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Full text of "Census of American business"

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Daniel C. Roper, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

WlUiam L. Anstin. Director 



"^ ^^. 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS: 1933 



A CrVIL WORKS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION 



VOLUME I 



UNITED STATES SUMMARY: 1933 

AND 
COMPARISONS WITH 1929 




7PJi 



J 

MAY 1935 



=JJ 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



Daniel C. Roper, Secretary 



— 0- 



BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



William L. Austin, Director 



This is one of the series of final reports on retail trade 
presenting the results of the 1933 Census of American Business. The 
statistics were collected in 1934 by a field canvass of retail stores 
in every State, city and county in the United States, with funds pro- 
vided by the Federal Civil Works Administration. They cover the 
operation of retailers during the year 1933. 



The reports are prepared under the supervision of Fred A. 
Gosnell, Chief Statistician for the Census of American Business, by 
John Guernsey, in charge of Retail Distribution. Assistance in the 
preparation of statistical data was rendered by William A. Ruff, 
Assistant Chief Statistician, and James 0. Reid, Retail Assistant. 



o^-bv-^ .-^i^n 






94 






Form 2 

BUSINESS CENSUS 
C.W.A. Peoject 



CONFIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT REPORT 



Department of Commerce 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

WASHINGTON 



SUPERVISOR'S DISTRICT 



No. 



ENUMERATION DISTRICT 



No. 



NUMBER OP REPORT 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS, 1933 

A separate report should be prepared for every retail or wholesale place of business, every service business, hotel, theater, or other place of amusement. Combined 
reports for two or more establishments, even though under the same management or ownership, cannot be accepted except on special instructions from Washington. 

All reports should cover, if possible, the full year's operations for 1933, even if ownership has changed during the year. If the fiscal year ends within a month before 
December 31 the fiscal year can be reported. Otherwise report the business of the 12 months of the calendar year 1933. 

Units of chains which must be reported from the home office should fill out this form as far as possible; at least blocks 1, 2, and 3. (The balance of the information 
will be obtained by Washington from the chain's home office.) 

Only sworn employees of the Bureau of the Census will be permitted to examine your report, and no information will be given out by the Bureau of the Census which 
would disclose, exactly or approximately, any of the figures in your report; provided that identifying data may be used to compile a central card file of business establish- 
ments in the I'nited States for Government statistical purposes. 

1. DESCRIPTION OF ESTABLISHMENT: 

(a) Name of establishment _.. 

(b) Name of owner _ _ 

("State - County Township - 

City, town, or village — — 

Street and number 

Is this street and number located within the corporate limits of the city, town, or 
. village? (Yes or No) 

(d) Was this establishment in operation in 1929? (Yes or No)_ 

(e) Number of establishments in same line of business owned by this obganization, anywhere in 
the United States 

if) Where is the home office (give post-oppice address) 



(c) Location op estab 
lishment. 



(DO NOT USE) 



2. KIND OF BUSINESS: 



Check function 



Wholesale D 

(o) Kind of business _ __J Service _ n 



(Give usual name or designation based on major kind of merchandise sold or major service rendered) 

EXAMPLES. — Grocery store {or wholesale grocer), meal market, delicatessen, hardware store {or 
hardware wholesaler), barber shop, department store, restaurant, sugar broker, motion picture thea- 
ter, bowling alley, laundry, auto repair shop, parking lot, etc. If several distinct lines of merchan- 
dise are handled in substantial amounts, the designation may be general store, general merchandise 
wholesaler, variety store, etc. 

(6) Name the principal lines of goods sold or handled, or principal sources of operating revenue, in 
order of their importance based on volume of business done in 1933: 



Amusement __. D 

Miscellaneous D 



(1) 

(2) 

(3). 



(4) 
(5) 

(6). 



(DO NOT USE) 



3. TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT OR OPERATION: 

(Check the principal function performed or type of operation; i.e., the function or type that accounts for more than 50% of the business of the establishment. 
(See "Instructions to Enumerators.") (Check only one.) 



FOR WHOLESALE 

91. Assembler and country buyer D 

81. Auction company D 

82. Broker. D 

21. Bulk tank station D 

14. Cash-and-carry wholesaler D 

83. Commission merchant n 

92. Cooperative marketing association D 

15. Drop shipper or desk jobber D 

12. Export merchant D 

84. Export agency D 

13. Importer D 

85. Import agency D 

10. Jobber □ 

16. Mail-order wholesaler D 

86. Manufacturers* agent (for 2 or more mfgrs.).. D 
61. Manufacturers' sales branch (owned by mfgr.). D 

89. Selling agent _ a 

19. Supply & machinery distributor. D 

31. Warehouse (chain store) n 

17. "Wagon distributor" q 

10. Wholesale merchant D 

1. Wholesaler-retailer (about equally divided).. D 
Other type (specify) 



FOR RETAILERS 



Company store (commissary) _ Q 

Direct selling (house-to-house) D 

Leased department in a store D 

Mail-order house D 

Market stand or roadside stand D 

Utility-operated store (electric or gas Co.) D 

10. Local independent D 

20. Local chain (all units are in one community) — D 



30. Sectional or national chain (with more than 

local units) _ D 

81. Retailer-wholesaler (about equally divided) __ D 
73. Retailer-country buyer (retailer who also 
buys local foodstuffs for shipment to other 
dealers) □ 

Other type (specify) 



FOR SERVICE BUSINESSES. AMUSEMENTS, AIRPORTS, AND MISCELLANEOUS 



10. Local independent D 

20. Unit of chain or system Q 



50. Concession operator Q 

What kind of concession? 



FOR HOTELS (answer each line) 
10. Local independent operation n 20. Unit of chain or system n 



1. Year round D 

2. Seasonal __ n 



1. American plan . 

2. European plan _ 

3. Both 



1. If seasonal, open how many months in year? . 



n X. Mainly transient D 

n 2. Mainly permanent D 

D 3. About half of each _■ Q 

2. Number of guest rooms 



4. EMPLOYMENT DATA: 

(a) Number of proprietors and firm members (of partnerships or sole ownerships only) 

{Do not include salaried officers of corporations, or inactire partners.) 
(6) Number of paid employees, full-time and part-time, on pay roll December 30, 1933, or other more representative date, 

i Males _ 
Females- _. 

(f) Number of all paid employees on pay roll nearest the loth of each month: (Do not include non-salaried proprietors.) 



Month 



January... 
February 

March 

April 



Full-time 



Part-time 



Month 



May 

June 

July..... 
August. 



Full-time 



Part-time 



Month 



September.. 

October 

November . 
December.. 



Full-time 



Part-time 



Average. 



5. OPERATING EXPENSES (NOT INCLUDING COST OF MERCHANDISE): 

(a) Total salaries and wages paid to all employees for the year 1933, or period covered by this report... 

(Do not include compensation of proprietors and Arm members of partnerships or sole ownerships.) 
(6) All other oi>erating rxpcnses (rent, interest, traveling expenses, advertising, overhead, and aU other 

exiienses except pay roll) 

{In a theater or other place of entertainment the cost of film rental, attractions, and outside professional services is included here.) 
Total operating expenses ("a" plus "6", but not including cost of merchandise) 



(c) 
(d) 



How much of pay roll (included in "a" above) was paid to part-time employees.. S. 



NET SALES OR TOTAL OPERATING RECEIPTS: 

(a) Receipts from sale of merchandise (deduct returned sales') 

(Brokers and wholesale agents must report selling value of goods and not commissions received.) 
Receipts from service sales, parking, storage, repairs, cartage, cleaning, etc 



(6) 

(c) 

(d) 
(e) 



Receipts from room rentals (hotels, auto camps, etc.) i 

Receipts from sale of meals (and from fountain) _ 

Receipts from admissions (theaters and other places of amusement, athletic contests, dance halls, 
billiard haUs, bowling alleys, etc.) 



(/) Receipts from other sources (specify sources) : 



$. 





(g) 


ToTAi, net sales or operating receipts 


(total of 


o to/) 








.... 






$..- - 


7 


ST 

(n) 


OCKS ON HAND: 

Value of merchandise (at cost or replacement) 
torv date 


on hand fur 


sale 


December 31, 


1933, 


or 


nearest 


inven- 


$ 

























SUPPLEMENTAL FACTS: 

(«) 



(6) 

(c) 



Credit. (To be answered by all.) How much of total receipts (6 g above) represents credit business?. 
(Include sales made on weekly, 10-day, 30-day, end-of-month, installment or other credit basis — all except strictly cash sales.) 

Sales Tax. (To be answered by all.) How much of total receipts (6 g above) represents sales tax?. 

Wholesalers. (To be answered by all types of wholesale establishments.) Of the total sales re- 
ported in block 6 above, give the amount of 

1. Sales to retailers (for resale) 

2. Sales to consumers (at retail) 

3. Sales to industrial users .-. 



(d) Retailebs. (To be answered by retailers.) How much, if anj', of your total sales were made to 
other retailers? 



Remarks: 



CERTIFICATE 

This is to certify that the information contained in this schedule is correct and complete to the best of my knowledge and 
belief, and covers the period from , 19 , to , 19 



(Signature and official title of person furnishing the Information) 



ia-3 



(Signature of Enumerator) 



Q. ■ aaTWiNMKMT moTTUO OlflCI iU, 11 11141 



(Date of signature) 



., 1934. 



RETAIL CENSUS REPORTS - FINAL SERIES: 1955 
ARRANGEMENT AND CONTENTS OF VOLUMES 

Vo lume 1 - U. S. Summary . Ccntaina a general description of the Retail Census for 
1933, definitions of terms and clas,sificatiors, and U. S. Suitmaries, b> kinds of business 
and by States, of Tables 1 to 6 and 10 to 12 contained in vclumes listed below. It also in- 
cludes tables, providing an analysis of retail sales (Table 7), a summary of wholesalers' 
sales at retail (Table 8) and an analysis of receipts of service establishments (Table 9). 

A separate section presents an analysis by size of city of stores ard sales, classi- 
fied into 11 kind-of-business groups. This analysis is carried through for each State and 
geographic division and summarized for the United States as a whcle. 

Comparisons with 1929 of the principal data by kinds of business are contained in 
a special tabJe (Table A), which is presented separately for each State and in summary for 
the United States. 

A chain-store section contains a summary of all known retail chains, classified by 
kinds of business, showing units, sales, stocks, employees and payroll in stores and in cen- 
tral offices, reported expenses in stores and in central offices and the propcrtion prorated 
to stores. 

Vo lume 2 - Gene ra l Stati stics, by States and 13 largest cities, by kinds of business 
(Table 1). Employmen t, by States and 13 largest cities, by kinds of business (Table 2). 

Vo lume 5 - County Totals. Contains summary of stores, sales, proprietors, full-time 
employees and payroll for each city, town and county throughout the United States (Table 11), 
and sumirary by 52 kinds of business for each gity of more than 50,000 population (Table 12). 

Volume 4 - Analys is of S tores by Date of Establishment , showing for each State and 
for each kind of business the number and sales of stores established in 1933 (by quarters), 
those established between 1929 and 1933, and those in operation in 1933 which were also in 
operation in 1929 (Table 6). 

Volum e 5 - Credit Business . Contains analysis for each State of stores and sales, 
by kinds of business, classified to show credit-granting stores separate from all-cash stores 
(Table 5). 

i Volume 6 - C hains and I nd e pendents and other types of operation - State totals, and 
more detailed analyses for 18 kinds cf business in which chains are a more or less important 
factor (Table 3) . 

Volume 7 - Stores and Sales by S ize of Business Shows stores and sales by kinds of 
busiaess, classified in 10 size groups, by States (Table 4). 

Volume 8 - Retail Dis t ribution. 1933. by A reas. Stores and sales by 11 business 
groups, for States, counties and cities (Table 10). 

Special Reports by Trades . Food Retailing, Variety- Store Chains, Department-Store 
Chains, drug Retailing (including drug-store chains). Retail Employment and Wages, Automotive 
Retailing, Apparel Retailing and others. (Separate reports have been issued covering the 
above-named subjects; they are not brought together in a single volume). 

9947 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Chart showing sales of each group of stores in proportion to the sales of all stores 

in the United States 1 

Comparative chart of retail sales: 1933 and 1929 2 

Map showing total retail sales by States, 1933 and percent decrease in sales, 

1929-1933 3 

Comparative summary of retail facts: 1933 and 1929 — National and by States 4 

CHAPTER I 
GENERAL SURVEY OF RETAIL DISTRIBUTION 



INTRODUCTION 9 

Scope of the retail census 9 

Retail and Service 9 

Retail and Wholesale 10 

Retail and Manufactures 10 

The 1933 schedule 10 

Basic classifications 11 

Comparisons with 1929 • : 11 

SECTION 1. —STORES AND SALES 12 

Sales by States 12 

Frequency distribution of price changes, 1929 to 1933 13 

Sales by kinds of business ., 14 

Comparison of stores and sales by kinds of business, 1933 and 1929 15 

SECTION 2. —EMPLOYMENT AND PAYROLL 16 

Comparison with 1929 •. 16 

Employment by months ...••.. ••- ;■... 17 

Employment by sex .-..■ .....■...■...,.., 17 

Average annual earnings of full-time employees 18 

SECTION 3. —OPERATING EXPENSE 19 

Proprietors ' Compensation ,.....,..«.., 19 

Operating expense < 20 

SECTION 4. — RETAIL CREDIT 21 

Comparison with 1929 21 

Volume of retail credit 21 

Comparative table for 13 kinds of business, 1933 and 1929 22 

Installment credit 23 

Credit by kinds of business 23 

Credit by States 23 

Comparative table by States and geographic divisions, 1933 and 1929 24 

SECTION 5. —TYPES OF OPERATION 25 

Changes in stores and sales: 1929 — 1933 .,•. 25 

Changes in sales by kinds of business 26 

Summary by types of operation, 1933 and 1929 28 

SECTION 6. —DISTRIBUTION BY CHAINS , 29 

Central-office data 29 

Retail units operated by chains ...- 29 

Summary table of retail chains 30 

94 



CONTENTS— Continued 

CHAPTER IV 

DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES 

Page 
DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES 77 

TABLES 

Table 
A. — Stores, sales, full-tine employees, payroll and stocks, 1933 and 1929, 

by 39 principal I:inds of business A-1 

A. — Stores, sales, full-time employees, payroll and stocks, 1933 and 1929, 

by geographic divisions and States A-2 

A. — State tables showing stores, sales, full-time employees, payroll and stocks, 

1933 and 1929, by 39 principal kinds of business A-35 

lA. — Stores, sales, employment, payroll and reported expense, by kinds of business A-3 

IB. — Stores, sales, employment, payroll and reported expense, by geographic 

divisions and States A-4 

IC. — Computation of operating expense by kinds of business for the United States, 

California, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, and New York A-5 

r..'.. — Employees, by sex and by months, and proprietors , by kinds of business A-8 

28. — Employees, by sex and by months, and proprietors, by geographic divisions A-10 

C.-..-— Eighteen !:inds of business, by types of operation A— 12 

4A. — Stores and sales, by size of store, by kinds of business A-14 

4B. — Stores and sales, l.^ size of store, by geographic divisions and States A-15 

4G. — Full-time employees and proprietors, by size of store, by kinds of business A-16 

4-2. — Full-time e.'-:ployee3 and proprietors, by size of store, by kinds of business, 

by geographic divisions and States .A-17 

<E --Stores, full-tine employees, proprietors and sales, by kinds of business 

for stores exceeding $1,000,000 .".'. A-18 

5A. — Credit business for selected kinds of business A-19 

58. — Credit business, by geographic divisions and States A-20 

CA. — Stores and sales, by date of establishment, by kinds of business A-21 

CB. — Stores and sales, l-y date of establishment, by geographic divisions and States A-22 

6C. — Proprietors, full-time employees, payroll and reported expense by date of es- 
tablishment, by geographic divisions and States A-23 

T-'-. — Analysis of sales and value of stoclis on hand, by kinds of business A-25 

7B. — Analysis of sales and value of stocl:s on hand, by geographic divisions 

and States A-26 

8A . — Retail sales by wholesale establishments, by kinds of business A-27 

8B. — Retail sales by A'holesale establishments, by geographic divisicna and States A-27 

9A. — Analysis of receipt-'^ of service establishments, places of amusement, and hotels, 

by kinds of business A-28 

9B. — Analysis of receipts of service establishments, places of amusement, and hotels, 

by geographic divisions and States A-29 

lOA. — Stores and sales, by kinds of business, by geographic divisions and States A-30 

lOB. — U. S. Summary, 1929 - stores and sales, by kinds of business, by 

geographic divisions and States A-31 

llA. — Stores, sales, employment and payroll, by States A-32 

12A. — Stores, sales, employment and payroll, for cities of more than 

50,000 population A-33 

94 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 



SECTION 7. — RETAIL TRADE BY SIZE OF BUSINESS 34 

Comparison with 1929 , 34 

Size by kinds of business 35 

Full-time employees and proprietors .■• 37 

SECTION 8. —RETAIL TRADE BY SIZE OF CITY 38 

Geographic divisions 38 

Kinds of business - not comoodities 39 

Comparison with 1929 - total stores . 41 

Comparison with 1929 by kinds of business 42 

Retail characteristics of cities 42 

SECTION 9. —SALES BY RETAILERS VERSUS MERCHANDISE SALES AT RETAIL 55 

Wholesale sales 55 

Service sales 55 

SECTION 10. — COMPARISON: 1933 and 1929 56 

SECTION 11. —NEW AND OLD STORES IN 1933 58 

New stores by date of establishment 58 

New stores and their sales by kinds of business 58 

Proprietors and full-time employees 59 

Reported expense and payroll 59 

CHAPTER II 

DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS 



KINDS OF BUSINESS 

Food group 

Farmers' supplies and country general stores 

General merchandise group 

Apparel group 

Automotive group 

Furniture-household group 

Lumber, building and hardware group 

Restaurant and eating group 

Other retail stores 
DESCRIPTION OF TERMS 

Retail stores 

Sales 

Proprietors 

Full-time employees 

Part-time employees 

Sex of employees 

Payroll 

Reported expenses 



60 
60 
61 
62 
63 
63 
64 
65 
66 
66 
63 
68 
63 
68 
63 
69 
69 
69 
69 



CHAPTER III 
CLASSIFICATIONS COMPARED 
COMPARISON OF THE CLASSIFICATIONS IN 1933 AND CORRESPONDING CLASSIFICATIONS IN 1929 70 



94 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



SALES OF EACH GROUP OF STORES 



SALES OF EACH GROUP OF STORES Ui PROPORnON TO THE SALES OF ALL STORES IN THE UNITED STATES 



v*es^ 



.0^^' 




GENERAL STORES 4^% 



STORES -1,626,119 
SALES - $26,037,226,000 



RETAIL DISTRIIUTION: 1933 



COMPARATIVE CHART OF RETAIL SALES 1933 AND 1929 



PER CENT OF TOTAL 
10 15 20 



FOOD 



AUTOMOTIVE 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE 



APPAREL 



RESTAURANTS AND 
EATING PLACES 



GENERAL STORES 



DRUG STORES 



FURNITURE AND 
HOUSEHOLD 



LUMBER AND BUILDING 
ALL OTHER RETAIL 

STORESOncuudes second h*nd)| 

COAL AND WOOD YARDS- 
ICE DEALERS 

HARDWARE AND 

FARM IMPLEMENTS 

FARMERS SUPPLY 
STORES 

CIGAR STORES AND 
STANDS 

JEWELRY STORES 




^1929 



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-9- 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION — UNITED STATES SUMMARY: 1933 



CHAPTER I - GENERAL SURVEY OF RETAIL DISTRIBUTION 

INTRODUCTION 



This is a summary for the United States presenting the results of the second Census of 
Retail Distribution. The first such Census was taken as part of the Census of Distribution 
of 1929. A summary for 1929, comparable to this, is contained in Distribution, Volume I, 
Part 1, one of the reports of the Fifteenth Census of the United States. 

The second Retail Census ivas taken as part of the Census of American Business, which 
included also a Census of Wholesale establishment and a Census of Service establishments. 
Places of Amusement and Hotels. 

The Census was made possible by funds supplied to the Bureau of the Census by the Fed- 
eral Civil Works Administration. The data were obtained by a field canvass through enumera- 
tors provided by the Civil Works Administration, directed and supervised by the regular field 
organization of the Bureau of the Census. 

Scope of the Re tail Ce nsus 

Retail distribution, as covered in this Census, is the process of purveying goods to 
ultimate consumers for consumption or utilization, together with services incidental to the 
sale of goods. The function of the retailer is primarily to anticipate the wants of the 
consumer and to make available, at the right time and at a convenient place, a reasonable 
selection of goods capable of satisfying those wants. The distinguishing characteristic of 
of retailer is that the business is done in a retail manner, in a place of business open to 
the general public. 

Re tail and Service 

Every effort was made to make the 1933 data directly comparable so far as possible 
with the Retail Census for 1929. However, because of the broader scope of the current Census 
it was possible to differentiate more accurately than heretofore the establishments whose 
business embraces a substantial proportion of service as well as the sale of merchandise. 
With certain exceptions those businesses which reported receipts from services in excess of 
the receipts for the sale of merchandise were classified in their entirety in the Service 
Census; and those showing receipts from services in lesser dollar value than sales of mer- 
chandise were classified in their entirety in the Retail Census. The exceptions are mainly 
in the three groups - lumber, building and hardware; furniture and household; and automo- 
tive - where retail stores do a considerable business in repairs and installation. In a num- 
ber of kinds of business in these groups, specifically noted in Chapter II, an establishment 
was classified as a retail store if the receipts from the sale of merchandise did not fall 
belaw one-third of its aggregate gross revenue. It was felt in these cases that unless the 
minimum percentage for receipts from merchandise sales was set at a low level there was 
danger of confusing what are essentially retail stores with service establishments. Because 
of the conditions obtaining in 1933 and the preceding year, merchandise sales dwindled to 
such an extent that revenue from service, ordinarily a subordinate function of the business, 

94 



-10- 

assumed unusual importance. It is not unlikely that during the worst montl e of the depres- 
sion some retailers were forced to stress particularily repair and renovation work in order 
to weather the period of adverre economic conditions. 

Retai l and Who le sale 

As in the 1929 census the line of separation between retail and wholesale establish- 
ments was drawn at "30 percent. Only those stores whose sales at retail exceeded 50 percent 
of total sales were classified with retail estab] ishments . The number of cases in which 
this somewhat arbitrary rule had tc be applied was of course small relative to the total 
number of establishments covered. Borderline cases cf this type occur most frequently in 
the distribution of hardware, farm implement.?, building materials, coal, office and store 
equipment, motor vehicles and gasoline. In the study cf retail distribution in these several 
fields it is essential therefore to consider both the Wholesale and the Retail censuses. 
Similarly in comparing the 1933 data with 1929 it should be noted that for stores in these 
fields a relatively small change in sales at retail may cause a shift in classification 
from wholesale to retail or vica versa. 

Because of the nature of the business - distribution to industrial users - snd regard- 
less cf the manner in which the sales are made, supply houses, including artists' supp- 
lies, barbers' supplies and dental supplies, have been included in the wholesale census 
rather than in the retail census. So, too, have most machinery dealers and dealers in iron 
and steel products, leather and findings and junk. 

R etail and Manufactures 

Some retail establishments also manufacture all or some of the products which they 
sell. In general the principle has been followed of classifying such establishments with 
manufacturing plants when the value of their products exceeded $5,000; as such they are en- 
umerated by the Census cf Manufactures. However, planing mills and lumber yards which man- 
ufacture their own lumber and mill work are entirely excluded from the Retail Census. 

The. 1.933 .Sc hedul e 

A single schedule forir. was used for 1933, on which information was collected for all 
establishments canvassed in the Census of American Business. A copy of it is included in 
this volume. As may be readily seen by comparing it with the schedule form used for 1929 
(reproductions of these appear in Distribution, Vcl. I, pt. 1), it represents in the main 
an abridgment cf the 1929 forms for the purpose of saving time and expense in collecting 
and tabulating the material. The more essential inquiries were retained, although not with 
the same amount of detail. Seme questions on the other hand were reformulated in the light 
of the experience with the first census, and others expanded, notably the question on em- 
ployment. The most important omission was the inquiry on "Sales by Commodities", in which 
the respcndent was requested to indicate for the year 1929 the amount of net sales of each 
important commodity or group of comrocdities. The omission of that Question makes it iir- 
possible to estimate on the basis of the 1933 census the volume of retail sale? by types cf 
merchandise, and affects to a certain extent the comparability of the classification by 
kinds of business. 

94 



-11- 



■ _. ■_ B asic C lass i fications 

The findings of the 1933 census are presented in two basic classifications: bj' geogra- 
phic divisions. States, cities and counties; and by kinds-of-business groups., based on the 
uf?ual designation of the establishment and the principal lines of merchandise handled. The 
first indicates the geographic distribution of retail business and of its component parts - 
grocery =3toret, restau.ants hardware stcrc:, clothing st^ret, etc., and permits the pre- 
sentation of a quantitative description cf the retail trade for each area. 

The second classification - by kinds of business - is in a sense more fundamental than 
the first. Retail distribution as such is but a thoretical concept the precise meaning of 
which is not always clear; in real life one deals with delicatessen stores, drug stores and 
filling stations. The practical business man as well as the student of marketing will find 
inforiraticn on retailing by kinds of business of much greater value than aggregate figures 
on retail trade. A description of the kind of business classifi caticns followed for 1933 
and a tabular coirpariEon cf the 1933 and 1929 classifications will be found in chapters II 
and III, respectively. 

Comparisons w ith 1929 . 

In taking the 1933 census every effort was made to insure coirparabili ty of the data 
with these for 1929. As a result the figures for 1933 and 1929 may properly be compared 
and conclusions drawn on the basis of such comparisons. No significance, however, should 
be attached to those cases in whicn only small differences are fcund, for no two censuses 
can be made exactly alike from the standpoint oi coverage and throughness of canvass, 

On a few specific points comparability is somewnat impaired by the differences in the 
phrasing of the inquiry; these are noted when such comparisons are discussed. The two im- 
portant considerations which affect comparisons between apparently identical kind-cf-busi- 
ness groups in 1933 and 1929 should, however, be mentioned here. One of these is the fact 
that in 1933 the kind-of-business classification is based on the usual designation of the 
the store or the principal lines cf gocds handled, in the absence of information on sales 
by commodities utilized in classifying reports for 1929; for this reason a store n-ay have 
been differently classified in 1933 even though the nature cf its business was the same as 
in 1929. 

Another ccnsideration affecting comparability is that in 1929, in the absence of a 
separate census cf service establishments, some shops which in 1933 would have been treated 
as service establishments were grouped with retail stores. 



■-12- 



Section i^- Stores and S ale s 

In 1933 retail trade in the United States comprised 1,526,119 stores with reported 
sales of $25,037,225,000. In 1929 retail stores numbered 1,543,158 with sales of $49,114,- 
653,000. Thus the number of stores remained practically unchanged, particularly if account 
is taken of the elimination of service establishments from the retail census, to which ref- 
erences have been made in the Introduction and Chapter II. Sales on the other hand declin- 
ed about 49 percent with the result that average sales per store decreased in about the 
same proportion. 

How much of the decrease in the dollar volume of sales is due to the decline in retail 
prices and how much to the reduction in the physical quantity of goods sold cannot be 
readily ascertained. The use of currently compiled retail price indexes in this connection 
is a practice of dubious validity because the Census classification of establishments by 
kinds of business is based on the principal kinds of goods handled; the sale of other goods 
not reflected in the price index may account for a considerable proportion of total sales 
in certain kind-of-business groups. Moreover, the weighting used in the available price 
indexes cannot be tested with reference to 1933 Census figures on sales in the absence of 
information on the distribution of sales by commodities. 

While reliance upon price indexes to measure the proportion of sales change attribut- 
able to price fluctuation is to be discouraged, such indexes may suggest a rough and tenta- 
tive explanation of differences in sales changes as between kind-of-business groups. In 
addition to the better known retail price indexes, such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
index of food prices, readily available in other sources, reference is made to the appended 
frequency distribution of price changes from 1929 to 1933. This has been compiled by the 
Bureau of the Census, with the cooperation of a leading mail-order house, from catalog 
prices of 30 commodities or groups of commodities, composed of £04 items. 

Sales by States 

The geographic distribution of retail stores and sales, as shown in Table IB, suggests 
a considerable degree of concentration. Two geographic divisions - the Middle Atlantic and 
East North Central - account for about 45 percent of the number of stores and nearly 48 
percent of the amount of sales. The five States with the largest volume of sales - New 
York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, California and Ohio - have about 37 percent of the stores and 
nearly 46 percent of the sales. This concentration is related, of course, to the distribu- 
tion of population. According to the 1930 census the two geographic divisions represented 
42 percent of the population, and the five States 34 percent. Other factors are also re- 
levent, as is indicated by variation in per capita sales by States. On the basis of the 
1930 population, the three States with highest per capita retail sales are California with 
$298, New York with $297 and Massachusetts with $281; the figures contrast with $70 for 
Mississippi, $95 for Alabama, and $97 for Arkansas. Per capita sales figures, however, 
must be used with some caution. The increase in population since April, 1930, was not 
proportionately distributed among the States; moreover sales made in certain States undoub- 
tedly are distorted by purchases by people from other States. 

The decline in sales from 1929 to 1933, which averaged 49 percent for the country as a 
whole, was unevenly distributed among the States. (See Table A). As is apparent from the 
following tabulation the bulk of the States show decreases within the range of 44 to 53 

94 



-13- 

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PRICE CHANGES, 1929 TO 1933 
(204 Principal articles listed in mail-order catalogs of 1929 and 1933, respectively) 





Ratio of Prices in 1933 to Prices in 1929 (1929 


=100) 


CLASSIFICATION 


35 
to 
39 

■-■- 


40 
to 
44 

1 


45 
to 
49 

1 
1 

1 

,,,, 

■ ■ ' ■ 


50 

to 

54 

2 

2 

1 

1 
1 


55 
to 
59 

3 

3 

1 

1 
2 

,,,, 


60 

to 

64 

6 

2 

1 
4 

1 

2 
3 

2 

1 
2 


65 

to 

69 

2 

2 

1 

1 

, , 

1 

1 

1 

3 
2 

5 

1 
2 


70 

to 

74 

2 

1 
1 

1 
4 

2 

1 
1 

,,,, 

1 
3 

■ 
2 


75 
to 
79 

1 

1 
2 

2 

1 
2 
2 

1 

4 
1 
2 
2 

1 

1 
2 
3 


80 
to 
84 

1 

4 
3 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

2 
3 

1 
1 
3 

1 
5 
4 


85 
to 
89 

.. 
2 

. . 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
3 

4 

1 


90 
to 
94 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

4 

2 

1 


95 100 
to to 
99 104 

' 1 



2 2 
2 1 
1 

1 1 
1 

1 3 

...1 


105 
and 
over 


Total 


Cotton Piece Goods 

Domestics 

Cotton Towels 

Cotton Blankets 

Cotton Underwear 

Cotton Workshirts 

Cotton Overalls and Pants 

Silk Piece Goods, , 


1 
3 
2 


13 
6 
4 
2 
8 
5 
9 
8 


Silk Hosiery 




2 


Rayon Piece Goods 




1 


2 


Rayon Lingeri e 


1 


7 


Linens 

Woolen Blankets 


4 
1 


Woolen Underwear 

Men's Woolen Clothing 

Furniture 

Floor Covering (wool) 

Floor Covering (felt base) 

Electric Appliances 

Washing Machines (Electric) 

House Furnishings 

Shoes 


,,,, 




4 
5 

14 
8 
4 
7 
1 
8 

10 


Harness 

Rubber' Footwear 

Automobile Tires and Tubes 








10 
8 

10 


Garden Hose-Rubber Belting 

Stoves and Heaters 

Enamelware 

Farm Equipment - Appliances 

Farm -Fencing-Wire Mesh 




3 

8 

8 

13 

12 



Totals 1 2 3 7 10 24 22 19 28 35 16 14 9 



204 



94 



-14- 
percent. The States in which sales declined less than 44 percent are mainly in the New 
England and South Atlantic geographic divisions, whereas the States with sales-decline ex- 
ceeding 53 percent are in the West North Central, West South Central and the Mountain 
divisions. It is significant perhaps that six of the eight States in the first group show 
an increase in the number of stores, whereas seven of the ten States in the second group 
have experienced a reduction in number of stores. 

