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CENSUS OF INDIA, iqii 



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von 'ME XVI 



BARODA 



Part I. 



REPORT. 



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V( 



'IE/ 



RAO BAHADUR 

QOVINDBHAI H. DESAI, B.A., LL.B., 

SUPERINTENDENT OF CENSUS OPERATIONS. 
BAKODA STATE. 




Bombay: 

PRINTED AT THE ^IMES PRESS- 

191 1. 



Price — Indian, Rs. j / English, 6s. ^0 . 



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LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

RIVERSIDE 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
RIVERSIDF 

AUG 2b i965 

LIBRARY 



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CENSUS OF INDIA, 1911. 



VOLUME XVI 



BARODA. 



T=^ART I. 



REPORT, 



BY 



RAO BAHADUR 

QOVINDBMAI H. DESAI, B.A., LL.B., 

SUPERINTt-NDENT OH CENSUS OPERATIONS. 
BAROUA STATE. 




3B tn b a V) : 

PRINTED AT THE TIMES PKl'SS. 

iqi 1. 



Piice — Indian^ Rs. y : English, '''-■. W. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Intioduction j yj 

CHAPTER 1 — DisTUinuTiox ok Popui.atiox. 1'agk 

General description of Baroda State^Area. population and density — Towns and villages — Houses 

and house-room — Baioda City ] 24 

Subsidiary Tables ... 05 — ^U 

CHAPTER II— MnVKMKM OK POKULATION. 

Introductory remarks — Forces causing variation in population — Conditions of the decade — 
Normal rate of increase— Expected and actual variation^ — Baroda Division. Kadi Division. 
Navsari Division, Amreli Division — Progress in each district compared — Summary 27 39 

Subsidiary Tables 40 — 4] 

CHAPTER III— Bn:Tii-ii.,\(:i:. 

Object of discussion — Types of migration — Immigration — Emigration— Comparison with previous 

Censuses 42 4K 

Subsidiary Tables 4;i !,\ 

CHAPTER IV— Rkuhio.n. 

Part I, Statistical — Distribution and variation since IttOl — Part II, Descriptive — Hindu religious 
beliefs and practices — Hindu sects — Hindu sadhus — Jainism — Gujarat Musalmans — Fakirs — 
Parsism — External characteristics of the main religions ... ... ... 52 UKJ 

Subsidiary Tables U)7— 111 

CHAPTER V— Ai.K. 

Inaccuracy of the return — Its utility — Mean age— Death and birth-rates — Age distribution- 
Fecundity in different divisions and religions 112 — li'.i 

Subsidiary Tables 120 — I'Ml 

CHAPTER VI— Si-x. 

General proportiou of the sexes — Proportions in different divisions, religions and castes — Pro- 
portion at differerit ages— Comparison with other countries — Causes of higher female 
mortality — Effect of paucity of females — Causes influencing sex 132 la;* 

Subsidiary fables 140 — 14.S 

CHAPTER VII— Civil Condition-. 

Contrast between India and Europe— General proportion of the statistics — Local variatious — 
Variations in different religions— Early marriage — Social legislation — Widow marriage — 
Divorce — Polygamy — Polyandry — Hypergamy— Endogamy — Exogamy — Marriage customs 
and ceremonies— Hindus — AnimLstics — Mahomedans — Pai-sis — Curious marriage customs — 
Birth customs — Terms of relationship ... 144 — 1H4 

Subsidiary Tables ... ... ... •«. ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ... ... 180— 19i> 

CHAPTER VIII— Education. 

General review — Distribution by locality — by religion — by caste — English education— Compa- 
rison with previous Censuses — Comparison with other Provinces — Progress of education 
in Baroda — Compulsory education— Newspapers — Books — Libraries 11)4 — 2(1.') 

Subsidiary Tables ... ... ..• ... ••• ••. ... •. ... ... ... ... 200 — 210 

CHAPTER IX— Language. 

Languages spoken — Numbers speaking different languages — Gujarati language and literature — 
Dialects of Gujarati— Bhil dialects — Urdu — Marathi — Other languages— Common script — 
Caste and language ... 210 — 2i;i 

Subsidiary Tables ... ... ... •.• ••• ... ■•• ... ... ... 220—221 

CHAPTER X-lNFIIiMITIKS. 

Insanity — Deaf-mutism — Blindness — Leprosy 222 — 2.'iS 

Subsidiary Tables 2;!4 — -'Mi 

CHAPTER XI-C.\.sTE. 

Accuracy of the I'eturn— The origin of castes — Definition of caste — Caste by race — Caste by 
anthropometry — Melanoglossia — Caste and religion — New castes — Types of castes — Origin 
of sub-castes — Caste government — Caste control by Hindu Rajas— Caste restrictions — Social 
intercourse — Modern disintegrating tendencies— Attitude towards the depressed classes — 
Caste among .Jains — Caste among Musalmans — Castes in proverbs — Classifi:;ation of castes — 
Distribution and comparison with past Censuses — Changes in material condition ... 

Subsidiary Tables ... ... • . ... ... .. ... 

Appendix— Glossary of Castes, Tribes and Races 

CHAPTER XII— 0((ui'ATi.iN. 

Scope and accuracy of the return — System of classification — General features of thr niiiin — 
Rural occupations — Occupations in the City of Baroda- -Workers and dupin<l;tiits — 
Agricultural occupations —Occupations combined with agriculture — Non-agricultural occu- 
pations — Industiy — Statistics of Industries in factories — Trade — Public foice — Pulilic 
administration — Professions and liberal arts — Other occupations — Occupation liy religion — 

Occupation by caste ... 'M:' — .'41; 

SulixiiUary Tables ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 347 — .1112 

Xndex ... ... ••* ••■ ••" ••. ".. ••. .•• ••♦ ••• •*• ••• ... ' — \ I' 



2:!i; 


-27;"p 


2~(;- 


—2X0 


2HI- 


— :122 



LIST OF DIAGRAMS AND MAPS. 



PagI' 

1. Map of Baioda State showing the density of the Divisions 8 

2. Diagram showing the relation of area and population ... ... ... 8 

S. Diagram showing the density of population in the State and other Provinces 8 

4. Map of the Baroda Division showing average population per square mile 10 

5. ,, Kadi „ . „ „ „ 10 

6. ,. Navsari ,, ,, .- ., 11 

7. ,. Amreli „ ., ,, .. - ... ••• 1- 

8. Diagram showing the total m'l)ari and rural population of the Baroda State in the different 

Divisions 1!^' 

i'. Map of :Baroda City showing density of the wards 24 

10. Map showing the variation in population since 1901 ... 28 

1 1. Map of the Baroda Division showing the variation in population by mahals since 1901 ... ... 28 

12. ,, Kadi . ,. „ .. ., „ 35 

13. .. Navsari „ „ ,, ,, „ 37 

U. ,. Amreli „ ,, „ „ „ 38 

15. Diagram showing the variation in population since 1872 39 

It; ,. the proportion of immigrants in each Division ... ... I 45 

17. Map showing the distribution of Animists in the Baroda State 54 

18. .. .. Hindus .. ^ 56 

19. Diagram illustrating sect marks ... 57 

20. Map showing the distribution of Muhammadans in the Baroda State ... ... ... ... 59 

21. Diagram showing the actual number of males returned at each age per 100. OiKi IKi 

22. ., adjusted age-periods ... ... ... ... . ... ... ... 114 

23. ,, the number of females to 1,000 males at each age-period 134 

24. ,, the proportion of the married, single and widowed, at each age-period ... 145 

25. Map showing the number per 1,000 Hindu females aged 0-10 who are married ... 147 

2(i. Diagram showing the proportion of the married per 1,000 of each age-period by districts ... 149 

27. ,. the number per 1,000 aged 0-10 who are married 150 

28. ,. the number per 1,000 aged 16-40 who are widowed (by religions) 157 

29 .. the number of persons per 1,000 in each Natural Division who are literate 195 

30. .Map showing the amount of literacy in the different districts 196 

31. :Map of the Baroda Division showing the amount of literacy in the diffe'-ent talukas 196 

32. „ Kadi „ „ „ „ 197 

33. ., Navsari ,, „ „ ,, 197 

34. ., Amreli „ „ ,. ,. 198 

35. Diagram showing the number of persons per 1,030 in each religion who are literate 198 

30. „ signatiu'e marks ... 205 

5^7 „ the number of Gujarati speaking persons per 10,000 of the population in the 

different districts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 213 

38. Map showing the prevalence of insanity in the Baroda State 224 

39. Diagram showing the number of the insane per 100.000 persons of each age-period 225 

4(1. Map showing the prevalence of deaf-mutism in the Baroda State ... 226 

41. Diagram showing the number of deaf-mutes per 100,000 persons of each age-period . , 227 

42. Map showing the prevalence of blindness in the Baroda State ... 

43. Diagram showing the number of the blind per 100,000 persons of each age-period 

44. Map showing the prevalence of leprosy in the Baroda State 231 

45. Diagram showing the number of lepers per 100,000 persons of each age-period ... ... ... 232 

4(j ,, the relative strength of Hindu castes 267 

47_ „ ,, ,. Animistic tribes ... ... ... ... 268 

48. „ „ ,. Mu.salman castes ... .. .. . 268 

4;). „ the general distiibntion of the population by occupation (sub-classes) ... 328 

5(»_ ,, the distribution of the population by occupation in the divisions 328 

51. Map showing the proportion of female to male workers in each district ... ... ... ... Xil 

Diagi-am showing the occupation by religions (sub-classes) :;44 



22s 
229 



■ *'. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



HINDU SADHUS. 



1. 


Brahniachari (Shaiva). 


2. 


Dandi ( ,, ). 


3. 


Pavamahausa ( ,, ). 


4. 


Sadhu (Raiiianuji). 


5. 


Achari (Ramanandi). 


6, 


Khakhi ( „ ). 


7. 


Brahmachari (Swamiuarayan). 


8. 


Sadhu ( „ • 


D. 


Palo { ,: ) 




JAIN SADHUS. 


10. 


Sadhu. 


11. 


Gorji. 




MUSALMAN FAKIRS. 


12. 


Nakshaband. 


13. 


Benawa. 


14. 


Madari. 


15. 


Musa Suhag. 


IG. 


Rafai. 


17. 


Rasulshahi. 


18. 


Sidi. 



PARSI PRIEST. 



19. 


Mobed. 




HINDU CASTES 


20. 


Aujana Kaubi. 


21. 


Baria Koli. 


22. 


Bhadbhunja. 


23. 


Bhangi. 


24. 


Chamar. 


25. 


Darji. 


26. 


Deshantha Brahman. 


-27. 


Dhed. 


28. 


Dhobi. 


-29. 


Garoda. 


»0. 


Ghanchi. 


31. 


Gola. 


32. 


Gugali Brahman. 


33. 


Hajam. 


34. 


Kadwa Kanbi. 



35. 


Kamlolia Brahman 


36. 


Kansai-a. 


37. 


Kapol Vania. 


38. 


Kathi. 


39. 


Kharadi. 


40. 


Kharva. 


41. 


Khatri. 


12. 


Kumbhar. 


43. 


Lad Vania. 


4i. 


Lewa Kanbi. 


45. 


Luhana. 


4G. 


Luhar. 


47. 


Maratha. 


48. 


Blochi. 


49. 


Modh Bi-ahman. 


50. 


Rabari. 


51. 


Ravaha. 


52. 


Salat. 


53. 


Soni. 


54. 


Sutar. 


55. 


Targala. 


56. 


Thakarda Koli. 


57. 


Vadhel. 


58. 


Vaghari. 


59. 


Yagher. 




ANIMISTIC TRIBES 


60. 


Bhii. 


61. 


Uhodia. 


62. 


Dubla. 


63. 


Gamit. 


64. 


Kathodia. 


65. 


Kotvalia. 


66. 


Mavcbi. 


67. 


Nayakda. 


68. 


Varli. 




MUSALMAN CASTES 


69. 


Khoja. 


70. 


Memon. 


71. 


Pinjaro. 


72. 


Shaikli. 


73. 


Voliora. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The first Census of the territories of His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad 

was taken on the 21st February 1872 along with the 
general Census in the Bombay Presidency. The 
resuks were tabulated partly ia Baroda and partly in Bombay and the figures 
were published in the Census Report of the Bombay Presidency along with those 
of other States. The second Census was taken synchronously with that of the 
rest of India on the 17th February 1881. On this occasion, the results were 
extracted solely by the State agency and a Census Report — the first of its kind — 
was also prepared and published. Since then, Censuses are taken decennially 
and synchronously with the rest of India. The third Census was taken on the 
26th of February 1891, and the fourth on the 1st of March 1901. 

2. The present was the fifth Census of the State and was taken synchro- 

nously with that of the whole of India on the night 
e pre e en us. ^^. ^^^ ^^^^^ March 1911, that is, 10 years and 9 days 

after the preceding one. In fixing the date for taking the Census, days univers- 
ally acknowledged as auspicious for marriages have to be avoided ; as also the 
greater festivals and important fairs which attract away people from their houses 
ou a large scale. Again there ought to be enough moonlight ou the date to be 
selected, so as to enable the Enumerators to complete the work of checking the 
schedules before midnight. The 10th of March 1911 complied with all these 
conditions and was agreed to by all Local Governments and Administrations. 

3. The present Census was taken on lines very similar to those of the pre- 

vious ones, but more elaborate arrangements were 
'"''^e'rfuimration ^ made to ensure completeness and correct results. A 

full account of the procedure adopted in taking the 
Census and the compilation of the results has been given in a separate Adminis- 
trative Report, but it may be interesting to note briefly in this introduction, a tew 
of the more important tacts connected with the operations. The Census office 
was opened on the 1st of May 1910. The villages and towns were first divided into 
convenient Blocks, each containing from 60 to 100 houses and placed in charge 
of an Enumerator, who was generally a village accountant (Talati), a school 
master or a clerk in some ofiice. Over 10 to 15 Blocks was placed a Supervisor 
whose beat was called a Circle and who was a Police Naib-Foujdar (Head Cons- 
table) a Tajvijdar (Revenue Circle Inspector), or a Shirastedar or Head Clerk in 
some office. The taluka Vahivatdar (Tahsildar) was the Charge Superintendent for 
the Taluka, which had generally from 5 to 15 Supervisors and from 50 to 20O 
Enumerators. The Charge Superintendent for the City of Baroda was the Chief 
Officer of the Municipality and in Navsari, Patau, Amreli and such other 
Municipal and head-quarters towns, the Charge was held by the Chairman of the 
Municipality or the local Muusiff. The Charge Superintendents were in their 
turn subordinate to the Suba (District Magistrate) and his Sub-divisional Officers. 
There were in round numbers 92 Charge Superintendents, 1,273 Supervisors, and 
10,893 Enumerators in the w^hoJc State. Census conferences were held in the 
head-quarters of all the districts; instruction books were prepared for all the 



u 

stages of work ; written iiisnuctious were snpplenieuied by oral t.eaching ; and, 
on tJie whole, everything possible was done to obtain correct entries in the 
different columns of the Census schedules. 

4. The first direct step towards the taking ol' the Census was the number- 

ing of houses. The old detinitiou of a house, viz., a 
House=numbering:. building with an independent entrance, was given 

up and a new one defining a house as the residence of a commensal iamily, that 
is, persons dining of food cooked on one chula or hearrh, was adopted this time 
and each such house was given a separate number. In addition to the ordinary i 
dwelling houses, core was taken to affix numbers to temples, dharmshalas, 
camping grounds, bunders and similar other places where any one was likely to 
sleep on the night of the Census. When all the houses had been numbered, a 
statement showing the number of houses and of the different grades of Census 
Officers was compiled and arrangements were made for supplying the necessary 
Census forms. 

5. Having been fully posted in their duties, the Enumerators took the next 

step of preparing the preliminary record, i. e., the 

The Preliininary entrv in the enumeration schedules of the necessary 

Enumeration. ■^ •' 

particulars regarding all persons ordinarily resident 

in each house. The information to be recorded included name, religion, sex, 

civil condition, age, caste, occupation, birth-place, parent tongue, literacy or 

illiteracy, knowledge of English and certain infirmities. The preliminary record 

was prepared in the mofussil between the nOtli January and the 20th February. 

In towns, it was begun and finished ten days later. The period remaining bel'ore 

the 10th March was utilised in checking the entries. The closest supervision was 

exei'cised not only by the Supervisors and Charge Superintendents, but also bv 

all other officers who could by any means be spared for the purpose, and special 

efforts were made to examine and correct the Enumerators' work. 

6. The final Census was the process of checking and correcting the record 

of the preliminary enumeration by striking out the 

The Final Census. , • , • ' i i i ]■ n 

entries relating to persons who had died or gone 

away and entering the necessary particulars of newly-born children and new- 
comers, so that it may correspond with the sta'e of facts actually existing on the 
Census night. It commenced at about 7 p. m. on the evening of the lOth i\Iai'ch 
and was completed by midnight. 

In a few forest tracts in the Navsari District, where night Census was not 
possible owing to the houses being scattered over a large forest and mountainous 
area and danger from wild beasts, the final revision was commenced a few hours 
earlier, so that it might be completed by nightfall. 

In order to secure reasonable expedition and to reduce the number of 
alterations to a minimum, a proclamation was issued some time befoiehand, 
asking people to avoid that date for weddings and other social or roligious 
gatherings and to stay awake at ho'nie with a light burning till the Enumerators 
had visited them. 

7. Immediately after the final Census, the Enumerators repaired to a jilace 

previciusly fixed by their Supervisors and proiiared 

The Provisional Totals. i ^ . i li i r • i i ^ i i 

an abstract showing the number ol inhabited houses 

and of persons, male and female, iu their Blocks. These abstracts after being 



Ill 



•checked by a second Emnnerator wt-vr posted by rJic SuMrrvisor in a suinmavy 
lor his circle. The circle summaries were fheckod and posted in a idiarg-e 
simnnary, and the totals were wired to the head-4uarters at. Earoda where ilie 
i'rovisioual Totals for the Slate were compiled. These wimniaries began to 
ari-ive on the morning of the 11th ]\Iarcli, and continued to come in lill iln' li'rli 
-idem. ( "onsiderable care and ingenuity were shown by the Taluka Ollicers i)) 
working out the scheme for getting in the totals as (piickly as possible. Tlie 
first to communicate its totals was lUiadran Peta Mahal. The totals of tliis 
charge were ready at (j a.m. and were innnediately telegraphed with ilie 
result that they reached me at 8-ir> a.m. on March 11th. This reflects 
great credit on the JMahalkari, .Mr. Hakumatrai Harrai, whose arrange- 
ments were excellent. The whole of the Census staff worked all night and the 
collection of circle summaries was effected Ijy mounted men sup])lied by jamin- 
dars. Bhadran was tollowed by Saukheda, i)abhoi, JMehsana, Songhad, Vyara 
-and other talukas. The totals for the State were reported to His Highness' (Gov- 
ernment and to the Census Commissioner lor India within 4<s hours after the 
taking of the Census. The total population as shown by those provisional figures 
•differed by only 1,345 or '066 per cent, from the figures arrived at after detailed 
tabulation — a result which the Census Commissioner for India considered as 
■** most credifable to all concerned." 

8. After the CensiiB vvas over and the provisional totals were published, the 

uchedules were collected together in the central office 
PreparaUon^ of. Final, at Baroda and the next step was the preparation nl 

tbft final tables. The books of the schedules cou- 
taiuiug the various particulars recorded by the Enumerators for each individual 
have been aptly described as the " raw material of the Census'' and the final 
tables as the " manufactured product."' The transformation of the one into the 
other involves three processes — abstraction, tabulation and compilatioti — of 
•which the first is by far the most difficult and complicated. 

9. Previous to 1901; tJie figures for the final tables were obtaiiicd in hidia 

by means of what was known as the "ticlf" 
The Slip System. systfim. For every final table, there was a separate 

abstraction sheet, divided by rnlas into spaces corresponding to the headings 
oi the table concerned. A' ^rparate sheet was used for each Enumerator's 
book and a tick was made iii 'he appropriate column corresponding to each 
entry therein. When the whol<- ttook had been abstracted, the ticks were counted 
and the figures thus obtained w^ le added itp for the taluka, and the figures for' 
the latter were compiled into a tm.al for the district. This " clumsy, untrustworthy 
and anti(]uated'' method was abandoned and the " slip" or card system invented' 
by Herr Von Mayor, in conneciion with the Bavarian Census of 1872 and 
adopted in European countries, uas introduced in the Indian Census by Sir 
Herbert Risley in 1901. This -'slip" system, with such further improve- 
ments as were suggested by tte <xperience of the last Census, was used in the 
present Census also. In the last Census, two separate slips--a coloured one and'' 
a white one — were prepared for each individual and the sexes were denoted Ijy 
the difference in the length of the K lips. In the present ('ensus, only one slip, 
measuring two inches by four-and-a half, was prepared for each individual. As 
a guide lor the particulars that vie required to be posted on to the slips, the 



IV 



headings of the columns of llie Census schedules were priured in brief on one side,, 
and opposite cacli iieadiug, tlie poster was ordered to write down the requisite in- 
formation from tlie enumeration books given to him. (n order to reduce writing 
work, slips of different colours were used for the different religions, and the 
following synilinls wore printed on them to indicate sex and civil condition : — 



Married. Unmarried. Widowed. 





Male 

Female ... | | 

'I'hese devices obviateel the necessity of making .i:]y entry on the slip for- 
religion, sex and civil condition. Even in the heads for which entries had to be 
copied, the labour of copying was further reduced by the judicious use of abbre- 
viations, e. (^., ^j, for Gujarati, 'H for Marathi, y for English, etc. 

/vfter the eopying of the schedule entries ol- the slip* was over, the. 
slips were sorted for all the final tal)les in turn. Eac'i Sorter was supplied with 
a set of pigeon-holes which were labelled to indicate their contents. For instance- 
when sorting for education, one pigeon-hole would be labelled " literate," another 
" literate in English," and so on. All the slips on which " literate" was written 
were placed in the pigeon-hole labelled " literate" and all those for " literal e in 
English" into the pigeon-hole labelled " literate in English." When the sorting 
for- the table had been completed, the slips in each ])igeon-hole were 
counted and the result was noted on a form called the " Sorter's Ticket." The- 
figures in the sorter's tickets were then posted in the " Compilation Registei's " 
and added up to obtain the taluka or district total. 

10. The posting of the slips was done only in one central office at Baroda. 

It was begun on IGth March and finished on oOth 
p-copying. April 1911. Excluding holidays it occupied 37 days. 

As soon as the posting of a book was completed, the book with the bundle of 
the slips was checked by the Supervisor in charge. 

J.l. The sorting of the slips was commenced on Ist May 1911 and finished. 

within less than three months. There were in all 

or ing e s ips. ^^^ tables to be prepared, and some of them, such as 

those connected with caste and occupation, took up much ti)ne and involved 

oori'espoudence with District Officers for further information on obscure or 

incorrect entries. 

12. The sorting of slips was folluwe<l by compilation and tabulation, which 

took up about two mouths and was finished by the 

Compilation. i f ... , i a i < i i "^ 

end o( Septenil)er. As soon as each table was 

ready, it was printed and copies were liirwarded to the Census Commissioner for 
India for review, and when all the tables were passed as correct, they were 
finally reprinted in book-form. The Tables Volume was published early in 
November 1911, thus establishing a record for speed, not only lor the State but 
for the whole of India. In^this connection, f may be j^ermittfd to quote, with 



pardujuil ill' pride, till' t'oUowiag remarks of the CeiiKUK Cominissiouer for ludia 
in his let lor No. 1960, dated the 28ili Xoveiaber 1911:—"! coagratulaie you 
"II the rxtreme celerity with which yoiu- tables have been prepared and printed. 
They are the first which 1 iiave received in complete form ; and so far as I oan 
see no others are likely U> reach nu' lor the next six weeks or two months. At 
no pi'cvious Census has any Province or Htate completed itt^ Imj)erial Tables so 
ijuickly as you have done on the present occasion." 

13. The writing- of the repoii and the preiiaration of the diagi:au- wore 

taken in hand when ilie tabulation work was well 
The Report. i i i i i i 

advanced, and the whole report was readA- lor the 

Press al)out the middU' of Decendjer. Mr. Gait, the Census Commispfioner for 
India, had intimated in his notes of inspection of the Census of Baroda that the 
report lit the last Baroda Census was very bulky, mainlv owing to the inclusion 
oltmnecessary details, loose printinii,- and the many full-page lithf> dia^Tams, 
and that on the present occasion, 1 slinuld try to reditce its bulk as Jiuudi as 
possible. Bearing in mind that the utility ot a I'eport is in inverse proportion 
tti its bulk, I have tried my ])esr to make this report as concise and handv as 
possible. ( 'onsidorable space has been saved by solid printing and small scale 
inset diagrams in place of the old full-page lithographs. But before leaviu"' 
out aiiy details, I had t<i bear in mind what .Mr. Gait himself wrote in I'.'Ol in the 
introduction of his liengal Census Keiiort, viz., thai "completeness is more important 
than brevity, especially in India, where there is no body of professional statis- 
ticians ready and eager to pounce on the raw material provided for th(ni.ur the 
Census and to make the required deductions, and, unless the Census Superin- 
tendent himself analyses the figures and ^joints to the conclusions to l>e drawn 
fniui them, the}' are in danger of being left unnoticed altogether.'" ^Vilh a 
view to make this report more interesting and intelligible, I have, wiih the 
apjiroval of His Highness' Government and of the Census Commissi' iiicr [nv 
India, illustrated "t with ihe photos of some typical people to be for.nd within 
this State. 

14. I have done my utmost on the present occasion to complete the Census 

operations with as little cost and withht as little 
Cost of the Census. .. -i i mi i i .• ... 

time as possibh'. Ihe whole tnne occupied from 

star! to linlsh in iL>e present Census is twenty-one months or about one yera- less 
than in 1001. The total i^xpenditure of all kinds iu the present Ceiisus will 
be about Us. .o6,000 or Rs. 26 |ier 1,000 of the population, compared ^\■^\\\ 
lis. 1,25,000 or raihrr more than lis. 60 per 1,000 of the jiopulatioi '.<• I<t01. 
This large reducii'm in i-ost was mainly due to strict economv und<-r all the 
heads of charges ami hard work throughout tho opei'ations. 

l.'». In cou'dusion. I must express my iniU'lttedness to K. A. Gait, Esiniire. 

C.I.K., l.< '.S., Census C'ommissioner for India, for 
Acknowledgments. , . j- i i i i i i ■ ■, i, , 

Ins cordial help and able guidance at all the stages of 

the work and to the aittlmrs oj' the various reports and works which I liave freelv 

consulted and sometimes merely copied. I am also indebted to all the District 

OlUcers who cordially ro-operated with me. In my own office, my thanks are 

dui- t<i .Mr, Manirai Trikamrai Joshipara, li..\., Ll^.l.J., who was my As-:i<taut till 

.Soriin'.^ work was over and to Mr. Maganlal X. Thakkar, 15. A., l.h.li., ..■>- Head 



VI 

Clerk, and afterwards Pei'sonal Assistant., who laboured hard with me trom start 
t,o finish, aud whose high intelligence, devotion to duty and wide int'ormatiou, 
rendered hie services extremely useiul. In the subordinate staff all wniked 
well, but the work of Messrs. Yadavrao Mahadev Vaidya and Vasudev 
Prabhashanker Trivedi was specially commendable. Lastly, I must express my 
acknowledgments to the Times Press, Bombay, for printing this Keport, as also 
the Tables Volume, with a promptitude and neatness which reflect great credit 
<:iu its organization and management. 



G. H. DESAI, 

Superintendent of Census Operations^ 

Baroda State. 
Bahoda, 25th December 1911. 



K. E 1= O K. X 

ON THE 



CENSUS OF BARODA STATE, 1911. 



Chapter I. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION. 



I.— GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BARODA STATE. 

1. Tlie territories of His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad lie I)et\\'een 
„ . 20° 4.5'' and 2 P 42' N Latitude and between 70=45' 
Boundary. aud7l°22' E Lonoitude, excepting Okhamandal 

which lies between 22° and 22° i'8' N Latitude and between 68° 58' and 69° 14' E 
Longitude. Roughly speaking, from the Northern extremity of the Thaua Dis- 
irict to the South, to Palanpur to the North and from the Western limits of the 
Nasik District to the South- East to the extreme North-West of Kathiawad there 
lie interspersed with British or other territory, tracts of land wherein His Hio-h- 
ness the Gaekwad's sway is acknowledged. '^ 

2. Baroda State has a very interesting history which stretches back 
Hjgtj, through twelve centuries. "'AVhen the famous Chi- 
nese traveller Houen Tsang visited Lidia in the 

seventh century after Christ, he fouud the whole of Gujarat a verv flourishino- 
country, ruled by the Valabhis who had their capital at Valabhipur. la the 
following century, the power of the Valabhis was broken by the Chalukva Raj- 
puts, who conquered the kingdom and established their capital at Anhilvar- 
Pattan, situated within the present Hmits of the Baroda State. When Mahmad 
of Gazni invaded Gujarat and attacked the famous temple of Somnath, the Prince 
of Anhilvar-Pattan marched against him with a large army and fouo-ht a decisive 
battle foi- his country and his religion. The Prince was defeated, but collected a 
fresh army to meet his foe again and Mahmad avoided a second encounter b}^ 
retiring across the deserts of Sindh. A succeeding prince, Kumarpal, favoured 
the Jaiii religion and the Jains of Baroda assign many of theh religious edifices 
and other public works and gifts to his reign. Altogether the Rajputs ruled for 
over five centuries, from the eighth to the close of the thirteenth, and some of 
the ruins of their temples, fortifications and edifices are still visible at Patau. 
Allaudin Khilji conquered the country from the Hindus, and the story of the 
beautiful Princesses Kalma Devi and Deval Devi, who became the wives of 
Allaudin and his son, is one of the romances of Indian history. For some 
centuries, Patau continued to be the capital of Gujarat under the Mahomedan 
rulers, but the seat of Government was eventually removed to Ahmedabad. 
Gujarat threw off the yoke of Delhi and became an independent Mahomedan 
kingdom in the fourteenth century, but was once more brought under Northern 
India by Akbar-tlie-'jreat in the sixteenth century. Aurangzeb's msd bigotry 
wrecked the Mogal empire which Akbar had built up, and in the eighteenth 
century, the Marathas spread over Gujarat, as over other parts of India. Pilajirao 
Gaekwad and his comrades in arms firmly estaljlished themselves in Baroda in 
1723, and the present ruling family has therefi)re a dynastic record of nearly 
two centuries. 



CHAPTER 1 DISTKIBLTION OF POPULATION. 



Administrative Districts. 



For administrative purposes, Baroda State is divided into the lour 
districts of Baroda, Kadi, Navsari and Amreli 
which are situated widely apart from each other 
and are separated, one from the other, by large tracts of British territory or of 
other Native States. None of these districts forms a continuous block of 
territory ; each is cut up by large tracts of intervening foreign territory. Each 
of the districts is sub-divided into Talukas, or Peta Talukas, which on the 
10th of March 1911 were as imder : — 



Baroda District. 


Kadi District. 


Navsari District. 


Amreli District. 


Petlad. 


Dehgam. 


Naviari. 


Amreli. 


Bhadrau. 


Atarsumba. 


Gandevi. 


Damuagar. 


Baroda ( exclusive o£ 


Kadi. 


Palsana. 


Dhari. 


Barodii City ami 


Kalol. 


Kamrcj. 


Khamblia. 


Cantonment). 


Vijapur. 


Mahuva. 


Kotlinar. 


Padra. 


Visnagar. 


Velachha. 


Okhamaudal. 


Karjan . 


ilehsana. 


Songha«l. 


Beyt. 


Dabhoi. 


Sidhpnr. 


Vyara. 


Ratanpur. 


Siuore. 


Kheralu. 


Vakal. 


Bhimkalta. 


Savli. 


Pa tan. 


Umarpada. 




Vaghodia. 


Chansma. 






Saukheda. 


Harij. 






Tijakwaila. 









The 



greater 



Physiography. 



These divisions are the same as existed in 1901, with the exception 
that Vajpur, which was a separate peta taluka, is now joined to Songhad 
taluka, and Umarpada is carved out of it as a separate peta taluka. The 
talukas which were previously known by the names of Choranda and Vadavli are 
now known as Karjan and Chansma respectively ; and the peta talukas of 
Siswa and Shiyanagar are uow^ officially known as Bhadrau and Ratanpur 
respectively. 

part of the State lies within the area of the coastal band 
of alluvium which has been formed by the encroach- 
ment on the shallow gulf of Cambay, of the detrital 
deposits brought down by the many rivers, large and small, which drain the 
province of Gujarat, the western slopes of Malwa and the southern parts of 
Rajputaua. The upward slope of the alluvial band, from the sea-board eastward 
is very gradual, so that, except where windblown accumulations of loam or 
sand make small local eminences, here and there, the siirface of the country 
appears to be a dead flat. It is only as the eastern side of the alluvial flat is 
approached that it is interrupted by low hills, which rise up at intervals or 
bounded by yet lower downs dividing the different small river courses. 

5. Though generally a flat country, Baroda territory both in Gujarat 

proper and Kathiawad is relieved by a few hills 
and ridges. In the Kadi District, the only eminen- 
ces which diversify the general flat surface of the country are hillocks and 
ridges of blown sandy loam which rise on an average from 50 to 60 feet above 
the general level and only occasionally attain a height of about 100 feet. In 
the Baroda District even such hillocks are absent, except in the Sankheda 
taluka in the east, where they attain a height of about 500 feet above the sea 
level. The Navsari district is hilly and wooded in its eastern part. There the 
height of the hills ranges between 400 to 2,000 feet above the sea level, with 
the exception of one hill, viz., Salher which attains a height of 5,263 feet 
and is the third highest point in the northern section of the Sahyadri range. 
In the Amreli district, it is only in the Dhari taluka that Ave meet with hills 
worth the name, ranging in height from 1,000 to 2,100 feet above the sea level. 
Kodinar taluka lias small hills in its north, hardly rising over 400 feet ; while 
the flat places of Amreli and Damnagar talukas and the sandy level ol' Okha- 
maudal are diversified by yet smaller eminences, some of which arc flat topped, 
forming plateaux on the summit. 

6. The drainage of the Gujarat divisions of the Baroda State, all falls 

westward into the giilf of Cambay in the Arabian 

sea, which receives such a vast amount of silt 

rivers that it is rapidly being silted up as shown by 



Hills and Ridges. 



Hydrology. 



brought down the larger 

the present condition of the harbours of Suiat, Broach and Cambay. Not two 

centuries ago, these sea ports were visited by fleets of shipping of the ordinary 



UENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BARODA STATE. 



size of the traders of those days. Now they are with difficulty reached Ijy 
vessels of as low a tonnage as about 30 tons. 

7. The four principal rivers falling into the Gulf of Cambay are the 
Principal rivers. Sabarmati, the Mahi, the Narbada and the"^Tapti, all 

large rivers and flowing in part of theu* course 
comparatively a small one, through Baroda territory. Of much smaller size are 
the Dhadhar, between the Mahi and the Narbada, the Kim, between the Narbada 
and the Tapti, and to the south of the latter the Mindhola, the Purna and the 
Ambika. The only river of importance in the Amreli Division is the Shetrunji 
which rises in the highest part of the Gir forest and drains the central part of 
the division. The smaller ones are the Raval and the Dhanlarwadi of the Dhari 
Taluka, the Singoara which divides the Kodinar Taluka into two unequal lobes 
and the Raughola of the Damuagar Taluka. 

8. The soil in the whole of the State is alluvial, except in the hilly parts of 

g .. the Navsari and Amreli Districts and in the south- 

east corner of the Baroda District, where- it is mostly 
formed by disintegration of the underlying rocks. The alluvial soils of 
Baroda State may be roughly divided into (1) Gorat or sandy loam, (2) Kali, 
or black and (3) those formed by the intermixture of the two called " Besar." 
The rock-formed soils are for the most part black, but where they have come 
into contact with alluvial soils, they have formed a variety of Besar. The soils 
of the Navsari and Baroda Districts may principally be classed as Gorat, black 
and Besar. As a rule, the black soil of the Navsari District is far superior to the 
soil of similar kind found in the other districts. Bhatha lands or lands formed 
in the beds of rivers from alluvial deposits are often found in the Navsari District 
and are most productive. In the Kadi District, the soil is mostly of the lio-ht 
sandy kind. Black soil is met with, but only in patches, in parts of the district. 
The soils of Amreli District (Okhamandal excepted) may be classed under two 
main heads, black and Gorat, but the Gorat of this district is much inferior to the 
Gorat of Baroda ;uid Navsari Districts. The black is also much inferior to the 
black of Baroda. In Okhamandal, the soil in the northern half is light red and 
along the whole of the coast line, it is sandy and unproductive, but inland it is 
fairly fertile. 

9. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 40 to 70 inches in the 
Rainfall different parts of the Navsari District, from 30 to 50 

inches in the Baroda District; from 15 to 35 in the 
Kadi District and from l3 to 30 in the Amreli District. Thus the fall is the 
heaviest in the southernmost district, and it goes on diminishing as the monsoon 
current travels from the south towards the north. It is considerably heavier in 
Gujarat proper, than in Kathiawad. The duration of rainfall is about 4^ months 
in the Navsari District commencing early in June and ending by the middle of 
October. It is four months in other divisions, commencing a little later, that is 
about the end of June. The character of the iS^an/crops and the good prospects 
of the Eabi depend entirely upon the regularity and seasonableness of rainfall 
from the middle of June or the beginning of July to the middle of October. The 
late showers of October help the spring crops also. Sufficient and timely rain in 
June, July and August in the Navsari District and in July and August in the 
other districts gives hopes of a good harvest ; but the full and satisfactory 
maturity of the crops depends upon the September and October showers. 

10. The climate of the Baroda State varies considerably in the different dis- 
Climate tricts. But it may be said generally that it is dry and 

hot in the hot season, which commences in March 
and ends in June, the hottest months being May and June. The clhnate durino- 
the rainy season, that is from July to October is hot, moist and relaxing. During 
the cold season which commences in November and ends in February, the climate 
is dry and cool. The coldest months are generally December and January. In 
the months of September and October, the climate is more unwholesome than n 
any other time of the year, and the people suffer considerably from malarious 
fevers. 



CHAPTER I — DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



11. The mean yearly temperature ranges from 52°-5 at Baroda to 

69'''4 at Mehsaua. The minimum temperature 
Temperature. during the cold weather months is about 40''-l and the 

maximum during the hot weather 109°*5. The highest temperature recorded 
in 1910 was 114° in the month of June and the lowest 35° in the month of 
January at Mehsaua (Kadi District). This shows that the climate of the Baroda 
State and adjoining parts of Gujarat is an extreme one especially in the northern 
parts when compared with that of the southern parts. 

12. The general health of the Baroda District, including the Baroda City, 

is good during the hot and the early part of the 
" ' rainy season ; but during the later portion of the 

latter and the greater part of the cold season, there is a general prevalence of 
malarious fevers, bowel complaints and affections of the lungs. The general 
health in the Kadi District is much better than in the other districts. The most 
prevalent diseases are malarious fevers, diarrhea, bronchitis, diseases of the 
elementary canal, rheumatic afflictions and skin diseases. The general 
health of the Navsari District is fair. Malarious fevers are extremely pre- 
valent, especially in the Rani Mahals. At Songhad and Vyara, there is not 
a single individual who has not an enlarged spleen, which gives rise to a 
protuberant abdomen and in some cases to splenetic ascites, most fatal to those 
who are strangers in the land. The prevalent diseases in the Amreli dis- 
trict are generally fevers and bowel complaints. In Dhari and Khambha, people 
also suffer from diseases of the spleen, and in Okhamandal and Kodinar from 
puinea-worms due to drinkiuo: bad water. 

13. The inhabitants of the Baroda State are for the most part agriculturists. 

. ^ The principal crops are juwar, bajri, rice, pulse, 

cotton, tobacco and oil-seeds. The crops are gene- 
rally thriving and plentiful in Kadi and the western half of the Baroda District ; 
the coast line and the western talukas of the Navsari District are very fertile and 
yield garden produce, but the south-eastern parts are inferior in fertility and 
owing to rocks and mountains are hardly cultivable in some places. The Amreli 
district as a whole is much inferior in fertility, but there are very fertile tracts 
here and there, especially in the Amreli, Damnagar and Kodinar talukas. 

Of the total culturable land in the State, 87'4 per cent, as against 86 per 
^^cent. in 1901 is under cultivation and 12*6 per cent, is available for further 
cultivation. On an average, each individual of the total population has 3 bighas 
of cultivated land and '45 bighas of culturable land for further cultivation. 
Taking the districts separately, Baroda has 9rjJ per cent., Kadi 84*5, Navsari 
92'5 and Amreli 83"8 per cent, of its cultivable land under cultivation. Kadi and 
Amreli Districts have yet a large proportion of land that can be brought under 
cultivation. 

14. Small irrigation works are met with all over the Raj, especially what 
. . . are called " Paddy tanks," whose duty is to protect 

rice, the chief of the monsoon crops by giving it 
water during a break in the rains and more especially giving it the last one or 
two waterings to mature it. The number of such tanks in each division or taluka 
varies with the nature of the staple crops, nature of the soil and the intelligence, 
skill and capacity of the cultivators. Navsari Division which has good and rich 
irrigable soil, intelligent cultivators, and high class crops grown, is singularly 
fortunate in the possession of a large number of paddy tanks, almost every village 
in each taluka possessing one or more. Baroda Division conies next to Navsari 
in point of their number, and the rice growing talukas of Vaghodia, Savli and to 
a certain extent, Baroda abound with them. Kadi Division has also a fairly 
large number of such tanks, especially the two sister talukas of Kadi and Kalol 
where rice is extensively grown. Its cultivation is, however, falling off, owing to 
the scanty and ill-timed rainfall of late years, and the utter state of disrepair oi all 
tanks. Hardly any rice is grown in the Amreli Division and so there are no 
paddy tanks worth the name. The division, however, like that of Navsari, 
possesses a few rivers and streams in which there is a flow throughout or nearly 
throughout the year. In both divisions, there arc handharas or weirs thrown 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BARQDA STATE. 



across such water-courses and the impounded water is led by channels to irrio-ate 
the fields. The Allidhar Vellar Bund near Harmadia, the Natalia Bund near 
Dhari, both in Amreli Division, and the Chikhli Bhandarpada and Tichakia 
(now broken) in Navsari Division, may be mentioned as instances of this form of 
irrigation. Besides the above, irrigation from wells is carried on in all divisions, 
chiefly for crops other than the monsoon ones. The sinking of new wells is 
encouraged by the State under a liberal and well-conceived system of taccavi 
advances. It was in the famine year of 1899-1900 that a great stimulus was 
given to the construction of irrigation works on systematic and scientific lines, \ 
providing on them, wherever possible, modern improvements. Irrigation works 
more than any other were generally adopted as famine works, for, consisting 
chiefly of storage tanks with earthen embankments, they were eminently suited 
for unskilled famine labour. And, secondly, the famine being due to the want of 
rains and water, the first idea naturally was to store and preserve water by all 
possible and practical means. The Karachia, Haripura, Lachara, Khokara, 
Kurabharia and Muval tanks, the Orsang works, all in Baroda Division, owe 
their inception as new tanks or their thorough repairs and enlargements to the great 
famine. Due to the same cause, the Chimnabai tank and Anawada works, the 
Thol tank, &c., in Kadi Division, and Pichvi and Bhimgaja works in Amreli 
Division, were undertaken. Irrigation works take years to produce their full 
economic effect.^ Most of the irrigation works in the State being new, have not 
had any appreciable effect in the increase of population in this decade, but they 
are expected to have far-reaching effects in the future. 

15. The B. B. and C. I. Railway with its auxiliary the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railways. Railway passes from south to north, almost in a 

straight line, through the Navsari, Baroda and Kadi 
Districts, and has niany important stations like Bilimora, Navsari, Kosamba, 
Miyagam, Baroda, Kalol, Mehsana and Sidhpur in the State territory. In 
addition to this, there are several branch railways connecting important places 
in the interior of the State with the main line and serving as its feeders. The 
Tapty Valley Railway joining Khaudesh with Gujarat at Surat, has stations at 
Vyara and Spnghad, which are the headquarters of the forest talukas of the 
Navsari District. The Kosamba Zankvav branch line, which joins the main line 
at Kosamba in the same district opens out Velachha, Vakal and other fertile 
but backward talukas. In the Baroda and Kadi Districts, there is a regular net- 
work of railways, and there is hardly any important place which remains 
unconnected. From Miyagam in the Baroda District run two branches, one to 
Sin ore on the Narbada, and another to Bodeli on the border of the Chhota 
Udepur State, both passing through a very fertile cotton district. From Baroda. 
runs a line which connects it on one side with Dabhoi and Chandod, a very 
important place of pilgrimage, and on the other with Padra and Kanjat, near 
Jambusar in the Broach CoUectorate. Another line connects Baroda with 
Godhra, Ratlam and Maiwa ; and a third one joins the town of Petlad with 
Anand Junction on the B. B, and C. I. Railway on one side and with the port of 
Cambay on the other. In the Kadi District, the Ahmedabad-Prantij Railway 
connects the Dehgam Taluka with Ahmedabad, and the Kalol-Kadi, Kalol- 
Vijapur, Mehsana-Patan, Mehsana-Viramgam, Mehsana-Dabhoda, Chansma- 
Bechraji and Ghansma-Harij branch lines connect all the taluka stations of the 
district with Mehsana, the district headquarters in the centre, and with Ahmed- 
abad, the capital of Gujarat and Baroda, the capital of the State. The remote 
district of Amreli in Kathiawad is awaiting the boon of railways. The attention 
of His Highness' Government had long been directed to the "need of providing 
railways in that district, but the difficulties about the jurisdiction, &c., always 
brought matters to a stand-still. These have, however, now been overcome and 
a line from Dhasa to Lilia in Bhavnagar State, passing through the Damnagar 
Taluka of the State, in being laid, and one from Khijadia to Amreli and thence to 
Chalala and Velan Bunder on the sea-coast and another from Jamuagar to 
Dwarka are under projection. When completed, Amreli will have the same 
railway advantage which is enjoyed by the other districts of the State. 

16. The statistics of the Census arc grouped for administrative purposes 
according to the administrative units of a Province or State. But within 



6 



CHAPTER I DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



Natnral Divisions. 



these, there are usually wide differences dependent for the most part on the 
aggregate of physical conditions commonly called environments. The 
Provincial figures are, therefore, also grouped under the chief Natural 
Divisions, so that some light may be thrown on the physical causes 
which affect the distributions ol the people within the Province. 

In the scheme of Natural Divisions, drawn up for the whole of India, 

Baroda State is included in the Natural Division 
Gujarat, which may be divided into two main 
blocks, namely (1) Kutch and Kathiawad, or Peninsular Gujarat, and (2) 
Main land Gujarat or Gujarat proper. Peninsular Gujarat in which the 
Amreli District of the Baroda State is situated, has, on account of its detached 
position and large sea-board, developed and preserved peculiar traits and 
characteristics in its population, which is stalwart and valorous and includes 
the brave Rajputs and Kathis, the sturdy Ahirs, Bharvads and Rabaris, the 
enterprising Bhatias, Luhanas^ Memons and Khojas and the sea-faring Kolis, 
Vaghers and Kharvas, formerly notorious for their piracies in the Arabian Sea. 
Main land Gujarat, which includes the Gujarat Districts of Kadi, Baroda 
and'Navsari, may be sub-divided into North, Central and South Gujarat, each 
of which has its own peculiarities. North Gujarat in which our District of Kadi 
and the town of Patau — the ancient capital ot Gujarat — are situated, possesses 
the original settlements like Vadnagar, Modhera, etc., from which many of the 
Gujarat castes take their names, and differs in the manners, customs and 
civilization of its population from Central and South Gujarat. Good physique, 
wealth, business habits and thrift characterize North Gujarat, and a general 
softness, keen intellect and a taste for show, fashion and finery, are the dis- 
tinguishing features of South Gujarat, in Avhich our District of Navsari is situated. 
Central Gujarat, in which the capital of the State, and the Baroda District are 
situated, partakes of the peculiarities of both North and South Gujarat. Kadi 
District is noted for its hard working and skilful Kadwa Kanbi cultivators, 
Baroda for the Lewa Kanbi cultivators, and Navsari for the Anavala Brahman 
cultivators, and the early tribes, such as Dublas, Gamits, etc. From climatic 
point of view also, peninsular and main land Gujarat, as also the sub-divisions 
of the latter, differ from one another. Rainfall is the highest (50 inches) 
in Navsari, and goes on decreasing from Baroda (35 inches) to Kadi (25 inches) 
and thence to Amreli where it is the lowest (15 inches). Temperature 
which is the highest in Kadi (109°) goes on decreasing on one side towards 
Amreli (104°) and on the other towards Baroda (104°) and then to Navsari 
(108°). Each of the four districts of the State having thus its own peculiarity, 
and being detached from the rest, serves both as an administrative as also 
a Natural Division and has been taken as such for the purpose of this report. 

no forests. Taking demarcated 
and undemarcated forests to- 
gether, there were at the com- 
mencement of the decade, about 
73^,945 bighas or about 673 
square miles of reserved forest in 
the Navsari, Baroda and Amreli 
Districts. About 31 miles of this 
have been deforested for the 
extension of cultivation mostly 
in the Songhad, Vyara and 
Mahuva Talukas of the Navsari 
District, Sankheda, Savli and 
Vaghodia Talukas of the Baroda 
District, and Dhari and Kodinar 
Talukas of the Amreli District. 
The area noted in the margin 
measuring about 642 square 
miles continued as reserved 
forest at the end of the year 1 910. 



17. Of the four districts. Kadi alone has 



Forests. 



Name of District. 


Name of Talufca. 


Reserved forest in 
bighas. 


Baroda < 


1 

favli 

Vaghodia 

Sanklieda 


13,972 

8S9 

11,577 


12 
18 





y 






26,260 


4 





N«T«ari < 


Velachha 

Vakal « 

Omarpada 

Mahuva 

Vyara ... 
Songhad 

Dhari k Khambha ... 
Kodinar 

Tot»l 


992 
19,5^8 

106.H50 
11,655 
97,224 

361,992 


4 
11 


16 
16 

8 







8 
8 




698,303 


16 


16 


.Vmreli 


68,421 
5,479 


11 

1 


13 



12 
8 




73,900 
698,464 


13 
13 



AREA, POPULATION AND DENSITY. 



1I._AREA, POPULATION AND DENSITY. 

18. The general statistics of the area and population of each district will 

„ ^ . ^. .. X, be found in Imperial Table I. Provin(;ial Table I. at 

Reference to Statistics. ,, i r ^i t i i 17 i . • ■ 1 • 

the end 01 the tables Volume, conlams similar m- 

lorinatiou for talukas ; and at the end of this chapter, there are seven Subsidiary 
Tables showing — 

(I) — Density, water supply and crops ; 

(II) — Distribution of population, classified according to density ; 
(III) — Distribution of the population between towns and villages ; 
(IV) — Number per mille, of the total population and of each main reli- 
gion who live in towns ; 
(V) — Towns classified by population ; 
(VI) — Special statistics for the Baroda City ; and 
(Vll) — Persons per house and houses per square mile. 

The discussion in this chapter will be confined to the consideration of the 
population as it stood on the 10th March 1911, the day on which the Census was 
taken. The variations that are disclosed by a comparison with the results of 
the previous enumerations will be considered in the next chapter ; and as from 
an administrative point of view, it will be the most important chapter in the 
whole report, such descriptive matter as may be necessary to elucidate the 
statistics will be held over for incorporation in that chapter. 

19. The area of the State as ascertained by the completion of Survey 

^1^^^^''^°'^'^ ^^ some of the talukas left unsurveyed 
at the time of the last Census, or re-surveyed during 
the decade is 8,182 square miles. It is not very extensive as compared with 
that of some of the other Native States ; as for instance, Jodhpur and Bikaner in 
Rajputana, or Gwalior in Central India, but the population sm-passes in number 
and density that of the more extensive States, as will be seen further on. 
Roughly speaking, the area equals that of the four British Zillas of Gujarat, viz., 
Ahmed abad, Kaira, Broach and Surat, which are situated in close proximity 
with our Gujarat Districts. Compared with the larger States or groups of petty 
States that form the Gujarat feudatories, the State equals in extent the whole 
of the Palanpur Agency, surpasses Kutch and Reva Kantha, is more than double 
of Mahikautha and is about two-fifths of Kathiawad. It is nearly equal to 
Indore, is a little less than double of the total area of the Deccan group with 
Bhor and Satara Agency and exceeds the total Karnatic group, including Kollia- 
pur and the SoutJbern Maratha Jagirs. Compared with European countries, 
this State is larger than Wales by 700 square miles and greater than two- 
thirds of Belgium. 

20. Of the four Divisions, Baroda, including the City of Baroda, has an 

^ ^^ rv. . . ai'ea of 1,898 square miles, and Kadi, Navsari 

Area of the Divisions. i » ,'1 '■ r ^ r\-,n 1 ,,1 . 110.-, 

and Amreli have an area 01 3,023, l,'.il-l and 1,347 

square miles, respectively. 

21. The population of the territories of His Highness the IVIaharaja 

Gaekwad, as ascertained in the present Census, was 
Total Population. ^.^^ ^^^ j^^^,^ ^^^.^j^ ^g^^^ 2,032,798 souls (1,05". ,935 

males and 976,863 females), as against 1,952,692 (1,00S,634 males and 
944,058 females) on 1st March 1901 (the date of the previous Census), thus 
showing an increase of 80,106 persons 01 4 per cent. 

22. This population is Utile more than one-tenth of the population ol the 

British districts of the Boinbav Presidency, and is 
Comparison with neierhbour ,1 1 .,- ,• ,i„. ,• ,1' ,. " c -^ 

ing districts &c niore than hali ot that ot the entire group of its 

Northern Division. It falls short of the population 

of the neighbouring four liritisli districts of Gujarat, namely, Ahmedabad, Kaira, 

Broach and Surat, only by less than one-fourth, or is more than tinee-fourths of 

the population of these districts. It comes uji very nearly to the entire group of 

Gujarat Native States, excluding Kathiawad. Compared with othei' Native 

States of India, the population of Baroda is nearly equal to that of Marwai- in 

Rajputanaj and two-thirds of Gwalior in Central India. Compared with Piurojjean 



CHAPTEK I — DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



Population by districts. 

Barodn 686,900 

Kadi 832,162 

Navsari 385,467 

Amroli 178,269 



Total 



2,032,798 



countries, Baroda lias one-hveljth of the population of England and Wales together 
and nearly one-third ol' Belgium. 

23. Having ascertained the total population, the first of our duties is to 

form a general conception of how that population is 
spread over the administrative divisions oi' the area 
within which it was enumerated to determine where 
it is dense and where it is sparse, to learn how the 
town-dwellers compare with the residents of the 
rural tracts and the like. The population of the 

State is distributed in the four districts as shown in the margin. Kadi District 
claims the largest number or 41 per cent, of the total population. Baroda comes 
next with S'd'b per cent., Navsari with 16 per cent, comes third, and lastly follows 
Amreli with the smallest percentage of 9-5. If the City of Baroda with its popu- 
lation of 99,345 is excluded, the population of the Baroda Districtiis reduced 
from 33*5 per cent, to 23'5 per cent, of the total population, but it still maintains 
its second place. 

24. The diagram given in the margin illustrates graphically the relative 

area and population of the four districts in the State. 
Each white diamond therein represents 1 per cent, of 
the total area in each district and each black dia- 
mond 1 per cent, of the total population. A glance at the diagram shows the 

rela- 
which 



Relation of area and 
population. 



as 



30 



35 



varying 



BAROOA On 


c c c olo o o o c-'o coo o|o o o o o]o o o I 








KADI On 


o o c c c'v coco 


O O C- O O'O ■> O OjO O CO O C C' c'o c- o c c 


CO 


♦ 


NAVSARI Dn 


? OOOOC O >'C 


oooocco^ooooo 










AMRCLI 0« 


o ? o o o o O C o 


oo ooo o 













tions 

pre vail be- 
tween the size 
of a district 
and the num- 
ber of persons 

who inhabit it. Kadi has relatively the largest area and population, Baroda 
comes next both in its relative area and pojjulation, while INavsari and Amreli 
have relatively more area but less population, 

25. Having already ascertained the total area in square miles and the total 

population, we can now ascertain tor the whole vState 
and for each of its districts the density, that is the 
average number of persons per square mile. For Baroda State, as a whole, the 



Density of the State. 



Diayram showimj the denuty of population in the State and other 
Provinces, etc. 



5O0 



density is 248. 
This, compar- 
ed with that of 
most of the Eu- 
ropean coun- 
tries and the 
rest of India, is 
high. The 
mean density 
for the whole 
of India in the 
present census 
is 178 persons 
])(']' square 
mile, which 
shows that the 
d e n s it y o f 

Baroda State is nearly half as much again as that of India. It is a little more than- 
half as much again as that of the British Districts of Bombay, and a quarter as 
much again as that of the other leading Native State, Mysore ; over 50 per 
cent, belter than that of the ])remier State of Hyderabad and nearly more than 
double that of the other Native States in the Bombay Presidency. Com]iared 
with the densities of other Provinces in India, Baroda occupies the rank coming 
just below i\Iadras and abov(> the Punjab. Compared with the densities of p]uro- 
pean countries, Baroda occupies 8th rank, coming just below the German Empire 
and above Austria. The densest country 15elgium, is nearly 2| times as dense as 



^aroda Sfa^e 







^^^ 








^^^^^^^^ 


^^^i™ 


^^^B 


^arcda ^w-^'cn 


^^^^^^^ 






















^adt J)/vit'on 


^^^^_^^ 


















^^^^^^ 


•^at'sari J?/i'^'Cn 





^H^ 










^^^^^^^^ 




<z/(. mrfi/ J)irii>'or, 




^^ 










■^^^^^^^1 


^^* 


IND/fif 


. . . .. 


,... . 










^^^^^^* 


^^^^^B 


^o^ihn^ -'/•>«, denc^ 


wmmaamk 


1^^ 










.^ ujc'iff I' • '' '/(:/.* 


^mmmmm 




mamm 








ffl^ f ri g () / 














■■■■^n 






^■■B 


q^^ adrc/t 


. 




... 








' 







Jiysc-f 


















rd^Xieirrcfhid 





. . _. . 










^^^^*^* 


^^^^ 


^^ng/and and^^^aki 


^^^^^^^^ 






^^^^^^^^ 




:_ 


^^^^^■u 






■^^^^^ 




^^^^ 


t^erwar?^. 



















^^^^^ 


'Jn'oncf 





1 










^'^^^^^ 


^^^^^^ 



AREA, rOinU.ATlON AND DKNSITY, 



Natural Divisions. 


Density. 


Barocia (ex. City) 

Kadi 

Navsari 

Anireli 


311 

275 
175 
132 



Baroda and England nearly 2 times. Baroda is inferior in density to Japan, 
Italv and the German Empire, but it heads Austria, France, Switzerland, Sweden 
and Norway, Russia and other European countries. 

26. The pressure of the population on the soil of the State is far from uni- 
form, and a reference to the map of Baroda at the 
commencement of this chapter will show that there 
are great variations between the different districts 
of the State. The density of the Natural Divisions 
(the districts) calculated by excluding the area and 
population of the City of Baroda from that of the 
Baroda District is given in the margin. Above the 

average State density of 248, there are two districts, Baroda and Kadi, with 311 
and 275, respectively. Navasri with 175 and Amreii with lo2 come next 
in the order of density. The density of Baroda District with City (362) 
is about twice that of Navsari and three times that of Amreii. The density of 
Kadi, though inferior to that of Baroda, is o7 per cent, higher than that of Navsari 
and more than double that of Amreii. The low density in Navsari is mainly 
due to the large forest area it contains, while the sparse population in Amreii 
is due to the inferior fertility in a hard tract of country. If we exclude the area 
occupied by reserved forests, 26 sq. miles in Baroda, 549 sq. miles in Navsari 
and 68 sq. miles in Amreii, the densities come to be 315 for liaroda, 246 for 
Navsari and 139 for Amreii. 

27. Arranging our districts with the neighbouring British Zillas of the 

Gujarat in the order of density, we get the following 

Comparison with British ,eyuit :_Kaira 434, Surat 395, Baroda 311, Kadi 

' * 275, Ahmedabad 217, Broach 209, Pauch Mahals 201 

and Navsari 175. This shows that Baroda keeps very close to Surat, while Kadi 

still surpasses its neighbouring district ol Ahmedabad and enjoys as much 

superiority over it as Baroda does over Kadi. 

28. Turning now to the surrounding Gujarat group of Native States, we' 

find similarly that our districts surpass the neigh- 

t?a":"rheX^tr;e'sti:es. 1— ^^' ^f^i-e states in density. Kadi greatly 

surpasses her neighbours oi ralanpur and Mahi- 
kantha, Baroda her neighbours of Cambay and Rewakantha. In 1901, Navsari 
preponderated over the neighbouring cluster of Native States under the Surat 
Agency in density and Amreii over her neighbouring Kathiawad States. 
Amreii still maintains that position but Navsari, in spite of the large increase in 
its population, has given place to the States in the Surat Agency. Comparing 
this State with Indore and Gwalior in Central India and Kolhapur in the 
Karnatic group, we find that, though Indore has an area equal to that of ours, it 
is nearly l/6th in density ; Gwalior with a very large area of 25,041 is also far 
inferior, having only one-half the density of this State. Kolhapur with more 
than one-third area and less than half the population, has a density of 292, that 
is, higher than that of Baroda by 44. 

29. The pressure of the population is not uniform even in the 

J „. . . different i^arts of the same division. In the Baroda 

Baroda Division. j ■ • ^ i v, • ^i . ^ • i ni 

division, the density is tlie greatest in the Lharottar 

talukas of Petlad (703) and Bhadran (520), The Charottar tract, as its name 
implies, is the best agricultural sub-division in the State. The soil in general 
is a sandy loam, suited to grow most crops, and the cultivators are intelligent 
and their culture intensive. Padra (391), known as Vakal tract, follows Cha- 
rottar in density. Its lands are medium loams, resting on a clay subsoil, with 
plenty of fresh water underground. A large variety of crops is grown, but on 
account of high prices, cotton is steadily replacing others, of late. The talukas 
of Sinore (264), Dabhoi (256), Baroda (246), and Karjan (241), which iollow 
Chorottar in the order of density, form with the exception of a part of the 
Baroda Taluka which on account of its medium loams is grouped with Vakal, the 
black cotton soil district called Kanam. It is the district which grows the well 
known Broach cotton. The soil is a black loam, varying in depth Ironi a few- 
inches to 6 feet and resting on an impervious moory sub-soil. The high prices 
realised by cotton have added much to the pros])erity of the people, and the 



10 



CHAPTKB 1 — DISTRIBUTION OK rOPUI.ATlON. 



Kanam tract is expected to grow still further in populatiou. Savli (23H^, 
Sankheda (-•'^y), and Tilakwada (222), where a large amount of culturahle land 
has of late been brought under the plough, follow Kanam in density. Waghodia 



MAP 

BARODA DIVISION 



ps> S9 mt tc 




Crtr 7?-o 



lags behind with the lowest density (171) in the district. But here also exten- 
sion of cultivation and the gradual increase of area under cotton crop have made a 
beginning, and it is expected that this backward taluka will rise in density with- 
in the next few years. 

hlO. In the Kadi Division, the pressure of the population is the greatest in 
„ . . . the Mehsana (379), and Visnagar (367) talukas and 

Kadi Division. ^^^^ ^^^j^^^ Sidhpur (348), Vijapur (321) and Kalol 

(304) talukas. 
The land in 
Visnagar and 
Mehsana i a 
an alluvial 
free working 
loam, suited to 
g r o w most 
crops. The 
n r th- eastern 
port ion has 
been water- 
logged and is 
k n o w n as 
bhcja or wet 
lands and can 
grow wheat 
without irriga- 
tion. A part 
of this tract 
produces t h e 
well -known 
rape-seed 
which fetches 
t h e highest 
price of any 
rape in f, h e 




AUEA, POPULATION AND DENSITY. 



il 



world aud is exported mainly to England and Germany. Sidhpur, Melisana and 
Kalol were the earliest to be blessed with the R. M. Railway ; and their 
laud is fertile. Vijapur, though only recently connected with Railway, has high 
density, mainly on account of the high fertility of its soil. Kheralu (287) is 
hilly and inferior to Visnagar in fertility. The Chimnabai irrigation tank recent- 
ly constructed in this taluka will, in due course of time, greatly add to its ferti- 
lity, aud the population is sure to be denser than at present. Patan (262), which 
follows in order of density, is more sandy, the soil is thinner than in the Vijapur- 
Visuagar tract and well water is deeper. Kadi (230) has a large tract of poor 
soil called Khakhana tai^pa, and most of the able-bodied men from it, as also 
from Kalol and Dehgam, go to Ahmedabad, the centre of mill industry, which is 
close by, aud which has of late much benefitted in population at the expense of 
our Kadi District. Chausma (207) like Patan has dry and inferior soil. In Deh- 
gam (2iil), the surface soil is sandy, but here and there alluvial soil is met with. 
It is well-wooded, with the mango, raya-n aud maliuda fruit trees. Atarsumba 
(275) is hilly aud wooded like Dehgam. The iuiiabitauts are mostly Kolis, who 
are bad cultivators. Harij (102) is the most sparsely populated tract in the Kadi 
District. The land is poor and salt and so is the water iinderueath. 

31. Navsari district is divided into three parts, the first of which is 

. ^. . . called i?asi^' aud contains the populated and peace- 

Navsari Division. c ^ ^ ^ ^ r x^ • r< j • n i j 

iul talukas ot iSavsan, Uandevi, Palsaua and 

Kamrej, The soil of these is a calcarious black loam, resting ou the retentive 
sub-soil. The population consists of skilful Anavala and Kaubi cultivators. 
Gandevi taluka has the highest density (719) ou account of its having the best 
garden soil. Navsari comes next after it (442), and then follow Palsaua (274) 

and Kamrej 
(267) in the 
order of the 
fer t i 1 i t y of 
their soils. 
The second 
part of the 
Navsari Dis- 
trict is called 
Semi-Ensti, or 
half populated, 
and includes 
the talukas of 
Mahuva and 
V'elachha. In 
the semi-Rasti 
tract, the po- 
pu 1 a t i o u in 
Mahuva (278) 
is rapidly 




g 



r 



o wing 



owing to ex- 
tension of 
cultiv a t i n, 
and so far as its density is concerned, it now equals any ordinary taluka iu the 
Rasti Mahals. Velach'ha (184) has not improved so rapidly as Mahuva, but its 
density is superior to that of the third division of the Navsari District, which is 
called Ba7ii or forest Mahals, and includes the talukas of Songhad (54) and 
Vyara (li '.•) and the Peta Talukas of Vakal (139) and Umarpada (107). In these 
forest parts, the population is thin and consists mainly of the forest tribes. 

for taking up land, 



to 



populati 
the low rates of assessment 



and the facilities 



Owing 
the 



population in these talukas is rapidlv growing. Since the opening of the Tapty 



alley Railway, most of the available land is'taken up, and the density of the 
tract has risen from 72 to 94 (/'. e- by 22), and will soon come up to the level of 
the semi-Rasti Mahals. Umarpada and Vakal are sparsely populated, but here 
also there is more demand for land than before. The unhealthiness of the 



12 



CHAPTER 1 — DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



climate and the want of good aud easy ineaus of communicatious deter people 
from the thickly populated Rasti Mahals h-om taking up the available land and 
settling in these talukas. Various measures of introducing ahadi in these talukas 
have from time to time been adopted. Gradual removal of the forest has of late 
somewhat improved the climate, aud when the roads, which are at present either 
under projection or construction, are completed, the Songhad lalnka. will 
certainly rise still more in its population. 



32. 



Amreli Division. 



In the Amreli Division, the density of population is the highest in 
Beyt (1,219), but it is a single town, though con- 
sidered a Peta Mahal for administrative purposes. 
Then comes the Amreli Taluka (214). Excepting a belt of black soil on the 

northern bank 
of the Shet- 
ranji river, the 
soil of this 
part is a thin 




t-'joma^ avfrafeflcf>fCcuCfA 
per stf mtie \ 



loam resting 
on a rock or 
moorum s u b- 
soil. Damna- 
gar (169) and 
Kodinar (167) 
follow Amreli. 
Kodinar Talu- 
ka forms the 
southern end 
of Kathiawad. 
The soil is 
derived from 
m i 1 1 i 1 i t e 
formation and 
being rich in 
lime and mine- 
ral constitu- 
ents is fairly 
fertile. The 
r a i n - f a 1 1 is 
higher than 
the other parts 

of the Amreli District, varying in normal years from between 20 and 30 inches. 
The temperature is very" equable between 60° aud 90°. But the taluka is 
isolated and without suitable means of communication with the rest of the dis- 
trict, which comes in the way of its development. In Dhari (97) and Khambha 
(77), which are sparsely populated, the soil has been formed from the withering 
and debris of the Gir locks and is thin aud poor. On account of the hills and 
many streams aud waterways, there is no level stretch of agricultural land 
anywhere in the talukas. In Okhamandal (80), which also has sparse popula- 
tion, the soil is very thin, and rainfall precarious and irregular, generally not 
exceeding 5 or 6 inches. The two principal towns Dwarka and Beyt are 
renowned as places of Hindu pilgrimage and thousands of pilgrims from all 
parts of India visit them every year. 

33. The above examination of the density in the different parts of the 

districts of the State shows that the variations of 
Causes o^fjhe variations density depend upon a number of causes, of which 
^"^' ^' the principal are soil, rainfall and climate. Where 

all the elements co-exist, the density is the highest as in the Petlad Taluka of 
the Baroda District or the Gaudevi Taluka of the Navsari District. In the Son- 
ghad Taluka of the ISavsari District, the climate is malarious and unhealthy, and 
the density is therefore the least in the district as also in the State. Harij has 
less rain than the other talukas in the Kadi District, and the soil is also salt and 



AREA, POPULATION AXI> l)EXi?ITV. 



13 



Classification of the popula- 
tion according to density. 



inferior. It has consequeutly the least density. The inferior density in Dhari 
and Khambha is due to bad climate, less rain, and the hilly nature of the 
country. Population decreases where the plain gives place to the mountain 
even though the rainfall is higher. Its tendency is to concentrate in the plains 
and not on the slopes and uplands. This is well illustrated by the inferior 
density in the Songhad, Dhari and other hilly talukas in the State. 

34. If we classify the population according to density, it appears that 

one-twentieth of the total population of the State is 
congregated on only 12 miles ot the area, where there 
are 1,050 and more persons per square mile : one- 
twelfth on only 22*^ miles where, the density is from 600 to 750 per square 
mile ; 2 per cent, of the population on 1 per cent, of the area where the density 
is 45'^ to 600 ; more than a quarter of the population on less than one-fifth of the 
area at a density of 300 to 450 persons ; nearly one-half on a little more than 
one-half of the area wdiere the density is from 150 to 300 per square mile. 
Taking these figures together, we find that 93 per cent, of the population is living 
on 78 per cent, of the area, and the remaining 22 per cent, is still very sparsely 
inhabited and nowhere contains as many as 1 50 persons per square mile. 

35. The density of population in each taluka of the State is given in 

. g. Provincial Table I at the end of the Tables Volume. 

The highest density, 719 persons per square mile, is 
in the Gandevi Taluka of the Naveari District. Then come in order Petlad 
Taluka with 703 persons, Bhadran Taluka with 520, and Navsari Taluka 
with 442. The lowest density, 54 persons, is in the Songhad Mahal of the 
Navsari District. 

Taking into consideration the surrounding circumstances of geographical 
position, fertility of the soil, habits of the people and the general conditions of 
life in the Baroda State, the follo«\'ing standard of the different grades of density 
was adopted in the past Censuses ; — 

I. — Dense Over 500, 

II.— Fairly dense Between 300 and 500. 

in. — Average Between 200 and HOO. 

IV.— Thin Between 100 and 200. 

v.— Sparse ... . Below 100. 

In accordance with this classification, the population of the State, as a whole, 
can be designated " average.'' Of the districts, Baroda is fairly dense, Kadi is 
average and Navsari and Amreli are thin. The talukas arrange themselves 
as below in accordance with their densities : — 



Dense. 


Fairly dense. 


Arerage. 


1 

Thin. 


Sparse. 


Gandevi. 


Navsari. 


Kheralu. 


Velacbba. 


Dhari. 


Petlad. 


Padra. 


Mahuva. 


Vyara. 


Ratanpur. 


Bhadran. 


Mehsaaa. 


Atarsumba. 


Bbimkatta. 


Okhamaiidal. 




Visnas'ar. 


Paleana. 


Viiahodia. 


Khambba. 




Sidhpur. 


Kamrej. 


Damnagar, 


Songbad. 




Vijapiir. 


Sinore. 


Kodinar. 






Kalol. 


Patan. 

Dabboi. 

Baroda. 

Karjaii. 

Saukheda. 

Savli. 

Debgam. 

Kadi. 

Tilakwada. 

("bansma. 

Amroli. 


Vakal. 

Uraarpada. 

Harij. 





36. In addition to density, there are two other ways of expressing the 

. x'm't I'elation of area to poptdation. The one is to give 

Area i ya p y. ^-^^ average area available for each individual. It 

is the converse ol density and is called arealitij. The other is to calculate the 



14 CHAPTER I — DISTEIBl'TION OF POPULATION. 



/ 



mean distauce between two persons on the assumjjtiou that the total population 
is uuiformly distributed over the entire surface of any given tract. This is the 
correlative of areality and is csdled proximity. 

The average area per person for the State, as a whole, is 2"58 acres as 
against 2"68 acres in 1901. Looking to the districts, we find that the figures 
for Baroda (with City), Kadi, Kavsari and Arareli 1-76, 2-32, 3-65 and 4-84 
acres as against r89, 2'21, 4"7 and 4"97 respectively in 1901. 

The average distance between any two persons on the supposition of equable 
distribution is approximately 112 yards as against 115 in 1901. 

III.— TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 

37. Having considered how the total population of the State is distributed 

in the four districts and the talukas, we now come 
Statistics^ of^towns and ^^ ^j^^ distribution of the people between towns and 

villages. A Dehzada published in the Gujarati 
language gives the population and its distribution among the main religions 
for all the towns and villages in the State. The statistics regarding towup are 
contained in Imperial Tables IV. and V. The combined number of towns and 
villages and their distribution according to population will be found in Imperial 
Table III. The corresponding proportionate figures are given in the Subsidiary 
Tables III. and IV. at the end of this chapter. 

Before discussing the statistics, it is first necessary to know what is meant 
bv the terms '' town " and " villao-e." 

38. The laud in the State is divided into portions varying in area from 

... ... J a few hundred to several thousand acres, each of 

A village described. , . , . r a t • i ii rn • 

which IS apportioned to a single village. Ihis 

revenue uuit of area was taken as the Census village. " Parish" in the ordinary 

acceptation of the term denotes accurately enough oue^f these territorial 

divisions. The whole population of the parish live together in the village itself, 

which is generally situated near the centre of the area. The houses are closely 

packed together on a small site, nsually about 5 per cent, of the total area, the 

rest of which is cultivated. There are sometimes hamlets subsidiary to large 

villages, but isolated dwellings are not met with except in the Rani Mahals of 

the Navsari District. The village^ is generally built beside a tank or a large 

embanked pond, shaded by_ trees among which is the temple of the local ^"3 or 

goddfiss. At the entrance are thejuits ol the Bhangis, one of whose duties is to 

guide travellers, and on the outskirts live, each in their separate quarters, the 

Dheds, Chamars and other low castes. In the middle of the village live the 

yeomen, the owners and cultivators of the land. 

39. There are various types of villages. Sometimes, as in Kathiawad, 
_ . . people reside in walled and fortified villages, a 

reminiscence of the troublous period which preceded 
British supremacy. Elsewhere, as in the Baroda and Kadi Districts, the forti- 
fications disappear, but the houses are closely packed together within streets with 
no intervening sjjaces for orchards or gardens. Elsewhere, again, as in the 
greater part of the Navsari District, the houses, while still collected on a common 
site, are well separated, and most of them stand in their own ground. In 
the Rani Mahals of Sona-had and Vvara, there is no remilar villao-e site at all, 
and each cultivator makes his dwelling place where it suits him best, either in 
the centre of his fields or on some adjacent patch of ground, such as the bank of 
a stream. 

40. In the typical village, the community proper consists of husbandmen. 
„ But as civilization advances, the wants of the 

community gradually convert some of the villages 
into centres of trade and manufactures. In such places, in addition to the 
owners and cultivators of land, a large number of traders, artizans and others 
following non-agricultural professions form the princijjal part of the jjupulation. 
While a village with mostly agricultural population is called a Mama, one 
with mostly non-agricultural population is called a Kasha (from Kaitab, arts) 
or a town. 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 1,') 



4i. Social and economic couditious iu villages differ materially Irom those 

ill towns. The village comimmity cousiKts mainly 

Social and economic^ con- ^.j ^ f^^^. eultivaling castets, such as Kaubis, Kulis, 

I ions '"^^^^^^ and Rajputs. Each caste lives as a compact body 

in its own moholla or street and follows its tradi- 
tional occupation. A village is a self-supporting economic unit, and the occuija- 
tious commonly followed satisfy all the ordinary requirements of its inhabitants. 
There are no strangers or foreigners on the village site. A close bond of 
sympathy and fellow-feeling unites all the inhabitants, who look upon each other 
as members of a family and are always ready to help each other. Town 
population, on the other hand, consists mainly of shopkeepers, traders, artizans 
and day-labourers. Most, of them have come to reside there Irom different parts 
of the countr}' and are strangers to each other. There is a spirit of competition, 
which makes each man care more for himself than for his neighbour. Nobody 
cares to know or has the time to enquire what others are doing. This engenders 
a spu'it of freedom, which allows caste prejudices to be laid aside with impunity. 
Western arts, ideas and inventions, and above all spread of education have done 
much to break down caste prejudices in towns. The ever-increasing import- 
ation of Western products has deprived certain castes in towns of iheir 
traditional occupations, while new emjiloyments have been created, which draw 
people ti'om all castes. In many cases, persons pursuing the same occupation 
belong to diverse castes, while persons of the same caste follow different 
occupations. The close bond which unites all the inhabitants ofa village is 
thus wanting iu towns, and leads to the weakening ot caste restrictions. 

42. A village was taken in the Census to mean a survey Mauza and 

included all hamlets within the boundary of the 
Census^deHnit^^on^of town ^.jn^g^ j^^^^l^^ (j^^ ^^1% other hand, a to^n was 

defined, as in 1^*01, so as to include (1) every 

municipality of whatever size, (-) every Cantonment, (8; headquarters ot talukas 

and (4) every other continuous collection of houses inhabited by not less than 

5,000 persons, which it may be decided to treat as a town for census purposes. 

48. Including the City of Baroda, there are 42 ]daces which may be 

called towns according to the Census delinition. 
BarcKia Towns. ^^ The number of such towns was 34 in 1.SJ<1, 41 iu 

Kadi ..".' .'." .'." '.''. 14 1891 and 47 in 1901. This shows that from 18S1 

-^*''-^"' *! to 1901, there was a growing increase of towns. 

— - but Since 1901 there has been a reaction, and the 
Total ... 42 number of towns in 1911 is less than the number in 
1901 by 5. Valam, Umta, Balisana and Dhiuoj in the Kadi District and Pihij, 
Mehelav and Dharraai in the Baroda District, which were raised to the 
dignity of towns in 1901, owing to their having a population of 5,000 and 
above, have all declined in population in the present census ; and there is 
nothing in the character of their population, which is mainly agricultural, to 
entitle them to be continued to be classed as towns, ('n the other hand, two 
new places, Vaghodia and Karjan, though having a population of less than 5,000 
souls have been classed as towns ; the first, besides being the headquarters of a 
taluka, has Ijeen provided with a municipality ; and the seciond, though without 
a manicipalitiy, is the headquarters ofa taluka, and the junction of two li'ailway 
lines. Most of its population consists of traders and shopkeepers, and it has 
more than half a dozen ginning factories and cotton presses. Of the 41- lowns, 
26 have a population of more than 5,000 souls; of the remaining l^-iare endowed 
with municipalities, 2 are the headquarters stations ot talukas or important trade 
centres and 1 is a Military Cantonment. 

44. The main cause for the increase in the number of towns in 1901 was 

the increase in the population ol the larger villages 
Reasons for decrease in the jjj.^ Valam, Dhinoj, Dharmaj. etc. Owit.o- to the 
number of towns in igii. .. . ' , , ^rm i,,aa .i 

great tamine ot 1^99-1900, there was a movement 

of the population from smaller to larger villages in search of food and employ- 
ment. This swelled the population of some of the villages in 190] lo 5, 000 or 
more and brought them within the Census definition of towns. When the 
famine was over, there was naturally a reaction and a move-back to the smaller 



Town. 


Number. 


Population 


Lnrgo 

Metliuiu 

Small 


2 

8 

32 


124,206 
112,797 
168,014 



16 CHAPTER I DlSTEIimTION OK I'dl'ULATlON. 



villages, which now resulted in the over-grown villages raised to township in 
lyOl, assuming their old position of villages and thereby reducing the number 
of towns in the present census. 

45. Following the Census classitication, towns may conveniently be divided 

into (1) large towns of from 20,0()0 and over, (2) 
medium towns of from iO.C'OO to 20,000 and (;i) 
small towns of less than 10,000 inhabitants. 
From the figures given in the margin, it will 
appear that most of our towns are small and thev 
contribute the largest percentage to the urban 
population. .'51 per cent, of the urban population live in large towns, 28 percent, 
in towns of medium size, and 41 per cent, in small towns. 

4H. The old native industries have ceased to be profitable and no new 
, industries have taken their place. Trade which was 

formerly centred in towns is now shared to a large 
extent by the villages also. Thirty years ago, there were no shops to be seen in 
villages and the villagers had to go to the nearest town for the purchase of such 
articles as cloth, sugar, salt, etc. I«Jow all the larger villages have their own shops 
which supply the local wants. The opening of new railways or the extension of 
old ones has also ruined the trade of some towns. When a place was unconnected 
with railway, goods for its market from Bombay, Ahmedabad ov Surat were 
obtained through agents in the nearest town with a railway station. The agent 
not only ordered out bat also received the goods, and torwarded them in carts to 
the indeuters. When such a jilace itself becomes a railway station, goods are 
obtained direct, instead of through this agency, and the trade of the old railway 
towns thus suffers. For this, among other reasons, the town population in the 
State is in some places stationary and in others decadent. As will be seen from 
their brief notice in the following paras, most of the towns in all the districts have 
made no lirogress in population since 1S72. 

In the general account of towns which follows, it will be convenient to 
deal not only with their present condition but also with the progress that has 
been made in the past, instead of leaving the latter subi'ect for discussion in a 
separate chapter, as has been done in the case of variations in the population 
generally. 

47. In the Baroda District, next after the City of Baroda, Petlad. Dabhoi 
• u o ^^^ Padra are the principal towns. Petlad was 

Towns m^the^Baroda formerly the chief market of the rich Charottar tract, 

but the extension of railway to Cambay has brought 
forward a rival and the importance and trade of Petlad liave, of late, much declin- 
ed. The population has declined from 15,282 in 1901 to 14,863 in the present 
Census. Dabhoi was once a populous town. Forbes in 17 SO i>8timated the 
population to be not less than 40,0U0. But it gradually declined and the p(j]uila- 
tion in 1872 was found to be only 14,898. It has since then remained stationary ; 
the census of 1881, 1891 and lyOl, returning almost the same population. The 
present census shows a heavy fall ol' 4,91 7 or 35 per cent. But this is due not 
to any permanent decrease in the population but to the fact of the town being 
plague-affected, and many of its inhabitants staying out on the census day. 
Padra was the market for the whole taluka, and also lor the neighbouring .lam- 
busar taluka of the Broach District. But the extension ot the railway to Masar 
Road has deprived it within the decade of half its trade, and the'^towii has 
declined in population from 8,289 in 1901 to 7,85;5 in the present census. 

48. Kadi District has 14 towns. The largest is Patau with 28.339 inhabit- 

Towns in the Kadi District. ''"**'• , ^" 7T t'^e,,*"^''^"^ , ''^V'}^^'^ ■'•' '''"jarat and 

was lounded by Vanrai (-havda m 745 A.D. In 
its palmy days, it was said to be twelve kos in extent and to possess magnificent 
palaces, parks, tanks, markets and offices. The old town was desti'oycd bv 
Mahomedans and another, the modern Patau, spraug up on iis ruins. ' It was 
famous for manufactures of swords, nut-crackers, silk cloth and ^^la/'oA/.v (varie- 
gated silken saris) for females. But all these industries have declined, and most 
of the artizans have migrated to Ahmedabad, Surat, liomhav and other ]ilaces. 
I'atan is a declining town, its population was 32,712 in 188l", 32,640 in 189lJ 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 17 



31,402 in 1901, and 28,339 (13,904 males and 14,435 females) in the present 
Census. The excess of females over males indicates that migration is at work, 
and the population is likely to show in the next Census a further decline. Vad- 
nagar, Visnagar, Kadi, Unja, Vijapur, Kheralu and Ladol, all show a heavy 
decline in the population, mainly owing to plague, which was raging in the district 
throughout the decade. Sidhpur, where a cotton mill, the fii-st of its kind, has 
lately been started, and Avhich besides being a famous place of pilgrimage, is the 
headquarters of the rich and adventurous Daudi Vohoras, has grown in popula- 
tion by nearly 5 per cent. Mehsana, which has grown at the expense of 
Visnagar and Kadi, the former judicial and revenue headquarters of the district, 
is now the headquarters of the district and the centre of His Highness the Gae- 
kwad's system of railways in the district. In sjiite of heavy loss'from plague and 
famine in the past, it has maintained its slow but steady progress, and has grown 
from a population of 7,825 in 1872 to 10,141 in the present Census. Kalol and 
Dehgam have slightly declined, mainly on account of plague and the attraction 
oi better wages in Ahmedabad, which is close by and affords au unlimited field 
for employment to those who want work. 

49. Navsari possesses six towns of which all except Bilimora and Gandevi 

are decadent. The population of Navsari which is 
'^'''"""mslrict " the headquarters of most of the Parsis in Western 

_ India, declined from 21,451 in 1901 to 17,982 in the 
present Census, mainly owing to plague from the grip of which fell disease, the 
town was not free even for a single year in the decade. Bilimora is a rising- 
town. It possesses many brick factories giving employment to the labourers in 
the adjacent villages. The bricks are exported mainly to Bombay. The popula- 
tion which was 4,693 in 1901 has risen to 6,462 in the present Census. Gandevi 
was formerly the chief centre of trade, but the competition of Amalsad, a neigh- 
bouring British village, Avhich possesses the advantage of being a railway station 
has lessened its importance as the principal market. Plague a'lso has adversely 
affected the growth of the town. It therefore remains ' almost stationary, the 
growth in the population in the present Census from 5,927 to 6,482 souls' being 
mainly due to a Jain religious gathering held on the Census day, which attracted 
to it people from the neighbouring villages. 

50. Amreli District has no important towns except Amreli and Dwarka. 
. ^ ^ ,. Amreli besides being the headquarters of the district 

oTstrkt ^^^ "^''^^"^l ginning factories, and its population 

steadily rose from 13,642 in 1881 to 15,653 in 1891 
and 17,997 in 1901. In the present Census, the population is 17,443. Dwarka 
owes its importance to its being a place of pilgrimage and the presence or ab- 
sence of pilgrims on the Census day determines its having more or less popula- 
tion at each successive Census. In the present Census, it shows a fall from 7,535 
to 6,548, which is partly due to absence of pilgrims on the Census day and partly 
to the ravages of plague, which carried away according to vital statistics 465 pei-- 
sons between the years 1901-02 and 1910-11. 

51. The average density of towns, which possess a population below 

r. •♦ * A-.a^^^^* ^'^^^ ^^ ^1"- P^i* ^°^"e ; that of those with a popula- 

Density of different ,• i , '- . /inn i -ir\nrr^ ■ r.^K '■ 

classes of towns. *^i°° between o,000 and 10,000 is 68-1 per 

acre ; and that of those with a population above 
10,000 is 74-4. Generally speaking, density is in proportion to the population. 
But the town of Patau, though possessing a population larger than that of any 
other town, shows a density of 57-7 per acre which is much below the general 
average of the class. The reason is that, as stated before, it is an old capital of 
Gujarat, now lying waste and uninhabited in a greater part of its area. Some 
of its inhabitants emigrate to Bombay, Ahmedabad, Surat and other places in 
search of employment and many of the houses lie unoccupied all the year round. 
Looking at density of towns from another point of view, we find that 37 
towns with a Municipal Government have an average density of 58*3 ; two towns 
that are towns only because they happen to be the headf(uarter stations of 
talukas, have an average density of 47-4 ; and two that show a marked urban 
tendency have an average density of 761 per acre. 



18 CHAPTER I — DISTRIHUTION OF POPULATION. 



52. The growth of the urbau population since 15S1 is obscured by changes 
... ill the list of places dealt with ; some of those 
popSaUon. included in the tables of the past Censuses have 

been omitted in the subsequent ones, while others 
not previously treated as towns have been included in the present one. So far as 
they go, the figures show that while the total population of the State has increased 
by 4 per cent., that of the towns has decreased by 36,104 persons or nearly 8 
per cent. In 1901, the general drift towards towns was accentuated by "the 
famine of 1900, which drove some of the poorer sections of the rural population 
to seek a livelihood in some neighbouring town ; after the famine there was 
gradually a move-back from the town to the village, resulting as the present 
Census shows, in a large decrease in urban population, 

53. The extent to which towns attract persons of different religions is 
Religions in towns ^^^'"''^ ^^ subsidiary Table IV. It will be seen that 

while less than 20 per cent, of the inhabitants 
of the State, of all classes taken together, live in towns, 18 per cent, of the 
Hindus, 39 percent, of the Jains, 42 per cent, of the Musalmans, 22 per cent, 
of the Christians and 80 per cent, of the Parsis do so. The proportions 
fluctuate in the different parts of the State. But on the whole, Musalmans, 
Jains and Parsis appear to show the greatest preference for town life. The 
percentage of Christians living in towns is small, on account of the Native 
Christians, who form the major part of the Christian population, and being 
ao:riculturists live in villao-es. 

54. In the population of the State as a whole, there are 92 females for 
Sexes in towns ®^'®^'^ ^^^ males. In the population of towns, there 

are 93*5 females to every 100 males. If our towns 
had sufficient industrial activity, that is to say, if they were towns in the proper 
sense of the word, many immigrants, leaving their families in their native 
villages, would have come to them and the result would have l^een greater 
excess of males over females in towns than in the general population. But 
the reverse is the case. In some towns, like Patau, with a population from ten 
to fifty thousand, the females are actually in excess of males, showing that males 
are emigrating elsewhere in search of employment leaving their females at 
home. 

55. The total number of villages in the State ie 3,054. Of these, as shown 

in the margin, the largest number is in the Kadi 
Baroda ... ^'.'.!^°*.^.*. ... 921 District, and the least in the Amreli District. 1,921 

Kadi 1,076 or 62*9 per cent, of the villages as against 67*7 in 

Amreu' .'.". '.'.'. '.'.'. '.'.'. 29r. 19*'l Contain a population of less than 500 souls 



Total 305i ^^^^ ^^^' ^^^^ ^^' ^^'~ 1^^^' ^^^^' ^^ against 19-8 in 
1901, contain a population between 500 and 1,000 
souls. Thus we see that S6-1 per cent, of the villages contain less than 1,000 
souls ; and only 13-9 per cent, of the villages have a population exceedino- 
1,000. Of the latter 10'6 percent, as against 9"3 per cent, iu 1901 have a 
population under 2,000, and the rest, that is, 3*3 per cent., as against 3-2 in 
1901 have a population over 2,000. While the number of ^•illages with a 
population under 500 has decreased, that of those with a population from 500 
to 1,000 and from 1,000 to 2,000 has increased, showing thereby that the 
villages are growing iu population and becoming larger. 16-7 per cent, of the 
rural population live in villages with a population exceeding 2,U 00 ; 
56-7 per cent, in villages with a population of from 500 to 2,000 and 26-6 per 
cent, in villages with a population of less than 500. 

56. In addition to the inhabited villages, there is often a large number oi 
Inliabited villages. places which, though uninhabited, are'designated as 

separate villages in the revenue lists. Sometimes a 
populated village site is abandoned by the inhabitants for one difficulty or 
another, and though the people may have migrated to another neighbouring- 
spot, the old village continues as a separate entity. At other time^, a large 
acreage of waste land is brought under the plough and designated by a certain 
name, though the cultivators may be all uparvaiias, i.e., dwellers of the villages 



TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 



19 



round about. But the Census is concerued with inhabited villages and no 
notice of such uninhabited places can be taken in this report. 



Villagfes classified accord- 
ing to size. 



Villages of. 


Number. 


Percentage of popula- 
tion. 




1911. 


1901. 


Under 500 (very small) Inhabitants... 

800 to 1,000 (small) 

1,000 to 2,000 (large) 

2,000 to 5,000 (very large) 


1921 
709 
324 
100 


21-3 
24-7 
21-4 
13-3 


21-6 
21-4 
19-8 
152 



There are considerable differences in the classification ol villages 
according- to size. Defining the terms as indicated 
in the margin, we find that in the whole State, 
21 per cent, of the total population live in very 
small villages, 2-1 per cent, iu small, 21 per cent, in large and only 13 per 

cent, in very large vil- 
lages. The number of 
people living in very small 
and very large villages 
remains almost the same, 
but that in small villages 
has increased by about 
3*3 per cent, and that 
in large villages by 1*6 
per cent, of the total population. 

58. There exists a considerable difficulty in defining what population 

should be considered urban and what rural. Baroda 
Distribution of the gtaj-g jg ^ distinctlv agricultural countrv and many 

population between towns en n j' i. i " 

and villages. ^ ^^^ so-called towns are merely overgrown 

villages. A large percentage of the people living 

in most _ of them is employed either in the production or distribution of 

agricultural produce. Industrial 

enterprise and manufactures on the 

Western model are confined only 

to the City of Baroda and four 

or five of the larger towns, like 

Petlad, Sidhpur, Dabhoi and Bili- 

niora. Assuming, however, that the 

population of places classed as 

towns is urban, and the rest rural, 

we find that in the State as a whole, out of every 100 persons iu the population, 

— —^ ' 2 live in 
Diagram shoioing tlie total urban and rural population of the Baroda State t;owns and 80 in 



Distributioa of the population in 


! Towns. 


Villages. 


State 405,017 


1,627,781 


Baroda with City \ 182,713 

Kadi liS8,'>49 

Navsari 42,i21 

Amreli 41,434 


504,187 
693,513 
293.246 
136,835 



in the different divisions 



villages 



if^adi J?/etsio7i ■ 



C^^/W'-C 



It 



Tak- 
ing the districts 
separately, the 
urban popula- 
tion is consider- 
able iu Baroda 
nivision where 
the inclusion of 
the City of 
15aroda, brings 
the proportion 
is onlv 14 per 



of urban population to 26'6 per cent. If it be excluded 

cent. After Baroda comes Amreli in which 23 per cent, of the people live' in 

urban areas. Then follows Kadi with 16-7 per. cent, and Navsari stands last 



with 12'6 per cent, as urban population. 



per. 



59. In the preceding paragraphs, we have compared the urban and rural 
Areality of towns. population. Another way of showing the extent 

01 towns IS to mark the areality o{ towns. On the 
assumption that all the towns of the State are located at equal distances from 
each other, each would command an area of 195 miles. The areality of towns 
in the Navsari District is nearly double of this average (319 square miles), as it 
has comparatively fewer towns and larger area. The figures lor Amreli and 
Kadi are a little more than the average, viz., 224 and 216, respectively ; while 
the Baroda Division has a contracted town circle of 135 square miles. In the 



20 CHAPTER 1 DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



Bombay Presidency, the town circle is as large as 755 miles including 8ind, and 
503 without it. This shows that Baroda State is about four times better off in 
being studded with towns than the Bombay Presidency. For British Gujarat 
the average areality of towns is about 338 to our 195 miles. 

60. Roughly sj^eaking the proximity of one towns to another on the 

assumption of equal distribution is 15 miles in the 
. P«-oximi^_of^ towns in g^^^^ ^g ^ ^^.j^^jg^ jf ^i^^ Baroda and Navsari 

Divisions were taken separately, each in respect of 
its own number of towns, a man in the former would have to walk 12^ miles in 
reaching from one town to another, and 21 miles in the latter. For Amreli and 
Kadi the distances are nearly the same as the average for the whole State. The 
proximity of towns in British Gujarat is about 20 to our 15 miles and for the 
Deccan about 25 miles. 

61. In the same way, assuming villages to be placed at equal distances in 

each division, the average village areality for the 
Areality and proximity g^^^^ -^ g.^ ^ ^^^^.^ ^^-^^^ ^^^ -^ ^^^ different 

oi villages. -, , . , ' ' A % '1 'ii 1 -k.* 

divisions it IS 2'6 square miles in baroda, 2'4 m 
Navsari, 2*9 in Kadi and 4 square miles in Amreli. The proximity of villages 
is about a mile and a half for the Baroda and Navsari Divisions, 1*8 miles for 
Kadi and 2'18 for Amreli. The average for the State is 17 miles. 

IV.— HOUSES AND HOUSE-ROOM. 

^ 62. Houses are built within the State in various types which depend upo^i 
Tvoes of Houses ^^^^ locality and the stage of development and the 

race or caste of their inhabitants. In the outskirts 
of villages and towns, the houses of Bhils and other primitive classes consist of 
mud or wattle huts with a small single room measuring about 12 by 12 feet, 
circular in shape, covered up with thatch and having a small entrance in the 
front. The houses of Kolis, Dheds, Bhangis, Khalpas and similar other castes 
have generally an inner room called £>?-c^o and an outer room called j^afi'sa/ and 
occasionally osn or an open verandah in the front. The walls are made of mud, 
but the root is tiled. The houses of Kanbis, Vanias, Brahmans and other higher 
castes and of artizans are made of bricks and have one or more storeys, but the 
arrangement of ordu, padsal and 0577 is the same. The ordo or inner room is 
used as a cooking and dining room and also as a retiring room for females, and 
for keeping the stores. It is usually 16 feet wide and 12 feet long. T\\q padsal 
which is 12 feet wide is used as a sitting and dressing room and when the males 
are in the verandah, is used for grinding, pounding and other household work 
by the females. The osri or verandah is 8 feet wide and is used for stalling 
cattle or as a sitting or sleeping place for the males, if the cattle are stalled in 
the open compound or some other room in or near the house. Some houses in 
"towns have an open cAo^/•^• between the ordo a,nd jxid sal and an open terrace 
either on the two sides of it or above the padsal or verandah. Such houses have 
aseparate cook-room and water-place near the cJ/owl: Almost all houses in 
villages and most of the houses in the smaller towns have no privies and the 
people go out to the fields to answer the call of nature. Windows are very spa- 
ringly placed and the few that exist being generally shut up, most of tlie houses are 
dark and ill-ventilated. In villages, houses though small, have open court-yards 
and the evil effects of the bad ventilation are to some extent mitigated by the 
fact that generally people sleep out whenever it is possible to do so. In towns 
the evil of bad ventilation is heightened owing to the want of open spaces near 
houses and to their being located close to each other in long, narrow and tortu- 
ous lanes. Education is, however, spreading among the people a better know- 
ledge of sanitary principles and houses of a better kind are gradually coming into 
existence. There is a tendency to replace the old structures of mud and wood 
by structures of brick ; and the sense of security afforded by efl^cient police 
bandobast is encouraging the opening of more doors and windows. The houses 
rebuilt in towns in recent years are generally far better in style and accommoda- 
tion than those which they have replaced. The building of "bungalows, more or 
less on the European model, by the wealthier classes in towns, is noticeable. 



HOUSES AND HOUSE-ROOM. 



21 



63. 



Census definition of house. 



Circumstances vary so much iu the differeut parts ot India that a uni- 
form Census definition of a house tor the whole 
country is impossible. Discretion is, therefore, 
given to Provincial Superintendents to adopt a definition that would suit local 
conditions. In the Baroda Census of 1881 and lS9t, a house was defined ay 
the space within the external and party walls of each building or tenement 
haying- a separate and uidependent communication with a road, fn 1901, it was 
defined as the dwelling place of one or more tamilies having a separate 
entrance. _ These definitions enabled us to know the total number of houses oi 
varying size from a hut to a palace in the State, but gave us no information 
about the number of families living iu them. They gave us the structural but 
not the social information. It would be of great interest to ascertain the mean 
size of the family, as that may vary with the comparative prosperity of the 
locahty, prevalence or scarcity of disease, the effect of migration and the compa- 
rative fertility of particular races or religious groups. It is more than interest- 
ing both in a political and social sense to learii how many families there are in 
these territories and in every district. Large families are a certain index of 
health and prosperity, whilst small ones are almost universally and equally 
clear index of poverty or disease. 

A house was, therefore, defined in the present Census as consisting of "the 
buildings, one or many, inhabited by one family, that is, by a number of persons 
living and eating together of food cooked on one chulah or in one mess with 
their resident dependents such as mother, widowed sister, younger brothers, &c., 
and their servants who reside in the house." In other words a house was defined 
as the dwelling place of a family. This definition besides furnishing a means 
of ascertaining the normal size of the family, was easily grasped and accurately 
understood by the enumerators. It also accorded with the views of the people. 
In Gujarat, by the common understanding of the people, a >^har conveys the 
idea not of a homestead or enclosure but that of a place in which people living 
together have one common chulah (hearth). It is a custom in most of the 
Gujarat castes to make a present lahani of utensils, &c., on festive occasions, 
to the members of the caste. A lota or a thali is given to each ghar in the 
caste and for this purpose, those who have one chulah, i.e., those who mess 
together, are taken to mean one yhar. 

64. The return of houses may be taken as fairly accurate. There was 

occasionally a tendency in towns, where the ques- 
tion of the imposition of house-tax was pending, to 

conceal separate messes with a view to escape taxation, but such attempts were 
not successful to such an extent as to vitiate the statistics. 

65. It might be thought that owing to change in definition, the statistics 
Comparability of the "^ ^^^^es in this Census are not quite comparable 
statistics of houses. '^^"^ *"°''® °^ '^V® P^^* ones. But except in the case 

of the comparatively well-to-do, the differences arising 
from the change do not seem to have any marked effect on house numbering. 
Amongst the lower classes who form an 'overwhelming majority of the popula- 
tion, the dwelling place with a separate entranfce usually corresponds to the 
residence of a commensal family and the average population is therefore fairly 
uniform in all the Censuses as will be seen later on. 

66. Houses have been divided for purposes of the Census into two classes: 
(i) occupied and (b) unoccupied. Those in which any person was residino- 

on the Census night 
pied and the rest 
unoccupied houses 
warehouses, stables 
on account of 
where. The 



Accuracy of the return. 



Occupied houses in 



OCCU- 



tlOD. 



was 
were taken as 
as unoccupied. The 
were either shops, 
or houses shut up 
their inmates residing else- 
number of occupied houses 
in the State has risen from 489,955 in 
1901 to 506,297 in 1911, an increase of 
16,342 or 3*3 per cent., so that the rate of 

. increase nearly equals that of the popula- 

In the districts, houses have increased in Baroda and Navsari in keeping 



District. 


1911. 


1901. 


State 

Baroda District 

Baroda Citv 

Kadi " 

Navsari 

Amreli , 


506,297 

130,261 
28,603 

219,976 
68,065 
39.392 


489,955 

141,231 
31,2.50 

218,300 
59,84 9 
39,325 



District. 


Number of per- 
sons per house. 


Mate 

Baroda Division 
Baroda City .. 

Kadi 

Navsari 

Amreli 


401 

3-91 
S-l7 
3-79 
4-93 
4 02 



22 CHAPTKK I DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



withllieiacrease inthe population. lu Amreli, while the population has increased 
by nearly 3 per cent,, houses do not show any appreciable increase. Kadi shows 
a slight increase (•?) in the number of its occupied houses, in spite of its slight 
decrease ('31) in the population. This is due mainly to the tendency of the people 
to build houses away from the town or village site, as a means of safety against 
plague which was prevalent in the district throughout the decade. Baroda City 
has declined both in population and the number of its occupied houses, for 
reasons mentioned in the separate section devoted to it at the end of this chapter. 

67. The average population per house in the State continues to decrease and 

is now only four as against 4:*56 in 1881, and 4*48 
in 1891. There is a great general uniformity bet- 
ween the average population per house in all the 
districts. The rather high average in Naveari and 
Amreli is probably due to a slightly greater 
tendency of families to remain joint and commensal 
Throughout the State, the family, as a general rule, 
consists of the parents, sons, married and unmarried, 
and the unmarried daughters. It continues joint so 

long as living together in harmony is possible. But dissensions take place 
especially among the females and the grown up sons live apart as far as all 
domestic matters are concerned, though as regards property, there is, as a rule, no 
separation during the life-time of the father. There is slightly a greater tendenc}' 
to hasten the breaking up of the joint family in towns than in villages ; among 
industrial and artizan classes than among agriculturists ; and among the educated 
than among the illiterate. But for all practical purposes, a house may be taken 
to represent a family. The total number of occupied houses returned in the 
Census is as mentioned before 506,297 which may be taken as representing the 
number of independent families in the State. 

68. The number of houses in urban areas has decreased by 12"5 per cent. 
„ only, while the decrease in the number of urban 
Houses in u^rban and rural pop^^i^^tjo^ j.^^ been about 13-6 percent. On the 

other hand, while the increase in the rural popula- 
tion has been nearly 10 per cent., the increase in the number of houses in rural 
areas has been about 9 per cent. Thus in both urban and rural areas, the 
number of houses have kept pace .with population, and there has been no 
noteworthy change in the housing of the people. 

69. The number of occupied houses per square mile is 80 in Baroda 
„ District, 72 in Kadi, 36 in Navsari and 29 in Amreli. 

The corresponding figures were 75, 72, 31 and 32 
in 1901, showing that along with ths general increase in the population, the 
number of occupied houses have also increased or decreased, except in the 
Amreli District, where houses have not increased in the same proportion as the 
population. 

v.— BARODA CITY. 

70. In Census phraseology, a town with at least 100,000 inhabitants is 
Baroda Cit regarded as a City. Baroda City with the Canton- 

^ ^ ^ y- ment fulfilled this condition in the past, but in the 

present Census, its poimlation (99,34.')) is a little less than that standard. It has, 
however, been treated as a City on account of its local imijortance. It is the 
only City and contains five per cent, of the total population of the State. In the 
whole of India, there were in 1901 only 27 cities with a population of about 
two per cent, of the whole country. In England, nearly a third of the population 
is massed in cities, in Germany a sixth, and in France more than a seventh. 
But even in Europe the growth of cities is comparatively recent and due 
entirely to the development of trade and large industries. As we shall see in 
the next paragraph, the present decrease in the population of Baroda City is due 
to administrative reforms. And it is possible that the industrial awakening 
which is now apparent, may result at no very distant date in a marked increase 
in the population of the City. 



BARODA CITY. 23 



71. Baroda City mainly owes its importance to the presence of a native 

court and its entourage. The hixuries and needs of 
Variation of population in ^^^^ Gaokwads and their Sardars and retainers 

ine wiiy proper. ■•■ , . . i, , , 

attracted to it, jewellers, bankers, musicians, 
beggars, etc, who swelled its population which in 1872 numbered 112,057 
exclusive of the Cantonment. The new regime established in 1875, brought on 
a, change which naturally resulted in the efSus or emigration ot that portion 
of the population, which was left without employment and brought on a decline 
in the population to 101,818 in the Census of 1881. There were in 1881, 
53 jewellers less than in 1872. The number of concubines diminished by 144, 
that of songstresses by 46, that of perfume sellers by 40, that of goldsmiths bv 
354, that of cloth dealers by 173, and that of beggars by 4,042. The period 
1881 to 1891 was one of general prosperity, and the population of the City 
increased by natural growth to 112,471. The next decade was affected by a 
virulent type of plague and the most severe famine within the memory of men 
and the population declined to 100,628 in the Census of 1901. The decade 
1901-1911 was free from such marked distress but was not favourable to the 
growth of population owing to successi\'e bad harvests and the consequent depres- 
sion in trade. Moreover some administrative reforms operated to bring about a 
decline in the population of the City. The State Military was less in 1911 than 
what it was iu 1901 by ajjout 1,000 which at the rate of four in a family 
accounts for a loss of 4,000 persons. The criminal population in the Central 
Jail, which the great famine had swelled to the unusual figure of 1,200 in 1901. 
was in 1911 reduced to 500. The famine poor-houses in the City which increas- 
ed the population by about 1,100 iu 1901, were non-existent in 1911. In 1901 
uncooked khitcMi was freely distributed to Dakshani Brahmaus and cooked one 
to Musalmans as a charity from the State, but under the better regulation of this 
charity, brought about since then, it is now given only to the destitute and the 
deserving. A large number of idlers, dependent upon this charity, must have 
therefore migrated from a place where they could not earn their bread without 
resorting to the indignity of labour to which they were not accustomed. 

Baroda Cantonment which for Census purposes was taken as a part of 

„ . ^ . . Baroda City, had a population of 4,217 persons in 

Baroda Cantonment. ^c,^7^ t iqoi -^ ■[ i- i . ,nr. 

18(2. In 1881 its population increased to 4,694, 

but declined to 3,949 iu 1891 and to 3,162 in 1901. In the present Census,' the 

Cantonment has a populatiou of 3,47N. The variations iu the population of the 

Cantonment depend upon the strength of the British army stationed in it, the 

number of camp followers and immigrants from the City proper for better 

climate or for purposes of trade. 

72. The gross area of the whole city is nine square miles, of which the Citv 

_. - .. ^.^ proper occupies about eight aud the Cantonment one 

The area of the City. fp, -^ . ^ -, ., p» -, „, „ 

1 his gives a density of 11,983 persons per square 

mile to the City aud 3,478 persons to the Cantonment. Excluding from the area 
of the City proper, the spaces occupied by extensive palace grounds, public 
gardens and wide roads which co\'er a greater portion of the city, the area comes 
to 1"66 square miles only. 

73. The City is divided for municipal purposes into five wards, viz., Wadi, 
Ward density. ^^^^ proper (portion within the four walls), Fateh' 

pura, Raopura and Babajipura. The density of 
each ward calculated without deducting the superfluous areas comes to 28, 115 
24, 17 and 19 persons respectively per acre. The City ward shows here an 
inordinately high density, as compared with the other wards, because of the fact 
that it does not contain any open area lying waste or uninhabited. But if we 
apply the same process that we did, to the City, as a whole, the ward densities 
come to 116, 120, 53, 107 and 74 persons respectively per acre. These figures show 
that the City ward is the most congested jjart of the City and Fatehpura the 
least ; next to the City ward in point of congestion are the Wadi, the Raopura and 
Babajipura wards in order. Compared with the various sections of the Bombav 
City, we find that the City and Wadi wards approximate to Girgam, Raopura 
approximates to BycuUa, Babajipura to Tardev and Fatehpura to Chaupati or Parel. 



24 



CHAPTER I — DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 



Map of Baroda City shoioing density of the wards. 




74. The total number oi houses iu the City with the Cantoumeut is 41,427, 

of which 28,603 as against 31,250 in 1911 were 
Houses and House-room. ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Census night, and the rest unoccu- 
pied, owing to their being shops, stables, warehouses, etc. The decrease in the 
number of occupied houses is due to the decrease in the population and to the 
diminution in the total number of houses on account of the widening of the 
Raopura and Lahripura roads. A special inquiry shows that of the total number 
of houses 20 per cent, are built with earth and SO with brick or stone. Again 
of the total number of houses 51 per cent, have only ground floor, 41 per cent, 
have one storey, 7 per cent, have two storeys, and 1 per cent, has more than 
two storeys. 59 per cent, of the houses are owned by those who live in them 
and 41 per cent, are rented by tenants. There are on an average 3'47 persons 
in each house and 2*25 persons on an average foi each floor space. 

75. Of the total population of the City, only 65 per cent, were born 
Those born in the City within it and 35 born outside it. Of those born 

and immigfrants. outside but enumerated iu the City, fifteen in a hun- 

dred have come from the different talitkas of the Baroda District, six from the 
Kadi District, one from the Navsari District, two from the Amreli District, 
and seventy-six from places outside the State. It thus appears that most of the 
immigrants in the City have come from places outside the State. 

76. According to the present Census, there are 85 females to every lOO 

males in the City. Considering 
Sexes in the City. the wards separately, we find 

that the proportion of females 

is highest in the City ward 

which is inhabited by the real 

local population of the City 

and is the lowest in Raopura 

which is largely inhabited by 

for State service. 

per cent, are Hindus, 17 

Musalmans, 2 per cent. Jains, nearly 1 

Christians and 1 per cent. " others." 



,,• 1 Proportion of females 
" "'''• to 100 males. 


Wadi 

City 

Fatchpura... 

Baopnia 

Babajipura 


y2 

H2 
90 
81 
83 



immigrants who generally come here 
77. Of the total population, 79 

Religions in the City. 



per cent, 
per cent. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I.— Density, Water Supply and Crops. 





1-2 


feroentage 


Percentage 


'3 "o 




















» 


of total 


to cultivable 


u & 


^ 




Percen 


tage of 


gross cultivated area 


under 






^i 


area. 


area o£ 




03 
















District or Natural 


■S3 






O cJ-3 


«w 
















a 








O ti ■§ 


















Division. 




3 


-4-> 


-•^ 


T3 


Sf« a 


i^ 




















Mean 
squar 
1911. 


> 
o 


- > 
4 


"'1 


a 


Percent 
vatcd 
is irr 


■3 
S 




i 
S 


"a 


c5 


Z3 


c 
o 

o 
O 


1 


i 

a* 

o 


1 


2 


3 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Baroda State 


248 


83 


72-6 


87-4 


43 


5 




2-5 


5-7 


2-8 


152 


135 


17-2 


3i 


40 


Baroda District .... 


362 


84-1 


76-7 


91-2 


1-5 


1-6 


37-34 


•3 


12-9 


4-3 


8-2 


6-2 


27-5 


0-9 


39-7 


Kadi do 


275 


88-3 


74-6 


84-5 


6-3 


7-4 


26-0 


51 


1-8 


1-6 


24-3 


15-2 


5-4 


0-6 


41 


Navsari do. 


175 


72-6 


67-2 


92-0 


•5 


0-6 


51-86 


1 


8-9 


5-8 


0-3 


16-9 


25-6 


2-3 


39-2 


Amreli do. 


132 


80-9 


67-9 


83-8 


33 


4-5 


21-21 


1-6 


0-3 


... 


19-7 


17-3 


21*2 


1-3 


38-6 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II. — Distribution of the population classified according 

TO DENSITY. 



District or Natural 
Division. 






Talukas witli a population per square mile 


of 






Dnder 150. 


150-300 


30( 


-450 450-600 600-750 


750-900 900-1,050 


1,050 and over. 


13 


a 
o 
'S 

SS 

3 

a. 

o 




o 

1 
"a 
a. 


i 

< 


d 
o 

a 
'a 

i 




1 


C8 

(a 

< 


c 
o 


OS 

< 


a 
_o 

c 
o 

Oh 




a 
o 

Ji 

Ph 


< 


c 
o 

o. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 1 9 

1 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


Baroda State 


- I 

,808 
22 I 


137,948 
67 


4,496 1,038,010 
549 513 


1,554 
19 


549,101 

27 


84 

1 


43,670 
21 


228 
2-8 


161066 
7-9 










12 

•2 


103,003 
5 


Baroda Division exclu- 
sive of City 


... 


... 


1,428 
75-6 


339,625 

57-8 


195 
10-3 


76,252 
13 


84 
4-5 


43,670 
7-4 


182 
9-6 


128,008 
21-8 














City 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


«•• 


... 




... 


-... 


... 


... 


... 


9 

100 


99,345 
100 


Kadi District 


157 
5-2 


15,947 
1-9 


1,632 
54 


398,636 
47-9 


1,234 
40-8 


417,579 
50-2 


>■■ 


«•■ 


... 


••• 


... 






... 






Navsari District 


882 
461 


55,613 
16-6 


861 
45 


191,526 

57-1 


125 
6-5 


55,270 
16-5 


• •■ 


... 


46 
2-4 


33,058 

9-8 




... 


... 






• •• 


Amreli District 


769 

57-1 


66,388 
37-2 


575 
42-7 


108,223 
60-7 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 




- 


... 


... 


3 

-2 


3,658 
2-1 


Uote :— 1 ho figures b 


low the 


absolute oil 


OS repres 


enc the pre 


porclon 


per cent, w 


bleli t 


1)6 area a 


cd p( 


pulation 


each 


decfli 


ygroi 


ipbea 


r to the 


total area 



ftliU population oi the State. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III. — Distribution of the population between towns 

AND VILLAGES. 



District or Natural 
Division. 


Average popula- 
tion per 


Number per mille 
residing in 


Number per mille of urban popula- 
tion residing in towns with 
a population of 


Number per mille of rural population 

residing in villages with a 

population of 


Town. 


Village. 


Towns. 


Villages. 


20,000 
and 

over. 


10,000 

to 
20,000 


5,000 

to 

10,000 


Under 
5,000 


5,000 

and 

over. 


2,000 

to 

5,000 


500 

to 

2,000 


Under 
500 


1 


2 


3 


4 6 


6 


7 


8 9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division (in- 
cluding City). 

K.-idi Division 
Navsari Division 
Amreli Division 


9,643 

11,419 

9 903 
7,037 
6,906 


533 

E47 

644 
385 
464 


199 

266 

167 
126 

232 


801 

734 

833 

874 
768 


307 

525 

204 


278 

81 

451 
426 
421 


276 

247 

296 
307 
306 


139 

H' 

49 

267 
274 




167 

203 

207 
63 
55 


567 

553 

584 
531 
S12 


266 

244 

209 
4i>6 
333 



26 



CHAPTER I DISTRIBUTION OF rOPULATION. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV. — Number per mille of the total population 

AND OF EACH MAIN KELIGION WHO LIVE IN TOWNS. 



District or Natuni] Division. 




Number 


per mille who live in towns. 




Total 
population. 


Hindu. 


Mnsalraan.jChristian. 


Jain. 


Parsi. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division (iiicluJing City) 

Kadi Division 

Narsari Division 

Anireli Division 


199 

266 
166 

125 
232 


181 

250 
144 

119 
196 


423 

462 
391 

m 

B08 


216 

205 
366 

616 
625 


388 

478 
346 

471 

384 


799 

933 

883 

785 
965 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V._Townp classified by population. 



Cla83 of Town. 





II 


00 . 




o * 
o g 


€J_, O 
















8,f? 


■is 


S Ort 


^u 


s & 


K 


(5- 


Zi 


2 


3 


4 



Increase 


per cent. 


in the population 


of towns as classed at 


previous Census. 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1871 


to 


to 


to 


to 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


5 


6 


7 


8 



Increase per cent, in urban 

population of each class 

from 1871 to 1911. 



