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Full text of "Census of American business"

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NEW AND OLD ESTABLISHMENTS 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Ilaaiel C. Raper, Seorvtan' 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

Williaa L. AbsIio, Director 



CENSUS OF AMERICAN BUSINESS : 1933 



A CIVIL WORKS ADMINISTRATION PROJECT 



WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTION 



NEW AND OLD WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS 



AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF CHANGES 

IN ESTABLISHMENTS OPERATING IN 

THE WHOLESALE FIELD,I929-I933 




1i^ 



MAY. 19.15 



U. S . DEPARTMENT O F CO MMERCE 
Daniel C. Roper, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
William L. Austin, Director 



.-0— . 



This is one of a series of special reports presenting the findings 
of the 1933 Wholesale Census. The statistics were collected in 1934 by 
a field canvass of wholesale establishments in every State, city, and 
county in the United States, with funds provided by the Federal Civil 
Works Administration. They cover the operations of these establish- 
ments during the year 1933. 

This report was prepared under the supervision of Fred A. Gosnell, 
Chief Statistician for the Census of American Business, by Theodore N. 
Beckman, in Charge of Wholesale Distribution. Considerable assistance 
in the preparation of the report was rendered by John Albright, Admini- 
strative Assistant of the Wholesale Division. 






"^■"^ /P. G^V^LU^ 



CONTENTS 



Page 

INTRODUCTION 1 

What is a Wholesale Establishment 1 

Basis for This Analysis 1 

New Establishment Defined* 2 

Plan of Presentation 2 

Limitations of the Material 3 

DISAPPEARANCE OF WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS SINCE 1929 , , 4 

Loss in Wholesale Establishments, by Type of Organization .5 

Loss in Wholesale Establishments, by Kind of Business 8 

NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISm-.ENTS 9 

Summary of New Wholesale Establishments 9 

New Establishments, by Date of Operation 9 

New Wholesale Establishments, by Type of Organization 10 

Stability of Wholesale Establishments, by Type of 

Organization 11 

New Wholesale Establishments, by Kind of Business 12 

Stability of Wholesale Establishments, by Kind of 

Business 14 

Number of New Establishments for Wholesalers Proper 
and for Manufacturers' Sales Branches, by Kind of 

Business and Date of Operation — 16 

SALES, EXPENSES, AND EMPLOYMENT OF NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS- , 18 

Net Sales of New Wholesale Establishments 18 

Operating Expenses of New Wholesale Establishments 19 

Employment and Pay Roll 21 

New Wholesale Establishments, by Geographic Areas 22 



TABLES 

1 Disappearance of Wholesale Establishments: 1929 - 1933 6 

2 Date of Establishment of Wholesale Merchants in Existence 

in 1929, by Specified Kinds of Business 8 

3 Establishments Which Started Operations Subsequent 

to 1929, by Date of Operation 9 

4 Number of New Wholesale Establishments, Classified 

by Type of Organization 10 



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Page 

5 Turnover in Wholesale Establishments, by Type 

of Organization 12 

6 Number of New Wholesale Establishments, ^Classified 

by Kind of Business 13 

7 Turnover in Wholesale Establishments, by Kind 

of Business 15 

8 Number of Establishments Which Started Operations 
Subsequent to 1929, by Kind of Business and Date, 

for the United States 17 

9 Pay Roll as a Percent of Total Operating Expenses 22 



Appendix A - Wholesale Establishments Which Started Operations 
Subsequent to 1929, for the United States, showing 
number of establishments, sales, employment, pay 
roll, and total expenses by kind-of-business and 
type-of-operation groups, and by periods in which 
they commenced business activity 24 

Appendix B - Wholesale Establishments Which Started Operations 
Subsequent to 1929, for Selected States, showing 
number of establishments, sales, employment, pay 
roll, and total expenses, by kind-of-business and 
type-of-operation groups 26 



in 



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INTRODUCTION 



This special report of the Wholesale Census, Vvhich is a part of the Census of 
American Business, presents an analysis of disappearances and accessions of wholesale 
establishments during the four-year period of 1930 to 1933, inclusive. It is a study of 
wholesale places of business which have been eliminated from the wholesale marketing struc- 
ture and those which were added to it during the period under consideration. Special 
emphasis has been given to the new establishments which started operations subsequent to 
1929, indicating their major characteristics as compared with those of the older establish- 
ments. 

WHAT IS A WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENT? — For census purposes a wholesale establishment 
is a place of business, the primary function of which is to sell or distribute goods on a 
wholesale basis. It may be in the form of a store which does not generally sell to the 
public, a distributing warehouse, a brokerage or sales office, or part of an office as when 
the office is shared with other similar organizations. Sales at wholesale may be made to 
retailers, to institutions, to industrial consumers, or to other wholesale organizations. 
No merchandising establishment has been classified as "wholesale" unless fifty percent or 
more of its sales were made in a wholesale manner or on a wholesale basis; nor does the 
wholesale census include the sales made by manufacturers directly from their plants, without 
the use of a separate sales branch. 

The Wholesale Census was taken on the basis of establishments rather than companies 
or firms in order to facilitate the canvass and to make it possible to present data by geo- 
graphic areas. A separate report was required for each establishment regardless of whether 
or not it was owned or operated as part of a larger business organization. Wholesale 
peddlers and others who sell goods at wholesale but who maintain no regularly established 
places of business were not included in this census. 

BASIS FOR THIS ANALYSIS. — Among the questions provided on the schedule which was 
used in collecting the data for the Wholesale Census was the inquiry: "Was this establishment 

in operation in 1929? (Yes or No) " 

The schedule also required that the official of the company signing the report certify to 
the accuracy of the information and indicate whether the report covered the entire year 1933 
or a specified part thereof during which the establishment was in operation. 

Only those establishments are included in the main body of analysis in this study 
which reported that they were not in operation in 1929. If the person furnishing the infor- 
mation indicated that the establishment was not in operation in 1929 and the certificate part 
of the schedule showed that the information covered the full year of 1933, the establishment 
was classified as one which started operations subsequent to 1929 but prior to 1933. Estab- 
lishments which started operations some time during the year 1933 were classified on the 
basis of the information contained in the certificate. If it was indicated in the certif- 
icate that the establishment was in existence only part of the year, the information was 

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checked with the monthly employment data shown under Inquiry 4 (c) to make sure that the two 
items coincided. All wholesale establishments which started operations subsequent to 1929, 
including +hose which began business d uring 1933, are hereinafter referred to as new estab- 
lishments or new concerns. It should be noted, however, that this report includes only 
those establishments which were operating at the close of 1933. No data are available for 
concerns which came into existence subsequent to 1929 but which ceased operations prior to 
January 1, 1934. 

NEW ESTABLISHMENT DEFINED. — As a basis for determining the scope of this analysis 
it became necessary to ascertain the exact meaning attributed to the question: "Was this 
establishment in operation in 1929?" Several tests were applied. One consisted in checking 
the reply to the above question against the information contained in the certificate part of 
the schedule. Obviously, if the report covered but part of the year 1933, the establishment, 
barring exceptional circumstances, could not have been in operation in 1929. In the second 
place, a number of schedules submitted by firms reporting not to have been in existence in 
1929 were checked against schedules submitted for the 1929 census, to make sure that no 
reports for such establishments were previously obtained. 

Finally, a test was made for the city of Columbus, Ohio, selected for reasons of 
convenience and because of a more intimate knowledge on the part of the author of this report 
concerning the wholesale business of the city. Of the 82 wholesale establishments which 
reported in the negative to the question: "Was this establishment in operation in 1929?", it 
was found that 70 were not in existence in the city of Columbus in 1929. Of the remaining 
12 establishments, 10 had changes in name connected with the incorporation of partnerships 
or single proprietorships or with the reorganization of corporations. Of these 10 establish- 
ments, 3 also changed location within the city and 1 changed even the line of merchandise 
handled. Only 2 of the 82 establishments involved merely a change in location within the 
city and were, therefore, erroneously reported as new. Thus, in Columbus, Ohio, 85 percent 
of all wholesale establishments reporting not to have been in operation in 1929 did not 
operate in the city as wholesale places of business during that year. Consequently, they 
were entirely new additions to the wholesaling structure of the community. The remaining 
15 percent of the establishments existed in one form or another in 1929. If, however, a 
change in name, which is usually accompanied by a change in ownership, be regarded as a 
criterion of a new enterprise, then practically all of the establishments which reported to 
be new may rightfully be regarded as such. 

In consequence of the above tests and on the basis of the general reliability of 
the schedules, it would appear that the term "new establishments" as used in this analysis 
covers largely places of business which started operations subsequent to 1929 in the communi- 
ties in which they were located in 1933. To a much smaller degree, varying with the geo- 
graphic area, the "new establishments" include also those which reorganized during the de- 
ression but remained in the same community. 

PLAN OF PRESENTATION. — In order that the data presented in this study may be 
properly analyzed and correlated, statistics showing the disappearance of establishments 
over the four-year period from the end of 1929 to the end of 1933 are given first. The new 
establishments are then analyzed by date on which they started operations, by kind of busi- 
ness, and by type of organization. 

8666 



The classification of a wholesale establishment by kind of business is governed by 
the principal line or lines of merchandise in which it deals. New wholesale establishments 
were distributed among the 25 major kind-of-business groups into which all wholesale places 
of business have been divided. In addition, separate data are shown for establishments 
specializing in the distribution of beer, and wines and spiritous liquors, respectively. 
These latter two kinds of business are new and grev/ most rapidly during 1933; hence they seem 
to justify separate treatment. ^ 

An analysis of wholesale establishments by type of organization involves classifi- 
cation into five major groups, according to the type of operation or the nature of the 
functions performed. These five type groups consist of wholesalers proper, manufacturers' 
sales branches, agents and Lrokers, assemblers and country buyers, and "all other types". 
The first of the five functional type groups for which data are shown consists of more or 
I'RPS regular wholesalers in domestic and foreign trade, who take title to the goods they buy 
and sell and are largely independent in ownership. Manuiacturers' sales branches include 
wholesale outlets owned by manufacturers largely for the disposal of their own goods. In the 
classification designated as agents and brokers are included wholesale functionaries who do 
not take title to the goods involved, such as auction companies, brokers, commission mer- 
chants, export and import agents, manufacturers' agents, and selling agents. In the fourth 
functional type are assemblers and country buyers of farm products, most of them operating 
at local producing points or in the cities of producing regions. These comprise, among 
others, cooperative marketing associations, elevators, milk and cream stations, and packers 
and shippers. The fifth division which covers all other types of wholesale establishments 
consists, for the most part, of bulk tank stations and a few chain store warehouses. 

LIMITATIONS OF THE MATERIAL. — This study is based entirely upon the material 
gathered in two censuses, the Census of Distribution covering the year 1929 and the Census 
of American Business for the year 1933. Obviously, the accuracy of the results is dependent, 
first, upon the thoroughness and completeness of the two canvasses and, second, upon their 
comparability. 

Every effort has been made to have the classification between wholesale and retail 
and the classifications by kind of business and by type of establishment identical fo-r both 
years. Nevertheless, due to lack of commodity information for 1933, the classifications by 
kind of business may not have been as accurate as for 1929; thus causing somewhat of a shift 
in classifications. Furthermore, some additional minor classifications were created for 1933 
to cover wholesale establishments dealing in beer, wine, and spiritous liquors. A certain 
latitude must also be allt ,ved for variations as between kind-of-business classifications 
which may have been caused by lack of uniformity in terminology throughout the country. 

It is likewise possible that the two censuses are not exactly alike from the stand- 
point of coverage and thoroughness of canvass. In some sections of the country the canvass 
might have been more complete during one of those censuses than in others. There may have 
also been some difference of opinion among the respondents as to what constitutes a new 
wholesale establishment. Despite these limitations, it is believed that the data are 
probably as complete, comparable, and reliable as any data secured on such a large scale can 
be. Furthermore, attendant deficiencies tend to be minimized when data are presented for the 
United States as a whole or for any ma.lo r kind-of-business or type-oi-organization group. 

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DISAPPEARANCE OF WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS SINCE 1929 



Reliable statistics on wholesale distribution are at a premium. Paucity of such 
data has long been lamented by students of marketing. While this gap ha" been partially 
filled by the First Census of Distribution and, since, by the Census of American ciusiness. 
there are still many dark spots on which statistical light is most welcome. It is believed 
that one of those dark spots lies in the field of mortality or disappearance of wholesale 
enterprises and the appearance of others to take their places in the wholesaling structure. 
Practically nothing is nov/ known concerning the rate at which wholesale establishments go 
out of business and others enter the field; nor is it known how different types of wholesal- 
ing react to economic conditions in this respect or how the various kinds of business are 
affected by such phenomena. It is hoped that the material presented in this study will 
contribute in some measure to an understanding of this problem. 

The classification of wholesale establishments in operation in 1933 into new and 
old makes it possible to determine how many wholesale places of business in existence at the 
end of 1929 were out of business early in 1934. Census statistics, however, afford no clue 
to wholesale establishments which came into being and went out of business during the four- 
year period of 1930-1933, inclusive. The information summarized in this report presents, 
therefore, an incomplete record of disappearances among wholesale establishments. It is 
considered of value, nevertheless, particularly for purposes of comparison as between 
different types of organizations and as between different kinds of business. 

When the number of new establishments reporting for 1933 is deducted from the total 
n'-mber in business at the close of 1933, the remainder will be found to represent the number 
of establishments which survived since 1929. The difference between the number which re- 
ported for 1929 and those which survived to the close of 1933 stands for the minimum number 
of establishments which went out of business during the four-year period. By this method it 
is computed that 43,399 wholesale establishments that were in existence in 1929 apparently 
went out of business during the four-year period. In addition, a number of wholesale 
establishments must have come and gone during the period under consideration, which cannot 
be accounted for by the Census for reasons indicated in the paragraph immediately preceding. 

The grand total of new wholesale establishments or of establishments which have 
gone out of business between the end of 1929 and the end of 1933 represents a true measure 
of addition to or elimination from the wholesale structure of the country. But in classify- 
ing wholesale establishments as new or old, no account was taken of change in their methods 
of operation or in the composition of merchandise they handled. Therefore, in the analysis 
of old and new establishments by type-of-operation or by kind-of-business groups the concept 
of old and new establishments is subject to some modification, which may have a significant 
bearing on the nature of the figures purporting to measure loss in establishments since 1929. 

In any type-of-operation or kind-of-business group old establishments comprise 
those which were in operation in 1929, whether classified at that time in this group or in 
any other group; conversely, they exclude those establishments which were classified in 1929 
in this group but were classified differently in 1933 because of a change in their method of 
operation or kind of merchandise handled. On the other hand, new establishments include 

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pn.ly those. which came into existence after 1929, but exclude those which were established 
before the close _of 1929.. even though they Were classified in another group in that year. 
For any type-of-operation or kind-of-business group, therefore, figures on loss of establish- 
ments measure the disappearance of establishments from the group, either because they ceased 
operations or changed the character of their business, as modified by the shifting of old 
establishments from some other classification to the group under discussion. 

Another factor, the importance of which is more apparent in reference to group 
totals than to the grand total, is the lack of precise comparability between the 1933 and the 
1929 censuses mentioned above. If the thoroughness of coverage in some sections of the 
country or for some branches of wholesaling differed in 1933 from what it was in 1929, it 
is apt to influence group totals more than it affects the grand total. The same holds for 
differences in methods of reporting by chain organizations between 1933 and 1929, which 
have occurred in a few instances. 

. . The importance of these considerations is somewhat greater for kind-of-business 
groups, as compared with type-of-operation groups, since kinds of business comprise 25 
classifications as against but 5 classifications on the basis of type of operation. However, 
even in the case of kind-of-business groups, the groups are so large and the shifting of 
business from one group to another is so infrequent because each group is so distinctive, 
that the importance of the factors discussed above is probably more theoretical than real. 

LOSS IN WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY TYPE OF ORGANIZATION. For presentation of 

data in Table 1, the loss in the number of establishments between 1929 and 1934 has been 
calculated for each of the five functional types of organizations, as well as by 25 kind-of- 
business classifications. Of the 43,399 wholesale establishments which have apparently dis- 
appeared from the business map during the four-year period under consideration, 20,015 or 
46 percent were accounted for by wholesalers proper, followed by assemblers and country 
buyers with a loss of 14,791 establishments, and agents and brokers with a loss of 8,519. 
Manufacturers' sales branches showed the smallest loss in actual numbers (2,283). 

Losses in absolute numbers must not be confused with relative losses. For example, 
agents and brokers were third in importance from the standpoint of losses in the actual 
number of establishments. However, their losses were of first magnitude as compared with 
the total of such organizations existing in 1929. On the other hand, wholesalers proper, 
while leading in the number of establishments going out of business, occupied third position 
as far as relative losses were concerned and, in fact, their rate of disappearance was 
slightly less than the average for all wholesale establishments combined. 

In 1929 the Census of Distribution secured reports for 79,784 establishments 
operated by wholesalers proper. Of this number, 20,015 were not in existence when the census 
for 1933 was taken. This represents a minimum loss in establishments, based on 1929 figures, 
of 25.1 percent, as compared v/ith a 25.6 percent minimum loss for all wholesale establish- 
ments combined. Inasmuch as a period of four years is involved, the average minimum loss 
in establishments operated by wholesalers proper was 6.3 percent per annum, which would give, 
beginning January 1, 1934, an average maximum expectancy of life per such establishment of a 
little oye.r 15-j years, . Inasmuch, however, .as_the._conditiojis prevailing during the four-year 

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Table 1.— DISAPPEARANCE OF WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS: 1929-1933 



Type of operation 
or 

Kind of business 



Numbe r of es tab lis hments . 
1929 1933 



Old 



New 



Loss in es tab lishmen ts 

Percent 

Number of 1929 

1/ 



TOTAL 



169,6 54 1 26,255 57 , 8 46 



Wholesalers proper 79,784 

Manufacturers' sales branches 17,086 

Agents and brokers , . . 18,388 

Assemblers and country buyers 34,226 

All other types - 20,170 

Amusement and sporting goods 1,446 

Automotive products 4,600 

Chemicals 2,233 

Clothing and furnishings. .. 5,216 

Coal 1,343 

Drugs and. drug sundries 1,790 

Dry g.00!S5., ..,., . . ....... 5,302 

Electrical goods 3,870 

Farm products - raw materials 29,793 

Farm products - consumer goods 20,896 



Farm supplies , 1,973 

Furniture and house furnishings 2,977 

General merchandise 370 

Groceries .and foods. ,.^,... 22,006 

Hardware ,......., 1,789 

Jewelry and optical goods, 2,365 

Lumber and building materials 5,513 

Machinery, equipment & supplies 11,855 

Metals (except scrap) 2,277 

■'aper and its products 3,103 

Petroleum and its products 23,007 

Plumbing & he.atiAg .equipment. 

and supplies. 2,786 

Tobacco and its products 

(except leaf) -. 2,016 

Waste materials 4,000 

All other products 7,128 

1/ The data in this column were obtained by subtracting the figures for old establishments 

from those in business in 1929. 
2/ The number of establishments in 1933 for these classifications exceeds the number in 1929 

due in part to differences in methods of reporting and classifying a few large chains 

dealing in petroleum and its products. 



59,769 
14,803 
9,869 
19,435 
22,379 

1,130 
4,353 
1,921 
2,855 
1,133 
1.045 
3,498 
2,340 

14,525 

17,129 
1,939 
1,970 
161 

18,656 
1,278 
1,658 
3,102 
9,164 
1,670 
2,289 

23 , 472 

1,749 



23,075 
2,039 
3,947 
4,526 
4,259 

418 

1,950 
549 

1,519 
238 
513 

1,298 
892 

2,283 

6,526 
509 
814 
32 

5,177 
217 
413 
611 

2,284 
307 
560 

4,949 

499 



43,59 9 



20,015 
2,283 
8,519 

14,791 
2/ 

316 
247 
312 

2,361 
210 
745 

1,804 

1,530 
15,268 

3,767 
34 

1,007 
209 

3,350 
511 
707 

2,411 

2,691 

607 

814 

2/ 

1,037 



25.6 



25.1 
13.4 
46.3 
43.2 



21.9 
5.4 
14.0 
45.3 
15.6 
41.6 
34.0 
39.5 
51.2 
18.0 
1.7 
33.8 
56.5 
15.2 
28.6 
29.9 
43.7 
22.7 
26.7 
26.2 



37.2 



1,593 


393 


423 


21.0 


2,547 


863 


1,453 


36.3 


5,078 


4,032 


2,050 


28.8 



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period, 1930-1933 inclusive, were not normal and there is no way of accurately determining 
the number of establishments operated by wholesalers proper which have come and gone during 
that period, nor the number of shifts as between classifications, this method of calculating 
the average life expectancy is somewhat hazardous. Nevertheless, it is of significance in 
comparing the results with those for other types of wholesale organizations for which similar 
data covering the same period are available. 

