completely beardless. He is scarcely ever as ruddy as the Lepchas sometimes are ; 
his eyes are^ if anytiiing, smaller, and placed more to the front tihan the Lepcha's, and his nose^ 
although somewhat smaller, is rather higher in the bridge than that of the Lepcha. He wears 
his h^ long, but does not plait it into a tail ; has no &ncy for bead necklaces ; wears 
a kukri instead of the bdu, * and wide trousers and a jacket or ehapkan in preference to tiie robe 
and long jacket of Lepchas.^' 

At the time of the Gnrkha conquest of Nepal the country east of the Arun Kosi was held by 
petty Limbu chiefs on quasi*feudal terms from the Hindu Bajas of Bijapur and Makwanpur, at 
whose courts representative Limbus discharged the duties of Channlra or prime minister. Tak- 
ing refuge in the hill forts with which each chief ship was provided, the Limbus offered a gallant 
resistance to the invading Gurkhas, and the latter underwent many repulses before their suprem- 
acy was fully established. Although used to bearing arms, and deeming themselves a military 
race^ they do not rank among the regular fighting tnbes of Nepal, and they are not admitted into 
the Oorkhali foments of the Nepalese army. Their principal occupations at the present day are 
agriculture, grazing, and petty trade. They serve in the Kiranti regiments liaised about 30 years 
ago by Jang Bahadur, and some of them have enlisted in our own Gurkha battalions. Some 
authorities believe t'lem, with the rest of the Kiranti, to be inferior in soldierly qualities to the 
Khas, Mangar, and Gurung tribes, from whom our best recruits are drawn, but this opinion 
seems to be giving way, among the presant generation of Gurkha officers, to a more favourable 
estimate of their militory capacity^ and their behaviour in the Sikkim campaign of 1888 is 
understood to have borne out the latter view* 

The internal structure of the tribe is extremely complicated^ and can best be studied in the Ix^ternal 
classification, where it is shown in a tabular form, 'the Limbus are divided into thirteen en do- ■^*°*^'®» 
gamous sub-tribes, each of which is again broken up into a number of exo^^amous septs, 'ilie 
names of the septs are extremely* curious. Two or three at the most are totemistio, a few are 
local or territorial, and one only is epsnymous. By far the greater number of them refer to some 

* The long, straight knife aied by the Lepohai. 



202 

j^ersonai adventure or peculiarity of the original founder of the S2pt, and they suggest the exist* 
ence of a considerable body of rather g^tesque folklore. The rule of exogaonr goes br tbe 
male side^ and is supplemented by forbidding intermarriage between persons aesoendeam a 
direct line from the same parents as long as any relationship can be traced* Intennanuge 
between cousins is barred for three generations^ or^ as some say, for seven. In praetioe^ 
liowever^ while the rule forbidding marriage within the ^iar is most strictly obsenred, there 
seems to be much uncertainty about prohibited d^^reesj and 1 believe near alliances with Hbe 
mother's kindred are by no means uncommon. A furthcor complication is introduced by the re- 
strictions on intermarriage arising from mitA (Limbu saiba) friendship or on fictitious brother- 
hood among most of the hill races. Two men coDtract friendship by a special ritual at which a 
Br&hman^ or^ when the parties are Buddhists, a Lama^ oflSciates^ and reads mantras or mystic for- 
mulse^ while the two friends thrice exchange rupeesi handkerchie&j or scarves, and daub eactt 
other between the eyebrows with the paste made of rice and curds which is used in the marriage 
ceremony. The efPect of the union is that the friends are reckoned as brothers, and inter- 
marriage between the two families is prohibited for several (some say eighteen) generations. 
Any breach of the rule is punished in British territory by exclusion from caste, in Nepalj I 
am informed; more severe punishments^ such as death or slaveiT; are inflicted. 

Members of the Murmi^ Lepcha, and Bhotia tribes may be admitted into the Limbu tribe 
after being approved by the tribal council, called by the Iambus tium'^ium, and giving a feast 
to the local community. In some cases the new member is required to file a written statement 
to the effect that he has entered the tribe and will abide by its rules. Khambus and Yakhas 
beuig Kirantis themselves^ may be admitted into the tribe by the simpler and more direet 
process of adoption. In any case the children of a Limbu man oy a Bhotia^ Lepcha^ Gurong, 
Sunawar^ Mangar, or Murmi woman^ or of a Limbu woman by a man of any of these groups, 
are admitted without question into tlie Limbu communily. 

The phlegmatic and utilitarian habit of mind whicn a German ethnologist has noticed 
as characteristic of the Mongolian races comes out conspicuously in the nonchalant attitude 
of the Limbus towards religion. Where their surroundings are Hindu^ they describe 
themselves as Saivas^ and profess to worship, though with sparing and infrequent observance, 
Mahadeva and his consort Gauri, the deities most favoured by the lax Hinduism of Nqpal. 
In a Buddhist neighbourhood the yoke of conformity is still more easy to bear : the Limbn has 
only to mutter the pious formula, om mani padme om^ and to pay respect and moderate tribute 
to the Lamas, in order to be accepted as an average Buddhist. Beneath this veneer of conform* 
ity with whatever fidth happens to have gained local acceptation, the vague shiqies of their 
original Pantheon have survived in the form of household or forest gods, much in the same way 
as Dionysus and other of the Greek gods may be traced in the names and attributes of 
the sainte who preside over the vintage, the harvest and rural festivals of various kinds in 
remote parts of Greece at the present day* Under such disguises, which serve to mask depar- 
tures from the popular creeds, the Limbus worship a host of spiritual beings whose attzibates 
are ill-defined^ and whose very names are not easy to ascertain. Yuma, Kapoba, and Theba 
rank as housdiold gods, and are propitiated once in five years, or whenever disease or loss of 
property threaten the &mily, by the slaughter, outside the house, of bufbloes, pigs or fowls. 
The votaries eat the sacrifice, and tiius, as they express it, '^ dedicate the life-breath to the 
gods, the flesh to ourselves." No special days are set apart for the ceremony; but it cannot 
be performed on Sunday, as that day is sacred to Him&riya. Those who wholly n^lect 
the duty are supposed to suffer in person or property, and the common hill disease of goibe is 
believed to be one of the special modes by which the gods manifest their displeasure. Temples 
and idols are alike unknown, nor, so far as I can ascertain, does the imagination of the Limous 
trouble itself to clothe its vague spiritual conceptions with any bodily form. 

Him&riya, the god of the forest^ is propitiated on Sundays by offerings of sheep, goatSj fowlsj 
pigeons, and Indian-corn. A stone under a tree by the roadside is smea^ with vermilion and 
dound with thread, and this place of sacrifice is marked by conseci'ated rags tied to a bamboo pole. 

In addition to these more or less beneficent, or at least neutral, divinities, the Limbus are 
compassed about by a mxdtitude of nameless evil spirits^ '^ who require peculiar management in 
warding off their caprices.'^ To appease and propitiate these is &e special function of the 
Bijuas, a class of wandering mendicants peculiar to Sikkim and tbe eastern parts of Nepal 
Bijuas are wholly illiterate, and travel about the country mattering prayers and incantations^ 
dancing, singing, prescribing for the sick, and casting out devils. They wear a purple robe and 
broad-brinmied hat, and are regarded with great awe by the people, into whom they have 
instilled the convenient belief that their curses and blessings will surely be fulfilled, and that 
ill-luck will attend anyone who allows a Bijua to leave his door dissatisfied. 

While tbe Bijua acts as exorcist and devil-worshipper for all the Him&layan races, the 
equally illiterate Phedangma is the tribal priest of the Limbus for the higher gnvies of spirits^ 
and officiates at sacrifices, marriages^ and funerals. He is also called in at oirths to foretell the 
destiny of the infant, and to invoke the blessings of the gods. The office frequentiy descends 
from father to son, but anyone may become a Phedangbo who has a turn for propitiating the 
gods, and for this reason the occupation shows no signs of hardening into a caste. 
Animism. It will be apparent from the facts stated above that the leading principle of the Limbn 

religion is AnimUm^ '' the belief in the existence of souls or spirits of which only the powerfol— 
those on which^ man^ feels himself dependent, and before which he stands in awe— aoqnixe 

the rank of divine beings and become objects of worship "^ Among tiie Limbus, as among 

" ' ■ - ■» - ■ 

• Tisk^ OMinH of the Eiitvry oftlU AneUni SeligioM. p. 9. 



flu »l>ori§^n« of Chota Nagjrar, wlio appear to have rawhed ft very tinriUr efaige of V 

deTelopment, this belief has given birth to a nnmber oE primitive miscellaneous divinities ^hose I 

functions are very vaguely defined, and who do not owe allteiance to any centraUscd authority. M 

This multiplici^ of deities would of itself seem to favour ^ groMtb of Sbamunium, a pheno- H 

menon which Sir John Lubbock rugards as a widely distributed phase of thought foTming a H 

necesEary nl^ge in the prt^nass of religious development. Others have gone so fikT as to use H 

Shamamsm as a sort of general name for all those animistic religions which make prominent H 

use of the agency of the Shaman. ^Vithout diiiputing the convenience, or indeed the necessity, H 

of introducing a class-name of some kind, I would uige that ^'hamanism is a term singularly I 

ill-siiitcd to serve as the designation of a large group of religions. For in the first place the fl 

practice which it denotes is common to religions of all varieties of culture, and is by no means ■ 

confined to the religions specialty called Shamanistic : and secondly, the word, while calling H 

attention to the superficial, fails to connote the essential charatterietics of the class of religions H 

in question. It may, indeed, possibly be the case, as has been hinted above, that the complicated H 

departmentalism of certain animistic religions, where the supreme power is cut up into fractions I 

and distributed among an army of gods, ghosts and demons, has led to the development of H 

Shamanism by leaving it uncertain to whom a man should apply for the alleviation of H 

any particular evil. The Shamans, like the touts v ho hang about our pubh'c offices, profess I 

to help people out of this difficul^, and to show them not only to what god their petition I 

should be addressed, but in what form they thould be couched, and by what ceremonies I 

introduced. But even on this shoving the practice is the ^pnEcquence, not the cause, of I 

certain primitive ideas ; and it is these ideas, not any of their more or less variable consei]uences, I 

which a definition should aim at eipressicg. Taken by itself, then, the word Shamanism seems I 

to fall short of completeness as a description of the Limbu religion. For all religions of that I 

type the term animism should be retained as denoting the entourage of v^ue spiritual H 

infloences which is of their essence. In dealing with these surroundings different agencies are I 

resorted to ; sometimes the fetish predominates; sometimes the medicine man. According as fl 

one or the other of these predominates, the particular form of animism may conveniently be H 

styled Fetishistic or Shamanistic. Following tms principle, the Limbu religion may be defined H 

as a rather elementanr form of Shamanistic animism, m which the Biju& and Phedangma play H 

the part of Shaman, the former operating on the demons, and the latter having for his depart- I 

ment the gods. Finally, we may perhaps hazard the conjecture that the original religion of the I 

Limbus is closely akin to the Pou or ancient religion of Tibet. In both we find the forces of I 

nature and the spints of departed men exalted into objects of worship. In both systems I 

temples and images are unknown, while propitiatory offerings occupy a prominent place. To I 

complete the parallel, neither reccgniee a definite priestly order, while ooth encourage resort I 

to Shamans or medicine men to ward off the malign influences which surround the human W 

race. ' 

Both cremation and burial are in vogue among the Limbus, the latter being the more com* Disposal 
mon, and probably the older, practice- The corpse is placed lying on ite back with the head ot taa 
to the east. The grave is lined with stones, and a eaim, consisting of four tiers for a man *'®^' 
and three for a woman, erected on the top. Ihe Phedangma attends at the funeral and delivers 
a brief address to the departed spirit on the general lot of mankind and the doom of birth 
and death, concluding with the command to go whither his fathers have gone and not to come 
back to trouble the hving with dreams. Neither food not clothes are pW;ed in the grave, but 
sometimes a brass plate with a rupee in it is laid under the head of the corpse. For nine days 
after the funeral the sons of the deceased live on plain rice without any salt ; and for a month or 
two the relatives wear flowers in their hair and avoid merry-makings. The special and charac- 
t«ristiu sign of mourning is a piece of white rag tied round the head. There is no periodical 
ceremony for the propitiation of ancestors. 

At a man's death his sons, natural or adopted, divide his property ; but an adopted son or loherit- 
a natural son by a wife informally married (ioc^c^t (^urfi) takes only one-half of a legitimate*^*'^' 
son's share. The division of the property is usually made by the tribal council {thuM-thum), 
who set apart an extra share for tho oldest son. The youngest son is allowed to choose his 
share first, and the other shares are then allotted by the tAum-tAtiiii. Failing sons, tho sons-in-law 
actually living in or willing to live in the family homestead are entitled to divide the property. 
Brothers are me next heirs, and married sisters, if they attend the funeral, usually get a small 
share in the inheritance, although it is said that they have no positive right to claim this conces- 
sion- An exception to these rules of devolution occurs in tho case of daijo or property given to a 
sister or daughter or acquired from a maternal uncle or father-in-law. This is equally distributed 
among the sons of the woman to whom or on whose behalf it was given, and in the event of her 
dying without children it reverte to her own family. This simple customary law is administered 
by the headmen of the tribe, and hardly any instancca are known of Limbus having resorted 
to our courts for the settlement of disputes regarding property. 

The Limbus stand wholly outeide of the Hindu caste system, and their social position can Social 
only be defined with reference to the other Himalayan races. They belong to the upper division Statos. 
of the Kirinti gr'up, which inhabits the middle hills of the Himalayas and rardy descends 
below an elevation of 2,000 feet "Within this division the Limbus take rank below the Khambu 
and above the Yakha, but this distinction is probably unknown beyond the limits of the Kiranti 
group, and in the eyes of society at laige the three tribes occupy practically an equal position. They 
oonsider themselves, and are regarded by others, as superior to the Danuar, Hayu, and Thami, 
who make up the lower-division of the Kiranti. Their relations to the people of Nepal ate less 
easy to define. They are certainly deemed inferior to the Khas, and probably also to the 
Man^ars and Gurungs, both of whom are classed as military tribes. Newars hold a place eecood 



KM 



ctSf to iiie Klan; Onmngs aie isfierior to ^ Newns. Mugir and Sunwir bare tiieir flam 
iMsCfc to tlie Gumiigv; LhnbiiB, Kbambas, and Yaklias are m^iOT to tbe Mangar and Sunwar. 

In the matter of food, thej bare resy few prejudices. Ther eat beef, perk, and iiie flesh of 
aH clean-feeding animals, and drink wine. In fact, the onljr lestrieticvis on tiieir diet appear to 
be tfaoae impoaed on oeitam iJkan by the obligation not to eat ibe totom or bast-eponjin of the 
gnrnp* Tbqr will est with all tbe castes of tibe bills except tbe Kami, Dami, Sakxit aiid Gain. 



1. Piithar . 

2. Chhothar 



IITEBHAL 8TBUCTIJBE OF THE UMBIJ. 

« M. 

LUBC, Bas, LiaAi, TaktfcuAa, Tang, Ckng. 

TiOe :— {Uha W Sllffah (chief). 
Snb-tribes (^Atmi &r fhmm^thmm). 

m Aii«h««»«i • - • • 'f Classed as Kisi-gotra, supposed to bare immi- 

StIJSSp : : :\ g«ted mto Xepd W Benares. 

§. liikh^U or Ter«thar 

& ■aibhola * * C- ^^•"^^ •■ Lhasa-gotra, supposed io bare come 

9. Phedib or nmiidivta ' ^ "^ " 

10. TambrkhoU • 

Sept8 (tbar). 



Of the PiDthar smb-tribe 



Of tbe Chhothar snb-tribe 



Of tbe Ahtharai sub-tribe 



1 



from Lb&sa. 



/ 



Anfrdenba, lord of tbe forest. 

Giehmf om^ a natiye of Cbebm. 

Chikchibi. 

Chob^ii. 

Hangsnemba. 

Ingmaba,' be wbo kept fowls. 

Kemngma. 

Kokenamba, be wbo rises widi tbe son.' 

Laoti, be wbo was obeyed. 

Lnhi. 

Manglagpa,^ the dancer. 
Mephagpa, the bntcber, literally, pig-roaster. 
niejoniy tbe ApuA^rt-bearer, inomding (a) Ifem^ 
I hang, (6) ^ardak^peapL 
\ nieodan, tbe watcn>carrier. 
Phyagpa, tbe knife-grinder. 
Senna, rent- collector. 
Song tongphe, tbe new settler. 
Thekim, be wbo works in wioker, incliiding 
the following snbHwptB :-»(a) Meongba, (b) 
Thamsong, (c) ChobegQ, (d) Petebhimba, (e) 
Angbu, ibe forest-dweller, (f) Yakten, formerly 
doctors. 

Toktiham. 
TnmbatM), the eldest. 
Tnmbrok, bom of a st^p-mother. 
Yangdenba,' be who p%id his footing. 
Yangsoba or Namlagpa, the chief of the tribe. 

Bargharri, the twelve brethren. 

Khema,' a pheasant. Apparently totemistic. 

Khojom, he who ate his earnings. 

Knmmbhong,^ the divider of the Tillage. 

Legma, the worker in mnd. 

Hadcn, the son of his mother. • 

Sangma,^ a buffalo. Apparently totemistio. ' 

Tellng, the worker in cane. 

ThOgleng, the suicide. 

TangcAongi the discontented. 

Angbohang, kiug of the fir wood. 
Inglamphe, the liar. 
Kondongwa, the vagabond. 
Pomo, the large &mily. 
ThenglahbO, the native of Thenglah. 
Tshendangkya, he who lives apart. 
Yakshoma, the guardian of tbe fort.* 



1 TIm ancMtor of thif Mat was ridden (poMenedF) by a god, and danced. 

* niMfndid from a If e«h who got admlMton Into the Ximba trlba by bribing the headi of the ihum-ikum 

* Thia iftor will not eat a phea«uit or fowl Or any Mid of that oh^t. Thp itory is that the to^n^t went oat to shoot phmiwits In a llr 
eopse, bat foond none, and vowed nerer to eat a pheaiuit acab. 

• thf f oaader of this tlmr is sal9, for reasons not Btatel, to IiaTe divided his village intatwo parts }a dxawiw a Una ( 
.>^jtaf«lotet«boot«tbisll»PilhsUimdiathea»meJMUiat€(ths]Ehima4i#>. . ^ r^ 






205 



Of the Yanfornp sub-tribe . 



Of the Clulbiu Bnb-iribe 



Of the HiSkhola or Terothar sub-tribe . 



Of the Clurkhola rob-tribe 



Of the Phedftb sub-tribe 



' Inpyaromba. 

Khebailfba, the aative of Kbebang. 
Khingbat branch of the aame eept maj not intir- 

marry. 
IfCChenChfl, the dissolute one. 
LekliOl^ina, he with swollen testes. 

LiSuolini i -^"l^i***^ *"■>* '^"^ Lepchas. 