S "3 
a o 

*j ^— t~ 



(6) in the total of 
each class in 1911 
as compared with 
the corresponding 
total in 1871. 



10 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 



Total 

100,000 and over. 

50,000-100,000 . 

20,000- 50,000 . 

10,000- 20,000 . 

5,000- 10,000 . 

Under- B.OOO . 



. 42 


100 


934 


— 77 


- 6-7 


+ 8 


.•. 


*•• 




— 4-7 


— 10-5 


+ 10-5 


1 


23-7 


867 


>.. 


... 


■ ■• 


1 


7 


1,038 


— 12-4 


— 9-9 


— 1-2 


8 


27-8 


1,008 


— 11-6 


— 2-8 


+ 6-7 


16 


27-6 


926 


— 8-4 


— 10 


+ 10 


16 


13-9 


875 


— 2-1 


- -7 


+ 6 



II - 

— 91 — 



102 

14-5 



+ 3-8 — 10-1 

— 2-7 '_ 13-5 

+ 3-8 — 5 

+ 22 '+ 10-2 



+ 



49 

100 
100 
101 
23-6 
4-9 
222-3 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VI.— City. 



City. 


c 

a 
_o 

CS 

"5 

g- 


a 
i 

o a 

•2 ^ 
a a> 


"a 

"s a 

o 

a o 

s -^ 


e 

s . 

OS 
o c 

ll 


Percentage of variation. 


1901 

to 

1911 


1891 

to 

1901 


1881 

to 

1891 


1871 

to 

1881 


Total 

1871 

to 

1911 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Baroda City (with Can- 
tonment). 


99,345 


11,038 


853 


263 


—4-28 


—10-84 


+9-30 


— R-39 


—14 -.-,6 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VIL— Persons per house and houses 

per square mile. 







Average number of persons 


Average number of houses 


per 


District or Natui-al 






per house. 






square 


mile. 




Division. 


















1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1 


2 


3 


i 


■"' 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Baroda State 




401 


3-98 


4-48 


4-56 


61-88 


60-49 


65-52 


55-97 


Baroda Division (e.-^c 


usiv.^ 


















of Baroda City 


and 


















Cantonment) 


... 


3-91 


3-82 


4-31 


4-30 


7964 


75-21 


82-92 


76-27 


Baroda City and Cantonunent. 


3-47 


3-32 


3-63 


3-64 


.3,178-11 


3,472-22 


3,569-66 


4,866-60 


Kadi Division 


... 


3-79 


3-82 


4-40 


4*50 


72-76 


72-40 


79-42 


69-41 


Navsari Division 


... 


4-93 


601 


5-25 


.5-27 


35-56 


30-66 


30-73 


28-22 


Anireli Mvision 


... 


4-52 


1 '■'' 


4-68 


4-73 


29-17 


31 '59 


32-39 


19-96 



CHAPTER II MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 



27 



Chapter II. 

MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 



78. The statistics showing the variations in the population of the State 
t t f ti ^^ ^ whole, as also in all its divisions, are contained 

in Imperial Table II. Similar information for 
talukas is given in Provincial Table I at the end in the Imperial Tables Volume. 
The proportional figures illustrating some of the more important features of the 
statistics will be found in the following Subsidiary Tables at the end of 
this chapter : — 

Subsidiary Table I. — Variation in relation to density since 1872. 

Subsidiary Table II. — Variation in natural population. 

Subsidiary Table III. — Comparison with vital statistics. 

Subsidiary Table IV. — (a) Variation by Tahikas classified according to 

density (actual figures) ; 

(6) Proportional variation, showing variation per 
cent. 



79. 
Introductory remarks. 



In the first chapter, the statistics of the population, as it stood on the 
lOih March 1911, have been considered. The 
present chapter will be devoted to a consideration 
of the changes that have taken place since the time of the first general Census 
which took place in 1872. 

The information regarding the early population of the Baroda'State is very 
scanty and unreliable. Estimates of the population vvere occasionally made for 
fiscal purposes, but none of them was based on an actual counting of the 
people. In 1849 Briggs (Cities of Gujarastra, p. .388) estimated the population 
of the State to be 2,250,000 by adopting a mean of different estimates supplied to 
him by different officials. The first regular Census taken in 1872 showed the 

population of the State to be 1,997,598,. 
and it must therefore be considerably 
less when Briggs made his estimate 
about a quarter of a century before. The 
Census of J 872 included the population 
of Chandod and Deesa camp, and that of 
1881 included the population of Manek- 
wada contingent camp, and Prabhas 
and Prachi, which have not since then 
been censused in Baroda. Excluding the population of these places from the 
Censuses in which it was included, the population of the State from Census to 
Census stands as stated in the margin. The variations in the population between 
1872 and 1881, 1881 and 1891 and 1891 and 1901 have already been dealt with 
in the reports of those Censuses. They will, therefore, be treated of very briefly 
and the discussion in this chapter will refer chiefly to the variations which have 
occurred during the last decade. 



Year of Census. 


Population. 


Percentage of 

variations since 

previous Censuses. 


1872 


1,997,598 
2,182,158 
2,415,396 
1,952,692 
2,032,798 




1881 

1891 

1901 

1911 


+ 9-24 
+ 10-69 
— 1916 
+ 11 



Variations since 1901. 



80. As already stated, the population of the State now amounts to 

2,032,798. The increase since 1901 is 80,106 or 
4*1 per cent. This increase is neither general nor 
uniformly distributed over all the districts. Baroda (with city), Navsari and 
Amreli show an increase of 6-6, 11-6 and 2-7 per cent., resi)ectively, while 
Kadi shows a decrease of -31. The map on the next page illustrates the varia- 
tions since 1901. It will be convenient first to examine the general conditions 
which cause variation in population and then to proceed to a consideration of 
the changes in each district and in the State as a whole. 



28 



CHAPTER II — MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 



REFEREWCES 

DECREASE. . 3 P.C 

IN CREASE 2.* 8 or> 
A^ 6.6 
^> 11 •? 




MAP 
SHOWING THE 



^ 



^VARIATION IN 



HADI^ POPULATION 
SINCE 1901 




jThe ferces causing varia 
hJ tion in population. 



81. Variatiou in populatiou may be either positive showing an increase or 

ntigative showing a decrease, and is the net result 
of the operation of the forces that tend to its 
growth and those that retard it. Broadly speaking, 

the forces that cause the variation are (1) natural increase or decrease, that is, 
the difference between births and deaths, (2) famine, (3) epidemic diseases, (4) 
migration and (5) accuracy of enumeration. Of these, the last may now be said 
to be non-existing as this being the 5th Census of the State, a satisfactory degree 
of accuracy may now be assumed to have been reached. Famine and epidemics 
have their effects both on births and deaths and migration, and it may, therefore, 
be said briefly that variations in the populatiou depend upon (1) excess or other- 
wise of births over deaths and (2) migration. Migration will be dealt with in 
the next Chapter and will be referred to here only so far as it is necessary to 
determine its effects on the variation in the population. Returns showing the 
number of births and deaths in each district are published in the annual reports 
of the Sanitary Commissioner for the State, and if they are correct, an estimate 
of the population based on them, with due allowance for migration, ought to 
approximate with the results of the Census. 

82. It will appear from the next Chapter, specially devoted to migration, that 

it does not play a verv important part in the varia- 
Migration. ^j^^ ^^ ^j^^ g^^^^ population. The State gives only i 

about 20,000 persons more to the rest of India than it receives from them. This I 
works up to nearly one per cent, of the population. It refers only to persons who \ 
have migrated to other parts of India, and does not include those who have 
emigrated to South Africa, Zanzibar, Mauritius and other places beyond India. 

83. Returns of vital statistics, if accurately maintained, would afford a 

, . , ^. . fairly correct indication, not only of the variations 

Value of vital statistics. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ • ^-^^ ^^ '^j,^^^ j^ ^j^^ ^^^^^j.^ 

tealth, but also of the actual growth or decadence of the population. Con- 
siderable attention has been paid, of recent years, to the improvement of 
the returns in this State, but as we shall see in the next para, they are 
vet so incomplete that the statistics returned are worthless in all matters in 
Which exactness is required. 

84. Previous to 1901, in villages, Mukhis and Patels (headmen) and in 

towns, the Police registered births and deaths and 
The vital statistics returns. ^^^^^ ^ monthly return from these registers to the 

Taluka Vahivatdar who tabulated- a return for all the villages and towns of the 
Taluka and forwarded it to the Sanitary Commissioner, in whose office, births 
and deaths statistics for the whole State were compiled. The duty of reporting 
births or deaths was under this arrangement imposed upon the village watch- 



COMPARISON WITH VITAL -STATISTICS. 



29 



men and not ou the relations, and tlie result was always unsatisfactory. With 
.a view to secure better registration, new rules were framed in June 19U1 which 
are still in force. Under them in municipal towns, it is the duty of the municipa- 
lity and elsewhere of the village headmen to keep a register of births and 
deaths. Vahivatdars, Naib Subas and Subas are required, while on their 
district tours, to inspect the registers and to see that they are properly main- 
tained. It is only iu the City of Baroda that the head of the family is bound 
within a fortnight of the event to send information about births and deaths in 
his family to the office of the Municipal Inspector of the ward and his failure to 
■do so renders him liable to prosecution. Elsewhere there is no binding on the 
people to give information. As a matter of fact, the bulk of the people are yet 
unable to appreciate the utility of such information and are disposed even to 
resent inquiries into family matters as an unnecessa.ry interference with the 
privacy of domestic lite. With the provisions of law sitting so loosely on the 
shoulders of such ignorant people, the success of the system mainly depends 
on the efficiency of the staff employed and ou the diligence with which their 
work is tested and checked. 

85. An examination of the vital statistics of the decade as given in 

Subsidiary Table III reveals the fact that the 
work of registering them is very unsatisfactory. 
Except in the last three years, there is every year a 
consistent tale of high death-rate and low birth-rate 
.-and the average of ten years comes to an excess of nearly 10 deaths over births 

1,000 of the population per 



Comparison o Cens us 
results with those indi- 
cated by birth and death 
returns. 





Rats per 1,000 of population in the 






decade reported. 


Year. 








Births. 


Deaths. 


Excess of births 
over deaths. 


1900-01 


<iS 


.59-6 


— 52-S 


1901-03 


21-5 


29-6 


— 8-1 


1902-03 


lS-5 


31-6 


—131 


1903-iJi 


21-3 


33-2 


—12-9 


1904-05 


22-3 


24-7 


— 2-4 


1905-06 


21-9 


23-7 


— 1-8 


1906-07 


21-6 


S2-8 


—11-2 


1907-08 


21 -2 


24-6 


— 0-4 


1908-09 


21-9 


• 22-0 


+ 2-9 


1909-10 


24-7 


23-4 


-t- 1-3 


Arerage of ten 


20-7 


30-4 


— !<-7 


years. 






1 



per 

annum. At this rate the pojDulation 
of the State ought in the decade to be 
less than what it was iu 1901 by 
more than 18 i, 000 persons, but the 
actual counting in the Census has 
shown that as a matter of fact, the 
population has increased by 80,106. 
The registration of deaths is pro- 
bably fairly accurate because infor- 
mation aljout them comes to the 
notice of the registrars easily owing 
to corpses being taken to the burning 
or burial grounds. But information 
about births cannot be had so easily 



and their 



lected. 
86. 



registration 



IS 



often 



neg- 



As the agency recording deaths is untrained and consists of low-paid 

„ ^ , _. . clerks, the registered causes of deaths are also 

Reported causes of deaths. ^^^,^^^1,1^ rpj^^ g^.^^ ^^-^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^j.^^ ^^^ -^ ^^^ 

high proportion of deaths ascribed to fever. More than sixty-eight per cent, of 
the total mortaliry is returned under this head. This is mainly due to the 
difficulty of diagnosing all but a few well defined diseases. Cholera, dysentery 
and small-pox are known, but most other complaints are classed indiscriminately 
as fever. The Sanitary Commissioner in his annual report for 1909-10 says : 
" No doubt several deaths, if not many, due to other causes, suchas from consump- 
tion, pneumonia, measles and whooping cough, etc., are wrongly returned as due 
to fever shnply because that complaint is the .oiost prominent feature of the diseases 
such as mentioned above and many others. As long as registration is in the 
hands of non-professional and untrained hands such as village Patels and Mukhie, 
this state of affairs will continue." 

87. The record of vital statistics being thus useless for checking the 

Census statistics and accounting for the variation in 
population since 1901, we must turn to other 
available sourci's, and see if they throw any light on the subject. In a State 
like Baroda, where nearly seventy per cent, of the population are dependent on 
agriculture for their livelihood, the rate of growth of the population should 
naturally vary with the state of the harvest. When the crops are good, the 



Conditions of the decade. 



30 CHAPTER II — MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 



people would be prosperous and progressive, but when lliey lail. the pinch ot- 
scarcity would at once be felt and the rate of growth would be adversely affectei 
We may, therefore, enquirt; into the seasons and rainfall, general health, and other 
conditions likely to iuHuence the growth ot population. 

88. The following description of the seasons and rainiall, which has been 

extracted i'roiu the annual administration reports of 
Seasons and rainfall. ^j^^ g^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 1901-1911 did not 

witness such a widespread calamity as the great famine of 1899-1900, which 
occurred in the previous decade, but the seasons and rainfall were not favourable 
to the full growth of the population. Weakened and thinned by a great lamine in 
the previous decade, the people had successive lean years during the present 
one. There was hardly any room for recuperation— hardly any breathing time 
or respite in this long series of lean years : — 

1900-01. — Rainfall in all the divisions, except Amreli, was less than normal. 
It did not begin in time, and when it commenced, it fell continuously for some 
time and then held off. As a consequence of this, the paddy, kodra, tuver and 
o-ram crops were damaged. Wheat and tobacco crops were fair, so also was ihe 
cotton crop in the Kanam District. Bajri and Juicar crops were lair. No scar- 
citv of grass was felt. Some damage was done by rats to cotton crops in Baroda 
Division. A disease called geru damaged the wheat crop in the Kadi and 
Amreli Divisions. 

1901-02. — The rainfall in all the divisions was considerably less than 
normal. In Amreli it was abnormally low. As the rains held off in the latter 
part of the season, the paddy and kodra crops suffered a great deal in the 
Baroda and Kadi Divisions. In the Navsari Division the rainfall, though below 
normal, was seasonable in some parts. All the crops except paddy and sugar- 
cane were fair. In the Amreli Division, all the crops failed. In the Baroda and 
Navsari Divisions, damage was done to the crops by rats. In the Amreli Division, 
rats destroyed crops in Shianagar and Damnagar ; in Kodinar crops were de- 
stroyed by some poisonous air coming from the sea. 

1902-03 and 1903-04. — Rainfall was scanty everywhere in 1902-03 except 
in Navsari • while in 1903-1)4 it was normal or copious everywhere except 
in Kadi. Crops suffered in many talukas; in Kadi on acccount of this 
scanty rainfall, while in some Talukas of Baroda and Amreli the rains were 
not seasonable. Locusts also appeared in all the four districts in 1903 and did 
daraao-e to the crops. Cotton and sesamum crops in Kodinar Taluka in the 
AmreTi District were considerably damaged by rats; otherwise the conditions 

were good. 

1904-05. — The rainfall was scanty everywhere, and in many places it 
was badly distributed. The resuh was that in most parts of Amreli and 
Kadi Districts and in large portions of Baroda District, there was famine during 
the year, and relief operations had to be undertaken. 

'1905-06. — Rainfall during the year was less than the average of the 
preceding five years. In Kadi it was abnormal, and, being not evenly dis- 
tributed,°did more harm than good. In the Amreli District it was scanty and 
held off in the latter part of the season, and this brought about famine 
conditions. 

1906-07.— The rainfall during the year was more than the average of 
the last five years and that of the previous year in all the divisions except 
Kadi, where it was a little less. It was also evenly distributed throughout the 
season. The average yield of staple crops in the various districts compared 
favourably with that of the previous year. 

1907-08. — In all the districts except Kadi, the rainfall was less than 
that of the preceding year but more than the average of the last ten years. 
The rainy season coiiiimenced well, but, after a continuous lall during the 
month of" July, it stopped at once in the middle of August. This sudden 
and untimely cessation of rains greatly reduced the yield of the khnrif 
and ravl crops. 

1908-09. — Rainfall in this year was above the average in all districts. 
Unfortunately, excepting in Navsari, it was not very timely nor very evenly 
distributed, and the cessation of rains in September affected the yield of the 



GROWTH OF factories; AND MILLS. 31 



monsoou crops makiug it below average. The ravi crops, however, matured 
well and made up for the poorness of the kharif. 

1909-10. — The rainfall during the year, though more than the average 
of the last ten, somewhat dry years, was a little less in Kadi and Baroda, 
and more in the other tw^o districts than in the year preceding it. It was 
fairly and evenly distributed, and, rhough its cessation in September had 
some effect on crops, yet the outturn, on the whole, showed an improvement 
over that of the previous years. 

89. In addition to insufficient and unequally distributed rain and con- 
p. sequent bad seasons, there was another disturbing 

"^"^' cause — plague — throughout the decade. Plague 

first appeared in the Baroda State in Bilimora (Navsari District) and spread over 
the whole State with varying force in 1S99. From 1899 to 1910, 10,H,390 cases 
and 77,975 deaths have been reported; bat, owing to a faulty system of 
registration, the totals reported are probably a good deal under the' real figures. 
It is now endemic, regularly reappearing with varying severity in all the districts. 

90. Apart from the bad seasons and plague, the past decade was one of 
Railways. great progress. The State Railways, which in 1901 

had an aggregate length of 184 miles, have in 1511 
grown to 446 miles, or more than double in length. 

91. In 1901-02 the cultivated area in the State amounted to 5,815,095 

Extension of Cultivation. b i g h a S . In 

1910-11 it was 
6,074,321 big- 
has, an increase 
of 2 5 9,226 
bighas or 4 -5 
per cent. The 
a d d i t i o n a 1 
area brought 
under cultiva- 





District. 




Cultivated area 


in 




1901-02. 


1910-11. 


Barodii ... 
Kadi ... 
Navsavi ... 
Amieli ... 





Totiil 


1.559,219 

2,4H9,58i 

940.157 

S70,135 




1,600,H38 

2.448,928 

1,039,328 

985,737 




5,815,095 




6,074, 3:'l 



tion consisted mainly of fertile lauds relinquished during the famine period. 

92. Weaving, dyeing, calico printing and other old industries, for which 

Growth of factories and 1^^'"^'^,^ ^'^^^"' "^'^S^^ \adnagar, Petla'd, Dabhoi, 
mills. Amreli, b-andevi, Navsari, Kathor and other towns 

were famous, are mostly on the decline, and indus- 
tries under new methods are graduallv coming into existence. An important 
event in connection with the development of industries in the State was the 
creation, 111 1905, of the office of an Economic Adviser, and the appointment 
thereto of Mr. R. C. Whitenack, an American gentleman, who soon justified his 
selection bv manifestation of great energy ' and perseverance, quickness in 
comprehension of subjects and resourcefulness. The principal subjects that 
engaged the attention of the Kcouomic Adviser, immediately after his appoint- 
ment, were the organization of joint-stock banking, cotton-seed-oil industry, 
tanning and fibre industries, improvement of cotton staple, minerals and minino- 
industries and technical education. The results were more than gratify in <'•. hi 
1901, there was no bank even in the capital 'of the State, while in 191 1'' there 
are several with branches in the mol'ussil. In 1901, there was onlv one spin- 
ning and weaving mill in the Citv of Baroda aud 44 ginning factories and 
presses in different parts of the State. In 1911, the number of spinnino- and 
weaving mills had increased to 4, that of ginning factories and presses To 83 
and 7 dyeing factories, 5 oil factories and 42 factories of a miscellaneous nature 
had sprung up. Joint-stock companies have risen in number from 6 in 
1901 to 39 and their capital has incraased from Rs. 88,250 to Rs. 66 13 500 
Everything seems to point to the fact that Baroda has entered upon an vm of 
industrial development, which has brought a marked improvement in the 
material condition of the landle.ss labourers and the poorer classes in oeneral 
The demand for labour far exceeds the supplv, and it is confidently expected- 
that, in rhe event of a crop failure in rlie future, the damage of loss of life isv 
trreatlv diminished. 



32 CHAl'TEK II MOVEMENT HF PoPlLATHiN. 



93. Ju all the larger towns, the water supply and sanitary arrangements 

have been greatly improved. Much has been done 
Improveme^nt^in public ^^ ^j^^ smaller towns also and even in the villages. 

It is one of the duties of the village panchayats, 
established in every village in lOUS-'Ji, to look after the village "sanitation 'and 
to keep in order the village roads, Avells, tanks, etc. 37 towns have been endowed 
with municipalities, deriving their funds from octroi duty and other sources. 
Care is taken to guai'd against epidemic diseases at the fairs and festivals where 
the people assemble in large numbers. When cholera breaks out, efforts are 
made to eradicate it by the disinfection of wells and other sources of water 
supply. The protection of the people from small-pox by means of vaccination 
has made a great progress. When public health is found to be suffering from 
obstructed drainage, efforts are made to remove the defect by cutting artificial 
drainage channels. The number of dispensaries established by Government is 
rapidly increasing and medical relief is brought home to the people. Thouoh 
there is yet much room for improvement, these and other measures cannot fail to 
have a beneficial effect upon the health of thepeo]jle; and, apart from plaoue, 
against which as yet there has been no sure and satisfactory remedy, the general 
health of the people must be steadily improving. 

94. The most marked economic features of the decade were the continued 

. . , ^ ^^ high prices, both of food and labour. Depopulation 

Economic features of the u ^ r„ • „ i i • ^i /• i i 

decade. '^^^ lamme and plague is the mam cause, which has 

contributed to the rise in the value of labour. The 
causes of the rise in the prices of food stuffs are more complex, but there can be 
no doubt that less production, owing to bad seasons is one of the many. Curious, 
as it may seem, there has been a rise also in the price of laud and extension in 
the area under cultivation. Whatever be the ultimate causes of the increased 
cost of labour, of food, and of acquiring culturable land, the immediate effects are 
quite clear in respect to the classes whose incomes are fixed. For them, the rise 
in the prices of food, fuel, land, service and rents has resulted in unmixed hard- 
ship accentuated by the correlated fact that the standard of living among all 
classes is rapidly rising. The effect of the high prices on the labouring classes 
IS more than compensated by the enormous rise in their wages. The general 
impression is that the unskilled labourer, whether paid in cash or in kind, has 
greatly improved his economic position within recent years. Labour has become 
more mobile and the labourer more independent.' The scarcity of labour 
seriously hampers agricultural operations and its increased cost impedes the 
execution of improvements. The position of the agriculturist under the changed 
conditions, coupled with the bad seasons, has been very hard. He has to pay 
more for labour and his produce is small. His cattle also cost him more now 
than before. The only relieving feature in his case is that his surplus produce 
repays him more handsomely than before, on account of the rise in the prices of 
food stuffs. 

95. When there has been a famine in the period between two censuses, 

the population is stationarv or decadent accordino- 

Abnormal increase pos- ^^ /i ■ 4. -^ c ,t V • 1^1 1 ^ 

sible after a famine. ''*^ ^'^'^ intensity ot the lamme ; but when there 

has been no famine, it is progressive. The rate 
of growth is greatest during the period of good crops following close on 
the heels of a famine. The reason for this is partly that a calamity of this sort 
causes a high mortality, chiefly among the very old and the very young and 
other persons already of a feeble constitution, so that when it is ove?, the 
population contains an unusually high proportion of healthy persons at the 
reproductive ages ; and partly because by reducing the number of dependants to 
be supported, its ultimate effect is to imjirove the resources of the ])oorer classes, 
and so encourage them to have larger families. Thus Madras having suffered 
severely in the famine of 1876-77 added l.'vl per cent, to its population between 
1881 and ISUl, and Bombay which shared in the same calamitv had an almost 
identical increment. Similarly our Amreli District lost nearly" 9 per cent, of 
its population in the Census of 1881, owing to its having a famine in J 877, but 
added 25 per cent, to its population in the decade 1881-1891. 



xoiiMAL i;ate of increase. 



33 



Normal rate of increase. 



If the decade which followed the great famine had been one of uni- 
formly good crops and free from plague and other disturbing causes, the 
increase in the population of this State in the present Census would have 
been more than normal. But as we have already seen, such was not the 
case, and no large increase in the population could be expected. 

96. The Census of 1881 was taken exactly nine years after the first Census 

of lS7:i, and showed an increase of 9'24 per cent, 
in nine years. But, as has already been mentioned, 

in 1877, there was a partial famine in some parts of the Baroda District and 
total failure of crops in the Amreli District owing to failure of rain. Con- 
sequently, Baroda showed an increase of only about 4 per cent., while Amreli 
showed a decrease of nearly 9 per cent., in its jjopulation. In spite of a very 
high increase of 16 per cent, in the Kadi District and of 19 per cent, in the 
Navsari District, the general increase in the State was therefore reduced to 9 per 
cent. only. The Census of 1891, taken ten years after 1881, showed an increase 
of about 11 per cent. The Census of 1901, which showed a decrease ot 19 per 
cent., was taken after one of the most terribJe famines that ever visited the 
country and carried away hundreds of thousands from the population. The 
decade 1881-1891 was a normal one and the population was not materially 
affected by causes which may bring on an abnormal increase or decrease in 
the population, except in Amreli, which was affected by famine in the previous 
decade and showed an abnormal increase of nearly 25 per cent. Making due 
allowance for this, 10 per cent, in ten years, or 1 per cent, every year, may be 
taken as the normal rate of increase in the State. 

97. Having regard to the successive bad seasons and some periods of 

actual scarcity and plague, which characterised the 
Expected and actual g^ decade, even a normal increase in the population 

variation. i ,, - , i^,. c r . ^ ^ j 

could not, and as a matter oi iact was not expected. 

The Suba of Kadi anticipated a large decrease (about 10 per cent.) in the 
population of his district, and though his estimate has been found to be too 
pessimistic, there has been some decrease ('31 per cent, of the population). The 
other Subas were not apprehensive of any decrease, but at the same time did 
not expect any large increase. Amreli which stood next after Kadi in the ill 
luck of having bad seasons, shows an increase of 2-7 only, while Baroda and 
Navsari, which were comparatively better off, show an increase of 8'7 and 11-6 
respectively in the actual counting of the heads. 

98. After these general remarks, we shall now take each district separately 
and briefly review the variations in its population as a whole and also in each of 

its talukas. Baroda 
Division is on the 
whole healthy and its 
soil fertile. It had 
in 1872, a population 
of 631,163. In the 
Census of 1881, it 
showed an increase 
of 3 per cent. 
Conipare<l with Kadi 
and Navsari, this 
increase was very 
small. There was a 
partial famine in 
1877 in most of the 
talukas and there was 
an epidemic of fever 
in 1881, which mainly 
accounted for the small increase in the poinilation. The decade. 1881-1891 was 
marked by good seasons and was free from epidemics of any kind, excej)t fever 
and consequently showed an increase of 7 per cent, in the Census of 1891. 
Plague and the famine of 1890-1900 not only did not allow the population to 
show an increase in the Cimisus i4' 1901, Imt there was a positive dp'-Mue of about 



Baroda Division. 



Taluka. 


Population 


Percentage of Tariation. 












in 1911. 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1872 


Net 






to 


to 


to 


to 


variation 






1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


+ or.— 


District total .. 


58y,555 


-1- 9 


-23 


+ 7 


+ 3 


— 7 


1. Petlad 


128,008 


5 


—14 


+ 7 


! + ^ 


—12 


2. Bhadran 


43,670 


+ ■5 


—19 


+ 11 


3. Baroda 


66,202 


-t-io 


-37 


+ 7 


+ 3 


—24 


4. Pi.dra 


76,252 


-1- 4 


—20 


+ 6 


+ 1 


—12 


5. Karjan 


56,33Jr 


+ 16 


—22 


+ 1 


+ 5 


— 4 


6. Dabhoi 


.55,210 


-t-12 


—18 


+ 6 


+ 6 


+ 4 


7. "^inore 


34,063 


+ 15 


—23 


+ 1 


+ 5 


—10 


8. Savli 


44.339 


+ 14 


—15 


+ 9 


! + ^ 


+ 12 


9. Vaghodia 


24,467 


+ 17 


—24 


+ 12 


10. Sankheda 


.51,471 


+ 40 


—36 


+ 10 


+ 15 


+ 14 


11. Tilakwada 


7,539 


+ 57 


-48 


+ 21 


+ 9 


+ 9 



u 



CHAl'TKR II — MOVEMENT UV POPULA'I ION. 



23 per cent. The present Census shows an increase of 8*75 per cent. The 

decade was not so prosperous as that of 1881-1891. but the increase is a little 

greater, mainly on account of the Census following the famine. 

Looking- to the variations in the talukas, we find that the increase in the 

present Census is not uniformly distributed over all the talukas. The greatest 

in c r e a s e is 
Map showing the Variation in Population by Mahals sivce 1901. 



eARODA DIVISION 




. -Les s T haft _ " » [ — I 
iTtor^pce Under •* * f==\ \ 



shown by 
8avli, Vagho- 
dia, Dabhoi, 
8 a n k h e d a, 
Karjan,Sinore 
and Tilak- 
wada Talukas, 
which had lost 
from 15 to 48 
per cent, of 
their popula- 
tion in 1901. 
The CharoUar 
Taluka of Pet- 
lad, instead of 
any increase, 
shows a de- 
crease of 5 
per cent, and 
B h a d r a n is 
almost station- 
ary. These 
talukas are 
now less popu- 
lous than in 1872 by about 12 per cent. Long before 1881, all the available 
land in these talukas was brought under cultivation. The density of the 
population in 1881 was 726, and there was hardly any room for expansion. 
Those who do not find means of subsistence in the village of their birth 
generally emigrate to Bombay, Ahmedabad, Madras and of late to South Africa. 

Similarly the Vakal Talukas of Baroda and Padra are now less populous 
than in 1872 by nearly 25 and 12 per cent, respectively. The Kanam Tulnka, of 
Dabhoi has gained nearly 4 per cent., while Karjan and Sinore have lost 4 and 10 
per cent, respectively during the same period. The Ghorashi Talukas of Savli 
and Vaghodia have improved from what they were in 1872 by about 12 
per cent. Sankheda and Tilakwada are the only talukas which have been 
progressive and have at each Census, except that of 1901, added largely to their 
population. In 1901, these talukas showed a terrible decline of ?»& and 48 per 
cent, respectively. But the increase shown by them in the present Census, ?>., 
40 and ^1 per cent, is also remarkable. Cn the whole, Sankheda is now more 
populous than what it was in 1872 by 14 per cent, and Tilakwada by 9 per cent. 
Everywhere more land is brought under cultivation in these talukas. The 
new settlers are mostly people from the Kanam Talukas and also from the neigh- 
bouring petty states in the Sankheda Mewas. 

99. The greater portion of the Kadi Division has rich alluvial soil except 
in the west where in parts of Kadi and Harij, there are tracts of poor sail land. 
The division is well-known for the healthiness of its climate. When there was no 
disturbing cause, such as famine or plague, the division always showed an increase 
in its population. The Census of 1881 showed an increase of 16 per cent, and 
that of 1891 an increase of 11 per cent, over the figures of the previous decades. 
Between 1891 and 1901 came the great famine of 1899 and cholera and other 
epidemics in its train, which carried awav nearly one-fourth of the population. 
After the famine harl carried away the weak and the infirm, the survivors 
would naturally be expected to be strong and to show a good increase in the 
present Census. But tiiroughout the present decade. Kadi had to grapple with 
a new foe which in spite of all human attempts has carried away either by 



KADI DIVISION. 



Kadi Division. 



death or by migration more than the mimber it would have shown as the 
natm-al increase in the decade. Till 1900-01, Kadi District was singularly 

free from plague. In 
the year 1902-03, the 
disease appeared in 
the Ahmedabad City 
and the inf e c t i o n 
thence proceeded to 
Kaloi, and the village 
ofBahiyal inDehgam 
taluka. The net-work 
of railways in the 
district, though a 
great boon to the 
people, was the chief 
cause for rapid spread 
of the epidemic and 
1903-04, there was no taluka in the district, which was not affect- 









Percentage o£ variation. 


1 




Popnlation 
in 1011. 










Taluka. 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1872 


Net 




to 


to 


to 


to 


variation 






191!. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


+or- 


District Total 


832,162 


-3 


-24 


+ 11 


+ 16 


-2-2 


1. Debgam 


55,211 


+12 


—29 


+ 7 


+14 


— 3 


2. Atirsumba 


20,922 


+11 


—38 


+ 9 


+ 5 


—21 


3. Kadi 


76,198 


+ 6 


—26 


+ 9 


+16 


—0-3 


4. Kalol 


81,187 


+ •8 


—17 


+ 9 


+19 


+ 8 


.5. Vijapnr 


110,913 


— 5 


-25 


+ 9 


+14 


—12 


ti. Visnagar 


63,053 


—11 


-23 


+13 


+10 


—15 


7. Mehsana 


73,887 


2 


—10 


+17 


+17 


+21 


8. Sidhpnr 


88,539 


— 2 


—16 


+13 


+16 


+ 8 


9. Kheralu 


70,641 


— 8 


—23 


+13 


+ 9 


—12 


10. Patan 


107,003 


+ 3 


—23 


+13 


+23 


+ 9 


11. Chansma 


68,661 


+ 2 


—34 


+11 


+19 


—11 


12. Harij 


15,947 


+28 


— ot 


+ 11 


+60 


— 3 



ID 

ed. Kheralu had 1.463 attacks and 1,061 deaths, Vijapur 1,310 attacks and 
1.178 deaths, Visnagar 1,031 attacks and 780 deaths and Mehsana 565 attacks 
and 476 deaths and since then every year upto 1903-10, the Sanitary Com- 
missioner chronicles the melancholy news that " the largest number of villages 
infected as well as of attacks and deaths was in the Kadi Prant." The total 
number of deaths reported as due to plague in the Kadi District during the eight 
years from 190:f-0o was 4 per cent, of the population. But it is possible that 
many deaths due to plague must have been included under the head oi fevers, to 
which, as already mentioned nearly 68 per cent, of the total deaths are annually 
ascribed. The Census has shown that the district instead of showing its normal 
increase shows a decrease of '3 per cent, in its population. From this it can be 
inferred that the number carried away by plague, must be roughly speaking? 
equal to the extent of the expected growth in the population during the decade- 
This at 10 per cent, comes to 83,216 persons. While the district as a whole 
shows a slight decrease, some of its talukas which were sharply hit by famine 

, , . , „ in the previous 

Map showing the Variation in Population ni/ Mahals since 1901. decade show 

good increase. 
JD e h g a m 
which had lost 
29 per cent, of 
its population 
in 1901, now 
shows an in- 
crease of 
1 2 per cent. 
A t a r s u mba 
which had lost 
38 per cent, 
in the previous 
decade, now 
shows an iii- 
crease of 
1 1 per cent. 
Kadi which 
had lost 
26 ]) e r cent., 
shows an in- 
crease of 
6 per cent., 
while Harij 
which had lost 
57 per cent, of its population in 1901, now shows an increase of 28 per cent. 




36 



CHAPTER 11 — MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 



Navsari Division. 







Percentage of variation. 


Taluka 


Population 














ia 19H. 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1872 


Net 






to 


to 


to 


to 


variation 






1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


+or- 


District Total ... 


335,467 


+ 12 


— 6 


+n 


+ 19 


+39 


1. Navsari 


55,270 


— 8 


+12 


+ 9 


+ 7 


+21 ' 


2. Gandevi 


33,058 


+ 7 


— 6 


+11 


+ 7 


+ 19 


3. Palsana 


24,908 


- 1 


+■09 


+10 


+ 6 


+ 15 


4. Kamrej 


41,969 


+ 1 


— 7 


+22 


+12 


+82 


5. Mahuva 


39,741 


+18 


— 5 


+ 9 


+22 


+49 


«. Vslachha 


27,431 


+ 22 


—11 


+23 


+ 56 


+ 36 


7. Songhnii 


42,446 


+ 34 


— 5 


+ •1 


+ 31 


+48 


8. Vyara 


67,477 


+28 


—17 


+12 


+ 58 


+89 


9. Vakal 


10,812 


+ 36 


—26 


+ 9 


—37 




10. Umarpada 


2,355 


+ i 


—27 






1 



Vijapur, Visnagar, Sidhpur, Klieraln, aud Mehsana show some slight decrease in 
their population mainly on account of plague ; while Patau, Kalol and Cbausma 
which were also equally affected, show some slight increase. Kadi District will 
take long time to recover from its heavy loss in 1901. Its present population is 
now about 2 per cent, less than what it was in 1872, and 16 per cent, less than 
what it was in 1881. Mehsana, Sidhpur, Patau and Kalol are now some- 
what better off than what l.hey were in 1872 ; but Vijapur, Visnagar, Kheralu, 
Kadi, Chans ma, Harij and Atarsumba have not yet recovered their loss and 
are far behind what they were forty years ago. 

10i». The Navsari Division has two classes of people, one of which is term- 
ed CT/^jpara; or the white races, and the othev Kaliparaj or dark races. As ex- 
plained in the Chap- 
ter ou Caste, the Ujli- 
paraj ioclude the 
Kanbis, Anavalas and 
other higher castes 
and the Kalipnraj 
comprise Bhils, Cho- 
dliras, Gamits, Dub- 
las, &c. For the most 
part, the Ujliparaj 
abide in the Rasti or 
settled talukas and the 
Kaliparaj in the Ram 
or wild and unculti- 
vated talukas. The 
soil is fertile, but 
before 1S75, the divi- 
sion was poorly populated and most of the laud lay uncultivated owing mainly to 
the very heavy rates of assessment and the bad climate of the Rani Mahals. In 
1875, the total demand was greatly reduced, the reduction varying in the differ- 
ent talukas from '6d> to 47 per cent. The industrious Anavalas and Kanbis 
and the poor Kaliparaj classes being thus relieved of their heavy burdens, 
the general condition of the cultivating classes, aud it may be added, of 
the whole population has much improved and is reflected in the growth of the 
population. In 1872, the population of the division was only 241,25.5. During 
the decade 1872-1881 it increased by 19 per cent., aud by )1 per cent, during 
the next decade. In 1901 when the Baroda and Kadi Districts suffered a heavy 
decline in their population owing to the great famine, Navsari escaped with a 
comparatively light decrease of only 6 per cent. During the present decade, the 
increase in the population of this district is nearly 12 per cent, or more than 
normal, in spite of heavy loss owing to plag-ue. The district is fortunate in 
having timely and ample rain and consequent good seasons. 

Within the district, there are large variations. The highest increase in the 
present Census is shown by Vakal and then come in order, Songhad, Vyara, 
Velachha. Mahuva, Gandevi, Umarpada and Kamrej, the variation ranging from 
1 per cent, to 37 per cent. The highest increase is shown by the Rani and 
•semi-Rasti Mahals, where the population is sparse and large tracts of land, former- 
ly lyiiig waste, are brought under cultivation within the last twenty years. 
The light assessment and the very favourable terms under which land is given, has 
brought a large number of settlers to these talukas and the population, as was 
expected, has well increased. The increase in Kamrej is slight, but that is 
because all the cultivable land has already come under cultivation and there is 
no room for expansion. Besides, a large number of Vohoras from Kathore, 
Kholwad, Variav, and other places in this taluka has migrated to Burma and 
Africa. Navsari, Palsana and Gandevi talukas were badly hit by plague 
throughout the decade and this together with emigration mainly to Bombay has 
brought on the decrease in Palsana and Navsari. Gandevi also would have 
shown a decline, had it not been for the large increase in Bilimora due to the 
industrial activity which has already wonderfully developed. Besides being the 
centre of considerable trade in timber, cocoauut, &c., which are brought here in 



NAVfSARI DIVISION. 



87 



country crafts from Bombay and other places, Bilimora is also the market for 
Bausda, the Dangs and other districts in the interior. A branch railway from 
Bilimora to Sara, a village about oO miles in the interior is under con- 
struction, and will, when completed, give further impetus to the trade of Bilimora. 

Map sliowiuy the Variation in Poiiulation dj/ Mahals since 1901. 




101. The soil of the Amreli Division is with 
of the other divisions in productiveness, and the r 

Amreli Division. 



Taluka. 



Population 
in 1911. 




Percentage of variation. 




1901 

to 
1911. 


1891 

to 

1901 


1881 

to 
1891 


1872 

to 
1881 


Net 
variation 
+ or- 



District Total 



1. Amreli 

2. Damnagar 
S. Dharl 

4. Khambha... 

5. Kodinar ... 

6. Okhanaandal 

7. Beyt 

8. Ratanpur .. 

9. Bhimliatta 



178,269 




- 4 


+ 25 


- 8 


54,579 


— 1 


+ 7 


+ 24 


— 16 


19,125 


— 2 


+ i 


+ 32 


— 17 


28,751 


+ 11 


— G 


+ 31 


1-14 


ll,3fi6 


+ 38 


— 21 


+ 39 


S3,4 71 


+ 3 


— 16 


+ 24 


— 7 


21,740 


— 4 


+ 2 


+ 11 


+ 22 


3,658 


~ 21 




+ 35 


+ 24 


4.531 


+ 12 


— 24 


+ 6 


+ -2 


1,048 


+ 21 


— 2l> 


+ 


! 



a few exceptions inferior to that 
ainfall is scanty and unequally 
distributed. The 
Census of 1872 show- 
ed the population to 
be 158,581. In 1881 
it was found to have 
lost 8 per cent, of its 
population owing to 
the famine of 1877, 
but during the next 
decade which was a 
prosperous one, it 
increased by 
th per cent. In the 
Census of 1901, while 
a 1 1 other divisions 
showed a heavy 



-I- 12 

+ 12 

-f- 12 

+ 18 

— -4 
+ 3S 
+ 32 

— 10 



decrease in their population, Amreli escaped with a loss of 3-74 per cent, only 
mainly owing to the special protective measures adopted against famine in this 
division. In the present decade, Amreli Division had not only lean years, but 
like Kadi had also plague, though iu a less virulent form. Consequently the 
total population of the district shows an increase of only about 3 per cent, over 
the figures of 19(>1. The highest increase (38 per cent.) is shown bv Khambha, 
which owhig to famine had lost 21 per cent, of its population iu the previous 
decade. Dhari, Ratanpur and Bhimkatta which were free from plague in this 
decade, but had lost heavily in the previous one, also show good increase. 
Kodinar had lost 16 per cent, of its population in the last decade. During this 
decade, there was hardly any year in which it was not affected by plague ; 
and yet mainly owing to its having fertile land and ample and well 
distributed rain, it has somewhat made up its past loss, and added 3 per cent, to 



38 



CHAPTER II— MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 



its population. It is curious that Amreli, Damnagar and Okhamandal Talukas 
which show a decrease in this Census Lad shown an increase in the last one, 
when everywhere else, there was a decrease in the population owing to famine. 
It is just possible that this increase was not real but only apparent, having been 

Map showing the Variation in Population hi/ Mahals since 1901. 




contributed by the temporary migration of people from the neighbouring foreign 
districts. The return of these people to their homes, after the calamity was 
over, may be one of the reasons for the decline in these talukas. Beyt and 
Dwarka are places of pilgrimage, and their population depends upon the 
presence or absence of pilgrims on the Census day. As the present Census came 
some days before the 0o/«' holidays, the usual number of pilgrims were not present 
and this accounts for the large decrease which Beyt shows in its population. 

102. In conclusion, we may briefly notice the progress in the State as a 

whole and in each of its Natural Divisions since 1872. 
Progress in each district -pj^^ diagram on the next page shows the variations 
compared. . ,'?,-. ^ i ,- /• ,i it/. 

Since 18r2 m the population of the dinerent 

Natural Divisions at each successive enumeration. Between 187;^ and 1881 
the total increase in the population of the State was 9*24 per cent. Navsari 
showed the greatest increase in its population (19*19 per cent.). Kadi which 
stood second also showed great increase (16"25 per cent.). Owing to some 
parts of it being partially affected by the famine of 1877, Baroda showed 
only a slight increase of 3"77 per cent. ; while Amreli which was much more 
affected, showed a decrease of nearly 9 per cent. The next period, 1881 
to 1891, was one of general prosperity and good seasons, and the State 
increased by nearly 11 per cent, in its population. The greatest increase 
(24*59 per cent.) was shown by Amreli which had suffered a terrible loss 
of j)opulation owing to the famine of 1877 in the previous decade and its 
rapid growth was the natural reaction from that calamity during a period 
of renewed prosperity. Kadi and Navsari iiicreased in their population by 
a little more than 11 per cent., but i'vwer having carried away a large number 
of persons, the increase in the Baroda Division was limited to only about 7 per 



PROGRESS IN EACH DISTRICT. 



39 



cent. The decade 1891-1901 witnessed one of the greatest famines within the 
memory of men, and the appearance of a new and deadly disease in the form of 

Diagram showing the Variation in Population since 1«72. P^^S"*^ ^""^ the State lost nearly 

20 per cent, or one-fifth of its 
total population. The loss of life 
was the heaviest (over 24 per 
cent.) in the Kadi Division and 
nearly 22 per cent, in the Baroda 
Division. Navsari, owing to its 
more favoured siiuation with re- 
gard to rain, and Amreli, owing 
to the most lavish relief works 
opened within its limit, escaped 
with a comparatively smaller loss 
of nearly 6 and 4 per cent, res- 
pectively. Had the last decade 
been a prosperous one and free 
from .plague, it would have 
shown a remarkable increase in 
population owing to its following 
the great famine, which had 
carried away the old and infirm 
from the population and left only 
the strong and productive. But 
as we have already seen, rain 
was generally precarious and the 
harvest poor, while plague was 
doing its evil work in all the 
parts of the State. In conse- 
quence of this, the increase in 
the population has been limit- 
-ed to only 4 per cent. The increase is the highest (11*66 per cent.) in the 
Navsari District. Baroda follows with nearly 9 per cent, and then comes 
Amreli with nearly 3 per cent. Kadi in which the battle of life was the hardest, 
shows a slight decline of 'SI per cent. 

103. Navsari and Amreli are the only districts, which passing through 

various vicissitudes during the last forty years, show 
an increase in their population compared with what 
it was in 1872. The population of Navsari is now 39 per cent, more than what 
it was forty years ago ; while Amreli has improved by 12'45 per cent, during the 
same period. But both Baroda and Kadi are now less populous than what they 
were forty years before by about 7 and 2 per cent, respectively. The net result 
of these gains and losses is that the State, as a whole, has now only 35,200 persons 
more in its population than it had in 1872. In other words the net increase of 
population during forty years has been only 176 per cent. 




187a 



Summary. 



40 



CHAPTER II MOVEMENT OF POPUl^ATION. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I. — Variation in relation to density since 1872. 



District or 
Katural Division. 


Percentage of variation 
increase (+J decrease ( — ) 


Net 

variation 

1872 

to 
1911 


Mean density per square mile. 


1901 

to 

1911 


1891 

to 

1901 


1881 

t . 
1891 


1872 

to 
1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1872 


1 


2 


i 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


Baroda State 


+410 


-1915 


+ 1068 


+924 


+ 1-76 


248 


239 


295 


267 


244 


Barcda Division ... 


+8^74 


—22-88 


+6-96 


+ 3-77 


•—6-91 


311 


286 


371 


347 


334 


Baroda City 


— 4^28 


—10^84 


+9-30 


—8-39 


—14-56 


11,038 


11,632 


12,935 


11,835 


12,919 


Kadi Division 


-•31 


—24-02 


+ 11-15 


+16-25 


—2-01 


276 


276 


363 


327 


281 


Navs-tri Division ... 


+11-66 


— 5-94 


+11-09 


+19-19 


+ 39-05 


175 


157 


167 


150 


126 


Amreli Division ... 


+2-79 


— .S-74 


+24-59 


-8-80 


+ 12-45 


1.32 


129 


134 


107 


118 



Note.— Tiie figures ot density for 1901 anil previous ctnsusi-8 have been revibeil according to tlie liitfM fiMOree for area. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II. — Variation in natural population. 



District or Natu- 
ral Division. 


Population in 1911. 


Population in 1901. 


Variation per 

cent.(1901 1911) 

in Natural 

population 

Increase (+) 

Decrease ( — ) 


II 

•< 


-S 

a 
c; 

To 

a 
a 


i 

a 
2 

a 


si 

cS — 


Actual popu- 
lation. 


Immigrants. 


-S 

1 

a 


o ■ 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


C 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Baroda State ... 

Baroda Division ... 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Division ... 
Amrcli Division ... 


2 032,798 

587,655 
99,345 
832,162 
335,467 
178,269 


222,957 

i 103,179 

45,168 
50,229 
34,931 


242,033 

District 
are not 


2,051874 

figures 
available 


1,952,692 

540,281 
103,790 
834,744 
300,441 
173,436 


172,931 

i 80,467 

1 

28,629 
43,288 
32,423 


202,270 

OD 
0) 

3 
&C 

1 

00 

Q 


1,982,031 

3 

_cS 

> 

-*^ 

O 
P 
<D 

a 


District figures arc + 

not available. w 

en 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III.— Comparison with vital statistics. 



District or 
Natural Division. 


19UM910. Total 
number of 


Number per cent. 

of Population ot 

1901 of 


Excess (+) or 

Deficiency 
(— ) of births 
over deaths. 


Increase (+) or Decreagc (— ) 

of Population of 1911 

compared with 1901. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Births. 


Deaths. 


Natural 
Population, 


Actual 
Hopulatiou. 


1 


2 

404,377 

117,695 
14,986 

143,103 
86,874 
41,719 


3 


4 


.5 


6 


7 


8 


Baroda State ... 

Baroda Division 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
Naveari Division ... 
Amreli Division 


594,374 

164,653 
38,254 

253,473 
86,236 
51 ,758 


20-7 

21-8 
14-4 
17-1 
28-9 
241 


304 

30-5 
,36-9 
30-4 
28-7 
29-8 


—189,997 

— 46,958 
—23,268 

—110,370 
+ 638 

— 10,1)39 


District figures not .^ 
available. 3 


+ 4-1 

+ 8-75 

— 4-2R 

— ■31 

+ 11-66 

+ 2-79 



SUBSIDIARY TAHLKS. 



41: 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV. — Vauiation by talukas classified 

ACCORDING TO DENSITY'. 



(a) — Actual varhd'wn. 



District or 
Natural Division. 


Decade. 


Variations in talulias with a population per square mile at 
oommencement of decade ot 


Under 
150 


150 to 
300. 


300 to 
450. 


450 to 
BOO. 


600 to 
753. 


750 to 
900. 


900 to 
lOoO. 


Over 
105". 


1 


•> 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


S 


9 


10 


Baroda State ... 

Barofla DiviBion with 
City. 

Kadi Division ... 

Navsari Do. 

Ainreli Do. .•• 


IS8I-IS9I 

IS9I-I90I 
1901-1911 

1881-1891 
1891-1901 
1901-1911 

1881-1891 
1891-1901 
1901-1911 

1881-1891 
1891-1901 
1901-1911 

1881-1891 
1891-1901 
1901-1911 


+ 36,188 

— 35,594 
+ 42,800 

+ 6,311 

+ 2,852 
— 16,629 
+ 3,442 

— 647 
— 15,696 
+ 26,496 

+ 33,983 

— 3,269 
+ 6,551 


+ 77,679 

— 121,348 
+ 71,124 

+ 24,309 

— 61,115 
+ 44,447 

+ 28,985 

— 51,739 
+ 16,441 

-1- 24,002 

— 5,021 
+ 10,997 

+ 383 

— 3.473 

— 761 


-f 59,121 

-169,728 

— 11,672 

— 46,.585 
+ 2,857 

+ 53,712 
—126,751 

— 14,529 

— 5,409 
-H 3,608 

■ . ••• 


-f 30,329 

— 87,812 

— 12,332 

+ 5,623 
— 18,933 
+ 209 

+ 24,706 

— 68,879 

— 7,936 

— 4,605 

•••da* 


+ 15,682 

— 10,461 

— 4,412 

+ 15,682 
— 10,461 

— 6,550 

• ■ ■•• 

+ "27l3S 


+ 1,201 
- 23,228 

— '23,"228 


+ 1,201 


+ 3,130 



* 

+ 3,130 


+ 9,908 

— 4533 

— 5,402 

+ 9,908 

— 12,630 

— 4,445 

—" 1,893 

— 10 

— 957 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV. — Variation by talukas classified 

ACCORDING TO DENSITY. 
(6) — Proportional variation. 







A 


'ariatious in taluli.is with a population per square mile at 
commencement of decade of 




District or 
Natural Division. 


Decade. 
































Under 
150. 


150 to 
300. 


300 to 
450. 


450 to 
600. 


600 to 
730. 


750 to 
90O. 


900 to 
1060. 


Over 
1050. 


1 


.) 


3 


4 


5 


6 7 


8 


9 


10 


Baroda 5tate 


18Sr 1891 


+ 13 


+ 11 5 


+ 10-5 


+ 10 


+ 8 


+ 351 


+ 10 5 


+ 9-3 




1891-1901 


-17 3 


-18-2 


— 201 


-26-4 


-19-4 


-14 7 


... 


— 94 




1901 -1911 


+ 19 6 


+ 9-2 


— 2 3 


- 71 


- 2-7 


... 


... 


— 5 


Baroda Division with 
City 


1881-1891 
1891-1901 




+ 6-.-. 
-25-4 


— 29-8 


+ 6-5 
— 20-5 


+ 8 
— 19-4 


— 11-7 




+ 9-3 
— 10-8 




1901-1911 


+ 24-6 


+ 16-9 


+ 3-9 


+ 0-5 


— 4-9 


... 




— 4-3 


Kadi Division 


1881-1891 


+ 10-9 


-t- 11-9 


-1-10-6 


+ 11 '5 


... 


... 


... 


... 




1891-1901 


— 571 


-25-2 


— 20-3 


-28-7 


... 




... 






1901-1911 


+ 27-5 


+ .5-3 


— 3-3 


— 11-2 




... 


... 




Navsari Do. 


1881-1891 


— -6 


+ 29-4 


+ 9-2 


... 


... 


... 


+ 10-5 


... 




1891-1901 


-13-4 


— 4-8 


+ 5-6 


... 


... 


... 


... 


— 5-8 




1901-1911 


+ ,30-G 


+ 8-9 


... 


— 7-7 


+ 6-9 


... 






Amreli Do. 


1881-1891 


+ 25-2 


+ 6-4 


... 






-t- 35-1 


... 


>•• 




1891-1901 


— 5-4 


— 30 


... 


... 








-2 




1901-1911 


+ 7-0 


— 10 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


— LV)-.S 



42 CHAPTER III — BIRTH-PLACE. 



Reference to statistics. 



Chapter III. 

BIRTII-PLA C E . 

104. The statistics of birth-place are contained in Imperial Table XI. 

The following- subsidiary tables, in which the promi- 
nent features of the statistics are given in brief, 

will be found at the end of this chapter. 

Suhsidianj Table I. — Showing the general distribution according to birth- 
place of the persons enumerated in each district. 

Subsidiary Table II. — Showing the general distribution according to place 
of enumeration of the persons born in each district. 

Subsidiarij Table lU. — Containing proportional figures of the migration 
to and from each district. 

Subsidiary Table IV. — Showing the volume of migration between natural 
divisions at the present Census and in 1901. 

Subsidiary Table V and V-A. — Showing the gain or loss by migration 
between the Baroda State and the other parts of India. 

105. The movements of the people so far as they affect the total popula- 

tion of the State and of each of its districts have 
Object of discussion. ^^^^^ considered in the last chapter. The present 

chapter will be devoted mainly to a consideration of the direction and character 
of the various streams of migration, the reasons that induce them and the 
extent, to which they have grown or declined in volume, since the date of the 
previous Census. 

106. Statistics recorded in Imperial Table XI tell us how many of the 

. . persons enumerated in this State on the 10th March 

Utility of the statistics. i m i i ^i • -^ i i i 

■^ 1911 were born within it, and how many were born 

in Provinces and States outside it. Similarly from Table XI of other Provinces 

and States in India, we can know how many persons born in this State were 

emraierated in those Provinces and Stales. 

107. All of those who were enumerated in this State, but recorded as born 

outside it, are not necessarily immigrants. Similarly 

''"Em1'"rltiJn*"*' *^^ °^ *^^°^*^ recorded as born in the State, but euume- 

*" ' rated outside it, are not necessarily emigrants from 

it. The birth of many persons outside their real home is, in this country, often a 
casual event, owing to the practice of taking wives from outside, and young mar- 
ried women going to their parents' house for confinement. Moreover, those who 
have been regarded as immigrants or emigrants in a previous Census, from their 
birth district, will be similarly regarded in a subsequent Census also, if they con- 
tinue to reside in the same place. Inference of migration based upon birth-place 
is thus likely to be erroneous. But as we have no other means of gauging the 
extent of immigration and emigration, we may use bhth statistics as an approxi- 
mation to the correct figures. It must, however, be remembered that (Jcusus 
statistics only furnish the condition of things as it exists at a certain moment, 
once in ten years and do not show what reciprocal movements occur from year to 
vear or how tliesc are affected by adverse seasons and similar casualties. 

^ ^ . X. lOS. Generally siieakiug, five different types 

Types of migration. e ■ l- u " r t- ■ i a 

■"^ of migration may be distinguished : — 

(1) Casual or the accidental movement across the boundary line between 
contiguous districts. In all the districts of the State, jieople are 
constantly found moving short distances from their original home, 
for the purpose of marriage or other social functions. This is mainly 
due to the general feeling and custom among the Hindus that a wife 
cannot be taken from one's own village. This restriction which is 
less prevalent in towns than in villages is based on the old tribal 
distribution of the people and the primeval form ol' marriage by cap- 
ture. The four districts of the State being detached blocks at a great 
distance from each other, there is very little of such movement 



TYTES OF MIGRATION. 43 



between thein. But there is a great movemeut of this kind with- 
in the boundaries of each district and between the State districts 
and the foreign territory contiguous to them. When a man's wife is 
a native of another district, his children will usually be born there 
also, it being the usual practice for young married 'wonien to o-(! to 
;.heir parents' house for their confinement. This movement is reci- 
procal, and it is probable that as many real subjects of the State 
are returned as born outside it, as real foreign subjects are 
returned as born within it. In Subsidiary Tables t, II and 
III, migration between contiguous districts has been shown sepa- 
rately, and as there are no apparent reasons for a genuine permanent 
progression from one district to another, the whole or greater part of 
if may safely be taken as due to casual movement here described. 
.(2) Temporari/ — due to a temporary demand for labour on roads, railways, 
&c., and to journeys on business, pilgrimages and the like. 

(3) Periodic — due to the changing seasons. Of this nature is the annual 

exodus, in the summer months, of Bharvads, Rabaris and Gaulis 
from their homes to places where they can find grazing pastures 
and water lor their cattle. They generally return home when 
rainlall has filled the ponds and restored the herbage in their own 
district. 

(4) Senn-pcrmanent. — The natives of one place rjeside and earn their live- 

lihood in another, but retain their connection with their own homes 
where they leave their families, and to which they themselves return 
at more or less regular intervals and look forward to the time when 
they may again live there permanently. The settlement within the 
State of some of its servants from the Deccan and other parts of i 
India is generally of this nature ; so also is that of the Vohoras of ' 
Kathore andSidhpur who have migrated to Rangoon and of the Vanias 
from Patau, Vaduagar and other places who are trading in Bombay. ' 

(5) Permanent, i. e., where overcrowding or distress on one hand or 

physical or political advantages on the other, drive away from one 

district and attract to another, people who settle down permanently 

on the land. 

The ordinary course of permanent migration is as follows : — A family finds 

its ancestral land or business insufficient for its increasing numbers or is unable 

.to obtain local employment for all its members and a sou accompanied perhaps 

by a cousin or two goes off in search of land or work to places where he knows 

he can find them. He starts as a tenant or a clerk and after a time, becomes an 

owner, and sends for his wife to join him in his new home. Her brothers and 

cousins follow her on the same errand which brought her husband to the place 

knowing that they will find friends. His sons look for wives and his daughters 

for husbands in the neighbourhood of the old home, and so a small colony is 

formed which serves as a nucleus for further migration. As time goes on,' the 

colony expands, its numbers increase, migration ceases or assumes the reciprocal 

form, until at length, the ties connecting the colony with the people of the 

neighbourhood grow stronger and those with its original home relax and wives 

are no longer sought for at a distance. The instance of the Deccani castes, who 

have migrated to F.aroda, is to the point. Formerly, they use3~to~go to their 

original home for the weddings of their children ; but they have increased in 

Baroda to such an extent that they can manage their marriage affairs there, and 

have now practically severed all connection with their original home. 

109. The Census figures do not distinguish between the different types of 

migration, but a clue to them may be obtained from the projiortion of the sexes, 

the distance of the district of enumeration from the district of birth, the religions 

and castes to which the emigrants belong and the nature of the emplovment 

which attracts each group. 

The character of the migration is to a great extent reflected in the propor- 

_, , . t -.- ^- tion of the sexes. When it is casual, females will na- 

Ciues to types of migration. , n u • i ^ i 

turaify be m excess as almost every woman changes 

her residence after marriage. When it is temporary or periodic, except when a 



44 CHAPTER III BIKTlI-l'L.U'E. 



pilo-rimage is the object, the majority of migrants will be men. In the case of 
semi-permanent migration also, males are usually in excess. A man does not 
ordinarily take his wife and family with him until he is well established in the 
place of his migration. But when the movement is a permanent one, both the 
sexes are usually found in fairly equal numbers. Periodic migration often tends 
to become semi-permanent and semi-permanent migration, permanent. 

110. An examination of oar Table XI shows that out of our total popula- 
tion 1,809,8-li persons or about 89 per cent, were 
Immigration. ^^^.^ within the State and -22,957 or nearly 11 

per cent, were born in other Provinces and States in India or in countries beyond 
India. :.':.'2,957 persons may, therefore, be taken as inmiigrants iuto the State. 
The number of such immigrants in 1901 was 172,931, showing an increase of 
50,02G persons or about 2 per cent, of the total population, on the present 
occasion. The Census of 1901 was preceded by the great famine and the number 
of those born outside the State was comparatively smaller in the population 
owing to postponement of marriages, less attraction for outsiders and similar 
causes. Extension of railways in the present decade and the growing demand for 
labour appear to be the main causes for a larger number of foreigners within the 
State territory. We shall now analyse the figures of those born outside but enume- 
rated in the State, and see how many of them are real immigrants, and how 
many have come into the State from the contiguous foreign districts mainly 
owing to marriage and other social customs. 

HI. The proportion of sexes among immigrants from contiguous foreign 

districts is 17U females to 100 males. Among those 
Proportion of sexes among enumerated in non-contiguous districts of the Bom- 
Immigrants. ^^^ Presidency and Bombay States and in other 
parts of India, the proportion is 73 females to 100 males. The relatively high 
proportion of females in the case of contiguous districts is due, as already 
explained, to marriage which usually means for a woman a move to a new home 
in another village, and not to migration properly so called. 

112. Of the total number of mmiigrants, 187,599 or 84 percent, were 

born in the contiguous districts of the Bombay Pre- 
Immigrants from conti- ^idency and the JSIative States under it. The lour 
guous foreign districts. ^^^^^.^^^^ q, the State being detached blocks, 
surrounded by foreign territory, there is a great movement of population between 
them and the contiguous foreign territory. These movements are, as a rule, only 
from one village to another in the neighbourhood across the border and are in- 
tended mainly for social purposes. There is an interchange of wives between 
the Baroda District and the British Districts of Kaira, Broach and Pvewa Kantha 
Ao-ency ; between the Navsari District and the British District of ?urat and the 
Bansda, Dharampur and Sachin States ; between Kadi and the British District of 
Ahmedabad and the Palanpur and Mahi Kantha Agencies ; and between Amreli 
and the States of Kathiawad. If the State consisted of compact area, instead of 
the present detached blocks, these casual movements would not have received 
any prominence as migration. 

113. Passing on to real migration, i.e., movements to a distant place 

w^hether permanent or temporary, in search of 
immigrants from non- employment, we find that 34.828 persons or 16 jier 
""Bomba"^ Presid*enc" ^^^ ^ent. of the total number born outside the State have 
"*" * ' come to it from the non-contiguous foreign districts. 

Of these, 20,149 or 9 percent, have come from the non-contiguous districts of the 
Bombay Presidency and the Bomliay States, and the rest, viz., 14,679 persons or 
7 per cent, from other parts ot India. Most of the immigrants from the non-con- fj 
tiguous districts of the Bombay Presidency and States have come from Kolaba,;' 
Ratnagiri and Poona Districts and the Kolhapur State, mainly ibr employment 
in the State service. 

114. We have already seen that tin.' total number of immigrants fiom 

Provinces outside the Bombay Presidency is 14,6V9 

Immigrants Irom otiier ^j. ^j^]y 7 j^ joOO of the population of the State. 

rovinces. q^. j^j^gg^^ ^i^^ largest number, from a single Province 

is from Rajputana. which gives the State (i,239 jierscms mainly for labour 



IMMICiKATloN. 



45 



and trade. 



Immigrants from countries 
beyond India. 



Then follow, the United Provinces which give the State 3,907 
persons mainly for the recruitment of its Military and Police ; Central India 
Ao-encv (Indore, Gwalior, &c.), which gives the State 1,413 persons, and the 
Punjalj which sends '.>2i persons either as servants, traders or labourers. 
Imvnio-rants from the rest ol the Provinces are insignificant and call for 
no remarks. 

115. The total number of immigrants from countries beyond India is 

onlv 530. Of these, 191 came from countries in 
Asia beyond India, 70 from European countries, 
257 from countries in Africa and 12 from America. 

Those who came from countries in Asia were Afghan or Arab merchants or 
Nepalese pilgrims. Those who came from Africa were simply born there, being 
the children of emigrants from the State, to South Africa, Mauritius and 
Zanzibar. 

116. The four districts of the State being widely apart from each other, 

there is no migration from contiguous districts oi 
Intermigration between ^^^ g^^(.g_ g^^ ^^^^^ jg ^^^^ g^^U migration 
the districts of tlie State. ,. . , ; r j ■ ^ ■ x £• ^i, 

ot a semi-permanent nature from one district ot the 

State to another. This is due to people born in one district serving the State 
in another and to artizans, contractors and traders migrating from their home 
district in search of work to the other districts of the State. Thus Baroda 
receives 4,307 persons from Kadi, 1,060 from Navsari and 989 from Amreli. 
It gives them in return 1,400, 1,295 and 482 persons, respectively. Kadi 
receives 1,406 from Baroda, 130 from Navsari and 198 from Amreli, and gives 
them 4,307, 324 and 203 respectively in return. Navsari receives 1,295 per- 
sons from Baroda, 324 from Kadi and 105 from Amreli, and gives them 1,060, 
130 and 41 respectively in return. Lastly, Amreli receives 482 persons from 
Baroda, 203 Irom Kadi and 41 from Navsari, and gives them in return 989, 
198 and 105 respectively. These actual figures are given in Subsidiary Table 
IV, and compared with those for 1901. They show that Baroda District, 
which has the seat of the Central Government, and Kadi, which is the largest 
among the districts in area and population, exchange population to some slight 
extent, but in Navsari and Amreli, the interchange with the other districts is 
insignificant. 

117. The diagram given in the margin illustrates the proportion in each 

district of immi- 
grants Irom the 
other districts of 
the State and 
f r o m foreign 
territory. The 
proportion o f 
district-born is 
highest in the 
Kadi District and 
smallest in the 
Amreli District. 
The proportion 
f immigrants 
from contiguous 
foreign territory 
is highest (17 
per cent.) in Am- 
reli, and next to 
it in Navsari (12 
per cent.), and 
then in Baroda 
(9 percent.) ow- 
ing to even their 
talukas beino- more or less detached from each other. Kadi being more compact 



DIAGRAM 

Showing the Proportion of Immfgrants in Each Division 




RtfEBENCtS- - 

Immigrants fnoM otmeb DtsTRicrs of the State 



ITTTTn 



e0NTt6U0U3 FOREIGN 018TRICT5 OF THE BCMOAr FRE8IDENCV 



•» HON-COIfTIGUOUS 



•> emttn parts or inoia 



46 CHAPTER 111 — UIRTlI-l'LACE. 



thau the other districtB has the lowest proportion of immigjants from 
non-contiguous districts. The proportion of immigrants from non-contiguous 
districts is the highest in the Baroda Division owing to its including the capital 
City of Baroda and the Cantonment which give employment to many immigrants 
from those districts. 

1 18. On reducing the figures of immigration given in Subsidiary Table 1, 

to proportional parts, we find that out of every 1,000 
Proportional figures of persons in the population of the State, 890 were born 
migration^ wUhin the ^^ ^j^^ districts of the State in which they were enu- 

merated. Barely one was enumerated in one district, 
but born in some other district of the State, 92 were born in contiguous parts of 
other Provinces and States, and 17 in non-contiguous Provinces and States. As 
said before the four districts of the State being detached blocks at a great 
distance from one another and surrounded by British and other foreign territory, 
there is no mio-ration from " contiguous " districts within the State. But in its 
place we have considerable migration of a casual type from the districts of the 
Bombay Presidency and Native States contiguous to the districts of this State. 
If the area of the State was compact, this casual migration would have come 
within the cateo-ory of migration from contiguous districts of the State. The 
total amount of migration" wiihiu the State (110 persons in 1,000 of the 
popitlation) is small, and it would be still smaller and amount to only 18 in 1,000 
of the population, if we exclude from consideration the casual migration across 
the borders from foreign contiguous districts. There are no industries on a 
large scale within the State to attract foreigners. State service is the main 
occupation which draws strangers from outside. Moreover, the natives of India 
are as a rule home-loving, and unless absolutely necessary are reluctant to leave 
their ancestral home. Even when they go abroad in search of a better liveli- 
hood than they can get in their own district, their exile is, as a rule, temporary. 
They return home from time to time and ultimately hope to retire to and die in 
the village of their birth. 

119. Tlie total number of persons born in Baroda but enumerated out- 

side it in other Provinces and States in India is 
Emigration. detailed in Subsidiary Table V. In addition to 

these emigrants, there are also to be reckoned those who migrate to countries 
beyond India and for whom the Census furnishes no data. 

From a special inquiry made, through the taluka Vahivatdars, it is 

' ascertained that about 3, .555 per 



„ ^ , . , . „ „.-. „„ts;,iP Tndia > sons from the different parts of 

Baroda subjects in countries oulside inma. , ,i ^ ■ i ci i 

the State have emigrated to South 

Barnda District 9* Africa, Mauritius, Zanzibar and 

Kadi District ^j^^ Other parts of the world. 

Amrd" Distric" Z '.'.". '.'.'. "•' - J52^ We have already noted that 

.jqJjj, 3 555 the total number of immigrants in 

■ J the State is 222,957. The net 

o^corae oFthe interchange of population is, as will be seen from Subsidiary 
Table V, a loss to the State of nearly 20,000 persons in India alone. To this 
may be added the number of those who are estimated to have emigrated to 
places outside India. 

120. We know the total number of persons who have emigrated elsewhere 

outside the limits of the State, but we have no means 

Emigration from the ^^ knowing how many of them emigrated from each 

distiicts. ^^ ^^^^, districts. The statistics of other Provinces do 

not usually "'ivo the districts of this State in which the Baroda immigrants found 

by them, were born. 

121. About thirty or forty years ago, ideas of decorum as well as difficul- 

ties of locomotion did not permit males migrating 

Change of ideas regarding ^^.^^^ ^.jjgjj. j^irtli district to take their wives with 

migration of females. ^^^^^^^^ rpj^j^ feature was specially observablo among 

Marathas, Kajputs, Lewa Kanbis and Mahomedans. among whom the parda 



EMIGRATION. 



47 



system is observed to a moro or less extent. Tliose in State service at 
Baroda and other places lived alone and had to keep their wives in their native 
village. Those from the State who migrated to Ahmedabad, Bombay, and other 
places for trade or service, generally left their females at home. Western 
education and the convenience of easy locomotion afforded by railways have 
brought about a change in this custom, and now-a-days, there is a tendency 
among people who migrate from their home even temporarily to take their 
women with them. 



seems to be slowly but steadily encouraging 
emio-ration from the State. Most of Ihe people 



in 



122. Spread of education 

Emigration and education. ,, v,^ , ■• n , .1 ^fn^r "~ 

the State are so conservative tJiat they would starve 

at home rather than go elsewhere for earning their livelihood. But these con- 
servative ideas are disappearing under the influence of education, which is now 
both free and compulsory in this State. Young persons born and educated in 
Baroda are now to be found in Bombay and also in such distant places as 
Rangoon, Quetta and Madras, either serving as clerks and accountants or doing- 
business on their own behalf. 



Migration between Baroda 
State and the other Pro- 
vinces and States 
in India. 



123. A reference to the statistics of migration between Baroda and the 

Provinces and States in India given in Subsidiary 
Table V at the end of this chapter shows that the 
interchange of population between the State and the 
rest of India is small and insignificant, except in the 
case of the Bombay Presidency. Subsidiary Table 
V-A shows that in return for the 89 per cent, of its innnigrant population which 

the State 
receives from the 
Bombay Presi- 
dency, it gives it 
92 per cent, of 
i t s emigrant 
population. The 
net outcome of 
this interchange 
of population is 
a loss to the 
State of 21,559 
persons. As in 
immigration so 
in emigra t i n, 



Province or State. 


Gives to 
Baroda. 


Receives from 
Baroda. 


Gain (+) or 
loss (— ) 
to Baroda. 


Bombay Presidency 

British Districts of Bom- 
bay Presidency 

Contiguous 

Non-Coiitiguous 

Bombay States 

Counguous 

Non -Contiguous 

Bombay Unspecified 


207,748 

128,412 

114,369 
14,053 

73,686 

73,240 
441J 

5,050 


229,307 

143,636 

135,498 

8,188 

81,228 

80.844 
384 

4,443 


— 21,559 

— 15,224 

— 16,224 

+ 5,915 

— 7,542 

— 7,604 
+ 62 

+ 1.207 



the 



greatest 



amount of migration is to the districts of the Bombay Presidency and the 
Bombay States, which are contiguous to the State. But as already slated, 
this is for the most part a migration of a casual nature from across the 
boundary, for social purposes, such as marriage, &c. It is significant, however, 
that, while the Ahmedabad District gives the State only 18,309 persons (.'),851 
males and 12,458 females), it receives from it 58,704 persons (26,335 males and 
32,369 females). The loss to the State amounts to 40,395 (20,484 males and 
19,911 females) and indicates that there is considerable migration to Ahmedabad 
from the contiguous Kadi District of the State. There is a tendency among 
villagers to marry their daughters in the neighbouring towns, and it is probable 
that a small proportion of the loss sustained by the Kadi District maybe due to 
Ahmedabad getting from it more wives than it gives it ; but there can be no doubt 
that a large proportion of the adverse balance to the State in connection with 
Ahmedabad must be due to the attraction of labourers in the cotton mills of that 
city. Similarly the British Broach and Panch ]\Iahal Districits and the Cambay 
State receive from the State respectively 4,139, 2,517 and 1,187 persons more 
than they give it. On the other hand, the State receives 16,487 more persons 
from Kathiawad and 14,904 more persons from the Surat District than it gives 
to each of them. 



48 



CHAPTER 111 — UlRTH-l'LACE. 



124. The statistics of migratiou tVoni and to 
Censuses are given in the margin. It will be seen 

Comparison with previous Censuses. 



Immigration 

Emigration ... 

Gain (+) or loss ( — ) to the State. 



18<il. 



1901. 



1911. 



311,922 

252,396 

■ 59,62« 



172,931 

202,270 

- 29,339 



222,957 

242.033 

— 19,07C 



the State in the last three 

that the Census of 1891, 

which showed an increase 

of 10-69 per cent, in the 

State population indicated 

migration to the State to 

be in excess of migration 

it by about 2'5 per 

of the total popula- 

The Census of 1901, 

preceded as it was by famine, showed a decline of 19*15 per cent, in the 
population. Of this decrease, loss of about 30,000 persons or 1-5 per cent, of the 
population by migration formed a part. The present Census also shows a loss 
of about one per cent, of the population by migration but compared with 1901 
there is some improvement. Railways by reducing the difficulties of locomotion 
have encouraged people to more frequently migrate from their home, and, as 
already stated, education and spread of western ideas among the people, have also 
operated in the same direction. As its result, we find an increase in the volume 
of migration both from and to the State since 1901. 



from 
cent, 
tiou. 



SURSIUIAin TABLES. 



49 



SUHSIDIARY TABLE I.— Lmmiuuation (Actual figures). 



District or Natural 

Division where 

enumerated. 


















Bolts IN 














1 








District (or Natural 
Division). 


Contiguous 

Districts in 

the State. 


Other parts 

of 

the Stat«'. 


Contiguous parts 

of other Provinces, 

Sec. 


Non-contiguous 
parts of other 
Provinces, i:c. 


Outside 
India. 


i 




a 

li. 


1 


CO 




3 

O 


^ 

2 
^ 


"3 

a 




73 


s 


"o 
E-l 


"a 

a 


a 


"3 
1 




a 


1 


,= 1 ' 


4 


o 


6 


7 


8 


<) 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


Baroda State ... 

Baroda Division with 
City 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division ... 

Amreli Divieion ... 


1,809 841 

583,721 
787,004 
285,238 
143,338 


965,918 

325,045 

411,337 

145,856 

77,633 


843,923 

258,676 

375,667 

139,382 

66,705 


••• 


••■ 


*•• 


••> 

6,356 

1,734 

1,724 

726 


.H,527 

1,040 

1,062 

418 


2,829 
694 
662 
308 


187,599 

62,191 
33,456 
40,174 
30,390 


69,593 

19,752 

9,676 

17,357 

11,748 


118,006 

42,439 
23,780 
22,817 
18,642 


34,828 

34,471 
9,919 
8,049 
3,777 


20,120 

19,053 
5,233 
4,825 
2,069 


14,708 

15.418 
4,686 
3,224 
1,708 


530 

161 
49 

282 
38 


304 

109 
38 

12B 
32 


226 

52 

11 

167 

6 



")=>- 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IL— Emigration (Actual figures). 



District oi Natural 
Dirieion of Birth. 


Enumerated in 


District (or Natural 
Division). 


Contiguous 
District in 

the State. 


Other parts of 
the State. 


Contiguous parts of 
other Provinces, &c. 


Non-contignous 
parts of other 
Provinces, &c. 


Outside India. 


3 


.2 


e3 

a 


i 


cu 


00 

a 


3 

o 


"a 
g 


. 

CO 

i 


s 

o 




'a 

i 


i 


u5 

75 

g 


fa 




"5 
g 


1 

fa 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


Baroda 5tate 

Baroda Division with 
City 


1,809,841 

583,721 


965,918 

325,045 


843,923 

258,676 


«■• 


•• 




3,183 


1,906 


••• 

1,277 


216,342 


84,599 

Distri 


131,743 

ct fignr 


25,691 

es not 


15,297 

availa 


10,394 

ble. 


Fig 
ava 


ures 
ilabl 


not 

e. 


Kadi Division 


787,004 


411,337 


375,667 


... 


-t. 


... 


4,834 


3,000 


1,834 




















Navsari Division 


285,238 


145,856 


139,.382 


... 


... 


... 


1,231 


500 


731 




















Amreli Division 


143,338 


77,633 


6.5,705 


... 


1 


1,292 


641 


651 
















1 





SUBSIDIARY TABLE III.— Peoportiunal migration to and from each district. 



District or Natural Division. 




S umber per mille of actual population ot 




Number of females to 100 males ■ 
amongst | 


Immigrants. 


Rmigrants 




Immigrants. 


Emigrants. 1 


Total. 


From 

i30ntiguous 

Districts. 


From 
other 
places. 


ToUil. 
/ 


To 

contiguous 
Districts. 


To 
other 
places. 


From 

contiguous 

Districts. 


From 
other 
places. 


To 

contiguous 
Districts. 


To 

other 

places. 


1 


2 . 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division with City 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Oivision 


110 


92 


18 


119 

District 


106 

figures no 
able. 

• •• 


13 

t avail 


170 

315 
246 
ISl 
159 


73 
SI 

85 
67 
80 


156 

District Qg 
availa 

... 


1)S 

ures not 
bla. 


150 

54 

1.50 

196 


91 
40 
130 
170 


69 
14 

.SO 
36 



50 



CHAPTKR in— BIRTH-PLACE. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV.— Migration between Natural Divisions 
(actual figures) compared with 1901. 



Natural Dineion in which Ijovn. 




Number enumerated 


in Natural Division. 










■ 






Baroda. 


Kadi. 


Navsari. 


Amreli. 


1 


2 


•f 


4 


5 


Baroda with City 


1 1911 
(l901 


583,721 
563,654 


1,406 
1,752 


1,295 
.S32 


482 
979 


Kadi .•• ••• •*. ••• 


p911 
1 1901 


4,307 
4,409 


787,004 
806,115 


324 
417 


203 
332 




(1911 


1,060 


130 


285,238 


41 


Narsari 


(1901 


1,832 


3G 


257,157 


214 


Amreli 


(1911 
) 1901 


989 
825 


198 
65 


105 
133 


143,3.38 
141,013 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V. — Migration between the Baroda State: .n 

AND the other PaRTS OF InDIA. 



Provinca or State. 


Immigrants to tbe Baroda 
State. 


Emigrants from the 
Baroda State. 


Excess C+) or defi- 
ciency (_— ) of im- 
migration over 
emigration. 


Remarks. 


1911. 


1901. 


Variation. 


1911. 


1901. 


Variation. 


1911. 


1901. 


1 


3 


8 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Bombay 


207,748 


161,153 


+ 46,595 


229,307 


196,645 


+ 33,662 


—21,559 


—34,492 




Burma 


63 


25 


+ 38 


136 




+136 


—73 


+25 


-. 


Central Provincea and 

Bevar. 
Madras 


321 

228 


141 

208 


+ 180 
+ 20 


409 
320 


145 

306 


+ 264 
+14 


—88 
—92 


— 4 
—98 


> 

a J3 


Punjab 


921 


818 


+ 103 


225 


105 


+120 


+696 


+ 713 


<V g. 


Nortb-West Frontier 

Province. 
Baluchistan Agency... 


39 
41 


12 


+ 39 
+29 


11 

7 


.§•■.. 


+11 

+7 


+28 
+ 34 


+ 12 




Central India Agency. 


1,413 


819 


+594 


1,554 


4,452 


+ 102 


—3,141 


-3,633 


for column 5 
■ire assumed t 
ersons as the 


Kaibmir State 
Mysore State 


18 
32 


15 
22 


+ 3 
+ 10 


4 
46 


6 
168 


2 

—122 


+ 14 
— 14 


+9 
-146 


Travancore ... ^. 




tfa... 




4 




+4 


—4 




•SCO 


Cochin 












.•■ •■ 










w 


AjmerMerwara 


179 


60 


+ 119 


224 




+224 


—45 


+ 60 


■^ ^ c 


•Kastern Bengal and 

.Assam, 
•r.engal 


6 
482 


6 
91.-, 


-433 




134 




.. ... 


+<; 

+ 7.S1 


nd States from wl 

marked with an a 

State the sam( 


•United Provinces of 

Agra and Oudh. 
•Hyderabad Stite ... 


3,907 
164 


3,200 
223 


+ 707 
— 59 




828 
156 








+ 2,372 
+ 67 


Uajputana Agency ... 


6,239 


1,1.39 


+ 2,100 


l,«(ll 


325 


+1,276 


+4,638 


+ 3,814 




Foreign Settlements... 


569 


288 


+ 271 








• ■ ••■ 




+288 


O 

o 


India Unspecified ... 


67 


.w4 


—487 





•••'.• 




•••.>. 


+554 


a. 


Total ... 


222,427 


172,598 


+ 49.829 


242,033 


202,270 


+39,753 


-19,606 


—29,672 





SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V-A. — Showing the number of immigrants and 

EMIGRANTS FROM AND TO THE BoMBAY PRESIDENCY. 



Gives to Barotla. 



District or State. 



Males. , Females. 



Reciives from Bai'oda. Gain { + } nr loss (— ) lo Baroda. 



Males. I Females. I Males. . Females. , Xotsil. 

1 I I 



Bombay Presidency 

Bombay Districts 

Jontiguous Dittriet^ 

Ahmedabad' 

Kaira 

Panch Mahals 

Snrai 

Broach 

East Khandesh 

West ., 

Nasi!; 

Noncontiguous Diilriets... 

Thana 

Colaba 

[lataagiri ... . 

Kauara 

Bombay City 

Ahmedn;it;ar 

Pooua 

Sholapnv 

Sitara ... 

belgaum ... .. 

Dharwar 

P.ijapur 

Sind 

Hydrabal 

Karachi 

.--hikarpur 

Larbhana ••• 

Snkkar 

Khiirpur 

Thar and Parkar 

Upper Sind Frontier 

Adfn 

Bombay States 

Contigwius ... 

Cntch 

Palanpur Agency 

Mahikantha „ 

Kathiawad ... 

Rewakantha Agency 

Gambay . 

Sarat Agency ... 

Xon-Contiguou^ 

•Jawhar 

Jaujira 

Savantvadi 

Bijapur Agency ( other Native 
States under Konkan.; 

Bhor 

Akalkol 

Satara Agency ... ... ... 

Kolhapur .. 

Southern Marbatta .Jaghirs ... 

7?!' mhay Bixtrid s — « 'i ^pfi fied. 



79778 

■18,992 

41,334 

5,851 

13,052 

1,2.58 

15,720 
3,857 

1,126 

470 

7,394 

147 

723 

1,421 

229 

2,!I27 

176 

y7i 

113 

554 

21 
86 
26 

25!) 

139 
i(7 



28,537 

28.259 

.573 
3,947 
2,652 

16,199 
3,053 
1,131 

7(14 

278 



II 



1 30 
29 

■IJitu 



127,970 
79,420 

7^,025 

12,45? 

28,887 

2,688 

20,000 
7,449 

1,134 

409 

6,211 

160 
298 
949 

236 

3,054 

140 

764 
118 
329 

17 
142 

4 

ISl 

96 

58 



45,149 

44.981 

662 
5,795 
7,499 

22,727 

6.100 

1,412 

786 

168 



16 
52 

4 

IS 

1 

76 

1 

3,401 



91,800 

00,793 

56,143 

• 2(i,335 
9,061 
3,193 

9,545 

6,039 

74 

730 
166 

5,408 

1,146 

288 

92 

6 
3,255 

89 

356 
44 
81 

24 

21 

6 

183 

63 
108 



4 

■I 

60 

29,658 

39,456 

184 
3,627 
4,868 

8,677 
9,005 
1,386 
1,709 

202 

4 

4 

13 

10 

30 

9 



90 
49 

7 .149 



137,507 

82,843 

SOiSSo 

32,369 

23,162 

3,270 

11,271 

9,4(16 
40 

696 
141 

2,425 

581 

67 
44 



1,246 
70 

296 
28 
44 

15 



4 
39 



— 12,022 

— 11,801 

— 73,80.9 

— 20,484 
+ 3,991 

— 1,935 

+ 6,175 

— 2,182 

V + 322 
+ 304 
+ 1,986 

— 999 
+ 135 
+ 1,329 



223 

328 

87 

615 

69 

17.^ 

3 
65 
2(1 



10 



51,570 

rjl,3SS 

129 

6,. 34 5 

13,397 

13,762 

13,162 

2.344 

2.249 

182 

■> 

3 



3(1 
3 
4 

69 

46 

loot 



+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 



i- + 1-' 



— 00 

— 1,121 

— 1,197 

+ 389 

+ 320 

— 2,216 

+ 7,522 

— 5,9.52 

— 255 

— 1.005 



— 9,537 

— 3,423 

— 7,330 

— 19,911 
+ 5,725 

— 582 

+ 8,729 

— 1,957 

+ 398 

+ 26!^ 

+ 3,7S6 

— 421 
+ 231 
+ 9(15 

+ 231 

+ 1,808 

+ 7(1 

+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 



— 21 559 ^ 
~ 15,224 I 

— 21,139 I 

— 40,395 t 
+ 9.716 f 

— -',517 I 

+ 14,904 

— 4,139 

+ 720 

+ 572 

+ o,772 

~ 1,420 
+ ')66 
+ 2,234 



+ 

+ 



+ 



468 

911 

285 

2 
135 
18 

7.2e 

92 
19 



15 



+ 454 
+ 1,480 
+ 157 



+ 1.083 
+ 1.59 



+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 



+ 



7.58 

1 
200 

2 

203 

168 

8 



27 



+ 

+ 
+ 



3 
1 

28 

44 

— 16 

+ 4 

+ I" 

2" 
-f- 9(1(1 



— (j,42l 

— 6,407 

+ 533 

— 550 

— 5,898 

+ 8,9(i5 

— 7,(162 

— 932 

— 1,463 

14 



+ 
+ 

+ 



13 
30 



12 

3 
3 



45 

VI7 



— 60 

— 7,542 

— 7,604 



+ 



922 

230 

8,114 



+ 1(;.487 

— 13,(114 

— 1,187 

— 2,468 

+ 62 



12 

58 



28- 
1 

3 

47 



+ 1 ■.'(17 



52 



CHAI'TEK IV KELmiUN. 



Chapter IV, 

BELIGION. 



DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATIONS SINCE 1901. 

125. Impeiial Table VI gives the strength of all religions returned tor the 

„, ^, ^. ,. State as a whole, and its districts and Tables XVII and 

Reference to statistics. x't-ttt ^ ■ j ^ i i- ii * i i 

Aviii contain details 01 the sects, races and ages 01 

Christians. The t'oUovviug subsidiaiy tables in which the most important 

features of the statistics are ilhistrated by means of proportional figures, will be 

found at the end of this chapter : — 

Submliary Table 1. — General distribution of the population by religion. 

Subsidiary Table 11. — Distributio;i by districts of the main religions at each 

of the last four Censuses. 

Subsidiary Table HI. — The variation in the number of Christians in 

each district. 

Subsidinrij Table iV. — Races and sects ol Christians (actual numbers). 

Siihsidiai'ji Table T'.— The distriburiou per mille of (a) each race of Christians 

by sect and (/)) of each sect by race. 

Subsidiary Table VI. — Religions ot urban and rural population. 

The record of sects of religions other than Christianity was optional, but as 
they were recorded in this State, for all religions, their number is shown in an 
additional Subsidiarv Table No. VII. 



126. 



Kt'liciou. 


Number in. 




1911. 1901. 

1 1 


Indo-Aryans — 

Hindus 

Jaiiis 

Brahmos 

Arva Samajis 

Silihs 

Aaimists 

Parsis ... 

Musalmau^ 

Cliristians 

•lows 


l.l);t7,146 

43,lii2 

6 

598 
i-C) 

n.^ii 

7,'.i.=i.-. 
1G0.387 

to 


1 
1 
l,54i;,9.% ; 
18.290 
6 
50 
38 
17(>,250 
8.4U9 
165,01^ 
7,(i91 

S ' 


Total 


2,032,79K 


1/J5l',(I92 

1 



PART I— STATISTICAL. 

The general distribution of the population by religion is noted in the 

margin. It will be seen that more 
than four-tifths of the total popula- 
tion are Hindus, about 2 per cent. 
Jains, 8 per cent. Musalmans, 6 per 
cent. Animists, "4 per cent. Parsis 
and '4 per cent. Christians. The most 
noticeable feature in the figures is 
the rapid growth of the Hindus and 
Arya Samajis, as compared with the 
decadent condition of the Jains,. 
Musalmans and Christians. 

The distribution of the above 
religions varies greatly in the 
different parts of the State, and for 
this reason and also in order to 
ascertain the causes of the changes which have taken place, it is necessary to 
examine the statistics for individual districts. In this section, the discussion 
will therefore be mainly statistical, and all subjects of a general nature, which 
canniit be included in it, will be dealt with in a separate section headed 
"Descriptive." 

127'. It will 



gina 



Animism. 

tril)es like 



be convenient to begin with the Animists, the followers ot 
the oldest religion. Animism is a term coined to 
express the various forms of belief of the abori- 

the Chodhras, Gamits, Bhils, &c., who have not yet come 
under the intiuence of Hinduism, Malioniedanism, Christianity or any other 
wellknown regular creed. The aboriginal tribes in this State worship two 
classes of beings : local or tribal divinities, and the s])irits of their ancestors. 
Of the local or tiibal divinities, A7<a<}7>/cr, a ])il1ar of wood, is worshipped by 
mosi of the aboriginal tribes. The other gods arc : — Simadio Dev, a red 
coloured stone placed under a sam/li (/.rosopis sinciyera ) tree and worshipped at 
marriage ; Khi'Unpal, the uod ol' boundaries, a stone carved with the ligure of a 
horsf, Bala Di'v, a clay image (if a horse and rider, worshipped chiefly l)y 
Bhils : Mnrl'i and Bliaraw Der, I'ed stones set on hill tops, worshijipcd chiefly 
by K(Jvnas : Vital Dcv, a round stone, about 4 feet hiii-li, also a bill g-od : 



ANIMISTS. 5^ 



Macjaria and \'aijh Dev, ur the alligator aud tiger deities, chiefly worshipped by 
Gamits ; aud Samla Dev, aud Haria Dev, specially worshipped by Dhodias. 
Among all the tribes, the worship of their ancestors is the chiel' article of faith. 
A spot is set apart near each village as a devasthan or god-yard. Here are raised 
woodeu pillars aud seats, dome-shaped pots oi' clay and stones painted red in 
honour of their ancestors. With offerings of small clay horses aud cows and 
with sacrifices of goats and fowls, they court and honour the spu-its of their fore- 
fathers. They believe that, while all men of their class possess power over 
spirits, skill in this matter belongs to two sets of persons, uufrieudlv chikins or 
witches who stir spirits to work mischiel and frieudly bkagats, exorcists, who 
cast out evil spirits. The ill-uatured duicim, who are supposed to have spirits at 
their back aud to send them to trouble those against whom thoy bear ill-will, are 
generally old and ugly womeu. The well-disposed bhatjats who cast out evil 
spirits and heal the sick, are religious recluses who worship some one of the 
many forms of the devi or mother and have in their huts a dehru or altar aud on 
It an image of the goddess. When a man becomes ill or shows other signs of 
being possessed by a spirit, one of these b/iagats or exorcists is called. He 
places some iirid ^phageotus mungo ) or grains of rice on a leal' and passes the 
leaf round the sick man's head. He then examines the grains and tells whether 
the patient is troubled by an evil spirit or by the spirit o^t' his ancestors. If the 
cause of the evil is one of his forefathers, the sickness matters little, as by 
simply making an offering to his tomb, a cure will be effected. Il the patient is 
troubled by an evil spirit, the holy man repeats some incantations, strikes the 
patient gently with the bough of a tree and continues the treatment for some 
days till the patient has recovered or is dead. The hltagat knows bv whose 
power the spirit has been sent. In former times he used to name the dakin to 
the sick-man's friends, who would rush out and seize and torture her to death. 
Many Bhils have suffered in the past at the hand of law for t:;eir share 
in these murders, aud the bliagat now wisely keeps his knowledge to himself. 
1l-8. The Animists having no name for their religion, tbere is alwavs a 

„ .. ^ ^ *u difficultv in obtainiuii' a correct return of their 

Enumeration and strength , , ,/ qi. a-ox \ i • • , 

of the Animists. ut mber. Ihe difeculty was got oA'er by giving the 

loUowing directions to the enumerators: — 

" Column 4 (Belig ion).— [Enter here the religion which each person returns 
as Hindu, Musalmau, Sikh, Jain, Christian, Parsi, etc. hi the case of the abori- 
ginal trihes irho do not ?ay that thcjj an Hindus, Musalman^, Christians, etc., the 
name of the tribe should be entered in this column.'' The total of all the tribes 
thus recorded in the column for religion was taken as the strength of the 
Animists ; and those of the tribemen, who expressly returned themselves as 
Hindus, etc., were included amongst the religion actually returned by them. 
From the note made ou the title page of Table VI., it will appear that so many 
as '^5,560 members of the aboriginal tribes have been classed as Hindus, simply 
because they said that they were Hindus. Their marriage and otiier relations 
are with the rest of their people, who did not claim to be Hindus, and were 
therefore returned by their tribe names and classed as Animists. The total 
streng-th of the Animists thus returned is 115,411 nr nearly 6 percent, of the 
total population of the State. 

129. The present Animistic tribes are apparentlv the descendants of those 

Where chiefly found. T-^^/'"'^' '''^^'^ f^'^^^f' ^.^^t' I' '^' ""^'^^^ f""^ 

nisliada.^ or original settlers in the Ramayan. Before 

the advent of the Aryans, the original inhabitants of the hills and" plains were 

closely allied. As successive streams of immigrants from the north-west and 

north-east poured in, upon the fertile plains and seaboard of Gujarat, those of 

the early occupants, who were on the plains, were either subjected and peaceably 

converted to Hinduism, like the Kolis. or driven back into the hills like the 

main body of the Bhils. The Animistic tribes are even now practically con- 

centratoil in the Songhad, Vyara, Mahuva and Velachha Talukas and Umarpada, 

Peta Mahal of the Navsari District aud the Sankheda Taluka and Tilakwada 

Peta Mahal of the Baroda District, owing to the comparative non-accessibilitv 

and poverty of those tracts. With many minor clans, this aboriginal section 

includes fifteen chief tribes, viz., Bhil, Chodhra, Dhanka, Dhodia, Dubla, Gamit, 



54 



CHAITEK IV KELIGION. 



Kathodia, Kokiia, Kdlgha, Kotwalia, Mavchi, Kayakda, Valvi, Vasava and Varli. 
The Kolis may be taken as au iutennediaie layer between the rest of the Hindu 
population, who are called ujlivaran or bright coloured as against the kalipamj 
or dusky race, the general name ol' the early tribes. 

130. Hinduism is gradually attracting the non-Aryau tribes within its I'old. 

„ Education and closer contact with Hindus, due to 

Conversion to H.ndu.sm. i^^.^^j.^^ed means of communication, have created a 
tendency among some of the Animistic tribes to call themselves Hindus. They 
have begun to worship some of the gods and goddesses, who are reverenced by 
all followers of Brahmanism. Thus the Dublas worship Mahadev and Hanuman ; 
the Chodluas worship Ram and Devi in her form of Durga, the destroyei- Kaka- 
balia is feared and courted by all. Some past students of the iSonghad and 
Vvara Dhanka Boarding Schools have started a regular mission for the conver- 
sion of their people to Hinduism. Putting Hindu sect marks on the forehead, 
wearing kanihis on the neck, daily bathing and abstaining from drinking spiritu- 
ous liquor, are extolled and encouraged, and I understand that the educated section 
of the people was instructed to return themselves as Hindus^ in the present 
Census. When I was giving oral instructions in Census procedure to the Census 
staff of the Songhad Takika, early in December U'lO, a young Chodhra who was 
a student iu the Songhad Dhauka Boarding School presented a petition, and 
requested me to issue orders that all the people of his tribe should be recorded 
as Hindus. He was informed that no such order could be issued, but that he and 
those of his people may return themselves as Hindus, if they really believed that 
they were Hindus and that their statement as to their religion would be accepted 
by the enumerators. 

131. Nearlv three-foxu'ths of the Animistic population are to be found 

in the Navsari District and one-fourth in the Baroda 
District. There are no Animists in the Kadi and 



Distribution of Animists. 




RCFERETNCES 

NIL 
UP TO 6 PERCENT 



i^ ^e 



99 



IVIAF* 
SHOVV//^fG^ THE 
^DISTRIBUTION 
(of AW I MISTS 
V)' / JNTHE 

''' /'"^BARODA STATE 



\^ KADI 







Amreli Districts. The proportion of Animists to the luial population is -Ih-'o 
per cent, in the Navsari District and 5'2 per cent, in Baroda. 

132. In the Census of 1872, no distinction was made between the Hindus 

and the members of the al)original triltes. In 1881, 
omparison w ipoi. ^^^ ^^^ distinction being pointed out, a large number, 
thouffh still less than a fourtli of the real strength was returned, as aboi'igincs, 
and in 1801 again tribal gods were mistaken for orthodox ones and almost all 
were retm-ned as Hindus, a very small number only coming under " Castes in 
lieu of religion." Tlie first ajiproxiniately correct enumeration o|' tjic Animists 
was made in l'.)()l, when thoii- number wa.s returned as 17il,:.'o() (80,42o males 
and 86,827 females). On that occasion all the members of the early tribes 
were classed as Animists, irrespective of their return either liy theii tiibe 



WHO AK!", THE IIINDU> ? 55 



^U^" 



names or as Hiudiis. On the present occasion, ihe correct procedure was 

followed with the result that 115,411 persons (58,85S males and 56,553 females) 

were returned as Auimists and 85,56i> (-13,625 males and 41,941 females) as 

Hindus. This has brouglit about a decrease of 34*5 per cent, in the Animistic 

population compared with 1901. There can be no doubt that a small portion of 

those who have returned themselves as Hindus, has, owing to contact with 

Hindus really accepted Hindu practices and worship Hindu gods, but the claim 

of a large portion of them to be Hindus is doubtful. From imjuiry made after 

tlie Census, it appears that they follow their ancestral primitive beliefs and have 

returned themselves as Hindus, simply because their more enlightened brethren 

wished them to do so. When we examine the figures for the districts, we 

find that the decrease in the number of Auimists is contributed to the extent of 

38 per cent, of their population by the Navsari District and 16 per cent, by the 

Baroda District. 

133. The question, what constitutes a Hindu, was mooted in the Census 

«/t. *u.> i4-^A V Commissioner's note, dated the 12th Julv 1911, 

Who are the nindus .^ , .i ,• i i- ^• i p " ^ 

where tlie leasibihty was discussed oi supplement- 
ing the statistics in Imperial Table VI by a note stating what classes of persons 
have been included in the figures for Hindus, who cannot strictly be regarded as 
' ~ . such. Tests noted in 

(1) Decy the supremacy of the Brahmans. (]jg, margin Were laid 

This category includes two distinct groups : — ' , j" • j • j 

(ri) ccrtaia sectarian groups which owe their origiu to a revolt UOWn, aild it was dSSU'ed 

against the Brahmanical supremacy ; and that a Hst «hould be 

(*1 the aboriginal tribes mid also certain low castes who, being denied j r '"l 

the ministrations of Brahmans, retaliate by professing to reject prepared OI the casteS, 

(J) do not receive the mantra from a Brahman or other recognized Hindu Snru; ,*^"» Contributing more 

(3) deny the authority of the Vedas. than One per luiUe tO 

(4) are not served by good Brahmans as family priests ii,„ i.„i„l ,^ ,,1„4.;„_ ^ 

(5) h^ve no Brahman priests at all; ^^ thetotal population ol 

(6) are denied access to the interior of ordinary Hindu temples ; the State, wllO aCCOrd- 

(7) cause pollution ; (a) by toucli, (_i) within a certain distance- • ,1. .1^ f .f 
III southern India about half the population falls within this category. ^^S ^^ tnese tCStS Can- 



(SI bury their dead. , . . ; not strictlv be regarded 

Here again there are two groups, vtz : (a) castes derived from ascetics and ^ VT ' "l , Tf V, 
(6) low castes imperfectly Hinduized, <iS xl 1 11 Cl U S. it lias 

i») eat beef and do not reverence the cow. already been mentioned 

that 85,566 members of 

the Animistic tribes have returned themselves as Hindus, but if these rigid 
rests are applied, they would have to be excluded from the category of 
. ^ Hindus. The untouch- 
able and depressed 
classes contribute a s 
noted in the m a r g i n, 
about 10 per rent, to 
the Hindu population. 
Except that orthodox 
Hindus do not touch 



1. Bhangi « 26,397 

2. Dbed 99,798 

'}. Garoda 6,281 

4. Cbamar or Khalpa ;,2,210 

5. Shenva 7,587 

6. Others „, 921 

Total 173,194 



them and good Brahmans do not serve them, they satisfy all other tests and are 
regarded as Hindus, both by them and the orthodox Hindus. How tenaciously 
these depressed classes cling to Hinduism is illustrated by the following story:-^ 

'' A Mohummedan sovereign asked his Hindu Minister, which was the low-est 
caate of all. The minister begged for leisure to consider his reply, and having 
obtained it, went to where the Dheds lived and said to them " You have given oi- 
fence to the Padishah. It is hiis intention to deprive you of caste, and make you 
iiohummedans." The Dheds, in the greatest terror, posted oft' in a body to the 
sovereign's ] alace, and standing at a respectful distance, shouted at the top of 
their lungs, " If we have offended Your Majesty, punish us in some other way 
than that. Beat us, fine us, hang us if you like, but don't make us Mohumme- 
dans." The Padishah smiled, and turning to his minister, who sat by, affecting 
to hear nothing of the matter, said, " So the lowest caste is that to which [ 
belong !" (Hasmala, p. 538). 

134. We have seen that more than four-fifths of the total population are 

r.- ♦ -u *• ., „« Hi^A o Hindus. They arc most numerous in the Kadi 
Distribution of Hindus. t\- , ■ ,. u m ^ l' -.nn tt- i 

District, where 91 persons out ot a 100 ai-e Hindus. 

After Kadi, comes Amreli with 88 Hindus in a lOO of the population. Then follow 



56 



CHAPTER IV— BELiaiON. 



Baioda Division with 84 and Baroda City with 79 in a 100 who are Hindus. 
The Navsari District stands last with only 65 Hindus in a 100 of the whole 
population. The lowest proportion of Hindus in this district is due to its having 
a laro-e population of the primitive tribes whose Animistic; forms of belief have 
already been described. 



REFCRENCEIS 



UPTO eS PERCENT 
35 8+ y) 





MAP 
SHOWING THE 
DISTRIBUTION 
OF HINDUS 

INTMC 
BARODA ST ATC 



teAROOAJ ft, 




135. In the State as a whole, the Hindus have increased by nearly i)-7 

per cent, during the decade. The changes in the 
Variations in Hindus. strength of any religion depend on three causes, viz., 

(1) the reproductive power of its adherents. (2) migration and (3) conversion. 
Mio-ration does not seem to have materially affected the number of Hindus in 
the State, for the gain by immigration is counterbalanced by the loss by emigra- 
tion. The productive power of the Hindus does not seem to be superioi- to 
that of the followers of the other religions. Conversion therefore is the main 
cause which accounts for the large increase in the Hindu jiopulation of the State. 
We have already seen that 85,56f> Animists have in this Census returned tliem- 
selves as Hindus. In addition to this, the half-Bindu— half-Musalman Matias 
and Shaikhdas who as followers of the Pirana sect founded by Saiyad Imamshah, 
previously returned themselves as Musalmans, have on the present occasion re- 
turned themselves (401 Matias aurl .".1 Shaikhdas) as Hindus. In 1901, the Pirana 
sect was shown to have only 3,655 Musalman followers. On the present occasion, 
there is a return of 3,630 Hindus and 2,102 Musalmans as its followers. Tims, 
the total gain of Hindus by conversion amounts to 86,018 persons. In IDOl. 
there were onlv 50 x\i-ya Samajists in the State. In the jiresent Census, their 
number has increased to 598. mostly owing to conversion from Hinduism whicli 
has thus lost 548 persons. Subtracting the loss from the gain, the net gain U> 
Hinduism is of 85,47(1 persons oi- 5 per cent, of its population. If this gain is not 
taken into consideration, the natural increase of the Hindus amounts to 4*2 
per cent, of their population Avliich is just equal to the general increase during 

the decade. 

136. It has often been said that Hiuduismi never openly takes in new con- 

verts, and that when thev are admitted that is done 
Conversion to H.ndu.sm. ^^^ ^^^ ^.^^j^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^. j^^^^ ^^^^ Kmdm all along. 

Until recently, there were no known cases of the admission into Hinduism o|' 
persons who had previously been Musalmans or (Christians. It is understood, 
however, that the Arya Samajisis are now endeavouring to secure the re-admis- 
sion of such persons. Not long ago, nearly 400 Musalman Rajputs are said to 
have been taken back into Hinduism at Banthra in the Etliwa District of the 
United Provinces. At the Arya Samaj Conl'erence held in January 1911 at the 
village of Ilanoli in the Baroda District, nearly a dozen of persons converted to 
Christianitv were re-admitted to Hinduism and were forthwith treated as Hindus 



HhNDU SECTl?. 



57 



by all concerned. Matias and Sliaikhdas, who were origiuaily Hindu Kanbis, and 
accepted Islam about 30(* years ago, owing to the preaching of the Ismalia Saiyad, 
Imam Shah, had been previously returning themselves as Musalmaus of the 
Pirana sect. They have lately reverted to Brahmanism, worship Hindu gods, 
go on pilgrimages to Benares, Dwarka, Dakorji, etc., and employ Brahmans for 
the performance of marriage ceremonies, aiid have also returned themselves 
as Hindus in the present Census. Upon further inquiry, I learn that they are 
recognised as Hindus and have been re-admitted into the Vaishnava sects 
founded by Ramanand and Swaminarayan. 

137. Nearly one-halt of the Hindus returned themselves as Vaishnavas 

under one name or another ; one-fifth as Shaivas or 

in u sec s. Smartas, and one-sixih as iShaktas or Devi Ujjasaktt. 

Only 53 per mille of the total Hindu population did not return any sect, uetails 

about these main and other minor sects will be found in the descriptive section 

of this chapter. 

138. The followers of Shaivism and Shaktism did not return any sub-sect. 

But about 96 per cent, of the followers of 
Vaishnavism returned minor sub-sects named 
after their princij^al religious preceptors. All 
of these, with the number of their followers 
have been detailed in Subsidiary Table VII 
at the end of this chapter, and the most im- 
portant of them have been shown in the 
margin. It will appear from it that the 
Ramanandi sub-sect is the most popular 
among the Vaishnava Hindus of the State. 

More than one-half of the Vaishnava Hindus are Ramanandis and one-fifth are 
followers of Vallabhacharya. One out of eight Vaishnavas is a Ramanuji and 



Vaishnava 


sub-sects 


Name of the 

sect. 


Number of 
followers. 


Bamanuji 
Ramanandi 

ValUbhachari 
Swaminarayan 


104,987 
434,679 
171,400 
53,721 1 

1 



ojie out of 16 is a follower of Swaminarayan 

139. Hindu males ijaint on their foreheads 



or 



Sect Marks. 

thi'ee traverse streaks. 



indicative of their 



white or coloured marks 
sects. Some of these tiJaJiS or 



h/iiiiriim ill ii.<i riiliii.li scrt marks. 




sect marks are illustrated in the margin. Tri'pundra 
painted with vthMiti (sacred ashes) or sandal paste 

with a round mark in the 
middle, or merely two 
round white marks dis- 
tinguishes the Shaiva or 
worshipper of Shiv. Each 
Vaishnav sub-sect has its 
own distinguishing mark. 
Ramanujis paint on their 
foreheads the tnfala, three 
lines drawn upwards from 
near the meeting of the 
eyebrows, the central line 
red and the outer ones 
white, made with Ljopi- 
ckandan or white clay, 
procured from ;i tank near 
Dwarka in which, accord- 
ing to legend the gopi'sf 
(milkmaids), d r o w n ed 
themselves on hearing of 
the death of their divine 
lover Shri Krishna. The 
Vallabhachari sect-mark 
consists (if two red ]ie)"- 
pendicular lines converg- 
ing in a semi-circle at Ihe 
root of the nose. The 
followers of Swaminaravan 



il— 2) Shaiva ; (3) Jlamanuji (tengali) ; (J) Kamanuji (vadagali) ; 
(5) Ramanandi ; (6) Vallabhacliari ; (7) S.vaminarayan ; (8)Vranami; 
(9) Bijpanthi : (10) lUmde Pir ; (11) Gopinath ; (13 IG) Jain; 
(l:i) Madhvachari ; (Mi Kabiriianthi ; (IS) Shakta. 



58 CHAl'TEi; IV RKLKJION. 



have a similar sect-mark, made with (/^pichandan and with a round red 
powder mark in tlie middle. Irrespective of sects, Hindu lemalcs mark 
their foreheads with a chanlla, a round red powder mark, which indicates 
that they are saubhagi/avati or with good luck, i. e., have their husbands 
alive. 

1-10. One person out of 50 in the total population of the State is a 

Jain. Jains are most numerous in the Kadi 
Distribution of Jains. District, which contains more than one-half of 

their total population. Next to the Kadi District, conies Baroda City 
in having- a comparatively large Jain population. Out of a thousand in 
the population, those who are Jains are 20 in the Amreli District and lo in 
the Baroda District. Navsari District has only 83 Jains in 10,000 of its 
population. 

More than nine-tenths of the Jains belong to the Vania castes and 
only about one-tenth belongs to other castes, such as Bhavsar, Bhojak, 
Kanbi, etc. 

141. Compared with 1901, Jains show a decrease of 10 j^er cent, in their 

total iiopulation. The districts responsible for this 
Comparison with 1901. aei;rease are Kadi and Baroda ; Navsari and 

Amreli show an increase of o and 8 per cent., respectively, in their Jain popula- 
tion. The decrease is heavy in the Kadi District and amounts to l-l per cent., 
while in the Baroda District without the cit}, it is 7 per cent., and in the 
Baroda City alone it is o per cent. Considering their general prosperity, it 
is not likely that Jains could have suffered irom scarcity, plague or any 
like cause to a greater or even the same extent as the general population. 
After the recent Jain Conferences, Jains in Gtijarat are so tenacious abouj; 
their religion that the decrease cannot be ascribed to any tendency among 
them to describe themselves as Hindus. Migration is probably the main 
cause, which is responsible for such a surprisingly large decrease in the 
Jain population of the State. Most of the Jains in the Kadi District emigrate' to 
Bombay and other places for trade purposes. Their business trait is so deve- 
loped that they do not now hesitate even to go to Europe or America. 
Several Jains from the Kadi District are said to have recently established 
themselves as jewellers in Paris. It is, therefore, not improbable that 
migration could have taken away a large number of their population from 
their homes. 

142. The Jains are divided into two principal sects called Sicetamharix 

or white-clad and Digamharis or sky-clad. A later 
Jam Sects. schism among the Swetambaris led to a section of 

them being called Sthanakvasi Swetambaris or Dhundias (see para. 237.) The 
Swetambari sect is the most numerous, 84 out of lOO Jains being its foUoAvers. 
One in ten Jains is a Digambari and one in seventeen is a Dhundia or Sthanak- 
vasi Swetambari as these people now choose to call themselves. Jains have 
no distinguishing sect marks. They make, however, tihiks like Hindus, but use 
saffron and sandal paste instead of red powder. (See Nos. 12-lti diagram, 
para. 130.) 

143. Mahomedans form only 8 per cent, of tho total population of the 

State. Their proportion is the largest in the Baroda 

Distribution of q-^^ where thev form 17 per cent, of the population. 

Mahomedans. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^~ ^.^^^^^^ ^^^ Amreli District with 11 

per cent., and then Baroda District with only 10 per cent, of its population who 
are Mahomedans. The proportion of Mahomedans to the total population is the 
smallest, viz., 6'3 and 6'y percent, in the Kadi and Navsari Districts respectively. 
Nearly oue-third of the total Mahomedan population in the State is in the Kadi 
District, nearly one-fourth in the Baroda District and the rest in the Amreli and 
Navsari Districts and Baroda Citv. 



MUSALMANS. 



59 



(VlAP 
3. , SHOWING THE 
OlSTRlBUTIOIV 
OF 

MUHAfWMADANS 

INTHt 
BAROOA STATE 







JTP 



144. In the State as a whole, Mahomedans have decreased by 2*5 per cent. 
. during- the last decade. Only in the Baroda District, 

they show an increase of about 8 per cent., but else- 
where they show a decrease of from .5 to 8 per cent. The decrease is heavy 
(8 per cent.) in the City of Baroda and the Navsari District. It amounts to nearly 
5 per cent, in the Amreli and Kadi Districts. Some Matias (40.1) of the Navsari 
District and Shaikhdas (51) of the Baroda District, who previously returned them- 
selves as Musalmans, have, on the present occasion, returned themselves as 
Hindus ; but this loss is trifling, and does not materially affect the proportion of 
the ^lahomedans in the State. The decrease in their number can only be ex- 
plained by migration and plague. An ever-increasing number of Mahomedans 
has been migrating from the Navsari District to South Africa, Mauritius, Burma 
and other places for trade and other purposes. Similarly Khojas and Memons 
from the Amreli District and Vohoras from Sidhpur and the Baroda City mig'rate 
to Bombay, Madras and other parts of India and to Singapore. Kadi Mahomedans 
migrate to Ahmedabad, Surat, Mahikantha and Palanpur Agencies for service as 
constables, sepoys and sowars. Plague, which was raging iu one place or another, 
in the whole State throughout the decade, must also be responsible to some 
extent for the diminution of the Mahomedau population. The Mahomedans are 
great fatalists, and this, together with their zenana system, makes them very 
reluctant to leave their quarters even when severely affected by plagaie, with the 
result that they lose largely in their numerical strength. 

145. 



Musalman Sects. 



Most of the Musalmans m the State are Sunnis. Out of every 100 
followers of Islam, 85 are Sunnis, 14 are Shias and 
1 is a follower of the Imamshahi or Pirana sect, an 
account oi which will be found iu the descrijitive section of this chapter. The 
followers of the Shia sect are mostly trading Vohoras, Khojas and Arabs, while 
the followers of the Pirana sect are known as Momnas and Shaikhdas whom 
Imamshah of Pirana, near Ahmedabad, and his kinsmen converted from Hinduism 
in the 15th centurv. 



146. 



Distribution of Parsis. 



The total Parsi population in the State consists of 7,955 persons, of 
whom 7,179, or nearly 90 per cent., are in the 
Navsari District^ and 561 or 7 per cent, in the 
Baroda City. Elsewhere Parsi population is only nominal, there being only 109 
persons in Baroda District, 77 in Kadi and only 29 in the Amreli District. 
Navsari is the head-quarters not only of the Parsis in the State, but also of many 
others living in Bombay and elsewhere for trade and other purposes. 



60 CHAriER IV KELIUION. 



147. Compared with 1001, the Parsi population in the State has decreased 

bv about 5 per cent. The Parsis are an energetic 

Comparison with 1901. ^;^^ adventurous race and migrate to all parts of 

India for business purposes. Such a slight variation in their population in the 

State as has come to light, is mainly due to the varying extent of their absence 

from their home in the Navsari District. 