As might be expected, a en^s and brokers, as well as assemblers and country buyers, 
bo+h of which represent establishments which do not normally carry stocks and have no heavy 
fixed investments, were the most ephemeral. Of the 18,388 agents and brokers in existence 
in 1929, 8,519 or 46.3 percent disappeared from the picture by the end of 1933. This repre- 
sents a minimum loss of 11.6 percent per annum and a maximum average life expectancy per 
such establishment of 8.6 years. Out of the 34,226 assemblers and country buyers operating 
in 1929, 14,791 had dropped out of business, or so changed their method of operation that 
they no.v appear under other classifications. Thus, the minimum loss for the four-year 
period among assemblers and country buyers was 43.2 percent or 10.8 percent per annum, with a 
maximum average life expectancy of 9.3 years. In the case of manufacturers' sales braneh&s, 
only 2,283 disappeared out of 17,085 establishments in existence in 1929, the minimum mor- 
tality for the ^our-year period being 13.4 percent or 3.4 percent per annum, giving them a 
maximum average life expectancy of approximately 30 years. 

To ascertain, at least in part, the accuracy of the method used in calculating the 
life expectancy of wholesale establishments, the following table was prepared. Data used 
in this table were originally compiled for special studies made by the Bureau of the Census 
in connection with its first Census of Distribution. It shows, for each of four lines of, 
trade operated by wholesale merchants, or full-function wholesalers, the year or period in 
which the establishments in existence at +he end of 1929 began operations. 

From Table 2 it appears that 701 of the 12,576 establishments operated by wholesale 
merchants v.'ere not more than 1 year old in 1929, 778 or 6.2 percent of the total were 2 
years old, 640 or 5.1 percent were 3 years old, 573 or 4.5 percent v/ere 4 years old, and so 
on. Taking the mid-point of range in each of the periods prior to 1925 as the average age 
of the establishments in the respective periods and disregarding the establishments whose 
life was 80 years or over but indeterminate as well as those for which this information was 
not reported, it would appear that the average age of the establishments operated by whole- 
sale merchants in the lines of trade indicated in the table was approximately 17 years. 

This would seem to corroborate the conclusion reached concerning the life expect- 
ancy of w holesalers proper as computed in a preceding paragraph. When it is considered that 
who les ale merchants are probably a little more stable +han some of the other types included 
under "wholesalers proper and that the life expectancy compu'-ation of wholesalers prope^r 
is based on mortality data covering a period of unusually depressed conditions, the coin- 
cidence of the two sets of figures is indeed remarkable. 



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Table 2.— DATE OF ESTABLISHMENT OF WHOLESALE MERCHANTS IN EXISTENCE 
IN 1929, BY SPECIFIED KINDS OF BUSINESS 



Year 
business 
established 



Dry Electrical Grocery Paint & Total, Percent Age of 
Goods Trade Trade Varnish four lines Distri- Establish- 
Trade 1/ Trade of , trade bution aents_. 



1929 169 

1928 165 

1927 137 

1926 126 

1925 134 

1920-24 620 

1914-19 418 

1900-13 584 

1875-99 315 

1850-74 83 

Prior to 1850 43 

Unknown 9 

TOTAL 2,803 



92 

103 

99 

85 

75 

247 

226 

280 

72 



409 
477 
375 
329 
343 
1,667 
1,083 
1,748 
942 
356 
50 
146 



31 

33 

29 

33 

26 

104 

72 

102 

80 

35 

16 

4 



701 

778 

640 

573 

578 

2,638 

1,799 

2,714 

1,409 

474 

109 

163 



5.6 


1 yr. 




6.2 


2 yrs. 




5.1 


3 yrs. 




4.5 


4 yrs. 




4.6 


5 yrs. 




21.0 


8.0 yrs. 


2/ 


14.3 


13.5 yrs. 


2/ 


21.6 


23.5 yrs. 


2/ 


11.2 


43.0 yrs. 


2/ 


3.8 


"67.5 yrs. 


2/ 


0.8 


80 or over 


1.3 








1,283 



7,925 



565 12,576 



100.0 



1/ Includes wholesale merchants handling a general line of dry goods and those specializing 

in piece goods or furnishings. 
2/ Mid-point of range. 

LOSS IN WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY KIND OF BUSINESS. —An Analysis of the data in 
Table 1, by kind of business, shows that the greatest loss in establishments which existed 
at the end of 1929 was in the farm products—raw materials classification. The loss recorded 
for this kind of business consisted of 15,268 establishments. Other heavy losses were 
registered, in order of magnitude measured by absolute numbers, by farm products—consumer 
goods, with 3,767 establishments; groceries and foods, vvith a loss of 3,350 places of busi- 
less; machinery, equipment and supplies (except electrical), with a loss of 2,591 establish- 
ments; and lumber and building materials, with a loss of 2,411 establishments. Kinds of 
business showing the smallest disappearance in absolute numbers were farm supplies, general 
merchandise, coal, and automotive products. 

Expressed as a percent of the total number of establishments in existence at the 
end of 1929, the greatest proportionate loss in the number of establishments since 1929 and 
prior to 1934 is to be found in the general merchandise classification. Since, however, 
the total number of establishments in this classification is small and the classification 
was subject to error, particularly during 1933 when data on sales by commodities were not 
collected, the mortality figure for that classification is not of any significance. Barring 
this exception, establishments dealing in farm products of the raw material type appeared 
to be most vulnerable. At the end of four years, 51.2 percent of all such establishments 
were out of business, which is another way of stating that less than one-half of these 
establishments survived the ravages of the depression. 



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Wholesale firms dt-aling in clothing and furnishings were almost in as bad a con- 
dition, registering a loss of 45.3 percent during the four-year period, followed by estab- 
lishments dealing in lumber and building materials with a loss of 43.7 percent. On the same 
basis, the smallest losses were registered by dealers in farm supplies and in the automotive 
field, ^here the losses were 1.7 and 5.4 percent, respectively. With few exceptions, losses 
in the number of establishments, existing in 1929, below the average for all kinds of busi- 
ness are to be found in lines of trade involving what may be termed as necessities of life, 
such as foods, coal, and tobacco products. 

NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS 

SUPMARY OF NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS. —At the close of 1933, there were in the 
United States 164,101 wholesale establishments, which reported a volume of business during 
the year of $32,030,504,000. Of these establishments, 37,846 or 23.1 percent of the total, 
had come into existence since 1929, the year for which the first wholesale ce. sus was taken 
in 1930. These 37,846 new establishments reported a volume of business amounting to $3,364,- 
988,000, or 10.5 percent of all wholesale sales during 1933. The business was obtained at 
a cost of 11 percent, and the new establishments furnished 1,348,068 man-months of full-time 
employment for which $165,108,000 was paid in salaries and wages. 

NEW ESTABLISHMENTS, BY DATE OF OPERATION.— The 37,846 establishments which came 
into existence since 1929 have been classified according to the period in which they began 
operations, as shown in the table below. It is significant to note that while 25,831 or 
68.3 percent of the new wholesale units were established in the three-year period prior to 
1933, the annual average for that period was only 8,610 as against 12,015 new establishments 
for the year 1933. Expressed in another way, the average number of establishments which 
began operations was 699 per month during the period from 1930 to March, 1933, inclusive, 
while for the last 9 months of 1933 the monthly average of new wholesale business units rose 
to 1,175. Obviously, the figures for the period preceding April, 1933, are somewhat under- 
stated, since a number of the new wholesale enterprises which began operations during that 
time were probably no longer in existence when the 1933 census was taken. Nevertheless, the 
comparison is significant. 



Table 3. —ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH STARTED OPERATIONS 
SUBSEQUENT TO 1929, BY DATE OF OPERATION 



Period in which 
establishment began 
operatilon 



Ne w es tablishments 



Number 



Total for four year 

eeriod 37,846 

Subsequent to 1929, 

but prior to 1933 25,831 

First quarter, 1933 1,435 

Second quarter, 1933 4,114 

July, 1933 1,347 

August, 1933 1,046 

September, 1933 ., 1,300 

October, 1933 1,075 

November, 1933 922 

December, 1933 776 



Percent 

of 

Total 



100.0 



68.3 
3.8 

10.9 
3.6 
2.8 
3.4 
2.8 
2.4 
2.0 



Average 1933 number 
of full -time e m plove es 
Per 



Total 



establish- 
ment 



133,250 


3.5 


94,075 


3.6 


4,351 


3.0 


13,262 


3.2 


4,296 


3.2 


2,766 


2.6 


3,476 


2.7 


3,425 


3.2 


2,639 


2.9 


4,950 


6.4 



S666. 



-10- 



If business optimism is measured by willingness to assume the obligations of new 
business ventures, its high point was reached in the second quarter of 1933 when an average 
of 1,371 new establishments appeared monthly and it remained high throughout the remainder 
of the year, each month showing more new units than the average for the three-year period, 
1930 — 1932. During the first quarter of 1933, an average of only 478 new ventures appeared 
per month, due in a large measure probably to the adverse financial conditions which cul- 
minated in the "bank holiday" of March 4th to March 10th. 

Measured by the number of persons employed on a full-time basis, the establishments 
which began operations during 1933 compared very favorably with those which commenced busi- 
ness activity in the preceding three-year period. In spite of the fact that little time 
was allowed for expansion, establishments starting in the first and second quarters of 1933 
employed on a full-time basis 3.0 and 3.2 persons per establishment, respectively, as against 
3.6 persons per establishment for those in business prior to 1933. The largest establish- 
ments, as shown in Table 3, came into existence during December with an average of 6.4 full- 
time employees per establishment. About 45 percent of the wholesalers proper starting in 
December engaged in the distribution of wines and spiritous liquors. 

NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY TYPE OF ORGANIZATION. — As already indicated in a 
previous connection, the 37,846 new wholesale establishments have been divided into five 
major groups, according to type of functional organization. The number of such establish- 
ments by each of these types, compared with the total number of like establishments in 
operation during 1929, is shown in Table 4, belo#. 

Table 4. —NUMBER OF NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, 
CLASSIFIED BY TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 



Type of Organization 



New Es 


tablish- 






New Estab- 


men 


ts 


1933 


Total 


lishments, 


(Since 


1929) 






_percent of 


Number 


Percent 
of Total 


Number 


Percent 
of Total 


1933 total 


37 , 846 


100.0 


164,101 


100 


23,1 


23,075 


61.0 


82,844 


50.5 


27.9 


2,039 


5.4 


16,842 


10.3 


12.1 


3,947 


10.4 


13,816 


8.4 


28.6 


4,526 


12.0 


23,961 


14.6 


18.9 


4,259 


11.2 


26,638 


16.2 


16.0 



Total 

Wholesalers proper 

Manufacturers' sales branches. 

Agents and brokers 

Assemblers and country buyers 
All other types 



As many as 23,075 or 61.0 percent of the 37,846 new wholesale establishments were 
wholesalers proper, as against 2,039 manufacturers' sales branches and 4,259 "all other 
types" consisting largely of bulk tank stations. Agents and brokers accounted for 10.4 per- 
cent of the new establishments and assemblers and country buyers claimed the remaining 12.0 
percent. Stated in another way, over 1 in every 4 (27.9%) of the establishments operated by 
wholesalers proper at the close of 1933 had come into existence since 1929, while only 1 in 
every 8 (12.1%) of the manufacturers' sales branches had come into being during the same 



8666 



-11- 

period. The corresponding ratios and percentages for the other types were: more than 1 in 
■jvery 4 (28.6%) for agents and brokers where a fast turnover is to be expected; slightly 
less than 1 in every 5 (18.9%) for assemblers and country buyers; and 1 in every S (16.0%) 
for "all other types." 

At least a partial explanation for the fact that 61.0 percent of all the new 
establishments were among Afholesalers proper, as against but 5.4 percent among manufacturers' 
sales branches, would appear to lie in the relatively greater stability of the latter type 
of organization. As shown in Table 5, the minimum mortality in establishments operated by 
wholesalers proper during the four-year period 1930 — 1933, inclusive, was 25.1 percent of all 
such establishments in existence in 1929. For the same period the minimum mortality for 
manufacturers' sales branches was 13.4 percent, showing a substantially smaller loss in 
establishments of the latter type as compared with wholesalers proper. Again, of the 
establishments operated by wholesalers proper during 1933, 27.9 percent have come into being 
since 1929 and are, therefore, regarded as new for purposes of this study. On the other 
hand, only 12.1 percent of the manufacturers' sales branches in existence in 1933 were new 
in the same sense, indicating that relatively fewer manufacturers' sales branches have gone 
out of business or have entered the field since 1929. 

STABILITY OF WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY TYPE OF ORGANIZATION .--An attempt has 
been made to measure quantitatively the relative stability of the different functional types 
of wholesale organizations, both during the four-year period under consideration, and on an 
annual basis. Table 5 shows the rate at which wholesale establishments disappeared during 
the four years, expressed as a percent of the number of establishments in existence in 1929. 
It also shows the extent to which new establishments came into being during the same period 
of time, expressed as a percent of the number of wholesale places of business in existence 
in 1933. The geometric mean of these two ratios of so-called mortality on the one hand and 
natality on the other, has been computed for the five wholesale type groups to show the 
relative stability of the groups or conversely the "turnover" in wholesale establishments. 

On the basis of data in Table 5 it may be said that the turnover for all wholesale 
establishments in the United States during the four-year period was 24.3 percent, or a yearly 
average of 6.1 percent. Wholesalers proper showed an average yearly turnover of 6.6 percent, 
while manufacturers' sales branches had a yearly turnover of 3.2 percent. For agents and 
brokers the yearly turnover was 9.1 percent and for assemblers and country buyers, 7.2 per- 
cent. According to these figures, manufacturers' sales branches showed the highest degree 
of stability since they had the lowest turnover, while agents and brokers were the least 
stable and showed the highest turnover. 

It is relatively easy to explain the rapid turnover or low degree of stability 
among agents and brokers whose fixed investments are distinctly limited and who carry 
practically no stocks on hand. It is also relatively easy to explain the rapid turnover and 
relative instability during the depression among assemblers and country buyers, partly for 
the same reasons as given for agents and brokers, and partly on account of the unusually 
depressed condition in agriculture during the four-year period under study, which was 
accentuated further by Government loans during 1933 on certain farm commodities when stored. 
The latter policy has reduced the volume of business of assemblers and country buyers to a 
minimum and has limited opportunities for new enterprises in those fields. 

8666 



-12- 



Table 5.— TURNOVER IN WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, 
BY TYPE OF ORGANIZATION 



Type of 
Organization 



Mortality 
1930-1933, 
expressed 
as a % of 
1929 total 



New Estab- 
lishments 
since 1929, 
expressed 
as a % of 
1933 total 



Turnover in 

wholesale 

establishments 



1930-1933 



Annual 



TOTAL 25.6 

Wholesalers proper 25.1 

Manufacturers' sales branches 13.4 

Agents and brokers 46.3 

Assemblers and country buyers 43.2 



23.1 
27.9 
12.1 
28.6 
18.9 



24.3 
26.5 
12.7 
36.4 
28.6 



6.1 
6.6 
3.2 

9.1 
7.2 



However, to explain the relative stability of manufacturers' sales branches as 
compared with wholesalers proper, is not a simple problem. Whether it was due to the greater 
financial strength of manufacturers having sales branches as outlets for their goods, or to 
the kinds of merchandise handled by them, is difficult to say. No doubt, both were signif- 
icant factors in the struggle for survival. Nevertheless, the data in Table 1 reveal a 
tendency toward the conventional type of wholesale establishment, independent in ownership. 
For wholesalers proper the number of new establishments exceeded the number which went out 
of business by 3,060. At the same time, the data show a net decline in the number of manu- 
facturers' sales branches. While relatively few of such branches went out of business, 
fewer still have come into the business picture since 1929, 2,283 having been lost to this 
classification as against 2,039 establishments gained. 

NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY KIND OF BUSINESS .--Table 6 shows the number of new 
wholesale establishments for each of 27 kind-of-business classifications. It indicates the 
actual number of such establishments, which is then expressed, first, as a percent of the 
total number of new establishments for all kinds of business combined and, second, as a 
percentage of all establishments, old and new, operating in that line of business in 1933. 

From the data presented in that table it appears that trades involving, for the 
most part, necessities such as foods, led in the number of new establishments. Farm products- 
consumer goods, consisting of fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and poultry and 
poultry products, occupied first position with 6,526 new establishments, or 17.2 percent of 
all new concerns. Groceries and foods came second, with 5,177 new establishments, or 13.7 
percent of all new firms. Petroleum products, which have also come to be generally regarded 
as necessities, were third in importance with 4,949 new establishments, or 13.1 percent of 
all new firms. These three kinds of business alone accounted for 44 percent of all whole- 
sale establishments which started operations subsequent to 1929. Wholesale places of busi- 
ness dealing in machinery, equipment and supplies (except electrical) were next in impor- 
tance, with 2,284 new establishments, or 6.0 percent of all new firms. Other kinds of busi- 
ness, representing 3.0 percent or more of the new establishments, were, in the order of 
importance, farm products — raw materials, beer, automotive, clothing and furnishings, and 
dry goods (see Table 6). 



8666 



-13- 



When the number of new wholesale establishments is expressed as a percentage of 
the total in business at the end of 1933 in a given business classification (except for 
beer, wines and spiritous liquors, most of which establishments being new for legal reasons), 
clothing and furnishings was first with 34.7 percent; drugs and drug sundries, second with 
S2.9 psrceat; an4 autoaotiva, third with 30.9 percent. Farm products-consumer goods was 
fifth with 27.6 percent of the establishments at the end of 1933 classified as new, while 
only 21.7 percent of the groceries and food concerns had come into existence since 1929. 

Table 6.— NUMBER OF NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS. 
CLASSIFIED BY KIND OF BUSINESS 



Kind of Business 



New Establish- 
ments 
(since 1929) 



Number 



Percent 
of Total 



1933 Total 



Number 



Percent 
of Total 



New Estab- 
lishments, 
_percent of 
1933 total 



TOTAL 57 , 846 

Amusement and sporting goods 418 

Automotive products 1,950 

Chemicals 549 

Clothing and furnishings 1,519 

Coal : 238 

Drugs and drug sundries 513 

Dry goods 1,298 

Electrical goods 892 

Farm products-raw materials 2,283 

Farm products-consumer goods 6,526 

Farm supplies 509 

Furniture and house furnishings 814 

General merchandise 32 

Groceries and foods 5,177 

Hardware 217 

Jewelry and optical goods 413 

Lumber and building materials 611 

Machinery, equipment, and sup- 
plies (except electrical) 2,284 

Metals (except scrap) 307 

Paper and its products 560 

Petroleum and its products 4,949 

Plumbing and heating equipment 

and supplies 439 

Tobacco and its products (ex- 
cept leaf) 393 

Waste materials 863 

Beer 1,986 

Wine and spiritous liquors 653 

All other products 1,393 



100.0 



164^101 



100.0 



23.1 



1.1 


1,548 


0.9 


27.0 


5.2 


6,303 


3.8 


30.9 


1.5 


2,470 


1.5 


22.2 


4.0 


4,374 


2.7 


34.7 


0.6 


1,371 


0.8 


17.4 


1.4 


1,558 


0.9 


52.9 


3.4 


4,796 


2.9 


27.1 


2.4 


3,232 


2.0 


27.6 


5.0 


16.808 


10.2 


13. S 


17.2 


23,655 


14.4 


27.6 


1.3 


2,448 


1.5 


20.8 


2.2 


2,784 


1.7 


29.2 


0.1 


193 


0.1 


16.6 


13.7 


23,833 


14.5 


21.7 


0.6 


1,495 


0.9 


14.5 


1.1 


2,071 


1.3 


19.9 


1.6 


3,713 


2.3 


16.5 


6.0 


11,448 


7.0 


20.0 


0.8 


1,977 


1.2 


15.5 


1.6 


2,849 


1.7 


19.7 


13.1 


28,421 


17.3 


17.4 



1.3 



2.248 



1.4 



22.2 



1.0 


1,985 


1.2 


19.8 


2.3 


3,410 


2.1 


25.3 


5.2 


4,207 


2.5 


47.2 


1.7 


1,732 


1.1 


37.7 


3.7 


3,171 


1.9 


43.9 



8666 



-14- 



STABILITY OF WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY KIND OF BUSINESS.— An atteiapt has been 
made to measure the relative stability of wholesale enterprises engaged in the various lines 
of trade shown in Table 7. The geometric mean of the mortality (or firms disappearing during 
the four-year period 1930-1933, inclusive), expressed as a percent of the 1929 total, and of 
the new establishments which have come into existence since 1929, expressed as a percent of 
the 1933 total, is shown for each of the 24 kinds of business, first, for the four-year 
period and, second, on an annual basis. The complement of this geoaetric mean naturally 
measures the degree of stability. According to Table 7 it would appear that the most stable 
kinds of business, in the order of their stability, were farm supplies, automotive, coal, 
chemicals, groceries and foods, hardware, metals (except scrap), and tobacco and its products. 