MahUlo, bmnch of the same sept may not inter* 
marrj. 

Mangmn. 

Menyangbo, the onsucoeeaful one. 

Hongtnpo. 

PhawahOBg, the name of a village. 

Pondha, the wanderer. 

Poktebn. 

Serlinf, the thief. 

Snwahonr, the mendicant. 

Ilwhbeh,' 

nmpnkn. 

Tnnulnf. 

YakpaiudeD, the dweller on the pass. 

Vyiin, the wanderer, or eater. 

Yithln^O) the bnntsman. 

Yonpyahang, the eon of a chief. 

YnnginS, the idler. 
/ LhoTinaten,* the chief of tbe Korrun^. 
I Hemopharpa, 
' Papson, t£e adopted one. 
I Pidtai^nia,* the son of Gxe monkey. 
\ Sonyokpa, the goardian of the new fort 
fHinsam, the king's officer. 
I Libang, the archer. 
. NaUibo,* he who chased his wife. 

ThOilong, the ragged one, 
\ Tsonbang, he who listens and profits. 
/ Aktenhailffi name of a domestio demi-god, 
I LiDf dam, admitted from the Lepohaa. 
I Habbn,' the phjsioian. 

Nembang, the swollen one. 

Photro. 

IllOgphell^^ he who wean Uie rhododendron 
flower. 

Yonfyabang, the aristocrat. 
/CUkkophmig, he who planted tbe brihatifi 

HupachoHgba^, he who was blessed and 
prospered. 

IsbO, name of a village. 

Khamapong, the dweller under the bar (FwM 
Indica) tne. 

Lokmahang. 

LmnphOBgina, those who shared the land. 

Maden. 

MiUDbAIIg, the lowland ohief . 
Nlnglckku, one who outs poisonons plants. 
Obanc-gyakpa, the dweller above the fountain. 
Pkehun, the singer. 
.( PkO-OmphD) the hangman. 

Phnngthl^, he who stole to order. 
Ponn'ailgll, he who carries his goods on his baidci 
.S6IUIUillf) sons of the snow-chief. 
Kingogpa. 
Sodemba, the apy. 

Sontirbailgplie, the dweller in the valley. 
SOHlilkobilt a resident of So-onku. 
Sotliniia;, name of a village. 
lliainbdeD, the stay-at-home. 
Tberaba, the son of the cliff. 
ThObnkya, he who has skin disease. 
Tmnbangplie,' the earth-born or Bhuiphuta. 
\ YDrumbaili:, they of the oential village. 



* in iwa j iioM lilar, nuud illai Thdibd, •on d 
Mlitou. tt* fovndir <d ttai pnMot ndloa ijiaHiji K< 

* TUa tifr m totmaij nndn lb* MofrontMH- 



Hlui*. thi powufal ohUf of Uu Llmbiu, doo* d«U*d, who Ahvht ■■■iiiil PiUU 



■ Th* Mmj li tbittba wiliottlietMiidirotttWUar ran *itti Inm bin, bal hi oof hi b« ind hraiicht h« tacfc, lod aftanntda W 
■ Isrp bmllT oj hn. 

'^Utmltj>dak*TinMwhDbdiici]ddDbT|hc*li(ndrrtliil»kHhlmMUh«g:h<DC« ■ pbjrtilu, 
' ' " « bW«r bM^ w«d fci BUJtod parpom. 



' ThtaUar gUBileb*(«Tfl;arf, uidpeiat nt khof* ra 



ir loaBdu ■pnoc (raa tb* outh. 



206 



Of ihe Tambrkhola fub-tribe 



Anffl&h. 

AnUbinf^. 

Baidohanf^. 

B&khim. 

Chempajonf^. 

Chnnfb&iiji^. 

Hemphft. 

Hnkp&h. 

Ichommali. 

Ikteh. 

n&mh&ng. 

Imsonf. 

Ithlnku. 

K&mbfth&ii;. 

K&mbftng. 

Kephuk. 

Khftmtli&k. 

Khobaiponf. 

Khuadan;. 

KunbUiOiiff. 

Laktomilhilng. 

Lint^enbeli. 

Linf^lftinplieiL 

Lngnmah. 

■aiu^yak. 

Hanji^yoiif. 

Hnr^iiiah. 



Lef^baliaiif. 

liiifkhiin. 

On-ChhombO, the horse-seller. 

Phendnft,^ the hammerer of iron. 

Sahinbahani:. 

Ssahoden, bom in famine time. 
Thup-yumall, name of a place. 



Septs. 



Nafireii. 

IVenn&h. 

Noffo. 

P&ln. 

P&rkhari. 

Pat&lans* 

Pekh&. 

Petungrbah. 

Phalechhuah. 

Pheyak. 

Ponth&k. 

Samwah. 

S&nffbah. 

Sanjokmah. 

Sednah. 

Sekwahdenf. 

Sene. 

Sinfjanickuk. 

SinKJuk. 

Snkhon;. 

Sukwabah. 

TaiJaaniT. 

Tildint:. 

Tonffbaiiji^boha. 

Tumkohonf. 

Yongyah. 



1 TUf fhw wu foniMrlj the bUolntnitlu of the tribe. 



807 
?. Of the Mon^lold Tract. 



ANGAMIS. 



From tie Juam Centii Sepoft 1391, by E. A. GAIT, I.C.S. 

The An^^&iniB are the tugest of the Nftgi tribee of which I have any knowledge. TheAngSmla- 
portion of the tribe oenBiised oocopies 66 villages, with a population of i6,*:S». In addition to 
these, tliere are 14 Tillages, with a population of some 6,000, lying outside the distriot boandary 
in the piece of country bounded on the west by the Brahmaputra-Iiawaddy watershed range, 
OD the north by the Theiir liver, on the east by the Tisu river, and on the aonth by the Lanier. 
The cenanBed poriion of the tribe in 1891 oooupied the coontry drained by the Zullu, Sijia, 
and Znbza riverB, which all have their origin in the Japvo or Burrail range of hills. This 
range forms the boundary of the Angftmi, country towarda the south. 

The name An^ml, by which this tribe is known to us, is a corruption of OnamM, the 
name by which the tribe is known to the Manipuris, through whom we first came into contact 
with tbem [the Ang&mis). The name^ whioh they call themselves is Tengima, while th^ 
are known to the sarroonding tribes of Kezhamas, Semas, and Lhotas as Tsogh&mi, Tsangnmi, 
and Ttangho. 

The AnffftmlB assert that their people originally came trooi the south, %.e., the direction Origin. 
of Manipnr. They 6rst occupied the spurs just under Japvo, and thence spread north-west and 
north-east. Their accounts of their origin are extremely vague and nntmstworthy, as is to be 
expacted in the ease of a people who have no written language. 

The Angiml tribe is divided into three main dirisioni, — the CAakroma, who live in a few Tribal 
small villages in the western portion of the country ; the Tengima proper, occupying the central diviaions. 
portion, and the Chakrima or Eastern Aogftmls, who occupy the country eouth and east of 
Kohiraa on both sides of the watershed range. The Chakroma, who represent but a very small 
peroentaga of the whole tribe, are practically identical with the Tengima in appearance and 
language. Between the Tengima and Chakroma, however, eBpecially that portion of the tribe 
which inhabits the villages on the right hanlc of the Sijju river, there are very marked differen- 
ces, both in dialect and general appearance- The differences in dress, out of hair, etc., between 
these two divimona of the tribe are in faot greater than those that exist between tribes that are 
really different, suoh as the Lhotas nnd Aos, and it is only by an examination of the language 
spoken by Tengima and Ckakroma that we find that they really belong to the same tribe. 

The Angftmls are distinguished from the other tribes within the district by their method Oultivt- 
of cnltivaton. While all the other tribes, including the western or CiaiiroMd portion of the^^*"** 
Ansibnl tribe, raise th«r rice crops by yA«mt«;, the Angftmis raise their rioe crop ad irrigated 
terraces. These terraces are excavated with great labour and skill from the hill sides, and are 
watered by means of channels carried along the contour of the hills for long distances and at 
excessively easy gradients. 

The questions of whence the Aiurftmls first got the idea of their terraced cultivation^ and 
why they adopted a system which at the outset must have entailed an immense amount of 
labour, have often been uaked ; I think the answer must be that this system of cultivation 
gradually spread northwards from Manipur until it reached the Ang&mlB, who adopted it for 
the following reasons : 

(1) A desire for a better kind of food than job's-tears and ionidian, the only Jium crops 
whioh can be succesBfully grown at high elevations, and which, from the analogy of the 
Mazung tribe, whose villages are situated at elevations equal to or higher than the older AngAmi 
villages, may safely be assumed to have been in days gone by the Angftmis' staple food. 

(2) The impossibility of raising a sufficient orop of this better kind of food, i.t,, rice, except 
by a system like that of irrigated terraces, which their neighbours to the south were already 
practising, and which allows tbe same land to be used year after year without the necessitr^ 
which occurs in the case of /^iim cultivation of throwing up the lutd after two years' cultiva- 
tion and allowing it to lie fallow for eight or ten years. 

(3) A good water supply, which rendered the system of irrigated cultivation possible. 

The Ang&mis live in, for the most part, Ui^e villages, reacliing in the case of Kohima to Tribal 
over 800 houses. These villages are, as a rule, strongly situated on the tops of hills. The customs, 
houses in a village are all built close together without cnuch attempt nt arrangement, and the 
whole is surrounded by an almost impenetrable fence of some thorny shrub and huge etinging 
nettles. The approaches to the village are by narrow sunken paths, the entrance to the actual 
site being guarded by a strong wooden door now-a-days rarely or naviT shut. 

A village is, however, far from being a united community, as might have been expected. 
The unit of N&ga society is not the village, but the ' khel' called by the AngAmls themselTes 
' lepfu ' or ' tino . Many of these exist in each village. In Kohima there sre reven sucb sub- 
divisions. The members of each ' khel ' or ' iiito ' are supposed to be deecendtd from a common 
ancestor, whose name the iiei bears. These kheli are exogamous sab-divisions. Between the 
ikelt in the same village great rivalry exists, which in old days used to lead to blood feuds and 
freqnent fighting, indeed, the inter-itiff^ feuds wcore and are br more bitter than inter-village 
fends. Inter-vi^tge feuds are now practically extinct, but inlei-iM fends are still kept alive 



208 

ssd lenk net infreqaentlj at the g^eat drnkm^ festiTals in nota and free figliti^ hi whidi 1ms 
areoecaMnalljrlost, 1 know of nolnfiou Tiila^oCanj oie wliichunotdiTidedagaiBit Haelf 
bjr the bitter uodi whidi ezift between its component paru. The following eitact from a lepart 
bj Mr. Cime?7, then Political 0£cer in the Xsgi UiUb, dated the 12th Sqitember 1876, will 
f h&w the otter want of combination which exists in an ordinary AnfiHi Tillage. He writei : 

'^In the middle of Joljr a partj of 40 men of Mosema went over to 'Ki^^m^^ and were 
admitted bf one of the HeU friendlj to them, living next to the Podiabama qnaiter^ into 
which thej paieed Jod killed all they- ooold find, tiz., <me man, fire w<Hnen, and twenty ycfong 
children* fie people of tie oiler llels made mo effort to imiiffere^ btU stood lootiu^ om 
* * * * Obe of the on-lookers told me that he never nw sodi fine apart (i>., 
the kilKne of the children), for it was jnst like kQling fowls." 

Soch scenes as theseare of course tbinsrs of the past, but the spirit whidi rendered tliem 

CMible still exisiSi and renders all real combination amongst even cme tribe imposBble. I 
re dwelt on this point at some length, as the fact of the non-ezistenoe of anj poasibilitj for 
miited action by even <me Tillage, let akne a whole tnbei does not seem to be vexj widelf 
known. 

The following is a list of some of the ezogamons snb-diTinons existing amongst the 

Daikkotsiau. Pnehitsoma. Chaletsnnuu Chatsnnuu 

Chitonoma. Kototsmna. LerisoionuL Meyitttsuaiu 

Retrama. GiezoiotsmiiE. Xisonoma. Tekrei 

Pn^etsnma. Tihntsnnuu Dziniomoma. Rwi 

Toloma. Phetsnma. Tiama. KaMi 

Iteftma. Kipfoma. Dzirama. Meratttii 

■ekroma, PaToma. Tenginnma. Kiihaniwa. 

Botfonuu Kezaioma. Gierima. Tuu. 

Sema. Hepfoma. 

Tills list conld be added to without any trouble, bat it seems useless to go on adding to a list of 
names, which are, except to a Naga^ absolutely meaningless. 
Marriage As stated aboTC, the lleh amongst Aiigiiiii8 are exogamous sub-diTisions. A mAn is 

onstoms. therefore obliged to look for his wife amon^ the women of a llet different from his own. 
Marriages are, therefore, usually not love matches, at least as far as the girl is concerned. The 
following sketch giTCs the procedure followed in the Tillage of Khonoma by a young man who 
is anxious U> many. Having selected the girl he would like to many, he informs his fotiier. 
The father then sends a friend to the girl's house to interview her parentsiy with a view to 
ascertain whether they will allow the match or not. If a faTourable reply is reoeiTed from the 
girl's parents, the father of the young man will on an auspicious day (inauspicious days are 
days on which there has been a death in the village, or during which there has ooenrxed an 
eclipse of the snn or moon or an earthquake) at sunrise ascertain, by strangling a fowl and 
vratching which way in dying it crosses its legs, whether the intended marriage is likely to be 
a prosperous one or not. Should the omens be unfavourable^ the arrangements for the maniage 
are at once broken off, but should the omens be ^vourable, the |;o-between will again be sent 
to inform the parents of the girl of the fact. The girl's opinion is then asked, and should she;, 
within the next three days, dream no dream uufavourable to the idea of the intended maniagei 
formal consent is given by her parents. A day for the wedding is then fixed. On that day 
the father of the bridegroom sends some pigs^ usually two or three (the number varies accord* 
ing to the wealth of the parties), a few seers of salt, and some liquor to the house of the 
bxide's parents. These pigs are then killed, and a feast given to the llel men and friends of 
the bride, who also take away small portions of meat wrapped in plantain leaves. The same 
night at about 9 or 10 p.m. the bride goes to the house of the bridegroom's parents, carrying a 
small lao of liquor and a little cooked meat in a basket She is acoompanied by two men 
and two women carrying four laos of liquor, 100 or more pieces of cooked meat, and 10 or 12 
pieces of uncooked meat, by a small boy carrying a cup of liquor, and by some 40 or 50 
members of her own kheU On arrival at the house the bridegroom is summoned, and he and 
the bridei first the man and then the woman, eat some of the meat and drink some of the 
liquor brought by the bride. The bridegroom then returns to his ' deka elang^ and the oom-' 
panions of the bride, after receiying a few fowls as presents, return to their homes, only two 
women and one man remaining to sleep with the bride at the house of the bridegroom's father, 
receiving in the morning a present of one fowl each. 

On the second day the bride and bridegroom again eat together, the bridegroom returning 
at night to his ^ deka ehangy and the bride remaining in his father's house. On the morning 
of the third day the young couple go together to the bridegroom's cultiyation, the g^l carry* 
ing a *lao^ of liquor, some food, and a hoe. The man carries only his spear. Arrived at ms 
cultivation, first the man and after him the woman take the hoe and do a little hoeing« A 
little rice and liquor is then placed od the ground as an offering to the deity. The •couple 
then eat and drink together. They then return home, the man cuttmg on the way home a fow 
sticks of firewood, which are brought home by the woman. On her return the woman goes to 
her father's house, and brings thence to her husband's house a few laoe of liquor and some 
cooked meat. A feast is then given to the neighbours and children. That night the jroung^ 
couple kill a fowl in order to see whether ti^eir marriage will turn out well or the rererse. 
They then wait for another seven or eight days. At the expiration of this period the high 
priest of the llel is called in. He sacrifices a chicken, and the ceremony of marriage is oom* 

Elete. Until the completion of the oeremony the bride and bridegroom do not sleep together, 
ut after the completion of the ceremony cohabitation is allowed. 



The Anosmia do not practise polr^my. CliUdren faVe the oaate of the father, i. e„ 
bcltrnj? to his khd. Thia is the rale in all Xaga tribes. 

Divorces aro frequenL smongst (be AllffftnifSf and ocoar for various reasons, nicb as Diroroo. 
infidelity on the part of the woman, incompalibility ot temper, and faihire on the part of the 
woman to bear cliildren. 

If a won[ian is divorced for infidelity, all her clothes, beads, etc., are taken by her hmbaiid, 
and her family are fined the amoant of the expenses incurred by the husband's fsmily for the 
marriago. Sbonld, however, a wife be divorced for any reason but some fault of ber own, ^be 
receives one-third of all the grain that there is in the house at t'le time. Should a womaa 
leave bcr husband for no fault on his part, but merely because she finds she does not like him, 
&he then has to repay to him the espenges incurred for the marriage. 

Divorced women, women who have left tlieir husbanda for any reasou, and nidow-s who 
have no children, etc., go to reside again in their fathers' houses, and can remarry at pleasnie. 
Widows with children are not rappored to remarry, having to devote themBelves to the briuging 
up of their children. 

During a man's life time his aone, aa they marry, receive their share of his landed Rules or 
property. Sbouldj however, a man die, leaving several unmarried sons, these will all receive inli©rit- 
e(|ua1 shares. As the eons marry, they leave the paternal mansion, and build houses of theif *°*'®- 
own. Tlie youngest son, therofort', in practice nearly always inherits his father's house. 
Daughters receive no share in their father's property except amongst certain of the Eaetem 
AngJinii villages. Should a man die, leaving no male heirs, his property is, as a rule, divided 
amongst his nearest male relations. If he has daughters, these daughters would ordinarily be 
entitled to receive n-i portion of his property. A man can, howev*'r, by word of mouth, 
bequeath to his daughter or daughters such portion of his property as he may consider fit. 

In the case of a married woman, poss-essed of property in land in her own right, dying 
without children, her property would, if not sold to meet her funeral espcnses, revert to her 
nearest male relations. 

As soon as a m it" dies, his body is washed by his son, if he has one. In the case of a Funeral 
woman, this duty is performed by her daughter. The body is then covered over with a white o®""®* 
cloth, and a basket containing dhait, koitidhda, job's-tears, yams, Indian corn, and garlic is 
placed by the side of the body. Preparations are then at once made for the funeral feast and 
for the funeral, which always takes place the evening after a man's death. The funeml feast 
is proportionate to the wealth of the deceased. One cow Is about the least that can be 
sacrificed, and it not infrequently happens that a man's whole property goes in fumisliing 
forth his funeral feast. 

The cows for the feast, having been procured, are killed in the early morning by an old 
man of deceased's khd. The livers, heads, and certain portions of the meat having been set 
apart, the rest is distributed amongst the family members, relations, and friends of deceaaed, 
portions being often sent to intimate friends residing in other villages. 