148. The Parsis are divided into two sects called Shenshahis and Kadmis. 

The agitation which split the community into these 
arsi ec s. ^^^ sects did not arise till 1736 A. D., when a 

Zoroastriau behedin or layman named Jamsed arrived in Gujarat from Persia. 
He brought to the notice of the Surat Parsis that their reckoning of months was 
one month behind that of the Persian Zoroastrians. This led to a dispute which 
lasted for several years. It ended on the 6th ol June 1745 by the community 
splitting into two sects, ShenshaJn, who kept to the Indian reckoning, and Kadmi 
who adopted the Persian practice. The Shenshahis ninnber 7,778 and the 
Kadmis only 177 in the total Parsi population of the State. In other words, in 
a hundred Parsis, there are t)8 of the first sect, and only 2 of the second. 
Intermarriage between the two sects was formerly not allowed, but now it is 
common, and there is the fullest harmony between them, 

149. The Christian community numbers 7,i03, of whom 6,962 are Natives 

and 241 Europeans and Anglo-Indians (formerly 
Christians. c2i\\eA Eurasians). Of the Native Christians, 4,833 

or nearly two-thirds are Methodists, 189 Presbyterians, 400 Roman Catholics 
and 1,540 or a little more than one-fifth are Salvationists. Of the Europeans 
and Anglo-Indians, 139 belong to Anglican Communion, 4 are Baptists, 7 
Lutherans, 17 Methodists, 4 Presbyterians and 68 Roman Catholics. Two Euro- 
pean males returned themselves as Agnostic, and are therefore classed under 
the head " Indefinite beliefs." As the return of Christian sects was vitiated in 
the past Censuses, owing to the ignorance of the Native Christians regarding 
their sects, special measures were taken on the present occasion to ensure a 
correct return. The heads of missions working within the State were addi-essed 
shortly before the Census, with a view to securing their co-operation ; and they 
all readily responded and agreed to supply their converts with slips on which 
the correct name of their sect was printed. The enumerators were instructed 
to call for the sect slip from each Native Christian enumerated by them and to 
copy out the entry thereon, in the sect column of the Census schedule. 

150. Five-sixths of the total number of Europeans and Anglo-Indian 

Christians are in the City of Baroda (with the 
Distribution of Christians. Cantonment) and the rest who are mostly employed 
on Railways, are distributed in the districts of the State. Of the Native Chris- 
tians 84 per cent, are in the Baroda District, 10 per cent, in the Baroda City 
and 5 per cent, in the Kadi District. Christianity is not yet spread to any 
appreciable extent in the Navsari and Amreli Districts. 

151. The number of Christians in the State increased from 313 in 1872 to 

771 in 1881, but declined to 646 in 1891. It rose to 
Variation since 1872. ^j^^ remarkable figure of 7,69 1 in J 901 owing mainly 

to the humane efforts of the missionaries in giving shelter to the destitute poor, 
during the great famine of 1899-1900. After the famine was over, many of the 
destitute sheltered by the missionaries returned to their home and probably 
reverted to their own religion , and new conversions are rare. This has resulted 
in the decline of the Christians by 488 persons or 6 '35 per cent, in the present 
Census. 

152. The classes most receptive of Christianity are those who arc outside 

the Hindu system or whom Hinduism regards as 
rlffiL^'L^J^VJ^ degraded and untouchable and treats unjustly. It 

cnriSLianiiy. • ? ^i • 1 • • n i • 

IS lor triis reason that missions generally succeed in 
having converts from Dheds and similar castes. Amongst the higher Hindu 
castes, there are serious obstacles in the way of conversion, of which family 
influence and the caste system are the greatest. By accepting Christianity, a 
man at once cuts himself oflF from all his old associations and is regarded even 
by his family as an outcaste. Moreover, the prospect of such an occurrence is 



CHRISTIANS. 61 



viewed w-ith the greatest dread, aud wliea auy one is suspected of an intention to 
become a Christian, the greatest possible pressure is brought to bear on him by 
all his relations and friends, in order to malce him change his mind. 

153. The missions working in the fc^late are : — (1) the Methodist Episco- 

«, .u J- * c • 1 P*^ Church Mission, (2) the Salvation Armv and 

Methodist Episcopal 7-}\ +\ ^ j ■ ] u i . • at- ■ 7^/• i "^ 7 

Church Mission: (^V the Irish Presbyterian Mission. 01 these, the 

Methodist Mission is the most important aud has 

secured the largest number of followers within the last thuty years. The lirst 

Christian missionary who came to Baroda was a representative of the London 

Missionary Society and arrived in that City io the year 1844. Two years later 

the work was taken over by the Irish Presbyterian Mission aud that Mission 

carried on work in the City for some years. In the year 1870, representatives 

of the Methodist Episcopal Church Mission came to Baroda for work amono- the 

English-speaking people and commenced work tor all classes in the year 1881. 

This mission is working in many parts of the Baroda and Kadi Districts with 

headquarters at Baroda. In the year 1880, a small Church was erected in the 

Cantonment. A boarding-school for boys and another lor girls were soon opened 

and both of them were in a flourishing condition belbre the great famine. They 

were thrown open to receive destitute children and during the time of the o-reat 

famine of 18t)9-1900, three thousand children were cared for. After the close of 

the famine, the majority of the children, who had gone in the boarding-schools, 

returned to their native villages. 



le Baroda Cantonmfiiit sfina.vfl.tp linnvrlii,„_ 



At present there are in tne Baroda Cantonment separate boarding-schools 
for boys and girls. 369 boys and girls are students in these schools. In 
connection with the boarding institutions, there are a Primary Girls' School, a 
Boys' School of the primary grade and a Co-educational Anglo- Vernacular School 
and High School. In the Boys' Boarding School, there is a Manual Training 
Department and lads showing proficiency in that Department are transferred to 
the Industrial School of this Mission situated at Nadiad, while boys of that 
institution, who are especially promising, are transferred to the Baroda Mission 
High School. The girls of the boarding-school are taught domestic work and 
useful industries, such as weaving, lace-making, sewing, &c. The Florence 
Nicholson School of Theology at Baroda occupies commodious quarters. To 
this institution, young men with their wives come for training to prepare them 
for the work of the Christian ministry. The buildings are a memorial to the 
lady whose name the institution bears and were erected by her husband. The 
Theological course covers a period of three years, and there are ninety students 
in the school. The Mission has a large Hospital for women and children 
located near the Cantoinnent. It is well equipped and is in charge ol' an 
American lady physician, who is assisted by a competent staff of nurses. 
Medical work is also carried on throughout the district in the villages where the 
Christians live. 

In addition to this institutional work, there are upwards of 150 preachers 
who are working in the Baroda District, and the converts are now nearly 5,000 
in number. 

154. The total number of Arya Samajis in the whole State is 598. Of 

g .. these, 169 are in the City of Baroda, 185 in the 

^ ' Baroda District, 2o in the Kadi District, 153 in the 

Navsari District and 66 in the Amreli District. 

155. The Census of 1901, for the first time, returned 50 followers of the 

.^. Arya Samai within this State, Durino; the present 

Comparison with looi. i j ^i '• i i i ^ i \ i ■ 

aecade, their number has shown a remarkable in- 
crease as detailed in the above para. The increase is mainly due to the preach- 
ings of missionaries from the United Provinces and to the two Arya Sainaj Con- 
ferences held at Itola and Ranoli villages of the Baroda District in 1910 and 1911. 
Most of the Arya Samajis belong to the Lewa Kaubi or Anavala and Audich 
Brahman castes, and respect their caste restrictions. In the Census, many of 
them returned " Hindu " as their religion and " Arya Samaji '' as a name of 
their sect. 



62 CHAPTEE IV — RELIGION. 



156. There are only six Brahmos (lour males and two females) in the whole 

State. They arerimmigrants I'rom Bengal, the mother- 
*"^ "'°* laud of this new form of religion. 

157. Sikhs number 90, who are mostly immigrants engaged in the army ; 

65 of them are in the Amreli District, 13 in the 
Sikhs aad their Baroda City, nine in the Baroda District, two in Kadi 

distribution. j • xr „ .• 

and one in JNavsan. 

Sikhism was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak (1469-1538 A. D ) and 

was further developed by succeeding Gurus, notably 
Sikhism. ^^ Q,^^^^^ Govind Singh (1675-1708 A. D.) The 

Sikh creed involves belief in one God condemning the worship of other deities ; 
it prohibits idolatry, pilgrimage to the great shrines of Hinduism, faith in 
omens, charms or witchcraft ; and does not recognise ceremonial impurity at 
birth and deatn. As a social system, it abolishes caste distinctions and 
Brahmanic supremacy in all ceremonies at birth, marriage and death. Sikhs 
are permitted to eat hesh, though not beef, but are prohibited from using 
tobacco in any form. Every Sikh is required to bear foremarks known as five 
ha, the hair uncut (A;t'^A), the short drawers (hachli), the hara or iron bangle, 
the khanda or steel knife and kangha or comb. The main object of the early 
Gurus was to distinguish their disciples from the Hindus among whom they 
lived. Now, however, many shades of opinion prevail among the Sikhs and 
many Hindu practices, e. g., going on a pilgrimage to Hardwar, find favour 
amongst large portion of the brotherhood. 

Sikhism has given rise to several mendicant orders, of which the principal 
are Udasi, Nirmali and Akali. 

158. Jews number 40 only in the whole State and are mostly immigrants 

for State service. 17 of them are in the City of 
^^^' Baroda, 12 in Amreli, 6 in Navsari, 2 in Kadi and 3 

in Baroda District. 

PART II— DESCRIPTIVE. 

1. — Hindu religious beliefs and practices. 

159. Hinduism includes such a variety of creeds that it has been called an 

" Encyclopagdia of Religions." It is not one homo- 
Compr^henjiveness of geueous growth of religious thought. Starting from 

the Veda, Hinduism has ended in embracing some- 
thing from all religions and in presenting phases suited to all minds. It is all 
tolerant, all comprehensive, all absorbing. " It has its spiritual and material 
aspect, its esoteric and exoteric, its subjective and objective, its rational and 
irrational, its pure and impure. It may be compared to a huge polygon or 
irregular multilateral figure. It has one side for the practical, another for the 
severely moral, another for the devotional and imaginative, another for the 
sensuous and sensual and another for the philosophical and the speculative. 
Those who rest in ceremonial observances find it all sufficient ; those who deny 
the etficacy of works and make faith the one requisite, need not wander from its 
pale; those who arc addicted to sensual objects may have their tastes gratified; 
those who delight in meditating, on the nature of god and man, the relation ot 
matter and spirit, the mystery of separate existence and the origin of evil may 
here indulge in their love of speculation ; and this capacity for almost endless ex- 
pansion causes almost endless sectarian divisions even among the followers 
of any particular line of doctrine." (Hinduism by Professor Monier Williams 
p. 12). 

160. Such being the comprehensiveness of this great religion, it is diflacult 

^ ,. . . ^ ij. J . to define it in precise terms. Several definitions 

Definition of Hinduism. • , . ' ., ,, , . ^ u.i.iiuii.iuiiH 

given by various writers on the subject were con- 
sidered in the last India Census Report, p. 356. In the Punjab Census Report of 
1881, Sir Denzil Ibbetson described it as : — 

" A hereditary sacerdotalism with Brahmans for its Levitee, the vitality of 
which is preserved by the social institution of caste, and which may include all 



HINDU KELIGIOU?; BELIEFS AXD I'KACTICKK. (33 



shades and diversities ot religion native to India, as distinct from tiie foreion 
importation of Christianity and Islam, and from the later outgrowths %( 
Buddhism, more doubtfully of Sikhisni, and still more doubtfully of Jainism." 

Mr. Baiues, who was Census Commissioner in ISDl proceeded by" the 
method of exclusion, and defined Hinduism as " the large residuum that is not 
Sikh, or Jain, or Buddhist, or professedly Animistic, or included in one of the 
foreign religions, such as Islam, JVIazdaism, Christianity, or Hebraism." Sir Alfred 
Lyall described Hinduism as " The religion of all people who accept the 
Brahmanic scriptures." He went on to speak of it as " a tangled iuno-le of 
disorderly superstitions." Finally he called it the collection of rites worships 
beliefs, traditions and mythologies that are sanctioned by the sacred 'books and' 
ordinances of the Brahmans and are propagated by Brahmanic teachino-. While 
accepting the general accuracy ot this definition, Sir Herbert Risley, wTth a view 
to give an idea of the elements out of which popular Hinduism has been evolved 
and of the conflicting elements which it has absorbed described it as " Animism' 
more or less transformed by philosophy or magic tempered by metaphysics." 
" Within the enormous range of beliefs and practices, which are included in the 
term Hinduism, there are comprised two entirely different sets of ideas • at one 
end, at the lower end, of the series is Animism, an essentially materialistic theory 
of things which seeks by means of magic to ward off or to forestall phvsical 
disasters, which looks no further than the world of sense and seeks to make that 
as tolerable as possible, as the conditions will permit. At the other end is 
Pantheism, combined with a system of transcendentaljnetaphysics." The same 
ideaTTs expressed by a modern Hindu writer on the subjecf, who has terselv 
summarised the main features of Hinduism in the following Sanskrit couplet • "- 

i.e., '■ The religion which has implicit faith in the Vedas, recognises diverse 
ways of attaining the (spiritual) goal and has unlimited objects of adoration." 

161. In Hinduism we have at the top of the ladder, Brahmanism represented 
„ ^ . by a few known as TWaTife^-, whose leadino-doo-ma 

Jii /cam em adwtUyam, ' ihero, is but one beino- 
without a second ' summarises their whole creed. According to them "nothin'g 
really"exis^,'l3ul the one Universal Sphit called Brahma or tarmatma and what- 
ever appears to exist separately from that Spirit is a mere illusion ; Jivatma or 
individual soul is identical with Farmatma or Supreme Soul, as microcosm with 
macrocosm ; it is restrained from consciousness of its unity, and hence from 
union with it by the resultants of its previous harma or actions. So lono- as 
there remains attached to the soul a resultant of its previous actions, it is doomed 
to wander in repeated incarnations, from body to body. Only those souls in 
which the resultant finally vanishes attain violska, or emancipation. Thev lose 
all sense of individual personality by complete absorption {aayujya) into the only 
really existing Being who is wholly unfettered by action and without qualities 
of any kind (nirguna) and called sutrJndanand because he is pure^^JifejL pure 
thought, ptirej^oy. ■ 

leS. Popular Hinduism, though supposed to accept this creed, -ailed 

. 6^.y«m.l/a?v/aorthe way of true knowledo-e, aaia&to 

Popular H.ndu.sm. ^ j^ ^^^.^ ^^j^^^. ■^^^^^^.^^. ^^,^^,^ ^_^^^ ^^^^.^^ Marg>j,^ or 

' path of reliii'ious ritas', /. e., the belief in the efficiency of sacrifices, rites, lustral 
washings and austerities ; and (2) Bhahti Marga or ' path of love and devotion ' 
to personal deities. Popular Hinduism supposes that the one Universal Beino- 
amuses himself by illusionary appearances ; and that all visible and material 
objects, good and bad, including gods, demons, demi-gods, good and evil spirits, 
human beings and animals are emanations from Him and are ultimately to be 
re-absorbed into His essence. Popular Hinduism is represented by the complicated 
system of polytheistic doctrines and caste-usages which have gradually resulted 
out of the mixture of Brahmanism with Buddhism, with the non- Aryan creeds 
of Dravidiaus and Aborigines. Popular Hinduism is something very diffl-rent 
from Brahmanism, though the one is deiived from the other. It is like a hun-e 



64 CHAPjEi; IV — RELIGION. 



iiTegular structure which has spread itself over an immense euriace by continual 
additions and accretions. It has adopted much of the Fetishism of the Negrito 
inhabitants ol India ; it has stooped to the practices of various hill tribes and not 
scrupled to encourage the adoration of serpents, rocks, stones and trees. 

163. A Gujarat Hindu attaches the greatest importance to bathing. As a 

rule, he does not take his morning meal before 
Every day religion. having a bath which consists in pouring a few 

/o^as of water on his person. After bath, he worships his family gods or god- 
desses, or goes to the temple of his sect for the same purpose. Ihe darsan in 
the temple consists simply of getting a glimpse of the idol and saying Ji, je, je, 
chantino- bhajam, hymns and leaving a few coppers or a handiul of grain in 
the dish kept for the purpose. On holidays, he offers flowers to the idols. The 
temple is visited also in the afternoon by those who are very devout. Whenever 
he is at leisure, or in a contemplative mood, he mutters the name of Shri Ram 
or Shri Krishna, eittier alone or in company with their respective consorts, i.e., 
Rama Rama or 8ita Rama, or Radha Krishna. He gives aims in the shape of 
a handful of rice, pulse or flour to Brahmans and Sadhus. He either sets apart 
a portion of his food or uses the remainder at his table for dogs and cows which 
wander about in the streets. He observes a last on every Monday, Saturday 
or on every eleventh day in a fortnight. He feeds Brahmans or Sadhus, when- 
ever he is inclined to accumulate extra merit. He goes on a pilgrimage to 
Dakorji, Narmadaji, Kalka Mata, Amba Mata and other places when he has taken 
a vow to do so, or whenever it pleases him to do bo. He believes in heaven, 
hell and transmigration of soul. His next life and his going to heaven or hell 
depends upon his actions in present life. He hopes to better his position in 
this and the life to come by his devotion to his god, his dav, charity to Brah- 
mans, and his daya, kindness to men, cows, etc. 

164. So great is the influence exerted by caste-rules on the daily lil'e of 

the Hindus that the whole of their religion may be 
Observance of caste ^^^j^ ^^ ^^ centered in caste observances and Hinduism 



and caste have become convertible terms. Strictness 
in the maintenance of caste is the only real test of Hinduism exacted by the 
Brahmans of the present day. In matters of mere faith, Hinduism is all tolerant 
and all receptive. No person who is not born a Brahman can become one, but 
any person can be admitted into the lower ranks of Hinduism, who will acknow- 
ledge the supremacy of the Hrahmans and obey the rules of caste. So long as 
a man observes the rules of his caste, he is at liberty to hold any religious 
opinion he likes. 

165. All Gujarati Brahmans, except a few, who belong to the Swami- 

narayan sect are followers of Shiva, and almost 

Religious belief and g^|j }ia,ve household gods, whose worship some 

prac "^'^ ^^gj.^^ ' ^""^ member of the family performs. The family gods 

are either some or all of the Hindu fanciiaiiatan 
or the group of tive, viz., a etone ling for Mahadev, a stone sha/tgram or a 
picture oi' Shri Nathji for Vishnu, a picture or metal image of Shakti, iShavaui or 
Mata, typifying divine energy ; Ganpati and Surya or the Sun, or Hanuman, the 
Morkey-god. Their social and religious customs are chiefly ruled by the 
]\!l/yukh, the Mitakshara and the Dharma and Nirnaya Sindhu. They perform 
salndhya or twilight prayer at least once a day in the morning, count their 
beads and repeat the (fnyatri or sun-hymn. Priests and beggars are almost 
the only men who observe the regular fasts. As a rule, on Mondays and on the 
first and fifteenth of each month and on the great religious festivals, men visit 
Shiva's temple for worship. Women are more carefuJ than men to observe fasts, 
but are less regular in visiting the temples. Family and village priests leain 
by rote the ritual required at the different everyday ceremonies, i>ut with a few 
exceptions, have no claim to learning. 

Like Gujarati Brahmans, most of the Dakshani Brahmans are Shaivas or 
Smarts. But they are more ceremonious, more scrupulous in observing 
ceremonial purity and keep more closely to religious rules than Gujarati 
Brahmans. 



HINDU RKLIGIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES. Cf, 



Brahma-Kshatris keep the rules laid dowu for Brahmans-reading- the 
sacred books, worshipping, meditating, repeating prayers, making offerings to 
the Sun and at meals putting on a silk sacred cloth. Kayasthas mostly belong 
to the Vallabhachari sect, but some of them are Ramanuji and some Shaiva. 
Vanias are very religious and as a class are staunch adherents of the Vallabh- 
achari sect to which they were converted about four hundred years ago. In 
South Gujarat, each house has a separate god-room. They worship daily at the 
Vallabhachari temples and in their houses. Instead of the sacred thread, both 
men and women wear round their ueck a kanthi (basil thread necklace). They 
mark their brows with two upright lines oVcanku, (red powder), rub their eyelids 
and forehead with gopichawlan, the yellow clay found near Dwarka, Gokul and 
Mathura, and imprint a seal dipped iu sandal dust between the sectarian lines 
and on the temples, neck and arms. Bhatias are Yaishnav of the Vallabhachari 
sect and are very observant of religious rites. Like Vanias, they visit 
Vaishuav temples and worship iu their houses the image of Vishnu in the form 
of Ranchhodji and Radha Krishna. Luhanas are Vaishnavas of the Vallabh- 
achari and Ramanuji sects. Their family goddess is Raudel Mata and they are 
devout worshippers of Darya Pir, the spirit of the Indus. Rajputs do not 
differ from other Hindus in their religious observances and practices. Though 
many are followers of the Vallabhachari, Swaminarayan and Ramanuji sects, 
Rajputs from remote ages have been partial to the worship of Shiva. At the same 
time, they worship all Hindu gods and goddesses and their house shrines 
contain their images of Shiva, Vishnu, Ganpati and of the tutelary goddess of the 
clan. The Kathis worship the Sun and the Parajia Souis worship fire. Among 
other castes, such as Kanbis, Kolis, Kachhias, audthe agricultural and artizan 
castes, generally a striking feature is the great hold which comparatively modern 
cults called man/a or panth^ ways, have taken upon them. Of these, the chief are 
Ramanandi, Swaminarayan, Kabirpanthi, Bijmargi, Pranami, or Meherajpanrhi, 
Ramsanehi, Dadupanthi, Radha Vallabhi, Santarampauthi, and Shakta or 
Vammargi. Some time when they are between seven and eleven, both boys and 
girls are taken to the religious head or guru, who biuds round the neck of the 
novice a rosary of beads made of the stem of the basil plant. Besides a day's 
food, the guru receives about Rs. 2 as the initiation fee. If they fall sick, they 
take vows to feed a certain number of Brahmaus or not to eat milk, ghee or any 
other dainty or to put on a turban, till they have been on a pilgrimage to the 
shrine of their favourite deity. The untouchable and depressed classes, such as 
Dheds, Bhangi?, &c., are very religious and honour most of the Brah manic gods, 
but chiefly Hanuman, Ganpati, Rama, and Devi and above all, they revere the 
sacred basil or tulsi plant. As they are not allowed to enter them, people of 
these classes seldom worship at the regular village temples or shrines?. In some 
hut near their dwellings, they have an image of Hanuman or of Meheldi Mata 
where, on holidays, they light a lamp or offer flowers. In front of their houses 
most of them keep a plant of basil or tuhi and inside some of them have an 
image of i\lata, Hanuman or Ganpati. Those who can afford it, are fond of 
going on pilgrimage for worshippmg Krishna at Dakore and the Mata at 
Pavagadh and Ambaji. They do not pass into the building but stand in the 
portico, bow as they catch a glance of the image and present a few coppers to 
the temple servants. 

A belief in demon ology, sorcery, witchcraft, the evil eye and omens is 
found more or less in almost all castes. Among religious practices, worship of 
ancestors, the elements, planets, the sea, rivers, animals, and plants is 
common to all. 

1G6. All the gods and goddesses have offerings made to them, either 
„, . daily or on special days. Offerings are either 

bloody or bloodless. Blood offerings are made to 
goddesses by Ahirs, Bharvads, Bhils, Charans, Dheds and other low castes. 
Blood offerings are sometimes made even by high caste Hindus in fulfilment 
of a vow taken to avert or cure some family sickness or secure the favour of 
some goddess. Blood offerings are also made for general good health and 
agricultural prosperity by the villagers as a body, or by some wealthy villagei'. 
Some high caste Hindus, who scruple to kill an animal, simply lay before the 



(3(j CHAPTER IV — KELIGION. 



o-oddess a live cock, sometimes with cue of its legs cut off or an ear-bored goat 
and allow the animal to roam at large. With a sword, they cut a pumpkin or 
sprinkle ou the goddess the blood that oozes out by having the animal's ear 
lopped off or its body scratched with a kuile. 

Bloodless offerings consist of grain, fruit, flowers and tree leaves. They are 
made both in every-day worship and on special days and differ for different gods. 
To the stono image of Shiva are offered the leaves of the Mi tree {aegle 
viarmelos). To Devi or Mata, Shiva's consort, all red flowers are offered, 
especially the harena, (oleander). The flowers of aMo, swallow wort^, cannot be 
offered to any god except Hanuman. To Vishnu in his form oi Krishna are 
offered white flowers. 

167. If the rain holds off till late in June or July and a drought is 

imminent, efforts are made to induce Indra, the raiu- 
Rain worship. g^^j^ j.^ favour the earth with showers. Wealthy 

men engage Brahmans to repeat prayers to the rain-god in a Shiva or Mata 
temple. Sometimes the outlet through which the water passes from the basin 
in which Shiva's linga is set is closed, and the women of the village keep 
pouring water on the linga till it is deep sunk in water. This pouring of water, 
intended to please Shiva, is repeated for eight days unless it rains in the mean- 
time. Sometimes the people of a village quit the place in a body for a few days 
and leave it ujjad or uninhabited and cook their food outside. This is done, 
because bv holding off raiu. Indra wishes to lay waste the land, and by volun- 
tarilv doing it, people believe that finding his wish fulfilled, he would send rain. 
Sometimes^a party of Koli, Vaghari or Bhil women walk in the street singing 
the praise of Mehulo, the rain-god. One of the party bears ou her head a basket 
coniainino- a clay frog with three twigs of nimh tree stuck in it. The party stops 
at every house where the women pour a potful of water over the frog drenching 
the bearer and presenting them with doles of grain. 

168. The sea is worshipped by all high caste Hindus on every Amavasya 

day, particularly when it falls on Monday. Bathing 

Sea worship. j^ j^j^g ^^^ -g considered specially cleansing, because 

on that dav the water of 999 rivers is believed to be brought into the sea by the 

sprino- tides. During the whole of the intercalary month, sea bathing is also 

held cleansing. 

169. On Sundays, Tuesdays and on the 12ths and dark 15ths of every 

Hindu month and during the whole of the inter- 
River worship. calary mouth, people bathe in the rivers in the hope 

of their sins being washed away. The rivers which are considered parti- 
cularly sacred in Gujarat, are the Tapti, the Narbada, the Mahi and the 
Saraswati. The Kolis of Mahikantha call- it a Mata and the feeling of awe for 
the Mahi Mata is so great that, if made to swear by its name, no man will dare 
tell an untruth. The bones of the dead are thrown after cremation into the 
nearest river and in the case of the well-to-do are taken to the Narbada, the 
Saraswati or the Ganges. The Saraswati at Sidhpur is held very sacred and is 
much souo'ht after by persons wishing to perform after-death ceremonies for 
women. The water of the Jumna is stored by most Vaishnavas who sip it after 
the dailv worship is over. The water of the Ganges is dropped into the mouth 
of the dying iu the hope that it will wash away all sins. 

170. According to the Hindus, the moon is a male deity and is respected 

by all lunar Rajputs who daily worship a representa- 
The moon. ^.-^^^ ^£ -^.^ Non-moon days or An,as of each month is 

unlucky for all undertakings and is observed as a day of rest by traders, shop- 
keepers and craftsmen. If it falls on a Monday, the day is sacred and j^eople 
bathe in a river or pool and make gifts to Brahmans. On the bright second day 
of a month bij, the moon is hailed by most high caste Hindus, particularly by 
traders and shoi>keepcrs. Alter seeing the new moon, peo]ile take care that the 
first person they look at is good and lucky. If their neighbours are not such, 
thev look at a silver coin. The new moon, hij. is held particularly sacred by all 
who belono- to the Bijmargi sect which has many followers among Ahirs, Bhav- 
sars Bhano-is, Darjis, Dheds, Golas, Kathis, Kolis, Luhars, Mochis, Rabaris, 
Raiputs and Sathawaraa. Some Kolis bow to the new moon and ask three 



HINDU KKUGIOUS BELIEFS AND i'KACTICES. 67 



blessings thus : bij mavdi, chiUe tavdi\ be godha ne ek gavdi, i. e., " Mother Bij, 
give a cookiug' pau (that is daily bread), two bullocks and a cow." The bright 
fourths are called Ganesh Ghaturthi or Gaupati's fourth aud the dark fourths are 
called Sankashta Ghaturthi ur trouble clearing fourth. The sight ol' the moon 
ou the bright fourths is cousidered unlucky and specially so, in the month of 
Bhadarvo. It is believed that any one who sees the moon on that day will be 
falsely charged. After sunset, people shut all windows. If by chance any one 
happens to see the moon, he throws stones on his neighbours' roofs till some one 
in the neighbour's house gets angry enough to abuse the stone-thrower, when 
the risk of the false charge of theft passes away. From this stone-thro wing, 
the day is called dagdd choth or " stone fourth". The bright fifteenths or lull 
moon, punam, are sacred to all Matas or goddesses. On particular full moons, 
such as the Kartih, Paxish^ Chaitra and Ashioin, the temples ol' tlie different 
gods and goddesses as also the sacred places ou the river banks are thronged 
by pilgrims. The Aso full moon is called MaiieJdhari punam or the pearl- 
making full moon, for, it is believed, that if a rain-drop on this night falls into 
the mouth of an oyster, it is turned into a pearl. 

Persons to whom the moon is unfriendly, wear a white diamond or a pearl 
ring or engage a Brahman to repeat a special prayer in his honour eleven 
thousand times to ward off his evil influence. 

171. For twelve hours before a sun eclipse begins and for eight hours 

before a moon eclipse begins, no cooked food is 
'** ■ eaten. Before the eclipse begins, all water jars are 

emptied and the store of pickles and jjapad is carefully locked. All including 
the household gods are held to be impure so long as the eclipse lasts. The 
people explain this impurity by saying that Rahi was a Bhangi or sweeper and 
that his touch defiles the sun and the moon. During the eclipse, gifts are made ta 
Bhaugis who go from door to door shouting karo dharm e'hhuth giahan, that is 
' Give gifts and the seizure will be loosened.' When the eclipse is over, every 
one bathes either at home or in a river or in the sea. They fetch fresh drinking- 
water, purify the house-gods by going through the regular daily worship, and 
present grain or copper and silver coins to the family priests. 

172. Among the Hindus the cow is particularly sacred. Her tail with the 

help of which they hope to cross the hell river 
( Vaitarni), is applied by people to their eyes or in- 
stead of the tail, they put their right hand on the cow's haunches and apply their 
hand to the eye. The gift of the cow, ijaudan, is the noblest of gifts. It is 
generally made during the intercalary month or before a person's death. The 
cow to be given is decorated and the donor holding her tail in his right hand 
gives her to a Brahman. Alter the dead body is burnt, a cow is milked on the 
funeral pile or her milk is poured over the ashes. High caste Hindu women 
peviorm gautrat, i. e., cow worship for their husband's long life and if a widow,^ 
to exchange her lot in the next birth. 

The bull called sandhio, akhalo or godho is Shiva's carrier and is held 
sacred. In a Shiva temple, there is always an image of a bull which is worshipped 
along with Shiva. On the Dasara. festival, owners get their horses washed, mark 
their head with a iila and put garlands of flowers on their neck. Similarly 
bullocks are worshipped bj" Kanbis and other agi'iculturists. 

17.'). The serpent, generally the 7ia:; or cobra is much dreaded and wor- 
shipped bv almost all classes. In spite of its 

Serpent Worship. i i i.. " a. u • i -n j aim 

destructive nature, a cobra is never killed. v\ lien a 
cobra appears in the house, the people bow to it and pray it not to harm the 
inmates. At the most, it is caught, put in an earthen jar, and the jar is laid in a 
lonely spot. The day held most sacred to serpent-worship is the bright or dark 
fifth of Shravan, called nngpanchmi. On that day women worship the cobra or 
its image- When a person is bitten by a snake, an adept in curing snake bites is 
called. He gives charmed cow-dung ashes to be rubbed on the bitten part or 
while re])eating some charm, ties, knot afi.or knot on a thread. If the person is 
still restless, the adept dashes seven handfuls of water on the eyes of the sick and 
otherwise tries to force the snake to leave the body. Under the influence of the 
water or charm, the snake, through the jterson bitten, tells why he bit the man. 



^8 CHAPTEK IV RELIGION. 



If the injury which prompted the enake to bite wat> blight, the snake agrees to 
leave his body ; if the injury done was heavy, the nnake persists in not leaving 
the body and the patient dies. In the City of Baroda, there is a Nagar Brahman 
family, all the members of which are deemed to be adepts in curing snake bite 
by charms and then- services are more readily requisitioned than t,hose of the 
expert medical officers. 

174. The trees and plants held in high reverence are darbha, daro, piplo, 

shami, tulsi and I'ili. Darbha is used in all religious 
Tree ors ip. ceremouies, both lucky and unlucky. A blade ol 

darhha grass is held by the bride and bridegroom just before their hands are 
joined ; and a blade of it represents the dead in the shradha ceremony. 

rhe taro (cynodon daclyton) grass is Ganpati's favourite offering. The 
day sacred to it is the bright 8th of Bh&drapad when men and women drop 
water, flowers, red powder (kanku) and rice on it. 

The pipIo (ficus religiosa) is believed to be the emblem of A' ishmi and the 
haunt of Munja, the spirit of a thread-girt and unmarried IJrahman lad. 

The shami (prosopis spicigera) is regarded as Shiva's wife and is called 
Vijayadevi. The tree is held sacred by all Hindus but chiefly by Rajputs, be- 
cause on it the Pandwas hung their arms when they were banished. The arms 
were turned into snakes and remained untouched till the owners came back to 
take them. By worshipping this tree on the Dasara day, Rama conquered 
Ravan, Vali conquered Sugriva and the Pandwas conquered the Kauravas. In 
worshipping this tree, people walk round it and while walking, repeat verses 
tellino- how the tree purifies from sin, destroys enemies, cures diseases and 
ensures success. 

All Vaishuavas keep the tulsi plant in their houses. Dheds also hold it 
sacred and keep it in front of their houses. To get rid of barrenness, women 
walk 108 times around the tulsi and pip)lo planted together. TiUsi leaves are 
believed to have great sin-cleansing power and a tidsi leaf is therefore put in the 
mouth of the dying. 

The bili (segle marmelos) is planted near shrines and other holy places and 
is believed to be the home of Parvati, after whom it is called Sh/varaksha. 
Brahmans gain merit by repeating prayers sitting under its shade. The leaves 
of the tree are the favourite offerings to Shiva. 

175. Fire is held in high veneration. It is used in burning the dead and in 

all sin-cleansing rites. Offerings are made to fire 
Fire wors ip. ^^ thread, marriage and pregnancy ceremonies. 

When a lamp is lighted in the evening and brought into a room, those sitting 
in it make a bow to it and to each other. Souis, Luhars, Kansaras and all other 
artizans who use tire in their calling, make offerings of clarified butter and ri(;e 
to their fire-place. The followers of the Kabir and the Bijmargi sects who 
profess not to worship i'iols, hold the flame of a lighted lamp sacred, and make 
offerings to it, just as others do to their idols. 

176. In the evening of the last day of the year, bankers and merchants 

perform vahi-pujnn or book worship. New books 
Boo wors Ip. |.^j^. ^j^g coming year aie piled on a wooden stool, 

o-enerally in front of an image of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealthy lighted lamps 
are placed round them and flowers are sirewn on the books. The priest repeats 
a prayer for the favour of the goddess on the next year's business and dij^ping 
his fingers in kanku makes round marks on the first page of each book. The 
worship ends by writing on the walls of the room, the words Shri (laneshayananiali , 
Lakshmi matani madat, Bhandar bharpw, " salutation to Ganesh : mother 
Lakshmi, help us ; overflow our treasure chests.'' 

177. Consecrated stones are held sacred by ahnost all classes ol Gujarat 

Hindus. Most rods and goddesses are made of 



o 



one-wors ip. stone and when consecrated by prayers and offer- 

ings, become the dwelling place of somi' guardian spirit. Bhils, Kolis, 
Vagliaris, Dublas and other wild tribes have no elaborate rites for making a btone 
fit to be the house of a guardian. With them, the mere iiibbing of a stone with 
red lead makes it an object of revereii(u\ A red lead trident is painte;! ou the 



HINDU BELiaiOUS BELIEFS AND I'RACTICES. 69 



trunk ot a nijiib or piplo tree and a heap of stones is piled at its root. Believing 
the place to be the dwelling of some god or goddess, passers-by show their 
reverence for it by adding a stone or two to the heap. 

178. Among Hindus in Gujarat, tomb worship is not common. The few 

tombs that are worshipped are those raised over the 
oni wors ip. remains of a sati, that is a woman who burnt herself 

with her dead husband, of ascetics and of Mahomedan saints. Over tlic spot 
where a woman was burnt, a dcvdi or masonry platform was used to be erected 
by the ruler of the land or hy the members of her family. A stone is set on the 
platform which is sometimes canopied and on the stone are carved the Sun and 
the Moon and the hgure of a woman with her right hand uplifted. The members 
of the woman's family visit the Sati's devdi generally on the dark fourteenth of 
Aso (October), daub it with red lead, lay a lighted lamp near it and offer a 
cocoauut and a robe to it. Sati's tomb is worshipped by barren women and by 
fever-striken people. 

..q Masonry platforms raised over the remains of a Hindu ascetic are called 
samadki, because the ascetic is believed at the lime of death to be in a 8tat« of 
mental absorption or similh. A ^tone is set on the platform and on the stone a 
pair of footprints is carved. These samadhia are worshipped by disciples, 
daily or at least on Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays, Ashad full moon or on the 
anniversary of the ascetic's death. 

The taKiyo or tombs of Musalman Firs or Sainis are worshipped by middle 
and low class Hindus, when a vow taken in the saint's honour is to be fulfilled. The 
intercession and help of these Pirs are asked when a man's life is in danger, 
when a lost article is to be recovered, when the milk-yielding power ot milch 
cattle is to be restored, when punishment is to be avoided, and when epidemics, 
cholera, cattle plague, snake-bite, woman's barrenness, «S;c,, are to be cured. 
When by the saint's help the object is gained, offerings are made to the tombs. 
During the Mohorram, the taboots or tazias which are models of the tombs of 
Hassan and Hussain are hs^d sacred by Marathae, Rajputs, Vagharis, Kolis, 
Dheds and other low class Hindus. Brahman, Vania and some other high caste 
Hindu boys are dressed by their parents as fakirs and made to live on gifts made 
by friends and relations. In fulfilment of a vow, some pour water, throw them- 
selves on the road and with a cocoauut in their hands roll in front of the taboots ; 
some pass and repass under them, some walk a considerable distance with 
their faces turned towards the tazi'a and some paint themselves as tigers and 
bears. 

179. Epidemics are believed to be caused by a goddess or Mata whose 

wrath requires to be appeased by offerings. The 
Epidemic scaring. ceremony with which these offerings are made is 

called shanti or quieting rite. It is performed by a whole caste or by the 
people of a street or village, uear a goddess's temple, in the market where four 
rbads cross or in a street. Shanti ceremonies are also performed when the 
rainfall is scanty, when the fields are attacked by locusts, when a child is born 
under an unlucky star and when an unlucky occasion, such as marriage is beset 
with obstacles. Ahev the offerings are made, the ends of the street or of the 
market are festooned with cocoanuts and nimb, asopalo and mango leaves with, 
at each end of the festoon, two earthen pots one over the other. 

ISO. Disease both in its milder endemic form in which it is generally 

present and in its fiercer epidemic form which 
Disease worship. breaks out from time to time, is believed to be due 

to spirit possession. Endemic diseases are believed lo l^e caused by the 
unfriendly influence of some planet or of some god oi' goddess or of some evil 
spirit. Epidemic diseases are believed to be caused by the anger of some 
goddess. If a disease is caused by the unfriendly influence of some particular 
planet, a Brahman is engaged to offer prayers to it and articles sacred to it are 
used or are given away in charity. If it is caused by some god or goddess, 
prayers are repeated in their name and their favourite offerings are made to 
them. If it is caused by the influence of some spirit, offerings are made to the 
tombs of Musalman saints and charmed articles are worn on the arms <n- neck. 
The -ihrines usually frequented by the sick are at Behecharaji in the ( 'hansma 



70 CHAPTEK IV— RELIGION. 



taluka ol the Slate, Miradatar near Unja, Ambaji iu the Daiita Siate aud Kalka Mata 
ia the Pauch Mahals. Epidemic small-pox is believed to be presided over by 
a g-oddess called Shttala Mata and endemic small-pox by a god called ISaiyyad 
Kaka. Both are propitiated by parents, especially by mothers, once iu a year to 
protect their children. 

181. There is a widespread belief in spirits, bhuts, and spirit possession, 

valgan. Spirits are ol two kinds, gharna bkut or 
^P*"**' family spirits and baharnu hhut or outside spirits. 

The influence of tbe family spirit is confined to the house or family to which it 
belongs. It does not trouble outsiders. A family spirit is generally the ghost of 
a member of the family who died with some desire unfulfilled or whose after-death 
ceremonies were neglected or improperly performed. Married women are very 
liable to be possessed by the spirit of a husband's former wife. To guard against 
it, a second wife always wears round her neck a gold ornament called shokyufjaglu, 
the former wile's footprint which is sometimes marked with mystic letters or 
fiu-ures. Family spirits are ([uieted by performing special after-death rites. 
The chief outside spirits are (males) Jhand, Jm, Khavas, iShkotar and Vir 
and (females) Chudel, Jhampadi, Joyni, Aleldt, Pari, Shikotari, aud Vantri. Of 
these female spirits, Jhampadi, Meldi and Shikotri are the favourite goddesses 
of most of the low-caste Hindus, like Bhangis, Dheds, &c., who avert their evil 
influence by offerings. The favourite haunts of these spirits are burning 
grounds, pi[jal or hahul trees, wells, empty houses, &c. They are said to enter 
the bodies of those who annoy them by committing a nuisance in, or otherwise 
defiling, their abodes, and by leaping over the circle within which offerings are 
laid for them, at the crossings of the four roads. The days most favourable for 
spirits entering human bodies are all Tuesdays and Sundays, the navratra 
festival which lasts for nine days iu Aso Sud and the dark fourteenth oi 
Aso ; the hours of the day when they are most likely to enter are sunset and 
miduight. 

182. When a person is believed to be spirit possessed, a little of cowdung, 

chillies, mustard, an iron nail and live charcoal are 
Exorcism. placed on a bell-metal plate. Over these articles, a 

bell metal cup is turned with its rim down and over the bottom of the cup, a mix- 
ture of cowdung and water is poured. The plate is then waved over the head of 
the sick seven times by a woman. If after some time, the cup sticks to the plate, 
the spirit is believed to have left the p(ir8on and to have gone inside the 
cup. Sometimes charmed threads supplied by some exorcists are tied to the 
wrist or the neck. Sometimes Brahmans are engaged to repeat sacred verses 
iu a goddess temple. If the spirit is a weak one, it gets frightened by one or 
more of these processes and leaves the victim. If it is a strong spirit and 
cannot easily be got rid of, an exorcist is sent for. He is called a hhuvo 
and may be a Brahman, Khatri, Rabari, Bharvad, Vaghari, Koli or a Bhil. 
He may be a Jain Gorji or a Musalmau Fakir or Molvi. Exorcists are said 
to gain their power of scaring spirits by mastering spells, mantra, which 
force spirits to become their servants and obey their orders. An exorcist goes 
to a burial-ground alone at midnight on the dark fourteenth of Aso every year 
and "unearthing the body of a low-caste Hindu, mutters the mantras, sitting on 
the corpse. When he is consulted, the exorcist's first care is to ascertain whether 
the sick person suffers from spirit possession or from some other disease. 
This is done either by the Hindu method of counting grain or the Musalman 
method called /iOf/ra^ of examining the reflection of a lighted lamp in a liquid. 
The Hindu exorcist gives a member of the sick person's lamily some rice, wheat, 
juvar, or adad, a nail, a piece of charcoal, seven clods of earth, seven particles of 
salt aud a copper coin. These ai'e wrapped in a piece of cloth, waved seven 
times over the head of the sick and the bundle is tied to his sleeping cot. On the 
next day which must be a Sunday, or a Tuesday, the bundle is opened and the 
exon-ist rakes a pinch of the grain from the bundle. The grains are arranged 
in twos aud if one grain remains over, it is called vadhavo and shows that the 
spirit is iu the sick man's body ; if no single grain remains, there is no spirit 
in the sick man. If by this i)rocess the sick man is found to be possessed by a 
spirit, rhf exorcist first tries mild measures, and if thev fail, harsh measures to 



HINftU RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND I'KACTICES. 71 



dislodge the spirit. He drives au iron nail into the threshold of the house and 
gently brushes the sick man's face with a peacock's feather or a nimb twig, 
all the while exhorting him to speak out. He forces the sick man to swing his 
body from side to side and to speak out the name of the spu-it which has possess- 
ed hhn. Sometimes a whole night passes without any result, and the operation 
is repeated on the next night. A tire is lighted, a few chillies, mustard, and 
cumin seeds, salt, dung of a dog, monkey or donkey and a piece of leather are 
dropped into the fire and the fumes blown through the sick man's nostrils. To 
impress the sick man with his superhuman powers, the exorcist beats his own 
back with an iron chain. When the sick man is thus teased and annoyed, he 
replies to every question put by the exorcist, gives his name, explains why and 
how he entered the sick man's body, and after a solemn promise from the 
sick man's friends and relations to satisfy his demands, agrees to return to his 
old haunts. 

Western education has weakened the belief of high caste Hindus in evil 
spirits. But among the low castes, such as Golas, Ghanchis, Kolis, Dheds, 
Bhaugis, &c., who are still very ignorant, it is yet as strong as ever. 

183. Almost all classes of Gujarat Hindus believe that the result of every 
Q undertaking is foreshadowed by certain signs and 

hints. The business of the day will prosper or fail 
according to the nature of the object first seen after waking. The objects which 
the people are most anxious to begin the day by looking at, are the household 
gods, the ])ipal tree, the basil plant, a Brahman or a cow. Unless the signs are 
favourable, no new work is undertaken. If the first signs are unfavourable, 
people sit down and await the appearance of favourable signs. Kolis, Bhils, and 
others of the depredatory classes wait for the appearance of good omens on the 
village outskirts, and if they do not appear, put oS their starting on a plunder- 
ing raid from day to day. The goodness or badness of signs is determined by 
the appearance of certain living and lifeless objects in a particular form, in a 
particular way and in a particular state. An armed man, a cavalier, a mace- 
bearer, a school boy, a cultivator returning from his fields with his plough, a 
barber with his bag, a musician with his instruments, a mali or gardener with a 
basket of flowers, a woman with two water pots filled with water on her head, 
a cow on the left, a horse neighing to the right, &c., are considered good signs. 
Eating of curds before going on a journey is considered lucky. A journey is 
avoiied to the north on a Sunday, to the north-west on a Monday, to the west on 
a Tuesday, to the south-west on a Wednesday, to the south on a Thursday, to the 
south-east on a Friday and to the east on a Saturday. Among bad signs are a 
physician, a goldsmith, a blacksmith, a pregnant woman, a widow, a buffalo, a 
camel, a goat, a cat, a woman carrying three earthen pots, sneezing, &c. A man 
who is cat-eyed or who has no hair on the breast or upper lip is considered un- 
lucky. The popular saying is : makadmucliho ne marijro, jene haide nahi val, te nar 
fo samo male, to m'shche j'age leal, i. e., it is a sure sign of ruin if on the wav you 
meet one who has reddish moustaches, who is cat-eyed and who has no hair 
on the chest. 

184. Places of pilgrimage owe their sanctity to their possessing the shrines 
Pilgrimage. °.' *'^® objects worshipped and as being places men- 
tioned in the legendery lore. Such places are many, 

both within the State, such as Sidhpur, Modhera, Behecharaji, Dwarka, Chandod, 
Uuai, and outside it, such as Shrinathji, Dakorji, Pavaghad, Ambaji, Gokul 
Mathura, Benares, &c. Of the places of pilgrimage connected with this State, 
Dwarka (Amreli District), Sidhpur (Kadi District) and Chandod (Baroda District) 
9,re well-known throughout India. Dwarka is looked upon as a very holy place 
on account of its once being the capital of Shri Krishna and at present possessino- 
the shrine of Shri Ranchhodji. Sidhpur is looked upon as the only place in the 
whole of India where shradka can be performed, for the propitiation of the manes 
of the deceased mother. What Gaya is for the father, Sidhpur is for the mother. 
Chandod is situated on the sacred Narbada, ablutions in whoso water are be- 
lieved to cause the purification of sins. Large number of pilgrims from within 
and without the State, constantly visit these holy places, thus providing a liveli- 
liood for the local Brahman priests who administer to them the necessary rituals. 



CHAPTER IV — RELIGION. 



The Jains have their own places of pilgrimage, such as Mount Abu, Shatrunjaya 
and Giruar. People have great faith in the merit to be attained by going on a 
pilgrimage and thousands flock to places of pilgrimage several times in a 
year, if they are near aud once in their life, if they are very distant. In the old 
unsettled times, pilgrims used to go in bauds called sanc/hs with hereditary leaders 
called satigJiavis. Railways have made pilgrimages easier, safer and less costly; 
but devout Hindus, especially Jains, still go on foot, expecting thereby to gam 
more religious merit. 

186. A Hindu on his death-bed gives a Brahman, the gaudan, that is the 

gift of a cow or of a cow's worth, not less than one 
Death-rites. ^.^^^^ ^^^ ^o^^. annas. With the help of her tail, he 

hopes to cross the hell river Vaitarni. He is then made to pour some water on 
the ground saying " so much (naming the sum) will be given in charity after 
my death." When the end draws near, he is bathed and with his head to the 
north is laid on the ground, which has been cleansed with fresh cowdung wash. 
While he lies on the ground, he is told to remember Rama and drops of Ganges 
water and tidsi leaves are laid in his mouth and a lamp is lighted. When life is 
gone, the body is covered with a sheet and the relations raise a loud cry. A 
bier of bamboo poles is prepared, the dead body is bound on it aud borne, head 
first out of the house. The bier is carried on the shoulders of four near relations, 
the chief mourner going a little in front, carrying slung in a string, an earthen 
jar holding lighted cow-dung cakes. The female mourners follow the funeral 
party for some distance and then stop, beat their breasts and go to the village 
pond or river to bathe and then return home weeping. About halfway to the 
burning ground, the bier is turned round and set on the ground and rice, betel- 
nuts and coppers are laid on the spot where the bier was rested. From this 
spot to the burning ground, the body is carried feet first instead of head first. 
On the w^ay the bearers chant to each other '■'' Bam bolo bliailiama "—'• Say Rama, 
brother, say Rama." At the burning ground the body is unbound, bathed and 
laid on the funeral pile. The chief mourner tajjes out a lighted cow-dung cake 
from the earthen jar and after dipping it in clarified butter lays the cake on the 
mouth of the corpse. He fills the jar with water standing at the head ot the 
corpse. He next walks round the pile and lights it at the head. When the 
body is consumed, the fire is put out either on the same or next day and the ashes 
are thrown into the sea or into a river. A few bones are collected and sent to 
some sacred river and the place where the body was burnt is washed with water. 
An earthen pot of water is set on the spot and broken with a stone thrown by 
the chief mourner. The funeral party raise a loud cry, leave the burning 
ground, bathe and return home. 

186. On the nest or third day after a death, a cow is brought and milked, 

p t d th "t ^° ^^^^ ^^^^ "^^^^ ^^^^y ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^P°^ where the body 

was burned. Letters called chiths announcing the 
death are sent to friends and relations by post or by a special carrier. For ten 
days relations aud friends, especially females, come and weep morning and even- 
ing. Milk and water are set on the toUa or wooden peg in front of the house on 
the first day hj a Brahman and on the succeeding three days by some member 
of the household. The nearest relations remain impure for ten days during 
which they touch no one, do not approach the house-gods, do not visit the temples 
and do not shave. If the deceased has left a widow, her head is shaved on the 
tenth day after his death and the heads of the male members of the family are 
also shaved. Near relations also shave their moustaches. 

The shradha ceremony is performed by the chief mourner from the tenth 
to the thirteenth day ; on the eleventh day it is performed with the help of a 
Kayatia Brahman and on the other three days with the help of the family priest. 
During the four days of the shradha ceremony, the chief mourner, instead of a 
turban, wears a saniyu or silk cloth wound round his head. The mniyu is 
removed on the thirteenth day when his father-in-law presents him with a new 
turban. Near relations arc feasted from the tenth to the thirteenth day and the 
caste people on the twelfth. On the thirteenth day the family priest is presented 
with sajja or a sleeping cot with bedding, brass and copper vessels and vari- 
ous kinds of fruits and vegetables for the use of the departed soul. During the 



HINDU SECTS. 73 



tirst year, monthly, half-yearly and yearly (masiso, chhamasi, and varshi) shradhas 
are performed. A yearly shradha is performed iu all subsequent years and an 
additional oue during the latter half of the month of Bhadarvo. 

187. Apart from the all-pervading physiolatry aud superstitious beliefs 

briefly described in the preceding paragraphs, some 
Common^phUosophical essential doctrines of Hindu philosophy are well- 
known to almost all the Hindus and passing like a 
rich heritage from father to son, have reached even the illiterate and ignorant 
masses. They promote virtuous living, discourage worldliness and teach 
resignation in their existing troubles. The first and the foremost among these is 
the belief in lakshachorasi avatar or the transmigration of soul. It is a 
general understanding that while earthly desires remain unextinguished and while 
earthly passions continue to exist, the human soul is subject to be reincarnated 
again and again until tiually emancipated from all mundane hopes aud affections. 
The second belief is that the circumstances of each embodied existence are the 
result of (he works done in the previous existence ; aud that souls, according to 
their actions, may enjoy happiness in this world or the heaven of god, or on the 
other hand suffer punishment on this earth or in hell reserved for evil doers. 
Karyan karma bhogaravaiia clihe or "as you will sow, so you will reap," is an 
axiom which even a rustic, believes to be applicable to this life and the one to 
come. Consequently, he believes that he must bear his miseries in life with 
patience and it is to his present and future welfare to live rightly, and to free 
himself from all carnal desires so as to ensttre his early release from rebirth and 
to effect his union with god. , 

2. — Hindu Sects. 

188. The record of sects at the Census was optional with Local Govern- 
„ ^ . _. ments. It was attemijted in this State in 1901 as 

also on the present occasion, with a view to ascer- 
tain, as far as possible, the sectarian distribution of the people. 

189. Most of the higher castes, such as Brahmans, Vanias, Kanbis, Bhats, 

Rajputs and the artizan classes know the name of 
the panth or sect to which they belong. Even those 
of them who have no clear idea of the distinctive tenets of their faith, have an 
intuitive knowledge as to whether they are Shaivas, Shaktas or Vaishnavas, 
and if the last, whether they belong to the Ramauuj, Eamanand, Vallabhacharya 
or Swaminarayan sampradaya. Such, however, is not the case with the members 
of the lower castes, such as Kolis, Vagharis, etc. Only a few of them know the 
name of their sect. The majority of their number who are illiterate and ignorant, 
know, only generally, the name of Parmeshwar, Rama, Shivaji, Amba, Bahuchara 
or Kalka Mata, but have no idea of sectarian differences or of sect names and are 
generally content with saying that they are Hindus. In spite of this in 1901, 
.sgcts were returned for the whole Hindu popttlation ; and on the present occasion, 
there are only 53 in 1,000 for whom no sect is returned. This leads to the 
suspicion that many of the persons for whom sects have been entered, especially 
among the lower classes, owe them to the fact that names of sects were given 
in the instructions to the enumerators as illustrations of the kind of entry 
i-equired, and it is probable that the most likely of them were entered by the 
enumerators when the enumerated themselves could not name any. Being thus 
vitiated no accuracy can be claimed for, and no implicit reliance can be placed 
on the Census return of sects. It can, however, be used to form an estimate 
of the followers of the various forms of religious' beliefs which exist in the State. 

190. All the Hindu sects returned at the Census fall "into two main 

........ . ^ categories : (1) those who advocate the rival claims 

Mam division of sects. ,. ° ^ r ^.i i. \t j- j v c 

01 one or other oi the o-reat Vedic deities or of 



Pauranic accretions to the orthodox pantheon such as Durga, etc., and (2) those 
who deny the regular deities and prohibit idol worship. To the fonner class 
belong (a) the Shaivas or Smartas, (6) Shaktas or Uevi Bhaktas. (c) Vaishnavas 
and (d) the followers of minor deities, such as Sauryas, Ganpatyas, etc. To the 
latter class belong the followers of Kabir, Dadu, Sautram, Ravisaheb and many 
others. 



74 



CHAPTER IV — RELIGION. 



per 



191. Of 
cent, 



the 
beloDii' 



11, 



total Hindu populatici., ^, 
to the sects \vhich reverence 

Sect Statistics. 



1,454,660 persons 
Vedic and 



Name of Sect. 



Number of followers in 



1911. 



I— Believers in Vedic and Panranic deities.. 

1. Shaiva or Smarta 

2. Shakta 

3. Vaishnav 

(1) Bamanuji 

(2) Ramanandi ••• 

(3) Vallabhacbari 

(i) Swaminarayau 

(5) Miscellaneous k unspecified .. 

II — Non-believers in Vedic and other deities.. 

4. Kabir Panth 

5. Bij Fanth 

6. Parnami 

7. Dadu Panthi 

8. Ramde Pir 

9. Allscellaneous 

Ill — Worshippers of Musalman saints 

10. Pirana 

IV — Sect not returned 

Total 



1,454,660 

3.50,495 

287,547 

816,618 

104,987 

434,679 

171,460 

53,721 

51,771 

229,963 

34,954 

170,645 

6,854 

2,401 

8,409 

6,700 

3,630 

3,630 

8,893 

1,697,146 



1901. 



Increase^ 
or 

Deci-case — 



1,367,957 
276,489 
260,096 
,S31,372 

18.(l«0 
.506,320 
183,015 

90,871 

33,106 
178,979 

42,626 

1111,847 

8,148 

6,098 
2,260 



1.546,936 



H6,703 

74,006 

27,451 

14,754 

86,927 

71,641 

U,.555 

37,150 

18,665 

.-i0,984 

7,672 

50,798 

1,294 

2,401 

2,311 

4,440 

3,630 

3,630 

8,893 



+ 150,210 



Percent- 
age. 



6-3 
26-8 
10-5 

1-8 

481-3 

14-2 

6-3 
40-8 
56-4 

28 
18-5 
42-4 
15-9 

"" 38 
196-5 



9-7 



ur 85-7 
Pauranic 
deities; and 
229,963 per- 
sons or i'6'^> 
per cent, are 
t h e followers 
of Kabir and 
others, who do 
not reverence 
A'edic deities, 
but believe in 
one imperson- 
al God. The 
rest are merely 
Hindus with- 
out partiality 
tor any seer. 
C o m p a r e d 
with 1901 the 
followers o f 
Shaivism and 
Shaktism have 
increased b y 
26-8 and 10-5 
of 2 per cent. 
The statistics 
the apparent 
But having 



per cent, respectively, while Vaishnavism shows a decline 
in its votaries. It is difficult to account for these variations, 
being not quite reliable, any inference drawn only from 
variations disclosed by the figures, is likely to be misleading. _ 

regard to the present tendency among the people, a conjecture may be ventured 
to the effect that the increase in fShaivism may be due to the growing poijula- 
rity of Shaukar's adwait philosophy ; the increase in the number of Shaktas is 
doubtless due to the inclusion among Hindus of the members of the early tribes, 
most of whom are returned as devi hhaldas or votaries of Devi, a dubious term 
which may equally apply to the Pauranic deities as also to their tribal goddesses. 
The decrease in the number of Vaishnavas is only apparent and due to the 
coming into existence of new sects which, though really Vaishnavite in belief 
and practices, are known by the name of new gurus or preceptors, w^ho by their 
fascinating practices and preaching draw around them a large number of people 
looking upon them as god-incarnate and distinguishing them as their followers. 
8uch was, within the last few years, Kuberdas of Sarsa, whose followers, though 
really Vaishnavas, are known as Kuberpanthi, 

192. The division of the Gujarat Hindus into sects is not a division into so 

many water-tight compartments between which no 
communion is possible. There is no doubt a certain 
amount of hostility is felt by the leaders and the inner 
circle of devotees of some sects against the adherents of their rival sects. It is 
due to this that devout Vaishnavas of the Vallabhacbari sect are careful that 
they do not pronounce the Gujarati word shivavun, to sew, lest they may thereby 
indirectly utter the name of Shiva and show him reverence. The head of the 
Shaiva sect, the Shankaracharya of Dvvarka similarly shows hostility to the 
Swaminarayau and other Vaishnav leaders and the brawls between them some- 
times result in legal notices, apologies and even criminal proceedings. Buf 
beyond these, lies the great mass of the people who, while showing special 
reverence to the god of their sect, their isht(( devta, worship also all the gods of 
the Hindu pantheon. A Shaiva Brahman, for instance, visits SluA'a's temples 
and also Vishnu mnndirs and Mata temples. A Vaishnav makes obeisance to the 
Rama or Krishna idols of his sect and also visits Mahadcv and Mata temples : 
and similarly Devi-upasaks have no objection to reverence Mahadev or Krislma. 
The Gujarat Hindu is very religious and very tolerant. He worships not only 
his own and his people's gods, but also shows reverence to IMusalnian Pirs and 



No sectaraniam among 
Hindu Sects. 



HINDU SECTS. 75 



Christian padris. He abstains from insulting the religious feelings ol' others 
and avoids anything that may bring upon him the wrath of any deity. 

193. It is noteworthy that Gujarat has not produced any religious leader 

of note. Acfiaryas from the south like iShankar, 
notVptlu"//by"Qufa7at. Ra^anuja and Vallabh and from the north, like 

banajanand !5wami and Kabir have spread their 
faith in Gujarat. Before Mahomed of Ghazni's invasion on Somnath Patau, 
Brahmanism as represented by Shaukaracharya was supreme in Gujarat. Jainism 
was confined only to a few Vauia castes. The faith of the people in Shaivism 
was, however, shaken when Mahomed could with impunity break to pieces the 
famous idol of Somnath Mahadev and carry away its treasures. This was the 
opportunity, first for Ramauuj and then for each successive Vaishnav preacher 
from the south or the north. The local sect makers like Kuberdas, Santram, 
Bhabharam are simply copyists and have been able to secure followers on 
account of their personal high character. They were exponents of the nqn-ido- 
latrotta principle" laid down by Kabir, but their beliefs and practices were tinged/ 
with Vaishnavism in one form or another. 

194. The Shaivas or worshippers of Shiva number 350,495 or 21 per cent. 

of the total Hindu population of the State. They 
are mostly Brahmaus and Gosaius, but a large 
number of Rajputs, Kadwa Kanbis, Bhats and Sutars also belong to this sect. 
They worship the deity under the name of Rudra, Shiva, Sadashiv, Shankar, 
Shambhu and Mahadev in their own houses as the family god, as also in the 
temples, which are to be found in almost every village. Shiva is a god whose 
auger is dreaded and whose favour is propitiated. His heaven is supposed 
to be the Kailasa where he dwells with his wife Parvati (also called Durga, Kali 
Uma, Bhavani, etc.), and his countless troops of servants (yanas). Shiva is 
sometimes represented in sculptures and paintings with five faces, (JPancJumana\ 
sometimes with one iace and with three eyes. He is commonly represented with a 
moon's crescent on his fore-head, a serpent round his neck, and a second necklace 
of skulls, with numerous other serpents above his person. On the top of his 
knotted hair he bears the Ganges, the rush of which he intercepted in its 
descent from Vishnu's foot, that the earth might not be crushed by the weight 
of the falling stream. His complexion is sometimes white from the reflection of 
the snows of Kailasa, sometimes dark from his identification with the dark 
destroyer, time (ivd/a). His throat is blue from the stain of the deadly poison 
which would have destroyed the world, had not Shiva, in compassion for the 
human race undertaken to drink it up, upon its production from the churning of 
the ocean- He rides on a white bull, called Nandi, stone or plaster images of 
which are often placed outside his shrines. As Shiva is constantly engaged in 
battle with mighty demons, he carries a three-pronged trident (trishul), a bow, 
a thunder-bolt {vajra\ etc. He holds in his hands a noose for binding his 
ejiemies and a kind of drum called damaru which he uses as a musical instru- 
ment to keep time in dancing. But, though, Shiva is thus depicted in sculptures 
and paintings, in Shaiva shrines he is worshipped under the impersonal symbol 
of the phallus or lingum, for he is supposed to reproduce after destruction, and 
as such is worshipped as if he were the creator. The ling or harm is of stone, 
pyrainidal in shape and from three inches to several feet high. The chief of 
these emblems are called svayavibhu or self-created and jyotir or luminous. The 
essential doctrine of Shaivism is the existence of a personal deity, the one 
existent and universal soul without a second or adwait and the unity of the 
divine or universal soul Parmatma with the individual soul or Jivatma. All 
nature is but a manifestation of the universal soul, takes its origin from 
that soul, and is eventually absorbed therein. In order to impress this 
doctrine upon his mind the Shivite is required by his religion to mutter 
eveiy now and then, Shivokam, that is ' I am Shiva '. The daily worship 
is simple and consists in offering chandan, water and the leaves of bill (Aegle 
marmelos) to the ling. But on SKivratria, dark fourteenth of each month, 
and especially on that of Magh, called Maha Shivratn, the god is invested 
with a brass or silver mask and in winter the ling is decked with refri.ii'crated 
clarified butter in ornamental shapes called ghina hamal. In cases of anxiety 



76 CHAPTER IV — RELIGION. 



or of serious illueiss aud evil plauetary intiueuce prayers called rudri aiid 
mritunjaij Jap (death conquering prayer) are ofi'ered to Shiva in his temples. 
This consists in Brahmans pouring water over his livig and reciting the 
Rudradhvaya. or panegyric in honour of Rudra. It is recited 11 times in Rudri, 
121 times in Layhu Rudra, 131 times in the Maha Rudra and ] 4,6-11 times in 
the Att Hudra. 

Shiva worship has continued from the earliest times to be the cult of 
the Brahmans. Towards the close of the eighth century, it was extended and 
adopted by Shankaracharya to popular worship. Shiva's terrible aspects as 
Rudra, Bhairav, Ugra and Aghor easily adapted him to the religion of fear and 
propitiation prevalent among the non-Aryan races. He thus became the deity 
of the highest and the lowest of castes. 

Shankaracharya established in India four seats where he installed his 
pupils as acharyas or religious heads and their successive pupils still occupy 
the gadis. One of these called sharda pith, or throne of learning, is situated at 
Dwarka in this State and is endowed by His Highness the Gaekwad who 
sanctions the appointment of every new pontiff, called Shankaracharya. The 
chief duty of the Shankaracharya is to preach aud disseminate the doctrines 
of the Vedic religion. He is an authority in religious questions for the followers 
of Shaivism in Gujarat. 

Shaivas use a traverse streak on their fore-head as a religious mark. They 
also put on a necklace of rudraksha (Elaeoarpus gauitris) berry, and use rudrah 
$ha hand rosaries. 

195. 2Sl,b¥l Hindus or 17 per cent, of the total Hindu population reiuru- 
„ ^ ed themselves as ghaktas or D evi hhakt&. They 

^aktas. are found in all the Prants. The Shaktas give 

prominence to the worship of the female counterpart of Shiva, the goddesses 
Devi, Durga and Kali, all consorts of Shiva. This worship of shakti 
or energy is inculcated in the Tantras aud in the Brahma Vaivart, Skand 
and Kalika Purans. A section of the ]\Iarkandeya Puran called the Devi 
Mahatmya or Chandipath is devoted to the praise of Durga. It is read in Mata 
temples to avert the wrath of the goddess as also to secure happiness and pros- 
perity even by those who call themselves Shaivas or Vaishnavas. Songs in 
honour of the Matas are also sung throughout Gujarat, especially during the 
navratra or nine nights sacred to Matas in the bright half of Aso» 

Though not so returned in the Census, Shaktas are said to be divided into 
two classes Dakshinachari or right-hand worshippers and Vamachari or left-hand 
worshippers. The Dahshinacharis worship their goddess publicly and with the 
usual Vedic or Pauranic ritual. They do not allow blood sacrifices. Worship is 
restricted to Shiva's consort, and to Shiva only as identified with her. The 
Varnacharis make the Tantras their Veda, and adopt a ritual which holds the 
Vedas, Smritis aud Purans in contempt. Besides Shiva's wife, they worship 
Matrikas, Yoginis, the evil doing Dakinis and Sakinis and Shiva in his form of 
Bhairav. At their chief ceremony which is performed secretly at night, a circle 
is formed composed of men and women without respect to caste or relationship. 
The five makars or ms are required., viz., inadya wine, manm flesh, matsya fish, 
mudra parched grain and maithun sexual union. The goddess is represented 
by a woman in the flesh. Wine and flesh are first offered to the woman god- 
dess aud then distributed among the votaries, orgies follow, and the ceremony 
called shrichaha or purnabhishek or full initiation ends the rite. A branch of 
vammarqis found in North Gujarat and Kathiawad is called Kanchalijmnth or 
bodice sect which holds that promiscuous intercourse between the sexes on 
certain days confers religious merit. 

Shaktas generally make two perpendicular vermillion marks on their forehead 
or a red streak upto the middle of the forehead, with a round red chanla at the 
root of the nose. The division of the sect into DakshinacJ/ari and Vamachari 
and of the latter into Kanchalipanth has not been returned in the census but 
there can be no doubt that they have many secret votaries who join the faith 
in the high hopes held out in the Tan trie texts. 



HINDU SECTS. 77 



19(->. 104,987 persons are followers of the Ramanuji sect, so called from 

Ramanuji sect, ^^^ ^^^^'^ °^ ^^^ founder Ramanuj, a Tamil Brahman, 

; '~ who flourished in the twelfth century. Against 

Shaukarauharya's adwait or strict '■ monism ", Ramanuj set up a theory called 
VisMsMadwaita or ' qualified monism ' maintaining (1) that individual souls are 
not essentially one with the supreme soul though he is their source, and hence the 
soul after salvation enters into a relation of perfect heavenly service to him and 
{2) that the supreme is not purely abstract being, but possesses real qualiUes 
of goodness and the like, infinite in degree. The Ramanujis worship Vishnu as 
Narayan and his bride Laxmi or Shri.) The special marks of a hamanuji are a 
close-shaven mustache, a tidsi or sweet basil rosary, and two vertical or slanting 
lines on the forehead of white clay, a perpendicular red streak for Laxmi in the 
middle with a horizontal white clay line connecting the thi'ee across the root of 
the nose, the whole from one to two inches wide and representing Vishnu's 
throne. C^liere are two main divisions of the sect, Ten-gala or southern school 
and Vidagala or northern school which differ chiefly in externals. The northern 
school accepts the Sanskrit Veda. The southern has compiled a Veda of its 
own called Naiayira or " The four thousand verses written in Tamil." 

An important difference of doctrine, caused by different views of the natm-e 
of the soul's dependence on Vishnu, separates the two parties. The view taken 
by the Vadagalas is called the " monkey theory." The soul, say they, lays 
hold of the Supreme Being by its own free will, act, and effort, just as the young- 
monkey clings to its mother. The Teugaias hold what is called the " cat-hold 
theory." The human soul remains helpless until acted on by the Supreme Being, 
just as (he kitten remains helpless until transported by the mother cat. 

The two divisions are distinguished by different marks on the forehead, to 
J whicJi they attach great importance. The Vadagalas contend that the mark on 
I the forehead ought to represent the right foot of Vishnu, while the Tengalas 
I contend that equal reverence is due to both feet. The Tengalas draw the whole 
I line half down the nose to represent the lotus throne of Vishnu. Both divisions 
agree in branding the emblems of Vishnu — the disc and conch shell on their 
I breasts, shoulders and arms. Both are noted for the strict privacy with which 
\they eat and even prepare their meals. 

197. The Ramanandi sect has 434,679 followers mostly of the lower castes. 
Ramanandi sect. ^^ '"^^ hnM by Ramanand, a disciple of Ramanuj 

who flourished at Benares about the beginnino- of 



the 14th century. The only point on which Ramanandis differ from Ramanujis 
is that they do not observe privacy in preparing and taking food, on which 
Ramanuj laid great stress. It is said that Ramanand having travelled extensively 
over India returned to one of the monasteries of his sect, where some priest 
raised the objection that in his wanderings he could not possibly have observed 
the rule of the Ramanuj sect requiring meals to be strictly private. On these 
grounds, Ramanand was required to eat apart from the rest of the brethren. In 
resentment he founded a new sect and to show his contempt for caste distinctions 
freely admitted into it men of all castes, even the lowest. It^is for this reason that 
even Dheds, Bhaugis and Ghamars are followers of this sect, along with Brah- 
mans, Vanias and artiz an classes. Ramanand inculcated the worship of Vishnu 
as Rama with Sita and Laxman. The initiatory verse is *S'Ar» /iawa and the 
salutation Jaija Sita Rama. Xhe forehead mark is like that of Ramanujis made 
"of gopichandan, but the red vertical streak is narrower. 

198. Another strong current of Vishnu ism arose from Vallabhacharya a 
- Vallabhachari sect. Tailanga Brahman born in 1478. In theory he had 

much athnity with namanuja but m practical 
religion, he laid far more stress upon the myths of Krishna's childhood and 
amours, narrated in the tenth Chapter of the Bhagwat Puran, in which he is 
represented as Bala Gopala, the cowherd boy who indulged in amorous dalliance 
with the frail milkmaids of Brindraban. Philosophically, Vallabha held that the 
human soul (Jivafma) was a spark from the divine essence (Farmatma) and 
though soparated from, was yet identical with it. Unlike his sect-forming 



78 CHAPTER IV — RELIGION. 



predecesBors, Vallabh discouutenanced all mortifications of the flesh, maintain- 
ing that the body should be reverenced and not ill-used. Building on this 
philosophical basis, Vallabh introduced elements of pleasure and enjoyment in 
divine worship rejecting the austerity and hardship of the other sects and called 
hie cult pushtimarga or creed of spiritual nourishment. He found many adhe- 
rents especially among the Brahman, Kanbi and other middle classes in Gujarat. 
In this State, the followers of the Vallabhachari sect number 171,460, or 10 
per cent, of the total Hindu population, or 21 per cent, of the total number of 
Vaishnavas of all sects. Vallabha married and enjoined marriage and worldly 
life to bis successors who are now known as Gosaiji Maharaj or Gosaiji Valla- 
bhakul. There are seven seats or gadis of this sect each of which is presided 
over by the lineal descendants of the founder. They are at Ahmedabad and 
Surat in Gujarat, Gokul, Mathura and Kankroli in the United Provinces, and 
Kotah and Nathadwara in Rajputana. There are subordinate establishments in 
Bombay, Baroda, and most of the larger towns, where they are called haveli 
or palace. 

Both mental and physical worship are prescribed for the followers of this 
creed. Mentally the image of Krishna is to be imagined as existing before the 
mind's eye and to be worshipped without rites or ceremonies. Physically the 
actual human image of Krishna is to be worshipped with pomp and ceremony. 
In their mandirs, temples, which are built like ordinary houses, without porch 
or spire, images of Shrikrishna in various forms are set on raised platforms and 
homage is paid by devotees at fixed hours every day. On holidays, the image 
is profusely decorated seated on a richly carved dais or swung in fancy cradles 
of glass, ivory, or wood decked with flowers. Seven daily services or a a rsa,ns 
are held. Thousands of devotees, males and females, flock to the Gosaiji temples 
and there are many who do not take their food if they have not been able to get 
a glimpse, j/^ariytz, of the Thakorji. The first darsau is called mangala and takes 
place at about six or half past six in the morning when the image is shown as 
rising from bed. The rest are : — (2) sangar at 8 a. m. when the image is richly 
attired ; (3) rajbhoga at noon when the image is shown as taking a meal after 
returning from cattle tending ; (4) utthapan at 3 in the afternoon, when the 
image is shown as rising from repose ; (5) bhogasun at 4 r. M, the afternoon 
luncheon ; (6) mndliya or arti at about suu-down ; and (7) seii or repose for 
the night after lamp light. 

Initiation of a novice begins in childhood. The first instruction begins 
between the second and fifth year. The novice is taken to the Maharaja who 
repeats the formula Hhrikrishna Sharanam Mama, ?'. c, Shri Krishna is my 
refuge. After the child is made to repeat the initiatory prayer, the Maharaja 
passes round his neck a basil (tuhi) kanrhi or rosary. A later and more import- 
ant initiation, takes place after the eleventh or twelfth year and at or before 
marriage for females. After the second initiation, the votary is supposed to 
consecrate his tan (body), man (mind) and dha7i (property) to the deity. The 
ceremony is called Brahma sarnbandha or union with the supreme being and 
enjoying a total surrender of self to the deity. In practice, this principle 
sometimes degenerates into great depravity, the worshippers regarding the 
Gosaiji Maharajas as incarnations of the god, pay to them the service which 
they believe to be due to him, including sometimes the jus pnmc" noctis. 

The Vallabhachari brow-mark consists of two red perpendicular lines con- 
verging in a semi-circle at the root of the nose. Though the sect has no sadhus, 
some of the followers take the samarpan or dedicatory vow and do not (at food 
cooked for them by others. They are called nvn-jadi. They do not ordinarily 
eat in metal vessels but use leaf-plates and obtain their drinking water in 
canvass covered receptacles. 



199. The epicurean principles of the Vallabhachari sect led to the reform 

of the Vaishnav church earlv in the nineteenth 

Swaminarayan sect. century by 8ahajai.and Swami, a man of deep 

religious feeling and high morality whose sect known as the Swaminarayan 

sect, is at present of great importance in Gujarat and has a large number of 



HINDU SECTS. 79 



followers among Brahmau, Kanbi, Bliavsar, Charan, Darji, Ghanchi, Gola, 
Kachhia, Katlii, Koli, Lnhar, ilali, Rajput, Salat, Satliawara, Soui and SiUar 
castes. Sahajanand was born in A. D. 1780 at the village ol' ChJiapai, eight miles 
from Ayodhya in the United Provinces. His parents dying when he was 11 
years old, he became a rechise and knew the Bhagwatgita and Vishnu Sahasra 
Nama by heart. In 1799 he began to associate witli a body ol Ramanaudi 
Sadhus and in 1800 was initiated with the name of Sahajanand. He began to 
preach the Vishishtadwait faith of Ramanuja with such effect that the then head of 
the Ramanuja body appointed him his successor. During his rambles, he 
visited Gujarat several times, and being offended at some of the practices of the 
A'allabhachari sect, preached chastity and purity of soul to be the key-note of 
his religion. By his preaching and his own exemplary life, he succeeded in 
making many converts, chiefly among the lower classes. When he knew that 
he had gained a sufficient ground, he boldly asserted that he himself was an 
incarnation of Krishna, born to restore the Vaishnav faith to its former puritv. 
He died in 1830 at Gadhada in Kathiawad where his paduhas, footmarks, are 
worshipped. Being a celibate, he adopted two of his nephews, one of whom 
was installed at Ahmedabad and the other at Vadtal. These descendants are 
the hereditary Acharyas of the sect. Though the Acharyaship is hereditary, 
it requires a confirmation by a council of four Brahmacharis, four Sadhus, and 
four laymen, mtsangis before accession. If the Acharya does not behave 
properly he may at any time be deposed. Such a course had to be taken at the 
Vadtal gadi about four years ago, for the first time in the history of the sect. 

The tenets of the Swaminarayan sect are embodied in a book called 
Vachanamrit, nectar of precepts, which is a treatise on all branches of religious 
philosophy. Their authoritative wo)-ks are the Vedas ; the Vedanta Sutra ol' 
Vyasa, as interpreted by Ramanuja ; the Bhagwat Purana ; three chapters of 
Mahabharat, viz., Vishnu Sahasra Nama, Bhagwatgita and Vidur Niti ; and 
Vasudeva Mahatmya, a chapter of the Skanda Puran. The book which is usually 
read by the followers of the sect in their daily prayers is called Shikshapatrika, 
or book of precepts embodying practical ethics. It prohibits the destruction of 
animal life, promiscuous intercourse with the other sex, use of animal food and 
intoxicating drinks and drugs, theft and robbery, blasphemy, false accusation, 
caste pollution, &c. 

The ceremony of initiation begins with the novice offering a palmful of 
water near the feet of Acharya saying, " I give over to Swaminarayan my mind, 
body, wealth and sins of (all) births (man, tan^ dhan ane j'anatnna pap)." He 
is then given the sacred formula, Shri Krishna twam gatir mam, i. e., "' Shri 
Krishna, thoiT art my refuge-" The novice then pays at least half a rupee to 
the Acharya. ordinarily every follower is expected to present to his Acharya a 
twentieth of his yearly income, while the more devout is expected to pay a 
tenth. Before taking his food, he is enjoined to worship an image of Saliaja- 
nafid Swami which he keeps in his house along with the Shil-sha PairiJca. He 
also worships his footprints on a piece of cloth and tells his rosary beads 
repeating his name. There is a Swaminarayan temple in almost every 
important village which is attended either in the morning or in the evening, or 
at both times, by all the followers. There are separate passages in the temples 
for women and also separate reading and preaching halls for them. 

The distinguishing mark which followers of the sect make on iheir 
forehead consists in a vertical streak of gnpichandan clay or sandal with a I'ouud 
red powder mark in the middle. They also wear a necklace of basil beads. 

200. Among the minor Vaishnav sub-sects may be mentioned Radha- 

,, . ^ ^ vallabhi ibunded in the sixteenth century bv one 

minor Vaishnav sub-sects. it i i i- t>- j r n y ^ ti u' ii 

Haribansh ot Bmdraban near GokuJ. Ihe Kadlia- 

vallabhis give more iinportauce to Ki'ishna's mistress than other Vaishnavas, and 

worship her with Krishna as her rallahh or lover. Another minor Vaishnav suii- 

sect, with followers chiefly in the Kadi District, is Gopinath Panth, founded l)y one 

Gopinath, a Ramanuji Visnagara Nagar, in the fifteenth or sixteenth ccunny. 

Gopinath was a great devotee of Shri Rama, a tendency for whose worship lie 



80 CHAPTEK IV RELIGION. 



manifested from his early cliildhood. He used to keep images of Shri Rama and 
Sita at his house, and there used to offer prayers and sing songs to them every- 
day, lie showed many miracles to the people of Visnagar, where he had a large 
luundir built for him by the Babi, the then reigning chiel at Visnagar. The Ba'ui 
was once imprisoned by the Raja of Patau and was being removed there by the 
Raja's men bound in chains, when Gopinath is reported to have said to those men: 
" Why are you taking him in this way ? He deserves to be and will be taken 
therewith great pomp, seated in a my ana (or palanquin), and attended by a great 
number of followers." The bearers did not mind his words but took away the 
Babi forcibly. When they were a los from Patau, they Avere astonished to find 
a large body of armed men, with a palanquin and torn toms and such other pomp, 
sent from Patau to receive the Babi with honour and dignity. The Babi on his 
return to Visnagar inquired after Gopinath, who lived at Lalpur, and sent for 
him from there. The Babi then ordered a temple to be built at Visnagar for 
Gopinath, where he afterwards stayed for the remainder of his life, tie was 
greatly respected by many who took him to be an incarnation of Rania and thus 
his followers began to style themselves Gopinath Panthis ; and the creed was 
uamed Gopinath Panth. 

Nearly three thousand persons reported that they were worshippers of tulsi, 
the basil plant, sacred to Vishnu. On inquiry they appear to be some Dheds and 
Bhangis in the Baroda and Navsari Districts, who not being allowed to enter 
Vaishnu's temples, worship at home his emblem and call themselves followers 
of tulsi panth by which of course they mean that they are Vaishnavas. 

201. The Surya Upasakas are the worshipperB of the Sun {Surya Naraijan). 

Their manner of worship is as ioUows : — Every 

Surya Upasak. morning after taking a bath, the devotee stands 

lacing the sun and, looking up towards him, pours out a potful of water on the 
ground, supposing that the w^ater thus poured out reaches the sun as his humble 
ofifering. He then throws up a little red powder (kaniu) or sandalwood paste 
towards the sky : and, in the eud, takes a few rounds bowing to the sun every 
time when a round is finished. 

There are no special observances or religious holidays among this sect, and 
they have also no preceptor (guru). Its followers are principally the Sarya- 
vanshi Rajputs, Kathis and the like. Some ot them eat flesh and drink spiritu- 
ous li(iuors. They adore the Tulsi plant and the 2^2/,a^ tree sometimes and hold 
the cow in reverence. 

202. All the sect-makers from Shankaracharya to Swaminarayan were 

. , , Brahmans and men of learning, [n Kabir and 

Non-idolatrous sects. ,, r \ ■ ± i <• -»- i 

others ot his type, we nave men irom fne lower 

castes, ui;ac,quainted with Sanscrit showing a repulsion for caste and idol wor- 
ship, seceding from Vaishnavism, and founding non-idolatrous sects on a basis 
of equality between man and man. They were greatly affected by the example 
^\- of Islam in their disregard for caste and idol worship. They also promulgated 
a high moral code, declaring that life was a sacred gift of God and that the 
blood of men or animals ought never to be shed by his creatures. Great stress 
is laid on truthfulness and adoration is allowed to be paid to Vishnu or Rama 
not as idols, but as names of one God. 

203. The Kabir Panthi Sect which has 34,l>54 followers in the State is a 
f K- D ♦!,• c branch of the Ramanandls, and was founded in 
Kabir.Hanthi Sect. ^^^^^^ !380-14:i0 A. D. by Kabir, (Arabic, the great) 

a low caste Hindu or Musalman of Upper India who by force of genius, earnest 
faith and sincerity of conviction rose to be one of the greatest religious reform- 
ers of India. Kabir's birth and parentage are shrouded in mystery. It is said 
in the Bhakta Mala that he was the sou of a Brahman virgin widow who was 
unconsciously blessed with a son by Ramanund. She exposed rlie child which 
was taken and adopted by a Musalman weaver or Jhulaiya which is the name 
by which Kabir calls himself in his bhajans. He was a disciple of Ranianand 
and is said to have originally been a wnrshipjier ol the deity endoM( tl with form 



x,^r^ 



HINDU SECTS. 81 



and attributes as Rama Krishua. Subsequently he rose a step higher, and 
under the influence of Islam preached the doctrine of a god-without form and 
attributes. He tried to unite, in one common faith, both Hindus and Musalmans 
alike, discarding the worship of all forms of the deity and the observance of 
Hindu or Musalmau rites and ceremonies. His faith prescribes no initiatory / 
ma7itra, no fixed form of sectarian salutation, no distinctive forehead mark and | 
no rosary. As a sample of his teaching, the following translation may be quoted 
from Prof. Campbell Oman's book, p. 12i : — 

" To All and Rama, we owe oiu' existence and should Uierefore show S'milar tenderness to all that 
live : of what avail is it to shave your head, prostrate yourself oa the ground or immerse your body iu the 
strCcim ? Whilst you shed blood, you call yourself pure and boast of virtues that you never display. Of 
what benefit is cleauiiig your niuuth, countiuag' your beads, performing ablutions aud vowing yourself iu 
temples, when whilst you mutter your prayers or journey to Macca or Madina, deceitfulness is in your 
heart ? The Hiudu fasts every eleventh day, tlie Musalmau during the Ramazan ; who formed the remain- 
iug months aud days that you should venerate but one ? If the creator dwells in tabernacles, whose resi- 
dence is the universe ? Who has bsheld Rama seated amongst the images or found hmi at the shrine to 
which the pilgrim has directed his steps ? The City of Hara is to the east, that of Ali to the west, but 
explore your own heart, for there are both Rama and Karim." 

The tenets of the faith are embodied in voluminous works which are mostly 
iu dialogues in different languages, the authors being Kabir aud his immediate 
disciples. They are collectively called the khas grantha and consist of some 
twenty volumes which are preserved at the head-quarters of the sect, the Kabir 
Uhaura at Beriaces. " ~ 

The followers of Kabir in this State belong mostly to the Luhana, Kanbi, 
Soni, Sutar, Kumbhar, Luhar, Darji, Khatri, Kachhia, Ghanchi, Bhavsar, 
Hajam, Dhobi and Koli castes. The sect has temples iu most of the important 
towns where the devotees adore Kabir's gadi and offer flowers to his books. On 
full moon nights, they sit beside these books, singing bhajans or devotional 
songs till dawn. 

204. The Bij Panth or Margi sect is said to have been founded about 
Bij Panth or Margi Sect. ^00 years ago by one Ugamsi at Benares Bij 

Panthis believe in an impersonal god holding 
that the human and the eternal soul are one. The object of worship is the flame 
of a lamp as an emblem of the formless but ali intelligent essence. Their 
principal temples iu Gujarat are at Diidhrej near Wadhwau iu Kathiawad, at 
Tarabh in the Visnagar Mahal, and at Chaveli and Pipal iu the Ohansma Mahal 
of the Kadi Division iu this State. Their gurus or preceptors are generally 
monks of the Atit order. At present the Atit Bava who presides in the temple 
at Tarabh is their chief leader and preceptor, aud makes new chelas or followers. 
Potters, Barbers, Atits, Rajputs, Rabaris, Charans, Bhats, aud such other low 
castes are members of this creed and altogether number 170,645 in this State. 
No people from the higher castes or from the degraded and unclean ones join it. 
Their principal religious holiday is the 2nd day of the first half of every month, 
on which they join together and sing bhajaiiR or hymns. The Rabari followers 
do not sell milk on that day, nor do they prepare curds out of it ; but either use 
it themselves or give it away in charity. The special and peculiar custom among 
the followers of this creed is that of calling a meeting of their members for the 
Patha. This meeting is generally held at the house of one of the followers in 
the dead of night, with closed doors ; and those only who have been served 
with previous invitations are allowed to attend it. A Kotwul, or guard, is placed 
outside the door of the room in which the meeting is held to watch and take care 
that no stranger or intruder gets in. In a spacious room or hall, persons of both 
sexes are gathered together. In its centre a bajatli or ■patla (square wooden seat) 
is placed and covered with red cloth. Four small heaps of corn of different 
kinds, such as wheat, rice, bajri and pulse, are arranged on the four corners of it 
having images of Ramde's horse, Ganpati, Hanuman, a ling aud an image of 
Shakti iu the centre. Five lamps fed with ghee are then placed over these 
heaps and ignited by the Atit Bava or Guru, after repeating certain incantations 
over them. The votaries sit round the blaze, feed it with ghee and sing hhajans 
or hymns. At midnight an offering of sweets is made to the flame and a light- 
. ed lamp waved round it. If a stranger wishes to be admitted as a member of 



82 CHAPTER IV — RELIGION. 



this creed, he is first asked to stay out of the room, where the I'atha meeting is 
held, by the Kotwal, who announces him first to the Atit Bava or guru, who in 
his turn inquires of the persons sitting round about him as to the character of 
the stranger ; and when some one Irom the meeting or company stands security 
for him or recognizes him properly, the Bava asks him some questions from the 
inside. If the stranger answers them satisfactorily from out of the room, the 
Kotwal is told to bring him in, blindfolded. Then the stranger is niade to take 
an oath that he would dutifully keep the pledge taken by him then for life ; and 
when he promises to do so in the presence of all gathered there, by sitting before 
the central burning lamp ou the patla and vowing in its name, the covering over 
his eyes is removed and he is given the kanthi or necklace and made a chela. 
Afterwards, he gives the Bava or guru some hhet or present, generally in cash, 
and distributes sweetmeats to the company after ofl'ering it first to the lamp, as 
prasad. It is strictly conditional among these people to admit that man or 
woman only, among their followers, who can afford to leave money enough for 
holding a meeting of the I^atha for inviting all the members at the time of 
his or her funeral obsequies. 

205. The followers of Ramde Pir (8,409) worship the image of a horse 
P d P" s t called Ramde Pir. The legend about Ramde Pir is 

that Ajmalsing Tnar, a Marwar Rajput, went to the 
temple of Dwarka to solicit a sou. The deity gave him a son who was named 
Ramde Pir. As enjoined by the deity, the favourite charger of Ramde Pir is the 
horse now being worshipped along with his padukas or foot impressions. The 
principal temple belonging to this creed is at Ranuja in Marwar, which is, in 
consequence, considered to be a very sacred place. There are in this temple the 
paglas (foot-impressions) of Ramde Pir and four horses of metal representing 
the four principal yugas, or cycles. There are no particular forms or ceremonies 
in this sect. Their worship consists in simply burning incense and keeping a 
lamp fed with either ghee or oil burning before their deity for some time every 
day. A person wishing to be admitted into this creed has first to attend the big 
fair held in the temple of Ramdevji at Ranuja, on the Bhadrapad Sud Agiarash^ 
and there pay Rs. 1-4-0, as his humble offering to the deity; he then gets in 
return one of the many horses of rags lying there, as the pious offer of the 
devotees. He has also to buy a silver pair of piaglas of Ramdevji which are 
sold in the shops at the fair. Both of these articles he takes home and worships 
them daily. Hindus of all castes, high and low, including the depressed classes 
are admitted into this creed. 

206. The Paranami sect which has 6,854 followers among Kanbi, Vania, 
p 'St Rajput, Bhat, Sutar, Darji, Gola, Koli and other 

castes is said to have been founded by one Devchand 
(A. D. 1582) of A market in Sindh, who was much devoted to the study of the 
Bhagvat — Puran and travelled to Jamnagar where he consecrated a temple to 
Radha Krishna. Devchand's chief disciple was Meheraj Thakore, after whom 
the sect is also called Meheraj Panth. Meheraj then instituted a seat at Surat, 
and after travelling to Delhi and other places finally settled at Jharna Parna. 
The chief feature of this sect is that no idol or image should be worshipped, 
but only Meheraj's Book of Faith. In spite of this canon, devout Paranamis 
now worship Krishna as Bal Gopal. In some temples, ornaments are so 
arranged as to look like an idol from a distance, while in others, images of 
Radhakrishna are now-a-days kept and worshipped. 

207. The Ravi Panth was founded by one Bhow or Ravi Salieb, a follower of 
p.p. Kabir, about 1750 A. D. Except that they adore Ravi 

Saheb as their spiritual lord, the Ravi Panthis are 
now Vaishnavas to all intents and purposes. The ibuuder is said to have 
worked miracles in Baroda and was therefore looked upon as an incarnation 
of god. He died at Sorkhi, in the Baroda Talnka, whei'c his descendants have 
built a mandir over his tomb and have placed therein images of Rama, Laxman 
and Sita whom they worship every day. Some members of the Luhaua, Bhatia, 
Koli, and Soni castes are followers of this sect. The sect has acluh-gds 
who invest their ibllowers with kantht's ov necklets. 



HINDU SECTS. 83 



208. The Uda Paath was founded by one Gopaldas about 300 years ago. 

,,. n 4.1. He preached the possibility of final emancipation by 

Uda Pantb. ■ '■ j , '^ , , ■', . ,, ,, ,, '■ ,. J 

jap or devout contemplation ox the all-pervading 

spirit and held that future births were necessary for fulfilling unaccomplished 
desires. Its followers are called Uda who are mostly of the Kaabi caste. They 
mark a part of their forehead and nose with white clay, pour water on the tulsi 
plant and worship their sacred Book of Faith. In the evening they bow to the 
cushion on which the book is kept, wave a lighted lamp and chant hymns. 
They are very scrupulous about their food which they cook with their own 
hands. The Mahant of their sect is selected by a council of five. He ties a tulsi 
necklet to the novice, fixes days for marriage and funeral feasts, and punishes 
disobedience by expulsion. He also officiates at marriages. Udas do not per- 
form funeral obsequies. They carry their dead with tom-tom and music. 

209. The Santaram Panth, founded about a hundred years ago, prescribes 

„ ^ r. 4.1. no distinctive marks and no necklet. It admits with- 

bantaram Hantn. • •.. j u i j- n . i ^ 

in its lold people ot all castes, creeds and persuasions, 

who are asked to conform to a few simple rules of everyday morality. Its head- 
quarters are at Nadiad in the Kaira District, and it has temples at Baroda and 
Padi"a in this State. The devotees hold the <jad% of the founder in great respect 
and keep a butter-fed lamp burning near it. In memory of the founder, a fair is 
held at the head-quarters every year on the full moon of Magh and the day is 
passed in chanting bhajans or hymns in his praise. The mode of salutation is 
je maharaj. Each pontifif nominates his successor from among the Sadhus, who 
are not allowed begging and are only a lew in number. Any person who has 
severed his connection with the world can become a Sadhu. 

210. Dadu Panth was founded about the close of the Ib'th century by one 
P . p ^. Dadu, a cotton-cleaner of Ahmedabad. Thedoctrines 

of the sect are the same as those of Shankaracharya's 
Vedant School, but Dadu, finding them too abstract for his followers, preached a 
sort of non-idolatrous sect of Ram worshippers. 

211. The brief account of the non-idolatrous sects given in the preceding- 

paras shows that Hindu sects have a tendency to 
Tendency^to j^elapse into relapse into orthodoxy as soon as the zeal which 

inspired their earlier adherents has grown cold. At 
first, idolatry is altogether discarded. Then a beginning is made with the 
worship of the guru's gadi or pothi ; then worship of Krishna as Bal Gopal is at 
first tolerated and afterwards actively preached. And, finally, images of Radha 
Krishna are installed, as at Serkhi, by the followers of Ravi Saheb ; or ornaments 
are so arranged as to look like an idol, from a distance, as with the Paranamis. 

212. Just as after the advent of the Musalmans, Hindu religious reformers 

^ . ^. ^ like Kabir were greatly influenced by the mono- 

Recent theistic movement. .1 • ,- J x'.l ^ 1- • 

^ theistic ideas of that religion, so in more recent tunes 

two movements known as Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj have been formed ' ' : - 

under -the inspiration of Western education and Yv^estern thought. Many people 
belong to one or other of the great religions of the world, such as Hinduism, ►ct«.^e*-«->-^' 
Muhammedanism, (Jhristianity, etc. Buf there are a few who frame for them- 
selves what are called echctk systems. They do not attach themselves to auv 
particular sect but select from the opinions and principles of each what thev 
think to be true and good. Such is the Brahmo Samaj of Bengal which has 
only 6 followers in this State. And the same may be said to a certain extent 
about the Arya Samaj which had only 50 followers in 1901, but now claims no 
less than 598. As these movements are likely to attract more persons in the 
near future, especially from the educated class, a brief account of their rise and 
progress may be found interesting. 

213. The Brahmo Samaj is a theistic movement founded l)v Raja Rama Mohan 
Brahmo Samaj. Roy about eighty years ago. I't aims at purging 

Hinduism ot its idolatrous and superstitious practices 
and provides a reformed religion for educated Hindus. At jn-esent it is divided 
into three sections, the Adi or " original," the Navavidhan or " New Dispensation," 



84 CHAPTER IV — RELIGION. 



and the S adhara n or "common " Samaj, but all alike believe in the unity of the 
\ Godhead, the brotherhood of men and direct communion with God in spirit 
without the intervention of any mediator. The differences which exist are 
ritualistic and social rather than religious. The Adi Saniaj or the oldest section 
is the most conservative. While discarding idolatrous forms, it follows as closely 
as ptissible the rites of Hinduism and draws its inspiration solely from the 
religious books of the Hinuus, especially the Upiiishadae and not from the Bible 
or Koran. Inter-caste marriages are not allowedT In other respects, the restric- 
tions of the caste system sit lightly on the members of the Samaj, but they are 
particular to style themselves Hindus ; and before the Census of 1891, they had 
submitted a memorial intimating their desire to be entered as Theistic Hindus 
and not as Brahmos. 

The ^'avavidhan bamaj, or church of the Mew Dispensation, is also known as 
the Bharatvarshya. Brahmo Samaj was founded by Keshav Chandra Sen. It is 
more eclectic and has assimilated what it considers just, not only in the Shastras, 
but also in the religious teachings of Christianity, Budhism and Islam. luter- 
caste marriages, though not generally disapproved of, are rare. 

The Sadharan Brahmo Samaj is the most advanced ot all the three. It 
relies, like the Navavidhan, on the teachings of all religious systems, but is more 
uncompromising in its disapproval of ritual and set forms of worship. It rejects 
altogether the system of caste. It is strongly opposed to i]iQ parda system, gives 
women a liberal education and allows them an equal voice in all matters of Church 
Government. It freely permits inter-caste marriages. 

214. Like Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj is a form of Theistic Hinduism 

founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati about the 
Arya Samaj. ^^^^. l^'^^ Qq finighing his Vedic studies, he was 

struck to find that the Vedas do not sanction idol worship, man worship, 
incarnation of god in man, animal sacrifice, child marriage enforced widow- 
hood, caste system based on birth, sole monopoly of the Vedic study by the 
born Brahmaus, showy and meaningless ceremonials, miracles, mritak shradha, 
blind faith and many other superstitions which are generally known among 
the Hindus by the name of Dharma. He set in right earnest to preach the 
monotheism of the Vedas taking as his motto " Ekam eva adwitiyam " (there is 
but one Being without a second). He wrote his well-known discourses in a 
book-form called the " Satyarth Prakash " (Light of Truth). He never divorced 
reason from religion but preached that what is irrational is not religion but 
superstition. 

He framed the 10 principles of the Arya Samaj, in which he inculcated on 
his followers the mental worship of the One All-pervading, Intelligent cause of 
the Universe and the importance of the study of the Vedas. He made the Arya 
Samaj not only the " Vedic Church " for the Hindus but for all human beings, 
as is evident from his sixth principle, Avhich says that the primary object of the 
Arya Samaj is to do good to the world. 

The theology of the Arya Saniaj is based on the Vedas and the Upanishadas. 
It upholds the performance of horn, on the scientific grounds of the purification 
of the atmosphere. In their horns, Arya Samajists burn in strong fire 
sweet-scented vegetable disinfectants with clarified butter and safifron. It 
preaches the harmic theory or in the words of Mr. Herbert Spencer, the law of 
" Action and Reaction " and asserts the supremacy of self-exertion over fate. 
Sanyasis, Mahatma Sadhus, preachers, teachers, donors and unselfish workers 
are held in respect, but no man can be the special favourite, messenger or 
incarnation of God according to the Arya Samaj. 

The Arya Samaj holds merits or demerits of a person as the only constitut- 
ing element of his or her social position or ■•' varna,'^ but not his or her birth. 
It does not believe in caste or its divisions. But its followers in this Stale do 
in practice follow their caste restrictions. 

One of the best service rendered by the Arya Samaj is in directing charity 
to its right course. It has been able by utilizing public charity to establish 
nearly 200 important educational and philanthropic institutions in India. It is a 



HINDU 8ADHUS. 85 



strong advocate of female education and has started nearly 100 girls' schools, includ- 
ing one female college, in various parts of the country. For encouraging the 
study of Sanskrit, Hindi and modern sciences, the Arya Samaj has established over 
India eight gurukuls, one college for males, six high and seven secondary schools 
and a number of Sanskrit patha shnlas. There are ten orphanages started bv the 
Samaj for feeding and educating helpless boys and girls. There are six Widows' 
Homes which are doing good service in relieving the wretched lot of widows in 
this country. It has established many Sanskrit, Hindi, and English libraries. 
It has got good many up%desliakas (missionaries) to carry on its mission, which 
is social and religious and has nothing to do with politics. 

The members of the Arya Samaj are divided into three groups. To the first 
group belong the Sanyasis and the Sadhus who have taken a vow of renuncia- 
tion and are working for the cause of the Samaj. To the second group belong 
the Pandits, upadeshakas, lecturers, authors, donors, heads of various provincial 
educational institutions and members of the Pratinidhi Sabuas who are generally 
grahaatlias or brahmacharis. To the third group belong the office holders of the 
various local Samajis, the heads of the local institutions and local donors in 
each Province. 

3. — Hindu Sadhus or Ascetics. 

215. ^0 account of the religious life and beliefs of the Hindus would be 

complete without even a brief description of the 
Ascetic worship. o ji >-• \ • c 

badlms or ascetics whose seoa or service forms an 

important part of their daily devotion. Sadhus under various names and in the 

guise of one or other of the existing sects are to be found not only in the local 

monasteries at Dwarka, Sidhpur, Karnali and other sacred places and the 

temples of the various sects in all the towns, but are also to be found roaming 

about in villages, either singly or in large parties under their respective leaders. 

Except during the four months of the rainy season, the}- are on amove either in 

their own district or on a pilgrimage to the innumerable sacred places. Sadhus 

command the respect and even the superstitious veneration of the people, who 

believe that they are possessed of supernatural power for good or evil. Pious 

Hindus desirous of securing the blessing of heaven have, in most of the towns 

and larger villages, established sadavrats or charity houses, where any Sadhu 

can get some food. To the Maharaj or Bapji, as Sadhus are called, coming as 

mendicant near their door, Hindu females readily give a handful of lot (flour) 

or cooked food if it can be acceptable to him. Those who can afford show a 

willino-ness to minister to Sadhus' wants under the belief that it secures o-reat 

religious merit. Many humbly invite them to partake of a meal at their place 

or offer to provide si'dha for the whole of their jund or body, when they are 

passing through their village. So great is the implicit faith placed by the 

people in Sadhus, that Vagharis and other criminal tribes find a Sadhu's garb 

a good means of carrying out theii" depradatory designs ; police detectives, 

disguised as Sadhus, often obtain valuable information in tracing out crimes ; 

and lastly political agitators are also said to occasionally conceal their identity 

under a Sadhu's disguise. 

216. In his admirable Treatise on the Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of 

India (p. 16), Professor Omen summarises the 
Reasons^which^lead to reasons which prompt men to ascetic practices as 

under: — (1) a desire which is intensified by all 
personal or national troubles to propitiate the unseen powers, (2) a longing on 
the part of the intensively religious to follow in the footsteps of their master, 
almost invariably an ascetic, (3) a wish to work one's own future salvation or 
emancipation by conquering the evil inherent in human nature, i. e., flesh, (4) a 
yearning to prepare oneself by purification of mind and body for entering into 
present communion with the Divine Being, (5) despair arising from disillusion- 
ment and from defeat in the battle of life, and lastly (6) mere vanity, stimulated 
by the admiration which the multitude bestow upon the ascetic. The first three 
reasons are most operative in the case of the true ascetics, but there are many 



86 CHAPTER IV — KKLIGION. 



who have been Sadhus, simply because they were neglected orphans or were 
abducted by other Sadhus from the lawful guardianship of their parents or had 
no desire to fight the battle of life. A saying common in Gujarat reflects the 
views of the people ou the subject : — Toplmahe tran gun\ nahi vero nahivdk; bavo 
bavo saukaJie,sukhe bkare jfet, i.e., 'a Sadhu's garb confers three benefits : you 
have neither to pay taxes nor to labour, every one calls you Bava (that is 
father), and you get your food easily'. 

217. As a rule, ordinary Sadbus adopt a life of easy, irresponsible in- 
dolence and meudicancv. They know well how to 
Qenera^descnption of ^-^^ ^j^^j^. ,,,anderings so as to r^ake them fit in with 

the festal event of each locality within their annual 
round. They are generally attired most scantily, and for protection from the 
sun's rays and insect pests, have their skin rubbed over with ashes. Most of 
them have on their foreheads and noses tilaks or neatly painted white or coloured 
sect marks. Ii'respective of sect some called Jiutadharis have their hair braided 
and coiled upon the anterior part of the crown of the head ; some called 
Bhoureeahs wear their hair falling m disorder about the face ; while others have 
shaven pates. Most Sadhus wear strings of beads about their necks or carry 
rosaries in their hands. P^rom the nature of the beads it is easy to distinguish 
between the followers of Vishnu or Shiva, according as they favour beads of the 
holy basil wood (Ocyjium sancium) or the rough berries of the rudraksha tree 
(^Elaecarpus ganitrus). The Shiva rosary or japmala consists of 84 rudralisho 
beads and the V^aishnava one of 108 beads of tulst (basil) wood. Some Sadhns 
wear phallic emblems suspending from the neck by woollen threads ; some wear 
great wood or metal ear-rings ; and others wear armlets of iron, brass or copper 
which are well-known as badges of visits to the lofty Himalayan monasteries 
of Pasupatinath, Kedarnath and Badrinath. Some have a white conch tied on to 
theh wrist, indicating a pilgrimage to Rameshwar and some have symbolical 
marks branded conspicuously upon the arm as evidence of a pilgrimage to 
Dwarka. Most of the Sadhus keep in their hand a pair of big iron fire-tongs. 
They use a wooden staff, called hairagun as a chin-rest or arm-rest and earthen 
pipes called chillums for smoking ganja. Some Sadhus keep with them minia- 
ture chapels with miniature stone or metal idols or pictorial representations of the 
deities, which are set up when they make a halt at any place. 

As a part of their tapaschaiija or austerities, some Sadhus undergo many 
inconveniences, pains and sometimes even terrible tortures. Some called Panch 
Dhuni sit under the open sky girt about with five small fires ; sometimes only 
four fires are lighted, the sun overhead being regarded as the tilth one. Some 
sit and sleep on a bed of spikes, called kanak saiya ; some called, tharashn, stand 
leaning on some kind of rest for days or weeks together. Sadhus known as 
Urdhvamukhi hang head downwards suspended from the bough of a tree for 
half an hour or more. Those known as Urdhvahahu keep one or both of their 
arms erect over head till they are reduced to a shrunken and rigid condition. 
Some practise Ashtangdandvata, that is, applying the eight parts of the body — 
the forehead, breast, hands, knees and insteps — to the ground and thus measuring 
the ground, go on a long pilgrimage by slow and laborious marches. vSome 
called Jalshai sit a whole night immersed in water. Some called Fal'ihari, 
live upon fruits, others called Dudhahari subsist on milk alone, while those 
known as Aluna never eat salt with their food. As aids to meditation, 
a great number of asans or postures, e. g.,padmasan ov lotus jjosture, have 
been devised. Some Sadhus perform puriticatory rites known as neti karma, 
drawing a thread through the mouth and one of the nostrils with the 
object of cleansing the nasal fossse ; dhoti Jcarma swallowing a long strip of 
cloth and after it has reached the stomach drawing it out again with the object 
of cleansing our. the stomach ; Brahma datan cleansing the throat with along 
and thin green stick used as a brush ; hrujote harma and yanesh kriya, for 
flushing the colon without instrumental aid. 

A Sadhu's anger and displeasure are much dreaded and avoided as far as 
possible. Some Sadhus are believed to have magic powers by which they can 
work wonders and cause calamities. Some are believed to be proficient in 



HINDU SADHUS. b7 



alchemy by which they can turn the baser metals into gold ; while some affect 
to be "fortune-tellers, palmists, and expert medicine men and conversant with 
hidden treasures. Many a credulous or greedy devotee has lost his all and 
come to grief in seeking to become rich with the help of Sadhus. 

218, Sadhus have not been separately classified but there can be no doubt, 

there must be a large number of them in this State, 

Number of Sadhus. having regard to the fact that it has in its population 

6,464 persons returned as Bavas, 3,515 Gosains, 15,871 priests and ministers, 

1,558 religious mendicants and inmates of monasteries, and 8,457 beggars and 



vagrante. 



219. The Sadhus usually met with in this State are : (1) — Shaiva : — 

(a) Brahmachari, (6) Sanyasi, (c) Dandi, (J) Yogi 
Shaiv and^Vaishnav ^^^ ^^^ Paramhansa ; and (2)— Vaishnav :-(a) 

Ramanuji or Shri Vaishnav, (h) Ramanandi, (c) 
Ramasanehi and (^d) Swaminarayan. Shaiva Sadhus while paying special 
honour to Shiva do not, as a rule, reject the other gods of the Hindu Pantheon. 
In the same way, Vaishnava Sadhus while specially adoring Vishnu in his 
human incarnations as Ramachaudra or Krishna, either with or without their 
consorts, do not disregard Shiva altogether. 

220. Brahinacharis or celibates belong to an inferior ministering order. 

This order is said to have been created by Shankar- 

rahmac aris. acharya to serve as helps and companions to 

t^anyasis and Paramhansas. Brahmacharis also generally serve as worshippers 

in Mahadev or Mata temples, put on a red fisher-like cap on their head, and a 

necklace of rudrakslia beads on their neck. 

221. All Hindus, even Shudras and out-castes may become Sanyasis, 

When after a period of probation the postulant 
Sanyasi. wishes to be received as a chela, he has to bring an 

off"ering including a linga and a rudrahsha berry to the Sanyasi whose disciple he 
washes to become. Four Sanyasis are required for the initiatory ceremony. 
The chief of the four, the selected guru, whispers into his ear the mantra of the 
order ; another confers a new name upon him, which generally ends in one of 
the following ten suffixes : — Giri, I'uri, Bharti, Ban, Auran, Farvat, Sagar, Tu'th, 
Ashi-am and Saraswati ; the third rubs him over with ashes, and the fourth 
breaks his sacred thread if he have one, and cuts off his sUhha or scalp-lock. 
After initiation, the chela is expected to serve his guru for a time in order to 
learn wisdom from him. When the period of probation is over, more 
ceremonies are performed including shradh or post funeral rites of the new 
Sanyasi. When a Sanyasi dies, he is buried in a sitting posture facing east or 
north-east, with arms supported on a wooden rest called hairagun. _ As the fol ■ 
lowers of Shankar, though paying special honour to Shiva, do not reject the other 
gods of the Hindu Pantheon, the order of Sanyasi is a mixed one and has 
many Vaishnavas and even Tantries among its members. All Sanyasis may eat 
together and accept food from any Hindu" They rub ashes over their bodies, 
wear salmon coloured robes and a tiger skin if they can get one. _ They make 
sect marks on their forehead, wear a necklace of rudraksha berries or at least 
one such berry. The hair of their head and beard is allowed to grow freely. 
In their hand's they carry a pair of iron tongs. Whenever they are seated, they 
light a fire and smoke ganja. 

222. The Dandis, so called from the danda, or staff, w^hich every member 
. is requu-ed to carry, w^ere originally recruited 

exclusively from the twioe-born or sacred thread- 
bearing castes, but now any Hindu is allowed to join the order. He 
who wishes to become a Dandi fasts for three days. On the fourth day, there 
is a Jmvan (sacrifice) after which he is shaved, head and all. He is then taken to 
a river or tank in which he is made to stand waist deep in water, and take out his 
sacred thread. While in water, he receives the mantra of the order from his guru 
and also a new name which has for its suffix ashram, tirth, hJiarati ov swavii. 



88 CHAPTER IV — KELIGION. 



when he steps out of water, he is given the dand, a bamboo with; six knots, and a 
piece of sahnon coloured cloth attached to it and a gourd aud is robed in five 
pieces of salmon colored cotton cloth, cue piece being wrapped round the head. 
Kules for his guidance iu life are explained to him. They are to the effect that 
he must not touch fire, must take one meal a day, must get his food from the 
houses of Brahmans only and so on. He is further enjoined to preach to the 
people and to practise virtue. Dandis shave their head, upper lip and beard. 
As a distinctive feature, they bear the Shaiva mark on their forehead, viz., the 
tripundra, a triple transverse line made with ashes obtained from the fire of an 
Agnihotri Brahman. A Dandi is not required to worship any god, but some 
worship Shiva and also Vishnu as Narayan. They repeat initiatory mantras. Om 
Nainah Shwatja, salutation to Shiva aud Namo Naraijan, salutation to Narayan. 
Some Dandis worship the deity Nirgun Niranjaya, that is, devoid of attributes, 
or passion. Dandis are either buried or thrown into some river when they die. 

223. Yogi or Jogi, as they are called in the vernacular properly means one 
. who practises Yoga with the object of uniting his 

*'^'' soul with the Divine Spirit. The word Yoga means 

union and Yoga Vidya is the complex system of philosophical doctrines and 
practical exercises for promoting union between the individual soul and the divine 
spirit. The Yotja philosophy founded by Pataujali teaches that by certain 
practices a man is able to obtain complete mastery over matter. These practices 
Sbve pra7inyams or long continued suppression of breath and 84 different ways of 
fixing the eyes on the tip of the nose. It has recently attracted umch attention 
iu the west and the United States of America. Yoga is not confined at present 
to Yogis alone, nor is it practised by all who are known as Yogis. Many a 
religiously-disposed layman and follower of other sects resorts to it when 
so inclined. Yogis regard one Gorakhnath as the founder of their order. 
They pay special respect to Shiva, a demi-god called Bhairava and nine 



Nathas or immortal saints. They also hold in special veneration 84 
Siddhas or perfect Yogis, some of whom are believed to be still living 
upon the earth. Members of all castes may become Yogis. They 
are divided into several sub-orders, of which the two more prominent are 
Kanfati and Oghar. They wear rosaries of rudraksha beads and put on 
langotis, or loin cloth only and sometimes salmon coloured garments. They 
wear their hair plaited with threads of black wool and coiled on the top of the 
head. They mark their forehead with a traverse line of ashes and also smear 
the body with ashes. They live in monasteries and often move about the 
country in groups or singly. They bury their dead in a sitting posture facing 
the north. The Kanfatis wear huge wooden ear-rings (mudra) and their sect 
names end in Nath. The Ogliars have names ending in das and are recruited from 
the lowest of castes. They do not wear ear-rings but keep a small wooden pipe, 
called nath suspending from the neck by a black thread. 

Some Yogis are earnest men of high character, but many of those who move 
about the country in the guise of ascetics are ignorant and worthless impostors 
and even dangerous characters. 

Yogis returned to a worldly life have formed castes in Gujarat which are 
known as Jogi, Ravalia, or Bharathari. They live as itinerant beggars, common 
carriers, tape weavers and day labourers. Those of them who are beggars carry 
a small fiddle with them and sing religious songs and verses in the streets. 

224. Paramahausa, derived from Sanskrit ^joram, great and hansa, a swan 

which can separate water from milk, means one 
Paramahansa. ^^^^ ^^^ distinguish truth from falsehood. The order 

of Paramahansa ranks higher than that of Sanyasi or Dandi. Only those Dandis 
or Sanyasis who have undergone a probation for not less than twelve years can 
be admitted to it. Paramahansas occupy themselves solely with the investiga- 
tion of the supreme Brahma, without regard to pleasure or pain, heat or cold 
satiety or want. In proof of their having attained this ideal perfection, they 
move about in all weathers and sometimes do not speak even to indicate any 
natural want. Some members of this order even go about naked or affect 



iriNDU SADHU.S OK ASCETICS. 89 



to live without food, or eat only when fed by others. Some refuse food unless 
they are fed by a kumarika with her own hand. Paramahansas are buried 
when dead or floated in a running stream. 

225. Shiva ascetics called Aghori or Aghor panthi are seldom seen in 

towns and villages, but a few are said to be living 



Ashori. _, ^,_ ., ^ 



on the Abu, Girnar and Pavaa:adh hills. The 



o'^ 



Aghoris seem originally to have been worshippers of Devi and to have requi- 
red even human victims for their rites. They are hideous in appearance and 
their habits are very repulsive. They eat human flesh which they procure 
secretly from the graves in the villages they pass through. They push in 
pantheistic doctrines of the Vedant philosophy to its logical conclusion by argu- 
ing that if anything in existence is only a manifestation of the Universal soul, 
nothing can be unclean. Aghoris are much dreaded by the people, and some- 
times impostors succeed in extracting alms from them by threatening to eat in 
their presence disgusting offal or foul carrion. 

226. All Sadhus of the Vaishnav sect devote themselves especially to the 

., . . c. ji. worship of Vishnu and differ from one another 

Vaishnav Sadhus. • i ^ • i ,• ^ i • • i • i 

mamly m paying adoration to Inm m his human 

incarnations either as Ramchandra or as Krishna. Rama worshippers may or 

may not associate Sita with their God. Krishna worshippers usually adore his 

consorts Laxmi and Radha or his mistress Radha alone along with the deity. 