The turnover in wholesale establishments for any given kind of business may be 
caused by one or more of several circumstances. A high turnover indicating a relatively 
low degree of stability may be due to both a high mortality and natality rate or to an un- 
usually high rate of either of the two factors. For example, in the case of drugs and drug 
sundries the low stability was due to both factors. The same was true of electrical goods 
and of furniture and house furnishings. On the other hand, the relatively low stability in 
establishments dealing in lumber and building materials was caused principally by a high 
rate of disappearance of firms from the business picture during the depression and not so 
much by the number of new establishments which entered the field. Conversely, a low turn- 
over may be caused by low mortality and natality rates, or by an exceedingly low rate in 
either, as illustrated by farm supplies, in which case the mortality rate was 1.7 for the 
four-year period, but the new establishments in that line of business constituted 20.8 per- 
cent of all in existence in 1933. 

In partial explanation of the varying degree of stability as between different 
kinds of business, the following points may be suggestive. Wherever wholesale establishments 
are most numerous, greater opportunities for new ventures are afforded, as far as absolute 
numbers are concerned. Stability in any kind of business is also affected, to no small 
degree, by the types of wholesale organizations operating therein. For example, in the case 
of farm products-consumer goods, a large percentage of the change is due to the volatile 
character of such types as assemblers, country buyers, agents, and brokers. 

In the third place, during periods of economic stress the consumption of necessit- 
ies increases in relative importance, which is the same as saying that it suffers less than 
the consumption of other goods. Consequently, either fewer failures in proportion to the 
total may be expected in such lines of business, or a larger proportion of new establishments 
would enter the field. On the other hand, kinds of businews involving mainly heavy goods 
or industrial goods of the raw material type, would tend to show the least activity in a 
period of depression as far as accessions are concerned. Thus, only 13.6 percent of all 
establishments dealing in farm products-raw materials had come into being since 1929, de- 
spite the fact that over one-half of all such establishments in existence at the end of 1929 
have disappeared prior to 1934. A similar situation may be found in the case of establish- 
ments dealing in metals (except scrap), and in lumber and building materials. In all of 
these cases the number of new establishments, expressed as a percent of the 1933 total, was 
less than the average of 23.1 percent for all kinds of business. 

8666 



-15- 



Table 7.— TURNOVER IN WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY KIND 

OF BUSINESS 



Kind of Business 



Mortality 
1930-1933 
as percent, 
of 1929 
total 



New estab- 
lishments 
since 1929, 
as percent 

of 1933 
total 



Turnover in wholesale 
establishments 



1930-1933 



Annual 



Total 



25.6 



23.1 



24.3 



6.1 



Amusement and sporting goods 

Automotive products 

Chemicals 

Clothing and furnishings 

Coal 

Drugs and drug sundries 

Dry goods ", 

Electrical goods 

Farm products-raw materials 

Farm products-consumer goods 

Fa' rm supplies 

Furniture and house fvrnishings 

General merchandise 

Groceries and foods 

Hardware...'..'.......^.....,. '■ ■ 

Jewelry and optical goods 

Lumber and building materials ,, 
Machinery, equipment, and supplies 

(except electrical) 

Metals (except scrap) 

Paper and its products 

Plumbing and heating equipment 

and supplies 

Tobacco and its products (except leaf) 

Waste materials ,-. 

All other products 



21.9 


27.0 


24.3 


6.1 


5.4 


30.9 


12.9 


3.2 


14.0 


22.2 


17.6 


4.4 


45.3 


34.7 


39.6 


9.9 


15.6 


17.4 


16.5 


4.1 


41.6 


32.9 


37.0 


9.2 


34.0 


27.1 


30.4 


7.6 


39.5 


27.6 


33.0 


8.2 


51.2 


"13,6 


26.4 


6.6 


18.0 


27.6 


22.3 


5.6 


1.7 


20.8' 


5.9" 


1.5 


33.8 


29.2 


31.4 


7.8 


56.5 


15.6 


30.6 


7.'6 


15.2 


21.7 


18.2 


' 4.5 


28.6 


14.5 


20.4 


5.1 


29.9 


19.9 


24.4 


6.1 


43.7 • 


16.5 


26.9 


6.7 


22.7 


20.0 


21.3 


5.3 


26.7 


15.5 


20.3 


5.1 


26.2 


19.7 


'22.7 


5.7 


37 . 2 


22.2 


28.7 


■■ 7.2' 


21.0 


19.8 


20.4 


5.1' 


36.3 


"25.3 


30.3 


7.6 


28.8 


43.9 


35.6 


8.9 



Relative stability in some kinds of business may be explained in still another way. 
For example, in the case of machinery, equipment, and supplies (except electrical) the net 
loss in the number of establishments was relatively small because relatively few new install- 
ations were bought by industry during the depression; therefore, the demand for parts and 
supplies necessary to maintain the old machinery and equipment has been thereby enhanced, 
thus fortifying the position of the wholesale distributor of such goods. A similar reason 
ma'y account for the increase in the number of wholesale establishments in the automotive 
trade. Many persons, instead of buying ne.v automobiles during the depression, spent more 
for maintenance of the old cars, which caused a demand for replacement parts, automobile 
accessories, and supplies, as well as for additional shop equipment and supplies. 



8666 



-16- 



NUMBER OF NEW ESTABLISHMENTS FOR WHOLESALERS PROPER AND FOR MANUFACTURERS' SALES 
BRANCHES, BY KIND OF BUSINESS AND DATE OF OPERATION. —Up to this point data were presented 
in the form of totals by date of operation, by type of establishment, or by kind of business. 
No attempt has been made to present kind of business or date of operation statistics, 
separately for each type of wholesaling. In order to adhere to simplicity of treatment and 
at the same time throw light on the important points. Table 8 has been designed. It shows 
for each of the two principal types of wholesaling, namely for v/holesalers proper and for 
manufacturers' sales branches, the number of new establishments, by kind of business, and by 
periods in which operations were begun. 

Of the 23,075 establishments operated by wholesalers proper at the end of 1933 
which began operations subsequent to 1929 and prior to 1934, 14,372 were established before 
1933, at the rate of 4,791 per annum for the three-year period. However, during 1933 
wholesalers proper started 8,703 establishments which were still in existence when the census 
was taken in 1934, which is 81.7 percent more new establishments than the average for the 
preceding three-year period. The pick-up in new establishments among wholesalers proper 
during 1933 began in the second quarter, when 3,114 places of business were opened as com- 
pared with but 957 during the first quarter of the year. 

In spite of the fact that beer accounted for 1,033 of the establishments opened in 
the second quarter, each kind of business for that period showed an improvement over the 
first quarter. For many of the kinds of business the number of concerns coming into being 
auring the month of July compared favorably with the number established during the entire 
first three months of the year. Each of the kinds of business showed a tapering off towards 
the end of the year and were it not for wines and spiritous liquors, the number of new 
establishments for December, normally a quiet month in wholesale trade, would have been low. 
Groceries and foods led all trades in the number of new concerns during each of the periods 
except in the second quarter of 1933. Farm products-consumer goods came second. 

Approximately 38 percent of all establishments which were started by wholesalers 
proper subsequent to 1929 but prior to 1934 began operations in 1933, as compared with an 
average of 20.8 percent per year for the preceding three-year period. This appears to be 
indicative of a change in the attitude of wholesalers toward new ventures, despite the faot 
that the accessions prior to 1933 are probably somewhat underestimated because of new firms 
disappearing from business during the same period. Neither can such a change be entirely 
attributed to the legalization of beer, wines, and spiritous liquors, since these kinds of 
business accounted for but 25.5 percent of all new places of business opened by wholesalers 
during 1933. Even when the new establishments dealing in beer and wines are completely dis- 
regarded, the number of new establishments opened by wholesalers during 1933 exceeded the 
annual average for the preceding three-year period by a little over 35 percent. 

As might be expected, new wholesalers proper dealing in beer started operations 
mainly during 1933 and the same was true of distributors of wines and spiritous liquors. 
Of all beer distributors who started operations subsequent to 1929, 89.6 percent commenced 
business activity during 1933, while 92.4 percent of the new distributors of wines and 
spiritous liquors began operations during that year. Obviously, not all of the wholesalers 
8666* 



-17- 
TABLE 8. — NmiEiH 0? JioTABLIiiHIi^iITS .,i:iCH aiAhTiJ) Oi'iiRii'iu.;o oliiuJi^'J-I.T 20 1929, 

m KliO) OF BUblNSSS tSD DATii, FOB Tliji l:;LT^2 S?4.Ii3 

























Amnaal 


























aTsrage 


Haw 






ftrlor 


First 


Second 






3ep- 


Octo- 


Novem- 


Deoam- 


new 


estab- 


Kind of Business 


Total 


to 


quart- 


quart- 


July, 


AuGUSt, 


tanber. 


ber, 


ber, 


ber. 


eetab- 


llBh- 






January 


er. 


er. 


1933 


lf33 


1933 


1933 


1933 


1933 


lislmenth 


ments. 






1,1933 


1933 


1933 














1930- 
31 -32 


1933 



VVKOLESALSRS I'KOiliE 



fflOLiiSAlEHa i/ROiPKH 

Amusement and sorting goods 

Automotive products 

Chemicals 

Clothing and furnishings 

Coal 

Drugs and drug sundries 

Dry goods 

Zlectrioal goods 

Farm products-raw materials 

Farm products-consimer goods 

Farm supplies 

Furniture and house furnishings 

General merchandise 

Groceries and foods (except 

farm products) 
Hardware 

Jewelry and optical goods 
Lumber and building materials 

(other than metal) 
Machinery, equipnent and supplies 

(except electrical) 
lletels (except scrap) 
Paper and its products 
Petroleon and its products 
i'lxmblng and heating equipment 

and supplies 
Tobacco and its products (except 

leaf) 
Waste materials 
Beer 

Wines and spiritous liquors 
All other products 



BIHUFACTTJRSHS' SALEb BaiilCHSS 

Amusement and sporting goods 

Automotive products 

Chemicals 

Clothing and furnishings 

Coal 

Drugs and drug sundries 

Dry goods 

iileotrical goods 

Farm products-raw materials 

Farm products-eonsimer goods 

Farm supplies 

Furniture and house fornishings 

Groceries and foods (except 

farm products) 
Hardware 

Jewelry and optical goods 
Lumber and building materials 

[other than metal) 
Machinery, equl|ment and supplies 

(except electrical) 
lletals (except scrap) 
i^aper and its products 
Petroleum and itF products 
Plumbing and heating equlpneut 

and BuppllM 
Tobacco and its firoductE (except 

leaf) 
Beer 

.Vines and spiritous liquors 
All other products 



23,075 


14,372 


957 


3,114 


989 


750 


945 


767 


639 


552 


4.791 


8.703 


345 


204 


20 


33 


16 


18 


17 


21 


9 


7 


68 


141 


1,711 


1,224 


88 


149 


55 


44 


47 


53 


34 


16 


408 


487 


345 


222 


23 


33 


10 


12 


12 


25 


5 


3 


74 


123 


1,036 


722 


55 


103 


34 


50 


52 


34 


17 


9 


241 


364 


176 


107 


10 


15 


7 


5 


13 


13 


6 





36 


69 


384 


258 


22 


35 


15 


7 


13 


15 


14 


5 


86 


126 


940 


687 


46 


81 


40 


27 


23 


14 


a 


1 


229 


253 


675 


467 


33 


64 


19 


23 


22 


19 


20 


8 


156 


208 


463 


348 


21 


31 


14 


10 


17 


8 


9 


5 


116 


115 


2,891 


2,050 


100 


243 


83 


69 


89 


87 


95 


74 


683 


841 


341 


235 


24 


29 


15 


5 


8 


9 


13 


3 


76 


IDS 


565 


366 


27 


69 


23 


16 


18 


23 


20 


3 


122 


199 


19 


16 


1 


1 





1 














5 


3 


4,408 


2,803 


167 


452 


173 


161 


203 


180 


158 


81 


934 


1,605 


152 


110 


11 


14 


6 


2 


3 


1 


3 


2 


37 


42 


363 


257 


21 


35 


9 


10 


12 


14 


4 


1 


86 


105 


433 


326 


21 


35 


13 


9 


18 


7 


3 


1 


109 


107 


1,346 


980 


55 


122 


46 


34 


36 


25 


41 


7 


327 


356 


159 


117 


10 


18 


2 


1 


4 


2 


3 


2 


39 


42 


432 


317 


26 


30 


7 


12 


11 


16 


10 


3 


106 


115 


706 


521 


25 


65 


24 


10 


19 


17 


14 


11 


174 


186 


358 


249 


19 


31 


13 


13 


13 


7 


8 


5 


83 


109 


375 


269 


21 


24 


14 


6 


10 


10 


14 


7 


90 


106 


850 


482 


36 


101 


51 


44 


36 


47 


39 


14 


161 


358 


1,860 


193 


12 


1,033 


210 


121 


187 


52 


30 


22 


64 


1,667 


602 


46 


3 


166 


53 


16 


28 


a 


19 


250 


15 


556 


1,090 


796 


30 


102 


36 


24 


34 


37 


19 


12 


265 


294 



B — MAHUFACTUKOS ' SALES BEAi;CHES 



2,039 


1,654 


39 


106 


50 


38 


43 


40 


34 


35 


551 


385 


25 


22 


1 





1 





1 





1 





7 


4 


130 


lOS 





5 


3 


2 


4 


1 


4 


3 


36 


22 


124 


105 


5 


5 





2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


35 


19 


139 


108 


5 


15 


5 


2 


1 


3 








35 


31 


11 


11 


























4 





81 


74 





3 











1 


2 


1 


25 


7 


59 


57 


3 


6 


1 


1 











1 


19 


12 


105 


94 


2 


2 


1 


3 


2 





1 


1 


31 


12 


1 











1 




















1 


43 


35 


1 


3 


1 





1 





2 





12 


8 


9 


8 














1 











3 


1 


87 


69 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


4 


2 


1 


23 


18 


272 


211 


3 


20 


7 


5 


5 


5 


7 


8 


70 


61 


19 


19 


























6 





a 


19 





2 


1 








1 








6 


4 


34 


28 





2 


1 








2 





1 


9 


6 


446 


386 


8 


13 


11 


13 


6 


5 


3 


1 


129 


60 


72 


69 





1 


2 

















23 


3 


70 


60 





6 


2 





Z 











20 


10 


10 


6 





2 











1 





1 


2 


4 


61 


40 


5 


3 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


13 


a 


16 


15 





-0 








1 











5 


1 


52 


6 


2 


8 


10 


5 


10 


7 


4 





2 


46 


22 


1 





2 





1 


1 


2 


2 


15 





21 


116 


103 


1 


4 








3 


3 


1 


1 


34 


13 



-18- 



of these products have come into being since the legalization of traffic in such commodities. 
In fact, 52.8 percent of all beer distributors and 62.3 percent of all distributors of wines 
and spiritous liquors, in existence at the end of 1933, were in business in 1929 but have 
apparently changed from other lines of trade to the wholesaling of the commodities in 
question. 

In the case of manufacturers' sales branches the situation appears to be quite 
different. The number of new units opened in 1933 -..as substantially belo'.v the average per 
year for the preceding three-year period, being 385 against 551. Exceptions to this general 
condition may be found only in the following three kinds of business: beer, with 46 new 
establishments in 1933 against an annual average of 2 during the preceding three-year period; 
wines and spiritous liquors with 21 new establishments in 1933 against none for the preced- 
ing period; and plumbing and heating equipment and supplies v.ith 21 establishments opened in 
1933 against an average of 13 per year. From these and other facts previously cited it 
would appear that manufacturers were reluctant to open nev/ sales branches either because of 
lack of confidence or because they preferred to utilize the services of independent v.-hole- 
salers instead. 

SALES, EXPENSES, AND EMPLOYMENT OF ::EW 
WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS 

NET SALES OF NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS —On the average, the wholesale estab- 
lishments which began business subsequent to 1929 operated on a relatively small scale, 
judged on the basis of business volume. While such establishments constituted 23.1 percent 
of the total in existence at the end of 1933, they accounted for only 10.5 percent of all 
net sales reported for the year. This situation obtained in the case of all types of whole- 
sale organizations, although in varying degrees. For example; 27.9 percent of all whole- 
salers proper were new but they accounted for only 10.5 percent of the business reported by 
all establishments in that group. Similarly, the 12.1 percent of the manufacturers' sales 
branches which were established since 1929 cared for but 6.5 percent of the business trans- 
acted during the year by all sales branches. In the case of the remaining three functional 
types of wholesale organizations, however, the new establishments made a better showing than 
for wholesalers proper, although they, too, operated on a smaller scale than was true of the 
average for the respective types. Of all agents and brokers in operation when the census 
was taken, 28.6 percent v/ere new with 13.3 percent of the business for the group. Assemblers 
and country buyers reported 18.9 percent of the establishments as new, with 14.4 percent of 
the business; while 16.0 percent of the establishments reported by "all other types" were 
new and accounted for 12.1 percent of the business (see Appendix A). 

A comparison of the average sales per establishment of those concerns which came 
into being between 1929 and 1933 with the average for all establishments, by each of the 
functional types, reveals that the average sales of the new concerns were substantially 
less. The 14,372 wholesalers proper established in the three-year period prior to January 
1, 1933 reported a volume of business aggregating $1,089,598,000 or an annual average of 
$76,000 per establishment as against an average of $156,000 for all wholesalers proper. 
Manufacturers' sales branches established during the three-year period averaged $239,000 
for the year 1933 as against an average of $445,000 for all sales branches. The correspond- 
ing figures for agents and brokers were $219,000 sales for the nev; concerns against $471,000 
for all agents and brokers; assemblers and country buyers, $56,000 against $73,000, and for 
"all other types," $94,000 compared with $124,000. 

8666 



-19- 



The average sales per establishment were even smaller for the new concerns which 
started operations during the year 1933. Inasmuch as such establishments operated less than 
a full year, comparisons must be made on a monthly basis. For all wholesalers proper the 
average monthly sales for the year 1933 were $13,000. For concerns which started operations 
during the three-year period prior, to 1933, average monthly sales were $6,318. Average 
monthly sales for wholesalers proper, starting during 1933 in the period indicated, were: 
first quarter, $5,435; second quarter, $5,228; July, $6,313; August, $4,524; September, 
$4,636; October, $6,169; November, $5,309; and December, $40,184. The high average for 
December was doubtless associated with the legalizing of wines and spiritous liquors. 

From the foregoing, it would appear that new wholesale business enterprises are 
comparatively handicapped and that some time is required to build business volume. It may 
also mean that opportunities for large scale operation during 1933 were so limited that 
little attraction was afforded to those with ample financial means. A further explanation 
of the relatively small scale of operation on the part of new enterprises may lie in the 
kinds of business affected. It will be noted, for example, at least in the case of whole- 
salers proper, that a large proportion of the new establishments operated in the grocery 
and food trades and in farm products of the consumer type, as well as in other lines like 
waste materials, in which business volume per establishment is normally relatively small. 

OPERATING EXPENSES OF NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS .--Operating expenses incurred 
by newly established wholesale concerns were lower than those of older enterprises. The 
37,846 wholesale establishments which started operations subsequent to 1929 reported a volume 
of business of $3,364,988,000. In obtaining this business, expenses were incurred to the 
extent of $370,713,000, which amounts to 11 percent of net sales. For all establishments in 
operation at the close of 1933, operating expenses approximated 11.5 percent of net sales. 
Thus, despite the smaller volume per establishment, the new firms had a lower cost of doing 
business. 

When the matter of operating expenses is considered by functional types, it 
appears that for wholesalers proper, operatinp' expenses were 14.6 percent of net sales for 
new concerns against 15 percent for all wholesalers proper. Manufacturers' sales branches 
reported the same ratio of expenses to sales, namely 12.5 percent, for old and new establish- 
ments alike. New assemblers and country buyers reported a cost of doing business of 7.9 
percent against an average of 9.9 percent for all such organizations. Only in the case of 
agents and brokers did new establishments report a slightly higher cost of doing business, 
consisting of 3.4 percent of the volume of business against 3.2 percent for all establish- 
ments in that group. 

A comparison of expense ratios of new establishments operated by wholesalers 
proper, by kind of business, shows that the costs incurred by the new concerns were less than 
for the total in the respective kinds of business in 16 lines of trade ovt of 25, into which 
all establishments have been classified. No comparisons are possible for two kinds of busi- 
ness, namely, beer, and wines and spiritous liquors, since no provision has been made for 
these classifications prior to 1933. For manufacturers' sales branches lower costs were 
registered by new establishments only in 13 of the 25 lines of trade, 

8666 



-20- 



Under normal circumstances one would expect new establishments to incur relatively 
higher operating costs partly because of their initial handicap in securing a reasonable 
volume of business and partly on account of certain organization expenses which are often 
absorbed within a relatively short time. This was not true for new wholesale enterprises 
which started operations after 1929, probably because such concerns commenced activity at a 
time when low wages and salaries prevailed, when premises could be obtained at reduced 
rentals, and when fixtures and equipment could be secured at advantageous prices. Moreover, 
these concerns were not burdened by the many fixed charges and other "hang-overs" to which 
many of the older establishments were no doubt subjected. 