The ceremony of the distribution of meat being over, the funeral obsequies are proceeded 
with. The coffin, a rough wooden bos without a lid, having been got ready, the deceased's 
father-in-law, if he have one, or, if not, some friend from another kkel, enters the houee iu 
which the body is lying, and standmg on the left baud side of the body, places a plain spear 
down on the right hand side of the body. In the case of a woman, a black cloth takes the 
place of the spear. Having done this, be cuts off a small lock of the dead man's hair. The 
coffin is then brought into the house, and a wisp of thatching-grass is burnt inside it. This 
done, the body is placed in the coSJn, at its right hand being placed a dao, two spears, and a spUt 
stick with bamboo ribbon tor kindling fire after the A'i^a fashion. The coffin is then brought 
out for burial in the grave, which is usually dug close to deceased's house. I append a 
description of an An; &mi burial taken from an old diary of Mr. McCabe's : 

" The grave was about 6 feet deep, close to deceased's house. The body was wrapped in 
new cloths, and was encased in a regular coffin without the lid. Before the coffin was lowered 
into the grave, the male friends of the deceased, each with a shield and a couple of spears, 
(lanced about, howling at the top of their voices and tears streaming from their eyes. The 
women were not to be ontdone in shrieking, and rushed about with arms outstretched, slapping 
the ground with their cloths. As the ootlin was Uiwered, the women ran forward and tried to 
hold it back, and as it finally disappeared, a most doleful shriek was raised and the corpee was 
thus addressed : 

" Do not be afraid ; do not mourn. You have only followed ytiur parents' custom. 
Although you have died, let us remain happy. Although God baa not been kind to you, and 
you have died, fear not. " 

" Inside the coffin, and at the right hand of the deceased, two spears and a dao were 
plaeed. Large fiat stones were then used to form the lid of the coffin, and the crevices wei« 
carefully filled up with rubble. At this sti^e of the proceedings, the friends of the deceased 
suddenly stopped sobbing, dried their eyes, and marched off in a most businesslike manner. 
A civilised Naga, who had been as demonstrative with his umbrella as bis warrior friends 
bad been with their spears, solemnly closed it and retired. A lari^e basketful of dhan 
konidkan, dhall, and job's-tears was now thrown into the grave, and over thia the earth was 
rapidly filled in." 

Subsequent to the funeral the following ceremonial is observed : 

On the day after the funeral the friends and relations of the deceased, together with one 
man of another kkel, go to deceased's house, and there eat the meat of the heads of the cowi 
and the other reserved portions except the livers. The skulls are then taken to the grave, and 



210 



Beligion. 



Village 
feetivals. 



fixed up over it^ together with a shield^ spear^ and ornaments^ such as cane-leggingiif etc^ 
worn by deceased during his life-time. 

In the case of a woman^ her basket^ weaving sticks, etc.^ are placed over the grskve. Food 
18 then again partaken of at deceased's house, and the members of another iAel who are 
present proceed to cook the livers of the cows set apart for this purpose. When eookei, a 
piece ot liver with salt and chillies is given to each member of deceased's tAmHy, who, in 
perfect silence, throw each his piece out of the house to a distance of eight or nine 'paces. This 
ceremony being completed, all those present return to their homes. 

On the second day after the funeral, seventeen portions of cooked rice, with a little salt, 
are tied up in plantain leaves. These are buried outside the house on the fourth day. On the 
fifth day from the funeral, deceased's wooden platter and drinking-cup are hong^ ap by a 
string inside the house. At the expiration of thirty days, this string is undone and thrown 
away. The platter and cup are g^ven to one of deceased's intimate friends* About the 
fortieth day deceased's family sacrifice a cock, the flesh being eatei> equally by alL The oera- 
monies conhected with the funeral are then complete. 

Very young children are usually buried inside the house. The bodies of women dying in 
childbirth are taken out through the back of the house, and buried without any ceremony 
whatever. 

The Angilmis have practically no religion. Tbey recognise a supreme creator called 
Terhopfo or Keponopfo^ They also believe in the existence of evil spirits which reside in rocIcBy 
trees, and pools of water. These are usually propitiated in cases of illness by olFerings of 
fowls, pigs, or cattle. Customs similar to these are common to the whole of the N&gt and 
Kuki tribes within this district. Of a future state after death, their ideas are extromelj 
vague. They certainly believe that the soul does not die with the body, but what beoomei 
of it they cannot say, resembling in this respect more civilised nations. 

The chief Angrftmi village festivals are those called Terhengi and Sekrengi. 

The Terhengi is celebrated within a short time of the completion of the harvestj and it 
in fact the ' Harvest Home ' festival. As the Terhengi marks the end of the year's work 
for the Anffftmij so the Sekrengi marks its commencement, being held shortly before the new 
year's work in the fields is b%un. Both festivals last for ten days, and bow axe occasions for 
the imlimited consumption of zu (rice beer), pork, and beef. 

During the Terhengi are given most of those big feeds which wealthy N&gas give, in the 
not vain hope of handing down their names to future generations. Such feasts, at which a 
man's guests are numbered often by hundreds, cost not infrequently in kind and money as 
much as £700 or B800. The slaughter of ten head of cattle and 20 or SO pigs is no unusnal 
thing. So much meat, of course, entails the use of enormous quantities ot rice, both for 
food and liquor, and it is at the ceremony of pounding this rice, which takes place a few days 
before the feast begins, and at which the whole of the adult males of the host's kiel assist, 
that the AnOTftmi warrior is seen to the best advantage. On such occasions he, to use a slangy 
phrase, ' puts 'em all on/ and a crowd of fine athletic voung savages, well adorned with 
toucan feather head dresses, bear-skin fringes, collars {tatche) made of locks of human hair 
surmounted by a fringe of goat's hair dyed blood red, new bright red and yellow cane leg- 
gings and armlets, and a few other small ornaments dear to the savage heait, is no mean 
sight. To commemorate these feasts, huge stones are dragged, often for long distanoeSj on 
rou^h wooden sledges, and are erected by the side of the road near the village* The g^ver 
of the feast also becomes entitled to pat up over his house the huge wooden horns (At^^/a), 
which are such a conspicuous feature in most Angftml villages. 

At the Sekrengi festival dogs are killed and eaten in larg^ numbers. I have often 
enquired the reason for this, but have never been able to get a satisfactory answer. Besides 
these two main festivals many other minor ones are celebrated during the year, the chief of 
which is that held just before the new paddy harvest begins. 



7. Of the Monguloid Truet. 



Aos. 



[Fro^ fie A>MM Ceutmi Report, 1891, 6y E. A. GAIT, I.CS.] 

The Aos cccupy tbe country whicli is drained by the Jbanzi, the Deaoi, and by the 
ilreame which Sow into tbe Dikbu on its left bank. 'Ihe only An villa^ on the right baat 
o£ ihe Dikliu is Longsa. The Aos profess to hava bad their origin from a stone, wbich is 
situated between Loufrfa and tbe Sanstum village of Luban- From this place they Kf^dnally 
migrated across tbe Dikhn, and occupied tbe coantry in which they now dwell. They are 
dividtd into two tribes, Chimgli or Zuugi and Mongsen. speaking dialects which are to 
dissimilar as to be practically different langua'J^es. These two tribes, Cbot^h they in many 
instances live side by side in the «ame villages, have eaob preserved tbeir own dialect. 

The Aos oceapy, excluding Longsa, 46 villages. Of these, 21 are Chtmgii entirely, 19 
are Mongsen entirely, wbile s\x are mi^ed villages, inhabited both by t'hungli and MongBen. 
Roughly speaking, the Ao country is composed of three parallel ridges, called Lampung* 
knnjT, CbangkikuDg, and Japukung respectively. Ihe C'bungli tribe inhabits all the villages 
on the LampungkuDg (the range immediately overlooking the Dikbu], with tlie exceplii>n of 
the villages of Mokokchang and Nunkam, which are partially Mongsen- The valley of the 
Melak or Jhanzi, i.e., the valley enclosed between the Lampungkung and Changkikuug, 
contains tbe mixed villages, while on the rhan^kikung and Jap.ikung the villages are, 
with the exception of L'eka iJaimoDg, Moiuiigrting, and Assiria^ia ^a non-Ao village}, 
entirely Mongsen. 

Assiringia, called by the Aos Mirinokpo, is a villt^ which really belongs to the 'naked' 
tribe of Nagas- Tlie inhabitants came many ye>rs ago from tbe village of WnnljhoQ^ qj 
Orangltaiig, a village belonging to that tribe, and situated a day's march east of the Uikba 
from Susu village. Now a days in all but language the Assiringia people have become Aos. 
The problem is, how did they get on to their ] resent site, which is on the range immediately 
over the plains, through tbe intervening Ao villages ? Where they are at I'resent, they are at 
least three days' journey from the nearest villa>;e3 of tbe tribe to which they really belong. 

The following description is taken from Colonel Woodtborpe's Report of the Burvey 
operations in the Naga Hills, l.S74-Is75 : 

"The villages, which are usually large, as a rale, occupy the most commanding points 
along the ridges, and the approaches to them Ire exceedingly pretty. Broad roads, bordered 
with grass and low shrubs, lead up, through avenues of fine trees, to the main entrance, which 
is generally very stronyly guarded by two or three panjied ditches, rnnnini; right across the 
ridge and stockaded on the inner bank. The stockades are strongly built of a double line of 
po^ts, supporting a wall of interlaced bamboo, and are capable of offering a good resistance. 
The outermost ditch is generally about iJOO or 300 yards, or even more, away from the village, 
the second being situated bet^veen it and the oue enclosing tbe village. The »ato through the 
stockades of this last ditch into the village is cut out of one huge block, and is frequently four 
or five feet broad and about six feet higli. A large gable roof is constructed over it, giving 
it a great resemblance to our old lych-gates at borne. Look outs are boilt commanding the 
entrance, and in some cases little huts are constructed in large trees outside tbe most 
advanced stockades ou the main roads, communications being preserved with the interior by 
moans of long ladders and causeways. Passing through tbe gate into tbe village, we find 
ourselves before the ' morati/i' or baibelor's house, a large and most petuliar- looking building. 
appearing to be all mof, which springs from a small back gabled wall about live feet high and 
sis or seven feet broad. Tbe ridge rises rapidly &om this to the front till it attains a height 
from the ground of 26 feet or 3t) feet, the eaves resting on the ground on cither side. Tbe 
front is closed with a semi- circular wall of thatch, a small door about four feet high giving 
admittance to the building, wbich, as this is generally the only cpening, is necessarily some- 
what dark. As the eye gets accustomed to the gloom, we find that tbe house is divided into 
two parte by a low wall formed of a log of wood, over which a thick bamboo mat is stretched. 
The half of the house has a matted floor, and is provided with a hearlh and planked sleeping 
places round it, and here the young men sleep, but the other half is unfloored. We also make 
out that tbe principal uprights are carved with large figures of men, elephants, tigers, lizards, 
etc., roughly painted with the three colours common lo the Naga and Garo tribes, i.e., black, 
white, and reddish brown. Arranged round the walls are thf skulls cf men and animals and 
skilful imitations of them made by cutting and painting old gourds ; these imitations are often 
so well done that at a little distance they j^ass for real skulls. The ridge of the morani/ 
projetts a few feet in front, and is ornamented with small straw figures of men and tufis of 
* straw placed at regular intervals. Outside each mo,anff is a large platform of logs of wood, 
on which the yomig men and tbeir friends sit and smoke throughout tbe day, and bard by 
is an opeu shed, in which stands the big drum, formed of a huge trunk hollowed oat and 
eluborately carved {generally to resemble a buffalo's head) and painted in front after the 
manner o£ the figure head of a slup and furnished with a straight tail at tbe other end. The 
dram is raised from the ground, and rewts ujion logb of wood. It is sounded by letting a 



Origin 

and 

habitat. 



Descrip- 
tion of an 



212 



Personal 
appear- 
SDoe of 
the Ao8. 



OnltiTa- 
tioiu 



Tribal 

oonstitu* 

tioA. 

Village 

OUBtOniB. 



Village 
festiTals. 



heavy piece of wood (hinged on to one side of the roof) fall on it^ and by beatings it wiib 
doable-headed clubs/' 

The ordinary houses in the village are large and clean. They are built in regular streets^ 
and are divided into three rooms^ the outer room being on the ground^ and the two inner 
rooms being raised oft the ground. At the back of the house there is a bamboo platform^ and 
in front an open verandah. The ridge projects a few feet in fronts and in villages built on a 
narrow piece of ground these ridges often overlap^ rendering the village street quite dark. 

The men amongst the Aos, both Chungli and Mongsen^ are somewhat darker in oom- 
plexion and inferior in physique to the Ang&miSi They wear a loin-cloth and small apron. 
The pattern of this last varies fi*om village to village. AH wear a cotton cloth thrown 
lightly round the shoulders^ the commonest colours being dark blue or dirty white. Thin brass 
tubes about four iuches long^ to the ends of which are attached thin chains^ each chain ending 
in a small bell^ are the commonest ear ornaments among the men. Tufts of cotton are ooca- 
sionally worn in the ears. One or two strings of long white beads are usually worn round the 
neck. The arms of the men are spear^ shield and dao, the last being carried on the back in 
a small wooden sheath^ which is bound round the waist by a cotton rope. The men in the 
villages at the northern extremity of the tribe generally wear small helmets made of plaited 
cane ornamented with boars' tusks. A collar of wild boars' tusks round the neck and cowrie 
cuSb round the wrists are worn by all men who have taken a head. Now a days men who have 
not taken a head have begun to wear these distinctive marks. 

The men of the tribe are not tattooed^ and there is in outward appearance no difference 
between Chungli and Mongsen. 

The women> who are comparatively superior in physique to the men; are^ after the Angftmigf 
the best looking in the hills. They are tattooed on the iaoe, neck; breasts^ armS; and legs. 
The marks on the face are slight^ and are confined to four vertical lines on tiie chin. These 
are the same both for Chungli and Mongsen. The other tattoo marks, however; are difiEersnt 
for either tribe^ the differeuce in pattern on the arms and calves of the leg being very noticeable. 
Both tribes tie their hair in the same manner; but the Mongsen women use a white cotton rope 
for that purpose; while the Chungli women use ropes of plait^ black hair. The clothes of both 
are similar. They consist of a dark blue petticoat; sometimes ornamented with red stripes; 
leaching from waist to kneC; and a dark blue or dirty white cloth thrown loosely round the 
shoulders. Their ornaments are numerous string of cheap red cornelian beads worn round 
the neck. In the upper part of the ear they wear krge brass rings about four inches in diameter. 
These are made of three twists of thick brass wirC; and after being passed through the ear are 
supported by a string going over the top and round the back oi: the head. The lobe o£ the 
ear supports large crystal ear ornaments. 

MeU; women; and children all smoke short bamboo or iron pipes ; they are seldom seen 
without these. Old women often wear gaiters made of white or dark blue cloth. 

This tribe cultivates by the j hum system. 4jand is kept under cultivation for two jrears, and 
then allowed to Ue fallow for ten years or so. The reason for abandoning land after the second 
year is said to be partly due to the impoverishment of the soil; and partly to the rank growth 
of weeds; the roots of which are never eradicated from the soil, and which after the second 
year come up in such numbers that it is found quite impossible to keep them down* 

Each village amongst the Acs is a small republic; and each man is as good as his 
neighbour; indeed; it would be hard to find anywhere else more thoroughly democratic com- 
munities. Headmen {tdtdr) do exist; but their authority is very small* 

As above stated (description of an Ac village); sleeping houses for bachelors are provided. 
ThesC; however; are seldom used except by small boyS; it being an almost universal custom for 
the young men each to sleep with the eirl of his choice. The unmarried girls sleep by twos 
and threes in.houses otherwise empty; or else tenanted by one old woman. Here they are visited 
nightly by their lovers. The resultant immorality is not so great as might be expected; for the 
following reasons : (1) the numbers of men and women arC; as a rulc; prettv equally balanced^ 
and (2) girls of known extremely immoral habits find it; I am told; difficult to get hosbanjds. 
The chief festivals of the year are the two that occur in Aug^t before the commencement 
of the harvest; and the one that occurs at its close ; all of them are occasions for the consump- 
tion of much pork and rice-beer. The harvest home festival is usually the time chosen for 
killing mitAdn by the rich men of the village. A mithan feast involves; as do similar feasts 
among the Ang&miSj an expenditure in cash and kind of not less than fi50U. 

Mith&n at these festivals are, or rather werC; — the custom is being gradually suppressed, 
--killed in an extremely cruel manner; being literally hacked to bits with daos, the animal finally 
dying from loss of blood. 

The second festival in August is; however; the most interesting. At its celebration two 
customs are practised, which are not; as far as I am awarC; practised by any other tribe in this 
district. The first of these is the custom during the three days the festival lasts of having 
^ tugs-of-war ' between the young men and unmarried girls of each kkel. The ropes used aie 
thick jungle creepers of great length. The object of the girls is to pull the rope right outside 
the boundaries of the khel. This they are seldom allowed to dO; the young men generally 
pouncing down on the rope and dragging it back before it has been taken clean out of their 
ground. After dark the ropes are dropf«d; and the second portion of the tamoBka begins. The 
girls form into circles; holding hands; each hhel on its own ground. They then begin a monoto- 
nous chant; at the same time circling slowly round and round. This dancing and sinpng go on 
for hours; its monotony being only intezrupted by what may be called raids by the young men 
from a different ihel. These come round with lighted torch4; and having pio£ed out the girls 



ihef consider most pleaan* proceed to cairy tliem off by force. SnoTi seizareB, Tiowever, load 1 

to nothing worse than driokii)^, the girls bo carried off boing oblige<l by custom to stand the I 

young men free drinks. 1 

This oiiBtom was universal thronghont the Ao tribe. Since our ooonpation of the conntry, SIstst- | 
every effort hfls been made to euppross the cnstom, and Ibe selling and buying of elaves ia now, 
I fancy, very uncommon. Slaves were and are, I believe, on the whole, very well treated, i 

being considered almost as members of the family. Cams of bareh treatment, of course, must j 

have occurred oi'aasionally, but these must now be very rare, and the slaves who have remained I 

with their owners know very well that, if ill treated, all they have to do is t-o mn away. In I 

old days slaves, tmlees they could get down to the plains, could not run away,it being etiquette I 

tor thorn to be caught and r(.>turiiod by the inhabitants of any village in which they took rrfuge. I 

Troublesome slaves were usually sold to ptyiple living across the Dikhn, amongst whom I 

the custom of human sacrifices is not, I believe, entirely untnovra. Amongst the ^08, before I 

our occupation of the country, slaves were not infrequently paid by one village to another I 

village with which they happened to bo on bad terms, to make up a quarrel, and as a sort of I 

set off agiiinst any heads taken by them. Slaves paid in this way were invariably slaughtered I 

by the village which received them, as an offering to the spirits of the men on their side who had I 

been killed. I 

Female slaves were not allow&l to marry or have children. If they became pregnant, I 

their children were killed immediately after birth, or else abortion was procored. Female slaves ] 

are not tattooed. 