Classification of States by percentage decline in sales, 1929-1933 



Perc 


ent decline 


in 


sales 


Number 


of 


Sta 


tes 




Under 


40 


percent 








3 




40-41. 














2 




42-43. 














3 




44-45. 
46-47.. 
48-49 














7 










5 










5 




50-51. 














7 




52-53. 
54-55. 














fi 










3 




56-57 
58 and 














4 




over 




3 



Sales By Kinds of B usiness 

According to the 1933 retUi-ns as presented in Table lA nearly 33 percent of the total 
volume of retail sales was made in food stores and restaurants, over 22 percent in stores 
of the general merchandise and apparel group and about 18 percent in stores of the automo- 
tive group. These ratios appear to arrange themselves into a neat pattern ostensibly indi- 
cating the distribution of the expenditures of American people on food, clothing and plea- 
sure cars. Such an interpretation, however, would be inaccurate; for sales by stores in a 
particular kind of business group are not identical with sales of the principal commodity 
which they handle. 

An examination of changes from 1929 to 1933 in the volume of retail sales by kinds of 
business, presented in the appended summary and in detail in Table A, is more illuminat- 
ing. When these changes are arranted in the order of increasing magnitude, the following 
array is obtained: 





Pe 




" " 


Group 


re en 


t of 




de 


crease 


Food 




-37 


Restaurant* 






-38 


General merchandise 


-40 


Automotive 






-54 


Apparel 






-55 


Farmers' - general 






-58 


Furniture - household , 






-65 


Lumber - hardware 






-65 



•Excluding drinking places not enumerated in 1929. 



94 



-15- 

This can be legitimately interpreted to mean that in a period of reduced purchasing 
powore expenditures on articles of food decline least, on durable consuier goods most, v.'ith 
expenditures on apparel occupying an internediate position. In drawing conclusions of this 
type, however, the change in prices must be taken into account. As pointed out above no 
reliable retail price indexes directly applicable to Census data are readily available. 
Still a comparison of the 36 percent decline from 1929 to 1933 in the Bureau of Labor Sta- 
tistics index of retail food prices with the 37 percent decline in food store sales is 
highly suggestive. 

A closer scrutiny of the percentage declines in sales shown in Table A reveals some 
interesting differences in the percentages within the major kind-of-business group. In 
the food group combination stores, selling groceries and meats, have apparently been gain- 
ing at the expense of both grocery stores and meat markets. In the general merchandise 
group variety store sales have declined less than department store sales, because they sell 
low priced merchandise appealing to large groups of the population. The small decline in 
the sales cf other general merchandise stores is accounted for in part by the inclusion in 
this group in 1933 of tnose 1929 department stores whose sales fell below $.100,000, the 
ninimum for department stores according to the Census definition. As might be expected in 
a period of depression, the sales of filling stations and repair garages declined very much 
less than the sales of dealers in vehicles and accessories. A miner factor in the relati- 
vely better showing of filling stations is a more complete coverage in 1933; the canvass 
for 1929 was impeded in some cases by the difficulty of distinguishing between units of oil 
chains and independent agencies of the same companies. 

A summary of stores and sales by business groups fellows: 



Com parison of Stores and 



Sales by K inds of B usiness , 1933 _an d 1929. 
Number of I Net Sales 



Kind of Business 



Stores 
1933 i 1929 



1935 



% Of 

Change 1929 



Food Group 

Restaurant and Eating Places 

Farmers' Supplies-Country General 
Stores 

General Merchandise Group 

-Department stores 

Variety stores (5-and-lO and to a 
dollar stores) (Included above) 

Apparel Group 

Automotive Group 

Filling stations 

■ Furniture & Hou£.ehold Group 

Jjumber-building Hardware Group 

Cigar Stores 

Coal and Wood Yards 

Drug Stores . . . 

Jewelry Stores .^.. .,..<.,,,... 

NewsDealers ..:.■■■■■■■, 

Other Retail Stores 

Second-Hand Stores 



1 473,916 ] 481^891 ] $6,795,010 
I 20 0, 535 1 134 . 295 I 1,429,93 8 

1 1 1 
1 107 .483 1 151. 225 1 1.560,7 81 
I 49,712 I 54, 636 1 3, 391, 272 
1 3,5441 4,22ll 2,544,960 



12,0361 



I 305 , 40 5 1 

1 170,404 

1 42,976 

1 76, 098 1 

20,1751 

23, 875 1 

58,407} 

14,3131 

6, 6291 

.39,380l 

20.8691 



12, 110 I 

114 , 2961 

257, 685 I 

121, 513 I 

58,941 1 

90^3861 

33,2481 

19,1181 

58,2581 

19.9981 

10,2851 

63,835| 

15,0651 



678, 167 
1 ,923,555 



4.419,249 

i,53i,7;:4 

958.780 

1 ,342,7 05 

189.756 

623 , 077 

1.066.252 

175,066 

58,071 

500,660 

105,275 



-37 
-35 

^8 
=40 
-41 

-25 
-55 
-54 
-14 
-65 
-65 
-54 
-39 
-37 
-67 
-61 
-69 
-29 



$10,857,421 



2,124,890 



3,689,908 
6,444,101 
4,350,098 

904,147 
4,240,893 
9,615,810 



1,787,423 
2,754,721 
3^845^624 



410,064 
1,013,369 
1,690,399 

536,281 

149,866 
1,613.238 

148.068 



Percent of 
Total Sales 



1933 
27.13 



5.:.71 

6^24 
15.54 



10.16 

2.71 
I..68 
17.65 
6.12 
3^83 
5.37 

.76 
2.48 
4.26 

.70 

.23 
2.00 

.42 



1939 



22.0 7 



4.33 

7.52 
15.12 



8.86 

1.84 

8^g3 

19.58 

3.64 

5^61 

2L83 

.83 

2.06 

3.44 

1.09 

.31 

3.28 

.30 



94 



-16- 



S ectic n 2 . - Fi rplf yment and Pay roll 

There were employed in retail stores throughout 1933 an average of 2,703,325 full-time 
employees, 730,327 part-time employees and 1,574,341 proprietor owners actively engaged in 
the operation of their stores, or a total of 5,007,993 persons compared with 5,913,547 
persons in 1929, a decline of about 15 percent. 

The number of employees contained in the various tables of this report is the average 
of 12 monthly employment figures. Separate figures for each month may be found in tables 2 
of these reports, which also show the number of men and women employees separately. A sum- 
mary of monthly employment follows: 



Month 
(1933) 



Year (average) 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Averag e Number of Emplo yees [ Increase over 

I Preceding Month 
[Total I 
Part-Time NumberPercent 



Total 



5,433,652 



3,118,076 
3,113,391 
3,125,031 
3,286.347 
3,298,135 
3,372,225 
3,391,053 
3,473,172 
3,637,628 
3,703,621 
3,734,842 
3,950,299 



Full-Time 
2.705,325 



2,502,823 

2,489,807 

2,489,884 

2,572,968 

2,588,129 

2,650,222 

2 , 673 , 447 

2,744,186 

2,856,906 

2,907,0081 

2,920,032 

3,024,485 



7 50, 327 I - 
615,253| 
623,5841 
635,1471 
713,379ll61,316 
700,0061 11,788 
722,003| 74,090 
717,606] 18,828 
728,986] 82,119 
770,722)164,455 
796,6131 65,993 
814,810J 31,221 
925,8141215,457 



.2 
.4 
.2 
.6 

.4 
.7 
.8 
.8 
5.8 



2. 

4. 
1. 



Total payroll in retail stores for 1933 aggregated $2,910,445,000, of which $2,664,- 
447,000 was paid to full-time employees and $245,998,000 to part-time employees. The com- 
ensation of proprietors is not included and is discussed separately in Section 3, page 19. 

Co m pariso n with 192 9 

The significance of comparisons of employment and payroll between 1933 and 1929 cannot 
be overestimated. They reveal the nature and extent of changes which occurred in this 
fibld during the four years of unsettled business conditions. As indicated in Section 10 
the number of full-time employees declined 1,130,000 (29.5 percent) in the four years since 
1929 and the number of part-timers increased 161,000 (28.3 percent). The number of pro- 
prietors also increased nearly 62,000 (4.2 percent), despite a decline of over 17,000 in 
the number of stores. 



The magnitude of the changes in employment since 1929 is so appreciable that, for 
United States totals at least, the result is not significantly affected by the differences 
in the method of computing averages for the year. These, however, must be noted at this 
point. The 1929 schedule called for information on the number of employees in April, July, 
October and December, 1929, and at the time the canvass was made, whereas on the 1933 sche- 
dule information was requested for the payroll period ending nearest the fifteenth of each 



94 



-17- 



month, as well as for December 30 by sex. The 1929 average was calculated separately for 
each schedule on the basis of information described above, whereas the 1933 average is the 
arithmetic mean of the twelve monthly figures. For purposes of comparison with 1933, the 
1929 average for part-time employees was recalculated as an arithmetic mean of the four 
quarterly figures. This accounts for the reduction in the 1929 number of part-time em- 
ployees from 676,559, a figure published in the 1929 volume? pertaining to the Census of 
Distribution, to 569,359, the figure used in the reports of the Census of American Business 

A part-time employee is defined by the Census as a person employed only a few hours or 
days of the nornral work-week or other payroll period. The Census figures on part-time em- 
ployees do not indicate what proportion of full-time was worked by them, but an approxima- 
tion of this proportion can be established by comparing the average annual earnings of 
part-time employees with the average annual earnings cf full-time employees. The average 
annual earnings cf part-time employees are shewn to be 34.2 percent of the average annual 
earnings of full-time employees, indicating that the average part-time employee works about 
one-third of the normal number of working hours or days of a full-time employee. On this 
basis the average part-time eirployee in 1929 worked 21.6 percent of the number of hours or 
days of the full-time eir.plcyee ir. that year. Tnis increase in time worked, and the grcwth 
in numbers mentioned above, indicate the increased importance of part-time employment in 
the retail field. 

Table lA in this volume shows the number of full-time and part-time employees by kinds 
of business; Table IB shews the same information by States and Table A shows a comparison 
by kinds of business and by States between 1933 and 1929. 

Employment by Months 

Emplcyment is the only item in the 1933 Retail Census on which information was request- 
ed by ttonths. The number of employees, tnerefore, is the only available Census measure of 
the change in conditions which occurred in the course of 1933. Tables 2A and 28 indi- 
cate employment in retail trade as a whole increased continually, but not evenly, each 
month beginning with April. A part of this increase undoubtedly reflects the operation of 
seasonal factors; the remainder may be credited to improvement in retail trade, and to gov- 
ernment measures intended to increase employment, such as the President's Reemployment Ag- 
reement and later the NRA codes which were effective during the last quarter. . 

Employment by Sex 

Tables 2A and 28 give alsc the average number of employees by sex and the proportion 
of women employees in each kind of business and in each State. Of the 3,433,652 employees 
in 1933, 2,360,474 (68.7 percent) were men and 1,073,178 (31.3 percent) were women. These 
proportions compare with 68 percent of men and 32 percent of women in 1929. The absolute 
figures in both years are estimates based en the reported proportions by sex on a particu- 
lar date — December 30, 1933, and the date of the canvass for 1929. Neither figure includes 
central-office employees cf chain store organizations, which are shown in a summary in sec- 
tion 6. 

Ho analysis of proprietors by sex is available for 1933. The 1929 Census covering 
approximately the same number of proprietors showed that 91 percent were men and 9 percent 
were women. 
94 



-18- 



Average E arning s of Full-Time Em ployees 

The average full-time employee in 1933 was paid $986 for the year, which compares 
#ith $1,312 in 1929, showing a decline of about 25 percent. This is perhaps the most accu- 
rate measure available of the decline in the rate of pay of retail employees. The decline 
was not uniform throughout the country. It averaged 19 percent in New England, 22 and 23 
percent along the Atlantic Coast, 24 percent along the Pacific Coast, and as much as 28 
percent in the West South-Central division, particularly Arkansas and Oklahoma. 

The decline in average earnings of employees in the four-year period varied also by 
kinds of business from as little as 15 percent in grocery stores and 18 percent in filling 
stations to as much as 34 percent in the case of employees of motor-vehicle dealers. Vari- 
ety stores constitute the only kind of business showing an increase in employees' earnings, 
the average having gone up from $706 in 1929 to $760 in 1933. The relative magnitude of 
the declines is apparently not related to either the decline in sales or the level of com- 
pensation obtaining in 1929. 

Table A presents the comparisons of average annual earnings by States as well as by 
kinds of business. 

The average of annual earnings is obtained by dividing full-time payroll by the aver- 
age number of full-time employees. Because the average number of employees for the year is 
obtained by averaging the numbers reported for pay periods ending nearest the 15th of each 
month, the two factors are directly comparable except for fluctuation in the number of em- 
ployees within the month in those cases when the pay period is shorter than a month. 

Since no breakdown of employees or payroll is available by grades or salary rates, av- 
erage annual earnings may be somewhat misleading in some comparisons. In proprietorships, 
which constitute a very large proportion of retail stores (about 84 percent in 1929) , the 
proprietors usually fulfill the functions performed in incorporated organizations by the 
one or two highest paid employees. In such proprietorships, most of which are small stores, 
the highest-paid employees may therefore be several classifications lower in the wage scale 
than the executives of incorporated stores. This factor tends to lower the average of an- 
nual earnings of full-time employees in independent stores as compared with chain units, 
whose payrolls include such store-operating executives as store managers, and often part 
of the pay of division superintendents. It also tends to bias comparisons betw'^en kinds 
of business in which the tipical operating units differ appreciably in size. 

94 



-19- 



Section 3 - O perating Expens e 

Store operating expense, both payroll and in total, was substantially higher in propor 
tion to sales in 1933 than it was in 1929. It averaged $29.39 per $100 of sales on the 
basis of the Bureau's calculations for 1933, whereas the average shown by the Census of 
Distribution for 1929 was $24.83. The increase in operating expense ratio is due primarily 
to the drastic decline in sales, which in four years dropped 49 percent. However, these 
averages are not strictly comparable, as explained in later paragraphs. 

While payroll was reduced 42 percent from 1929 to 1933, through a decline in both the 
number of employees and the rates of pay, other reported expenses, (not including an allow- 
ance for proprietors' compensation), were decreased only 31 percent. Reported expenses per 
|100 of sales in 1933 as compared with 1929 were thus as follows: 



I 1933 I 1929 

Payroll j $11. 621 $10.57 

Other 1 14.341 10.55 

Total reported expense 1 $25. 96] $21. 12 



P roprietors ' Com pens ation 

Reported expenses include no allowance for the value of the services of proprietors of 
unincorporated businesses who devote all or the major part of their time to the busi- 
ness. The inclusion of some allowance for such services appear to be imperative in the 
case of retail stores, if comparisons of expense aggregates or ratios by kinds of business, 
geographic divisions or years are to carry any significance. It does not seem possible to 
allow for proprietors' services by using the total withdrawals or charges to drawing ac- 
count, for in the last analysis the drawing account is available only if the profits of the 
business provide it, and frequently the withdrawals measure not only the value of services 
but also the return on invested capital. The unreliability of such data ^as clearly shown 
in the 1929 canvass when figures obtained on proprietors' salaries and commissions "were so 
varied and often fantastic that they were useless". (Distribution, Vol. I, pt. 1, p. 43). 
Therefore the Census Bureau adopted in 1929 and continued in the current Census the prac- 
tice of adding to reported expense the clerk-value of proprietors' services computed at the 
rate paid to the average full-time employee in the same kind of business. 

Although the method of calculating proprietors' compensation followed in 1933 in the 
main is the same as in 1929, differences appear on two points. The first is the change in 
computing proprietors' compensation for stores with sales under $10,000. In 1929 no acc- 
ount was taken of the fact that such stores in many kinds of business can scarcely support 
the charge of a full-time wage. In 1933 the number of such stores was 45 percent larger 
than in 1929, and they accounted for nearly tv/o-thirds of the total number of stores. Moreover, 
the sales of stores of this size averaged only |3,530. 

From the analysis of stores by date of establishment (see volume IV of the series of 
final retail reports), it was furthermore clear that perhaps as many as 18 percent of these 
stores were established since April 1, 1933 and thus were not operating a full year. For 
this reason it was felt that some adjustment in the method of computation for small stores 
must be made. After consultation with representatives of government bureaus depending upon 

94 



-go- 
retail census data it w~s decided that the least objectionable method of adjustment is to 
reduce proprietors' compensation in stores with sales under $10,000 ir prcpcrtion to the 
ratio of eiJh ^tore'- sales to $10, 000. To illustrate, proprietors' coirpensation for drug stores 
with sales below $10,000 was obtained as follows: 8985 X 5,151 = $505, where $985 measures 

10,000 
the average compensation of full-time employees in drug stores and $5,131 the average sales 
of drug stores with sales under $10,000. 

The second departure from the 1929 method is that compensation was computed on the 
basis of United States totals rather than on an average for the forty-eight states. In ad- 
dition, similar coiputations were made for the States of California, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas 

and New York. 

Operating Expense 

Operatirg expense includes reported expense and an imputed compensation for proprie- 
tors calculated as deLcribed above. For retail trade as a v/hole operating expense averaged 
$29.39 per $100 of sales in 1933, as co-rpared witl $24.83 in 1929. A number of kind-of- 
business groups, however, show an expense ratio considerably .loaer^than this average. 
Among them are the following: 



I Operating Expens e per $100 of S ales 



Grocery stores 

Combination stores (grocery and meat). 

Meat markets 

Country-general stores 

Farmer Supply stores 

Variety stores 

Ery goods and general-mdse. stores 

Motor-vehicle dealers 

Filling stations 

Hardware 

Cigar stores 



1933 


1929 


$20.00 


$17.36 


19.90 


16.10 


27.50 


19.61 


17.00 


13.59 


18.30 


13.67 


28.90 


24.96 


26.10 


22.50 


21.20 


17.77 


27.40 


23.81 


29.20 


22.78 


27.60 


31.40 



Other kinds of business, whose expense ratio is above tne average are: 

Department stores |32.70|28.36 

Women's ready-to-wear specialty stores... |32. 10)29. 10 

Shoe stores 1 32. 40 1 29. 39 

Drug stores |30. 90)27. 10 

News dealers 1 30. 30 | 27. 09 

Lumber dealers |31.00|21.7S 

Coal and wood yards |30.70l24.84 



Table IC, page A-5, presents, by kinds of business for the United States and separate- 
ly for the five States of California, Georgia, Indiana. Kansas and New York, the basic data 
on which operating expense ratios have been computed for 1933. The tables include three 
coluipns of ratios. The first is the ratio which 1933 expense would show if proprietors' 
compensation were computed without adjustment for those stores under $10,000 in annual 
sales. The second is the ratio of expense which was shown in the 1929 Retail Census re- 
ports. The third is the ratio which 1933 er.perse shows when copiputed on the adjusted basis 
described in preceding paragraphs. 



94 



-21- 



S ectio n 4^- Retail Credi t 

In 1933 retailers sold nearly $7,000,000,000 of merchandise on credit, which consti- 
tutes about 28 percent of total retail sales in that year. One-half of the total number of 
stores were credit-granting stores; sales in such stores accounted for 62 percent of total 
sales in all stores. Of the sales in credit-granting stores, 45 percent was made on credit 
in 1933 as compared sith 53 percent in 1929. 

Compariso n with 1929 

Other comparisons with 1929 are somewhat difficult because in 1929 credit sales were 
not defined as broadly as in 1933, when every sale which was not strictly a cash sale was 
regarded as a credit transaction.!/ In 1929 a considerable number of stores - 240,604 
stores with sales aggregating $5,894,681,000 - failed to report clearly whether and how 
much they sold on credit and were not included in the 1929 credit tabulations. The credit 
analysis for 1929 was carried through on the 1,302,554 reporting stores after the 240,604 
stores not sufficiently identified were eliminated. In 1933, on the other hand, tne cover- 
age on the credit question was more complete and the few stores which failed to report 
clearly on credit sales were grouped with cash stores for practical purposes. 

The comparison with 1929 is presented in a summary below, in which two sets of percen- 
tages are given for 1929 — one as published in the 1929 volume on Retail Distribution and 
the other based on totals merging stores selling entirely for cash with those whose credit 
status was not clear. 



1933 I 1929 

(percent jpercent of |of total 
I of I excluding | inc luding 
1 Total lunidenti- junidenti- 

fied stores fied stores 



Number of stores reporting credit sales | 50 j 50 | 42 

Sales of such stores-percent to total sales | 62 j 65 1 57 
Credit sales — percent to total sales 1 28 | 34 ] 30 

It is clear that, although the number of credit-granting stores is greater, the rela- 
tive amount of credit sales by retailers in 1933 was smaller than in 1929; this holds re- 
gardless of which set of figures for 1929 is used for comparison with 1933. 

Volume of Retail Cred it 

The volume of credit sales reported by retailers for 1933 is $6,943,584,000. This 
figure, however, covers only credit extended by retailers - sales for which they received 
no immediate payment in cash- To measure the full volume of retail credit, allowance must 
be made for credit extended by installment-finance companies. Some retailers, particularly 

1/ The schedule reads: "Include sales made on weekly, 10-day, 30-day, end-of-month, in- 
stallment or other credit basis- all except strictly cash sales". 

94 



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-23- 

automobile dealers, use outside finance companies to carry their deferred payment accounts. 
Their customers pay the cost of this financing and the dealers receive from the finance 
companies the amount in cash that they would have received had they sold to the customer 
for cash. As a result most motor vehicle dealers using such a plan regarded their sales 
under it as cash sales and so reported. In 1933, for instance, cf the $2,127,720,000 of 
total sales of motor-vehicle dealers the amount reported as credit sales is only $862,473,- 
000 or 41 percent, whereas if finance company credit is included it is probable that a much 
larger proportion of their sales was on credit. Due to lack of uniform terminology it is 
impossible to state from the data at hand how much of the $862,473,000 represents credit 
extended by retailers and how much is finance-company credit. 

Nor is it possible to state with any degree of precision the volume of retail pur- 
(.nases financed by finance companies. According to reports received by the Bureau of the 
Census from a large sample of finance companies, the obligations assumed by them in connec- 
tion with retail purchases cf new and used passenger cars amounted in 1933 to nearly $600,- 
000,000. There is no doubt, therefore, that the amount of consumer credit in 1933 was con- 
siderably greater than the amount reported to the Census of American Business as having 
been extended by retailers. 

Insta l lment C red it 

In 1929 data were available which made it possible to estimate that installment credit 
for that yeai- approximated 13 percent of total sales and that open-account credit approxi- 
mated 21 percent. The schedule for 1933 carried no inquiry on installment credit. 

Credit by K inds of B usiness 

Table 5A presents the information concerning retail credits by kinds of business for 
1933, and shows the percentage of business done on a credit basis and the proportion of 
credit to cash sales in each kind of business. It also shows the number of stores extend- 
ing credit and the number opeating entirely on a cash basis or not clearly identified as tc 
their credit status. 

The average degree of change in credit ratio in credit-granting stores, show.n for the 
United States as a whole, from 53 percent in 1929 to 45 percet in 1933, is reasonably con- 
sistent tnroughout the various kinds of business, but there are some exceptions worthy of 
note, as may be seen from the comparative summary of 13 representative kinds of business 
for 1933 and for 1929 on the opposite page. 

Credit By States 

Table 53 presents credit information by States, showing the number of stores reporting 
credit, the amount of their sales, the proportion of their business wnich is credit and the 
proportion cf total business which is dene on a cath basis. 

In few States is there a material change in the proportion of uteres extending credit, 
particularly if the number of stores omitted in the 1929 tabulation is taken into account. 
The proportion of credit sales to total sales of stores reporting credit is, however, con- 
sistently lower in 1933, as may be seen from a comparative summary of the 1933 and 1929 
figures by States on the following page. 

The decline in credit business was most pronounced in the industrial States of the 
East North Central and Middle Atlantic divisions, while an appreciably smaller decline is 
to be observed in the agricultural regions, particularly the West North Central and South 
Atlantic divisions. 









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Sectio n 5 . - T ypes of Operatio ti 

Of the 1,526,119 retail stores canvassed in the Census, nearly 1,350,000, or over 88 
percent, were operated as independent stores, and about 142,000, or 9 percent as chain units, 
defined as units operating under a single management supervising more than three stores 
The sales of independents amounted to $17,826,562,000, constituting 71 percent of total re- 
tail sales, while chain store sales aggregated $6,312,769,000, or 25 percent of the total. 
Stores under other types of operation accounted thus for only 2.3 percent of the places of 
business and 3.6 percent of the volume of sales. They include mail-order houses, selling 
by mail through the use of catalogs; stores operated by public utility companies mainly for 
the sale of electric and gas household appliances; commissary stores owned by manufactur- 
ing, mining or other companies primarily for the sale of goods to their employees; direct 
selling (house-to-house) retailers operating from central points with ore's of solicitors; 
leased departments found most frequently in department stores and operated independently of 
the lessor; and a great miscellany of other types, including itinerant vendors, rolling 
stores, roadside markets or stands, and the like. Because of the difficulty of canvassing 
some of these "other types" the census enumeration of them is likelj- to have been incomplete. 

A summary showing the number of retail units and sales by types of operation and the 
comparative 1929 figures follows: 



Com pariso n of Re tail Stores bjr T ypes of Opera tion 
(Sales are s tated in thousands r f drllar=J 



.TyEe_ 



-Number of Sto res 
1933 I 



Sales 



1929 Change 



1933 



1_%_1 is-S- 



_% 1 Chang e 



U. S. Totals 1,526,119 1. 543,15 81 -1.1 $25,037,225;i00.0 $49 , 114 ,65 3 100 . | -49.0 



Independents 

Chains 

Direct selling 

Mail-order 

Commissaries 

Utility-operated 
Other types 



1 , 349 , 337 \ 1 , 375 , 509 \ -2 . [ $17 , 826 , 562 | 

141,e03| 148,0371 -4.3J 6,312,7691 

7, 026] l,66ll+323.0l 187,3681 

31ll 27ll +15.01 244,381] 

2, 7191 1,3471+101.01 95,578J 

4, 1271 4, 0531 +1-81 76,0791 

20,996 1 12, 280 1+ 71^0 1 294,488 1 



71.21 


$ 


!8 


081,5041 


25. 2 1 




9 


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■Vl 






93,96ll 


1.0' 






515,2371 


.4' 






115,5831 


.3 






163,371 1 


l.,2l 






310,15ll 



77.51 
20. oj 

•21 
1.0| 

■3l 

.31 
.71 



-53.2 

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+99.4 
-52.6 
-17.3 
-53.4 
-.5.0 



Changes in Stores and Sales : 1929-1 933 

In 1933 there were 26,000 fewer independent stores and 6,400 fewer chain stores than 
in 1929. On the other hand there were 5,400 more direct-selling (house-to-house) retail- 
ers, 40 more mail-order houses, and about 10,000 more stores of other types, including 
leased departments, cooperatives, etc. 

More striking than the change in number of stores was the change in sales by types. 
In 1929 chains did 20.0 percent of the total of all retail business of the country; by 
1933 the chain ratio had increased to 25.2. Independents, on the other hand, dropped from 
77.5 percent of the total business in 1929 to 71.2 percent in 1933. Another way of measur- 
ing the shift is to indicate that the sales of independents had decreased from 1929 to 1933 
by 53.2 percent, whereas the sales of chains decreased by 35.8 percent. 

The higher chain ratio in 1933 for retail trade as a whole does not mean that the 



94 



-26- 



chains in all kinds of business have weathered the four years of depression better than in- 
dependents. Much of the cause of the smaller aggregate decline in chain sales than in in- 
dependent sales is the relatively smaller decline in the sales of those kinds of business 
in which chains prefer to operate — food, variety and drug stores, and filling stations. 
In these four fields, which account for more than one-half of total chain store sales, the 
decline in sales between 1929 and 1933 (for chains and independents combined) averaged 34 
percent, compared with 56 percent in all the other business fields together. In most of 
those kinds of business which experienced the greatest decline in sales volume, chains are 
a negligible factor. 

Direct-selling doubled in dollar volume, increasing from $93,961,000 in 1929 to $187,- 
368,000 in 1933. In view of the comparatively small volume of sales reported to the Census 
even for 1933, it is doubtful whether the increase in the number and activity of direct- 
selling retailers may legitimately be interpreted as reflecting the attempt by persons 
otherwise unemployed to make their living by house-to-hovse canvassing. 

There is less doubt that the increase in the number of commissary stores and the rela- 
tively small decline in their sales reflects primarily the understatement of this type of 
retail operation in 1929 due to difficulty in identification. 

Another increase in stores and small decline in sales is shown for "other types". 
Here too the ''igures for 1929 and 1933 are not strictly comparable. In 1933 the brevity of 
the schedule made the identification of retailers-country buyers and of retailers-whole- 
salers extremely difficult. For this reason most of them were undoubtedly classified as 
independents instead of among "Other Types". To improve the comparability of the 1929 
and 1933 data the 1929 figures for the two classifications named above were merged with in- 
dependents. As a result the 1929 figures for "Other Types" as shown in the above summary 
table do not include an allowance for those retailers-country buyers and retailers-whole- 
salers that may have been classified with "Other Types" in 1933. 

Changes in Sales By Kinds of Business 

In the appended summary the relative distribution of sales among independents, chains 
and other types in 1933 and 1929 is presented for fifteen kinds of business. An examina- 
tion of the summary reveals that the chain ratio has materially increased in five lines: 
department stores, combination stores, shoe stores, cigar stores and drug stores. Of these 
the first two warrant separate comment. 



COMPARISON OF RETAIL SALES RATIOS 
BY T YPES OF OPERATION, 1933 and 1929 



Kind of Business 

All Stores 

Department stores 

Variety stores 

Men's stores 

Family clothing stores 
Women's apparel stores 

Shoe stores 

(continued) 



Indepe 


ndents 


|l933 


1929 


71.2 


77.5 

1 ~~ 
72.1 


67.3 


1 8.8 


10.7 


76.5 


77.9 


1 79.2 


71.5 


1 74.5 


74.3 


1 46.5 


, 53 5 



23.91 
91. 2J 
22 . I 
20. 3 1 
23.41 
46.21 



16. 7| 
89. 2 I 
21. 2| 
27.31 
22.71 
41.7 



Chains 

19331 1929. , 

25 . 2 1 20. oi 3.6(A) 



Other Types 
1953 1 1929 



8.8(B)| 

•0 I 
1.5 I 

.5 I 
2.1 
7.3(C) 



2.5 

11.2 

.1 

.9 

1.2 

3.0 
4.8(F) 



94 



-27- 



Kind of Business 

Furniture stores 

Household appliance stores 

Radio stores 

Grocery stores (no meats) 

Combination (groceries-meats) 

Restaurants, etc. 

Cigar stores-stands 

Motor-vehicle dealers 

Filling stations 

Drug stores 

Hardware stores 

Jewelry stores 

All other stores 



Indeoenden 


ts Chains 


Other ' 
1933 


rvpes 


1933 |l929 


1933 


1929 


1929 


84.6|83.9 


14.2 


14.2 


1.2 


1.9 


33. 2 1 X 


21.5 


X 


45.3(D) 


X 


82.6179.0 


15.6 


19.1 


1.8 


1.9 


54.3|53.6 


45.0 


45.7 


•'7 


.7 


56.1 67.5 


43.7 


32.2 


.2 


.2 


84.8186.1 


14.9 


13.6 


.3 


.3 


65.1 173.5 


33.9 


25.1 


1.0 


1.4 


94. 6| X 


5.3 


X 


.1 


^ 


64.3166.0 


35.5 


33.8 


.2 


.2 


74.0 81.2 


25.1 


18.5 


.9 


.3 


95.61 X 


4.1 


X 1 


.3 ' 


X 


93.6193.0 


5.9 


6.4 


.5 


.6 


l79.3l X 


14.2 


X 


6.5(E) 


X 



X - No true comparisons available. 

A/ - Direct-selling (0.7%), mail-order (1.0%), commissaries (0.4%) 

Utility -operated (0.3%), and other types (1.2%). 
B/ - Mostly mail-order (8.7%) . 
C/ - Mostly leased departments (7.0%). 

D/ - Mostly utility-operated (36.8%) and direct-selling (6. 
E/ - Mostly direct-selling (2.2%) and commissaries (1.2%). 
F/ - Revised from figure appearing in Vol. VI. 