It is also probable that newly established enterprises called for the greater 
application of executives than is given in normal times. The difficulty in starting a new 
business in periods of economic stress would naturally prevent relatively inefficient manage- 
ments from entering the field. In fact, a true comparison of operating expenses incurred by 
new establishments with those of older concerns would show even a greater disparity in favor 
of the new enterprises if those establishments which began activity during 1933 were elimi- 
nated from the comparison. It will be noted from an examination of the data in Appendix A 
that establishments which started operations during 1933 and therefore secured a relatively 
small volume of business during the period covered by the census, in general had higher 
relative costs than was true of those which started operations prior to January 1, 1933, 
and thus operated a full year. 

To illustrate, total costs of doing business for all new establishments operated 
by wholesalers proper were 14.6 percent of net sales. However, such costs were but 14.5 
percent of net sales for the wholesalers proper which operated the entire year of 1933. 
These costs advanced in proportion as the part of the year 1933 during which the establish- 
ments operated decreased. To this there appear to be two exceptions: one in the case of 
•-..stablishments which started operations in October and the other in the case of establish- 
ments which started operations in December, the operating expenses in these two cases being 
14.4 percent and 11.5 percent, respectively, as compared with an average of 14.5 percent. 

An examination of Table 8 discloses, however, the fact that a large number of the 
establishments which began operations in September were in the grocery trade or engaged in 
the distribution of farm products of the consumer type. In both of these cases costs of 
doing business are relatively low; certainly below the average of 14.6 percent. In the case 
of groceries and foods, particularly, the average costs for all new establishments were 12.3 
percent of net sales and for farm products — consumer goods, such costs were 13.8 percent. 

For manufacturers' sales branches it is impossible to make an analysis of operat- 
ing expense ratios similar to the one made for wholesalers proper, since it is not known how 
■many of the branches carried stocks and how many represented mere sales offices. Obviously, 
operating expenses vary considerably as between the two types of branches. That situation 
accounted, in part, for the wide fluctlations in the operating expenses of manufacturers' 
sales branches shown in Appendix A. Some of the differences in expense ratios are also 
accounted for by the kind of business involved. More services must be performed in the 
distribution of some goods than in the case of others. Relative investments also vary, as 
well as the amount and expense of actual handling required. 

8666 



-21-- ;•- 



EMPLOYKENT AND PAY ROLL. — Who.lesa,le establishments organized after 1929 furnished, 
during. 1933, full-tine . en-.pl.Oim.eat of. ,1,348 i.0C8.. npiu-mpnths . .A little over 60 percent of 
this eapLo-yment was supplied by wholesalers .proper, .. who operated 61 percent of the.nev/ 

establishments On th.e other hand,, manufacturers .'...sales branches supplied 11.8 percent of 

the em.ploy.ment,. aliiough they, .constitut.ed.j^ut. 5...4.. percent . of the new establishments., _ A 
partial explanation for. .this differe.nc.e lies in. the fact, that many of the new establishment_s 
among, nholesalers. proper v,ex.e .relativ.eJLy .sn.al.l .a.nd .-.vere ope.rat.ed by proprietors and partners 
whose.. e-iRloyment ^as not included in the paid e;riployee figures; whereas in the case_ of manu- 
facturers.' _aales. .bra:;ol;es the .entire pe.rsonnel ,,as ge:.erally included among eicployees. 

Second ia impjDrtar.c.e. .:,;,exe. ."AIJ^. other .t^,:pes,." -(..hich absorbed approximately 15 per- 
cent of the e.r.ployment . This group of -.vholesale organizations v.as do.iiinated by bulk, .tank 
stations engaged in the distribution of petroleum and its products. These stations alone 
accounted, for .90 percent ..of. tlie e..;ip.l.o/,ne.nt afforded by. .."All other type.s. " Relatively few 
emplojrees were .used.. .by. agen.t;^, ..b.rokers.. asg.eablers., . and country buyers. , ..M,qst.. .,of.„these 
ente.rpri.aes operated.ons, s,T.all. .scale .and,. .di,d not engage in the physical handling of- goods; 
hence.^. they were ope.rated .largely by the owners of the respective ente rp rises,, _^ --—^g^ -,■; 

_.... For. al.l.new„whole5ale establisJijnents combined, pay roll constitu.ted 44.5_pe.rcent 

of. operating. expenses The lowest ratio, of pay roll to total expenses was . reported by_.;;Ail 

other tipea" which had. a. ratio ..Qf_42. 2. percent in , pay roll , as against a ratiQ...of 43,3.^p8r- 
cent for manufacturers'., sales branches, .43.9 percent fo.r. asse.-iib.lers and co.untry ..buyers^, 4§;5 
percent for wholesalers proper, and 45.9 percent for agents and brokers. The reasons for 
these variations .ace auite. .obvious.,. . Agents ..a.ad, .brokersj. with few .fixed charges, would 
naturally, be .expected, .to .have a _hi£her ratio _of pay roll to total expenses than bulk tank 
stations -in .^which petroleum .and its. products are actually stored in specialized equipment. 
For the same reason wholesale.rs... proper showed a higher ratio of pay roll to total -expenses 

than... was true of manufacturers' ^sales branches, many of which do not handle stocks, and 

hence incur little expense in rentals and other fixed items. 

In the case of wholesalers proper the lowest ratio of pay roll to total expenses 
was roport&d.i!y establishments ha.ndling farm products of the raw material type,. , The.y, had_,a 
ratio of 3L...5..percent, follc.ed by wines and spiritous liquors ^ith a ratio of 35 ..5 peroent.; 
beer, with a. ratio of 37.5 percent; . petroleum and its products, with a ratio .of 37..7.,p,e;r- 
cent; drugs, and drug sundries, with. a ratio of 37.8 percent; amusement and sporting goods, 
with a ratio of 38.8 percent; and" general merctiandise, with a ratio of 39.4 percent'. Iti 
the remaining 20 kind-of-business groups the ratio of pay roll to total expenses was' over 
40 percent and in four of these the ratio was over 50 percent. .The highest ratios jvere re- 
ported, in the. order of magnitude, by establishments dealing in tobacco and its products, 
automotive products, chemicals, and lumber and building materials. It is also evident from 
the above figures and from the data shown in Appendix A that pay roll was a major item of 
e::pense to. new wholesalers proper, ^regardless of kind of business in which they engaged. 
In all but _one >-ind of business this ratio e.--:ceeded one-third of all costs of doing busi- 
ness. ^ __. 

In^Table 9, below, pay rq^ll is shov.n as a percent of total operating expenses, for 
each of the_ five types of establishments and for wholesalers proper by each of -27 kinds of 
business. This item is sho..n separately for new establishments a.;d for all establish.rients 
combined. 

8666 



-22^: 



It is interesting to note that in four of the five type groups pay roll was a soms- 
what smaller item of expense in the case of new establishments than was true for all whole- 
sale places of business operated by the respective types. In comparing pay roll as a per- 
cent of total expenses, by kinds of business, it is found that of the 27 kind-of-business 
groups, 19 showed pay roll to be a smaller percentage of operating expenses for new estab- 
lishments; 6 kind-of-business groups showed a somewhat larger percentage; and in two kinds 
of business the ratio of pay roll to total expenses was approximately the same. This fact 
substantiates the observation made in a preceding paragraph that new concerns starting during 
the depression apparently took advantage of the low prevailing salaries and wages; also, 
in the case of wholesalers proper, many more of the new establishments were operated by 
proprietors and partners whose compensation was not included in the reported pay roll 
figures. 

NEW WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS, BY GEOGRAPHIC AREAS. —Naturally, it is seldom that 
all sections of the United States react in the same way and in the same degree to a given 
set of economic conditions. Furthermore, the economic conditions themselves vary according 
to geographic areas and are highly colorea by local factors. For these reasons, eight 
states have been selected for which data on new wholesale establishments are presented in 
Appendix B. These states are believed to be representative of every section of the United 
States; consequently a study by geographic areas, of the extent to which wholesale places of 
• business started operations subsequent to 1929, by what types of organizations, and in what 
■lines of trade, will reveal some interesting comparisons and contrasts. 

Table 9.— PAY ROLL AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES 

Type of operation All wholesale . New establish- 

or -..-.-- establishments ments only 
■ Kind of business , ■_ 1933 ^ L 

TOTAL 46.5 44 ..5 

-Wholesalers- proper.,-.,,, ..„.,,.. -....-, , ,,. ,_47.6 - , -- - -.45.5. 

Manufacturers' _sales-branches.,. ..,,,-...,., ,. _ 45.4 .. , _ 43.,S-....'. ..~ 

Agents and brokers,.-,,- ....-.....•-..■.•.■.'... .r.T..„^.,.......,.K.,..,„r,.. ..,.. 49.0 45.3,- . 

-Assemblers and country buyers ,..,.-,.,.,.„..,-....-...., 44.6 - ,- 43.9-, 

All others, 41.4 , - 42.2 

WHOLESALERS PROPER 

Amusement and sporting goods,.. ...;,. ......:.,., :... 44.6 38.8 

Automotive products ■.....■■...■.;..•....-•.•.:..;.•■..■../ 52.4 51.5 

Chemicals;. ..r;^.;i^.,::r:..x~ ::^-.:.r.r.v...?..j....::y.i:r.r..:^:..-.:.:. 43.3 50.7 

Clothing and furnishings ■•....';.-;.■..-.■..._ 47.2 49.3 

Coal :..^..::.[[:.^..... 45.0 44.4 

Drugs and drug sundries .t...?.r.--;i:.. ..-.:'.■.•.. ....:.-...... 47.3 37.8 

Dry goods 49.2 49.1 

Electrical goods 50.2 48.2 

Farm products-raw materials ,:.: ;...:.-.:-...■.-...;.... ....'......' 32.8 31.5 

Farm products-consumer goods ..V.:... ..;:.....-... 46.0 43.1 

Farm supplies r... ...-...:.:....':.... ..-...:... 43.4 44.2 

Furniture and house furnishings 48.5 47.0 

General merchandise 37.8 39.4 



-23- 



Table 9. - Continued. 



Type of operation All wholesale New establish- 

or establishments ments only 

Kind of business 1933 

WHOLESALERS PROPER ( Cont ' d . ) 

Groceries and foods 48.6 47.6 

Hardware 53.4 46.5 

Jewelry and optical goods 48.5 48.1 

Lumber and building materials 49.8 50.2 

Machinery, equipment and supplies 

(except electrical) 50.5 47.6 

Metals (except scrap) 53.2 _ ' 42.6 

Paper and its products 54.5 49.2 

Petroleum and its products 39.2 37.7 

Plumbing and heating equipment 

and supplies 49.1 49.2 

Tobacco and its products (except leaf) 45.9 52.4 

Waste materials 43.5 43.3 

Beer 33.9 37.5 

Wines and spiritous liquors 37.8 35.5 

All other products 48.5 48.3 



- - 



8666 



-24- 

Ar-fTilCDlA A. — .VEOLEbALE ^TABLl^iniJJTS .KiICH ^TAaTin) Oi.' JliTIQHa SUBSii^UliHT TO 1929, 

FOR TMi UKITi:i; mAIiiS 



(111 values eipr 


3ssed 


in thousand 


s of doll 


ars) 












Kumber 


ir-er- 




?otal expenses 




Pay 


roll 






of 

estab- 


oent 
of 


Uet sales 






Man-months 
of full- 








Type of Establishment and 




4 of 




Vart- 


^of 


Kind of Business 


lish- 


total 




Anount 


net 


time 


Total 


tlme 


net 




ments 


1933 






sales 


employment 






ialee 


TOTAL 


37.846 


2S.1 


^.364,986 


4370.713 


11.0 


1.348.068 


ia65.108 


48.039 


4.9 


WHOI,K,AI,r:tai i-ROi-ER 


£3,075 


B7.9 


1,359,110 


198,324 


14.6 


810,241 


90,234 


4,582 


5.5 


mUUFACTUUiSii • SALES BHAHCHES 


2,039 


12.1 


486,479 


60,587 


12.5 


158,836 


26,242 


515 


5.4 


AQENT2 AIJD BHOKlfflii 


3,947 


28.6 


865,604 


29,476 


3.4 


90,372 


13,533 


999 


l.fi 


AjaElSLJiBS Al.'D COURTBT BUTEHS 


4,526 


18.9 


253,507 


20,097 


7.9 


87,450 


8,816 


1,428 


3.5 


ALL OCOias 


4,259 


16.0 


400,188 


62,229 


15.5 


201.169 


26.283 


415 


5.6 


.fflOLBiiALEBii i'BQr'EH 


23,075 


27.9 


1,359,110 


198,324 


14.6 


810,241 


90,234 


4,582 


6.5 


(i>erlod In shleh establish- 




















ments begem operations) 




















rt-lor to January 1, 1933 


14,372 


- 


1,089,598 


157,498 


14.5 


645,207 


72,851 


3,557 


5.7 


First quarter, 1933 


957 


- 


54,617 


8,229 


15.1 


35,112 


3,673 


223 


5.7 


Second qv»rtor, 1933 


3,114 


- 


122,099 


18,361 


15.0 


75,056 


7,702 


465 


5.3 


July, 1933 


989 


- 


34,340 


5,069 


14.8 


18,555 


2,090 


97 


6.1 


August, 1933 


750 


- 


15,267 


2,636 


17.3 


10,044 


1,132 


75 


7.4 


Ssptanber, 1933 


945 


- 


15,334 


2,666 


17.4 


10,711 


1,194 


73 


7.8 


October, 1933 


757 


_ 


11,575 


1,680 


14.4 


7,830 


731 


55 


6.3 


Kovember, 1933 


639 


_ 


5,089 


904 


17.8 


3,505 


371 


20 


7.3 


December, 1933 


552 


- 


11.091 


1.281 


11.5 


4.221 


490 


17 


4.4 


Amusement and sporting goods 


345 


32.4 


24,467 


3,597 


14.7 


10,341 


1,397 


44 


5.7 


Automotive products 


1,711 


32.7 


68,445 


15,088 


22.0 


73,996 


7,767 


181 


11.3 


Chemlotds 


345 


25.1 


14,136 


2,338 


15.5 


9,851 


1,185 


54 


8.4 


-Clotiilne and furnishings 


1,086 


36.1 


77,999 


12,464 


16.0 


45,870 


5,142 


339 


7.9 


Coal 


176 


18.1 


19,017 


2,493 


13.1 


10,266 


1,105 


85 


5.8 


Drugs and drug sundries 


364 


32.9 


45,578 


8,502 


18.7 


27,101 


3,218 


95 


7.1, 


Dry soodB 


940 


27.8 


96,058 


11,211 


11.7 


39,248 


5,499 


138 


5.7 


Electrical good* 


675- 


•31.6 


46,121 


10,314 


22.4 


42,721 


4,959 


97 


10.8 


Farm products-raw materials 


463 


19.0 


87,505 


5,602 


6.4 


11,825 


1,753 


153 


2.0 


Farm produots-oonsumer goods 


2,891 


27.8 


209,534 


28,978 


13.8 


114,990 


12,485 


771 


6i0 


Farm supplies 


341 


19.6 


24,619 


2,229 


9.1 


9,888 


985 


60 


4.0 


Furniture and house furnishing! 


565 


31.6 


23,307 


4,572 


19.6 


17,791 


2,148 


151 


9.2 


Oeneral merchandise 


19 


18.4 


1,102 


142 


12.9 


474 


55 


8 


5.1 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


4,408 


23.1 


258,206 


31,649 


12.3 


;50,177 


15,079 


818 


5.8 


Hardware 


152 


12.9 


6,260 


1,298 


20.7 


5,918 


603 


13 


9.5 


Jewelry and optical goods 


963 


22.0 


10,644 


2,494 


23.4 


11,451 


1,200 


35 


11.3 


Lumber and building material (other thao 




















metal) 


433 


16.4 


24,622 


4,622 


13.8 


18,302 


2,319 


227 


9.4 


Uaohlnery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


1,346 


22.8 


48,084 


10,189 


21.2 


42,879 


4,855 


229 


10.1 


Metals (except scrap) 


159 


21.3 


8,871 


1,444 


15.3 


4,432 


615 


65 


6.9 


i'aper and its products 


432 


19.5 


16,016 


3,625 


22.5 


17,573 


1,783 


48 


11.1 


i:>etroleuia and Its produota 


706 


36.2 


45,243 


7,057 


15.5 


23,382 


2,653 


136 


5.9 


i^lumblng and heating aqulpaant and suppHes 


358 


24.9 


17,805 


3,798 


21.3 


14,680 


1,867 


75 


10.5 


Tobacco and its products except leaf) 


375 


21.6 


57,970 


2,957 


5.1 


14,646 


1,550 


31 


2.7 


Waste materials 


850 


25.3 


15,904 


3,401 


20.1 


19,355 


1,474 


172 


8.7 


All other prodaots 


1,090 


15.3 


36,695 


6,738 


18.4 


31,249 


3,256 


269 


8.9 


Beer 


1,860 


- 


48,490 


7,817 


16.1 


29,590 


2,932 


218 


6.0 


Wines and spiritoua liquor 


602 


- 


25,410 


3,705 


14.6 


12,234 


1,317 


57 


5.2 


lUmiFAOTUaSBS ' SAI.P2 BBAUCEES 


2.039 


12.1 


485.479 


60.587 


12.5 


158.835 


26.242 


615 


5.4 


l?rior to January 1, 1933 


1,654 


- 


455,657 


56,995 


12.5 


149,414 


24,882 


572 


5.5 


First quarter, 1933 


39 


- 


2,766 


540 


19.5 


1,401 


240 


9 


8.7 


Second quartar, 1933 ^ 


106 


- 


18,063 


1,694 


9.4 


4,592 


527 


23 


3.5 


July, 1933 


50 


_ 


2,770 


544 


19.5 


1,593 


23S 


4 


8.5 


August, 1933 


38 


- 


1,082 


185 


17.1 


524 


82 


3 


7.6 


Septamter, 1933 


43 


_ 


1,123 


205 


18.3 


605 


82 


1 


/ 7.3 


October, 1933 


40 


_ 


3,445 


324 


9.4 


449 


57 


2 


1.7 


NoTOBbar, 193S 


34 


- 


1,081 


83 


7.7 


202 


27 


1 


/ 2.5 


Deoember, 1933 


35 


- 


491 


P 


3.5 


56 


10 


2 


2.0 



-26- 

Ai-iEKDIX A. .VHOUSiLE KoTABLISHMiSHTS ,VH1CH UTAHTEB Oi'KHATIOKS SUBSKQUiiHT TO 1929, 

FOR THE mriTUD JTATJSB 



(All TOlues expressed 


In thousands of dollars) 












Hunber 


Per- 




Total expenses 


Man-months 


Piiy roll 






of 


cent 






of full- 
tine 








Type of Esta^llBbment and 


estab- 


of 


Net sales 




-^of 


Total 


Part- 


„of 


Kind of BuelneE* 


lish- 
ments 


total 
1933 




imount 


net 
sales 


employment 


time 


net 
sales 


MAHUPACTUEliES • SAT.RS BEAECHES 




















(continued) 




















Annisament and sporting goods 


26 


7.0 


$6,517 


*1,704 


26.1 


5,725 


$677 


$2 


10.4 


AutamotiTS prod-uets 


130 


15.8 


52,751 


8,596 


16.3 


20,320 


2,686 


26 


5.5 


Chemloals 


124 


14.6 


25,248 


4,332 


17.2 


8,934 


1.870 


51 


7.4 


Clothing and furnishings 


139 


26.3 


25,409 


3,986 


15.7 


10,965 


1,866 


48 


7.3 


Coal 


11 


10.5 


3,678 


337 


9.2 


775 


194 


13 


5.3 


Drugs and drug sundries 


81 


32.3 


7,503 


2,710 


36.1 


5,794 


1,023 


5 


13.6 


Dry goods 


69 


17.1 


12,394 


990 


8.0 


3,888 


509 


11 


4.9 


Eleotrlcal goods 


106 


14.5 


32,180 


3,996 


12.4 


11,799 


2,002 


36 


6.2 


Farm products-raw materials 


1 


20.0 


4 


1 


25.0 


14 


1 


_ 


25.0 


Farm produots-oonaumer goods 


43 


11.8 


8,080 


819 


10.1 


3,478 


388 


12 


4.8 


Farm supplies 


9 


5.6 


700 


86 


12.3 


241 


34 


14 


4.9 


Furniture and house furnishings 


87 


17.9 


5,761 


857 


12. ■• 


3,173 


421 


21 


6.2 


Groceries and foods (eatoept farm prodxiots) 


272 


8.0 


49,162 


7,156 


14.6 


16,765 


2,777 


51 


5.6 


Hardware 


19 


14.5 


3,785 


580 


15.3 


1,639 


266 


2 


7.0 


Jewelry and optical goods 


23 


7.4 


6,418 


1,017 


15.8 


2,523 


518 


2 


G.l 


Lumber and building material 




















(other than metal) 


34 


6.1 


3,869 


684 


17.7 


1,735 


344 


10 


8.9 


Machinery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except eleotrlcal) 


446 


11.0 


55,026 


8,214 


14.9 


24,666 


4,163 


211 


7.6 


Metals (other than scrap) 


72 


7.8 


91,431 


3,450 


3.8 


7,089 


1,866 


7 


2.0 


i?aper and its products 


70 


16.3 


39,768 


3,567 


9.0 


9,863 


1,759 


14 


4.4 


Petroleum and its products 


10 


7.1 


595 


228 


36.3 


834 


76 


- 


12.8 


Plumbing and heating equlpnent and Buppllos 


61 


10.4 


10,869 


2,730 


25.1 


7,803 


1,117 


12 


10.3 


Tobaooo and its products (except leaf) 


16 


7.7 


11,244 


1,170 


10.4 


1,777 


283 


U 


2.5 


All other products 


118 


11.3 


15,894 


2,107 


13.3 


6,232 


766 


59 


4,8 


Beer 


52 


.. 