Like other Naga tribes, the \os have an intense belief in the powers of certain evil spirits BellgioiL. 
which reside usually in rocks, pools of water, and streams. Two of the most well-known stones 
in which reside 'Ueoi ' aro the Lungpalung, close to Lungpa village, and the Changehanijlung, ■ 

between the villages of Dibua and Woromong, Sacrifices are regularly offered to these stones | 

by the villages near them. In cases of sickness pigs and fowls are Pacrifieed In largo numbers, I 

in order to appease the particular spirit to whose malign influence the sickness is supposed to I 

be due. Poor men often run deeply into debt in obtaining the pig, etc., necessary for these 
offerings, which are coiiEnmed of course by their friends. 

When a man has fixed on the girl he wants to marry, he sends a friend or some near Marrlaga 
relation to the father of the girl to ascertain if her people are willing to give her. I£ bis ou'^toms. 
proposal is accepted, he will, if bo be of the Chungli tribe, send a small present to the father 
of his future bride, and after this is done he is at liberty to take the girl as soon as he has got 
a house ready to receive her. No further ceremony appears to be gone through. On the day 
on which a girl goes to her hn^band's house, a pig or so may be killed at her father's hoose j 

and the meat distributed to friends and ridalions. 

The Mongsen custom is more elaborate A man's proposals having been favourably received " j 

a period of thirty days is allowed to expire. At the end of this period the engaged couple go I 

on a trading eipedition for twenty days. Should the results of this trading expedition be^ood, I 

i.e., should a fair profit have been niade, it is cf>nsiderod a good omen, aud the arrangements J 

for the marriage are proceeded with. Should, however, the results of the trading expeditioa J 

bft anf avonrable, the marriage is at once broken off. About three months after the return I 

from the trading eipedition, as soon as the house is ready for her reception, the girl goes to I 

her husband's house, being escorted thither by all Iter relations and friends. A feast is given I 

on that day, both at her house and at the house of her husband's people. For the first six I 

nights after a woman ha" gone to her husband's house, six men a^id six women sleep in the I 

house with the newly-married cnaple, the men, including the bridegroom, sleeping separata I 

from the women, with wh^m sleeps the bride. 

Tbe Aos do not practise polygamy, and, as with the Au^SmJS, hnt a nominal price u 
paid for a wife. 

The tribe is divided into exogamous sub-divisions. These, as far as I have been able to Int«riul 
ascertain, alt' five for the Mongseu tribe, i.f., Mongsentsungj Yemfhen, Uchi, Char and Ai, etruoture. 
and three for the Chungli tribe, i.e., Pungen, Uonkam, and Mungalungamen. The names of 
these exogamons sub-divisions vary from village to village. Of course a member of any sub-divi- 
sion of the Mongsen tribe can marry a member of any subdivision of the Chungli tribe. 

Widows are allowed to remarry at a decent interval after the death of a hnsband. A year Widow*, 
is tbe least interval that is supposed to elapse before a woman is allowed to take a new husband. 
If this rule is broken a fine is imposed. The rule with regard to widowers is tbe same as that . 

for widows, A woman who has been divorced for infidelity is not allowed to remarry without J 

payini! a considerable fine to her former husband, I 

Children follow the clan of the father in all cases. ' 

The Aos do not bury their dead. As soon as a man dies, preparations are made for his Funeral 
funeral- The eolDn, a structure of bamboo aud thatch, shaped somewhat like a house, and cuatoms. 
just large enough tu admit the body, having been made, the body is placed in it, and then put 
up to be smoked in the outer compartment of the bouse. This smoking, which is done in a , 

very perfunctory manner, lasts for from ten days to two months. When it is over, I he coffin, J 

OTer which is laid one of the dead man's cloths, is taken out and placed on a bamboo platform I 

in the village cemetery. The cemeteries invariably occupy one side of the main road leading I 

to tbe villaiTC gnte, and often render the approaches to the village extremely unpleasant to one's I 

nose. On the mnchan, along with the oofim, are hung a man's eating-plate and driuking-cup, I 

while in front in a row are ranged the heads he has taken and closd to these his shield and spear I 

are placed. Bodies are not always smoked. It this custom is not observed, the body in iti I 

coIEq is takeu out aad placed in the viUage cemetery as soon after death as poBsible. I 



S14 



7. Of the Mongoloid Tract 



WA. 



IFrom tie Gazetteer of Upper Burma and tie Si an Slate^ by 8lR Jm Oeorob Bcott, K.CJ.E. 

MJi.A.8,, F.R.0.8.'] 

These people, in one dialect at anj rate^ call themselves Wa, Wq or TtL In moet plaofis^ 
however^ they use, or accept, the name Wa. The fiormeee call them Laioa ; so do the liao of 
the Siamese Shan States. The Chinese appear to have the general name Hkawa for them, but 
the immediate neighbourhood of the clans, according to Mr. Warr^, thej discriminate. The 
name Hkawa is tbere reserved for what the Sh&ns call the Wa Hai, the wild savage Wa ; that 
of Tet Hka-la (or wfld Hka las) is applied to thosiB who are very objectionable^ but do not 
resent all intercourse j while those who appear at markets partially, sometimes even decently, 
dad are called Chia Hka-la, or domesticated Hka-las. lliis is not very scientifiOj but it 
indicates a disconcerting division which is everywhere met, but nowhere run to ground. This 
is the distinction between Wa and La. The Shans are convinced of its existence, but direct 
enquiry brings out nothing more divergent than that the La are Buddhists, or at any rate are 
more civilised and are willing to and do live among other races, while the Wa do not leave 
their homes, are mere spirit* worshippers, and have all the objectionable qualities which tradition 
. assigns to the race. The Wa Pwi, who are the wildest of the race yet seen, also reoognise the 
name La, but the tradesmen they designate by the name La, such as the inhabitants of Kang 
Hso and Sonmu; disown the title and claim to be Wa. The inhabituits of Ken Pwi and Keo 
Fan and a few other villages in Kokang, it is true accept the name La, but they apparently do 
so because they are too isolated to oppose the volume of public opinion, and moreover they appear 
to be half-breeds like the Danus and Kadus and Danaws and Yaws who vex the enquirer's 
spirit. It would almost appear therefore as if La were a euphemism, or a diplomatic expression, 
the sort of language necessary in dangerous company all the world over. But on the Mekbon^r 
slope of the Salween-Mekhong watershed near the Wa country there is a tribe which calls itself 
Hkarla [the La being pronounced very short like La (t) with the t unsounded]. 'Ihm language 
to the ear is precisely hke Wa ; their appearance, villages, and habits are practically the same, 
but they themselves strenuously deny any connection. Too little is known of them to be 
dogmatic, but the opinion may be hazarded that they are quite mistaken as to their anoestry 
and that they are really Wa ; it is also possible that their snamefacedness is responsible for the 
use of the term La for cuch of the race as are not brazen in their savagery. The Wa of the 
Pet Ken call themselves Krak or K-l-rak, which seems to be the same, out is locally said to be 
nothing of the kind. 

Captain H. R. Davies found that '^ the inhabitants of a very civilized village near Meng 
Meng (a Chinese-Shan State), far away from the head-hunters, were described as Wa." The 
people of this village called themselves Parow (k) and said they called the wild Wa Rave (t). 
it is unfortunate that these names do not seem to be known at Wa head quarters, as, until more 
is known, the wilder Wa country must be considered. It is well known that I and r are easily 
interchanged and R&-ve {t) might well be La-ve (La) Vii. Moreover, the name Parow*k 
would seem to be a Unk with Palaung; Thus we would have La- vii, La^wa, split up into La 
and Wa, and Parow (k) Palaung. 
Lanauase. As far as language is concerned, it would seem that the Wa are of the same raoe as the 
' Palanngs (Bumai or Tasoru) and Hka Muks and therefore, if we are to accept IVofessor 
Forchhammer's idea, the same stock as the Cambodians, Annamese, and Talaiogs or Mens. Such 
a connection is rather startling and suggests the dictum that speech is meant to deceive. 
Linguistic evidence cannot be entirely trusted, but when it is backed up by physical appearanoe 
and habits and customs it is incontrovertible. The comparison of vocabularies no less than 
race types seems to show that Forchhammer was wrong and that there is no relationship 
between the Mon and the Palaung and therefore none with the Wa. 

The &ct that the Lawa and the W& are the same and that they are of the same race as 
the Rumai or Palanngs and the Riang tribes seems to be conclusively proved by comparative 
vocabularies, and there the matter might rest for the present if it were not that Wa traditions in 
the Wa country represent that country as having been always i>eopled by its present inhabitants. 
The Wa or Lawa of Kengtung on the other hand say, and are said by their neighbours, to have 
been the aborigines of all that country and of the territory down to Chiengmai. MoLeod, 
writing in 1837, says (Parliamentary papers) : '^Zimme and all the country in this direotioii 
formerly belonged to the Lawas, who are now but few in this district ; some are found in 
about six villages to the northward, besides those near Muang Niong ; the rest have fled to 
the mountains round Kengtung, which country, however, is said also formerly to have 
belonged to them/' The Wild Wa know nothing of this and the history of Mang JUm {q.p.) 
makes no allusion to such dominion. It will tliertfore be most Fatis&ctory to discuss th0 
titular '' Wa country " first. 

These self-styled Wa live in an extremely compact block of territory on onr north-easterm 
frontier^ extending for about one hundred miles idong the Sal ween and for perhaps half that 
diitanoe inland to the watershed l^tween that river and the Mekhong. Within tibis aic«^ 
which is roughly bisected by the ninety-ninth parallel of east longitude ai^, l^es betwaoa. iai4 



_ A 



alt 

oQ eiiher eido of the twenty-second and twenty-third parallels of latitade, there are few people 
who are not Wa. Their boundaries may be roughly eaid to be tbe Sulwecn on the west, the 
ridge over tha Namting valley on the north, the hilla east of tlie Nam Hka on the eastern and 
aoathem sidea, while the country ends in a point formed by the junction of the Nam Hka with 
the Sal>voen. Beyoml this few Wa ar« found, though they occur as far east as the Mekhong, 
but only in isolated villages, and it is only on the fringes of this bloalt that other races, ohiofly 
Shans and La'hu, venture to settle. 

Of more extended poBsessions ttie main body of the WS have no reeoUection. They claim 
to have inhabited the country where they now are sinee the beginning of time One account 
of their origin (from a huge gourd) is given under the head of Maug Lon, but this is much 
disfigured by additions obviously taken from Shan aud Buddhist history. Another gives the 
reason for the head cutting, but it is no doubt toned down from the true head-hunter's versioti. 

All the Indo-Chinese races have a predilection for totemietic birth stories. Some claim I'otemlgttd 
to be Bprung from eggs, some from dogs, Eome from rctitiks. The Wa claim tadpoles for their f 'S'u. 
rude forefathers. The primjeval Wa were called Va Htawm and Ya Htai, As ta'liwles they 
spent their first years in Nawng Hkeo, a mysterious lake on the top of a hill range, seven 
thousand feet high, in the centre of the head cutting country. When tlioy turned into frogs 
they lived on a hill called Nam Tao and, progressing in the scale of life, they became ogres 
and established themselves in a oave, Pakkate, about thirty miles south of the mountain lake 
on the slope over the Mam Hka. From this cave they nude sallies in all directions in search 
of food, and at first were content with deer, wild pig, goats, and cattle. As long as this was 
their only diet, they had no young. But all Hpi Hpai in the end come to eat human beings. 
It is their most distingtiished chnracteristic, after the hiet of their having red eyes and casting 
no shadow. One day Ya Htawm and Ya Htai went exeoplienally far afield and came to a 
country inhabited by men. They caught one and ate him and carried ofE his skull to the 
i'akkate cave. After this they had many young ogrelets, all of whom, however, appeared in 
human form. The parents therefore placed the human skull on a post and wo^^hipped it. 
There were niue sons, who established themselves in the nine Wa glens, mostly in the west, and 
they bred and mustered rapidly. The ten daughters settled on the felts and were even more 
prolific. Their descendants are the most thorough in head-hunting and the skulls are always 
men's. The language the new race spoke was at first that of the frog, a sort of 
Brekkekkekkexkoax, but this was elaborated in time into modern Wa. 

Ya Htawm and Ya Htai enjoined on their children the necessity of always having a human Human 
stullin their settlements. Without this they could not have any peace, plenty, P^'OsperitytJ^Qg' .__ ■ 
comfort, IT enjoj-ment, and this injunction has always been piously obeyed. When the veuer- "*< 

able ogres felt death coming they summoned all their progeny together and gave an account 
of their origin and said that they, Ya Htawm and Ya Htai, were to be worshipped as the father 
and mother spirits. Other spirits there were, but they were bad and malevolent. Ya Htawm 
and Ya Htai alone were genial and benignant and the most seemly offering (o them was a snow- 
white grinning skull. The ordinary sacrifices on special occasions, however, were to be buffaloes, 
bullocks, pig, and fowls, with plentiful libations of rice-spirit. The special occaMons were 
marriage, the commencement of a war, death, and the putting up of a human skull. In addi- 
tion to these meat offerings a human skull was always desirable under exceptional ciroum- 
stance^, or for special objects. Thus when a new village was founded, a skull was an impera- 
tive necessity, If there were a drought, which threatened a failure of the crops, no means 
would be so successful in bringing eain as the dedication of a skull. If disease swept away 
many victims a skull alone would stay the pestilence. But the good parental ogres expressly 
said that it was not necessary that the villagers should slay a man in order to get his head. 
Tliey might get the skull by purchase or barter. 

Thus the intermediate Wa account for their lack of enterprise. Until a British party TiMted Kot 
the wild Wa country in 1 893 it was firmly believed that the Wa were cannibals. The storv oannibala. 
is as old as the time of Vasco Da Oama, for there seems no reason to doubt that " the Queos ' 
of Camoens' Lusiadas, Cant. X, cxxxvi, are the present-day Wa. Tha passage is thus, 
nons too musically, rendered in Bowring's Saim, Volume II, page I. 

" O'er tlicBB vaet regione see a varlod throog 

Of thDiiiaod Dnkncmii nationg crowd tbe cout ; 

Tli« Laos both in lands and Dotnbers strong, 

Avas And Buriaitbs In their moDntains lott. 



The deep ri 
On human neeu 
And with hot ir 



rith bruUl hnnicor ferti, 

n hUmp their own-rude deed 1 ' 



Vasco da Uama's first voyage, of which the Lusiad tells, began in 1497. 

It is, however, certain that the \1 a are not cannibals, at least not habitual cannibals. 
The assertion is, however, so universady male by all their neighbours— Chinese, Burmese, 
Shans, Lem, and La'Hu — and is so firmly believed, that it seems probable that on special 
occat'iona, posribly at the animal harvest feast, human flesh may be eaten as a religious func- 
tion, a sort of pious remembrance of the diet which made the Wa first ancestors fecund and 
produced the race. The lH'a themselves, however, even the Wa Lon, who are the most 
thorough-paced supporters of rules and regulations, deny it, not indeed with scorn, or horror, 
or indignation, or any well-regulated sentiment, but with a placid, well-fed chuckle as who 
ihould say : ^Vhy should we eat men's flesh, when the regular posting up of men's heada 
will ensure us plenty of dogs, plenty of maize and buckwheat, and plenty of spirits? 
Certainly headless corpses are left lying about the roads as if they were of no valae to any bodj. 



die 



Head- 
iLunting* 



HaUta- 

tiOIIB. 



^6 are therefore forced to abandon belief in the attractiyelr graphic story of the good wife 
putting ^^ the kettle on the fire" when the men of the village go out head-hunting. The 
Shans still firmlj believe that the Wa eat their parents. When they become old and feeble, 
so it is said^ the children tenderly and lovingly help them to climb into the branches of a tree. 
Then they shake the bougbs until the old people fall down. ^' The froit is ripe : let us eat 
it '* they say, and proceed to do so. " This prepossessing old story seems to be true only of 
the Battak of Sumatra, who find no grave so suitable and honourable for the authors of their 
being as their own insides, though it is told also of the northernmost Kachins. 

But as to the head-hunting there is no manner of doubt. It is true that the Wa are noffc 
mere collectors. They do not accumulate heads as one collects stamps, or botanical specimenSj 
or match box labels from the pure pleasure of possession and an eclectic gratification * in 
differences of size, shape, or in the perfect condition of the teeth, and the well marked defini- 
tion of the sutures. No individual Wa has a private collection, nor does it appear that 
success in the accumulation of heads ensures the favours of the fair. They do not mount 
their heads, fresh lopped off, on posts as the people of the Mambwe country, south of Lake 
Tanganyika, do, in the belief that such exhibits are pleasing and impressive; nor do they 
regard them as tokens of individual prowess as the Dyaks do, or as the American Indians used 
to glory in the scalps they carried about them. The Wa regards his skulls as a protection 
against the spirits of evil, much the same as holy water, or the sign of the cross, or like 
texts at a meeting bouse, or Bibles on the dressing table at a temperance hotel, or hallelu jaha 
at a Salvation Army service. Without a skull his crops would fail ; without a skull his kine 
might die ,* without a skull the father • and mother spirits would be shamed and might be 
exiraged ; if there were no protecting skull the other spirits, who are all malignant, might 
gain entrance and kill the inhabitants, or drink all the liquor. 

The Wa country is a series of mountain ranges, running north and south and shelving 
rapidly down to narrow valleys from two to five thousand feet deep. The villages toe aU 
on the slopes, some in a bollow just sheltered by the crest of the ridge, some lower dovm 
where a spur offers a little flat ground. The industrious cultivation of years has cleared away 
the jungle, which is so universal elsewhere in the Shan hills, and the villages stand out con* 
spicuously as yellowish brown blotches on the hill sides. A Shan village is always embowered 
in bamboos and fruit of flowering trees ; Kachin villages straggle about among the peaks 
with primssval forest all round ; Akha, Kwi, , and La'hu hide away their settlements in gullies, 
or secluded hollows ; but a Wa village is visible for miles, the houses all within one enclosure 
and the gray of the thatched roofs hardly distinguishable from the litter of cattle and pigs 
which covers inches deep all the ground within the fence and makes it as conspicuous as a 
chalk mark on a billiard cloth. But outside every village, at any rate in the Wild Wa country, 
there is a grove of trees, usually stretching along the ridge, or a convenient coL It is 
usually fairly broad and is made up of hxi^e trees, with heavy undergrowth, strips of the 
forest wbich, years and years ago, covered tiie whole country. From a distance it looks like 
an avenue, sometimes little over one hundred yards long, sometimes stretching for long 
distances from village to village. This is the avenue of skulls. It is not necessarily, and as 
often as not is not, the usual mode of approach to the village. Occasionally, however, the 
skulls actually line the main road and are practically out in the open. This appears to be the 
case rather with the more recently established villages, and the avenue, sombre with the shade 
ol high over-arching trees and dense undergrowth, is certainly the more usual. 