'.)■ 



In the department store field the 1933 Census includes about 100 more chain stores 
than in 1929. A few of these are large stores opened by the mail-order houses and other 
chains which continued to expand after 1929; the balance represents principally the stores 
of a national chain classified in 1929 as a variety store chain, but which has changed the 
nature of its business during the intervening years until today it is classified properly 
as a department store chain. Its sales in 1929 v/ere approximately $66,000,000: in 1933 
$78,000,000*. 

In comparison, the number of independent department stores decreased from 2,166 to 
1,428. A factor in this decline is the minimum sales limit of $100,000 which is required 
of a store before it can be classified in the Census as a department store. 

The number of chain department stores exceeds the number of independent department 
stores, although their sales are little more than one-third of the sales of independents. 
V/ith the exception of a few sizeable stores of the mail-order houses, practically all of 
the large downtown department stores of the country are independently operated and are ov/n- 
ed locally except for 121 stores of the ownership groups. Ownership groups are financial 
mergers of previously existing independently ovmed stores, without central merchandising 
and buying. Mere ownership does not classify them as chains so long as they are indepen- 
dently operated and their buying is not centralized. They are classified the same way in 
1953 as in 1929. There were 13 ownership groups in 1933 with 130 stores and sales of $645,- 
342,000, or 36 percent less than their sales in 1929. 



*These figures have been published by The Company involved. 
94 



-28- 

The trend toward combination food stores, (grocery stores with fresh meat departments) 
was pronounced in the period between 1929 and 1933. The movement toward the inclusion of 
meat departments in grocery stores started with the smaller chains in the years prior to 
1929, and the larger chains were testing it out in relatively few stores at the time of the 
1929 Census. Since then it has become the predominant kind of chain food store. The in- 
crease in chain ratio, from 32.2 percent in 1929 to 43.7 percent in 1933 v/ithout any mat- 
erial change in ratio in the grocery field, reveals the fact that tlie emphasis of chain 
activity in the food field has shifted from the strictly grocery type of store to the com- 
bination store. Table 3 A analyzes stores and sales by type. 
Similar tables for each State are contained in Vol. VI. 



SUMMARY BY TYPES OF OPE RATION, 1933 and 1929 
^ales, payrolls and expenses below are stated in thousands of dollars) 
Inde pend ents Chains 



1933 



1929 



%Change 1933_ 



Number of stores | 1,349,337| 1,375,509|- 1.9l 141,603 

Sales 1 $17, 826, 562] $38, 081, 504 1 -53. 2 I $6, 312, 769 

Full-time employees j l,908,40ll 2,883,9151-33.81 685,207 

Total payroll 1 $l,987,950l $3,892,6871-48.91 $795,505 

Full-time payroll | $1,806,432| $3,767, 056 j-52 . 1 1 $739,170 

part-time payroll 1 $181,5181 $125,63ll+44. 5 | $56,335 

Av'g. annual earnings, full- 1 1 11 

time employee 1 $947] $1, 306|-27. 5 1 $1,079 

Number of proprietors | 1,544,3941 1 , 498, 551 1+ 3. 1 | 3,870 
Reported expenses ! $4,529,250| $7,791, 221 1-41 . 9 j $1,710,754 



1929 %Change 



148,037 
$9,834,835 

829,291 
$1,149,018 
$1,115,821 

$33,197 

$1,345 

3,806 

$2,201,366 



4,4 




-35 


8 


-17 


4 


-30 


8 


-33 


8 


+69 


7 


-19 


8 


+ 1 


7 


-22 


3 



Number of stores 

Sales 

Full-time employees 
Total payroll 
Full-time payroll 
Part-time payroll 
Av'g. annual earn- 
ings full-time em- 
ployee 
Number of proprietors 
Reported expenses 



Direct-sell ine; 

7,026] 1,661 

$187,368l$93,961 

36,6581 30,380 

$47, 247 I $33, 018 

$45, 862] $32, 913 

$1,3851 *95 



$1,251| $1,0831 

6, 6551 71l' 

$76, 606] $42, 3101 



(house-to-house) |Mail-order (catalog only) 



+523 


ol 


+ 99 


4l 


+ 20 


7l 


+ 43 


ll 


+ 39 


31 


+ 1357 


9| 
1 


+ 15 


5| 


+ 836 


Ol 



311 

$244,381 

27,752 

$24,786 

$24,240 

$546 



271 

$515,237 

41,756 

$45,408 

$45,039 

$369 



$8731 $1,079 

1991 ^9° 

$68, 446 1 $120, 074 



+14.8 
-52.6 
-33.5 
-45.4 
-46.2 
+48.0 



-19.1 
+ 4.7 
-43.0 



Number of storesl 
Sales I 

Full-time employ] 
Total payroll j 
Full-time payrol] 
Part-time payrol | 
Av'g. annual earn- 
ings, full-time I 

employee ] 
Number of propr- 

proetors | 
Reported expense] 



Commissaries 

2,719] 1,347 

$95,578J$115,583 

6,873] 6,104 

$8,020l $8,837 

$7,389] $8,721 

$631] $115 



$1,075 $1,428 



1,415 



341 



—Utiiiifcoperated stores 
4,127] 4,053] + 1.8 



+101,9 

-1'7. 3] $76, 079 I $163, 371 
+12,6] 10,889] 16,462 
- 9.3l$16,21l] $26,370 
-15, 3] $13, 346] $24,177 



+448.7$2,865 



$1,193 



-24,7 $1,226 $1,468 



+315,0 



123 



$13,399 $13,089 |+ 2,4 $30,274 $47,550 



-53.4 
-33.9 
-38.5 
-44,8 
+140.2 



-16.5 



28 +339.3 



-36.3 



94 



-29- 

Sect lon 6. - Distribution by Chains 

The table appearing at the end of this section presents information on the number of 
chain organizations in the retail field, on retail stores operated by them and on their cen- 
tral offices. In addition to chain stores discussed above,, the retail units operated by 
chains include a number of stores classified in type-of-operation tables with mail-order 
houses, utility-operated stores, and other types . This accounts for the differences between 
the totals of the chain table following this paragraph and the figures on chain stores ana- 
lyzed in preceding paragraphs, and in tables by types of operation in this volume and vol- 
ume VI of the series of final retail reports. 

Central Office Data 

The chain summary table shows that the number of retail chain organizations in 193o 
was 5,546 as compared with 7,061 in 1929. It indicates that the central offices of retail 
chains made direct sales in 1933 amounting to $215,583,000 and employed 115,078 persons on 
full-time and 3,344 on a part-time basis in addition to 1,182 proprietors. The payroll of 
central offices aggregated $183,632,000; other expenses, not prorated to the stores, total- 
ed $98,188,000. These central-office figures do not appear in other retail trade tables, 
and consequently are not included in State or United States totals of retail trade. 

Retail Units Operated by Chains 

In 1933 chain organizations operated 152,308 retail units with sales of $6,767,766,- 
000. This compares with 159,638 retail units operated by chains in 1929 with sales of 
$10,740,385,000, thus registering a decline of 37 percent in sales. Of the total amount of 
chain sales in 1933 about 17 percent ^ere made on credit. 

In 1933 chains provided e.^ployment through their retail units to an average of 752,- 
623 full-time employees and 233,361 part-time employees or a total of 985,984 employees, of 
which 68.4 percent v/ere men and 31.6 percent were women. The total store payroll of chains 
in 1933 was $868,358,000, of which $59,789,000 was paid to part-time employees. Total 
store-operating expenses of the chains, including payrolls, aggregated $1,851,855,000, 
which includes $93,037,000 of central-office expense prorated to the stores. Stocks in the 
stores of chains at the end of 1933 aggregated $737,631,000 at cost. 

Tables and Reports 

The table which follows shows for 1933 similar information for chains in each kind of 
business in which chains operate. It also contains a comparison of the number of chains, 
number of units and amount of sales in 1929. Special reports are available for variety 
chains, department-store chains and drug chains. It is planned that a special summary re- 
port will be published containing a series of comparative tables analyzing briefly the more 
important data concerning many other classifications for 1933 and for 1929. Reference is 
made to a similar summary report issued in connection with the 1929 Distribution Census, 
entitled "Retail Chains".!/ 

1/ "Retail Chains", 270 pages, available from the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C, price 20 cents. 

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K u) n -4 



-34- 



Section 7. - Retail Trade b^ Siz e of Bus iness 

Analyses presented in Table 4A in this volume indicate that more than 64 percent of 
all retail stores in X932 did less than $10,000 of business and accounted in the aggregate 
fot 13.85 percent of total retail sales. In contrast, nearly one-half of the business was 
done in 85,531 stores whose annual sales exceeded $50,000 each, although they constituted- 
only 5.6 percent of the total number of stores. 

A summary of stores and sales by 10 size-groups follows: 





Numbe 


r of St 


ores and Sales by S 


Lze of Store 








iSales 


are expressed in thousands 
1933 


of dollarsi_ 

1929 















Stores 




Sales 




Stores 




Sales 






Number 


- % . 


Amount 


% _- 


Number 


t 


Amount 


%_ 


Total 


ll, 526, 119 


100.00 


1 $25, 037,2251 


100.0 


1^543^1581 


100.0 


] $49, 114, 653 


100.00 


$1,000,000 or more 


765 


0.05 


2,426,450l 


9.69 


2,059] 


.14 


6,061,827 


12.34 


500,000 to 999,999 


1 1,409 


1 0.09 


1 934,186' 


3.74 


4, 5241 


.29 


3,080.040 


6.27 


300,000 to 499,999 


2,988 


0.20 


l,114,500l 


4.45I 


8,467 


.55 


3,192,534 


6.53 


200,000 to 299,999 


4,535 


0.30 


1,082,8531 


4.33 


12,966 


.84 


3,121,806 


6.36 


100,000 to 199,999 


20,2091 


1.32 


2, 680, 627 1 


IO.70I 


49,497 


3.21 


6,730,586 


13.70 


E0,000 to 99,999 


55,625 


3.65 


3,743,97ll 


14.961 


128,869 


8.35 


8,745,541 


17.81 


20,000 to 49,999 


89,175 


5.84 


3,341,4181 


13.35] 


176,767 


11.45 


6,748,325 


13.74 


20,000 to 29,999 


1 108,619 


7.12 


2,604,2871 


10.4l| 


173,458 


11.24 


4,200,105 


8.55 


10,000 to 19,999 


260,590 


17.07 


3,635,055] 


14.52 


312,865 


20.27 


4,440,873 


9.04 


less than 10,000 


1 982,193 


1 64.36 


1 3,466,797 


13.85 


673,686 


43.66 


2.793,016 


5.69 



Com parison with 1929 

The table above, presenting a comparison by size groups of stores and sales in 1933 
and in 1929, conceals a remarkable parallel between the two "ears which is disclosed when 
adjustmsnt is made for the 50 percent decline in sales volume 

In 1933, 64.36 percent of all stores did an annual business of less than $10,000. 
Using the $20,000 classification for 1923 the corresponding proportion of stores doing less 
than $20,000 in 1929 is 63.93 percent. The sales of these stores accounted for 13.85 per- 
cent of the total volume of business done in 1933, and for 14.73 percent of the total vol- 
ume in 1929. 

Stores of less than $50,000 annual volume in 1933 constituted 94.39 percent of the 
total number of stores in 1933 and did 52.13 percent of total sales in that year. In com- 
parison, the stores of less than $100,000 in 1929 constituted 94.97 percent of all stores 
in 1929 and they did 54.83 percent of total sales. 

Similar direct comparison can be made between classifications of $10,000 to $50,000, 
$50,000 to $100,000 and $100,000 to $500,000 in 1933, and classifications of twice those 
amounts in 1929. It is evident there has been no more than a minor shift of business from 
one size group to another. A summary follows; 



94 



35- 



I Percent of all Stores 
I Number Sales 

Stores of less than $10,000 in 1935 ] |64. ejlS.SS 

Stores of less than $20,000 in 1929 . ..( | 63.9 5l l4.75 

Stores of $10,000 to $50,000 in 1933 JsO. 03138.28 

Stores cf $20,000 to $100,000 in 1929. . |31.04|40.10 

Stores of $50,000 to $100,000 in 1933 j 3.65ll4.96 

Stores of $loO,000 to $200,000 in 1929 j 3. 21) 14.70 

Stores of $100,000 to $500,000 in 1933 ] 1.82|l9.48 

Stores of $200,^00 to $1,000,000 in 1929 I 1.68119.15 



Size by Kinds of B usiness 

Although in general it is a correct conclusion that nearly two-thirds of all stores 
did less than $10,000 of business in 1955, and that their aggregate sales amounted to about 
one-seventh of total retail sales, there are many kinds of business to which these general 
conclusions do not apply, as is evident from Tables 4A and 4E in this volume. 

The food group of stores, averaging in sales $14,531 per store, is predominantly a 
small store group, with 62.2 percent of all stores doing less than $10,00i- per year and 
only 1.2 percent doing as much as $100,000 per year. Meat markets and combination stores 
shov^ a larger proportion of stores over $10,000 than any other kind of business in the food 
field. 

All department stores by definition exceed $100,000 of sales per store, whereas 51.1 
percent of dry-goods and general-merchandise stores do less than $10,000 of business per 
year. Most of the sales (91.2 percent) of variety stores are done by the chains, but the 
remaining 8.8 percent is divided among 6,572 independent variety stores. Most if not all 
of the 4,778 variety stores doing less than $10,000 of business, are probably independent 
units. 

Even among apparel stores more than one-half do less than $10,000 of business per 
store, but there is a considerable variation in this proportion in some kinds of business 
in the apparel field, particularly as between the men's stores, women's ready-to-wear 
specialty stores, family clothing stores, and shoe stores on the one hand and furriers, 
custom tailors and millinery shops on the other. 

The great majority of filling stations; motor-supply houses and garages are in the 
small-store classification with sales of less than $10,000 per year per store. However, 
nearly 20 percent of all motor vehicle dealers do more than $100,000 of business per year 
each. 

About 40 percent of furniture stores do less than $10,000 per year, but their sales 
are less than 6 percent of the total. Almost one-half of the business of furniture stores 
is done by 6 percent of the stores, with sales exceeding $100,000 each. Other classifica- 
tions in the furniture group, however, are predominantly small stores of less than $10,000 
of annual sales. 

94 



-36- 
Abcut 31 percent of all lumber and building materia] dealers report a business of less 
than $10,000 per year, although in aggregate the small yards do hardly more than 5 percent 
of the total bufinese of lumber dealers. Other classifications in the lumber -nd building 
group show considerably more than fO percent of thoir stores in the under $10,000 group. 
Even in the case of hardware sto.res 58 percent do less than $10,000 each of business per 
year. ' ': 

Eating places in oil classifications are essentially small-volume establishments with 
about 83 percent doing les. than $10,000 per year and accounting for 35 percent of the 
total business. 

Nearly 43 percent of all drug stores do less than $10,000 per year, but these small 
stores account for only 12 percent of drug-store sales. More than 1,000 drug stores do an 
annual business exceeding $100,000 per year. 

Of 14,313 jewelry stores throughout the country, 10,50C done less than JIO, 000 of busi- 
ness annually and account for 22.8 percent of total jewelry-store sales. In contrast, ZZ3 
stores exceed $100,000 of annual sales and account for $49,225,000 or 23 percent of total 
sales. Four stores each did more $1,000,700 of sales in 1933. 

It wes indicated above that the years between 1929 and 1933 witnessed an appreciable 
change in the distribution of stores by size in favor of the smaller stores. The following 
tabulation by kinds of business reveals some interesting disparities in that movement as 
between the various kinds of business. The tabulation is found in figures from Table 4A 
in this volume and corresponding 1929 figures from tables 4A and 4B contained in the 1929 
Retail Census Summary. i/ 

Percent of Total Stores in Store-Size Groups 

by Kinds of Business ... ...> 













$10,000 


$50,000 


$100,000 






1 


Total 


Under 


to 


to 


and 


May 




1 


Stores 


$10,000 


$49,999 


$99,999 


over 


Food group. .... ........... 




1933 


100.0 


62.2 


32.8 


3.9 


1.1 






1929 


100.0 


45.4 


43.9 


8.2 


2.5 


Restaurant group 




. 1933 


100.0 


83.0 


14.4 


1.1 


1.5 






1929 


100.0 


62.0 


32.1 


4.0 


1.9 


General merchandise 


group 


1933 


100.0 


44.6 


33.9 


9.4 


12.1 






1929 


100.0 


29.6 


44.5 


11.7 


14.2 


Apparel group 




1933 


100.0 


51.4 


40.1 


5.5 


3.0 






1929 


100.0 


34.7 


48.0 


11.0 6.3 


Automotive* group 




1933 


100.0 


68.2 


22.4 


4.8 


4.6 






1929 


100.0 


42.5 


33.0 


10.1 


14.4 


Filling stations 




1 1933 


100.0 


70.1 


28.2 


1.2 


.5 






ll929 


100.0 


54.0 


41.5 


3.7 


.8 


Furniture-household 


group. 


. 1 1933 


100.0 


55.3 


35.5 


5.7 


3.5 






|l929 


100.0 


31.9 


45.9 


13.1 


9.1 


Lumber-hardware group 


1 1933 


100.0 


52.5 


40.6 


4.9 


2.0 






11929 


100.0 


27.5 


50.7 


13.2 


8.6 


Farmers' supplies- 




,1933 


100.0 


58.7 


35.9 


3.9 


1.5 


Country gen'l. stores 


ll929 


100.0 


37.8 


48.4 


9.6 


4.2 


Drug stores 




ll933 


100.0 


42.8 


51.2 


4.0 


2.0 






ll929 


100.0 


17.8 


70.5 


8.9 


2.8 



•Excluding filling stations. 

i/"Retail Distribution, Summary for the United States: 

dent of Documents, Washington: price 20 cents. 



1929", obtainable from Superinden- 

94 



-37- 

F ull-time Em ployees and Proprie tors 

Table 4C presents an analysis of full-time employees and proprietors in the several 
size-of-business groups by kinds of business. No similar tabulation was made available in 
connection with the 1929 Census. The table shows that whereas the full-time employees are 
spread fairly evenly through the various size groups proprietors are numerically important 
only in the smaller stores. The information presented in that table becomes particularly 
illuminating when related to data on stores and sales contained in Table 4A. A summary of 
ratios based on the two tables is presented below: 



Percent of To tal 
Sales 



Full-time I Propri- 
Employeesletors 



JNumber per 
Numb er £er sto re |$10,000 of Sal es 
Full-time | Propri- | Full-time | Propri- 
Employeesl etorslEmployeesl etors 



Under $10,000 

$10,000-$19,999 

$20,000-$29,999 

$30,000-$49,999 

$50,000-$99,999 

$100,000-$199,999 . 
$200,000-$299,999 
$300,000-$499,999 
$500,000-$999,999 
$1,000,000 and over 



13.9 

14.5 

10.4 

13.3 

15.0 

10.7 

4.3 

4.5 

3.7 

9.7 



12.8 

14.0 

10.0 

12.4 

14.1 

10.7 

4.5 

4.8 

4.0 

12.7 



69.3 

17.1 

6.3 

4.4 

2.2 

.6 

.1 



.4 

1.5 

2.5 

3.8 

6.9 

14.3 

26.6 

43.5 

77.3 

451.0 



1.1 
1.0 
.9 
.8 
.6 
.5 
.4 
.3 



1.00 


3.14 


1.04 


.74 


1.03 


.04 


1.00 


.04 


1.02 


.01 


1.08 
1.11 
1.17 
1.17 
1.42 













The above summary shows that, except for the very small and the very large stores, the 
distribution of full-time employees among stores of various size groups follows fairly 
closely the distribution of total sales. This necessarily implies an increase in employees 
per store with an increase in its size in terms of sales volume, as is indicated in the 
second section of the summary. A more precise measure of the relationship of employment 
opportunity to sales volume is provided by the number of full-time employees per $10,000 of 
sales in stores of various sizes, as calculated in the third section of the summary. 

This part of the summary appears to suggest that employment per dollar of sales in- 
creases with store size. The conclusion is accurate if limited to the employment of out- 
side persons. It should be observed, however, that in the small stores, with the number of 
proprietors so great relatively to the number of employees, the total personnel per dollar 
of sales is much larger than in stores of large sales volume. 

The summary above is based on data for retail trade as a whole. It conceals important 
differences in the relationships between stores, sales, full-time employees and proprietors 
which would become apparent if a similar analysis were carried through by kinds of busi- 
ness. An interesting illustration of this is the figure on full-time employees per $10,000 
of sales in stores with annual sales of $1,000,000 and over. This figure appears to be en- 
tirely out of line with similar ratios for other size groups. A partial explanation of the 
difference is to be found in the fact that in the largest size group department stores 
account for about 75 percent of the full-time employees and 80 percent of sales. 

S tate Figures 



Table 4B in this volume presents information similar to that contained in Table 4A by 
States and geographic divisions. Tables similar to 4A by kinds of business for each State 
are contained in Volume VII. 

Table 4D in this volume presents information similar to that contained in Table 4C by 
Stat es and geographic divisions. ^ 



-SB- 
Section 8^^ Retail Trade by Size of City. 

Of the 1,526,119 stores shown for 1933, 19 percent are located in cities of more than 
500,000 population; 7 percent in cities of 250,000 to 500,000 population; and 7 percent in 
cities of 100,000 to 250,000 population. 

Thus there are 33 percent of the stores of the country in cities of more than 100,000 
population. In comparison, there are likewise 33 percent of the stores in places of less 
than 2,500 population and in the unincorporated areas. Approxiaately the same number, or 
34 percent, are in cities of 2,500 to 100,000 population. 

In contrast to the almost equal division of stores in these three size-of-city groups, 
sales of the stores in cities of more than 10D,000 population aggregated 46 percent of the 
total. An equal number of stores in areas of less than 2,500 population account for 18 
percent of the retail business of the country. Cities included in the size range between 
2,500 and 100,000, with 34 percent of the stores, did 36 percent of the total business. A 
summary follows: 

U. S. Summary — Percent of Stores and Sales by Si^e of City. 



City-Size Grouos 


Percent of 
Population 
100.0 


Percent of 
Stores 


Percent of 
Sales 


Totals; 1933 


100. 


100. 


500,000 or more 

250,01.0 to 500, OCO 

100,000 to 250,000 


17.0 
6.5 
6.1 


19 

7 
7 


26 

11 
9 


All cities, 100,000 or more 

75,000 to 100,000 

50,000 to 75,000 

30,000 to 50,000 

20,000 to 30,000 

10,000 to 20,000 

5,000 to 10,000 

2,500 to 5,000.^ 


29.6 
1.8 
3.5 
3.9 
3.2 
5.6 
4.8 
3.8 


33 
2 
4 
4 
4 
7 
7 
6 


46 
3 
5 
5 
4 
7 
7 
5 


All cities, 2,500 to 100,000.... 
All other areas 


26.6 
43.8 


34 
33 


36 
18 



Geographic Divisions 

The accompanying tables show similar information for each of the nine geographic divi- 
sions of the country. There are wide differences in the various geographic divisions in 
the proportion of stores and sales by size-of-city groups and the information provides an 
unusual measure of the characteristics of each area. 



Comparisons of the distribution of population and of sales by city-sizo groups, for 
the various geographic divisions, reveal the extent to which purchases at retail tend to 
shift to the larger cities from the smaller communities. Reference to city-size Table 3 on 
page 44-shows that in ti.e Middle Atlantic States, for instance, the sales in each city-size 
group are almost identical with population in all size groups between 2,500 and 100,000; 
that above 100,000 there is uniformly a higher percentage of sales than of population. In 
the South Atlantic Division, however, a different situation is revealed. There is no city- 



-39- 



size group other than that below 2,500 in which the ratio of sales fails to exceed the 
ratio of population, showing that in the South Atlantic States the cities of all sizes are 
trading centers. There is no particular size of city which is greatly different from any 
other size in the relation between its own population and its proportion of retail busi- 
ness. The table permits of similar comparisons in the other geographic divisions. 

The nine geographic divisions, and the States which they comprise are as follows: 
NEW ENGLAND Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, 

New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont. 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio. 

Wisconsin. 
WEST NORTH CENTRAL Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, 

Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota. 
SOUTH ATLANTIC Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, 

Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, 

South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia. 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee. 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas. 

Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana. 

MOUNTAIN Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming. 

PACIFIC California, Oregon, Washington. 

An accompanying summary shows the percent of stores and sales as well as popula- 
tion, in each size-of-city group, for each geographic division. (Page 44) 

K ind s of Business Not Comm od ities 

The following classifications by kinds of business are significant but are not i nter- 
c hangeable wit h commodity classifications. Food stores sell more than food, and food also 
is sold in other kinds of stores, including country general and department stores. Appar- 
el, furniture and drugs are sold in many stores not classified primarily as apparel, furni- 
ture or drug stores. Commodity analyses were shown in the 1929 Retail Census but no commo- 
dity breakdown of sales was included in the 1933 Census. It should be noted that the range 
of commodities handled by stores in any given kind of business may vary with the size cf 
the community in which the store is located. 

Food Stores 

Forty-two percent of all food stores are in cities of more than 100,000 population and 
24 percent in places of less than 2,500 and unincorporated areas. The former do 45 percent 
of the food store business, whereas the small tovm and rural stores do 15 percent. A small 
number of beer-liquor is included. 

Of all kinds of stores in cities of more than 500,000, 41 percent are food stores 
which account for 28 percent of the entire retpil business in these large cities. In con- 
trast, food stores constitute 23 percent of all retail stores in the areas under 2,500 pop- 
ulation and they do 23 percent of all the retail business that is done in such areas. (Coun- 
try-general stores account for a large proportion of food sales in such areas) . 

94 



-40- 

Eating Places 

Thirty-eight percent of all eating places are in cities of 100,000 or more and they do 

58 percent of the total restaurant business of the country. In contrast, 29 percent are in 

areas of less than 2,500 population and they do 14 percent of the restav.rant business. 
Drinking places are included in this group. 

F armers ' Supplies and Co untry-General Stores 

In areas of less than 2,500 population are located 86 percent of all the farmers' 
supplies and country-general stores of the country and they do 75 percent of all the busi- 
ness done by such stores. Only 5 percent of the stores and 9 percent of the sales in this 
classification are in cities of more than 20,000 population. This classification includes 
general stores and farmers' supplies dealers. 

General-Merc handise Stores 

Thirty-one percent of all stores in the general-merchandise group are in cities of 
more than 100,000 population and they do 60 percent of the total general-merchandise busi- 
ness of the country. In comparison, 28 percent are in areas of less than 2,500 population 
and they do 6 percent of the business. The general-merchandise group includes department 
stores, variety stores, dry goods and general merchandise stores. 

Apparel Group 

or the apparel group, v/hich includes also shoe stores and accessories stores, 47 per- 
cent of the stores are in the cities of more than 100,000 population and they do 63 percent 
of the total apparel-store business of the country. Only 10 percent of the stores are in 
places of less than 2,500 population and they do only 3 percent of the total business of 
apparel stores. Apparel, however, is sold in stores other than apparel stores. It is an 
established fact that stores in the larger cities of an area tend to attract a dispropor- 
tionate volume of the better apparel business, because of the greater variety of selection 
afforded by their larger stocks, and the alleged superior timeliness of their fashions. 
Again it is emphasized that the kind-of-business classifications are not interchangeable 
with commodity classifications. 

Automo tive Group 

Of the 135,000 automotive establishments (except filling stations) in the country 24 
percent are in cities of more than 100,000 population, where 37 percent of the total busi- 
ness is done. In comparison, 39 percent are in places of less than 2,500 population and they 
do 18 percent of the total automotive business (except filling stations). Motor vehicle 
sales agencies, garages, tire and battery shops and automobile accessory dealers are in- 
cluded in this group 

Filling, Sta tio ns 

There were 170,404 filling stations in 1933, of which 53 percent were in places of 
less than 2,500 population and in unincorporated areas. In contrast to other kinds of re- 
tail business, 31 percent of the entire filling station business of the country was done in 
tnese small towns and rural areas. This is slightly greater than the entire business done 
in all cities of more than 100,000 population, in which there were only 17 percent of the 
filling stations. A few retailers of fuel oil for domestic consumption are included. 



-41- 

Furniture and Household Appliances 

Of the furniture and household-appliance group of nearly 43,000 stores, 34 percent are 
in cities of more than 100,000 population and they do 54 percent of the total business of 
this group of stores. Twenty-two percent of such stores are in the small areas of less 
than 2,500 population and they do only 8 percent of the total business of this classifica- 
tion. Floor coverings and radio stores are included in this group. 

L umber and Building Materials Gro up, in c luding; Hardware S tores 

Twenty-six percent of the lumber and building material dealers of the country are lo- 
cated in cities of more than 100,000 population and they do 28 percent of the total lumber 
and building material business. A similar proportion is done in small towns and rural areas 
of less than 2,500 population, in which are located 38 percent of the total number of deal- 
ers. This group includes dealers in lumber, hardware and farm implements, plumbing, elec- 
trical, paint and other building supplies. 

Drug Stores 

The large cities of more than 100,000 population include 39 percent of all the drug 
stores of the country, in contrast to 29 percent in the towns and areas of less than 2,500 
population. However, their sales aggregate 48 percent of the total drug store business of 
the country in comparison with 15 percent in the rural areas. 

Compariso n w ith 1929 - Tota l S tores 

Comparison of the 1933 analysis with that of four city-size groups for 1929 discloses 
that there has been practically no shift in the proportion of stores in community groups of 
various sizes. Nor has there been any material change in the proportion of sales in the 
larger cities as compared with cities of 10,000 to 30,000, cities of 5,000 to 10,000 and 
communities smaller in size than 5,000. Within one percent, each accounted for the same 
proportion of the total retail business of the country in 1933 as it did in 1929. 

Cities of more than 30,000 population in 1933 contained 43 percent of the stores and 

accounted for 59 percent of the total retail business of the country. In 1929 the same 

cities contained 44 percent of the stores and accounted for 58 percent of the total busi- 
ness. 

Cities of 10,000 to 30,000 population contained 11 percent of the stores in 1933 and 
11 percent in 1929. They account for 11 percent of all retail sales in 1933 and 12 percent 
in 1929. 

Cities of 5,000 to 10,000 population contained 7 percent of the retail stores in 1933 
and 7 percent in 1929. Likewise, they account for 7 percent of retail sales in 1933 and 7 
percent in 1929. 

Incorporated cities and towns of less than 5,000 population and unincorporated areas, 
contained 39 percent of all retail stores in 1933 and 38 percent in 1929. These stores 
accounted for 23 percent of retail business in 1933 and 23 percent in 1929. 

94 



-42- 



Comparisons between 1933 and 1929 for the several size-groups below 5.000 population 
cannot be shown, for the reason that the 1929 classification by size (page 178, Unitecl 
States Summary of Retail Distribution) includes a number of unincorporated communities 
which in 1933. being unincorporated, were classified as "other areas" and grouped with in- 
corporated towns of less than 2,500 population. A summary follows: 

Comparison, Stores and Sales by City-Size Groups, 1933 and 1929 



Sales 



Stores 



I Population | 1933. 

1930 1 Number I 



1929 



(Millions of dollarsl 
1933 I 1929 



Totals 
Over 30,000 
10,000 - 30,000 
5,000 - 10,000 
Under 5,000 



I Numbe r_ ] % \ Amoun t ] _%_ 1 Ago un 1 1 _%_ 

I 1 Q0^_ I 1^526^119 I 100 1 1^543^1 58 j 1 j 2 5^037 1 100 | 49 ^11 5 1 100 



38.8 I 667,4481 43 | 683,751| 44(14,6001 59|28,486l 58 

8.8 ! 160,058| ll| 164.4621 ll| 2,980| ll] 5.814| 12 

4.8 1 99,943| 7| 104.390i 7ll,642,l - 9| 3,2721 7 

_47 . 6 ! 598.^670 1 _39 \ __590^555 j _38 i _5^81 5 \ _25 \ 1L.542 23 



Compar iso n with 1929 by Kinds of Business 

The comparison of sales by city^size groups in 1933 and 1929 for each kind-of-business 
classification disclosed few variations. Some of them, however, are of interest. Note, 
for instance, in the lumber-building and hardware group the increased importance of sales 
in small towns and rural areas. A summary follows: 

Sales of Each Business Group, by Size of City 1933 and 1929 

Sales , in M illio ns of Dollars 



Kind-of 


Cities over 30,000- 


Cities 


of 10,000 to 30,000Places under 1000 


Business 


1933 


1 1929 


1933 1 1929 1 


1933 

Amt. \% 


1929 


Groups 


Amt. 