4,938 


1,064 


21.5 


2,365 


280 


6 


5.7 


iVine and spirltous liquors 


22 


- 


12,255 


206 


1.7 


434 


54 


2 


.4 


AGEHTS AOT BROKERS 


3.947 


28.« 


865.604 


29.476 


3.4 


90.372 


13.533 


999 


1.6 


J?rior to January 1, 1933 


2,848 


- 


701,871 


24,091 


3.4 


74,163 


11,274 


806 


1.6 


First quarter, 1933 


156 


- 


17,439 


969 


5.6 


3,063 


380 


36 


2.2 


Second quarter, 1933 


333 


- 


89,442 


2,299 


2.6 


6,403 


1,003 


61 


1.1 


July, 1933 


123 


_ 


17,350 


659 


3.8 


1,813 


245 


15 


1.4 


August, 1933 


97 


- 


9,744 


433 


4.4 


1,585 


219 


31 


2.2 


September, 1933 


123 


- 


14,825 


464 


3.1 


1,513 


186 


25 


1.3 


October, 1933 


109 


- 


8,999 


297 


3.3 


1,028 


103 


IS 


1.1 


Novanber, 1933 


101 


_ 


4,087 


187 


4.6 


531 


99 


10 


2.4 


December, 1933 


57 


- 


1,847 


77 


4.2 


272 


24 


Z_ 


1.3 


Amusement and sporting goods 


47 


40.9 


2,431 


171 


7.0 


641 


69 


6 


2.8 


Autcmotive products 


109 


45.2 


9,499 


739 


7.8 


2,667 


370 


8 


3.9 


Chemicals 


79 


32.0 


13,498 


854 


6.3 


1,846 


284 


16 


2.1 


Clothing and fumishlngB 


291 


35.1 


47,201 


1,868 


4.0 


6,764 


968 


31 


2.1 


Coal 


51 


17.3 


36,554 


1,227 


3.4 


2,507 


551 


55 


1.5 


Drugs and drug eimdrles 


47 


39.2 


2,496 


286 


11.5 


849 


146 


1 


5.8 


Dry goods 


288 


28.9 


119,421 


3,137 


2.6 


8,803 


1,488 


47 


1.2 


Eleotrlcal goods 


110 


29.6 


4,448 


451 


10.1 


1,620 


196 


15 


4.4 


Farm products-raw materials 


558 


25.1 


236,067 


4,988 


2.1 


17,053 


2,314 


294 


1.0 


Farm products-consuner goods 


443 


27.1 


121,848 


5,138 


4.2 


15,015 


2,480 


235 


2.0 


Fann supplies 


72 


34.3 


4,379 


241 


5.5 


644 


68 


8 


1.6 


Furniture and house furnishings 


161 


31.8 


9,621 


784 


8.1 


2,524 


331 


33 


3.4 


Seneral merchandise 


12 


13.8 


1,828 


24 


1.3 


160 


13 


2 


• 7 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


420 


22.3 


142,515 


2,452 


1.7 


8,089 


1,151 


60 


•8 


Hardware 


46 


25.0 


2,549 


304 


11.9 


925 


123 


1 


4.8 


Jewelry and optloal goods 


27 


23.9 


476 


46 


9.7 


169 


13 


i/ 


2.7 


Limber and building material (other than met 


al) 144 


27.6 


12,642 


806 


6.3 


2,261 


373 


37 


2.9 


llaohinery, equlpnent and supplies, 




















(except electrical) 


492 


33.0 


15,965 


2,403 


15.1 


7,484 


1,065 


82 


6.7 


KetalE (eioept scrap) 


76 


25.2 


15,038 


821 


5.5 


1,808 


342 


14 


2.3 



A^EEHBIX A. 'MOLEbALE Eo'i;ABLISE:iI!STS MICH STAETED OPERATIONS SUBSEQUEKT TO 1929, 

FOE tig; LSITED JTATES 



( Al 1 va 


lues exprassed 


if] t.^imi!;anrtg nf dollarBl 












Number 

of 
estab- 


Per- 
cent 
of 


Net sales 


Total expenses 


Uan-monthB 
of full- 
time 
employment 


Pay 


roll 




Type of Eotabllshment and 




56 of 




Part- 


%ot 


Kind of Business 


lish- 


total 




Amount 


net 


Total 


tiJiie 


net 




raentE 


1933 






sales 








Bales 


age:ts ai;e BRcaoiHs 




















I Continued) 




















ir'aper and its products 


56 


29.1 


$2,944 


iizoe 


7.1 


1.205 


$92 


«s 


3.1 


Petroleum and its products 


59 


38.1 


33,905 


755 


2.2 


1,685 


334 


6 


1.0 


Plumbing and heating equipnent 




















and supplies 


79 


35.3 


2,613 


216 


8.3 


943 


190 


8 


7.3 


Tobacco and Its products (except leaf) 


2 


10,0 


17 


2 


11.8 


4 


h 


- 


- 


^aete materials 


13 


26.5 


889 


92 


10.3 


208 


17 


1 


1.9 


All other products 


161 


9.3 


21,656 


921 


4.3 


2,819 


327 


23 


1.5 


Beer 


74 


_ 


3,832 


423 


11.0 


1,473 


177 


8 


4.6 


Wine and spiritous liquors 


28 


- 


1,072 


119 


11.1 


196 


41 


3 


3.8 


iiSEMBLEES AIID COUUTRY BUTffiBS 


4,526 


18.9 


253, 607 


20,097 


7.9 


87,450 


8.616 


1,428 


3.5 


Prior to January 1, 1953 


3,136 


- 


218,721 


16,835 


7.7 


72,092 


7,470 


1,175 


3.4 


First quarter, 1933 


200 


- 


4,562 


442 


9.7 


1,882 


225 


34 


4.9 


Second quarter, 1933 


394 


- 


17,111 


1,600 


9.4 


6,999 


610 


83 


3.6 


July, 1933 5/ 


142 


- 


3,935 


464 


11.8 


2,340 


184 


40 


4.7 


August, 1933 5/ 


122 


- 


2,114 


258 


12.2 


1,301 


114 


39 


5.4 


September, 1933 


160 


- 


2,660 


176 


6.6 


666 


74 


21 


2.8 


October, 1933 


141 


- 


2,350 


184 


7.8 


841 


78 


21 


3.3 


November, 1933 


119 


- 


1,189 


80 


6.7 


851 


37 


9 


3.1 


December, 1933 


112 


- 


965 


58 


6.0 


278 


24 


6 


2.5 


Farm products-raw materials 


1,261 


10.4 


135,186 


6,848 


5.1 


24,288 


2,785 


206 


2.1 


Farm products-consumer goods 


3,131 


28.0 


112,467 


12,431 


11.1 


59,286 


5,617 


1,153 


5.0 


Farm supplies 


87 


26.4 


2,679 


274 


10.2 


1,209 


116 


17 


4.3 


Groceries and foods (except farm 




















products) 4/ 


21 


13.5 


599 


191 


31.9 


605 


103 


49 


17.£ 


All other products 


26 


17.8 


2,676 


353 


13.2 


2,062 


195 


3 


7.3 


ALL oriffiKa 


4.259 


16.0 


400.188 


62.229 


15.5 


201.169 


26.283 


415 


6.6 


Prior to January 1, 1933 


3,821 




349,524 


57,138 


16.3 


188,024 


24,017 


371 


5.9 


First quarter, 1933 


83 


- 


23,782 


1,789 


7.5 


4,228 


552 


17 


2.4 


Second quarter, 1933 


167 


- 


20,145 


2,455 


12.2 


6,415 


1,224 


18 


6.1 


July, 1933 


43 


- 


4,782 


572 


12.0 


1,471 


362 


2 


7.6 


August, 1933 


39 


- 


718 


102 


14.2 


376 


51 


1 


7.1 


September, 1933 


29 


- 


672 


62 


9.2 


208 


20 


1 


3.0 


October, 1933 


28 


- 


164 


35 


21.3 


126 


14 


3 


8.5 


November, 1933 


29 


- 


208 


39 


18.8 


188 


20 


1 


9.6 


December, 1933 


20 


- 


193 


37 


19.2 


133 


13 


1 


6.7 


Clothing and furnishings 


3 


25.0 


355 


26 


7.3 


117 


9 


1 


2.5 


Farm products-consumer goods 


18 


21.2 


19,665 


1,083 


5.5 


2,234 


323 


18 


1.6 


Groceries and foods (eicept farm 




















products) 


56 


19.4 


58,558 


3,661 


6.3 


9,282 


1,735 


9 


3.0 


Petroleum and its products 


4,174 


15.9 


315,118 


55,797 


18.0 


187,829 


23,988 


377 


7.6 


All other kinds of business 3/ 


8 


- 


6,492 


662 


10.2 


1,707 


228 


10 


3.5 



i/ Less than ii500. 

2/ The low expense ratio for this quarter \ms accounted for in port by one packer of foods which established several 

branches during 1933. 
3/ The high expense ratio for these months was due in part to packers and shippers of fruits and vegetables. 
4/ The high expense ratio shown here was due in part to packers and shippers of fish and sea foods, 
a/ Includes 1 establishment dealing in chemicals; 1 in drugs and drug sundries; 1 in dry goods; 1 in electrical goods; 

1 in furniture and house furnishings; 1 in general merchandise; 1 in plumbing and heating equijment and supplies; 

and 1 in all other products. 



-27- 

Ai-iMTDIX B. — WHOLESALE EbTABLISKilSHTo .ffilCi! STAHIilD O^'iiRATIONS SUBSiiQUiiCT TO 1929, 

POH SELECTEK STATES 





(All values expressed 


In thousands of dollars) 














liumber 

of 
estab- 
lish- 
ment B 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 


net sales 


Total expenses 


I,!an-month£ 
of full- 
time 
employment 


Pay roll 


Type of Establishment and 
Kind of Business 


imount 


>o Of 

net 
sales 


Total 


Part- 
time 


^ of 

net 

sales 



MAiiSACHUSETTS 



KTAL FOB STATE 


1,027 


20.0 


$135,885 


tl5,119 


11.1 


46,911 


55,348 


$268 


4.7 


WHOLES ALKRR •VOfm 


748 


21.9 


60,333 


8,293 


13.7 


31,480 


3,805 


228 


6.3 


MAIUFACTURERS'.SALRR BHAICHES 


78 


9.7 


8,607 


1,645 


19.1 


4,557 


761 


13 


8.8 


AGEBTS ilH) BROKERS 


148 


22.7 


25,923 


843 


3.3 


2,739 


356 


19 


1.4 


A.SSfMBI.fflS AI^B COUKTHT BUYERS 


19 


36.5 


27,441 


1,950 


7.1 


2,630 


454 


5 


1.7 


ALL OTHKRS 


34 


15.2 


13.581 


2.388 


17.6 


7.505 


971 


3 


7.1 


(Period in which aatablish- 




















mants began operations) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


696 


- 


112,656 


12,982 


11.5 


41, U2 


5,485 


199 


4.9 


First quarter, 1933 


40 


- 


2,858 


494 


17.3 


1,915 


253 


38 


8.9 


3«oond quarter, 1933 


130 


- 


12,060 


955 


7.9 


3,808 


361 


20 


3.0 


July, 1933 


27 


- 


4,969 


353 


7.1 


949 


133 


8 


2.7 


August, 1933 


28 


- 


1,587 


101 


6.4 


376 


41 


2 


2.6 


September, 1933 


29 


- 


365 


64 


17.5 


214 


28 


1 


7.7 


Ootobor, 1933 


28 


- 


392 


37 


9.4 


171 


12 


_ 


3.1 


November, 1933 


28 


- 


224 


60 


26.8 


ISl 


14 


- 


6.3 


Deoamber, 1933 


21 


- 


774 


73 


9.4 


185 


21 


- 


2.7 


WHOLESALERS PROPER 


748 


21.9 


60,333 


8.293 


13.7 


31,480 


3,305 


228 


6.3 


Amusement and sporting goods 


13 


28.3 


257 


77 


28.8 


318 


43 


3 


16.1 


Automotive products 


42 


27.5 


2,330 


462 


19.8 


2,066 


211 


3 


9.1 


Chemicals 


17 


20.7 


259 


83 


32.0 


302 


39 


4 


15.1 


Clothing and fiamishingB 


44 


26.8 


3,499 


447 


12.8 


1,448 


196 


3 


5.6 


Coea 


7 


14.9 


811 


145 


17.9 


746 


82 


4 


10.1 


Drugs and drug sundriec 


15 


31.9 


223 


36 


16.1 


141 


14 


1 


5.3 


Dry goods 


26 


18.4 


1,979 


242 


12.2 


908 


121 


5 


6.1 


Electrical goods 


32 


27,1 


2,258 


458 


20.3 


1,614 


213 


11 


9.4 


Paam products-raw materials 


9 


9.6 


2.485 


227 


9.1 


370 


49 


2 


2.0 


Farm products— consuser goods 


97 


26.4 


8,098 


1.236 


15.3 


3,974 


563 


80 


7.0 


Farm supplies 


6 


25.0 


10,174 


414 


4.1 


1,048 


245 


- 


2.4 


Furniture and house furnishings 


16 


21.9 


388 


68 


17.5 


350 


25 


2 


5.4 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


131 


19.8 


10,950 


1,767 


16.1 


6,201 


741 


27 


5.8 


Hardware 


5 


11.9 


101 


25 


24.8 


92 


10 


1 


9.9 


Jewelry and optical goods 


10 


11.4 


191 


73 


38.2 


323 


35 


1 


18.3 


Lumbar and. building material (other than 




















metal) 


13 


14.0 


899 


245 


27.3 


1,081 


154 


28 


17.1 


Uaohlnery, equipnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


49 


19.6 


2,244 


623 


27.8 


2,432 


303 


5 


13.5 


I'stals (except scrap) 


3 


8.8 


56 


19 


33.9 


88 


12 


1 


21.4 


Paper and its products 


27 


17.5 


496 


118 


23.8 


533 


56 


5 


11.3 


Petroleum and its products 


14 


34.1 


606 


96 


15.8 


403 


40 


3 


5.6 


Plttnblng and heating equljment and supplies 


24 


23.5 


1,131 


243 


21.5 


883 


127 


3 


11.2 


Tobacco and its products (except leaf) 


15 


17.2 


4,978 


204 


4.1 


958 


103 


2 


2.1 


Waste materials 


19 


13.0 


865 


152 


17.6 


981 


72 


2 


8.3 


Bear 


22 


- 


718 


141 


19.6 


496 


45 


2 


5.4 


Vines and spiritous liquors 


35 


_ 


2,103 


344 


16.4 


1,397 


120 


3 


5.7 


ill other products 


57 


16.1 


2,224 


348 


15.6 


2,327 


186 


27 


8.4 


UmnPACTtJBJilRS ' BALES BEAHCHES 


78 


9.7 


8.607 


1.645 


19.1 


4.557 


751 


13 


8,8 


Automotive product- 


5 


12.8 


811 


106 


13.1 


194 


37 


1 


4.6 


Chosloals 


3 


7.5 


100 


23 


23.0 


27 


8 


- 


8.0 


Clothing and fiimisi.ings 


5 


15.6 


430 


52 


12.1 


181 


27 


iy 


6.3 


Drugs and drug sundries 


5 


38.5 


155 


49 


31.6 


120 


16 


- 


10.3 


Elaotrloal goods 


7 


18.4 


2,234 


248 


11.1 


591 


134 


7 


6.0 


Fazn products-consumer goods 


1 


4.5 


246 


28 


11.4 


120 


15 


- 


5.5 


Furniture and house furnishings 


6 


18.2 


785 


90 


11.6 


240 


48 


h 


5.1 


Groosrles and foods (except farm products) 


9 


6.0 


948 


411 


43.4 


706 


167 


S 


17.6 



-za- ■ 

IPfESPU B. — «HOTiRq«T.f! ESTIBLISBUBNTS IVELCE STABTES Of£aiSI05S SUBSBQUSIST TO 1929; 

rOH SELSOTKD STAXBS 



(All Talp«8 «ipres»ed In thousanda of dollara) 



Type of KBtabllshjuent and 
Kind of Buslnesa 



Btmber 

of 
estab- 

liab- 
ments 



cent 
of 
total 
1933 



Net aalea 



Total expenses 



imomit 



% of 

net 

sales 



Man-montha 

of full- 

tlms 

emplo^nnent 



Pay roll 



Total 



Part- 
time 



% of 

net 

sales 



lUSSACEUSETTS (Sontlnued) 



iUHUFAOTUEEHS' SALES BHAHnHKS 




















(Continued) 




















Uaobinery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except electrical 1 


17 


10,0 


$1,308 


«176 


13.4 


4^695 


«113 


11 


8.6 


Metals (except scrap) 


2 


4.4 


61 


7 


8.6 


12 


3 


1 


3.7 


Paper and Its produots 


2 


8.3 


540 


249 


46.1 


1,023 


108 




20.0 


PlTjmblng and heating eqnipnent and supplies 


5 


15.6 


305 


111 


36.4 


287 


46 


3 


15.1 


All other Kinds of business 


11 


- 


664 


96 


14.5 


361 


38 


- 


5.7 


AQKMIS AHC BBGKBBS 


148 


22.7 


25,923 


843 


3.3 


2.739 


356 


19 


1.4 


Chemicals 


5 


•3.3 


102 


28 


27.5 


58 


8 


1/ 7.8 


Clothing and furnishings 


12 


ft.O 


987 


39 


4.0 


88 


9 


1 


0.9 


Dry goods 


15 


18.5 


2,869 


76 


2.6 


224 


35 


3 


1.2 


Electrical goods 


3 


15.8 


133 


7 


5.Z 


36 


3 




2.3 


Farm prodijots-raw materials 


18 


34.0 


11,411 


192 


1.7 


409 


84 


i/ 0.7 


Fami products-oonBumer goods 


11 


19.6 


2,397 


99 


4.1 


380 


45 


1/ 1.9 


Furniture and house furnishings 


6 


18.2 


202 


15 


7.4 


48 


4 


1 


2.0 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


15 


16.9 


3,326 


99 


3.0 


411 


57 


1/ 1.7 


Hardware 


5 


55.6 


112 


35 


31.3 


125 


11 


1/ 9.8 


Uaohlnery, equljment and supplleo 




















(except electrical) 


21 


30.9 


800 


119 


14.9 


598 


as 


2 


7.0 


UetalB (except scrap) 


e 


44.4 


596 


34 


5.7 


SO 


10 


8 


1.7 


Paper and Its prodacts 


4 


33.3 


237 


11 


4.6 


26 


3 


1 


1.3 


Pltmblng and heating equlpaeat and supplies 


4 ' 


21.1 


99 


4 


4.0 


14 


1 


- 


1.0 


All other Iclnds of business 


21 


- 


2,652 


85 


3.2 


272 


30 


3 


1.1 


ASSBMBLEES AHB COUHTEY BUYKRa 


19 


36.5 


27.441 


1.950 


7.1 


2.630 


454 


5 


1.7 


Farm prodoBts-raw materials 


3 


42.9 


17,579 


1,697 


9.7 


1,631 


338 


2 


1.9 


Farm produots-eonsumer goods 


16 


37,2 


9,862 


253 


2.6 


999 


116 


3 


1.2 


ALL OTHKRS 


34 


15.2 


13, SSI 


_a^89 


17.6 


7,505 


971 


3 


7.1 


PetrolOTBi and its products 


31 


15.0 


9,611 


1,616 


16. a 


5,277 


712 


3 


7.4 


All other kinds of busiivss 


3 


- 


3.970 


772 


19.4 


2.228 


259 


- 


6.5 



-29- 

AfPENDIX B. — WHOLESALE EaTABLlSMtKHTS 'iVHICH STARTED Oi'KRAHOKS CUBSEQUEHT TO 1929, 

FOB SELECTED STATES 



(All Talues ezra-esaed In thoneands of dollars) 