Here there is a row of stout posts, about three and-a half to four and-a-half feet high 
and five or six feet apart. In each of these, a little below the top, is cut a triangular hole 
with a ledge on which the skull is placed. Sometimes the niche is on the side facing the path, 
so that the whole skull is in full view of the passer-by ; sometimes it is inserted from b^iind 
and grins at him througli a slit. As a rule the posts are perfectly plain with nothing but 
the bark stripped off, but here and there they are fashioned into slabs with rude carving, or 
primitive designs in red and black paint, by way of .adornment, but this seems to be the case 
on the outer fringe rather than in the heart of the downright business-doing head-hunter's 
country. The posts stand on one side of the road only, not on both sides, and there appears 
to be no rule as to the direction, either of the grove or of the line of skulls, north or south, east 
or west. Most villages count their heads by tens or twenties, but some of them run to 
hundreds, especially when the grove lies between several villages, who combine or perhaps run 
their collections into one another. The largest known avenue is that between Sung Ramang 
and Hsan Htung. Here there must be a couple of hundred or more skulls. There is no 
assertion, however, that this is really the largest. 

The skulls are in all stages of preservation, some of them glistening white and perfect 
in every detail, some discoloured with the green mould otone or more rains, some patched 
over with lichens, or shaggy with moss, some falling to pieces, the teeth gone, the jaws 
crumbling away, the sutures yawning wide j sometimes the skull has vanish^ with age and 
the post even is mouldering to decay. 

No doubt a wild Wa never misses a chance of taking a head, when an opportunity 
presents itself. The skulls are looked upon as a safeguard against and a propitiation of the 
evil spirits. The ghost of the dead man hangs about his skull and resents the approach of 
other spirits, not from any good will for the villages, for all spirits are mischievous and 
truculent, but because he reseats trespassing on his coverts. For this reason the skulls of 
strangers are always the most valuable, for the ghost does not know his way about the 
coun^ and cannot possibly vrander away from his earthly remains. He also all the more 
resents the intrusion of va^pmt ghosts on his policiesu They cramp his movemenia and a 



SI} 

ghoet wants plenty of elbow room. An anprotected sfcraBgor ia thorefors pretty sore to 
loEo hifl bead, if he wandeis among the wild Wii, do matter what the time o£ the year may be. 
The more enunent ha is the bettor, for the Wa are quite of the opiaion of the tribes fartbur 
to the north, that an emioent man will make a puisaant, brabbling ghoi^t, who will doDiinate 
the coimtry side, ami secare his owners sleep of nights. 

13«t though heads are thus taken in an eclectic, dilettante way whenever chance offers, there 
ia a proper authorized season for the accumulation of them. Legitimute head-cutting opens in 
March and lasts through April. The old skulls will ensure peace for the village, but at least one 
new one ia wanted, if there is not to be risk of failure of the crops, tha opium, tha 
maize, and the noe. In these months journeying is exciting iu ibe hilU. A ttii musL go oat 
with the same reflection as a self-respecting dog, who never takcii a stroll without the conviction 
tbat he ia more likely than not to have a tight before he comes home again. Nevertheless there 
are rules of the game ; Unes of conduct to be observed, which assume the dignity of cu-itomary law< 
Naturally the Wa never take the beads of lhi.ir fellow-villagers, 'Ihe elements of political 
economy forbid that. It would be a very urgent necessity, a i aging pestilence, a pbeuomenal 
drought, or a murrain among their cattle which would justify the immolation of a man from 
an adjoining vill^e. To bciead a man from a community even on the same range of hills is 
looked upon as unneighbourly and slothful. The enterprise should be carried oat on the next 
range, east or west, ot any rate at a distance, thi.- farther the more Fatisfactory from the point 
of view of resulls— agricultural results. When the bead is secured the jiarty returns immediately 
travelling night and day without bait. It is not necessary to have more than one head, but 
naturally the more beads there are, the less danger there is of agricultural depression. They 
may therefore take several heads at their first stoop and, if they meet with a favourable oppor- 
tunity on the way borne, a party of misguided pedlars unable to defctid themselves, or a 'foot-sore, 
or fever-stricken straggler from a Chinese caravan, they promptly end his wanderings. 

The hunting-pavty is never large, usually about a dozen. Villages are therefore never 
attacked. 'Ihat would be too much like slaughter, or civil war, which is not at all what is 
intended. The act is simply one of religious observauee, or the carrying on of a historical 
tradition. It does not appear that the neighbours of the victims harbour any particular ani- 
mosity against the succ'cssful sportsmcii. i\o doubt they go quetting the following year by 
preference in that direction, but they apparently never tbinli of eiaciing immediate vengeance. 
J<'nrlher, the Ma never seem to make ruida beyond the limits of their owu country, or at any 
tate of country which tbey have not rt^arJed as their own. in the past, or consider a^ likely to 
become theirs at tome future time. There is no case ou record of a Wn raid aci'oss the Salween, 
into Shan territory, to collect hea'le, nor have tbey ever invaded the Chinese tShan ^>tate on the 
>>ortb. The Shan s of Mong Lcm to the south-east do indeed complain that certain roads, 
which, tbey say, are In their State, are very un^fe when the fta hill fields are being got ready for 
planting, but it ia only the roads that iire unsiife. Shan villages are so open that disappointed 
hunters might very well creep in at night to get the hf-ads which ibey have failed to secura 
in the open country, but it does not appear that this has ever been done. It is probably this 
discrimination on the part of the bead-hunters which, as much as nnything else, has restrained 
the neighbouring people from combining to put an end to the Wild Wil, or at any rate to 
their accumulation of skulls. 

The head-hunting party usually goes out quietly enough- There has probably been soma 
eotisulting of sacrificial bonps, or some scrutiny of the direction in which feather-Ught plant 
down floats, but there is no blessing ot tbe questing party or any demonstration on the part of 
those who stay behind. 14'ot even the women and children go to see them beyond the vdlage 
gate. It is as much a matter of course every year as the sowing of the Gelds. 

Sometimea.tbey are out for a long time, for naturally every one, whether stranger or nativs 
of tbe country, is very much ou tbe alert during the huad-cutting season. Occasionally two 
eearcb parties come across one another. There is as much feinting and dodging and beguiling 
then as between two wrestlers trying for the grip, Tlie llsan litanghead-bunters actually 
did thus waylay a party from Yawng Jlaw, north of the Nawng Hkeo l&ke in 18S)S, and toot 
three heads from the party of ten. This was legitimate sport, for tha Vawng Maw men were 
iu the Hsan Htunghmits and presumably after Hsan Htung heads. Ordinarily, however, 
Wa heads are not taken. The vulture docs not prey on the kite. It is said thai, the bodies 
are never mutilated, but on the occasion reforrcd to one corpse had hands and feet out off, 
'Ibo Hsan Utung men- were too drunk and excited to be favourable subjects for cross-examina- 
tion, but it was said that the wretched man was a noted thief and that his hands aud feet 
came oS before his head as a warning to ill-regnlated characters. 

There ia a tariff for heads. The sbuHs of the unwarlike Lem come lowest. They can Tariff fof ; 
t«metimes be had for two rupees, La'hu heads can be bad for about three times as much, for heads, 
the La'hu are stalwart men of their hands and use poisoned arrows in their cross-bows. Other 
Shanp than the Lem ai'e more rarely found, for they usually go, if tbey go at all, iu large 
parties. Burmese heads have uot been available for neatly a g(.'neration aud Chinamen's beads 
run to about 50 rupees, for they are dangerous game. European hcids have not come od the 
market. There are no quotations. Wa skulls, probably from motives of delicacy, are not 
apprised. 'Ihey probably fetch the average frice, about ten rupws, according to the BOcceEi* 
£bI nature of the season and the number of semi-civilized Ha villages who are buying. 

W hen the bead, ot heads, are brought home, there is great rejoicing. The big wooden gong 
is fanatically beaten. All the bamboos of lice-tpirit in the village aie tapped, tbe women and 
children dance aud sing and tbe men become most furiouiJy drunk. The head is nut put up as 
it as. U Inquires pr<:par.itIou, for it is ouly the olcaued skull that is mounted outside tlie village. 



m 

% 

At one end of the Yillagei usaally the upper end^ for all the villages are baQt on a slo^pe, 
stands the spirit house> a small shed^ fenced round with stakes and roughlj thatched over. 
In the centre of this stands the village drum^ a hnge log of wood with a narrow slit along 
three-quarters of the length of it^ through which the interior has been laboriously hollowed out. 
These drums are sometimes ten or twelve feet long and three or three and-a-half feet thick. 
They are beaten with wooden mallets and ^ive out deep vibrating notes which travel very 
long distances. This gong is sounded at aU crises and moments of importance to the village^ 
but chiefly when heads are brought home^ or when sacrifices are being made^^ or when a village 
council is to be held. Outside this spirit-house the sacrifices to the spirits are made, the 
buffaloes^ pigs^ dogs, fowls, are killed and their blood smeared on the post, and rafters, and 
thatching, and their bones hang in clusters round the eaves. 

H ere the head is taken. It is wrapped up in thatch, or grass, or plantain leaves and 
filung in a rattan or bamboo basket and is then hung up in a dark comer to ripen and 
bleach against the time when it is to be mounted in the avenue. This is the commonest 
practice, but some villages seem to prefer to hoist the head, slung in its rattan cage, on the 
top of a tall bamboo fixed in the centre of the village. This seems to savour of ostentation. 
Others hang the heads in aged, heavy foliaged trees, just within the village fence, but the 
spirit-bouse seems to be the more regular place. Wherever the skull is seasoned it remains 
until it is cleaned of all flesh sinews and blanched to the proper colour. Then it is mounted 
in the avenue. What the ceremonial then is does not very clearly appear. None but a Wa 
has ever seen it. There seems, however, to be much slaughtering of buffaloes, pigs, and fowls, 
much chanting of spells by the village wi?e men, but above all much drinking of spirits by 
everybody* This last item no doubt accounts for the meagreness of the information on the 
subject. Apparently, however^ the elders of the village carry out the skull with glad song 
and uplifting of voices, accompanied by every one who is in a condition to walk^ and some 
traditional invocation or doxology is intoned before the skull is inducted in its niche, lliose 
who are sober for this function, do not long remain so. The service throughout seems to be 
corybantio rather than devotional. 

It is noticeable that no offerings are made in the avenue of skulls. The skulls are 
offering, altax, and basilikon iu themselves. The sacrifices are all made at the spirit-house in 
the village and the bones, skins, horns, hoofs, feathers are deposited there or in individual houses, 
not in the calvary. 
▼Ulage. A Wa village is a very formidable place, except for civilized weapons of offence Against 

all the arms which any of their neighbours possess it is impregnable, and it could not be 
carried by direct attack except by a very deterniined enemy, prepared to suffer very consider- 
able loES. All the villages are perched high up on the slope of their hills, usually on a knoll 
or spine-like spur, or in a narrow ravine near the crest of the bridge. Thus all of them are 
commanded by some neighbouring height, which could, however, only be used by a force 
provided with arms of precision. 

Bound each village is carried an earthen rampart, six to eight feet high and as many thick^ 
and this is overgrown with a dense covering of shrubs, thin bushes, and cactuses so as to be 
quite impenetrable. Outside this, at a varying distance from the wall, is dug a deep ditch or 
fosse, which would effectually stop a rush, though it is seldom so broad that an activef man 
could not jump it. The deptl^ however, is usually very formidable, and anyone falling in^ 
could hardly fail to break a limb, even it his neck escaped. This chasm is very careftilly 
concealed and must be a very effectual safeguard against night attacks. 

The only entrance to the village is through a long tunnel There is sometimes only one, 
though usually there are two at opposite sides of the village. It is built in the shape of a 
casemate or a sunk road, most often of posts and slabs of wood at the sides and on the top, 
but not uncommonly of earth overgrown with shrubs, specially chosen for the purpose, whose 
branches intertwine and weave themselves into one another so ais to form a densely reticulated 
roof. This tunnelled way is not much higher than a Wa, that is to say, a few inches orer 
five feet and not quite so much wide, so that two persons cannot pass freely in it, and it 
winds slightly so that nothing can be fired up it ; moreover the path is frequently studded 
with pegs in a sort of dice arrangement, apparently to prevent a rush. None of them are 
less than thirty yards long and some are as much as one hundred paces. !nie inner end is 
closed by a door formed of one, or sometimes two, heavy slabs of wood, fastened by a thick 
wooden bolt. A Wa village is therefore by no means easy to enter without the approval or 
permission of its inhabitants, and as some of them lie right across the main tracks in the 
countryi travelling is by no means easy and the visitor who feels himself strong enough to 
protect his head is fain to admit that there are other discouragements nearly as weighty. 
Consequently there is exceedingly little moving about in the hesd-hunting country. A few 
Shans, tolerated as middlemen and resident in the Tame Wa country, and some sturdy Hoi 
Hui, Chinese Mahomedans from the borders of Yiinnan, come up yearly with salt and a little 
rice and perhaps a few cloths and go back again with loads of opium, but everything *has to 
be carried on the backs of men^ for no loaded animal can pass through the narrow village 
adits. There is very little trade naturally under such circumstances and the number of thoee 
free of the hills is very limited. Salt^ however, must be had, and the opium from the Wa 
hills turns over a heavy profit in China and the Shan country. 

Inside the fence* the houses stand about without any semblance of ordes. The 
broken character of the ground would prevent this even if the Wa had any desire to 1^ oat 
stieets, which there is nothing to show tiiat they have. The housee stand on pilee and tbe 
floor is freqoentiy 80 h^ that it is poedble to stand 61^ Thqyaie sobltuftiilfy' 



tinilt of timber and wattled bamluM, mnali more rabstantiaTIr bnOt than tbe aTea«g» SIibs I 

hoase, or indeed the hoasoB o£ any other hillmen hnt the Yao-Jen and the Miaotsa, and they 
are fairly roomy. The walling aiid flo'irs are of planks or rather slabs of wood chippetl JliU 
with dias. Someof theBe muGt bare taken weeks and even months to prepare ; round or 
oval-shaped doors are often seen in the wild oonntry. In shape the bouses are ratber more 
oblong tban stjnare, but they have no verandah auch as is always found in a Shau boaso, and 
the Leavy thatch roof comes down on all four sides to about three feet from the ground. No 
donbt tbis is a safeguard against bmrioaues and wind squalls in the hills, bat it very efEec- 
tnally excludes all ligbt. A few bouses have a sort of small skylight, little lids in the 
tbatcb whicb can be lifted up, but these serve ratbiir as a means of lotting out the smoke 
from the wood lire than ns a convenience for illumination. To enter the bouse one has to stoop 
low to get under tbe eaves and then scramble up a somewhat inadequate bamboo ladder, or a 
rtill more inadequate sloping post with notcbea cut in it to serve for (ootbold. Chiefs' houses 
Tery often have a trough — like a dug-out ; inside it is almost impossible to see anything cither 
(^ the furniture or of the inhabitants. In the centre of tho main room is a platform of bamboo 
covered with earth for the firo-place. There are a few stools, about a hand's breadtb high, to 
Bit on, a luxury which the Shun denies himself- lie either sits on his beets or lirs down. 
Besides tbis there is nothing unless it be the bouse-bolder's gnu, if he has one, or more 
probably his sheaf of spears, made of simple lengths of split bamboo, sbari)eued at both ends 
and hardened in the fire. In ihe sleeping rooms, narrow strips, under the slope of tbe roof, 
theie is nothing but a mat or two and a squalid pillow nude of raw cotton, or perhaps of a 
block of bamboo. Stuck in the thatch of the roof are scores of bonos, mostly of eblckena, 
which have been used for spying out the future or ascertaining a lucky day. These are 
nsoally so grimed over with smoke tliat it is almost imposjible to distinguish them from tbe 
thatch. T he elders seem often to kecj) a presumably specially lucky pair in a tort of phial 
made of bamboo and sometimes rudely carved. 

Each bouse stands apart on its own plot of uneven ground and is usually enclosed within 
ft slight fence. Inside this is the record of the number of bufEaloes the owner has sacrificed 
to the spirits. For each beast be puts up a forked stick, in shape like the letter Y, exactly 
like an overgrown catapult. ThoFe are planted in rows and stand ordinarUy from seven to 
ten feet high, though some are smaller. Some houses have rows of these whicb repreFent 
whole herds of buffaloes. No one is so poor but that be has three or four of them. Here 
and there tbe more important men of the village have them of huge size, as high as gallows 
trees and not unlike them in appearance. Sometimes they are painted black and red with 
rude attempts at ghonls" beads, but ordinarily they are the simple wood, seamed and rough- 
ened and split by the rain and scorched and corrugated by the heat of the sun. The heatls 
of the buffaloes with tbe boms are usually piled up in a heap at one end of tbe house as » 
further guarantee of good faitK These forked sticks are called Eravng Mot Krai or Wang 
dn Keng. 

Below the house live the pigs and dogs and fowls. Ihese are often allowed to fend for 
themselves, but frequently the pigs have slab houses built for them or live in holes dug for 
their accommodation in the ground, into or out of which they dive with startling abruptness. 
Baskets woven of bamboo and tilled witli i^traw are hung round the hounds for the hens to 
lay in. The dogs do as they please and live where they like. The Wa eats them regularly, 
but does not appear to fatten them tor the table as the Tongkinese do. The Wa dog is 
apparently a distinct species. He does not in the least resemble the Chow dog of Kwang* 
tung, nor the black stock of Tongking, and appears to be in fact simply a dwarf species of the 
common pariah dog of India, yellow, or light-brown, short-haired, almut the size of black and 
tan, but not so long in the leg and with a head not so foxy as that of the pariah, Dogs are 
not offered as sacri^ces ; they simply supply the Wa table. 

The house of the Itamang or Krato or headman of the village is distinguished by the pro- 
longation of the raftors of the gable end of the house into a fork, or species of St. Andrew's 
Cross. This is sometimes gaily painted or even rudely carved in fantastic fashion, but 
Wa art is not conspicuous, or rather is thorouglily inconspicuous. Except that it is usually, 
but not recessarily, larger than its neighbours, the headman's bouse does not differ in any 
respect. Naturally, however, ho has a very lart;e forest of forked sticks indicating tbe sacrifice 
of buffaloes. Nevertheless he has not by any means necessarily the largest collection in the 
Tillage. In tbe debatable country the big village wooden dium is always at his house. 