% 


Amt. 


% 


Amt. 


% |Amt._ 


% 


Amt. 1% 


All stores 


14,600 

3,990 

968 


59 
59 
68 


28^486 
6,472 

1,514 


58 
60 

71 


2,980 
879 
131 


11 5^14 

13|l,399 

9| 194 


12 

13 

9 


7^458 1 30 

1.924|28 

331 1 23 


14,814|30 


Food stores 


2,967|27 


Eating places 


417 1 20 


Farmers-Country 


106 
2,847 


7 
73 


235 
4,810 


6 

45 


89 

441 


6| 160 
111 706 


4 

11 


1 , 366 1 87 
603|l6 


3,295|90 


Gen'l. mdse . 


•928 1 14 


Apparel Stores 


1,505 


78 


3,299 


78 


210 


11 468 


11 


208|11 


474|ll 


Automotive 












1 




i 


1 


(except F.S. ) 


1,486 


52 


3,968 


51 


421 


15|l.l87 


15 


981 1 33 


2,664|34 


Filling stations 


548 


43 


738 


41 


191 


12 1 232 


13 


693 1 45 


• 818|46 


Furniture & H.H. | 


662 


69 


1,922 


70 


118 


12| 337' 


12' 


179|l9 


496|l8 


Lumber-Hdw. 


526 


39 


1,203 


46 


191 


14 1 374 1 


14 


626 1 47 


1.045|40 


Drug stores 


649 


61 


992 


59 


128 


111 202' 


12 


289 1 28' 


496129 


Other stores | 


1^213174' 


3,333 


65 


18ll 


ill 555' 


11 


2581 15 


1,214|24 














Retail C 


'haraci 


.eristics 


of Cities 



It is possible to obtain from the accompanying tables a measure of the retail charac- 
teristics of the cities in each size-class in the several States that is. the proportion 

of the stores that are food stores, the proportion that are apparel stores, etc., and the 

proportion of total retail business done by each kind of store. 

94 



-43- 

The largest cities contain the greatest proportion of food stores, and 41 percent of 
all stores in such cities are food stores. In the areas of less than 2,500, the proportion 
of food stores drops to 23 percent; but country-general stores replace them, so that food 
stores and country-general stores combined constitute the same proportion of total stores 
as in the largest cities, or 41 percent. Food stores in the largest cities account for 28 
percent of the total retail business in such cities, whereas their proportion in the small 
Communities is 23 percent. At least one-half of country-general stores sales represents 
food: the 23 percent for food stores is thus increased to 36 percent, or more, which is a 
conservative measure of the proportion of retail business in the small communities repre- 
senting the sale of food. Typically, food stores constitute about one-third of the total 
number of stores in an average city and they do about 30 percent of all retail business in 
such cities. 

Restaurants typically constitute 13 to 14 percent of the number of retail stores and 
they account for about 5 perdent of the total retail business of the average city. The 
smaller the city the smaller the proportion of retail business which is accounted for by 
the restaurants; on the other hand, in the largest cities restaurant sales represent 8 per- 
cent of all the retail business. 

General-merchandise stores typically represent about 3 percent of the stores, but they 
account for 16 to 18 percent of the total retail business. This proportion falls off rap- 
idly in cities below 10,000 population, where the proportion of stores is no less but their 
sales average only 5 percent of the total sales in the small towns and rural areas. 

Apparel stores constitute as much as 9 percent of all stores in the larger cities and 
in characteristic cities of 30,000 to 100,000 they average 8 percent of all stores. Typi- 
cally, they account for 9 to 10 percent of total retail business in the average city, but 
only 1 percent in areas under 2,500 population (This is the measure of apparel store sales, 
not of apparel sales). 

Both motor vehicle dealers and filling stations increase in relative importance to 
other business in inverse proportion to population. In the largest cities they contitute 
S percent and 4 percent respectively of all retailers, and together they do 11 percent of 
the business. In cities between 30,000 and 100,000, the automotive group accounts for 16 
to 18 percent of all retail places of business, equally divided between filling stations 
and other automotive. Filling stations in such cities do 6 percent of the total retail 
business of those cities, and the remainder of the automotive group (principally motor ve- 
hicle dealers) do 12 to 13 percent. In areas of less than 2,500 population, filling sta- 
tions constitute 18 percent of all retail places of business and account for 11 percent of 
the entire retail sales in such areas, with the remainder of the automotive group account- 
ing for 12 percent. 

The furniture and household group in typical cities constitutes 3 percent of all re- 
tail stores and accounts for 4 to 5 percent of all retail sales in such cities. 

Lumber and building material dealers in cities of 30,000 to 100,000 account for 4 to 5 
percent of all retailers and the same proportion of sales. 

Drug stores, almost without regard to the size of the community, constitute 4 percent 
of all retail stores and account for about 4 percent of all retail sales. 

Following are tables showing for the United States and for each geographic area the 
number of stores and sales in each size-of-city group, and tables showing similar informa- 
tion for each State. 
94 



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-55- 



Sectio n 9 .- Sales bjr Re tail ers Ve rsus Me rchandis e Sales at Retail 



The great majority (97.2 percent) of retail sales represents the sale of merchandise 
and meals, but retailers also derive a part of their gross income from repairs, service and 
ther non-merchandise sources. 

Table 7A (page A-25) presents an analysis of sales by kinds of business to show mer- 
chandise sales, the sale of meals, income from repair and service and other income. Table 
7B (page A-26) shows the same data by States. A summary follows: 



Total sales by retailers in 1923, |$25, 037, 225, 000 

Merchandise sales j 22,867,406,000 

Sale of meals j 1,514,424,000 

Repair and service \ 567,767,000 

Other sources of income I 87,628,000 



Who les ale Sales 

In addition to an analysis of sales. Table 7A and 7B show the amount of sales by re- 
tailers to other retailers, aggregateing $461,659,000 in 1933. Most of this amount may be re- 
garded as "wholesale" business, in the sense that it is for resale and appears again in 
other retailers' sales. 

Offsetting this is an item of sales by wholesalers to ultimate consumers. Table 8A 
(page A-27) presents a summary of wholesalers' sales to ultimate consumers by kinds of 
business as classified by the Wholesale Census, and Table SB by States, amounting in aggre- 
gate to $585,945,000. 

Ser vic e Sales 

Retailers' receipts from repairs and service, aggregating $567,767,000 in 1933, are 
offset to some extent by the sale of merchandise and meals by service establishments, 
places of amusement and hotels. Table 9A (page A-28) presents an analysis taken from the 
Service Census showing the nature of the receipts of all service establishments, places of 
amusement and hotels reported in the Service Census of 1933, by kinds of business; Table 
98 (page A-29) shows similar information by States. 

94 



-56- 



Section 10. - Comparison : 1935 ami 1929 



Although comparisons with 1929 have been used frequently in preceding Sections to weigh 
the significance of 1933 data, a clearer understanding of what has happened to retail dis- 
tribution in the four years of severe depression is of sufficient importance to require a 
separate Section. 

Total sales declined 49 percent between 1929 and 1933. During the latter months of 
1929 most kinds of retail business suffered no material losses in sales volume, so the year 
was reasonably consistent throughout. Available indexes of yearly sales are limited, but 
they indicate that sales in 1929 were the highest of any previous year. This conclusion is 
based upon Federal Reserve Reports, published sales figures of representative chains and 
independent stores and studies conducted annually by several universities and by national 
trade associations. Sales were not greatly affected except in a few luxury lines, by the 
stock market crash in 1929 until about the middle of 1930. The year, 1933, on the other hand, 
is a composite of two entirely dissimilar situations. The first quarter of the year was a 
continuation of the downward spiral in sales, prices, margins and profits, that started early 
in 1930 in the retail field. The second quarter of 1933 saw a revival of hope, a marked in- 
crease in the number of new enterprises, the start of a general price increase, and some im- 
provement in sales. 

The third quarter of 1933 was characterized by a considerable amount of speculative 
buying both by retailers and consumers, in anticipation of higher prices actuated by proces- 
sing taxes and higher wage rates as a result of the program for industrial and agricultural 
recovery. This quarter marked the beginning of substantial increases month by month in re- 
tail sales, which continued throughout the remainder of 1933 and the subsequent year. 

In view of these facts it is impossible to regard 1933 as a whole as measuring the 
bottom of the depression. Apparently that point was reached in one of the early months of 
1933. Employment, the only item of importance collected on a monthly basis, suggests that 
the low point was reached in February or March. It is impossible to measure the sales of 
the first quarter of 1933 and no official data are available on sales for 1932, but all es- 
timates place sales volume in 1932 at a figure higher than in 1933. 

Despite the fact that conditions were far from uniform throughout 1933, as described 
above, the year may be regarded as marking the low point of sales volume since 1929. It is 
well established by Federal Reserve figures and estimates by the Bureau of Foreign and Domes- 
tic Commerce based upon representative samples, that sales in 1934 exceeded those for 1933 
by about 12 percent. 

Below is a summary comparison of stores, sales, e.iiployment, and payrolls for 1933 and 
1929 showing the percent of change for the United States as a whole: 

94 



-57- 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION, 1933 and 1929 (United States) 



1 


1933 1 


1929 1 


% of Chane;e 


Number of stores 


1,526,119 
$25,037,225,000 

1 
2,703,325 
730,327 

1,574,341 
$2,910,445,000 


1,543,158 1 
$49,114,653,000 ' 

3,833,581 
569,3591/ 

1,510,607 
$5,189,670,000 


- 1.1 


Total sales -.... 


-49.0 


. .:- .. . . 1 

Number of full-time employees 

Number of part-time employees 

Number of proprietors (actively engaged in 
their stores but not on payrolls) 


-29.5 

+28.3 

+4.2 


Total 


-43.9 


1 

Full-time 


2,664,447,000 
245,998,000 

1 $986 


5,028.282,000 
161,388,000 

1 $1,312 


-47.0 


Part-time 


+52.4 


Average annual earnings per full-time em- 
ployee 


-24.9 



1/ The number of part-tiie employees in 1929 as published for that year were computed 
on the basis of mean average, not strictly comparable with the monthly average used for 1933. 
The figures herein have been adjusted. 

Table A, for the United States, pretentr a ccirparison between 1933 and 1929 of stores, 
sales, employment, payroll and stocks by 39 principal kinds of business, and a second sec- 
tion cf Table A presents the same information by States. 

Tables similar tc Table A are included for each State. 



94 



-58- 
Sectlon 11 , - New and Old Stores in 1955 



At the close of 1955, there were in the United States 1,526,119 retail stores, which 
reported a volume of business during the year of $25,057,225,000. Of these 548,255 or 55.9 
percent had come into existence since 1929, the year for which the first Retail Census was 
taken. These 548,255 new stores reported a volume of business of $5,094,502,000 or 20.4 
percent of all retail sales during 1955. They were conducted by 582,802 proprietors and fur- 
ther provided 6,667,248 man-months of full-time employment for which $554,192,000 was paid 
in salaries and wages, exclusive of any return or compensation for the services of proprie- 
tors. 

The classification of "new" stores is based on a negative answer to the question carried 
on the 1955 schedule whether the store was in operation in 1929. In tne nature of the case 
a new store may therefore mean change in o'.vnership or in location as well as those estab- 
lished since 1929. Nor does the number of nev.' stores necessarily indicate a new addition 
to the stores in operation in 1929, for a certain proportion of the latter had disappeared 
by the time the 1955 census was taken. Disa^spearances of retail stores, which can be de- 
duced from the Census figures by comparing the number of "old" stores reported for 1955 
with the total number reported for 1929, are analyzed in volume IV of the series of final 
retail reports. 

Tables 6A, 6B and 6C present an analysis of retail data for stores classified by date 
of establishment into three groups: Those established prior to or in 1929, those organized 
in 1950-52 and those which came into existence in 1955. The latter group is further classi- 
fied by the four quarters of 1955. Table 6A contains information on the number of stores 
and sales by kinds of business. Table 6B sets forth the same information by States and geo- 
graphic divisions. Table GC presents additional items on number of proprietors, number of 
full-time employees, the amount of payroll, and the amount of reported expenses (including 
payroll but excluding proprietors' compensation) by States and geographic divisions. 

New Stores by Date of Establishmen t 

More than 552,000, or 64.2 percent of the 548,255 stores which came into existence 
Since 1929, were established in the three-year period prior to 1955; this represents an an^ 
nual average for that period of 117,540 as against 196,252 new stores in the year 1955. The 
average number of stores which began operations was 28,535 per quarter during the period 
from January 1, 1930 to March 31, 1953, inclusive, while for the last 9 months of 1955 the 
average of new stores rose to 59,100 per quarter, more than twice the previous average. 
Obviously, the figures for the period preceding April, 1S33, are somewhat understated, since 
a number of new stores wuicu began operations during that time were probably no longer in 
existence when the 1S33 Census was taken. Nevertheless, the comparison is indicative of 
the renewal of courage which marked the second quarter and preceded a sharp rise in retail 
sales during and subsequent to the third quarter of 1955. 

New Stores and Their Sales by Kinds of Business 

The new stores accounted on the a-.erage for nearly 36 percent of the total number of 
stores in 1933 and for somewhat over 20 percent of retail sales in that year. It is un- 
safe, however, to generalize from averages of this type. An analysis by major kind-of-busi- 
ness groups discloses an unusual amount of variation in the relative importance of new stjres 

94 



-59- 

and their sales. As the following summary shows the percent of new stores was in some kinds 
of business as high as 58 and in others are low as 16, while the proportion of sales varied 
from a minimum of 9 percent to a maximum of 39 percent. 

Percent of Stores , and Sales in Old and New Stores 



1 Stores by Date of Establ ishm ent 



MsiSr Kind-of-Business Groups. 

Food 

Restaurant 

General Merchandise 

Apparel 

Automotive 

Furniture-household 

Lumber-hardware 

Farm 



Total 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



In 1929 I 

1 or 
before | 
65.2 
42.0 
75.6 
65.9 
56.9 
74.6 
83.8 
83.6 



1930-32 


1933 


24.1 


10.7 


26.7 


31.3 


17.1 


7.3 


22.9 


11.2 


29.2 


13.9 


17.9 


7.5 


12.2 


4.0 


12,3 


4.1 



Sales in Stores Established 



Total 




1933 

3.2 
16.0 
1.6 
4.7 
4.7 
2.9 
1.5 
1.7 



A comparison of the percentages for sales with those for stores indicates clearly 
that the new stores are smaller in terms of sales volume than those which were in existence 
as early as 1929. This holds not only for stores which were established in 1933, and were 
not therefore operating during the entire census year, but also for stores which began oper- 
ations sometime in 1930-32. The sales percentages for the 1930-32 column are consistently 
lower than the corresponding store percentages. The analysis by kinds of business tends 
therefore to confirm the conclusion that can be drawn from the foJ lowing figures on average 
sales per store; for stores in operation in 1929 and in 1933 - $20,394, for stores estab- 
lished in 1930-32 - $11,787, for stores which came into existence in 1933 - $4,816. 

Proprietors an d Full-time Emplo yees 

Evidence to the effect that the new stores are on the average smaller than those which 
survived since 1929 is also to be found in data on proprietors and full-time employees. In 
section 7 of this chapter an analysis was made indicating that the number of proprietors per 
store is considerably greater for the small stores than for the large units. It is interest- 
ing therefore to observe that the number of proprietors per store is on the average 1 . 01 for 
stores which survived since 1929, 1.03 for stores established in 1930-32, and 1.13 for stores 
which came into existence in 1933. The number of full-time employees per store for the same 
classes is 2.20, 1.27 and 0.56, respectively. 

Reported E xpens e and P ayroll 



Reported expense includes the payroll and other operating expenses: it does not allow, 
however, for the compensation of the proprietor. The figure as it stands can scarcely be 
used for comparison purposes between old and new stores, because of the unequal importance 
of proprietors' services; it is also uncertain whether the expense reported for stores estab- 
lished in 1933 is based on a proper accounting of deferred charges and expenses incurred but 
not paid. It is of interest nevertheless that the rate of reported expenses (less pay- 
roll) to sales is 26.3 percent for stores established in 1929 or prior years, 24.2 percent 
for stores organized in 1930-32 and 26.5 percent for stores which came into existence in 
1933. The relatively higher expense rate for the stores established in 1933 undoubtedly 
reflects the inclusion of organization expenses in the reported expense figure as well as 
the comparatively low level of sale$ in the initial period of the stores' existence. 



-60- 



CHAPTER II - DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS 

This chapter is in two parts.. The first part contains a description of tho \/arious 
kind-of-business claesifications used in the 1933 Census. Since comparability with the re- 
sults of the 1929 Retail Census was sought, the descriptions follow for the most part those 
developed in dealing with kind-of-business data for 1929 and presented in Distribution, 
Volume I, Part I, Chapter II, The second part is given to general description of terms used 
in the Retail Census, such as stores, sales, eirployees, and the like. 

KINDS OF B USINESS 

In 1929 kind-of-business classifications comprised 167 groups. In 1933 they were com- 
bined into 50 groups and two new groups were added to take care of beer and liquor stores and 
drinking places. Reduction in the number of groups was motivated, apart from considerations 
of cost, by the absence of information requisite for detailed classification. The schedule 
for 1933 did not call for a breakdown of sales by commodities so that the classification of 
a particular store into this or that kind of business group was based entirely on the re- 
sponse to inquiry 2 - the usual name or designation of the store -and the list of principal 
lines of goods sold or handled, arranged in the order of their sales importance. Even with 
the broader groups used in 1933 there is no assurance that in every instance the classifi- 
cation of a store was identical with that followed in 1929. 

Food Group 

Candy an d confectionery stores. In tMs combined classification are two distinct 

kinds cf ?tores. The first is the candy store or candy and nut store, confining its business 
primarily to the sale of bcxed or bulk candies and nuts or to either of the two commodities, 
and the second is the confecticnery store, selling also other types of confections and dis- 
pensing fountain drinks and ice cream. A present trend of confectionery stores is to add 
lunches and prepared food£, after the manner of the delicatessen store. 

Dairy produc ts-sto res ( including milk dealersX Under this classification are three re- 
lated kinds of business; first, the dairy products stores; second, egg and poultry stores; 
and, third, milk dealers. Dairy products stores handle dairy products, including irilk, eggs 
and poultry. Egg and poultry stores likewise handle dairy products, although they do not 
usually maintain a complete line. Milk dealers often handle other dairy products, particu- 
larly butter and cheese, and sometimes eggs. 

Del icatessen stores.- — These stores confine their sales principally to cooked meats, 
prepared salads, cheese, and other prepared foods suitable for immediate table use. Often 
they also carry a limited stock of canned and bottled goods, groceries, and frequently beer 
and wine. Neighborhood delicatessen stores frequently carry frosh fruits and vegetable and 
some candies, confections, cakes and other bakery products, as well as milk and other dairy 
products. Often they serve lunches, and sometimes develop a substantial restaurant busi- 
ness. 



94 



Frui t st ores and vegetable marke ts . While these stores and stands are more often 

found in public of municipal markets, many neighborhood stores in large cities confine them- 
selves entirely to the sale of fruits and vegetables. 

Grocery sto res (without meats) This is the store popularly known as a grocery store, _ 

selling a full line of groceries, usually with fresh vegetables and popular fruits in sea- 
son. They may carry smoked meats in limited quantities without changing the classification, 
but not fresh meats. Grocery stores which carry fresh meats are classified as combination 
stores. 

Com b ina t ion sto res (groceries and mea ts) This term covers t/io different kinds of.. 

stores: first is the grocery store which has added fresh meats to its grocery stock; second, 
is the meat market which has added staple groceries. Both usually carry fruits and vege-. 
tables and bakery products and many are complete food markets. In some States they have be- 
come large distributors of cigarettes. 

Meat ma rke ts ( including sea foods) . Markets selling principally fresh and smoked 

meats and usually fish. Fish markets are included in this dual classification. In inla.nd 
cities and towns, fish markets are rare, but in the sea-board cities there are a number of . 
strictly fish and sea-food markets. 

Bake ries-cat erers . Bakery goods stores included herein do not ordinarily produce the 

goods which they sell. In many instances the small bakeries which bake their own products 
but sell only at retail to neighborhood consumers are included. The larger producing baker- 
ies are included in the Census of Manufactures. Caterers, also included herein, arrange, 
special menus for luncheons and dinners to be served elsewhere, prepare and serve the foods. 
This is a specialized business in which service plays an important part. 

Ot her food sto res . This classification includes stores and house-to-house distri- 
butors selling coffee, tea and spices; stores handling products of the farm which do not 
come within the classification of dairy products and fruit and vegetable stores; stores 
handling special health foods; and retailers engaged predominantly in the sale of bottled 
non-alcoholic beverages, including table or mineral water. 

Bottled bee r and liquor sto res . These stores specialize in the sale of bottled beer, 

ale and wine, and/or in the sale of liquors defined in most States as alcoholic or intoxi- 
cating beverages. The former (beer, ale, wine) came into legal existence on or after April 
7, 1933 and the latter (liquor stores) after December 5, 1933. In most States they play 
little or no part in the 1933 sales volume. Bottled beer, wine and liquor is sold in quan- 
tity in other kinds of stores, including food stores, department stores, cigar and drug 
stores. 

Farme rs ' Supplies a nd Country General St ores 



Country g ene ral stores. These stores, nearly always located in places of less thap 

10,000 population, corresponding roughly to the classification knovvn as general merchandise 
stores in the larger cities. They handle foods which constitute an important part of their, 
sales, and a general line of other merchandise, including dry goods, notions, clothing, and 
a limited line of shoes. 

94 



-62-- 



Farmers ' supp ly stores . Under this heading are included feed stores, coal-and-foed 

stores, grain elevators selling at retail, stores specializing in seeds and nursery stock. 
fertilizer stores dealing principally in fertilizer, harness shops and cooperages. Dealers 
•n irrigation and drainage equipment and ranchers' supplies are included here, but dealers 
in farm implements are covered in the group "hardware and farm implement stores." 

General Me rchandise Group 

Departm ent stores. are departmentized general merchandise stores, usually of the full 

service type, carrying men's, women's, and children's apparel, furnishings and accessories, 
dry goods, home furnishings, and many other lines. Shoes, furniture and hardware are often 
but not necessarily represented, although homa furnishings, draperies, curtains, and linens 
are almost invariably carried. Some department stores also have food departments. For pur- 
poses of this Census, any departmentized stores having annual sales of less than $100,000 
have been classified as general merchandise stores. 

This group includes also mail-order houses selling general merchandise by mail. They 
carry about the same range of merchandise as do the department stores, and in addition sell 
farm implements and farmers' supplies, hardware, automotive equipment, and many other lines. 
Goods are delivered by mail, freight, or express, often at the cost of the purchasers, par- 
ticularly in the case of bulky merchandise. These houses sell largely for cash, but extend 
some credit in the form of installment accounts. Data on mail-order houses as distinct from 
department stores may be found in Volume VI of the final series of retail reports. Depart- 
ment stores owned by the mail-order companies are classified as department stores and not 
as mail-order houses. 

Dry goods sto res . Dry goods stores sell women's ready-to-wear and accessories: a 

general line of dry goods, such as linens, piece goods, house furnishings, notions, etc., 
and some home wares. 

General merc han dise s tores . The general merchandise classification includes, for the 

purpose of this Census, departmentized general stores having annual sales of less than 
$100,000, as well as non-departmentized stores with annual volume of over $100,000 selling 
similar lines of merchandise. In general merchandise stores, dry goods, household furnish- 
ings and appliances, and men's, women's, and children's apparel, furnishings, and acces- 
sories predominate. Army and Navy goods stores, also included herein, sell much the same 
variety of merchandise although in a lower price range. Clothing, shoes, camp equipment, 
blankets, and bedding predominate, and a limited stock of hardware is often carried. This 
group includes also women's exchanges, which carry a general line of merchandise, especially 
home prepared foods and handicraft. 

Varie ty , 5 -and-lO an d to-a-do llar s tores . These stores carry a variety of small wares. 

especially the cheaper grades of women's accessories, light hardware, toys, housewares, etc. 
Sales are usually for cash, without delivery sorvice. The 5-and-lO and to-a-dollar stores 
are usually operated by chains of sectional ar.d national scopo and have become large dis- 
tributors of candy, hardware, notions, tablewars, costume jewelry, cosmstics, and toys. In 
many variety stores, fountain sales, ico cream, and lunches constitute appreciable sales 
items. 

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A ppa rel Group 

M§SJ.§ sto res . Under this heading are included men's and boy's clothing stores, haber- 
dashery stores, confining their sales to men's furnishings and accessories, men's clothing 
and furnishing stores, and hat stores. Men's stores may sell shoes. 

F amil y clot hing s tore s. These stores carry clothing, furnishings, and accessories for 

men, women, and children, usually including shoes. Characteristic of many family clothing 
stores is their use of installment credit as a sales inducement. 

Women's rea dy-to-wear specialty stores . Women's apparel and accessories, usually in- 
cluding millinery, shoes, lingerie, hosiery, and small wares are sold in these stores. 
Frequently gloves, handbags and other leather goods are carried and toiletries and other 
lines related to women's apparel. This classification frequently includes large stores of 
sales importance equal to department stores but limited to women's wear, accessories, and 
dry goods. 

F urriers-fur s hops. These shops usually sell ready-made fur coats, fur scarfs and fur 

trimmed cloth coats, but some shops also do cu.=!tom work. Repairs and storage constitute a 
substantial source of income. However, when receipts from these sources amount to two- 
thirds of the total the store is classified as a service establishment, and does not appear 
in the Retail Census. 

Miiiissry stores,^ These atores sell ready-made and custom millinery and trimmings. 

They are frequently operated as leased departments in women's apparel and department stores. 

Custom tailors . — -These shops sell made-to-order clothing, men's or women's. Repairs 
constitute an item of income, but if receipts from repairs exceed those from custom tailor- 
ing, the shop is classified with cleaning, dyeing and pressing shops, which are shown in the 
Service Census. 

Acc essories a nd other app a rel sto res. Under this heading are included blouse shops, 

corset and lingerie shops, hosiery shops, knit-goods shops, costume accessories stores (sel- 
ling bags, jewelry, and gloves), umbrella shops (selling umbrellas, parasols, and canes), 
children's specialty shops (clothing and accessories), infants' wear shops (infants' wear 
and specialties), and mail-order apparel, stores selling men's and women's apparel, furnish- 
ings and accessories by mail from catalog. 

Shoe stores . This classification is divided into three kinds of stores; it includes 

stores selling men's shoes only or women's shoes only, as well as stores selling men ' s, wo- 
men's and children's shoes. Men's shoe stores usually sell also hose and often gloves, 
and women's shoe stores are rapidly developing the sale of hosiery, bags, gloves, and under- 
wear. 

Automotive Group 

Motor-vehicle dealers ( nev; an d used) . This group includes retail dealers in new and 

used cars and trucks. Dealers specializing in new automobiles and commercial vehicles usually 
carry stocks of replaisement parts and accessories and maintain repair departments to take 
care of free new-car service, as well as subsequent repairs from which income is derived. 
Limited quantities of tires and batteries are carried, the sale of which is included. Large 
establishments often add to their income by utilizing unused floor space for storage. These 

94 



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sources of additional business are negligible in their effect upon the total sales volume 
in this classification, which is predominantly the sale of new motor vehicles. Used-car 
dealers handle a variety of automobile makes but they carry as a rule, no stock of parts. 
Frequently a limited stock of new tires, tubes, and batteries is carried. A repair depart- 
ment is usually maintained to place the used cars in salable condition, and to service and 
repair the cars after sale. The income derived from repairs has little effect upon total 
receipts, which accrue chiefly from the sale of used cars. 

Acce ssories s tores . t ire and bat tery shops . This classification includes stores hand- 
ling all kinds of automobile accessories, tires and batteries with or without a service de- 
partment. It includes also tire shops selling new and used tires and tubes and maintaining 
vulcanizing facilities for tire repairs. When receipts from service exceed two-thirds of 
the total the shops are classified as service establishments and not as retail stores. 

Fill ing stations . This group includes filling stations and a few retail distributors 

of fuel oil. All filling stations sell gasoline and oil and usually maintain lubricating 
facilities; some of them sell also tires and provide emergency tire-repair service. While 
others sell in addition, other merchandise, such as lunches and refreshments, candy, tobac- 
co, or groceries. This classification also includes superservice stations, combining in one 
establishment a number of services to motorist, often sponsored or owned by a tire company 
or a large oil company. When the proceeds from repairs exceed two-thirds of total receipts 
these places of business are regarded as service establishments. 

Moto rc ycle s -bicycle dealers . This group includes shops selling motorcycles, new and 

used, and incidental parts and accessories; shops selling motorcycles and bicycles, their 
parts, accessories and supplies, and doing a considerable volume of repair business; and 
bicycle shops, handling bicycles, parts and accessories and bicycle repairs. If income from 
repairs exceed two-thirds of retail receipts, the shop is regarded as a service business. 

Garages a nd rep air s hops . . Despite the similarity in name to the classification in 

the 1929 Census, this group in 1933 was defined to include only one of the four sub-groups 
listed under this heading in 1929, namely repair garages. Body, fender and paint shops, 
parking garages and radiator shops appear in 1933 as classifications in the Service Census. 
Repair garages sell gas, oil and accessories in addition to making mechanical repairs and 
body repairs. Receipts from storage sometimes add to the income of garages. Washing and 
lubrication service is frequently provided, but most of the income is from repairs, new 
parts, gasoline and oil. 

Other automotive establishments . Under this heading are included establishments sel- 
ling aircraft and accessories, as well as those selling motor boats, yachts and canoes. 
Both of these kinds of business usually provide repair service. 

F urnitur e- Househo ld G roup 

Furniture stores. — ^The furniture store carries furniture, floor coverings, radios, 
draperies, curtains, household appliances and other home furnishings. A large proportion 
of the sales of these stores is on the installment plan. In the smaller cities furniture 
stores often carry hardware. In some cases they are combined with undertaking establish- 
ments. 

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Floor cove rinKs , draperies, and u pholstery s tores . Two kinds of stores are included; 

floor coverings stores, and drapery stores which also carry curtains and upholstery materi- 
als. Part of the income of drapery stores is often for service, usually upholstery service 
and the making of curtains and draperies. 

Hous ehold appliance stores. This group includes stores selling electrical and/or 

gas household appliances, electrical and gas refrigerators and stoves and ranges. Nearly 
one-half of the stores in this classification are operated by public utility companies 
selling appliances and accessories adaptable to their particular utility, while the inde- 
pendently operated appliance stores frequently confine their sales to a limited number of 
Nationally advertised lines of appliances. The larger appliances are usually sold on the 
installment plan. A large volume of appliance sales by hardware and department stores is 
not included, of course, under this heading. 

Other home furnishings and appliance stores .—Under this heading are stores selling 
antique furniture with used furniture, retailers of brushes and brooms, stores selling pic- 
tures and frames, aluminum ware retailers (usually house-to-house selling organizations), 
china, glassware, crockery, tinware and enamelware stores, interior decorators, lamp and 
shade shops and shops selling awnings, banners, flags, window shades and tents. Included 
also are antique shops which sell authentic antique furniture and objects of art at retail. 

Radio sto res . This classification covers radio and electrical shops frequently selling 

also related lines of merchandise, usually providing repair service and sometimes the ser- 
vicing of other types of electrical appliances; included also are radio-and-music stores 
selling radios, various musical instruments, sheet music and music rolls, and service. When 
receipts from the sale of service exceed two-thirds of total receipts, the store is classi- 
fied as a service establishment and not a retail store. 

Lumber. Building and Hardware Group 

Lumber and b uilding material dealers. 'Jnder this heading are grouped yards selling 

lumber and other building materials, lumber yards also carrying builders' hardware and re- 
tail dealers specializing in one line of materials such as roofing, asbestos products, brick 
and tile, building stone, cement, class, granite and marble, lime and plaster, nonmetallic 
roofing materials, sand, gravel and crushed stone. 

It is emphasized that because of the number of dealers who combine retail and wholesale 
it is essential to consider also the Wholesale Census in any study of the building material 
Held. 

E lectrical shops (witho ut radio ) . These shops sell lighting fixtures, incandescent 

lamps, heating and cooking appliances, cable, outlets and boxes. They also do some installa- 
tion jobs and make electrical repairs; when receipts from repairs exceed two-thirds of total 
sales such shops are classified as service establishments. 