Type of Establishment and 
Kind of Business 



Number 

of 
estab- 

liBh- 
ments 



Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 



Net sales 



Total expenses 



Amonnt 



,» of 

net 

sales 



Man-monthB 
of full- 
time 
emplojrment 



Pay roll 



Total 



Part- 
time 



}> of 

net 

sales 



BHODE ISLAND 



TOTAL FOR STATE 


133 


29.2 


:|15.413 


$1,393 


9.0 


5.096 


$529 


$9 


4.1 


WHQLESALiiRS i'BOiCT 


117 


25.7 


10,918 


1,230 


11.3 


4,409 


546 


8 


5.0 


HAiaJFACTUBERS • SALES BBAIXHES 


8 


11.6 


276 


56 


20.3 


253 


23 


1 


8.3 


AGENTS AjrD BBOKEBS 


4 


22.2 


2,935 


59 


2.0 


215 


34 




1.2 


ISEIMBLiaS AlID COUCTBI BUTERS 


2 


22.2 


1,180 


37 


3.1 


140 


19 


_ 


1.6 


ALL OTHERS 


2 


7.4 


104 


11 


10.5 


69 


7 


_ 


5.7 


(Period in which eatabliah- 




















manta began oporatlono) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


59 


_ 


8,559 


710 


8.3 


2,869 


338 


6 


3.9 


Bret quarter, 1933 


5 


_ 


86 


18 


20.9 


140 


12 




14.0 


Second quarter, 1933 


37 


- 


979 


178 


18.2 


708 


79 


2 


8.1 


•nilrd quarter, 1933 


26 


- 


5,747 


482 


8.4 


1,334 


198 


1 


3.4 


Fourth quarter, 1933 


6 


- 


42 


5 


11.9 


45 


2 




4.8 


IH0LSaALER3 PROPER 


117 


25.7 


10.918 


1.230 


_ia,3 


4.409 


546 


8 


5.0 


ABt«aotlT« prbdnots 


6 


2 7.3 


163 


45 


27.6 


193 


21 


1 


12.9 


Chcsioals 


2 


15.4 


42 


7 


16.7 


25 


3 


_ 


7.1 


Clethl^ and fnniishings 


5 


50.0 


67 


12 


17.9 


58 


6 


1 


9.0 


Ooal 


2 


50.0 


32 


7 


21.9 


55 


5 


- 


15.6 


Bnigs and druf; nundries 


3 


37.5 


56 


17 


30.4 


26 


4 


- 


7.1 


Dry goods 


4 


19.0 


253 


48 


19.0 


130 


26 


- 


10.3 


Farm produots-raw materials 


3 


20.0 


108 


17 


15.7 


71 


7 


- 


6.5 


Pun produots-oonsanar goods 


16 


38.1 


2,403 


239 


9.9 


756 


83 


1 


3.5 


Farm supplies 


3 


50.0 


98 


24 


24.5 


109 


15 


_ 


15.3 


Pomiture and hous* furnishings 


2 


25.0 


26 


5 


19.2 


22 


2 


- 


7.7 


Orooaries and food! (except farm products) 


21 


20.4 


828 


122 


14.7 


618 


47 


1 


5.7 


Bardmra 


3 


37.5 


117 


60 


51.3 


282 


31 


_ 


26.5 


Uaohlnery, oqulpnant and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


3 


11.5 


107 


33 


30.8 


114 


17 


1 


15.9 


Ustals (except scrap! 


• 2 


66.7 


91 


19 


20.9 


95 


9 


- 


9.9 


Paper and it* products 


2 


15.4 


246 


95 


38.6 


112 


27 


- 


11.0 


Plnnbing and heating equipnant and mppLies 


2 


16.7 


59 


18 


30.5 


87 


9 


- 


15.3 


Tobacco and its prodnsts (except leaf) 


7 


43.8 


5,011 


247 


4.9 


816 


133 


1 


2,7 


Waste materials 


3 


13.6 


24 


7 


29.2 


46 


4 


1 


16.7 


Baer 


11 


- 


302 


63 


20.9 


230 


24 


- 


7.9 


Wines and spiritous liquors 


12 


- 


510 


99 


19.4 


393 


42 


- 


8.2 


All other kinds of business 


5 


- 


375 


46 


12.3 


169 


31 


1 


8.3 


MANUFIOTUBKBS' SALES BRAHORKS g/ 


S 


11.6 


276 


56 


20.3 


263 


23 


1 


8.3 


ACSKTS AUD BBCKEBS j/ 


4 


22.2 


2,935 


59 


2.0 


215 


34 


^ 


1.2 


ASSBIBLEBS ASD OOOBTRT BUIERS (fm prodnota- 
oonstour goods) 


2 


22.2 


1,180 


37 


3.1 


140 


19 


- 


1.6 




















tXL OTHERS (patrolma and its iroduots) 


2 


7.4 


104 


11 


10.6 


69 


7 


- 


6.7 



-30. 
Aie^miLlX B— WHnT.RSM.E ESTABLISiftfKWIS «H1CE SIASTKS OPmAIIOSS SUBbJ^Qlj^ElBT 10 1929, 

JOB SSLECTBJ) STATES 



(All values exix 


essed 


in thousands of dollars) 












Hianber 

of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 


Set sales 


Total expenses 


UaiHnonths 

of full- 
time 
employment 


Pay poll 


Type of Estatllshment and 
Kind of EiialnesB 


Amount 


;of 

net 
sales 


Total 


Part- 
tins 


^Of 

net 

sales 



OHIO 



TOTAL FOH STATE 


1,817 


21.9 


$204,739 


$23,929 


11.7 


77,584 


$10,033 


$418 


4.9 


V/HOLESALEKS i'ROiSE 


1,068 


23.8 


52,619 


8,665 


16.5 


38,177 


3,903 


217 


7.4 


liiHOTACTUIffiES • SAL£S BRAUCffiii 


190 


15.5 


74, 361 


9,949 


13.4 


20.033 


3,815 


98 


5.1 


AGEHTS AND BHOKKBH 


232 


30.7 


56,788 


1.781 


3.1 


5,113 


789 


61 


1.4 


ASSiaiBLKES AND OOUNTBT BUYERS 


184 


18.0 


6,680 


732 


11.0 


3,759 


330 


20 


4.9 


ALL OTHliRS 


123 


16.7 


14.291 


2.802 


19.6 


10.502 


1.196 


22 


8.4 


(Period in which establish- 




















ments began operations) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


1,269 


- 


164,633 


20,639 


12.5 


65,234 


8,669 


326 


5.3 


First quarter, 1933 


66 


_ 


3,309 


562 


17.0 


2,578 


253 


28 


7.6 


Second quarter, 1933 


190 


- 


30,119 


1,715 


5.7 


6,026 


729 


52 


2.4 


July, 1933 


71 


- 


2,4S4 


354 


14.3 


1,132 


UO 


4 


4.4 


August, 1933 


59 


- 


861 


206 


23.9 


728 


77 


2 


8.9 


September, 1933 


45 


- 


1,163 


226 


19.4 


871 


95 


3 


8.2 


October, 1933 


53 


- 


366 


62 


16.1 


368 


29 


2 


7.5 


November, 1933 


37 


- 


734 


83 


11.3 


204 


39 


- 


5.S 


Deoamber, 1933 


27 


- 


1.050 


82 


7,8 


443 


32 


I 


3.0 


IHm.RSiT.irKC! ponpup 


1^983 


E3.a 


M. 619 


9.M3 


16,5 


38,177 


3.903 


817 


7t4 


Anasament and sporting goods 


**lt 


-5tS 


^tf 


— '^m 


TTfr 


■■ 7(5? 


*^*-7? 


-*T 


"ISTt 


Autasotive prodoots 


113 


34.6 


5,419 


1,084 


20.0 


5,924 


557 


17 


10.3 


Chemicals 


14 


16.1 


251 


74 


29.5 


261 


31 


3 


12.4 


Clothing and furnishings 


33 


25.2 


1,128 


174 


15.4 


746 


97 


4 


8.6 


Coal 


19 


22.1 


2,450 


234 


9.6 


773 


127 


21 


5.2 


Drugs and drug sundries 


25 


37.3 


1,118 


186 


16.6 


568 


90 


12 


8.1 


Dry goods 


16 


18.2 


780 


115 


14.7 


619 


76 


2 


9.7 


Electrical goods 


40 


28.2 


2,417 


693 


28.7 


3,402 


347 


5 


14.4 


Farm products-raw materials 


10 


10.0 


2,831 


132 


4.7 


441 


53 


1 


1.9 


Farm products-consumer goods 


155 


24.6 


7,510 


, 965 


12.6 


4,940 


393 


22 


5.2 


Pam supplies 


7 


8.8 


280 


48 


17.1 


168 


14 


1/ 


5.0 


Furniture and house furnishings 


19 


27.5 


583 


144 


24.7 


480 


60 


6 


10,3 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


187 


20.6 


8,522 


1,300 


15.3 


5.403 


603 


32 


7.1 


Hardware 


11 


21.6 


168 


25 


14.9 


67 


11 


2 


6.5 


Jewelry and optical goods 


8 


14.3 


106 


23 


21.7 


107 


13 


- 


12.3 


Lumber and building materials (other than 




















metal 1 


32 


16.0 


1,964 


476 


24.2 


1,287 


184 


6 


9.4 


Machinery, equipDent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


80 


23.1 


1,724 


407 


23.6 


2,097 


185 


15 


10.7 


Metals (except scrap) 


10 


20.8 


3,013 


231 


7.7 


674 


133 


1 


4.4 


Paper and its products 


16 


13.1 


373 


116 


31.1 


1,097 


75 


2 


20.1 


Petroleum and its products 


36 


29.5 


1,600 


382 


23.9 


980 


124 


2 


7.8 


Plumbing and heating equipnent and supplies 


21 


22.6 


392 


82 


20.9 


580 


41 


6 
1/ 


10.5 


Tobacco and its produots (except leaf) 


13 


12.5 


2,858 


160 


5.6 


755 


76 


2.7 


Waste materials 


76 


23.3 


1,939 


387 


20.0 


2,232 


165 


18 


8.5 


Beer 


69 


- 


2,817 


604 


21.4 


2,218 


230 


17 


8.2 


vVines and spiritous liquors 


15 


- 


626 


118 


16.8 


418 


36 


1 


5.8 


All other products 


47 


14.6 


1,224 


256 


20.9 


1,213 


110 


21 


9.0 


MANUFACTLBKHS ' SALF.fi BBANCHES 


190 


15.5 


74,361 


9.949 


13.4 


20.033 


3.815 


98 


5fl 


Automotive products 


13 


20.3 


32,136 


4,627 


14.4 


5,750 


1,291 


2 


4.0 


Chemicals 


20 


26.7 


7,790 


601 


10.3 


1.352 


351 


2 


4.5 


Clothing and furnishings 


10 


31.3 


2,504 


703 


2 7.0 


1.397 


281 


y 


10.8 


Coal 


4 


33.3 


1,115 


139 


12.5 


388 


101 


13 


9.1 


Drugs and drug sundries 


7 


43.8 


150 


50 


33.3 


168 


21 


- 


14.0 


Dry goods 


2 


11.8 


94 


17 


18.1 


70 


8 


- 


8.5 


Electrical goods 


8 


10.4 


4,988 


471 


9.4 


1,159 


219 


6 


4.4 


Farm products-consumer goods 


5 


20.0 


740 


159 


21.5 


635 


79 


2 


10.7 



-Sl- 
IPFBHDIX B.~«HOLBSiLE bhtabt.tr hmkh tk WHICH 3TABIEI) OfEHAIIOISIS SUBSEQUENT TO 1929, 

rOB SELECTED STATES 



lyfe of f.EtabllEliBaat and 
Kind of BuslnasB 



JTujnber 

of 
eBta1>- 

llsb- 
mentB 



Pep- 
oent 
of 
total 
1933 



Total expenses 



Bst sales 



imotmt 



f, of 

net 

sales 



Mao-oontlis 
of full- 
tlne 
flnployment 



Pay roll 



Total 



Part- 
time 



% of 

net 

sales 



CEIO (Oontlnasd) 



IUHU710TCBIIBS* SiU£ B£iSC3fR.S 




















(Oontinaed) 




















romltore and house furnishings 


11 


31.4 


«1,244 


tl48 


11.9 


544 


#69 


«8 


5.5 


Orooeries and foods (exoept farm prodnots) 


14 


8.6 


1,074 


188 


17.5 


703 


105 


1/ 


9.8 


Eard«ar« 


4 


28.6 


2,437 


276 


11.3 


598 


125 


1/ 


5.1 


Jewelry and optloal goods 


E 


10.0 


20 


4 


20.0 


6 


1 


1 


5.0 


Luaber and Irailding materials (othar than 




















metal) 


4 


6.5 


542 


200 


36.9 


491 


82 


« 


15.1 


Haohinery, eqnlpnent and supplies 




















(azoept slactrloal) 


46 


14.9 


4,739 


1,051 


22.2 


4,075 


564 


62 


12.3 


Uetals (ezsept sorapl 


12 


10.8 


6.992 


429 


6.1 


636 


142 


1 


2.0 


Paper and its prodosta 


9 


23.7 


5,569 


301 


5.4 


873 


180 


_ 


3.2 


Plmhing and heating aqaipnent end Eapplies 


5 


13.5 


143 


24 


16.8 


91 


12 


1/ 


8.4 


Beer 


3 


- 


385 


84 


21.8 


250 


34 


2 


8.8 


111 other kinds of bnsiness 


9 


- 


1,609 


277 


17.2 


848 


130 


- 


6.1 


ItmriS JJIS BBCEEBS 


232 


30.7 


56.788 


1.781 


3.1 


5.113 


789 


61 


1.4 


lutonotiye prodiuts 


11 


61.1 


381 


55 


14.4 


209 


29 


1 


7.6 


QhMiioals 


9 


52.1 


597 


16 


2.7 


26 


3 


1 


.5 


Clothing and furnishing* 


S 


29.4 


253 


9 


3.6 


54 


4 


- 


1.6 


Coal 


10 


22.2 


26,484 


608 


2.3 


1,156 


277 


20 


1.0 


Dry goods 


6 


26.1 


728 


12 


1.6 


15 


4 


1 


.5 


Kleotrioal gooda 


11 


34.4 


174 


34 


19.5 


156 


15 


1 


e.6 


Farm produota-raw materlale 


SO 


42.3 


8,508 


237 


2.8 


958 


125 


21 


1.5 


Farm produots-oonsumer goods 


18 


22.2 


3,340 


161 


4.8 


638 


76 


4 


2.3 


?amiturc and bouse fornishlngs 


9 


33.3 


467 


39 


8.4 


98 


8 


1 


1.7 


Grooeries and foods (except farm prodnets) 


19 


22.6 


10,245 


154 


1.5 


420 


70 


1 


.7 


Eardvare 


2 


16.7 


22 


5 


22.7 


20 


1 


1/ 


4.5 


Lonber and building materials (othar than 




















metal 1 


11 


29.7 


475 


65 


13.7 


124 


20 


3 


4.2 






















(except eleotrioall 


46 


33.8 


809 


197 


24.4 


743 


78 


5 


9.6 


Mttals (exoept sorap) 


9 


20.9 


1,156 


24 


2.1 


27 


4 


1 


.3 


P«par and its products 


3 


42.9 


119 


4 


3.4 


24 


» 1 


- 


.8 


Plonbing and heating equipnent and supplies 


12 


48.0 


202 


25 


12.4- 


90 


12 


1/ 


5.9 


Beer 


2 


- 


90 


11 


12.2 


69 


5 


1/ 


5.6 


ill othv kinds of businssa 


19 


- 


2,738 


126 


4.6 


286 


57 


1 


2.1 




1S4 


18.0 


6.680 


732 


11.0 


3.759 


330 


20 


4,9 


Farm produots-raw materials 


50 


10.6 


2,392 


132 


5.5 


810 


52 


6 


2.2 


Farm produota-oonsuner goods 


126 


24.4 


4,176 


576 


13.8 


2,850 


269 


12 


6.4 


FaiTD supplies 


6 


18.2 


96 


17 


17.7 


71 


6 


1 


6.3 


ill other products 


2 


20.0 


16 


7 


43.8 


28 


3 


1 


18.8 


AT.T. OTBEES 


123 


16.7 


14.291 


2.802 


19.6 


10.502 


1.196 


22 


8,4 


Groceries and foods (exoept farm products) 


4 


25.0 


2,622 


144 


5.5 


449 


41 


- 


1.6 


Petroleum and its products 


118 


16.5 


11,639 


2,647 


22.7 


10,017 


1,152 


22 
1/ 


9.9 


ill other kinds of bua^ess 


1 


- 


30 


11 


36.7 


36 


3 


10.0 



-ss- 

APIESDIX B. — WHOLESALE ESTABLISHMENTS WHIOH SMtTED OPEEillQMS SUBSKQUEBT TO 1929, 

FOE EELEOTEB EtJIES 



(All Talues expressed in thouandB of dollara 



Type of EBtabllshment and 
Kind of Business 



Number 

of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 



Hat sales 



Total expenses 



Amount 



jo oi 

net 

sales 



Uan-months 
of full- 
tine 
emplOTment 



Pay roll 



Total 



Part- 
time 



^ of 

net 

sales 



IHDIAHA 



TOTAL FOE STATE 


916 


21.6 


S41.321 


$5,209 


12.6 


24,087 


*2,464 


$112 


6.0 


WHOLESALERS PBOi^EB 


475 


27.0 


17,882 


2,715 


15.2 


13,314 


1,241 


78 


6.9 


MAiflra'ACTUEEHS' SAI.Rn BEAIJCHES 


35 


12.8 


2,928 


455 


15.5 


1,705 


224 


£ 


7.7 


AGEHTS Aim BHOKKHri 


64 


32.2 


10,114 


334 


3.3 


1,177 


159 


8 


1.6 


ASSEIIBLEES AND COUHTBY BUYEES 


188 


17.4 


3,296 


303 


9.2 


1,964 


146 


11 


4.4 


ALL OTHERS 


154 


16.5 


7.io; 


1.402 


19.7 


5.926 


694 


15 


9.8 


(Period In irtilch establish- 




















ments began operations) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


625 


- 


32,909 


4,215 


12.8 


19,466 


2,040 


84 


6.2 


First quarter, 1933 


39 


- 


853 


91 


10.7 


730 


53 


3 


6.2 


Second quarter, 1933 


135 


- 


6,415 


755 


11.8 


3,156 


310 


25 


4.8 


July, 1933 


26 


- 


765 


85 


11.1 


419 


40 


X' 


5.2 


August, 1933 


23 


- 


96 


16 


18.8 


108 


7 


V 


7.3 


September, 1933 


21 


- 


104 


18 


17.3 


9S 


7 


V 


6.7 


October, 1933 


26 


- 


165 


18 


10.9 


66 


5 


V 


3.0 


NoTember, 1933 


13 


- 


27 


4 


14.8 


12 


- 


V 


- 


December, 1933 


a 


- 


87 


5 


5.7 


38 


2 


V 


e.s 


WHOLESALERS PBOFB) 


475 


27.0 


17,882 


2.715 


15.2 


13,314 


1.241 


78 


6,9 


Amusement and sporting good£ 


4 


18.2 


17 


9 


52.9 


12 


3 


1/ 


17.6 


Automotive products 


35 


24.6 


729 


203 


27.8 


1,129 


102 


1 


14.0 


Chemicals 


6 


18.2 


72 


27 


37.5 


137 


10 


i/ 


13.9 


Clothing and fva-nlshlngs 


4 


25.0 


175 


14 


8.0 


46 


3 


1/ 


1.7 


Coal 


4 


9.3 


55 


15 


27.3 


68 


6 


1 


10.9 


Dnigs and drug sundries 


S 


15.8 


78 


12 


15.4 


66 


9 


1 

i/ 


11.5 


Dry goods 


s 


16.7 


29 


12 


41.4 


272 


11 


37.9 


Electrical goods 


13 


28.9 


346 


89 


25.7 


448 


47 


5 


13.6 


Farm products-raw materials 


7 


14.6 


423 


54 


12.8 


161 


17 


2 


4.0 


Farm produots-consumor goods 


84 


27.4 


1,696 


327 


19.3 


1,723 


153 


13 


9.0 


Farm supplies 


14 


20.6 


337 


40 


11.9 


237 


16 


2 


4,7 


Furniture and house furnishings 


7 


30.4 


730 


90 


12.3 


217 


33 


1 


4.5- 


Qrooer; as and foods (except faim products) 