The Wa are very heavy drinkers and always have a large sujiply of rice-spiril. But this Drinkini 
appears never to be stored actually in tbe owner's house. It is characteristic of the hill tribes 
to Delieve in the general honesty of mankind. Most of them are not civilized enough to be 
thieves. The Akha habitually store their paddy, tbe whole produce of their rice-fields and tbe 
main staple of their food for tbe year, in granaries by tbe side of pnbhc roads and ofton a mile 
or more away from their vdli^s. They have no means of fastoning tie dcors of the^ flimsy 
sheds better tban a bit of tuisted rattan, so that any one can go in, and tbe paddy is piled 
loote in large split bamboo bins. The reason they give is that the rice so stored is less exposed 
to destruction by fire. That any one should think of cariying it off never appears to occur to 
them. The Wa are not quite so confiding, so perhaps they think that tbe temptation of hquor 
is greater. But though they do not keep their liquor eelhir outside the limits of the village, 
they never appear to have it in the immediate neighbourhood of their dwelling-houses. Round 
the skirts of the village and usually at the njiper end, just indde tbe eartbeu circumvallation, 
each houwbolder buihle himself a small hut, about tbe siz« of an average hen-house. This 
■tauds on piles and is reached by a ladder, aad so much confidence is ^owu that even this 



220 



Water 
supply 



VUlage 

oonstita 

tioiu 



ladder does not appear to be remoyed^ even at night. Here, the Wa liquor iis stowed m 
bamboo stoups of oonsiderable girth, piled up on the rafters, or on cross-beams put up for tiia 
purpose. These bamboos obntain twice as much as the largest Rehoboam and there are few houses 
that have not their dozens of them. The Wa has no fancy to run short in hiis liquor'supplj. 

The rice they grow is used entirely for making liquor. They eat none of it, and indeed 
frequently have to buy more rice so that they may not run out of drink. The spirit is very 
strong and by no means pleasant in flavour, apart altogether from the &ct that it is usually 
flavouried with stramonium, a little of which is always grown for the purpose. Besides th^ 
rice-spirit, they also make a beverage out of fermented maize and are particularly fond of 
eating the barm from which the liquor has been strained off. 

Water is always very scarce in Wa villages. Like many of the hill tribes, they belieTe 
that the neighbourhood oi water produces fever. Accordingly the village is never built on, 
or even near, a stream. What water is wanted the women go and fetch in bamboos slung on 
the back. But occasionally when the water is very distant they build bamboo aqueducts and 
bring it into the village from considerable distances. Bamboos are split in halves to serve ai 
runnels and these are propped up on wooden struts. The bamboo channels lie looiei over- 
lapping one another at the ends. The advantage of this is that the water can be obtained as 
long as it is wanted and can be turned off as far from the village as is desirable, by simply 
lifting off one of the lengths of bamboo. Considerable engineering skill is sometimes shown in 
winding, or zig zagging this aqueduct about, when the water is brought from some heigbt 
above the village, so that the supply of water may not come in with too much violencei as it 
would if the slope were considerable. 

The Wa villages are always of a very remarkable size for mountain settlements^ &r beyond 
those of any other hUl race in the Shan States. Doubtless this is intended for safety and Felf- 
protectiouk If a village consisted of only a few liouses, it might offer irresistible temptation 
to attack. Moreover, the formidable works necessary for defence could not easily be executed 
by a smaller number. In the wild Wa country therefore there are very few villages with less 
than one hundred households and many have double or treble this number. If a settlement 
is verjr large it usually has a wliole section of a hill range to itself, or at any rate one side of 
the slope for its crops. Frequently, however, three or four villages cluster together^ but 
though they acknowledge a common Chief, each village has its separate headman, its separat^ 
fields, distinct from those of its neighbours, and usually on isolated spurs, or on opposite sides 
of the slope, and they have their separate feasts. On the outer fringe among the Tame Wa 
this is not so, the villages are much smaller, they are united in large numbers under one Chi^ 
and they are defended by fences no more formidable than are e.«6ential to keep out wild 
animals, or wandering cattle. In the wild country the two most powerful Chieftains are 
Sung Ramang and Ho Hkain the south and in the north respectively. They are said to* 
rule over a large number of villages, but the tie seems to be rather that of a federation than 
of a Government. Haunches of buffalo and pig and bamboos of liquor are sent at feast times^ 
and the quarrel of any one village would be taken up by the whole under the leadership of 
the Chief, but any closer form of sovereignty does not appear to exist. The Wa really form a 
series of village communities, for the greater part autonomous and independent of one anotho:, 
but with certain indefinite alliances and agreements for the mutual respect of heads, and possible 
recognitions of superiority in material strength, with a vague understanding that all shall 
unite agunst a common enemy. The Chief of PakkatCi the legendary seat of the race, though 
possessed of a big village, does not claim, and is not admitted to have any influence beyond his 
Tillage fields, and is indeed described as a feudatory by the Chief of Ngeklek, who has techni- 
oally given up head-hunting. 
Oharaoter. . The Wa are certwily not an enterprising, or an ambitious race. Even the Tame Wa 
Hsap Tai, as the Shans call them, those who border on the Shan States, do not do anything 
beyond cultivating their fields. They do not trade ; they do not keep shops ; they Lave no 
markets of their own, though they sometimes go to tho8(; of their Shan neighbours; tbey 
never travel beyond their own limits from motives of curiosity, or any other sentiment; the 
wild Wa do so in order to get heads, but for no other object. Hundreds of them never leave 
the range on which they were born. They remain there for all their lives, and probably there 
are many women whose knowledge of the world is limited to at the most a ten-mile radius. 

They are, however, very good agriculturists. The clearing and cultivation of* their steep 
hill-sides implies a life of toil. No field can be reached without a climb up or down the steep 
mountain side. The buckwheat, beans, and maize are never certain crops and are all they 
have to live on beside their dogs and pigs and fowls. '1 he rice they grow to make their liquor 
is very often planted three thousand feet or more below the village, and it needs constant 
attention all through its existence. But their chief crop is the poppy. The hill-tops for miles 
and miles are white with the blossoms in February and March. One can make several days' 
joum^ through nothing but opium fields. This is essentially a crop which demands constant 
attention. The fields have to be carefully cleared and constantly weeded and, when the bar* 
vest time comes round, the capsules have to be scored with the three-bladed knife at sunset 
and the sap collected on leaves at daybreak the next morning. The enormous amount of 
opium produced shows that the Wa are not a lazy people. Indeed they are an exoeedinglj 
well-behaved, industrious, and estimable race, were it not for the one foible of outting stran- 
gertf" heads off and neglecting ever to wash themselves. 

In appearance tiiey are not altogether attractive. They have short sturdy figures, perhms 
i little too broad for perfect proportion, but many of the iren are models of atUetio hw3A, 
nnd thsKWomenj Kke nK)6t oC th^ women of the lull trib90> Baiee Yesj substantial dianns wad 



Agricul- 
ture. 



Appear 
iftoe. 



murelloaaly developed legs. In oomplexion they are mooh darker than saj of the hiltfeO|b 
of this part of Indo-China, even if allowanoe be nude for dirt, for they never waah. Thejr are 
considerably darker even than the swartV' Akha, who otherwiee are the darkest tribe in the 
litlls. The Akha, however, are a totaUy diBtinot race and are remarkable for their size among 
racw who as a rde.are short, whilethe Wa areemallor even than the Shane. In features toe 
Wa are ballet-headed with square faces and exceedingly heavy jans. The noae is very broad 
at the nostrils, but otherwise is much more prominent than that oE the Shan, who cannot be 
said to have a bridge to hia nose at all. The eyes are ronod and well opened and, tbongh the 
brows are by no means low, they are ronnded rather than straight. The Tame Wa allow their 
hail to grow long enough to form a mop of shaggy unkemptDess, for they never seem to ma 
even their fingers through it. This gives them a much wilder appearance than the real wild 
Wa, who crop their hair short. Heavy eyebrows do not improve the type of face, but on the 
whole it is not a degraded type and gives no suggestion of the savagery of the head-hunter. 

Their dress is soon described, "bi the hot weather neither men nor women wear anything Drssa. 
at all, or only ov ceremonial oooasions. At other seasons the men wear a atrip of ooarae cotton 
cloth about three fingers broad. This is passed between the legs, tied loond the waist, and 
the ends, which are tasselled, hang down in front. Viewed as an ornament, which seems to be 
the latterday ultracivilized object of clothing, it is inconspicuous, or rather conspiouonely 
ineffective. Begaided as a means of protecting or concealing the body, which may be 
supposed to have been the first duty of garments, it is absolutely inadequate. In the cold 
weather they throw a coarse home- woven coverlet— their bed in fact— over their shoalders and 
throw it ofE when the sun gets well up. 

The women would do well perhaps to adhere constantly to their hot weather dress, a few 
bead necklaces. They do not, however. For the greater part of the year they think ii 
necvEsary to wear a petticoat, if that can be called a petticoat which begins at the hips and 
ends considerably above the knees and being fastened by a half hitch in front, and formed of 
coarse etiS material, is really obtrusive in its failure to effect what is ordinarily oonsideied 
the main purpose of clothing. The garment is as a matter of fact of the same length as that 
of the more civilized Wa women, hut inet«ad of being allowed to fall down to mid-calF as nith 
them, is always worn doubled. Thus as mere drapery it is ungraceful and as a covering for 
the body it can only be called Bhameless. But it is the ehamelessnese of the tiazden of Eden. 
luGide their villages in the warm weather they dispense altogether with this equivocal ear- 
ment and limit their drees to their ornaments, which consist of silver ear-tubes which are like 
gigantic carpet-tacks, necklaces of cowriei or seeds, and fillets of twisted straw or bamboo 
spathee, which bind up their hair in the case of the married women, while the unmarried girls 
wear a straw cap which suggests a strawberry pottle more than anything else. In this garb 
they have no hesitation in confronting a company of strangers, and the modesty of false sham^ 
whichever culture or Philietiuism may choose to call it, is certainly not on the side of the 
women, whether they are fifteen years of age or fifty. The state of dirt oE both nuo and 
women is absolutely beyond belief and is only limited by the point beyond whioh ertra nsp— 
matter refuses to adhere to human flesh, 

Polyandry is not known. Polygamy U permissible, but is not muoh practised ; wirea Q 
are bought for a few buffaloes, if the girl is handsome, or of a good family ; or for a dog or 
fowl or two, if her attractions or her family are not conspicuons. The first child belongs to tha 
parents of the wife, bat can be bought by the father and mother if they want it. 



222 



7 of the Mongoloid Tract. 



LUSHEIS. 



By Major ShAKB SPEAR, CLE., D.8.O., Superintendent of tie Luthei Hills. 

Composi- The population of the district is^ with the exception of a veiy few immigrants^ all of one 

tionof the j^^cg^ ^^^ people, however, recognise a numher of divisions and subdivisions. My enqairies 
tion? * ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ conclusion that each of these divisions and subdivisions bears the name of 
some famous man who distinguished himself in former days, and from whom the majority of 
those bearing the name now are descended (or the whole of a family may have adopted the 
name of some very distioguished member). Old men tell me that, in their father's tune the 
various clans lived in separate villages ruled over by Chiefis of their own clan. Prominent men 
in each clan founded families which were called after them, and these &milies have been 
further subdivided as in course of time other prominent men have arisen, whose descendants 
were proud to adopt their names. In each case the connection with the original dan is care- 
fully preserved, thus a man will say that he belongs to the Lian-nghor branch of the Pachnao 
family of the Lushei clan. 

During the last 200 years these clans have been very much broken up, and in some ease 
there is much difficulty in tinding out whether a name is that of a clan or only of a family. In 
some cases the clan had formerly a separate corporate existence, which was broken np so long 
ago that its few remaining members, living among other clans for so long, have been practically 
absorbed. 'Ihis tendency of the clan to disappear has been increased by the extraordinary way 
in which certain Lushei families have come to the front and have asserted a claim to be Cbiefs, 
and have got this claim recognised, not only by the Lusheis, but by almoi^t all the other clans 
as well. At the present time nearly every village is ruled by a Chief of one of the five royal 
Lushei families ; it is therefore only natural for members of less distinguished clans to try to 
get themselves recognised as Lusheis* The amount of variation between the different clans is 
by no means constant. The Ralte, Paithe, Thado and Lakher are easily distinguishable, and a 
very brief acquaintance with them would make it apparent that they were not Lnsheis | and 
the same applies to the clans which have been grouped under the names of Hmar and PoL The 
remaining clans are so much alike that one might live a long time in the hills without bemg 
aware that there were any differences between them. It may be as well here to explain what 
the people themselves consider the marks of a different clan. The most important is the method 
of performing the domestic sacrificial ceremonies. This is almost conclusive proof that these 
clans are really only enlarged families. The other sign of a difference of clan is a difference in 
dialect ; but in many cases the dialect has been lost entirely, while the sacrificial rites have been 
kept intact. It was manifestly both impossible and unnecessary to classify the population 
according to all the minor divisions, and therefore I directed that the population should he 
grouped under the following 15 heads : 

Lushei, Balte, Paithe, Pante, Ngente, 

Khawlhring, Kiangte, Roite, RenthJei, Chongthni 

Thado, Lakher, Darlong, Poi, Hmar. 

With the exception of Poi and Hmar, all these are true clan names. Poi is the term nsed 
by the Lnsheis, and other original inhabitants of the present Lushai Hills district, for all the 
people living in what we call the Ch'm Hills, except one or two small communities. Amon^ 
these Pois or Chins there are a great many clans and families, and I was unable to collect 
information about them all, nor did my enumerators know enough to enable them to distinguish 
them, and I therefore decided to adopt the custom of the district and classify all these people 
as Poi. Regarding them and their customs, I propose to say but little, as they are merely 
immigrants from the Chin Hills. 

Hmar, which means * north,' is used by the rest of the inhabitants of the district to de- 
note immigrants into the district from the Manipur State. These mostly belong to clans 
which are very closely allied together, and speak much the same dialect, but I was unable to 
find a more suitable name under which to group them. 

Of the remaining 1*3 divisions into which I divided the population, all except the Ralte^ 

Paithe and Lakher are becoming more and more alike every year. 

The rise of Some 200 years ago there lived a man, Thangurra by name, who distiuguished himself 

ttie Lushei above his fellows and became a powerful Chief, and to him all the present Chiefs trace tlieir 

^ ^ pedigrees. At Tbangurra's time there is but little doubt that the hills were dotted over with 

little hamlets, in which lived people all more or less closely connected. Thangurra's desoend- 

antSj by their prowess in war and wisdom in governing, gradually established their rule from 

one end of the hills to the other, and their authority now is undisputed, even by the other 

clans. The most powerful branch of Thangurra's family is the Sailo, so named from ^lova. 

In old correspondence, the Sylu tribe is frequently spoken of. By this term was meaut the 

villages of Chiefs of the Sailo family^ these villages frequently containing hardly any Sailo 

except the Chief and his family. 



223 



Ai I have already stated, the people of this district are undoal>tfldIy all of the same rac©, ?"*®J* 
They are distinctly Mgngolian. Though the different olans have various customs, yet ^T*;itlonor 
between those that vary most there is a Btrong resemblance. I propoee now to briefly describe people and 
the manner of life o£ the majority of the people, anii then to point out in what respects that of *'l^J5 '"o<'» 
different clans varies from it. • °' "^^* 

'I he race ia distinctly a short one, the men being from 5 feet 2 to 5 feet B, while the Qenoral 
woraeu seldom reach 5 fwt i- Both men and women are stoutly built and have very muscnilar ^PP^^f " 
legs. The men eetdom have any hair on theii faces, and if a man can grow a mouetw-he he 
generally pulls out all the hairs, except those growing at the corners of hia moutb. The women 
pierce their oars when yonng, and insert discs of baked clay, which are continually increased 
in size till the lobe of tlie ear is distmded, so that a ring 1 } inches in diameter can be inserted. 
In this hole an ivory ring is worn. On a woman being left a widow, she removes her 
earrings, and when she definitely gives up all idea of re-marrying she slits the lobe of her ears. 
The men somotiraes wear very small wooden or bone Btnds in tiie lobes of their ears. 

The hair of both sexes is drawn straight back and tied in a knot behind. In this knot 
pins of various shapes and materials are worn. Widows wear their hair loose. It ia considered 
unwise for mates who have reached the age of puberty to cut their hair> as doing so is sure 
to bring on ill health. 

AU children run about naked for the first two or three years of their Uvea. The clothing 
of the men consiBts of a coat whith caches below the waist, but is only fastened at the throat, 
and a single cloth, which is worn thus,— one corner is held in the left hand and the oloth is 
passed over the left shoulder behind the back under the rmht arm, and the comer thrown over 
the left shoulder again. When working, or in hot weather, the coat ia generally (Uspe nsed with, 
and the cloth simply rolled round the waist with the ends loosely knotted banging down in front. 
Men Gomtimes wear turbans. Both body cloths and turbans are generally white, but dark 
blue cloths with coloured stripes are worn by the better-off people. There is a particular pattern 
which only men who have killed two metna to feast the village are allowed to wear. The 
women wear coats and cloths like the men, and in addition a short, dark blue petticoat reaching 
just to the knee. Both sexes are fond of ornaments. Amber necklaces are very popular, and 
some of these are valued very highly, being passed down from father to son through several 
generations. Hough uncut cornelians are also much prized, these are either worn in a neck- 
lace or suspended from the lobe of the ear- 

The people live in villages, 'ach of which is ruled by a Chief, who Is entirely inde- Oonstitu- 
pen4ent. Even a young son wilt not admit his father's right to influence him, after he Hon of 
has once established a separate village. The Chief is supreme in his own village, but the ■""•^•y* 
people are very democratic, and have a very simple remedy if a Chief oppresses them, viz., 
to remove to another village. The Chief settles ail disputes in the village, arranges where the 
jhvma are to be, and when and where a village ia to move. His house is the poorhouse of 
the village, and all orphans and others who have no means of support are received there, and 
get food in return for their labour. Formerly, a person who had committed some serious crime 
could enter the Chief's house and thus escape vengeance. When a child has been brought up 
in the Chief's house, it i» in some respects a slave. Girls are released on marriage, but the 
Chief receives the marriage price. Boys have to buy their release at the cost of a metna, A 
Chief sometimes buys a wife for a favourite slave, and sots him up in a separate house, and 
ft'^bree years after the man will be considered free, but his children are sometimes considered 
Eflkves. The Chief's slaves are very well off, they wear the Chief's ornaments and tat the best 
food to be got, and do no more work than they would have to do if they were not slaves. 

The Chief lias several advisers, who are called ' vpa' They have the first choice of jhum 
land, and sometimes the Chief allows them to get a basket of rice from each house. The other 
village officials are the crier, who goes round the village after dark, shouting out the Chief's 
orders, the blacksmith, and the Pui-thiam or sorcerer, who performs sacrifices in case of 
illness. These persons generally receive a donation of rice from each house in return for their 
services. 

The Chief receives from 1 to 5 baskets of rice according to the quality of the jkvm land 
assigned to the cultivator ; he also receives a bindquarter of every animal killed in the chafe, 
besides some other small dues. 

There is a regular code of punishments for diffi-rent offences, the Chief of course receiving 
ft share of every fine levied. 

The only sort of cultivation known is /^iiwi*^. The chief crop is rice, which ripens in 
November and December, the other important crop is maize, which is reaped in August. Peaa 
and beans of various kinds, and a certain amountof millet, are also grown. The same piece of 
land is seldom cultivated two years running, and this, of course, causes all the land within 
reach of the viilagi^ to be quickly cleared, and then it becomes necessary for the village to he 
moved to some other site whence new land can \,ejhinned. 