Heating and Elumhing shoEs^ — Under this beading are stores selling heating appliances, 
plumbing, heating, and ventilating supplies, including fixtures, and dealers in oil burners 
and air-conditioning equipment. The two latter groups are increasing in importance in this 
field. Changes for installation and minor repairs are a source of income; service receipts, 

94 



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however, cannot exceed two-thirds of the total for in such cases the establishment is re- 
garded as a repair shop and transferred to a classification in the Service Census. 

Pa int and glass stor es . This classification covers glass and mirror shops as well as 

paint and glass stores. The former sell framed mirrors in addition to glass of all descrip- 
tions, and resilver old mirrors, while in the latter in addition to paints, varnishe'^, and 
lacquers and glass, wall paper is sold in considerable quantities. 

Hardware s tore s. This classification is confined to stores carrying a line of hard- 
ware and tools for general use, builders' hardware and electrical goods, as well as paints 
and painters' supplies. The modern hardware store is developing a greater and greater 
diversification of merchandise and is adding many related lines, such as radios, electric 
refrigerators and gas appliances. 

Hardware and farm imglemejit dealers. This classification includes retail dealers 

selling farm implemsnts and hardware, those selling farm implements and hay, grain, and 
feed, those selling farm impiements only, and dealers in carriages and wagons. 

Rest aurant and E atin p Group 

Restaurants^ cafet3r ias an d l unc h rooms . Includes restaurants having full table ser- 
vice, cafeterias or selT-serve restaurants, and lunch rooms having limited table service ia 
addition to counter service. Automats are classified as cafeterias. 

Lufich counters and refreshment stands... This group includes box lunch companies, their 

product consisting of a lunch of sandwiches, fruit and dessert, sold ordinarily by street 
vendors or on regular delivery routes; refreshment stands, frequently found on the principal 
highways and adjacent to factories and office buildings; fountain-lunches, often operating 
in the downtown sections or in the vicinity of factories and office buildings; lunch counters 
with variations such as the street "diner", the hole-in-the-wall eating place, and the modern 
sandwich shop; and soft-drink stands. 

Drinking places . This group, added in the 1933 Census, includes retail establish- 

m3nts whose principal business is the sale, for consumption on the premises, of beer, ale and 
wine and/or liquors defined in most States as alcoholic and intoxicating beverages, and which 
derive no appreciable revenue from the sale of meals. Drinking places are variously known 
as bars, beer-gardens, taverns, cafes, and otherwise. Many places selling drinks, probably 
greatly exceeding in number and sales those classified as drinking places, are incl-.ded in 
the restaurant classifications. In the absence of commodity data it is impossible to dis- 
tinguish between those restaurants and lunch counters which sell such beverages with meals 
and those which do not, nor to determine the total sales of meals separately. 

Othe r Re tail S tores 

C iga r stores and cigar stands . This group includes cigar stores with fountain (and 

lunch), cigar stores without fountain, and cigar stands in pool rooms, in bowling alleys, in 
railway stations, and in other public places. Cigar stores often sell books and magazines 
and novelty merchandise, packaged candies, cosmetics, and proprietary drug preparations, while 
cigar stands frequently sell soft drinks. 

94 



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-Qoal and wood yar ds — ic e dealers . This classification includes coal and wood yards 

and ice dealers. In a large number of States, many of the coal and wood yards sell sub- 
stantial quantities of ice during the summer months, and ice Healers frequently sell coal, 
wood, and sometimes fuel oil during the winter months. Many coal and wood dealers are sel- 
ling increasing quantities of fuel oil, and some are selling and installing oil-burning 
equipment. 

Drug s tore s . This group includes drug stores with fountains and those without, also 

known as professional drug stores. Drug stores usually sell, in addition to drugs and pre- 
scriptions, n, considerable variety of toiletries, cosmetics, patent medicines, magazines, 
tobacco and novelty merchandise, and those with fountains frequently sell fountain lunches. 

Florists. This classification is confined to flower shops and does not include stores 

predominantly engaged in selling seeds, bulbs and nursery stock. The florist shop sells 
cut flowers and growing plants, with occasional sales of other merchandise. 

iZswelr^ stores^ This group includes stores selling .jewelry as well as an increasing 

volume of related merchandise. Income is also derived from repair service and sometimes from 
optical departments. ' ' 

News dealers . These stores and stands sell newspapers, current magazines, tobacco, 

souvenirs and novelty merchandise, including toys. In many instances news dealers sell books 
and stationery, and often operate circulating libraries. 

Office anc] store su pply an d equipment de ale rs. This classification includes stores 

selling office and school supplies, office and store mechanical appliances, office and store 
furniture and equipment, store fixtures, and typewriters. Many manufacturers in these 
fields maintain their own direct selling offices or branches and operate service departments 
from which a part of the reported total income is derived. 

Miscellaneous class ific ation . combined . Under this heading are included various kinds 

of business not elsewhere classified. The more important classes of these stores are: 
book stores, gift shops with novelties, toys and cameras, luggage and leather goods stores, 
monument and tombstone v/orks, (cutting stone or marble to individual specifications), musi- 
cal instruments and music stores (without radios), opticians and optometrists, sporting 
goods stores, scientific and medical supply and equipment dealers (at retail), and stationers 
and custom printers. 

Second -hand stores . Under this general heading is included a variety of second-hand 

stores. The more important of them are dealers in tires, accessories, and auto parts; furni- 
ture stores; pawn shops (sales only); clothing and shoe dealers, building materials and hard- 
ware, farm implements, books, office appliances; and stores selling used radios, phonographs 
and musical instruments. 

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-6S- 

DES CRIPTION OF TERMS 

Re tail s tore 

For the purposes of this census a retail store is a place of business one half (in some 
cases one-third) or more of whose receipts are derived from the sale of merchandise at re- 
tail, that is, sales in fairly small quantities to the consumer. The place of business may 
be in the form of a store or a filling station, restaurant, garage, mail-order house or dis- 
trict office of a crew of house-to-house salesmen; it may be the retail department of j. utili- 
ty company or a leased department in a store of another kind. It is characteristic of a 
retail store that the pl:.3e of '.y:.si:.zss is open to the general public. T'. e ■^-j:z'..:.:.lLse it 
sells may be ready for immediate consumption, or it may need (urther processing. 

S ales 

This term Sales means total receipts of I'etail stores, consisting of cash or its equiva- 
ler.t - whether commodities or evidences of indebtedness including accounts receivable on the 
books of the store - acce,jted in exchange for merchandise, repairs or other service, spac3 or 
concession lease, and the like. Refunds or allowances on returned merchandise are deducted. 
Receipts of retail stores are not identical v.'ith merchandise sales at retail. Usually most 
of such receipts represent retail mercliandise sales. On the other hand manufacturing, min- 
ing, v/holesale and service establishments, farmers, fishermen, hunters and trappers, itiner- 
ant vendors and others who maintain no established places of business sell some merchandise 
at retail. Similarly the receipts of any kind of business group must not be confused with 
sales at retail of a particular commodity by which the group is identified; to ta;:o an ob- 
vious instance, the sales of candy and confc-c tionery stores are not a measure of Lhs sales 
at retail of candy and confectionery. 

P roprietors 

The enumerators were instructed to include as proprietors all owners of unincorporated 
establishments and adult members of their families who were actively employed in, and de- 
voting the major part of their time to, the business. Inactive proprietors or partners were 
not included. Inquiry concerning proprietors did not relate to incorporated establishEt:its. 
Salaried officers of incorporated companies were considered full-time employees and not pro- 
prietors. 

Full-time E mployees 

Employees working a full day each day the establishment is open for business, even if 
this represents less than a full working Vieek or month, are reported full-time o::ployees. 
This principle is followed with referenca to each payroll period for which information was 
obtained. Therefore, persons employed on a full-time basis for only part of the year are re- 
garded as full-time employees for that part of the year. Employees v/orking on a full-time 
basis in seasonal establishments are also treated as full-time employees. 

94 



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- ' ^ Part-time Employees 

Persons employed only a few hours or days of the normal work-week or other payroll peri- 
od are considered part-time employees. 

Sex of Employees 

A distribution by sex of the combined number of full-time and part-time employees on 
December 30,' 1933,- or nearest representative day, was required of each establishment. The 
ratio resulting from this inquiry was used as a basis for computing the sex distribution of 
the average number of employees. 

I ; I ; Payroll 

Total payroll represents the salaries, wages, commissions and bonuses paid part-time 
and full-tiir.e employees and salaried officers during the year. It does not include compensa- 
tion of proprietors except the fixed salary of active partners if such salary is paid'in' 
addition to the partners' participation in profits. Such salaried partners, found predomi- 
nantly in large businesses, are comparable to salaried executives of a corporation and are 
counted as employees rather than proprietors. 

- — -— ; — ; — ......_....,- — -~ -• Reported Expenses 

Reported expenses include payroll and other operating expenses such as rent, interest 
on current debt, traveling expenses, advertising, taxes, insurance, light, heat, power and 
all other overhead costs. The other expenses exclude, of course, the cost of merchandise 
and the interest on the investment or long time indebtedness. It Is pro-able that -in many 
of the smaller retail organizations the expenses were reported on a cash rather than ac- 
crued basis. Central-office expense of chains not prorated to retail units are not included 
in reported expenses in any tables except the Chain Store Summary in Section 6. 

94 



~OXv-wSc 



->3 



-70- 

CHAPTER III - CLASSIFICATION S COMPARED 
1933 and 1929 



The 1929 Retail Census in its major tables used 167 kind-of-business groups, which were 
consolidated in the 1933 Census into 52 groups. 

The 52 groups were further consolidated in some tables in 1933 into 11 groups. 

Types of operation were shown in the 1929 Census in 23 classification, which were con- 
solidated in the 1933 Census into 7 groups. 

Following is a comparison of the classifications in 1933 and correspondinj clssifi- 
cation in 1929. Numerals following the groups and two kind-of-business classifications 
(filling stations and drug stores) indicate the 11 consolidated groups used in certain 1933 
table : 

KINDS OF BUSINESS 



19 53 Classification 

FOOD GROUP (1) 

Candy and confectionery stores 

Dairy products-milk dealers 

Delicatessen stores 

Fruit stores - vegetable markets 
Grocery stores (without meat) 
Combination stores (grocery and meat) 



Meat-seafood markets 
Bakeries-caterers 

Beer-liquor stores .. 
Other food stores 



Corresponding Classification in 1929 



Candy and confectionery stores: 

Candy stores-nut stores 

Confectionery stores (candy and fountain) 
Dairy products stores: 

Dairy products stores (including ice cream) 

Egg and poultry dealers 
Milk dealers 
Delicatessen stores 
Fruit stores and vegetable markets 
Grocery stores (without meats) 
Combination stores (groceries and meats): 

Grocery stores with meats 

Meat markets with groceries 
Meat E-arkets (including sea foods): 

Fish markets-sea foods 

Meat markets 
Bakeries-caterers : 

Bakeries-bakery goods stores (except manu- 
facturing bakeries) 

Caterers 
(None) 
Other food stores: 

Coffee, tea, spice dealers 

Farm products stores 

General food stores (miscellaneous) 
Bottled waters and beverage dealers 



Section 10 
94 



-71- 



KINDS OF BUSINESS (Continued) 



1355 Classification 



FARMERS-COU NTRY STORES - 
Country general stores 



Farmers' supply stores. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE GROUP - (4) 
Department stores 



Dry goods stores 

(includes paper patterns) 

General merchandise stores 

(includes institutional stores- 
also auction houses selling 
general merchandise) 

Variety stores 
APPAREL GROUP - (5) 
Men's stores 



I Correspondin g Cla ssificatio n in 1929 



Family clothing stores 

Women's specialty shops 

Furriers — fur shops 

Millinery stores 

Custom tailors 



General stores — groceries with apparel 
General stores — groceries with dry goods 
General stores — groceries with general 

merchandise 
Farmers' supplies: 

Feed stores (flour, feed, grain, fertilizer) 

Fertilizer dealers 

Harness shops 

Irrigation and drainage equipment and sup- 
plies (retail) 

Farmers' supply stores 

Seed stores, bulbs, and nursery stock 

Cooperages (barrels, boxes, crates, casks) 
Coal and feed stores 
Grain elevators (sales at retail) 

Feed stores with groceries 

Department stores: 

With food departments 

Without food departments 

Mail-order houses-general merchandise 
Dry goods stores: 
Dry goods stores 
Piece goods stores 
General merchandise stores: 

With food departments 

Without food departments 

Army and Navy goods stores 

Women's exchanges and handiwork shops 
Variety, 5-and-lO , and to-a-dollar stores 

Men's and boys' clothing and furnishings 

stores: 

Men's and boys' clothing stores 

Men's and boys' hat stores 

Men's furnishings stores 

Men's clothing and furnishings stores 
Family clothing stores (men's, women's, and 

children's) 
Women's ready-to-wear specialty stores 

(apparel and accessories) 
Furriers — fur shops 
Millinery stores (including leased millinery 

departments) 
Custom tailors 



94 



-72- 



KINDS OF BUSINESS (Continued 



1933 classificatio n 



APPAREL G ROUP - (5) - continued: 
Other accessory stores 



Shoe stores. 



AU TOMOTIVE G ROUP - (6) 

Motor-vehicle dealers 

(new and used) 

Accessories, tire, battery dealers 

Filling stations - (7) 

(includes fuel-oil retailers] 

Motorcycle-bicycle dealers 

Garages 



Other automotive 



I Correspondinr c las s ific a tion in 1929 

Women's accessories stores. 

Blouse shops 

Corset and lingerie shops 

Hosiery shops 

Knit goods shops 

Costume accessories stores (including 
jev.'elry, bags, and gloves) 
Umbrella shops (including parasols, canes) 
Other apparel stores: 

Children's specialty shops 

Dressmakers 

Infants' wear shops 

Mail-order apparel houses 
Shoe stores: 

Shoe stores-men's 

Shoe stores-women's 

Family shoe stores - (men's, women's and 
and children's) 

Motor-vehicle dealers(new and used): 
Automobile salesrooms 
Used-car dealers 

Automobile dealers v/ith farm implements 
and machinery 

Accessories, tires and batteries: 

Accessory stores with tires and batteries 
Battery and ignition shops and brake re- 
pair shops 
Tire shops (including tire repairs) 

Filling stations: 

Filling stations-gasoline and oil 

Filling stations with tires and accessories 

Filling stations with other merchandise 

Motor cycles, bicycles, and supplies: 
Motor-cycle dealers 

Bicycle, motor cycle, and supply stores 
Bicycle shops (including repairs) 

Garages and repair shops: 

Body, fender, and paint shops 

Garages (repairs and storage, gasoline, oil, 

accessories) 
Parking stations, parking garages, and lots 
Radiator shops (including repairs) 

Other automotive establishments: 
Aircraft and accessories 
Boats (motor boats, yachts, canoes) 



94 



-73- 



KINDS OF BUSINESS (Continued) 



T_953 cl assificatio n 

FURNITURE^OySEHgLD_GROyP - (8) 

Furniture stores 

Floor coverings, drapery and upholstery 
stores 

Household appliance stores 



Other homewares stores 



Radio stores. 



LUMBER-BUILDING-HARDWARE GROUP - 9 
Lumber-building material dealers. 



Electrical shops (without radio) 
Heating-plumbing shops 

Paint-glass stores 

Hardware stores 



Co rrespo n ding classification in 1 929 



Furniture stores: 
Furniture stores 
Furniture and undertaker 
Furniture and hardware stores 

Floor coverings, drapery, curtain, and up- 
holstery stores: 

Drapery, curtain, and upholstery stores 
Floor coverings stores 

Household appliance stores: 

Household appliance stores (electric only) 
Household appliance stores (incl. gas) 
Refrigerator dealers (electric only) 
Refiigerator dealers (electric & gas) 
Stove and range dealers 

Other home furnishings and appliance stores: 
Aluminumware 

Antique and used furniture dealers 
Brushes and brooms (largely house-to-house) 
China, glassware, crockery, tinware, enamel- 
ware dealers 
Picture and framing stores 
Antique shops 
Awning, flag, banner, window shade, and tent 
shops 
Interior decorators 
Lamp and shade shops 

Radio and music stores: 

Radio and electrical shops 

Radio and musical instrument stores 

Lumber and building materials: 

Lumber and building material dealers 

Lumber and hardware dealers 

Roofing dealers 

Other retailers of building materials 

(brick, stone, cement, etc.) 
Electrical shops (v/ithout radio) 
Heating and plumbing shops: 

Heating appliance and oil burner dealers 

Plumbing shops (heating and ventilating) 
Paint and glass stores: 

Glass and mirror shops 

Paint and glass stores 
Hardware stores 



94 



I 
J 



-74- 



KINDS OF BUSINESS (Continued) 



1933 Classification 



Hardwai'e and farm implement dealers 



L,UMBSR-BUI.LDING-HARDW ARE,, GROUP - (Continued) 



RESTAURANT GROUP - (2) 
Restaurants-lunch rooms 



Lunch counters-refreshment stands 



Drinking places 

OTHER^RETAIL STORES - (11) 
Cigar stores - cigar stands 



(None ) 



Coal wood-ice dealers 

Drug stores - (10) 

(incl. leased drug departments 
and patent medicine retailers) 

Florists 

Jewelry stores 

News dealers 

Office equipment dealers 



Corresponding; classification in 1929 

Hard.i'are and fari'i implement stores: 

Farm implecent, machinery and equipment 

dealers 
Farm impleent dealers with hay, grain and 

feed 
Hardware and farm implement stores 

Restaurants, cafeterias, and lunch rooms: 

Cafeterias 

Lunch rooms 

Restaurants with table service 
Lunch counters, refreshments stands, etc.: 

Box lunch 

Refreshment stands 

Fountain-lunches 

Lunch counters 

Soft-drink stands 



Cigar stores and cigar stands: 
Cigar stores with fountains 
Cigar stands 

Cigar stores without fountains 
Coal and wood yards-ice dealers: 
Coal and wood yards 
Ice dealers 
Drug stores: 

Drug stores without fountains 
Drug stores with fountains 
Florists 
Jewelry stores: 

Jewelry stores (installment-credit) 
Jewelry stores 
News dealers 

Office, school, and store supply and equip- 
ment dealers: 

Office and school supply dealers 
Office and store mechanical appliance 

dealers (retail) 
Office and store furniture and equipment 

dealers 
Store fixture dealers 
Typewriter dealers 



94 



KIKD3 OF BUSINESS (Continued) 



195 5 Classification 



Other classifications 



SiCOi" -HAI! i SXOi\^i. 



(11)- 



._ 1 Corraoponiin^, c lassific aL ion in 1J29 

. . 1 Book stores : 

1 Book stores, incl. religious booK deal-jrs. 

i Circulating libraries (book salss only) 

I Gifts-novelties and toys-cameras: 

I Toy shops 

I Art ana gift shops 

I Novelty and souvenir shops 

1 Camera dealers— puotographic supplies 

1 Luggage and leather goods stores 

JMusic stores (without radio) 

I Opticians and optometrists 

jSporting goods stores (including athletic 

I and playground equipment): 

I Sporting goods specialty stores 

I Sportine goods stores WiOh tcys and sLa- 

I lionery 

1 Atnletic and playground jquxpmont dealers 

I Scientific and medicax ±nstrumint and supply 

; dealers (retail) 

jstationero and printers; 

i Dealers in accounting and leoal forms and 
biann. booKs 
^•■apar and pap=r produces stores 

j Prxnters and lithographers 

I Stationers and engravers 

1 Monuniint and tombstone worAS 

|Miscellaneous classifications (combined) 
..jTires, accessories and parts (secondhand) 

iFurniLure stores (secondhand) 

I Fawn shops (sales) 

[Clothing and shoe stores (secondhand) 

I Book stores (second hand) 
|3uilding material and hardware dealers (second- 

; Office applianca dealers (second hand) 

JKadios, phonographs, musical instruments 

I (secondhand dealers) 

1 Other secondhand dealers) 



94 



-76- 



TYPES OF OPERATION 



i933_Cl a ss if ica t io n_ 
Independents 



Chains 1/ 



Direct selling (house-to-ohouse) 

Mail-order hou?es (catalog only) 
Commissaries or co.ipany stores 

Utility-operated stores 

All other types 

(Leased departments, cooperatives, 
etc. ) 



1 Corresponding, clis sif icat ion in 1 929 

Single-store independents 

Two-store independents 

Three-store independents 

Local branch systeius (Parent stores and three 

or more smaller branciies merchandised from 

parent stores) 
Local chains 
Sectional Chains 
National chains 
Manufacturer-controlled chains 

Direct selling (house-to-house) 

Mail-order houses (catalog only) 
Industrial stores (including commissaries) 
Utility-operated retail stores 
Road-side markets or stands 
Curbside markets or stands 
Itinerant vendors 
Rolling stores 

Leased departments - independent 
Leased department chains 
Cooperative stores 
Cooperative buying associations 
Retailers-country buyers 
Retailers - v/holesalers 
Unclassified types 



1/ Other types of operation also include chains, notably mail-order houses, utility- 
operated stores and leased-department operations, in which case the latter tipes determine 
the classification. For summary of all chains see Chapter I, Section 6. 



94 



-77- 
CHAPTER IV - DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES 



Table_A Comparison of the data for 1933 and 1929, by kinds of business and by 

States, concerning the number of stores, amount and proportion of sales, the number of full- 
time employees, the total payroll, average annual earnings of full-time employees and stocks 
on hand at end of year. Separate comparative tables A for each State are contained in this 
Volume. 

Table 1 Basic statistical data for 1933, concerning the number of stores, amount and 

proportion of sales, number of proprietors, number of full-time and part-time employees, 
amount of full-time and part-time payroll, average earnings per full-time employee and total 
reported expenses. Table lA presents the information by kinds of business. 

Similar tables for each State and for the 13 largest cities are contained in Vol- 
ume II. Table IB presents the same information by States. Table IC presents, by kinds of 
business for the United States and separately for the five States of California, Georgia, 
Indiana, Kansas and New York, the basic data on which operating expense ratios have been com- 
puted for 1933. 

Table 2 Full-time and part-time employment by months, average number for the 

year, number of proprietors, and the distribution of employees, full-time and part-time com- 
bined, by sex. Table 2A presents the information by kinds of business. 

Similar tables for each State and for the 13 largest cities are contained in Vol- 
ume II. Table 28 presents the same information by States. 

Table_3 Analysis of basic data by types of operation, (independents, chains, 

mail-order, direct-selling and other types) showing the number of stores, amount and pro- 
portion of sales, number of of full-time employees, number of proprietors, amount of pay- 
roll, average annual earnings of full-time employees and total reported expenses for 18 
kinds of business and for all retail business in the United States. Similar tables for each 
State are contained in Volume VI. 

ISklS-^ Analysis of basic information by 10 size-of-business groups, beginning 

with stores whose sales in 1933 were under $10,000. Table 4A shows the number of stores 
and the amount of their sales by kinds of business, while Table 4B presents the same data 
by States and geographic divisions. 

Table 4C shows the number of full-time employees and proprietors by kinds of busi- 
ness, while Table 4D presents the same data by States and geographic divisions. 

The stores whose sales volume exceeds one million dollars are further analyzed by size 
in Table 4E in which information is given separately by kinds of business. Tables similar 
to 4A for each State are to be found in Volume VII. 

Table 5 Credit business shows the number of stores, total sales, and credit 

sales of stores reporting sales on credit as distinct from stores which reported no sales 
on credit. The latter are assumed to include few stores other than those which sell entirely 
for cash. Table 5A presents this information by kinds of business and Table 53 by States 
and geographic divisions. Similar tables for each State are contained in Volume V. 

94 



^ -78- 



Table 6 — Stores and sales canvassed in the 1933 Census analyzed in the following 
breakdown; stores established in 1929 or prior years, stores opened in 1930, 1931 or 1932, 
and stores opened in each of the quarters of 1933. Table 6A presents the information by 
kinds of business and Table 6B by States. Table 6C presents information on full-time ea- 
oloyment, proprietors, payroll and reported expense by States, in a similar breakdown by 
date of establishment. Tables similar to 6A for each State are contained in Volume IV. 

Table 7 Analysis of sales to show separately the receipts from sales of merchan- 
dise, sale of meals, repairs and service and other sources. Also includes columns showing 
the amount of sales by retailers to other retailers, and stocks on hand at the end of the 
year, at cost or replacement values. Table 7A presents this information by kinds of busi- 
ness and Table 7B by States. 

T able 8 Retail sales by wholesalers. Contains a summary of sales to ultimate 

consumers by wholesalers divided into (1) Sales by wholesalers proper, (2) Sales by other 
types of wholesale establishments. Table BA presents this information by kinds of business 
(wholesale classifications) and Table 8B by States. Tables similar to 8A for each State may 
be found in more detail in the Wholesale Census reports. 

Table 9 Summary of receipts of service establishments, places of amusement and 

hotels as presented in detail in the Service Census reports. It shows an analysis of the 
receipts from merchandise sales, from service sales, from room rentals, from the sale of 
meals, from admissions, and from other sources. Table 9A shows the information by kinds of 
business (Service Census classifications) and Table 9B by States. Tables similar to 9A for 
each State may be found in the Service Census reports. 

T able 10 Retail distribution by areas. Shows by States the number of stores and 

their sales classified by 11 business groups. Table lOA presents the information for 1933 
and Table lOB shows comparable information for 1929. 

Tables similar to Table lOA for each State, contained in Volume VIII, show the same 
information for each county, city and other incorporated place of 2,500 or greater popu- 
lation, and the remainder of each county. 

Table 11 Shows by States the number of stores, their sales, number of proprie- 
tors, number of full-time employees, the total payroll and the part-time proportion of pay- 
roll. 

Similar tables for each State, contained in Volume III, give the same information 
for every county, city and other incorporated place of 2,500 or greater population, and the 
remainder of each county. 

Tab le 1 2 Cities of more than 50,000 population. Shows the number of stores, ' 

their sales, the number of proprietors, number of full-time employees, the total payroll and 
the part-time proportion of the payroll for each city of more than 50,000 population, al- 
phabetically arranged for the United States. 

Similar tables for each city of more than 50,000 population, contained in Volume 
III, present a breakdown of the same information by 52 kinds of business. 
94 -0- 






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Census of 
American 
Business 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 

T»bl» U OnTTO 3T4TES SmiliST —NUMBER OF STORES, SALES. PERSONNEL. PAV ROLL, AND EXPENSES. BY KINDS OF BUSINESS 

{SaUs, pay toU, and erpejises expressed in thousands of doliars) 



KiND OF Business 



uNHKD si:atb3 



Food group 



Candy and confectionery stores 

Dairy-products stores (including milk dealera].. 

Delicatessen stores 

Fruit stores and vegetable markets 

Grocery stores (without meats) 

Combination stores (groceries and meats) 

Meat markets (including sea foodsj _ „ 

Bakeries —caterers 

Bottled beer and liquor stores . 

Other food stores 



Fanners' supplies and country general stores... 



Country general stores 

Farmers'-supply stores 

General merchandise group 

Department stores 

General merchandise and dry-goods stores... 
Variety, 5-and-lO. and to-a-dollar stores 



Apparel group 



Men's and boys* stores. 

Family clothing stores 

Women's ready-to-wear specialty stores.-. 

Furriers— fur shops 

Milliner>' stores 

Custom tailors „ 

Accessories and other apparel stores. 

Shoe stores 



Automotive group. . 



Motor-vehicle dealers (new and used) 

Accessories, tire, and battery dealera 

Filling stations 

Motorcycle, bicycle, and supply dealers-.. 

Garages and repair shops 

Other automotive - 

Furniture and household group -i 



Furniture stores „ 

Floor coverings, drapery, and upholstery stores 

Household appliance stores. ..„ T _.. 

Other home furnishings and appliance stores 

Radio stores „..' 



Number 

of 

stores 



Lumber, building, and hardware group... 

Lumber and building-material dealers. 

Electrical shops (without radios) _ 

Heating and plumbing shops 

Paint and glass stores _... 

Hardware stores _ _ 

Hardware and farm-implement 



Restaurant and eating group 



Restaurants, cafeterias, and lunch rooin&... 

Lunch counters, refreshment stands 

Drinking places.. 



Other retail stores. 

Cigar stores and cigar stands 

Coal and wood yards — ice dealers... 

Drug stores „. 

Florists „ 

Jewelry stores. 



Newsdealers.. 

Office and store supply and equipment d^ers... 
Other classifications 



Second-hand stores . 