113 


33.2 


4,751 


526 


11.1 


2,871 


284 


21 
1/ 


6.0 


Jewelry and optloal goods 


2 


22.2 


62 


5 


8.1 


25 


4 


6.5 


Lvonbor and building materials (other than 




















metal) 


9 


14.1 


599 


135 


22.5 


783 


66 


1 


11.0 


Uaohinery, equipnent and snpplias 




















(except electrical) 


19 


20.2 


456 


122 


26.8 


670 


65 


1 


14.3 


Paper and its products 


12 


26.1 


292 


65 


22.3 


315 


32 


2 


11.0 


Petroleum and its products 


12 


38.7 


687 


119 


17.3 


428 


30 


1 
1/ 


4.4 


Plumbing and heating equipnsnt and supplies 


4 


21.1 


13 


6 


46.2 


48 


3 


23.1 


Tobacco and its produots 


5 


10.0 


748 


38 


5.1 


219 


28 


1 


3.S 


Waste materials 


20 


16.9 


328 


76 


23.2 


519 


39 


5 


11.9 


Beer 


73 


_ 


4,104 


48S 


11.8 


1,779 


159 


15 


3.9 


Wines and spirltous liquors 


8 


- 


289 


56 


19.4 


186 


16 


1/ 


5.5 


All other kinds of business 
MAHUFACTUHEES* SALES BHAHCHES 


15 
35 


12.8 


866 
2.928 


190 
455 


21.9 
15.5 


955 
1.705 


107 
224 


4 
2 


12.4 
7.7 


Automotive products 


5 


29.4 


137 


41 


29.9 


181 


25 


1 


18.2 


Drugs and dnig sundries 


Z 


40.0 


33 


16 


48.5 


74 


7 


- 


21.2 


ttrocerles and foods (e»oept farm products) 


7 


10.3 


470 


36 


7.7 


147 


25 


- 


5.5 


Machinery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


11 


14.5 


427 


107 


25.1 


515 


61 


- 


14.3 


Metals (except scrap) 


2 


28.6 


1,025 


157 
96 


15.3 


561 


59 


- 


5.8 


All other kinds of buslnosB 


6 


- 


836 


11.7 


228 


46 


1 


5.5 



-39- 
iSBSSDU. B.— 'SHQLESAIE KSTABLISHMEHTS WHICH STABTED Oj.-KKAT10KS SUBSEQUKOT TO 1929, 

FOH SELECTED SIAXES 



(All Tslues expressed in 


thcocuids 


of dollars 1 












Ntim'ber 
of 

estab- 
lish 

ments 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 


Net sales 


Total expenses 


T.!an-monthB 
of full- 
time 
employment 


Pay roll 


Type of EstabliBhment nnrt 
Kind of Business 


Amount 


^of 

net 

sales 


Total 


Part- 
time 


,1 of 

net 

sales 







IimiAHA (Continued) 












AGENTS Airo BROKERS 


64 


32.2 


§10.114 


t334 


3.3 


1.177 


4159 


V8 


1.6 


Drugs and drug sundries 


2 


66.7 


378 


26 


6.9 


84 


17 




4.5 


Eleotrioal goods 


2 


40.0 


S 


ly 


- 


3 


1/ 


_ 




Farm produots-raw materials 


12 


24^0 


5,564 


124 


2.2 


449 


61 


1/ 


1.1 


Farm produots-oonsumer goods 


11 


39.3 


235 


26 


11.1 


214 


15 


1 


5.4 


J'Bmitttre and house furnishings 


2 


28.6 


105 


5 


4.8 


- 


1 


1 


1.0 


Grocer les and foods (except farm products) 


5 


21.4 


2,235 


34 


1.5 


61 


7 


1 


.3 


Lumber and buildlnc materials (other than 




















metal) 


2 


40.0 


98 


15 


15.3 


50 


5 


1/ 


5.1 


Uaohlnery, equipnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


7 


26.9 


84 


15 


17.9 


70 


7 


1/ 


8.3 


Uetals (exoept scrap) 


3 


75.0 


427 


12 


2.8 


36 


S 


1/ 


1.9 


Petroleum and its products 


4 


50.0 


119 


8 


6.7 


■ 36 


5 




4.2 


Beer 


5 


- 


679 


49 


7.2 


110 


26 


2 


3.8 


Wines and spirltous liquors 


2 


- 


65 


9 


13.8 


36 


2 


_ 


3.1 


All other kinds of business 


6 


- 


120 


11 


9.2 


28 


5 


3 


4.2 


AShiKMBIiKB.I Ain COUM!BY BUTEBS 


188 


17.4 


3.296 


303 


9.2 


1.964 


146 


11 


4.4 


Farm produots-raw materials 


38 


10.1 


2,064 


159 


7.7 


917 


76 


3 


3.7 


Farm products-oonsuner goods 


146 


21.3 


1,030 


114 


11.1 


831 


53 


7 


5.1 


All other products 


4 


- 


202 


30 


14,9 


216 


17 


1 


8.4 


AU, OTHKRS 4/ 


154 


16.5 


7,101 


1,402 


19.7 


5,926 


694 


13 


9.8 



























SOOTH 


CAEOLINA 














TOTAL FOB bTATE 


322 


25.9 


28.224 


2.138 


7.6 


9.298 


932 


47 


3.3 


WHOLESALERS PROPER 


163 


28.8 


10,468 


1,188 


11.3 


5,442 


489 


21 


4.T 


MAmiF*nTimf.R!i' f.AT,F.S BRflUCT&iS 


8 


12.3 


598 


196 


32.8 


217 


36 


1/ 


6.0 


AGENTS a;.-D BROKERS 


62 


34.8 


13,180 


321 


2.4 


1,215 


159 


23 


1.2 


iSSl^lIBI.RRS *iiP OOIWTRY BUYJiBS 


51 


32.7 


1,879 


49 


2.6 


227 


14 


2 


.7 


ALL OTIuiBS (Petroleum and its products) 


38 


13.7 


2,099 


384 


18.3 


2,197 


234 


1 


11.1 


(Period in which establish- 




















ments began operations) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


344 


- 


21,617 


1,337 


8.5 


8,112 


793 


30 


3.7 


First quarter, 1933 


6 


- 


1,145 


92 


8.0 


213 


41 




3.6 


Second quarter, 1933 


22 


- 


1,514 


58 


3.8 


306 


21 


1 


1.4 


Third quarter, 1933 


34 


_ 


3,948 


142 


3.7 


623 


74 


16 


1.9 


Fourtl) quarter, 1933 


16 


- 


100 


9 


9.0 


34 


3 




3.0 


■HOLSSALSBS FROFBt 


163 


23.8 


10.468 


1.138 


11.3 


5,442 


489 


21 


4.7 


AtttomotlTS products 


s 


28.6 


263 


76 


28.9 


317 


36 


4 


13.7 


Drugs and drugs Bundries 


3 


25.0 


14 


4 


28.6 


31 


1 


;i/ 


7.1 


Dry goods 


3 


30.0 


51 


19 


37.3 


72 


13 


1 


25.5 


Electrical goods 


4 


66.7 


463 


97 


21.0 


341 


38 


;/ 


8.2 


Farm products-raw materials 


17 


S9.3 


3,557 


133 


3.7 


182 


17 


1 


.6 


Farm produots-consumer goods 


17 


37.0 


429 


123 


28.7 


603 


49 


%/ 


11.4 


Farm supplies 


8 


24.2 


235 


28 


11.9 


204 


16 


1 


6.8 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


50 


25.3 


2,770 


307 


11.1 


1,646 


160 


5 


5.4 


Ltnbsr and building materials (other than 




















ostal) 


5 


27.8 


280 


41 


14.6 


152 


21 


1 


7.5 


Machinery, squlpneJit and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


6 


26.1 


212 


24 


11.3 


93 


10 


1 


4.7 


PatroleuD and Its products 


12 


46.2 


557 


104 


18." 


368 


45 


4 


8.1 


Tobacco and Its products (except leaf) 


7 


41.2 


587 


36 


6.1 


288 


20 


i/ 


3.4 



-34- 

UfSESHIX B— IKQLBaALB ESIiBLISBUETOS WHICH STitBTED Of£BAIIOBS SUBSEQUEST TO 1929, 

KB SKLEOTKD STATES 



(ill T«ln«» express ed In thousands of dollar«l 



iTpe of Estatllslmant ant 
Kind of BoslnesB 



Hmbar 

of 
estaW 

llali/- 
nents 



oent 
of 
total 
1933 



Net Bales 



Total expenses 



JbDOuut 



% of 

net 

sales 



Man-months 
of full- 
time 
emplo^iiient 



PB7 roll 



Total 



Part- 
tine 







SODTH 


CAHOLIBA (Continued 












lHnT,KSAI,KBS fBOPES 

(Continued) 
Waste materials 
Beer 
All other kinds of tmslness 

XAjgUfACTDBEBS SALES BBABCEES 


7 

S 

12 

S 


31.8 
12.3 


#218 
261 
571 

598 


$32 

34 

130 

196 


14.7 
13.0 
22.8 

32.8 


246 
140 
757 

217 


«16 
10 
47 

36 


1/ 

1 
2 


7.3 

3.8 
8.2 

6.0 


Tbtb {nrodupts-oons-amer goods 

Qroeeries and foods (except farm prodnota) 

All other prodnote 

AQENTS VHD BBOKEBS 


4 
3 

1 

62 


80.0 
8.6 

34.8 


39 
5SS 

1 

13,180 


18 

178 

1 

321 


46.2 
31.9 

2.4 


62 
155 

1.215 


6 

30 

I 

159 


■ 1/ 

23 


15.4 
5.4 

1.2 


Farm produots-raw materials 

farm produots-oonsTmier goods 

Fan supplies 

Srooeries and foods ( except fans products) 

llaohinery, eq.tiipnent and suppliee 

(except electrical) 
All other kinds of business 

AfiSmBT.RRS AKTl flOimTRY BTTTKRS 


21 

2 

11 

15 

2 

11 

SI 


27.6 
28.6 
42.3 
35.7 

66.7 
32.7 


9,022 
324 
117 

3,009 

169 
539 

1.879 


149 

8 

3 

65 

51 
45 

49 


1.7 
2.5 
2.6 
2.2 

30.2 
8.3 

2.6 


489 
14 
17 

262 

254 
179 

227 


70 
S 

1 
30 

35 
20 

14 


18 
1/ 
1/ 

1 

3 

1 

2 


.8 

.9 

.9 

1.0 

20.7 
3.7 

.7 


Farm products-raw materials 
Farm products-consumer goods 
All other products 

ALL OTHKHS (Petroleum and its products) 


38 

11 

2 

38 


29.2 

50.0 

13.7 


1,801 

70 

8 

2,099 


31 

16 
2 

384 


1.7 
22.9 
25.0 

18.3 


105 
122 

2,197 


8 

6 
1 

234 


2 

■ iJ 

1 


.4 

8.6 

11.1 























TEXAS 



TOTAL FOB STATE 


1,832 


24.3 


131,494 


15,257 


11.6 


62.580 


6,699 


429 


5.1 


lVFnT.-KBAT.F.TiR fflOPKR 


i.086 


33.7 


56,913 


7,585 


13.3 


40,055 


3,523 


186 


6.2 


MAEOTACTDBKRS' SAT.KS BBABCHES 


117 


16.6 


10,837 


2,117 


19.5 


5,043 


796 


100 


7.3 


ASENTS AHD BBOKEBS 


122 


30.7 


27,386 


542 


2.0 


1,648 


220 


23 


0.8 


ASSEMBLBBS AHB COUHTBT BUTEBS 


271 


27.1 


12,132 


894 


7.4 


3,716 


373 


109 


3.1 


iT.T. oxHSES 


236 


10,7 


24,226 


4,119 


17.0 


12,118 


1,787 


11 


7.4 


(Period In which eatabliali- 




















nBDts began operations) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


1,238 


- 


112,234 


13,369 


U.9 


52,716 


5,862 


381 


g.e 


First quarter, 1933 


69 


- 


3,810 


553 


14.9 


2,861 


232 


7 


6.1 


Second quarter, 1933 


141 


- 


7,768 


623 


8.0 


3,659 


309 


U 


4.0 


July, 1933 


39 


- 


2,072 


190 


9.S 


763 


84 


9 


4.1 


August, 1333 


39 


- 


779 


124 


15.9 


484 


48 


2 


6.E 


September, 1933 


195 


- 


3,71D 


277 


7.5 


1.433 


U4 


8 


3.1 


October, 1933 


48 


- 


254 


4S 


16.5 


224 


21 


5 


8.3 


I7oTambor, 1933 


96 


- 


698 


64 


9.2 


298 


23 


9 


3.3 


December, 1933 


47 


- 


1T9 


15 


8.6 


92 


6 


1 


3.4 


IHOLSSiLraS FDQPEB 


1.086 


33.7 


96,913 


7,585 


13.3 


40,055 


3,523 


186 


6.2 


Jmusament and sporting goods 


9 


32.1 


336 


106 


31.5 


331 


42 


i/ 


1.3 


AutomotlTe products 


107 


42.6 


2,740 


627 


22.9 


3,392 


333 


12 


12.2 


Chemioals 


8 


36.4 


279 


76 


27.2 


234 


26 


- 


9.3 


Clothing and furnishings 


19 


34.5 


1,336 


257 


19.2 


1,264 


.118 


14 


8.8 


Drugs end drug sundries 


6 


15.4 


273 


44 


15.1 


225 


17 


1 


6.2 


Dry goods 


6 


18.5 


54 


e 


14,8 


112 


5 


u 


9.3 


Electrical goods 


20 


28.2 


2,230 


323 


14.5 


1,238 


151 


2 


6.8 



Aii'JiNDIA B. — IVHOLEaALii iijTABHolIua.'Tii .VIIICI! JTAIiTEB OiliHATIOIB LiUE:^K.iUiai 10 19£9, 



(All values e^pre 


SEed 1 


\ tliiutiands 


of dollars) 












;:umber 

of 
eetaV^ 

lleh- 
ments 


l-er- 
oent 
of 
total 
1933 


:;et sales 


Total eiiJenses 


llon-raontns 
of full- 
time 
enployrnont 


i-ty roll 


Type of £BtBblls)ment and 
Kind of Buelnees 


tooiuit 


; of 

net 
sales 


Total 


Part- 
time 


i of 
net 

SltlOS 



TKHAi; (Continued) 



V/llOLKiALiatJ .'ROi^EH 




















(Continued) 




















Farni produots-raw materials 


19 


14.0 


$1,648 


$71 


4.3 


419 


v31 


,.3 


1.9 


Farm produots-consumer fpods 


132 


33.3 


6,519 


1,288 


19.8 


6,661 


641 


52 


9.0 


Farm supplies 


24 


30.0 


1,207 


128 


10.6 


6S0 


50 


£ 


4.1 


Furniture and house furnishing:* 


9 


25.7 


730 


117 


16.0 


411 


34 


6 


7.4 


-rooerles and foods (eioept farm prodxiots) 


255 


29.3 


13,bo4 


1,465 


10.7 


10,489 


717 


42 


LI. 3 


Hardware 


3 


6,0 


54 


11 


17.2 


45 


5 


> 


7.6 


Jewelry and optical ^pods 


11 


52.4 


31j 


13U 


41.3 


758 


68 


^ 


21,6 


Lumber and building- materials (other then 




















metal) 


10 


16.9 


611 


165 


27.0 


551 


oo 


7 


9,0 


Viachlnery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except eleotrloal) 


136 


34.6 


9,992 


1,1^ 


11.4 


4,473 


030 


21 


J. 2 


LletalB (azoept sorapl 


4 


28.6 


51 


14 


27.5 


132 


8 




15.7 


i>apar find Its products 


7 


16.7 


142 


■■-'2 


15.5 


156 


11 




7.7 


i'etroleum and Its products 


82 


j3.9 


7,054 


633 


9.0 


2,490 


2j4 


8 


3.6 


I'lumblni; r.nd lieatlng equlpoent and supplies 


8 


28.6 


310 


79 


25.5 


319 


33 


1 


10.6 


Tobaooo and Its products (exce^it leaf) 


22 


36.1 


3,253 


104 


3.2 


599 


47 


u 


1.4 


Ifaste materials 


29 


31.2 


136 


39 


26.7 


246 


20 


J 


14.7 


Beer 


122 


_ 


1,353 


261 


19.3 


1,072 


90 


J 


6.7 


.Vines and splrltous liquors 
All other kinds of business 


8 


_ 


69 


18 


26.1 


42 


4 


k 


^•S 


25 


- 


2,057 


455 


17.8 


3,016 


223 


0.7 


I^AlJUFACriRtHii' SALi:,^ l;HA.:CiUii 


117 


16.6 


10.837 


2.117 


19.5 


J.U43 


7J6 


luu 


7.3, 


Amusement and sporting goods 


3 


23.1 


907 


307 


33.0 


044 


103 


1 


11.4 


Automotive products 


8 


21.1 


516 


113 


21.8 


229 


40 


- 


7.7 


Dru^ and drug sundries 


3 


30.0 


490 


245 


50.0 


439 


100 


- 


20.4 


Dry (pods 


3 


42. y 


194 


13 


6.7 


82 


6 


- 


3.1 


lileotrloal goods 


3 


15.8 


466 


89 


19.1 


325 


38 


- 


0.2 


'Irooerles and foods ( eswept farn products) 


24 


14.9 


1,549 


3li4 


22.9 


036 


122 


3 


7.9 


Machinery, equliment and supplies 




















(ejtoept electrical) 


53 


23.0 


5,384 


S26 


15.3 


1,671 


305 


00 


J. 7 


Metali (eiioept scrap) 


5 


14.7 


705 


33 


5.4 


108 


23 


1 


<>. J 


Beer 


4 


- 


80 


9 


11.3 


84 


5 


- 


5.3 


All other klnde of biislnsss 


12 


- 


544 


123 


22.6 


425 


54 


7 


9.9 


AOi^JTS a;:d BUOKiaa 


122 


30.7 


27.335 


542 


2.0 


' 1.648 


220 


23 


0.6 


Automotive products 


t1 


75.0 


149 


35 


24.2 


113 


1j 


1 


10.1 


Drugs and drug sundries 


3 


50.0 


511 


63 


10.3 


132 


36 


- 


5,0 


Dry goods 


5 


53.5 


706 


17 


2.4 


47 


9 


1 


I..'. 


electrical ^oods 


4 


50.0 


57 


5 


e.8 


16 


M 


h 


- 


Farm products-raw materials 


Z8 


28.7 


15,135 


134 


.9 


338 


6! 


i 


0.4 


Farm products-consumer goods 


11 


19.0 


1,9jj 


i>6 


2.9 


97 


16 


L 


0.0 


Farm supplies 


4 


66.7 


483 


21 


4.3 


23 


2 


w,4 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


18 


25.4 


6,212 


03 


1.3 


364 


32 


2 


0,5 


Lumber and building materials (other than 




















metal) 


3 


11.1 


£47 


5 


2.0 


12 


1 


- 


0.4 


aaohlnery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


17 


40.5 


269 


40 


14.9 


46 


17 


9 


6,3 


Metals (except scrap) 


3 


37.5 


27 


4 


14.8 


4 


M 


1/ 


- 


I'etroleum and its products 


4 


80.0 


96 


13 


13.5 


75 


7 


1 


7.3 


i'l\jublU(^ and heating equlpnent and supplies 


3 


37. u 


73 


6 


8.2 


24 


'■- 


" 


2,7 


All otiisr kinds of buclness 


14 


- 


1,356 


59 


4.3 


350 


20 


1 


1.5 


jUSii^Liiiti ;i-:d cooiri'ivv BLTYiiBj 


271 


27.1 


12,132 


894 


7.4 


3,716 


373 


109 


3,1 


Fapo produote-raw materials 


lOi 


17.2 


6,945 


216 


3.1 


879 


69 


15 


1.:^ 


Farm products-consumer goods 


161 


43.3 


5,057 


669 


13.2 


2,748 


279 


94 


•Jc il 


All oti.ar products 


u 


- 


129 


9 


7.0 


09 


5 


h 


3. J 


AJJ. Oi';:-iti 


236 


10.7 


24,;;26 


4,119 


17.0 


12,113 


1,707 


11 


7.4 


'Jrocenec and foods (except farm products) 


6 


31.6 


2,139 


112 


5.2 


559 


55" 


y 


2.7 


I'etroleum and its uroducts 


230 


10.5 


22.057 


4,l/U7 


10.1 


ll.-j'J 


1,7-. 