Villages ore generally built on the top of a ridge or spur, and not on the slope of VUlftgos 
hill, M is the custom among the Chins, The cause of this, I think, is that the hills are "^^ 
lugher in the country inhabited by the Chins, and therefore they can get healthy sites **""®"" 
without going to the top of the ridges. In former days, the choice of the village site 
was much inflxienoed by its defensive capabilities, the migratory habits of the people precluding 
their oonstracting the elaborate defensive works found round the Chin villages. When we first 
occupied the hills, every village wae strongly stockaded, two or even three rows of stockades 
being found in some cases. The gateways were commanded by timber block houses, and at 
suitable points oh the roads block houses were built, which were occupied whenever there was 



224 

any fear of attack. The ground round the stockades and block houses was planted with 
sharpened bamboo spikes, which formed a very serious obstacle to a barefooted foe. 

The villages are laid out in streets, all radiating from some central op^i spot, &Cing 
which is the Chief's house, and the zawlhuh or guest-houFc. The houses are built on piles on the 
natural *slope of the hilli and thus the floor of one house is often higher than the roof g{ the 
house below it. 

The houses are all constructed in the same mann^^r and on the same plan. At the end 
nearest the road is a rough platform of logs, which is the place for cleaning the dhdn in. On 
the front wall of the house over this platform are hung the horns of any animals the owner of 
the house may have killed, and among them are the baskets in which the hens hatch out thrir 
broods. The doorway has a very high sill, and the door consists of a sliding panel of bamboo 
work. The fireplace consists of an earthen hearth, in which three upright stones are inserted 
to hold the cooking pot, above this are two bamboo shelves on which articles which require 
drying are kept. On each side of the fireplace are bamboo sleeping platforms, that furthest 
from the door being for the father and mother, the other for the daughters. Beyond the family 
sleeping platform is a partition, the space between which and the end wall of the house is 
used as a lumber room and closet, from this a back door opens out on to a small platform. The 
Chief's house only differs in size, generally having two rooms, the one nearest the entrance 
being for the use of the slaves. Windows in the sides of the house are considered unlucky, 
unless the right to make one has been purchased by killing two metna and feasting the village. 
The houses are built of timber uprights, but the walls^ floor and roof frame are made of bam- 
boo ; the thatching material used is generally cane leaves, but occasionally grass is used. Over 
the cane leaves broad bands of split bamboo are tied down from eave to eave, giving the roof a 
rounded appearance from the outside. A long coop under the eaves is the sleeping place of the 
fowls, who gain access to it by a ladder made of a knotched stick. 

The Zawlbuk is a large hall, with a huge hearth in the centre and a sleeping platform at 
the far end. The front wall stops about three feet short of the gpround^ and to enter the build- 
ii^g you have to stoop under this, and then climb over a barrier of equal height placed a few 
feet further in. This building is the sleeping place of the young men of the village, and of any 
strangers who stop there the night. It is also a sort of general meeting house. The boys of 
the vulage have to keep up a sufficient supply of firewood for the Zawlbuk fire. 

In the centre of one of the streets will generally be found the blacksmith's forgCj a small 
house, built on the ground level, but with a platform in front on which passers-by can sit, and 
lighten the labours of the smith by their conversation. The bellows consist of two hollow logs 
in which pistons are worked up and down, from the lower extremity of each log a tube mnB 
to a hole in a stone placed immediately behind the stone on which the charcoal fire rests. A 
very moderate movement of the pistons giyes an excellent draught. The blacksmith repairs all 
the tools of the village, but some of them are capable of good deal more than this. 
Marriage. Each clan has a regular fixed price for its girls, and any one wishing to marry a 

girl must pay this price sooner or later. The price varies from three metna to ten according 
to the clan. The price is always stated in mefna, but the actual articles given or the amount 
paid in cash is subject to arrangement. The father or the nearest male relative on his side re- 
ceives this price, but the bridegroom has also to pay many other persons. The girl's aunt 
will get a sum varying from Bs. 40 to Rs. 5, the elder sister gets a small sum tor having 
carried the bride about when she was young. The bride appoints a male and female friend or 
protector, and each has to be paid a small amount by the bridegroom. The bride takes with 
her certain cloths and ornaments, but these remain the property of the girl's male relatives 
unless she has a child to inherit them, in which case an extra payment, varying accordiufi^ to 
the quality of the dowry, has to be paid. The nearest male relative on the bride's mother's 
side has also to be paid a sum varying from Rs. 40 to Rs. 4. These sums are never paid at 
once, — in fact many men never complete paying the price of their wives, and leave tne debt 
to be cleared oS by their children.'^ 

A young Lushei generally chooses his own vrife, and sends a pafai, or ambassador, to her 
parents to arrange the details of the price to be paid. These settled, the bride is escorted to her 
future husband's parent's house, by a party of friends, being pelted with dirt by all the chil- 
dren of the village. The parents of the bridegroom receive the party with brimming oups of 
rioe-beer, and when justice has been done to this, a fowl is produced by the bridegroom and 
slain by the pvutiiam, or sorcerer, who mutters certain charms over it. Directly this is over^ 
the bride and her girl friends retire, while the rest of the party indulge in a great feast, the 
bridegroom having to provide a fowl for each of those entitled to a share in the price of the 
bride. The following evening the bridegroom's mother goes and fetches the bride and hands 
her over to him at his house. The following morning, the bride returns to her parent's house 
and spends the day there, this she continues to do for some time. The bonds of matrimony are 
very loose. If a couple do not get on they can separate bv mutual consent, or if the husband 
does not like the woman he can simply send her back to her parents. In both these cases he 
does not recover any part of the price he may have paid, and the recipient of the price is bound 
to support the woman till she is married again. If the woman commits adultery, or leaves her 
husband without his consent, her relatives have to refund whatever they received on her ac- 
count. A widow is at liberty either to return to her own people, in which case her late hns* 
band's relatives take all his property and his children ; or she may continue to live in' his house 
in which case she retains his property in trust for his children^ but should she indulge, in an 
intrisf ne she is oonsidered to be an adultress, and her rdatives have to pay haci. her pnoe to lier 
late nusband^s relatjons ; who take all the property and also the chjldren, _j[J.___ 

• It is itnaiie that the bride jrioe should be so high amongst the Lushei^ as the womtn of this tribe hangar 
•seeed the mei in Aimben^—B. O.JL 



Until agiri is married, she may indulge in ae many intrigues aa she Hkes, bQ.t shonld 
•he beoome pr^nant, her lover mnst pay a meina to her father ; he will, hotrever, be entitled to 
take the ohild when it is old enough to leave its mother, tn case the ohild is a girl, the father, 
oC oourse, gets the marriage price in due courEC. If a tnan is willing at once to marry a girl 
whom be bas seduced he is not expected to pay more than the asual marriage price. 

All dans intermarry, the children taking the father's cW name. The marriuge of first 
couains ia rare among the common peoplej chiefly because the parents of the girl prefer 
taking her price from some one outside their family circle. Among Chiefs, who are anxious 
to marry their children to the children of other Chiefs, the marriage of first ooueidb is more 
common. Except his mother, nster", daughters and aunts, a man may marry any woman 
he likes. 

After the birth of a child, the mother must not go down to the spring nor wash her child CemnonlM 
in cold water till two fowls have been sacrificed. Seven days after the birth of the child, the^'^*^^^^ 
household epfrit is appeased by the offering of a small chicken and seven packets of rice and blrtb. 
vegetables, which are euapended under the eaves. During these seven days, the spirit of the 
(diild is supposed to spend eomeofits time perched like a bird on the clothee or bodies of 
the child's parents, who for fear of injuring it have to keep quiet during this period. Should 
they do any work, and the child get ill, the cure is to make a coil of a certain creeper, and 
at night, after the lire has been put out, to dip the child three times inside the coil. The 
peirents give two feasts in honour of the birth of a child, the first two days and the second 
nine days after ita birth. At one or the other of these feasts the nearest male relative on the 
mother's side gives the child its name. There are many other sacrifices connected with children 
and ih^ differ considerably indifferent clane. 

All the tribes in the tiilla bury their dead eventually, though some of them take Ftmarala. 
some time over it. After death tlie corpse is dressed up in the beat clothes nvailahle 
and fastened to a bamboo-frame in a sitting podtion. If the deceased is a man, his gun, d&o 
and epeu will be placed berade him. A pig, goat and dog are then killed and their flesh 
cooked, and then all the frienda and neighbours are asked to a great feast. Meat and drink 
are offered to the corpae also. The spirits of the animals slain are supposed to accompanv 
the deceased to * Mi-tbi-khua,' the dead men's village. Without this sacrifice the deceaaed s 
spirit cannot find rest. The dead are buried just outside the house in which they lived. The 
grave consists of a shaft about 4 or 6 feet deep, from which a tunnel is excavated long enough 
to receive the corpse. On the evening following the death, the corpse is placed in thia grave, 
the nearest male relative making a short farewell speech and asking the spirit of the dead 
to prepare things for those who will shortly follow. Drinking is kept up throughout the 
funeral ceremonies. The bodies of members of the Chief's family and of well-to-do persons of 
the more esteemed Lushei famihes are not buried so speedily. Instead of being placed in 
the grave, they are placed in the log of a tree which has been specially hollowed out, a lid 
is fitted on and the junction of the lid and the tree trunk ia well plastered with mud. This 
coffin is placed on the floor of the house and an earthen hearth is made alongside, on which a 
fire is kept burning day and night. A bamboo ia paaaed through the bottom of the coffin 
and the floor into the ground ; thia conv^a away all the liquid matter. The corpee is kept 
in this coffin for about three mouths, and all this time the nearest relatives sit b^de it and 
feed the fire and driuk rice-beer. At the end of this time little but the bones is left. Some 
of these are buried, but the skull and certain of the larger hones are kept in a basket which 
occupies a shelf opporate the fireplace in the .house of the nearest relative, whence they are 
taken and dressed np at the feast of the dead. Should the first-born die within a year of 
its birth, it will be bnried without any ceremony under the boose, eubseqaent children, however 
early thay may die, will, however, be honoured with a regular funeral. On a death, the 
maternal tmcle of the deceased is entitled to a sum varying from 2 to 20 rupees from the 
heir. 

The Luaheis and all other tribes in the hills believe in a' supreme being who Religion 
made the world : he is' known aa Pathian, but ia not thought to take much interest in the 
doings of people. Far more important to the average man are the numerous ram-iuat, or 
demooB who are supposed to inhabit every lull aud stream, and Khuavang, a spirit sometimes 
spoken of as the same as Pathian, but generally considered as less powerful, bat more con- 
cerned with mankind. Every illness, every failure of crops, is put down either to the influence 
of some demon or of Khuavang, and the whole of a hillman's existence is spent in propitiating 
tuese spirits. The ptti-tiiam, or sorcerer, is supposed to know what patticiOar spirit is the cause 
o£ the trouble, and what particular sacrifice will appease him. The number of these FacrifiL-es 
and the different ways in which they have to be performed, would fill a thick book. In all 
of them the flesh of the animal killed is eaten by the sorcerer and his assistants, the least 
toothsome portions only being left for the demon. Small figures representing human b^ngs 
and animals are also offered to the demons. Besides these sacrifices, there is a special sacrifice 
to the patron spirit of the hearth. This can only be performed by a member of the clan, and 
the method of penorming it varies in every clau 

Tlie most generally accepted theory ae to what happens after death, is that the spirits go 
to ' Mi-thi-khua ; ' but those men who have slain men or animals is the chase or have feasted 
the Tillage are able to cross the Fail river to an abode of great comfort, tvhere there is plenty 
of food uul drink to be got without any work. As women cannot go to war nor kiU wild 
KTiimalfl, and are not allowed to give feasts, they can only reach this happy land if their 
hvsbandii take them. Bxistenoe in' Mi-tiii-khna * is full of trouble and worry. After a certain 
.period in on9 of thete two abodes of departed apirits, the spirit is again bom as a hornet and 



226 



Feattsy etc. 



Supersti* 
tions— 
Witoh. 
oraft. 



Weapons 
and war- 
fare. 



Hunting 
and snar- 
ing. 



after a time assumes the form of water^and if in the foim of dew it tails on a man, it is re-bom 
in his child. 

In connection with the crops there are three feasts^ called ehafhehar M, mim tut and 
pawl hut. The first is the most iitiportant^ and is thought to ensure a good harvest. It 
takes place about the time of sowing, and consists chiefly of drinking^ the young men and 
girls dancing slowly round in circles^ holding each other's arms, while people inside the circle 
ply them with rice-beer. The pawl kut, is held after the rice harvest has b^n reaped. It seems 
chiefly a festival for the children^ who^ dressed in their best^ are fed with meat, rioe and 
hard-boiled egg^. A good deal of rough play goes on, the lads trying to force handfulls of 
food down the lasses' throats. Mim hut is held when the maize harvest is reaped, and is of 
but little importance. Mi'ihurop lam, or dance of the dead, is a feast held in honour of the 
deceased members of a clan. I think it is only held by true Lushei clans. Besides the usual 
eating and driking, the special feature is the carrying round of effigfies of the fore&thers of the 
various persons giving tiie feast. In case the feast is ^ven by a Chief, the bones of his 
ancestors will probably be dressed up. The efiigies are all tied on to a square frame-work, and 
this is carried about and danced up and down amid much shouting. In the centre of the frame 
is a large effigy, intended to represent the first of the whole race. After this dancing of the 
effigies has gone on some time, the eldest member of the clan present comes out of his house 
with a flagon of rice-beer and goes to each effigy in turn and wnispers some words and pours a 
little of the beer into its mouth. He so arrange as to come to his own particular ancestoir 
last, and, after having g^ven the beer, he dashes the flap^n on the ground and, bursting into 
tears, runs into his own house. The effigies, after being danced about a little more, are taken 
away by respective descendante. 

A Chief sometimes has to sacrifice a metna for the benefit of the village. Aiter the puu 
ihiam has muttered the proper charm over the animal and anointed it by blowing some rioe- 
beer from hid mouth over it, the Chief stabs it with a spear and then takes refiige in his house. 
He is not allowed to cross any running water for a month after this sacrifice, and should he do 
so, dire disasters will certainly follow. 

Beside these semi-religious feasts, there are various others which are given by people who 
wish to be thought well of. These have to be given in a reg^ar order, and when a man has 
given the whole series he is entitled to wear a cioth of a certain pattern and to have a window 
in the side of his house. 

The Lusheis are a very superstitious race. They will not kill certain animals, because it is 
unlucky, and yet I cannot find any trace of totemism in this superstition. The belief in 
witehcraft is universal, and people suspected of practising the black art were formerly killed, 
and portions of their livers g^ven to their victims, with a view to effecting a cure. Wizards 
are said to make clay images of their victims, and to stick spikes into them to cause sickness 
to those whom the figures represent. To take up the impression of a person's foot in the mud 
and put it to dry over the fire is a sure way to cause sickness. 

Besides the regular wizards, there are a number of people whose spirite are supposed to 
have the habit of leaving their bodies and entering into the bodies of others and causing them 
much trouble. It may here be noted that the common belief is that each person has three 
spirits. One of these is called JtAawArin, and this is the one that sometimes wanders, the other 
two are spoken of as iilarao, and one is supposed to be wise and one foolish^ and the constant 
struggle between these two causes men's actions to be so unreliable. 

Men of 60 and 70 years of age can remember the time when guns were hardly known, 
and fighting was carried on with spears and bows and arrows ; but now-a-days the weapons of 
the people are flint-lock muskets, spears and ddos, the last being evidently imitated from the 
Burmese ddh^ and called kawlnam, which means Burmese knife. The spears are very inferior 
weapons, about 4 feet 6 inches long, with iron blades, and iron spikes at the other end of the 
shaft to allow of the weapons being stuck in the gpx>und. The blades are attached to the 
shafts in a very inefficient manner. The essence of war&re is surprise. The greatest triumph 
that could be achieved was to surprise a village at daybreak, and dash in before the fighting 
men had time to make any resistance, then capture as many women and children as possible^ 
load them up with their own property and get away before their relatives could organize a 
rescue party. The practice of waylaying people cultivating was considered unfair, and tiie Pois, 
by steadily practising it, drove the other clans out of any part of the country they coveted. 
Ambushing armed parties was res^u'arly practised, but our experience has been that tiie 
ambusher was always so anxious to get off with a whole skin, that his fire was very -apt to ibe 
ineffective. A raiding party, even after a march of several days, would retire without firing 
a shot if the enemy were found on the alert. 

All the hillmen are very fond of fresh meat, and are clever at trapping game. Long lines 
of rough fencing are run through the jungle, with small openings at intervals, in which snares 
are set. Pheasants, jungle-fowl, etc, coming to one of these fences will always run along 
it till an opening is found, and thus get snared. Porcupines are killed by a bamboo spear 
fastened to a sapling bent back like a spring and so arranged that it shall be released just 
as the animal is opposite the spear point. Tigers are caught xmder a platform of heavy 
logs, which is supported in an inclined position by a strong cane passed over a crosspieoe held 
up by two uprighte. In a hole under this platform is placed a pig in a basket; on the . ti«r 
pulling at the basket, the heavy platform falls and squashes him, wUle the pig, being in a h^ 
escapee. Deer, wild cats, ete., are caught in snares, a noose being arranged so. that on the 
animals stepping in it a sapling to which the noose is attach^, and which is held down in 
a bent position, is released, thus misting the animal up into the air The method of ideaaing 



22? 

tbe trap or Ensre is in all oases the eame. Two aprig-hts are driven into the ground, ami a 
crossbar securely tied between them near the top. Near one end o£ a piece of string or rope ii at- 
tached a pieoe of wood ; one end of this is placed under ihe crosshar, and the other end is pressed 
down till it passes between the two uprights, then a loose piece of wood is passed across the 
upright under it. The other end of the string supports the weight which is to fall on the 
animal or is tied, to the bent sapling. All the pressure is on the upper crosspiece, which is 
securely tied ; the bait is tied to the lower one, or a piece of string tied to this one is fastened 
across the path. A very slight pressure will suffice to displace tha lower one, and directly that 
happens, the string is released and the weight falls or the sapling flies up. 

C^ongs and £iuiis, the latter the common tom-tom, are the favourite instruments. A Hutioal 
reed intmment is made by inserting reeds into a gonrd. The reeds have finger holes, by Instru- 
closing and opening of which while blowing into the gourd by another reed a regularly graded °i*i**' 
scale of notes can be produced. 

These are very simple and consist of a 1^0, an axe and a hoe. The dio is a knife with aAdrtota- 
triangular blade, about & inches wide at the end and half an iach at the handle. It is ground tnrallni- 
with a ohisel edge, the broad end being also sharpened. 'Ihis is used for cloiriag the jungle, ^ s™'"** 
and the broad end is used for grubbing the holes in which tlie seeds are placed. The axe-beads 
are only about 1^ inches wide at the edge, and taper almost to a point ; the handles are simply 
pieces o£ bamboo, the heads being thrust through the tough root portion. The hoes very 
closely resemble the axes, the heads b^g a little lighter and broader. 