«73,916 



S4.243 

IS, 092 

10,048 

21,897 

163,538 

140,372 

38,344 

19,380 

3,767 

4,235 

107,483 



85,839 
21,644 



3,544 
34,122 
12,046 

86.546 



19,491 
5,765 

17,759 
1,502 
9,559 
6,986 
6,650 

18,836 

305.403 



30,646 

16,027 

170,404 

1,SS0 

86,454 

312 

42,976 



17,418 
2,155 
9,750 
5,481 
8,172 

76,098 



Amount 



$25.037,225 



6,793.010 



271,213 
498,536 
107,685 
170,748 
1,803,242 
3,201.042 
491.866 
188.131 
16,730 
43,817 

1,560.781 



1,097,437 
463,344 



2,544.960 
668,145 
678,167 



489,104 

185,371 

568,392 

41,617 

78,660 

53,411 

82,186 

424,592 

4.U9.249 



Per- 
cent 
of 
total 



1.1 
2.0 



7.2 

12.8 

1.9 

.7 

.1 

.2 
6.2 



4.4 

1.8 



10.2 
2.7 
2.7 



2,127,720 

225,970 

1,531,724 

9,786 

519.827 

4.222 

958,780 



21.015 
3.257 

11.307 
7.717 

22,844 
9,958 

200.335 



124,090 
46,344 

29,901 

162, 779 



20,175 

23,875 

58,407 

7,728 

14,313 

6.629 

3.854 

27.798 

20.869 



553,503 
40.462 

195.531 
52.254 

117,030 



603.416 
35.357 

123.128 
92.318 

311.321 

177.165 

1,429.938 



1.089,134 
235.253 
105.651 

2.612.882 



189,756 

623,077 

1,066,252 

66,495 
175,066 

58,071 
111,905 
322,260 

105,275 



2.0 
.7 

2.3 
.2 
.3 
.2 
.3 



S.S 
.9 

6.1 

.1 

2.1 



Number 

of 

proprie- 

tora 



1,574,341 



493,112 



60,676 

19,486 

11,648 

25,602 

161,216 

142,881 

42,155 

21,2U 

4,203 

4,034 

125,538 



103,014 
22,524 



43,665 



783 

35,229 

7,653 

77,790 



19,055 
5,604 

16,501 
1,326 
7,682 
7,325 
5,891 

14,406 

309,066 



2.2 

.1 

.8 



2.4 
.1 
.5 
,4 

1.3 
.7 



4.4 

.9 
.4 



33,823 

15,626 

156,451 

1,694 

101,175 

317 

59,623 



18,825 
2,244 
4.189 
5.713 
8,652 

72.054 



£uFL0ni£NT AND PaT RoLL 



Full-time employees 



Average 
number 



504,530 



21.034 
66.664 
6.187 
12.292 
99.015 
221.225 
35,035 
35,210 
1,238 
6,630 

96,478 



67,270 
29,208 



365,153 
65,390 
95,949 

201,283 



41,853 
21,544 
66,101 

5.243 
11,404 

8,469 
11,990 
34,679 

432.989 



190,691 

25,341 

143,391 

1,064 

71,904 

598 

132,071 



Pay roU 



$2,664,' 



541,932 



Average 
per year 
per em- 
ployee 



$986 



1,074 



16,725 


748 


98,554 


1,476 


5,570 


900 


11,334 


922 


100,926 


1.019 


228,871 


1,055 


39,712 


1.133 


33,499 


951 


1,218 


9S4 


6,523 


984 



81,510 



53,085 
28,475 

492,508 



361,321 
58,293 
72,894 

222,340 



64,018 
24.574 
65,504 

7,217 
10,486 
10,254 

9,079 
41,208 



437.701 



13,286 
3,270 

11,433 
7,298 

25,078 

11,689 

231,968 



145,231 
52,978 
33,759 

158,437 



20,326 

23,324 

57,749 

. 8,342 

14,370 

5,749 

2,480 

26,097 

23,068 



66,238 
6,590 

37,019 
6,800 

15,424 

141,679 



64,613 

5,025 
19,015 

9,630 
29,189 
14,207 

356,338 



297,454 
43,894 
14,990 

296,289 



14,797 
61,501 

116,852 

9,777 

20,338 

9,850 

19,422 

43,752 

15,176 



198,542 
28,210 
141,903 
1,034 
67,267 
745 

153,123 



81,005 
7,137 

39,421 
8,478 

17,1 

161,973 



77,292 
5,820 
21,395 
U,108 
31,941 
14,417 

239,915 



198,456 
29,752 
11,708 

319,854 



975 
935 



990 

891 
760 

1,105 



1,291 
1,141 

991 
1,377 

920 
1,211 

757 
1,188 

1.011 



1,041 
1,113 

990 

972 

936 

1,246 

1,159 



Part-time 
employees 



Average 
number 



730.327 



178.455 



9.527 

6,242 

1,960 

5,525 

45,855 

88,192 

12,617 

7,142 

365 

1,130 

30,115 



21,327 
8,788 



71,252 
29,407 

59,400 

62,129 



9,664 
6,516 

17,100 

869 

5,129 

6,655 

3,088 

14,108 

66.383 



Payroll 



$245,998 



51,719 



2,798 

2,083 

698 

1,637 

12,664 

24,303 

4,441 

2,594 

143 

358 

a.; 



5.259 
3.069 



42.693 



26.512 
7,190 
8,991 

22,133 



12,671 
3,543 

28,421 
279 

20,299 
170 

25,969 



1,223 
1,083 
1,065 
1,247 
1,107 

1.143 



1,196 
1.158 
1,125 
1.163 
1.094 
1.015 

673 



12,989 
69,569 
115,100 
10,285 
27,983 
6,676 
25,547 
61,703 

13,591 



667 
678 
781 

1,080 



878 
1,131 

985 
1,062 
1,376 

678 
1,315 
1,182 



8,356 
1,028 
10,754 
2,423 
3,408 

47^516 



19,589 
2,847 

12,063 
3.441 
6.519 
3.057 

73,092 



53,934 
13,109 
6,049 

60,548 



4,294 

20,033 
30,699 
3,178 
3,489 
7,241 
1,380 
10,234 



3,840 
1,740 
5,514 

587 
1,736 
3,473 

996 
4,247 

26,845 



6,276 

1,386 

10,035 

119 

8,949 

80 

U,710 



Total 
pay roll 
(fuUl-time 

and 
part~time) 



$2,910,445 



593,651 



18,523 

100,637 

6,268 

12,971 

113,590 

253,174 

44,153 

36,093 

1,361 

6,881 

89,838 



58,294 
31,544 



387,833 
65,483 
81,885 

244,473 



57,858 
26,314 
71,018 
7,804 
12,222 
13,727 
10,075 
45,455 

464,546 



3,799 
572 
4,376 
1,391 
1,572 

25.085 



9,930 
1,767 
7,321 
1,845 
3,002 
1,220 

21,826 



16,080 
3,747 
1,999 

33,874 



896 1 7,061 



1,304 
11,374 
11,404 
1,303 
1,637 
1,171 
731 
4,950 

1,785 



204,818 

29,596 

151,938 

1,153 

76,216 

825 

164,833 



64,804 
7,709 

43,797 
9,669 

18,654 

187.058 



Total 
reported 
expense 
(except 
proprietors' 
compensa- 
tion) 



$6,501,060 



1,319,241 



72,776 
163,303 

21,672 

34,201 
276,240 
636,158 
103,466 

73,652 
4,206 

13,545 

204,049 



87,222 

7,567 
28,716 
12,953 
34,943 
15,637 

261,741 



214,535 
33,499 
13,707 

353,728 



14,293 
30,943 
126,504 
11,588 
29,620 
7,649 
26,278 
56,653 

15,376 



133,467 
70,582 



1,177,918 



831,785 
153,484 
192,649 

607,333 



148,856 
60,352 

171,536 
17,699 
32,909 
26,532 
24,904 

125,543 

1,021,965 



420,212 

69,189 

342,233 

2,951 
185,732 

1,648 

368,844 



207,409 
15,123 
60,705 
23,077 
42,530 

383.070 



173,658 
14,033 
49,629 
29,917 
60, Ul 
35,522 

576.719 



458.349 
60.979 
37,391 

803,019 



43,682 

177,121 

285,062 

31,427 

73,521 

16,768 

44,690 

131,556 

38,902 



Census of 
Amoican 
Business 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



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1,UC,U9 


tu.oar.a* 


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1,174.841 


1,708.8M 


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T«e.MT 




jUjfjH 


«.«n.MB 


n ■OLUS; 


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1.11T.TB0 


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•47.401 


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OBUXtlSlt 


tS.MT 


43B,8M 


i.» 


80,111 


44,801 


4*,1« 


1,10* 


U.IM 


4,187 


U,41* 


U*.*7* 


■UJM 


U.iM 


1(4,SM 


O.T 


11,104 


17, 781 


17,104 


ta 


4,9*1 


1,«0* 


11,718 


41, 4M 


maa&ehoM-tta 


K,490 


i,i*8,ia 


4.1 


4T,B3« 


va.wm 


143,M1 


1.0«) 


38,047 


U,a8 


1W,M4 


W7,**l 


Mw sa^Alr* 


t,3t» 


U1,T«* 


.8 


t,811 


10,880 


10,S3* 


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1,M* 


1,04* 


ll,*fT 


•(.**■ 


Biod< IslKl 


B,«3S 


14T,M( 


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1,1IT 


i*,e*o 


11.107 


1.0*1 


4,91T 


i.im 


*1,*U 


m,m\ 


nnoat 


«,>S4 


n.too 


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8.8M 


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7,137 


14* 


l.M* 


(7* 


T,«0* 


1*.*10 




■e.Mi 


8.4S.Ut 


ma 


tae.ia 


8K>.8M 


7M.04I 


1.0*1 


1*4. »tl 


•7.M1 


111.*** 


»i*ifciia 


■n 7uMT 


u.iso 


i,ai<,8n 


4.1 


a,4io 


•s.n* 


U0,870 


1,184 


n.TM 


1,037 


U*.*** 


aM,au 


m Tork 


1T8,(1« 


3,TS>,*M 


14.1 


1»»,TT1 


971, 3» 


4S4,«t7 


1,188 


71,1«1 


**.7«0 ■ 4M,707 


1.0*7,137 


Paa>TlT«Ai« 


UB,(88 


l.STl.tn 


T.B 


Ul,ltT 


117, 3M 


301,148 


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ai,(*o 


1*.0*4 1 ■».*(• 


B*.*41 


jiai_Es? x^stti 


3n.T71 


B.ai4.0TS 


U.l 


181. 418 


817.7tt 


STO.*** 


»7l|lll.(7» 


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liMl IMI 


lumoi. 


tt.tio 


1,»»,«»0 


l.« 


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iM.ns 


100,1(1 


1,00* B4,B7t 


11,18* ai,a** 


m»..i» 


XftAim^f 


«1,«M 


84«,m 


«.* 


U,004 


(3,148 


Sl.KM 


ei* 81,141 


(,7DT a.iis 


lM,y«i 


MUM«a 


n.iai 


Mf.iar 


>.« 


B1,«T« 


104, MO 


•*,0*4 


*4* *«,10* 


*.(M 1 10*,*** 


■•(.111 


gguo 


SB.Ml 


1,4U,1M 


8.» 


M.IM 


IB* ,404 


18»,807 


*T4 10.71* 


K.M* 1 171,1*4 


■••,«o* 


Tlaotmalja 


«4,M3 


1»,*B1 


1.8 


41,B7T 


41,817 


B*,B(( 


Ml 14,711 


7. 144 (7,(10 


llO.Ml 


OR aoam CBTBiLt 


I'o.aor 


I.441.I8> 


10.8 


llB.TSl 


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tt(.333 


yq 13.101 1 


IB. 10* *11.U* 


Ml m 


roM 


M,(4S 


4T«,i«e 


l.t 


•7,8*3 


41,1U 


a,i«o 


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!(,»(* 


4,*» i 4T.0M 


1**.*M 


Bua«s 


»«,TT» 


3n,iTt 


1.8 


•t.Olt 


84,784 


11, M* 


(4* 


U,17t 


8,4(1 M.*U 


*•,*■ 


■Unaaoia 


«S,«Tt 


BW.lOl 


■.« 


»,tl4 


U.ltS 


■8,M7 


•e* 


1(,1** 


B.ni (*,*•• 


144.100 


Hinmri 


4«,MT 


TSi.lH 


8.0 


68,410 


•9,1(4 


(1,104 


<•* 


«s,4n 


7,971 10, U* 


IM,*** 


■ahrukB 


1I,IU 


tT4,SrB 


1.1 


K,ltt 


l*,OtB 


IS,(71 


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1,(7* m,*u 


M.Wl 


■orth Ditaiti 


T,tU 


lot.otr 


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1,8*1 


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1,471 


(•4 


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•*■ (.m 


*•.■! 


SOBth nkota 


•,M« 


IM.IM 


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8,10* 


10,01* 


i.n. 


•4* 


3,0(1 


M* 1 *,•(• 


«,■!• 


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1.4TT.018 


fit 


174.814 


177.11* 


847.007 


M* 


M,0** 


n.iai ; *u.Hi 


fUkMt- 


Dil«var« 


3,4*0 


BT.tlO 


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8,100 


8,(78 


8,711 


l.OU 


l.llO 


•re 1 *.m 


ia.711 


mitrlat tf OoluBbU 


' (,1M 


•41,818 


1.0 


8,811 


81, to* 


ll,*ll 


1,1*0 


*,wm 


1,7*8 n,(*i 


•f,*«0 


Florida 


ti.tn 


Mt,l04 


l.t 


81,818 


33,4*4 


M,37T 


(47 


(,4** 


*,4t* (O.Ol* 


•»,7»7 


Morcli 


tt,t»i 


881, tU 


1.4 


11,17* 


U,114 


81,7(1 


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11, 3U 


1,*M 8*,7*i 


t*,^M 


ikrylAQd 


es.dST 


I«4,a84 


1.8 


14,483 


U,714 


41,330 


M7 


11,871 


4,971 4»,707 


•t,M9 


IRrth cuollu 


(T,tn 


as. Ill 


1.8 


i*,tai 


81,111 


88,0*4 


117 14,000 


8.141 ' **,1(* 


TI.M* 


Soizth Carolina 


15,8M 


1«4,I1B 


.T 


11,0*7 


10,111 


18,418 


7M 1 7,4*4 


l,Ba U.Nl 


«.107 


nrslaia 


te,4Bl 


388,101 


1.4 


*7,S8a 


41, Ul 


97,034 


101 


10,137 


3.0(1 (fl.O** 


1*,*00 


••at Virginia 


IT.UM 


144,0n 


1.0 


17,*S« 


14,7»3 


11,341 


*0t 


7,197 


I.IO* M.47a 


M.*H 


liar awm caimiiLi 


BS.«TO 


i.aiB.in 


*A 


11. MB 


iie.*9i 


M.8(4 


7*0 


«3.«M 


• .4** ' U».(4* 


IBiJtSl- 


Uabaaa 


10,04* 


».8M 


1.0 


11,1*1 


t*,*a 


11,710 


7*7 


• ,(M 


1,00* ia,7i* 


•1,41* 


KaataoJ^ 


«5,«T» 


804,108 


1.1 


17,141 


3l,E0t 


IT ,470 


•4* 


1.147 


I.78D aO.MO 


M,l*4 


Hlaalsalppl 


14, m 


140,188 


.« 


11,07* 


14,*04 


11,108 


7n 4,1*1 


i.e«* 1 u,*n 


M,*t7 


faoBaaaa* 


U.TTT 


380, OTt 


1.8 


84,414 


3T,B4* 


90,11* 


113 ' 10, IM 


1,(3*: 33,M4 


78,1*0 


nsT BonE Gnraax.1 


1st. BOB 


1.781.888 


»|P 


I4i.au 


104.311 


111.137 


(M BO.OlO 


IS aaa 1 laa^naa 


,^^^ 


Arkanaoa 
Ualalaaa 
nH iKiMa 
Tuaa 


IS, 918 


iio,a«B 


.T 


17,*4B 


K.sa 


13,198 


7(1 


B,BM 


l.«M i 1S.**( 


M.IM 


a,B» 


iM,m 


1.0 


It.lO* 


U,*70 


*1,IM 


7TB 


1,311 


1.74( 


•B.4U 


M,*M 


H.4M 


S41,rT4 
MS.8C1 


1.4 
t.t 


t«,104 

71,408 


31,001 

111,0(0 


S1,B7S 
•t,Ul 


tsi 

•81 


10,7M 
17.177 


i.oei 

7,0M 


lOl.TM 


7«.**0 
tlt.MO 


wamrrmit 


ii.aB]. 


. m.Bi 


-U 


lUfiL 


78.180 


71.*4* 


»*7 


«1.0*0 


7.tn 


lO.lM 


1TT.(40 


Arlsou 

Colorado 

Maha 

BBtaaa 

flarada 


4,T4t 

U.TOO 
B.Ut 
4,TS» 


Ti.tao 

198,014 

•T,404 
111,3M 


.8 

.8 
.4 
.8 


8.08* 
14,BM 
8,88* 

7,114 


7,344 

n,ai( 

7,118 
10,147 


',341 

•8,040 

7,U* 

10,tOB 


1.0*T 
9T1 
»*1 

1,041 


1,4T1 
(.4*1 
t,M( 
1,*M 


*ia 1,488 

1,U4> 17,174 

1*1 7,MS 

1,*0*{ u,*u 


i*,ia 

•0,044 

i(,4ai 

M,*7T 


■aw aazloo 


1,448 
4,144 


tl,<IO 
88,»44 


.1 

.8 


1,410 
4,(18 


1,431 

3,3*1 


3,00t 
4.110 


1,131 
111 


797 
1,*04 


«i(, s,a7 

Ml' l.Hl 


7,1M 
U,737 


■n>dM 


8,102 
S,1M 


•l,t4S 

B8,1TD 


.4 

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8,11* 


*.«14 
4,**( 


• ,4I1 

8.301 


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1.04*1 I.IM 


•14 10, IM 
47( (,77* 


M,M* 

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?icmo: 


liB.tao 


l,118,4*r 


1.1 


l»l.*e* 


a(.oi7 


1*4.770 


l.OT* M,4M 


IT.Mli (M.4II 


Ml.llO 


eallf<nla 

Or.«oa 

laaUa«t<K 


••.884 


l,HI,lTt 


4.T 


•4,110 


17(,lt* 


1*8,817 


1,U0 41,8(0 


aO,B7« ' lit, 10* 


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tM,44T 


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18,407 


11,33* 


tl,l*4 


M* (.440 


1,4(0 M,OM 


M,4U 


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37,411 


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RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



CensuBol 
American 
Business 



TABLE SA— innTSC STATES SIM.IARY 
Slj^teeo i^ijids of Bualoess by tvp^b of Upvetlon 



Typo at op«z«tion 



Bunbvr 

of 
Stor«« 



Het S&lea 
(1933) 

(OOP omttaJl 



Faraut 

of 

Total Salas 

ISBS 1929! 



Poll-tljiia 
&iiplcya«« 



HUDbar 

of 
Props. 



Payroll 
(OOP OnlttadI 



Tatai Part- 

Inoludin^: Tima 
Part-tlaa: Only 



Ayeraga Annual 

j^mlngs Par 

PuIl-tlme 

anployea 



Total 
Raportad 
Szpanaaa 1/ 
(OOP l^lttaO 



Total - all typM 1 


.526.119 


♦2i. 037. 325 


100.0 


100.0 


2,703.325 1 


574,341 


t2. 910. 445 


t245.998 


t 986 


♦6.901.060 


Indapandaots 1 


,34-), 337 


17,826,562 


71.2 


77.5 


1,906,401 1 


544,394 


1,967,950 


181,518 


947 


4,529,250 


Cbalna 


141,603 


6,312.769 


25.2 


20.0 


685,207 


3,870 


795,505 


56,335 


1,079 


1,710,754 


Direct sailing (housa-to-liousB) 


7,026 


187,368 


.7 


.2 


36,656 


6,635 


47,247 


1,365 


1,251 


76,606 


Mail-order houses (catalog only) 


311 


244,381 


1.0 


1.0 


27,752 


199 


24,786 


546 


873 


68,446 


Coonlsaarlas or oompany stares 


2,719 


95,678 


.4 


.3 


6,873 


1,415 


8,020 


531 


1,075 


13,399 


UtUlty-oparatad stores 

All otbar types (Leased dspto.. oiJ>ps.,«b!.>^ 


4,127 


76,079 


.3 


.3 


10,889 


123 


16,211 


2,865 


1,286 


30,874 


20,996 


294,488 


1.2 


.7 


27,545 


17,685 


30,726 


2,713 


1,017 


7«,S31 


- Departnent stores 3/ 


3,535 
1,428 


2.538.236 
1,708,445 


673 


72'Tr 


364.105 
279,979 


783 
750 


K6,462 

296,888 


26,485 

16,946 


990 
1,000 


898.887 


Indapaoclants 


6eiUM 


Chains 


2,057 


605,722 


23.9 


16.7 


59,517 


17 


68,465 


9,246 


995 


166,0*4 


ftfcll-onlsr houses (catalqg onlj) 


35 


219,978 


8.7 




24,233 


12 


20,670 


258 


842 


87,335 


CGmalssarias or o eipany atoree 


11 


3,298 


.1 


11.2 


284 


1 


352 


28 


1,141 


579 


ill other types 


4 


815 


—J 




92 


3 


97 


7 


978 


181 


Variety, 5-and-lO. and to-««dollar storoa 


12.046 


678.157 








95.949 


7.553 


81.885 


6,991 


760 


192,649 


Independents 


6,572 


59,699 


8.8 


10.7 


6,336 


7,476 


5,125 


912 


665 


13,261 


Chains 


5,400 


618,333 


91.2 


89.2 


89,609 


102 


76,757 


8,079 


766 


179,367 


All other types 


74 


135 


— 


.1 


4 


73 


3 


- 


750 


21 


Uan*s and boys* clothing and fumlahlliAa 


n 




















stores 


19.491 


489.104 


— 


— 


41.853 


19.055 


57,858 


3.840 


1.291 


148,858 


Independents 


17,599 


374,205 


76.5 


77.9 


31,607 


18,799 


42,817 


2,973 


1,261 


108,516 


Chains 


1,693 


107,553 


22.0 


21.2 


9,543 


96 


14,116 


814 


1,394 


36,043 


Direct selling ( house-to-bo\is^>^ 


24 


153 


— 1 




28 


26 


28 


13 


536 


51 


:.611-order houses (catalog only) 


6 


2,409 


.5 


.9 


293 


4 


836 


- 


805 


795 


All other types 


169 


4,784 


i.oj 




382 


130 


662 


40 


1,628 


1.453 


Fa&ily clothing stores (men's, women's 






















and children's) 4/ 


5.765 


185.371 


— 


— 


£1,544 


5.604 


26,314 


1,740 


1,141 


60,352 


Independents 


5,177 


146 ,744 


79.2 


71.5 


16,711 


5,536 


80,077 


1,245 


1,127 


46,318 


Chains 


550 


37,588 


ao.s 


27.3 


4,667 


37 


6,074 


469 


1,197 


14,647 


Direct selling (houaa-to-housa) 


20 


214 


.1 


1.2 


71 


18 


32 


2 


423 


79 


All other types 


IB 


826 


.*] 




95 


13 


131 


4 


1,337 


308 


Woman's raady-to-«ear specialty stores 3/ 


17.768 


575.094 








67.149 


16.501 


72.389 


6.541 


996 


1T4.434 


Independents 


15,773 


428,482 


74.5 


n.3 


51,634 


16,274 


56,044 


4,614 


998 


u9.4eo 


Chains 


1,726 


134,255 


23.4 


««.7 


14,309 


145 


14,965 


833 


986 


41,094 


Direct selling (house-to-bouaa) 


62 


1,367 


••1 


3:0 


148 


11 


168 


2 


1,122 


432 


All other types 


207 


10,990 


1.9j 


1,058 


71 


1,218 


198 


964 


3.468 


Shoe stores 


18.836 


424.592 








34.679 


14.406 


45.455 


4.247 


1,166 


125,543 


li^epandents 


13,366 


197,345 


46.5 


S3. 5 


16,015 


14,108 


80,609 


1,841 


1,172 


94,094 


Chains 


4,442 


196,249 


46.2 


36.0 


15,664 


vl24 


21,661 


2,016 


1,285 


62,341 


Direct selling (house-to-houaa) 


7 


602 


• 2 




27 


3 


42 


3 


1,444 


184 


Uail-order houses (catalog only) 


10 


473 


-.1 


8.0, 


27 


8 


£5 


- 


986 


1S3 


All other types 


991 


29,923 


7.0j 




2,946 


163 


3,098 


387 


920 


8,S31~ 


Pnmituro stcves 


17,418 


553.503 


„ 


_.. 


66,238 


18.825 


84.804 


3,799 


1,223 


207,409 


Independouts 


16,728 


468,338 


84.6 


83.9 


56,413 


18,700 


71,284 


3,598 


1,200 


171,679 


Chains 


570 


78,418 


14.2 


14.2 


8,965 


26 


12,306 


140 


1,387 


32,683 


Direct selling (bouae-to-haisa) 


32 


859 


.2 
1-0 


1.9 


237 


S3 


305 


37 


I.IXL 


461 


All other types 


88 


5,888 


683 


66 


907 


24 


1,388 


2,186 


Eou£ ahold aDDliasioe storaa 9/ 


9.761 


198.662 


.. 


_ 


36.010 


4.189 


44.639 


4.388 


1,057 


81.938 


Independents 


3.926 


65,880 


33.2 


— 


8,394 


4,021 


10,796 


1,261 


1,136 


8it«34 


Chains 


1,366 


42,669 


21.5 





13,226 


12 


12,291 


392 


900 


tQ.»S4 


Direct selling (house-to-house) 


290 


12,742 


6.4 





4,894 


78 


4,675 


19 


992 


6,843 


Otllity-operated stores 


3,976 


73,160 


36.8 


— 


10,622 


41 


15,742 


2,673 


1,230 


M,39e 


All other typaa 


214 


4,211 


2.1 


— 


874 


40 


935 


40 


l.Otl 


8,183 


Sedio stores 5/ 
Itideponderts 


8,161 
7,846 


113.899 
94,128 


82'76 


79':o 


1*,432 

11,940 


8,652 
8,525 


17,618 
14,563 


-1.560 
1,493 


1,"095 


41.303 


Cbalri 


£07 


17,793 


15.6 


19.1 


8,839 


19 


2,898 


36 


1,878 


•,476 
83 


i'lrett selling (houaa-to-taouae) 


20 


300 


.3 


1.9 


40 


85 


42 


6 


«1S 


All ether types 


88 


1,678 


i.sj 


£13 


83 


309 


26 


1,389 


749 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



Census of 
































American 


TABLE SA- 


-omrn 


1 STA1S3 SUIUABT— Contlnusd 
















Business 


































t 








Paraant 




t 






PayroU 












I aabar i 


Nat Salas 


! of I 


rm 


-tlM: 


Hmnbar i 


(000 OBlttad) lATsrajia Anauali 


Total 


T7p« of Op«xatlou 


I of 


(1933) 


1 Total 


Salaa: 


niployaas: 


of 1 


Total 1 


Part-: 


earnings Par : 


Raportad 




■ Storaa i 






1 


I 




: 


Props. : 


Inaludlng: 


Tins : 


Poll-tiaa 


Kxpanaas 1/ 






1 


(000 Omttadl 


11933 


1929: 




t 






Part- tins: 


Only : 


ta>loTas 


(000 OBlttad) 


er -r- .t(7» (wlttlOTt aMt() 


1» 


.838 


n.893 


,242 






99 


.9^3 


1M.»5 


im.w 


tK.W* 


•1.019 


•?76.?40 


.^asp«sd«nt« 


137 


,eu 


978,897 


54.3 


63.6 


44 


,272 


159 


,904 


40,946 


4,937 


813 


129, 


,838 


Cbllu 


S4 


,7«0 


811,910 


45.0 


4S.7 


53,930 




848 


71,808 


7,597 


1,191 


144,872 


Dlr 't-««lUn« (hou«»-to-hou»«) 




140 


1 


.310 


.1 






833 




186 


229 


7 


963 




403 


C« narlu or eoavanj (tCTM 




ise 


l.OU 


.1 


,7 




64 




ISl 


88 


5 


781 




99 


.'U ^th•r tjpM 




6S4 


10 


,114 


.s 






516 




760 


808 


lis 


843 


1 


,388 


Cerbliatlon storM (icraa«rl*« and naatal 


140 


,31S 


3.201 


.042 


__ 


_. 


221 


,225 


142 


,881 


283.174 


24.303 


1.038 


636 


.158 


iii9p«a4«nt« 


US 


,184 


1,797 


,021 


56.1 


57.6 


119 


,852 


142 


,072 


119,065 


11,275 


899 


270 


,254 


CJTa ne 


S4 


,9S4 


1,397 


,090 


43.7 


32.2 


lOO 


,787 




483 


133,434 


18,999 


1,195 


864 


525 


Dir«et-a«lllii£ (hou«ft-to-hou«e) 




SO 




551 


_ 






23 




68 


28 


4 


1,043 




T6 


Cocc'asarlas or ooiqwoy stores 




32 




512 


— 


.2 




48 




37 


46 


3 


896 




70 


All othsr typM 




182 


5 


,868 


.2J 






515 




221 


511 


28 


1,148 


1, 


,883 


Bsstaunsta and actlait Blaosa 6/ 


170 


,434 


1.324 


.387 


_ 




341 


.348 


198 


,209 


248.034 


19.887 


669 


539 


,388 


lodapaodanta 


166 


,S«6 


1,122 


IsB'i 


84.8 


86.1 


280 


;814 


i97 


1684 


200;066 


ii.iii. 


JS 


isS.6H 


Chaljis 


9, 


,377 


195,800 


14.9 


13.6 


59 


,457 




161 


46,943 


1,902 


758 


103, 


,335 


All otliar tTpas 




461 


4, 


,706 


.3 


.3 


1 


,077 




364 


1,023 


181 


810 


2, 


,117 


Cljcar stozas and eiii»r stands 


SO, 


,175 


189, 


,756 


— 


— 


14 


.797 


a> 


,326 


14.293 


1.304 


878 


43j 


,688 


Indapaodanta 


IB, 


,1!78 


123, 


,521 


65.1 


73.5 


9 


,594 


80 


,146 


9,463 


1,236 


888 


85^ 


,439 


Chalas 


1 


,713 


64 


,396 


33.9 


85.1 


4 


,990 




50 


4,680 


58 


920 


13, 


,796 


All othar tjpaa 




1B4 


1, 


,839 


1.0 


1.4 




213 




130 


180 


U 


793 




447 


UDtor-ratalala dsalars 7/ 
Ind SI! and ant a 


t 


,546 
,219 


2.127, 
2,013, 


,720 
!592 


9476 


■^ 


190, 

Tea 


,591 
,273 


33, 
33 


,823 
,792 


204.818 
190,660 


6,276 
5,043 


1.041 
1,024 


420, 


,212 

;o36 


Cbalna 




409 


112, 


,703 


5.3 


— 


10, 


,306 




21 


14,019 


238 


1,338 


28, 


,877 


All otbar typss 




18 


1, 


,325 


.1 


~ 




112 




10 


139 


1 


1,232 




299 


FUllDit stations 


170, 


,404 


1.631, 


,724 


„ 


_ 


143, 


,395 


156, 


,451 


181.938 


10.038 


i£ 


342, 


.233 


ladspaoianta 


l34! 


,239 


9641867 


64.3 


66.0 


68! 


!868 


165! 


.134. 


^'toz 


fiBod 


^S 


lislise 


Chains 


M, 


,026 


543, 


,582 


36.5 


33.8 


'♦i 


,226 




647 


86,382 


2,813 


1,130 


175, 


,906 


All otbar tjpaa 




139 


3, 


,175 


.2 


.2 




301 




70 


354 


14 


1,130 




661 


Dnw atoraa 


86, 


,407 


1.066, 


,252 








U6.852 


57, 


,749 


126.504 


U.404 


988 


285.082 


~ Indapadants 


S3, 


,341 


788, 


,568 


74.0 


81.2 


83,158 


56 


,433 


91,524 


10,669 


972 


204, 


,765 


Chains 


3, 


,760 


267, 


299 


25.1 


IB. 5 


31, 


,564 




140 


32,816 


500 


1,084 


74, 


,903 


Dlraot-aalllng (ho\ise-to-housa) 


1,111 


6, 


,506 


.6 




1, 


,619 


1, 


,027 


1,493 


96 


863 


2, 


,951 


Itoll-ordsr housas (eatalog oal;) 




51 


2, 


,233 


.2 


.3 




331 




42 


475 


129 


1,048 


1, 


,928 


All othar typaa 




144 


1, 


,646 


.1 






IBO 




107 


198 


10 


1,028 




805 


fiU^n^ra af fiaa 8/ 


38,808 


488, 


,*?« 








i3, 


,396 


36, 


,757 


W.sep 


4.222 


l.W 


tt».»? 


Indapandanta 


32, 


234 


467, 


167 


96.6 


— 


40,904 


36, 


,7U 


47,488 


4,128 


1,059 


109, 


,496 


Chalna 




536 


19 1 


894 


4.1 





2, 


,399 




46 


3,006 


89 


1,216 


5, 


,908 


All othar tTpaa 




32 


1, 


.425 


.3 


— 




93 




10 


122 


5 


1,258 




235 


~ IssHs. •*o»»» 


1*. 


313 


175,066 





_ 


a>, 


,338 


14, 


,370 


89.580 


1.637 


1.376 


?3, 


,581 


Indapasdanta 


1*. 


,050 


163, 


886 


93.6 


93.0 


18, 


,780 


14, 


,289 


27,497 


1,605 


1,379 


67, 


,808 


Chalna 




191 


10, 


359 


5.9 


6.4 


1, 


,454 




11 


1,975 


26 


1,340 


8, 


,377 


All othar typaa 




72 




821 


.5 


..6 




104 




70 


148 


6 


1,365 




336 


AU othar tloda of buslaaaa 


«12-«*7 


7,372, 


,m 


— 


— 


768, 


,309 


656, 


,881 


900.276 


93.735 


1,050 


2.007, 


,634 



l/ Insludas no comnmuotlon for the sarrioes of proprlatora working In tholr storos, in liau of employeea. 

8/ Inoludas laasad dspartmanta, market and roadside stains, itinerant vondoro and rolling otoroe, cooperat Ivea, a few ratal ler-wholesalero 

(whoaa husineaa la eTanly dlTlded between tiie two) and country buyers who also operate retail atoroe. The latter ware difficult to identify 
from the 1933 schedule, and the comparloon between 1933 and 1929 percantagos is aubjeot to (juallflcat Ion in that the entire 1929 percentage 
for retaller-oountiy buyera is included for comparison purposes in the porcanta,'e stown for independent o. Further details are not STallable 
from the condensed tabulations uaed In 1933. _. 

s/ Ttotala differ sli*tly fran other tables because of an error in CaUfomia in clasalfylng certain apparel storss aa department stores, ma 
oorraotlon le refloated In ttila Sonnary, aa wall aa in the California Type Report. 

On* large national chain with total sales In 1933 (publlrtied in the preaa) of more than ♦78,C»0,CX)0 so changed the character of its bueineaa 
since 1989 that it now Is claaslfled ae a department-store chain whereas it was a Tarlety-otore chain before. If for comparison purposes it 
ware eliminated from the 1933 figures, the proportion of chain sales would be 21.4 percent against 16.7 percent In 1929— con»erssly, the 
Tarlety-stors proportion of chain oaleo would be 92.1 poroemt In 1933 a,^aln8t 89.2 percent in 1929. 

4/ A discrepancy of #370,000 exists between Ihe national totala shown here and the State reports, caused by an error In claaalf Ication of oertalB 
atores In Montana and fyoailng. The correction le reflected in the State tables, >ut is not considered of sufficient Importance to Justify 
, changing the national totala. , ,^ ^ ___,^ 

3/ The totals diffsr slightly from othsr tablss becauae of an error in Illinois in classifying certain electrical appliance storss aa radio stores. 
Ttx« correction Is r«flaotad in this sunBEor, as well ae in ttie Illlnola Type Report. 