11 


7.11 



-86- 

,-.*.■.- -Ajfi>HSDIX B.—lVHOLESiLEESTiBLISHUiSNTa ffilCH j5TABTi3) Oi'jiSATIOUa liUBbKQUEra TO 1929, 

FOR SELECTED STATES 



(All valoas expressed 1 



thousand^ 



of dollarsl 



Type of Establlshinent and 
Kind of BualrieiSB 



Humljer 

of 
estab- 

llsh- 
mentB 



Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 



Net sales 



Total expenses 



jjncont 



net 
Bales 



Man-months 

of fnll- 

tlme 

onployment 



Pay roll 



Total 



Part- 
tlma 



OBKGOJI 



TOTAL FOR STATE 


298 


22.4 


*28,673 


*3,000 


10.5 


10,155 


«1,219 


$66 


4.3 


WHOLES A I.RRS £HOfEH 


176 


24.5 


13,147 


1,728 


13.1 


5,577 


727 


40 


5.5 


MAHUFACTUHEHS' BALES BEAHCflES 


18 


10.5 


752 


218 


29.0 


564 


88 


4 


11.7 


AGEKTS ABD BHOKIKH 


35 


41.2 


8,165 


210 


2.6 


487 


66 


3 


.8 


ASSEUBLEBS ACT COUHTRI- BUTKRfi 


15 


22.7 


590 


156 


26.4 


527 


66 


15 


11.5 


ALL OTHERS 


54 


18.9 


6.019 


688 


11.4 


1.980 


268 


6 


4.5 


(Period in which eatabllsh- 




















ments began operations) 




















Prior to January 1, 1933 


215 


_ 


16,764 


2,312 


13.8 


8,279 


9S5 


50 


5.8 


First quarter, 1933 


12 


- 


811 


UO 


13.6 


450 


55 


8 


6.8 


Second quarter, 1933 


28 


- 


3,727 


318 


8.5 


970 


129 


2 


9.S 


Third quarter, 1933 


30 


- 


6,529 


235 


3.6 


404 


6S 


8 


1.0 


- Fourth quarter, 1933 


13 


- 


842 


es 


3.0 


52 


5 




0.6 


■HOLESAT.mS PROPER 


176 


24.5 


13.147 


1.728 




13,1 


6.577 


727 


40 


5.6 


Amusement and sporting goods 


3 


33.3 


2?9 


96 


55;i 


ISfi 


27 




9.7 


Automotive products 


21 


29.2 


624 


173 


27.7 


787 


65 


4 


13.6 


Chemicals 


3 


16.7 


128 


14 


10.9 


84 


7 


- 


5.5 


(Tlothlng end furnishings 


7 


41.2 


210 


37 


17.6 


104 


14 


2 


6.7 


Drugs and drug sundries 


6 


66.7 


218 


24 


11.0 


138 


12 


- 


5.5 


Dry goods 


2 


25.0 


394 


60 


15.2 


300 


17 


- 


4.3 


Sleotrical goods 


4 


30.8 


230 


75 


32.6 


153 


20 


1 


3.7 


Farm pfoduots-concuner goods 


17 


18.1 


1,195 


235 


19.7 


976 


98 


7 


8.2 


Farm supplies 


3 


12.0 


13 


2 


23.1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Purntture and house fiirnishlngs 


3 


a. 4 


14 


4 


28.5 


12 


4 


2 


26.6 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


36 


24.7 


3,913 


396 


10.1 


1,392 


156 


8 


4.0 


Hardware 


3 


17.5 


58 


11 


19.0 


38 


5 


- 


6.6 


Lumber and building materials ( other than 




















■metal) 


11 


22.0 


636 


89 


14.0 


800 


65 


3 


10.2 


Machinery, equipment and supplies 




















• (except elaotrloal) 


19 


22.1 


677 


130 


19.2 


462 


66 


3 


- 9i7 


j?aper and its products 


2 


11. S 


39 


6 


15.4 


26 


3 


- 


7.7 


Petroleum and its products 


9 


69.2 


701 


1» 


19.8 


405 


58 


2 


8.3 


Pltjnblng and heating equlpnent and supplies 


4 


33.3 


198 


58 


29.3 


285 


32 


7 


16.2 


Tobacco and Its products (except leaf) 


3 


27.3 


267 


14 


5.2 


48 


5 


- 


1.9 


Waste materiils 


6 


28.6 


46 


15 


32.6 


30 


$ 


1 


13.0 


Boer 


3 


_ 


48 


8 


16.7 


22 


1 


- 


2,1 


All other kljids of business 


11 


- 


3,259 


140 


4.3 


327 


44 


- 


1.4 


MAMUFACTUEEHS' SALES BRAUCHES 


18 


10.5 


752 


218 


29.0 


584 


66 


4 


nt"! 


Bfeetrloal goods 


2 


18.2 


37 


7 


18.9 


12 


3 


1 


6.1 


Srocerles and fbods (except farm products) 


3 


7.1 


348 


80 


23.0 


132 


23 


1 


5.6 


Machinery, equlpnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


5 


11.6 


168 


72 


42.9 


268 


38 


- 


22.6 


All other kinds of business 


8 


- 


199 


59 


29.6 


172 


24 


2 


12.1 


AflEKTS-AMD BBOKEHS 


35 


41.2 


8.165 


210 


2.6 


487 


68 


3 


.6 


Clothing and fumlshings 


6 


85.7 


320 


10 


3.1 


- 


1 


1 


.3 


Ffinn products-raw materials 


4 


50.0 


5,059 


104 


2.1 


153 


26 


- 


.6 


Farm produots-conaamer- goods 


5 


41.7 


556 


30 


5.4 


76 


12 


■ - 


2.3 


Srocerles and foods (except farm products) 


4 


30.8 


1,789 


12 


.7 


52 


6 


- 


.3 


!i6chinery, equipnent and supplies 




















• (except electrical) 


3 


30.0 


48 


5 


10.4 


12 


2 


1 


4.2 


All other kinds of business 
t- 


13 


- 


383 


49 


12.6 


194 


19 


1 


5.0 



APFEUmx B. — VTHOtESALE ESTABLISHJtSHTS 'AMIOH liTARTiiD Oi?KRiT10ES liUBbiiQUfiilT TO 1929, 

FOR S£L£C3!£I> STATES 



(All vulues exwessed In thousandB 


of dollars) 












of 
estab- 

llsh- 
ments 


Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 


Set sales 


Total azponcas 


Man-months 


Pay roll 


Type of EstBbllslmBnt and 
Kind of Business 


Aionnt 


it Of 

net 
sales 


Of full- 
time 
omploymont 


Total 


Part- 
time 


i of 

net 
sales 



OREGON (Continued) 



.aaEtaiJiHS AND COUBTHT BUTBHS 


15 


22.7 


0590 


^56 


26.4 


527 


<68 


»15 


11.5 


'arm produote-raw materials 
Farm jrodixsts-oonEoiier goods 
All other products 

ALL OTHSSS 


6 
8 

1 

54 


30.0 
Z1.6 

18.9 


120 
433 

6.019 


17 

115 

24 

688 


14.2 
26.6 
64.9 

11.4 


107 
312 
108 

1.980 


9 
46 
11 

268 


2 
13 

6 


7.5 
11.1 
29.7 

4.5 


'>rooerles and foods (ezcept farm products) 
i'strolsxm and its products 


3 
51 


£0.0 
18.3 


1,860 
4,139 


64 
624 


3.4 

15.0 


312 
1,668 


34 
234 


1 
5 


1.8 
5.6 



CALIFOBBIA 



TOTAL FOB STATE 


3.164 


26.5 


218.191 


27.451 


12.6 


96,034 


12,174 


721 


5t6 


SHQLBSALEBS i>Ba£SB 


2,249 


33.8 


92,848 


15,474 


16.7 


63,694 


7,082 


446 


7.6 


UABUFACTUBSBS' SALES BBAHCHES 


207 


14.6 


23,214 


3,374 


14.5 


9,528 


1,567 


68 


6.8 


ASBRS AJTD BRfiincBS 


393 


31.4 


41,407 


2,154 


5.2 


3,776 


917 


70 


2.2 


i3gHIBLi£S AliD COUNTBY BUSSSS 


128 


18.7 


17.794 


2,631 


14.8 


7,833 


1,139 


113 


6.4 


AIL OTHEKS 


187 


17^8^ 


42,928 


. .3,816 


8,9 


9,203 


1^1.69 


-25 


«f*- 


(Period in «lob •stabllA- 




















Bsnts bagan opsratloiu) 




















Prior to Jamiary 1, 1933 


2,183 


- 


1S2,077 


22.963 


12.6 


80.438 


10.342 


567 


5.7 


riMt quarter, 1933 


ISS 


- 


11,111 


1,089 


9.8 


3,677 


420 


29 


5.8 


3«oond q«Brtar, 1933 


874 


- 


14,146 


1,764 


1£.B 


6.616 


687 


59 


4.9 


JXOy, 1933 


107 


- 


2,S4S 


391 


18.4 


1.371 


203 


13 


8.0 


Angnat, 1993 


99 


- 


1,780 


331 


IS. 6 


1,203 


156 


21 


8.7 


Saptembar, 1933 


101 


- 


2,885 


368 


12.8 


1,107 


155 


6 


3.4 


Oatobar, 1933 


106 


- 


1.324 


215 


16.2 


660 


84 


19 


6.3 


NoTBmbar. 1933 


86 


_ 


826 


115 


13.9 


373 


4S 


3 


3.4 


Deeanbar, 1933 


104 


- 


1.497 


216 


U.4 


689 


83 


4 


5.6 


1H0IX3ALSie FBOFKB' 


2,M9 


33.8 


92.848 


15.474 


16.T 


63.694 


^^ 


445 


7.6 


jmusamant and sporting goolu 


45 88.13 


1,395 


463 


34.6 


1,516 


IW^ 


4 


12.2 


AatOBOtlTa prodQsts 


222 34.7 


5,351 


1,398 


26.1 


6,948 


669 


27 


12.5 


ahasiaikla 


44 


29.3 


821 


233. 


28.1 


1,033 


112 


4 


13.6 


Clothing and furnishings 


89 


45.9 


3,346 


495 


14.8 


2,098 


208 


27 


6.2 


Ooal 


2 


11.1 


23 


8 


34.8 


10 


4 


3 


17.4 


Srogs and drug snmlrlat 


42 


38.2 


637 


177 


27.8 


684 


61 


1 


9.6 


Dry goods 


4« 


26.S 


1,853 


258 


13.9 


1,260 


136 


6 


7.3 


Slaotrieal goods 


90 


42.5 


3.341 


944 


2S.S 


4,067 


473 


22 


14.2 


ruD products-raw aatarl*!* 


16 


16.2 


2,119 


141 


6.7 


416 


54 


2 


2.5 


Farm produota-ocnsuB«r goods 


287 


31.0 


13,939 


3,343 


24.0 


11,878 


1,467 


87 


10.5 


Fsjn Bupi^ias 


22 


20.6 


1,118 


173 


15.6 


616 


71 


2 


6.4 


Famituro and bouse furnishings 


78 


39.8 


1,368 


336 


24.5 


1,583 


162 


15 


11.8 


Oaneral marobaindlBa 


2 


16.7 


154 


26 


16.2 


80 


6 


3 


3.9 


Qrooerlaa and foods (axcept faia irodnets) 


420 


32.6 


23,436 


2,860 


12.2 


12,089 


1,354 


83 


5.8 


Bardvara 


13 


17,3 


419 


121 


28.9 


306 


43 


1 


10.3 


Jevalry and optieal goods 


24 


20.2 


346 


92 


26.4 


432 


47 


3 


13.5 


LXBbar and building materials (othor than 




















natal) 


S7 


18,0 


1,808 


383 


21.2 


1,544 


221 


26 


12.2 


Xtebinery, aquipaent and suppliea 




















(eaoept eleotrleall 


131 


22.9 


3,822 


762 


19.7 


3,909 


376 


21 


9.8 


Uatals ( except acrap) 


23 


25.0 


482 


127 


26.3 


339 


32 


3 


6.6 


Paper and its produots 


26 


24.1 


602 


109 


21.7 


662 


49 


1 


9.8 


fatrolau^ and its prodnota 


58 


45.3 


6,110 


488 


9.7 


1,626 


191 


10 


3.7 


?lmbing t. id heating equiinsnt and sap^iss 


% 


33.6 


1,652 


336 


20.3 


1,469 


161 


10 


9.7 


Totaooo Bti its prod- -ts (axsspt leaf) 


28 


28.6 


8,005 


4n 


5.4 


2,574 


256 


1 


3.2 



-38. 
APi^EHDIX B. ttHOLESlLB ESTIBLISHUEHTS IVHIOH STAHTED Oi-EBiTIOTO 3UBSE<IDEirT TO "iJie, 

FOE SiaEOTSD STATES 



( All Talues expressed in thoi^ands of dolla: 



Type of Establishment and 
Kind of Business 



Ifumter 

of 
estat- 

llsh- 
ments 



Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 



^et sales 



Total expenses 



Amoimt 



,« of 

net 

sales 



Manwnonthfi 

of fid.1- 

tlna 

employment 



iV roll- 



Total 



Part- 
time 



% 0* 

Ul- 

sal'. 



_L 



CALIFOHITII (Continued) 



WHOLES ALEES J^QPEE 




















(Continued) 




















Mate materials 


51 


33.3 


«1.022 


$236 


23.1 


1,172 


$108 


$7 


10. B 


Beer 


51 


- 


2,367 


318 


13.4 


1,10S 


130 


6 


5.6 


Wines and splrltons liqoors 


146 


- 


4,755 


725 


15.3 


2,681 


308 


30 


6,5 


111 other produots 


217 


29.2 


3,652 


484 


13.3 


1,749 


211 


40 


5.8 


lUNUi'ACTnBEES* SALES BRANCHES 


207 


14.6 


23,214 


3.374 


14.5 


9.528 


1.557 


68 


6.6. 


Amusement and sporting goods 


6 


19.4 


1,023 


121 


11.8 


481 


70 


y 


5.r. 


AutcnotiTe products 


13 


18.6 


1,877 


313 


16.7 


803 


120 


10 


6,4 


Chemicals 


14 


15.4 


2,264 


271 


12.0 


719 


146 


12 


6.4 


Clothing and fumlBhlngs 


17 


23.3 


1,513 


185 


11.5 


608 


99 


2 


6.1 


nrugs and drug sundries 


10 


30.3 


1,559 


441 


28,3 


646 


128 


1 


8.^ 


Dry goods 


18 


33.3 


9,726 


159 


5.8 


620 


95 


1/ 


3.5 


Electrical goods 


13 


19.7 


4,324 


488 


11,3 


1,277 


218 


2 


5.0 


Porniture and house furnishings 


9 


21.4 


525 


114 


21,7 


411 


59 


1 


11.2 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


12 


5.9 


1,930 


185 


9,5 


445 


88 


3 


4.6 


Hardware 


3 


14.3 


84 


12 


14.3 


38 


5 


1 


6.0 


Jewelry and optical gpods 


3 


10.0 


873 


142 


15.3 


423 


86 


- 


9.9 


Lumber and building materials (other than 




















metal) 


3 


4.1 


84 


47 


56.0 


112 


25 


- 


29.8 


Machinery, equipnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


33 


10.6 


1,312 


329 


25.1 


1,279 


159 


12 


12.9 


Metals (except scrap) 


7 


8.6 


1,390 


162 


11.7 


498 


94 


- 


6.8 


Paper and its products 


9 


20.9 


485 


149 


30,7 


230 


45 


2 


9.3 


Plumbing and heating equipnent and supplies 


3 


6.4 


26 


5 


19.2 


14 


1 


U 3*8 


Tobacco and its products (except leaf) 


3 


23.1 


164 


55 


33.5 


146 


31 


u 


18.9 


All other kinds of business 


31 


- 


955 


196 


20.5 


784 


87 


22 


9.1 


AGENTS AOT BEOKEBS 


393 


31,4 


41.407 


2.154 


5.2 


5,776 


917 


70 


2.2 


Amusement and sporting goods 


5 


18.5 


214 


17 


7.9 


76 


6 


1/ 


2.8 


AutomotiTe products 


16 


42.1 


265 


39 


14.7 


215 


18 


1 


6.8 


Chanicals 


11 


33.3 


2,015 


74 


3.7 


254 


34 


1 


1.7 


Clothing and furnishings 


33 


33.0 


3,037 


124 


4.1 


416 


42 


2 


1.4 


Drugs and drug sundries 


9 


50.0 


154 


16 


10.4 


38 


4 


1 


2.6 


Dry goods 


57 


43.8 


4,579 


107 


2.3 


226 


32 


9 


0,7 


Electrical goods 


19 


32.8 


642 


81 


12.6 


365 


37 


3 


5,8 


Farm products-raw materials 


13 


34.2 


5,678 


123 


2.2 


200 


29 


1 


0,5 


Farm products-consumer goods 


43 


27.9 


7,323 


562 


7.7 


1,254 


286 


15 


3,9 


Farm supplies 


6 


75.0 


366 


70 


19.1 


80 


11 


1 


3,0 


Furniture and house furnishings 


20 


34.5 


1,713 


69 


4.0 


205 


29 


10 


1.7 


Groceries and foods (except farm products) 


17 


10.2 


8,374 


202 


2.4 


436 


64 


7 


0,8 


Hardware 


8 


18.6 


441 


31 


7,0 


154 


17 


1 


3.9 


Jewelry and optical goods 


4 


15.4 


89 


12 


13.5 


24 


1 


- 


1«1 


Lumber and building materials (other than 




















metal) 


9 


27.3 


466 


36 


7,7 


129 


16 


ly 


3,4 


Machinery, equipnent and supplies 




















(except electrical) 


64 


39.5 


1,674 


234 


14,0 


703 


104 


13 


6,2 


Metals (except scrap) 


5 


27.8 


413 


IS 


3.9 


72 


11 


h 


/ 2.7 


Paper and its products 


7 


33.3 


274 


20 


7.3 


215 


9 


1 


3.3 


petroleim and its products 


8 


61,5 


1,349 


186 


13.8 


220 


103 


1; 


( 7.5 


Plumbing and heating equipnent and supplies 


S 


40.0 


71 


16 


22.5 


113 


7 


- 


9.9 


Baste materials 


2 


33.3 


34 


4 


11.8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


All other kinds of business 


29 


- 


2,236 


115 


5.1 


380 


55 


4 


'.5 


ASasMBLiRS a;-:d couitthy bdyebs 


128 


18.7 


17,794 


2,631 


14.8 


7,833 


1.139 


113 


5.4 


Farm products-raw materials 


12 


30.0 


2,930 


67 


2.3 


190 


27 


4 


0.9 


Farm products-consumer goods 


105 


17.4 


14,425 


2,459 


17.0 


7,364 


1,054 


105 


7.3 


Farm supplies 


5 


62.5 


327 


44 


13.5 


144 


27 


2 


8.3 



-39- 

AeraamiX B— wholesale ESTABLISHUKHTti ."HIGH STAHTED Oi'jiEiVTIOl'.ti SiliESEOUKilT IC 1929, 

FOB SKLECTEC SIAXES 



(All T«Lln«« «xpr«ia>d in thoMandi 



Type of Kstabllshment and 
Klod of Business 



ITUDber 

of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Per- 
cent 
of 
total 
1933 



lotel expenses 



net sales 



pf jflllaral 



JBOimt 



% of 

net 

sales 



Itan-months 
of full- 
time 
employmaat 



Pay roll 



"otal 



X-art- 
tlme 



net 
sales 



CAL1F0BIU& (Continued) 



ASSBMBLEBS AHB COUHTEY BUTTEBS 




















(Continoed) 




















Groceries and foods (exoept farm produets) 


3 


2.5 


$63 


^14 


22.2 


22 


«4 


11 


6.3 


JO,! other prodoots 


3 


33.3 


48 


47 


97.9 


113 


27 


1/ 


M.3 


i^.i. OTHKBS 


1«7 


17.8 


42,928 


3.819 


8.9 


9.203 


1.469 


25 


3.4 


?arm produots-oonsuner goods 


3 


E7.S 


1,865 


204 


10.9 


508 


72 


3 


3.9 


Srooeries and foods (except farm products) 


6 


29.0 


7,657 


201 


2.6 


591 


92 


2 


1.2 


Patrolaum and its products 


177 


17.5 


32,777 


3,359 


10.2 


7,948 


1,277 


19 


3.9 


111 other kinds of business 


1 


- 


629 


54 


6.6 


156 


28 


1 


4.5 



i^ 



2/ 
4/ 



Lass than 4500. 

Includes 1 establishment dealing in chemicals; 1 in clothing and furnishines; 1 in drugs and drug sundries; 1 in 

electrical goodsi 1 in furniture and house furnishings; 1 in groceries and foods (except farra products); 1 in 

nutohlnery, equipnent and supplies (except electrical) and 1 in tobacco and its products (except leaf). 
Includes 2 establishments dealing in farm products-raw materials; 1 in machinery, equijEient and supplies (except 

electrical) and 1 in all other products. 
Includes 1 establishment dealing in general merchendise; 1 in groceries and foods (except farm products) and 162 

in petroleum and Its products. 



H 



?-, 



J/ 



JUL 2 3 1935