'Ilie women are very clever at weaving, and tlie cloths they make are strong and lait a Arti and 
lifetime. The patterns they work are simple. The cotton used is grown in the jhumt, and *"***•• 
cleaned and spun by the women themselves. Th«; mea are expert basket weavers. There 
are a very large number of different baskets, each with its proper name and use. Some very 
good moulding in brass is occasionally come across, and some of the black smitlu are very 
good workmen, being able to make gan-locka. 

Among the Chiefs, the custom has been that us soon as a son married he should be given Inhari- 
a certain number of bouses and started as an independent Chief. His father would also tanoe. 
give him fome of his possessions, such as guus, necklaces, etc., and send some of his most 
trusted slaves with him. The youngest son was an exception to tliis rule ; he remained with 
his father till his death, and thus became his heir. Much the same custom is folloned among 
the common people, each son as he marries setting up house for himself and receiving some 
of the family possessions, and it has thns become the custom for the youngest to take the 
father's property. The eldest son, however, sometimes asserts a claim to a share. Custom 
among the people of these hills is not very stable, and on a man's death practically any 
relative caii take his goods if he will undertake to support the widow and the children, 
providing that the widow does not elect to continue to live in her husband's house, and that 
the children arenotold encugh to support themselves. 

The only marks I have noticed are circles, which are said to bs records of love affairs. TattoolaK. 

I have fouud no special traces of aoy worship but Bulpi. ' The big snake ' figures &e* Bnaka wor- 
qnently in the folklore of the people. tUp. 

The victims are buned outside the village, butas far as I can gather, no disgrace is Deaths by 



Origin. 

It is nearly universally believed that the ancestors of the present inhabitants came 
out itotn a cave in the earth. The portion of this oave is variously described. Nearly every 
clan will tell you that its first villages were on the banks of the Manipur river, but they mean 
thereby the first communities of which they have any traditions. 

It used to be considered that all inhuhitants of these hills were head-hunters ; in fact, so -q^^^. 
great an authority as Colond Lewiu derives the name Lnshai from ' Lu,' a h«Ml, and 'sha' hunttng. 
to oat. This is, of course, a mistake, as the name of the clan is not Lushai, but Ludteif 
and though 'gha* does mean to cut, it does not mean to cut off, aud oould not be used of 
cutting off a man's head ; but that such a mistake should have been posable shows how firmly 
rooted was the belief that head-banting was one of the peculiarities of the population of these 
bills. I believe that, as far as the Lusheis aud their kindred clans are concerned, head-hunting 
was not indulged in. By this I mean that parties did not go out simply to get heads. Of 
oonrse a mas who had killed his man was thought more highly of than one who hnd not, 
and therefore, when a man did kill a person, he brought the head home to show that he was 
speaking the truth ; but the raids were made not to get heads but for loot and slaves ; the 
killing and taking of heads were merely incidents in the raid, not the cause of it. I think that 
the Chins or Fois are an exception to this, and, as far as X can gather, the glory of bringing 
in a head was suQScient to send a young man and his friends off on the raid. 

I wiU now give briefly a few points in which oeitain clans differ considerably from those ciana 
to whom the above description ereaerally applies. wbleb 

* differ ftom 

tbe bulk of 
the popu- 

Satte. — This clan speaks a dialect which is very different from the Lushei or Dnlian tan- * °' 
goage, which may be oonridered the lingua franca of the hills. They keep very much together, 
and are now collecting in villages under headmen of their own. In almost every custom they 
differ slightly from their ndghbours. They bury their dead outside the village, and the £hi«ffl 
buty their doidf not prenrving the bones as the Lushei Chiefs do. The Hulte are the aost 



228 

quarrelsoine and talkative clan in the whole hills. Tradition says that when mankind 
issuing from the earth the Baltes came out chattering so loudly that the stone was clapped down 
on them and therefore there are less Baltes than other clans. 

In mode of dress^ etc.^ they do not differ from the other clans. 
Hgentt. The following information has been collected by Mr. Drake 'Brockman :— - 

Child'iirth. — Three months before her confinement a woman prepares rice-beer^ which 
is kept and drunk inside the house after the birth of the child, llie third day after the 
child's birth it is named by its maternal uncle^ a red cock being killed^ and some of the featherB 
tied round the child's neck^ and also worn by the members of the fiunily. In the autumn of 
each year, there is a feast which lasts three days in honour of the children born during the 
year. The first two nights the adult population sits up all night drinking and eating yams. 
The third day men^ dressed as women, and Pois, go from house to house, visiting all who have 
become mothers during the year, and beiag treated to drink and given some sniall present by 
each, in return for which they dance. Women are deliyered at the head of the sleeping 
maehan ; the after-birth is placea in a gourd and hung up on the wall at the back of the house. 

Death ceremonies. — The dead are buried at once, and anywhere relatives choose. 

Pais or Chins. — There are many minor differences in feasts and customs. Mr. Drake- 
Brockman has supplied me with a good deal of information, but all the Pois in this district are 
merely immigrants from the Chin Hills. 

Lakhers. — ^These people are also immigrants from the Chin Hills, but they seem differ- 
ent in many respects from the Pois. Mr. Drake-Brockman says that the name by which they 
call themselves is Tlongsai. The eldest foq inherits the bulk of the property. Daughters only 
get what the brothers give them ; younger brothers get a small share. If there are no sons, 
the nearest male relative inherits. The details of the price paid for brides differs somewhat 
from those given above. There are no guest houses. All members of the &mily sleep in the 
same house. The Chiefs' bodies are buried five days after death. Peof^le killed by animals or 
by accident, or women who die in child-birth, are buried outside the village, and ceremonies are 
abbreviated. Such a death is an ill-omen. Seven days after child-birth the mother crashes at 
the spring, and then takes the child to her father's house, and gives some rice and a fowl in 
honour of the child. No particular sacrifices are connected with child-birth. Among the 
Lakhers there are no special sorcerers or priests : the head of the household is the priest, and 
does all necessary sacrifices. Lakher villages, like Chin villages, do not move, and therefore 
are more permanent. 1 he dress of the people is the same as that of the Haka Chins. 

PaUhes.^yihen we first occupied these hills, a very large number of this clan were living 
in different villages of Lushei Chiefs, having been brought there and detained more or less 
forcibly. These have nearly all left now, and either returned to their own country^ the 
Manipur Hills, or settled in one or two villages under Paithe Chiefs in the extreme north-east 
comer of the district. The Paithe dialect is quite unintelligible to a Lushei. Their marriage 
customs are very different. A young Paithe cohabits with his future wife for a period which 
may extend to three years if no child is bom. During this time they sleep together, but other- 
wise live as if unmarried. If no child is born, or rather if the woman does not become preg- 
nant, the couple separate. If the woman becomes pregnant, the marriage is completed^ and the 
price must be paid, and there can be no separation or divorce, as is so easily arranged among 
the Lusheis. There is very little intermarriage between the Paithes and the otner clans, on account 
of the objection the Paithe women have to the casual way in which the males of other clans can 
get rid of their wives. A Paithe Chief's Eon is supposed to marry his first cousin. After death 
the corpse is rubbed with some greasy preparation, which preserves and hardens the skin. It is 
then dressed up in the best cloths obtainable, and a wonderful head-dress made of toucan tail 
feathers is placed on its head. During the day-time the corpse is kept in the house, but in the 
evening when the people return from work, it is brought out and placed on the platform outside 
the house, and rice-beer is poured down its throit, and people sing and dance round it. This dis- 
gtisting performance is kept up for periods, which vary from a month or two to a year, accord- 
ing to the wealth of the dead person's family. The Paithes have many other peculiar customs, 
but I have had but little opportunity of studying them. They have no guest houses, the young 
men sleeping in the front verandahs of the Chief, and some wealthy men on special platforms. 
For this privilege, they each give a pig or a goat once a year. 

Mr. Dundas notes that the women's petticoats overlap in front instead of at the side> that 
the unmarried girls wear their coats opening down the back, and that they do not wrap a cloth 
round them as the men do. The hair is dressed as follows : a lock is drawn down over the 
forehead, and then plaited and drawn back over the centre of the bead, and tied into the knot 
in which the rest of the hair is tied over the nape of the neck. The women wear their hair in 
three plaits, one hanging over each ear and one down the back. The Paithe seem very closely 
allied to the Syins of the Northern Chin Hill. 

The Hmar. — Regarding these people, I have but little information. There are many 
different clans, who are all known to the Lusheis under this name, and who speak dialects very 
cloFcly allied and unintellit<ible to the Lusheis. They formerly had many wars with the Lusheis 
and lived north of Champhai ; they now mostly live in the Manipur Hills. The women wear 
their hair in one long plait wrapped round the head, and instead of the blue petticoat worn by 
all other clans, wear cne with a blae stripe between two white ones, which overlap in frontj and 
80, when seen from the front, the. petticoat appears white, and hence the whole clan is often 
spoken of as /<?»-«^(?— white petticoats. 

The 7!iAJ0.— There is only one village of these people. in the distriot, Ihey ware diivea . 
out of the hills by the Lusheis. They are said to be descended from the same atodc at- tli» 



22d 

Chongthu. They say their ancestor found his way from some underground cavern. They 
place their dead in logs as described abovCi and dry them^ but do it in a small house outside the 
village. 

The above gives only a general idea of the customs of the inhabitants of the hdls. Every Conoluaion 
clan ha« some particular custom of its own^ especially as regards sacrifices, which form a 
very important feature in the people's existence. The customs as to punishments, paying 
of marriage price^ etc., among people Uving under Lushei Chiefs are practically the result of 
orders which the most powerful ChicdEs have given during their lives, and I find some differences 
between the customs of the northern and southern chiefs. 



Q» 



APPENDIX V. 



Modern theories of Caste. 



232 



^ Hr. Nesfield's theory of the ori|;in and nature of indiaD caste. 

If it were possible to compress into a single paragraph a theory so complex as that which 
would explain the origin and nature of Indian caste^ I should attempt to sum it up in some such 
words as the following : A caste is a marriage union, the constituents of which were drawn 
from yarions different ^bes (or from various other castes similarly formed)^ in ▼irtoe of 
some industry, craft or function, either secular or religions, which they possessed in common. 
The internal discipline, by which the conditions of membership in regard to connubial and con- 
Tivial rights are defined and enforced, has been borrowed from the tribal period which preceded 
the period of castes by many centuries, and which was brought to a close by the amalgama>tion 
of tribes into a nation under a common sceptre. The differentia of eatte as a marriage nnion 
consists in some community of function ; while the differentia of tnbe as a marriage anion 
consisted in a common ancestry, or a common worship, or a common totem^ or in fact in any 
kind of common property except that of a common function. Long before castes were formed 
on Indian soil, most of the industrial classes, to which they now correspond^ had existed for 
centuries, and as a rule most of the industries which they practised were hereditary on the male 
side of the parentage. These hereditary classes were and are simply the concrete embodiments 
of these successive stages of culture which have marked the industrial development of mani- ind 
in every part of the world. Everywhere except at least in those countries where he is still a 
savage), man has advanced from the stage of hunting and fishing to that of nomadism and 
cattle-grazing, and from nomadism to agriculture proper. Everywhere has the age of metal- 
lurgy and of the arts and industries which are coeval with it been preceded by a ruder age, 
when only those arts were known or practised which sulficed for the hunting, fishing, and 
nomad slates. Everywhere has the class of ritualistic priests and lettered theosophists been pre- 
ceded by a class of less cultivated worshippers, who paid simple offerings of flesh and wine to 
the personified powers of the visible universe without the aid of an hereditary professional 
priesthood. Everywhere has the class of nobles and territorial chieftains been preceded by a 
humbler class of small peasant proprietors, who placed themselves under their protection and 
paid tribute or rent in return. Everywhere has this class of nobles and chieftains sought to 
ally itself with that of the priests or sacerdotal order ; and everywhere has the priestly order 
sought to bring under its control those chiefs and rulers under whose protection it lives. All 
these classes, then, had been in existence for centuries before any such thing as caste was 
known on Indian soil ; and the only thing that was needed to convert them into castes, such 
as they now are, was that the Brahman, who possessed the hightest of all functions ~ the 
priestly— should set the example. This he did by e^blishing for the first time the rule that 
no child, either male or female, could inherit the name and status of Brahman, unless he or 
she was of Brahman parentage on hoth sides. By the establishment of this rule the principle 
of marriage unionship was superadded to thist of functional unionship ; and it was only by 
the combination of these two principles that a caste in the strict sense of the term could or can 
be formed. The Brahman therefore, as the Hindu books inform us, was 'Hhe first-bom of 
castes.'' When the example had thus been set by an arrogant and overbearing priesthood^ 
whose pretensions it was impossible to put down, the other hereditary classes followed in regu- 
lar order downwards, partly in imitation and partly in self-defence. To a nation mesmerised 
by Brahmans and blinded with superstition and ignorance no other course was open. Imme- 
diately behind the Brahman came the Kshatriya, the military chieftain or landlord. He there- 
fore was the " second-bom of castes." Then followed the bankers or upper trading classes 
(the Agarwal, Khattri, etc.); the scientific musician and singer iKathak); the writing or 
Uterary class (Kayasth) ; the bard or genealogist (Bhat) ; and the class of inferior nobles 
(Taga and Bhuinhari, who paid no rent to the landed aristocracy. These, then, were the 
third-born of castes. In all communities, such classes must stand rather high in the scale of 
social respectability, since the stages of industry or function which they represent are high in 
proportion ; but in India their rank was more precisely defined than elsewhere by the &ct that 
they made a nearer approach than the castes below them to the Brahmanical ideal of personal 
dignity and purity. Next in order came those artisan classes, who were coeval with the age 
and art of metallurgy ; the metallurgic classes themselves ; the middle trading classes ; the 
middle agricaltural classes, who placed themselves under the protection of the Kshatriya and 
paid him rent in return ( Kurmi, Kachhi, Mali, Tamboli) ; and the middle serving classes, such 
as Napit and Baidya, who attended to the bodily wants of their equals and superiors. These, 
then, were the fourth-bom of castes ; and their rank in the social scale has been determined 
by the fact that their manners and notions are further removed than those of the preceding 
castes from the Brahmanical ideal. Next came the inferior artisan classes, those which pre- 
ceded the age and art of metallurgy (Teli, Kumhar, Kalwar, etc.) i the partly nomad and partly 
agricultural classes (Jat, Gujar, Ahir, etc.) ; the inferior serving classes, such as Kahar ; and 
the inferior trading classes, such as Bhunja. These, then, were the fifth-born of castes, and 
their mode of life is still further removed from the Brahmanical ideal than that of the pre- 
ceding. The last bom, and therefore the lowest, of all the classes are those semi-savage com- 
munities, partly tribes and partly castes, whose function consists in hunting or fishing, or in 
acting as butcher for the general community^ or in rearing swine and fowls, or in discharg^g 
the meanest domestic services^ such as sweeping and washing, or in practising the lowes 



• '* Brief Tieir of the oMto f^tom of tlift N.«W. P. and Oadh," b^ John 0. Nenfleld, M. A., Osoa., pp. 114— US, 



.IMk 



♦ -i 



333 

of hamftn arts^ such as basket-making, hide-tanning, etc. Thns thronghont the whole series of 
Indian castes a double test of social precedence has been in active force, the Industrial and the 
Brahmanical ; and these two have kept pace together almost as evenly as a pair of horses harnessed 
to a single carriage. In proportion as the function practised by any given caste stands high 
or low in the scaJe of industrial development, in the same proportion does the caste itself, 
impelled by the general tone of society by which it is surrounded, approximate more nearly or 
more remotely to the Brahmanical ideal of life. It is these two criteria combined which have 
determined the relative ranks of the various castes in the Hindu social scale. Outside the caste 
sjrstem altogether stand the few and shattered remains of those aboriginal tribes, out of which 
the \\hole series of caste was &shioned by slow degrees, through the example and under the 
guidance of the Brahmanical priesthood. Had the Brahman never come into existence and had 
his arrogance proved to be less omnipotent than it did, the various industrial classes would 
never have become stereotyped into castes, and the nation would then have been spared a degree 
of social disunion to which no parallel can be found in human history. There seems to be no 
likelihood of caste being bani^ed from Indian soil until Brahmanism itself —the fonn e% origo 
maii — has died a natural death by the rise of the scientific spirit, and the fallacy of its preten- 
sions has become an object of general scorn. As soon as the Brahman begins to disappear, the 
rest will follow. 



234 



Caste in the Punjab. 



The popu- 
lar oon- 



From the Census Report of the Punjab, 1881, by SiR DsNZlL Ibbstson, K.C.8.L 

An old agnostic is said to have summed up his philosophy in the following^ words ^— 
'ihe only thing I know is that I know nothing; and I am not quite sure that I know 
caSte^^ ^' that.'* His words express very exactly my own feelings regarding caste in the Punjab. 
My experience is that it is almost impossible to make any statement whatever regarding 
any one of the castes we have to deal with, absolutely true as it may be as regards 
one fart of the Province, which shall not presently be contradicted with equal truth as 
regards the same people in some other district. Yet I shall attempt to set forth briefly 
what seem to me the fundamental ideas upon which caste is based ; and in doing so I shall 
attempt partly to explain why it is that the institution is so extraordinarily unstEd>le^ and its 
phoenomena so diverse in different localities. What I propound in the following paragraphs is 
simply my working hypothesis as it at present stands ; but I shall not stop to say ao as I 
write, though almost every proposition made must be taken subject to limitations, often saflB* 
ciently obvious, and not unf requently involved in some other proposition made in the very next 
paragraph. My views are of little weight so long as they are not illustrated and supported 
by instances drawn from actually existing fact. Such instances I have in great abundance, and 
they will be found in part in the detailed description of castes which follow this discussion. 
But I have leisure neither to record all my evidence, nor to marshal what I have recorded ; 
and I give my conception of caste with a crudeness of exposition which lack of time forbids me 
to modify, not because I think that it is anything even distantly approaching to the whole 
truth, but because I believe that it is nearer to that truth than is the generally received theory 
of caste as I understand it. 

The popular and currently received theory of caste I take to consist of three main 
aritoles : — 

(1) that caste is an institution of the Hindu religion, and wholly peculiar to that 

religion alone ; 

(2) that it consists primarily of a fourfold classification of people in general under the 

heads of Srahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra ; 

(3) that caste is perpetual and immutable, and has been transmitted from generation to 
generation throughout the ages of Hindu history and myth without the possibility 
of change. 

Now I should doubtless be exaggerating in the opposite direction^ but I think that I 
should still be far nearer to the truth if, in opposition to the popular conception thus defined, 
I were to say—, 

(1) that caste is a social far more than a religious institutio