6/ Pestauranta and eating plaoaa in the 1923 tabulation include aleo lunch oounters and refreshment stands in addition to iwatauranta, cafeterlaa 
and lunch roai*. 1118 1929 percentages reflect only the latter three kinds of reoteurants and, therefore, are not strictly compamble. lut the 
new baals Is oonsldsrad preferable for future compariaona, in ardor to dlatlngulsh eating places as such free, drinking plaoaa. 

7/ This clasaifioatlon ma not Inoludsd in the 1929 Type sumnary (tabla S) snd, therefore, no percentage flgurea for compariaon with 1989 are 

a/ Hardware storea in thla tahls Inoluds two business olassif loatlons, i.e., hardware atorea, and hardware and faun Inplanant dealers. Since the 
1929 Type sunmary (table 6) included only the foiner, 1929 percentages are not aTallable for comparison. 



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ftETAH. DISTRIBDTION: 1933 



tabu; 7a. — OTirrro state somASY — anaitbis of sales and value op stocb on hiiid, by kinds op bosinibs 

(Ajnmista exprosaad In thouaands of doll&rs) 



r.v-m op ar.iNESs 



Total 
salae 



REcBiprs ntoM — 



MerchAodisfl 
sales 



Repairs and 
aarrloe 



sals of 



other 
sources 



Sales to 
other 
retailers 



Stocks on 

hand at 

end of year 

(at cost] 



miTSD STATES . 



Food group . 



Candy and confectionery stores 

Dairy-products stores (including milk dealere)„ 

Delicatessen stores — 

Fruit stores and vegetable markets _ 

Grocery stores {without meats) — 

Combination stores (groceries and meats) 

Meat markets (including sea foods) 

Bakeries — caterers . - 

Bottled beer and liquor stores. :__ 

Other food stores- _ - — 



Farmers' supplies and coantry general storefl.- 



Country general stores 

Farmers'-supply stores 

General merchandise group... 



Department stores 

General merchandise and dry-goods stores — 
Variety, 5-and-lO, and to-a-doUar stores 



Apparel group 



Men's and boys' stores... 



Family clothing stores - 

Women's ready-to-wear specialty stores — 

Furriers— fur shops 

Millinery stores — ~ 

Custom tailors... 



Accessories and other apparel stores^. 
Shoe stores — 



Automotive group -. 

Motor-vehicle dealers (new and used) 
Accessories, tire, and battery dealers^ 
Filling stations 



Motorcycle, bicycle, and supply dealCTS— 

Garages and repair shops — . 

Other automotive _ — 



Furniture and household group „ 

Fumitxu^ stores 



Floor coverings, drapery, and upholstery stores... 
Household appliance stores._ 



Other home furnishings and appliance stores 

Radio stores - — - 

Lumber, building, and hardware group 



Lumber and building-material dealeis— 

Electrical shops (without radios) 

Heating and plumbing shops 

Paint and glass stores. 

Hardware stores. - 



Hardware and farm-implement stores 

Restaurant and eating group — — 



Restaurants, cafeterias, and lunch roomfl- 

Lunch counters, refreshment stands 

Drinking places 



Other retail stores... 



Cigar stores and cigar stands „. 

Cml and wood yards — ice dealers... 

Drugstores 

Florists _. 

Jewelry stores _.. 

News dealers.. 



Office and store supply and equipment dealezs.„ 
Other classifications „.._ 



Second-hand stores. . 



$25,037, 22S iZi,WI,iOt 

6,793,010 6,732,076 



$567,767 



271, 

498, 

107, 

170, 

1,803, 

3,201, 

491, 

188, 

16, 

43, 



213 
536 
685 
748 
242 
042 
866 
131 
,730 
617 



1,097,437 
463,344 



2,544,960 
668,145 
678,167 



489,104 

185,371 

566,392 

41,617 

78,960 

53,411 

82,186 

424,592 



2,U7,720 

825,970 

1,631,724 

9,786 

519,827 

4,222 

958,780 

553,503 
40,462 

196,531 
52,254 

117,030 



603,416 
36,367 

123, ue 

92,318 
311,321 
177,165 

1,429,938 

1,089,134 
235,263 

106,561 



189,766 

623,077 

1,066,262 

66,495 

175,066 

68,071 

1U,906 

322,260 

105,275 



237,342 

497,379 

103,249 

170,326 

1,799,314 

3,189,447 

490,804 

184,841 

16,976 

43,396 



1,660,781 1,552,786 



1,093,032 
459,754 



3,891,272 3,799,230 



2,491,352 
684,828 

643,060 



1,923,333 1.901,907 



487,011 

184,232 

563,083 

36,403 

78,248 

50,519 

80,894 

421,517 



4,419,249 3,949,625 



1,957,845 

205,399 

1,479,006 

8,070 

295,682 

3,624 

933,460 

544,933 
39,282 

188,677 
49,668 

U0,900 



1,342,705 1,310,266 



698,634 
31,009 

109,265 
90,202 

307,168 

174,078 

127,221 

80,363 
32,649 
14,209 



2,612,882 2,461,343 



176,168 
618,487 
963,166 

66,161 
161,316 

66,936 
103,776 
313,323 

99,502 



3,369 



588 
2,781 



6,586 
424 
UO 

15,599 

1,158 
492 

2,017 

5,030 

337 

2,8U 

1,191 
2,663 

453,328 

166,425 

20,356 

42,324 

1,691 

221,981 

651 

23,277 

7,326 
1,U7 
6,567 
2,437 
6,830 

27,291 

2,022 
4,081 
13,506 
1,981 
3,397 
2,304 



33,483 

562 
3,649 
1,010 

208 
13,298 

268 
7,846 
6,643 

2,298 



tl, 514,424 

54,108 

33,080 
747 

4,357 
244 

2,500 

6,792 
529 

3,015 
730 
114 

1,572 

1,543 
29 



21,536 

398 

32,054 



6,258 

38 

26 

6,008 

1 

181 

4 



1,291,077 

1,003,082 

197,473 

90,522 

107,419 

5,936 

S3 

100,309 

21 

13 

76C 

4«, 

269 



$67,626 

6,826 

791 

410 

79 

178 

1,428 

2,803 

533 

275 

24 

305 

3,064 

2,274 

780 

28,932 

23,484 
2,495 
2,953 

5,927 

935 

647 

3,292 

184 

75 

81 

101 

512 

10,038 

3,412 

189 

4,387 

24 

1,983 

49 

2,043 

1,244 
63 

287 
149 
300 

8,158 

2,860 
267 

387 

135 
756 
783 

11,640 

5,689 

5,131 

820 

10,637 

5,090 
683 

1,747 

U5 

439 

87 

236 

2,035 

3,473 



$461,669 
116,387 

1,442 

40,604 
464 

3,390 
12,381 
16,319 

8,949 

28,914 

616 

2,408 

31,410 

10,002 
21,408 



7,796 

10,590 

247 

5,937 

1,072 
491 
463 
701 
38 
129 
609 

2,434 

179,663 

112,105 

17,149 

43,687 

366 

6,897 

259 

12,548 

2,771 
660 
5,212 
1,279 
2,626 

34,064 

17,941 
1,011 

2,021 
4,667 
5,578 
2,836 



61,099 

1,776 
31,892 
13,289 
1,044 
1,242 
1,220 
1,903 
8,733 

2,928 



$3,903,969 

419,076 

19,474 

6,680 

9,228 

3,681 

151,424 

203,132 

14,471 

3,977 

3,917 

3,091 

345,830 

285,914 
69,916 

807,684 

463,610 
242,510 

101,564 

466,470 

167,707 
49,595 
79,826 

10,965 

6,887 

11,159 

16,541 

123,791 

341,314 

193,636 

41,289 

65,016 

2,567 

37,795 

1,012 

300,447 

183,783 
14,649 
38,206 

36,678 
27,227 

531,873 

237,976 

9,128 

86,413 

26,821 

161,646 
78,989 

27,937 

21,578 
4,607 

1,652 

627,662 

16,953 

46,675 

281,763 

6,262 

142,446 

4,645 

25,990 

102,008 

35,687 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



Ceaaosof 

Ameriou 
BasiDcu 



CABLE '^ — UNITH) STATES SOltlADT • 



■ UUlLTSIS or SALES AMD 7AU>X OP OTOCIS OH HAND, BY amaRATNIC DIVISIOrS AilD STATS 
(AjDQUDtfl •xprwaaed in thouaand* of dollars) 



DmSION AND ETTATS 



Total 
salsa 



RKXIPTS nWM— 



ItorohaDdlaa 
sales 



Rspairs and 
sarrloa 



Otbar 
souroas 



Salas to 

otbsr 
ratallara 



5toaka on 

band at 

and of jaar 

(at aoat) 



tmltad states. 
RXV BVCOAND 



I85.037.2f5 ^a.e67.A06 



«S67.767 



tl.51*.«8« 



iB7.&za 



Connsotleut. .. 

Haine 

lbs sec hu setts . 
He« Haa^shire. 
Rhode iBland.. 
Vemxmt 



imiDLZ ATLARnC. 



New Jersey... 

New Torlc 

penaaylTanla. 



XAST N(XrlS CBfTRAL. 



Illinois.. 
Indiana... 
lUcht^n.. 

Ohio 

Tisconsln. 



■ET NORTH CENTRAL. 



Iowa 

Senses.. ...•• 
Idnnesota. • • • 
Missouri...*. 

Nebraska 

North Dakota. 
South Dakota. 

SOtJTH ATLANTIC. 



Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Iferyland 

Noith Carolina 

South Caroline.....*. 

Virginia 

Uest TUginla 



lAST SODTn CZNTHAL. 



Alabam 

Kentucky. . . . 
Mississippi. 
Tsnneeaee. .. 



HE?i' SWni CSUTRAL, 



Arkansas.. 

Louisiana. 
Oklahoma.. 
Texas 



Arizona.. .. 
Colorado. . . 

Idaho 

Montana.... 

NeTada 

New ysxieo. 

Utah 

iryoning.... 



8.167.760 1.986.756 



430,526 
184,386 
1,195,161 
111,799 
167,288 
78,600 

6.633.819 



1,016,988 
3,739,998 
1,876,899 

5.314.073 



1,728,880 
569,978 
949,137 

1,442,138 
623,938 

2.641.958 



479,695 
329,178 
585,108 
759,125 
874,575 
108,087 
106,196 

8.477.088 



57,910 
241,515 
288,804 
358,916 
364,384 
363, lU 
186,815 
358,108 
844,071 

1.085.983 



250,384 
304,605 
140,855 
330,079 

1.781.553 



180,095 
864,123 

341,774 
965,561 

739.614 



CallfoTDia. 
Oregon..... 
Wasbihgtca. 




44.896 



U9.3a» 



».76T 



t4Sl,6 a«j^ tl,«<0,»6t 
38,681 t9B,«0« 



397,695 

178,703 

1,094,390 

103,115 

155,549 

73,308 

5.981.094 



9,194 
4,676 
28,499 
2,899 
3,057 
2,571 

lg>.691 



81,650 
6,392 

75,071 
5,473 
8,879 
2,474 

498.488 



1,969 
615 

3,201 
312 
403 
847 

82.609 



7,671 
2,695 
16,065 
1,578 
3,384 
1,691 

117.646 



67,633 
38,733 
190, (34 
16,601 
21,466 
18,619 



933,454 
3,312,518 
1,735,128 

4,853.889 



19,895 
79,169 
38,687 

124.901 



61,413 
333.784 
97,286 

318,048 



1,559,681 
587,530 
871,303 

1,327,458 
567,983 

2,416,536 



40,669 
11,742 
89,883 
89,996 
13,009 

66,552 



123,343 
89,207 
44,296 
80,547 
40,647 

149.543 



440,730 
305,333 
589,930 
691,640 
852,061 
99,194 
97,650 

8.307.214 



12,416 
6,460 
14,914 
17,887 
7,739 
2,494 
2,622 

46,847 



54,453 
216,877 
865,563 
332,663 
354,418 
342,340 
176,514 
335,538 
889,854 

960.187 



1,192 
6,082 
6,365 
5,833 
7,737 
6,499 
3,602 
7,191 
4,346 

1 9,564 



236,090 
261,726 
133,909 
306,468 

1,619,839 



4,489 
6,728 
2,348 
6,091 

39,490 



169,879 
843,751 
316,584 
869,685 

677.446 



3,553 

5,011 

6,315 

88,611 

19,877 



69,700 
814,645 
80,794 
101,670 
25,169 
50,051 
84,718 
50,507 



2.055.099 



1,765 
5,766 
8.326 
3,275 
653 
1,350 
8,208 
1,738 

66.589 



1,515,981 
804,341 
334,637 



80,691 
5,890 
9,946 



84,689 
14,83e 
37,795 
47,653 
13,720 
5,618 
5,636 

U4.548 



2,065 
16 , 755 
16,383 
13,374 
80,846 
13,340 

5,767 
14,320 

9,758 

48,854 



6,934 
15,337 

3,958 
14,631 

65,604 



6,484 
14,560 
15,556 
46,968 

39,709 



4,388 

U,83S 
3,910 
6,714 
2,417 
2,271 
4,737 
3,473 

152,366 



117,328 
13,067 

21,754 



2,166 

14,587 

8,856 

17,301 



5,047 
1,493 
4,253 
4,135 
2.373 

9.325 



1,660 
1,130 
8,463 
1,948 

1,055 
884 
288 

6.425 



800 
401 
553 
646 

1,383 
938 
338 

1,059 
719 

3.8 98 



931 
880 
658 
895 

7,880 



779 

781 

1,317 

4,343 

3,160 



433 

766 
376 
583 
841 
878 
317 
258 

11,51.3 



6,748 
1,189 
1,638 



12,348 
70,103 
38,803 

139.4 69 



57,419 

10,791 

38,950 

89,641 

6,688 

46,663 

5,934 
5,348 
17,216 
10,636 
4,387 
1,639 
1,365 

31,3 29 



187,349 
578, »se 
381,860 

773. 7t0 

IST,n3 
««,«14 

131,701 
191,668 

108,930 

465.987 

69,255 
63,740 
101,693 
123,303 
86,587 
23,975 
85,374 

368.288 



740 
2,':38 
2,683 
2,766 
4,310 
9,184 
1.923 
3,6US 
3,386 

_14,501 

3,133 
6,036 
1,895 
3.437 

88,856 

1,986 

8,871 

6,897 

10,508 

11,876 



X!l — 



8,569 
24,904 

41,744 
55,394 
51,478 
56,347 
22,439 
61,443 
39,911 

39,777 
55,446 

25,941 
54.577 

295,986 _ 

35.006 

36,537 

60,736 

161,647 

138, *a 



1,481 
3,615 
1,198 
1,397 

439 
1.100 
8,098 

556 



U,690 
41,886 
16,061 
84,048 
4,6tB 
9,««1 
13,106 
10,776 



48.034 360.810 



36,717 
8,883 
5,514 



8(1,910 
36,909 

99,691 



I 



Census of 
American 
Business 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



TABLK Ba — DRTIZD STtTSS SOlAliRT — RETAIL SALES BY VHOLESiXE ESTAHLISHUBITS, BY KJHUS OT BCTSIKESS 



CntD or BDSINESS 
(■holaflala al«sairie«tlaDi)V 



aiLSS TO ULTDI&TE 

conhumers^/ 



By whole- 
salata onljZ/ 

t tfiousanda } 



By all type 
of wholasal* 

eatabllah- 
mantaS/ 

( thc»sBndfl) 



KIND Oy BDSINESS 
(wholesale classlficattonB)!/ 



3ALS TO ULTDUTt 

coNSinffiRgS' 





?ir all typo 


By whole- 


of wholesale 


salers only2/ 


establiah- 
maata^ 


(thousands} 


(thousands) 


$1,901 


$1,926 


59,520 


67,505 


80,086 


20,261 


2,676 


2,965 


15,8«0 


17,431 


9,691 


23,467 


2,796 


U,16S 


10,141 


15,333 


13,196 


66,716 


6,6M 


6,676 


6,637 


6,716 


3,056 


2,072 


16,690 


24,966 



UHITKU 9IATS8- 



$379.502 



$866,945 



UKisaaent and sporting goods.... 

AutomotlTW products 

ChaDloals 

Clothing and furnishings 

Coal •.*> 

Dniga and drug sundries. ....•*.. 

Dry goods 

Elsotrloal goods 

Pann produots-raw matsrisls..... 
TaPB products-coneumsr goods.... 

rain suppllss 

Furniture and house furnishings. 



4,963 

56,969 

4,176 

6,461 

16,306 

4,862 

3,502 

18,445 

1.0,693 

69,437 

16,511 

6,776 



5,155 
67,239 

8,619 

9,028 
19,239 

5,620 
10,707 
20,619 
41,495 
77,527 
22,499 

6,902 



Oeneral merchandise .......................... 

Groceries and foods [except farm products).*. 

Hardwars 

Tewelry and optical goods........ 

Lumber and bldg. materiala (other than metal) 
Machinery, equipment, and aup- . 

plies (exoept electrical) 

Uetals (sxoept scrap) 

paper and its products 

Petroleum end its products 

plumbing and heating equipment and supplise.. 

Tobacco and its products (sxcspt Isaf) 

Vaste miterials 

ill other 



See footnotes at end of TsbXa 6B. 



TlIU SB — imiTa) ST1TX3 SIMUST — RITIII SUJtS BT KOUSUJ! ESUBLlaaiBITO, m CTOnRUTOC DIVIsntOBB /WD SnTK 



imSICB AMI SrUTE 



SALES TO OLTIMTK 
CORSUVKBsV 



By whole- 
salers only ^/ 



8y all type 

of wholssals 

sstabllab- 

mentsS' 

(thousands) 



DIVISION AMD STATE 



SALES TO ULTIMATE 
COHSOMEBS^ 



By whole- 
salers only£/ 

(thousands) 



By all type 

of wholssala 

estahliah- 

msnta^/ 

(thousands) 



DIfmD STATES. 



nV ENS^AHD 

Connsctiout... 

Maine 

'Uassaohuaetts. 
New Hsiq)shir«. 
Rhode Island.. 
Temant. .,•.■• 



MIDDLK ATLANTIC. 
Hew Jersey.... 

New Tcrlc 

Penoayl Tenia.. 



Illinois , 

Indiana ,.... 

Michigan 

Ohio •.., 

Visconsia 



nST NORTO UEVrUAL. 

loa 

[ansae 

■Ijmssota......... 

Missouri 

Nsbraska 

North Dakota 

Sovth Dakota , 



800TB AZLAITTIC 

DelBwsre 

Distrlet of Coluabia.. 
Florida 



$379.502 



29,642 

7,713 
6,600 
13,910 
1,674 
1,753 
992 

94,721 
10,491 
54,936 

29,292 

64,506 
27,234 
6,237 
12,630 
26,U6 
U,3e8 

32,689 
6,383 
2,656 
6,386 

10,066 

3,980 

687 

1,330 

3«,6S2 

666 

6,741 

3,962 



$566.948 



40,960 
9,130 
4,664 

20,675 
2,904 
2,218 
1,379 

147,621 
17,292 
64,721 
45,606 

131,688 
40,319 
12,608 
19,512 
41,040 
16,209 

66,129 

13,669 
7,798 
16,364 
16,997 
7,514 
2,763 
4,014 

57,648 
1,040 
7,665 
6,060 



SODIS A3I.AmiO— Continusd 

oeorgla 

Maryland 

North Carolina.......... 

South Carolina.... 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

EAST aUlfm CEKl'HAL 

Alabama 

Kentucky ................ 

Mleeiesippi 

nnneeaee 

WEST 3CX7TH CBITBAl......... 

Arkmsaa... 

Louisiana........ 

Oklahom 

TSZB8 

WXINTAIN 

Arizona 

Colorado....... 

Idaho 

Montana. • 

NeTada 

NSW Mexico. 

Utah 

Wyoming. ................ 

PACIFIO 

Calif cmia 

Oreguu ...... ............ 

Waahlngtoo ............. . 



$8,208 
6,096 
5,360 
2,541 
4,201 
2,776 

13,676 
2,862 
4,773 
2,639 
3,602 

20,004 
2,356 
4,299 
3,687 
9,763 

U,769 
1,976 
3,447 

682 
2,162 

406 

763 
1,728 

383 

66,954 

4T,7M 

3,237 

5,013 



$6,896 
12,046 
7,867 
3,807 
8,853 
4,420 

17,976 

3,311 
6,453 
2,963 
5,269 

32,660 
2,817 
6,077 
7,»17 

16,649 

17,616 
2,592 
5,841 
1,406 
3,641 

496 
1,078 
2,3t0 

741 

71,648 
56,681 

4,328 
6,6U 



1/ Itejor groupings only ars shown in this table. For detailed kind-of-bueiness classif icationa (wholssale) sss voIuib I of wholssale csnsus reports. 

2/ "Wholssalers only" include those wholesalers and importere who sell to retailors for resale, although it does not Include nsnufacturers' salss taranohes 

J/ For types of distributors included in -All types of wholesale sstsblishnssts* sss Toluma I of ths wholssale csnsus reports. 



A-l£ 



American 
Biuintu 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 



.jiC.X.Tu ft S-aTIC7 ESTAEL13H«ENra, PUCS QT *VUS3!nfr, iND HOTKIS, 
FT tHKaS OP BUSIKE9S 



[aac«lpt« •Tpr9»i«d 


a thouaanda of dolLars) 












Via&ber 

of 

Bstab- 


Aeoelpta 


Beoeipte frtai — 


do) or BUS1NI33 




Adala- 


Roca 


3ttl« Of 


Sale of 


Other 




llah- 




Serrioe 


aloos 


A»atAl« 


t:ealB 


Uaroh- 


Souroee 




nents 








V' 


\/ 


andlea 




OMiraD STATE TOTAL 


502,416 


►2,760,661 


51.680, 717 


^95,782 


t 309 ,497 


1158,423 


♦51,601 


»67,661 


SorriQe Sstabllsboaoto — Total 


M3,S17 


1,725,114 


1,660,717 


_ 


&,;iM 


914 


t8,»2 


8,767 


Penonal Berrloo: 


















Barber sbops 


117,632 


204,367 


202,302 


- 


- 


- 


1,260 


626 


BB«ut7 parlors 


42,073 


116,795 


113,926 


- 


- 


- 


2,201 


668 


Cieaotne, dyeing, preselng, alteration and 


















repair ehopa; and ralet ahopa 


S5,459 


135,611 


133,424 


- 


- 


- 


1,921 


266 


CoetoM rental ageoclee 


295 


2,199 


2,142 


- 


- 


- 


54 


3 


Tmeral dlreotore and onbalfflen 


12,655 


172,436 


172,087 


- 


- 


- 


- 


351 


Fur repair and storage ebope 


1,310 


5,066 


4,715 


- 


- 


- 


319 


31 


Laundnae, hand (not Including casmerclal 


















laundries) 


13,691 


35,646 


36,286 


- 


- 


- 


122 


237 


FbotograpUo studios 


6,330 


31,673 


31,073 


- 


- 


- 


727 


73 


Shoe repair ehope 


50,425 


67,153 


86,259 


- 


- 


- 


1,686 


206 


Shoe ahlne parlors (Including bat oleanlng) 


7,027 


10,032 


9,672 


- 


- 


- 


270 


90 


Other peraonal aerrloes 


2,319 


10, as 


9,940 


- 


- 


- 


169 


116 


Boslnssa aerrlce: 


















Adjustment and credit bureaus; and collection 


















agenclaa 


1,624 


38,159 


34,934 


- 


- 


- 


95 


140 


Idrertlslng agenolss, and billboard adTertlalag 


















agenoiea 


1,479 


169,667 


187,299 


- 


- 


- 


1,669 


909 


Blneprlntlng and pbotostat laboratories 


253 


3,675 


3,394 


- 


- 


- 


466 


15 


Cartage and trucking establlshjiieDts 


23,102 


174,875 


171,731 


- 


- 


- 


2,197 


947 


DallTery aerrloe 


577 


6,560 


0,516 


- 


- 


- 


3 


31 


Dental laboratorlea 


947 


8,933 


6.670 


- 


- 


- 


90 


23 


IXiplloatlng, addressing, mailing; and mailing 


















list ssrrlce 


672 


5,736 


5,646 


- 


- 


- 


42 


46 


Linen supply aerrloe 


461 


17,713 


17,677 


- 


- 


- 


16 


20 


Photo flniablQg laboratories 


780 


5,493 


5,109 


- 


- 


- 


376 


8 


Sign painting shope 


3,00? 


9,436 


9,266 


- 


- 


- 


137 


15 


Storage warohousee 


2,517 


72,085 


66,448 


- 


- 


- 


1,904 


1,733 


Other buslneae serrlces 


2,302 


127,368 


126,623 


- 


- 


- 


606 


240 


Heobanloal repair aerrloe: 


















AutcDoblle brake repair, rellning and adjuataeot 


















shops 


241 


1,940 


1,714 


- 


- 


- 


216 


10 


AutODOblle paint ahopa 


1,694 


6,734 


5,694 


- 


- 


- 


99 


41 


iutasoblle radiator shops 


1,157 


3,539 


3,393 


- 


- 


- 


136 


11 


AutoBoblle top and body repair shope 


3,636 


17,778 


17,105 


- 


- 


- 


576 


95 


Blacksmith ehope 


20,267 


21,663 


20,768 


_ 


. 


- 


718 


77 


Cabinetmaker and oarpenter repair ahopa 


2,063 


3,654 


3,511 


_ 


_ 


- 


124 


19 


Electrical repair shope 


2,391 


11,169 


10,206 


_ 


_ 


- 


900 


63 


Ileyator aerrlce (repair) 


141 


1,546 


1,485 


- 


_ 


- 


54 


7 


Bameea, leather, ruid shoe rapair ahops 


2,490 


2,880 


2,647 


- 


- 


- 


221 


12 


Locksmith and gunnalth ahopa 


1,937 


3,272 


3,066 


_ 


- 


_ 


209 


7 


Ifattreas reooratlng and repair ahopa 


462 


1,284 


1,168 


- 


- 


. 


121 


6 


Plumbing end heating rejMlr ebope 


6,606 


27,217 


26,161 


- 


- 


- 


973 


63 


Radio repair ahopa (not Including deelere In 


















radios] 


4,501 


6,146 


5,571 


- 


- 


- 


587 


17 


Saw and tool sharpening eerrloe 


776 


1,715 


1,696 


- 


- 


- 


U3 


6 


Tlnamlth, eheet metal, snd roofing repair shope 


3,151 


11,969 


11,601 


- 


- 


- 


341 


17 


Tire repair ehopa 


578 


1,174 


1,U9 


_ 


_ 


_ 


64 


1 


Typewriter repair ehope 


258 


746 


670 


. 


_ 


- 


74 


2 


Dpbolstery and furniture repair ehope 


4,756 


10,950 


10,567 


- 


- 


- 


310 


53 


Watoh, clock, and Jewelry repair ehope 


9,676 


14,707 


13,514 


_ 


_ 


. 


1,083 


110 


Welding abope 


2,54S 


10,476 


10.183 


- 


_ 


_ 


276 


19 


Other mechanicel repair sarvloea 


5,962 


17,809 


16,873 


- 


- 


- 


609 


127 


Hlaoellaneoua Qerrioe: 


















Antnnoblle laundrlee 


733 


2,061 


2,012 


. 


_ 


_ 


44 


5 


Intomobllo rental aarvloe 


361 


5,420 


5,202 


_ 


_ 


_ 


133 


86 


Disinfectant and exterminating aerrloe 


321 


3,147 


2,990 


. 


_ 


_ 


116 


41 


aaploysmt aganclM 


783 


3,274 


3,242 


- 


- 


_ 


26 


6 


Oaragea (storage) 


2,183 


14.197 


12,959 


- 


_ 


- 


976 


252 


Hametltohlng, embroidering, end buttonholing 


















shope 


985 


1,620 


1,515 


_ 


_ 


_ 


86 


19 


Parking lota 


3,152 


12,827 


12,267 


_ 


_ 


_ 


425 


136 


Tourist oamps; end tourlat cope with filling 


















atatlona 


5,846 


8,483 


. 


- 


6,334 


914 


1,012 


223 


Window oleening eerrloe 


387 


3,106 


5,101 


_ 


. 


_ 


4 


3 


Other miscellaneous aerrloee 


3,663 


21,163 


19,636 


- 


- 


- 


1,284 


241 


AoisaDents— Total 


29.737 


520,218 


_ 


«5,782 


. 


3,467 


7,795 


13,164 


Bllllai^ and pool parlors and bowl lag alleys 


u,t3e 


31,710 




26,912 




605 


3,524 


669 


Itanae halla 


2,933 


10,248 


_ 


8,906 


. 


663 


427 


250 


Skating rinks 


264 


1,005 


- 


930 


- 


34 


21 


30 


nwatree — Total 


10,268 


415,153 


_ 


407,953 


_ 


992 


1,308 


4,900 


Iheatrea — legitinate stage end opera 


122 


8.611 


_ 


8,505 


_ 


12 


16 


77 


ttaatrea— motion picture 


9,499 


356,316 


_ 


349, 73i 


_ 


955 


1,290 


4,337 


Theatraa--noti<« picture and THudarille 


644 


50,226 


_ 


49,7X3 


- 


26 


2 


466 


Other aKUBAsnte 


4.637 


62,102 


- 


51.079 


- 


1,203 


2,515 


7,305 


Hotels— Total }/ 


29,462 


616,649 


_ 


_ 


303,163 


161,022 


16,424 


46,940 


Teu^round— Total l/ 


27,128 


493,241 


- 


- 


£89,446 


144,072 


14,906 


44,616 


ifflerioan plan 1/ 


4,044 


34,474 


_ 


_ 


19,S84 


11,099 


2,215 


1,876 


Suropeaa plan 

lUxad plsn (American and Suropaan) 1/ 


16,936 


402,102 


- 


- 


239,849 


112.607 


10,138 


39,266 


4,146 


66,666 


- 


- 


30,313 


20.166 


2,532 


3,654 


S«a«oaal— Total ^ 


2,334 


£2,308 


- 


- 


13,717 


6,950 


519 


1,122 


iaerloan plao j/ 


1,263 


12,509 


_ 


. 


8,191 


3,677 


174 


467 


European plan 


«04 


4,302 


_ 


_ 


£.601 


1,306 


160 


235 


lUMd plan (Aaariean and Suropaan) i/ 


467 


6,497 


■ 


- 


2,985 


1,967 


166 


420 



1/ 4m«rloan plan and h'lx*d plui (ia*rlou and Buropvao I ttotaln w»r« Dot clw^s abla 
ar* tti»rofor« OTaratatad, and aalaa of msala uudaratatad to 



to alio* maal aalaa aaparataly. Roun raatola 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 

ULELK 9B. CSTEKD SnSS SOAURT — amat;t?U^ OP KSCSPIB OT ETSHTICS JStlBLXaSfHnS^ FLiCBS OCT iMBSSUBST, AKD HOTILS, 

BI GiBXBAfEKC QITISIQB JOB) fffJ^TW 



(Bae9lpts «sprMB9d In thcKUMOKd^ 


of dollnral 












Romber 

of 

btab- 

11 sh- 


teoaipta 






Basalpta 


frcB — 






DIV13I0B *FD 3TATK 


aarrlaa 


Admla- 
aions 


Doom 
Rantala 


Sala of 
Uaala 


Sala of 

llaroh- 


Other 
Souroes 




manta 








1/ 


1/ 


apdlaa 




CBITKD STAEBs"toT»I. 


soz.vu 


♦2,760,881 


♦1,680,717 


♦495,782 


♦309,497 


♦165,483 


♦81,601 


♦67,681 


HOI ra(s.;un> 


36,769 


199,968 


120,910 


41,893 


17,719 


11,917 


3,337 


4,186 


CanBaotlant 


6,TSS 


37,130 


22,686 


8,562 


2,742 


8,054 


440 


646 


MUM 


3,613 


13,576 


6,638 


1,556 


3,606 


1,318 


259 


199 


UMsaoboBott* 


19,780 


118,616 


74,330 


85,686 


8,228 


6,260 


2,139 


1,873 


He* H««pahlr« 


2,090 


9,259 


4,354 


1,840 


1,139 


708 


181 


1,037 


Bhod* Island 


Z.BU. 