227. Ascetics of the Ramanuji sect are called Sliri FajsAnauas because they 

„..,,.. worship Laxmi as the consort of Vishnu. They 

Shri Vaishnava. , , ■ • ^^ n i ^ • n 

have monasteries in the Ueccan, but occasionally 

reside in the Ramanuj temples at Baroda, Dabhoi, Dwarka, Sidhpur and other 

places in the State. They wear silk or wool garments and are scrupulous in 

keeping caste distinctions and in the preparation and privacy of their meals. 

Their necklaces and rosaries are made of tulsi wood or of lotus seeds. A 

novice is initiated with the name of Narayan or Vishnu. The special marks of the 

Ramanuja sect are a close shaven mustache, and Jai Sita Rama, as the salutation 

phrase ; the disc or chakra and the conch or shankh, emblems of Vishnu, 

and vertical or slanting lines on the forehead of white clay, a perpendicular red 

streak for Laxmi in the middle, with a horizontal white clay line connecting 

the three across the root of the nose, the whole from one to two inches wide and 

representing Vishnu's throne. 

228. Ramanandi Sadhus bear on their foreheads the distinguishing / 

. Vishnu sect mark, the trifala, which consists of 

three upright lines : the centre one red and the side 
ones white. They also wear necklaces and rosaries of tulsi wood. Marriage is 
allowed among a division called sanjogi but forbidden to the division called 
naga or naked. The head guru who resides at Kheda in Jodhpur is enjoined 
celibacy. The Nagas are divided into (1) Achari, (2) Sanyasi, (3) Khakhi, and 
(4) Vairagi. The Acharis wear silken and woollen garments, the Sanyasis 
salmon colored cotton clothes, the Khakhis only a loin cloth with their bodies 
besmeared with ashes and their hair and nails undipped. Some of them per- 
form severe austerities such as standing on the head, sitting amidst fire and 
smoke, keeping their heads erect for hours together believing that the greater 
the self-inflicted severity, the greater the salvation. The name Vairagi derived 
from vi^ without, and rag, passion, i. <?., without attachment to the world, is 
commonly apjjlied to all Vaishnavite Sadhus. Vairagis do not wear coloured 
clothes but put on janoi or sacred thread, whether originally of the twice-born 
caste or not. They keep a tuft of hair on the crown of the head and as a head 
covering use a white cotton safa. Ramanandi Sadhus salute each other with the 
words J ay a Sita Rama, 

229. Sadhus of the Ranisanehi sect live in their monasteries in Marwad 

„ ..„ ^^ and in their subordinate establishments in Raroda. 

Ramsanehi Sadhus. -.j- > i i a j^u • i r 

v'lsnagar and other places. Among their rules of 

conduit, truthfulness, control over the passions, a solitary residence and begging 
readymade food from lay followers are enjoined. The use of tire or even a 



90 CHAPTER IV RELIGION. 



lamp at night is ftrictly forbidden and even the touch of a coin is held siulul. 
They rise aud bathe at early dawa and wear an ochre coloured piece of 
cloth. Their forehead mark is of white yopichandan clay in shape like the 
flame of a lamp emblematic of diviue light. They use a rosary of ratanjal or 
red sandal. 

230. Kabir Pauthi Sadhus have no distinctive dress or ceremonies. As 

far as they affect peculiarities of any kind, they 
follow those of bairarjis wearing tidsi beads and 
having the trifala painted on their foreheads. 

231. Swamiuarayan ascetics are of three orders: Brahinacliari, /Sac/Zm aud 

Palo. Brahmacharis rank the highest, after them 
watninara>ati asce i . QQj^g Sadhus, while the Palas who rank the lowest 

are mere attendants on the Acharya or head guru, or temple servants, 

A Brahman follower of the sect who is prepared to lead a celibate life aud 
. dedicate himself to the service of the faith can be a 

Bralimachari after the probation of about a year. A 
Brahmachari wears a white dhoti, wraps an ochre coloured cloth round the upper 
part of his body and puts on a red woollen cap or phenta on his head. His duty 
is to read the Purans and other religious books, and to preach to those who visit 
the temples. Brahmacharis are allowed to use metal vessels for eating and 
drinking. They can also keep hair on the head and wear moustache and beard. 

Satsangis or followers of the sect who are lower in rank than Brahmans, Ijiit 

not lower than Kaubis, can be Sadhus. A Sadhu 
must lead a celibate life and devote his full time to 
the service of the faith. He is required to shave his head, beard and moustache. 
He must put on an ochre coloured dhoti, wrap round his person another similarly 
coloured cloth, and put on a falta or head dress of the same colour. Brahma- 
charis and Sadhus are prohibited from wearing coats, jackets or other tailor- 
made garments. A Sadhu must use a wooden dish (pat?a) and a wooden 
jug (kamaiidal'). He should on no account use metal vessels. Like the Brahma- 
chari, ho reads or preaches to the people. Swamiuarayan Sadhus and Brahma- 
charis are not allowed to go out of the temples singly- The}' always move about 
in pairs or groups. At the head-quarters, they live ia the monasteries ; while 
moving in the district they live in the temples of the sect which are to be found 
in almost every village. 

Like Brahmacharis and Sadhus, Palas also must lead a celibate life aud 
p devote themselves to the service of the faith. They 

are recruited from the Koli, Rabari and other low 
castes. They are allowed to put on white garments and also to use shoes, aud 
tailor-made coats. They serve as menials waiting upon the Acharya or as 
servants and managers of the temples. They are quite necessary in the organi- 
zation of the sacerdotal order of the sect, for only they can touch money or make 
the necessary purchases. 

Brahmacharis, Sadhus aud Palas rise early, offer prayers and attend the six 

o'clock meexing where the head Brahmachari or 
' ^ ' ^' Sadhu delivers a sermon or reads from the Purans. 

They retire at nine o'clock and read or study till dinner time at eleven. They 
then meet at the temple, take a recess at two, reassemble at three and hold 
religious discourses till six in the evening. At night supper is served only 
to the weak or infirm and to those who wish to have it. The rest read sacred 
books aud retire at eleven o'clock. Brahmacharis and Sadhus are forbidden to 
indulge in the ])leasures of the palate. Tliey are required to mix up thedift'erent 
viands toj^cther before eating. A Brahmachari or Sadhu may not even look at 
a woman. Should he touch one, even accidentally, he has to expiate for the sin 
by a whole day last. 

The distinguishing forehead mark of this sect is a vertical streak of 
gr>pichanda7i clay or sandal ))aste with a round red powder mark in the middle 
and a necklet of sweet basil beads. 



JAINISM. 91 



i. — Jainksm. 

•2o2. Jaiiiism was fouuded by Parsvauatli about two hundred years before 

Buddlia. it was reformed and firmly established 
Jainism. ^^. ^ Kshatriya Prince named Vardhaman or 

Mahavir who was bom at Vausali near i'atua abour 599 B.C. He is said to have 
been originally an erring- man who by his own power attained to omniscience 
and freedom and out of jnty for suffering mankind, preached the wav of 
salvation which he had found. Because he conquered the manus in the human 
heart he became known as Jma, the victor, from which the term Jainism is 
derived. Hs is also called JiwisUioar, Chief of the Jinas ; Arhat, the venerable 
Tirthankav, the sage who has made the passage of the world ; .Sarvagna, 
omnicient, and Bhagavat, holy one. His followers were mainly Kshatriyas and 
Vaishyas. The artizan classes were but little affected by his propaganda. The 
characteristic feature of this religion is that it rejects the authority of the Vedas 
and denies the spiritual supremacy of the Brahmaus. It also declares its object 
to be, to lead all men to salvation, and to open its arms, not only to the noble 
Aryan, but also to the low boru Sudra and even to the alien, mlechha. The 
Jains like Buddhists, deny the existence of a great creator and pay reverence to 
twenty-four Jinas or perfect saints raised to the rank of gods. Parsvanath and 
Mahavir are considered to be tLie last two of these saints for the present Yuga. 
The disciples are divided into ecclesiastics and laity. At the head stands an order 
of ascetics called ?/ai2S or sadhus, and under them the general community of 
upasaka, '" the worshippers " or the Shravak, the " hearers. " The highest goal 
of Jainism is Ntrvana or Moksha, the setting free of the individual from the 
sansknra, the revolution of birth and death. The means of reaching it are, as in 
Buddhism, the three jewels, the Right Knowledge (Sat-gnyana), the Right Belief 
(^Sat-dirshan) and the Right Conduct {Sat-rhantra). The first jewel. Right 
Knowledge, is the correct comprehension of the philosophical system which the 
Jim taught. According to the Jain doctrine, soul exists not only in organic 
structures, but also in apparently dead masses, in stones, in lumps of earth, in 
drops of water, in fire, and in wind. Virtue leads to the heavens of the gods or 
to birth among men in pure and noble races. Sin consigns the souls to the 
lower regions, in the bodies of animals, in plants or even into masses of lifeless 
matter. The bondage of souls if they inhabit a human body, can be abolished 
by the suppression of the causes which led to their confinement and by the 
destruction of the Karman merit and sin. The final state is the attainment to a 
knowledo-e which penetrates the Universe to keval (jnyana and uirvan. or moksha : 
full deliverance from all bonds. The second jewel, the Right Belief, requires 
the full surrender to the teacher, the Jina, and the firm conviction that he alone 
has found the way to salvation and only with him is protection and refuge to be 
found. The third jewel, the Right Conduct, which contains the Jain ethics, 
may be summarised in the words : not to hurt, not to speak untruth, to appro- 
priate nothing to one's self without permission, to preserve chastity and to 
practise self-sacrifice, in special relation to thoughts, words and deeds. 

'2,'i'i. Jainism was formerly supposed to be an outcome of Buddhism on the 

ground of similarity of principles, but materials 
Jainismj:mnpared with £^^,g 3}^^^^, ,^gp^ discovered in the Budha >^uttras 

themselvc'S, which show that it is quite as ancient as 
Buddhism. Jains hold the same tenets as the Buddhists regarding the sacredness 
of life, but differ from them in accepting the orthodox Hindu view of self-morti- 
fication by bodily penances. They be dove in the separate existence of the soul 
which ihe Buddhists deny. Souls according to the Jains may exist in stocks, 
stones, lumps of earth, drops of water, particles of fire, etc. Jainism also differed 
from Buddhism in that it admitted its lay adherents into (•c)mmuuion with the 
order and held d -votional services for them. Buddhism on the other hand gave 
its lay adherents no share in the monastic organisation and held no services for 
their benefit. Consequently when the Brahmanic revival of Slnmkai'acharya 
came and was followed by Maho nedan persecution and the destruction of 
monasteries, Buddhism in India simply disappeared and became nun'ged in the 
various Vaishnav sects which grew ini,o prominence about the 12th and l.'lth 



92 CHAPTER IV KKLKiloN 



ceutiu-ies, while Jaiiiism still tesuivives m the religiou ot many of the Vania castes 
who represent the ancient Vaishyas. 

•2'6i, Jainisni is gradually drifting back into the rurri'ut of Brahmanism 

which everywhere eiuToundK it and attracts it. Jains 

Hindu beliefs and observe Hindu holidays like Bhcidi, Bob' and 

practices. Akhatrij and have a sort of nioditied beliet in the 

Hindu gods, especially Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Ganesh with their consorts 
as being subordinated to the Jinas. Representatives of these deities are 
sometimes observable in the precincts ot their temples. They observe the caste 
system and sometimes claim to be reoarded as Hindus, though rejecting the 
Hindu Veda, in actual practice, they celebrate most of the purificatory rites 
prescribed by the Brahmanical Shastras and employ Brahmaiis as priests for clie 
performance of these as well as for offering worship to their Tirthankaras. Jains 
also mai-k their foreheads with saffron n, small spot as a sect mark in imitation of 
the Hindus. The schism from Hinduism does not operate as a bar to marriage 
or commensality any more than do differences which are admittedly only 
sectarian. Jain Shrimalis intern.arry with thot^c >A' their community who belong- 
to the Vaishnava sect ot Hindus. If a Hindu gul marries a man who is a Jain, 
she attends the Jain ceremonies when in her husband's house and worships the 
Brahmanical gods when she goes to visit her parents. 

235. Jain beliefs and practices have largely affected the Hindus especially 

in kindness towards animal Hie. AJiinsa parrno 
Effect on Hinduism. (i^arwa, non-killing is the highest religion, is now 

as much a Hindu as a Jain belief. Animal sacrifice which was once very 
common with the Hindus is now practically non-existing in Gujarat ; white 
pumpkins are cut instead of goats and oblations are made of rice. Hindus as 
well as Jains join in maintaining the jj«'«ja/-a/>o/e. or animal hospitals, which are 
established in most of the towns. The killing ol' street dogs and the catching 
of fish from ponds are opposed both by the Hin<lus and Jains as a common cause. 
Parbadis or pigeon-houses in street corners are built liy the followers of both 
the religions. 

23(i. As already mentioned. Jains are divided intu two leading sects, 
Dio-ambaras or sky-clad and Swetambaris or "white-clad. This distinction is 
now mainly observed in images. 

Swetambaris adorn their images with jewellery and insert crystals in their 

ej^es. Their images are represented as clothed ; 
Swetambaris. ^^^ ^^^ seated statues, the left hand rests upon the 

right. They admit idols of ?Hndu gods into their temples and Brahmans 
often officiate. They believe in VI heavens. Their yati.^ go aboTit in clean 
white clothes (Swetambars) and eat out of dishes. They allow that women can 
attain eternal bliss. They do not as a rule wear the janoi, but when wor- 
shipping, they throw the runud across the shoulder in the position in which the 
ianoi rests. This they call uttaranana. Theii- aiitlioi'ities are the 45 Anijamas. 

Which of the two sects represents the original and oldest followers of 

Mahavir, is yet midecided. Both persist in claiming 
Digambaras. ^.j^^ honour. Digambaras ajjpear to be the orthodox 

sect as Anandgiri, who was a contemporary of Shankaracharya, mentions no 
other sects in his treatise. They revere the 1'4 Tirthankaras, but do not worship 
them. They worship the Deva, Gurus and l~)liaiiii, looking on the Tirthankaras 
as models and meditators, and not in themselves objects of worship. The laity 
a e at first taught to worship the Tirthankaras ; as they rise in knowledge and 
religious standing, they cease to do so. Gurus (yatis) only looI< on the Tirthan- 
karas as examples to be followed. Digand)aras do not adorn iheir images or 
fill their eyes with crystals, etc. In the case of seated images, the right hand rests 
on the left Hindu gods are not found in their temples, except Indra occasionally; 
and they do not employ Brahmans to officiate. They believe in 16 heavens. 
I'heir gurus go naked, and only eat from the hands of a disciple. They deny 
that women can attain eternal bliss. 



JAINISM. 93 



237. About four hundred years ago, a section ol' the Swetanibaris t'ornied 
Dhundias. themselves into a separate sect, called Dhundia. 

One Lonkashah of Ahmedabad, who lived in 1648 
A. D., and was employed in copying- Jain manuscripts, found that there was no 
sanction lor idol worship in the sutrcid, which contained doctrines quite different 
from those that were practised by the monks of the time. After having- studied 
the sutras thoroughly, he cast off idol worship and proclaimed to the Jain 
community that the priests, who taught image worship, were hypocrites; and that 
it had no place in the Sutras. He soon got a small number of followers. In 
spite of the opposition and persecution of the priests, Lonkashah succeeded in 
starting a new sect, which was nick-named by their idolatrous enemies as 
Dhundias. 

This name is said to have been derived from their having had to search 
(dhcndvu), their religious books for true knowledge, or from the fact that they 
always seek (dhundha), carefully to remove all animal life from their path foV 
fear of accidentally killing it. They have no images or temples at all, but worship 
the abstract ideal only of Dharm, and follow men who have overcome their 
passions. They admit the good example of the Tirthankaras, but pay them no 
special respect. Their gurus are dressed in dirty white. They always carry on 
small broom of cotton fibi'e, with which to sweep all animal life out of their path 
and wear over the mouth a pad to prevent themselves Iroiu swallowing any small 
insect. They live in monasteries {lltanak'). Women are treated on an equalitv 
with men as regards the sidh condition. These women (sadhicis) are celibates, 
di-ess in white, wear the j^ad and carry the broom, just as the saahus do. 
They accept only 32 out of the 45 Angamas, and reject the commentaries 
(Bhashya charitra). 

In order to distinguish themselves from the idolators — Swetambaris and 
Digambaras, the followers of Lonkashah are lately calling themselves Sthanakvasi 
Swetambaras. They strenuously resent the appellation of Dhundia, which 
they assert, has been given by outsiders as a term of reproach. 

238. There are three classes oi ascetics — Sadhus, Sadhwis and Gorjis. 

Any person may become a Sadhu. The Hadhu 
Jam Ascetics. wears only two pieces of 6Aa(/«m or ochre coloured 

ooiion cloth but no head-dress. He does not allow the hair of his head, mous- 
taohes or beard to grow. Except when enfeebled by age he docs not shave, but 
after allowing his hair to grow for about six months, tears it out with his fingers 
or gets it clipped. He always carries his staff (^dand) and {oglio) brush, and 
before he sits down, sweeps the ground to push insects away. He sleeps on a 
blanket and ow^ns no property. He never kindles fire or cooks fdod lor fear of 
killing any living thing, but begs cooked food from Shravaks. He enters those 
houses, only whose doors are open and on entering repeats the words Vharma 
Labha (fruits of religion). The owner of the house lays befoi-e him Iihilcsha or 
cooked food. When he has gathered enough for a meal from the different 
houses, the Sadhu returns and eats at home. Drinking water is collected in 
the same way. During the fair season, Sadhus are forbidden tn stay more than 
five days in the same village and more than a month in the same town. ]>ut 
they are allowed to pass at one place the rainy season, that is, the four months 
from Ashadh Sudi 14th to Kartik Sudi 14th. The Sadhu's chief dutii^s are to 
sttidv and teach the Jain Shastras and to keep the p(ui,ch maha rratas or 
five main vows They are : to refrain from pranatipat, life-taking, nui.rhhavad, 
lying, adattadan, receiving anything without the knowledge of the owner, 
mnithiin. sexual intercourse, and parigraha, taking gifts not allowed by 
religi'ins rules. 

%V\ Sadhwis or muis are recruited from religiuiis Shiavak women. 

A Sadhwi wears one robe round ilir waist and 
Sad WIS. another on the upper part df the body Like the 

Sadhu, she tears out the hair of her head once in six months, carries dattd and 
oi}ho and begs her meal and water. 



y4 cuAi'TEi; IV — ueligion. 



240. A Gorji differs from a Sadhu iu wearing white instead of red 

.. ochre clothes. Gorjis grow the moustache and hair 

*""^'*' of the head. LIuIike Sadhus, Gorjis have uo order of 

female Gorjis. Except a few who break the rules and cook rich food in their 
moaasteries, Gorjis never cook but beg bhlcsha like Sacihus. Any person may 
become a Gorji. At present most ot them are sous of low-caste Hindus, or 
illegitimate children, who are brought up by Gorjis. For this reason, they have 
sunk in estimation. Gorjis practise sorcery and magic and prescribe medicine. 

241. Sadhus and Sadhwis belong to no gachlia. Gorjis and Shravaks are 

divided into gachhas or bodies. Each gachJia has a 
shripujya. spiritual head, called Shripujya, who is chosen from 

among the Gorjis of the same gackha, provided he was originally a Shravak or a 
Brahman. Shripujyas wear their hair and dress and beg in the same way as 
Gorjis, except that a Gorji sometimes brings his food and water for him with 
his own. 

242. There is little diff'erence in the entrance ceremonies for Sadhus, Sadhwis 
. . or Gorjis. The person who wishes to become a Sadhu 

nitiation. ^^^^ ^^ ^ learned Sadhu, and bowing at his feet 

humbly asks him to take him as his pupil or chela. The Sadhu finds out that 
the parents and relations of the youth are willing that he should become a Sadhu, 
and that he has sufficient strength of body and mind to stand the fasting and 
other discipline laid down in the Jain scriptures. A lucky day is chosen for the 
initiatory ceremony. When the disciple is a man of means, the ceremony is per- 
formed at his expense. In other cases, the cost is contributed by the Shra\'ak 
community, who are always pleased when additions are made to the number of 
their religious class. The ceremony is celebrated with the same pomp as a 
marriage. A procession starts from the house of the disciple, who is seated in a 
palanquin, with a cocoanut in his hand aud passing through the principal streets. 
A female relation of the person to be initiated carries in her hand a cMub or bamboo 
basket with the articles required for the intended Sadhu. The procession passes 
outside of the town and stops below an asopalo {Pohjalthia longifolia^ tree, where 
the gurii,, who is awaiting the arrival of the procession performs the initiatory 
ceremony. The Sadhus form a circle round the novice, and the laity stand 
behind. The novice puts off his old clothes except the waist cloth. He then 
plucks out the hair of his head or gets some one to do so, and puts on his new 
oarments as a Sadhu. He is then given a new name, containing at least one letter 
of his original name. Camphor, musk, sandal, saffron and sugar are applied to 
his bare head, while the initiator reapeats texts calling on him to observe with care 
the five prescribed vows, panch maha vratas. He is then supplied with the 
articles allowed to an ascetic by the Jain scriptures. They include five wooden 
pots or patra in the shape of deep dishes, a dand, about five feet long, a o(/ho or 
brush, which, while walking is carried under the left armpit and is used to sweep 
the ground. The ceremony is completed by the guru throwing vas khep or 
fragrant powder on the head of the new ascetic as he passes. He does not return 
to the town, but passes the night in the neighbouring village or in a rest-house 
outside tne town. He comes back next morning and stays in the apasara or 
monastery. 

243. The religious temples of the Jains are of two classes, apjasaras, 

monasteries and dehras, temples. They are built 



Templea, *^«j!^^nd monas- ^■^^^^^. j^^ ^ j^^^^jp wealthy Shravak or by subscrip 

tion. Shravaks are very liberal in the sums they 
spend on temples. A Shravak temple is always called after one of the twenty- 
four Tirthankaras or patron saints. The image of the chosen Tirthankar called 
M'Jnayak is set on a raised seat aud on both of his sides, images of one or more 
of the other Tirthankaras are placed and all are worshipped with ecpial respect. 
Below the idol of the Mulnayak or in other nitches or upper storeys, images of 
Hindu goddesses are placed and worshipped with offerings of cocoanuts, betel 
auts and rice. Sadhus, Sadhwis and Gorjis rarely visit the temple and do not 
perform the daily puja, which is left to paid servants called pujaris who are 
generally Shrimali IJrahmans, Taiiodliaiis, Malis or Kan bis. Tliey live in 



JAIN1(<M. 



.apasaras which are quite distiuct from temples. Apasaras arc building-s with 
large halls without bath or cooking rooms. The Shripujyas and Gorjis live iu 
cue apasara aud Sadhus aud 8atlhwi.s iu separate apasaras, lu ihe Sadhu apasa- 
ras, Jain scriptures are daily read I'rom 7 to 9 iu the morning. Sadhwis like 
Shravaks come to hear the scriptures, but sit separate from the men and listen 
at a distance. Sadhwis give instruction to Shravak women in their apasaras, 
but a Gorji or Shripujya seldom lectures or preaches. 

244. Any Hindu who is not a flesh eater or spirit drinker is considered a lit 
. . temple servant. As mentioned before miuistrants iu 

Shravak temples are Tapodhan Brahmaus, Bhojaks 
or Malis. A Shravak ministrant is never paid in money. JVliuistrants of other 
castes are paid upto Rs. 100 a year, iu addition to the right oi using fruit and 
other presents laid before the huage by votaries. Jain temples are always 
closed during the night and as a rule, a lamp is not kept burning in ihcui. 
Except iu big temples where other servants are eun)loyed, the ministrant sweeps 
the temple, keeps charge ol the temple vessels aud performs the worship of the 
idol. With a piece of cloth tied round his mouth ihe ministrant first washes tJie 
idol with water mixed with curds and then with plain water, and dries it with a 
soft cloth. He lays flowers before and over it and applies fragrant substances 
to its toe, ankle, navel, brow, heart, palm, i^honlders, neck and crown ; aloe- 
sticks are burnt, and lamps are waved as arti. He then draws on a footstool, 
a sath'io or half square with grains of rice aud as sacred food i)laces on it 
almonds, sesame and sweetmeats brought from a Shi"avak family. After this 
he unties his mouth and sits iu the hall chanting prayers. The temples are 
closed at noon and re-opened again an hour or two before sunset. Shravaks 
both males aud females visit their temples both in the morning and evening. 
Some males bathe in the temple aud go through "Jie same ritual as the minis- 
trant. Women rarely do so, though they are not forbidden to do so. Shravaks 
set in front of the idol rice, flowers, etc. They do not take anything in their 
pocket when visiting a temple, as ou returning home, they cannot use it for any 
other purpose. Taxes or fixed payments are sometimes levied for the mainte- 
nance of Jain temples. Whatever money is laid before the idol is credited in an 
account book aud spent iu repairing the temple, paying the pujari and buying 
saffron, aloe-sticks aud other articles required for ihe daily worship. Temple 
management is entrusted to one or more trustees who are chosen from the 
gachha to which the builder of the temple belongs. 



245. Jaius are not only strict vegetarians, but also avoid eating vegetables 
P d d • k which are many-seeded such as brinjale, or such 

bulbous and tuberous plants as potatoes, yams, &c. 
On certain days called parva, the use of green vegetables is forbidden. Every 
family has a large supply of brass plates and woodeu stools. The plate is set 
ou the stool aud two or three persons eat together Irom the same plate. Water 
is believed to be full of insect life. On ordinary days, it is carefully strained 
through a fine cloth and the sediment called sanhharo is thrown into the well or 
river from which the water was taken. Ou fast days, Jains drink water that 
has been boiled within eight hours of the time of drinking. 

246. Some Shravaks keep five aud others twelve monthly fasts. The five 

fast days are the two-eighths, the two-fourteenths 
and the fifth of the bright half of every Hindu 
month ; the twelve fast days are the two-seconds, the two-fifths, the two-eighths, 
the two-elevenths, the two-fourteenths and the bright and dark fifteenths ol' every 
Hindu month. Jains ought to fast during the whole week of their pachuaan 
holidays, but the rule is observed by a few ; but almost all however fast on the 
last day. Sometimes, but rarely, a Jain Sadhu takes the vow of lasting to death. 
This is called santharo or sleeping. After fasting for some days, the Sadhu's 
body is constantly rubbed with a wet cloth. When he dies he is placed in a 
litter iu a sitting posture and carried iu procession with music to the burning 
ground. Now-a-days the vow of saniharo is taken a day or two previous to 
death when all hopes of life are given up. 



96 CHAITEI: IV — UELIGION. 



247. The moBt important of the Jain holidays are the Pachusan or Paryu- 

sau^ meauing the sacred season. The Swetam- 
Holidays. ^^^^[^ observe it on from the twelfth of the dark 

half of Shravan to the fifth of the bright haif of Bliadrapad. The Digambaris 
observe it for fifteen days from the fifth of the bright half of Bhadrapad to the 
fifth of the dark half' of the same month. During these holidays, Shravaks 
observe fasts and visit all their temples in the village or town several times 
durino- the day. They also visit the apasaras where Sadhus read and explain 
the Icalpa sutra, one of their forty-five religions books. Padikamna or more 
correctly parikranian ceremony which is like a confession, is also performed by 
a body of persons together. A Shravak wishing to perform the ceremony goes 
to the apasara of his gachha with a katasau or seat of woollen cloth eighteen 
inches square, a mohopali, or mouth fillet, a chavlo or brush. He sits on the 
woollen seat and holds the molopali before the mouth with the right hand and 
puts the brush by his side. The brush is used to brush the seat and his^person 
whenever he has occasion to stand up or sit down. When all have taken their 
seats, an oath called samai/ak binding each person to be attentive is given. The 
Sadhu of the monastery' then recites certain verses praying that all sins as re- 
gards animal life committed knowingly or unknowingly by the congregation may 
be pardoned. The ceremony ordinarily lasts for an hour, but on the last day of 
the Pachusan, it lasts for three hours. Before it breaks up, the meeting is daily 
served with patasas, and with ladus on the last day. On the day following the 
Pachusan images of the Tirthaukaras are taken in procession round the town. 
Durino- these holidays, tisherinen and butchers are sometimes induced by money 
payments to give up fishing and slaughtering animals. 

5. — Gujarat Muhammadans. 

248. The earliest existence of Muhammadans in Gujarat is traced to the 

7th century. From the middle of the seventh to the 
Muhammadanism in ^^^ ^f ^j^" eighteenth century, foreign Musalmaos 

"^^"^^ ■ continued to find their way into Gujarat. The first 

to arrive were the Arabs, the sailors and soldiers of the Bagdad fleets, who came 
to plunder and conquer the Gujarat coasts. The next comers were traders from 
the Persian Gulf, who were encouraged by the Rajput kings of Anhilwad to 
settle in the country. There was thus a small Muhammadan population in 
Guiarat, especially in the coast towns, when it was conquered by Alif Khan in 
IL'y? A. D. After its conquest to the end of the 18th century, foreign Musalman 
soldiers, traders, missionaries and refugees kept flocking into Gujarat both by 
land and sea. From time to time Muhammadan missionaries and men of 
learning coming either of their own accord or invited by the rulers of Gujarat, 
succeeded in winning to their faith large bodies of Hindus. Of these mission- 
aries, the most important was Abdulla who founded in the eleventh century the 
sect of the Shiah Vohoras. Among other distinguished missionaries may be 
mentioned Imam Shah of Pirana who made many converts from the Kanbi and 
other castes. His descendants still continue to enjoy the spiritual headship of 
the Momna, Matia and Shaikhda castes whom he converted. But most o?*the 
converts were forced to adopt Islam. Alif Khan (A. D. 1297-1317) introduced 
Muhammadan faith bv force from Anhilwad to Broach. Of the Ahmedabad 
kings Sultan Ahmed '(A. D. 1411-1441), Mahmod Begda (A. D. 1459-1.513; ; and 
Mahmod II (A. D. l.^)o6-1547), specially exerted themselves to spread Islam, and 
of the Mughal emperors Jahangir in" A. D. 1618 and Aurangzeb in A. D. 1646 
attempted by persecution to force the Hindus to become jMuhammadans. It was 
only from the high castes that Muhammadan converts were forcibly made. The 
Rajputs who submitted were called Molesalams and the Vanias, Brahmans and 
Kanbis joined the sect of Vohoras. 

249. There is at present no attempt to spread Islam. Now and then a 

Hindu from worldly or other motives changes his 
Conversion^m modern religion. But cases' of conversion from the preach- 
ing of religious men are almost unknown. When a 
Hindu agrees to embrace Islam, a party of Musalmans is called together and in 



GUJA1;AT iUU.V.M.MAUANS. 



97 



250. 



Estimate of the proportion 

of foreign blood among 

the Muhammadans of 

Baroda. 



their presence he repeats the creed. Then sng-ared water is dnmk and I he 
convert is set on a horse and led in s-tate through the towu. On his return, he 
is circumcised and a Musahnan name, generally Abdullah (slave of Allah) nr Din 
Mahamad (he who has entered the faith of Mahamad), is given to him. 

The Musalmaus in the State may be divided into two main sections : (1 ) 
those with a foreign strain, and (2) descendanis of 
local Hindu converts. Those with a foreign stiain 
include the four regular classes of Shaikh, Saiyad, 
Mughal and Fathau and a few others, such as Af- 
ghans, Arabs and l>aluchis, who are wholly or partly 

of foreign descent. The local converts are the Vohora, Khoja, Memon, IMolesalani, 

Ghanchi, Tai, Pinjara, Momna, Matia, Shaikhda and 
similar other groups who still keep up their old caste 
associations. It is impossible to form an exact esti- 
mate of the relative strength of these two elements, the 
Indian and the foreign. Many of those who assume 
the high names of Shaikh or Pathan are really 
descended from Hindus. Assuming, however, iluii 
those who have returned themselves by these names 
are of foreign descent, tln' strength oi' the foreign 
element among the Muhammadans of l^aroda is 

about one-third ot the total number of persons who profess the faith of Islam. 

251. The essential do.ctrine in IMahomedauism is the absolute unity and 

supremacv of God as oi)posed to the old Arab Pulv- 
Mahomedanism. ,i • • i , j i .i /m • »• 'v ■ •. 

tiaeism on the one liaud and the uliristian Inmty on 

the other. It however admits of auy-els and e:enii. The Koran also teaches the 



Race. 


Numljer. 


Shaikh 

Sairad 

Mughal 

Pathaa 

Afghan 

Arab 

Balucn 


31,510 

8.772 

1,0.">4 

16,307 

113 

316 

951 


Tutal ... 


59,023 



doctrine of eternal decrees or absolute predestination of an intermediate state 
afftr.r death, and of the resurrection and judgment. Stress is laid on prayer, 
ablution, fasting, almsgiving and the pilgrimage to Mecca. Wine and 
gambling are forbidden. Moslem worship consists of a number of bows and 
prostrations accompanied with prayers and verses from the Koran. A 
Mahomedan should pray iive times a day, if he is a Sunni, before sunrise, fazar, 
at noon, zuhr, between uoon and sunset, asar, at sunset, magnh, and from 8 to 
12 V. M., isliCi. The ShiaU prays three times — before sunrise, fazar, at noon when 
he repeats both the ,:«/«• and the amr prayers, and at sunset when he says the 
magrib and isha prayers. 

252. Though not very zealous, Gujarat Musalmaus are on the whulf 

careful to observe the chief rules ot their faith. 
Few of them go to the daily public prayers, but the 
Friday service is well attended. Both Shiahs and Sunnis observe the month of 
fasting and attend services on the Kamzan and Bakr-ld leasts. All who can 
afford it, gi^-e alms freely and few, except those of Hindu origin, lend money at 
interest or drink spirits. They reverence the name ol the Prophet and the 
Koran. The irregidar classes of Shiahs and most of the vSunnis become murtdtf 
or disciples, the former to their mullahs and the latter to some religious person 
called their pirzada. Among the women, a few are well taught in the Koran 
and other religious liooks. They do not appear at places of public worshi[i, 
but repeat at home their daily prayers, and keep fasts and other religious 
observances. 



Practice. 



253. The Moslem 
Musalman Sects. 



<ects are as numerous as those of tln^ Hindus oi- 
Christians. The Dubistan mentions 73. The two 
main sects are Shiah and Sunni. The original 
question in dispute lietween them whether, as the Sunnis hold, Abubakur, rmar 
and Uthman were the lawful successors of the Prophet, or were, as the Shiahs 
contend, usurpers, defrauding Ali of his right to the Khilafal, has given rise to 
several differences in belief and practice. The chiei' of the differences are that 
the Shiahs leave out of the Koran certain passages which they say, were written 
by Uthman : they add a chapter in praise of Ali, which, they say, Uthman kept 
back: and to other parts they give a different meaning lioni that accepted by 



98 CIIAl'TKl; IV IJEl.KililN. 



tlie Suums. The Shiahs do not brlitve in yaiuls, aad follow the precepts ol' the 
twelve instead of the four Imams. They claim for their head doctors in Persia, 
the Mujtahids nr leli^'ious superiors, the ]iower of altering the spiritual and 
temporal law ; the Suuuis say t hat iJie time for change ceased with fom- Imams — 
Shafai, Abu Hanifah, Malik and Hambal. In practice some sects of Shiahs 
differ from Sunnis, chiefly by counting the mouth from the fading of the old 
moon and not as the 8unnis do from the shining of the new moon. They pray 
thrice instead of five times a day, and in praying hold their hands open by their 
sides instead of folding them below the breast. Except these and a few other 
particulars, the beliefs and customs of the rival scots are the same. 

254. A peculiar sect called Pirana has its followers both among the Hindus 

and Musalmaus. It has got its name from the village 
(if Pirana, ten miles south-east of Ahmedabad. It is 
said that Imam Shah, a Shiah Ismalia Saiyad, converted many Hindus of the 
Kanbi caste early in the 16th century by showing them the miraculous powers 
of his faith. < )ne story is to the effect that bringing rain after two seasons of 
scarcity, Imam Shah was able to convert a large body of Hindu cultivators. An- 
other story is that a band of Hindu pilgrims, while passing by Pirana on their 
way to Benares, were told by Imam Shah that, if they would carefully listen to 
his doctrines, they would visit Benares without the trouble of going there. Some 
of the pilgrims paid no attention to what he said and went to Benares. Others, 
who trusted in Imam Shah, saw in a trice Benares, bathed in the Gauges and 
paifl their vows. Astonished with this miracle, they adopted Imam Shah as their 
.spiritual head. Those who were actually converted came to be known as Momna 
from momin, believers, while those not actually converted but following a half- 
Hindu and half-Musalmau laith came to be known as Matia from mat, opinion. An- 
other group of half-converted Hindus came to be known as Shaikh or Shaiklida. 
The Momnas, Matias and Shaikhs call themselves Pirana Panthis, i. e., followei's 
of the Pirana sect. They read Imam Shah's book of religious rules in winch 
the Atharva Veda is also mentioned; and as a prayer repeat their saint's name. All 
bury their dead and the ]\Ioninas also perform circumcision. They keep Ram- 
zan fast and observe as holidays the uras or saint's day. Besides Musalman holi- 
.davs, they observe the Hindu holidays of Holi, Akhatrij, Divaso, Balev and Livali. 
During the last thirty or forty years, there has been a tendency among the Matias 
and Shaikhs to revert to Hinduism. In addition to the Musalman nika cere- 
mony, they call a Brahman and go through the Hindu marriage ceremony. A 
Ramanandi Saclhu, named Nirmaldas, ]ireached to the Matias in 1880 that they 
were originally Jvanbis and should abandon their Musalman practices. Since then 
some calling themselves Vaishnav Matias, separated themselves ironi the rest 
who were known as Pirana Matias. In the Census of 1901, 137 Matias returned 
themselves as Hindus and 251 as Musalmaus. In the present Census, all (401) the 
^latias have returned themselves as Hindus. No Hindu Shaikhs were re- 
.turned in lUOl. On the present occasion, 51 have returned themselves as Hindus. 
Shaikhs who have abandoned the Pirana sect make Hindu brow-marks and 
follow the Swaminarayan sect. 

In addition to the Momnas, Shaikhs and Matias, many Rabaris, Sonis and 
^'anias, while worship])ing their Hindu gods and continuing as Hindus, worship 
the Pirana saints, and call themselves Pirana Panthis. In 1901, they were not 
distinguished from the Musalmans and 3,655 persons in all were returned as 
Musalman followers of the Pirana sect. In the present Census, 3,630 Hindus and 
•only 2,10- Musalmans have returned themselves as followers of this sect. 

255. In addition to the Miijawar (beadle) and the Mutavalli (mosque- 
guardian), MuUa (the priest), Khatib (preacher). 
"" *■ Molvi (doctor of divinity) and Kazi (civil judge) 

are entrusted with religious duties. Of these the MuUa is the lowest. His 
duties are calling to prayers five times a day, acting as Iiuam or leader oj the 
prayer, and w^liere there is no Mujawar, keeping the mosque clean. Besides 
these duties, a Mulla acts as a schoolmaster and dealer in charms. He often 
iloes not understand the Koran, but he can read it and teach his pupils to spell 
through it. As a dealer in <'harms, he writes verses of the Koran to be bound 



GUJAKAT MUHAMMADANS. 99 



round the arm, or hung on the neck, to ward off or cure diseaseB or to ward off 
evil spirits or the influence of the evil eye and dreams. For fever, he gives 
a black string with leu or tifteeu knots to be worn round T.he neck. Sometimes 
he reads verses from the Koran, breathes them on a jai' of water and gives 
the water for the patient to diiuk. For bad eyes, he gives an amulet (tawiz). 
The .\lolvi is generally intelligent and well-read. On certain occasions, he prea- 
ches in private dwellings a sermon [loaaz)^ on the text ol a verse from the Korau. 
Sometimes he knows the whole Koran by heart and has the title of Hatiz placed 
before his name. A Molvi, who follows the profession ol a spiritual guide, 
spends several months of the year in touring in the villages where his followers 
live. He takes up his quarters in the mosque or with the richest of his dis- 
ciples. Here he preaches, teaches and visits from house to house, pi-escribiug 
for those who are sick. As a uurer of diseases, he, like the Mulla, writes the text 
from the Koran to be used as a charm in amulets For a sick patient, he gives 
a knotted string neckla'je or writes a charm in sacred characters on paper or 
with saffron-water on a china plate. The ink (»r saffron is washed off and the 
water is drunk. 

Except in towns, where the kazi or judge does the duty on Fridays and fast 
days, the sermon, khatbah, is read by the khatih or preacher. The oliice is 
hereditary, and the bolder of it follows some calling or profession. 

Under Mahomedan rule, the hmi was the civil and criminal judge. Xow, 
except that he leads the public prayers 'JU the days of Ramzan and B^iln- leasts, 
he is a little more than a registrar of marriages and divorces. 



:356. The profession called pir mwridi is practised by Saiyads, and a few 
. Shaikhs. They call their followers murids, and their 

followers call them pirs or pirzadalis. Each class, 
especially among the converts from Hinduism, has its pir or murshid. The 
necessity of having dt, pir is carried so far that hepir or )t><V-less is a term of scorn. 
Thus the Bukharis have the Memons and Chhipas as their murids ; the Pirana 
Saiyads have the Momnas and Kakas, and some Saiyads claim Gandhraps or 
musicians as their murids. The pir first initiates his Murid by inculcating on 
him the tenets of the faith and by exhorting him to eschew the ways of evil. He 
sips a little sherbnt out of a cup, and makes his disciple drink a little of it. This 
is said to be taking the lab or lip-saliva of the pir. The ceremony is performed 
either at the age of initiation, i. e., four years, four months and four days (see 
para. 384) of life. The pir does not impose on his disciples a regular tax, 
but he is always paid either in cash or grain so as to maintain himself in decent 
comfort. He risits his congregation once in every lour years, when his followers 
rais.'. subscriptions to supply liim with money. The pir is sometimes invited by 
one of his people to bless the dying, the bride and bridegroom or a new house. 
On these occasions also he is paid handsomely in cash iir kind 

borne pirzidaliR have followers only in a few villages, some in all jiavts of 
Gujarat, and some not only in Gujarat, but in places far distant like Mauritius 
and Natal, in Burma and in Singapur. When a pirzadak dies, his sons dis- 
tribute among themselves their father's people, assigning to each son, a certain 
number of households. Ir sometimes happens that for a siun of money or other 
consideration one pirzadah makes over to another the spiritual charge and the 
income derived iVom a certain number of families. 

257. Musalmans have three kinds of religious buiUiings : iiiasjid ov mosque, 

^ .,j. idiiha where id or festival pravers are said and 

Religious buildings. ■ l i • l • i i j^* c i • i 

imambadas or private mournmg chapels tor Shiahs. 

There are many old mosques but few new ones are built, owing mainly to want 

of funds. To meet the cost of repairs, lighting, muzavar's pay, etc., most 

raosi|ues have some small endowments, the rent of lands, houses or shops. These 

funds are entrusted ro a few men of family and position, known as Muidrnlll. 

If there is no endowment, the charges are luet by congregation The Idgah 

used onlv by Snnnis is generally built outside of a town. It consists of a 

navement of stone or cement raised three or four feer. above the level <if tlie 

o-rnnnd. Along the west facing east is a \v'all with a small turi'et at each end. 



100 CHAPTKK IS KELIUIOK. 



At tlif middle 3 tu 5 steps rise Irom the pavement aud form the pulpit, from 
which ou the Ramzan-ld and Bakr-Id festivals, sermons are preached after the 
pravers are over. 

258. Vows ar(> allowed by the Mahomedan faith, aud are largely practised 

by the people iu Gujarat. They are of three kinds: 
*'^*" vows made to saints, vows made to Tabuts and 

vows made to genii or .spirits. Among the shrines of saints in the Baroda State, 
the principal are (1) Miradatar at Uuawa near Unja in the Kadi district, (2) 
Pirana near Ahmt>dabad, (3) Ganj Pir inthe village of Vasravi in the Velachha 
taluka of thf Navsari district, (4) Saiyad Sadat Saheb, in the town of Navsari 
and (5) Pir Salar Bahadur in Kauirej. Of these the most famous is that of 
Miradatar, which has come into special importance, owing to the faith reposed 
in I he saint b;-' His Highness the iate Khanderao Gaekwad, who, as a thank- 
offering, presented it a railing of solid silver. The reputation which this shrine 
enjoys as an exoixnser of spirits is not equalled by any other in Gujaiat. As 
soon as a spirit -afflicted person arrives at the shrine, the Mujawar allots him 
quarters befitting his station in life in one of the out-houses of the shrine. In 
the evening the patient sits with other votaries near the railing of the saint's 
o'lave. He is given a I'up of wattT from the shrine well, on drinking which, if 
he is spirit-possessed, begins to nod his body backward aud forward, or if a 
woman, to toss her hair and roll her eyes. If after one or two repetitions of the 
drauo-hi. no effect is produced, ihe ailment is concluded to be constitutional. In 
that case, the remedy is the internal oi' external use of the leaves of a tree grow- 
in"' near the grave of the saint. The tree is said to have grown out oi' a 
datan, which after using, the saint thrust into the soft ground near him. It put 
out shoots and gavi- forth leaves which are believed to cure the most obstinate 
and clu'onic diseases. Sometimes the leaf remedy is dispensed with. The 
patient or one of his party or one of the Mujavars is warned in a dream that the 
patient is well and should go. If the tirst warning is disregarded, a second one 
tnllows accompanied by the threat of evil if the patient does not leave. The 
8i)irit-expelling element at Miradatar is more interesting than the medical. It 
often happens that a spirit is obstinate, and in spite of trequeut punishment, it 
does not leave. Then the further punishments inflicted are sometimes as terrible 
as tliev arc degrading. The man possessed by one of these stubborn spirits is 
sien being dragged unwillingly as if by an unseen agent to a post where with- 
out anv visible cord, his hands seem to be bound and he to writhe aud rave as 
if under severe corporal punishment. Sometimes the po^sessed seems to be 
dragged towards the latrines of the shrine, all the while entering and praying 
the Miran and ])romising future obedience and abject submission to his invisible 
master. His mode of progression has all the appearance of lieing forced and 
reluctant. Seeming to be dragged to the urinaries or latrines, he is immerstd 
into the impurities and made to wallow in them. At last when he gives a faith- 
ful promise ot future g(ii>d conduct, and when the fit is exhausted, he removes 
hhns(>lf tViim the place often with a shoe between his teeth as a sign of abject 
adniissidu of defeat, aud runs from the shrine enclosure and drops as if dead. 
About an hour aflei, he wakes irom his trance an entirely changed man. He 
is now in his proper senses, tht- wild and lagged look in his face during the 
davs of his possession has disappeared, the dazed expression with the snake-like 
fixedness of tht- eyeballs is gone. He legains his usual spirits and after the 
])erformani'e of his vow is sent back to his home. 

Sunu' people vow that, if they gain their desire, they shall on the tenth of 
everv Mohoiam roll on the ground for a certain distance before the Ta/ia while 
it is on its wav to its final immersion. Otln^rs vow that, if they get a sou or if 
a sii'k child recovers, that child up to a certain age shall be made to go about at 
each Mohoram iu flu- guise of a tiger or a bear or a Hindu ascetic. The vows made 
to genii are called hazrafs (literally presoni;es). Ha/iats ;vre generally held b\- 
worat'ii. Dinners arc i;0')ked and musicians are hired lo sing songs in jjraise of 
the ])articula) '/mw whose vow is to be ])eri'ormed. On siich occasions, the lady 
who is possessed bv the ^inn is believed lo be completely under the infiucnce ol 
the spirit, and is called the asm-dann/'. Those who want to consult her ask 



GUJARAT MUHAMMAUANS. 101 



questions and in ruply she directs them to do or abstain from ceriaiu acts or to 
present certain dishes as a thanksgiving, if they want to gain their object. 

259. The Koran, though forbidding its practice, enjoins its belief in the 
„ . existence of magic. The mag-ic is often resorted to. 

especially by women, to win another's affection, to 
cause a strife between rivals and to get rid of a foe. To gain the first two ends, 
love or hate potions are given, and to gain the third an image of the victim is 
made in dough and pricked to pieces with needles. Belief in the evil eye is so 
sti'ong, that a Mahnmedan will seldom eat a meal in the sight of a stranger, and 
before taking his; inlant into the e^treet, will blot its lace with aoUyrium or lamp- 
black. 

260. Musi ul' the lower and uneducated classes of converts from Hinduism 

. are deeply infected with Hindu superstitions ; 

in u prac ices. their knowledge ol the faith they profess, does not 

extend beyond the three cardinal doctrines of the Unity of God, the mission of 
Mahomed and the truth of the Koran ; and they have a faint idea of the 
differeuc-s bsiween their religion and that of the Hindus. The Khojas, .\Jemons 
and others follow the Hindu siiccession law. Among Khojas on the sixth day 
after birth, the goddess chhathi is worshipped as among the Hindus. Most of 
the peasant V'ohnras stilt keep some Hindu practices. Some of them call their 
children by Hindu names, e //., Akhuji, Bajibhai. Two or three days before 
marriage in honour oi a special deity, Waiiuder, they distribute dishes of two 
kinds of pulse, lamj and vaJ, boiled together. At death their women beat the 
breast and wail like Hindus. The Hindu practice of celebrating marriage, 
pregnancy and deatli by large caste entertainments is followed by Vohoras, 
Tais, Momnas, Pinjaras, Shaikhs and others. Ladu, kansar, pakvan and other 
Hindu dishes are prei)ared on such occasions. Molesalams, Kasbatis and other 
converted Rajputs marry Hindu wives and ai such marriages iMuasionally a 
Brahman officiates. The Matia Kanbis call lirahniaus to all their chief 
ceremonies and except that the Pirana saint is their spiritual guide, that they 
help to support and go to visit his tomb, and that they bury their dead, their 
customs are Hindit. .Among Rathods. when the bride is a Hindu, both Brahman 
and Musalmau ceremonies are performed. The Shaikhs or Shaikhdas. the 
followers of Bala Maliamud Shah, one of the minor Pirana saints, bury 
their dead, bul excej)i for this ebservance and for their name, their customs are 
Hindu. They are not circumcised and do not eat with Musalmans. They wear 
tila, forehead mark, and at the time oi' marriage, both a Musalmau and a Hindu 
priest attend. Tlie Musalmau ceremony is performed by a, faLir smd the Hindu 
rite of chori or altar worship by a Brahman. Among the Musalmau Ghanchis 
women go singing with the bridegroom to the bride's house, as among the 
Hindus, and ai marriage feasts they have generally Hindu dishes. 

261. Many Hindu superstitious beliefs are respected and followed. Omens 

. . are drawn from the crv of birds and animals. The 

Hindu superstitions. . r j i- i' ii • j a • i- 

cooing or a dove toretells ruin and the cawing ol a 

crow, the arrival oi'^eme member of the family or of a friend. A death follows 
the lonely midnight howl of the dog. A cat crossing the path is a bad omen. 
But it is luckv to see a child at play or a woman fetching water or carrving 
milk or whey. (Jreei)ing feelings in the skin of the face are a favourite source 
of omens. They are lucky, if felt on the right corner of the right eyelid, and 
unlucky if felt on the left corner of the left eyelid. A sudden fit of hiccup is a 
sign of being affectionately remembered by absent friends as the itc^hing of the 
right palm foretells gain of money. The same feeling in the sole of the right 
foot prognosticates a joiu-uey. Each day of the week is believed to be fitted for 
certain acts and unsuitod for others. Sunday is a good day for naming ;i child, 
eating a new dish, wearing new clothes, learning a new lesson, beginning a 
service and tilling land. It is a bad day to buy a horse or to set out on a jour- 
ney. Monday is guod for takiuLi; the first bath alter recovery from illness, for 
sending a bride to her husband's house, for laying the foundation of a house, 
for entrustiiiLj' anything to a person, for bartering an anhnal, and for travelling 
east. Tuesdav is u-ood for eating- a new dish, takii g a recovery bath, givina- 



102 CHAPTER IV KELHilON. 



any business in charge and buying an animal. It is an ill day tor travelling 
north and for buying a cow. Wednesday is good for sending a bride to her 
husband's house, naming an inliant, putting on new clothes, shaviug, eating a 
new dish learning a new lesson, tilling the ground, laying the Ibundation of a 
house, and changing a resideuoe. It is bad for travelling north and for buying 
a cow. Thursday is good for the same works as Wediiesday, but is bad for 
travellin<j- south and for buying - n elephant. Friday is good for the same 
works as Wednesday and bad for buying goats. Saturday is good for the 
same works as Wednesday and bad for travelling east or for buying a camel. 
And certain days of the mouth, depending on direction in which the traveller is 
going, are good for starting on a journey. 

Fakiks. 

262. The natural disposition ot the Arabb for a solitary and cunieniplative 

life led them soon to forget the command of the 
Origin of Fakirs and Prophet " no monks in Islamism." Another expres- 

ervis es. ^^^^ .^ ^j^^ Koran " poverty is my pride '" was the 

aro-unient which, thirty years after the death of the Prophet, was used by his 
sectarians to found numerous monasteries in imitation of the Hindus and the 
Greeks ; since then the order of Fakirs (poor) and of dervishes i^siils oi' the 
door) so multiplied in Arabia, Turkey and Persia that they reached the number 
of seventy-two, exclusive of an equal number of heretic sects (Brown's Dervi- 
shes, p. 76). 

263. Fakirs in Gujarat lead a roving life and include in their ranks men 

from all parts of India and of every variety of 

Gujarat Fakirs. descent. They move from house to liouse gathering 

money, grain and cooked food. The money they keep and the grain and broken 
food they sell to potters as provender for their asses. Others reciting praises 
of the generous and abuse of the stingy, ask for a copper in the name of Allah to 
be repaid tenfold in this world and a hundredfold at the day of judgment. 
Fakirs belong to two main classes ; beshara, i.e., those beyond the Mahomedan 
law or celibates and hasham, i.e., those within the law or those who marry and 
have families. Those beyond the law have no homes and neither fast nor pray, 
nor rule their passions. Those under the law have wives and houses and pray, 
fast and keep all Mahomedan rules. There are many kinds of Fakirs, but those 
commonly met with are : — Aklali, a.\so called Dafali or Fadali, players on the 
tambourine daj ; Nakshabcuid, or mark-makers ; Benmca or the pennilest-, also 
called Alijshai ; Kalandar or monks ; Madari ; Musa Suhag, who put on 
women's dress ; Rafii, also called Munhphoda ov Munhchira : and Ba^ulsliaht 
also called Mastau or madmen. The first two brotherhoods belong to the 
bashara order and the last six to the beshara or lawless order. 

Ahdali, also called Dafali or Fadali, players on tlie tambourine, daf, are 
found wanderiag in small numbers. They speak Hindustani and l)eg in the 
name of Allah, beating their one-end drum, danka, and singing religious songs. 
In north Gujarat, they have a fixed due or tax upon tlie houses of Musalmans in 
towns and villages. 

NahshdJiiind — literally mark-makers — are found all over Gujarat. They 
speak Hindustani, keep the head bare and wear the hair and beard long and well 
combed. W^ith a lantern in hand, they move about singly rhauling their saint's 
praises. In retuin for ahus, they mark children on the brow with oil liuni their 
lamps. They are quiet and well behaved and have homes and families. 

Bpjmwa.'i are fakirs of the heshara order. They are also called Alilshahi 
from wearing a black Alif-like (first letter of the Persian alphabet) line down the 
brow and nose. They wear Persian-like woollen hat, sleeveless shirt and round 
the neck long rosaries of beads of .teh's. They move about in bands of five <n- ten 
bego'ing in the name of God. In each town, they have a headman called 
JJ/nnduri or treasurer, who receives their earnings and after guying back for 
expenses, forwards the surplus amount to the mun^hiil or spiritual iuad of 
the order. 



I'AKIliS. 103 



Kalaadar, ti'oiu au Arabic wend mcaiiiiii;' imink, are Fakirs who wandei' 
over the country for begging and are troublesome in their demands. They shave 
the whole body including the eye-brows, and are Suiinis in faith. 

Madari fakirs are mosth- convened Hindus of the nat or tumbler class. 
They take their name from Badi-ud-din Madar Shah, the celibate saint of Syria, 
and belong to the heghara order of Sunnis. They beg alone or in bands of two 
or three. Some move about dragging a chain oi' lashing their legs with a whip 
to force people to give them alms. Others are snake-charmers, tumbJers, 
monkey dancers and trainers, tricksters and rope-dancers. They honour Hindu 
Gods and follow Hindu customs. They marry only among themselves and lorm 
a separate connnunity with a headman. 

Mma Suhag are 3Iusalman fakirs, wlm are so called after their patron 
saint ^lusa, who lived at the close of the l.'ith century and used to dress as a 
woman to indicate that he was devoted to God as a wiie to her husband. In 
memory of their saint, fakirs of this order dress like married women in a red 
scarf, a gown and trousers. They do not shave the lieard, Imt put on bracelets, 
anklets and other garments. Thev are Sunnis in religion and never marrv. 



Bafai fakirs are also called Munphoda or Munliclnra, that is, face lashers 
or face splitters. They are found in small numbers all over the State. They 
hold in their right hand a twelve-inch iron spike called (jurz, sharp-pointed and 
having near the top many small iron chains. While begging, they rattle the 
chains, and if people are slow in giving them alms, strike at their cheek or eve 
with the sharp iron point, which however causes no wound. They are Sunnis ; 
some are celibates, while some are married. 

Rasulshahi iakirs are also known as niasian or madmen. They pur on 
only a shirt and a waist cloth. They are Snimis of the leshara or celibate order 
and^ beg with a wooden clul) in their hands. 

Sidi or Hahshi takirs are the descendants of African negroes brou'dit to 
c- .. India. Their chief object of worship is Babaghor. 

an Abyssinian saint, whose tomb stands on the hill 
near Rataupur in the Rajpipla State. Sidi Iakirs move about in small l)ands. 
While begging they play upon a peculiarly shaped fiddle ornamented with a 
bunch of peacock feathers and sing in a peculiar strain in praise ol' their 
-patron saint. 

2ti4. Each brotherhood has generally three office-bearers. Of these, the 
. gtion principal is called mrf/uroli or head teacher. He 

""^ ' controls the whole body and receives a share of all 

earnings. The other two are 22m' or nalib, who calls the members to all entrance, 
marriage and death leasts, and the bhundari or treasurer, who sees that ]npe and 
water are ready at the Fakir's meeting place. Among the members, there are 
two orders : the laurshid or teachers and the klmdim or chela. Every newcomer 
ioins as the disciple of some particular teacher. 

26-5. The teacher sees that the entrance ceremony is properly performed; 
. that the disciple is shaved and bathed ; tliat lie learns 

the names of the heads of the order; that he promises 
to reverence them : that he receives certain articles of dress ; that he gets a 
new name ; that he learns the new salutation ; that he swears not to steal, not 
to lie, not to commit adultery ; to work hard as a beggar or in any other calling 
and to eat things lawful : and finally that the entrance feast is duly given. At 
the close of each day, the newcomer lays his earnings before the head teacher, 
sarguroJt. Taking out something for himself and a share to meettlie treasurer's 
charges, the head teacher gives back the rest. This the beggar takes to his 
teacher, who giving him a little as pocket money, keeps the rest for himsell". So 
long as the teacher lives, a beggar conthiues to be his disciple. When a 
teacher dies, the oldest discijile succeeds, or if the teacher has a son, the son and 
the senior disciple share the other disciples between them. 



104 ciiAi'TKi; IV — i;i:i,if;in\. 



6 — Paiisism. 

266. Tlie religion of the Parsis, origii.ully the people ot' Pars or Fars, a 
Zoroastrianism south-west ])rovince of Persia, is kuowu as Zoroas- 

trianism from their prophet Zoroaster, who flourished 
about 2500 Jl C. The present Parsis of India are descendants of those who about 
loOO years ag-o left their mother-country to escape from the oppression of the 
Mahomedans who had conquered it. They are said to have landed first at Diu, in 
Kathiawad. and then at Sanjau near Daman. The Hindu Raja of the place gave 
them shelter and allowed them liberty to follow their own religion, which with its 
rituals, they ha\-e jireserved intact. The sacred liooks of the Zoroastrians are 
known as the Zand Avasta or the translations of the Avasta or sacred texts. 
According to tradition in Zoroaster's time, these books iuchided twenty-one misks 
or parts, of which only a fe^v iragments now remain. In addition to these irag- 
meuts the sacred books of the present Parsis include modern commentaries. The 
language ot the early fragments is known as Zend and that of the commentaries 
as Pei)lvi. In addition to these, the Parsis have a collection of writings in Per- 
sian culled raray CIS, meaniugcnstoms, wliich are the results of references by Indian 
Parsis to Persian Zoroastrians on doubtful points chiefly of ritual. The leading 
beliets which as a Zoroastrian, the ordinary Parsi liolds are the existence of one 
God, Ahurmazd, the creator of the universe, the giver of good, the hearer and 
answerer of prayer. Next to Ahurmazd, the name most familiar to a Parsi is that 
of Ahirman, or satau. to whom he traces exery evil and misfortune that happens 
to him and every evil thought and evil passion that rises in his nund. He 
believes that every man has an innnortal soul, which after death passes either to 
a place of reward, Jiehesht or of punishment, duzah. The reward or punishment of 
the soul depends on its conduct during life. He believes in good angels who- 
carry (Jut the wishes of God ami watch over lire, water and earth. He venerates 
fire and water and the sun, moon and stars which Ahurmazd has made. He 
believes in Zoroaster or Zarathnsl,ra as the prophet who brought the true religion 
from Ahurma/.d. His code of morals is contained in two sets of three words, 
the one set " HumtUn, hukJda, hnvrasta, '' holy mind, holy speech, holy deeds, to 
be praised and practised, pleasing to God, the path to heaven; the other set 
dtishmata, duzu/chta, duzuvarat-j., evil mind, evil spieech, evil deeds to be blamed 
and shunned, hatetul to (xnd, the path to hell. Fire, ateali, is the chief object of 
Parsi veneration and the fire-temple (Atesh Behram and Agiari) is the public 
place of Parsi worshi|). Religious Parsis visit the fire-temple almost daily and 
on four days in each month, the ord, 'Jth, 17th and 20th, which are sacred to lire, 
almost all Parsis go there and offer prayers. 

267. Among' the Parsis also there is a soi't of hieraichy, though not on the 

rigid method of the Hindus, butthere are no castes. 
Priests and laity. rpj-^^^ Mobfi,/s are to them what the Prahmans are to- 

the Hindus. The stronghold of the Mol)eds is our town of Navsari, and it has 
been so foi' some centuries, because the Parsis earl.y migrated to it from Saiijau, 
and have thrived and flourished there ever situ^e. No religious ceremony cur 
be performed, no marriage tie can l)e knit, no prayer after the dead can be recit- 
ed, and no funeral service can be held, except by the jMobeds. These ser^'ices- 
are not at all optional, but compulsory, and fees are ])aid for each and all of thenu 
Before the Globed is engaged hi services in the fire temjiles, or in religious 
services at the houses of' his Behdms (persons belouging to the laity, lor whom 
and for whose deceased relatives he recites ])rayers), he has to pei-fbrm ceremo- 
nies exclusively for nine days and nights during which time no one can touch 
him. He also cannot dine with a Pehdin or eal food cooked by ;i Behdin, while 
he is actually officiating as a priest. 

268. ('hildren are initiated into the Parsi religion bciwcen ihe age of sfiven 

and nine. The ceremony is called narzot or making 
Initiation. .^^ ij^,^^. l,t.]ipYp,- \\ consists in clothing tlu' child 

with a sacred muslin shirt culUd aadra and tying round its waste a sacred cord 
called /.«,s'/. The /.v).-/?' in madi' by the wives and daiigliiers of Tarsi ])riests by 



EXTERNAL CHAKACTERI.STICS 01- JlAIiN IJELIGIONS. 105 



thi' iiiter-twiiiings of 72 strong ilireads spun oiii ol' wool, and woven in a 
special way, on a sort ol" loom. It is sufficieutly long to go thrice round the 
waist and to allow ol its being tied up in certain ways, which the child is 
taught to do. From the ilay on which the investiture takes place to the day 
et' death, a Parsi, male or female, cannot part with the /rasii ; parting with it 
is an overt act of abandoning the Parsi religion. It is daily untied and retied 
for prayers and changed for a new when it gets old. 

iMi'J, When a Parsi dies, his body is washed, dressed in clean white cotton 

clothes and laid with the feet towards the north in 
a corner of the Iront hall. A lamp fed with ghee i? 
kept burning near the head and a priest repeats prayers and burns sandalwood 
in a censer in front of the body. Two priests stand at the threshold opposite 
the body and recite prayers called tjehsanm. Before the body is put on the bier, 
which is a plain iron cot, a dog is brought to look nn the face of the dead and 
drive away evil spirits. The bier-bearers known as -uasetsalar are Parsis, 
specially paid and set apart by the community dor the purpose. Four of them, 
dressed in white, carry the bier with the feet foremost. Priests and friends of the 
dead walk behind the bier, each couple holding the ends of a handkerchief. 
At the Tower of Silence, the bier is set down at a little distance li'om the door. 
When all have bowed to the dead, the bier is taken into the tower ^here the 
body is lifted from it and laid on the inner terrace of the tower. Tlie clothes are 
torn off and the body is left to the vultures. In places where there are no 
Towers of Silence close at hand, Parsis bury their dead. Kvery morning for 
three days after a death, rice is cooked and laid in the vfiaijdah l(jr dogs to eat. 
The ceremony of uthanma or rising from mourning takes place in the afternoon 
of the third day. On the fourth day a feast is held especially tor priests. A little 
of the food cooked on this day is sent to all relations, who must eat at least a 
little of it. On the tenth aud thirtieth dpy after a death, the death-day in each 
month lor the first year and every yearly death-clay, ceremonies in honour of the 
dead are performed. 

i'7(i. Besides the leading rites and ceremonies, the Parsis have many minor 

practices and observances to udiich more or less of a 
religious sanction is supposed to attach. A Parsi 
nmst always keep his head and feet covered, he must be never without the sacred 
shin {sadra) and cord (Jiastt), must never smoke and nuist wash his hands if he 
ever piits his fingers in his mouth. In practice, however, many of these rules 
are neglected, more especially by the educated. Contact with Hindus and 
Mnsalmans has introduced among the Parsis many oi their superstitious beliefs 
and practices. Some Parsis of the old type make nfferings to the Hindu Holi, 
offer vows and sacrifice goats to the small-pox goddess and a few carry oil to the 
Hindu Hanuman god on Saturdays. Some offer vows and make presents to the 
Mohoram fahuta and at the tombs of Musalman saints. The faith in ghosts, 
magic, astrology and witchcraft is strong and widespread, especially among the 
females. Children have soot or lamp black rubbed on their eyes, cheeks aud brows 
to keep off the evil eye. 

7. — External charactei:istic's of main imxigions. 

271. The above notes briefly indicate only thi' main features of the religions 
of the people. Religion is a wide and del)atable subject, and it would be impos- 
sil)]e to deal fully with all the questions involved in it in a Census Report. In 
conclusion it may be interesting to note: a few external characteristics by which 
the followers of the main religions may be recognised. 

Hindus and Jains pray lacing the east, while i\lusalmans pray facing the 

west, that is, towards Mecca. Hindus and Jains 
^:nZ'Ll^:7.lSonT ^^t^i- tet^ples whUeMusahnans pray in mosques. 

riinduB have Brahman priests, while Musalman and 
Jain ministrants are drawn from their own congregation. The Hindu venerates 
the cow, will not, as a rule, kill animals, and nifsi "f them abstain from meat. 



106 CHAPTER IV UELKilUN. 



The .Jaiii scrupulously protects animal lite and never touclies meat,. 'Jlic 
Musabuaii loathes tin; pig and thr dog but has no prejudice against any other 
anhnal. Hindus, Jains and tlie .Musalmans use tobacco, but nmst of tliem 
reject narcotics and ardent spirits. Hindus and Jains shave their heads 
leaving a scalp-lock. Musalmans shave their head, but keep no scalp-lock 
and generally do not shave the beard. Hindus and Jains button their 
coats to the right, while Musalmans to the left. Hindus and Jains wear 
dhotis whiU' Masalmans usually put on long trousers and only occasionally a 
dhoti, but without kacchadi or back-piece. Hindus and plains prefer red and 
saffron colours and dislike black, while Musalmans prefer green to all others. 
Hindus and Jains use brass vessels, while Musalmau vessels are usually of 
copper. Hindus and Jains may cook in, but may not eat out of, an earthen 
vessel, which has already been used for the jiurposc ; a Musalman may use an 
earthen vessel over and over again to eat from. Musalmans, and to some extent, 
even Jains eat together from a common dish, while Hindus use separate dishes 
for each person. Hindus and Jains marry in circumambulation of the sacred 
fire, but, among Musalmans formal consent of the parties is asked and given 
before witnesses. Musalmans practise circumcision, but Hindus and Jains do 
not. Musalmans bury their dead, while Hindus and Jains, as a general rule, 
burn them. A Musulman will eat and drink without scruple from the hand of 
a Hindu or a Jain, but no Hindu or Jain will take either food or water from a 
Musalman. Musalman converts from Hinduism retain many of the customs 
and prejudices of the castes from which they have originated, and form an ext-ep- 
tion to this general rule. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



HINDU SADHUS. 



yFar deAvi ij)iire maiter^ »ec friii. i\h io 231.) 



\K)Wi 





IJliiU.HACHAKl [Sliami). 



])ax]ii [Sltair:C 




1 '^'-'''''^V^^l 


,^^t J 


^ V »- . '^HBHH 


' ;■ "^^5 



I'AiiA.M All ANSA {bhana). 



Saihii [liinuan/iji). 



\OiV, 



HINDU SADH US— fowir/. 




AciiARi {Hamanandi). 




KiiAKiii {Rammuiif/i 









4> ^^ 




ri'km 



%\\ 



^■^^^.■^' 



^■!| 




I'.UAiniAi iiAiii (i'^irt'mhiaiYii/dii). 






S \ 1 1 1 1 r ( Straminannjaii). 



I'ai.o ( Swidiiiiiaraiiaii). 



106c 



JAIN SADHUS. 



(^For rhsrrijifn-c maffiv^ scr /Hiras. I'.'iS to 242.) 





Saljih" 



(lou.u. 



MUSALMAN FAKIRS. 



(For de^^eriptii-e matter, ■•<ec j/m-as. 262 to 26-"i.) 



\y 

■ ■ i / 


1 

i 


^ 




.\.\K.siiAi;\xii. 



1!h;\a\\ A. 



106d 



MUSALMAN FAKIRS.— cowW. 








Madari. 



MuhA SUHAi;. 




Kaiai. 



106 e 



MUSALMAN FAK\RS-c>nfd. 





FtASrLSHAHI. 



Mill. 



PARSI PRIEST 



OR7 N 



(^For descriptive matter, see para. 267 




JIoiiEa) ( Parsi Priest). 



.SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



107 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I.— General Disti:iuution of the 
Population by Religion. 



Religion and Locality. 



I'ropoitioii per 10,UOO of 
Actual i '^<^ Population. 

Number 
in 191J. 



1911 



IHOl I 1891 



1881 



Variation per cent, increase 

(+) or decrease (— ). Net 

variation 



1901-1911 



18'.tl-l: 01 



1881-lbtfl !18«' 1911. 



in 



Hindu. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Division 
Amreli Division 



Musalman. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division 
Baroda I'ity 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Division 
Amreli Division 



Animjst. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
S ivsari bivisioii 
Amreli Oivision 



Jain. 



Baroda State 

Btroda Di\Hsion 
Baroda City 
Kadi IJivision 
Navsari Division 
Amreli Division 



Parsi 



Baroda State 

B«riida Division 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Division 
Amreli Division 



Christian. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division 
Baroda Ciiy 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Division 
.\inreli Division 



Others. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Division 
Amreli Division 



1,697,(46 

78,218 
752,157 
217,195 
155,670 



160,887 

48,982 
17,20(i 
53,587 
23,207 
18,905 



1IS,4I1 

30,317 

199 

1 

84,894 



43,462 

8,005 
2,2US 
26,963 
2,77. 
3,514 



7,955 

109 

.561 

77 

7.17:1 

29 



7,203 

6,0.SI) 

7t8 

3J8 

60 

8 



8,349 

8,406 
7,87S 
9.0S9 
n'.474 
8.732 



791 

834 

1,782 

633 

692 

1,0K1 



568 

516 
20 

3,530 



214 

136 
322 

324 

s3 

17 



39 

2 

56 

1 

314 



35 

103 

7K 
4 



7,922 

8,202 
7,783 
8,9S9 
4,315 
8,662 



845 

841' 

1,809 

667 

S47 

1,140 



903 

670 

51 

17 

4,595 



247 

160 

218 

:76 

89 

188 



43 

2 

57 

1 

252 

1 



39 

126 
75 

"l 
4 



734 


4 


1 


197 


3 


••• 


205 


3! 


7 


29 






14 3 


~ 





8.850 
8,879 
7,8'.i7 
9,055 
8,518 
8,686 



781 

774 

1,793 

623 

7.") 9 

1,151 



124 

217 

1 

11 

431 



20S 

127 
213 
309 
6? 
15« 



34 

60 

333 
1 



3 
1 

4:i 



8,480 
8,92ti 
7,890 
9,034 
5,707 
-,621 



801 

791 

1,79S 

6^9 

sOO 

1,21)!; 



465 

l.H 

1 
.3,176 



214 

126 
20 ■! 
325 

168 



37 

3 

46 

1 

259 

1 



3 

1 

58 



9 71 

11-45 
317 
0-81 

71-53 
3-63 



250 

7-94 
8-33 
5-43 
8-82 
4-68 



34-52 

16-21 
62-45 
99-93 
38-50 
100 



10 

7-46 
2-5K 
1419 
3-2 • 
7-56 



5-40 

3-81 

5-87 

22-23 

.5-40 

45 



2763 + 

28-76 !+ 

12-13 + 

25-01 ,+ 

53-47 + 

4-06 + 



1257 

10-29 

10-11 

18-95 

4-93 

4-68 



+ 49037 

+ 137-6" 
+5,788-89 
+ 19-21 
+ 927-04 



15-37 

6-4U 

v-39 

11-41 

65-82 

23-17 



7-86 

4-65 
9-03 
8-62 
5-44 
16-42 



4-06 

3-11 
8-44 
7-33 
23-05 
I.- 04 



2-47 

23-91 

2-41 

167-57 

2-04 

66-6} 



— 7059 

+ 50-48 
+ 125 

+1,290-59 

— 85-28 



6-35 + 1,09056- 

11-06 +11,812-28 — 

3-36 !+ 53*57 i — 

Hi50 — 50 ' + 

39-53 + 7917' + 

86-67 + 361-54 — 



61961 

1870 
1R4-72 
86«-67 
841-18 



82-14 

100 

84-6-1 

75 



7-74 

8-35 
11-94 

5-51 
30-90 

14-70 



1-08 

12-20 

18-78 

24-49 

0-05 

20 



16-21 

25-97 
17-78 
9-09 
84-6S 
45-83 



100 

4ii0 
1,300 
140 
100 
100 





840 


— 


15-52 


— 


6-93 


— 


15-77 


+ 


3-31 


+ 


2i-45 




805 


— 


.V44 


— 


10-15 


— 


16-81 


+ 


0-86 


+ 


'ill 


1 

+ 


13 68 


+ 


199-69 


+ 


48-/5 


— 


98-82 




7-03 




6-97 


— 


2-85 


— 


0-14 


— 


16-07 


+ 


60-29 


+ 


12-U4 




201 


— 


11-38 


+ 


:4-49 


+ 


.57-14 


— 


3-52 


+ 


93-3S 


+ 


S34-24 


+ 7 


,742-86 


+ 


23-03 


+ 


69U-91 


+ 


361-64 




66-67 


+2,52143 


+ 


I9,(;oo 


+6,733-33 


+ 


480 


+ 


1,9mO 


+ 


1,200 



108 



CHAPTER IV RELIGJON. 



SUBSIDIARY 'rABJ.,E II. — Showing the i'kih-oktional strkngtii of 

MAIN UELlUloN!<. 



Dittrict or Natural 
Division. 



Hindu. 



Proportion per 10,000 of the 
population. 



1911. 



1901. 



Baroda 5tate 

Baroda Division 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division ... 
Navsari Do. 
Aiureli Do. 



8,349 
8,406 

7,873 
9,039 
6,474 
S,732 



7,922 

8,202 
7,783 
8,939 
4,215 
8,662 



1891. 



1881. 



8,850 
8,879 
7,897 
9,055 
8,518 
8.689 



8,480 

8,926 
7,890 
9,034 
5,707 
8,621 



MuBalman. 



Proportion per 10,000 of the 
population. 



1911. 



1901. ' 1891. 



1881. 



Animist. 



Proportion per 10,000 of 
the population. 



1911. 



10 



791 


845 


781 


801 


834 


84(1 


774 


791 


1732 


l,80!l 


1,793 


1,798 


632 


ii«7 


625 


U39 


692 


647 


769 


80(1 


1,061 


1,14U 


1,151 


1,208 



568 
516 

20 

2,530 



1901. 



11 



1891. 



12 



1881. 



13 



903 


124 


670 


•17 


51 


1 


17 


11 


4,595 


421 


5 


... 



465 

164 

1 
3,176 



District or Natural 
Division. 



1911. 1901. 1891. 1881. 



Jain. 



Proportion per 10,000 
of the population. 



14 



15 



16 



17 



Parsi. 



Proportion per 10,000 
cf the population. 



1911. 1901. 1891. 1881 



18 



19 



20 



21 



Christian. 



Proportion per 10,000 
of the population. 



1911. 1901. ISiil. 1881 



23 



25 



Others. 



Proportion per 10,000 
of the population. 



1911. 



26 



1901. 



1891. 



27 28 



1881. 



29 



Baroda State . 

Baroda Division . 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division 
Navsari Do. , 
Amreli Do. 



214 

136 
222 
324 
83 
197 



247 
160 

218 

,376 

89 

188 



208 
127 
213 

309 

68 

158 



214 

126 
208 
326 
68 
168 



39 

2 

56 

1 

214 

2 



43 


34 


2 


2 


57 


60 


1 


.. 


262 


233 


1 


1 



2 

46 

1 

259 

1 



35 

103 
76 

4 



39 

126 



3 

1 
43 

1 
1 



3 

1 

58 



4 

3 
21 

6 
8 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III. — Christians. Numbkk and variations. 



District or Natural 
Division. 


Actual number of Christians in 


Variation per cent. 


1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


1901 to 1911. 


1891-1901. 


1881-1891. 


1881-1911. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


It 


7 


S 


9 


Baroda State 

Baroda Divixiou 

Baroda City 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Do 

.Amreli Do 


7,203 
6,039 

748 

348 

60 

H 


7,691 
6,790 

774 
24 
43 
60 


646 

.-.7 
504 
48 
24 
13 


771 

I-,] 3 
14 
IS 
24 


— (i:K 

— 1 1 im 

3-36 
+ 1,3.50 
+ .W53 

— 8H-67 


+ 1,09056 

+ 11.812-28 
+ .-.3-57 
— .">0 
+ 7iM7 
+ :'.61-.-|4 


iH'2l 

— 2.-I-97 

— 17-78 
+ 1109 
4- 84-62 

— 45-83 


+ 834-24 

+ 7,742-86 

+ 22-02 

+ ti'in-iMi 

+ 361-54 

— i;(;-(!7 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES, 



lOy 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV. — Racf;s and sects of Christians (actual NiMiiKKs). 



Sect. 


European. 


Anglo-Indian. 


Native. 


Total. 


Variation. 
+ Ol- 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1911. 


1901. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


io 


Anglican Commanion 


52 


45 


16 


26 


... 


... 


139 


7,074 


- ti,936 


Baptist 


1 


3 


... 


... 


... 


... 


4 


6 


— 1 


Lutheran 


3 


••■ 


2 


2 


... 


••• 


7 


14 


— 7 


Methodist 


8 


7 


2 


... 


2,548 


2,286 


4,860 


157 


+ 4,693 


Presbyterian 


4 


... 


... 


... 


106 


84 


193 


16 


+ 178 


Roman Catholic 


20 


14 


14 


20 


266 


134 


468 


404 


+ «4 


Salvationist 






... 


... 


812 


728 


1,540 


... 


+ 1.540 


Indefinite belief 


2 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


•y 


... 


+ 2 


Sect not returned 

Total ... 


... 


.■• 


•■• 


... 




• •• 


... 


22 


— 22 


90 


69 


34 


48 


3,731 


3,231 


7,203 


7,691 


— 488 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V. — Distribution ok Christians per mille (a) races 

BY SECT AND (h) SECTS BY RACE. 



Sect. 


Races distributed by Sect. 


Sects distributed by Race. 


European. 


Anglo 
Indian. 


Native. 


Total. 


European. 


Anglo- 
Indian. 


Native. 


Total. 


1 


2 


3 


1 


■■• 


6 


7 


8 i •■> 

1 


Anglican Commanion. 

Baptist 

Lutheran 

Methodist 

Presbytjrian 

Roman Catholic 

Salvationist 

Indefinit'-- belief 


610 
25 
19 
94 
25 

214 

13 


512 

»9 
24 

415 


• •• 

694 
27 
58 

221 


19 

•5 

1 

673-3 

27 

65 

•214 

-2 


698 

1,000 

429 

3 

21 

73 

... 

1,000 


302 

.571 

-4 

73 


... 

996-6 
979 
854 

1,000 

... 


1,000 

1 ,000 

1,000 
1 ,0011 
1,000 
1,000 
1.000 
1,000 


1,000 


1,000 1,000 


1.000 


... 




... 


... 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VI. — Religion of urban and ruhai. iopulaimn. 





Nu 


mber|)er 10,000 of ui 


b;in [topulation 


Nnml)er p 


sr 10,0110 of ni 


■■■d |iO|iii].-i',ioii 1 


District or 






who ar.- 








wh 


u .-in- 








<£ 














t£ 












Natural Division. 




g 


^ 






a 






eS 








c 






■/. 


a 


■£ 






rS 




v" 


a 


e 






1 .* 






■5 


1 


3 
< 






.2 

6 


o 

5 
o 

8 


•73 

a 

m 




2 


00 

B 

12 


13 


5 


O 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


9 


10 


11 


7. 


15 


Baroda State ... 


7,599 


l,68i 


100 


417 


157 38 


S 


8,535 


570 


liS4 


161 


9 


35 


;t 


Barod;i Division witli 






























Citv 


7,829 


1,676 


105 


26H 


35 


73 14 1 


8,511 


706 


567 


105 


1 


107 


3 


Kadi Division 


7,826 


1,485 


... 


673 


5 


« 


2 


9 281 


461 


... 


255 


... 


3 


••> 


Navpari Division 


6,126 


1716 


504 


310 


1335 S 


1 


6,525 


545 


2,822 


50 


53 


1 


i 


Amreli Division 


7,336 


2,321 


... 


326 


■ 7! 1 


9 


9,155 


679 


... 


158 




... 


8 



iiO 



CHAPTEl! IV — RELIGION. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VII.— 



Sect. 



Per ceut. 



Baroda State. 



Persons. Males. Females 



Baruda Dirisiua. 



Persons. 



Males. Femal 



Hindu 



1— Believers in Vedic and Pauraalc deities. 

1. Shaiva or SmaiUi 

2. Shakta 

3. Vaishnav ... ... ... ... 

(1) Ramauuji . 

(i) Ramanandi 

(3) Vallabhachari 

(_4) Swaminarayau 

(5) Haribava ... ... ... 

(6) Tulsi Upasak 

C?) Rjidha Vallabhi 

t8) Gopinatli 

(.9) Kubui- Pauth 

(10) Visbwa riarma 

(11) Surya Dpasak 

(1-) Madbvacharya 

(13) Nrisiubacbaiya 

(14) (JaQe.sh Pauth 

(15) Unspecified 

II— Non-believers in Vedic and other deities. 

i. Kabii' Pauth 

5. Bij Panth 

6. Paiiiami 

7. Dadu I'anth 

8. Ramile Pir 

V. S:\ya Kaka 

10. Santram 

11. Bhabharam ... .. 

12. Uda I'anlb 

13. Khijdia I'anth 

14. Saji Savai 

15. Patvala 



16. 
17. 

18. 



Vadvala ... 
Ajepal ... 
Ravi Sabeb 



19. Nakalank 

20. Satyakeval 

21. .Mota Panth 

22. Niral Panth 



111— Worshippers of Musalman Pirs and 
5aints 

IV— Sect not returned 

Jain "•■ ■•» ••• ... ■-. .•• ••- 

1. ."^wetamljari 

2. Digambari 

3. ^^wetambar Sthanakvasi... 

Musalman 

1. Sunni 

2. Shi.,h 

^. Imamsbai or Pirana 

Pars! 

1. Shclenshai 

2. Kadmi 



100 



85-71 

20-65 
16-94 

48-12 

6-19 
25-61 
10-10 

3-17 
•59 
-17 

09 
-04 
•03 

-03 
-02 



2-OK 



13-56 

2-06 

10-05 

-40 

■14 
•50 
-12 

-07 
■07 
■03 

■02 
■02 
■03 

■01 
■01 



•01 
■01 



-21 

■:>:'■ 

100 

83-8!l 

lO-lO 

601 



8502 

1 3-67 

1 HI 

100 

97-78 
2^22 



1,697,146 



1,454,660 

360,495 
287,547 
816,618 

104,987 
434,679 
171,460 

53,721 
9,990 
2,948 

1,566 
629 
437 

424 

408 

71 

68 

38 

36,192 



229,963 

34,954 

170,645 

6,854 

2.401 
8,409 
2,084 

1,148 

1,092 

511 

358 
334 
429 

144 

185 

51 

47 
135 
123 

59 



3.630 

8,893 

43,462 

36.460 
4,389 
2,613 



100 160 S87 



136.792 

21,993 

2,102 

7,955 

7,778 
177 



884,474 



757,710 

182,377 
148,267 
427,066 

52,760 

•228,371 

90,124 

28,681 
4,749 
1,599 

865 
346 
322 

240 

•207 

46 

35 

23 

18,798 



120,084 

18,067 

89,312 

3,559 

1,242 
4,324 
1,046 

648 

309 

169 
176 



85 
99 
42 

25 
69 
75 
29 



1,912 

4 ,768 

21,875 

18,240 
2,267 
1,368 

82,985 

7o,76fi 

n,i.i6 

1,064 

3,420 

3.370 
50 



812,672 493,906 



696,960 

168,118 
139,280 
389,552 

52,227 

206,308 

81,336 

25,040 
5,241 
1,.349 

701 
283 
215 

184 

201 

25 

33 

15 

16,394 



109,879 

16,887 

81,333 

3,295 

1,159 

4,085 
1,038 

500 
509 
202 

189 
158 

204 

59 

86 

9 

22 

66 
48 
30 



1,718 

4,125 

21,587 

18,220 
2,122 
1 ,245 

77 901 

66,026 

10.837 

1,038 

4,535 

4,408 
127 



449,535 

47,077 

61,341 

341,117 

36,881 

229,291 

53,165 

21,558 

" 162 



60 



43,304 

19,049 

15,086 

3,586 

2,314 

83 

913 

1,148 
1,092 



33 



643 

424 

8,005 

5,907 

1,705 

393 

48,982 

43,897 
3,193 
1,392 

109 

108 
1 



264700 



240,9-13 

24,741 

32,027 

184,176 

17,823 

124,467 

29,549 

12177 

"*127 



32 



23,157 

9,882 
8,365 
1,917 

1,191 

58 

480 

646 

583 



33 



331 

269 

4,195 

3,081 
883 
231 

26,244 

23,808 

1,472 

964 

75 

74 
1 



SUBSIDIAin TABLES. 



Ill 



■Sects by divissions. 



Baroda City. 


K; 


idi Div..-!iou. 


Narsari Division. 


Amr 


eli Division 




Persons. 


Males. 


Females. 


Persons. 


M.iles. 


Females. 


Persons. 


Males. 


Females. 


Persons. 


Males. 


Females 


9 


)0 


" 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


1 
18 


19 


20 


78,2IS 


42,103 


36,115 


752,157 


3S7,1(>2 , 


364,995 


i 
217,195 , 

1 


110,070 


107,125 


155,670 


80,439 \ 


75 231 


71,213 


38,519 


32,694 


578,443 


296,773 


281,670 


210,995 


106,864 


104,131 


144,474 


74,611 


69,863 


27,064 

8,306 

35,843 


14,924 

4.335 

19:260 


12,140 

3,971 

16,583 


235,090 
66,546 

276,807 


120,996 

35,043 
140,734 


114,094 

31,503 
136,073 


20,551 

116,977 

73.467 


11,085 
59,085 
36,694 


9.466 

57;892 
36,773 


20,713 
34,377 
89,384 


10,631 
17,777 
46,203 


10,082 
16,600 
43,181 


1,856 
11,579 
16,341 


973 
6,186 

8,698 


883 
5,393 
7,643 


46,622 

139,695 

39,698 


23,391 
71,052 
19,984 


23,231 
68.643 
19,714 


5,502 

44,839 

7,312 


2,984 

22,225 

3,687 


2,518 

22,614 

3,625 


14,126 

9,276 

54,944 


7,589 

4,441 

28,206 


6,537 

4,834 

26,738 


2,248 


1,257 


991 


20,493 
'2",764 


10,303 
'i'464 


10,190 
1,300 


1,227 

9,990 

22 


598 
4,749 

8 


629 

5,241 

14 


8,195 

• •• 


4,346 


3,849 

••• 


' 11 

) " 34 


8 

••• 

12 


3 
22 


1,555 
629 
106 


857 

346 

59 


698 

283 

47 


297 


"151 


"'l46 


• •• 


... I 


••• 


16 

" nl 


9 

"' 29 


7 
"" 22 


304 


174 

... 


130 


44 
'" 20 


25 
17 


19 

• •* 

3 


"'408 


• •• 

207 


"201 


53 

1 34 
■ 3,620 

f 


27 
19 

2,042 


26 
15 

1,578 


11 

4 

24,926 


4 

4 

13,096 


liJ830 


4 
4J2IO 


4 
'2,246 


... 

1>64 


• •• 

2,436 


• •• 

1,414 


••• 

l','022 


\ 5,734 


2,899 


2,836 


16.5,893 


86,316 


79,577 


4,106 


2,062 


2,044 


10,926 


5,650 


5,276 


4,448 
329 
192 


2,180 

183 

89 


2,268 
146 
103 


8,313 

150,832 

1,494 


4,389 

78,436 

809 


3,924 

72.396 

685 


2,426 
217 
911 


1.260 
'128 
411 


1,166 

89 

600 


718 

4,181 

671 


366 

2,200 

333 


362 

1,981 

338 


3 
174 

• •• 


2 
98 


1 

76 


75 

4,366 

712 


44 

2,232 

357 


31 

2,134 

355 


9 

50 

459 


6 

29 

209 


4 

21 

260 


'3,736 


*i*,907 

• •• 


l','829 


oil 


"309 


'"202 


... 


... 




_ 


... 




::: 


• •• 


• •• 


... 


• •■ 


... 


... 


.•« 




... 




• •• 


358 
334 
429 


169 
176 

225 


189 
158 
204 


18 


9 


9 


... 


... 


... 


... 


"' 


>•• 


144 
185 


85 
99 


59 
86 


.59 


29 


••• 

' 30 


'"101 




52 


34 


... 

20 


'" '^* 


47 
"123 


25 
75 


22 
'"4s 


53 


28 


25 


2,911 


1,548 


1,363 


23 


5 


18 


.— 


••- 


... 


1,218 


657 


561 


4,910 


2,625 


2,385 


2,071 


1,139 


932 


270 


178 


92 


2,20S 


1.153 


1,055 


26,963 


13,147 


13,816 


2,772 


1,559 


1,213 


3,514 


1,821 


1,693 


1,846 
240 
122 


964 

124 

fio 


882 

116 

57 


24,776 

1,416 

772 


12.040 
726 
381 


12,736 
689 
391 


2,388 

331 

53 


1,342 

191 

26 


1,046 

140 

27 


1,543 

698 

1,273 


813 
343 
665 


730 
355 
608 


17,206 


9,250 


7,956 


52,587 


26750 


25,837 


23,207 


11206 


12,001 


18,905 


9,536 


9,369 


12,839 
4,367 


7,039 
2,211 


5,800 
2,156 


41,885 

10,492 

210 


21,220 

5,430 

100 


20,665 

5,062 

110 


22,916 
291 


11,044 
162 


11,872 
129 


15,255 
3,650 


7,655 

1,881 


7,600 
1,769 


561 


319 


242 


77 


46 


31 


7,179 


2,965 


4,214 


29 


15 


14 


539 
22 


310 
9 


229 
13 


73 
4 


44 
2 


29 
2 


7.029 
150 


2,927 
38 


4,102 
112 


29 


16 


14 



112 CHAPTKi; V — AGE. 



Chapter V. 

,1 G E . 



272. The age distribution of the pupiilatioii for each age year of J ife up tO' 

. . 5 and then for (juinqnennial periods up to 70, with a 

Reference to statistics. gj^^.,^ j^^^^^^ j-^^. pg^.g^^^ ^gp^^ ^q ^^^^ ^y^^. jg g,-^.g^ -^ 

Imperial Table Vlh I'ersons returned as suffering i'rom the four infirmities dealt 
with at the Census are classified according to the same age periods in Table 
XII. In Table XIV the ages of certain selected castes are exhibited in connec- 
tion with the statistics of civil condition ; and in Table VIII the prevalence of 
literacy is shown for the total population and for each leligion, but the age 
periods selected for these two tables are somewhat less elaborate than those for 
Table VII. The age statistics, so far as they tend to throw light on the propor- 
tions of the sexes, the marriage customs of the people, the degree of education 
they enjoy and their liabilities at different ages to the intirmities above referred 
to have been dealt with in separate chapters devoted to these subjects ; and in 
the present chapter, the discussion will be confined to a consideration of the 
information to be derived from them regarding the longevity and fecundity of 
the people and of the changes which have occurred in their age distribution 
since the previous Census with the reasons for the same. The following Sub- 
sidiarv Tables at the end of this chapter illustrate the moie important points in 
the statistics by means of proportional figures : — 

Subsidiary Table I. — Age distribution of 100,000 persons of each sex by 
annual periods. 

Subsidiai-ij Table I].— Age distribution of 10,000 of each sex in the State and. 
each Natural Division. 

Subsidiary Table III. — Age distribution of 10,000 of each sex in each main 
religion. 

Subsidiary Table IV. — Age distributinn of 1,000 of each sex in certain 
castes. 

Subsidiary Table V. — Proportion of children under 10 and of persons over 
50 to those aged 15-40 ; as also ol' married females aged 15-40 per 100 
females. 

Subsidiary labte VI. — Variation of populatiou at certain age periods. 

Subsidiary Table VU. — Reported birth-rate by sex and Natural Divisions. 

Subsidiary Table VI II. — Reported death-rate by sex and Natural Divisions. 

Subsidiary Table IX. — Reported death-rate by sex and age in decade and in 
selected years per mille living at same age according to the Census ol 1901. 

Subsidiary Table X. — Reported deaths from certain diseases per mille of 
each sex. 

273. The instructions giA-en to the enumerators were :—" Column 7 

(Age). — Enter the age as it will be on the 10th 

'"'enumeratdrl^*'^ ^^^^"^'l' ^'^'^^- ^^'^^^ ^^''^^ ^^'^' »"'"1>"- of years 

actually completed are to be entered and not the 
current year of age. For infants less than one year old, enter the word 'infant ' 
and not the number of months since birth." 

274. Most of the people in this country do not know iheir precise aye and 

when asked what it is, sj-ivc such vague replies as 
Ignorance of age. ? , t ii ' ; / < <. 4. i >' , 

]}a:ich sat ' five seven, das hnr ten twelve, ^^a War 

vis ' fifteen twenty', pac/n's Us 'twenty-five thirty," tis c kalis ' thirty Jorty', and 

80 on. Even when they are precise in their reply, there is a tendency to select 

certain round numbers which are ex;u;t multiples of o or 10. It is ji matter of 



INACCURACY oF THE AGE RETURN. 



113 



everyday experience in our courts that Kolis, Bhils and other illiterate people, 
when asked to state their ago, either say that they do not know it, or give 
ridiculous replies. With a view to secure as correct an age return as possible, 
the enumerators were further instructed that, when the reply given appeared 
grossly absurd from the appearance of the person enumerated, they should 
consult one or two sensible persons in the locality and [)ut down the age which 
mav be deemed to be the mosl likelv. 



Inaccuracy of the age 
return. 

from year 

Diatj>\im shoic'mg the aclaiil number of mates 
rein rued at ej,rh atje per 100,000. 

7000 



6?00 



eooo 



5500 



50 00 



4S00 



4000 



3500r 



3000 



2 50 0& 



r 



EOOO! 



jEOci- \'r 



I 



r 



r 



[1 



275. In spite of these precautions, the age return does not seem to be 

very reliable. In a progressive or stationary 
population, the greatest numbei' should be at the 
age " under I year " and it should steadily decrease 

to year. It will be seen from Subsidiary Table 1 and from the 

diagram in the margin, which has been 
prepared from a special table showing 
the actual ages as returned by the 
people of this State that children 
shown as 5 years of age are more 
numerous than th.jse of 1 year, but 
they are, in their tnruj exceeded by the 
number of males ieturned at the ages 
20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 50. This is 
due mainly to the tendency already 
alluded to, to return certain favouritt 
iminbers which are for the most part 
multiples of fiv.- ; the most popular 
numbers of all arc apparently 20, 25, 
.30, 35, 40 and 50. 

The number returned as between 
1 and 2 years of age is less than half 
of that under 1 year. The very small 
number returned as between 1 and 2 
years of age appears to be due to the 
rule that children under 1 year of agt 
should be entered a- "' infants." The 
object of this provision was to avoid 
the confusion between months and 
years which would arise if the ages 
of such children were stated in 
mouths. Many children over 1 year 
"f age who were still unweaned and 
were therefore popularly regarded as 
infants were shown as such in the 
census schedules and were accordingly classed as " under 1 year of age " in 
the coarse of tabulation. The number of males and females at the ages 20-25 
and 2.5-.'i0 is comparatively greater than what it should be, and shows thai 
amongst both sexes, there is a general desire to be considered young, and many 
aged 40 or thereabout must have described themselves as 25 o)- 30 years of age. 
Amongst old people of both sexes, but especially in the case of females, 
exaggeration in the matter of age is very common. The numbei' of both sexes 
aged 60-55 is far greater than their number in the age-period 55-60. The same 
phenomena are observed when the numbers in the age periods 65-70 and 
' 70 and over ' are compared. Females aged ' 70 and over ' ai'e nearly d(>uble 
of those aged 65-70. 

These are the main causes of error. They are neither iiew nor (;onfined to 
this State. They are common to all Provinces in India, botli at the present and 
all previous enumerations. 

276. In spite of the above irregularities and errors in ^he age return, it 

^...^ need not be set aside as useless. The deiiTee ol' 

Its utility. r , I » , 

error Irom census to census may. be assumea to 
be constant and the collation of the results for successive 'uuunei'ations mav 



aOOC; 






10 10 



60 



10 50 



M^J u. 



60 



70 aa 



114 



l-HAPTKi: V AliF.. 



bring to light liit alteration in the age dietributiou of the people, which may 
have taken place owing to famiuf, plague or other disturbing causes. Again the 
registration of vital statistics in the State is still very imperfect, and we cannot 
therefore afford to neglect any other source from which a fair approximation to 
actual facts regarding the meati duration of life and the birth and death-rates 
may be deduced. In a large {>opulation, errors due to over and under statement 
rend to cancel each other, while the plumping on certain favourite number's can 
be eliminated by a process known as •' smoothing by Bloxam's method," 
which was described on pages MOl to ^J95 of the India Administrative Volume 
for 1901. 

277. The most important use to which the age return can be put, is the 

light which it throws on the question of the re- 
■ lativc! longevity of the people of different religions 

and localities and at different times. The mean Age of the people in each 
natural division and at each of the last four censuses has been shown in 
Subsidiary Table 11 and the (iorresponding figures for the main religions ha^•e 
been given in Subsidiary Table III. The method by which these figures have 
bpen arrived at is as follows : — 

In the first place the irregularities in the jiumbers returned at each age- 

period (0-5, 
Diagram skowiua adjusted age-j)erfodK. 5-10, etc.) 

have been eli- 
in in a ted by 
"Bloxam's 
method." The 
diagram given 
in the margin 
shows the dii?- 
t r i b u t i ci ii 
of the total 
population by 
a g e - periods 
according t o 
the method of 
s m o o thin g 
adopted. The 
mean age has 
been c a 1 - 
cidatHd from 
t h e number 
shown as liv- 
ing at each 
age-period in 




the mauiier described in para. 750 of the last India Census Report. Tiie totals 
showing the number of persons at the end of each quinquennial period have been 
mult.i])lied by 5 and raised by ill times the total number of persons dealt with, 
and the sum thus obtained lias then been divided by the numbei- ol' persons. 
It should be clearly understood that no pretence is made to absolute accuracy 
and no attempt has been marie to allow for errors other than fondness for round 
numbers, e.g., to a tendency to luidei'state or overstate age ; but it is believed that 
whatever error may attach to the method is uniform for all the figures dealt 
with and will not therefore vitiate comparison between districts, I'eligions 
and censuses. 

278. Before discussing the figures, it is necessary to l)ear in mind the 

„ . , i)ref!ise import of the expression 'mean ajje.' As 

Meaning: of mean age. f „ . i i j. j . f r l li. 

here calculated, ' mean age refers to the average age 

of the |>orsons enumerated at the census, i.e., of the living, and does not coincide 

with the mean duration of life or the expectation of life at biith, except in the 

exceptional case, when the jjopulation has been stationary for at least a genera- 



VAlMATlo.Ns IN MKAX Alih. 



115 



tion. The figure largely depends on the relation between the birth and death- 
rates, and in a growing impulation, i. e., where the births exceed the deaths, tliere 
will be an excess of young persons and the mean age of the Iiviu<>- will be less 
than in a decadent cue, wliere the children are few in number, even though there 
is no difference in the average longevity of the individuals, who compose the two 
conimuuities. Variations in the mean age as calculated in Subsidiarv Tables fl 
and III may, therefore, be due to a change either in the proportion of I)irths or in 
the rate of mortality. 

279. In discussing variations in mean age, it seems desirable to consider 



Variations ia mean age. 



DiviaioD . 


Mean age of malts in 


lyii. 


lltOl. 


1891. 


State . 

Baroda 

Kadi 

NaTSari 

Amreli 

Baroda eity 


227 

23« 
221 
23-3 
221 
246 


23-6 

2.-.1 
23-7 
28-5 
24 6 
271 


23-2 

24-8 
23-2 
33-2 
23-7 
27-7 



only the figures for males, as it 
is believed that there is less 
inaccuracy in the return of their 
ages than is the case with 
females. From the figures 
given in the margin it will be 
noticed that in the State as a 
whole, the mean age of males 
rose slightly during the decade 
1891-1901, owing to lesser pro- 
- portion of children in the 

population on account of the great famine. Since 1901, the proportion of child- 
ren is comparatively larger, and consequently there has been a fall in the mean 
age of the living. Calculated separately, the mean age of males in the Citv of 
Baroda is the highest in the whole State owing to the large number of immi- 
grants of adult age. 

The figures for natural divisions show that the mean age is the highest in 
the Baroda district, where (owing to its including Baroda City) the proportion 
of adult immigrants is the greatest. On the other hand, Kadf has the lowest 
mean age on account ol' the large number of emigrants of adult age that it sends- 
out. 

280. Among religious, Jains have the highest mean age, owing to theii- 

being the least prolific. The Annnists,. 
on the other hand, have the lowest 
mean age, owing to greater fecunditv 
and a shorter span of life. The 
Hindus have a lower mean age than 
the Mahomedans, because they aiv 
comparatively more prolific. 

281. We learn from the Sanitarv Commissioner's i-eport tni- 1909-10 that 
Death anu birth-rates. excluding the years 1899-1900 and 1900-01, wheJ 

abnormal deaths occurred as the residt of the famine,, 
the decennial mean death-rate in the State comes to 27-0 and the birth-rate t<v 
21-li. It these figures Avere correct, that is, if the death-rate was leally hio-her 
than the birth-rate, the population of the State, instead of showing as it'^has 
done in the census, an increase of four per cent, would have shown a verv lar<rf 
decrease. The record oi' vital statistics in the Slate being imperfect, the birth 
and death ratios, ba,sed on it, are obviously incorrect ; and we must look to some 
other data from which a fair approximation to the actual facts niav l.c deduced. 
This is afforded by the mean age referred to in paragraph 27'7 above. An* 
average age of 22-8 in a stationary poptdation would indicate a deatli-rate 
per 1,000 of ^^ or about 44. As the population is not stationary but growing,, 
the death-rate, calculated on this basis, would lie somewhat less than 44. The 
average yearly increase hi the population is 4 per 1,000 and a death-rate ol 
44 per LOOO would therefore give a birth-rate of about 48 per 1,000. The death 
and birth-rates thus disclosed api)ear highly probable, having regard to the 
sanitary conditions and [ilague and other epidemics prevailing in the State. 
The birth-rate also shniild be high in a growing population in which marriao-e' 
is uiiiversal. ^ 



Ileligiou. 


M«;in akre of malei. 


Hindu 

Jaio ... ... ••• ... .. 

Musalman 

AaimisC ••• ~. ••. 


22-9 
24-7 
23-4 
2()-6 



liei 



CHAPTER V A(.E. 



Age distribution. 



District. 



Baroda State 

Barnda 
Kadi 

Navsari 
Amreli 



jN umber of males under 5 per lO.OOU. 



1881. 



1911. 
1,489 


1901. 1 


1891. 1 


963 


1,321 


1,397 


84G 


1,219 


1,543 


959 


1,31!.; 


1,611 


1,302 


1,»91 


1.BC7 


931 


1,4:^0 



1,231 

1,055 
1 ,369 
1,493 
1,047 



28-'. Tlie age distribution ui' the people shows great variations in the State 

as a whole, as also in its natural 
divisions at different enumera- 
tions (Subsidiary Table II). In 
the State as a whole, for example, 
the proportion of male children 
under 5 rose from 1,231 in 1881 
to 1,321 in 1S91, fell to '.)63 in 
1901 and has again risen to 
1,489 in the present Census. 
These proportions depend upon 
the normal birth and death-rates 
and the occurrence or otherwise 
ol special calamities, such as famine, plague, &c., which disturb the normal age 
distribution. The birth and death-rates are determined by various I'actors not 
easily gauged and they change but slowly. The marked difference in the age 
distribution occurring within short intervals of ten years must be due to the 
influence of some special calamity such as famine, ])lague, etc. The eilect of a 
calamity like the famine of 1899-1900 is far-reaching and may be described in 
the words of the India Census Report for 1901 (p. 474) as under : — 

" Wlieu b tract is aiflicxud by famine the mortiility rises iu a greiittT or less degree according to ilie 
severity and dunition of fclie calamity aud lihu etfeetiveiiess of the measures taken to mitigate it. All 
sections of the popalation, however, are not equally affected : tiie very old and the very youni; suffer moBt, 
while chose ia prime of life sustaiu ouly a comparatively small dimiuution in their nuriibe'rs. » » » 
Consequently at the close of the famine the population consists of an unusually small proportion of children 
and old persons and of a very large proportion of persons in the prime of life, t.e., at the reproduftive 
a^es. For some years, therefore, in the absence of any fresU calamity, the growth of the ]iopulatioii is 
very rapid. The number of persons capable of adding to the population not having been affeuteri, tne 
actual number of births is very little less than before the famine, but the proportion caluulated on the 
diminished population is much greater and so too is the excess of births over deaths, as the latter are much 
below the average in a population consisting of an unusually large proportion of healthy persons in their 
prime, and of a comparatively small proportion of persons who by reason of youth, old age, or infirmity 
have a relatively short expectaticm of life. This more rapid rate of gro vth continues for some time, but 
then as the persons who, at the time of the famine, were in their prime, pass into old age and their place 
is taken by the generation born shortly before the famine with its numbers greatly reduced by the mor- 
tality which then occurred, the birth-rate falls, not only below- that of the years following the famine, but 
also below the average. The disturbance of nonnal i;onditions is still not ended and the pendulum (onti- 
nues to swins backwards and forwards between periods of high and low birth-iate, but its oscillations 
gradcaliy become fainter until they cease from natural causes to be apparent or, as more often happens, 
until some fresh calamity obliterates them." 

In accordance with the general principles laid down in the above extract, 
we find that in the Baroda and Amreli Districts, which suffered from the famine 
of 1876-77, the number of children under 5 years of age per 1,000 males was. 

after a period of 
nsus of 1901 was 
preceded by the great famine which affected the whole State and caused apjire- 
ciable increase in the mortality, and it is, therefore, tiiat we find in all the 
districts a sharp decline in the proportion of children. The conditions of the 
.decade which has just been over were not quite satisfactory. We had in the 
midst of it two or three years of deficient rainfall and more or less plague 
throughout. But the number of persons adding to the population not having 
been much affected, the number of births, after the great famine, has been 
unusually large, and we have now in all the districts a much larger proportion 
of children than ever before. 

The proportion of males below 5 being the lowest in 1901, the number of 
those aged 10-15 should be less in this Census than ten years previously. A 
reference to Subsidiary Table II shows that it is so. The proportion of males 
aged 10-15 to 1,000 persons in the population in the whole State is now 035 
against 1,357 in 1901, 1,108 in 1891 and i,20S hi 1881. 

283, In Subsidiary Table VI are given the variations in the population at 

certain age-periods. During the decade 1881-1891, 
Variations by age-periods. j^itijough the total population of the State inertased 
by 10"5 per cent, only, the increase in the age-period 0-10 was 14*6 pei' cent. 



in 1881 only 1,U56 and 1,047 respectively, but in 1891, i.e., a 
recovery, it had risen to 1,219 and 1,4:^0 respectively. The Ce 



AUE DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT CAt^TEi?. 



117 



which was maialy contributed by the large increase of 44'(j per cem. in the number 
ofchildriMi below 10 in the Amreti Divipinn, which had suffered hard from the 
famine ol 1877. The famine of KS'jy-l'.lOO, wiiioh preceded iJie CcnsiiR ol' UJOl, 
brought about a heavy decline of 35*6 per cent, in the uumber uf children 
below 10 ; and though the present Census shows an increase of about 4 
per cent, in the total population, the age-period 10-15 which correspoudti with 
the inflated age-period 0-5 of 11)01 shows a decline of about 28 per cent., while 
the age-period 0-10 shows a marked increase of about 22, per (;eiit. The famine 
having removed the old, the age-period 60 and over showed in 1001 a 
heavy decline of about 40 per cent., while the general decline in the population 

The present Census shows an increase of about 

of old people aged 00 and over, as those iu the 

suffered the least i'rom the famine, have attained 



was about 19 per cent. 
20 per cent, in the uumber 
previous age- period who 
this age. 

284. The proportiona: 



ai>;e distribution of some 



Age distribution of 
different castes. 

briefly noticed. As a : 



of the main castes will be 

found in Subsidiary Tabh; IV. It would occupy too 

much space to discuss the figures at length, but 

taking males only a few interesting results mav be 

general rule, castes, which are considered high, have' the 

largest number of males over 
40 per 1,000. viz., Brahman 
Anavala (239), B r a h m a n 
Audi'di (^38), Brahman 
Deshastha (315), Brahman 
N a g a r (275), Vania Disavat 
(313), Vania S h r i tn a 1 i 
Hindu C2.54), Saiyad (241) and 
Parsi (276). Conversiy, castes 
and tribes considered low have 
the smallest proportion of 
persons of this age, viz., Ahir 
(197), Bharvad (ioO), (j'han.ar 
(170), (rhanohi O'Jl), (^ola 
(174), Kumbhar (177), Talavia 
(181), Vaghari (182), 15 h i 1 
(175), Chodhra (171), Dhanka (191), Dhodia (159), Gamit (167), Nayakda (1><9) 
and Momna (l71). These proportions are determined aw already explained not 
only by the relative longevity of these groups but also by their fecnndity. When 
the proportion of children is large, that of the adults must necessarily be smaller 
and the average age of the community will be less, even if the actual duration of 
life be the same. Figures given in the margin will show that amongst the hjo-h 
castes, the proportion of children is much smaller than it is amono-st the 
aboriginal tribes. It can, therefore, be said that on the whole the hi<rher 
castes have less fecundity, but they enjoy a longer span of life than those or 
lower status. 

285. 



Caste or Tribe. 


Number of malr 

children under 

5 per 1,000 of 

population. 


Brihman An-%vala 

„ Aadich ... ... ... 

Ujshistha 

Modh 

Vania Disaval ... ... ~^ 

„ Shrimali ... 
'Chamar ... ... ... ... 

Gola 

Bhil ... ... ~. 

Chodhra ... 
Dhanka ... 
Dhodia ... 
Gam't ... ... ... ... ... 

Nayakda... 


1-20 
nil 
97 
1(19 
105 
105 
170 
166 
304 
179 
180 
184 
175 
174 



Qeneral increase in the 
birtii-rate. 



There appears to have been a general and progressive increase in the 
birth-rate since 1881^. Out of 10,000 of each sex in 
the State as a whole, there were 253 boys and 274 
girls aged 0-1 in 1881, 314 boys and 343 o-irls in 
1891, 145 boys and 156 girls in 1901 and 394 boys and 416 girls in 1911. The 
low proportion in 1901 was due to the effects of the famine which preceded the 
'Census, and if that abnormal period be left out of account, it is clear that there 
has been a steady rise in the proportion of children Irom Census to Census. 
Figures given in Subsidiary Table II show that, even in the different districts," 
the same phenomena are to be observed. 

It may be said, however, that five years is too short a jjeriod from whieh 
to dravy any general conclusion, and that we should, therefore, compare the 
proportion of children under ten years of age. The figures given on the next 
page refer to the Natural Divisions only, but a more detailed comparison of the 
.figures for the last three Censuses will be found in Subsidiarv Table V at 



118 



CHAPTEi; V — AGK. 



the end of this Chapter. 





Number of children under 10 per 1,000 of the 
populntiou. 


District. 


Male. 


Female. 




1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


19U. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


Batoda State 

Barodi District 

Kadi 

Navsari 

Amriili „ 


137 

128 
140 
144 
13(1 


IIS 

107 
113 
134 
114 


140 

129 
1.50 
1.52 
146 


130 

120 
133 
148 
122 


128 

115 
131 
141 
133 


Ill 

98 
110 
141 
111 


140 

123 
149 
155 
145 


113 

105 
110 
141 
117 

) 



" It must be remembered that the variations in the 

proportion borne by 
children to the total 
population depend not 
only on the changes 
in the birth-rate but 
also on the deaths 
w h i c h occur. If 
owing' to the preva- 
lence of epidemics or 
general unhealthi- 
ness, the mortality 
amongst adults is 
high, the proportion of children will be greater, even tliough the number of births 
remain the same as before. Un the other hand, a general increase in the longevity 
of the people, due to an improvement in their material condition, would tend to 
reduce the proportion which children bear to the total population. Similarly, if 
there are any causes of mortalicy, especially in the life of children, the proportion 
of the latter will be reduced accordingly." (Bengal Report 1901, p. 216). 

It is very difficult to ascertain how far the proportions have been affected 
in the different parts of the State by considerations such as these ; but taking the 
figures as they stand, it may be observed that as compared with 1881 the pro- 
portion of children aged 10 in 1891 was higher. Famine and plague combined 
to bring about a heavy fall in the proportion in 1901, but the figures for 1911, 
exceed those for 1881, nearly approach those of 1891, and would have exceeded 
the latter, had it not been for the disturbing cause of plague, which was prevalent 
tlu'oughout the decade in all the districts and to the infection of which children 
and females staying in the house are more liable than males. ]\Ieasles, mainly 
in its epidemic form, also carried away a large number of children in the years 
1903 and 1904. If the next decade is free from such disturbing causes, the 
proportion of children in the next Census is sure to exceed that oi' 1891. 

288. The ])roportion of children oi' both sexes aged 10 per 100' 
Relative fecundity in different natural divisions. married females aged 15-40 

is highest in the Navsarr 
District, where the popula- 
tion is growing, especially 
among the Animistic 
tribes. Then follow Kadi, 
Amreli and Baroda Dis- 
tricts in order; and 
Baroda City stands last 
with only 119 children. 
The number of births 
depends on the number of married women of child-bearing ages and the 
proportion of such women in the City is much smaller than elsewhere,, 
owing to immigrants coming to it without their women folk. 

287. Turning to the projiortion oi children amongst the different religions 

we notice that it is highest among the Aiiimi- 
stic tribes and lowest among the Musalnians. 
The Hindus occupy a middle place ap])roa- 
cliiiig more nearly the Musalmans than the 
Animists. There is no marked difference in 
the n^lative longevity of Hindus and Musal- 
mans, and the excess of children amongst the 
former is in all probability due to a higher 
birth-rate. In the Navsari (2,8?2) and Amreli 
(2,!>94) Districts, Musalmans have a higher 
proportion of children than Hindus and it 
is only line to their having lower proportion of rhildien in the Baroda and 
Kadi Districts, that they lag l>ehind the Hindus in the State as a whole. The 



Diyision. 


rroportion of cluldren 
agedlU of both sexes per 
100 married females aged 
1540. 


Baroda State 

Bamda Division ... 

Baroda (.'ity 

Kadi Divisldn 

NaTsaii Ditisinn 

Amreli Division 


145 

US 
119 
148 
ISS 
146 



Relative fecundity in different 
religions. 



KeligioD. 


Proportion of cliildreii 
under 10 per 10,000. 




Hale. 

2,604 
3,5«5 

;J287 


Female. 

3,630 1 

3.576 

3,334 


Hiadu 

Hagalman 

Animist 



REPRODUCTIVK FOKCK.S WHKN M(tST ACTIVE. 119 



aborigiual tribes are kuowu to be com|ja,rci,tivo[y sliort-lived, aud tiioui^h fchey are 
very prolific, the greater uumber of ohildreu among them as compared with the 
Hindus .lud Musahiiaiis may al.su be due in part to the fact that there are fewer 
old people amongst them. The inferior prolificuess of MusalmauH as indeed of 
;he Hindus may be explained by the inactive and secluded life which their 
females, and more especially those of the former, live in their zananas. 

^88. Some curious information abniit the months most favourable for cou- 

eeptiou is deducible from the annual reports of I he 
Reproductive forces when Sanitary Commissioner. An examination of the 
most active. • . • .i i , /• ii i 

statements m the annual reports tor the last ten 

years shows that the largest number of biiths is registered either in the month 
of October or November and the least in the mouth of February or March. 
Oaleulating the probable time nf conceijtion, i.e., nine months earlier, we find 
that the months most, tavourable lo conception are the winter months of Decem- 
ber and January. The extent to which conception takes place shows a steady 
decline from February to April. In the A'ery hot months of May and June, the 
fecundity of the people remains ai a minimum and then again, rises slowly and 
reaches the maximum in the cold \v(>ather. 