13,216 


9,546 


3,600 


904 


665 


159 


342 


T«nioit 


1,750 


6,265 


3,356 


649 


1,100 


912 


159 


69 


lamui AXLumc 


1*8,380 


901,628 


584,181 


168,587 


78,733 


43,182 


13,680 


19,379 


■•V JaTa«7 


ZO.OU 


103,681 


60,653 


82,162 


11,566 


5,678 


1,893 


1,739 


■n Tork 


W.IM 


6W,8«S 


419,715 


105,703 


54,145 


88,178 


7,187 


15,031 


PnnnylTAaia 


M.IM 


171,048 


103,813 


34,662 


13,038 


12,332 


4,600 


2,609 


iiST NoaiE onrauL 


loe.MS 


M«,9«S 


358,893 


109,699 


66,071 


33,089 


12,377 


15,869 


IlUnoli 


3d, 173 


nt,9SS 


142,237 


61,818 


33,682 


12,934 


4,464 


7,828 


Indian* 


u.on 


47, (SO 


89,034 


8,458 


5,036 


2,758 


1,462 


908 


lUohlgut 


is,sao 


93,933 


59,808 


16,483 


8,665 


5,348 


1,878 


2,417 


Ohio 


n,9as 


143,248 


89,565 


85,091 


13,155 


8,534 


2,904 


3,999 


WiBoonnln 


U,S96 


52,184 


38,849 


7,915 


5,533 


3,681 


1,649 


717 


IIS3T HORIB CraTBiL 


61,346 


846,316 


150,447 


40,148 


29,269 


15,632 


6,927 


4,893 


Ion 


U.5«« 


40,899 


25,800 


6,952 


4,553 


8,180 


1,235 


779 




8,617 


85,830 


15,044 


5,873 


2,977 


1,538 


699 


899 


Mlnsuota 


11,037 


53,213 


30,447 


8,668 


7,049 


4,403 


1,314 


1,312 


■Uuourl 


17,091 


86,037 


55,965 


12,693 


9,230 


4,868 


1,518 


1,763 


tebraaka 


7,649 


84,907 


15,682 


3,676 


2,979 


1,563 


643 


464 


Horth ruiota 


2,603 


7,665 


4,017 


1,260 


1,231 


664 


353 


140 


South Dakota 


2,783 


7,765 


4,098 


1,606 


1,250 


416 


265 


136 


SOOTH ATUHTIC 


44,989 


223,876 


126,501 


38,173 


31,482 


16,805 


3,486 


8,429 


DBlaaara 


961 


4,710 


2,803 


1,010 


316 


357 


123 


102 


Dlatrlot of Columbia 


2,413 


31,845 


13,240 


5,306 


6,679 


4,402 


606 


1,612 


Florida 


6,270 


31,215 


14,872 


2,856 


7,783 


2,543 


369 


2,792 


Georgia 


6,389 


26,950 


16,147 


4,737 


3,479 


1,559 


482 


646 


Uarrland 


6,825 


37,161 


22,339 


8,822 


2,318 


1,592 


572 


1,518 


■orth Carolina 


6,827 


86,840 


15,931 


4,680 


3,778 


1,689 


270 


492 


South Carolina 


3,854 


14,895 


9,739 


1,975 


1,511 


718 


117 


235 


Virginia 


7,405 


33,863 


20,892 


5,192 


3,643 


2,666 


589 


881 


■aat Virginia 


4,645 


17,597 


10,138 


3,595 


1,976 


1,279 


358 


2S1 


usT SOOTH onrauL 


23,849 


82.990 


52.515 


11,891 


10.168 


4,915 


1,173 


2,328 


alabaK 


5,386 


17,556 


11,824 


2,308 


2,008 


869 


246 


3U 


lantnoliT 


8,031 


88,471 


17,398 


4,633 


3,115 


1,724 


465 


1,136 


Uaalsslppi 


3,771 


9,143 


5,553 


1,360 


1,301 


573 


98 


258 


Tannessea 


6,721 


27,880 


17,740 


3,590 


3,744 


1,759 


364 


623 


not SOOIB COTTBIL 


39,588 


156,325 


92,045 


26,923 


21,389 


9,126 


2,955 


3,887 


Arkansas 


4,245 


12,076 


6,830 


1,715 


1,945 


1,097 


288 


201 


Loulaiana 


5,653 


25,617 


15,296 


5,089 


2,839 


1,367 


569 


467 


Oklahoma 


8,574 


88,419 


16,436 


5,405 


3,868 


1,694 


486 


530 


Tazaa 


81, UO 


90,213 


53,483 


14,714 


18,737 


4,968 


1,612 


2,699 


UONTADI 


16,360 


68,593 


33,980 


11,200 


14,153 


5,213 


2,244 


1,803 


ArlBona 


1,546 


7,972 


3,173 


1,284 


1,962 


826 


345 


383 


Colorado 


5,528 


82,579 


12,716 


3,359 


4,098 


1,533 


402 


471 


Idaho 


1,873 


6,985 


3,838 


1,116 


1,239 


426 


210 


156 


Montana 


2,460 


9,807 


4,670 


1,730 


1,994 


730 


415 


268 


■srada 


541 


3,148 


1,106 


596 


920 


197 


162 


167 


Haw Uaxloo 


1,258 


4,815 


8,159 


657 


1,041 


619 


288 


51 


Utah 


1,974 


8,U6 


4,216 


1,479 


1,498 


541 


197 


185 


■waning 


i,iao 


5,171 


2,102 


979 


1,401 


342 


226 


122 


PICITIC 


48,988 


291,199 


168,245 


53,328 


40,513 


15,544 


6,482 


7,087 


California 


35,865 


227,065 


131,619 


42,220 


31,072 


U,498 


4,926 


5,7^.0 


OragoB 


4,865 


22,546 


13,524 


3,231 


3,370 


1,380 


506 


i)36 


■ashlagtoB 


8,198 


41,588 


23,102 


7,877 


6,071 


2,666 


1,051 


821 



1/ Amarlcas plan and MlzBd plan (Anarlean and ^iropaan) hotels 

ar* thervfor* OT«rstatad, ami salea of iii»al8 undaratatsd to 



\T9 not alwaye able to ebow meal s&laa aeparatel;. Hooa rentals 
aome extant. 












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Buainess 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 

T&HLK UA. — mUTKD SnT£3 StAMLRT — HUUEEIl OP 9T0RS. SAIS, BIPLOTliarr. IND PiT ROLL, BT 
(Sales and pay roll oxpreatrad la thousand* of doLlara) 











Full-tloa 


PAT 


ROLL 










PUll-tlne 


PiS POLL 


3T1TK 


ItiBbar 

of 
storaa 


SolOB 


Nunbar of 
Proprla- 

tora 


kpl07««a 
AT«ra«« 
Nnsbar 


Total 
laoludlD^ 
Part-tlBa 


Part-tljna 
Only 


9UIS 


BuBhar 

of 
Storn 


Salea 


Honber of 

Proprle- 

tore 


nnploreea 
iTerege 
Humber 


TBtol 
laeludlng 
Part-tlaa 


Part-time 
Only 


Total 


1,926,119 


tSe,037,23S 


1.574,341 


2,703,325 


#2, 910, 445 


$24^.996 
















ll>ba> 


e0.049 


250,364 


21,292 


29,962 


23,766 


2.006 


Rebraaka 


19,212 


274,575 


20,829 


89,065 


28,343 


2,672 


Arii«na 


4,7*9 


76,250 


5,039 


7,344 


6,455 


913 


ROTada 

Hew Raapahire 


1,463 


26,680 


1,490 


2,436 


3,317 


316 


Arkaosoa 


15,918 


160,095 


17,965 


16,323 


16,299 


1,364 


6,368 


111,799 


6,516 


10,620 


11,377 


1,045 


California 


Bt.iH 


1,692,679 


94,310 


176,1*2 


216,105 


20,578 


Haw Jeraer 


64,190 


1,016,928 


63,410 


95,939 


119,927 


9,057 


Colorado 


13,700 


233,014 


14,583 


25,616 


27,174 


2,U4 


HOW HBxlco 


4,246 


53,944 


4,613 


6,321 


5,351 


461 


CoKWoctlcut 


:il,047 


430,526 


20,619 


44,508 


53.465 


4,257 


Hew Tork 


178,614 


3,739,992 


173,771 


377.320 


464,707 


29,780 


Dala«ar« 


3.«0 


57,910 


3,200 


5,675 


6,331 


970 


north Carolina 


27,652 


363, lU 


29,252 


39,181 


35,165 


3,141 


Dlatrlot ta coluBbU 


e,i» 


241,515 


5,516 


28,508 


33,681 


l.HS 


■ertti Dakota 


7,981 


106,067 


8,391 


9,487 


9,301 


623 


rlcrlla 


21,697 


268,804 


22,363 


33,464 


30,815 


2,438 


oblo 


85,961 


1,442,132 


88,196 


159, 4C6 


172,264 


16,957 


OaoTgla 


26,6ei 


352,916 


28,179 


42,114 


35.763 


2,982 


Okiahona 


26,434 


341,774 


29,206 


38,008 


34,629 


3,054 


Idabo 


5,139 


67,406 


5,526 


7.163 


7.940 


821 


Oregon 


13,769 


224,447 


15,407 


22.335 


24,064 


2,430 


IllUola 


96,670 


1,726,660 


99,627 


198,293 


221,323 


21,155 


PannerlTanla 


115.685 


1,676,699 


116,167 


217,328 


227,269 


19,024 


IBdlaiia 


41,256 


569,972 


44,006 


65.665 


63,316 


6,707 


Rhode laland 


6,436 


167,288 


8,127 


19,060 


21,242 


1,635 


Ion 


34,643 


479,695 


37,323 


49,162 


47,020 


4,830 


South Carolina 


15,526 


186.815 


16,097 


20,218 


16,961 


1,546 


KUoaa 


26,779 


329,176 


29,062 


34,724 


32.813 


3.421 


South Dakota 


8,666 


106.196 


6,607 


10,069 


9,393 


662 


Keotuclcj 


25,672 


304,605 


27,646 


32,503 


30,220 


2,750 


Tennaaeee 


22,777 


330,079 


24,626 


37,566 


33.564 


2,635 


LoulBlana 


22,239 


264,123 


22,606 


36,970 


30,411 


1,745 


Tezaa 


67,914 


965,661 


72,403 


111,060 


101.720 


7,059 


UalQO 


11,429 


194,386 


12,104 


17,756 


18,715 


1,609 


Utah 


5,103 


91,968 


5,169 


9,914 


10,336 


914 


Harrland 


23,467 


364,364 


24,653 


42,724 


45,707 


4,372 


Teramt 


4,934 


78,600 


5,224 


7,646 


7,809 


672 


Uwaacbuaatts 


52,450 


1,195,161 


•7,536 


133,336 


156,224 


12,233 


VlrglnlA 


26,451 


358,102 


27.350 


41,116 


40,065 


3,031 


Mionlgaa 


57,121 


949,137 


59,879 


104,880 


108,969 


9,886 


Waahlngtcm 


22,307 


368,171 


23,169 


37,491 


42,262 


4,653 


mimeaotB 


33,679 


565,102 


35,916 


62,195 


64,763 


5,516 


Hoet nrslnla 


17,126 


244.071 


17,956 


24,793 


24,47C 


2,108 


Ulaalaalppl 


14,772 


140,695 


16,079 


16,906 


13,271 


1,066 


Vleonnaln 


44,563 


623.962 


46,577 


61,517 


•7,530 


7,964 


Ulaaourl 


49,247 


759,125 


53,410 


69,166 


90,162 


7,378 


wyoBlng 


3,169 


55,970 


3,497 


4,966 


6,777 


476 


Hontaaa 


6,732 


112,362 


7,164 


10,147 


11,613 


1,208 

















Census of 
American 
Business 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION: 1933 

TABLE 12A~StlaiABY FOB CITIES OF MURE THAU 50,000 POPUIATIUN 

Number of Stores, Sales, Employment, and Pay Roll 
(Saies and pay roU expressed in tlwusands of dollars) 



SwaaBTJ — 191 Cltiss 



State. Cotinty, and Cttt 

(Fiffures after city represent 19S0 

papulatum) 



Num- 
ber of 
stores 



Ai^ron, Ohio 
Aloaay, N. Y. 
Allentown, Pa, 
Altoona, Pa. 
Asheville, S, C. 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Atlantic City, n. J. 
Augusts, ya. 
Auatlu, Tax, 
Baltimore, vAm 

Bayonne, H, J, 
BaaumoQt, Tex, 
Berlcaley, Calif, 
Bathlebem, Pa* 
BioghamtoQ, B, T, 

Birmingham, Ala. 
Boaton, uass, 
Bridgeport, Conn, 
Broolcton, Llass, 
Buffalo, N, Y, 

Cambridge, L:a33, 
Camden, i:, J, 
Canton, Ohio 
Cedar riapids, Iowa 
Charleston, s, C, 

Charleston, 7, 7a, 
Charlotte, K, C, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chester, pa, 
Chiea^, 111, 

Cioero, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
CleTeland, Ohio 1/ 
Cleveland Heights, Ohio 
Columbia, 5. C. 

Columous, Ohio 
Covington, Ky, 
Dallas, Tex, 
Davenport, Io«e 
Dayton, Ohio 

Dearborn, uleh, 
Ceoatur, 111* 
Denver, Colo, 
Dea uoines, lona 
Detroit, Ltloh. 

Duluth, ylnn, 
Durham, n, c. 
East Chicago, Ind, 
Bast Orange, N, J, 
Eaat 3t, Louis, 111. 

Sllsabeth, K, J, 
81 Paao, Tex, 
Srla, pa, 
Svanaton, 111, 
Bvansville, Ind, 

Tall River, vasa. 
Flint, -.iioh. 
Fort %yne, liid. 
Fort 70rth, Tex, 1/ 
Fresno, Calif. 

Galveston, Tex, 
Oary, Ind, 
Qlendale, Calif, 
Grand Rapids, ^:ioh. 
Oreensboro, K, c, 

Hamilton. Ohio 
Hammond, ind, 
Hamtramcit, uioh, 
Harrlsburg, Pa. 
Hartford, Comi, 

HlgSiland Parit, Utah. 
Boboken, N, J, 
Holyolce, UAsa, 
Houstoh, Tex. 
Huntington, V, va. 

Indianapolis, Ind, 
Irvlngtoa, 5, J, 
Jaokaon, Mich, 
Jaolcaonville, Fla, 
Jersey City, H, J, 



3.427 
2,434 

1,285 
600 
642 

3,200 

1,706 

913 

13,499 

I.ISS 
e02 

\,asa 

729 
977 

2,742 
10,632 
2,293 
696 
6,215 

1,026 
2,117 
1,493 
929 
1,037 

956 j 
■946 ' 

■ 1,693 
624 

44,599 

906 

6,660 

13,413 

313 

602 

3,940 
963 

3,694 
S30 

2,660 

475 

772 

4,133 

2,157 

17,141 

1,265 
611 
694 
621 

1,069 

2,359 
1,292 ! 
1,566 
662 
1,327 



$70,445 
60,650 
23,830 
17.046 
15,166 

94,464 
30,423 
14,641 
19,631 
261,461 

13,552 
15,290 
21,009 
11,496 
27.499 

55,914 I 
374,605 
44,337 
20,349 
162,526 I 

26,135 i 

32,669 

26,137 

19,918 

16,997 



Num- 
ber of 



Full-time 
employees 

(^average 
number) 



Pair Roll 



Total, in- 
cluding 
part-time 



Part- 
time 
only 



3,136 

2,409 

1,350 i 

667 

662 

2,736 

1,564 

692 

946 

13,406 

1.169 
752 

1.026 
797 
945 

2,370 
6,669 
2,054 
664 
7,9S8 

877 

2,277 

1.438 

687 

960 



22,685 I 910 
26,596 I 702 | 
32,162 1,464 
13,821 : 624 I 
990,084 ,42.010 . 



I 



1,573 
1.674 j 
1,462 
2,300 
1.43Z 

763 
1,027 ■ 
1,063 
2,216 

663 

791 ' 

626 

695 

1,241 

2.192 

691 
1,017 

890 
4,326 
1,124 

4,494 

716 

687 

1,747 



9,530 
160,469 
276,936 

9,422 
16,066 

93,253 
13,704 
88,512 
17,843 
57,916 

7,600 
16,849 

106,553 

65,023 

369,936 

26,266 
14,666 
6,407 
18,334 
14,627 

33,355 
21,346 

•27,813 
26,566 
22,559 

\ 

26,624 
37,094 
31.299 

43,090 i 
27,879 

16,611 
17,264 
19,773 
46,461 
17,196 

12,393 
16,982 
8,CS0 
29,629 
66,944 



1,168 I 

6,014 

12,876 

232 

721 

3,704 
867 

3,525 
766 

2,590 

645 

725 

3,996 

1,931 

16,444 

1.193 
579 
837 
702 

1,076 

1,983 
1,343 
1,554 
566 
1,200 

1,607 
1,728 
1,461 
2,241 
1,496 

796 
1,039 
1.046 
2,028 

544 

713 

664 

936 

1,124 

1,819 



8,407 I 
7,023 I 

2.960 I 
2.273 

1.961 I 

13,461 
3,921 

1,906 ' 
£.431 
30,164 

899 I 
2,046 ! 
1,903 I 
1,324 
2,933 

8,621 ' 
49,370 

6,108 ! 

2,131 
18,890 

2,930 
3,507 
3,297 
2,532 
2,541 

3,019 
4,054 
4.066 
1.452 
122,551 

738 
20,733 
33,668 

962 
2.195 

12,144 
1,322 

12,309 
2,346 
7,100 

734 
2,061 I 

13,522 
6,756 

46.647 

3.618 
1,796 

616 I 
1,526 I 
1,609 

2,905 
3,028 
3,514 
3,014 
3,066 

3,292 
3,864 

3,8?1 
5,512 
2,826 

2,134 
1,820 
1,915 
6,963 
2,161 

1,409 
1,949 
683 
4,029 
8,401 



14,466 691 1,562 

16,242 954 1,336 

16,331 924 1,769 

98,392 , 4,287 12,657 

20,167 1,106 2,623 



104,177 
10,474 
13,682 
37,767 



3,796 

722 

666 

1,632 

4.176 



14.341 I 

731 
1.658 
6.149 
5.328 



#8.989 
8,286 
2,967 
2,140 
1,852 

12,668 
4,08S 

1.616 
2,422 
33,462 

1,183 
1.677 
2.574 
1,393 
3,324 

7,324 

67,360 
6,021 
2,543 

20,947 

3.464 
4,064 
3,616 
2,533 
2,116 



t755 
464 
244 
24A 
124 

644 
267 
187 
177 
3,176 

127 
127 
295 
109 
176 

460 

3,260 

637 

270 

1,646 

387 
3M 
363 
212 
162 



State. Countt, and Citt 

{Fibres oSUx city represent 1930 

pfrpulation) 



3,079 ' 159 
3,512 221 

3,811 302 

1,664 111 

141,147 12,384 

876 ! 152 

23,436 l,ef7 

36,136 3,456 

1,207 99 

1,668 { 134 



12,961 
1,504 

12,004 
2,449 
7,498 



1,004 
152 
637 
279 
647 



79S 80 
2.097 2ce 

14,476 I 895 
7,117 806 

50,329 3,680 



3,877 
1,768 
596 
1,993 
1,781 

3.778 
2,866 
3,670 
4,06? 
3,062 

3,770 
4.165 
4,054 
5,683 
3,537 

2,251 
1,974 
2,267 
6,006 
2,167 

1,629 

2,106 

848 

4,037 

10,241 



429 

193 

63 

139 

166 

347 
191 
315 
266 
261 

290 
364 
430 
358 
304 

124 

211 
196 
579 
152 

138 
176 
77 
313 
566 



4,289 I 61,730 
1/ Correction made in figures after publloatioD of State total. 



1,662 122 

1,626 157 

2,104 193 

12,846 666 

2,676 187 

14,639 : 1,221^; 

977 j 94 

1,661 139 

4,777 I 292 

6.909 I 669 



johnatom, pa. 
KalaBBsoe, Mloh. 
Kansas City, Vans. 
Kansas City, Co. 
Kenosha, yls, 

Knozvllle, Tann. 
Lakenood. Ohio 
Lancaster, pa. 
Lansing, yich. 
Lawrence, uaas ■ 

Linooln, neb. 
Little Rook, Ark. 
Long Beach. Calif. 
Los Angelae. Calif. 
Louisvilie, Sy. 

Lowell, uass, 
Lyui, uass. 
UoKeesport, pa. 
Uaoon, Ga. 
Uadiaon, Via. 

Ualdan, uaaa. 
Uanohester, B. H. 
Uedford, uass. 
Uen^is, TenB. 
Uiaml. Fla. 

uilwaukea. vis. 
Uimieapolla, Minn. 
Hoblle, Ala. 
uontgcmary, Ala, 
Ut. yemon. n. T. 

Nashville. Tann. 
Kewarlc. H. J. 
New Bedford, Mass. 
New Britain, Oonn. 
Hew Haven. Conn. 

New Orleans, La. 
New Rochelle. N. 7. 
Newton, uass. 
Hew York, H. Y. 

Bronx Borou^ 
Brooklyn Borough 
Manhattan Boron^ 
Queens Borou^ 
Richmond Borough 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Norfolk, 7a. 
Oaldaad, Calif, 
oak park. 111. 
Oklahoim City, okla. 
Omaha, Nab. 

paaadena. Oalif, 
Passaic, N. J, 
paterson, N. J. 
pawtuoket, R, l. 
Peoria, 111. 

Philadelphia, pa. 
Pittsburg. Pa. 1/ 
Pont lac, Mloh. 
port Arthur, Tex* 
Portland, Maine 

Portland, ore, 
providence, R. I. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
E3uiuoy, liass , 
Racine, vis. 

Reeding, pa. 
Bichmond. Ta. 
Roanoke, Ta. 
Boohester. H. T. 
Sockford, 111* 

Sacramento, Calif. 
Saginaw, ulch. 
St. Joseph, uo. 1/ 
St. Louis, uo. 
St. panl, uinn. 

Salt Lake City, Dts2i 
San AAtonlo, Tax* 
San Diego, Calif. 
3SB Francisco, Calif* 
San Jose. Calif* 



Num- 
ber of 
stores 



Sales 



899 

838 
1.580 
6.206 

762 

1,121 

539 

662 

1,016 

1,434 

1,044 

976 

2,177 

19,617 

4,012 

1,365 



Num- 
ber of 
propr- 
etors 



SS2 

811 
1,664 
6,106 

815 

1,036 
614 
869 
980 

1,389 



26,064 966 

22,623 664 

41,676 2,224 

453,340 19,917 

81.229 I 3.726 



tl8,2t7 

20.215 
19,686 
163,680 
11,269 

27,404 
12.876 
16,316 
23,396 
26,762 



714 
659 
961 

649 
1,016 

436' 
2.444 
2,4291 

10,004. 

6,122 

980 

768' 

8761 

2,206 
6,325 
1,714 
8441 
2,691 

7,708 

660 

464 

97,628 



26,621 I 

31,624 

14,396 

14,694 

23,722 

14,666 
21,434 
9,6U 
69,077 
44,940 

178,740 
168,636 
19,670 
16,020 
22.069 

60,560 
166,167 
30,230 
13,926 
65.467 

103,366 

21,716 

12,429 

2,246,601 



14,3061 243,789 
33,423 i 667,619 
36,089 1,165,805 
12,389 1 243,773 
2,319 34,615 

1,141 19,197 



1,272 

1,352 

668 

654 

664 

643 

982 

384 

2,309 

2,367 

9,223 

6,972 
697 
736 
561 

2,049 
6,662 
1,660 
841 
2,495 

7,687 

617 

316 

92,263 

13,605 
32,674 
31.992 
11,596 
2,196 
1,126 



Full- time 
employees 

(at^crage ' 
number) 



2,313 
2,224 

2,101 
22,921 
1,016 

3,766 
1,200 
2,192 
2,880 
2,650 

3,736 
3,176 
4,241 
66.606 
10,919 

2,916 
3,653 
1,602 
2,111 

2,803 

1,362 
2,336 
889 
9,163 
6,606 

21,072 

21,997 

2,767 

2,409 

2,066 

6,973 
21,413 
3,264 
1,376 
6,159 

16,946 
2,241 

1,257 
236,334 

18,735 

47,934 

146,484 

20,546 

2,633 

2,046 



1,941 
4,696 
665 
2,169 
3,152 

1,336 
1,178 
2,677 
S97 
1,422 

25,154 

6,942 

706 

473 

1,149 

4,584 

3,223 

674 

747 

1,054 

1,689 

2,548 

920 

I 4,690 

1,126 

1,760 

991 

1,203 

12,527 

3,297 

1,509 
3,866 
3,026 

10,067 
1,116 



39,228 

103,904 

21,029 

1/ 63,492 

73,903 

28,540 
16,621 
46,179 
20,600 
34,699 

614,466 
195,601 
12,499 
10,711 



1,829 
4,910 I 



5,411 

10,846 

464 I 2,092 

.^,080 I 7,404 

3,015 I 9,785 



1,246 
1,156 
2,627 
610 
1.242 

23.667 

6.508 
646 
615 



31,622 j 1,066 



105,866 
66,620 
12,666 
19,807 
16,607 

36,741 
66,982 
23.364 
106,321 
23,392 

42,764 

19,066 

22,766 

252, SIX 

101,323 

42,109 
60,618 
63,917 

254,075 
26,470 



4,659 
2,863 

698 

619 

1,118 

1,752 
2,331 
819 
4,409 
1,044 

1,677 
939 

1,169 
12,415 
3,316 

1,469 

4,037 
3,402 
10,752 
1,134 



3,020 
1,469 
4,670 
2,244 
4,918 

70,738 
27,327 
1,696 
1,062 
3,973 

12,717 
10,869 
1,440 
1,644 
1,666 

4,466 
9,011 
3,229 
12,626 
2.739 

4,604 
2,172 
2,856 
32,610 
12,634 

6,357 
8,920 
6,837 
30,408 
2,648 



Total, in- 


P»r^ 


cluding 


time 


part-time 


only 


n.330 


42se 


2.343 


203 


2,088 


206 


22,696 


1,637 


1,230 


195 


3,446 


230 


1,391 


156 


2,363 


206 


2,993 


273 


3.038 


345 


3,967 


362 


2,970 


264 


6,291 


669 


64,619 


4,749 


10,947 


863 


3,299 


360 


4,366 


466 


1,666 


192 


1,646 


166 


3,174 


SU 


1,678 


164 


2,497 


260 


1,076 


67 


6,628 


694 


6,696 


364 


24,718 


2,703 


23,762 


1,731 


2,300 


148 


1,949 


15C 


:,676 


Ul 


6,811 


436 


27,030 


1,366 


3,764 


378 


1,686 


151 


7,497 


634 


14,247 


827 


2,984 


lie 


1,660 


122 


299,634 


16,366 


25,208 


1,631 


60,943 


3,836 


1 182,621, 


8,910 


27,013 


1,700 


3,649 


292 


2,264 


207 


6,646 


S4T 


14,242 


1.626 


2,667 


234 


7,036 


667 


10,160 


799 


3,796 


941 


1,670 


140 


6,909 


410 


2,518 


228 


5,129 


381 


74,333 


4,562 


29,866 


2,313 


1,690 


167 


1,029 


99 


4,420 


262 


13,564 


1,217 


12,136 


767 


1,618 


154 


2,226 


180 


1,942 


266 


4,706 


354 


9,623 


623 


3.103 


176 


14,606 


1,207 


2,763 


237 


6,459 


364 


2,194 


194 


2,960 


241 


37,027 


2,927 


13,7CS 


960 


6,566 


401 


7,704 


408 


7,196 


631 


39,327 


3,668 


3,490 


332 



Census of 
American 
Business 



RETAIL DISTRIBUTION 1933 

tULS ^g j — smuART FOR CITIZS UP .JUHE OBi^ 50.0X POPUUTIOH 

Number of Stores. Sales, Employmtnt, and Pay Roll 
(Sales and pay roll exprtssed in thou^sands of dollars) 



7IIMIIIJ im Cltl«»-Cont'4^ 





Num- 
ber of 
atorea 


Sales 


Num- 
ber o( 
propri- 
etore 


Full-time 
employees 
iaveroffe 
numbtr) 


Pat Roll 


State, County, a.vd City 

i,Fiffiirea afUr city reprtsent 1930 

population) 


Num- 
ber of 
stotes 


Sales 


Num- 
ber of 
propri- 
etore 


Full-time 
employees 

{asfrage 
number) 


Pat Roll 


StxTK, CoDMTT, AMD ClTT 


Total, in- 
cluding 
part-time 


Part- 
time 
only 


Total, in- 
cluding 
part-time 


Part- 
time 
only 


191 CltlM-contlnuad 




























SsTsnaah, Ca. 


i.eao 


«19,9U 


1.E57 


2,940 


12.394 


•229 


Troy, N. Y. 


1,285 


}26,US 


1,256 


2,845 


t3,408 


»270 


Schpnectady, K. Y. 


1,481 


31,369 


1,441 


3,456 


3,724 


349 


Tulaa, Okla. 


2,02? 


44,690 


1,964 


6,169 


6,057 


415 


ScrantoD, y«. 


1,917 


41,853 


1,811 


5,710 


5,853 


324 


Union City, N. J, 


1,066 


17,689 


1,014 


1,617 


2,206 


219 


5«attl«, ffaah. 


5,7«8 


129,096 


5,597 


16,229 


18,582 


1,806 


lit lea, X. r. 


1,270 


27,667 


1,232 


3,018 


3,930 


306 


ShreTeport, La, 


1,064 


24,269 


888 


3,627 


3,34« 


168 


"aeo, Tex. 


843 


16,206 


643 


1,917 


1,694 U3 


Sloul CltT, Iowa 


1,096 


26,704 


1,094 


3,607 


3,362 


221 


VaahlnptOQ, 0. C. 


6,166 


241,615 


5,516 


28,506 


33,681 ;1, 63 


ScoMrTllle, Uaas. 


955 


19,699 


764 


1,989 


2,715 


306 


Wnterbury. Conn. 


1,230 


24,293 


1,066^ 


- 2,700 


3,13» 259 


South Band, Ind. 


1,275 


25,249 


1,140 


3,260 


3,249 


289 


Wheeling, ff. Va, 


1,017 


22,449 


973 


3,058 


3,077 i:17 


Spokane, "aab. 


1,807 


38,375 


1,846 


4,408 


4,707 


645 


Wichita, K&na. 


1,644 


36,894 


1,884 


4,728 


4,714 


452 


Sprln^tleld, lU. 


1,110 


24.399 


1,079 


3,362 


3,343 


233 


"llkea-Barre, Pa. 


1,412 


31,049 


1,282 


4.290 


4,547 


221 


Sprlpgflald. Uasa. 


e,ae 


58,010 


1,929 


7,469 


8,707 


665 


WllJnlncton, Del, 


1,820 


37,376 


1,692 


4.085 


4,738 


336 


Springfield, Mo. 


1,067 


18,504 


1,123 


2,342 


2,219 


149 


Wlnaton-Salem, N, C. 


919 


16,168 


853 


2.038 


1,961 


187 


Springfield, Ohio 


947 


16,299 


863 


1,922 


1.929 


173 


Worcaator, ..■AS3, 


2,024 


54.597 


1.725 


6,492 


7,198 


512 


STTBcuae, N, Y. 


E,S73 


64,728 


1,976 


7,631 


8.161 


510 


Yonkflrs, W, Y. 


1.7S6 


3E.057 


1,725 


2,867 


3,744 


253 


Tacoina, Vaah. 


1,690 


28,950 


1,787 


3,219 


3,499 


426 


York, Pa. 


964 


18,607 


886 


2.S12 


2,409 


206 
















Younpstoan, Ohio 


1.854 


40,766 


1,951 


5.268 


5,177 


396 


Tampa, Fla. 


1,643 


26,726 


1,682 


3,336 


3,12£ 


218 
















Terra ^uta, Tnd. 


1,146 


18,591 


1,123 


2,306 


2,360 


231 
















Toledo, Ohio 


5,464 


76,595 


3.084 


9,713 


11,373 


863 
















Topeka, Kane. 


1,035 


22,267 


1,060 


2,884 


3,036 


sei 
















Trenton, N. J, 


2,297 


37,805 


2,213 


4,313 


5,016 


336 


























1 




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