289. A similar study ol rhe Sanitaiy Cnnimissioner's reports for the last 

decade shows that in the whole State, mortality is 
Months for maximum and , y^^^^^^^^ |^ jj^g ,,,,,,^tl, oC March and the lovvest 
minimum mortality. . , i ,• r mi • i • i i i 

m the month ot June, ihis, as explamed by the 

Sanitary Commissioner, is probal>ly due to the month of Mai'ch being unhealthy 
in the State on account of ilu- liigh incidence of malaria in the cold season 
after the monsoon : and -lune is iiealthy on account of the excessive heat destroy- 
ing disease germs. 



120 



CHAPTER V — AGE. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I.— Age distribdtion (p 100,000 of each sex by 

ANNUAL PERIODIC. 







Males. 


\^ 




Females. 




AGE. 






>l 










Hindu. 


Miiham- I 
madan. 


Both 
religious. 


Hindu. 


Mnham- 
madan. 


Both 

religions. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Total 


100,000 


1 

100,000 


100,000 


100,000 


100 000 


100 000 


u 

1 


3,'J18 
1,874 


3,703 
1,682 


3,899 

1,858 


4,173 
2,106 


3,788 
1,761 


4,139 
2,076 


2 ••• 

3 


3,167 
2,871 


3,054 

2,883 


3,148 
2,872 


3,435 
3,370 


3,363 
3,219 


3,429 
3,357 


i 

5 ••• 


2,937 
3,109 


2,996 
2,653 


2,942 
3,070 


2,964 
2,779 


3,142 
3,010 


2,971 
2,799 


ri 

"7 


2,097 
2,385 


2,217 
2,464 


2,107 
2,392 


2,021 
2,196 


2,040 
2,064 


2,023 
2,186 


8 

S 


2,441 
1,357 


2,590 
1,209 


2,454 
1,253 


2,092 
1,173 


2,054 
1,318 


2,089 
1,186 


10 

11 ... 


2,424 
1,132 


2,670 
1,144 


2,445 
1,132 


1,877 
961 


2,162 
1,213 


1,902 
983 


12 

IS 


2,765 
1,463 


3,007 
1,586 


2,786 
1,473 


2,346 
1,.592 


2,661 
1,263 


2,374 
l,."i63 


H 

16 


1,512 
3,280 


1.117 
3,139 


1,478 
3,268 


1,340 
2,939 


1,266 
2,816 


1,334 

2,928 


16 

17 .. 


1,685 
1,005 


1,641 

1,070 


1,681 
1,010 


1,538 
941 


1,628 
1,112 


l,o46 
956 


18 

lit 


2,326 
665 


2,341 
553 


2,328 
656 


2,218 
542 


2,180 
467 


2,215 
535 


20 

21 


5,380 
624 


5,231 

708 


5,367 
631 


6,038 
495 


6,153 
501 


6,048 
496 


22 

23 


2,559 
691 


2,187 
665 


2,527 
688 


2,487 
645 


2,531 
709 


2,4'.IU 
650 


24 

26 


693 

6,622 


1.102 
6,589 


637 
6,620 


641 
7,020 


715 
6,878 


647 
7,007 


26 

27 


686 

837 


680 

772 


685 
832 


582 
717 


540 
710 


578 
716 


28 

2S 


1,519 
273 


1,198 
196 


1,491 
266 


1,588 
249 


1,3.54 
223 


1,668 
246 


50 . ... 

51 


5,842 
292 


5,871 
248 


5,845 
288 


6,725 
199 


6,804 
253 


6,732 

204 


32 

33 


1,616 

400 


1,454 
211 


1,602 
384 


1,570 
281 


1,421 
267 


1,568 

280 


34 

35 


311 

5,417 


225 
5,210 


304 
5,400 


198 
, 6,222 


176 
4,911 


I'.lii 
6,194 


36 

37 


437 
364 


411 

305 


434 
359 


307 
271 


327 
277 


3UM 
271 


38 

" f 

40 

41 


671 
223 


404 
270 


648 
227 


641 
176 


426 
164 


621 
17.-, 


.5.347 
211 


5,580 
206 


.-,,367 

210 


6,062 
1.56 


6,264 
105 


6,079 
151 


42 

43 


888 
149 


764 
119 


877 
147 


704 
120 


566 
105 


1 
692 


44 

45 


119 
3.167 


260 
3,506 


131 
3,201 


113 

3,008 


86 
2,961 


lil 
3,004 


4« 

47 


178 
182 


183 
176 


179 
182 


106 
135 


96 
96 


105 
132 


48 

4'J 

50 


357 

122 

3,690 


351 

116 

4,170 


350 

122 

3,731 


324 

102 

3,903 


225 
76 

4,418 


315 
lOll 



SUBSIDIAUY TABLES. 



121 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE L— Age Di.stribution of 100,000 of each sex by 

ANNUAL I'EUIODS COntd. 







Males. 






Females. 




A6G. 














Hindu. 


M«ham- 
madan. 


Both 
religions. 


Hindu. 


Mnbam- 
madan. 


Both 
religions. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1 


51 

52 


147 
390 


145 

399 


147 

391 


163 

373 


86 
276 


156 
365 


53 ••• 

54 


101 
91 


105 
117 


101 
93 


138 
133 


48 
67 


130 
127 


55 ••• ••• ••■ 


1,341 
94 


1,491 
116 


1,354 
96 


1,187 
89 


1,270 
90 


1,194 

89 


57 ... ... ... 

58 


74 
121 


64 
76 


73 
117 


50 
108 


54 

86 


51 
106 


59 

t>U 


46 
1,870 


28 
2,235 


44 
1,901 


41 

2,535 


40 
2,816 


41 

2,560 


61 

K2 


51 
117 


46 

157 


53 
121 


46 
115 


39 

87 


44 
112 


K3 

6\ 


23 
28 


34 

25 


24 
27 


28 
14 


24 
24 


23 
15 


OO ••• ... ••• 

K6 


512 

27 


593 
35 


.519 

28 


530 
22 


585 
16 


535 
22 


67 ••• 

68 


32 
26 


59 
24 


35 

26 


24 
28 


28 
27 


24 

28 


69 - 

70 


11 

375 


30 
480 


12 

384 


12 
466 


16 
581 


12 
466 


71 

72 .. 


IS 


13 
36 


17 

42- 


11 
29 


13 

45 


11 

30 


73 

74 


8 

8 


17 
6 


9 

8 


7 
3 


IS 

1 


^ 8 


75 ••• ... ••• 

76 


137 


211 

5 


144 

8 


175 

8 


307 
8 


186 
8 


1 ( ■■• ... ••• 
78 ••• ••• ••• 


6 
9 


5 
11 


7 
9 


7 
7 


6 
8 


7 


79 

80 


3 
131 


6 
153 


4 
133 


3 
188 


24 

280 


5 
196 


81 

82 


5 
5 


5 
10 


5 
6 


4 
6 


6 
6 


4 
6 


83 

81 


•J 


1 


3 
2 


3 

1 


5 


4 
1 


85 

86 ... 


ii2 


34 

1 


2.'t 

1 


23 
2 


32 

1 


25 


87 ••• ••• ••• 

88 


•I 

1 


2 


1 


1 
1 


3 


I 

1 


89 

90 


1 

20 


2 
41 


1 

21 


27 


59 


30 


91 

92 


1 

I 


2 
2 


1 
2 


3 

1 


3 


2 

O 


93 

94 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 
3 


1 

2 


95 

96 


5 

1 


11 

2 


5 

1 


10 
2 


16 


10 


'17 








1 


3 


1 


1)8 


1 


1 




- 


6 


- 


Oil 

mo ir.d over 


1 
7 


1 
17 


- 


1 
9 


I 
30 


1 
u 



122 



CHAPTER V — AGE. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II — Age Disthibution of 10,000 of e-ach sex in the 
State and each Natdral Division. 



Age. 



Baroda State. 



0—1 
1—2 
2—3 
3 — 4 
4--5 
0—5 



Total 



5—10 
10—15 
15—20 
20—25 
25—30 
30—35 
35-40 
40—45 
45—50 
50—55 
55 — 60 
60—65 
65—70 
70 & over 
Mean Age 



Baroda City- 



Total 



0—1 
1—2 
2—3 
3—4 
4—6 
. 0—5 



1911. 



Male. Female. 



.5-10 
10—15 
15—20 
20—25 
25-30 
30—35 
35—40 
40—45 
45—511 
50 — 55 
55—60 
60—65 
65—70 
70 i: over 
Mean Age 

Baroda Oivision. 

0-1 
1—2 
2—3 
3 — t 
4— .'< 
Total ... n -.-) 

.-,—10 
10- 15 
15—20 
20—25 
25—30 
30—35 
3.5—4(1 
40—46 
45—50 
50—55 
55— 60 

60— (;.■. 

65—7(1 
70 k over 
Mean A^e 



I'JOl. 



Male. 



b'emnle. 



Iblil. 



Male. 



Female. 



IfcM. 



Male. Female. 



3'.14 
188 
316 
292 
299 
1,489 



278 
147 
224 
205 
224 
1,078 

859 

S89 

935 

1,177 

1,093 

921 

669 

706 

430 

508 

201 

271 

S3 

120 

24-55 



.374 
170 
299 
278 
276 
1,397 

1,084 
869 
847 
988 

1,003 
842 
■787 
712 
4(50 
444 
194 
220 
69 
84 

23-61 



416 
208 
343 
340 
302 
1,609 



1,141 


1.044 


935 


825 


887 


818 


970 


1,026 


986 


1,006 


840 


895 


712 


656 


666 


705 


406 


364 


439 


462 


170 


1.50 


211 


272 


64 


64 


84 


104 


22-71 


22-77 



323 
171 
260 
257 
244 
1,2.55 

902 
787 
909 

1,1(»5 
959 
849 
618 
783 
379 
573 
196 
393 
94 
198 

25-65 



410 
193 
321 
322 
289 
1,535 

992 
746 
768 
987 

1,023 
922 
738 
732 
435 
476 
170 
290 
76 
110 

23-77 



145 
133 
205 
220 
260 
963 

1,254 
1,3.57 
1,036 
998 
978 
869 
679 
632 
380 
419 
167 

268 

23-56 



147 
87 
1.54 
166 
179 
733 

1,020 

1 091 

946 

1,057 

1,074 

930 

782 

782 

450 

.551 

209 



27-15 



126 
119 
184 
196 
221 
846 

1,232 
1,303 
945 
979 
1,080 
946 
729 
667 
405 
439 
168 

261 

25-06 



156 
139 
226 
249 
286 
1,056 

1,236 
1,200 
941 
1.007 
959 
831 
653 
693 
399 
461 
190 

374 

23-76 



160 
121 
183 
196 
217 
877 

1,038 
881 
824 
877 

1,082 
867 
787 
761 
522 
585 
291 

608 

28-52 



126 
119 
205 
222 
220 
892 

1,228 

1,082 

830 

1,061 

1,058 

911 

720 

746 

431 

475 

199 

367 

2605 



314 
164 
272 
282 
289 
1,321 

1,424 
1,108 
865 
921 
916 
866 
609 
649 
327 
465 
142 

388 

23-19 



284 
118 
168 
165 
184 
919 

880 

828 

880 

1,1.56 

1,103 

1,035 

712 

872 

377 

.562 

168 

508 



27- 



310 
165 
246 
250 
248 
1,219 

1,299 
1,047 
876 
960 
972 
868 
658 
694 
374 
500 
161 

372 

24-84 



343 
186 
316 
340 
324 
1,509 

1,407 
932 
772 
995 
909 
850 
559 
675 
301 
480 
127 

484 

23-47 



333 
1.58 
214 
210 
210 
1,125 

981 
751 
863 
1,126 
965 
914 
570 
844 
340 
620 
169 

732 

27-76 



338 

185 
290 
314 
284 
1,411 

1,299 
833 
7911 

1,1)56 
948 
852 
620 
723 
354 
504 
146 

464 

24-97 



183 
241 
273 
281 
1,2.31 

1,435 
1,208 
856 
.S98 
916 
867 
637 

934 

481 
173 

364 

23-92 



163 
13(1 
1.--J 
1;.,-| 
157 
767 

883 

975 

785 

1,070 

1,100 

1,137 

7.".8 

1,279 

587 
183 

486 

28.36 



219 

143 
202 
238 
254 
1,056 

1 401 
1,227 

,857 
908 
963 
902 

701 

1,018 

472 
162 

333 

24-44 



274 
202 
277 
312 
304 
1,369 

1,424 
1,067 
768 
939 
894 
853 
003 

944 

503 
173 

463 

24-.34 



1S2 
164 
1.S3 
l.HO 
188 
897 

989 
923 
822 
1,057 
1,009 
992 
652 

1,196 

625 
189 

649 

28-36 



238 
157 
234 
290 
283 
1,202 

1,447 

1,058 

7.55 

953 

938 

,888 
668 

1,1127 

171 
154 

439 

24-71 



^V. £.— Miaaaga tor ItOl andlSiil (.lor Dlstrlcb') lias been (■alcnlated from the ligun-s of agc-perlods wUlioiii. .ii;y itoouh of 
smoothing. Figures tor 1881 have been taken irom that Rqiort. 



SUBSiDIAUY lABLKS. 



l2o 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II— Age uistribution ok 10,000 of kacu skx in thk 
State and each Natural Division— cowirf. 



Agk. 


1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


l.SSl. 


Male. 


H'emale. 


niale. 


FemJile. 


Malf!. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


) 




3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


R 


9 


Kadi Divisioa. 










1 








0-1 


414 


433 


137 


147 


312 


346 


276 


294 


1-2 1 


196 


216 


130 


129 


161 


182 


214 


234 


3—3 


331 


363 


208 


223 


289 


332 


274 


3i2 


3-4 


289 


349 


217 


242 


290 


345 


289 


321 


4-5 


313 


300 


267 


271 


314 


350 


306 


324 


Totr.l ... 0—5 ' 


1,543 


1,661 


959 


1,012 


1,366 


1,555 


1,359 


1,486 


o-m .. 


1,192 


1,032 


1,259 


1,237 


I, .547 


1,494 


1,.5J3 


1.451 


10 -15 ... 


931 


798 


1 ,407 


1259 


1,191 


1,007 


1,219 


1,080 


1 5 - 20 


901 


810 


1,156 


1,044 


891 


760 


885 


773 


20-25 


977 


1,060 


1,029 


1,042 


875 


942 


875 


921 


25-30 


1006 


1,033 


984 


964 


850 


878 


859 1 


846 


30-35 


867 


931 


838 


836 


845 


846 


806 


814 


35— JO 


658 


627 


622 


600 


546 


521 


565 


558 


40-45 


670 


737 


633 


714 


627 


669 


{ 853 




45— lO 


348 


321 


347 


375 


282 


263 


889 


50—55 


465 


496 


384 


459 


466 


485 


504 


533 


55-60 


142 


122 


143 


144 


124 


109 


182 


185 


6i)-65 


195 


258 


i 239 












fi---70 . 


42 


40 


324 


390 


471 


380 


465 


70jicov<r 


73 


74 


) 






( 






.Mean A^-; 


22-10 


22-74 


■-•3-71 


24-60 


23-25 


23-.54 


23-33 


23-94 


Navsari Division. 


















0-1 ... 


416 


412 


218 


231 


331 


340 


264 


290 


1-3 


204 


209 


186 


187 


173 


190 


228 


243 


2—3 


320 


335 


259 


283 


297 


337 


297 


325 


3 i 


340 


362 


304 


336 


355 


403 


366 


404 


4—5 


331 


342 


335 


426 


335 


.354 


338 


351 


Total ... 0-6 


1,611 


I r,60 


1,302 


1,463 


1,491 


1,624 


1 493 


1,613 


5—10 


1,247 


1,184 


1,360 


1,358 


1,520 


1,492 


1,505 


1.459 


10— 5 


1,097 


1.039 


1.327 


1,172 


1,134 


996 


1,145 


997 


15—20 


834 


853 


964 


916 


767 


771 


718 


701 


20-25 


833 


972 


943 


876 


841 


948 


830 


888 


25—30 


898 


942 


791 


826 


895 


886 


893 


883 


30-35 


774 


835 


766 


696 


823 


830 


848 


862 


35—40 


762 


637 


711 


682 


695 


583 


720 


625 


40—15 


538 


558 


519 


550 


560 


552 


\ 905 




45—50 


460 


359 


413 


412 


383 


337 


880 


50—55 


361 


335 


374 


382 


362 


390 


408 


442 


55—60 


195 


179 


202 


215 


161 


151 


189 


197 


60-65 


193 


226 


1 












65-70 


!'6 


90 


[ 328 


452 


368 


440 


346 


453 


70 vV over 


101 


131 


1 












Mean Age 


22-25 


2209 


23-49 


23-88 


23-23 


23-19 


2.3-27 


23-65 


Amreli Division. 


















0—1 


397 


407 


120 


149 


332 


364 


308 


325 


1—2 


20 1 


234 


134 


170 


186 


221 


119 


135 


2-3 


351 


373 


204 


222 


304 


348 


161 


190 


3—1 


3:9 


359 


199 


239 


314 


369 


229 


250 


4—5 


293 


301 


274 


356 


294 


331 


230 


255 


Total ,..-0—5 


1,567 


1,H77 


931 


1,136 


1,430 


1,633 


1,047 


1,155 


5-10 


1,077 


l,0fi2 


1,273 


1,149 


1.372 


1,388 


1,3.30 


1,385 


10 — 15 


9(>t 


806 


1,49S 


1,502 


1 ,001 


851 


1,.34S 


1,251 


15—20 


1,015 


900 


936 


897 


827 


728 


976 


883 


20 -25 


I.OII 


1,0.59 


961 


979 


1,020 


1,095 


1,002 


1,024 


25-30 


93C 


9G5 


880 


?5: 


1,001 


960 


988 


963 


30-35 


781 


775 


914 


784 


935 


SG8 


946 


851 


35-40 


612 


60 1 


673 


579 


579 


506 


592 


545 


40—15 


669 


709 


GIR 


647 


606 


645 


[■ 887 




45-50 


388 


340 


.358 


333 


282 


232 


916 


50-55 


456 


471 


516 


496 


435 


439 


425 


469 


55— GO 


156 


133 


189 


281 


115 


99 


126 


118 


60-65 


246 


329 


1 












65-70 


GI 


59 


'> 258 


366 


397 


556 


334 


440 


70 V over 


88 


111 


\ 






1 






Mean A'^k 


2206 


22.87 


24-50 


24-69 


23-69 

1 


23-80 


23-71 


24-05 



N It v'ean ngefiir lOOi nnit 1891ifor I'isirlcmllms bfan '■.ilitnlaUJ trim the fidurps { apo-pcrMs wlihout nnv pro-cs. n; 
siiHWthicg. FIguniilor 11 1 have ijcea taken from IhAt liururc. 



IlM 



OHAPTEl; V AGE. 



SUUSIDIARY TAliLE III.— Age distuibutiOn of 10,OGO of 
EACH SEX IN Main Reliuions. 



AIlB. 


1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1831. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 
8 


Female. 




1 


•> 


i 


4 


5 


6 


t 


9 



All Rellgioas 

0—1 ... 

1—2 ». 

2—3 ... 

3—4 ... 

4—5 ... 

Totil ... 0—5 ... 

5-10 ... 

iO— 15 ... 

15—20 ... 

20—25 ... 

•25—30 ... 

:10-E5 ... 

S5— 40 . 

10-45 ... 

45—50 ... 

.'lO — 55 ... 

.'.5—60 ... 

1)0-65 ... 

86 70 ... 
TO ft over 
Mean Age .. 



Hindus. 

0—1 . 

1—2 . 

•2—3 . 

^—i . 

1—6 . 

... 0—5 . 



To(:il 



5— TO ... 
10—15 ... 
15-20 .- 
'20-25 ... 
25-30 ... 
30—35 ... 
35—10 ... 
40-45 ... 
45—50 ... 
.50-55 ... 
.15-60 ... 
60— fi.^ ... 
65—70 .. 
70 & orer 
Mean Ag". 



.lalns. 



394 
188 
316 
292 
299 
1,489 

1,141 

925 

887 

970 

986 

840 

712 

666 

406 

439 

170 

211 

64 

84 

22-71 



391 
187 
315 
287 
293 
1,473 

1,128 

929 

896 

984 

994 

847 

711 

671 

406 

441 

167 

209 

61 

83 

22-86 



0—1 ... 


... 


334 


1- 2 ... 




144 


■2—3 ... 


... 


259 


1-4 ... 


... 


234 


t— r. ... 


... 


224 


otll ... 0—5 ... 




1,195 


.5—10 ... 


... 


1,116 


10—15 ... 


>•• 


1.022 


If-,— 20 ... 


...I 


888 


20—25 ... 


— 1 


952 


2.5- .'0 ... 




958 


3fr-35 ... 


... 


831 


35—10 ... 


... 


. .S95 


40—45 ... 


... 


687 


4.5— 50 ... 


... 


472 


50—55 .. 


... 


502 


55—60 ... 


... 


244 


60- 65 ... 




24 .=f 


fi."-;— 70 ... 


... 


101 


70 & over 


... 


94 


:in /i;" 


1 


24-<'.5 



416 
208 
343 
340 
302 
1,609 

1,044 
825 
818 

1,026 

1,006 
895 
666 
705 
364 
462 
150 
•272 
64 
104 

22^77 



417 
211 
344 
337 
295 
1,604 

1,026 
812 
818 

1,030 

1,016 

897 

662 

. 716 

?S7 

471 

148 

•273 

62 

98 

22^94 



322 
162 
2.54 
252 

228 ' 
1,216 j 

993 
933 
766 
1,020 
958 

K80 

679 
KOO 
413 
517 
203 
.■•61 
'.•6 

1 :-o 

•2.-, 31 



145 
133 

205 
220 
260 
9C3 

1,264 
1,357 
1,036 
998 
978 
869 
679 
632 
380 
419 
167 

268 

23-50 



136 
122 
197 
208 
247 
910 

1.268 

1,372 

1,045 

994 

1.004 

869 

688 

637 

378 

426 

1.56 

253 

23-70 



1.59 
117 
180 
194 
223 
873 

1.019 

i;i82 

999 

1,101 

1 019 

902 

715 

689 

468 

161 

229 



313 



25-34 



166 
139 
226 
249 
286 
1,056 

1,236 
1,200 
941 
1,007 
959 
831 
653 
693 
399 
46] 
190 

374 

23-76 



144 
126 
215 
237 
272 
993 

1,239 
1,215 
948 
1,009 
973 
848 
660 
706 
398 
473 
186 

352 

24-66 



182 
148 
220 
221 
271 
1,042 

993 
1.066 
839 
1.080 
928 
8 '5 
700 
761 
463 
.566 
258 

489 

26-33 



314 
163 
272 
282 
289 
1,320 

1.424 
1,108 
865 
922 
916 
865 
609 
649 
327 
465 
142 

388 

23-19 



315 
164 
275 
285 
299 
1,338 

1,428 
1,111 
868 
919 
918 
861 
t03 
642 
.322 
4(^2 
138 

380 

23-85 



304 
139 

207 

193 

222 

1,065 

1,161 
1,048 
885 
917 
891 
877 
691 
7.-1 
444 
524 
223 



I 



533 



2G-3S 



343 
186 
316 
340 
324 
1,509 

1,407 
932 
772 
995 
909 
850 
559 
675 
201 
480 
127 

484 

23-47 



345 
189 
322 
346 
328 
1,520 

1,422 
926 
773 
993 
909 
815 
557 
668 
299 
476 
121 

472 

23-86 



353 
147 
224 
223 
222 
1,199 

1.181 
922 

720 
977 
859 
,S70 
610 
784 
377 
599 
194 

692 

27-02 



253 
183 
241 
273 
28i 
1,251 

1,425 
1,208 
866 
898 
916 
867 
657 

934 

181 
173 

364 

23-92 



252 
179 

228 

268 

277 

1,214 

1 439 
1,217 
876 
904 
9 6 
863 
628 
490 
429 
482 
171 

261 

2S-26 



279 
177 
2P8 
192 
216 
1,072 

1,173 

1.108 
819 
910 
•78 
862 
703 

1,071 

t/:9 
'2fS 

447 

;;5-48 



•274 
202 
277 
312 
204 
1,269 

1,424 
1,067 
768 
939 
894 
853 
603 

944 

.^.03 
173 

403 

■24-34 



274 
191 
275 
310 
203 
1,253 

1132 
1,080 
781 
943 
888 
847 
GOO 
484 
459 
499 
173 

161 

23-61 



280 
179 
219 
227 
l:i2 
1,127 

1.188 
974 
646 
886 
921 
879 
715 

1,118 

624 
293 

619 

26 40 



2^. B.— Mt»i. 8i-f BdnniilT .i-ul Lmubfai, i;.l.n. Iitii I'. iMi rt|oii 
ligurts lor smietli-iBWiil.out ti.ci rocf-ecraaiusiuici t (emootliinsf). 



auu iLotL tt'i 



Itvi ai.u ifcbl Li.VL- bttn i-i.Kijij,ii.u in tb» 



SUBSIDIARY lAliLK!^. 



12o 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III.— Age distribution of 10,000 ok 
KACH SKX IN Main Religions— cowfc/. 



AGE. 



mil. 



Animists. 



0—1 

1— -i 



2 — A 

3—4 



4 — 11 



Total ... 



5-.1U ... 

iO— 15 ... 

15 — '.!i) ... 

■Jll— 25 ... 

2.5—30 ... 

30—35 .. 

35—40 ... 







40- 


-45 ... 






45- 


-50 ... 






50- 


-55 ... 






55- 


-60 ... 






60- 


-65 ... 






65- 


-70 ... 






70 


& OVCI 


M 


ean 


Ago .. 





Musalmans. 



11—1 
1—2 



2—3 
3—4 

4-5 
Total ... n— 5 



5— 10 ... 
10-15 ... 

15—20 
20—25 ... 

25-30 ... 
30—35 ... 

.'..-,-4(1 . 

Ml — 45 ... 
(5-50 ... 

.">(» — 55 ... 
.-|5— GO ... 

60 — 65 ... 

65-70 ... 
70 .<£ over 



M-an Ag^ 



Male. 



Female. 



488 
238 

366 
404 

408 
1,902 



1,385 
914 

724 
738 

970 
819 

821 

548 
436 

304 

;67 

160 
63 
49 

20-59 



370 
168 

305 
288 

299 
1,430 



1 120 
952 

874 
989 

943 
800 

659 

693 
439 

494 
177 

249 

74 

107 

23-42 



ISiOl. 



Male. 



Female. 



Is91. 



Male. 



Female. 



1881. 



Male. 



Female 



507 
239 

397 
455 

425 
2.023 



1,310 
909 

817 
938 

955 



645 

516 ; 
316 ' 

250 
147 

166 ji 

^^ 
66 1 

19-92 



379 

176 

337 

322 

311 
1,528 



1,049 
856 

820 
1,061 

970 
893 

nil 

712 

345 

489 
154 

299 

67 
147 

23-47 



186 
220 



345 

394 
1,433 



1,252 
1,295 

1,028 
1,027 

777 
792 

644 

524 
373 

304 I 
226 ' 



325 



22-54 



176 1 
147 

207 
201 

254 

985 



1,182 
1,310 

967 
981 

947 
945 

630 

684 
389 

470 
190 



320 
23-80 



223 
246 

341 

388 

439 
1,637 



1,304 
1,172 

946 
972 

851 
698 

608 

550 
369 

288 

205 



400 
22-12 



178 
149 

203 
216 

270 
1,016 



1,197 
1,141 

916 
1015 

948 

830 

623 

713 
429 

494 
192 



486 



25-26 



358 
203 

321 

399 

368 
1,649 



1,712 
1,13, 

779 
842 

936 
795 

690 

.527 
316 

320 
;07 



196 



21-37 



299 
156 



251 

•248 



276 
1,230 



1,288 
1,082 

829 
957 

896 
923 

639 

720 
346 

503 
144 



443 
25-03 



372 
217 


288 
294 


406 
499 


340 
451 


435 
1,929 


426 
1,799 


1,653 
891 


1,733 
1,065 


818 
1,025 


620 
761 


944 
829 


858 
843 


520 


729 


496 
274 


\ 838 


278 
107 


343 
155 


23G 


•256 


20.79 


21-28 


333 
172 


244 
163 


280 
278 


229 

237 


290 
1,353 


262 
1,135 


1,287 
907 


1,291 
1,216 


765 
1,018 


801 
898 


922 
920 


936 
928 


566 


676 


739 
293 


584 
422 


53G 
123 


523 
171 


571 


419 


25-34 


24-38 



3'6 
302 

407 

472 

452 
1,949 



1,669 
906 

652 
863 

928 
867 

584 

783 

355 
150 



294 



21-01 



249 
179 

247 
259 

266 
1,200 



1,286 
1,056 

735 
969 

930 
913 

613 

504 
511 

581 
176 



24-88 



.V. B.— Mean age fli<orea f"r 1301 have boin t:,kenIrom the Li-s: report ami these for 1831 .-in.l 18S1 h.i»d brfn Cilcalatisd od tht- 
iigares (or age-periods without the ptoe^sot ailjneiment (hiiiootbin;!). 



126 



CHArTEH V AUE. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III.— Agk distkibution of 10,000 of 
EACH SEX IN Maix Relioions — contd. 



AoE. 



Total 



Parsis- 



0—1 
1—2 

2—3 
3—4 

4—6 
0—5 



5—10 .... 
10—15 ... 

]B~20 ... 
20—25 ... 

25—30 ... 
30—36 ... 

35—40 ... 

40—45 ... 
45—50 ... 

50 — .55 ... 
55—60 ... 

60—66 ... 
65—70 ... 
70 and over 



Mean Age _ 



Christians. 



0—1 
1—2 

2—3 
3—4 

4— fi 
Total ... 0—5 



6—10 ... 
10—16 ... 

15—20 ... 
20—26 .. 

2F— ?0 ... 
30—35 .. 

35—40 ... 

40—45 ... 
45—50 ... 

60- 66 ... 
66—60 ... 

60— fi5 ... 

65—70 ... 

70 anil over 



1911. 



Mnle. 



Female 



Mean Age 



319 
1.55 

222 
29B 

249 
1,241 



1,228 
1,4 3.H 

1,006 
719 

564 
.'>70 

483 

535 
.-)26 

549 
342 

334 
175 
295 

25-26 



381 
1'.5 

301 
262 

272 
1,411 



965 
1,061 



1,169 
1,149 



908 
851 

690 

672 
309 

405 
122 

174 

39 



1901. 



1891. 



Male. 



240 
106 

177 
212 

216 
951 



1,026 
1,014 

915 
920 

798 
721 

596 

730 
498 

518 
359 

429 
183 

342 

28-67 



355 
173 

218 
361 

158 
1,265 



1,144 
998 

1,138 
1,024 

947 

854 

576 

642 
296 

678 
101 

209 
32 
96 

2308 



275 
194 

215 

272 

275 
1,231 



1,285 
1,420 

1,153 
851 

577 
577 

663 

493 
468 

.S82 
277 



633 
24-35 



i'emale. 



144 

92 

227 
211 

215 
889 



1,566 
1,689 

993 
944 

960 
932 

159 

r,t3 
241 

383 
92 



206 

21-58 



249 
96 

151 

224 

221 
941 



1,006 
1,007 

1,001 

828 

864 
739 

647 

630 
469 

049 

334 



886 

28-84 



Male. 



121 
153 



269 
279 



255 
1,077 



1,657 

1,256 

739 
1,002 

1,138 
751 

.563 

684 
283 

413 
119 



318 
22-84 



Female. 



304 
131 

223 
293 

226 
1,177 



1,439 
1,398 

903 
711 

647 
611 

083 

044 
430 

388 
237 



832 



25-63 



163 
70 

210 

267 

187 I 
887 1 



628 

142 
i 
1,046 ' 
1,675 

1,373 ; 
838 ■ 

1,140 

558 
761 

H9 

163 '■ 



70 



•20 



1881. 



Malfi. Female. 



262 
108 


248 
229 


164 

229 


183 

308 


228 
991 


272 
1,240 



1,098 
1,010 

825 
894 I 

738 
726 

677 

799 
.391 

601 

238 



1,013 



■J8-82 



324 
324 

585 
231 

463 
!,527 



1,157 
741 

972 
1,482 

1,157 
926 

741 

H02 
231 



93 

371 

22-69 



1,348 
1,406 

730 
779 

703 
703 

657 

921 

540 
316 



657 



24-71 



84 
67 

67 
117 

67 

402 



619 

284 

418 
2,659 

1,839 
1,421 

987 

920 

284 
67 



100 
27-20 



288 
142 

155 
234 

196 
1,015 



1,084 
1,028 

702 
753 

879 
823 

746 



1,068 

702 
306 



895 



27-78 



346 
173 

520 
462 

231 

1,732 



1»130 
1 ,040 

867 
1,040 

1,213 
7.57 



f.X> 



173 



173 

21 L-:! 



S, «.— Me.in Kti ft/oi-"« f r 90' have bo n ukcu fi-o .1 th.. i.-i report and those for ihJl «ad ISBI htiQ bein c-«li;ol.itKl er »>. 
flgarcB t^ sgo-poncdc wKboat tLe proctAS uf adjaetmont (ntnootbinp): 



SUBSIDIAUY TABLK.-- 



127 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV.— Acjk Distkibl-tion of 1,000 of each 

SEX IN CERTAIN CASTER. 



■ 




Malks. Nu.MI'.Elt 


i'i:i; -liiLia; \ 


Pema 


Lt;<. N 


UMBUR 


PER MILLE 










AGED. 










AGED. 








CASTE. 
























0-5 


5-12 


1 2-15 


18-40 


40 and 


0-5 


5-12 


12-15 


15-40 


40 and 














over. 










over. 
11 




1 


2 


" 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 ! 


& 


10 




Hindus 
























Ahir ... 


•151 


112 


49 


491 


197 


188 


112 


37 


441 


224 




liahrot 


loU 


142 


55 


426 


247 


131 


119 


46 


425 


279 




Bava 


101 


101 


55 


44S 


300 


87 


82 


38 


.505 


288 




Bhaugi 


157 


160 


71 


434 


178 


175 


141 


57 


4 56 


171 




Bharvad 


Hi 


135 


73 


4.58 


190 


166 


144 


64 


423 


204 




Bhavsnv 


H3 


150 


62 


417 


228 


124 


135 


63 


446 


232 




Bhoi 


13 r. 


140 


S6 


460 


193 


167 


126 


47 


440 


220 




Braliman Anavala 


120 


136 


74 


431 


239 


126 


167 


68 


398 


241 




„ AadicU 


116 


138 


64 


444 


238 


125 


119 


45 


417 


994 




,, Deshastha 


97 


116 


60 


412 


315 


124 


131 


54 


391 


300 




., Mewada 


112 


128 


67 


448 


245 


98 


113 


65 


462 


262 




;, Modh 


109 


1.34 


70 


450 


237 


115 


124 


57 


445 


259 




,, Nagar 


115 


137 


70 


403 


275 


107 


128 


60 


430 


275 




Tapodhan ... 


133 


150 


67 


4.57 


193 


142 


129 


61 


446 


222 




Chamar 


170 


158 


70 


432 


170 


180 


127 


52 


424 


217 




Darji... 


159 


155 


59 


405 


290 


157 


128 


50 


445 


220 




Dhetl ... ... •■. 


163 


146 


63 


433 


195 


171 


131 


61 


432 


205 




Oraroda 


170 


178 


73 


406 


173 


193 


137 


50 


440 


190 




tihant'hi 


117 


168 


67 


427 


191 


145 


138 


66 


432 


219 




Gola (rice-pounders) 


i6(; 


165 


71 


424 


174 


151 


126 


80 


427 


210 




Gosain 


187 


118 


50 


442 


253 


1.36 


116 


42 


447 


2.59 




Hajam 


IIJU 


1.53 


62 


411 


314 


150 


121 


46 


4 54 


229 




Eachhia 


150 


128 


6S 


407 


247 


122 


124 


63 


413 


278 




Kanbi, Anjana 


135 


152 


60 


462 


191 


149 


112 


60 


454 


225 




„ Kadwa ... 


140 


133 


47 


491 


189 


165 


144 


68 


444 


179 




„ Karadia 


188 


120 


60 


455 


177 


190 


120 


46 


427 


217 




„ Lewa 


12S 


l4o 


68 


435 


226 


140 


132 


64 


434 


240 




Koli 


im 


140 


61 


450 


18.-> 


17J 


103 


55 


431 


2S'.l 




Kumbhar 


KiS 


148 


68 


439 


177 


159 


124 


56 


430 


231 




Lnhana 


140 


156 


64 


423 


217 


172 


142 


52 


411 


223 




Luhar 


155 


150 


72 


431 


192 


160 


128 


55 


450 


207 




Slachhi 


163 


149 


62 


413 


213 


174 


143 


63 


426 


194 


1 


Maratha 


109 


121 


73 


497 


200 


123 


134 


48 


436 


259 




Mochi 


115 


159 


66 


419 


211 


162 


139 


54 


439 


206 




iiabari 


149 


132 


58 


453 


208 


149 


1.59 


50 


432 


210 




Eajpat 


lli9 


132 


62 


460 


217 


137 


117 


52 


452 


242 




Kavnlia 


169 


141 


59 


444 


187 


175 


13S 


51 


4.52 


■ 189 




Sathawara 


156 


154 


6S 


442 


185 


164 


126 


46 


469 


195 




Shenva 


195 


156 


52 


43.S 


1(J4 


193 


135 


44 


464 


164 




Soni 


159 


141 


64 


400 


236 


137 


134 


60 


421 


248 




fintar 


111 


l.-l 


65 


433 


207 


146 


124 


53 


453 


224 




Talavia 


IGO 


124 


147 


388 


181 


169 


139 


67 


439 


186 




Targala 


175 


128 


51 


396 


250 


9& 


98 


38 


482 


287 




Vagher 


142 


137 


67 


434 


220 


118 


151 


47 


424 


260 




Vaghaii 

Vania Disaval 


18-2 


152 


61 


42H 


182 


197 


139 


51 


440 


173 




105 


109 


77 


396 


313 


115 


121 


53 


4.36 


275 




Liifl 


138 


119 


66 


431 


246 


114 


119 


53 


43U 


284 




„ Shrimali 


105 


134 


63 


444 


254 


169 


123 


61 


402 


24.-. 




Jains. 
























\':L:;.a Shiimali 


165 


132 


74 


410 


219 


133 


133 


53 


436 


239 




Animlsts. 
























Bhil 


204 


174 


47 


400 


175 


150 


165 


78 


452 


145 




Chodhra ... ... ... .■• 


179 


171 


59 


420 


171 


197 


157 


73 


418 


155 




Dhanka 


180 


173 


85 


371 


191 


216 


163 


45 


423 


153 




Dliodia 


184 


175 


71 


411 


159 


192 


145 


88 


413 


102 




G.amatda 


175 


182 


62 


414 


167 


172 


167 


66 


416 


179 




Nayakda 


174 


173 


78 


381 


189 


214 


137 


71 


427 


151 




Musalmans. 
























fakir 


133 


134 


54 


440 


239 


145 


146 


56 


431 


222 




Ghanohi 


137 


133 


51 


4S3 


226 


153 


124 


58 


428 


237 




Malek 


139 


137 


53 


469 


202 


141 


133 


49 


442 


2a5 




Memon 


159 


170 


60 


406 


206 


147 


166 


72 


370 


24". 




Molcsalam ... ... ... 


146 


123 


48 


4 40 


243 


1.50 


121 


44 


447 


23S 




Momna 


176 


143 


60 


450 


171 


162 


124 


38 


459 


197 




Patlian 


135 


120 


53 


468 


224 


142 


129 


48 


449 


232 




Pinjara 

Saiyad ... 

Shaikh 


151 


167 


64 


411 


217 


161 


150 


57 


410 


222 




136 


ISO 


58 


435 


241 


134 


126 


60 


452 


228 




144 


131 


52 


449 


224 


143 


126 


61 


489 


191 




Voliom 


166 


164 


60 


361 


249 


144 


136 


65 


422 


233 




Parsis. 
























Harsia 


124 


176 


90 


334 


276 


'.15 


137 


68 


391 


306 




Christians. 
















1 








Native 


143 


l.?S 


72 


476 


176 


128 


135 


81 


4.72 


204 



128 



CHAPTER T — AGE. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V. — Proportion of children under 10 and or persons over 50 
TO those aged 15-40 ; also of married females aged 15-40 per 100 females. 



District ob 
Natokal 
Division. 


PaOPOETlOK OF CHILDREN BOTH SEXES 
PER 100. 


PKOI'OUTION 01 PERSONS OVEB 60 PER 100 
AGED 16 40. 


Number of married 

females aged 15-40 

per 100 femalea 

of all ages. 


Persons aged 15-40. 


Married females aged 
15 40. 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1911 


1901 1S91 


1911 


1901 


1891 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1 


2 


3 i 


5 


6 


7 


8 


<i 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Baroda State ■■■ 

Baroda Division ... 
Baroda City 
Kadi Division ... 
Navsari Division ... 
Amreli Division ... 


60 
56 
ii 
61 
68 
61 


50 

45 
39 

i'J 
67 
53 


68 

60 
il 

74 
76 
C8 


145 

135 
119 
148 
158 
]4G 


135 

1-22 
117 
li9 
171 
Ibl 


162 

144 
111 
174 

17V 
163 


44 

44 
5U 
41 

4r. 

4« 


47 

51 
OS 
48 
4:i 

.^0 


39 

38 
50 
35 
40 
16 


44 

43 

63 
38 
49 
53 


48 
46 
51 
45 
70 
44 


52 

53 
67 
58 
80 
51 


37 

39 
35 
ST 
36 

S7 


34 

36 
33 
35 
32 
29 


36 

St 
S7 
S5 
34 
37 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VI.— Variation in Population 
at certain Age-Periods. 



District ob Natural 
Division. 



Period. 



Variation per cent, in Population (Incbeabe 
AND Decrease—). 



All ages. 



O-lu 



10-15 



15-40 



40-60 



00 and over. 



Baroda State 



baroda Division 



Baroda City 



Kadi Division 



Naviari Division 



Amreli Division 



I88I-I89I 
1891— 1901 

1901-1911 

1881—1891 
1891—1901 
1901—1911 

1881-1891 
1891—1901 
1901—1911 

1881-1891 
1891—1901 
1901— IBll 

1881-1891 
1891 — 1901 
1901-1911 

1881-1891 
1891—1901 
1901—1911 



+ 


10-5 




19-2 


-f 


41 


+ 


6-» 




22-9 


+ 


8-75 


+ 


9-3 




10-9 


— 


1-3 


+ 


Hi 





24 1 


— 


0-3 


-t- 


111 


— 


fi 


-1- 


11-G 


+ 


221 




3-8 


+ 


279 

1 



+ 


14-6 


+ 


0-8 


+ 


109 


-f 


91 




35-6 


+ 


11 




124 




147 


+ 


22 


— 


28-4 


-f 


2-2 


-f 


49 


+ 


96 





11-9 


+ 


7-7 


-t- 


11-8 




38 


— 


2-3 


— 


17 


-f- 


3-3 


+ 


29-6 


— 


26-4 


-f 


4-5 


— 


14-9 


+ 


20-8 





8-9 


+ 


8'7 


-f 


0-3 




10 


+ 


11-8 




11-9 


— 


«-7 


+ 


i;-9 


— 


19 


— 


4-2 


— 


11-4 


+ 


141 


-f- 


0-2 


+ 


11-8 


+ 


9-t 




481 




7-9 




131 


— 


11'7 


+ 


21-2 


— 


35-4 


— 


2-9 


+ 


2-5 


+ 


IM 


-1- 


10-3 


-f 


0-8 


-f- 


li-.") 


— 


)9« 


+ 


10-3 


-1- 


0-2 


— 


(rB 


■f 


10-1 




4-6 


4- 


18-8 


-1- 


b-7 


+ 


44-6 





12-9 


-f 


18-0 


-f 


ISO 




26-8 


-1- 


5.V2 


— 


4-5 


-f 


15S 


+ 


•JSO 


— 


413 


+ 


5-6 




0-5 



+ 16-7 

— 40-6 
4- 20-9 

-f 10 

— 42-4 
+ 47-4 

+ 18 

— 29-7 
-f 13-9 

+ 13-3 

— 51-9 
+ 19-7 

-f 12-5 

— 9-2 
+ 19-9 



+ 



51 1 
30-9 

+ 48-1 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



129 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VII. — Reported Birth-rate by sex and 

Natural Divisions. 



Yka«. 


1 
1 


NUMBEB 


OP Births peb 


1,000 or 


Total Population (Censdk op 1901). 


Barod» State. 


Baroda DiTisiou. 


Kadi D 


irisioD. 


Navsari 


Division. 


Amreli Dirision. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. Female. 

1 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. Female. 


1 


2 


•S 


4 


5 


it 


t 


8 


■1 


10 


11 


1900—01 


7-2 


6-4 


fil 


5-4 


5-3 


4-4 


14-4 


12-9 


«-8 


8-2 


1901— «2 


22-2 


20-8 


22-8 


21-8 


196 


17-7 


3(i-.H 


281 


lJ-3 


18-4 


1»0»— 03 


190 


17-9 


171 


16-3 


17-6 


16-9 


260 


250 


21-6 


20-1 


1903—04 


20-8 


19-ti 


19-3 


191 


17-9 


16-4 


se-R 


280 


27 


34-6 


1904- 05 


22-8 


21-8 


22-2 


21-8 


19-4 


17rt 


32-4 


Rl-0 


24-9 


35-9 


1905—06 


22fi 


21-3 


22-9 2'?-4 


18-.5 


166 


S.'?-5 


.HI!) 


221 


20-9 


190«— #7 


22-2 


2o-9 


23-6 


22-8 


16-6 


150 


30-4 


2S-a 


299 


28-9 


1907— 'J8 .- 


24-8 


28-7 


24-3 


23-.5 


20-S 


IVO 


351 


3-2-e, 


.■!n-7 


sn-« 


1908—09 


25-7 


24-() 


25rf 


24-9 


22t; 


20-0 


33-6 


30-5 


29-4 


28-7 


1909-10 


25-6 


24-0 


26-4 "5-0 


21-9 


19-. 


841 


31-7 


30-2 


29-S 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VIII.— Reported Death-rate by sex and 

Natural Divisions. 



Year. 




Nbmb 


BB OF Deaths per 1 ,000 of ToT>r. 


Population (i'ensus 190 


1. 


Baroda State. 


Baroda Division. 


Kali DivieioD. 


Navsari 


Division. 


Amveli 


iJi vision. 


Mais. 


Female 


Male. Female. 

1 ' 


Male. 


1 

[ Female. 


, Male. 


Female. 

1 


Male. 


1 

1 I'V-male. 

1 


1 


2 


■J 


4 


•• 


7 


8 


9. 


10 

i 


11 


1900-01 


«4-7 


54 


«0-3 


49-9 


73-8 


.■;i-i 


1 

44-8 


39-1 


74-0 


69-4 


1901—02 


30-4 


28-8 


:'.«-5 


370 


28-0 


241 


37-3 


27-7 


24-0 


24-2 


1902—03 


31S 


31-9 


42-5 


490 


22-8 


19-7 


90-9 


320 


3C-0 


30-3 


1903-04 


33C 


38-3 


320 


320 


320 


32-2 


321 


.<1-6 


42-8 


48-9 


1904—05 


24 5 


24-9 


25'.l 


20-5 


22-1 


22-3 


30-3 


80-9 


2iP-8 


21-6 


19C5--II'; 


245 


2. SI 


23-9 


231 


24-5 


931 


25-5 


250 


21-4 


19-9 


1906—07 


32-7 


32-y 


2a 5 


28-1 


41-8 


411 


act) 


268 


28-3 


22-3 


1907-08 


25-2 


!3« 


24 1 


23-8 


26-4 


33-6 


JM 


23-8 


24 1 


22-7 


I'JOR- 119 


32o 


21-2 


21-2 


20-3 


240 


21-9 


2J-9 


22-4 


191 


18-8 


1909—1' 

1 


2S-5 


220 


21 '.1 


24-5 


226 


2IVS 


2E7 


2?-7 


19-3 


186 



130 



CHAPTER V — AGE. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IX.— Kepokteu Death-rate by sex and age in 

DECADE AND IN SELECTED YEARS PER MILLE LIVING AT SAME AGE 
ACCORDING To THE CeNBUB OF 1901. 





AVJSBAOE OF 


1903. 


1905. 


1907. 


1909. 1 




Decade. 


















Age. 
























Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Malo. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


I 


2 


3 


i 


5 


6 


( 


8 
82-7 


9 

32 S) 


10 

22-6 


11 
31-2 


All Ages 


31,481 


27,955 


31-3 


31-9 


24-5 


24-9 


Dade- 1 year ... 


4,029 


3,396 


3-8 


3-4 


3-8 


8-6 


4-2 


3-8 


4-4 


3-9 


1 — 5 


8,90» 


3,336 


30 


2-9 


30 


2-6 


4-8 


41 


ss 


3-4 


5-10 


1,877 


1,699 


1-7 


20 


1 n 


1-3 


1-8 


1-8 


10 


0-9 


10—15 


1,65S 


1,532 


1-9 


20 


1-4 


1-6 


2.0 


2-2 


0-8 


07 


15—30 


1,638 


1,456 


1-7 


16 


13 


1-4 


2-2 


2-2 


0-9 


0-8 


20—30 


3,851 


3,737 


1-2 


4-8 


31 


35 


4-7 


4-9 


2-5 


2-7 


30—40 


4,138 


3,t!98 


4-4 


4-5 


3-2 


3-? 


4-4 


4-5 


2-6 


2-4 


40—50 


3,846 


3,0U7 


40 


3-6 


3-9 


2-6 


3-9 


3-5 


2-4 


1-0 


50—60 


3,228 


2,571 


34 


31 


2-2 


21 


2-9 


3-6 


2 1 


1-7 


£0 and over... 


3,001 


3,145 


29 


■if. 


21 


2-3 


2-3 


2-8 


■.'•0 


2-3 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE X. — Repokted Deaths fkom certain diseaseb per 

MILLE of each SEX. 



year. 


Whole Province. 


Choleka. 


Actual D 


omber of duaths. 


Ratio per mille of 
each sex. 


Actual 


lumber of deaths. 


Ratiu per mille of 
each sex. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Malo. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


<t 


10 


11 


1900— Ul 


116,337 


66,361 


50,976 


64-7 


54-0 


3,631 


1,783 


1,848 


1 
1-8 


1-9 


190I--02 


57,898 


30,684 


27,214 


30-4 


28-8 


72 


36 


36 


003 


004 


190i— 03 


61,718 


31,556 


.30,162 


31-3 


31-9 


1«5 


73 


72 


0-07 


007 


1903—04 


64,892 


33,262 


31,630 


330 


33-5 


161 


76 


75 


007 


008 


1901—05 


48,227 


24,724 


23,503 


24-5 


24-9 


141 


58 


83 


006 


0-08 


1905— OC 


46,221 


24,352 


21,869 


24-5 


231 


146 


68 


77 


007 


0-118 


1906— U7 


64,112 


33,013 


31,099 


32-7 


32-9 


413 


207 


206 


0-2 


(V2 


J 907 --08 


47,730 


26,466 


22,275 


25-2 


23-6 


83 


44 


39 


0-04 


0-114 


1908— U9 


42,703 


22,6'i6 


20,037 


22-5 


21-2 


492 


251 


241 


0-3 


C-2 


1909—10 


44,536 


23.742 


20,794 


23-5 


220 


208 


104 


104 


01 


01 


YEAR. 


Sm.^i.L-P0I. 


Feveb. 


Actual I 


nmber o 


f d=»ths. 


Ratio pel 
each 


uiille of 
sex. 


Actual 1 


lumber of (Laths. 


Ratio pt 
each 


r mille of 

861. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 

1 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1 


i 1- 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


1900- -01 


326 


170 


1 
1 

156 


1 

0-1 


0-2 


91 216 


(.1,322 


39,894 


60-9 


42-3 


1901—02 


121 


77 


44 


' 0-07 


004 


44,734 


24,115 


20,619 


240 


218 


lW~—(>'i 


124 


79 


45 


0-08 


0113 


43,157 


22,670 


20,487 


22-5 


21-6 


190?- -II! 


601 


.327 


274 


0-3 


0-3 


36,397 


19,28(1 


17,117 


19-23 


18-12 


1904— (1.^ 


1,002 


541 


461 


0-6 


0-5 


29,428 


15,B8U 


13,848 


15-5 


147 


I'.IOD -1" 


1.98C 


1.052 


934 


1-4 


1-0 


31,096 


16,711 


14,385 


16-6 


152 


I'.IOO— e: 


175 


96 


1 79 


09 


0-08 


37,681 


19,964 


17,717 


19-8 


18-8 


190'--l'- 


537 


332 


205 


0-3 


n-2 


31,937 


17,192 


14,745 


17-07 


156 


lllOfe- 0'.' 


296 


146 


150 


0-2 


014 


30,461 


16.W7 


14,154 


16-2 


15-01. 


l'.»0!'-li' 


1,11'J 


693 


526 


0-6 


0-6 


31.253 


16,821 


14,432 


16-7 


15-3 



SUBSIDIAKY TABLES. 



131 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE X. — Reported Deaths feom certain diseases per 

MILLE OF EACH SEX. — COntd. 



YEAR. 



Dysemtery and Uiarkhcea. 



Actual number of death?. 



Ratio per mille of 
each sex. 



Total. Male. Female. 



Male. Female. 



IXJUlilES. 



Actual nuinlier of deaths. 



Total. Male. Female 



Ratio per mille of 
each sex. 



Male. Female. 



23 



34 



36 



27 



2.S 



30 



31 



1900—01 
1901—02 
1902—03 
1903—04 
1904-05 
1905—06 
1906—07 
1907— OS 
1908-09 
1909—10 



6,559 

l,c!75 

1,226 

1,050 

958 

951 

916 

1,067 

992 

900 



3,907 


2,652 


3-9 


2-8 


7.52 


623 


0-7 


0-7 


689 


537 


0-75 


0-6 


577 


473 


0-5 


0-5 


aof 


401 


0-54 


0-4 


545 


406 


0-5 


0-4 


489 


427 


0-5 


0-42 


601 


466 


0'6 


0-5 


548 


444 


0-5 


0-5 


520 


380 


0-5 


0-4 



376 
426 
425 
411 
376 
310 
3S0 
465 
508 
455 



205 


171 


235 


191 


227 


198 


218 


193 


204 


172 


188 


122 


188 


192 


24 3 


222 


240 


268 


228 


227 



0-2 
0-2 
0-2 
0-2 
0-2 
0-18 
0-18 
0-2 
0-2 
0-2 



0-2 
0-2 
0-2- 
0-2 
0-2 
0-14 
02 
0-2 
0-3 
0-2 



YEAR. 



Plague. 



REspiR.*.TORy Diseases. 



Actual number of 
de&tbs. 






Ratio per . . , _ Katio pep 

.„ ^, Actual num- l.„ ^c 
— 11 — c I . mille of 

each sex. 



mille of 
each sex 



ber of deaths. 






All other Causes. 



Actual number of 
deaths 



B 
fa 



Ratio per 

mille of each 

sex. 



a 



1900—01 
1901—02 
1902—03 
1903—04 
1904—05 
1905—06 
1906—07 
1907-08 
1908-09 
1909—10 



32 



33 



34 35 36 37 38 39 40 I 41 



6,416 
3,880 
4,381 



c to > 



3,251 
1,941 
2,191 



3,165 
1,939 
2 190 



3-2 
1-9 



3-4 

2-05 

2-3 



42 



43 



44 



45 



119 

467 
S62 



66 

280 
504 



53 
187 

358 



0-06 
0-3 
0-5 



0-06 
0-2 
0-4 



14,229 

11,170 

16,641 

26,282 

16,322 

11,633 

24,547 

7,106 

5,607 

5,358 



7,974 
5,469 
7,818 

12,784 
7,784 
5,788 

12,069 
3.726 
2;9o3 
2,781 



5,701 
8,823 

13,498 
8,538 
5,845 

12,478 
3,380 
2,654 



7-8 
5-4 
7-7 

12-7 
7-7 

5'75 
11-93 

3-73 
2-9 



6-6 

6-04 

9-4 

14-3 

9-02 

6-28 

l.S-2 

3-6 

2-8 

2-7 



132 CIlArTKl! VI SICX. 



Chapter VI. 

SEX. 

290. Imperial Table VII shows the distribution of the sexes for the State 

as a whole and for each district and religion by 

Relerence to statistics. age-periods. The following Subsidiary Tables at the 

end of this chapter exhibit the main features of the statistics in proportionate 

parts and also furnish further information relating to sexes from the vital 

Btatistics : — 

Subsidiary Table I. — General proportion of the sexes by natural divisions 
and districts. 

Subsidiary Table 11. — Number of females per 1.000 males at different 
age-periods by religions at each ol' the last three Censuses. 

Subsidiary Table III. — Number of females per 1,000 males at different 
ao-e-periods by religious and natural divisions. 

Subsidiary Table IV. — Number of females per 1,000 males for certain 
selected castes. 

Subsidiary Tabic V. — Actual number of births and deaths reported for each 
sex during the decades 1891-1900 and 1901-1910. 

Subsidiary Table VI. — Number of deaths of each sex at different ages. 

291. The return of females is likely to be less accurate than that of males 

in India, owing to the peculiar customs and habits of 
Accuracy of the return. ^j^^ ^^QoyA^. It is possible that some portion of 
-unmarried girls, who have passed the age of puberty while still unmarried, and 
voung married women living in pa?^ da A, may not be reported. But in Gujarat, 
except in the upper groups in a few castes like Rajputs, Marathas and Lewa 
Kanbis and some high class Mahomedan families, pardah is not observed and no 
special stigma attaches to those who do not marry their gii-ls before the age of 
puberty. "There is, therefore, no motive to conceal females from enumeration. 
Precautionary measures were, however, taken to see that females were not left 
out of the count. Influential members from the castes in which concealment of 
females was likely, accompanied the Enumerators and satisfied themselves that 
no one was left out. In testing the work of the Enumerators, Supervisors and 
Charo-e Superintendents specially tested the entries of females in such quarters, 
but failed to detect any tendency towards concealment. So far as this State is 
concerned, I have therefore no reason to suppose that the return of females is 
less accurate than that of males. 

292. In all European countries, except Bulgaria, Greece and a iew others 

the females outnumber the males. The excess of 
General proportion of the fei„ales is 68 per 1,000 males in England and 
sexes in actual population. ,„ , , ^ • n i t t -.P ^""^ '^^ 

"•^ \vales and dl m Denmark. In India, on the 

other hand, the male population is generally in excess and in the whole country 
taken together, there are only 953 females to 1.000 males. The only exception 
to the general rule is furnished by Sladras, Central Provinces States, Beno-al 
and the Cochin State. In the Bombay Presidency there are 920 females to 
1,000 males. From Imperial Table VII, we find that there were 1,055,935 
males and 976,863 females in this State on the 10th March 1911. The males 
are thus numerically in excess of the females by 79,072, or in other words 
in the State as a whole, there are only 925 females to 1,000 males. 

293. The diversity [which exists in the different parts ol the State 

is nowhere more clearly illustrated than in the 
•"■^^rt's'orthe State! proportion of the sexes ; From the tigures given 

on the next page, it will be seen that the pro- 



SEX rRdPOKTKJXt^. 



133 



portions of r.lie sexes approach au equality iu the Navsari District. Then 

follow Kadi, 



Divisions. 



No. of females to 1,000 
males. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division exolasive of City 

Baroda City 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division ... 



925 

872 
853 
947 
982 
940 



853 females to 1,000 males. 



294. 



Amreli and 
Baroda Dis- 
tricts in or- 
d e r and 
Baroda City- 
stands last 
with only 



The above observations refer to the actual population or the persons 
enumerated iu theState,irre8pective of the place where 
''''""''populatLn.^*"''^ ^^^^y ?^ei-e born. The proportion of the sexes is affected 

by migration from or to the State. In order to ascertain 
the proportions in the natural population,t.e., the persons born iu the State, we must 
discount the effect of migration by deducting the persons who have come into 
the State from outside aud adding those born in it who have gone elsewhere. 
Thus calculated, the proportion of females to 1,000 males for the whole State 
is 927, which shows that in the State as a whole, migration does not much 
disturb the sex proportions. We have no means for exactly determining 
similar proportions for the districts; for though we know how many persons 
have immigrated into each district from other parts of India and also how 
many have emigrated from the State to other parts of India, we do not know 
how many of the latter have emigrated from each of the districts. The figures 
supplied by the other provinces refer to the Baroda State as a whole and not 
to its districts. But as immigration and emigration vary almost equally in the 
State as a whole, as also in its component parts, the proportions of sexes in the 
actual, as also in the natural population, remain almost the same. 

295. If t,here was anv concealment of females, it might naturally be 
■expected that the Mahomedans with their greater reticence in all matters which 

Proportions of females to i.ooo males In different religions. Concern their 

I e m a 1 e s , 

would have a 
smaller pro- 
portion of 
women in the 
Census than 
t h e Hindus, 
but this is not 
the case. In 
the State as a 
whole, they 
have 939 

females to 1,000 males, while the Hindus have only 918. If the figures for the 
different parts of the State are examined, it will be found that except in the 
Baroda District, where the proportions of the two religions are equal, in every 
district the proportion of females is higher than amongst the Hindus. In the 
Navsari District, Mahomedau females outnumber their males, owiu'j- mainly to 
the males going abroad to Africa, Burma, etc., for employment, leaviu'-^ tlieir 
females at home. The Animistic tribes, among whom early marria<i'es are rare 
have a relatively larger number of women than Hindus or Mahomedans. Jains 
also show higher ratio than Hindus in the State as a whole ; but when we 
consider the districts separately, we find that in the Navsari and Amreli Districts 
the ratio of females amongst them is smaller than amongst the Hindus, whilst in 
the Kadi and Baroda Districts it is higher. The higher ratio is explained bv 
the fact that many Jains from these districts have emigrated to Bombav and 
other places leaving their females at home. Our Kadi District, the home of 
more than half of our Jain population, is well-known for sending out Jain 
emigrants to Bombay, Poona aud other places in the Deccan. This explains the 
lactual excess of Jain females over Jain males in the Kadi District. The Parsis 



Religion. 


Baroila 
State. 


Baroda 

District 

(ex. of City) 


Baroda 

City. 


Kadi 
District 


Navsaii 
District. 


Amreli 
District. 


All religions ... 

Hindu 

Jain 

Mahomedan 

Parei 1 

Christian 

Animietio 


925 

918 
987 
939 
1,326 
867 
960 


872 

866 
90S 
8()6 
45S 
955 
963 


853 

8.57 
915 
860 
759 
433 
... 1 


947 

942 

1,051 

965 

67 

731 

1 


982 

973 
778 
1,071 
1,421 
622 
960 


939 

935 
929 
982 
933 
142 



134 



CHAPTEi; VI SEX. 



in the Navsari District show a remarkably high proporlion of I'emales, mainly 
because there is absence of early marriage among them and many of the males 
go to Bombay and other places in search of employment. The Native Christian 
community in Baroda is small, and mainly drawn from the Hindus, and it is lor 
this reason that the proportion of females amongst them approxhnates that 
of the Hindus. 

296. The proportions of sexes in the different castes (Subsidiary Table IV) 

are so diverse that it is difficult to draw fi-om them any 
ProportuMis in diflFerent inference of a general application. The proportion 

of females to males is higher in some of the lower 
castes, such as Bhavsar, Chamar, Uarji, Dhobi, Garoda, Gola, Luhar, Sittar and 
Targala, while it is lower in some of the higher castes, such as Brahman, 
Vania, Kajput, Maratha and Kaubi. Xagar brahmans as a whole community 
seem to have more females than males, but if its different sections are viewed 
separately, we find that there is a paucity of girls among Vadnagara and other 
Nagars, and tt is only the Visuagaras who have an excess of females which is 
partly due to the migration of the males of this community to Bombay and other 
places. Similarly the apparent excess ol' females amongst Disaval and Lad 
Vanias is also due to migration. The proportion of females among the Bhils, 
Nayakdas, Gamits and other primitive people is higher than among most ol the 
Hindu castes. There seems to be some correspondence between sex and race. 
It may be said that, as a general rule, women are less numerous among the 
Rajputs and other high castes in which there is some strain of Aryan blood, 
while they are more nitmerous in the Dravidian tribes and the lower castes 
which have been recruited mainly from them. 



RLFEIRLNCLS 

NAVSARI 
AMREIL! 



297. There has been a rise in the number of females per 1,000 males from 

891 in 1872 to 917 in 1881, and from 928 in 1891to936 
Comparison jkh previous -^ ^^qj ^ ^^^^ j^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^^ Census, it has fallen from 

936 to 925 mainly on account of plague which was 
more or less prevalent in all the districts and to which infection females were more 

liable from their reluctance to 
J)la<j>am s/iowinij llie nnmher of females to 1,000 male-'' je^ve affected areas. All the 

at each aqe-period. t • • ^ \ i • 4. • 

^ ' divisions, except Amreii, contri- 

bute to the decrease. In the City 
of Baroda, the number of females 
per 1,000 males has remained 
stationary ; but in the Baroda 
District (exclusive of City), it 
has fallen from 891 to 872 ; 
in Kadi, from 956 to 947 and in 
Navsari, 992 to 982. In Amreii, 
the proportion of females has 
risen from 920 in 1891 to 939 in 
1901 and to 940 in the present 
Census. The increase in Amreii 
is mainly due to the increasing 
number of Khojas, Memons, 
Kapols and others emigrating 
from that district, to Bombay in 
search of em]iloynieDt, leaving 
their families behind them. The 
decrease in Baroda, Navsari, and 
Kadi is mainly due to greater 

mortality among females during plague and to the growing practice of emigrants 

taking theii" wives with them. 

298. Subsidiary Table II. at the end of this Chapter shows that in the 

first year of life, the proportion of femalec to LOOO 
Proport.on^s^at different „^^^g^ -^ g.7 j-^^. ^,^ ,.^x\g\oi-x^. Taking the religions 

separately, the corroeponding proportion is 978 
amongst Hindus, 960 amongst Musalmans, 954 amongst Jains and 999 amongst 




5 10 15 £0 £5 ^0 35 ^0 +5 SO S5 60 



COMPARISON WITH EUIiorEAN COINTRIE!?. 135 



the Animistic tribes. This would show tliat in all the main relio-ious the 
uumber of males born exceeds that of females in the general ratio of 1 023 to 
1,000. Elsewhere in India also, males are in excess of females at birth. But 
in spite of the larger number ot boys at birth, they are fewer in number than 
girls in the second, third and the fourth year, in the general population. At 
age 5, females are actually in excess of males amongst Musalmaus, Jains, Paisis 
and the Animistic tribes, while among Hindus, their proportion is sUoluJv 
lower. The general average for both the sexes in all religions is equal and rhe 
advantage which males had over femalee at birth, disappears within the first 
Hve years of life. The proportion of females declines from age 5 onwards to 
age 20 in all religions except among the Parsis and the Animistic tribes and 
again rises in the age-period i0-25, with the result that though females siill 
continue to be in defect among Hindus, Jains, Muealmans, Parsis and 
the Animistic tribes, they are somewhat in excess of males at age 25-30 : the 
previous excess of females over males continues only among the Parsis. In 
the age-period 30-iO and 40-50, females are in defect of males in all religious 
except among Jains and Parsis, while in the age-period 00 and over, females 
are in excess of males in all religions. 

299. Having regard to the fact that in the population as a whole, the 
proportion of males is greater than that of females in the earliest years of life, 

their larget proportion at birth is naturally to he 
^"""Tmlirs^lrbirtV"'"' expected. [ have already srated in the chapter 

on Movement of Population that the record of 

I . ....•., I vital statistics in the State is not accurate : 

According to According to vital , . , . v. i«,._ , 

census. statistic?. | Dut as there IS no reason to suppose that vital 

! ! occurrences relating to females are leas reported 

"3 125 t,ban those relating to males, the record of statis- 

' i tics, such as it is, may Le looked into to give an 

indication of the relatively greater or less proportion ot births and deaths 
among males and females. vSubsidiary Tables V. and VI., which have bet-n 
prepared from vital siatistics furnished by the Sanitary Commissioner, show 
that the vital statistics also, like the Census, show that at birth, males are more 
numerous than females. As regards mortality also, like the Census, the vital 
statistics show that it is higher amongst males than amongst females in the 
first few years of life. There is no correspondence between the results of rhe 
two records in the higher age-periods. The vital statistics show greater 
mortality amongst males in all age-periods except 20-30 and 60 and over, while 
the Census indicates greater mortality amongst females in most of the higher 
ages. 

300. As in India, so in European countries also there is an excess of 

males over females at birth (about 29 per 1,000) 
Compariscm with^European |^^,^ j^^ ^^^-^^ ^f ^j^^, ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^j^^ ^^'^.^.^<j^ 

in Eui'opean countries, there is an excess of females 
in the general population, the excess varying from 5 femaKs in the case of 
France to 91 in Portug-al. But as already mentioned, we have here an excess of 
7') males over females per 1,000. Similarly in India as a whole (47), in the 
Bombay Presidency (80) and in the British Gujarat Districts also (72), the male 
population is in excess of females. The question naturally arises, how is it that 
while males are in excess at birth both here and in Eiu'ope, females eventually 
preponderate over male:! in the latter, w-hile they are in defect in this country. 
Ivi'garding Europe, it is said that the excess of males at birth disappears at the 
age of 15 or earlier owing to the relatively greater mortality among males. At 
the higher ages, the proportion of females to males continues to grow owing 
partly to greater mortality amongst males, and partly to migration. The reason 
for the greater mortality of males is that in early life, they are more delicate 
than females, while later on, they are exposed to various occupations to risks 
from which the females are immune. In this State also in spite of the fact that 
l)oys are more liked and cared for than girls, there is a greater mortality among 
them than among females, in the earliest years ol' life. Males come on a jiar 
with females at about the age of 5, but afterwards, and especially from 10 to 20, 



136 



CHAPTER VI — Si:.\. 



femait-s die iu grcaler number ihan males owing xv the peeiiliar uianiage aud 
other social customs of this country. This explains why females are in defect 
of males in the population of the State. 

;-)01. Amonii' the 



Causes of higher female 
mortality. 



possible causes of higher female mortality in iliis State 
may be mentioned : — (1) Female inianticide ; 
(2) Neglect of female infant ; (o) Infant mai'riage 
and premature sexual intercuiu'se and child-ltearing ; 

i^4) A very high birth-rate ; (5) Unskilful midwifery ; (t>) Abortion ; (7) 

Confinement and bad feeding of women at puberty ; (8) The liai'd life of widows ; 

and (9) The hard labour which women have to perform. 

I shall take these causes one after another in order and cont^ider liuw far 

they operate to iucri-ase female mortality in this State : — 

(1) Female infanticide was once practised in Gitja,rat by the Jadeja 
Rajputs and kuh'n Kanbi*. The necessity, among these people, of 
marrying girls in higher social groups and the extravagant ex- 
penditure to be incurred on their wedding, had brought about the 
evil custom of killing girls by plunging them into a pot of milk, 
immediately after birth. This custom was known as dudh piti or 
making (the child) drink milk. It was due to the benevolent and 
pi'rsistent efforts of the Hon. Mr. Jonathan Duncan, Governor of 
Bombay, and Major Alexander Walker, Resident at the Court of 
Baroda, that a beginning was made early in the nineteenth 
<-entury to suppress the wicked practice which was foimd upon 
inquiry to be prevalent in Gujarat, Kathiawad aud Kutch. The 
humane work started by these officers was continued by their 
sTiecessors Lord Mouutstuart Elphinstone. Captain Carnac and 
Mr. Willoughby. Both coercive and persuasive measures were 
taken and infanticide was believed to have been stamped out of 
(iujarat. In 1871, however, information collected in connection 
with the Infanticide Act (VIII of 1870) showed among the Kanbis 
a sta,rtliug excess in the number of males over females. Enquiries 
wore made and the result seemed so suspicious that in April 1871, 
the provisions of the Infanticide Act were a})plied both to the 
Lewa and Kadwa Kanbis. The result of more complete inform- 
ation showed that the fears of Government were excessive and 
the operation of the Act was withdrawn. I'he question was again 
revived in British Gujarat in 1S8S by Mr. G. F. Shephard, 
Commissioner, Northern Division. Under the susjucion that 
extravagant marriage expenditui"e might lead to the destruction of 
female life in the Lewa Kanbi caste, rules restricting expenditure 
at mai-riagt' were applied to the I."', /:nlin Lewa Kanbl villages of 

C h a ro tt. a r. Of 



Proportion of females amougst the Kulin 
Lewa Kanbis of Charottar. 



t ii e s e o are m 
British tt-rritory, 1 
is under Camhav 
and 7 under Bar<jda 
State. The I'ules 
framed by the State 
for the reduction of 
mai'j'iage expendi- 
t u r t^ anning the 
/.udin Lewa Kanbis, 
in conjunction with 
the Bombay Go- 
vernment, are still in force, and have, by reducing mariiagt 
expenditure, removed the cause which once led to the destruction 
of female life. The attitude of the Lewa Kanbis towards their 
females has much improved within the last '20 xeais, owing to the 
spread of education ; and the difficulty i>f s(^euring brides for 
their sons which most of them have of laic bivn experiencing 



Sum'' of villager 

• 


Proportion nf I'tmalt-s 
to 1, 01 10 males. 


SavJi 

Dharmaj 

Pihij , 

Bhadran 

Sojitra 

Vaso 

Nar 


722 

nil 

«.% 
«96 
H!IO 
S49 

r>S9 



CAL'SKS OF UK.llKi; ri;.MAI;K JlDUTALITY. 137 



uu account of a splir, among themselves, separatiu^- 5 villages (Nar 
and Pihij under Baroda and Uttarsanda, Sunav and Ode under 
British territory) Irom the rest and the ekdas or solemn agreements 
passed by the Lewas of non-kulin villages, binding them not to 
give their daughters in marriage to the k-idins. The result has 
been that the sous of the kulin^, for whose hand offers 
were made while they were babies rocking in the cradle, now 
remain bachelors, though over 20 years old." It is maiidv due to 
this changed circumstance which makes it difficult to get brides 
for their boys from outside, and nor, to female infanticide, that the 
proportion of females among the Lewa Kan bis is at present so 
very low. 

(2) Neglect of female infants. — In all castes as a general rule, male 

children are desired and the birth of a female child is unwelcome. 
When a soil is born, sweetmeats are distributed and vadhamam or 
good news is sent to friends and relations. On the other hand, 
nothing of the sort is done when a daughter is born. A girl is 
spoken of as a jja^Aaro or stone, and receives less attention than a 
boy. This is specially so amongst castes, where the procuring of 
a bridegroom is a matter of considerable expense. This difference 
of treatment must doubtless be exercising some adverse effect on 
female life. But the ideas of the people on the subject have of 
late much improved and in most of the castes, sous and daughters 
receive equal treatment. Neglect of female life does not now 
seem to be a factor of any great importance : and as a matter of 
fact, the Census shows that in spite of greater attention paid to 
bovs, their mortalitv in the earlier vears of life is o-reater than that 
ot girls. 

(3) Infant marriaye and premature sexual intercourse ami child-learing 

are the principal causes of the great mortality in the female sex, 
especially among the Hindus. As mentioned in paragraph 326, 
cohabitation does not generally take place immediately after 
marriage, but when once a girl is married, it does take place as 
soon as physical circumstances permit ; and a large proportion of 
early marriages means a correspondingly high percentage of 
early consummations and of early births from immature mothers. 
This circumstance might naturally be expected to exercise a verv 
prejudicial effect upon the longevity and vitality of the female sex 
and even to be the cause of a considerable number of deaths amonc 
them, and statistics go to show that this in fact is actually so, 
especially during the ages 15 to 20. 

(•I) Rigli hirth-rate. — Early marriage leads to high bu'th-rate, and 
prematurely breaks down the constitution • of the mother thereby 
producing greater relative mortality among females than in the 
other sex. 

(5) Cnskiljul midv-ijer// is one of the main causes of high female 

mortality. The wife of the village barber is generally cmjjloyed 
as a midwife and her bungling and blundering often entails 
permanent injury and in many cases diseases hard to cure. 

(6) Abortion, etc. — Young females living under enforced widoM-hood are 

exposed to temptations and sometimes undergo operations at the 
hand of quacks for abortion to conceal their shame, and thus meet 
with an untimely death. 

(7) Confinement and bad feeding. — There is no evidence of deliberate 

bad feeding of females unless when poverty necessitates it, but 
confinement in the house is a factor of great importance affecting- 
female mortality. Females of the higher classes live confined in 
their houses, which are generally dark and ill-ventilated. They 
scarcely go out to enjoy fresh air, and thus fall victim to consump- 
tion and other diseases which carry them away in youth. 



loS CHAPTER VI — SKX. 



(8) The lot oj Hindti widows is very bard. I liey Lave to live confined 

in a corner in tlie house and forego most of the pleasures of 
life, which tells greatly upon their health. 

(9) Hard labour. — Women, especially in the lower classes, have to 

perform very bard labour in the house. Except in a few well-to- 
do families, servants are generally not employed and the females 
have to do all the household pounding, grinding and sweeping- 
work. They have not only to cook, but also to cleanse the 
kitchen, and wash the pots in the scullery. They are required to 
draw water from the village w^ell and bring it home in water pots 
"on their heads. While on one hand, want of work spoils the 
health of females in the higher castes, on the other, in the low'er 
castes, it is too much of work which ruins their constitution and 
prematurely sends them to the grave. 

302. In addition to the above causes a great loss of female life is caused 

in Gujarat bv the marriage of grown-up males with 

Marriage of grown-up males ^.p^.^. \.^^' o-irls. It is a matter of every-dav 

with very young females. - .- °i^ .• i . • i j? 

experience that a connection between a girl ot 

thirteen or fourteen years and a man of thirty-five or above, proves fatal to the 
life of the girl. A widowed man marrying a girl of twelve after he has lost his 
first wife, soon loses her and another is brought into the house ; this also meets 
with the same fate and a i'ourth is married when the man is past fifty and she is 
left a widow before she has arrived at womanhood or soon after. Sometimes 
negotiations for the new- connection are entered into on the burning ground,, 
while the dead body of the old wife is being consumed by fire. 

303. Owing to the deficiency of females in some castes such as Kanbis,. 

Vanias, etc., wives are brought from Kathiawad. 

Effect of paucity of females A^Tpeessity leads to laxitv in inquirinu' into the status 

on marriage. „ , , -' i i -j ^ -i ^ ' -u- * j. 

01 the proposed bride and to a willingness to accept 

on trust the statements made regarding her by her guardians or vendors. It 
sometimes happens that a Kathiawadi bride subsequently turns out to be a 
widow or to be really of the Kumbhar, Vaghari or other low caste. She is 
turned out and the husband after remaining outcaste for some time regains 
admission into his caste on payment of fine in addition to a caste dinner. 

304. Females are generally less nunu'rous in urban than in rural tracts. 

The deficiencv is more marked in large towns than- 
Proportionjf Jemales in -^^ ^^^^^jj ^^^^^^ j^^ ^;^^■^ g^^^^^ ^j^^ paucity of females 

is noticeable only in the City of iJaroda, where their 
proportion is the lowest in the whole State. In all other important towns except 

Petlad, the proportion of females is higher than in 
the State as a whole. This shows that instead of 
receiving, our towns are sending out emigrants. 
Patau and Navsari have an excess of females over 
males, owing to Yanias and artizans from the 
former and Parsis from ilie latter migrating to 
P)onibay and other places for employment. Our 
towns are merely overgrown villages and have few- 
attractions foi- I he foreigner. The inhabitants of 
true urban areas are to a great extent merely 
temporary residents whose permanent homes are elsewhere and who frequently 
leave their females at home, when they come to seek a livelihood in towns. 

305. Various theories have been ]iui lorward at different times, regarding 

^ the causation of sex. Ever since Aristotle's davs, 

European theories regard- • ■ i i . . r .i i • i 

ing causes influencing sex. '"'I'l"'''.''^ ^'^^'^ ««"S'l", ^^ ^i^i^'OX^'' tli^ causes whicli 

determine the sex of the onspring. As soon as one 
of them puts forward his theory with a certain amount of jilausibility, there is 
another prepared to upset it by an-aying the figures ot other tribes or localities. 
An account of modern European theories on the subject is given in Westermarck's 
History of Human marriage and in Goddes and Thomson's Kvohdion of Sex. 





No of females 


Name of town. 


per 1,000 




males. 


Baroda Citv 


8.-. 3 


Patau 


1.038 


Amreli 


961 


Petlml 


893 


Navsari 


1,069 


Dablini 


946 



THEORIES REGARDING CAUSATION OF SEX. 13'.) 



Bin no eouclnsion commanding- general assent has yet been arrived at. The 
various theories as collected by Westermarck are : — 

(1) More boys are born, it the husband is older than the wile and more 

girls, it the wife is older. 

(2) The less the difference of age between the parents, the greater is the 

probability of boys being born. 
(?>) Polygamy leads to the birth of a greater proportion of female 
children. 

(4) Organisms when unusually well nourished produce comparatively 

more female offsprings ; in the op^oosite case, more male. 

(5) The male births are in greater excess in country districts, the 

popiilation of which is badly fed than in towns where the condi- 
tions of life are more luxurious. 

(6) A similar excess is found among poor ^Deople as compared with 

well-off classes. 

(7) In the highlands comparatively more boys are born than in the 

lowlands. 

(8) The mixture of races produces an excess of female births. 

(9) The temporarily superior parent produces the opposite sex, and 
(10) Unions between related individuals or generally between individuals 

who are very like each other produce more male offsprings. 

The Census statistics do not furnish means to test all these theories. They 
seem however to favour the 5th and 7th and to disprove the 10th. J\lahomedan8 
and Parsis who favour cousin marriages, have more females than Hindus who 
do not. 

In an article on " The Hereditary Tendency towards Twin-bearing and the 
Influences aiding in the deteiTnination of Sex," in the Lancet of August li>, 1911, 
Dr. James Oliver, M. D., Physician to the Hospital for Women, London, after 
reviewing the principal theories regarding the causation of sex, says : — " In the 
case of the hitman race and the higher animal kingdom, we are nevertheless 
driven to the conclusion that there must be some force or forces at work which 
tend to balance the relationship of male to female births. For more than 2,000 
years, philosophers and physicians alike have diligently endeavoured to seek out 
and elucidate these forces, but so far, their efforts have been attended with 

practically no success The question of the causation of sex is, in fact, to 

us as great a mystery as it has ever been." 

306. Several theories regarding the causes which influence sex, are also 

. current among the people of this country. The 

author of a work called Koka Shastra has propounded 
several theories of which the principal is that sex is determined by the pre- 
ponderance of the male over the female principle or the reverse, at the 
time of conception. The female principle is supposed to be weaker on certain 
days than on others, and it is believed therefore that conception on even days 
following the commencement of the menses tends to result in male and on other 
days in female children. These general tendencies however might be counter- 
acted and a strong and healthy woman is advised to fast or reduce her diet at the 
time when she expects to conceive if she wishes to have a male offspring. 

307. Male children are greatly desired by Hindus as indeed by Jains, 

IMusalmans and Parsis. If a married pair is not 
Ceremonies for male l.iessed with a male issue within a few vears of 

children. ■ ^ i-r t ' i ^ • 

married life, many expedients are resorted to in 

order to secure it. Charms given by Sadhus, Yaiis and Fakirs are worn and 
vows are offered to goddesses (Jlata) and saints (Fir). Among Hindus a 
special ceremony called punsavan or male making which was once performed 
soon after conception is now performed in the seventh month of the pregnancy. 
It consists of certain rites with offerings and spells of which the principal con- 
sists in dropping into the right nostril of the pregnant woman, a little juice 
extracted from a piece of the root of the bunyan tree (Jictix indica). 



140 



CHAPTKR VI SEX. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I— General proportions of the Sexes by Natural 

Divisions or Districts. 



Districts or Natural 
Divisions. 


Number of Females 


TO 1,000 Males. 




1 
1911. 1901. 


1891. 


Actual 
Population. 


Natural Actual 
Population. Population. 


N.atuial 
Population. 


Actual 
Population. 


Kataral 
PopalatioD. 


1 


2 


3 4 


5 


6 


7 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division, Ex. of City 

Baroda City 

Kadi Division 

NaTsari Division 

Amreli Division 


925 

872 
853 
947 
982 
940 


927 

to- 
rt 

"o 


936 

891 
853 
956 
992 
939 


970 

1 

o 


928 

883 
852 
950 
985 
920 


Not available. {§ 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II— Number of Females per 1,000 Males at different Age- 
periods BY Religion at each of the last three Censuses. 



AGE. 


ALL EELIGIONS. 


Hindus. 


Musalmans. 


Animists. 


Jaiks. 


1891. 1901. 


1911. 


1891. 


1901. 1911. 


1891. 


1901. ' 1911. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. , 1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


0—1 


1,015 


1,004 


977 


1,010 


982 


978 


1,049 


966 


960 


1,1)04 


1,163 


999 


1,113 


1,092 954 


1—2 


1,057 


976 


1,0::5 


1,059 


951 


1,033 


1,040 


963 


988 


1,082 


1,086 


969 


1,003 


1,203 


1,186 


2-3 


1,077 


1,028 


1,003 


1,078 


1,016 


1,000 


1,047 


935 


1,084 


1,334 


1,110 


1,041 


1,088 


1,161 970 


8—4 


1,118 


1,060 


1,077 


1,131 


1,056 


1,079 


1,059 


1,030 


1,048 


1,212 


1,093 


1,085 


1,151 


1,083 1,060 


4—5 


1,039 


1,032 


936 


1,042 


1,021 


924 


990 


1,027 


985 


1,141 


1,081 


1,004 


997 


1,153 


1,006 


Total U— 5 


1,060 


1,026 


1,000 


1.O60 


1,013 


999 


1,036 


988 


1,003 


1,131 


1,109 


1,023 


1,075 


1,135 


1,009 


6—10 


917 


S22 


846 


913 


908 


835 


943 


968 


884 


935 


1,012 


?09 


932 


926 


878 


10—15 


781 


828 


817 


778 


822 


80a 


790 


838 


844 


763 


879 


956 


849 


867 


899 


15—20 


iiTo 


85:) 


854 


822 


842 


}<39 


870 


906 


881 


1,015 


893 


I,0t8 


777 


799 


862 


20—25 


1,002 


945 


979 


998 


942 


962 


1,003 


990 


1,007 


1,177 


921 


1,221 


1,017 


932 


1,C59 


25—30 


921 


918 


944 


914 


901 


939 


970 


959 


966 


976 


1,063 


947 


921 


841 


988 


Total 0— ;n 


924 


909 


914 


920 


898 


904 


938 


93(: 


936 


996 


981 


1,00? 


939 


908 


948 


30—40 


887 


697 


925 


884 


899 


920 


898 


883 


966 


879 


883 


896 


905 


891 


1,009 


40—50 


927 


1,0111 


922 


926 


1,009 


928 


913 


1,017 


876 


386 


99£ 


812 


944 


1,006 


1,033 


50—60 


929 


1,041 


929 


922 


1,053 


932 


961 


991 


900 


879 


898 


809 


1,000 


1,137 


998 


fiU and over 


1 150 


1,S07 


1,132 


1,144 


l,-293 


i,e3i 


1,216 


1,452 


1,116 


1,161 


1,194 


1,038 


1,241 


1,481 


1,316 


Total SO and over 


93fi 


U90 


946 


932 


987 


946 


951 


998 


944 


900 


949 


870 


979 


1,020 


1,048 


Total all ages (actual popu- 
lation) 


925 


9S6 


935 


924 


929 


919 


943 


956 


989 


968 


971 


961 


95.i 


951 


987 



SUBSIDIAKV TABLE!<. 



141 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III— Number of Females per 1,000 Males at dieferent 
Age-periou8 by Religions and Natural Divisions. Census of 1911. 



age. 


Baroda 


Division. 


B.4R0DA City. 


Kadi Division. 




X 

o 




to 

a 






QD 


a 
o 




a 




m 

a 
o 




OB 

a 








.5? 

< 


3 
T3 


a, 

S 


CD 

c 

"-3 


1 

< 


JS 

O 


All roligi 


OD 

a 

-3 
a 

a 


03 

s 

1 

a 


a 

'5 


u 


■5 

5 


oi 

S 
1 


Q 

4 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


1) 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 




0—1 


955 


951 


983 


707 


1,051 


763 


989 


978 


1,108 


641 


996 


997 


951 


1,046 




1—2 


99(1 


999 


845 


1,164 


1,069 


687 


987 


950 


1,103 


1,571 


1,046 


1,046 


994 


1,140 




2—3 


937 


912 


1,118 


1,010 


1,069 


598 


992 


997 


968 


1,034 


1,040 


1,039 


1,072 


1,016 




3—4 


1.010 


985 


l,flS8 


1,186 


1,140 


1,264 


1,065 


1,062 


1,074 


1,400 


1,144 


1,162 


1,091 


988 




1 — 5 


912 


916 


897 


823 


941 


536 


925 


922 


996 


808 


910 


893 


1,145 


1,020 




ntal 0—0 


9oS 


:J49 


99i 


932 


1,053 


769 


990 


982 


1,043 


9Si 


1,022 


2,020 


1^49 


1,034 




5—10 


798 


780 


839 


961 


89S 


1,175 


907 


916 


910 


SCO 


820 


817 


864 


842 




10—15 


749 


788 


751 


775 


884 


1.013 


754 


757 


826 


899 


813 


804 


882 


934 




15—20 


790 


77 if 


716 


774 


1,223 


1,027 


829 


833 


897 


809 


852 


846 


909 


929 




20—25 


871 


850 


934 


962 


1,212 


844 


801 


802 


812 


811 


1,028 


1,024 


1,016 


1,187 




25—30 


890 


895 


829 


868 


908 


1,022 


749 


746 


790 


836 


974 


967 


1,047 


1,064 




Total 0—30 


851 


841 


856 


882 


1,009 


955 


838 


83S 


S81 


857 


•926 


921 


967 


993 




30—10 


888 


883 


921 


843 


954 


857 


786 


791 


776 


794 


969 


961 


998 


1,181 




40—50 


868 


880 


789 


903 


796 


860 


827 


841 


743 


1,079 


986 


986 


922 


1,112 




50—60 


883 


889 


S3ii 


968 


740 


1.371 


923 


963 


794 


S88 


973 


975 


919 


1,034 




60 and over 


1,113 


1,112 


1,135 


1,448 


961 


1,021 


1,229 


l,':i5 


1,290 


1,692 


1,122 


1,120 


1,036 


1,300 




'firtal 30 and over 


903 


906 


884 


945 


87.5 


9.38 


876 


<88 


830 


1,000 


989 


985 


964 


1,144 




Total all aget (actual populations- 


872 


860 


806 


908 


963 


956 


853 


S5S 


360 


915 


947 


043 


966 


1,051 




Total ail ages (Natural popula- 
































tion) 












Figu 


res not 


availa 


ble. 














AGE. 


Na^ 


"SABI 


Dtvisio.v. 


Amkeli Division. 




5 






V. 








a: 

a 
o 


a 








"2 


-£ 




a 




X 


a 




3 


cS 

a 
'3 


cc 












(O 


a 








a 










< 


s 






£ 


Cl, 


'a 
< 


^ 




a 

s 


'rt 




1 


16 17 




18 

1 


19 20 


21 


22 23 


24 


25 




0—1 


975 


972 




9.^6 


1,000 


990 


9S1 


961 


97 C 


840 


1,000 




1—2 


1.009 


1,046 




1,046 


1,091 


840 


931 


1,U76 


1,074 


1.133 


903 




2—3 


1,032 


1,047 




973 


5114 


1,087 


1,023 


991 


1,005 


902 


883 




3—4 


MI4(! 


1,050 




943 


1.194 


989 


1,060 


1,056 


1,066 


975 1,096 1 




4 — 5 


1,018 


1,019 




919 


1J)34 


1,127 


1,032 


973 


978 


881 


1,386 




'lutal — 5 


1,015 


1,023 




,960 


947 


1,015 


1,010 


1,004 


1,014 


923 


1,047 




5_^(, 


933 


935 




948 


931 


;,106 


913 


932 


930 


947 


!i78 




10—15 '.'.'. 


931 


915 




9.')4 


879 


962 


976 


838 


832 


864 


908 




15—20 


1,004 


971 




1,151 


64.") 


1,306 


1,047 


833 


823 


957 


756 




20-2:-, 


1,147 


1.093 




1,330 


822 


1,918 


1,226 


954 


975 


1,101 


871 




25—30 


1,031 


1,032 




1,189 


661 


2,228 


966 


968 


952 


1,105 


1,171 




Total 0—30 


1,003 


992 




1,054 


812 


1,258 


1,007 


934 


930 


870 


954 




30—40 


937 


937 




1,115 


587 


1,874 


876 


911 


900 


1,051 


787 




40—50 .. 


903 


90n 




1,063 


758 


1,691 


819 


h33 


927 


979 


945 




50 — 60 


909 


891 




1.091 


844 


1,506 


834 


9-'6 


924 


942 


901 




60 and over 


1,129 


1,116 




1,162 


1,000 


1,710 


1,050 


1,178 


1,199 


1,027 


1,074 




Total 30 and over 


944 


939 




1,W3 


■ 7/7 


1,702 


868 


950 


945 


1,006 


886 




Total all agei(actualpopiilalioii}. 


9S2 


973 




1,071 


778 


7,422 


961 


940 


935 


9S2 


930 




Total all ages (Natural popula- 


























(i«n) .. 










Fi gurcs notj 


availiib 1 













142 



CHAITKI! VI SK.X. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV— Number of Females per 1,000 Males eor 

CERTAIN SELECTED CASTES. 







Number op females per 1,000 males. 




Caste. 


















All ages. 


0-5 


5-12 


12-15 


15-20 


20-40 


40 and 

over. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Hindus 
















Ahir 


8y:, 


1,104 


898 


679 


736 


822 


1,013 


Bahrot 


944 


953 


787 


794 


918 


949 


1,067 


Bava 


.-.03 


433 


412 


351 


441 


604 


482 


Bhangi 


WTO 


1,079 


851 


782 


929 


1,043 


930 


BharvaJ 


<m 


1,089 


1,002 


816 


713 


920 


1,012 


Bhavaar 


1,(159 


915 


958 


1,073 


1,201 


1,115 


1,077 


Bhni 


868 


1,074 


749 


614 


733 


858 


988 


t'.rabnjaa — Anavala ..■ 


862 


904 


1,055 


794 


666 


834 


869 


„ Aiidich 


'.146 


1,016 


817 


672 


814 


908 


1,166 


„ Deeh^btha 


S46 


i;089 


956 


788 


836 


793 


807 


„ Mewada ... 


821 


720 


721 


792 


1 ,004 


808 


,SKO 


Modh 


;i56 


3,010 


878 


786 


882 


963 


1,014 


,, Nagar 

„ Tapodhan 

Chamar 


1,1148 


969 


979 


901 


1,016 


1,150 


1,(119 


858 


919 


737 


776 


747 


864 


987 


1,(129 


1,089 


827 


768 


762 


1,096 


131 


Darji 

Dhed 


1,091 


1 ,1 (75 


906 


925 


1.020 


1,249 


l,(iS3 


975 


1,022 


876 


948 


886 


997 


1,024 


Garoda 


1,(111 


1,146 


727 


685 


880 


1,179 


1,111 


Ghanchi 


964 


950 


796 


940 


869 


1,006 


1,1(14 


Gola (rice-pounders) 

Gosaln >■• 


1,013 


922 


775 


1,147 


1,028 


1,015 


1,254 


810 


8((4 


8( 1(1 


67li 


846 


810 


831 


Hajam 

Kachhia 


. 986 


921 


78(1 


7.38 


873 


1,144 


1,056 


886 


717 


862 


829 


841 


917 


993 


Kanbi-Anjana 

„ Kadwa 


989 


1,091 


729 


997 


825 


1,015 


1,164 


940 


1,1(16 


l,ol.'> 


1,360 


884 


842 


894 


„ Karadia 


982 


989 


988 


761 


691 


1,003 


1,201 


„ Lewa ••• ..• 


833 


909 


767 


664 


645 


890 


.'<8K 


Koli *.. ... ... ••• 


9114 


9IU 


668 


773 


782 


89(1 


1,169 


Kumbhar 


981 


931 


819 


812 


927 


970 


1-2S0 


LiUhana ... ... ••• ... •*. 


936 


] ,16(1 


865 


758 


801 


957 


9(;7 


Iiuhar •- ." *.* ... ..• 


1,(127 


1.059 


875 


782 


1,055 


1,076 


1,111 


Maclihi 


911 


'.173 


877 


926 


1,034 


898 


829 


Maratha ... ... 


8.S8 


943 


930 


.548 


905 


699 


1,086 


Mochl 


SS7 


'.187 


77(i 


734 


728 


996 


S67 


Kabari 


.S99 


899 


1,086 


775 


790 


875 


'.107 


Rajpnt 

Kavalia -. ... *.* ••• 


859 


904 


761 


722 


679 


898 


'.16(1 


918 


947 


867 


805 


862 


98(1 


926 


Sathawara 


1 (1(15 


1,(157 


82(i 


7.32 


714 


1,163 


1,067 


Shenva ... •• 


'986 


925 


814 


785 


840 


1.016 


93li 


Soul ..« ... 


1,(109 


869 


954 


950 


1 ,024 


l',074 


1,(1.59 


Sutar 


914 


'.128 


752 


749 


822 


995 


988 


I'alavia ... ... ... ... ... 


820 


873 


924 


381 


814 


985 


854 


Targala ... 


1,210 


660 


927 


893 


1,020 


1,620 


1,385 


Vagher ... •• ... ... ... 


921 


766 


l,01it 


047 


743 


1,024 


1,0S8 


Vaghari 

Vania-Disaval 


913 
1,172 


987 
1,289 


841 
1 ,298 


764 

802 


806 
965 


993 
1,397 


866 
1,029 


Lad 


1,1(41 


859 


1,036 


839 


745 


1,138 


12(14 


J) jj«<^* ... ... ••• ... ... 

„ Shnmali 


868 


1,049 


Sol 


847 


625 


831 


)iM\ 


Jains. 
















Vania Shrimili 


1,(113 


841 


1,1197 


723 


1,026 


1,133 


1,651 


Animists. 
















Bhil 


967 


757 


919 


1,603 


1,180 


l,(i7.'< 


795 


(ihodhra 


962 


1,0.58 


878 


1,202 


1,127 


922 


,S73 


Dlianka 


967 


1,162 


911 


.507 


1,252 


1,077 


773 


Dliodia 


962 


1,1104 


799 


1,188 


1,014 


994 


'.ISO 


Gamit 


947 


931 


871 


1.001 


1,071 


',125 


1,017 


Nayakda 


991 


1,220 


762 


9110 


1,213 


l,iiSI 


7:1 1 


Musalmans. 
















Faldr 


.s77 


954 


955 


917 


973 


^'A' 


SI 5 


Ghanchi 


924 


1,036 


9.32 


1,048 


632 


948 


970 


Maick 


S93 


904 


865 


833 


763 


859 


1,039 


Memon 


1.1 05 


1,025 


1,080 


1,317 


832 


1,(161 


1,315 


MoU'salani 


861 


882 


846 


803 


871 


876 


SS7 


Mi'mna 


778 


713 


<i76 


756 


818 


788 


S',19 


Pathan 


.^81 


927 


950 


802 


.S38 


844 


91 1 


Piujaia 


757 


995 


897 


832 


708 


1.008 


',ll'.5 


Saiyad 


916 


'.1(16 


888 


94(1 


.'<95 


',17(1 


,'<ll6 


Shaikh 


91(7 


809 


871 


898 


',l5(i 


994 


77,5 


Vohora 


la(71 


925 


8S| 


1,1.52 


1,092 


1,281 


9'.15 


Parsis 
















Parsis 


1,326 


1,017 


1,028 


'.193 


1,206 


1,722 


1,172 


Ciiristlans 
















.Native ... 


Mil! 


772 


.'^7'.i 


970 


801 


881 


1,005 



srnsiDiAiiv TAisr.K.s. 



143 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V — Actual numuku of Births and Di:atii.> i;ep()i;tki> for 

EACH SEX DURING THE DeCADES 1891 — 1900 AND 1901—1910. 









1 


i;^^ "t- 


z-^S + 


2---Z + 


^ = 






Yeaks. 


Ndmbek of Bibths. 


Number ok Dkath?. 


a a a 
g g S '"g 

fe i S ^\S 
>a'^ X '" •" 
2 8h oQ 


U S - ^ v-i 

ggaca 


-. = o t> 

^ c: 1— •^ 

= = IT i, *^ 

! = ?"£' 


c o-t: 

St.". 
= ■-£ 


111 




Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


.Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


- 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


■= 


9 


10 


11 


12 




1.-.91 
lS9l! 


17,425 

i7,o:.9 


14,61'J 
14,502 


.'!2,037 
31,561 


15,301 
19,364 


12,032 
15,997 


27.333 
35,361 


— 2,813 

— 2,557 


— 3,269 

— 3,367 


+ 4,704 
— 3,800 


839 
850 


780 
820 




1893 
1894 


14,152 
20,022 


12,081 
17,326 


20,233 
37,348 


26,558 
27,997 


22,807 
22,354 


49,.306 
50,351 


— 2,071 

— 2,090 


— 3,751 

— 5,643 


— 23,132 

— 13,003 


.>-54 
865 


859 

7;'8 




1S95 
1896 


19,r,oS 
22,138 


10,718 
19,749 


36,270 
41,887 


23,814 

24.978 


18.352 
19,703 


41,160 
44,081 


— 2.840 

— 2,389 


— 4,402 

— 5,275 


— 4,890 

— S,794 


8.55 
892 


804 
789 




1S97 
1898 


21,038 
19,340 


17,871 
16,641 


38,909 
36,981 


2O.0t8 
23,233 


16,268 
19,285 


30,306 

42,.51S 


— 3,107 

— 2,699 


— 3,830 

— 3,948 


+ 3,543 
— 6,537 


849 
860 


809 
831' 




1899 
19C0 


22,553 
16,846 


19,487 
14,557 


42,040 
31,403 


20,076 
7.-.,763 


22,962 
5.5,498 


19,038 
131,261 


— 3,066 

— 2,289 


— 3,114 

— 20,265 


— 6,998 

— 99,858 


864 
864 


881 
733 




Total 1S91~1900 


190,131 


103,544 


353,075 


2SS,1S3 


2S5^5S 


507,440 


— 20,587 


— 50,924 


— 15^,76-5 


seo 


79S 




1901 
1902 


7,330 
22,422 


6.091 
19,598 


13,421 

42.020 


66,361 
30,684 


50,976 
27,214 


116,337 

57,898 


— 1,239 

— 2,824 


— 14,383 

— 3,470 


—102.916 

— 15,878 


831 
8 74 


780 
887 




1903 
1994 


19.219 

20,994 


16,876 
18,736 


36,095 
39,730 


31, .550 
33,202 


30,162 
31,030 


01,718 
01,89:i 


— 3,343 

— 2,258 


— 1.394 

— 1,032 


— 25,023 

— 25,103 


878 
892 


9.56 

951 




1905 
1900 


22,907 

22,782 


20,617 
20,101 


13,584 
42,883 


21,724 
84,352 


2.S,503 
21,809 


18,227 
10,221 


— 2,350 

— 2,681 


— 1.221 

— 2,48X 


— 4,648 

— 3,338 


898 
882 


951 
898 




1907 
1908 


22,4S4 
24,980 


19.766 
22,317 


42,200 
47,333 


33.013 
25,15.-) 


31,099 
22,27.-. 


64,112 
47,730 


— 2,068 

— 2,639 


— 1,914 

— 3,180 


— 21,912 

— 397 


881 
894 


942 
875 




1909 

1910 


25,927 

25,860 


22,066 

22,048 


18,603 

48,5US 


22,666 
23,742 


20.037 
20,794 


42,703 
44,530 


- 3,271 

— 3,212 


— 2,039 

— 2,94^ 


+ 5,900 
+ 3,972 


874 

870 


884 
876 




Total 1001—1910 


214,931 


189,446 


404,377 


::!14M5 


279,559 


594,374 


— 25,4S5 


— 35,250 


— 1S9,997\ 


SSI 


SS.« 





SUBSIDIARY TABLE VI. — Number of Death.* of each sex at different 



AGES. 



AGE. 


1 


'05. 


19(10. 


1907. 


1908. 


190'.'. 


otal. 


Average 
number of 

female 
deaths per 
1,000 male 

deaths. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. Male. 


1 
Female. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


11 


0-1 


3,897 


3,305 


4,710 


4,051 


4,223 


3,581 


4,001 


3,937 


4,454 


3,741 21,945 


18,015 


849 


1 — 5 


3,072 


2,673 


3,994 


3,509 


4,251 


3,781 


4,363 


3,545 


3,862 


3,265 19,542 


16,683 


851 


5—10 


1,245 


1,254 


1,146 


1,105 


1,840 


1,707 


1,224 


1,072 


1,015 


911 0,470 


6,109 


911 


10—15 ... 


1,496 


1,172 


1,121 


1,114 


2,098 


2,134 


1,184 


1,188 


807 


732 1 6,706 


6,590 


983 


15-211 


1,348 


1,405 


1,178 


1,107 


2,253 


2,076 


1,243 


1,062 


924 


815 0,940 


6,465 


931 


20—30 


3,160 


3,491 


2785 


2,784 


4,701 


4,683 


2,995 


2,787 


2,500 


2,.->54 ,16,137 

1 


16,299 


1,010 


30—40 


3,241 


3,186 


2,791 


2,545 


4,409 


4,399 


2,938 


2,661 


2,508 


2,328 1 15,887 


15,122 


952 


40—50 


2,968 


2,487 


2,584 


2,000 


3,938 


3,368 


2,582 


2,024 


2,409 


1,835 14,481 


11,711 


809 


.50—60 


2,236 


2,047 


2,145 


1,669 


2,920 


2,578 


2,152 


1,757 


2,140 


1,630 11,593 


!'.081 


8.52 ' 


60 and over ... 


2,065 


2,283 


1,898 


1,985 


2,B80 


2,722 


2,113 


2,289 


2,047 


2,226 110,503 


11,505 


1,095 



144 CUAPTKl! VII CIVIL CONDITION. 



Chapter VII. 

C I VIL CONDI TIO N. 

308. The statistics regarding civil couditiou are given in Imperial Tables 

VII and XIV. In the former, civil condition is 
Reference to statistics. ^j^^^^^^ -^^ combination with age and religion and in 

the latter with age and caste. The more nnportaut i'eatiu'es of the statistics are 
exhibited in the following subsidiary tables at the end of this chapter : — 

Suhsidiary Table 1. — Distribution by civil condition of 1,000 of each sex, 
relio'ioii and main age-period at each of the last lour Censuses. 

Suh.iidiary Tnble II. — Distribution by civil condition of 1,000 of each se.x 
at certain ages in each religion and natural division. 

Subsidiary Table III. — Distribution by main age-periods and civil con- 
dition of 10,000 of each sex and religion. 

Suhsidiarji Table IV. — Proportion of sexes by civil condition at certain 
ao-es for relio-ious and natural divisions. 

Subsidiary Table V. — Distribution by civil condition of 1,000 of each sex at 
certain atces for selected castes. 



■"o^ 



oOJ. There is a wide contrast between the marriage customs of Europe 

and India. The most striking fact one notices in 

^""^Tnd E^urre" '"'''^ ^^^^^ ^^ *^^^ universal prevalence of the married 

state. " In Europe sentiment and prudence hold 
divided sway, and the tendency on the whole is rather towards a decline in the 
number of marriages. In India neither of these motives comes into play. 
Religion on the other hand, which in the west makes in the main for celibacy, 
throws its weight in India almost wholly into the other scale." (Risley's 
People of India, ]). 148). A Hindu must marry and beget a son (puira^ to save 
him from hell (put). He must also see that his daughters are not left unmarried 
at puberty, for to do so would not only bring social obloquy on his family but 
subject him and his ancestors to damnation. While marriage is obligatorv it is 
hampered by numerous restrictions. In Europe the field from which a man can 
choose his wife is practically unlimited. The restrictions based on consanguinitv 
are few and marriages are generally determined by the free choice of the marrving 
parties. There is no restriction on widow-marriage. The later period of life at 
which the people enter into wedlock coupled with the greater equality of age on 
the part of husband and wife reduces the period by which the wife on the 
average survives the husband, and there are no child-widows. In India a 
Hindu must marry within his own caste and outside the circle of those who are 
related to him within seven degrees. Most of the children are married by their 
parents in their infancy, and the}- make their first acquaintance when they are 
already husband and wif°. Widows, except in certain lower castes, are 
prohibited from remarrying, though widowers are not only allowed to reraarrv but 
even to marry more than one wife. The Mahomedaus, and esj^ccially those of them 
who are converts from Hinduism, have been affected in various degrees by the 
example of Hindu marriage usage ; and Indian Christians also have not always 
escajied the same pervading influence. 

310. This difference in customs shows a striking difference in statistics. 

In England from thrce-lifths to two-thirds of boih 
Gen era features of the jj^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^ ^j^^.j^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^j^-^.^ ^^.^ married. 

The proportion of the widowed is only 1 in 30 in 
the case of males and 1 in 13 in the case of females. In the Baroda State 
however, the Census shows that of the total male pojmlation only two-fifths 
(43 per cent.) are unmarried. A reference to the age details shows that nearlv 
rhree-fourths of the unmarried males (73 percent.) are under J 5 years of ao-e. 
Of the males enumerated at the ages 15 to 30, only ^, and oftliose enumerated at 



CJEXKltAL KK.VIF.W. 



U5 



the ages 30 to 40 only S per cent, arc unmarried ; between 40 und 60 the 
nnniber of bachelors is less than 5 per cent, and at the higher ages it is just 
5 per cent. Amongst females the figures are even more striking. Less than a 

" third (28 per 
Diagram slioirin(/ the proportion oj the married, simjle and loidoiced. 

at each a<je-perind. 



eo AND OVER 

40-60 




cent.; of the 
total number 
ol" females of 
all ages is un- 
married, and 



of these more 
iluiii i'our-Hfths 
(83 per cent.) 
are u n d e r 
10 and three- 
fourths of the 
remainder are 
under 15 only. 
Only 5 p e r 
cent, of the 



UNMARRIED 



total 
of 



number 
e 



s i n g 1 



females are over 15 years of age. The Hindu females, who are returned as 
spinsters at the age of 20 and upwards are mostly either prostitutes or persons 
suffering from some bodily affliction such as leprosy and the like. The number 
of genuine old maids is very small and belongs to the ivajput, Maratha and 
other hio'h caste Hindus amons,' whom o-uis remain unmarried to an older a^'e 
owing to the difficulty of procuring for them suitable husbands. 

Comparatively few males (about S per cent.) were returned as widowed 
and most of these were fairly advanced in life. Amongst females, on the other 
hand, nearly a sixth of the total number are widows ; and, although in their case 
also the majority is of the age of 40 and upwards, their number at the lower 
ages is bv no means inconsiderable. There were 26 widows less than a year 
old, 225 of the age-period I to 5, .!i32 of 5 to 10, 1,723 of 10 to 15 and 2'',628 
of the ages between 15 to 20. Of the females enumerated between the ages 20 
and 30 nearly one-fourteenth was returned as widows. 

oil. The above proportions are based on die returns of the State as a 
. . whole, but there are great local variations. 51 per 

■; *^*^* ^* * *" ■ cent, of the males are married in the Baroda as well as 

in the Kadi District and Baroda City, 47 per cent, in the Navsari District, and 
46 per cent, in the Arareli District. 57 per cent, of the females are married in 
the Baroda District, 55 per cent, in the Kadi District, 51 per cent, in the Navsari 
District and the City of Baroda and only 50 per cent, in the Amreli District. 

312. Subsidiary Table II. shows that the differences are equally well 

, . . . . marked if we take religion instead of locality as 

Variations by religions. ^i t • t r 

the diviaing line. 

Universality of marriage, eaily marriage and enforced widowhood are the 

three prominent features of marriage customs among 
Hindus who form 83"4 per cent, of the population ; 
and the rest of the people are more or less affected by their example. Among 
Hindus, marriage is not a civil contract but a religious sacrament, essential and 
U'revocable. As already said, a man must marry in order to beget a son who 
may perform his funeral ceremonies and rescue his soul and the souls of his 
ancestors from hell. It is ei|uaUy obligatory for a father to obtain a husband 
for his daughter and the most awfiil penalties are prescribed in the Shastras, if 
a girl should attain puberty while yet unmarried. Parashara, for instance, says 
" the mother, the father and the elder brother of a girl go to hell on seeing her 
menstruate while yet umnarried." We may find perhajis a few males, who, 
owing: to some deformitv or scarcity of o'irls in their caste, have not been able 
to marry, but we will very rarely find a female who has grown old without 
being married. The proverb says : Doso lanvaro mare, pan dost hai marr luihi, 
i.e., an old man may die unmarried but an old woman would never. 



Hindus. 



146 fHAi'Ti;i: vu — civn, (.'ihndition. 



The Hindus bulk so largely in tlie total population that the difference 
between the figures tor them and for all religions together, is not very striking. 
In 100 males, they ha^•e 50 married, 42 single and S widowed as compared with 
4i>, 43 and 8 respectively in the general population. In 100 I'emaJes, they have 
55 married, 27 single and 18 widowed as compared with 54 married, 28 single 
and IS widowed in the total population of the State. Both sexes marry 
earlier and of the unmarried females only one-twenty-tifth are over the age of 
15, as compared with one-twcntietli in the figures for all religions together. 
16 per cent, of the total number of married Hindu females are under 15 years 
of age, as compared with 14 per cent, in all religious. The proportion of the 
married at 15-40 and later in life is almost identical with that in the general 
pojjulation. 

313. There are marked differences between the corresponding proportions 

for Musalmans. In every 100 males, there are lour 
Mahomedans. , • , j !■ e i i 

more who are single, and tour lewer who have wives,. 

than among the Hindus, while the proportion of the widowed is almost the same 
in both the religions. The deficiency among the married is due to the compara- 
tively later age at which ^lahomedans marry. One Mahomedan marries before 
the age of 10, while three Hindus do so, and one marries between 10 and 15, while 
two Hindus do so. In the age-period 15 — 40, 31 per cent, of the total Hindu 
males are married against 27 per cent, among the Mahomedans ; from 40 and 
after, there is an excess of married Mahomedan males owing to Mahomedan 
widowers marrying much more readily than those who are Hindus. "Widow 
marriage being allowed, a grown-up widowed Mahomedan has no difficulty in 
securing a suitable wife, while most of the high caste Hindus have to elect 



iietweeu not marrying at all or marrying a child-wife. 

The differences are even more marked in the case of females. As compared 
with Hindus, in every 100 Mahomedan females, there are seven more spinsters, 
five wives less and two fewer widows. The smaller proportion of the married is due 
entu'ely to the relatively small number of child-wives amongst Mahomedan girls 
below the age of 10. Only a little more than 1 per cent, of the total number of 
females is married as comjiared with nearly 4 per cent, among the Hindus ; and 
at 10-15 only 3 per cent, compared with 4*5 per cent. On the other hand at the 
child-bearing ages, i. e., from 15 to 40 the married women amongst Mahomedans 
are almost equal to those amongst Hindus. 'Jliose who lose their first husband 
while still young, find it easier to enter the married state with the result that 
whereas 5 per cent, of the Hindu women enumerated at the ages 15 to 40 were 
returned as widowed, the corresponding proportion for Mahomedans is 4"5. The 
difference is of course not very striking, as a very large proportion of those who 
profess the faith of Islam, are the descendants of converts from Hinduism and 
there is amongst many sections of them a lingering sentiment against the re- 
marriage of widows. 

314. The distribution of the Animistic males by civil condition shows a 
. general resemblance to that prevailing among 

Mahomedans. In comparison with the latter, there 
is in every 100 an excess of four bachelors, one fewer married, and three fewer 
widowed. The excess of bachelors is attributable to the less prevalence of early 
marriages. 

In the case of females, the Aiiimists have in every 100, thirteen more 
spinsters, three fewer wives and ten fewer widows. Marriage of girls is much 
later than even among Mahomedans. Only three girls in 1,000 are married before 
the age ol 10, compared with 13 amongst Mahomedans, and only 13 in the age- 
period 10 to 15 compared with 30. There are only 14 widows in 1,000 females 
of the ages 15 to 40 as conipared with 46 among the Mahomedans, and only 57 
in '' 40 and after" as compared with 132. 

315. The Jains <>f both sexes marry even later than the ^Mahomedans and 
. . the residt is that thev have amongst them more sinn-le 

persons and fewer who are married. Of every iOO 
males, 49 are single, 42 married and 9 widowed. Very few males are married 
before the age of lO and only 11 in K'O before the age of 15. Nearly one-fourth 
are married at l5-4ti and one-seventii at 40 and alter. There are practically no 



KAUl.V MAIMMAUK. 



147 



Parsis. 



-widowers before the age of 1 5 and only 1 in 42 of the ages 15 to 40, aud 1 in 15 
of the ages 40 and after. 

As regards females 2U [)er ceui;. are single, 43 per cent, are married and 
28 per cent, widowed. The proportion ot widows is the largest, amongst all the 
religions because Jains are mostly ofthe Vania castes all of which enforced 
widowhood. Under the age of 10 mairiage is practically unknown, and of those 
between 10 arid 15 only H per cent, are married ; and ncaily iwu-tifths are 
married after 15. The usual age for the marriage of Jain girls seems to he 
between 15 aud 20. There are practically no widows before the age of 15 and 
in the age-period 15-40, as also in 40 and after, the number of widows is much 
.larger than in the case of any other religion. 

316. Owing to the fact that most of the Christians are natives and the 

^. . . . ranks of the Christians are being augmented bv new 

Christians. ■ r t i ■ ^ ■ -r -, 

accessions irom persons akeady married or widowed, 

from the lower castes of Hindus, among whom infant marriages are most preva- 
lent, the distribution of Chi'istians by civil condition according to the return of 
the Census does not afford a very reliable reflex of the customs existing amongst 
converts of long standing. So far as tigures go, they are in some res])ect higher 
even than those of Hindus. In 100 males, nine more are married, eight fewer 
are single and one fewer is widowed, as compared with Hindus. Similarlv in the 
case of females, there are seven more married, two fewer single and Ave fewer 
widows. A larger number of both males and females marries while still of 
immature age, but there is a smaller proi^ortion of widows, as widow-marriage 
is not only allowed but is freely practised. 

317. As compared with the Hindus, the Parsis have, in one hundred 

males, 12 fewer married, 16 more unmarried and 
four fewer widowed. In 100 females, they have 15 

fewer married, 18 more spinsters aud tliree fewer widowed. Both males and 
females marry after the age of puberty. Widow-marriage though allowed is not 
practised by those who are well-to-do and grown-up and have children. 

EARLY MARRIAGE. 

318. The Aiwan Society of the Vedic or more pro|)erly speaking the 

Grihya Sutra period presents the institution of 
marriage in a form which recognized female liberty 
aud the dignity of womanhood in full, slight traces 

of which are seen in the old Sanskrit ritual, which is still recited aud in the 

Map showuiif the number per 1 ,000 Hindu females ^'^^'^ monies 

, n 1 A 7 -7 w ii I c h a r e 

af/ed ij — W who are maryied. ii- j. 

blindly per- 
formed. Wo- 
man's freedom 
and dignity 
were vindicat- 
ed and in the 
K s h a t r i y a 
caste especial- 
ly, liberty to 
choose Ii e r 
husband in the 
form of stcay- 
a m V a r a , or 
marriage by 
free choice, so 
well illustrat- 
ed in the 
stories of Sita, 
Daniyanti.Ru- 
kniini and 
Draupadi, was 
widely allowed. Marriage took place in alJ castes at a comparatively mature 



Origin of early marriage 
among Hindus. 




14S ciiArTKu vii — civil. coNDrrioN. 



age, aud I'tiv re-maningi- v( widoww was not Idoked u[kiii as disrt'jinrablc. Later 
on owing to causes which it, is not possible lu trace fully, there was a revulsion 
of feeling aud the Vedic instil ntiuns were practically abandoned or ignored aud 
in their place usages grew up which brought on inlant nianiages and enforced 
widoAvhood. The Shastras explain the revulsinn of teeluig by ascribing it to 
be the result of the change of )'u^<( that is the setting in of the Kali Ynga. But 
it was probably the reflex aciion of the rise of Buddhism with its horror of leniale 
society joined with the confusion caused by the invasions of barbarous hordes 
such as the Shakas, Ilunas and Jats from outside and the rise of non-Aryan 
tribes to power in the country which deluged the land with bloodshed aud 
extinguished the spirit of chivali'v, learning and independence and reduced the 
nation to the subjection of ]ieupl(> with a lower type ol' civilization about the 
commencement of the Christian eva(lvanade's Religious and Social Reforms, p.3:^). 
The growth of the institution of caste must have aJso brought about a change 
in the eustonis of the people and encouraged early marriages. The commands 
of the Shastras for early marriages based as they must have been t>n the 
necessity created by this peculiar institution, must have also powerhilly aiifected 
the bent of the people. It lieing essential among the Hindus that a girl should 
marry within the narrow circle of ihe caste or sub-caste, it is ol)viously desirable 
at^east among the families of higher status that the matter should be setiled 
before a girl is old enough to iorm an attachment with some one with whom she 
cannot be married. The earlier the matter is taken in hand, the larger is the 
field of choice. If the lather defers the arrangement for a husband, he may find 
that all the eligible boys of the proper age have already been approi>riated and 
that he must put up with one who for his daughter is either considerably older or 
younger or her inferior in social position. When the custom of infant marriage 
had once been started under the pressure of social necessity by the i'amilios of 
the higher groups in a caste, a sort of fashion would have been set up and 
blindly followed through all the grades. The gradual lowering of the position 
of women from the ideal of Vedic times, and the distrust of their virtue induced 
by the example of prematrimonial license set by the Dravidian races must also 
have its effect and a girl would thus be married as a child in order to avert the 
possibility of a scandal later on (Risley's People of India, p. 1S2). 

Among the Animistic tribes, both males and 
'^'"**„"L^''l*?"'l'!!" ""^ females are fully mature before- they enter the 

bonds of matrimon\-. 



other religions: 



Marriage, anmng the Mahomedans, being a civil contract rather than a 

,. . ^ religious sacrament, in theorv at least, the a'ii'l 

Among: Mahomedans. i i i i i- i i ' i i i ■ '■ 

should be ot an age when she is capaljJe of giving 

her consent. This, however, is not attended to, aud early marriage, though far 

less common than with the Hindus, is practised. Mahomed himself married a girl 

of 7, Ayesha, the daughter of his immediate successor, Abdullah, who is better 

known as Abu Bakr or the father of the virgin. Musalmans with a foreign 

strain, generally mari'\ their boys between sixteen and twenty-two and girls 

at ten to eighteen. Ilindu converts, however, m'Iio generally l)eloug to the 

functional groups, adhere to their Hindu customs and marry their children at a 

very early age. 

According to tlu' law of Zoroaster, a boy er girl ought not to be married 

before the age of fifteen and this rule was observed 
Among Parsis. , ,, n • i i d v> ^ 

by the Parsis while in lersia. But among a 

number of customs whi(;li the Parsis in India adopted from the Hindus, that of 

early marriages was also included. To those unacijuainted with the early 

history of the Parsis, it will perhaps be startling to learn that instances are not 

wanting among them of the betrothal of a boy of three years of age to a girl of 

two. It, may seem very ridiculous, but it is nevertheless a fact, that less than 

fifty years ago it was a custom in Xavsari and some of tiie cities of Gujarat to 

arrange! or negotiate for the marriage of children who had not even seen the 

light of this Avorld ; that is to say, if two lady friends were enceinte they would 

conclude an arrangement that if f)ne should bear a son and the other a girl, 



K.viM.v .\iAi:i;iA(;K 



I4'.l 



the infauts would be united in marriage. A great change has taken place 
Avitliin the last til'ty or sixty years. As a rule, Parsis have now adult marriages^' 
although there are now and then a few instances of early marriages. 

ol9. These diverse customs are reflected in the statistics of civil condilion. 
. In the [State as a whole, o'J boys and 83 girls aged 

ul'syTcTlRr ^"* ^^'^ married per thousand of each sex. the 

corresponding proportions for the age-period 5-9 are 
HI boys and 188 girls and for the age period 'J-14, 'loii boys and 515 girls per 
1,000 of each sex. But this is the result of very uneven proportions in the 
different districts and in the different religions. ] 6 boys and 57 girls are 
married in one thousand of each sex ai^ed 0-4 in the Baroda District. The 
corresponding proportions for the other districts are 75 boys and 147 oirls^-in 
Kadi, 10 girls and 14 boys in Navsari, l.'i boys and 16 girls in Amreli,' and|l4 

Diagram ulioiniiii the jiri>/i(irl/on or' ilie marr'n'd jur 1,00(1 of each a<ie-perii>d hy distrirlx. 



9 50 
900 




boys and 25 girls in the Baroda City. 6i) boys and 178 girls are married in 
one thousand of each sex aged 5-9 in the Baroda District, the corresponding- 
proportions for the other districts being ISii boys and 288 girls in Kadi, 38 boys 
and 74 girls in Navsari, 30 boys and 33 girls in Amreli and 74 boys and 
133 girls in the City of Baroda. Similarity in the age-period 9-14, 25? bovs 
and 687 girls in Baroda, 29i' boys and 538 girls in Kadi, 169 boys and 366 
girls in ^^avsavi, 93 boys and 248 girls in Amreli, and 170 boys and 568 
girls in the City are married in one thousand of each sex. This shows that 
early marriages of both males and females are most prevalent in the Kadi 
District, mostly owing to the large number of Kadwa Kanbis who as stated 
in para. 365 have in that district peculiai' marriage customs which compel 
them to marry their children at a very early age. Early marriages are the 
least prevalent in the Amreli District. Girls in that, district are kejit unmarried 
till 16 or even 20, and it is for this reason that widowers or grown-up bachelors 
of Gujanit who can aff"ord to pay a large bride-price, usually bring their wives 
from Kathiawad. In the NaA'sari Distric^t the proportion of married girls before 
10 years of age is lower than in Baroda and Kadi, owing to the large Animistic 
population, among whom girls are not mai'ried before pidjeriy. 

320. Taking the figures for the different religions separately, there are 

„ ... u- J among the Hindus 6 move bovs and 13 more uirls 

(2 By reliriion : Hindus. i n - i in i 7 i- 

^ aged (I-.) who are married per thousand each or 

that age than in thi- corresponding figures for all religions. Similarly in the 



l.-,() 



CHAPTER VII — CIVIL CONDITION, 



next two age-periods also, there are respectively 15 and 27 more boys and 30 
and 55 more girls who are married than in the general average. 

Diagram ahon-iwi the nwnher per 1,0011 aged 0-1 (• n'lio (trr marri''il, 

50 100 150 EOO 850 500 



ALL RELIGIONS 




— ~ 












HINDU 
' JAIN 


==^ 












— 












ANIMIST 


_• 












- 












MUSALMAN 


"— 













PARSI 
CHRISTIAN 


1 

























1^^ 



MALE 



TEMALE 



321. Among the Jains S7 fewer boys and 86 fewer girls of the ages 0-5, 

107 fewer boys and 197 fewer girls of the ages 5-10 
•'^'"*' and 156 fewer boys and 320 fewer girls of the ages 

10-15 are married per thousand of each sex in each age-period, as compared 
■with the corresponding proportions among the Hindus. This shows that infant 
marriages are less common among the Jains than among the Hindus, but when 
Kav»5P ... .. we examine the figures for the Animistic tribes, we 

_^^s Animistic tribes. ^^^ ^-^^^ among them, infant marriages, as might 

be expected are even less usual than among the .Jains. Compared with Jains, 
4 fewer boys and 8 fewer girls of the ages 0-5 are married among them per 
thousand of each sex. Similarly in the two higher ages, there are respectively 
1 and 55 fewer boys and 2 and i02 fewer girls who are married. The few who 
are found to have practised infant marriage among the Animistic tribes are 
mostly Bhils and Dublas who have come into closer contact with the Hindus and 
have been affected by their customs. 

322. The Musalmans are worse off than the Jains and Animists in the prac- 

tice of infant marriage, but though a large ])art of 
Musalmans. ^.j^^^^^ j^ formed by Hindu converts wdio follow their 

old Hindu customs, compared with Hindus, they have 32 fewer boys and 136 fewer 
o-irls who are married in one thousand of each sex aged 0-5 and in the age- 
periods 5-10 and 10-15, they have respectively 84 and 135 fewer boys and 135 
and 214 fewer girls who are similarly married, 

323. There are uo boys or girls below 5 who are married among the 

JParsis. In the age-period 5-10, they have only 5 
boys and 11 girls who are married in one thousand 

of each sex and the number of married children in the next higher age is also 

equally insignificant. 

324. Most of the Native Christians are drawn from the Dhed and other low 

castes among whom infant marriages are most 
prevalent. Most of the new converts are already 

married before accepting Christianity. It is for this reason that avc find among 
the Christians a proportion of married infants which in some respects exceeds 
even that among the Hindus. Compared with Hindus, they have 8 fewer boys, 
but 36 more girls in one thousand of each sex, who are married before 5 years 
of age. Similarly in the age-periods, 5-10 and 10-15, they have respectively 
254 and 150 more boys and 200 and 92 more girls who are married than among 
the Hindus. 

325. Imperial Table XIV gives the actual numbers of the married, 

unmarried and widowed of both sexes for selected 

'"s*el"ectTdcasTel'" «*^*^? .** ^^"^^ ^^ ^^^ assigned age-periods, while 

Subsidiary Table V, which is worked out from it, gives 
the proportional figures for each condition at the same age-periods. The 



Native Christians. 



KAKLY MAIJKIAUK. 151 



proportions of the married, umnarried aud widowed among the Bavas and 
Grosains are naturally abnormal, owing to a large portion of their number living 
a celibate life aud they must therefore be left out of consideration when 
comparing the statistics of civil condition of the different castes. As mio-ht be 
expected from their peculiar marriage customs, infant marriages are the most 
prevalent among the Kadwa Kanbis. They have 336 married males and 625 married 
females out of every 1,000 of each sex aged 0-5, and 626 married males and 
894 married females out of every 1,000 oi each sex aged 5-12. Next to the 
Kadwas come the Golas (rice-pounders) in the performance of early marriao-ea 
they having 70 boys and 'J9 girls aged 0-5 aud 516 boys and 702 girls aged 5-12 
who are married out of 1,000 of each sex in each period. Comparatively a 
larger proportion of infants of both sexes aged 0-5 aud 5-12 are married among 
Dhed, Dhobi. Ghauchi, Koli, Kachhia, Anjaua Kaubi, Kumbhar, Mali, Rabari, 
Ravalia, Sathawara aud other low castes, and a smaller one among Brahman, 
\'auia aud Rajput castes. It is their blind persistence in the evil custom of 
infant marriage that has made these low castes more liable for prosecution under 
our early Marriage Prevention Act. The belter practice of the higher castes is 
reflected in the lesser number of prosecutions to which they have made them- 
seves liable. (See para. 332.) Kapol Vanias, Kayasthas, Brahma-Kshatris, and 
Sheuavi Brahmans are the most reformed with regard to age in the marriage of 
then- children. Among them boys are not married before 20 aud girls before 15. 
Marathas, I'rabhus, Deshastha Brahmans and several other high castes marry 
their sons at puberty, but their daughters are married much earlier and the 
result is that among them a bridegroom is always senior to the bride by 5 to 
10 or even 15 years. Among Jaius, infant marriages are performed to some 
extent by 8hrimalis, but not by Oswals. Ghauchi, Molesalam, Momna, Pinjara, 
Tai, Vohora aud similar ffindu converts to Islam practise infant marriage like 
low-caste Hindus, but to a smaller extent. For instance, the Musalman Ghauchi 
caste which seems to favour infant marriages the most, among Musalmans, has 
55 boys aud 44 girls aged 0-5 who are married in 1,000 of each sex ; and 112 
boys aud 236 girls aged 5-12, who are married in 1,000 of each sex of that age. 
Infant marriages are not unknown among the Memous, KhojaB and other 
converts less affected by Hindu customs, and among the Shaikhs, Saiyads aud 
Pathans, but they are less common. The greater proportion of females are 
married in the age-period 12-20, and males in the age period 20-40. Infant 
marriages are rare among the members of the Animistic tribes. Most of the 
males and females are married after 15 or 20 years of age. Imitation of Hindu 
customs has introduced infant marriages to some extent, especially among the 
Bhils, Dhankas aud Dublas, and we find some boys and girls married even in 
the age-period 0-5. 

326. Although marriage is performed at a very early age, cohabitatiou 

^ . ... .. generally does not take place before sexual maturitv. 

Cohabitation. 2,, -^ , . , f , . , ,. , 

Ihe newly married girl is sent to her tather-in- 

law's house, just to become acquainted with her new relations ; but, unless she 
has reached maturity or her husband is a widower, she is not allowed to meet 
him. Within a few days she is taken back to her father's house aud stays 
there till she is fully grown-up and her father is able to provide her with the 
ornaments, clothes and cash customary in the caste. No ceremony is necessary 
before the girl is sent to her husband's except among the Deccaui lirahmans, who 
perform the rutu shanti, or menses ([uieting ceremony, when the girl begins to men- 
struate, after which she is considered to be tit for cohabitation with her husband. 

327. In Subsidiary Table I, the number of each sex per mille in each age- 

jieriod, who were returned as married at each of 

n.a'la?:Vrac?i:/sl';L ^j^l}'^^,' f^^^" ^-!«"«««' ^^^^ ^een compared For 
1881. 18oi,th.e proportion oi males married at 0-5 per 

mille is not available, but it was 41 in 181)1, 24 in 
1901 and 39 iu the present Census, which shows that, though the number of 
boys married below the age of 5 is now less by 2 per 1,000 than what it was 
in 1891, it is more by 15 than what it was in 1901. But the figures of 1901 
were abnormal. They were affected by the great famine which discouraged 



152 CHAI'TKi; Vll CIVIL CONDITION. 



marriages. A period of 10 years is besides too short a one to disclose any ical 
and far-reaching change, jiarticnlarly at present when the decade ])recediug the 
Census had at both its euds two marriage seasons of the Kadwa Kanbis among 
whom infant marriages ar(^, m(jst in vogue. The total number of infants married 
before the age of 5 is 19, 240 in the whole State, of which l;i,818 or nearly two- 
thirds belong to the Kadwa Kanbis. If the Kadwa Kanbis were lel't out of account, 
the figures of the present Census would show a marked improvement on those 
of 1901 also. It cannot therefore 1)6 said that because the present Census shows 
more infant marriages than thai of I'JOl, there has been no change in the 
attitude of the people towards this evil custom. The figures for 1901 being 
abnormal, it would be best to leave them aside and institute a comparison between 
those of 18'Jl and 1911. !)2 females out of 1,000, aged 0-5, were married in 
1891, w^hile the corresponding proportion in 1911 is 83, that is, less by 1 per 
cent. 117 boys and 234 girls, aged 5-10, were married per mille of each sex in 
1891 against 111 and 188 respectively in the present Census. Similarly hi the 
age-period 10-15, the proportion of married boys and girls was 272 and 542 in 
1891 against 236 and 515 in the present Census, thus showing that infant marriage 
is gradually becoming less prevalent. 

328. Weddings are legitimate occasions of rejoicings and festivities, and the 

ignorant masses are glad to have the opportunities 
Present day tendencies ^j^^^ ^^p^^.^^ f^^. jj^g display of their wealth in giving 



caste dinners as early as possible. The females in 
the house are particularly anxious to marry their children as early as possible so 
that they may get a daughter-in-law to domineer over in the house or a son-in- 
law to pour out their affection on. The occasion of a marriage also gives 
them an opportunity to display their jewellery and rich dresses, and so they urge 
on the males to bring about an early consummation of their wish. Moreover the 
uneducated and especially those of the Gola-Ghanchi classes who allow their 
widows to remarry, seem to think that early marriage gives them a higher 
social status. Among them, therefore, there is perhaps a more extended resort 
to the practice of infant marriage. The Animistic tribes, who in the seclusion of 
their homes in the forest, favour adult marriage, have, owing to greater inlor- 
course with Hindus, begun to imitate their custom of early marriages. There is, 
however, a general feeling amongst Brahman-Vanias and educated Hindus of all 
castes who are influenced by Western ideas against marrying their children 
while they are yet infants. Those of them among whom widow marriage is 
prohibited, are specially careful to defer the marriage of their daughters to as 
late a date as possible, and thus to minimise the danger of a lifelong misery. 
They allow their girls to grow up from 12 to 15 and their boys from 14 to I'O 
before they are married. They are not liable to any penalty beyond being 
censured or spoken of lightly by their ignorant caste fellows, which they can 
afford to ignore. Their number is slowly but steadily increasing. The dis- 
astrous consequences both to the individual and to the race fi'om the evil 
custom of early marriage are every now and then brought home to the peo])le 
by the Social Reform Conferences, which are now yearly institutions in coimectiou 
with the Indian National Congress and are also held at certain intervals in most 
of the higher castes. Monthly or quarterly periodicals published by the Audich, 
Modh, Anavala, Luhana, Kadwa and Lewa Kanbi castes are also devoted to the 
same subject. Considerations of economy in marriage expenditure, e. (/., by 
marrying several girls at one and the same time, or securing a good alliance, 
e. (J., by marrying a child in a respectable family is sometimes said to impel 
even those who understand the evil to resort to it, but such cases are now rare, 
and so far as the upper classes are concerned, infant marriage may be said (o 
be on the decline. 

329. In 1884 Mr. Malbari convulsed the Hindu society with his celebrated 

notes on Earlv Marriage and Enforced Widowhood. 

Social Reform by yIq denounced the customs with his usual vigour and 

leRislation. , , i j • <• ^■ \ \ 

earnestness and succeeded m creating a lively and 

permanent interest in the subject. This resulted in the Government of India Act 

on the Age of Consent under which sexual intercourse by a man with his own 



KAKLY MARRIAGE. loH 



wife uiidtr 12 years of age is au offence. About 20 years ago, Mv. Maninohan 
Ghose, a Bengali gentleman, put forward a proposal that a general law 
should be passed lor British India declaring that no marriage shall be valid 
if either of the contractiug parties at the time of celebrating their marriao-e is 
below twelve years. The main argument put forward by him in support ol' his 
proposal was that so eminent a Sanskrit scholar as Dr. Bhandai ker had held 
that there was nothing in the Hindu scriptures to make it obligatory upon a 
Hindu to marry his daughter before she is twelve; but it was not supported and 
nothing came out of it. Unless the matter complained of comes within the pale 
of the criminal law, the British Government follows the policy of non- 
interference. In their celebrated Resolution of 1886 they have " declared : 
" When caste or custom lays down a rule which is by its nature enforceable in 
the Civil Courts, but is clearly opposed to morality or public policy, the State will 
decline to enforce it. When caste or custom lays down a rule which deals with 
such matters as are usually left to the option of citizens, and which does not 
need the aid of Civil or Criminal Courts for its enforcement, State interference is 
not r'onsidered either desirable or expedient.'' This view of its position laid 
down by the British Government, was not approved by the late Mr. Justice 
Ranade and other ardent advocates of social reform. In one of his speeches 
Justice Ranade said : — "The State in its collective capacity, represents the power, 
the wisdom, the mercy and charity of its best citizens. What a single man, or a 
combination of men, can best do on their own account that the State may not 
do ; but it cannot shirk its duty if it sees its way to remedy evils which no 
private conibinariou of men can check adequately, or which it can deal with 
more speedily and effectively than any private combination of men can do. In 
these latter cases, the State's regulating action has its sphere of duty marked 
out clearly. On this and on this principle alone can State action be justified in 
many important departments of its activity, such as the enforcement ol education,, 
sanitation, I'actory legislation and of State undertakings like the postal service, or 
subsidies given to private effort in the way of railway extension and commercial 
development. The regulation of marriageable age has in all countries, like the 
regulation of the age ot minority, or the tit age of making contracts, been a part 
of its national jurisprudence, and it cannot be said with justice that this question 
(infant marriage) lies out of its sphere. The same observation holds true of the 
condition of the widow ivudered miserable in early life and thrown helpless on 
the world. More legitimately than minors, the widows are the wards of the 
nation's humanity, and to the extent that the evil they suffer is remediable by 
man, it caimor be said that this remedy may not be considered by the State as 
fully within its prdper function.'' 

'6'dO. lu pursuan(^e ol' the above views, the Mysore State was the first to 
The Mysore Act introduce a regulation to prevent infant marriages. 

in its territory. Under its provision an}- person 
who causes the marriage of an infant girl or aids or abets such marriage and 
any man above eighteen years of age who marries an infant girl is liable to be 
punished with simple unprisonment upto six months. No restriction is placed 
upon infant marriages between the age eight or fourteen. The law is mainly 
intended lo stop the practice of aged widowers marrying child-wives. Any 
man who having eoni])leted fifty years of age marries a girl, who has not 
completed fourteen years of age, is liable to be punished with fine or imprison- 
nient which may cNtcnd to two years or with both. 

331. But I he nidst remarkable activity in social legislation has been 

_.,,.,. . displayed durinc- the past decade by the Govern- 

lil'^I.da '" ^!^^"^ .^f ^J« Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad. The 

first important enactment of the kind, the Widow 

Remarriage .\l-i, was passed in August IDOL Following the Government of 

India Act oi' 1856 and some ol' the older Smritie, it aims at legalising and thus 

indire(;tly encouraging the marriages oi widows Another ineasure passed 

about the same time is called the Liberty of Conscience Act, which was designed 

to remove the disabilities of those persons who adopt a religious faith that is in 

consonance with their r-nnscientious beliefs but foreign to'the religion of the 



154 



CHAPTEK Vn Civil, CiiNDITIdN. 



caste 10 which they belonged. Another object was to take out the sting of 
excommunication by depriving it of its effect on the proprietory ur other rights 
of the person excommuuicated. Then followed the most important social 
enactment, the Infant Marriage Prevention Act, which for a time ruffled the 
thought of the people of the State. It was passed in July 19U4. The avowed 
object of the Act was to ameliorate the physical condition of the people, especially 
of the future generations, by raising the standard of marriageable age. The 
evils of child-marriages are patent to all, but few dare go against the current of 
the prevalent popular opinion. To such persons this measure would serve as a 
buoy to swim across the torrent of public opinion, which in itself is sure to 
ultimately lose much of its force and thus render the help of this buoy quite 
unnecessary. The draft of the Act, when published, strongly agitated the public 
mind in the State, and it was also widely criticised even outside its limits. The 
opposition, however, appeared to centre round the question of marriageable age, 
which in the draft was fixed at 14 for girls and 18 lor boys. In deference to 
this opposition His Highness tho Maharaja was pleased to reduce these ages 
by two years and agreed to make such other modifications in the original Bill so 
as to make it less obnoxious to orthodox communities. As finally passed, the Act 
defines a minor girl as one who has not completed her twelfth year and a minor 
boy as one who has not completed his sixteenth year. If the guaidiaiis of a 
minor girl, whose age is above nine, desire to get her married, they must apply 
to a tribunal consisting of the local sub-judge and three assessors of the peti- 
tioners' caste. If the tribunal is satisfied that in the event of the marriage not 
taking place on the date proposed, it will probably not take place at all ur not 
within one year of the bride attaining her majority, or that the parents and the 
guardians of the girl are not likely, owing to old age and infirmity to survive 
until she comes of age, and that she has no other guardian, or that inevitable 
difficulties of a similar nature are likely to occur, they may grant permission for 
the marriage to take place. If the sub-judge disagrees with the assessors the 
case is referred to the District Judge whose decision is final. 

332. Judged by the light of the statistics furnished by the Census, the 

Infant Marriage Prevention Act does not appear to 
have succeeded in achieving any marvellous result. 
The slight decrease in the number of Infant Mar- 
riages noticed in para. 327 may be attributed to the progress of education and 
enlightened ideas. The Legal Remembrancer has, among other duties, to watch 
the operation of the Act and to report the results from time to time. From the 
statistics furnished by that office, it appears that the freedom to contract marri- 
ages within the prohibited limits of age, has been freely availed of. No less than 

22,218 applications were 



Working of the Infant 
Marriage Prevention Act. 





Applications for 


No. of persons charged 




peimiBBion to marry 


with infringement 


Year. 


infants. 


of the Act. 




Filed. 


Eejected. 


Convicted. 


Not 
convicted. 


1904 


695 




718 




1905 


■499 


140 


1,441 


.S3S 


1906 


583 


100 


1,858 


709 


1907 


1,001 


89 


2,967 


483 


1908 


190 


48 


1,S06 


211 


1909 


17,336 


579 


5,461 


1,010 


1910 


1,914 


19S 


9,487 


l.iOO 


Total 


22,218 


1,104 


28,388 


S,94(i 



made for seeking exemption 
under the Act. The circum- ■ 
stance that such permission 
was accorded in 95 per cent, 
of such petitions and refused 
in 5 per cent, only, shows 
that the Courts are very 
indulgent in their treatment 
of applications for exemption 
which may be said to be 
practically given lor the 
asking. Possibly the Courts 
are led away by misplaced 
sympathy and forget the real object of the enactment. In addition to the large 
number of licences granted for performing infant marriages, over twenty-three 
thousand have been performed in violation of the provisions oi' the Act. And 
though the parties at fault have been prosecuted, it is believed that there must 
have been an equally large number who escaped punishment owing to the 



negligence of the Village Registrars (ordinaiv 



village 



jjatels) in reporting them. 



Most of those prosecuted were fined from a few to a hundred rupees, but those 
bent upon celebrating an infant marriage, do not regard such a punishment as 



WIDOW MARRIAGE. 155 



deterrent but coiiut it as an additional item of expenditure to be incurred on 
marriage occasions.. Probably it is yet too premature to judge of the salutary 
effects of this beneficent enactment. It lias been in force only for about six 
years in this decade. District Officers with whom I had conversation on the 
subject said that when the bill which subsequently ripened into law was pub- 
lished, it created an alarni among the ignorant people who form the bulk of the 
population, and there was an unusual activity in hurrying up marriages belore 
the expected restraint was imposed. Those who could not ajEEord to celebrate 
them immediately made formal contracts to do so as one of the sections of the 
pro])osed law purported to exempt such previously made contracts irom its 
operation. Then again as mentioned in para. 327 two marriage seasons ol" the 
Kadwa Ivanbis fell in during the decade, greatly increasing the number of infant 
marriages. The coming Census, befoi'e which the Act will have operated for a 
sufficiently long period, may be expected to furnish sufdcient materials to 
properly judge of its effects. 

WIDOW MARRIAGE. 

333. The practice regarding marriage of widows is different among the 
Widow marriage among' followers of the different religions. AYidow mar- 
Hindus, riage is prohibited in Gujarat among the Brahmans 
and Vanias and allowed in most of all other Hindu castes. Even some 
Brahman castes, such as Tapodhan, Vyas, ^arswat, Bajgor, Bhojak, Targala and 
Koligor allow it, but they are looked upon as degraded. Among the Kshatriyas, 
also Kathis, Marathas, Kajpitts, Lewa Kanbis, Vagharis and Vadhels allow it. 
The castes which do not allow widow marriage, form only 15 per cent, of the 
total Hindti population of the State. But the higher families among castes which 
allow remarriage of widows do not, as a rule, have recourse to it, as such mar- 
riages are considered undignified. It is this feeling and a desire to raise their 
social status by adopting Brahmanical practices which have led some castes, such 
as a section of Marathas, Lewa Kanbis, Sonis, Sutars and others to put a stop to 
widow marriage within the last forty or fifty years. Infant marriage and 
enforced widowhood are looked upon among the lower classes as the two hall- 
marks of o-ood birth and hio-h standing, and their attitude is towards extending 

-111*' 

both the evil practices. 

. , . The Jams are mostly of the Vauia castes, who 

Among Jams. , . ,, i -i v -j • 

strictlv prohibit widow marriage. 



Among the Animistic tribes a male or a female remarries soou after the death 

. ,. ■ ■ ^- ^ .. of his or her iiartner, and this accounts for the 

.Among Animistic tribes. • ■ i n i , i i -i 

surprisingly small number ot widows and widowers 

among the primitive people. Among the Dhodias, a woman marries again 
when her husband's funeral ceremonies are over and a dinner has been given 
in his honour. If she has any children by her first husband, they are left in 
charge of his relations. 

The marriage of widows is enjoined by Mahomedan law and the Prophet 

*-, _„ M 1 himself married several widows, including his first 

Among Musalmans. .p „, i- ij i. • t t ^i i i^ .i 

wite Khadija. But in India the example of the 

Hindus created a prejudice in the other direction and at the present day, it is 

seldom that a man takes a widow as his first wife. Widows who marry again 

usually become the wives of widowers or of men w-hn have already got 

another wife. 

The Parsis have not co])ied the Hindus in the cruel custom of prohibiting llieir 
Amonc: Parsis widows from remarrying. But, notwithstanding the 

[>c.rniissif)n, there are very few Parsi widows who 
marry again, and if they do so it is generally before they have arrived at the age 
of forty. Those who have reached this age, retain, as a general rule, their 
state of widowhood, particularly if they are Idessed with children and have 
sufficient means to provide for tiiem. 



166 CHAPTER VII CIVIL CONDITION. 



iJS-i. Prohibitiou of widow marriage was unknown iu Vedic times. The 

Mahabharat furnishes several instauces of widow 

Causes of prohibition marriage. Ukipi, the widowed daughter ol a 

^^''^ among Hindus'"^^^ patriarch of the Naga tribe, was given in marriage 

by her father to Arjuii. Another instance is iur- 
nished by the story of Nala and Damayanti. After having been abandoned 
by her husband in the forest, Damayanti found her way to her father's house, 
and after long waiting tor him in vain, contrived a plan for finding him 
out. With the help ot learned Biahmans and the consent ot her father, she 
advertised that in consequence of the disappeai'ance and probable death of 
Nala, she was going to make a second choice of a husband for herself. The 
third illustration is furnished by the Padma Puran and refers to the un- 
fortunate daughter of a king of Benares, who was married no less than twenty 
times, it being her peculiar misfortune that as soon as the marriage rites were 
performed, the husband so married died. But though this happened over and 
over again, her father with the consent of the Brahmans of his Court solemnly 
gave her in marriage as often as she became a widow. ^Vhat motives induced 
the Brahmans of a later age to prohibit widow marriage, it is diflScult to trace. 
The causes which favoured the growth of the modern custom which forbids the 
widows of the highest castes to marry again, have thus been summarised by 
Sir Herbert Risley in the last India Census Report, page 428 : — 

" In the first place the anxiety of the early Hindu law-givers to circum- 
scribe a woman's rights to property would unquestionably tend to forbid her to 
join her lot to a man whose interest it would be to assert and extend those rights as 
against the members of her husband's lamily. At the same time the growth of 
the doctrine of spiritual benefit would require her to devote her life to the annual 
performance of her husband's shradha. Technical obstacles to her remarriage 
also arise from the Brahmanical theory of marriage itself. The ceremony being 
regarded as a sacrament ordained for the purification of women and its 
essential portion being the gift of the woman by her father to her husband, the 
effect of the gift is to transfer her own gotra or exogamous group into that of 
her husband's." ***** 

" Some influence must also have been exerted in the same direction by the 
competition for husbands resulting from the action of hypergamy. Widows 
certainly would be the first to be excluded from the marriage market, for in 
their case the interest of the individual families would be identical with those of 
the group. The family would already have paid a bridegroom-price to get 
their daughter or sister married, and would naturally be indisposed to pay a 
second, and probably higher price to get her jtiarried again. The group, in its 
turn, would be equally adverse to an arrangement which tended to increase the 
number of marriageable women." 



""to^ 



335. In the State as a whole, of every thousand persons of each sex 76 

males and 176 females are returned as widowed. 

m b "^1.00^11? ' ^^ "*^^^" ^°^'^^ °^^''^^' ^^^^■>' ^^^^ ^*^"^^^^ ^° ^^^' 

State is a widow, while only one in fourteen of the 
males is a widower. Taking the divisions separately, we find that the corres- 
ponding proportions are 78 males and 176 females in Baroda, 82 males and 196 
females in Kadi, .^9 males and 119 females in Navsari, 64 males and 156 females 
in Amreli and 85 males and 244 females in the City of Baroda. Everywhere 
the ])roportion of widows is more than double or treble that of widowers ; for, 
while the widowers are free to marry again in all castes and creeds, widows 
are prohibited to do so among the higher Hindu and Jain castes ; and even in 
the castes and communities which allow widow marria<ie, it is considered less 
decorous for her to do, if she is grown up and has children. Baroda City has 
the highest proportion of the widowed, both among males and females, owing to 
its possessing a higher proportion of high caste Hindu and Jain population, 
while Navsari has the least owing to the large porportion oi the Animistic tribes 
in its population. After Baroda City stands the Kadi District where the Kadwa 
Kanbis are noted for their infant marriages and for their curious custom of 
marrying little a'irls with bunches of flowers and declaring them widowed after 



WIDOW MARRIAGE. 



157 



throwing the flowers into a well, so that they can afterwards be married in the 
natra I'oiin Avith a suitable brideg-room whenever convenient. Then comes 
Baroda District where the kulin Lewa Kaubis, Marathas and even Kolis, in 
imitation of the Brahman-Vanias, forbid their widows to remarry, and then 
follows Amreli where both infant and unequal marriages are less common, and 
BO there is a smaller proportion of the widowed. 

336. Among Hindus 78 males and 181 girls are widowed in 1,000 of each 

sex of all ages. The corresponding proportions 
(2) By Religion. ^^.^ gg ^^^^^ ^^^ g^g females among Jains, 39 

males and 71 females among the Animistic tribes, 73 males and 179 females 
among Musalmans, 47 males and 153 females among Parsis and 67 males and 
138 females among the Native Christians. These varying proportions are due 
to the differences in customs with respect to widow marriage as described in 
para. 333. Of all religions, the Jains have the highest proportion of widows, as 
they mostly belong to the Vania castes all of which prohibit widow marriage, 



while the Animistic tribes have the lowest proportion, as among them there 
is no prohibition either of custom or sentiment, and as a rule widows marry 
soon after being widowed. Among Musalmans, though there is no prohibition 
against widow marriage, the Hindu prejudice against the marriage of widows 
affects most strongly those of them wlio are converts from that religion and 
are relatively the more numerous. 

337. In one thousand females of the child-bearing ages, viz., 15-40, in each 

religion, Hindus have 112 widows, Jains 231, Ani- 
Widows at child-bearing j.^^-^^-^ ^j.-|^gg 33^ Musalmans 106, Parsis 67 and 

^^^^' Christians 50. These figures alone are sufficient to 

give an idea of the incalculable harm, Hindus and Jains cause to those poor 
creatures, to themselves and to the society at large. In spite of the existence of 

women fit for 
Diagram shoioing the number per 1,000 aged 15-40 ivho are loidoiced 

(by religions). 



50 



100 150 EOO e.50 



ALL RELIGIOWS 




... 




— — 




HINDU 


• WMBMH 











UAIN 


— 


n 








ANIMIST 






















MUSALMAN 




— 








PARSI 


• _B 













_ 








Christian 




i« 









MALE -.-- .. 



FEMALE 



m a r r lage in 
their castes, 
many a grown- 
up male has to 
remain a 
bachelor r 
widowed or to 
take a child- 
wife. It often 
happens that a 
man marries 
a girl at the 
most of 12 or 
1 3 after he has 
lost his first 
wife ; she dies 
after a time 

and another is married. This also meets with the same fate and a fourth is 
married when probably the man is 50, and she is left a widow before she has 
arrived at womanhood or soon after. In some of the Brahman- Vania castes, 
negotiations for a new wife are carried on in the burning ground, while the dead 
body of the late wife is being consumed by fire- How cruel and selfish it is 
that these very people, who are themselves so eager to contract a second 
marriage, enforce their unlucky daughters and sisters to undergo life-long 
widowhood! 

338. Infant marriages result in the sickening spectacle of child-widows. 

In the State as a whole, 2 girls per mille aged 0-5, 
5 per mille aged 5-10, and 25 per mille aged 10-15 
are returned as widows among the Hindus. The corresponding figures among 
Jains are 1, 1 and 11, and among Musalmans 1, :■> and 9, respectively. There 
are practically no child-widoas among the Parsis and the Animistic tribes. The 
widowhood of Musalman girls, and of girls belonging to the castes which allow 



Child-widows. 



158 



CHAPTEi: VII — Civil. CiiNDrriiiN. 



lot ol' those belongius; to Hindu and 



miserable and can best be imagined 



widow marriage is only nominal, but the 
Jain castes lorbidding their marriages is 
than described. 

339. Statistics given in the margin, which have been extracted Iroin 



Proportion of wiilows in 1,000 Hindu females at 


Age-period. 


Census of 




1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


0—5 

5—10 

10-16 

1»— 20 

20—40 

10—60 

60 and o»er 


2 

.,5 

35 
129 

539 
847 


4 
12 
44 
95 

206 
528 
775 


1 

4 

IS 

22 

93 

461 

834 


1- » 

17 

33 

117 

459 

80» 



Subsidiary Table I, show that compared with the figures of lyOl, the proportion 

I i*u „=»» r^.,.„.». of Hindu widows of all ages is now 

Comparison with past Censuses- . , , , ^ , i . -^ 

considerably less than what it was 

ten years ago.. But the return of 
1901 was abnormal, owing to the 
heavy mortality which occurred 
during the great lamine which pre- 
ceded it. Similarly the Census of 
1881 also followed a period of 
scarcity. In considering the varying 
prevalence of widowhood, so far as 
it is due to social causes, it is better 
to look to the results of 1891 rather 
than to those of 1901 and ISSl. It 
will appear that the proportion of 
widows at all ages is now higher than what it was 20 years before. This 
increase is not due to any change in the social customs of the people, but to 
the effects of famine and plague in the years following the Census of 1891. No 
caste, which was formerly known as allowing widow marriage, has prohibited 
the practice during the last twenty years. Infant marriages are now no doubt 
less common than before, at least among the higher castes ; and had it not been 
for famine and plague, which preceded this decade and the two Kadwa Kanbi 
marriage seasons which came in its midst, the proportion ol' widows, both at the 
early and higher ages, would no doubt have been smaller now than ten or 
twenty years ago. 

340. The present day attitude of the })eople towards widow marriage may 

be summarised in the words " passive sympathy on 
Present day attitude ^j^g .^^ ^^ ^^^ educated and blind opiWBition on the 

towards widow-marnage. ^^^^.^^^^ ^j^^ ignorant.'; Eloquent speeches are made 
at all the annual Social Conferences for ameliorating the hard lot of widows, and 
Associations have been formed in some of the principal cities for encouraging 
the remarriage of widows. Under their auspices a few widow marriages 
have been performed in the past, but the subsequent treatment of those Avho led 
the way serves as a warning rather than an example to others. The married 
pair is not only outcasted but harassed, in a variety of ways, and the promoters 
of the marriage remain aloof clinging to their caste. No caste has yet resolved 
to o-ive up its custom of enforced widowhood ; and so long as the advocates of 
the cause of widows have not the courage to band themselves together and 
defy their ignorant and illiterate castemen by taking the risk of separating from 
them, their "efforts, however laudable, are not likely to bring about any satisfac- 
tory result. A distinguished student of sociology has said : — " The Indian is 
distinguished from the European by his lack of jiersonal independence. He is 
afraid to stand alone or to do anything' ol which his society disapproves.'' 
This is one of the reasons why even the advocates of social reform sometimes 
fail to put their views into practice. 

341. The question of widow marriage has now liecome a question of 

necessity. The number of females being smaller 
than that of males, and there being a prohibition 
against, widow marriage, many persons in some 
castes have peri'oree to remain without wives. Some 

widow remarriages have taken place in Gujarat as a result of this necessity. 
In the year 1907-08 a number of petitions were received ])\ Ilis Highness the 
Maharaja Gaekwad from Sinore, Savli, Baroda, Patau and Navsari, praying 
that widow-remarriage should be made compulsory, and that those widows, 
who did not remarry, should be fiinMl heavily. The [)etitioners recounted the 
hardships widows have to suffer, and, in addition, tiieir own hardships in having 



Widow marriage, a social 
necessity in some 
castes. 



WIDOW MAURIAGK CEREMONIKS. 159 



to remain baclielorB, owing to the paucity of virgin brides in their castes. The 
applicants Irom Siuore regretted why His Highness' Government did not make 
widow-remarriage compulsory when they had made such a thing as education 
compulsory. These petitions show that a strong feeling in favour o]' widow- 
marriage is awakened in the hearts of some of the people. His Highness the 
Maharaja, to whom the cause of social reform owes much for its advancement, 
could not, of course, make widow-marriage compulsory as desired by these 
people, but he has made it permissive by passing the Widow-remarriage Act. 
Under its provision any girl, who has become a widow, can remarry with the 
consent of her guardian, if she is under 16, and of her own free will, if above 
16. Such a remarriage is no bar to her acquiring rights of inheritance as 
widow or mother in her uew husband's family. 

WIDOW REMARRIAGE CEREMONIES. 

342. The ceremony relating to the performance of a widow marriage is 

not so elaborate as that of a lirsr marriage. Remarr- 
' cerernorTies'^^* ^*&^ (na^ra) is generally performed at night. Lewa 

Kanbi and such other comparatively higher castes 
employ Brahmaus who perform some short ceremony, while Kolis and such 
other lower castes neither employ Brahmans nor perform any ceremony. It is 
sufficient among the latter, for the widow intending to marry to put on clothes 
and bangles given to her by her future husband and then enter his house with 
a pot of water on her head. Rice is sprinkled over the newly-married couple, 
who in company with a few friends, partake of sweetmeats. Among the higher 
castes, the future husband goes to the widow's house with his friends and rela- 
tions, gives a sum ot money to the father of the widow as bride-price and 
returns home after the ceremony is performed. Here also rice is sprinkled over 
the newly-united pair. On the completion of the ceremony, a least is generally 
given to the caste people by the parents of the widow-bride. A Tuesday or a 
Sunday is generally selected for solemnising a widow's marriage. 

No ceremonies are performed among the Animistic tribes when a widow 
marries. The husband presents her with a new ])etticoa(, bodice and robe. 
He comes to her house and takes her away with him. Among the Nayakdas 
this must be done at night, for it is the common belief that it a widow is 
remarried in day-time, the village will be burnt. 

Among the Bhils, marriage with a widow generally takes the form of an 
elopement, the bride and bridegroom being generally received back after 
the bridegroom has made the bride's friends and the headman a present. The 
couple pass the day after the wedding in some solitary place, three or ibur miles 
from the village from which they must not return till dusk. 

Among Musalmans, the same ceremonies that are performed on the first 
marriage are performed on the marriage of a widow. Among Parsis a widow 
marriage differs from a maiden marriage in that it is performed at midnight 
instead of in the evening ; and Avhile the blessings are repeated the rice is 
thrown from below instead of from above as in a maiden marriage. The 
marriage of a bachelor and a spinster and the marriage of a widower and a 
spinster are called shahzan or royal marriage. The remarriage of a widow 
either with a bachelor or a widower is called chakarzan marriage or natra. 

343. On the day of her husband's death, the widow has to break her 
_ bracelets in all Hindu castes and on the tenth day. 
Treatment of widows. ^^^^^ ^^^ funeral, she has to cause her liead to be 



shaved in all Gujarati castes in which remarriage oi' widows is prohibited. 
Among Deccani castes a widow's head is shaved even on the first day. If she 
is very young or pregnant or has a suckling child, she is allowed to wear her 
bracelets and her hair until she is about 20 to 30 years old, when on the 
occurrence of a death among her near relations or on a visit to a place of 
pilgrimage, her bracelets are broken and her head is shaved. A widow cannot 
make the usual red powder mark, chanlla, on her forehead. She must put on 
j)lain dark garments and live on coarse food. Among Deccanis red or white 



160 ( HATTKi; VII CIVIL (i )N'DITI( iN. 



garmonLs are allowed. For one year after the death of her husband, she has to 
mourn sitting in a corner oi the house. Then she goes to her lather's house to 
leave off mourning. After tlais she is allowed to move about and go out of the 
house. But. so long as she lives, she takes no part in caste dinners or other 
happy gatherings, lor a widow's shadow is deemed unlucky. She generally 
passes her time in working as a household drudge in her father-in-law's house 
and in hearing lathai', visiting temples and performing pilgrimages. If she 
wishes to live apart, she is given a room in the house and an allowance in cash 
or kind sufticient for tho bare necessaries of life. 



Among Musalmaus the mourning laid down by the Mahomedan Law for a 
widow is lour months and ten days. During that period the widow does not 
leave the houst'. Besides this strictly Mahomedan observance, other customs 
have been adopted from the Hindus. As soon as life is gone, the mother and 
the widow of the dead break their bangles. The mother may put on new 
bangles, but the widow never again wears bracelets or a nose ring. 

DIVORCE. 

344. As a general rule, chhuta cMedo or divorce is allowed among castes 

which practise widow-remarriage. Adultery and 
disagreement are the usual grounds of divorce. 
Though allowed, divorces are rare, except among the lowest castes. A divorced 
wife is in the position of a widow and can contract a second marriage, but the 
children by her first husband remain with him. Among Bahrots, Kanbis and 
other higher castes, a husband may divorce his wife, but the wife is not allowed 
to divorce her husband. Among Kachhias,CThanchis and other artizan castes, 
permission of the caste panchayat is necessary before a divorce, either by the 
husband oi- wife can be granted. Among Kolis a husband can divorce his wife 
simply by making a formal declaration to that effect. A Koli woman can also 
divorce her husband, bur she has to return the palla or dowry settled on her at 
the time of marriage. Marriage ties are broken among the depressed classes on 
the slightest grounds. Amons' Dheds divorce can be obtained to an indefinite 
extent. Bi'lore they settle to wedded life, most couples have more than once 
changed their partners. But before the change takes place, there must be formal 
divorce recognised by the caste. Among the Aninristic tribes, husband and wife 
divorce each other even merely from fancy. Among Naikdas, if a woman 
deserts her husband and goes to live with another man, he has to pay her first 
husband Rs. 1(>. If the husband consents to give up his wife, he is paid nothing. 
Among Koknas, a woman may leave her husband and go to live with anot!-er 
man on his agreeing to pay her husband the amount he spent as dowry. Simi- 
larly, a married Bhil woman, taking fancy to a man, may go and live with him, 
if he is willing to pay her husband's marriage expenses. 

Among Mnsalmans divorce is at the option of the husband. But in Gujarat 
it is rarely practised. A divorcer finds it difficult to marry suitably a second 
time, and a wonian once divorced tries as far as she can to shun matrimony for 
the rest of her life on the ground of the proverb " sej badlane se uarmn nahi 
hadalate,'' i.e., by changing the bed, fate cannot be altered. After divorce a 
woman cannot marry for three months called iddat or term during which her 
husband is bound lo maintain her. 

Anioiiu I'aisis divorces are regulated bv Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act 
(XXV) of lcS6.^. 

POLYGAMY. 

345. Among Hindus, though the Shastras permit polygamy, Brahmans and, 

Vanias ai-e, as a rule, monogamous. But some 

Brahman castes, such as Audich, Anavala, Tapodhan, 

etc., and some Vania caetes, such as Deshavals allow polygamy. In all other 

castes polygamy is allowed and practised. As a general rule, however,. 



PiiI.YANDIM. 161 



a second wife is uot taken, unless the first is barren, gives birth to daughters 
only or is afflicted with some incurable disease. In a few castes, such as 
Glianchis, etc., permission from caste panchayat is necessary before a second 
wife can be married in the lii'e-time of the tirst. But in most of the castes no 
such permission is necessary and a second wife is taken merely at the caprice 
of the husband or on such tlinisy o-rounds as the father of the wife delaying 
sending her to her husband nv not providing her with sufficient clothes and orna- 
ments. Sometimes it is the first wife who goads her husband to marry a second 
one when she herself is barren, or when her children do not live. Among 
Anavala and Audich Brahmanw and Lewa Kanbis polygamy was once practised, 
simply because each new wife meant getting a good dowry from her father. In 
the State as a whole, the Census shows that there are 1,007 married women to 
every 1,000 married men. The apparent excess of wives is probably due to the 
large number of emigrants, many of whom are married and leave their wives at 
home, but allowing for this, it is clear that monogamy is the general rule and 
polygamy the exception. 

346. PolvQ'amv is allowed amona; all the Animistic tribes. A man marries 

. . . ^. ^ .^ a second or third wife if the first does not bear 

Animistic tribes. , ., , .,. , , , n •,, , • ... 

cliildreu or if she cannot get on well with him or if 



he does not like her or if he has a large number of children and the work of the 
house-hold is heavy. Cases of jiolygamy are, however, getting rare, and generally 
when a new wife is brought, the old one leaves the house and joins some one 
else in matrimony. There are thus only 1,013 wives to every 1,000 husbands. 

347. Among Mahomedans polygamy is allowed upto four wives. The hus- 
band is enjoined to treat them on an enual footiuo- in 
Masalmans. ,, ^^ • i ^i ^- c ^ ■ ^ 

ail matters with tfie exception of sexual intercourse. 

But, as a rule in Gujarat, a Musalmau is content to have one wife only, not from 
any feeling of abhorrence towards this anomalous institution but from his in- 
ability to provide for such an expensive luxury. Only a few well-to-do persons 
are found to have more than one wife. There are only 1,002 wives to every 1,000 
husbands. The true proportion is somewhat obscured owing to the habir of 
Mahomedans to leave their wives at home when they emigrate to other parts, but 
uot so as to disturb the conclusion that the great majority of Mahomedans are 
monogamous. 

POLYANDRY. 

o48. The two recognized types of polyandry are: the matria rchal when a 

woman forms alliances with two or more men, who 
are not necessarily related to each other and 
succession is therefore traced through the female ; and the fraternal when she 
becomes the wife of several brothers. Neither of these is to be found within 
the limits of the State, but traces of the latter remain in the practice of diyarvatu 
or marriage with an elder brother's widow which is prevalent to some extent 
among some of the lower castes, viz.^ Koli, IMali, Sathawara, Bhavsar, Darji, 
Ghauchi, Gola, Kumbhar, Mochi, Salat, Ahir, Bharvad, Eabari, Bhangi, Dhed 
and Shenva. Kathi is the only high caste in which diyarvatu is practised. Kathi 
women are proverbially handsome and, unlike other Hindu females, are treated 
on a social equality with their husbands. Unmarried and married women, like 
widows, wear no wrist ornaments. "Widow-marriage is allowed but is seldom 
practised. In such cases the rule is imperative that the younger brother must 
marry his elder brother's widow. Among the other castes, diyarvatu is getting 
more and more into disrepute. The custom is not looked upon with favour, 
because in imitation of the higher castes an elder brother's wile is regarded as 
mother of her husband's younger brothers. A younger brother entitled to 
marry his brother's widow prefers to forego his right over her on receipt of 
money equivalent to his diseased brother's marriage expenses from a third 
party wishing to take her as his wife. It is only when a widow has young 
children, who are likely to be neglected if she were to marry outside the family^ 
that it is considered advisable for her to marry her (Hyar, provided he is 
grown up. 



162 OIAITKK VII— Civil. CnNlilTKiN. 



HYPERQAMY. 

349. Hypergamy or the practice of marrying girls iu families higher inso- 

cial rank in the caste than that oi' their parents, prevails 
ypergamy. among many Hindu castes, but notably among the 

Anavala, Audich and Ivhedaval Brahmaus, and the Eajput, Levva Kanbi, Maratha 
Kshatriya and Brahma Bhat castes. The different huts or families ot the same 
caste are not treated with equal consideration. Certain families are considered 
Iculin or of good birth, either from some honour conferred on their ancestors by 
the rulers ol' the laud or from the benefits conferred by them on the caste. The 
hulins maiTv their daughters only in their own circle, but have uo objection to 
take wives from families of inferior rank, provided they get handsome dowries, 
which range from a few hundred to several thousand rupees. It is ahvays an 
object of solicitude to the parents of a female child that they should procure her 
marriage with the scion of a more noble family. To wed her to a bridegroom oi 
inferior rank is considered disgraceful. This feeling, coupled with the heavy 
expenditure to be incurred at the time of marriage, once led the Jadeja Rajputs 
of Kutch and Kathiawad and the Kanbis of Gujarat to practise the dreadful 
crime of female infanticide, which has already been described in the Chapter on 
Sex (para. 301). 

The custom of hypergamy had led to several unusual practices. A father 
who marries his daughter to a hulin, has not only to pay a handsome dowry 
with his daughter, but also to provide her and her chifdren every year with 
their wearing apparel. He has to share in the marriage expenses of his daugh 
ter's daughters, and to make cash paymeiits to his son-in-law's parents and other 
relations, when they visit his house and on several other occasions of rejoicing or 
mourning. He has to take care that his son-in-law or his relations are in no way 
displeased, for their displeasure may possibly result in his daughter being- 
troubled or discarded. The hulins having their own ghls as also those from the 
lower grades in the castes available for marriage, not only do not allow their 
widows to marry, but also practise polygamy. They are ready to contract a 
second marriage on the slightest pretext. Caste people quote instances of huUn 
Rajpuis, Lewa Kanbis, Anavalas and Audichas in straightened circumstances, 
having married again and paid off their debts from the dowry received with 
their second or third wife. On the other hand, there is always a deficiency of 
brides in the lowest grades of some of these castes and some have actually to 
remain bachelors for life, or to resort to widow marriage or sata tekliada, i.e., 
agreeing to give a girl in marriage on condition that a girl from her husband's 
family shall be given in marriage to one's son or other near relation. Some of 
the Lewa Kanbis, who give their daughters in marriage to the hulin section of 
their caste in the Charottar, have even to ^^urchase as wives women of unknown 
origin brought from Kathiawad. They are, however, allowed to give their 
daughters in marriage to the hulin section above them and the latter marry their 
daughters to the Patidars of the thirteen villages iu Charottar, who rank the 
highest in the caste. Similarly among the Audichas, those who have settled in 
Vagad, are considered the lowest in the caste owing to their allowing widow- 
marriage and carrying cooked food to the fields ; and yet they are allowed to 
give their daughters in marriage to the Audichas of Halawad iu Kathiawad, 
whose daughters marry Dhaugadra Audichas and the daughters of Dhangadra 
Audichas are married to Viramgam, Ahmcdabadaud Sidhpur Audichas, who, 
hold the highest social rank in the caste. The custom of hypergamy has ruined 
several families with many daughters in the castes which practise it. It has 
forced them to mortgage their lands and to incur other debts beyond their means 
of repaying. Of late years there has been a change in the attitude of the people 
towards the hulins in their castes. This is ])artly due to feelings of retaliation 
brought about by the unreasonable and ever-increasing demands of the huiim 



s 



themselves and partly to western education, which inclines parents to seek 
educated and well-to-do husbands for their daughters in preference to the mere 
hulinSy who are not unfrequeutly both ignorant and pauper. Hypergamy has 



ENDOGAMY 163 



already cousiderably disappeared aiDong Lewa Kaiibis, Auavalas and Audichas 
under the iuflueuce of akdas or solemn agreements made by most of their people 
to eschew the kuliiu and to give and take in marriage only in their own social 
circle. 

ENDOQAMY. 

350. Endogamy or the custom of "marrying iu" which forbids the members 
Endogamy ?^ ^ particular social group to marry any one who 

is not a member of the group, prevails not only 
among Hindus and Jains, but also among the Animistic tribes. A man must 
marry not only within his caste but also within his sub-caste, if it is divided 
into sub-castes. Further restrictions on the selection of brides and bridegrooms 
are placed iu most of the Brahman, Vania and artizan castes by elalas or solemn 
agreements by which die caste members, residing within a particular area called 
gol or circle, are restricted in giving and taking in marriage to the circumscribed 
field of their caste-men living within that area. Peoj)le living in villaoes are 
anxious to wed their daughters to dwellers in towns ; while the town people 
avoid giving their daughters in marriage to those who live in villao-es. These 
tendencies lead to uneven results, which the ehdas are intended "^to remedy. 
Within the last twenty years, the Anavalas, Lewa Kanbis and other castes in 
which hypergamy prevails are looking towards the kulins with feelings of less 
regard than before, and have in some places resolved to marry their girls only 
in their own social circle and not to the kulins. The result of all these tenden- 
cies has been to multiply, even within the limit of a caste, the number of groups 
within which marriages are restricted. For instance, the ModJa Vanias are divi- 
ded into Adalja, from Adalaj, Goghava from Gogho and Mandalia from Mandal. 
Each of them is further sub-divided into Visa, whole, and Dasa, half, a division 
common to all Vania castes including even Jain Vanias. These again are split 
into later local sections, Ahmedabadi and Khambhati, with the result that all 
the sub-divisions dine together,, but for purposes of intermarriage, the Modh 
Vanias have about twelve separate groups. In addition to their local sub- 
divisions of Vaduagara, Visuagara, Sathodra, etc., each Nagar caste has a 
grahasth'i or laymen class and a bhiJcshuka or priestly class between which 
marriages are not allowed. The constant creation of these separate connubial 
groups has been doing great harm, both moral and physical, to the people by 
narrowing the circle of selection in marriage. Social reformers are advocating 
the fusion of sub-castes and the introduction of rotivyachartyati leti vyavlicir, i.e. 
intermarriage with those with whom one can interdiue, i.e., in the whole caste. 
But though the propriety of the reform is admitted, as yet no action has been 
taken by any caste to introduce it. I am informed that the Deshaval Brahmans 
of Patau are carrying on negotiations for intermarriage with the Audich 
Brahmans ; and so are doing the Visa Khadayata Vanias of Baroda with their 
Dasa section. 

351. According to the tenets of the faith, all Mahomedans can interdine 

as well as intermarry. But;. though interdiuin"- is 
^""mi^^mJZT!^ followed the practice as regards intermarriage is 

different. Pure Musalmans or those having a 
foreign strain, viz. : Shaikh, Saiyad, Mughal and Pathan, as a rule, do not marry 
outside their circle or tribe. They are proud of their blood and are averse to 
form connections which may lower them in the estimation of their people. Amouf 
some very exclusive sections like the Saiyads, family trees are examined and every 
care is taken that the accepted suitor is a Saiyad both on the father's and 
mother's side. The convert classes observe the same restrictions as regards 
marriage as Hindus do, and neither give nor take in marriage from any class but 
their own. The prohibition on intermarriage extends to higher as well as lower 
castes. A Ghauchi, for instance, must marry none but a Ghanchi. If this rule 
is transgressed, the offender is hauled up before the Jamat or Caste Panchayat 
and ejected from the community. The result is that these groups are as strictly 
endogamous as Hindu castes. 



164 CHAl'TER Vn— CIVIL CONDITION. 



352. The Parsi community is divided into two classes called Mobed or 

priests and Behdins or non-priests. The distinction 

'l*^K"!f "^f^«''^H^^^" lias been handed down from antiquity. The elite 
Mobeds and Bendins. ^i i- - ., j i • i . i 1 ^i 

were the religious guides and legislators, while the 

others were common men. It is possible that the two classes sprang i'rom 

two different peoples. Before the last 50 years intermarriages between the 

Mobeds and Behdins were unknown. But the Parsis, who are ever progressive 

and ready to adapt their customs to the times, have given up the restriction and 

now, except perhaps in a few very orthodox families, intermarriage between the 

two classes takes place. As Mr. Dalai wrote in his report of the last Census " the 

Mobeds themselves have spurned the narrow limit of sacerdotal avocations 

and have zealously entered into all the professions and occupations worth 

following after discarding the distinctive white turban and dress of Mobeds, 

and submitting their chins to the razor of the barber ; it is now hard to 

distinguish these from the Behdins and so intermarriages are on the increase 

every year." 

EXOGAMY. 

353. In addition to endogamy, exogamy or the practice of " marrying 
P out" further restricts the circle within which Hindu 

marriages can be celebrated. It forbids the mem- 
bers of a particular group in a caste, usually supposed to be descended from a 
common ancestor or associated with a particular locality, to marry any one who is a 
member of the same group. While endogamy restricts intermarriage in one 
dkection by creating a number of artificially small groups within which people 
must marry, exogamy brings about the same result by artificially expanding the 
circle within which they may not marry. The usual rule is that marriages are 
not allowed among relations on the father's side upto seven degrees, and on the 
mother's side upto five degrees. In addition to this no two members ot the same 
gotra or shahlia can marry among Brahmaus and Bhats. Among Rajputs, members 
of a clan are forbidden to marry within the clan, as all members of a clan are 
believed to be the children of one common ancestor. As Sir James Campbell says 
in the Bombay Gazetteer volume on Gujarat Population, p. 124 " the dread of 
marriage among relations is sometimes carried to a strange extreme. As all 
Jadavs are in theory of the same stock, members of that great clan, whether 
Jadejas, Chudasamas or Bhatis, ought not to intermarry. A Jadeja should not 
marry a (yhudaeama, although the tribes separated in very early times. When 
the members of a clan became very numerous aud spread over a large extent of 
country, the practice of naming groups of families mostly after a distinguished 
common ancestor aud sometimes after the place of residence came into vogue. 
Sometimes surnames are taken from a calling as in the case of retinas or carriers 
of Government property ; and at times a mere change in dress is sufficient to 
create a new surname. The Kachhotias are so called, because their women 
adopted the practice of passing the robe tack between the feet aud tucking the 
end into the waistband. As far as can be ascertained Gujarat Rajputs have one 
hundred aud three surnames. In Surat aud Broach most Rajputs have lost all 
trace of their clan. Some of the sub-clans are so large and so long established 
that they have the importance of sejiarate clans. Instances have occurred of 
marriages being annulled when it was found that the clans of the bride and 
bridegroom were divisions of the same stock." Among Lewa Kanbis, in 
Charottar, a girl cannot be married to a boy living in the same village ; for, 
although there may be no prohibited relationship between them, all those 
living in a village, however distant, are believed to be the descendants of a 
common aucestor, and marriage between children of the same ancestor is 
considered disgraceful. On the other hand, among Brahmane and Vanias 
living in towns, it is the custom not to marry girls outside the same place, 
and it is only when a bridegroom is not locally available that an outsider is 
considered eligible. This leads to formation of exogamous groups of the 
local type. 



EXOGAMY. 165 



a.nrl a.n 
Among Parsis. 



354. Cousauguiueous luarriages are, as a rule, practised among Mahomed- 

ans. Within families of the same; ancestor, 
Consanguineous marriages are sometimes arranged bv exchange, i.e., 

^Mahlfmedans""^" ^ ■-"■' ^"^ "^^^"^'^^ ^'°'' *^^ ^^"' brother or some other 

relative of the person and his daughter, sister, 
niece, or some other relation is taken for the sou or some other male relation 
of the person making the offer. When a relation is unable to give a girl in 
exchange, he is given a girl in marriage on the condition that the first daughter 
born to him should be given in marriage to some relation of the person who 
bestows on him the hand of his daughter. 

355. Consanguineous marriages are also allowed among the Parsis 

and are very common. They are mainly arranged 
to save the dowry which would have to be paid if 

the bridegroom was an outsider. As a general rule, the father of the bride gives 
a present to the bridegroom and the relatives who accompany him at the 
marriage. This present which has practically assumed the form of a dowry has 
much increased in value within the last few years, and the parents of daughters 
find it difficult to clispose of their girls, if they have not the wherewithal to pay 
it. The possession of high educational qualifications is a factor which adds 
greatly to the value of the bridegroom. A Bachelor of Arts, if he is also a 
bachelor in life, must have from his father-in-law, besides a " wingless nymph " 
from two to five or even ten thousand rupees in cash. 

356. The Animistic tribes are very loose about their marriage relations. 

Among the Bhils, a woman marries again not only 
Looseness of marriage -f j^g^, husband dies, but if she falls in love with 

another man and can get him to take her and pay 
her husband his marriage expenses. The children, if there are any, remain 
with the father. An unmarried girl is allowed to live with any man she likes 
without any ceremony either of marriage or betrothal. If after betrothal, a girl 
goes to live with some other man, her husband has to pay her betrothed the 
cost of the betrothal ceremony. Among the Koknas and other forest tribes a 
woman may leave her husband and go to live with another man on his agreeing 
to pay her husband the amount he spent as bride-price after her. Among the 
Nayakdas, if a girl reaches the age of sixteen and her parents have not betrothed 
her, she may go and live with any man she chooses, and if he agrees to pay her 
parents sixteen rupees, no objection is raised. Again, if a woman deserts her 
husband and goes to live with another man, he pays her husband sixteen rupees. 
If the husband consents to give up his wife, he is paid nothing. 

357. The practices of different castes with regard to the consideration for 

. marriage are different. In some castes, such as the 

onsi era i e. j^g^^g^ Kanbis, Auavala Brahmans, Rajputs and Mara- 

thas, the bride's father has to pay the father of the bridegroom ; in others such as 
several Brahman, Vauia and artizan castes, the bridegroom's father has to pay, 
and in others again, such as Valmik Kayasth, no money passes. In the lower 
circles neither bridegroom price nor bride price is paid, but marriage is agreed 
uj)on simply on the understanding that a counter marriage will follow. This is 
called sata tehhada or giving a girl in marriage on the agreement that the bride- 
groom's sister or some other female relative will be given in marriage to the 



& 



bride's brother or some other near male relation. The practice of the bride's 
father paying money to the bridegroom is looked upon as a preferable arrange- 
ment, while that of the bride's father receiving money from the bridegroom's 
father, Icunya vihraya^ is looked upon as sinful. But the party who has to pay 
and the amovmt he must give, depends generally speaking, on the demand and 
supply of brides and bridegrooms and this again is determined to a great 
extent by the existence or otherwise of the custom of hypergamy, widow- 
marriage and the like. Where girls are paid for, their price depends on 
their age, and their value rises higher as they approach to maturity. Some 
parents, especially in Kathiawad, allow their girls to grow up, simply 
because they may fetch a high price from some grown-up bachelor or rich 
widower in the matrimonial market. In the functional castes, a widow of 



166 OHAPTKR VII CIVIL CoXDITIOX. 



mature ag-e, who is expert iu household work and tamily business, has to be 

Said for more than a virgin who is young-er, but less experienced in house- 
old work. 

358. Among Hindus a husband does not name his wife nor does a wife 

utter the name of her husband. If one wants to 
^"^ husb'an^d and wUe."""" '^^^^ ^he other he or she does not do so by the other's 

name but uses such expressions as " do jo^ hear," ^ 
" so a.nd so's mother," naming the child. The belief is that death ^vou]d~'be ^ 
caused or other harm would result if one of the couple calls the other by name. 
Among most of the castes, the wife does not appear before the husband iu the 
presence of elders or strangers. It is only when they are alone that husband 
and wife can talk to each other, and as soon as an elder iu the family, e.g., an 
elder brother, father, mother, etc., comes up, the wife covers her face and 
hurriedly wdthdi'aws. A mother or father cannot talk to or even look towards 
the children in the presence of elders. The idea is that so long as elders are 
alive, the children are theirs and not of theu* immediate parents, and it would 
be want of respect on the part of the latter towards the former to do anything 
that may signify the contrary. 

A great change has taken place within the last thirty years. Old ideas of 
false decorum are disappearing under the influence of Western education, and 
parents are taking ever-increasing interest iu their own children and husbands in 
their wives. Twenty or thirty years ago people who left their home for service 
or business elsewhere, could not take their wives with them. To do so was 
looked upon as immodest. Wives were left at home and visited only occasionally 
during the Holi or Diwali holidays. These ideas have now become obsolete and 
a man can take away his wife from the family home wherever he likes. 

MARRIAGE CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIES. 

HINDUS. 

3.59. The marriage customs and ceremonies of the different Hindu castes 

differ much from one another, but there are certain 
cere^JotirarnTHrnls. ^ff ^^^-J -f ^rs, w^hich are more or less common to 

all, and they can be briefly described here. 
Marriages can take place only between members of the same caste, and if it is 
divided into sub-castes, between members of the same sub-caste. If the caste 
or sub-caste is large and spread over a wide area, some territorial limit is fixed 
beyond which marriages cannot be performed, even within the same caste or 
sub-caste, without paying such a penalty as may have been fixed. Such an area 
is called gol or circle and the agreement binding the members to restrict their 
marriage relations within it, is called ekda. There are certain families in each 
caste which are considered kulin from the benefits conferred on the caste 
generally by their ancestors. It is always an object of solicitude to the 
parents of a female child to procure her marriage with the scion of a more 
noble family. To wed her to a bridegroom of inferior rank is considered 
disgraceful. Proposals of marriage emanate from a house of lesser preten- 
sion, and the father of a bride who seeks to ally his child to the blue blood 
of a more distinguished lul, must balance the scale with gold. If the families 
are considered to be on an equality, more money than is customary in the caste 
is not demanded on either side. The five commonest arrangements' are : — (I'lthe 
bridegroom receives a portion with the bride ; (2) the bridegroom pays a sum 
of money to the bride's father ; (3) the bridegroom settles a certain sum on the 
bride called pallu, which becomes a part of her stridhan or dower ; (4) no 
stipulation is made about dowry or portion ; (5) the marriage is agreed on the 
understanding that a counter-alliance will follow. Of these arrangements the 
first is the commonest among Anavala and Audich Brahmans, Lewa Kaubis 
Rajputs and Marathas ; the second is found among some Brahman, Vania and' 
other castes among whom there is a scarcity of brides ; the third is common 
among some high caste Brahmans, artisans and other castes ; the fourth is 
found among a few castes like Luhanas; and the last, which is called sata telJida 



.MAiatlAliH CUSTOMS AND CKKEMONIES. 167 



is adopted to gaiu brides I'oi' laeii nf Inw family or kul, or i'or those who canuot 
otherwise secure them. Deirothal generally takes ])iace some years before. 
When a betrothal is foimd lo be free from any objection, the horoscopes of the 
bride and bridegroom are consulted, and if the astrologer finds no objection, the 
girl's lather chooses an auspicious day for the betrothal and sends his family 
priest to the house of the intended husband to make the formal announcement. 
The priest is fed and is given a rupee or two as a present ; and as a sign of joy, 
the boy's father distributes sugarcandy among his friends and relations. In 
some castes, the family priest or a relation is sent previous to betrothal to see, by 
personal interview, that the bride is neither blind nor lame nor afflicted with other 
bodily defect, and that she is in every respect eligible. Similar inspection is 
also casually made of the bridegroom. The general rule is that a betrothal 
cannot be set aside, but the practice of different castes varies. Among some 
castes such as that of Lad Vanias and Luhanas, a betrothal cannot, under any 
circumstances, be set aside ; among some it may be avoided by the payment of 
a tine to the caste, while among Nagars and Lewa Kanbis, the offer of a better 
match is considered a reason enough for breaking the betrothal. Among these 
differences, one general rule prevails that, if either of the parties to be married 
becomes maimed or an invalid, the other is freed from the promise. Formerly 
among some Rajputs, if the betrothed bridegroom died, the girl who should 
have been his wife was treated as his widow, and considered incapable of 
entering into the married state. But now a betrothed bride is not so treated 
and may marry on the death of her affianced. 

No rule prevails regarding the length of time between betrothal and 
marriage. Astrologers are called for to point out the day indicated by the 
stars as propitious for the marriage. The fixing of the marriage day which 
must fall between the eleventh of Kariak Sud (October-November) and the 
•eleventh of Ashad Sud, rests with the girl's father. For marriage purposes 
■every twelfth year, Sinhadha, when Jupiter is in the sign of cancer, is alto- 
gether avoided. After the day is fixed, great preparations are made on both 
sides. The house is fresh coloured and white- washed, papad and vadi (wafer 
biscuits) are made for use on the marriage days and a booth is built in front of 
the house. Letters of invitations called kunkotri ivom their being sprinkled willi 
kunku (red powder) water are forwarded to the kindred of both bridegroom 
and bride. About iive days before the marriage, Ganpati is installed and 
worshipped and mandwa making ceremony is performed. A hole, about six 
inches deep is dug in a corner of the booth. The parents of the boy and of the 
girl with friends and relations sit near the hole and throw into it red powder, 
milk curds, beteluut and a copper coin. A piece of the f<amda or khtjda tree 
(^Prosopk HpidgeTo) about a foot long is set up in the hole. One or two days 
before the marriage day, a ceremony in honour of ancestors and to propitiate the 
planets, grahashanti is performed at the house of the bride and bridegroom. On 
the marriage day the women of the boy's and of the girl's families go separately 
to a potter's house with music, worship his wheel with red powder and flowers 
and bring home earthen pots to be used in the marriage ceremonies. The bride 
and the bridegroom each at their houses are then rubbed with j^Hhi, a mixture 
of oil, turmeric, camphor and some other fragrant substances. On the marriage 
day at the bride's house a space, generally in front of the entrance door of the 
house, about four feet squai'e, is enclosed by four posts one at each of the four 
corners. At each of the corners, three bamboos are set in the ground leaving 
between them a space of about eight inches, and round the three bamboos a red 
string is tied. In the space between the three bambuos, seven decorated earthen 
pots are piled, the largest at the foot, the smallest at the top. In the square 
between the four piles of pots, which is called the diori, the bride and bride- 
groom sit and the ceremonies are performed. The bridegroom seated in a 
palanquin or on horseback is bi'otight to the house of the bride's father. Dholis, 
drummers, &c., head the procession. Following them come the bridegroom's 
male relations and friends, then the bridegroom and then the female relations 
and friends singing songs, bring up the rear. The bridegroom holds seven 
betelnut leaves, seven betelnuts, a cocoanut and a )-upee in the hollow of his 
hands joined together. To ward off the influence of the evil eye, the sistt'r of 



168 CIIAI'TKU Vll CIVU. CO.NDlTlnN. 



the bridegroom sits near biiu aud waves a cup conlaiuing' salt over his head. 
When the house of the bride is reached, the procession stops, the bridegroom 
alights t'rom his horse or palanquin and stands on a wooden stool, just outside of 
the doorway. Here he is met by the bride's mother who makes a tilak on his 
brow, pulls his nose and shows him a miniature plough, a grinding pestle, a 
churning stick aud an arrow. 'Jhe object of these ceremonies seems to be to 
drive away the spirits which may have come into the booth along with the 
bridegroom. A ball of cowdung ashes is then thrown towards each of the 
four quarters of heaven. Two small earthen pots full of curds are 
held mouth to mouth, waved seven times round the bridegroom's body, 
and set on the ground. The bridegroom puts his right foot on the 
pots, breaks them to pieces, and enters the .marriage hall, mandva. He 
is then led to the square, chori. where he sits on a wooden stool, and, with the 
help of the famiiy-piriests, worships Ganpati. The parents of the bride then wash 
the bridegroom's great toes with milk, curds, honey, sugar and clarified butter. 
After the worship is over, the bride, dressed in ornaments and clothes, presented 
to her by her mother's brother, is brought in and placed, by her mother's 
brother on another stool opposite the bridegroom. A piece of cloth is stretched 
between the bride and the bridegroom. The Brahmaus recite luck-bringing 
verses, and the family-priests watch the waterclock or timekeeper shouting at 
intervals of a minute or two K^acadhan or " Attention," the time is near. 
When the propitious moment comes, the hands of the bride aud bridegroom are 
joined, the cloth between them is snatched to one side, the hems of their robes are 
tied together, the marriage garland of cotton threads is thrown over their necks, 
and the nmsicians strike up music. Then the relations and ifiends make 
presents to the bride and bridegroom. In the middle of the square, cl/ori, a 
sacrificial fire is lighted. The brother of the bride then comes to where the fire 
is lighted, holding a winnowing fan with barley and sesame, and drops into the 
hands of the bride and bridegroom four pinches of barley and sesame. Then 
the bride and bridegroom, throw along with clarified butter the barley and 
sesame into the fire and again walk round the altar. This is repeated four 
times. Then the bride and the bridegroom seat themselves on the stools, the 
bride on the bridegroom's left, and feed each other with four morsels of coarse 
wheat-flour mixed with clarified butter and sugar prepared by the bride's 
mother. The bridegroom and bride then worship the constellation of the Great 
Bear enjoining each other to be as constant as the poles. Then the bride and 
bridegroom, in front of the family deity inside the house, play at odds and evens 
each in turn holding some coins in closed hand and the other guessing whether 
the number of coins is odd or even. Luck in this game is an omen of luck in 
the game of life. The winner of the game is supposed to be the ruler of the 
house. If the bride and bridegroom belong to different places, the bridegroom's 
party stay as guests of the bride's father for two or three days. On an aus]ii- 
cious day after the marriage, the bride is sent away in com])any with her 
husband to her new house. The bride's mother worships the carriage sprinkling 
sandal-dust and flowers on one of the wheels, and laying a cocoanut in front of 
it as an offerin"- to the carriajre that it mav bear them safelv. ^^']len the 



carriage moves, the mother gathers the pieces of the cocoanut and lays them in 
her daughter's lap. No one from the bride's house goes with the party. It 
consists wholly of the bridegroom's friends and relations, the men walking in 
front of the carriage and the women walking behind singing songs. When the 
procession reaches the bridegroom's house the bride and bridegroom with the 
ends of their cloths tied together step out of the carriage and stand in front of 
the doorway on a wooden stool. The bridegroom's sister keeps the doors closed 
until she receives money presents from the bridegroom. They aie then led into 
the house by the bridegroom's mother, and taken to bow before the lamily-deity, 
and again before the god they play at odds and evens to see which of them is 
the luckier. This ends the marriage cei'emony. Caste dinners are given at the 
house l)Oth of the bride and of the bridegroom on the marriage-day or on some 
day before or after the marriage. The relations of the bridegroom have a right 
to dine at the bride's house, l»ut the relations of the bride do not dine at the 
bridegroom's house. 



makkiagl: customs and cerkmoxMks, lii'J 



JAINS. 

360. Like the Hindus marriages are not allowed among the Jaius between 

near relations. The marriage ceremonies of the few 
Marriage ceremonies j.^^^^^ -^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^-g-^^^. ^-.^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ -^^ yj^^^^^ 

among the Jams. , n ^ i i i . ■ t • 

members. liut wnen a wJiole caste is Jain, as among 

the Vanias, the ceremonies somewhat differ inasmuch as they discard Brahmanic 
rites as far as possible. The rules forbidding marriage with any one who does 
not belong to the same section of the caste are less strict in the case of Jain Vanias 
than in the case of Hindu Vanias or Meshris as ihev are called. Among the 
Meshri Vanias, marriage is forbidden between Dasa and Visa sections of the 
same caste. A Dasa Shrimali Meshri never marries with a Visa Shrimali and a 
Dasa Porwad Meshri never marries with a Visa Porwad. But unlike Meshris, 
members of corresponding minor sub-divisions among Jaius sometimes inter- 
marry. A Dasa Shrimali Jain marries a Dasa Porwad and a Dasa Oswal 
marries a Dasa Porwad and a Dasa Shrimali. The difEerence of religion is not 
considered a bar to marriage. A Jain Kanbi marries with a Vaishnav Kanbi 
aud so do Jain and Vaishnav members of other castes. Dasa Shrimali Shravaks 
marry with Dasa Shrimali Meshris and Dasa and Visa Porwad Shravaks marry 
with Dasa and Visa Porwad Meshris. With a few exceptions, the Shravak 
Vania ceremony is the same as that performed by Meshri Vanias. Boys aud 
girls are betrothed sometimes immediately before and sometimes many years 
before the marriage. The marriage day is fixed by a Brahman astrologer. Five 
days before the marriage the parents of both the bride and bridegroom worship 
an image of Ganpati which is painted on the house wall. The women of the 
bride and bridegroom's families go separately with music to the potter's liouse,^- 
worship his wheel and carry away a store of earthen vessels. At the bride's 
house a marriage booth is made, one of the pots of which among the Nimas is 
of qugal wood. A cho7-i is made in the centre of the booth. No planet pleasing 
or (jrahshanti ceremony is performed. On the day before the marriage the 
familv goddess is invoked and worshipped. In the evening of the marriage day 
the bridegroom dressed in rich clothes, with a cocoanut and a rupee in his hands, 
and with a black silk thread tied to his right ankle to ward off the evil eye, goes 
on horseback with music to the bride's house, the men of his party walking in 
front and the women in the rear. Among the Oswals the bridegroom wears a 
mugat, ooronet, and in other castes a turban. An Oswal bridegroom also 
•holds a sword in his hand. The ceremonies of reception at the bride's house 
and the presenting of miniature plough, arrow, etc., are the same as amongst 
Hindus. The bridegroom sits on a wooden stool and on his left on 
another sits the bride who is brought there by her maternal uncle. The 
bride's parents then formally offer her in marriage to the bridegroom. The 
maternal uncle lifts the bride aud carries her four times round the hus- 
band. Brahmans recite mmtras. The hems of the bride's and bridegroom's 
clothes are tied together, and they walk four times round a fire which 
is lit in the chori. They then feed each other with coarse wheat flour 
and worship Ganpati aud the family goddess. 



ANIMISTS. 

36 L. The marriage customs of the various animistic tribes are different, but 

the main features common to all except Dublas are 
Marriage customs among j,^^^ ^^^ ,^^ respect to Brahmans, and do not 

the Animistic tribes. , ^ ^ i .-i ■ ' • rn, r> i i i 

make use of llieir services. liie Dublas having 

come in greater contact with the Hindus, ask Brahmans to fix a lucky day and 
call them to perform the ceremonies which are almost the same as those 
practised among Hindus. Among all tribes the bridegroom has to pay bride- 
price to the bride's father which varies from about 10 to 50 rupees, and among 
some those who are unable to pay it, serve him for a term of years, as described 
in para. 365 (6\ As amongst Hindus both bride and bridegroom are rubbed with 



171) V tllAl'TKi; Vll CIVIL CONDITION'. 



pithi iu all tribes. Among the Bin Is a lire is kindled and round it the people 
dance, the bridegroom taking a few tmrns with the bride on his shoulder. When 
the dance is over the bridegroom gives all a drink belbre they leave. Among 
the Chodhras, the skirts of the bride and bridegroom are tied by the women of 
the house and together they walk four times round a pole in the booth. Music, 
dancing in which the bride and bridegroom join and a feast of rice and pulse 
complete the ceremony. When the bride leaves for her husband's house, her 
father gives her a she-buffalo or a money present. Among the Dhodias the 
bride and her friends go in procession to the bridegroom's house and the bride- 
groom's mother receives them. The ceremonies are carried on chiefly by women. 
VVhile the women sing songs, the bride to show her wish to be an obedient wife 
:sweeps the floor, clasps a pillar and declares that empty water pots are full. In 
front of a lighted lamp four married women tie together the hems of the pair's 
clothes. As they fasten the knot they sing a song the purport of which is : " Go to 
market and bring dates and cocoanuts ; eat mutton and fowls together. Have 
no quarrels. If she runs away .give her a kick and bring her back." When the 
song is finished a Naik unties the knot, strikes together the heads of the pair, 
and the ceremony is over. Among the Gamits, marriage takes place when the 
boy can climb a palm tree. The bridegroom wears a sword and he and his 
party halt under a tree close to the bride's village. The bride's father accom- 
panied by the bride and his friends comes out to meet them and feeds them with 
kodri and tadi. They then come to the bride's house when a woman ties the 
hems of the bride and bridegroom's clothes. The newly married jjair dance 
together in front of the house and their relatives embrace them each paying 
them about quarter of an anna. Among the Kathodias the bride is brought to 
the booth by her brother and the skirts of the pair are tied by a Kokna drum- 
mer. After a time the knot is loosened, her brother lifts the bride and his 
uncle lifts the bridegroom and they dance round, the drummers joining them 
in the dance. Among the Koknas the bride and bridegroom are made 
to sit on a blanket and their skirts are tied by a woman in front of a lamp. 
Each says the other's name and the knot is untied. Among the Naayakdas, 
the bride and bridegroom are seated face to face and two old men who for 
the occasion are called I'^ujari or priests, join their hands and tie their 
skirts. A sheet is then thrown over their heads and the old men give 
them some balls of flour and molasses. When each has twice fed the other 
the cloth is drawn awav and the marriao-e is over. 



~o^ 



MAHOMEDANS. 

362. As among the Hindus so among the Musalmans the marriage customs 

., . . .of different communities greatly differ, and a brief 

Mahomedan ceremonies. •, . ,. ^ , , ■ ° / ^. ' , , 

description oi those in general practice can only be 

given. Parents of the boy obtain information about a girl likely to make 
a good match, either through female relations or professional match-makers 
who are generally females. The women of the'.boy's family then pay a visit 
to the girl's house.. After seeing her and talking together the guests are 
offered a glass of sugared water. This they drink if they think well of the 
girl, but decline to do so, if they do not like her. After drinking, in sign that 
they ask her in marriage they drop some sugar candy in the girl's mouth. Then 
they settle what ornaments would be presented on either side and fix the day for 
the betrothal. In the evening of the betrothal day ornaments and sweetmeats 
are neatly laid out on trays at the boy's house and are sent generally with music 
to the girl's house. The bride is decked with the ornaments and covered with a 
scarf. The joarty then returns and brings with it trays filled with fresh presents, 
including a handkerchief, a ring and a mawiil, gold turban, for the bridegroom. 
A rich man's betrothal expenses vary on the bridegroom side from Rs. 200 to 
Rs. 3.50 and on the bride's from Rs. .50 to Rs. 350 : for a middle class man on the 
bridegroom side from Rs. 100 to Rs. 200, and on the bride's from Rs. .50 to Rs, 80 ; 
for a poor man on the bridegroom's side Rs. 50 to Rs. 90 and on the bride's from 
Rs. 20 to Rs. 50. The betrothal generally lasts for at least a year. During this 
time on every holiday gifts pass between the betrothed couple. Eight days 



MARRIAGE CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIES. 171 



lefore the marriage the bride keeps to one room and both she aud the bridegroom 
ire made to wear yellow clothes. Two or three days before the marriage both at 



befort 

are maue lu weai veuu" uiuixitje. -I w u UL mrye uays ueiore me marriage 
the house oi the bridegroom aad ot the bride earthern pots arc arranged iu order, 
food is laid on them and the opening chapter of the Kuran or fattha is repeated 
with the object of pleasing ancestral spirits. Then the females of the family rub 
the bride or bridegroom with gram flour mixed with oil aud perfumes called 
ubatna. After this a knife, dagger or other sharp iron instrument and a lemon 
are handed to the bride or bridegroom which he or she is to be careful to keep 
till the bath on the marriage day. On the evening of the marriage day the 
bridegroom's party sends to the bride's with a procession of children, called the 
bari or sachak, earthen pots painted in gold aud green filled with sweetmeats aud 
trays with dresses. In her room the bride is bathed by the women of her family, 
clothed in new robes aud decked in some of the jewels. Then with trays refilled 
with clothes for the bridegroom with hiuna {mendl) and with the wife's 
chattels ya;Vz (cooking utensils, cot, etc.), the company goes back to the bride- 
groom's. On their return the bridegroom is dressed in his wedding clothes and 
the furniture of what is to be his honeymoon room is set in order. About 
10 p. m. the bridegroom on horse, with nmsic, and followed by his relations and 
friends starts for the bride's. As he passes under her window, the bride lets fall 
on the bridegroom some grains of rice. When they arrive at the bride's house,, 
the bridegroom's party sit on one side of the mandap and the bride's on the other. 
In the space between are three seats, one in front of his party for the bridegroom, 
one in front of the bride's party for her agents, aud the third between the two for 
the Kazi or his deputy. The Kazi asks the bride's agents whether she, with a 
certain portion, mehei\ accepts so and so as her husband. Ktold she will have 
him he takes the attestation of two other witnesses. He then making 
the bridegroom repeat the creed puts him the same question. The proceedings 
are recorded and the guests raising hands offer the marriage thanksgiving. The 
bridegroom is then led to the ladies' quarters iu the house and seated on a seat. 
The bride veiled and arrayed in her wedding garments is seated by his side and 
a set of ceremonies, such as eating together, are beguu. At dawn the bridegroom 
is for the first time shown his wife's face in a mirror and from a Kuran placed 
between them the chapter of peace is read. This is the sign that the time has 
come for the bride to leave her father's house. 

363. As iu religion so in marriage ceremonies, Matias, Momnas, Shaikhdas 

aud other converts from Hindus, perform half 
"^"man"ce";emoni^s"' Musalmau and half Hindu rites. They call a Kazi 

to perform the nilca or marriage, according to 
Mahomedan rites, and also a Brahman to perform the Hindu rite of ehori. 
Among Ghanchi, Pinjara and Vohoras (peasants) women go singing like the 
Hindus with the bridegroom to the bride's houso and in their feasts, they 
prepare Hindu dishes of ladu, kansar, etc. 

PARSIS. 

364. When two families desire that their children should marry, they 
Betrothal exchange their children's horoscopes, which are sent 

to an astrologer who settles whether the marriage is 
likely to be fortunate. If both families approve of the match and the stars are 
favourable, the marriage is agreed to. Soou after on a lucky day the women of 
the boy's family go to the girl's to return the horoscope. They take with tuem a 
suite of clothes, sugarcandy, curds and fish as emblem of goud luck and 
present the dress to the girl. According to her means, the girl's mother sends 
her future son-in-law a gold or diamond ring, a suite of clothes and Rs. 5 to 25 in 
cash. This completes the beiruthal, which, though not legally, is practically 
binding. During the interval between the betrothal and the marriage presents 
of fish and other articles are exchanged between the two families. Ten to 
fifteen days before the marriage, comes the turmeric pounding ceremony in 
which four young married and unwidowed (sohagan) females pound turmeric and 
shake it in a winnowing fan. About eight days before the marriage day, comes 



172 CHAPTER VII CIVIL CONDITION. 



the inandav or booth buildiug ceremony. Either before or after the turmeric 
pouudiiig ceremony, sometimes even on the marriaoe day, the adarni or inviting 
ceremony is performed. On the adarni day, the mother of the boy with 
relations and friends goes to the bride's and dresses her in clothes and orna- 
ments. The bride's mother entertains the party with sweetmeats and ])resents 
the bridegroom's nearest kinswomen with dresses. After they leave, a 
party of kinswomen and i'riends set out from the bride's with clothes for 
the bridegroom, who in return presents the bride's mother with a dress. 
Next day the bride's mother returns this dress to the bridegroom's mother, 
accompanying it with a few rupees, as it is thought wrong for the bride's side 
to receive presents from the bridegroom's side. On the third day before the 
wedding a suite of clothes and a large silver coin are sent to the bride, who wears 
the coin round her neck till the marriage ceremonies are over. Towards 
evening the women of the family seat the bridegroom and bride in iront of 
their respective houses and rub them with the turmeric M^hich was pounded a 
fortnight before. On the fourth day the marriage ceremony is performed in the 
evening, after the custom of the Hindus according to the promise given to the 
Kana of Saujan by the ancestors of the present Parsis, on their landing at that 
place. Males dress in jamas and pichhorl and females array themselves in 
jewellery and dresses of variegated colour, richly ornamented with gold. Shortly 
before the marriage processiou starts, a party of women goes from the bride's 
to the bridegroom's place with a present of a rich dress and a ring of gold or 
diamonds, according to her parent's means. All of these are arranged in a rich 
tray of silver or brass, which is carried by the bride's mother in her right 
hand. This procession is called sojjara. They quickly return after executing 
this errand, and the bridegroom starts in a procession with the guests for the 
bride's. On reaching the bride's residence the males take their seats among 
the male guests of the bride's party, and the ladies go inside the house and 
assume their places with the others. First of all the bride and bridegroom are 
seated on chairs opposite each other and then a piece of cloth is held between 
them as a curtain so as to screen them from each other's sight. Under this 
curtain they are made to hold each other's right hand in their grasp. Then 
another piece of cloth is placed round so as to encircle them and the ends of 
the cloth are tied together by a double knot. In the same way raw yarn 
is taken and wound round the pair seven times by the officiating priests, who 
during this performance repeat ihe short prayers of Yatha Aim I airy o. On 
completing the seventh round, the twist is tied seven times over the joined 
hands of the couple, as well as round the double knot of the ends of the cloth 
previously put about them. When this is over incense is burnt on a fire placed 
in a flat metallic base, after which the curtain is suddenly drojjped down and the 
bride and bridegroom who have each been provided with a few grains of rice 
hasten to throw it at one another ; wlioever is quickest in throwing the rice is 
supposed to be likely to rule. When the rice throwing is over, the couple sit 
side by side and two priests stand before them with a witness on each side 
holding brass plates full of rice. The two jjriests pronounce ashinmid or the 
marriage blessings, in old Persian and Sanskrit, at each sentence throwing rice 
•on the bride's and bridegroom's heads. At intervals, in the midst of the bless- 
ings, the witnesses are asked in Persian, whether the marriage i:as their consent 
and the bridegroom and bride are asked if they have chosen each other. They 
all reply in the affirmative. After these interrogatories and answers, the priests, 
(dasturs) deliver to the couple a short address containing good, sound and ])rac- 
tical advice, partly in the Zand and partly ia the Sanskrit language. Ihe whole 
is brought to a conclusion with the recital of tandurasti, {. e., a blessing invok- 
ing the bestowal of physical strength, energy and health on the newly married 
pair. After the conclusion of these ceremonies, the bride and bridegroom sign 
a marriage certificate, which is afterwards registered at the office of the 
registrar of the Parsi Marriages. A Parsi marriage is a very costly 
affair on account of the presents of dresses and ornaments, feasting and other 
charges, and a poor Parsi can hardly marry his son for less than Rs. 400 and 
his daughter for Pts. 250. A middle class marriage copts Rs. 8U0 to Us. 2,000 
and a rich one Rs. 2,000 to 5,000. 



SPECIAL MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. 173 



SPECIAL MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. 

365, There are several curious marriage customs peculiar lo particular 

c..«^--i _ - * castes or tribes. The i'oUowiiio' are some of them 

Special marnaofe customs. u , i i • .i i , .■ '^^ i- i 

* collected during the short time at my disposal : — 

(1) A curious custom ol' celebrating marriages in the whole caste on 

„ . ^. . . one day, once ia every nine, ten or 

Periodical marriages i ' 1 -i 

amon? Kadwa Kanbis. eleven years, prevails among the 

Ivadwa Kanbis. Unce in every nine, 
ten or eleven years, certain Brahman priests and astrologers with 
the two headmen of the caste in the town of Uuja in the Kadi 
District of the State go together to worship Umiya, the patron 
goddess of the caste, who has her temple in the town. Their 
object is to find out the propitious year for holding marriages. 
After worship, lots are drawn and, according as the lot falls, the 
year in which it falls or the following year is declared the proper 
time. When the year is known, the astrologers name a special 
day which generally comes in Vaishakh (April-May). For the 
sake of those prevented from sickness or other cause, a second 
day is chosen about a fortnight later than the first. As soon as 
the days are fixed, Brahmaus start to spread the news in all 
places where the people of the caste reside. As another period 
of nine, ten or eleven years must elapse before regular marriages 
can again take place, every family provides all its unmarried 
members with suitable matches. Children about a month old 
and sometimes unborn children are married. It sometimes 
happens that no suitable husband can be found for the daughter 
of a house, and as before the next regular marriage day she 
would reach a marriageable age, some special arrangement is 
required. To meet this difficulty two practices have been intro- 
duced. According to one of these, on the propitious day, the 
girl is married to a bunch of flowers. The flowers are then 
thrown in a well or river, the parents of the bride bathe and the 
girl, now a widow, can, at any time, be married according to 
the simple naira or second marriage form. The other practice 
is, on the propitious day, to induce some married man for a small 
money present, to go through the ceremony of the marriage with 
tJie girl and to divorce her as soon as the ceremony is over. 
The girl can then, at any lime, be married according to natra form. 
The married bride remains in the house of her father, and when 
she reaches puberty, the bridegroom goes to his father-in-law's 
house with a party of his relations to bring her to his house. 
Caste dinners are given, and this rather than the day of the first 
ceremony has the character of a marriage day. 

How this custom of holding periodic marriages on a certain day 
in the whole caste arose is shrouded in mystery. It may be due, 
perhaps, to economy of time and money. The Kadwa Kanbi caste 
is a busy agricultural community. Periodic marriages save 
tune, and the custom of having them on the same day in the 
whole caste, dispenses with the necessity of caste-dinners, as in 
eacu house there is a marriage, and consequently its own 
feast. From information obtained from the leaders of the caste 
at Unja, it appears that during the last hundi-ed years the 
marriage years were Saiuvat 1S66, 1876, ISStJ, 1896, 1906, 1916, 
1926, 1936, 1946, 1957 and 1066. 

Education in the caste has created a feeling against this ancient 
custom, and the leaders are striving to do away with it and 
to introduce the custom of holding marriages every yeai' as in 
other castes. They have succeeded in bringing about a split in 



174 CilAl'TEi; VH civil CnNiHTlUX. 



the community ; one sectiou adlieies to the old and time-honour- 
ed custom, while the other and more advanced has resolved for 
the present to reduce the marriage period to five years, with the 
object of gradual]) reducing it still further, so as to make it 
annual. 

(2) Like the Kadvva Kanbis, Bharvads celebrate their marriages only once 

„. , in twelve, tiiteen or twenty-four years 

Among Bharvads. i i • ; /i /nr \ i 

on a day in ^ atsuakh (May), and 

all the Bharvads of the neighbourhood hold their marriages in 

the same place. The richest Bharvad among those who wish 

to get their daughters married, buys the ground where the 

marriages are to be celebrated. This is necessary, because the 

ground cannot be used a second lime for marriages, but is kept 

a pasture and an ornamental wooden poet called ihe marriage 

pillar is set up and preserved to show that the ground has been 

used for marriages. Shortly before the marriage hour, the 

several brides with their relations and one Brahman priest 

meet in the booth. At the hour fixed for the marriage all the 

bridegrooms come to the booth one after the other and are 

received by the wife of the man who bought the ground and 

paid for the booth. In receiving each bridegroom, the hostess 

shows him a miniature plough, arrow and churning stick. Then. 

each bridegroom sits by the side of his bride. The pairs then 

walk round the post, and offer it a cocoanut kernel. They are 

next taken to the chori where the hems of their clothes are tied 

together, and they walk round the fire which is lighted in the 

middle. This completes the marriage ceremony. The host 

feasts the assembled Bharvads for three days and repays himself 

by levying a fee of Rs. 12|- from the father of each bridegroom. 

(3) Among the Motala Brahmans, marriages take place on the same 

„ . . . dav every fourth year. 

Among Motala Brahmans. " " '' 

(4) Among Rajputs the bridegroom may go personally to the bride's 

house for marriage or may send his 
Sword Marriage. ^j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^.^ ^^ j^j^ representa- 

tive. As by sending the sword, the bridegroom escapes 
expensive presents to Bhats, Bhavayas and other boggais, the 
practice has become common. When this practice is to be 
resorted to, the bridegroom sits in a chariot with a 
sword and a cocoanut and passes with music and a 
company of friends and relatives as far as the boundary of 
his village. There he alights lea^ ing the sword and cocoanut 
in charge of a maid servant, who takes his place in the 
chariot. The procession marches to the bride's village and is 
welcomed at the boundary by the girl's party. After the usual 
formalities, the maid servant with the sword sits on a stool and 
the bride sits on another opposite her in the marriage booth, and 
all the ceremonies are gone through, as if the owner of the sword 
himsell' was present for his marriage. Two or three days after 
the sword marriage, the bride is sent to the bridegroom's house 
seated in the chariot with the maid who brought the sword. 
When the bride's party reaches the village boundary, the bride- 
groom goes to receive the bride and when he reaches her carriage 
the niaid servant leaves her seat and the bridegroom takes his 
place and escorts his bride home. 

(5) The marriage customs of Brahma Kshatris differ from those of 

„ , „ ^ ^ . Brahmans and other hitih caste Ilin- 

Brahma Kshatris. j r\ i.-u • j • xi. 

dus. On the marriage day, in the 

presence of a company of bride's friends, the bridegroom stands 

at the central square of the marriage hall and looking down into 



SPECIAL MARRIAGE CUs<T(»MS. 175 



a large earthen pan, lull of water, touches with the point of his 
sword four saucers liuug over his Jiead from their reflection iu the 
water. This seems to be a relic of the matsija vedh ov fish test, 
in accordance with which the suitor of a Kshatriya maiden had, 
from the reflection in a pond of water, to shoot a fish hung over 
his head. Unlike other Hindus, the bride is dressed in loose 
Mahomedan-like trousers and is seated in a closed palanquin or 
halai set iu front of the house. The bridegroom walks seven 
times round the palanquin, the bride's brother at each turn giving 
him a cut with karcna (oleander) t.wig, and the women of the 
family throwino' showers of cakes from the windows. He retires 
and Avhile mounting his horse, the bride's father comes out, and 
giving him a present leads him into the marriage hall. 

(6) Among the Animisiic tribes, known as Chodhra, Dhodia, Gamit, 

Kokua, etc., marriage, as a rule, takes 
Khandhadiyoorpro^ i^^g , . purchase of the bride and 

bationer husband. I ■' ^ ■ ^ ^ 

IS accompanied by no ceremony 

worth the name except drinking, eating and dancing. The 
money to be paid to the father of the bride as bride-price varies 
from about Rs. 12 to about Rs. 40 in the different tribes. Men 
wirh no means of paying even such a moderate price for a wife 
ufi'er to serve the girl's father for a term of one to five years. 
Men with means, who do not care to part with their daughters in 
consideration of the bride-price, admit such impecunious 
candidates for their daughters as Miandhadv/o or probationary 
husband. If the girl does not like the hhanduadiyo, she refuses 
to speak to him, and he takes a hint to depart, if she likes him, 
she not only speaks to him, but also serves him the usual meals. 
The khandhadhio is allowed to live on intimate terms with her 
before she is regularly married to him. Many a time the girl 
conceives and begets children, but this is not considered disgrace- 
ful. She and her probationer husband sometimes may not agree 
and separate even after having lived as man and wife. This 
event does not come in the way of the girl obtaining a second 
husband. But the probationer husband can claim payment for his 
services. When all goes well, the regular marriage ceremony is 
performed. After marriage, husband and wife may live separate or 
continue to live in the old house. When the father-in-law is rich, 
he generally treats his daughter's husband as his son, and gives 
him a piece of land, called vavlu, for his and his wife's 
maintenance. If the kkandhadiyo dies before his probationary 
period is over, i. e., before he is regularly married to the girl 
for whom he is kept on probation, the girl is made to go through 
a ceremony of marriage with his dead body. This is done by 
applying pithi, i.e., turmeric powder mixed in oil to the dead 
body and then makiua; the girl embrace it. 



(7) Among Rajputs and Lewa Kanbis living in villages, a girl cannot be 

., , . married with a boy living in the 
Raiputs and Lewa Kanbis. n mi li, T i 

"^ same viflage. All the caste people 

living iu the same village are looked upon as related to each 
other as members of a family and; marriages must therefore take 
place with those living outside the village. 

(8) Among Brahmans and Vanias living in towns, on the other hand. 

^ ., . so far as possible, a girl is married 

Brahmans and Vanias. •,■, i i- • • ?u„ „„™„ t 

With a boy living in the same town. 

When she reaches puberty she goes to her husband every day 

at night time and returns to her parents in the morning. So 

long as the mother-in-law is alive or she herself has no 

children, she does not generally stav at her father-in-law's during 

day-time. 



176 ciiAi'ir.i; vii — civil condition. 



(9) It is unlucky for a man to have married three times, aud when a 

man, who has lost two wives, wants 
Special customs connected ^^ j^^^.j,^, .^ ^i^^^.^ o^p tig goes 

with marriages. ^, , •' i • ' -.i „ 

through a mock marnao'e with an 

akada bush (catotropis yigantta), so that his next wite may be his 
fourth and not third wite as she otherwise would be. The 
marriage is called arkvfvalia. Among the lower classes he 
simply carries a little doll in his pocket when starting for his 
new marriage, so that it may represent his third wife and the 
one that he is going to marry may be the fourth one. 

(10) A widower has to present to his new wife a shol-ya pagalu, i.e., 

a neck ornament with marks to 
'^'^■i.l°A\ff,''^^!^^7ff"* represent the feet of his first wife. 

a SHOKYA PAuALU. rri • xi -e i „1, 

Ihis the new wife wears on her neck, 
so that the spirit of the first wite may not trouble her in life. 

(11) In castes among which widow marriage is allowed, a bachelor 

cannot marry a widow. Such a 
A bachelor^cannot marry „^arriage can take place only if the 

bachelor first marries the shami tree 
(jprosopis spcigerii) and then the widow. 

(12) Kanyadan, that is giving a girl in marriage, is considered a very 

_ . meritorious act. Well-to-do people 

• "^"'^'^ r!.d"vXu! i-e^d^' pecuniary help to poor persons 

to enable them to celebrate the mar- 
riage of their daughters. Some well-to-do childless Hindus 
celebrate a mock marriage between the image of Vishnu and the 
tuhi plant. The childless pair, who own the tulsi plant, act as 
the bride's parents. The image of Vishnu belongs to a friend, 
, " who with his wife acts as the bridegroom's parents. On the 

bright 11th of Kartik or on a day fixed by an astrologer, the 
image is taken in procession to the basil plant. The male owner 
of the image, with the image in his hand and the female owner of 
the plant with the basil pot near her, then go regularly through 
all the Brahmanic marriage rites. The owner of the plant pre- 
sents gold and silver ornaments to the image, the owner of which 
also receives cash presents as the bridegroom's parent. 

BIRTH CUSTOMS. 

366. A female is considered fit for impregnation on the appearance of the 

menstrual flow. No ceremonies are performed by 
Ceremonies on first Gujarat castes when she first menstruates. Garlha- 

menstruation. ,, «' r ^ i ■ i ■ i ^■ 

dhan or lojtus- bearing ceremony, which according 

to the Vedas ought to be performed on this occasion and was 
once performed, is now neglected, and is only nominally performed along 
with the smant ceremony in the seventh, eighth or ninth montli ol' the 
pregnancy. Among Deccani castes, however, a ceremony called rutti shanti or 
menstruation appeasing, is performed. As soon as a girl first menstruates sugar 
is distributed among all relations and friends as a sign of joy. The girl is seated 
in a room specially decorated and friends and relations come and present her 
with fruits, flowers and sweetmeats. On the fourth day, she is bathed and her 
lap is filled with five fruits each of the best kinds. Within fifteen 
days fjarlhadhan or foetus-bearing ceremony is perlormed in which 
the gods are prayed to see that she may conceive and beget a child in due course 
of time. 

A woman in menstruation remains impure for iliiee days among the higher 
Hindu castes. She keeps herself confined in a room and docs not show her face 
to her husband or any elder male relation. Slie bathes on llie fourth day and 
ioins her husband. Lower castes, sucl; as Cinlas, Kolis, Dheds and lihangis are 



IMiriK CI>ToMs. 177 



not very particular about impurity attaching to this occasion, and among the 
Animistic tribes no restriction is observed at all. 

367. Barrenness is looked upon with feelings of great uneasiness by females 

„ alike among Hindus, Jains, Musalmaus and Parsis. 

Barrenness. , , ^ • n j v • i • i ■ ^"'^^^''• 

A barren woman is called vanjliam, which is a term 

of reproach. A Hindu or Jaiu woman tries to get rid of her barrenness bv a 

variety of means. If it is believed to be caused by the auger of some god' or 

goddess, she quiets them by prayers and by giving them their pet offerings or 

taking vows. K the barreuuess is due to the unfriendly influence of some 

planet, she engages a Brahman to repeat prayers in its honour and lasts on the 

day sacred to it. If the disease is spirit caused, she walks 108 times round 

the piped tree on a uon-moon Monday, pours water at its roots and winds a 

cotton thread round its trunk. \Youien are also said to try to gel rid of their 

barrenness by pricking a neighbour's child on a Sunday or Tuesday with the 

point of a needle or by secretly cutting a tuft of the hair of its head. vSome are 

said to swallow an undipped betel-nut after keeping it for some time under the 

cot of a woman in labour or to secretly tear the piece out of the clothes of a 

pregnant woman or a woman in child-birth — an act which when discovered 

causes uneasiness to the woman and her relations, as it is believed to cause the 

child's death or the pregnant woman's miscarriage. Sadhus, Jain priests, 

J\Iusalman fakirs and others are consulted and charmed water given 1)V them 

is drunk, or an amulet tied on the left elbow or neck. 

Childless Musalman females also resort to various means to obtain children. 
They obtain charms I'rom saints (pirs) and exorcists (amils). The charm con- 
sists of a diagram drawn on a piece of paper. It is to be either washed in rose- 
water and drunk or worn round the neck. After conception, some talisman is 
given with the object that the issue may be male. The charm is washed in 
water, which is drunk immediately or is used for a monthly bath. Some dead 
saints also have a reputation of giving children. Many childless and sjDirif 
possessed Musalman females resort to the grave of saint Miran Datar near 
Unja in the Kadi District. The leaves of a tree near the grave of the saint are 
said to favour conception. 

368. The Vedas prescribe 16 scmskaras or purifying rites, of which three 

onlv, i'iz.,fimant ov r>vegManov,>ipanayan or thread- 
Rites dur^ng^pregnancy : „.ii.aiug and rmAa or 'marriage, are performed by 

the Brahmans and other high caste Hindus, and only 
the first and the third by Vanias, Kanbis, Rajputs, artizans and other castes. 
The first Vedic rite, garhhadhan or foetus-bearing ; the second, pumsavan or 
male-making : the third, anavalohhana or longing soothing and the fourth, 
vishnabalt or guardian pleasing, are performed together at the .^inwtit or hair- 
parting ceremony which is performed in the seventh, eighth or ninth month 
after pregnancy. Among the Animistic tribes, no pregnancy ceremonies are 
performed. Among the Kanbis, Rajputs, artizans and other lower castes, the 
nimani ceremony consists in the kholohharvn or lap-filling and the ralhadi 
handham or guard-binding ceremony. On an auspicious day in the seventh 
month of a first pregnancy, the husband's sister binds round the woman's right 
wrist a silver ornament called rahhadi or guard and receives a money present. 
The pregnant woman wearing rich clothes sits on a stool and a married woman, 
who has never lost a child yulckand ><ohn(jan) drops into her lap five pounds of 
rice, a cocoanut, five betel leaves, five cloves, five cardamoms, five betel-nuts, 
five lotus seeds, ten flowers and a rupee. The pregnant woman falls at the feet 
of her mother-in-law, to whom she hands the articles dropped into her lap. 
Among Brahman, Vania and some of the artizan castes, like Kansaras, more 
elaborate ceremonies are performed. The pregnant woman goes to bathe at a 
relation's, and wbilc coming back walks in the public streets, on cloth specially 
spread and under a moveable cloth canopy. In front of her husband's house, 
an altar is madc^, a fire is lighted and offerings of clarified butter are made with 
mantrai!. The husband and wife take their seats near the altar and after wor- 
shipping Ganpati, a sanhalpa or resolution is made to perform together all 
pregnancy rites from the t/arhhadhan or fictus-bearing to the Hiviantonayan or 



178 CHAPTER VII CIVIL CONDITKiN. 



tair-paiuuii;. ilitu llic curemouieti aie |)ert'onned luie alter anulhtr. In ilie 
pumsavau or male-making ceremony a ^liece of the root of the baniau tree 
(feus indica) or a little daro ycynodundadylon) is crashed and the juice 
dropped into the right nostril of the pregnant woman. 

Corresponding to these Hindu ceremonies, Musalmans perform the satmasa, 

seven month or navmasa, nine month ceremonies. 
Musalman. ,j,j^^ ^.-^^ generally begins with the birat iJiorna or 

pot- tilling ceremony. A complete birat consists of 125 pots, but sometimes half 
the number of pots is sent for and sometimes (quarter, for which the potter is 
paid up to o rupees. A sohagan, married woman who has never lost a child, 
tills the pots with water, and she and the potter with the pots are brought with 
music and rejoicings to the pregnant w( man's house, in which the pots are 
arranged in lines in rows of three with a cocoaniit at the top. A dinner is 
cooked and fatias are repeated over the pots in the names of dead ancestors, 
chiefly women of the house who have died childless. 

Parsis perform a ceremony called ayhaharani or cigarm, i. e., sin destroying 
. ceremony, in the seventh month after pregnancy. 

It is copied from the Hindus and resembles 
kJiolohkarvo ceremony. The pregnant woman's lap is filled with sweet balls, a 
cocoanut, dried dates, almonds, betel-nuts and betel-leaves mixed with sesame 
seed and lemon or pomegranate. Carrying these things, she goes to her 
parent's house and empties them out ol her lap into a winnowing fan and with 
a lamp in one hand and a goblet of water in the other, goes to the lying-in room 
with the object of driving out evil spirits. She goes round it seven times 
pouring water all the time. She then returns to her husband's house and comes 
back to her parents when the time of delivery draws near. 

The observances of most of the Animistic tribes resemble those of the Hindus. 

Durino' preo'uancy no ceremony is performed except 

Animistic tribes. '^ K \. •' . ^i at ii i 

among the Mangs. Among tlie Jiangs, on a fixed 

day in the seventh mouth of a woman's first pregnancy, five women fill her lap 
with cocoanut kernels and rice or wheat. Friends are fed on rice and pulse, 
mutton and liquor. On the sixth day after birth, the goddess chhuthi is 
worshipped. On the inner walls of the house, lines of iMnhu and turmeric are 
drawn. Rice is thrown at the drawing, a lamp is ligiited before it and a dinner 
is given. The same day Bhats, who claim to be of Brahman descent and act as 
their priests, name the child. 

369. Females make guesses about the sex ol' the baby to be born in a 

J. . ^. varietv of wavs. Among Musalmans a few drops 

Sex divination. j. .v, - i .^ i t.v, \ c A 

of nulk are squeezed out from the bosom ot the 

pregnant woman and from its thinness or thickness, the sex of the child is 

conjectured. If the milk is thin, it is foretold that a boy is to be born. Among 

Gujaratr Hindus, if the face of the pregnant woman is full and blooming, the 

birth of a female child is predicted. On the other hand, if her face is lean and 

emaciated a male child is expected. If the ]iregnaut woman gets more than the 

usual sleep a girl is expected, and if she sleeps less than usual, a boy. If the 

right side of the abdomen of a pregnant woman appears protruding, a l)oy is 

expected, and a girl, if the lett side so appears. The objects which ajipeai' to a 

pregnant woman in her dreams are also supposed to furnish an indication of the 

sex of the child she is to deliver. If they are objects of the male gender, a 

male child, and if they are of the female gender, a female child is expected. 

370. A pregnant woman is not allowed to draw water from a well or 
^ . . ^ do any other heavy house-work. She keeps lier- 

child bir\r^" at ^^^^. /^jjjfined to tie house, and does not appear 

bel'ore the elder male members in the house. 
When the labour begins, she is taken to a warm room, the windows of which 
are kept shut. Generally a barber woman acts as midwife. The mother re- 
mains secluded for about 40 days among Brahmaus, Vanias and other high 
•castes and for a short period varying from 10 to 20 days among the lower 
classes. As Bharvad children are born when their parents are moving from 



13IKTH CUSTOMS. 179 



place to place, no seclusion is observed at all ; similarly among- most of the 
nomadic tribes, the mother delivers, puts the child in a basket and moves on 
without being either sick or sorry. Among Parsis, the mother is kept in the 
lying-in room up to the fortieth day and .is not allowed to move out or touch 
anything. On the night after the fortieth day, she is bathed and purified. 

371. About two mouths. before delivery, a pregnant woman is not allowed 

to eat things which cause much of heating in the 

"I'nS'aftetchillfbirlh" ^'^'^'^^^^ *'• ^^ ^^''^^^^^' 0^1' &«• After delivery, she 

is not allowed to eat things which are cooling or 
cause windiness. During the first few days after delivery, she is given a 
decoction ot ginger and oil and such nutritious food as s/n'ra. Molasses is 
given in preference to sugar and ghee instead of oil. Drinking water is 
either boiled or a red hot piece of iron is thrown into it. Such cereals and 
vegetables as are believed to cause indigestion to the child are avoided. But 
all this is done in the houses of the well-to-do. Poor people living on 
hanti-havto, or coarse grain, have the same food during confinement as they 
have ordinarily. Among a few families in Kathiawad, a woman while in 
confinement eats only fruits and roots or such food as is used on fast days. 
Among Parsis for five days after a birth, the mother is fed on light food and 
the child on sugar and water. 

372. In the Brahman- Vania castes the exact hour of birth is carefully 

. noted with a view to having a horoscope prepared. 

In the Gola-Ghanchi castes, this is rarely done. 
If a son is born his feet are smeared with kanhu and their imprints are 
taken on a piece of paper which is sent along with the good news to the 
father and his relations and there is a rejoicing among all the relations and 
friends. If the child is a girl, there is no rejoicing. For nine nights, the 
mother is kept in a closed room with her head lightly wrapped with a black 
cloth. The new-born babe is laid on a wooden stool close to the mother's cot. 
For two days, the child is given a cotton wick soaked in molasses water to suck 
and on the third day is put to the mother's breast. 

373. On the sixth night is performed a ceremony called chhathi or 

shasthi puja ; this is the worship of the goddess 
Shasthi Puja or destiny g-^^j^_ Qn the same night Vidhata (Fate) is 

supposed to write on the child's forehead, the chief 
events of its coming life. A wooden stool covered with a white piece of cotton 
cloth is placed in the mother's room and close to it is set a lamp fed by clarified 
butter. Six small heaps of wheat or rice are laid on the stool and a betelnut 
and a copper are set on each heap. A picture of sf/asthi is drawn on the cloth 
with red powder and near it are laid a reed pen, inkstand and paper for the 
goddess to write with. The new-born child is laid near the mother's cot 
and both the child and mother are marked with red powder. On the 
morning of the seventh, all the articles are removed and given to the family 
priest, except the cloth which is dyed black and made into a jacket for 
the child. 

Shasthi is also worshipped among the Animistic tribes on the sixth day 
after a child's birth. 

The Parsis also, in imitation of the Hindus, worship shasthi on the sixth 
day after birth- 

Among Mahomedans on the fourteenth day after birth, in honour of the 
mother's recovery, new or boats of grass are with music taken to the nearest 
water, a lamp is lighted and the boats sent adrift as a thanksgiving to 
Khaza Khuzr, the water genius. 

374. There is a curious caste called Pomla in the City ol' Baroda which 

observes the odd rule prevalent among several 

primitive peoples in diffo^ent parts of the world 

requiring that the husband should be doctored while the wife gives bhth to a 

child. This has given rise to the Gujarati saying ' Ponili jatie ane Pomlo 

khnija '. Inunediately after delivery, the female is made ^.o drink the juice of the 



t5 



180 CHAPTEK VII — CIVIL CONDITION. 



bark of the nimb tree aud a quantity of oil. She then stirs out of the house and 
is not allowed to enter it for five days during which time, the husband lies 
confined and takes the usual medicines. The Pomlas say that they do not lie 
contiued merely to observe a custom, but actually get indisposed during the 
period and that the indisposition is a mark of favour of their goddess Laxmi 
Mata. They speak a dialect which resembles Telagu and appear to have come 
to Gujarat from the South about two or three hundred years ago. 

375. A dead child is always buried in the burial ground set apart for the 

purpose, if it was not more than eighteen months 
Disposal of dead child's ^i^ . jf g^^jer it is cremated or buried according to 
*'°°y- the usual practice of the caste. 

376. If a woman dies within ten days of her delivery, an iron nail is 

driven into the doorway immediately after her 
Treatment ot women dying qq^^^q [^^ taken out, so that her spirit may not return 
in child birth. ^^^ trouble the inmates of the house. 

Ear-boring or teething 377. No ear-boring or teething ceremony is 

ceremony. observed in Gujarat. 

378. Among Hindus, the nama harma or naming ceremony takes place on 

the li'th day after birth or on some lucky day after 
Naming ceremony : Hindu, ^j^^ fortieth. The father's sister gives the name 
which has abeady been fixed upon. It should begin with one of the letters 
which is assigned to the sign of the Zodiac in which the moon may be at the 
time of the child's birth, The child is laid on a white sheet wdth seven pipal 
{Ficus Rdigiosa) leaves and seven betel-nuts. The four ends of the sheet are 
raised by four children and the child is rocked four times before which it is 
named. This ceremony is gradually falling into disuse and the name is now 
mostly given by the mother without any ceremony. Among Brahmans the nama 
karma ceremony is performed along with upanayan or thread-girding ceremony. 
Among the Animistic tribes, the child is named by the parents or some old 
woman on the sixth day when shasthi is worshipped. 

Among Mahomedans, the child is named early in the morning of the sixth 

day after birth. The father, grandfather or other 
Musalman. maXe relation opens the Kuran at a venture and the 

first letter of the first word of the third line is the initial of the child's name. 

Among Parsis on the fifth day or any convenient day, a Brahman or a 

Parsi astrologer is called and told the hour of the 
^^''*'' child's birth. He draws chalk marks on a wooden 

board and gives several suitable names of which one is chosen by the parents. 

Both among Hindus aud Musalmans, parents who have lost children or 
whose children do not live, give curious names showing deformity or the most 
abject humility. Naihu, literally nose-bored, is a name which accompanies the 
actual boring of the nose of the new-born: child with the idea of deforming ii and 
thereby making it less liable to spirit attacks. Bhikho, beggar, Ghelo or Gando, 
mad, Kacliro, rubbish, and Bhulo, forgetful, are also names which are giAen to 
mislead evil spirits who attack what is most praised. 

379. Botan or weaning ceremony which is now performed only in a few 

Brahman families corresponds to anna prashan, the 
Botan or weaning. tenth Vedic rite. It is performed in the sixth or 

eio-hth month after a birth in the case of a boy and in the fifth or seventh 
month in the case of a girl. Khir or preparation of boiled milk with rice 
and sugar is laid on a rupee and given to the child to lick by the maternal uncle 
or some other near relation. This ceremony is also performed among Musalmans 
when the child is four-and a-half months old. The child's father'h sister first 
offers it some khir on a rupee and then a piece of flesh to suck. Though 
from this time the child takes other food besides milk, it is not actually weaned. 
Among Hindus, a child continues sucking at its mother's breast till it is 
from 12 to 18 months old. Among the lower classes, a child is allowed to 
suck even longer. Among Musalmans, it is not weaned until it is twenty-one 
months old. 



BIRTH CUSTOMS. 181 



380. Among- Parsis, wheu the child enters on its seventh mouth, the besanu 

or sitting ceremony is performed. The child is dres- 

^:^:ny rmo^rParTs^' ^^^ ^ ^/^^ f^ '^^f^^'^ ^^l\^- brow is marked 

with red powder and it is made to sit on a stool 
placed on lucky chalk marks. As it sits, the child touches a cocoanut which is 
then broken. 

381. Chaul or c'luda karma, head shaving ceremony, is the. eleventh 
Shavinjr Vedic rite and takes place on some auspicious day 

either in third or tilth year of the boy or at the time 
of the upanayan or thread-girding. Among Brahman castes, it is generally per- 
formed at the time of the upanayan. Among Vauias, ivaobis, Kolis and the 
artizan castes who do not wear the sacred thread, shaving is performed only if a 
vow is taken to do so, in the temple of the family goddess or some goddess well 
known m Gujarat such as Bahucharaji, Ambaji, Kalka or Ashapuri. The boy is 
seated in his mother's lap and the lather taking a razor crop8 off a tuft of the 
boy's hair. A barber who is in readiness then shaves the head clean. The hair 
is taken by the father's sister and thrown into a well or river. 

Among Jain Vauias when a child is three, five, or seven years old, the boy's 
head is completely shaved and a tui't of hair is cur from the back of a girl's head- 
but except that friends and relations are feasted, no ceremonies are performed at 
the time of hair-cutting. Among Brahma-Kshatris, both boys as well as girls 
have their hair cut. Among Rajputs hair cutting is performed with most ot the 
marriage ceremonies such as grahshanti, pithi, varadh bharvi or bringing 
earthen pots from the potter's. Among Bhils, a child is shaved when five years 
old. The child's father's sister receives a cow, a buffalo, or other present for 
taking the hair in her lap. 

382. Shaving rites called ahika are performed among Mahomedans ou the 

Hair cuttin ^'^' ^^^^ °^' ^^^^ ^^^' *^'^^^" b^*"*'^' ^^^"^ ^^^ barber 

passes the razor along the bead of the child its father 

or some one specially named by him draws a knife across a goat's head saying 

" I sacrifice this animal for the child named Wali, blood for blood, skin for skin, 

flesh for flesh, hair for hair." If the child is a gui, one goat is sacrificed, 

but if it is a boy, two are sacrificed. When the shaving is over the child's haii* 

and nails are laid on a bread and carried away to be thrown into a river. 

383. Upauayau, literally ' taking before (a preceptor)' is the initiation or 

thread-girdiog ceremony among the twice-born 
***" ' Hindus. It was, in olden times, performed before 

sending a boy to a preceptor for study. Alter being invested with the thi'ead, a boy 
became a hrahmachari ov student, left his father's house for that of his preceptor's 
and did not return before he was from 20 to 25 years old and had finished his studies 
and his maternal uncle came to him and [jersuaded him to return under a promise 
that he would marry him with a suitable bride. Now-a-days the ceremony is 
performed at any time between the fifth and eleventh year and instead of being 
looked upon as a preparation for study, is looked upon as conferring fitness for 
marriage. Some of the early rites such as jatkai-ma or birth rite, namalcarma or 
naming, annaprashan or food tasting and chudaJcarma or shaving which are 
neglected to be performed at their proper time, are performed as a formality along 
with upanayan ; and after nishkramana or house-leaving the maternal uncle 
brings the boy back to his house, after he has, as a formality, gone away a few 
yards. 

The cotton thread for the upanayan or janoi, as it is ordinarily called, is 
spun by a maiden or a Brahman and is ninety-six times the breadth of four 
fingers. It is first folded into three and again trebled and the folds are held 
together by a knot called hrahmagrantJu. or Brahma's knot. The janoi is 
thrown over the left shoulder, passed round the right hand and kept suspended. 

Many twice-born castes entitled to wear janoi, have neglected to do so and 
now only Brahmans, Bam Nagar Vauias, Prabhus, Mathur Kayasthas, a few 
Rajputs, Maratlias, Brahma Bhats, Bhatias, Khatris, Luhanas, Tragad and 
Parajia Souls, Gujjar, Mewada, Pancholi and Vaishya Suthars, Targalas and 
Garodas do so. Under the preaching of the Arya Samaj, Lewa Kanbis and 



182 CHAPTER VII — CIVIL CONDITION. 



Other Vaiohya. castes are now introducing the practice among them. Castes who, 
thouo-h entitled to wear the sacred thread, do not ordinarily do so, but put on a 
strip of cloth to represent it on occasions oi grahashanti and shradha ceremonies. 

Instead of the Brahmanic thread, Vauias, Kanbis and other twice-born as 
well as most of the shudra (lower) castes as Kolis, and artizans put on a kanthi^ 
rosary of beads, made of the stem of the basil plant. Sometimes, when they 
are between 7 and 11 years old, both boys and girls are taken to the ijuru 
(religious preceptor) who binds the rosary round the neck. 

Jains wear neither the sacred thread nor a Jcantht. 

384. The rite of bismiltah, or taking the name of God, takes place among 

Musalmans, when a boy or a gu-1 reaches the age 
'^"" ^ ■ of four years, four months and four days. The 

child is covered with sahra or flower sheet and seated on a cushion. Sweet- 
meats are laid before it and ot these two covered with gold paper are given to 
it. The Mulla or priest repeats the opening chapter of the Kuran and the child 
follows. The priest then invokes blessings on the child and its parents, and 
the members of the company present say Amen at every pause. A procession 
is then formed and the child is taken to kiss the dargah (tomb) of the family 
guardian saint (Pir). When the procession returns, money presents are made 
to the child by friends and relations, and the females one by one perform the 
balaiya-lena or the ceremony of taking upon themselves the child's sorrow. In 
doing it, a woman passes her hands over the child from head to foot and then 
setting her knuckles or finger tips against her temples presses them till the 
joints crack. 

385. CorrespondiDg to upannyan or thread-girding ceremony among 

Hindus, and the hismillah ceremony among Musal- 
mans, is the navzot or initiation ceremony among 
the Parsis. The ceremony consists of clothing the child with a sacred shirt 
called sadra and a sacred cord called kosti. Navzot means making a new 
believer and is intended to receive Parsi boys and girls into the Zoroastrian 
faith. It is performed between the age of seven and nine. 

386. Circumcision or khatnah takes place among Musalmans generally 

. . when the boy is six or seven years old. Among 

the Daudi Vohoras, Shiah Mughals and Sunni and 
Shiah Arabs, it takes place as early as the sixth day after birth. This rite is 
considered so important by these people that it is performed on girls as well as 
on boys. The simplest form of circumcision is mere amputation of the prepuce. 
On the day fixed for the operation, a red cotton cloth, about four feet square, is 
spread in the room in which it is to be performed. A copper tray, full of soft 
ashes, is placed in front of it. The boy with only his shirt on and 
held by a strong male relative is seated on a wooden stool, about a foot high. 
The barber first introduces into the foreskin a small bamboo chip probably to 
feel and ascertain that no part of the foreskin adheres to the gland. When he 
finds that the prepuce is free, he turns up the foreskin, and having cleaned it, lets 
it go. He then takes a pair of smooth bamboo pincers and holding the ends 
open, puts them on the lightly drawn-out foreskin; simultaneously with this, he 
dexterously cuts off with a sharp razor the foreskin close to the pincers. The 
pincers are then taken out and after drawing up the ends of the foreskin above 
the gland, a little soft red powder is sprinkled on the wound to staunch the 
blood. The wound heals up in about two or three days. The recovery of the 
child is celebrated with great rejoicings. Friends send presents of sugarcandy 
and sweetmeats. Among Musalmans in the Kadi District circumcision is per- 
formed when the boy reaches puberty and is then celebrated with as much 
pomp as on a marriage. 

"87. It is believed both by the Hindus and Musalmans that children are 

liable to the influence of the evil eve. The two 

Superstitions regarding gjji^,}' „.^arde ayainst it are iron articles and black 

the illness of children. i- i m ^ ^ -j iU -i i i i 

Charms articles, io turn aside the eviJ eye, handsome and 

beloved children also wear a necklace of square 
copper or silver plates. On these plates numbers are marked whose total when 



T1:RM!? (IF RELATIOXSIJIP. 183 



counted horizontally, vertically or diagonally always conies to the same figure, 
either 15 or 20. Sometimes the child wears bajartxdu, that is lio-litening onard 
or a tiger's tooth or claw set in gold and strung through a thread. \V lienever 
a child goes out, a lamp black mark is made on its right cheek or behind the 
right ear. In order to determine whethei' a child's sickness is the result of 
the evil eye or some other cause, live charcoal is put ou a bell-metal plate. 
Seven mustard seeds, seven particles of salt, seven adud grains, pinch of clay, 
a small nail or a needle, a piece of black cloth and some vul are waved seven 
times over the child's head and thrown into the plate. On the plate a cup of 
bell-metal is turned rim down and when it becomes red-hot, the mother prays 
that the evil eye, whether it belongs to its parents, members of the family, 
strangers or thieves of the road, the place where lonr roads meet, the villa^'-e 
or its boundary or a mad or unclean woman, a witch or any one else may 
confine itself within the cup. After muttering this prayer a pot of eowduno- 
and water is waved round the child's head and poured over the cup. If the 
cup sticks to the plate the evil eye which caused the child's sickness has o-one 
into the cup. If the cup does not stick, the child's illness is believed to be due 
to some other cause. 

388. .Small-pox, including measles {ori or gobru) and chicken-pox (achhahda) 
g^ J, ^^ is called sitla v^'hen it is epidemic and sniad when it is 

endemic. Epidemic sma)l-pox is believed bv the 
Hindus to be presided over by a goddess called Sttia Mata or small-pox mother 
and endemic small-pox by a god called 5a^ac/ KaJai or Balia Kaha, i.e., small- 
pox uncle or powerful uucle. To protect their children, mothe)-s projiitiate Sitla 
Mata once in a year, ou the bright or dark seventh of Shravan (August), which 
is the day sacred to her. As small-pox is believed to be caused bv heat 
artificial heat is avoided as much as possible ou that day and all the members 
of a family bathe with cold water and eat cold food cooked on the previous day. 
"When a child is actually attacked with small-pox, Balia or Saiad Kaka is pro- 
pitiated by a visit to his stone image which is kept in a Mahadev or Mata 
temple or under a nimb, eamdi or rukhuda tree. Among Kolis, Bhils and other 
wild tribes, the small-pox stone is keijt near their other objects of worship. 
One of the most reputed stones of small-pox god in Gujarat is in the villao'e of 
For, near Itola in the Baroda Taluka. The small-pox god is visited on the 
seventh, fifteenth or twenty- Hrst day after the appearance of the disease on a 
Sunday, Tuesday or Thursday. No medicine is given to the child. The sio-ht 
of a woman in child-birth or in her monthly sickness, of any person in black 
and of any unclean person is believed to be very injurious to the child. It is 
therefore protected from strangers' gaze, and its cot is strewn with nimb leaves 
to avert the ill-effect produced by the shadow of an unclean person accidently 
falling on it. 

389. If a female child grinds the teeth, it is believed to bring on debts 
Grinding teeth ^^'^}- ^difficulties to the father ; if a male child does so, 

it is believed to pay off debts and bring on pros- 
perity to the family. 

TERMS OF RELATIONSHIP. 

390. The Census Connnissioner for India directed that inquiries should be 
Terms of relationship. "lade regarding terms of relationship in use among 

the dmerent people and the result brieflv noted in 
the report. ■• As regards terms of relationship, those in use in the Gujarati languao-e 
which is spoken by the Gujarat castes and tribes, are more numerous than in the 
English language. Many terms of relationship, which are not differentiated in 
the English language, are differentiated in the local nomenclatuie, while there 
are no terms of relationship which are differentiated in English but not in the 
Vernacular. Whether it is a male or a female who is speaking, a paternal uncle 
is called kal-o, a maternal uncle, mamo, mother's sister's husband, waso, and a 
father's sister's husband jo/n^ro ; a paternal aunt, ^'a/iv', a maternal aunt, viami. a 
mother's sister man and a father's sister phoi ; a brother's son is called hhatrijo 
and his daughter bhatnji ; a sister's son is called bhane/sbud her daughter hhaneji 



18-i CHAPTER VII — riVIL CONDITION. 



and a sister's liusbaiid, baruvi. Wlieu a man iy speaking a brother-in-law i.s 
called salo, if he is one's wife's brother and bunevi it he is sister's husband. A 
sister-in-law is called soli, if she is one's wife's sister, bliabhix^ un elder brother's 
wife and bhojui^ if a younger brother's wii'e. When a woman is speaking, she 
calls her husband's elder brother _/t'f/< and his younger brother diyar : she calls 
the wife ot the former gdhani and that of the latter derani. "VMiether a male or 
a female is speaking, a father-in-law is called i<asaro and a mother-in-law .-^as//. 
A m-audfather-in-law is called vadsamro and grandmother-iu-law, vadsasic. 

391. Terms of relationship, Avhile ihey have a definite connotation, are also 

used in a classificatorv sense, n. g., hliai, brother, 

Termsof relationship j.^/.^ ,,„^i, i^ {^Wii^v, &c. Those who are e(|uaf 

used in a classifica- i. ^i i i r i ^i •/• 

tory sense. ^^^ ^o^ ^^ "^^ speaker are spoken ot as brother it 

males, and as sister, if females ; they are called uncle 

or aunt if they are of the age of one's father or mother ; and if greater respect 

or closeness is to be indicated, also as father or mother. Similarly, the words 

dikaro (son), d^^r/ (daughter), hhatrijo (nephew), and bhatriji (incce) are used, as 

the case may be, by these elders. 

392. It is the privilege of lather's sister iphoi) to name her brother's 

children and to get a present for the same. The 
•"if various relSr."^ ^l/e^^ ^^n of the deceased puts fire into the mouth 

ot the corpse when the luneral fire is lighted. A 
maternal uncle (maino') is entitled to bring the bride to the chori before she is 
given in marriage by her father. Di?/ar (husbaucrs younger brother) has the 
right in most of the lower castes to take his elder brother's widow as wife (rir/p 
para. 348). 

393. Salo (wify's brother), scli (wife's sister), sa^ro (father-in-law), snsii 

(mother-in-law) and mamo (mother's brother) are 

Opprobrium attached to | ^ f ^^ rj,^ opprobrium that 

some terms of relationship. , , ,, i • i S^ p , 

attaches to these words is due to the tact that to 

give a girl in marriage implies inferiority. He who is given a bride is 
believed to be a kulin or of a better family than he who gives her. Banevi 
(sister's husband) and y«w(fri (son-in-law) are sometimes used in a way Avhich 
would imply that the party spoken to is sulo. tali, sasti or sasro as the case may 
be, ot the speaker, e.g., why do yon beat your banevi or jamai ? 



SUBSIDIAUY TABLES. 



185 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I.— Distiubution by civil condition of 1,000 of each 

SEX, KELIGION AND MAIN AGE-rERIOD AT EACH OF THE LAST FOUR CENSUSES. 



ReligioX; sex and age. 

* 


Dnmarried. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


\ 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 


All Religions. 


























Males. 


























0—5 

6—10 


059 

SS3 


973 
897 


957 
879 


'■ 932 


J 39 
(111 


24 
94 


41 
117 


[65 


1 2 
\ 6 


3 
9 


2 

i 


( = 


10—15 

15—20 

20—40 

40—60 

60 and over 


753 

539 

163 

47 

4!) 


730 
462 
1.52 

65 
66 


721 

4S8 

143 

62 

57 


732 

486 

156 

66 

66 


236 
434 
765 
764 

554 


245 
481 
731 
714 
551 


272 
499 
814 

797 
618 


260 
499 
796 
795 
644 


11 

27 

72 

189 

397 


25 

57 

117 

221 

383 


7 

13 

43 

141 

326 


8 

15 

48 

139 

290 


Females. 


























0—5 

5—10 


915 

.S07 


961 
836 


907 
763 


[■846 


1 83 
1188 


36 
154 


92 
234 


151 


) 2 
( 5 


3 
10 


1 
3 


!■ 3 


10—15 

15—20 

20—40 

40-60 

f''! and over 


464 

111 

11 

.1 

4 


477 

127 

16 

5 

5 


446 

103 

14 

6 

3 


453 

100 

11 

3 




515 
856 
862 
467 
154 


485 
786 
786 
487 
250 


542 
875 
891 
530 
162 


531 
868 
873 
539 
199 


21 

33 
127 

528 
842 


38 

87 

198 

508 

745 


12 

22 

95 

464 

835 


16 

32 

116 

458 

799 


Hindus. 


























Males. 


























— 5 .•• 

.5—10 


952 
867 


972 
894 


956 
871 


|924 


i 45 
( 126 


25 
96 


42 
125 


[73 


i ? 


3 
10 


2 
4 


\ B 


10— u 

15—20 

20—40 

40—60 

60 and ovei- 


725 

514 

159 

4S 

52 


716 

444 

148 

68 

73 


704 
471 
137 

53 

58 


709 
462 
151 

68 

70 


263 
457 
766 

758 
546 


256 
492 
733 
709 
555 


288 
516 
821 
804 
616 


281 
522 
800 
792 
640 


12 
29 

75 
194 
402 


28 

64 

119 

223 

372 


S 

13 

42 

143 

326 


10 

16 

49 

140 

290 


Females. 


























0-5 

5— M 


902 

777 


956 

826 


899 
744 


j-826 


J 96 
)218 


40 
162 


100 
252 


[171 


1 2 
( 5 


4 
12 


1 

4 




10-15 

15—20 

20—40 

40—60 

60 and over 


405 

S3 

8 

3 

2 


438 

106 

10 

3 

4 


415 

97 

13 

« 

4 


412 

85 

9 

3 

2 


570 
882 
863 
458 
151 


518 
799 
784 
469 
221 


572 
881 
894 
533 
162 


571 
882 
874 
538 
196 


25 

35 

129 

539 

847 


44 

95 

206 

528 

776 


13 

22 

93 

461 

834 


17 

33 

117 

459 

802 


Jains. 


















■ 








M.ILES. 


























— 5 ... ... ••• 

5—10 w 


992 
980 


959 
889 


952 
942 


|990 


1 8 
1 19 


29 
78 


47 
57 


[ 9-5 


I-. 


12 
33 


1 

1 


[ 0-5 


10 — 15 ••• 

15—20 

20-40 

40-60 

60 and over 


890 

658 

269 

95 

75 


750 

508 

218 

96 

74 


847 
569 
267 
121 
96 


879 

615 

265 

99 

71 


107 
333 
664 
677 
476 


229 
455 
676 
685 
539 


1.50 
423 
689 
714 
542 


119 
378 
686 
740 
612 


3 

9 

67 

228 

449 


21 

37 

106 

219 

387 


3 

S 

44 

165 

362 


2 

7 

49 

161 

317 


FEM.4.LES. 


























— o ... ••• ••• 

5 — 10 ••. ... ••• 


9s;t 
978 


963 
871 


980 
965 


[973 


i 10 
\ 21 


27 
112 


19 
32 


[26 


( I 

1 1 


10 
17 


1 
3 


!■ 1 


10—15 

1.5—20 

20—40 

40—60 

J60 and over 


739 
71 

7 
3 

i 


605 

HI 

11 

1 
1 


728 

54 

10 

7 

*•• 


668 

58 

6 

2 


250 
880 
723 
356 
110 


384 
801 
738 
446 
217 


265 
914 
828 
421 
135 


321 

■t68 
176 


11 

19 
•J 70 
641 
883 


H 

88 
251 
553 
782 


- 

32 
162 
572 
866 


11 

51 
171 

530 
824 



186 



CHAPTER VII — CIVIL CONDITION". 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I.— Distribution by civil condition of 1,000 of 

EACH SEX, RELIGION AND MAIN AGE-PERIOD AT EACH OF THE LAST 

FOUR Censuses. — contcl. 



RELIGIOXj SrEX AND AGE. 


Unmarried. 




Married. 




Widowed. 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


IS91 


1881 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


Anlmists. 


























Males. 


























0^.) ■•• ... ■•• 


996 


997 


991 


(•995 


\ ■' 


2-p 


9 


[ 4.9 


] 1 


•1 


... 


I -1 


5— U' 


979 


951 


984 


\ 


( 20 


48 


16 


( 


1 


... 


) 


10—15 


945 


834 


945 


949 


54 


163 


54 


50 


1 


3 


1 


1 


15—20 


736 


541 


641 


661 


252 


439 


344 


333 


12 


20 


15 


6 


20— It 


119 


134 


97 


132 


842 


763 


870 


832 


39 


103 


33 


36 


40—60 


22 


22 


20 


25 


863 


777 


855 


866 


115 


201 


125 


109 


60 and over 


36 


16 


14 


26 


653 


487 


698 


683 


311 


497 


288 


291 


Females. 


























0—5 


99S 


998 


990 


(993 


S 2 


1-8 


10 


[6.8 


\ — 
\ 1 


.0 


... 


1 ■•' 


5— lo 


980 


929 


983 


) 


1 19-9 


70-6 


17 


\ 


•4 


... 


1 


10—15 


850 


671 


823 


865 


148 


325 


176 


133 


2 


4 


1 


2 


15-20 


388 


226 


279 


333 


604 


739 


714 


653 


8 


35 


7 


14 


20—40 


33 


38 


30 


34 


928 


836 


918 


910 


39 


126 


52 


56 


40—60 


it 


5 


12 


5 


700 


684 


652 


681 


291 


311 


336 


314 


60 and over 


6 


1 


6 


5 


254 


445 


254 


352 


740 


554 


740 


643 


IVIu sal mans. 


























Males. 


























M — 5 ... ... ■•■ 


986-8 


9.50 


981 


i964 


j 13 

1 n 


45 


19 


'. 34 


i -2 
\ 2 


5 


... 


\ ■' 


5-l( 


957 


869 


937 


1 


122 


61 


) 


9 


2 


] 


10—15 


866 


752 


841 


835 


128 


228 


154 


159 


6 


20 


5 


6 


15—20 


658 


532 


645 


659 


328 


427 


347 


326 


14 


41 


8 


15 


20—40 


205 


193 


192 


211 


727 


687 


766 


740 


68 


120 


42 


49 


10 — fill 

00 and over 


38 
31 


71 

68 


44 
43 


58 
43 


785 

585 


656 

576 


819 
642 


801 
668 


177 
384 


233 
356 


137 
315 


141 

289 


Females. 


























0—5 

5-10 


969 
914 


946 
822 


972 
886 


'• 925 
\ 


■ j 30 
1 83 


50 
166 


27 
112 


i72 

1 


( 1 
] 3 


4 
12 


1 
2 


' 3 


10_1.^ 


635 


602 


630 


625 


356 


375 


364 


364 


9 


23 


6 


11 


1.5—21' 


158 


197 


Ml 


1.52 


814 


724 


836 


815 


28 


79 


23 


33 


20—40 


19 


43 


20 


21 


858 


760 


876 


852 


123 


197 


104 


127 


40—60 


12 


20 


9 


8 


467 


498 


497 


504 


521 


482 


494 


488 


60 and over 


r, 


15 


1 


1 


153 


283 


145 


172 


841 


702 


848 


821 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



187 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I. — Distribution by civil condition of 1,000 or 

EACH SEX, RELIGION AND MAIN AGE-PERIOD AT BACH OF THE LAST 

FOUR Censuses — contd. 







Unmarried. 






Married. 






Widowed. 




BBLIGION, sex AlO) AOE. 


























1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


Parsis 


























Males. 


























0—5 

6—10 


1,000 
995 


1,000 
983 


983 
986 


[980 


1-5 


"l7 


17 
14 


[ 16 


' *** 




;:: 


4 


10—15 


996 


958 


932 


830 


4 


40 


68 


164 


... 


2 


«•• 


6 


15—20 


951 


808 


734 


416 


49 


185 


254 


573 


... 


7 


12 


11 


20—40 


352 


241 


126 


83 


622 


707 


854 


813 


26 


52 


20 


104 


40—60 


29 


25 


8 


12 


880 


814 


908 


664 


91 


161 


84 


334 


60 and over 


18 


13 


3 


2 


691 


728 


714 


426 


291 


259 


283 


572 


Fkmaleb. 


























— 5 

6—10 


1,000 

987 


998 
975 


991 

970 


943 


111 


2 
25 


9 

30 


[ 56 


I ... 
1 2 


... 


■ •• 


1 ^ 


10—15 


954 


909 


766 


617 


46 


85 


234 


376 


• •• 


6 


... 


7 


15—20 


793 


389 


325 


134 


200 


564 


651 


863 


7 


47 


24 


3 


20—40 


202 


47 


38 


10 


726 


849 


895 


955 


73 


104 


67 


36 


40—60 


71 


... 


5 


... 


641 


593 


682 


878 


288 


407 


313 


122 


60 and over 


88 


... 


... 


... 


182 


224 


288 


516 


730 


776 


712 


484 


Christians. 


























Males. 


























— 5 ... ... ••• 

5—10 


961 
615 


949 
870 


1,000 
963 


[984 


1 37 
1380 


40 
116 


"37 


[16 


1 i 


11 

14 


... 


\ ■•• 


10—15 


553 


612 


737 


941 


413 


347 


263 


59 


34 


41 




... 


15—20 


397 


257 


911 


920 


561 


683 


89 


80 


42 


60 


... 


... 


20—40 


103 


70 


384 


666 


833 


835 


607 


315 


64 


95 


9 


19 


40—60 


19 


19 


61 


132 


824 


840 


829 


750 


157 


141 


110 


118 


60 and over ... 


18 


23 


... 


167 


613 


701 


1,000 


666 


369 


276 


... 


167 


Females. 


























— 5 ... 

5—10 ... 


858 
462 


917 
540 


970 
840 


[981 


132 
418 


67 
443 


30 
120 


[19 


1 10 

(■ ) 2n 


16 
17 


40 


1 


10—15 


323 


260 


937 


889 


662 


692 


63 


111 


15 


18 




... 


15—20 


304 


86 


714 


333 


690 


828 


286 


667 


fi 


86 


... 


... 


20—40 


35 


13 


111 


78 


900 


887 


798 


87r. 


65 


100 


61 


•17 


40—60 


7 


... 


... 


... 


574 


605 


790 


450 


419 


495 


210 


550 


60 and over 


9 


109 


... 


••• 


195 


182 


250 


... 


796 


709 


7n0 


1,000 



188 



CHAPTEK VII-^CIYIL CONDITION. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE 11 — Distribution by Civil Condition of 1,000 of each sex, 



Religion and Natarsl 


Males. | 


All ages. 


C 


— 5 


5- 


-10 


10—15 


15—40 


40 and over. 






































Divurton. 


T3 






T3 






•d 






'B 






•a 






"S 








S 




TS 


.2 




V 


D 




tj 







"S 


CJ 




"S 


,2 




■a 




s 


•3 


1 


1 


-a 


^ 



T3 


a 

a 


i 

U4 


1) 
1 


03 

a 







'B 

03 

s 


•a 




•a 


ft. 

CS 

a 


t 
ft. 







c 


C3 


.^ 


a 


OS 




a 


03 




n 


rt 






d 




a 


a 






o 


•:^ 


^ 


D 


3 


fe 





:s 


& 


& 


s 


^ 


D 


s 


& 


D 


3 


■^ 


1 


«> 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


y 


10 


11 


13 


18 


14 


15 16 


17 


18 


19 


Baroda 5tate. 








1 
1 








1 

1 




















All relifions 


iS8 


496 


76 


959 


39 





883 


in 6 


75J 


236 


11 


B39 


698 


63 


47 


727 


226 


Einda 


418 


504 


78 


952 


45 


3 


867 


12g: 7 


725 


263 


12 


231 


708 


66 


^ 


ffSO 


Ya-^ 


Jaia 


■»y] 


421 


88 


992 


8 


*■• 


980 


19 


1 


890 


107 


3 


349 


596 


55 


91 


640 


369 


Animist 


60!) 


463 


39 


996 


4 


••> 


979 


20 


1 


945 


54 


1 


238 


788 


34 


24 


830 


146 


Muaalman 


466 


461 


73 


987 


13 


••• 


957 


41 


2 


866 


128 


6 


298 


645 


57 


37 


746 


217 


Parel 


574 


379 


47 


1,000 


••• 


... 


995 


5 


... 


9!t6 


4 


... 


582 


449 


19 


26 


826 


149 


Christiao 


340 


693 


67 


961 


37 


2 


615 


380 


6 


553 


413 


34 


175 


7(i6 


59 


19 


790 


191 


Arya Samaj 


339 


611 


50 


891 


109 


*•* 


735 


235 


30 


585 


415 


... 


159 


781 


60 


... 


873 


127 


Brahmo 


350 


600 


250 


... 


*•■ 


... 


... 


■ *• 




... 


... 


... 


333 


667 


... 


... 


... 


1,000 


Sikh ••• ••• ••■ 


407 


576 


17 


1,000 


■ ■■ 


... 


1,000 


... 


... 


1,000 


... 


... 


263 


737 


... 


... 


857 


143 


Jew 


435 


565 




1,000 


... 


... 


1,000 


••• 


... 


1,000 


... 


•• 


250 


750 


•• 


... 


1,000 


• >• 


Baroda Division. 






































All religions ... ••• 


4ie 


506 


7S 


983 


16 


1 


9SS 


69 3 


734 


257 


9 


227 


709 


64 


60 


720 


220 


Hindu 


413 


506 


81 


983 


16 


1 


929 


69 


2 


723 


268 


9 


227 


706 


67 


64 


710 


326 


Jain ... ••■ ••• 


434 


477 


8y 


983 


17 


... 


982 


16 


2 


757 


235 


8 


300 


653 


47 


99 


624 


277 


Animist 


457 


509 


34 


987 


13 


... 


987 


60 


3 


853 


144 


3 


124 


841 


35 


8 


882 


110 


Masalmaa 


440 


487 


73 


986 


14 


... 


949 


48 


3 


821 


168 


8 


3S5 


661 


64 


40 


753 


207 


Parsi 


320 


667 


13 


1,000 




... 


1,000 


... 


•■• 


1,000 


... 




455 


545 


>*. 


• •* 


970 


30 


Christian 


285 


642 


73 


956 


"42 


t> 


539 


454 


7 


437 


517 


16 


99 


837 


64 


14 


781 


205 


Kadi Division. 






































All religiont 


il-i 


504 


82 


902 


75 


S3 


801 


786 


13 


690 


292 


28 


237 


690 


73 


39 


723 


238 


Hindu 


407 


511 


82 


915 


81 


4 


785 


201 


14 


669 


312 


19 


229 


696 


75 


37 


. 725 


238 


Jain 


501 


411 


88 


998 


7 


■ .•. 


976 


23 


1 


908 


91 


1 


357 


584 


69 


87 


650 


263 


Mnsalman 


471 


447 


82 


960 


19 


1 


948 


49 


3 


872 


119 


9 


805 


628 


67 


32 


7:^8 


240 


Parsi 


500 


457 


43 


1,000 


... 


.*• 


1,000 


... 


>.. 


1,000 


• ■• 




500 


40!) 


91 


... 


1,000 


... 


Christian 


418 


532 


50 


1,000 


... 


• •* 


800 


200 


... 


636 


364 


... 


287 


667 


66 


67 


■ 800 


133 


Navsari Division. 






































All religions 


467 


474 


59 


990 


10 


... 


961 


38 


1 


8SS 


169 


3 


217 


7,39 


44 


39 


752 


209 


Hindu 


438 


560 


2 


985 


14 


1 


946 


53 


1 


769 


226 


5 


186 


766 


48 


43 


732 


225 


Jain 


505 


401 


94 


1,000 




... 


994 


6 


•■a 


913 


71 


16 


366 


566 


68 


101 
29 


593 


307 


Animist 


.537 


432 


41 


1^000 


... 


... 


996 


4 


... 


969 


30 


1 


266 


701 


34 


813 


159 


Musalman 


484 


4.51 


65 


994 


6 


... 


935 


45 


... 


853 


146 


1 


260 


895 


45 


29 


749 


222 


Parsi 


.581 


371 


48 


1,000 


... 




995 


5 


■ ■* 


996 


4 


... 


508 


475 


17 


23 


819 


158 


Cliristian 

Amreli Division. 


541 


45!' 




1,000 


... 


... 


1,000 


••• 


• ■« 


1,000 


... 


... 


417 


r,83 


... 


250 


760 








































All religion* 


4S1 


455 


64 


985 


15 ... 


969 


30 


1 


905 


93 


2 


307 


656 


43 


■42 


742 


216 


Hindu ' ... 


473 


463 


64 


984 


16 ... 


966 


82 


2 


897 


101 


2 


394 


663 


4S 


42 


789 


219 


Jain 


578 


35« 


64 


996 


4 ... 


983 


17 


... 


981 


19 


... 


433 


530 


37 


121 


647 


232 


Musalman 


52a 


412 


59 


990 


10 ... 


986 


14 




949 


50 


1 


339 


616 


46 


38 


768 


194 


Parii 


400 


533 


67 


l,IJO0 




1,000 


... 


... 


... 






600 


500 


... 


... 


833 


167 


Christian 


714 


148 


U3 







... 


... 


... 


1 ,000 


... 


... 


1,000 


... 


... 


... 


500 


600 


Baroda City. 




































All religiiint 


■m 


507 


S5 


9S6 


14 ... 


925 


74 


1 


826 


170 


4 


21i 


659 


6S 


04 


70f> 


227 


Hindu 


SS8 


516 


86 


983 


17 ... 


911 


88 


1 


>'04 


19C 


6 


364 


673 


6S 


68 


699 


233 


Jain 


427 


466 


107 


i,OUO 




98l) 


30 


... 


933 


67 


... 


3U7 


636 


57 


61 


628 


312 


Animist 


378 


530 


92 


1,000 




1,000 




... 


1,00(1 




... 


167 


712 


121 


136 


728 


136 


Mur-alman 


435 


488 


77 


9!1! 


6 "'. 


976 


'24 


... 


8118 


i'lil 


1 


317 


624 


5! 


45 


754 


201 


Parsi 


580 


370 


50 


1,000 




1,000 




... 


1,000 


... 


... 


704 


276 


•i( 


63 


800 


137 


Christian 


GI9 


347 


34 


1,000 





9.;2 


"38 


... 


950 


50 


... 


640 


419 


41 39 


871 


JZ 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



189 



AT CERTAIN AGES IN EACH RELIGION AND NATURAL DIVISION. 



Females. 


All ages. 


0-5 


5—10 


10—15 


15— to 


40 and over. 


T3 






■a 






T3 






■o 






T3 






•a 










^3 


.2 


. 


•d 


(L> 


^ 


r^ 


^CJ 


^ 


t3 


.2 




■6 


V 




-a 


"C 


-d 


P 




■a 





'H 




U 


*C 


'O 


« 


*n 


T3 


ZJ 


'C 


'a 


(V 


3 

a 




1 


C5 

a 





1 

13 


a 




^3 


£-1 
B 


JO 


1 


1 




"£ 


^ 

y 


Si 
OS 

B 







a 


<a 




a 


a 




a 


rt 




a 


s 




a 


OS 




a 


C3 




D 


s 


& 


P 


S 


^ 


D 


s 


^ 


D 


a 


'$ 


b 


S 


&: 





36 


^ 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


37 


S8i 


540 


276 


015 


83 


2 


807 


18S 


5 


464 


515 


21 


30 


861 


109 


4 


4V3 


593 


268 


551 


181 


902 


96 


2 


777 


218 


5 


405 


670 


26 


22 


866 


112 


3 


395 


602 


296 


426 


278 


989 


.0 


1 


978 


21 


1 


739 


250 


11 


19 


750 


231 


i. 


300 


696 


452 


477 


71 


998 


2 


••• 


980 


20 




860 


148 


2 


866 


102 


33 


8 


615 


377 


320 


501 


179 


969 


30 


1 


914 


83 


"3 


635 


356 


9 


45 


849 


106 


11 


394 


695 


450 


397 


153 


1,000 


• •> 




987 


11 


2 


954 


46 


■ •• 


339 


604 


57 


76 


498 


426 


242 


620 


138 


858 


!32 


'"10 


462 


418 


120 


323 


662 


16 


102 


848 


50 


7 


612 


481 


300 


594 


106 


861 


1S9 




679 


321 




409 


591 


• •■ 


43 


903 


54 


62 


474 


474 


500 


500 




1,000 


... 


•<• 


. \m 




... 


... 


• •• 


... 


*•• 


1,000 


... 


... 


• •• 


-•• 


516 


452 


"32 


1,000 




•*■ 


1,000 


... 


... 


1,000 


■ >• 




143 


867 


... 


••• 


667 


333 


588 


353 


59 


1,000 


... 


••• 


1,0011 


... 


... 


1,000 


• •• 


• •• 


625 


375 




■ •■ 


500 


600 


255 


569 


176 


942 


57 


7 


81(1 


778 


6 


296 


6S7 


17 


14 


892 


94 


5 


417 


578 


242 


576 


182 


935 


64 


I 


800 


195 


5 


258 


724 


18 


12 


891 


97 


3 


412 


585 


254 


468 


278 


991 


(4J) 4-5 


(41) 4-5 


976 


21 


3 


502 


495 


3 


8 


779 


213 


4 


312 


684 


405 


533 


62 


995 


5 




966 


34 


... 


587 


407 


6 


12 


966 


22 


1 


643 


356 


288 


530 


182 


968 


31 


" 1 


868 


127 


' '5 


467 


524 


9 


22 


879 


99 


19 


382 


599 


471 


529 


■ .. 


1,000 


.•• 


• •• 


1,000 


... 


• •■ 


1,000 




• •• 


250 


750 


... 


• •■ 


1,000 


■ >. 


228 


633 


139 


856 


133 


11 


418 


450 


132 


299 


685 


16 


76 


884 


40 


3 


522 


475 


258 


546 


796 


S50 


147 


3 


705 


288 


7 


428 


338 


34 


20 


842 


138 


2 


359 


639 


252 


555 


193 


840 


1571 


3 


681 


312 


- 


395 


668 


37 


19 


847 


134 


2 


361 


637 


294 


415 


291 


987 


12 


1 


984 


15 


I 


776 


209 


15 


20 


728 


252 


3 


293 


704 


319 


490 


191 


947 


51 


2 


909 


86 


5 


654 


335 


11 


42 


823 


135 


8 


375 


617 


452 


484 


64 


1,000 


• •• 


• •• 


1,000 






1,000 


• •• 


• >• 


313 


• 687 


... 


... 


667 


333 


224 


592 


184 


720 


280 




778 


222 


... 


167 


833 


• •• 


46 


895 


60 


88 


235 


677 


373 


508 


119 


9S6 


14 




924 


74 


y 


625 


366 


9 


78 


856 


66 


10 


572 


478 


335 


536 


129 


977 


22 


• 1 


895 


102 


3 


495 


493 


12 


47 


878 


76 


6 


498 


496 


359 


416 


225 


993 


7 




966 


34 




825 


175 


••• 


31 


761 


208 


8 


321 


671 


469 


456 


75 


1.000 




... 


980 


14 




911 


88 


1 


134 


829 


87 


10 


606 


384 


356 


482 


162 


997 


■■■ 3 




928 


72 




717 


277 


6 


84 


831 


85 


7 


424 


569 


446 


394 


160 


1,000 






9S7 


11 


2 


951 


49 


... 


325 


615 


60 


81 


479 


440 


522 


391 


87 


1,000 


... 


... 


1,000 




... 




... 


... 


111 


778 


111 




667 


333 


347 


497 


256- 


;,vj 


16 




0G4 


33 


3 740 


248 


6 


44 


S7e 


SO 


3 


434 


563 


342 


5111 


157 


984 


16 




961 


36 


3 731 


263 


6 


42 


879 


79 


2 


431 


567 


395 


410 


195 


992 


8 




979 


21 




877 


123 




29 


825 


146 


... 


350 


650 


378 


479 


143 


1 991 


9 




983 


15 


' 2 


826 


170 


"4 


58 


868 


74 


4 


477 


519 


429 


500 


71 


••. 






1,000 




1,000 




... 


600 


500 


... 


... 


800 


200 


• •• 


1,000 


... 


1 


••■ 


... 










... 


-• 


... 


... 




1,000 


• •• 


244 


51S 


244 


975 


25 




S64 


133 


3 ' 411 


568 


21 


22 


839 


73i? 


4 


304 


692 


230 


515 


255 


972 


28 




846 


151 


3 


347 


629 


24 


11 


838 


151 


3 


291 


706 


238 


466 


296 


1,000 




' 925 


75 




537 


450 


13 


12 


823 


165 


9 


273 


718 


300 


562 


138 


1.000 




soo 


!00 


ioo 1 ... 


... 


laa 


67 


866 


67 


• •• 


417 


583 


297 


504 


199 


985 


'15 


... , 942 


58 


629 


362 


9 


47 


861 


92 


8 


352 


640 


517 


405 


78 


1,000 




■ •• 


1,000 


... 




1,000 




• *■ 


544 


412 


44 


... 


785 


215 


403 


491 


106 


963 


'"37 




957 


' ■'' 


■ ■• 


1,000 


• a. 


■ ■■ 


240 


711 


49 


... 


561 


439 



190 



CHAPTER VII — CIVIL CONDITION. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III. — Disteibution by main age-periods and civil 

CONDITION OF 10,000 OF EACH SEX AND RELIGION. 



RELIGION AND AOE. 


Hales. 


Females. 
















Unmarried. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


Unmarried. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


All Religions 


4,285 


4,957 


758 


2,839 


5,399 


1,762 


0—10 

10-15 

15—40 

40 and over ... .•• ... 


2,435 

703 

1,050 

97 


185 

221 

3,068 

1,48S 


10 
11 

277 
460 


2,816 

882 

132 

9 


329 

4'J6 

3,791 

854 


8 

18 

480 

1,266 


Hindus 


4,181 


5,036 


783 


2,676 


5,516 


1,808 


0—10 

10—15 

15 — 40 ... ... ... 

40 and oTer ... 


2,383 
674 

1,024 
100 


209 

244 

3,117 

1,466 


12 
11 

291 
469 


2,248 

328 

98 

7 


37S 

463 

3,830 

845 


8 

20 

495 

1,385 


jsins ... ... ... ... 


4,913 


4,213 


874 


2,960 


4,261 


2,779 


0—10 

10—15 ... 

15 — 40 ... ... ••• 

40 and ovei ... ... 


2,278 
912 

1,509 
214 


31 
109 

2,575 
1,498 


I 

3 

240 

6S0 


2,178 

690 

82 

10 


32 

234 

3,231 

764 


2 

10 

993 

1,774 


Animist 


5,087 


4,520 


393 


4,520 


4,766 


714 


U — lU ... ... ... 

10—15 ... ... ... 

15 — 40 ... ... ... 

40 and over 


3,251 

865 

929 

42 


35 

49 
3,004 
1,432 


2 

1 

139 

251 


3,305 

772 

431. 

12 


29 

135 

3,669 

838 


2 

140 
672 


Musalman — 


4,656 


4,609 


735 


3,203 


5,008 


1,789 


0—10 

10—15 

15-40 

40 and over 


2,478 

825 

1,271 

82 


64 
122 

2,756 
1,668 


2 

5 

248 

485 


2,439 

544 

196 

24 


132 

805 

8,699 

872 


6 

8 

459 

1,317 


Parsi ... 


5,737 


3,789 


474 


4,502 


3,965 


1,533 


0-10 

10—15 

15—40 

40 and over «• 


2,4(;2 
1,427 

1,778 
70 


6 

6 
1,503 
2,274 


""62 
413 


1,962 

968 

1,388 

234 


11 

46 

2,384 

1,524 


2 

"'"2*37 
1,304 


Christian 


3,406 


5,927 


667 


2,416 


6,204 


1,380 


0—10 

10—15 

15 — 40 ... ... ... 

40 and over 


1.951 

586 

835 

34 


418 

438 

3,652 

1,419 


8 

36 

280 

348 


1,613 

322 

4(;6 

15 


645 

660 

3,847 

1,062 


149 
15 

227 
989 


Aryasama) » 


3,386 


6,116 


498 


2,995 


5,945 


1,060 


0-10 

10—15 

15—40 

40 and over 


1,738 
813 
840 


340 

580 

4,120 

1,076 


26 

""3I6 
157 


2,304 

415 

184 

92 


645 

599 

8,871 

880 


"'"2SI 
639 


Brahmo 


2,500 


5,000 


2,500 


5,000 


5,000 




0—10 

10—15 

15—40 

40 and over 


"2,500 


"5,000 


"*2',600 


5,000 


"5,000 




3]Kn ... ... ..• 


4,06S 


5,762 


170 


5,161 


4,516 


323 


0—10 

10—15 

15—40 

40 and over 


1,864 

509 

1,695 


"4,745 
1,017 


""l70 


8,548 
968 
645 


"3,871 
646 


""'323 


Jew 


4,348 


5,652 




5,883 


3,529 


588 


0—10 

10—15 

15—40 

40 and over 


2,174 

870 

1,304 


"8,013 
1,739 




2,941 
1,177 
1,765 


■"2"941 

.'>88 


""688 



SrBSlIMAIIV l.\HI.H> 



191 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV. — Pkoportion of the sexes by Civil Condition 

AT CEBTAIN AGES FOR RELIGIONS AND NaTUKAL DIVISIONS. 







Number op females per 1,000 males. 






AH ages. 


U-10 


10-15 


13-40 


40 


and over. 


Natural Division' 
AND Religion. 


















^ 1 




^ 1 


















'^ 


















— 






"^ 








u 




-o 


_* 




r^ 


^ 




T3 


.« 


. 


— - 


0,' 




<^ 






13 


3J 


n 




O 


^ 




■V 




'O 


0. 






S 




cz 


o 


S 




O 


s 


J- 


^n: 


& 




o 


^ 




5 








^ 


o 


a e 


o 


2 


'u, 


1 


s 


H 


~ 


a 


s 


S 










c ~ 






a 




a 






c 


a 






- 


s 


"^ 


tJ a 


■s 


D 


S 


'^ 


D 


s 


^ 


D 


S 


^ 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Baroda 5tate. 
































All heliijiom 


673 


i/m 


2,250 


879 


1,653 


722 


503 


2,780 


2,625 


226 


2,245 


2,605 


90 


555 


2,523 


Hindu 


688 


1,009 


2,121 


865 


1,659 


646 


448 


1,742 


1,636 


88 


1,129 


1951 


58 


529 


2.52:! 


Jain 


.591 


998 


3,137 


944 


1,044 


2,500 


746 


3,109 


3,000 


53 


1,238 


4,091 


46 


503 


2.777 


Animist 


853 


1,013 


1,745 


977 


812 


12.-. 


868 


2,643 


1,800 


445 


777 


979 


277 


626 


2,18 •■> 


Miisalman 


646 


1,019 


2,285 


924 


1,914 


2,000 


619 


2 349 


1,288 


144 


1,264 


1,778 


279 


490 


2,551 


Parsi 


1,041 


1,387 


4,290 


1,0.57 


2.50O 


■ ■• 


899 


io,.-.uo 


... 


9'Ji 


2,103 


4,905 


4,416 


888 


4,191 


Chrijtiau ... ... 


Glri 


909 


1,799 


718 


1,341 


16,666 


478 


1,307 


357 


484 


914 


704 


385 


652 


2^507 


Aryaeamaj 


604 


553 


1,310 


757 


1,077 


• ■• 


290 


591 


••• 


125 


535 


416 


... 


434 


3,000 


Brahmo 


1.000 


500 


... 


... 


... 


• •• 


■ *• 


... 


... 


... 


500 


... 




... 


• •. 


Sikb ... ... •■• 


666 


412 


1,000 


1,0(10 


... 


>■■ 


1,000 


... 


... 


200 


428 


... 


... 


333 


1,000 


Jew ~. 


1,000 


461 


... 


1,000 


... 


... 


1,000 


... 


... 


1,030 


5.55 


... 


... 


250 


... 


Baroda Oivisioa. 
































All Tleligiom 


,554 


981 


1,976 


8S6 


2,371 


1,413 


301 


2,004 


2, -365 


52 


2,089 


2i'84 


72 


529 


2,399 


Hiiulu ... ... ... 


508 


985 


1 .950 


804 


2,589 


1,093 


263 


1 ,994 


1,486 


45 


1,083 


1,263 


49 


535 


2,383 


JaiQ 


552 


891 


2,844 


947 


714 


3,000 


514 


1,633 


S33 


24 


1 ,025 


3,891 


41 


510 


2,621 


Auiniist 


853 


1,010 


1,767 


1,'j06 


494 


... 


6C9 


2,487 


2,000 


98 


1,179 


659 


130 


585 


2,599 


Mn^lmau 


566 


943 


2,170 


SS6 


2,244 


1,857 


42.- 


2,340 


843 


67 


1143 


1,573 


412 


437 


2,491 


Parsi 


667 


360 


• •• 


1.25" 


>•• 


• •■ 


2,000 


.■• 


• •• 


267 


667 


... 


• •• 


187 




C'liiistiaQ 


<G4 


949 


1,794 


748 


1,322 


16,666 


692 


1,344 


S.57 


946 


939 


714 


250 


694 


241 


Kadi Division. 
































All Reliijiom 


591 


lose 


2,257 


S54 


L516 


542 


504 


7,497 


2,562 


82 


2,272 


2,797 


62 


498 


26 


Hiudu 


58 5 


I fi'!\ 


2,213 


846 


1,511 


.-.24 


474 


1,464 


1,550 


7S 


1,1.58 


1,713 


51 


499 


2.694 


Jain ... >>• ••■ 


617 


1,060 


3;489 


939 


911 


2,000 


798 


2.14 3 


19.000 


63 


1,376 


4.711 


43 


505 


3,000 


Musalman 


65i 


1,051 


2,259 


934 


1,942 


1,909 


657 


2,469 


1,136 


138 


1,303 


1,765 


245 


485 


3,415 


Parsi 


609 


714 


1,000 


8811 


• •• 


• •■ 


333 


... 


... 


454 


1,222 


... 


... 


333 


... 


CLiristian 


393 


813 


2,700 


676 


3,250 


... 


143 


1,250 




97 


845 


667 


1,500 


333 


5,750 


Navsarl Division. 
































.4''^ Beliijions 


787 


1,052 


7,975 


96-7 


7,759 


2,225 


705 


2,027 


2,508 


362 


2,274 


2,522 


249 


646 


2.274 


Hindu ... ... 


74.-. 


l,0,i0 


1,910 


959 


1,738 


2,088 


588 


1,992 


2,396 


249 


1145 


1,584 


139 


640 


2,072 


Jain ... ... •■• 


533 


808 


1,863 


922 


6,000 


• •• 


795 


2,1 .-.4 


... 


57 


899 


2,058 


67 


451 


1,813 


Animist ... ... ••• 


855 


1,0)6 


1,744 


965 


3,261 


... 


917 


2,8:« 


l,.-)00 


502 


1,172 


1,083 


396 


643 


2,080 


Mnsalman 


787 


1.14.^ 


2,665 


944 


1,337 


••• 


785 


177 


4,000 


38.-. 


1,417 


2,238 


250 


619 


2,812 


Parsi 


1,091 


1..-.10 


4,789 


l,0.-.6 


2,.-.00 


■ •• 


919 


19,500 


... 


1,181 


2,280 


6,125 


5,889 


959 


4,.-.55 


f":iri-lian 


600 


539 


... 


1,571 


... 




• •• 


... 


... 


100 


500 


... 


... 


666 


... 


Amreli Division. 
































All BelUjions 


678 


1,027 


2,294 


975 


1,044 


2,000 


690 


2,242 


2,412 


255 


1,233 


2,706 


58 


.575 


-',542 


Hindu ... *** ••• 


070 


1,014 


2.274 


977 


1,045 


1,857 


077 


2,176 


2,375 


129 


1,207 


1,477 


."■> 


669 


2,530 


J.iin 


634 


1,064 


2,853 


1,010 


1,400 


■ ■■ 


811 


5,750 


••• 


58 


1,S52 


3,393 


... 


516 


2.i;82 


MuBalmr^i: ... ••• ••■ 


70-J 


1,144 


3,365 


933 


939 


... 


752 


2,957 


3,000 


179 


1,483 


1,741 


117 


607 


2,618 


Parsi 


1.000 


875 


1,000 


813 


... 


«•• 


... 




.•• 


1,1100 


1,000 


.•• 


... 


800 


1,000 


Ciiristian 


... 


1,000 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


1,0(H) 


• ■• 


Baroda City. 
































All Reliniont 


510 


8G0 


2,467 


923 


1,6.32 


2,S00 


575 


2,527 


5,57/ 


OS 


1,006 


2,765 


53 


401 


2,8-17 


Hindu ... ... •-. 


495 


857 


2,.-)4C 


919 


1.595 


2,000 


326 


2,499 


3,400 


38 


985 


1,879 


36 


397 


2,887 


Jain •■• ... ... 


510 


910 


2,516 


88.-. 


3,ii00 




518 


6,000 


>•• 


SO 


110 


2,323 


167 


487 


2,570 


Animist 


533 


714 


1,000 


1,167 




... 


■•• 


... 


.•• 


273 


830 


375 


... 


813 


2,333 


Musalman ... ... ... 


588 


888 


2,220 


967 


2,360 


... 


578 


2,976 


6,000 


121 


1,119 


1,2,V2 


157 


403 


2,7611 


Parsi 


676 


830 


118 


1.151 




... 


641 


• •■ 


... 


579 


1,119 


1,666 


... 


671 


l,l'77 


Christian 


282 


613 


1,335 


510 


500 


i 


184 


... 


... 


197 1,024 545 


... 


377 


2,577 



ltlL> 



CHAl'TEi; VII IIVII, lONDITION. 



SUBblDlAKY Table v. — distribution uv civil cunuitiun (if 1,000 or each ?f.x, 



Caste akd Locality. 



IllMRIBUTIO.V OF 1,000 MALES OF EACH AGE BX CIVIL CO^■DITIO^■. 



All Ages. 



^ 



0—5 



s 



5—12 



12- -20 



a 

c 



» 



20—40 



40 and over. 



10 



11 



12 I 13 



H 



15 



16 



18 



19 



Hindu. 

Ahir 

B.<ihrot 

Bava ... 

Bhangi ... ... 

Bharvad 

Bhavsar 

Bhoi 

Brahman-Anavala 
., Aadicb ... 
,1 Desbastba 
„ Mewada 

Modh ... 

„ Nagar ... 

„ Tapocihan 

Chamar ... .« 

Darji 

Dhed 

Garoda 

Ghanchi 

Gola (Ricc-ponnders) 

Gosaiu 

Hajam 

Kachhia ... ... 

Kanbi-Anjana 
„ Kailwa 
,, Karadia ... 
„ Lcwa ... 

Koll 

Kumbhar 

Lnhana .... 
Lnhar ... 

Machhi 

Maratha 

Slochi 

Rabari 

Rajput 

Ravalia ... ... 

Sathawara ... 

Sbenva 

Soni 

Satar 

Talavia 

Targala 

Vagher 

Vaghari 

Vauia Disaval 
„ Lad 
„ Shrimali .. 

Jain. . 

Vania Shrimali ... 



Bhil 

Chodlu-a 

Dbanka 

Dhodia 

Gamit 

Nayakila 



Animistic. 



/Vlusalman. 



Fakir 

Gbaiiohi 

Malek 

Jlemoa 

Molesalam... 

Momna 

Pathan 

Pinjara 

Saiyail 

Shaikh 

Vohora 



Parsi 



Nfttivt 



Parsi. 



Christian. 



4t)S 
477 
615 
407 
378 
388 
397 
483 
4fio 
459 
489 
472 
475 
45S 
438 
429 
421 
472 
408 
296 
491 
422 
359 
40i( 
190 
500 
422 
450 
400 
470 
426 
416 
441 
419 
370 
475 
3il9 
411 
480 
447 
419 
451 
420 
515 
442 
442 
44 
425 



480 



485 
529 
458 
554 
524 
507 



476 
408 
4S5 
465 
42il 
421 
465 
415 
484 
453 
457 



574 



341 






46S 

404 

396 

538 

550 

62 

531 

412 

4.-)0 

407 

449 

423 

432 

464 

515 

486 

532 

474 

510 

624 

426 

492 

515 

497 

700 

458 

476 

476 

522 

462 

494 

511 

493 

501 

544 

443 

532 

513 

468 

457 

510 

448 

423 

424 

607 

436 

339 

458 



424 



480 
42;< 
506 
394 
430 
463 



438 
518 
438 
462 
477 
494 
449 
483 
436 
473 
468 



878 
593 



69 

119 

89 

55 

77 

85 

72 

105 

85 

134 

102 

105 

93 

81 

47 

85 

57 

54 

76 

80 

83 

86 

126 

94 

110 

42 

102 

74 

78 

68 

180 

73 

66 

80 

86 

82 

69 

76 

52 

96 

71 

101 

1.57 

61 

51 

123 

117 

117 



998 
991 
999 
976 
973 
997 
990 

1,000 
992 

1,000 
990 
984 
978 
975 
979 
988 
983 
974 
984 
930 
996 
983 
975 
963 
647 

1,000 
979 
986 
968 
988 
986 
999 
995 
990 
94'J 
989 
969 
974 
989 
985 
985 
994 
994 
994 
984-5 
986 
996 
972 



96 996 



86 
74 

77 
73 

85 
86 
102 
80 
74 



998 
999 
989 
3,000 
996 
986 



981 
945 
987 
997 
974 
986 
990 
998 
9S6 
989 
988 



1,000 
961 



10 
10 
13 
I'J 
20 
11 
15 
26 
16 
70 
4 
14 
23 
33 
336 

20- .5 
13 
30 
10 
14 
1 



49 

11 

SO 

26 

10 

14 

15 

6 

6 

6 

15-2 

14 

4 

28 



998 
928 
992 
847 
771 
883 
872 
960 
975 
993 
968 
956 
978 
920 
897 
895 
892 
872 
886 
479 
966 
862 
822 
831 
343 
1 000 
846 
907 
834 
961 
876 
938 
978 
SH8 
772 
956 
859 
859 
926 
953 
915 
938 
977 
984 
976 
962 
954 
953 



971 



985 
991 
973 
989 
980 
981 



889 
888 
947 
978 
882 
866 
955 
821 
970 
975 
945 



997 



7 

71 

8 

147 

219 

114 

125 

38 

34 

32 

41 

22 

80 

100 

97 

103 

126 

114 

510 

34 

ISO 

176 

155, 

626 

151 
89 

157 
28 

124 
60 
21 
97 

220 
42 

130 

132 
72 
46 
83 
72 
23 
IS 
22 
38 
44 
47 



28 



14 
9 
24 
11 
19 
19 



111 

112 

63 

17 

118 

128 

44 

170 

30 

28 

53 



37 2 629 863 



U 



756 

690 

827 

561 

473 

431 

533 

645 

764 

846 

740 

694 

730 

618 

518 

567 

546 

556 

450 

227 

717 

574 

377 

521 

200 

738 

566 

696 

489 

691 

559 

562 

808 

490 

468 

717 

505 

547 

701 

605 

549 

635 

572 

895 

629 

709 

534 

626 



234 

292 

169 

401 

600 

640 

434 

352 

227 

151 

243 

289 

256' 

S33l 

448 

399 

431 

420 

527 

712 

258 

882 

656 

441 

736 

262 

408 

295 

460 

395 

404 

433 

184 

460 

492 1 

2631 

432| 

421 

286 

352 

423 

432 

2S9 

102 

4 33 

273 

440 

337 



701 


392 


818 


166 


905 


89 


671 


323 


880 


119 


884 


108 


782 


214 


691 


:i98 


465 


510 


777 


307 


670 


317 


640 


348 


544 


436 


810 


183 


639 


441 


809 


181 


783 


204 


659 


380 


971 


39 


422 


536 



10 

IS 

«"!' 

38, 

25 
29] 

1| 
9{ 
4 
17 
17 
14 
49 
34 
34 
23 
24 
23 
61 
26 
44 
68 
38 
44 

'26 

9 
61 
14 
37 
16 
13 
50 
40 
21 
63 
32 
13 
43 
28 
43 
129 

3 

18 
19 
26 
37 



43 



307 
267 
425 

83 

98 
113 
119 
252 
239 
298 
337 
266 
ISTO 
312 

99 
136 
108 
122 
107 

66 
255 
128 
115 
162 

51 
111 
193 
130 

89 
185 
131 

82 
190 
140 
129 
251 

94 
104 
111 
153 
128 

65 

84 
268 
109 
268 
213 
200 



Its 



61 
166 

49 
160 
144 
116 



262 

ms 

275 
103 
226 
S9 
273 
12C 
364 
306 
122 



363 



102 



726 

619 

460 

856 

S24 

816 

758 

665 

693 

634 

580 

642 

672 

706 

853 

800 

838 

819 

820 

840 

664 

789 

764 

738 

845 

849 

734 

790 

836 

759 

779 

855 

746 

767 

780 

671 

833 

»12 

831 

760 

793 

817 

766 

693 

840 

635 

652 

674 



783 



90a 

787 
923 
768 
806 
867 



662 
73 S 
658 
826 
685 
831 
660 
791 
670 
729 
806 



622 
831 



67 
114 
116 

61 

78 
71 
83 
83 
68 
73 
83 
S2 
68 
82 
48 
74 
54 
59 
73 
104 
81 
88 
131 
100 
104 
40 
73 
80 
85 
56 
90 
63 
64 
73 
91 
78 
73 
84 
58 
87 
79 
118 
161 
49 
51 
97 
135 
126 



8G 
69 
67 
71 
89 
80 
77 
83 
7o 
66 
72 



106 

490 

18 

27 

39 

19 

Ilia 

64 

77 

76 

114 

92 

41 

2* 

42 

37 

61 

29 

33 

223 

21 

40 

43 

17 

L'4 

70 

32 

24 

29 

3« 

44 

43 

36 

34 

59 

31 

11 

17 

03 

24 

80 

46 

30 

27 

lUO 

115 

89 



82 60 



26 
16 
10 
36 
17 
21 



175 
87 
10 
26 
41 
41 
IS 
86 
65 
20 



IS 



754 
579 
353 
83.: 
740 
711 
791 
519 
911 
373 
183 
695 
645 
739 
830 
689 
786 
753 
720 
747 
£80 
746 
662 
1)97 
683 
811 
647 



209 
31 
157 
14 

23; 

250 
190 
316 
25 
330 
741 
291 
263 
230 
14< 
269 
1 
186 
251 
220 
197 
233 
29s 
26(1 
298 
165 
383 



732 1 236 

759 1 217 
761 ! 2UI 
723i 242 
726 230 

771 186 



760 

755 

918 

799 

7 

818 

673 

782 

600 

598 

772 

806 

610 

607 

648 



631 



847 
S03 
862 
791 
819 
852 



600 
703 
745 
7S9 
678 
657 
740 
683 
718 
767 
735 



214 
321 
23 
170 
316 
170 
264 
194 
320 
356 
198 
168 
290 
278 
268 



319 



835 



18 802 



127 
181 
138 
183 
164 
137 



225; 

208 

245 

28,- 

281 

3i 

242 

332 

21 

213 

316 



1.32 
180 



SUB.SIUIAKY lAlU.KS. 



193 



AT CERTAIN AGES FOK SELECTED CASTES. 









Dl 


■^TRIBUTION OF 1,000 


FEMALES OF 


EACH 


\GE B\ 


• Civil, 


COXDITIOX. 








1 




All age 




0—5 


5—12 


12—20 


20—40 


40 and over. 


5 


^ 


-3 


-3 

c 




o 


1 

a 
c 
1j 




"3 


.1 

a 

a 
D 


13 

.2 


■6 

V 

6 


i 

a 

D 


.^ 

h 
cs 

a 


'6 



1 

cS 

S 
c 
Id 




•6 
1 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


36 


27 


38 


29 


30 


31 


32 


1 33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


343 


504 


154 


998 


2 




964 


36 




381 


619 




2 


935 


63 


7 


404 


689 


246 


471 


2S3 


943 


54 


"s 


811 


175 


14 


175 


743 


"82 


5 


724 


271 


1 


358 


641 


296 


610 


94 


989 


11 


... 


962 


38 


• •■ 


598 


383 


19 


75 


843 


82 


109 


693 


198 


290 


553 


157 


97 r. 


25 


■ .• 


661 


334 


5 


160 


803 


37 


8 


849 


143 


5 


423 


672 


290 


S72 


13S 


939 


61 


••• 


710 


285 


5 


198 


780 


22 


5 


921 


74 


1 


464 


535 


354 


613 


2S4 


952 


IS 


• •• 


812 


182 


S 


138 


821 


51 


4 


780 


216 


... 


351 


649 


27 S 


£33 


188 


981 


19 




732 


268 


• .. 


104 


876 


20 


12 


867 


121 


"5 


344 


651 


291 


474 


235 


997 


3 


..* 


891 


105 


4 


107 


877 


16 


2 


753 


145 


8 


3S2 


610 


247 


448 


305 


989 


10 


1 


890 


105 


5 


128 


824 


48 


4 


746 


250 


3 


276 


721 


264 


464 


272 


997 


3 




942 


60 


8 


90 


830 


80 


11 


734 


255 


• ■• 


389 


611 


224 


430 


346 


986 


14 


• •• 


612 


172 


16 


203 


677 


120 


... 


651 


349 


• >. 


:35 


765 


237 


446 


317 


990 


6 


4 


831 


156 


13 


120 


751 


129 


6 


683 


312 


4 


283 


713 


228 


443 


329 


958 


37 


5 


836 


153 


U 


99 


744 


157 


12 


662 


306 


2 


374 


724 


S!53 


511 


236 


986 


14 


• •> 


721 


271 


8 


127 


852 


31 


3 


799 


198 


■ a. 


308 


692 


809 


538 


153 


979 


20 


1 


793 


200 


7 


215 


770 


16 


7 


889 


104 


1 


472 


627 


270 


539 


191 


967 


30 


3 


761 


230 


9 


143 


824 


33 


2 


854 


144 


3 


394 


603 


281 


559 


16P 


961 


38 


1 


654 


331 


15 


176 


804 


20 


14 


880 


106 


4 


5.''4-6 


445 


311 


520 


169 


967 


33 


... 


769 


238 


3 


173 


794 


33 


... 


874 


126 


• •• 


362 


638 


270 


533 


197 


994 


5 


1 


770 


226 


4 


129 


813 


58 


2 


855 


i 143 


2 


368 


630 


191 


C07 


202 


901 


99 


... 


280 


702 


18 


103 


831 


66 


... 


820 


180 


... 


376 


621 


363 


52U 


217 


995 


5 


• •■ 


855 


142 


3 


183 


726 


91 


4 


866 


130 


16 


375 


609 


248 


556 


196 


970 


29 


1 


723 


266 


11 


103 


S64 


33 


7 


820 


173 


1 


399 


600 


236 


571 


193 


980 


20 


... 


681 


315 


4 


187 


789 


24 


7 


880 


113 


3 


449 


548 


259 


512 


229 


956 


40 


4 


749 


344 


i 


189 


762 


49 


4 


809 


187 


11 


311 


678 


78 


720 


202 


360 


625 


9 


84 


894 


22 


31 


922 


47 


2 


823 


175 


■3 


291 


708-7 


357 


483 


liiO 


1,000 


• •• 




952 


48 


... 


400 


592 


8 


... 


917 


83 


... 


401 


599 


263 


541 


196 


976-4 


23 


"■6 


790 


201 


9 


146 


825 


29 


5 


846 


149 


2 


422 


576 


287 


559 


154 


959 


39 


2 


800 


194 


6 


254 


729 


17 


13 


884 


103 


•3 


518 


481-7 


275 


548 


177 


967 


32 


1 


722 


269 


9 


146 


808 


46 


35 


918 


57 


10 


342 


648 


340 


473 


187 


996 


3 


1 


950 


46 


4 


221 


761 


18 


5 


826 


169 


„ 


418 


582 


274 


543 


183 


950 


40 


1 


751 


254 


15 


157 


783 


60 


34 


861 


115 


12 


368 


620 


300 


550 


150 


985 


12 


3 


766 


226 


8 


100 


844 


56 


9 


897 


94 


3 


453 


545 


265 


439 


296 


994 


6 




894 


102 


4 


118 


836 


46 


12 


742 


240 


17 


183 


800 


284 


570 


146 


980 


20 


■ •■ 


751 


237 


12 


145 


832 


23 


3 


927 


70 


... 


434 


566 


291 


575 


134 


943 


56 


2 


739 


254 


7 


223 


757 


20 


8 


918 


74 


3 


600 


497 


264 


491 


245 


975 


24 


I 


828 


164 


8 


330 


730 


40 


9 


784 


207 


3 


328 


669 


299 


564 


137 


966 


33 


1 


744 


260 


6 


190 


7S6 


24 


14 


911 


75 


2 


441 


.')57 


257 


526 


217 


965 


35 


... 


699 


284 


17 


75 


895 


30 


3 


821 


176 




274 


726 


343 


607 


151 


978 


15 


"l 


893 


97 


10 


257 


715 


28 


2 


89- 


lUl 


... 


415 


585 


369 


492 


239 


984 


16 


... 


837 


156 


7 


145 


795 


60 


2 


791 


207 




353 


647 


261 


534 


205 


984 


15 


1 


754 


342 


4 


148 


814 


38 


5 


842 


153 


1 


358 


641 


332 


633 


135 


987 


13 


... 


887 


111 


2 


804 


181 


15 


16 


86s 


116 


14 


474 


612 


207 


5'^6 


197 


940 


60 


... 


910 


90 


... 


26(1 


739 


!■ 


4 


8t;9 


167 


... 


.546 


454 


330 


540 


130 


991 


9 


... 


970 


23 


7 


512 


480 


8 


7 


916 


77 


... 


604 


396 


343 


642 


115 


985 


15 


... 


794 


199 


7 


251 


691 


58 


10 


902 


88 


3 


540 


457 


243 


432 


325 


986 


11 


"d 


921 


68 


11 


114 


838 


48 


C< 


665 


329 


3 


272 


725 


246 


487 


268 


1,000 


<■■ 


■ •• 


925 


67 


8 


131 


814 


55 


8 


733 


2»9 


4 


402 


594 


317 


445 


238 


977 


23 


... 


934 


66 


10 


259 


693 


48 


4 


744 


252 


2 


391 


607 


297 


436 


267 


988 


11 


1 


904. 


94 


2 


256 


734 


10 


8 


674 


318 


4 


348 


i;ts 


425 


625 


50 


1,000 






972 


27 


1 


645 


352 


3 


23 


957 


20 


5 


706 


289 


490 


437 


73 


994 


B 


... 


991 


9 




741 


256 


3 


56 


899 


45 


10 


620 


370 


39H 


534 


70 


998 


2 


... 


991 


8 


1 


186 


807 


7 


5 


970 


25 


1 


604 


395 


493 


427 


80 


998 


2 




983 


17 


• •■ 


763 


833 


4 


53 


901 


46 


18 


585 


397 


453 


470 


77 


1,000 


... 




986 


14 




672 


333 


6 


43 


909 


48 


7 


657 


336 


449 

j 


489 


62 


999 


1 




982 


IS 




.547 


449 


4 


32 


943 


35 


17 


655 


3z8 


324 


514 


162 


977 


23 




889 


ins 




342 


638 


20 


16 


880 


104 




451 


549 


286 


530 


185 


953 


44 


3 


764 


236 , 




286 


692 


22 


10 


856 


134 




438 


573 


302 


484 


314 


992 


6 


2 


921 


77 


3 


382 


691 


27 


10 


822 


168 


2 


365 


683 


380 


491 


129 


993 


6 


1 


970 


28 


2 


488 


499 


13 


10 


886 


104 




607 


893 


265 


526 


209 


977 


21 


2 


802 


198 


• •« 


109 


843 


48 


19 


811 


170 


"7 


407 


586 


385 


564 


151 


949 


49 


2 


762 


223 


15 


320 


753 


27 


9 


894 


9? 


it 


443 


552 


328 


464 


208 


994 


e 


... 


918 


80 


2 


407 


575 


18 


45 


804 


151 





351 


614 


303 


529 


168 


995 


5 


... 


757 


280 


13 


213 


764 


23 


8 


880 


117 


... 


443 


5B7 


323 


474 


203 


986 


14 


... 


950 


60 


... 


407 


662 


31 


17 


803 


178 


14 


396 


590 


302 


508 


190 


988 


12 


... 


990 


10 


... 


286 


690 


24 


16 


856 


128 


y 


29" 


701 


326 1 


528 


146 


988 


12 


... 


868 


130 


'"2 


355 


628 


17 


27 


876 


97 


5 


51S 


477 


450 


3!I7 


153 


1,0011 

1 


... 




989 


9 


2 


853 


143 


4 


302 


725 


73 


V(J 


498 


4-J6 


236 


623 


Ul 


854 


136 


10 


434 


461 


105 


292 


6!I7 


11 


32 


901 


67 


~) 


503 


192 



1<J4 CHAl'TKi; Vlll — EDUCATION, 



Chapter VIII. 

EVUCATIOK 

394. In 1881 and 1891, the population was divided iu respect of education 

into three categories — Learning, Literate and 
The meaning ot the Illiterate. It was found, however, that the return 

of the Learning was vitiated by the omission, at the 
one end of children who: had not long been at school, who were entered as 
" Illiterate,'' and at the other, of the more advanced studentsiwho were classed as 
" Literate." There were thus great discrepancies between ihe Census return of 
the number of" Learning " or children under instritction and the correspoud- 
iuo- statistics of the Education Department. It was therefore decided iu ItiOl to 
coutine the entry in the enumeration schedules to the two main categoiies of 
" Literate " and " Illiterate." The same system has been maintained on the 
present occasiou. The instructions to the enumerators have been sJightly 
altered iu the hope of making them clear, but their purport is the same : persons 
who could " both read and write any language " were to be entered as ' Literate.' 
In 1901, no general indication was given as to the standard to be taken in 
applying the rule. On the present occasion, it was laid down in the instructions 
for the superior Census staff that a person should be regarded as literate if he 
could write a letter to a friend and read the answer to it, but not otherwise. 
These more precise instructions have caused some slight variations in the figures 
as compared with 1901, when those who had studied the first two Vernacular 
books only and could read or copy from a printed book, were also eiitered as 
Literate. While there is a general increase in the total number of literates in 
all ao-es above 10, there is actually a decrease from 19 literates in 1901 to 17 
in 1911 per mille iu the age period 0-10, which can only be attributed to the 
stricter definition adopted on this occasiou. But the number thus excluded from 
literates being so small and confined only to the first age-period, the compar- 
ability oi the statistics of the two Censuses is not materially affected. 

395. In 1901 a record was made of the Vernacular languages or scripts 

in which each person was literate. On the present 
Literacy in mother-tongue occasion, the collection of this information was 
and English only recorded. ' j ,i ri i. i-xj- tt- / 

optional, and the Government of His Highness the 

Maharaja Gaekwad decided that it need not be made. As in 1901, however 
record was made of those who were literate in English in addition to their 
mother tongue. 

396. The information thus recorded has been embodied in Imperial Table VIII 

. ^. which shows the number of persons Avho are literatp 

Reference to statistics. ^^. ^^^^,^^3 according to age and religion; and in 

Imperial Table IX, which shows them according to their caste. The number of 
literate persons who know English is shown in both the tables. Propor- 
tional figures illustrating the more important features of the return are 
as usual, embodied in Subsidiary Tables which will be found at the end of the 
■Chapter, m'z : — 

Subsidi'an/ Table /.—Education by age, sex and religiou. 

Subsidiary Table II. — Education by age, sex and locality. 

Subsidiari/ Table III. — Education by religion, sex and locality. 

Subsidiary Table TV. — English education by age, sex and locality. 

Subsidiary/ Table I'. — Progress of education since 1881. 

Subsidiary Table VI. — Education by caste. 

Subsidiary Table VII. — Number of iustitutions and pupils according to the 

ruturns of the Education Department. 

Subsidiary Table VIII. — Main results of University examinations. 

Subsidiary Table IX. — Number and circulation of news-papers, etc. 

Subsidiary Table X. — Number of books jjublished in each language. 



GKXKKAL TIKVIEW. 



195 



GENERAL REVIEW. 



Total Population. 



Age. 



0—10 ... 
10—15 ... 
15—20 ... 
20 and over 



Male. 



Female. 



Number of 
Literates. 



Male. 



.■i07. lu the total population of the Baroda State, ouly 10 persons out of a 

hundred are literate in the limited sense in wliich 
Extent of literacy. »i • .^ j . *i n rr i • ^i 

this term was used at the Uensus. laking the sexes 

separately, one male in every 6 can read and write and one female in every 50. 

There would thus appear to be 
8 literate males to 1 literate 
female, but it is possible that 
there has been some understate- 
ment in respect of the latter 
sex, as amongst some classes 
of the population, there is a 
prejudice against admitting 
that women are literate. Of 
the total number of literate 
males, 68 per cent, are over 20 
years of age and 4 per cent, are under 10. The remaining .28 per cent, are distri- 
buted between the age-periods 10-15 and 15-20. In the case of females, only 4.3 
per cent, of the literate population are over 20, 45 per cent, are between 10 and 
20, and 12 per cent, are under 10. The larger proportion of literate females at the 
lower ages indicates that at the present time the progress of education amongst 
them is more rapid than amongst males. 



Total 



277.732 
98.702 
93.573 

585,928 


259,217 
80.601 
79.944 

557,101 


6,771 

27.175 

24,189 

126,748 


1,055,9 .H5 


976,863 


184,883 



Female. 



2,477 
5,841 
3.230 
8.,516 



20,064 



-398. The most favoured part of the State from point of view of edu- 

r». * -u f u 1 !•* cation is naturallv the capital Citv of Baroda. 

Distribution by locality. tt o i •' ^^ 'iv . m 

Mere 2 males m every o are literate. Ihe 

Baroda District, which on account of its forward population of Brahmaus, Vauiae 
and Lewa Kanbis, was the earliest among the districts to have education facili- 
ties, and the Amreli District which was the first to have the boon of compulsory 
education, come next to Baroda Citv with 1 male who is literate in every 5. 



Diagram showiivj the number of persons per 1,000 in. each Natuvai 
Division, ivho are literate. 







iOO 2,00 300 iOO 500 



BARODA STATE 



BARODA DISTEYOFCiTY 



BARODA CITY 



KAD/ Di5T 




NAV5ARI DI5T 



AMRELI DIST 



Males- 



Fema 



Then follows 
fourth" of its 



though 



having the Animists as cue- 
literate male in every 6. 



Navsari District, which 
population, bas on an average 1 
owing to its adventurous Pareis, Vohoras and Anavalas. Kadi having a 
large Thakarda, Koli and Anjana Kanbi population stands last in the diffusion 
of the rudiments of learning, having only 1 literate male in every 8. 
The variations in the proportions of educated females, though on a far lower 
plane, follow generally those noted above. In the City of Baroda, there is one 
educated female in every 14. Then comes Amreli with 1 in 28. Then follow 
Navsari and Baroda Districts with 1 in 40 and 54 respectively. Kadi stands last 



19(i 



CHAPTER VI ri — EDUCATION. 



witli ouly 1 educated female iu every 90. The degree of literacy enjoyed by 
each district (both sexes combined) is shown in the following map : — 



REFERENce proportion of literate map 

to total popuiation^^^^^^^s„o,^,,r^e. the 
UPTO 7 Percent. ^-r-ryr-:i-:^FjAMiiUNr OF 



RACY (N THT 




399. In this connection, it should be remembered that the. (alukas com- 

• •... -1- . . prised iu each district often show very uneven 

Education in the Talukas. ^ ,, ,. • ^ d i^i i it- ' rr i i 

results, r or mstancej x etlad and omore lalukas 

in the Baroda District have the hig-hest amount oF literacy ( 1 literate person 



iu 6), while Vaghodia and Tilakwada have the least, viz. 1 in 16. Visnagar 
Taluka stands first in literacy (1 iu 11) in the Kadi District, while Harij 
stands last (1 in 28). Navsari Taluka claims the highest, number of literates 
(1 in o) in the Mavsari District, while Songhad (1 iu 44), Vyara (1 iu 3(5), 
Umarpada (1 in 90), and Vakal (I in 45) show very poor results in educa- 
tion. Even this amount of literacy is maiuly due to Government servants 
and contractors iu these backward forest lalnkas. In the Amreli District, 
Amreli is the most educated taluka having 1 literate person in every 6, while 
Khambha and Kodinar are the most backward, having only 1 in every 16. The 
statistics of education for all talukas have been given separately in Provincial 
Table II, and are graphically exhibited in the maps given below : — 



MAP 

BARODA DIVISION 



SHOWINGTHE AMOUNT 
.ITERACYINTHE 
DirrERENT 
TALUKAS 




REFERENCE 
PROPORTION 
OFLITERATETO^ 
TOTAL 
POPULATrON 
FROM 6 TO 7 RC.-*^ 

35 8 0^9 53 

I 33 9 3O|0 J 3 

J 3 10 33ll :>3 



^^ 12 0JI3 « 
53 15 3J I 6 "• 



KDUCATION IN TALUKAS. 



197 




REFEREWCT "^^fi 

PROPORTJONfiFLJtERATE: 
TO TOTAL POPt.lLAnON^v^ 

FR0M3TO4P.C.- 



MAP 

KADI DIVISION 

shcwIngthe 
amount of 
literacy in 

2^^s€^ the different 

?Vy>'™v^ TALUKAS 




3 3 6107 3 J m^ 



■5 3 7T08 ^^ ^5?^^5KxiKi5^^ 0.^ 

3 J 87GS ^^m^^^m^^ 



^' 



MAP 

OFTHE 

NAVSARl 
DIVISION 

SHOWING r^ 
THEAMOUM^T^ 
OrLITERACY IN, 
THEDIFFERENT 

TALUKAS:.^^ 




REFERENCE' 

PROPORTION OF LITERATE TO TOTAL POPULATION! 

FROM I TO 2 P. C 

33 6 337 03 M 



JJ 9 J5|| 15- 

:)3n 17 03- 

33l8 19 33- 



TlNAVSARI DIVISION 



198 



CHAPTKR VIII EDI'CATION. 




400. Looking to the distribution of education by religion, we find that the 

,. . greatest amount of literacy is met with amone: the 

Education by rel.g.on. ^^^,^.^ j^^ ^^^^.^ hundred males 69 are literate and 

in every 100 females 57 are literate. Then follow Jains, who are mainly 

Vanias, with 69 males and 8 females in every 100 of each sex. Christians 

have 22 males 
Diagram showing the number of persons per 1,000 in each religion 

who are literate. 



600 70C 




in 
of 
A 



and 14 females 
who claim to 
be literate 
every 100 
each sex. 
large portion 
of ihe literate 
amongst 
Cliristians are 
fore ig 11 6 r s. 
The native 
converts are 
mostly illite- 
rate. Separat- 
the two, 
find that 
among foreign 
Clir i s t i a n 8 
there are 87 

literates in every hundred, while there are only 16 among the Native Christians. 
The Missionaries do their utmost to give instructions to their converts and the 
proportion of literates among the Native Christians, would have been liigher but 
tor the new converts who have passed the school-going age. Musalmans have 
21 literate males and little less than 2 literate females among every 100 of each 
sex. Hindus, who inchtde the depressed classes and also some of the early 
tribes who have returned themselves as Hindus, have only 17 literate males and 
2 literate females in every 100 of each sex. The Animists, as might be expected, 
come last with only 1 literate male in 100. They have practically no literate 
females, there being only 1 in 681. 



ing 
we 



Mai 



es - — 



Female 



KX(.iLl.<U KDUCATION. 



199 



Education by caste : females. 



401. One of the most interesting features in connection with the subject of 

PH..^o«^^ K„ ^oc»». m,i»e education is the varying extent to which it is 
Education by caste; males. -,.„,, -, ,■, " ,.= , , . ,. 

aittused amongst the different castes, ^ubsldlary 
Table VI gives the leading castes and races of this State, and their number of 
literates per mille of their populatiou by sexes. Taking first the figures of 
males, we find that Deshastha, Kokuastha and Shenavi Brahmans, Trabhus, 
and Kapol, Modh, Shrimali and Oswal Vanias stand at the top witli 700 or more 
literate males in 1,000 of their populatiou. Then follow, Auavala, Khedaval, 
Vadnagara Xagar, Saraswat Brahmans, Brahma-Kshatris, Kayasthas, Disaval, 
Lad, Khadayata and Xagar Vanias and Parsis with 6 to 7 hundred literates per 
mille. Among the artizau castes, Bhavsars, Kausaras and Sonis have more 
than 500 literate males in 1,000 of their populatiou. After them come Lewa 
Kaubis, Marathas, Sutars, Saiyads, Vohoras, Memous, Khojas, Ghanchis,Khatris 
and Kaohhias with from oOO to 400 literates. Koli, Rabari, Ravalia, Vaghari, 
Dhed, Bhaugi and other low and depressed classes have less than 100 literate 
males ; while Bhil, Chodhra, Gamii, Dubla aud other early tribes are the most 
backward in education, having only from S to I'O literate males in 1,000 of their 
population. 

402. Turning next to the figures for females, we find that Parsis stand at 

the top in female education, having no less than 569 
literate females in every 1.000. Then come Sheuavis 

with 478, Prabhus with 277, Nagars with 221, Saraswats with 212, Kayasthas 
with :ilO, Modh Vanias with 148, Kapol Vanias with 142, Deshastha Brahmans 
with 129, Kokuastha Brahmans with 130, Oswal Vanias with 117 aud Native 
Christians with 111 literate females in every 1,000 of their community. All the 
other castes, both high or low, are very backward in female education, having 
only from 10 to 80 literate females in 1,000. Only 75 Khoja, 61 Maratha, 
24 Lewa Kanbi, 10 Rajput, 29 Saiyad, 34 Vohora, 4 Dhed and 2 Bhangi 
females are literate in 1 ,000 of their castes. There are practically no literate 
females among the Animists. 

403. In the State as a whole, there are 90 persons per 10,000 who stated 

that they knew English aud only 5 females. 
The ratio is naturally the highest in the 
City of Baroda (710 males and 57 females 
per 10,000), not only on account of the 
larger proportion of English people resi- 
dent there, but also because it is the centre 
of higher education and being the capital 
city, it is there that the educated classes 
find employment in Government offices. 
Next to the City conies the Navsari 
District with 75 males and 3 females literate 
in English per 10,000, and then stand in 
order Amreli, Baroda aud Kadi Districts. 
Except in the City of Baroda, where there 

are some English and Indian ladies literate in English, the proportion of females, 
who are acquainted with English, is every where 'so small that it may practically 
be said to be non-existing. 

404. The advantage of English education is taken to the greatest extent 

^y ^iag'^'f. Saraswat, Deshastha, Koknastha and 
Shenavi Brahmans, Prabhus, Brahma-Kshatris, 
Kayasthas and Parsis, who have from i,000 to 3,000 

of theii- males literate in English in every 10,000. Anavala aud Khedaval 
Brahmans, Kapol, Lad. .Alodh, Nagar aud Shrimali Vanias and Marathas and 
Native Christians follow the above castes having from 300 to 500 males literate 
in English in 10,000 of their population. The rest of the castes are very 
backward in English education. It is remarkable that tbe Vania and other 
trading castes, in spite of their high proportion of persons who are able to read 
and write some vernacular language, have a low proportion of persons who are 
literate in English. Parsis and Shenavis, Nagars and Prabhus are the only 



English Education. 





So 
Eng 


. of literite in 
lisb per 10,000. 


District. 










Ma 


es. 


Females. 


State 




90 


5 


Baroda 

Baroda City 

Kadi 

Xavsari 

Amreli 




Hi 
7!0 
SB 
75 
71 


4 
.-,7 
•3 

3 

2 



English education by 
caste. 



200 



CHAPTER VIII EDUCATION. 



commimities which give a little English educatiou to their 



ieinales. English 
educatiou amoug females may be said to be uoii-existiug among the other castes, 
not having even 50 females in 10,000 of the population who know the language. 

405. For the reasons given in paragraph 394 above, it is difficult to institute 

an effective comparison with the results of the Cen- 
Comparison with g^^g^g ^3^],^,-, ^^.-^qj. ^^ igQl. Some of the persons 

previous Censuses. ^^.^^^ ^^.^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^,_,^^,^ ^^ learning under the 

old rule, have been in 1901 and in the present Census classed as literate, while 
others have been relegated to the category of the illiterate. How manyof the 
learning have been treated as literate and how many as illiterate, it is impos- 
sible to'say, but it is clear that a great many, who would have been entered as 
learning under the old rule have been shown as illiterate under the new one. 
The total number of literate males under 15 years of age was only 29,501 in 
1901 and 33,946 in 1911, which is less by 38 and 19 per cent., respectively than 
the corresponding number returned as learning and literate (combined) in 1891. 
The best way of instituting comparison appears to be that suggested by the 
Census Commissioner, viz., to exclude from the comparison persons under 15 
years of age and to consider only persons over 15 years of age and 
to assume that all persons over that age, who were classed as " Learning " 
in 18S1 and 1891 would have been entered as literate, had the present 
rule been in force at those Censuses. Moreover, the progress in the general 
spread of education can best be gauged by comparing the proportion of 
persons of each sex who are literate in the age group 15-20. Comparative 
figures for the literate over 15 years of age, based on this assumption, will be 
found in Subsidiary Table V. 

406. So far as can be gathered from this comparison, the number of lite- 
rate males has increased 



District. 



No. of literate 



male? per l.OUU of the male 
population. 



1911. 



1901. 



1891. 



from 87 in 1881 to 109 in 
1391 and from 162 in 1901 
to 175 in 1911 per 1,000 
of the population. The 
increase in the last decade 
amounts to 8 per cent. 
The greatest progress has 
taken place in the Amreli 
district where the number 
of males who can read and 
write is now greater by 
31 per cent, than what it was ten years previously. In the district of Kadi also 
there has been good progress, the increase being from 113 to l."2 per mille, that 
is about 17 per cent. Baroda City shows an increase of about 7 per cent, in the 
number of its literate males ; but this is 1 per cent, less than for the State as a 
whole. It is rather disappointing that Baroda and Navsari Districts, instead of 
showing a good increase as might have been expected, are stationary with 
regard to the literacy of the male population. 

407. Female education has made 



5tate 

Baroila 
Baroda City 
Kadi 
Navsari 
Amreli 



.75 


162 


109 


19.^. 


197 


143 


S9S 


36C 


282 


1.S2 


lis 


76 


lUB 


168 


121 


200 


153 


122 



1881. 



87 

112 
248 
59 
103 
111 



great strides 



wl 



loie. 





No. of literate females per 1,0U0 
of the female population. 


District. 






1911 


1901 1891 

) 


1881 


State 


21 


7 4 


14 


Baroda 

Baroi'.a City 

Kadi ..." 

Navsari 

Amreli 


18 
71 
11 
25 
86 


6 
24 

2 
20 

ft 


18 

2 
10 

3-5 


1-4 
n 

1 
1 
1 



was only 10 years ago. The improvement in the 
nearly the same. In the IJaroda District and the 



In the State as a 
the number of literate 
females per mille has risen 
from 1-4 in 1881 to 4 in 
1891 and from 7 in 1901 
to 21 in 1911. The in- 
crease in the past decade 
a m u u t s to about 343 
per cent. The greatest 
advance has taken place 
d u r i n g the decade in 
Amreli, where the number 
is six times as much as it 
Kadi District is also very 
Baroda Cilv. the number of 



COMPARISON WITH OTHER PROVINCES. 



201 



literate females has trebled during the decade. Navsari District stands 
an increase of 2-0 per cent, only in the diffusion of education 



females. 
408. 



ast with 
its 



amona'St 







No. of males literate in English per 






10,000 of the population. 




District. 






1911 1901 


1891 


5tate ... 





90 


53 


18 


Baroda ... 





64 


33 


6 


Bart'da City 


... ... ... ... ... 


710 


441 


188 


Kadi 


... ... ... ..« 


36 


18 


H 


Navsari ... 


... ... ... 


75 


61 


16 


Amreli ... 





74 


31 


13 



English education, though yet not widespread, has also made great 

progress. The 

Progress In EogUsh education. number of' males 

knowing English 
increased from 18 
in 1891 to o;-i in 
ISJOI, and 90 in 
the present Census 
per 10,000 of the 
population. Simi- 
larly English 
education among 
females increased 
from i in liiUl to 
2 in 1901 and 5 in the present Census per 10,()00 of the female sex. 



409. 



The progress made by the Baroda State may 
Comparison with other Provinces. 



not seem very 
great, but the 
results are 
highly satis- 
factory when 
compared 
with India as 
a whole, and 
the more 
important o f 
its provinces 
and States, 
Cochin and 
Trava n c o r e 

were the only States which took rank above it in 1901 ; all the rest of the Native 
States and British Provinces were behind it. So far as statistics available up to 
the date of going to press indicate, not only is the same high position maintained 
even now, but the actual increase in the amount of literacy in the decade 
is higher than elsewhere. 





Number per 1,000 who are literate. 


Province. 


1911. 


1901. 




Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Baroda 

Bengal 

Punjab 

Mysore 

Trav.»ncore ... 


175 

113 

63 

112 

248 


21 

8 

6 

13 

50 


163 

104 
64 
93 

215 


8 
5 
3 
8 
31 



410. 



The high level 



Progress of education 
in Baroda. 



which Baroda has attained in the education of its 
people is the result of the care bestowed durino' the 
last thirty years. Prior to the accession of the 
present Maharaja to the gadi in 1875, the rulers of 
Baroda paid practically no attention to the education of their subjects. In 1871, 
there were only one English and four primary schools in tha whole State and the 
total expenditure on education was only Rs. 13,000 or less than one-hundredth 
of what it is now. The knowledge of reading and writing was confintd to a 
few persons of those castes whose traditional occupations as priests, traders or 
government servants necessitated it and who acquired it in private schools main- 
tained by them. The great mass of the people were sunk iu iho deepest ignor- 
ance with lew thoughts beyond the provision for themselves and their fainilies 
of the bare necessities of lilV'. The question of education was taken up in rii)-ht 
earnest in 1881, when His Highness the IMaharaja Sayajirao Gackwad assumed 
the powers of the State. A regular Education Department was created, and 
schools, both primary and secondary, were opened ia all the districts of the State. ' 
Their number increased from year to year and there are now in the whole State 
2,972 primary schools and 4;^ secondary schools, including 5 High Schools (of 
which one is for females), a College which teaches uplo the highest examinations of 
the University of Bombay in Arts and Sciences and a Training College ibr male 
teachers and another one for female teachers. In addition to these, there are 
some special institutions like the Kala Bhavan (School of Arts and Industries), 



202 CHAPTER VIII EUrCATION, 



Music scuoois, Orphauages, Sanskrit schools and Night schools. The children 
of the depressed castes, in addition to having the ordinary schools open to them, 
have also special schools established lor them. Boarding schools have been 
opened for them, as also for the children of the aboriginal tribes, in which children 
of these backward classes are housed, fed and educated. The Maharaja has most 
at heart the education of his people, and in no department of the administration 
is the far-sighted liberality ot Ilis Highness more conspicuous than iu education 
and in none are the results more real and tangible. 

411. Baroda is the only State in the whole of India,, in which primary 

education is both compulsory and free. In January 
Compulsory education. ^ggg^ immediately on his return from Europe, His 

Hio"hness the Maharaja Gaekwad decided to take the bold step of introducing 
compulsory education in one part of his State, as an experimental measure and 
selected Amreli Taluka in the Amreli District, for the purpose. The rules framed 
were that all boys between the ages of 7 and 12 and all girls between the ages of 
7 and 10 should attend schools. The guardian of a child of this age absenting for 
' 10 consecutive days or for 15 days in any month, was made liable to a small fine. 
On these lines, schools were opened in ten villages in November 1893, in ten 
more villages in May 1895, in ten other villages in December 1^97 and in 
twenty more villages in November 1899. In February 1901 and in July 1904, 
two more villages were provided with such schools bringing the total to 52 
villao'es. This experiment having proved successful, the idea of extending 
compulsory education to all the parts of the State, which had for a long time 
eno-ao-ed the attention of His Highness, at last took a definite shape and the 
Amreli rules were embodied in law in 1906. The rules were subsequently 
revised and the maximum age for girls was raised to 11. Exemption from 
compulsory attendance is granted to children under certain specified conditions, 
such as, physical or mental infirmity. The highest standard for study under 
the compulsory law is the fourth and the parents and guardians of children 
of the compulsory age are liable to fine in case they fail to send such 
children to school continuously for six days. In March 1907, as a boon to the 
public at the time of the celebration of the Silver Jubilee of his reign, His 
Hio-hness was pleased to make education absolutely free in all the Vernacular 
schools. A Commission appointed in 1909 to suggest means for improvement 
and further development of education in the State has led to reforms which 
are sure to have a far-reaching effect in the further spread of education 
in the State. 

412. The Compulsory Education Act was less than four years in force 

before the present Census and it is too premature to 

^"or'"EduVa'tron A^Jt"'' J^^^e of its success from the Census results of 
^'"'^ " ■ literacy. Most of the children who are now in 

schools under the law and learning in the first and second standards, are returned 
as illiterate, according to the Census definition, owing to their inability to read 
and write a letter, though they could read or copy from their books. The num- 
ber of such children on the school registers was on the 10th March 1911 
147,739 in the whole State. These will no doubt soon come within the definition 
of Census literacy, and add to the present percentage of literates. Apart from 
this there can be no doubt that the compulsory law is successfully worked and 
the proof of this is furnished by a comparison of the number of children at 
school in March 1911, and of those of the school-going age existing on the 
Census day. From the annual age-periods we find that in the whole State there 
were 82,129 girls of the ages from 7 to 11 and 131,501 boys of the ages from 7 
to 12. Both of these together form 10-5 per cent, of the total population of the 
State. From the figures supplied by the Education Department, it appears 
that there were on the Census day 164,211 pupils ol the compulsory ages in the 
schools. This shows that 49,419 students, who ought to be in schools were not 
there. But this is accounted f^or by the fact that out of its 3,096 populated villages, 
the State has provided only 2,015 with schools. There are about a thousand 
small villages in which schools yet remain to be provided, and so long as that 
is not done, enforcement of the compulsory rules is not possible. This, however, 



COMPDLSORY EDUCATION. 



?03 



Class of Institution. 



Number of 
lastitutions. 



1911 i 1901 



1891 



Number of Scholars. 



1911 



1901 



1891 



is being done gradually. With regard to some very small villages, there is the 
difficulty of securiug at least 16 children, which is the miuinuim necessary for 
opening a school, and with regard to others in jungle and mountainous tracts, 
there is also the further difficulty of securing teachers. The department of edu- 
cation is vigorously combating against these and other difficulties and it is 
expected that they will soon be removed and the full operation of the compulsory 
law will be assured. 

•il3. There is a great correspondence 'between the percentage of litoiacy 

and the statis- 
tics of persons 
under instruc- 
tion compiled 
f r m the 
school returns. 
An abstract of 
the depart- 
mental returns 
will be found 
in Subsidiary 
Table VII 
and the totals 
for the State 
are given in 
with the increase in 
has increased and so 
to Cei]sus as mentioned 



Etujlish — 

College 

High Schools 

Anglo-Vernacular Schools 
Graat-in-aid Schools 

Vernacidar — 
Vernacular Schools of all grades, Govt. 
Vernacular Schools of all grade 
private and aided 

■Seiteral — 
Training and other special schools 



1 

1 3 
25 
12 


1 

3 

14 

1 


1 

2 

11 

4 


329 
1,532 
3,227 
1,583 


2,938 


1,119 


377 


173,883 


34 


61 


123 


2,540 


13 


9 


3 


2,148 



216 

88() 

1,401 

639 



76,9811 
5,524 

817 



113 
897 
708 
373 



4S,3.i7 
7,501 

121 



the margin. From this it 
the number of institutions, 
has also the percentage of 
in paras. 406 to 408. 

414. 



will appear 
the number of 
literates from Census 



that alona; 
scholars 



Expenditure on education from Government 
and Local Funds. 


Kspenditure in 1911. 


1911. 


1901 1891 1881 ^^^ ^''"^ °*' ''^^ ' P-'' 1°"*' P°P''= i° 
j ' ' ' ■ Populition. 1 Public Institutions. 


Rs. 
14,06,086 


Rs. 
8,55,463 


Rs. Rs. 
2,86,359 ■ 1,06,818 


Rs. 
648 


Rs. 
7,590 



Extent to which news- 
papers circulate. 



The expenditure on education in the State is noted in the margin. It 

will be noticed 
that it has o-one 
on increasing 
from decade to 
decade and is 
now 1-3 times as 
much more as it 
was thirty years 
ago. Roughly 

•speaking it may be said that the State spends more than one-fourreeuth part of 

its PToss revenue on education. 

415. The extent of journalistic enterprise affords a good idea of the 

extent to which people have benefited by the spread 
of education. There is yet no daily newspaper pub- 
lished in the State, but the number of weekly news- 
papers has risen from 6 iu 1901 to 11 in 1911. Their circulation is estimated to 
have risen from 4,000 copies in 1900 to 10,000 copies in 1910. Of the eleven 
weekly newspapers, six are published in Baroda, two in Navsari and three 
in Amreli. The number of monthly periodicals has risen from 1 in 1900, 
with an estimated circulation of 300 copies, to 23 in 1910, with an estimated 
circulation of 7,000 copies. Of the 23 periodicals 13 are published in Baroda 
Praiit, four iu Kadi Prant and six in Amreli. The number of printing presses 
has risen from nine in 1900 to 23 iu 1910. Of these thirteen are m Baroda 
Prant, three in Kadi Prant, three in Navsari Prant and four in Amreli I'raut. 
In addition to the newspapers and jieriodicals published in the State, a large 
number of the leading English and Vernacular dailies and weeklies published 
in Bombay, Poona, Surat and Ahmedabad also find circulation in the principal 
towns of the State. From inquiries made in the offices of these papers, it 
appears that their circulation in the State is now more than double of what 
it was ten years before. The taste for newspaper reading has much increased 
and there is now hardly auy village, even in the remotest corner, where a 
newspaper of some sort is not to be found. 



204 CHAPTER VIII EDUCATION. 



416. The number of books published by authors from the State population 

.... .- J ffoes on increasing from year to year. The total 
Number of books published, ^.^^^bgi. ^f books published in 1901 was 92, while 

that in 1910 was nearly 200. But these figures are not sufficient to give us an 
adequate idea of the literary activity which has manifested itself along with the 
progress in education. Most of the books by authors from the (State are printed 
and published by presses in British territory, notably in Bombay and 
Ahmedabad, as that secures to them the copyright for the whole of India, which 
is denied to publications from printing presses within the State. It is roughly 
calculated that the number of such outside publications is not less than 2 to 3 
hundred per annum. Subsidiary Table X at the end of this Chapter gives the 
number of books published in the various languages spoken in the State 
durin>-' the last decade. It is impossible to make comparison, as statistics for 
the previous decades are not available. Almost all the books published during 
the last ten years are in the Gujarati language, which is the most widely spoken 
language in the State. No books in Urdu and very few in Marathi are published 
by printing presses in the State. 

417. The number of libraries throughout the State in 1901 was only 16, 

with a total of 21,736 books and 2,214 readers. 
Libraries and reading -^y -^j^ ^^^ remarkable impetus given to education in 

rooms 

the decade, the latter part of that period saw- the 
number of libraries rise to 198, that of books to 75,686 and of readers to 1(',079, 
giving an average of one library for each group of 16 towns and villages and 
one reader for every 100 in the population. A thorough canvas in the present 
year of 1911, however, shows a still more phenomenal growth. The number of 
public libraries now in the State is 275, or one for each group of 11 towns and 
villages ; the number of books in these libraries is 156,736, an average of 566 
books each ; the number of readers frequenting the libraries and reading-rooms 
has grown to 36,277, an increase of nearly 360 per cent, within the last two 
or three years. 

With a view of giving further impetus to this growing taste for reading, a 
new department, known as the Central Library Department, has recently been 
created, with an American expert as its head, under the designation of Director 
of State Libraries. A Central Library stocked with books in all branches of 
learning, and with a liberal grant for its further enlargement, has been opened 
in Baroda — a gift to the State from 'H. H. the Maharaja Saheb — and a library 
class has been opened in connection with this library, where pupils may learn 
modern methods of library administration ; and it is hoped that in the near 
future the benefits of this school may be extended all over India. 

Rules regarding the establishment of new libraries have recently been 
framed under which villages with a population of 1,000 and above, receive an 
annual grant of Rs. 50 from the Central Library Department and a like amount 
from the Panchayat, provided that an equal amount is subscribed by the 
inhabitants. In villages of 4,000 and over this grant is increased to Re. 300 
and hi the District headquarters towns to Rs. 700. 

Boxes containing a good supply of books, known as travelling libraries, are 
forwarded from the Central Library to villages desiring to have them in any 
part of the State. These libraries remain in the villages three months, after 
which they are returned to the Central Library and another box of fresh books 
is forwarded. 

These and other beneficent measures are sure to have their good results in 
due time, and it may be confidently expected that by the time of the next 
Census, every village of any importance will have its library, and many, if not 
most, of them will also have an adequate library building. 

418. In connection with the question of literacy, it is interesting to notice 
g. . the various customs prevailing in the different parts 

of the State, in respect of the marks affixed to docu- 
ments in lieu of signature by those who are unable to write. Generally speak- 
ing, the person who writes the signature of an illiterate executant of a document. 



SIGNATURE MARKS. 



205 



writes — " Signature of X, iu the haud-writing- of Y, written at his request." 
When it is desired to be more exact, the illiterate person is made to make some 
special mark with his own hand, just near the signature, e. g., that of a glass 
bangle in the case of females, of a plough iu the case of cultivators, etc. A list 



of such marks is given below ; — 



Mark as it ia made. 


Name by which the mark 
is known. 


By whom made. 




o 




Bangadi (Bracelet). 


Females. 




^■ 




Bal (Plough). 


Cultivators. 




-^ 




Sriraj (Sun). 


Females. 




■=^=*» 




Katar (Dagger) 
Talicar (Sword). 


Girasias. 

Rajputs, Sepoys, Maratbas 
and Girasias. 




=#. 




Sathio. 


Females. 




(^ 




Chak (Wheel). 


Potters. 




L 




Pingano. 


Shoe-makers. 




^=^=i^ 




/Codhi (Hatchet). 


Labourers. 








Mala (Garlanil of Beads.) 


Widows. 




^-^ 




Batulhu!; (Gun). 


Sepoys. 




-e- 




TiT (Bnw and Arrow.) 


Girasias. 




^-tT* 




Kfitar (Scissors). 


Tailors. 











206 



CHAPTER VIII EDUCATION. 



■SUBSIDIAKY TABLE I.— Education by Age, Sex and Religion. 



Kelioion. 


NUMBER PER 


MILLE WHO ARK LITERATE. 




Ndmber 


PER 


Number per 
mille who are 


ALL Ages. 


0- 


10 10- 

1 


-15 


16- 


-20 


20 and over 


ILLITERATE. 


literate in 
English. 


1 


o 

"5 
S 


a 


"3 

S 


a 

o 


6 

3 


"3 

a 


a 


1 


s 


a 




v 
■3 
S 


ee 

a 


'ea 


6 
"3 


"3 

a 


1 

• 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


IS 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


All Religions 


101 


175 


21 


24-3 


9-6 


275 


72 


258 


40 


217 


16 


899 


825 


979 


5 


9 


•5 


Hindu 


9. 


164 


17 


23-8 


9-2 


272 


66 


247 


33 


200 


11 


906 


836 


983 


4-6 


8-4 


•2 


Jain 


407 


698 


85 


117 


49 


776 


292 


870 


163 


889 


67 


693 


302 


915 


11 


22 


■1 


Animiet 


8 


13 


1-4 


2-7 


1 


39 


4 


24 


2 


14 


1-5 


992 


987 


998-6 


... 


•■• 


•• 


Mnsalman 


128 


208 


18 


22 


7 


286 


54 


313 


33 


303 


14 


872 


792 


982 


2 


4 


•1 


Parsi 


622 


692 


669 


104 


84 


633 


833 


959 


860 


941 


638 


378 


308 


431 


106 


219 


19 


Christian 


184 


225 


136 


58 


43 


386 


249 


373 


394 


23:. 


103 


816 


775 


861 


62 


64 


59 


Native Christian - 


160 


202 


111 


52 


41 


374 


228 


334 


345 


208 


73 


840 


798 


889 


33 


36 


31 


Arya Samaj 


632 


746 


157 


276 


62 


906 


364 


755 


250 


892 


153 


468 


255 


843 


100 


166 


6 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II.— Education by Age, Sex and Locality. 



District •ok- Natural 
D1V18IOK. 



NUMBER PER MILLE WHO ARE LITERATE. 



All Ages. 



Total. Male. Female. 



0—10 



10—15 



Male. Female. , Male Female. 



15—20 I 20 AND OVER. 



Male. Female. Male. Female 



10 



11 



12 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division (Ex. of City) ... 

Baroda City 

Eadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division 



101 


175 


21 


243 


96 


275 


72 


258 


40 


217 


113 


195 


18 


29 


12 


329 


77 


305 


42 


230 


243 


392 


71 


611 


24 


486 


169 


541 


151 


460 


73 


132 


11 


21 


8 


218 


46 


176 


16 


165 


96 


166 


25 


13 


5 


236 


51 


270 


45 


219 


120 


200 


36 


32 


16 


362 


167 


294 


71 


237 



16 
11 

63 

7 
26 
21 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



207 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III. — Education bt religion, bes and locality. 



District or Natdeal 
Division-. 


NUMBER PER MILLE WHO ARE LITERATE. 


Hindu. ' jain. 

1 


Animist. 


MUSALMAN. 


Pabsi. Christian. 

i 


Male. 


Female. Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 
9 


Male. 


Female. JMale. 


Female. 


1 


2 


S 


4 


5 


6 


7 8 

1 


10 


11 


12 


13 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division (Ex. of City) ... 

Baroda Citv 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division ... ... 


164 

195 

102 
108 

189 
187 


17 

IB 

69 

8 

14 

34 


698 

688 

611 
709 

720 
675 


85 
89 

1S6 
72 

136 

122 


13 

16 

59 

13 

... 


14 

2 

12 

1 
... 


208 

232 

282 
187 

308 
216 


18 692 569 225 

11 880 647 135 

36 887 702 726 
14 761 710 -39 

16 664 5.58 568 
27 , 867 786 571 

1 


136 

101 

567 
1.50 

304 
1,000 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IV.--Engli8H Education by age, sex and locality. 



District or Nattibal 

DiTISIOX. 



Baroda State 

Baroda Division (Ex. of City) 

Baroda City 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division 



0—10 



a 



I 

•1 I 

18 i 
•i 



LITERATE IN ENGLISH PER 10,000. 



1911 



1901 



10- 


-15 


15- 


-20 


20 AJvT) OVER 


g 




"3 


"3 

a 


Male. 
Female. 


4 


5 


6 


7 


1 
8 9 



All ages. 1 Au, ages. 



S 



10 



11 



12 



!3 



i 


87 


1-4 


87 


8 


678 


... 


40 


*■■ 


36 




9 



9 

16 

92 
•6 

2 

4 



268 

30 

1,833 



210 
221 



14 

23 

118 
■3 



109 

55 

76 
46 

102 
80 



4 < 
•9 I 

60 , 
■4 ' 

3 j 

2 ' 



90 

64 

710 
36 

75 
74 



53 

33 

441 

18 

61 
31 



1891 



All ages. 



14 



2 


IS 


1 


6 


21 


188 


•3 


6 


3 


16 


•5 


13 



15 



I 

•1 

15 
•2 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE V.— Progress of Education Since 188i. 



District or Naturai Division. 


NUMBER OF LITERATE PER MILLE. 


ALL AGES. 


10—15 


1.5—20 


20 AND OVER. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1 
1911 1901 


1891 1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 1881 


1911 


1901 


1911 


1901 


1911 


1901 


1911 1901 


1911 


1901 


1911 


1901 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 9 10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 18 


19 


20 


21 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division (Ei. of City) 

Baroda City 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division 


175 

195 

392 
132 

166 
200 


162 

197 

366 
113 

168 
152 


113 

123 

310 
79 

126 
125 


90 

93 

262 
60 

105 
115 


21 

18 

71 
11 

25 
36 


7 

6 

24 
2 

20 
6 


4 

2 

21 

2 

9 

4 


15 

1 

6 
1 

4 

1 


275I 160 
329: 197 

486 387 
218 107 

226 186 
362 147 


72 
' ' 

169 
46 

61 
167 


12 

14 

47 
3 

29 
11 


258 206 40 

305 216 42 

541' 449 151 
176 142 16 

1 
270 240 45 
2941 215 71 


13 

10 

49 
3 

38 
11 


217 208 

230 245 

460' 430 
166 143 

219 224 
237 194 


16 
11 

63 

7 

26 
21 


7 
5 

21 

2 

22 

6 



208 



CHAPTER VIII — EDUCATION. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VI.— Education by Caste. 



Caste. 



NUMBEK FEB 1,000 WHO ABE LITERATE. 



NdMBKB FEB 10,000 WHO ABE LITBEATE 

IN English. 





1911 






1901 


Persons. 


Males. 


Femalef. 


Persons. 


Males 





8 


1 


5 


6 



Females. 



1911 



Per- 
sons. 



Males. 



Hindu. 

Ahir ... 

Bahrot 

Eava 

Bhangi 

Bharvad ... 

Bbavsar 

Bhoi 

Brahman Anavala ... 
Do. Audich ... 
Do. Deshastha 
Do. Mewada ... 
Do Modh 
Do. Nagar 
Do. Tapodhao 

Chamar 

Darji 

Dhcd 

Garoda ... 

Ghanchi 

Gola (rice-pounders) 

GosaiD ... 

Eajam ... 

ICai'hia 

Kanbi .Anjana 
Do. Kadwa •.. 
Do. Karadia 
Do. Lewa 

Koh 

Eumbhar ... 

Luhaiia .. 

Luhir 

Machhi 

Maratba 

Moihi 

Eabari 

Rujput 

Ravalia ..• 

Sathawara 

Sheuva 

Soni 

Siitai 

Talavia 

Targala 

Vaglicr 

Vaghari 

Vaiiia yjisaval 
Do. Lad 
Do. Sbrimali 

Jain. 

Vaiiia Sbrimali ... 



Animistic. 



Bbil 

Chodbra 

Dhanka 

Dhodia 

Gamit 

Navakda 



/Vlusalman. 



M 



Kakir 
iliani'hi 

bk 
Menion 
M.ili'Kilam 
Momiia 
Patban 
Pinjara 
Saiyad 
Sbaikh 
Vohora 

Parsi 



Parsl. 



Cliristian. 



Native 



31 
154 
294 

16 

9 

271 

38 
366 
302 
452 
279 
319 
427 
169 
15-5 
105 
21-5 

94 
223 

loo 

141 

78 
193 

70 

74 

22 

184 

22 

44 

314 

106 

73 

233 

100 

9 

80 

14 

63 

7 

316 

145 

8 

132 

15 

7 

367 

353 

414 



385 



10 

il 

11 

5 




74 
142 

84 
112 

09 
103 
120 
162 
183 
120 
202 

622 



160 



56 
283 
376 

2-8 

12 
520 

68 
619 
552 
727 
479 
545 
641 
269 

29 
188 

38 
176 
418 
193 
244 
133 
348 
134 
136 

43 
311 

39 

82 
555 
199 
134 
377 
174 

16 
141 

23 
119 
12-6 
581 
259 

17 
285 

28 

12 
695 
628 
704 



700 



8 
18 
16 
19 

!l 
lU-4 



131 
260 
152 
219 
125 
176 
217 
302 
324 
217 
308 

692 



2113 



Females. 



10 



1901 



Per- 
sons. 



II 



Males. 



12 



Females. 



5 
17 
24 
2-5 

5 
36 

3 
71 
38 
129 
36 
82 
221 
30 

3 
29 

4 

13 
20 

7 
13 

8 
19 

6 

8 

1 
26 

3 

5 
60 
16 

6 
61 
16 
1-5 
10 

4 

9 

1 
53 
21 

2 

4 

1 

2 

87 

90 

81 



1-4 



8 
14 

9 
15 

4 

'.I 
10 

13 
29 
14 
34 

569 



111 



15 

110 

127 

3 

"l94 

31 
370 
245 
435 
205 
226 
337 

85 
3 

67 
1 

34 
154 
159 
104 

27 
177 

27 

41 

178 
15 
27 

224 
50 
31 

184 
39 
1-2 
77 
1-6 
35 
1-3 

237 

85 

2 

62 

6 
1-8 
313 
403 
337 



63 
87 
57 

110 
38 
50 
86 
88 

126 
86 

179 

599 



28 

206 

203 

6 

382 

59 

673 

471 

723 

392 

428 

615 

164 

6 

137 

12 

72 

294 

323 

173 

53 

344 

62 

80 

316 

28 

53 

418 

102 

64 

339 

72 

2-3 

147 

3 

68 

3 

455 

164 

4 

132 

12 

4 

604 

756 

618 



370 I 710 



166 
166 
110 
215 
75 
100 
162 
170 
245 
160 
348 

746 



115 



23 
15 
62 
11 

4 
67 

1 
•1 
•7 
■1 
•6 

2 
•3 

3 
•2 



14 
1 

•3 
16 



10 
22 

24 



1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 

C 

4 

21 

483 



14 

35 
25 

1 

39 

9 

276 

151 

789 

133 

163 

847 

45 

•6 

14 

21 

3 

15 

13 

17 

8 

20 

13 

14 

2 

67 

•6 

4 

111 

7 

1-2 

269 

13 

■2 

12 

■9 

1-8 

1-3 

45 

17 



■3 
241 
299 

284 



119 



I 

6 

4 

2fi 

I 

106 

22 

32 

1,052 



335 



26 
68 
32 



76 

14 

606 

286 

1,429 

238 

320 

1,679 

83 

1-3 

28 

3-9 

6 

29 

26 

31 

17 

38 

25 

27 

3 

122 

1 

9 

215 

J4 

2-4 

465 

26 

•4 

21 

II 

.3-4 
2-5 
81 
33 

10 

5 

•7 

623 

602 

526 






242 I 



■I 
13 
7-6 
12 
10 
7 
60 

203 
40 
63 

2,190 



356 



9 
3 

34 
5 

*54 



1-4 

'"•7 
3 

172 

310 



11 

3 



17 

"so 

55 
451 

32 

51 
467 

13 



5 
4 
2 
7 
1-2 



30 
•1 



117 

3 

•3 

13 

6 

67 
2 

12 



63 
230 
236 



36 



i- 1 



8 
6 
4 
1 
2 

14 

"63 
13 



1,001 



20 
6 



33 

150 

110 

800 

62 

98 

885 

25 

"V 

•4 

II 

8 

4 

11 

2-5 

5 



56 1 

•1 

1-5 

61 

1 

219 

7 

•6 

25 

11 

130 
4 

26 



124 
434 
446 



15 

11 

8 

2 

5 

26 

12*6 
23 
50 

2,142 



13 



- 



.si;bsij)Iai;v tablks. 



209 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE VII. — Number of Institutions and Pupils accokding 

TO THE RETUKNS OF THE EDUCATION DePAI;TMK\T. 



Class op Institutions. 


1911 


1901 


1891 


Number of 


Number ok 


Number of 


Institationa. 


Scholars. 


Institutions. 


Scholars. 


Institutions. 


Scholar.-. 


1 


2 ! i 


4 5 


6 ] - 


All kinds 


3,026 


185,242 


1,211 86,419 


321 


53,070 


Public Institutions 


2,.9S0 


181,119 


l,li6 80,256 


394 


43,196 


ArtB College 


1 


329 


1 216 


1 


113 


Secondary Schools 


28 


1,759 


17 2,287 


13 


1,005 


Primary Schools 


2,938 


173,883 


1,119 


76,936 


377 


43,357 


Training Schools 


•} 


126 


1 


26 


1 


25 


Other Special Schools 


11 


1,722 


8 


791 


2 


96 


Private Inditutioni^ 


46 


i,123 


e.5 


6,163 


127 


7^74 


Advanced 


12 


1,583 


4 


639 


4 


373 


Elementary 


34 


2,540 


61 i 5,524 


123 


7,501 



SUBSIDIA.UY TABLE VIII.— Main results of University Examinations 



Examination. 


1911. 


1901. 


1891 


Candidates. 


Passed. 


Candidates. 


Passed. 


Candidates. 


Pas.seJ. 


1 


2 


S 


4 


5 





( 


Matriculation (Entrance) 

F. A. or Intermediate Examina- 
tion, 1st B. A. or 1st B. Sc... 

Degrees in Arts 

Do. Medicine 

Do. Law 

Do. Civil Engineering,.. 


m 

140 
30 


711 

83 
17 


86 

128 
28 


37 

66 
23 


57 

61 

5 


29 

26 
3 


'J'Mal 


311 


170 


242 


128 


13S 


5 J 



210 



CHAITKi: VIII KDUCATK >.\ 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IX. — Number and circulation of newspapers, &c. 



Language. 


Class o£ 

Newspapers 

(daily, weekly, 

&c.). 


1911 


1901. 


1891. 


No. 


Circulation. 


No. 


Circulation. 


No. 


Circulation. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Gujarati 

Do. 

Total Oujarati ... 

Gnjarati and Marathi combined ... 

Gujarati, Sanskrit and English 
combined 

English and Sanskrit combined ... 

To'al 


W-ekly 

Monthly 

Monthly 

Do. 
Quarterly ... 


9 
22 


16,50C 
14,500 


1 Fig 

1 
1 

'f Fiir 

1 
1 

J 


ures not ava 
arcs not ava 


ilable. 
ilable. 




31 
1 

1 
1 


SlfiOO 
300 

300 
300 


3i 


37,900 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE X. — Number of books published in each 

LANGUAGE. 











NUMBER OF BOOKS 


PUBLISHED 


IN. 
























Total oi- decade. | 


Language. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


190.5. 


1906. 


1907. 


190S. 


1909. 


1910. 






1901 


1891 


1881 
























to 


to 


to 
























1910. 


1900. 


1890. 


1 


2 


3 


i 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


Gnjarati 


77 


38 


68 


37 


GO 


161 


liil 


179 


125 


127 


1,02S 




<u 
























Xi 


'oS 


English 


2 


1 


4 


11 


11 


2 


14 


20 7 


27 


99 


> 


> 
c3 


Sanskrit 

Marathi 


2 

2 


•*. 


2 




1 

2 


• ■• 


5 


4 

6 


1 


1 


7 
19 


a 

CD 

2 

S 


O 

a 
to 


Total ... 


83 


39 


74 


4S 


6i 


1G3 


7 SO 


209 133 

1 


15S 


1,148 







fllAlTKi; l\ I.AN(irA(iK. ;:.' 1 1 



Chapter IX. 

LAXGUAGE. 

419. Till' iiilbniiation recorded in the 13th L-ohimn oi the Census Schedule 

, ^ . ^ relates to tlie lanoua<;\' which each person ordinarilv 

Introductory. • i • \ ri • '^ , • amjf 

uses 111 his own home. Ihe instructions given to 

the enumerators were as under : — 

" Cohimn 13 (Lauguage). — Enter the language which each person ordina- 
rily usos in his own home. In the case of infants and deaf-mutes, the language 
of the mother should be entered." 

Thejstatistics of languages reuirned as spoken in the State in response to 
this inquiry, are given in Imperial Table X. The following Subsidiary Tables in 
which the chief features of the return are presented in a more compendious form, 
will be found at the end of this chapter : — 

(I) — Distribution of the total population ijy language. 

(II) — Distribution by language of the population of each district. 

(Ill) — Comparison of caste and language tables. 

(Ill-a) — Numbers speaking the languages, contrasted with castes and I'aces 
supposed to speak them. 

4:l'0. The answei- to the question regarding one's mother-tongue would 

appear to be very simple, but here also there was a 
The accuracy of the p]iauce of wrong entries mainly owing to the igno- 

rance of the people, about the proper name of the 
iaugiiage they speak. For instance, Marathi is often spoken of as Deccani 
Urdu as Musalmani, and Hindustani as Fardeshi. These contingencies were 
foreseen, and. a list giving the proper names of the vernaculars to be recorded 
and the territorial and other names to be avoided, was furnished to the enumera- 
tors. It is said that in some parts of India, there is a tendency on the part oi' 
Mahomedans to say that their home language is Urdu even when this is not 
really the case. There was no such intentional wrong return on the part of the 
people in this State, either with regard to Urdu, or any other language. 

421. Statistics of the languages spoken by the people are useful for a 

varietv of purposes. Thev show the philoloo-ist 
^'''' °statYsUcs.*°"^"^ ^^'^^^^ languages are spoken 'and where and to w^iat 

extent ; they serve as a guide to the nationality of 
the people ; and they assist in the solution of administrative questions by show- 
ing what languages are most spoken in each area and whether each is increasino- 
or decreasing in popularity, so that orders regarding the languages to be used 
in courts and schools and by officials and in official papers may be adapted 
accordingly. 

422. No lees than 41 languages and dialects have been recorded as the 

home language of the people living 
in the Baroda State on the 10th 
March ]t>ll. Of these, 34 are 
W'rna'julars of India, four languages 
of other Asiatic countries and three 
European languages. Of the Verna- 
culars of India, Gujarati is the old 
language of the land. Urdu came 
with tlie Musalman conquerors of 
Gujarat and Marathi with the Mara- 

tlias. These three have the largest number of speakers in the State, and may 
now be said to be the Vernaculars of the people living in it. The rest of the 
languages spoken are mostly the languages of immigrants. 



Languageg spoken. 



Name of language. 


Speakers. 


Gujarati with Bhil dialects related to it ... 

Urdu 

Marathi with Bhil dialects related to it ... 

Other languages of India 

Other Asiatic Languages 

Eui'opean languages 


l,902,6r.l 

64,306 

S6,145 

29,035 

.S69 

389 



n2 



CHAlTKi; IX LANGUAGE. 



4-23. 



The number of languages 
spoken in each district. 



The highest uumber otiauguages aud dialects spoken is H2 in the 
Navsari District, then comes Baroda City with 2'.>, 
theu Kadi District with 26, then Baroda District with 
•22, and Amreli stands last with 20 languao-es. 
ExeJndiug Gnjarati and the Bhil dialects as being indigenous to the State^^Ave 
find that the Kadi District comes to the top with 24 foreign languages givino- 
the second place to Baroda City with 22. Then follows Navsari with 2l 
languages and Baroda and Amreli Districts stand last with only 18 foreio-n 
ians'uages. 



424. 
Linguistic survey of India. 

but 



The labours of scholars like the late Mr. Beames, Dr. Hoernle, Bishop 
Caldwel and others have much increased our know- 
ledge of most of the modern Vernaculars of India, 
while we know a good deal about some of the languages, our intbrmation as 
to their dialects is, with a few exceptions, most incomplete. There are many lanou- 
ages spoken by the wild tribes of India, of which we know little or nothing exceiJt 
the names. A consideration of these facts led the Government of India to commence 
a systematic survey of all forms oi speech employed in Northern and Eastern India 
and in the Presidency of Bombay. This has under the able guidance of 
Dr. Grierson been completed and the results are published in the volumes of the 
Linguistic Survey of India. 

425. There are eight great families of Indian languages, in three of which 
all the languages spoken in the Baroda State are included. These are the 

Indo-European, the Dravi^ian, and the 



The family, branches and groups of 
languages spoken in India. 



Family. 


No. of 

languages. 


Speakers. 


fndo-Euroiiean 

Dravidiaii 

Scmctic 


37 
3 

1 


2.032,407 

859 

:!2 



Semetic iamilies. Out of these, the 
Indo-Eitropean family is again split up 
into two sub-families, the Aryan and 
the European. The Aryan sub-familv 
has two branches — (1) the Indian and 
(2 ) the L-anian. To this Indian branch 
belong the languages spoken largelv 
by the ])eople of this State. This 
branch is split up into eight groups, out of which only six, viz., the Western, 
the Southern, the Eastern, the Northern, the North- Western and the Shina- 
khowar are found in this State. The languages of the Aryan family are 
numerically the most important and are spoken by more than 99 per cent, of the 
total population. The Dravidian family comes next, but its speakers represent 
only 359 persons, while the Semetic family has less than 50 speakers in the 
total population of the State. 

42o. Taking a bird's-eye view of the facts stated in Subsidiary Table 
II, we tind that in every 10,000 persons in the population, 8,639 speal 



Numbers speaking different languages. 



the Gujarati language, 720 the Bhil 
dialects, 171 Marathi, 28 Hindus- 
tani, 317 Urdu, 77 Kachhi, 16 
Hindi and 32 the rest of the lan- 
guages. This shows that over 86 
per cent, of the population speak 
the Gujarati language and less 
than 14 per cent, speak all the 
other languages. In the Census of 
1891 Bhil dialects were included 
in Ottjarati. In the Census of 1901, 
they were separated from it, but 
the return was not correct, as a 
large number of forest tribes, though speaking their tribal dialects, was re- 
turned as speaking Gnjarati. A greater accuracy in the present Census has 
reduced the proportion of the sjieakers of Gnjarati to 86 per cent. <,f the 
total population against 90 per cent, in 1901 and 93 in 1891. Similarlv, 
the decline in the sjjeakers of Marathi is also due to the exclusion from it 
of the Bhil dialects connected with it such as Kathodi, Varli, &c. These 
details account for the large increase in the speakers of the Bhil dialects in 



Language. 


Speakers per lo.iiOO n£ 
the population. 




1911 


1901 

9,027 

348 
19S 
17S 
174 
.-)6 
1 

IN 


1891 


Gujarati 

Bhil dialects 

Marathi 

Hindustani 

Urdu 

Kactihi 

Hindi 

others ■ 


8,639 

720 

17: 

2S 

317 

77 

16 

32 


9,308 

"214 
375 

13 

53 
«i 

33 

1 



GL',!AKATI LxVNlUAUF. AM) I.IIKI; A ll' K'K. 



:.' 1 ;; 



the present Census over the figures of 1901. In 1S91 and 11301, no clear 
<list.iuction was made between Urdu and Hindustani and the latter gained at 
rhe expense of the former. In rlip present Census, a clear Hue was drawn 
i)et.weea the two, with the result ihat Ijoth the languages show iheir true relative 
proportion. The variations iu the speakers of the rest^ of languages are 
slight and being mainly due to the greater or less number of foreigners 
present in the Stare on the Census day, call for no remarks. 

427. Taking the population of a district to be 10.000, the highest number 
persons speaking Gujarati, rhe language of the country, is met with iu the 



of 



Diagram s'towing llie numher of Gujdrati speixhers pei- 10,000 of 
the population. 

500O 6000 70OO ^ooo Qooo 70000 



BAROOA STATE 


1 










_ . 


^^^H 




BARODAOISTE/^ofCiry 




^^HM 


BARODA CITY 


>» 








KADI DI5T 


' 









fMmM^tM 


^""'" 


NAVSARI D15T 


__. 1 








AMRELI 0/5T 


1 . — 


L^ 





Kadi District and 
the lowest in the 
City of Baroda. 
Baroda, Amreli 
and Navsari Dis- 
tricts rank after 
Kadi in the 
order mentioned. 
The number of 
persons speak- 
ing the Gujarati 
language in the 
Navsari District 
falls to 5,918 in 
10,000, owing to 

a large part of that district being inhabited by forest tribes who speak dialects 
of their own The City of Baroda being the capital of the State has a laro-e 
Marathi-speaking population and also many foreigners in the Military and otlier 
services, and it is therefore that it stands at the bottom in the number of persons 
speaking the Gujarati language. 

428. The Gujarati language is the vernacular not only of the Baroda 

Statb, l)ut also of the whole of Gujarat, including 
Katliiawad. It is also spoken by emigrants from 
(jrujarat iu cxery Province and State in the whfde of 
India. It is the nn'ther-tongue of enterprising Gujarati merchants and Vohoras 
and is the adopted language of the adventurous I'arsis who are to be found all 
over India. In the Madras__Presidency, there is a large colony of silk weavers 
called Patnulkarans, who centuries ago. migrated from Saurashtra in Gujarat at 
the invitation of the Xayak Kings of Madura. Many of them still retain the 
language of their original home, which is known in that Presidency as Patnuli 
or Khatri, but is really Gujarati. 



Gujarati language and 
-literature. 



(meaning natural, unartificial), which 

(meaning purified). It commences with the jjoetry of 

Vadnaa'ai'a Nas-ar Brahman, born at Junao-ad in 1413 A.D. 



Modern Gitjarati is traced by philologists to its inunediate parent, the 
Apahhramsha (meaning corrupt or decayed), which is derived from the Prakrit 

in its turn is derived from the Sanskrit 
of Narsinh Mehta, a 
He has not written 
any long continuous works, but his fame rests upon his short songs, many of 
which exhibit considerable elegance. Other poets followed Narsinh Mehta, 
amongst whom may be mentioned Premanand Bhatt (1681 A. D.), author of 
J^iLi-amh 31ehta-)iu-Maineru, Nalalln/iiiKi^ OhJiaharan and seveial dramas; Vallabha: 
I'ritam ; Ravishanker (translator of the Maha Bharat) ; Muktanand ; Samal Bhatt 
(anthnr of Jlnras Kafitun\ Mada /'(ich/sh/\ Navel Batrishi, Sir/' Charitra, Vikrav- 



Choriti 



Brahmanand and Dayaram. Among recent poets the names of 



Dalpatram Dahyabhai and Narmdaslianker Lalshanker are noteworthy. 

During the last fifty years, western education has enriched the Gujarati 
language to a considerable extent. Books on a variety of subjects have been 
written and of these naralkatha, or the novel, is a special feature. The novel 
may be said to be the most flourishing department of modern Gujarati literature. 
Every year Gujarati novels are published by the score, hut like most of the othei- 



:?14 ciiAi'TKi; i\ — i.A.\Gr.\i;i;. 



works, iliey possess Jittle origiualiiy and are mo:^Ily trauylatiou.s. Parsi writers 
are a great auxiliary to Gujarati literai.nre, as tlie vernacular of these peoj^le is 
Giijarati. Some of tliem have reudered the laugiiage excellent service by writing 
original social novels and by translating some of the great masterpieces of 
English fiction. But original novels in Gujarati are very rare. The late Kao 
Bahadur Naudshanker Tuljashanker 31elita wrore such a one. His Karan Ghelo, 
a historical novel of the medieval. Gujarat King Karan Ghelo, has already beconn' 
a classic and is highly prized. Saraswai/' Chandra, a social novel by the lau- 
Mr. Govardhanram Tripathi has also become a classical work, and is irauslat.ed 
into Marathi and other languages of India. The literary form of the Gujaraii 
language has, during the last thirty years, much developed, and its most marked 
characteristic is the wholesale adoi)tion of Sanskrit words in the place ol old 
words descended through the Prakrii or obtained from the original non-Aivan 
inhabitants of the country. 

The orthography of the Gujarati language is still unsettled. It is not 
unusual to find books written by different authors in different orthography. The 
Bombay Education Department has attempted to settle Gujarati orthographv by 
adopting a standard proposed by a Committee of Educationists. And though the 
new Gujarati Readers are written according to this standard, it is as yet neither 
approved nor adopted by the generality of the people. 

429. Two alphabets are used lor writing Gujarati. One is ordinary 
. . Devnagri, which was formerly used in Gujarat for 

ujara i s r p . writing books. Carey's translation of the New- 

Testament, published at the commencement of the last century, was jiriuted iu 
that alphabet. The other is known as the Gujarati alphabet and is the one in 
general use. It is based on the same original as Devnagri and closely resembles 
the ordinary iTa/^/i/ character employed all over Northern India. In ordinary 
mercantile correspondence, it is usual to omit vowels except when initials 
which make the readiug of a banker's letter a task of some difficulty. Such a 
script is called Bodia (from lodu, clipped or shorn). 

4o0. Except Kathiawadi, and Zalawadi, which were returned by 383 and 

,,. . , , _ . ^. i'4 persons respectively and the Bhili dialects, no 

Dialects of Gujarati. ^, ' i- , ^ e ^i, r^ • -i , 

other dialects ot the Gujarati language wej-e returned 

in the Census. It is only the Bhili dialects which can be called dialects of Gujarati, 

as they preserve in inflection, pronunciation and particular words, traces of the 

original variety of the language not incorporated in the standard language of the 

country. Kathiawadi, Ahmedabadi, I'attani, Charotari, Kanami and Suraii are 

sometimes loosely spoken of as dialects ot the language. According also to the 

adage current among the people, language (boh) " changes " every twelve gauH. 

But these are not dialects in the proper sense of the term. The only n-ue dialectic 

variation of Gujarati consists in the difference between the speech of the 

uneducated and the educated. That of the latter is the standard form of ihe 

language taught in grammars. That of the icrmer differs from the standard 

mainly in pronunciation. The differences of pronunciation are )iearly all tht; 

same over the whole of Gujarat, but. as a rule, though they are the same in 

kind, they are much less prominent in South Gujarat, and beoon)e more and 

more ]irominent as we go to the north. Among these may be mentioned a 

tendency to pronoimce e for i : for instance, lenido lor limdo, peplo lor piplo, etc. : 

ch and clili are pronounced as « and as we go north, this becomes the rule. 

Thus ponf for panch, five ; tmso for vncho, high ; .s'a;v74 lor churvu, to feed 

cattle ; ^oru for chhoru, child ; jmsvu lor puchhvu, to ask and so on. There is 

often an interchange of consonants in the same word in different j)arts of the 

(!Ountry. Thus pifvu for tipim,: to boat ; detva for dei-ta, firo ; man fo'' gum. 

towards : niisl'an for nuksun, injury. The Parsis and those ]\lusa]mans who 

speak Gujarati generally follow the colloquial Gujarati of their neighI)oiu-s i)i 

pronunciation and inflection. Their Gujaiati is sometimes sjjoken of as a s])eciai 

dialect, but it differs from the ordinary language only in its vocabulary whicii 

borrows freely from Persian and Arabic. It is also noticeable for its entire 

disregard of the distinction between cerebrals and dentals. 



mill. DIAI.KCTS. 



115 



Same of Dialect. 



Speakers. 



431. The Bliils and Navakdas of Saukheda Taluka and Tilakwada Pera 
Taluka iu the Baroda Dii?trici and the Gamaida, Chodhra and other aboriginal 

tribes in the 

The Bhil Dialects. S O n o- h a d , 

V y a r a and 
other Talukas 
in the Nav.sari 
District, speak 
mixed forms 
of speech, 
which are the 
d i a 1 e c t s of 
G u j a r a t i. 
They closely 
r e s e m b 1 e 
each other. 



Bhili ... 

Banjari 

Bavacbi 

Ohodhari 

DhoJia 

Gamatdi 

Kobani 

Kotwali 

Mavchi 

Naiki ... 

KoJshi 



Total 



3.5,Ul 

2.50 

036 

26,852 

18,0.51 

47,177 

.5,112 

1,.51^ 

!)48 

10.118 

679 



1-K;.347 



As an illustration, a rendering of the Gujarati sentence, " ]arsad saro thayo 
chhe ; dhan saru [lalcshe" in some of the most important of them is given 



below : — 



Bbili 01- Vasavi 
Chodhari ... 
Dhodia 
(Ttamatdi ... 
Kokaui 
>iaik<li or Naiki 



Varhad hai'o, va>/a, anna luirn pakaiju. 
VarluU Iiaro hovoha, inal hara pakil. 
Varliat hajo ai'no, dana haja pikna. 
Pdi haro eno, dana haro pakil. 
Bmii k/iul) padna, dana besh pakU. 
Varsat hhare huna, hliare dan<jar pikhiye. 



The Chodhari dialect is purer and more akin to Gujarati than the other forest 
dialects. Next to it come Gamatdi and Naikdi or Naiki iu their purity and affinity 
to Gujarati. Kokani is a dialect of Marathi rather than of Gujarati and Dhodia, 
though a dialect of Gujarati is more affected by Mararhi words than the other 
dialects. 

The total number of speakers of the Bhili dialects iu the present Census is 
laro'er than that returned iu 1901 by 78,464. But the statistics of language in 
the°Census of 19U1 are obviously incorrect, since the total Animistic poiralation 
returned was 17<3.250, while the speaker? of Bhili dialects numbered 67,883 only, 
which shows that a large proportion of the speakers of Bhili dialects must have 
been included in the speakers of Gujarati. In the present Census the Animistic 
population numbers 115,411 and it is found that 85,566 Animistics have 
returned themselves as Hindus. These added together give a total of 200.977 
real Animists, of whom 146,347 are returned as speakers of Bhili dialects and 
the rest, viz., 54,630 have abandoned their tribal dialects, and adopted Gujarati 
as their home-tongue. If such a large number as 108,367 of forest tribes had, as 
reported in 1901, really adopted Gujarati as their mother-tongue, it is not likely 
that so manv as 53,737 would again have reverted to their tribal tongues and 
the present Census, in spite of advance iu education and greater communication 
with more civilized people, should return only 54,630 as speakers of Gujarati 
from among the primitive tribes. 

Next to Gujarati and its Bhili dialects, Urdu has the largest number 

of speakers. According to philolo- 
gists, it is not a language, but a 
dialect of Western Hindi along with 
Hindustani, Hindi and Brij, "all df 
which have more or less speakers in 
the State. Hiudusiani, the principal 
dialect of Western Hindi, is not only 
a local vernacular, but is also spoken 
over the whole of the north and west of the Continent of India as a lingua Jranl", 
or second language by every one with any claim to education. It was' carried 
evervwhere in India by the lieutenants of the Mughal Empire, and has received 
considerable literary cultivation at the hands of both Musalmans and Hindus. 
The former employed the Persian character for recording it and enriched its 



435 



%^ 



>same of laneuaee. 



t^ixlu 

Hindustani 
Hindi 
Brii 




216 



CHAI'll'.i: IX I.ANtUAUr.. 



vocabulary with a large stock of Persian and Arabic words. This Persianised 
form of Hindustani is known as Urdu, a name derived from the Urdu-e-MauUa 
or Royal Military bazar outside Delhi Palace where it took its rise. When 
employed for poetry, Urdu is called Rekhta (scattered or crumbled) from the 
manner in which Persian words are "scattered" through it. During the first 
centuries of its existence, Urdu literature was entirely poetical. Prose Urdu 
owes its origin to the English occupation of India and to the need of text books 
for the college of Fort William. The Hindi Ibrm ot Hindustani was invented at 
the same time by the teachers of that college. It was intended to be a Hindus- 
tani for the use oi Hindus, and was derived from Urdu by ejecting all words of 
Arabic and Persian birth and substituting in their place words borrowed ttr 
derived from the indigenous Sanskrit. Owing to the popularity of the first 
book written in it and to its supplying the need for a lingua fmnlm, which could 
be used by the strictest Hindus without their religious prejudices being offendtd,. 
it became widely adopted and is now the recognised vehicle for writing prose 
by those inhabitants of Upper India, who do not employ Urdu. Urdu, 
as becomes its origin, is usually written in a modified form of the Persian 
character, while Hindi is generally written like Sanskrit in the Devnagari 
character. 



433. 



Urdu, not the language of all Musalmans. 







Per centage of 


District. 


Spealiers. 


Urdu speakers 

to Musalman 

population. 


State - 


64 306 


40 


Baroda Dn.(Ex. o£ City) 


Ui,Ss73 


40-5 


Baroda City 


lS,0fi2 


76 


Kadi Division 


19.331 


37 


Navsari ,. 


6,5^5 


28 


Amreli „ 


.5,482 


29 



The total Musalman population of the State is 160,887, while the 

speakers of Urdu as returned in 
the Census number only 64,306 
or 40 per cent, of the Musalman 
population. This shows that 60 
per cent, of the Musalmaus in the 
State, who are mainly converts 
f r om Hinduism,still adhere to 
G u j a r a t i even after their 
conversion centuries ago. The 
n u m b e r of Urdu speakers 
returned in the Census of I'JOl 
was only 34,046. But no clear distinction appears then to have been made 
between Urdu and Hindustani, as such a large number as 34,769 was returned as 
speaking Hindustani or Muaulmdni, while in the present Census, the correspond- 
ing return is only 5,629. Even, if we include the speakers of Hindustani in 
those of Urdu, the total in I'JGl comes to 68,815, and in the present Census to 
69,y35. This gives a percentage of 42 and 43 respectively on the total 
Musalman population in the Censuses of I'JOl and ID 11. Taking 10,000 as the 
population of a district, the greatest number of Urdu speakers, 1,315 is naturally 
found in the City of Baroda. Then comes Baroda District with 338, Anu'eli 
with .')08, Kadi with 2.S2, and Navsari stands last with only 195 Urdu speakers 
in 10,000 of its populatinu. 

434. Next after Urdu, Marathi stands 



Maratbi. 



District. 



State 

Baroda lEx. of City) 
Baroda City 

Kadi 

Navsari 

Amreli 



Spealiers ol 
Marathi. 



prominent owing to the compara- 
tively larger number of Mara- 
thas, Prabhus and Dakshani 
Brahmans in all the districts of 
the State. Here also the City 
stands first, as it being the 
capital, contains many Mara- 
tha Sardar families, Maratha 
officials, servants and shop- 
keepers. Navsari comes next 
after the City, as some <;f 
its tracts border on the 
Deccan districts of Khandesh and Nasik. Then comes the district of Kadi 
and then Amreli in Kathia^yad where comparatively many Maratha families 
have settled after the abolition of the Contingenr, and the breaking nn of 
the Manekwada Camp. After Kadi comes the Baroda District. Compared 
with population, neither of these districts contains a largo Marathi-speaking 
element. 



34 834 

25,007 
l,(;6!l 
4,88(1 
l,f.l6 



DIALKCTS (IF MAKATIU. :J17 





Name. 


i 


S, 


eal.cr.s. 


KathOfii 
Varli 
Goanese ... 


Total 


-. 


■-'31 




1,311 


435. 


The Gujarati 


language is 



Only three dialects of ^laraihi have been recorded. Of these Kathodi and 
Dialects of Marathi. Varli are Spoken by the forest 

iribes of the Xavsari District, and 
Goauese is spoken by ihe Goans 
employed in the State Military 
Bands. 

much simpler ihan the Maraihi. It 
_. .. ^. . resembles Persian in the simplicity of its oTammar 

^"^^'■SmTareT ^^^. * disregard for inflexional forms and termino- 

logies ; while Marathi is not only richer in 
expressions and words, but has a very stiff grammar with iuflexious for genders, 
cases and tenses in both ^ numbers, which are difficult to grasp. This is the 
reason why the Deccanis can speak and write Gujarati, which is the official 
language in courts and offices, almost as well as iJie Gujaratis themselves ; 
while the Gujaratis, though they can read and comprehend Marathi fairly 
well, are unable to talk fluently or write correctly in iMarathi. 

-to6. 31arathi and Gujarati have stood together in the Baroda State for 

^ „ . . more than 150 vears, but the two do uot appear to 

^^"*" and Marathi"'^'' !^^''^ ^^^cted each other to aay appreciable extent. 

The two peoples, the Deccanis and Gujaratis have 
not materially influenced each other in any point. Their language, thier dress, 
their food, their customs and manners are all entirely exclusive. The languages 
of both are derived from Sanskrit, and a Gujarati writer, no less than a Marathi 
one, would look to it lor a fresh expression of ideas which caimot be couveved 
in the present stock of words in his vernacular. A little ndxture of words in 
the spoken language is however noticeable in the Baroda City, e. g., hudne, 
liaraji, ghaa (for gavat), hhatid (for sahar), etc., from Gujarati into Marathi ; 
and atopvu, adhalavu, rangoli, hhilohhat^ etc., from Marathi into Gtijarati. 

437. English education and the introduction of new institutions and new 
^ .. , ^, ideas like railwavs, printing presses, factories, etc., 

"""''culaMlnguagls ^^^^'^ ^^^ ^o.the incorporation of many English 

words in the vernacular languages of the country. 
Such words as master, class, deputy, rail, director, train, station, ticket, 
pass, guard, platform, signal, engine, motor, train, conductor, steamer, 
superintendent, census, newspaper, boat, pantaloon, frock, sale, court, app)eal, 
case, magistrate, barrister, judge, police, bailiff, notice, warrant, doctor, 
fee, plague, cjuarautine, transfer, stamp, share, dividend, cupboard, table, 
type, compose, feet, rule, space, bobbin, gin, press, mill, cricket, ball, wicket, band, 
bandstand, party, congress, governor, parade, meeting, cornice, etc., are used 
like ordinary vernacular words. Attempts have been made now and then 
to eschew these words for new-coined vernacular ones, but they liave failed. 
For instance, court, appeal and notice are preferred to and considered simpler 
than nyayadhinhi, virad and mchana patra, and ccnms is more popular iliau 
vasti gantn or khatie .sumari. 

438. Among foreign languages Sindhi (821) with its dialect Kachhi 
g. ... (15,268) contributes 16,089 speakers. Kachhi is 

mainly spoken by the Khojas and Memons in all 
the Districts, but largely in the Amreli District and Sindhi by the Sindh 
Sardar and Shilledar families in the City of Baroda and the Kadi District. 

439. The next foreign language that figures largely is Rajasthani-or 
Raiasthani *^® language of Rajasthan. It is spoken in Raj- 

putana, which is divided amongst many States 
and tribes. Each claims to have a language of its own, Ijut all these are really 
dialects of one and the same form of speech, viz., the Rajasthani. They fall into four 
main groups, which are called Mewadi, Malvi, Jaipuri and IMarwadi. Mewadi, 
the dialect of Mewar, and its neighbourhood, has only 41 si)eaker8 in the State. 
Jaipuri, the dialect of Eastern Rajputana, and Malvi, the dialect of the Malva 
country round Indore, have also 38 and 8 speakers respectively, iviarwadi, 



218 CHAITKU IX LANUl'Alii:. 



Name of language. 


Speakers. 


KanareSB 

Tamil 

Telugu 


It 

80 
265 



the most important of the riajputaua dialects, is the language of enterprising 
merchants and bankers Irom Marwar, Mewad, Bikaner and Jesalmir and has no 
less than 3,323 speakers in the State, Sixteen ])er cent, of the speakers are to be 
found in the City of Ikroda, 31 per cent, in the IJaroda District, 40 per cent, in 
the Kadi District, 1 2 per cent, in the Navsari District, and less than J per • cent, 
in the Amreli District where owiug to tlie presence of local Shylocks, the Kapol 
Vauias, those from Marvvav cannot flourish. 

4-iO. Languages, which are known as Dravidian , form the speech of the south 

of the Indian Peninsula as contrasted with the 

Dravidian languages. ^^,^,^^ languages of the north. The first language 

to be mentioned in this group is Kanarese, which 
contributes the least number of speakers in the 
State. It is the language spoken in the south-east 
corner ol' the Bombay Presidency and in the 
Mysore State. Then comes Tamil, which is the 
most cultivated and the best known of the Dravidian 
formsof speech. Tamil speakers, principally domestic servants, are found in the 
City of Baroda. The Madras servant is usually without religious prejudices or 
scruples as to food, headgear or ceremonial. Unlike the North Indian 
domestic, he can accommodate himself to all circumstances. 

The Telugu or Telangi language, which contributes compai'atively a large 
number of speakers in the State population, ranks next to Tamil in respect to 
culture and copiousness of its vocabulary and exceeds it in eU])hony. Every 
word ends in a vowel, and it has therefore been called the Italian of the East. 

441. There were 36 persons (13 males and 23 females), who returned 

Bengali as their mother -tongue, and 12 persons 
Other languages. ,^p ^^^^j^^ ^^^ ^ females) who returned Xaipali as their 

home-tongue. These were for the most part pilgrims who happened to be in 
Dwarka or Beyt on the Census day. There were 179 Baloch and 145 Pashto 
speakers, who were mainly employed in the army and a few were itinerant 
traders. In addition to these, there were 40 speakers of MuJtani, who also were,, 
for the most part, traders in the Navsari District or pilgrims in the Anu'eli 
District. 

442. Among languages foreign to India, English alone is worth noticing. 

It is the home lanouage of 261 persons C132 males 
Foreign languages. ^^^ ^^^ females).'^ Most of them reside in the City 

of Baroda and the Cantonment and a few are returned from the P>aiKvay station's 
on the lines running through the State. Among the other foreign languages 
French contributes only 5 speakers, Arabic 32, and Portuguese 23. 

443. In India the Aryan languages —the tongues of civilization — are conti- 

_. . . , , nnallv suiiercedinii' the aboriiiinal lanouages. Manv 

The dynamics of language. ,. . • , .,,' ., ■'- ,, o^ . ^ v- i ' ,. ,• 

•' ot the hill tribes m the State, which were fornierlv 

speaking a gypsy language ol' their own, are now epeaking mixed tongues which 

are the main dialects of Gujarati. Piecently some of them, like the Dublas, who have 

come in greater contact with the Ujaliats, have even adopted ])ure Gujarati as 

their home-tongue. The reverse however never happens. There is no known 

case where any community has abandoned an Aryan language and adopted a 

non-Aryan one. Nor does a community speaking one form of Ar van speech 

easily give it up in favour of another. The Deccani castes in Baroda continue 

to speak ^Nlaratlii, although they Im^-e lieen in Gujarat for about two hundred 

years. Descendants of Vaduagara Nagars Irom Gujarat, who migrated to the 

United Provinces, hundreds of years ago, still speak the Gujarati language in 

the country of their ado]ition. Similarly, in tlie Madias Presidency, there is a 

colony of silk weavers who, though they emigraied from Gujarat centuries au'o, 

still speak their ancestral language which, from the name of their caste," is 

known as Patuuli. The Siyalgire of ]\1idnapur and the Kichaks of Dacca, small 

isolated communities, who were originally Gujaratis and have settled in the 

midst of a Bengal population for many years are said to have yet preserved 

their original Gujarati speech almost unchanged. 



COMMON SCRH'T FOR INDIA. 219 



•±44. There are in India about 147 laug'uages and about 20 different 

. . , ... scripts. Most ol' the lano-uao-ee beinc- Aryan in 
Common script for India. • • i ^j i "^ "^ • 

origin, nave many common words and expressions. 

With the help of a common script, it is possible for people whose mother-tongues 
are different to read and understand each other's language. A common script, 
besides opening the treasui'es of one language to the speakers of the others, 
would reduce the time and energy now spent in mastering more than one 
alphabet ; it would also reduce the expenditure of casting types of different 
kinds. During the decade, the attention of Indians has been drawn to this 
subject which has been often discussed in committees and conferences. The 
latest common script conference met at Allahabad in 1910 under the president- 
ship of the Hon'ble M. V. Krishnaswami Iyer. What the common script 
should be is yet a disputed point, but the choice lies between the DeAuagri and 
the Roman. So tar as the Baroda State is concerned, the question is solved by His 
Highness the Maharaja Gaikwad's orders to the effect that all the official books, 
reports, rules and regulations in the vernacular should be printed in the Gujarati 
language with Devnagri characters. The State Gazette, called the Aclnya 
Patrll-a, is also published in the Gujarati language with Devnagri types. The 
Devnagri script is taught in all schools and these official ]3ublications are there- 
fore read and understood by Marathas, Musalmans, and all other subjects of the 
State as well as by the Gujaratis themselves. 

445. In Subsidiary Table III and IIIA, the -figures of those actually speak- 

iug the different important languages have been 

^^ ^ su s • compared with the total number of castes, tribes and 

races ordinarily supposed to use them as their mother-tongue. Taking the 
Gujarati language first, we find from Imperial Table X that 1,756,307 persons 
speak the language ; whereas by adding up all the true Hindu, Jain, Aryan and 
other castes and the Parsis, that are known to use Gujarati for their mother- 
tongue, we find that only 1,62<5,607 should speak it. Thus so many as 127,700 
persons speak the Gujarati language ovei' and above our estimate of those who 
may be expected to speak it. Where does this excess come from? The reply 
will be found by comparing the population of the primitive tribes with the 
speakers of the Bhil dialects and the Musalman population with the speakers of 
the Urdu, Hindustani. Peisian and Arabic languages. There are 146,347 
speakers of the Bhil dialects, while the actual population of the people, who may 
be expected to speak them is 200,977, thereby showing that 54,630 must be 
speaking the Bhil dialects and must really be Animistics, although they have re- 
turned themselves as Hindus. In the same way, although the total Musalman 
population is 160,887, the speakers of Urdu. Hindustani, Kachhi, Persian, Arabic 
and other kindred languages together does not exceed 86,627 persons showing 
thereby that the rest, viz., 74,260, must be speaking the Gujarati language, and 
they account for the excess of Gujarati speakers over castes and tribes supposed 
to speak it. .-Ynd, as a matter of fact, we know that Vohoras, Memons, Pinjaras, 
Ghauchis, Tais and other Hindu converts to Islam speak their former 
Gujarati mother-tongue just as converts to Christianity do so. It was neither 
necessary nor compulsory that converts should change their language also. 
There is a movement iu recent times amongst Mahomedans living in towns towards 
substituting Urdu for Gujarati ; but during the whole decade the speakers of 
Urdu and Hindustani together have not increased by more than 1,120 persons 
(ir 1 per cent. Similarly there are 34,834 speakers of the Marathi language and 
its dialects, while the total strength of the Deccani castes and tribes which may 
be expected to speak that language is 3o,iM3. This shows that there are l,5i)l 
more persons than there ought to be as speakers of the Marathi language. The 
difference is small, and is mainly contributed by the forest tribes, close to 
Khandcsh, wlio returned ^Marathi or some of its dialects as their home-tongue. 



220 



CHAPTEU IX — LANG CAGE 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I— DisxiniirTiox ..r 'IVriAi, I'dpilation nv 

Language. 







a;-. 






Language. 


Total number of 
speakers. 


Nuniljer pei 
millc of th 
population o 

tlic state. 


Where chiefly 
spoken. 




1911. 1901. 

1 


1 


•J 


3 


4 


5 


Indo-Aryan family— Aryan 
Bub>faniily' 












Indian Branch: 5anscratic 
sub-branch. 












(Westers Group) 












1. tiujarat! 


1,756,.307 


1,762,714 


864 


All the Divisions. 




2. Bhil lani/uages 


146,317 


67,883 


72 


Navsari Division. 




8. HiwUiitani 


.^-,629 


34.769 


3 


Baroda City and Kadi 
siou. 


Divi- 


4. Hindi 


3,203 


233 


2 


Do. 




5. Vrilu 


ii4,306 


34,046 


31 


All the Divisions. 




(Southern Group) 












6. Marathi 


34,834 


37,578 


17 


Baroda City. 




7 Lahania (Kachhi) 


l.-.,2fi8 


10,880 


8 


Amreli Division. 




8 Others M. 

i 


6,904 


4,589 


3 






2,032798 1,9.52,1)92 


1.000 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE IL— Distribution by Language of thi^ 
Population of each Disteict. 



District or natural Division. 


NUMBEK PEE 10,0l'0 OF THE POPULATIOX SPEAKING j 


:3 

a" 

C5 


SO 

p 


3 


5 

i 


1 

a 
•o 
a 

5 


a 
f5 


SI 


a 

a 
a 

»3 

■s ^ 

o 


1 


2 3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


!) 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division CBx- of City) 

Baroda City 

Kadi Division ^. 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division 


8,639 

9,195 
5,490 
9,693 
5,918 
8,773 


720 

385 
59 

3,667 
3 


317 

338 
1,315 
232 
195 
308 


171 

27 

2,523 

20 

145 

91 


2S 
13 
269 
16 
15 
''2 


16 

y 
178 

li 

8 


77 

5 

30 

•I 

4 

776 


32 

28 
136 
23 
50 
19 



SlTBSiniAi;V TABhEiS. 



221 



srr.STDIAliY TA15L?: ITT— CoMPAin^oN ok Caste and Langtage Tables. 



TlilBK. 



Strength of 

tribe 
(Table X II t.l 



Number 
speaking 

tribal 
language . 
(Table X .) 



Tribe. 



Strength of 

tribe 

(Table XI !I.) 



Number 
speaking 

tribal 

language 

(Table X.) 



Hindu 
Auimist 



Cko:ihra— 
Hindu 

Auimist 



Dhankn — 
Hindu 
Animist 



Dh.Mlia— 
Hiudu 
Animist 
Aryan 



DnUa— 
Hindu 
Animist 



Gamit. or Gamatda- 
Hindu 
Animist .. 



Kathodia — 
Hindu 

Animist 



Kolgha — 
Hindu 
Animist 



2-t,7.-i5 
17,081 



41,S3« 

11,709 
19,657 



31,36t) 

2,033 
16.634 



18,667 

.-.,492 

14.995 

3 



2(1,490 

37,577 
3,399 



35,111 



26,852 



18,051 



40,976 

27,440 
22,175 



49,615 

128 
394 



667 



47,177 



231 



679 



692 



Kolinu — 
Hindu 

.Animist 



Kol I alia — 
Hindu 
Animist 



Ulari'hi — 
Hindu 
.\nimist 



Nayakda — 
Hindu 
Animi>t 



Talavia — 
Hindu 
Animist 



Valvi — 

Hindu 
Auimist 



Vasava — 

Hindu 
Animist 



Varli — 
Hindu 
Animist 



1,906 
4,545 



6,451 

583 
1,075 

1,658 

980 
9 



989 

3,634 
6,396 



10,030 

8,919 

728 



9,647 

565 
481 



5,112 



1,.513 



94.S 



111,1 IK 



1,046 

4,257 
6,694 



10,951 

117 

481 



936 



598 



SUBSIDIAT^Y TABLE III — («.) — Xumbees .speaking the languages 

CONTRASTED WITH CASTE!? AND RACES SUPPOSED TO SPEAK THEM. 



L.\XGnAGE. 


Actual num 
bers speak- 
ing the 
language. 


CasteB, tribes and racas supposed 
to spe.ik tiie language. 


Total of 
estimated 
spaakers. 


Excess of 
actual speak- 
ers over 
estimated 


Excess of 

estimated 

speakers 

over actual. 


1 


2 


8 


' 


5 


6 


Gujarati 

Marathi 

Hindustiui ; Urdu, 
Panjabi ; Arabic, 
Baloch ; Pasbto ; 
Persiau ; Sindhi, 
Kachhi (Mcmons, 
etc.). 

Bhil Dialects 

Bavchi 

Rajaathani 

Hindi 

English 

Miscellaneous 


1,756,307 

34,834 
86,627 

146,347 

536 
3,410 
3,203 

261 
1,273 


Hindus (1,^:97,145) except the Ani- 
miBtic population returned as 
Hindus (85.560) ; spealiers of 
Marathi (34,834) ; Hindi (3,203) ; 
Rajasthani (3,410) ; Kanarese 
ami kindred languages (359) ; i.e.. 
(1,697,146—127^372). Jains 
(43,462) ; .\rya Pamajis (.598) ; 
Parsi (7,955) ;" Native Christians 
(6,962—144 Goanesp=6,81S). 

Dashastha, Koknastha, Karhada 
and other Deccani Hrahmans, 
Marathas (both Kshatri.vas and 
Kanbis) ; Prabbus, Soiiar, Mahar, 
Gondhali. Kasar and other Dec- 
oani castes. 

Musalman populatiin (a few Hindus 
speaking Hindustani being neg- 
lected). 

Forest tribes (Animistic* as also 
those really Animistics who re- 
turned themsclvea as Hindus). 

Bavcha.s 

] Marwan Brahmans, Vanias, etc. 

Europeans and Eurasians 

Miscellaneons: Goanese, Jews, etc.... 


1,628,607 

33,243 
160,887 

200,977 

1,371 

7,000 

241 

472 


127,700 
1,591 

20 
801 


74,260 

54,630 

835 

387 


2,032,798 


2,032,798 


130,112 


130,112 



222 CHAITER X — IXl'IRMITIES. 



Chapter X. 

INFIRMITIES. 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 



446. The infirmities regarding wliicli information was collected at the 

^ J Census were the same as on previous occasions, liz.. 
The Infirmities recorded. t ir i • i j j r 

' insanity, blindness, corrosive leprosy and deaf- 

mutism from birth. The instructions given to the enumerators were as 
follows : — 

" Column 16 Infrmities. — It any person be blind of both eyes, or insane, 
or suffering from corrosive leprosy, or deaf and dumb from birth, enter the name 
of the infirmity in this column." 

** Do not enter those who are blind of one eye only or who are suffering 
from white leprosy or who have become deaf and dumb alter birth." 

447. Owing partly to the difficulties in the way of accurate diagnosis and 

partly to intentional concealment, the statistics of 
ccuracyo e re urn. iniinnities are generally less reliable than the other 
Census fig-ures. Persons who, though weak-minded, are not actually insane, 
are likely to be returned as such. In addition to the persons, who are deaf and 
dumb from birth, those who have acquired their infirmity by illness or accident 
after birth are likely to be entered as deaf-mutes. Those whose sight has become 
dim in old age are likely to be entered as totally blind. Lastly, there is a 
danger of the entry as lepers of persons who are suffering irom some syphilitic 
taint or leucoderma, i. e., white leprosy. All these contingencies w-ere foreseen 
and the written instructions given to the enumerators were supplemented by oral 
ones and the mistakes likely to be committed wei-e fully ej;plained. Most of the 
enumerators were local men, well acquainted with the people. Their work was 
fully checked and the correctness of most ot the entries made by them was 
tested by the higher class of Census Officers by actual observation of these 
enumerated. Patels and Talatis in villages were directed to go over the entries 
recorded in the infirmity column of the Census schedule and to see that no case 
within their knowledge was left unrecorded. A few wrong entries, such as 
rat-andhalo (mghi-hlind), hahtro (deaf only) and ardli-pai/gal (half-rrad) were 
eliminated in the process of tabulation. In the case ol' those apparently correctly 
recorded, test inquiries were made through the Taluka Vahivatdars, but in most 
of the cases the entry was reported to be correct. Cnder these circumstances, 
though not recorded by experts, the statistics of infirmities are believed to be 
lairly accurate. 

448. The statistics regarding infirmities will be found in Imperial Tables 

„ 4 *♦*•»• XII and XII-A. At the end of this Charter are 

Reference to statistics. o i j- rp i i ^ ' 

given oubsiQiary labies, as under : — 

Subsidiary lahle 1. — The number of persons afiiicted in each district per 
100,000 of the population at each of the last four Censuges. 

Subsidiary Table II. — The distribution of the infirm by age [jer 10,000 of 
each sex. 

Subsidiary Table III. — The number of persons afflicted per 100,000 of 
the population at each age-period and tiic number of females afflicted per 
1,000 males. 

449. The total number of persons suffering fjom each infirmiiy at each of 
the last four enumerations is noted on the next page. The most striking feature 
of the statistics is the progressive decline in the number of the afflicted upto 
iyt)l. This may be ascribed parti}- to a progressive improvement in the 



INSAMIV 



223 



lutirmitv 



Insane 
Deaf-miituB. 
Blind 
Lepers 



1901. 



Total 



lltll. 


1901. 


1S91. 


1S81. 


523 

425 

3,361 

445 


232 

674 

1,IH9 

277 


845 

91S 

4,751 

569 


932 
1,714 

6,501 
624 


4,754 


8,SS2 


7,083 


9,771 



accuracy of the diagnosis, partly to an improvement in tlie material condition 
oi' the people, better sanitation and (especially in the case of blindness) cure 

effected with the aid of modern 

medical and surgical science and 
partly (in the decade ending 
1901) to a relatively high 
mortality of persons afflicted with 
infirmities in the famine years. 
The present Census shows'some 
increase in all infirmities, except 
deaf-mutism over the figures of 
This is partly due to the change of procedure in tabulation adopted 
in the present Census and partly perhaps to the return to their homes of those 
iufirms who had migrated during the great famine which preceded the 
Census of 1901. The column for the record of intirmiiies comes at the end 
of the schedule and is usually blank. Experience in 1901 showed that there 
was great danger of entries in this column being overlooked, and in several 
Provinces, arrangements were accordingly made to have them dealt with 
separately. Un the present occasion, this procedure was adopted in this State 
also and some increase in the number of infirmities might, therefore, be 
ascribed to the greater accuracy of tabulation resultiuo- from it. 



INSANITY. 



District. 


1911. 


1901. 


1S91. 


ISSl. 


State 


523 


232 


845 


932 


Baroda 


n<3 


93 


260 


264 


Kadi 


199 


59 


403 


487 


Navsari 


123 


64 


127 


149 


Amreli 


IS 


16 


Of> 


32 



450. The total number of insane persons disclosed by the last four Censuses 
Comparison with previous Censuses. 1" ^'"■'^ State as a whole, as also in 

the four Districts separately, is 
given in the margin. The' pro- 
portionate figures per 100,000 of 
the population are given in Sub- 
sidiary Table I at the end of this 
Chapter. From this it will appear 
that insanity has gone on decreas- 
ing from decade to decade till ] 901, 
but during the present decade, it shows a large increase. Tliere are now ::'d 
hisane persons in 100,000 of the population against 12 in 1901. Though a part 
of the increase may be due to the greater care taken to ensure accuracy on the 
present occasioii, there can be no doubt that there must ha\e been some' increase 
in the causes which contribute to insanity. It is a curious coincidence that the 
number of lunatics in the Asylum at Baroda at the close of the year 1910 was 
2S, that is, exactly double the number ten years previously. There has been no 
change in the principles on which dangerous lunatics are admitted into the 
Asylum, and the larger number in the Asylum therfore points to an increase in the 
causes of insanity. 

4.51. In comparison with European countries, mental disease appears to be 

comparatively rare in India. In England there 
were in 1901 about l;5 persons oi unsound mind to 
1 in India. This is mainly due to th(> different 
conditions of life in the two countries. As observed by Mr. Gait in his Ben<>-al 
Census Report for 1901 : — ''In Europe the competition between man and man is 
severe and is yearly becoming more so. The mental wear and tear is very 
great, and the strain on the nervous system deranges many feeble intellects wjiich 
in the calm and placid East would escape the Ptoim to which they succumb. A 
crazy craft often plies with safety on inland waters that would not live ior a 
day in the stress of the open sea." 

452. Compared with population the proportion of insanes to lOO.OdO 

persons in the population is 36'6 in Navsari, which is 
the highest in the State. Then, follows Baroda with 
26-n, then Kadi with 24 and Amreli with 10 stands 
last. This is graphically illustrated in the map on the next ]-age. It is diflficult in 



Comparison with other 
Provinces and Countries. 



Local distribution of 
the insane. 



224 



CIlAl'TKi; X IXnilMITIKS. 



find reasons for these local variations. But there seems to be some correspoud- 
ence between the 





Average consumption of liquor per head in tbe poj 


ulation. i 


District. 


Galloni. 


Baroda 
Kadi 
Navsari 
Amreli 


... ■.'.■. ... Z ... '.'.'. ." .'.'. 


•21 

■09 

201 

•05 



consumption of liquor 
and the prevalence of 
insanity. According 
to the latest published 
report of the Abkari 
Department, the con- 
sumption of liquor 



is the hio-hest in the Navsari J)istrict and the least in the Amreli District 



REfERFMCE 

UP TO 10 Per 100,000 



MAP 

SHOWfNG THE 
PREWlLENCfor 

/INSANITY /W 
hTHEBHR0df\5TRll 




1".|- 



453. Insanity 
Causes of insanity 



springs mainly from social environments. Though not 
strictly hereditary, it may be due to that cause also 
in some cases. To cases of heredity may be added 
accidental injuries to the head as another extraneous cause. But the vast majo- 
rity of cases are personal, and depending upon the social habits of a man, are 
not restricted to any community. They may be ascribed to (1) food and drink, 
(2) social customs, (3) physical ailments, (-i) observances of religion, (5) perso- 
nal habits, and finally (6) moral causes. Under the first head come the abuse 
of alcoholic and narcotic drinks, consumption of intoxicating drugs and general 
intemperance. Among the low classes, country liquor and cheap brandy and 
other European spirits are consumed on a large scale. Opium-eating which is 
gradually decreasing, may cloud the intellect temporarily but rarely ends in 
insanity. On the other hand the preparations of the hemp, bhan(^ and gaiy'a, are 
known to lead to produce mental derangement. The finding of the majority in 
the Hemp Drugs Commission was that the moderate use oi gaiiji does no appre- 
ciable harm to the brain, although when taken in excess, it may induce insanity. 
Two members out of seven, were of oj)inion that the use of this drug is a fertile 
cause of insanity. Among social customs, enforced widowhood among the 
Hindus, zenana system among high class Hindus and Musalmans, and consan- 
guineous marriages among the Musalmans and Pars is are accountable to a more 
or less degree for insanity. Uterine disorders, epilepsy and long continuance of 
diseases may also lead to insanity. The fourth head mentioned above includes 
fanatics and devotees, who work themselves up to the height of frenzy, particu- 
larly on great festivals. They are found both among the Hindus and Musal- 
mans. Sexual excesses and immoral life, and certain dangerous practices in 
young age are also fruitful causes of insanity. Intense brain work, mental 
anxiety, losses in trade and disappointment in love and other affairs are some of 
the moral causes, which along with the increase of civilization in a community 
tend to foster insanity which often culminates in suicide. 



INS.\MT>', 



225 



4.-)4. 



Kiligion. 


luBancs per lO.UOO of the 
population. 


Parsis ... 

Mahomedane 

•Jains ... 

Animists 

Hindus 


80 
4-7 
id 
24 
2-3 



In the distribution of insanity by religion, the Parsis head the list. 
Insanity by religion. J/?^"? iollow Mahoniedans, Jaius, Animistics and 

irlindus m order. In the Censuses ol 1891 and 1901 

also Parsis and Mahomedaus 
showed a higher ratio than 
Jains, Hindus and Animis- 
tics. The less prevalence of 
insanity among the Hindus 
and Jains may be ascribed 
to their vegetable diet, abste- 
miousness from drink and 
(juiet pursuits in life, while animal food, use of spirituous liquors, passionate 
habits and parda system may be the reasons for the higher ratio in the other 
communities. 

455. The number of insane males greatly exceeds that of females. For 
Insanity by sex ^'1"*' "^^^^^ers the occurrence of lunacy is ?,0 per 

cent, less in the female than in the male sex. This 
is probably due to women leading a quiet, secluded and abstemious life. They 
are also restrained from the excesses of various kinds in which men indulo-e - 
their work is lighter and they suffer less from hardship, exposure and anxiety. 
In the State as a whole, the ratio of insane males to insane females is rouo-hly 
as 3 to 2. The proportion of insane females to insane males is the highest (5 to 
4) in Navsari where insanity is most prevalent and the lowest (8 to 1) in Amreli 
where it is the least, 

456. The proportion of sexes varies greatly at the different age-periods. 
Insanity bv aire ^^ "° ^8"^ ^^^^ approach e.iuality except at the age- 
insanuy oy age. periods 1.5-20, 30-35 and 50-55. The figures for 

both sexes are small iu infancy when there is a natural reluctance on the 
part of the relatives to recognize the existence of the disease, but increase 
rapidly after the age of 25. Between the ages of 20 and 40 among 
males and 20 to 35 among females, the proportion of the insane is 
almost stationary. It then declines upto the age of 60 and then rises 
higher for the higher ages. 



70" 



60- 



> 

^ 



~///e /n5o/ieper/oo.ooOjOersor)5 of 



Ma/cs /.9//- 

Mnlc^ /90f - 
rema/es 




226 



CHAPTER X INFIRMITIES. 



DEAF— MUTISM. 



457. The total nmnber ol' deaf-mntes in the whole 

Comparison with previous Censuses. 



maro'iu, show 



District. 


1311 


1901 


1891 


1 
1881 


5tate 

Baroda 

Kadi 

Navsarl 

Amreli 


425 

137 

131 

139 

18 


674 

186 

209 

196 

83 


918 

291 

346 

202 

80 


1,714 

495 
762 
306 
151 



State, given in the 
s that the intirniity 
has decliued Iroiu Ueusiis to 
Census and is now much less than 
what it was before. There are 
now :.'! deaf-mutes in 100,00(1 
of the population ayainst 35 in 
1901,38 in 1801, and 79 in 1881. 
The general elecrease in the pre- 
sent Census is shared by all the 
districts and is due to the aoeu- 
racv of the return. When a person was afflicted with this infirmity, the enumerators 
were directed to enter him or her as deaf and dumb ; but sometimes the words 
'' deaf" or " dumb " alone were entered. In the course of tabulation, the entries 
of ' deaf ' were altogether neglected, but persons shown as dumb were assumed to 
be congenital deaf-mutes. This may possibly have added to the return some per- 
sons who had lost their speech by accident or illness, but their number was ])ro- 
bably not more than that of genuine deaf-mutes omitted, because shown only as 
' deaf ' by the enumerators. Deaf-mutism is a conjieuital defect and deaf-mutes 
are known to be relatively short-lived. The proportion of deaf-mutes to the total 
number of persons living at each age-period should show a steady decline and a 
reference to the diagram given in para. -462 will show that this is, on the whole, 
the case at the present Census. In 1891 and 1901 on the other hand, the proportion 
rises rapidly at the higher ages, which shows that on those occasions, many 
persons returned as deaf-mutes must not be really so, but must have lost the 
sense of hearing in their old age. 

458. The occurrence of deaf-mutism is said to be somewhat more common 

in India than in Europe, but the difference is not 
very marked. In India as a whole, in 1901, 62 
males and 42 females were afflicted with this 
infirmity in a population of 100,000 persons of each sex compared with 60 males 
and 50 females in England and Wales. The corresponding figures in the 
present Census of the Baroda State are 29 males and 13 females. 

The general average of 29 males and 13 females who are afflicted among 
100,000 of each sex in the State, is the resultant 



Comparison with other 
countries. 



459. 
Local distribution 



of very divergent proportions 



REFERENCE 

UPTO lOPEmoopoo 



MAP 
5FfOWING THF 

\PBEVALENCFOf 
liDEAFMLfrfSMrN 
JiHEBAHODASrATf 




in the different 
divisions of the 
State as illustrat- 
ed in the map 
g i V e n i n the 
m a r g i n. Tlie 
district in 
which d e a f- 
mutism is most 
n r e V a 1 e n t is 
Navsari. Here 
in o r e than 40 
persons in every 
100,000 are deai- 
mutes. T h e n 
I'ollows Baroda 
with 20 persons. 
Kadi with 16 
persons and 
Amreli stands 
last with 10 



pereoDB who are deaf-mutes in 100,000 persons of its population. 



lil.lNDXESS. 



460. The oixler in which the four districts of the State stand with 



Connection between insa 
nity and deaf-mutism. 



Deaf-mutism by religion 
and caste. 



regard 
to their fio-ures for insanity remains the same with 
reference to the fignres of deaf-mutism also. Navsari, 
which enjoys the unenviable reputation of harbour- 
iusane persons in proportion to its population, has also the highest 
proportion of deaf-mutes ; and Amreli, which has the lowest proportion of insanes, 
has also the lowest of deaf-mutes. Insanity and deaf-mnrism appear therefore to 
have some connection between them. 

461. Distribution of deaf-mntisra seems to depend mainly on locality. It 

has no special predilection for any particular religion 
or caste. The Parsis and Mahomedans, in spite 
of their consanguineous marriages are not more 

prone to the affliction than the Hindus, who eschew such connections. No 
inference can be drawn from the high or low status of a caste as regards immun- 
ity from this infirmity. In those which suffer rather heavily and in those 
which are comparatively exempt, there are castes both high and low. 

462. As in the case of the insane, so also amongst deaf-mutes, males in all 

countries suffer more than females, in India, as 
a whole, they outnumbered them in lUUl in the 
ratio of 3 to 2. In the present Census, deaf-mute 

males preponderate over females in this State in the ratio of 5 to' 2. lu the 

dia^Tam given in the 
— 



Proportion of sex and age 
distribution. 



m 



^, 



70 



60 



50-^ 



^ of Deaf rn/y/es per '/oo.ooo / ■' 
per 3on^ of pach age period / : 






Male^mi — 
Frma/e5 • — 
Ma/e.smi—- 

ff;mai€5---—- 



10 



212_ 




Jb/epmod^ 




the higher ages have not at all been swollen by the 
have merely become deaf in their old age. 



the proportion 
of the persons returned 
as deaf-mutes at each 
age is compared with 
the total population of 
the same age. Parents 
do not readily admit 
that a child is deaf and 
dumb, so long as there 
is any hope of its ac- 
quiring, the power of 
speech and hearing. 
The number returned at 
au-es under 5 is there- 
fore much below the 
truth. During the age- 
periods 5 to 10, the pro- 
portion of deaf-mutes 
steadilv increases and 
from the age of 15 on- 
wards, it steadily de- 
clines. This shows that 
deaf-mutes are short- 
lived, as compared with 
persons not so atliicted, 
and that in the present 
Census, the figures at 
inclusion of persons who 



BLINDNESS. 



46"5. Of all the infii'mities recorded ai the Census, blindness is the most 

. , oasv to diaii'uose and the least likely to be concealed. 

Accuracy of statistics. t-i • ^i ■ * • i 7 • i ■ "(i 1 • 

Ihe Uujarati word Aawo is used in the unambiguous 

sense of a person suffering from loss of one eve onlv, and there was thus no 

possibility of such persons being included among the blind. There is only one 

word andhalo for the blind, but as it is applied also to those who are suffering 



228 



LiiAi'JKi; -\ — iM-ii;iiiTii'>. 



merely troni dimness of siglit, due to old age, lliore was a probability of such 
persons being entered as blind. But the stress laid upon the subject in the 
instructions and the increased efficiency of the supervising agency, reduced this 
source of error to the smallest dimensions. As an extra precaution, a special 
iuquu-y was made, through the District Officers, after the Census, for all persons 
aged 40 and upwards Avho were entered as blind and only 5 cases of senile 
glaucoma found to have been wrongly entered, were neglected in the couise 
oi tabulation. 



464. Statistics of the blind given in ihe margin show that the infirmity has 



Comparison Mith previous enumerations. 



District. 

1 


1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


state 

Baroda 

Kadi 

Navsari 

Arareli 


3,361 

761 

1,688 

48!) 

423 


1,649 

367 
613 
373 
296 


4,751 

1,1191 

2,718 

515 

4S7 


6,501 

1,635 
3,634 

747 
485 



Local distribution. 



decreased from decade to decade 
till 1901 in the State as a whole, 
as also in all the districts. In 
1911, however, there were 1,712 
more blind persons than ten 
vears previously. The number 
(if hospitals in the State has 
increased from 54 in 1901 to 5(S 
in 1911, and, though the num- 
ber of operations performed for 
cataract during the decade does not exceed about a hundred, there is no doubt 
that medical relief is now available in every laluka. Small-pox, which was for- 
merly one of the main causes of blindness, is now not so dangerous, owing to 
the spread of vaccination throughout the State. There ought, therefore, to 1)e a 
decrease rather than an increase in the number ol the blind in the State. The 
increase shown by the Census seems to be due to the accuracy of the statistics on 
the present occasion rather than to any sudden increase in the causes which brini: 
about blindness. The ambiguous wording of the instructions in the past 
Censuses must have caused the omission of recording as blind those who wei'e 
not so from birth and the old procedure of copying" infirmities on the same slip 
must have operated to the leaving out of some entries in tabulation. 

46.5. In the State as a whole, there are 166 blind persons per 100,U(iO 

of the population. The prevalence of blindness 
is to a great extent determined by climate, li, 
is most frequent in a liot and dry climate, where there are frequent dust- 
storms blowing 
clouds of d u s^t 
and sand, par- 
ticles of which 
continually enter 
into and irritate 
the eye. On the 
other hand, it is 
oomj^arat iv e 1 v 
rare in a cool 
or damp districi 
where there i s 
a compara t i v e 
absence of dust. 
The distribution 
of t h e blind 
in the Baroda 
State is in 
a c c r d a n c «^ 
with what 
might be ex- 
common in the 
;hest in the State 
it is less common 



REFERENCE 

OJPTO 111 PER- 100,000. 



MRP 
SHOVATfNGTHE 

PRV^ALLNCEO 

LINDNFSS/N 
THT BARODA STflTl 




pected from the above considerations. Blindness is most 

Kadi and Amreli Districts, where the temperature is the hi 

and where fre(|Upn( dust-storms arise. On the other hand 

in the Baroda and Navsari Districts, where the climate is comparatively cooler 

and more daiii'i Hiid where dnst-stonns are scarce. 



m.INDXKSsi. 



I'l'll 



Proportion of the sexes. 



TSW 



1400 



1200 §: 



Di<((jr(//n 5//(/r//ig ///c na/n/jpr 
of ihf B/uif/ /jprimmppr5(iri5 of - 
encli (u/(/jrriod \ 



4(i(i. Thf domestic arraii^'ements of Hindu liouses is a t'ruitlul caut;e of 

blindness among- the females, except in the case of 
a few opulent families. The mistress of the house 
or her daughter-in-law invariably cooks for the household. The cookroom is 
generally a small dark room wanting in proper passage for the escape of smoke, 
-and the fuel used is of a cheap kind which causes much smoke. Females are 
generally sechided in the house and ai-e not able to enjoy the green verdure of 
nature or the delightful and" cool breezes in the open air. As a result they 
suifer in their eyes, as indeed in their general health, and it is no uncommon 
sight to see women with intlamed eyes unable to bear the glare of the day. 
It is for this reason that in the number of the blind returned in the Census, 
females preponderate over males, the excess of blind females being 33 per cent. 
In 1901 also the number of blind females was in excess over males, though to 
a smaller extent (21 per cent). In the other Provinces also the blind females 
are usually more numerous than the males. On a consideration of the pro- 
portion of sexes by age-periods, we find that blindness is almost equally 
prevalent both among males and females upto the age of 20. From 20 onwards 
females greatly outnumber the males till 60, after which the proportion of blind 
females is nearly twice as much as that of males. 

4(37. While deaf-mutism is congenital and insanity and leprosy are the 

_. .^ ^. ^ diseases of earlv manhood and middle ao-e, blindness 

Distribution by age. ,, ^, , -.^ ,1 ,,,, . ■ , \^ 

usually attacks the old. Ihis is clearly seen Irom 

the annexed diagram. Blindness is very rare in youth and goes on increasing 

as the years 
advance. After 
40, the liabi- 
lity to the di- 
sease increases 
rapidly, main- 
ly owing to 
cataract. At 
the earlier 
ages, the afflic- 
tion is mainly 
due to the 
other causes, 
chief among 
which is opa- 
city of the cor- 
nea due to 
neglected con- 
iimctivities in 
infancy. The 
proportion of 
blind persons 
at the earlier 
ages is how- 
ever relatively 
very small and 

more than three-fourths of the total number is over 45 years of age. 

468. There can be no doubt that a large number of cases of blindness is 

.. ^ due to ignorance and want of proper and timely 

Preventable blindness. ^ ° . «• . ,• j i- / j . . •' 

•^"^ treatment. Anections ot a delicate and sensitive 

oro-an like the eye are either left untreated or are treated by (juacks rather than 

by duly ijualified physicians. Every year, Mahomedans from Upper India visit 

our towns and larger villages and professing to be imani hakims, experts in the 

removal of cataract, attract; crowds of patients. Their treatment gives some 

temtwrary relief, but in the end most of them cause incurable blindness. An 

enormous and needless waste of human eyes can be prevented, if such quacks are 

prohibited by law from treating any affection of the eves, and a knowledge ot 



^ 



1000^ 



fi/^/f5 191! 

Feni(il(b " 

Mdfcs \m\ 

Femaks ^ 




■2M) 



CUAl'lKi; X I.M'IKMITILS. 



thi,- best methods ot'proveutiou ami cure is spread amoui;- the people as widely 
as possible. In England and Germany, midwives are expressly prohibited by 
law from treating any affection of the eyes or eyelids of infants, however slight. 
On the appearance of the first symptoms, they are required to represent to the 
parents, or others in charge, that medical assistance is m-gently needed, or, if 
necessary, they are themselves to report to the local authorities and the district 
doctor. Neglect of these regulations entails liability-to jmnishment. Eleven of 
the United States of America have enacted laws requiring that, if one or both 
eyes of an infant shoidd become inflamed, swollen or reddened at any time 
within two weeks of its birth, it shall be the dnty of the midwife or nurse having 
eharo-e of such infant to report in writing, within six hours, to the health officer 
or some leo-ally qualified physician, the fact that such inflammaiiuu, swelling or 
redness exists. The penalty for I'aihue to comply is tine or imprisonment. 

LEPROSY. 



469. The Leprosy Commission appointed in 1890 to visit India and 

inquire into the etiology and spread of the disease 
Causes of leprosy, ^^^ ^j^g u^gaug by which it might be stamped out, 

reported that the disease has no mariied tendency to spread either by hereditary 

transmission or by contagion, but in the great majority oi cases, it originates 

fie novo. No race i^; exempt from the disease, but the poor and destitute 

are attacked much more frequently than the rich and prosperous. No 

article of diet, c. g., fish, can be held to cause the disease, but it is possible that 

some kinds of food may render the system more ready to contract it. The 

same conclusion applies to insanitary surroundings and syphilis. No 

o-eoloo-ical iormatiou and no locality can be exempt from the disease, and no 

correspondence can be traced between its occurrence and variations in 

temperature, but its diffusion seems to vary inversely witli the dryness of the 

climate, and the tracts which suffer most are generally those where endemic 

cholera is most prevalent. The Berlin International Conference of 1897 held 

that the disease is caused by a bacillus, whose life history is unknown, but that 

it probably enters the system through the nose and mucus membrane ; it also 

held that the disease is contagious, but not hereditary. The most recent 

investigations into the causation of leprosy are those carried out by Mr. Jonathan 

Hutchinson, F.R.C.S., first in South Africa and then in India. The conclusion 

arrived at by him is that leprosy is caused by a bacillus which gains access to the 

body through the stomach in connection with badly-cured fish and not by the 

breath or by the skin. So far as the practical question of contagion is concerned, 

Mr. Hutchinson's theory agrees with that of the Indian Leprosy Commission and 

differs from that arrived at by the Berlin Conference, but his theory about the 

disease originating from fish is not at present believed. 

470. The number of lepers retumetl in the State as a whole is 60 p(>r eent. 

more than in 1901. Conqjared 
Comparison with previous enumerations. with the figures ol 1881 and 1891, 

it is however less by 22 and 29 
District. 1911. ! 1901. 1891. 1881. psr Cent, respectively. The 

increase on the present occasion 
is probably due to tlu^ greater 
accuracy in the present Census 
and also to the return to their 
homes of those lepers who in 

1901 had migrated elscAvliere on 

account of the fiamine of 1899- 
1900. It does not appear that the greater number of lepers now found was due 
to the inclusion of leucoderma and secondary syphilis, within lojirosv. 

The decline of leprosy in Europe is attributed mainly to improved h\<'ieni(: 
habits and surroundings and to increased material prosperity. It m&y be hoped 
that the same causes will gradually bring about its disappearance here also. 



state 

BariHla 
Kufli 

Nuvsari 
.Amrfli 



1911. 


1901. 


1891. 


1881. 


445 


277 


S69 


624 


192 


118 


25,T 


287 


2r> 


14 


89 


13.^ 


214 


129 


197 


198 


11 


16 


28 


21 



LEI'KOSY. 



2:n 



471, 'I'lie local distribmiou i>r lepers is shown in the suij-joined m;i]i. li 

is ol" very rare occiirrence in llie dry districts ol' 
Kadi and Anireli. On the other hand, the propor- 
tion of lepers is the 



Local distribution. 



REFERENCE 

aPT0 3 PERI 00,000 



5H0WJNGTHE 

_ _ RtVALENCEOF 

•"^^iEFROSY :n the 

- "-'- BAR.C Dp.. ST/VIE 




^>» 



higiiest in the Nav- 
sari District, which' 
is well-icnown lor 
its humidity and 
for tlie poverty of 
its people. After 
Navsari c o ni e s 
Baroda, but the 
higher proportion 
of lepers here lliau 
in Kadi and .\m- 
reli is due lo its 
having the Auu- 
snya heper Hospi- 
tal, situated on the 
bank of the Nar- 
bada in the Sinore 
Taluka. Here is a 
temple of a goddess 

called Anu^ai/a Mat i and the looality has ths reputation of curing the lepers Ijy 
simply rubbing a little of its earth oq the afflicted parts. A large number of 
lepers from all parts of the State, as also from the neighbouring foreign territory, 
congregates there. To alleviate the sufferings of these miserable beings, the 
Government of His Highness the Maharaja Gaekwad opened on the 1st August 
1890, a leper hospital on the spot. It is in charge of a Sub- Assistant Surgeon, 
and has attached to it an Annachkatra or Boarding House, wherein the lepers 
are fed and treated. In the Census month, there were 67 lepers (48 males and 
19 females) in this institution. Of these 41 (26 males and 15 females) were 
born in the Baroda District itself, 1 (male) in Kadi, 1 (male) in Amreli and the 
rest (24) had come from the adjoining British and Native States' territories. 
Even if the number received from Kadi and Amreli were added to those dis- 
tricts, they show comparatively greater freedom from leprosy than Navsari. No 
connection between cholera and leprosy can be traced, as suggested by the 
Leprosy Commission, but according to their other theory, the varying pre- 
valence of the disease in the Districts of Baroda, Kadi and Amreli on one hand 
and Navsari on the other, can be explained by their comparatively greater 
prosperity and freedom from humidity of the former than the latter. 

472. In the statistics of lepers by religion, the Animistics show the highest 
^. ..^ . ^ ... proportion: then come Hindus, Musalmaus and .Jains, 
Distribution by religion. ^^^parsis stand last, with no lepers at all. This also 

supports the theory that the poor and destitute are attacked much more frequent- 
ly than the rich and the prosperous. 

473. The general conclusion, which statistics of lepers by castes indicate 

also supports 
the above view. 
The lower castes, 
which are filthy 
in their habits 
and get less 
nutritious I'ood 
are most liable 
to the disease. 
D u b 1 a 8 and 

Vaeavas appear to be suffering from leprosy to a greater extent than other 
castes. It is popularly believed that this is due to their eating the flesh of 
dead animals. 



Distribution by Caste. 



Caste. 


No. p«r 100,000 who 

are lepers. 


Dabia 

Vas.ava 

Gamatda 

Brahman Anavala 

Vania Shrimali 

Kanbi ... ■■ .. 

Soni 


J,7fl5 

1,001 

225 

40 

11 

7 

9 



232 



CHA I'TKi; X 1 .VF 1 1! M ITI KS. 



474. Males seem to be more liaMe to ihe disease than females. The 

„ ^. ^ returns show thai iu the Stale as a whole there are 

Proportion of sexes. ..-, , , ..■,-,£■ i i • ,,>,, r^^. ,. 

61 male lepers to 12 temale lepers m every 100,000 ot 

the population oi' each sex. Looking to the districts separately, we find that 
male lepers show a similar preponderance over females. This may be partly 
due to the seclusion in which females are kept in this country and to the rati- 
cence of their male relations reyarding- them. But this applies only to classes 
which are comparatively exempt from tlie disease. Amongst the great mass of 
the population, the women move about as freely as the males and the existence 
of a disease like leprosy, except iu the earlier stages, cannot be concealed. The 
age statistics show that at the first age-period (0-5), there are no female lepers; 
at the next tw'o age-periods (5-10 and 10-15) the proportion is equal, and after 
that upto the age-period 25-30, it falls to one-half and then continues to decline, 
until at 40 to 45, males outnumber females iu the ratio of 4 lo 1, The propor- 
tion then again rises and at 55 to 60, there are 2 male lepers to 1 female leper. 
At •' 60 and over," there are 9 male lepers to 1 female leper. This result agrtes 
very closely with that arrived at by the Leprosy Commission who found 
that in the case of small children, both sexes are attacked in nearly equal 
proportions and that at the higher ages, the proportion of males is higher to 
that of females. 

475. The diagram given in the margin shows the number of lepers to 

. 100,000 persons ot each age-period. Under the age 

Age distribution. ^^ ^^^^g^ ^j^^ proportion of lepers is very small but it 

soon begins to grow. There is a considerable increase between 15 and 20 and 

from that age until 45, 
the rise is uniform and 
rapid. After 45, there 
is a decline. A leper's 
life is a comparatively 
short one. There is 
a proverb current 
among the people 
which says " Khai, 
liharmodo ane pata ae 
jaya rjobad(/ata,'" i.e., 
those who suffer from 
consumption, foot and 
mouth diseases and 
leprosy die very soon. 
According to Daniellsen 
and Boeck, the average 
duration of life from 
the date of attack is 
only nine years and a 
half for tuberculated, 
and eighteen years and 
a half in the case of 
anethetic leprosy. It 
follows that the steady 
increase in the propor- 



m 



ofUyie/3 p('/'m/mpcrso/?5 of 
' eurk (u/eperwd 




tion of lepers between the ages 15 and 45 indicates a marked lise in the liability 
to infection between these ages. 

476. Prior to 1901, it was not unusual to find lepers preparing for sale 
' A •♦ *^^' selling articles of food, drink or clothing in- 

e epers c . tended for human use. 1'hey bathed, washed 

clothes in or took water from public wells or tanks: they drove or rode in 
public conveyances plying for hire and exercised such trades or callings 
as that of a potter, domestic servant, water-carrici', washerman, hotel-keeper, 
tailor, draper, shoemaker, &c. "With a view to check the evils arising 
from these practices, the Baroda Lepers' Act was passed in November 1910. 



LEPROSY. 233 



It prohibits lepers from preparing or selliug articles of food, drink or clothing, 
bathing or washing in public tanks and conducting or riding in public 
conveyances. It also authorizes the police to arrest wandering lepers, and, on 
a medical officer certifying that they are lepers, to forward them to the 
nearest Leper Asylum, The Act is yet in its infancy, but its beneficial results 
may be expected in the next Census. 

477. Major Hooton, I.M.S., who attended the recent meetings of the Far 

Eastern Association of Tropical disease at Manila, 
'^'the PhUi'^*\''neT '" submitted a long report to the Government of India 

dealing with tubercle and leprosy. As regards the 
latter, he writes: — " The segregation of the lepers is perhaps the most striking 
of the sanitary reforms' that have been inaugurated by the American Government 
of the Philippines, though great a'ivances have been made in vaccination and 
other directions. It is now about few years ago that the initial steps were 
taken. An attempt was first made to explain the etiology of the disease to 
sufferers and their friends, and prominent Philippinos wci'e induced to assist in 
the education of their compatriots with this end in view. Then gradually a few 
lepers were persuaded to take up their residence in the buildings prepared for 
them in the island of Cubou. Every available means was adopted to make these 
people contented and comfortable, so that the disinclination of those still at large 
might be overcome, if possible, without resort 1o force. As regards the 
arrangements at the Leper Colony, residents are allowed to write lettei-s and 
receive visits periodically from their friends, but the letters are disinfected and 
friends and relations must live in quarters provided for them on an adjacent 
island. The results of the segregation have more than justified the trouble and 
expense involved. A Census of lepers in the islands (excepting Mindanao) 
showed 6,000 at the commencement of the operations, and this number, owing lo 
the large death-rate among the patients and the reduction in infection of healthy 
persons, has now fallen to 2,300. It is believed that very few lepers remain at 
large at the present time." 

478. Among vaidyas and other native jjractitioners, leprosy is said to be 

cured by taking castor-oil and pow^dered bark of 
Native^remedies for ^^^ ^^^-^^^ ^^.^^^ Tj^j^ remedy does not appear to 

have been tried by any medical practitioner of the 
western school, but I was assured by a well-known vaidya in Maroli, District 
Navsari, that some patients have been cured by him by this treatment, con- 
tinued for a couple of months. 



234 



CHAPTER X — INFIRMITIES. 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE I. — Numheu afflicted per 100,000 of the population 

AT EACH OF THE LAST FOUR CENSUSES. 



DieTiucT OR Natural 
Division. 


Insane. 


Deaf-mute. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1911 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 

6 


1901 


1891 


1881 

9 


1911 
10 


1901 


1891 


1881 


1911 
14 


1901 
15 


1891 
16 


1881 
17 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


7 


8 


11 


12 


13 


Baroda State 

Baroda Division (with City) 

■Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division 


30 

26 
40 
17 


IS 

19 

9 

25 

10 


43 

37 
45 
55 
35 


51 

45 
56 
57 
34 


21 

20 
20 
33 


9 

!) 

5 
17 

8 


27 

26 
28 
24 
25 


34 

23 
42 
46 

8 


29 

25 
20 
63 
14 


41 

36 

28 
77 
57 


45 

43 
37 
81 
44 


93 

77 

93 

128 

112 


13 

14 

10 

19 

5 


28 
21 
22 
53 
38 


30 

27 
25 
45 
45 


62 

51 

60 
84 
92 


DisiBiCT OR Natural 
Division. 


Blind. 


Lepers. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


19U 


1901 
19 


1891 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 

24 


1881 
So 


1911 
26 


1901 


1891 
28 


1881 


1911 


1901 


1891 
32 


1881 


1 


18 


20 


21 


22 


23 


27 


29 


30 


31 


33 


Baroda 5tate 

Baroda Division (with City) 

Kadi Division 

Navsari Division 

Amreli Division 


129 

!»1 
158 
111 

ic;i 


i 
75 

57 

62 
113 
139 


161 

122 
193 
137 

187 


248 

189 
305 
210 

250 


204 

134 
249 
177 
309 


95 

57 

85 

1 36 

205 


235 

147 
304 
186 
291 


351 

243 
434 
313 
415 


31 

38 
4 

91 
15 


18 
21 

2 
59 
13 


32 

39 
12 
89 
16 


39 

51 
18 
92 
19 


12 

16 

1 

36 


10 

16 
1 

27 

5 


15 

22 

4 

34 

15 


17 

22 

6 

41 

8 



SUBSIDIARY TABLES. 



235 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE II — Distribution oi' the infirmities by age per 10,000 of 

EACH SEX. 



INPAM 



AGK. 



Male. 



19111 1901 1891 1881 



Female. 



1911, 1901 I 1891 I 1881 

G 7 I 8 i 9 ■ 



Dkaf-Mute. 



Male. 



1911 1901 1891 1881 



10 H 12 



13 



Female. 



1911 



11 



1901 



15 



1891 



IC 



1331 
17 



D- 



o 



5—10 ... 

10—15 ... 

l.i— 20 ... 

20—2.") ... 

26—30 ... 

30—35 ... 
35 — 10 .. 

<0— 45 ... 

45—50 ... 

50 — 55 ... 

55—60 ... 

(JO and over 



94 


JUO 


187 


1,097 


.397 


599 


877 


530 


1,14' 


972 


794 


1,364 


1,191 


1,655 


1,308 


1,340 


1,060 


990 


1,097 


1 457 


1,121 


939 


994 


785 


SU 


1,126 


879 


633 


530 


411 


976 


729 


,599 


158 


199 


75 


472 


331 


542 



244 

658 

987 

1,265 

3.286 

2,199 

1,316 

501 
544 



294 

1,030 

932 

1 274 

l!422 

1,0731 

1,470 

735 

490 

148 

490 

98 

539 



248 


32 


124 


734 


1.111 


766 


1,481 


1,800 


1,481 


1,002 


1,111 


1,002 


740 


970 


493 


809 


986 


766 


493 


430 


618 


679 


248 


364 


866 


647 



169 

904 

1,074 

1,074 

1,949 

1,949 

1.535 

734 
622 



530 

1,887 

1 ,357 

1,324 

1,126 

1,093 

662 

497 

464 

397 

168 

166 

331 



289 
994 

1,211 

1,236 
967 

1.012 
791 
606 

1,211 
241 
670 
241 
531 



335 

845 

1,436 

1,109 

1,021 

951 

951 

528 

T92 

458 

476 

264 

845 






320 

1,025 

958 

921 

1,381 

1,419 

1,429 

1,306 
1,341 



407 

2,114 

1,707 

1,138 

1,382 

732 

976 

569 

325 

407 

81 

81 

81 



572 


514 


1,031 


1,329 


1,146 


1,429 


954 


971 


1,107 


771 


72ii 


600 


68: 


829 


9.54 


4.57 


687 


686, 


152 


343 


648 


8.57 


305 


171 


1,031 


1,143 



331 
728 
831 
677 

1,307 

1,277 

1,415 

1,708 
1,881 



.■iGE. 



Blind. 



Male. 



1911 1901 1891 



18 19 20 



1881 
21 



Female. 



1911 



22 



1901 



23 



1891 



24 



1881 



Lepees. 



Male. 



1911 1901 



26 



1891 1881 



28 



29 



Female. 



1911 1901 1891 



30 31 32 



1881 



33 



U— 5 ... 

0— 10 ... 

10—15 ... 

15—20 .. 

20—25 ... 

25—30 ... 

30—35 ... 

35—40 ... 

40—45 ... 

45—50 ... 

50—55 ... 

55-60 ... 

60 and over 



491 


391 


582 




i;88 


742 


639 




756 


728 


610 




806 


517 


530 




556 


7E5 


674 




54 7 


636 


595 




626 


755 


694 




500 


702 


6C0 




565 


795 


744 




634 


503 


496 




1,078 


953 


1,002 


1 


491 


517 


282 


2,562 


2,106 


2,753 





286 
547 
513 
545 

1,123 

1,123 

1,273 

1,576 
3,015 



305 


236 


326 


375 


536 


398 


405 


604 


351 


345 


515 


446 


461 


537 


476 


461 


760 


512 


681 


705 


593 


666 


805 


497 


771 


1,140 


856 


836 


459 


457 


1,231 


1,174 


1,207 


365 


302 


421 


3,298 


2,237 


3,460 



191 
417 
390 
345 

748 
1,114 

1,348 

1,633 
3.814 



93 
133 
123 
671 

854 

915 

1,502 

1,441 

1 748 

854 

671 

305 

701 



105 

385 

549 

440 

1,154 

1,484 

1,209 

1,704 

604 

879 

934 

219 

274 



126 

479 

302 

1,184 

1,134 

1,007 
1,033 
1,713 
982 
9S2 
252 
306 



22 
111 

467 
622 

'■ 1,755 



} 2,534 

I 2,266 

J 1,^^57 
866 



2.54 

2.54 

762 

1,272 

1,357 

1,367 

1,610 

1,187 

593 

846 

254 

254 



421 
631 

431 
316 
210 

1,790 1 
3,5271 1 
1,474 
210! 1 
526i 

843; 

105 
536 



233 
698 
581 
872 
988 
,V20 
,047 
873 
,454 
465 
698 
58 
814 



57 
844 
747 
862 

1,495 

2,293 

1,610 

1,438 
1,14 



1 



SUBSIDIARY TABLE III.— Number afflicted per 100,000 persons of each 

AGE-PERIOD AND NUMBER OF FEMALES AFFLICTED PER 1,000 MALES. 



AGE. 




NUMBER 


AFFLICTED PER 100,000. 




NUMBKK OF FEMALES 1 
AFFLICTED PER 1,000 MALES. 1 


IKSANE. 


Deaf 


Mute. 


Blind. 


Lepers. 
























ISSANE. ^f^^ 


Blind. 


Lepers. 




















Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


iMale. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


1 




1 


2 


3 


■r 


6 


( 


8 


9 


10 j 11 : 12 13 1 


0— 5 


2 


4 


10 


3 


42 


38 


2 




2,000 


312 


910 




5—10 


29 


20 


47 


25 


77 


54 


3 


3 


600 


456 


591 


750 


10-15 


28 


23 


42 


26 


105 


100 


4 


4 


678 


512 


786 


750 


15—20 


33 


32 


43 


18 


88 


86 


23 


11 


839 


350 


841 


409 


20—25 


37 


29 


33 


17 


75 


92 


27 


15 


763 


500 


1,195 i 536 1 


25—30 


41 


22 


32 


9 


73 


94 


29 


16 


511 


273 


1,211 533 1 


30-35 


39 


34 


22 


13 


80 


132 


.'>0 


18 


857 


600 


1,633 


327 


35—40 


40 


23 


20 


11 


90 


207 


63 


29 


500 


466 


1.956 


404 


40—45 


38 


15 


19 


6 


111 


222 


81 


20 


370 


285 


1,974 


246 


45—50 


39 


8 


28 


14 


195 


469 


65 


19 


177 


416 


1,988 


250 


.50—55 


26 


22 


11 


2 


316 


541 


48 


22 


833 


200 


1,673 


464 


55-60 


27 


13 


27 


7 


372 


499 


55 


20 


400 


200 


1,089 


300 


60 and cv( r 


40 


25 


27 


2 


928 


1,543 


61 


i 


733 


100 


1,883 


130 



);-5() CHAPTER XI — CASTE, TRIBE OR RACE. 



Chapter XI. 

CASTE, TRIBE OR RACE. 

479. Five of the Imperial Tables contain statistics bearing upon castes, 

tribes and races. The chief of these is Table XIII, 
Reference to Tables. which gives by sexes tht! nnmber in each caste, 

which is found in each district. The others are :— 
Table IX. — Education in selected castes. 
Table XII A. — Infirmities by select;ed castes. 
Table XIV. — Civil condition by age in selected castes. 
Table XF/.— Occupation by selected castes. 
Discussions of the statistics in these last four tables will be found in 
Chapters VIII (Education), X (Infirmities), VII (Civil Condition) and XII 
(Occupation). The |:H-esent chapter deals only with the figures in Table XIII. 
At the end of this chapter are given two Subsidiary Tables as under :— 
Suhsidiary Table I. — Castes classified according to their traditional occu- 
pations. 
Subsidiary Table II. — Variations in caste, tribe, etc., since 1881. 

PART I.— DESCRIPTIVE. 

480. The record of sub-castes was optional in the Imperial Census scheme, 

biit the Government of His Highness the Maharaja 
Sub-castes recorded. Gaekwad having decided that castes as well as 

sub-castes should be recorded, Table XIII, includes both. The sub-castes have 
been noted below each caste. 

481. One of the most difiicult tasks in the Census operations is to secure 

a correct return of castes. The difficulty arises in 
Difficulty of securing : a ^^^ ^^.^^^ jj^ j|-,g ^^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^ people themselves 
correc re ur . have no clear idea as to what caste means, and 

often ''•ive as their caste name, the name of their own occupatioji, sub-caste, 
clan or title. In the second place, some people in their present prosperity are 
ashamed to name their true caste and try to conceal it by assuming some newly- 
coined name which might give them a higher social status. The enumerators 
beinii- ordinarily not better informed, are unable to correct the errors which the 
persons enumerated may commit. Owing to this circumstance, the caste returns 
in the previous Baroda Censuses have been vitiated by the entry of a large 
number of persons, not under their true caste name, but under general terms 
denoting occupation, title, sub-caste, sept, etc. Thus in Table XIII of the last 
Census, we find ' Achari ' entered as a Brahman caste, but it is merely an 
occupational name, denoting that the person who bears it is a cook. Garasia, 
Rajput and Thakore are entered as separate castes, but a Garasia is a Rajput, 
Koli or Kathi holding Giras lands and a Thakore is only an honorific name for 
a Rajput or a Koli. Sutar (carpenter), Luhar (blacksmith), Soni (goldsmith) 
and many other occupational names have become true caste names, but there 
are vet many occupations which are followed by persons of different castes, and 
in their case, the occupational name is not the caste name. Thus Chudgar 
(bracelet-maker), Gandhi (grocer), Kagdi (stationer), Khasrhir (groom), Maniara 
(haberdasher), Marwadi (trader from Marwarj, i'ardoshi (Upper India man), 
Patwa (silk-thread-maker), and many other similar terms are not true caste 
names, but only occui)ational and territorial terms, and yet all these have been 
returned and tabulated in the past as caste names. Tlie persons who follow 
these occupations or are known by their territorial names, may belong to 
several distinct castes. In the same way, the names of several religious 
mendicants, such as Aghori, Brahmachai'i, Jangum and Sanyasi, which were 



CORRECTNESS OF RETURN. 237 



also remniod as caste names, are not true caste names, but only general terms 
denoting: relio-ious order or followine:. 

482. Witli a view to eliminate all these incorrect names from the caste 
Caste Index return and to make it as correct as possible, a Caste 

Index was prepared on tlie present occasion. It 
was divided into two parts — Part A containing a complete list of castes and 
sub-castes likely to be found in the State ; and Part B containing those terms 
which are not true caste names but mere local and general terms, occupational 
names, etc., which were wrongly returned as caste names in the previous 
Censuses. The Caste Index was first published as a pro\-isional one and circu- 
lated among District Officers for opinion and sirggestions. The final one was 
issued after a careful consideration of such suggestions as were received and 
such further investigation as could be made on the spot during my inspection 
torn-. It was printed in the Gujarati language and copies were freely distri- 
buted among the Census staff. Charge Superintendents and District Officers 
Avere requested to go over both the lists carefully and to instruct their Super- 
visors and Enumerators, so that no entry, which was at variance with the names 
given in the Index, Part A, was made in column 8th of the schedule. 

.483. The number of wrong entries due to ignorance or to deliberate 
Correctness of return. misstatement was thtis greatly reduced. If. a 

caste name, not mentioned an the Index, was re- 
turned in the course of the preliminary enumeration, the enumerator refused to 
enter it before making further iuquu-y. If, in spite of fm-ther inquiry, he got a 
name not mentioned in the Index, he reported the circumstance to his Super- 
visor, who allowed it to be entered if he was satisfied that, though not mentioned 
in the Index, it was a true caste name ; and immediately reported the circum- 
stance, throttgh his Charge Superintendent, to my office, where further investi- 
gation was made, to make sure that it was really a caste name. A few instancf^s 
of wrong entries thus prevented maj^ be mentioned. Some peoj)le returned 
such general terms, as Vania, Deccani, Gandhi, etc., as their caste names. The 
enumerator instead of recording it, pnt such iurther questions, as, " That is the 
name of your occupation, or country, but what is your caste name ? What sort 
of Vania are you ?" and so on. The number of wrong entiies, due to ignorance, 
was thus easily prevented. Those relating to deliberate misstaternent were 
difficult to deal with. A section of Luhars (blacksmiths), known as Pajichal 
Ltihars, claimed to be returned as Panchal Brahmans ; some Baria Kolis claim- 
ed to be Thakores ; and Kayatia Brahmans wanted to be returned as Acharyas. 
The idea of raising themselves in the social scale, by adopting new caste names, 
had occurred also to the Hindu converts to Islam. Those known as Pinjara (cotton 
carders) wanted to pass themselves off as Dhunak Palhans ; and Tais (weavers) 
wanted to be Punni (shuttle cock) Pathans. All these requests, which were not 
supported by the Caste Index, as also by the orders given on references to 
higher authorities, were rejected and all the castes were recorded in their true 



names. 



484. The glossary of castes, tribes and races, published as an Appendix 

at the end of this chapter, gives brief ethnogra- 
Qlossary of castes, tribes ^^^^ ^^^^^^ regarding castes, tribes, etc., included 

in Imperial Table XITI. The State has not been 
ethnographically surveyed and the information about the various castes, based 
as it is on the Bombay Gazetteer Volumes, past Census Reports and the notes 
made by me in the C(jurse of my district tour, is necessarily brief. It was first 
published provisionally for verification by Disti'ict Officers and men of light and 
leading in the different castes. As now finally piiblished, it has been recast 
and considerably enlarged in the light of sugo-estions rcccivecl from them and 
is believed to be fairly acciu'ate. 

485. The following extract from an article on Caste in the Encyclopaedia 

-y.. «- ^ /- ♦ o * '^f Religion and Ethics, by Mr. Gait, CLE., the Ceii- 

The Hindu Caste System. n • ■ r t \- x. i i j- • 

sits Commissioner for India, shows how class distinc- 
tion prevailing in Plurope and elsewhere is distinguished from the Hindu Caste 
distinction. ■" Social distinctions exist amongst all nations, bnt nowhei'e are they 



•2oS CHAPTKK XI — CASTE, TUIBK OR RACK. 



s(.i rigidly obsiaved aw amoiig'Ht liic Hindus. In luodtTn Europe there are 
iiuuierous gradations, I'roni the hinded aristocracy to the unskilled labourer, and 
social intercoiu'so is practically confined to persons of a]iproxiniately the same 
social standing, but there is no hard and fast boundary between one gradation 
and the next. The different strata gradually merge, the one into the other ; 
and it is possible for a successful man to raise himself, or at least his children, 
from the lowest to almost the highest circle of socifUy. Moreover, the spirit of 
exclusiveness has no external sanction. Each individual is free to decide for 
himself. He can choose his associates and even his wife from the classes 
beneath him without any outside interference. People who do not approve of 
his choice may hold alool'from him, but he incru's no special penalties. The 
Hindus, on the other hand, are divided into an immense number of entirely 
separate social groups or castes, the members of which are compelled to abstain 
from eating with, or marrying, persons belonging to other groups. Their 
c< induct is guided and circumscribed by an infinite number of rules regarding 
marriage, religious and social ceremonies, eating and drinking, and the like. 
A man must take his wife from within the caste, or some specified subdivision 
of it, but she nuist not l)elong U> his own section of that subdivision, nor must 
she be within certain prohibited degrees of relationship. He must observe the 
ceremonies customary amongst his caste-fellows at marriage, on the occurrence 
of a birth or death in his family, and on other similar occasions. He 
nnist abstain from food regarded by his caste-fellows as impure, and from acts 
which are held to be improper, as, for instance, in many cases, the marriage of 
widows, or failing to give a girl in marriage before she has attained puberty. 
He must not take food and drink, or certain kinds of food and drink, from a 
uian of inferior caste, or, as is not infrequently the rule, from a. man of any other 
caste. He must not render certain services to men of low caste. If polluted by 
their touch, or, it may be, their proximity, he must purify himself ; while, if 
their shadow should fall on his food, he must instantly throw the latter away." 

I— Origin and definition of Caste. 

486. The: question is often asked :— " How is it that the Aryans who 

_ . , ^ migrated to Europe developed into nations, while 

The origin of caste. ,i ° i '- i t j- • . v 

* those who came over to India gave rise to its 

peculiar caste eyetom ? " 

Numerous theories have been put forward by modern students of sociology 
regarding the origin oi' the caste system and the manner in which the castes 
were formed, in the last India Report, vSir Herbert Eisley has dealt with the 
theories propounded by Sir Denzil Ibbetson ( Punjab Census Report 1881), 
Mr. Nesfield (Bric^f IJeview of the Caste System of the North-Western Pro- 
vinces) and M._ fciontni. (Les Castes dans L'lnde), and has given his own con- 
clusion. Summaries of the views of the principal foreign writers on the subject 
(Scnart, Dahlmann, Oldenliurg and PJouglc) have lieen circulated by the 
Census C(mimissioner for India, for the information of Provincial Superinten- 
dents. It is impossible within the compass of this report to review the various 
theories that have bc.(;n put forward. But a brief summary of the causes 
which, in the opinion of most of the savants, gave rise to caste in India may 
usefully bo given lioro : — 

More than fqui- thousand years before Christ, the Sanskrit-speaking people 
called the Aryans i>enetrate7I into India from the North- West. They at first 
settled in Eastern ixabnlistan and along the upper course of the Indus ; and 
thence they gradually descended the river to the south and spread also to the 
east in the upper jiart of the country watered by the five rivers of the Punjab. 
Unlike otluii- Aryans who migrated elsewhere, the Aryans who came to India 
had to come into contact, with a large aboriginal population differing from them 
in religion, usages, and physical type and more especially in ihe conspicuous 
attribute of colour. Their progress at every step was resisted by these native 
races whicli in the Rigveda arc; designated by the uame of Dasyu or Dasa and 
representc-d as pecijile of a daik ccim])lexion. Those of iheni who submitted 



iiKlfilN' AND DEFINITION OF CASTE. 239 



were reduced to shivery und the rest were driven to the fastnesses of 
niountains. The process was carried on in all the parts of the conntrv to which 
the Aryans penetrated. Wlnni the Aryans entered India Ironi t'hc North- 
West, they were divided into a ninnber of tribes, each nnder its own chief. 
Every householder was a soldier as well as a husbandman, and even the 
sacerdotal office was not hereditary. Later on, as the society became more 
complex, the community was divided as in Ancient Persia into several classes. 
While the Aryans were in the Punjab, there were among- them three social 
grades or ranks. To the first belonged the priests, who composed the Brahmans, 
i. e., songs or hymns to the gods and knew how to worship them and were 
therefore called Brahimmft. Those who acqtiired political eminence and fought 
battles belonged to the second grade and were called Eajunx. All the other 
Aryans belonged to the third grade and were distinguished by the name of Visas i 
or people generally. These three classes formed'one community, and such of the ' 
aborigines as had yielded to the Aryans were tacked on to it as a fourth grade 
under the name of Dusas, i. e., slaves or servants. These four classes are 
mentioned in one of the latest hymns of the Rigveda. But they are designated 
vama (colour) and the word jati (caste) was never applied to them"r The 
distinctions involved by them or at least by the first three, were neither so well 
marked nor so rigid, as those of the modern caste system. There were tribes 
of Kshatriyas and f/otras of Brahmans, but no castes. A Kshatriya could 
become a Brahman or a Brahman a Kshatriya, and althotigh a man was 
supposed to take his first wife from his own class, there was no binding rule to 
this effect, while in any case he was free to take a second wife from a lower 
class. Whenever in the history of the world, one people has subdued another, 
whether by active invasion or by gradual occupation of their territory, the 
conqtterors have taken the women of the cotintr}' as concubines or wives, but 
have given their own daughters in marriage only among themselves. When 
the two people are of the same race or at any rate of the same colour, this 
initial stage of hypergamy soon passes away and complete amalgamation takes 
place. When on the other hand marked distinctions of race and colour 
intervene and specially if the dominant people are continually recruited 
by men of their own blood, as was the ease in India, the course of evoltt- 
tion runs on different lines. The tendency then is towards the formation of a 
class of half-breeds like the Eurasians in India, the result of irregular unions 
between men of the higher race and wouten of the lower, who marry only 
among themselves and are to all intents and ptu'poses a caste. There was after 
a time, amongst the Aryans, a strong feeling that it was desirable, so far as 
possible, to avoid intermarrying or eating with jjersons of lower social rank. 
There was a still stronger feeling amongst this fair race against any sort of 
social intercourse with the despised black aborigines, a feeling which finds its 
counterpart at the present day in the attitude of the Boers towards the Ivafirs. 
Some sections of the Aryans came to India Avith comparatively few women, and 
these were perforce compelled to take wives from amongst the aborigines.. 
The children of such mixed unions held a lower position than those of pure 
race, and were, no doubt, divided amongst themselves, like the quadroons and 
octoroons of America. The rivalry amongst these half-breeds accentuated the 
alreadv strong sense of racial cleavage. With the progress of Hinduism, social 
distinctions based on colour and pride of race were complicated by further 
distinctions based on ceremonial practices, such as the observance or non- 
observance of certain rules of conduct and of certain restrictions in the 
matter of food and drink, while some pursuits were regarded as less reputable 
t han others. 

The restdt of the development of the ideas and prejudices enumerated 
above was that society gradually became divided into a number of well-marked 
groups. The tcnidency of the members of each group was to hold aloof from all 
outsiders, and the belief gradually gained ^Tound that they were descended 
from a common som-ce. With the growth of this belief in a common origin the 
tendency would steadily become stronger for each group to regard itself as a 
separate entity. Marriage and social intercourse between the different groups 
would thus tend to become more and more unusual ; and in a country like India 



240 CHAI'TEIJ XI CAi*TE, TRIBE OU RACE. 



where so much regard is paid to custom, that which is unusual soon comes lo be 
regarded as wrono- and unlawful. 

The next and crucial stage in the development of the caste system had its 
origin amongsi the functional groups. These groups or guilds gradually organ- 
ized themselves for craft pttrposes under panchayats, or councils of headmen. 
The primary duty of ilio panchmjals was to settle all questions connected with 
the craft by which the members of the guild gained their living, and to prevent 
outsiders from .competing with them ; but they gradually arrogated greater 
powers to themselves, first dealing with disputes between members of the guild 
and afterwards taking cognizance of all breaches of the social rules by which it 
was thought that the members of the guild ought to be guided. 

Intermarriage and commensality were thus in course of time prohibiled 
absolutely, and the idea that each group was an entirely separate entity became 
stronger than ever. Hence arose amongst the functional castes the rigidity 
that distinguishes the Indian caste system from other social groupings. Tlie 
process of development was so slow and gradual that no one ever realized that 
any change had taken place. 

The example set by the functional groups was followed by other groups, 
not consciiiusly, but merely through the influence which it had in strengthen- 
ing the aheady existing sentiments of social exclusiveness and developing the 
general feeling that any breach of established custom constituted an offence 
which it was the duty of the community to take cogizance of. Caste in its 
present form thus became a universal feature of the Hindu social sytem. 

487. The Avord " caste " comes from the Portuguese adventurers, who 

followed Vasco de Gama to the West Coast of India. 
Definition of caste. rpj^^ ^^^.^ -^g^jf -^ ^^.^^.^(i f^.^^n ^^ip j^^^-^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

and implies purity of blood. In his article on caste on Hobson Jobson^ir 
Henry Yule quotes a decree of the Sacred Council of Goa, dated 1567, which 
recites, how the Gentoos divide themselves into distinct races or castes {castas) 
of greater or less dignity, holding the Christians as of lower degree and keep 
them so superstitiously that no one of the higher caste can eat or drink with 
the lower. From that time to this, it has been assumed by some, without 
further inquiry, that the essential principle of caste is mainly concerned with 
matters of eating and drinking. But the regulations affecting the food and 
drink are " comj^aratively fluid and transitory, while those relating to marriage 
are remarkably stable and absolute." The most recent as well as the most 
comprehensive definition of a caste is that given by Sir Herbert Risley in the 
India Volume of the last Census : — 

" A caste may be defined as a collection of families or groujis of families, 
bearing a common name, which usually denotes or is associated with a specific 
occupation, claiming common descent from a mythical ancestor, huiuan or 
divine, professing to follow the same professional calling, and regarded by those 
who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogenous 
community. A caste is almost invariably endogantous in the sense that a 
member of the large circle denoted by the common name may not marry 
outside that circle, but within the circle, there are usually a number of smaller 
circles ; each of which is also endogamous. Thus it is not enough to say that a 
Brahman at the present day cannot marry any woman who is not a Brahman ; 
his wife must not only be a Brahman, she must also belong to the same 
endoffamous division of the Brahman caste." 



-'b" 



II. — Caste and Race. 

488. When the Aryans entered Gtijarai. first by way of Rajputana and 

_. . Aravali passes from the Punjab and afterwards by 

a iparaj. ^j^^ Malwa and Dohad route from Bengal and the 

North- West, the al)oi'igiiu's who occupied tln^ plains reireat(>d to the mountains, 

and are still found in their primitive condition, in the hilly and forest tracts of 

the Navsari and Baroda Districts of the State, as also in the neighbouring 



J 



CASTK AND KACE. 241 



British District.s. They are ealhid kulipdraj or the dusky j^eople and ai'e ihe 
early tribes caUed the Dasyus in the Vedas. 

489. Above the fcaZzpamy .come Kolis, whu number 370,953, that is, I'l-y 
|,^,j per cent, of the Hindu population. They form an 

intermediate hxyer between the Kaliparaj and the 
rest of the popuUttion caiU'd ujlivarna or bright-coloured people. Thev are 
half Bhil, half Brahmanical, and have in some parte intermingled with the I 
ujlharna. The earliest traditional kings of Gujarat were Bhils or Kolis. 8emi- 
Rajputs still take their wives from Kolis, and a large section of Kolis of the 
Kadi District, in which is situated Anhilwad Pattan, the ancient capital of 
Gujarat, is called Thakardaii or lordlings. One section of the Kolis, which is 
looked upon as the most respectable, is called Talbada or Talapada from San- 
skrit sthalo'ihhnva or soil born and may be the descendants of the m's/indas of 
the Ramayan. 

490. Above the Kalijiaraj and Kolis lies the iijlivarnu which is supposed 
Ujlivarna or Aryans. ^" represent the Aryans. It consists mainly of the 

^ _ ■; brahman, \ ania, Rajput, Kanbi, bard and craftsman 

castes. The UjliAarna classes worship Brahmanical gods, preserve a social 
fabric based on Brahmanical rituals and customs and generally forbid iwlyo-amy 
and widow-marriage. Many aboriginal customs have, however, crept in anion o- 
them, and there can lie no doubt that a large portion of them must have been 
recruited from the early people. Besides practising polygamy and widow- 
marriage, many Ujlivarna castes show a leaning towards element, tree and 
animal worship, and lielieve in demonology, sorcery and witchcraft. 

491. In addition to this, there has been a great mixture of foreigners 

Infusion of foreign blood. ^^J^/^^^ ^'^^''^ '\ G^^^^^ The large sea-board 

which Gujarat, including Kutch and Kathiawad, 
possesses, has from very ancient times attracted for purposes of refuge, trade 
and conquest, a large number of foreigners from Arabia, Persia and Africa. 
This foreign element received large additions during the centuries before and 
after the Christian era from hordes of Central Asian Kushans, Hunas and other 
tribes. The foreigners settled in the Province and their mixture with the 
Aryans was so great that the Hindu Dharmashastras consider Gujarat a 
mlechha C(Xintry and foi-bid visits to it except on pilgrimage. One of the 
foreign tribes known as Gujjars passing into India from the north-west, 
gradually spread as far south as Gujarat, and has given it its name, which is 
derived from the Prakrit Gnjjar-ratta, the Sanskrit of which is Gujjar-rashtra, 
that is, the country of the Gujjars. The present Gujjars of the Punjab and the 
United Provinces of Oudh and Agra preserve more of their foreign traits than 
the Giijjar settlers to the south and the east. In the sixth and seventh cen- 
turies, there were three Gujjar kingdoms in Gujarat, which shows that the 
Gniiar trilie must have settled there in large numbers. The members takino- 
to different callings formed separate castes or joined existing castes as their 
sub-castes. Several of these Gujjar castes still siu-vive. Among these, are the 
Gnj^ar Vanias or traders, Gujjar Sutars or carpenters, Gujjar Sonis or goldsmiths 
and Gujjar Kumbhars or potters. The Lewa and Kadwa Kan bis, the two leadino- 
castes of Gujarat Kanbis, are also of Gujjar origin. The word Kanbi is from 
the Sanskrit hutumhin, that is, one possessing a family or house. From ancient 
times the title hutnmbin has been prefixed to the names of cultivators. As 
cattle-breeding, and not cultivation, was the original, as, it still is the charac- 
teristic calling of North India Gujjai-s, those of the tribe who settled to cultiva- 
tion came to be known as kutumhins or Kanbis.* 

The division of Gujarat Kanbis as Lewa and Kadwa corresponds with the 
division of the ]Malwa Gujjars into Daha and Karad, with the Lewa origin of 
the east Khandesh Gujjars, and with the Lawi tribe of the Punjab Gujjars. 

Infusion of foreign blood has taken place in all the Aryan classes in 
Gujarat. The foreigners were either absorbed in the existing classes or formed 
new castes for themselves. The division of almost all the Vania castes into 

• Campbali'fl Uistory of Gnjaiat, p. 4. 



242 CHAPTER .XI — CAf^TK, TlilBK ol! RACK. 



Visa, full, and Dasa, half, and a fnrtluT dixiRion of some into Panclia, quarter, 
shows tlie proportion of outisido interniixture. The OsAval Vanias were origin- 
naliy Rajpnts, who on their conversion to Jainism gave up fighting- for trade. 
Alxmt the Anavahx Brahmans, there is a tradition that Uama, on his return from 
the conquest of Ceyiou, halted at a phiee eaUed Taiarvada in the hills.of Bansda, 
and failino- to find the necessary number of local Brahmans to perform a sacri- 
fice collected eighteen thousand of the hill tribes and made them Brahmans. 

The Bhatiaand Luhana castes have sprung up from tribes of Turk and 
Afghan origin and have only recently adopted the leading rules of Hindu life. 

The beauty of the Deccan Chambhar, the fairness of Gujarat Dheds and 
the surnames of Chambhars or leather workers in the Punjab, suggest that these 
classes have been lai'gely recruited from defeated foreigners. 

There has been so much intermixture of blood in Gujarat that, except by 
the difference in his dress, it would be difficult, to distinguish a man of one 
caste from another. What Mr. Nestield said for the people of Upper India, 
fully applies to the people of Gujarat. A stranger walking through the class 
rooms of the Baroda High School would never dream of supposing that the 
Hindu students seated before him were distinct one from another in race and 
blood. 

492. The question of race was considered at great length in the last India 

Census Report (paragraphs 777-809), chieflv on an 
Caste and Anthropometry. ^nthropometrical basis. Scientific anthropometry 
was introduced into India about thirty years ago in connection with the Ethno- 
graphic Survey of Bengal then in progress. Measurements of the head, nose 
and face occupy a prominent place in anthropometry, and as the result of a 
large number of sitch measurements, Sir Herbert Risley made a few interesting 
deductions : — Three well-known types of feature and physique have long been 
recognised in the Indian Peninsula, the Aryan or Caucasian chiefly in Upper 
India, the Mongolian, which is generally believed to be confined to the north- 
east corner of Bengal, and a Negrito or, as Sir Herbert calls it, a Dravidian type 
in Central and South India. Excluding the second, which he represents to be 
so local as to make its elimination a matter of little importance in discussing the 
ethnology of Indian peoples, Sir H. Risley defines the other two as follows :— 

" The Aryan type, as we find it in India at the present day is marked by 
a relatively long (dolicho-cephalic) head, a straight, finely cut (leptorhine) nose, 
a long, symmetrically narrow face, a well developed fore-head, regular 
features, and a high facial angle. In the Dravidian type the form of the head 
usually inclines to be dolicho-cephalic, but all other characters present a mark 
ed contrast to the Aryan. The nose is thick and broad, and the formula 
expressing its proportionate dimensions is higher than in any known race exce^Dt 
the Negro. The facial angle is comparatively low, the lips are thick, the 
face wide and fleshy, the features course and irregular." 

Between these extreme types, which may fairly be regarded as represent- 
ing two distinct races, we find a large number of intermediate groups, each of 
which forms, for matrimonial purposes, a sharply defined circle, beyond which 
none of its members can pass. By applying to the entire series the nasal 
index or formula of the proportions of the nose, which Professors Flower and 
To])inard agrcse in regarding as the best test of race distinctions, sonu; remarkable 
results are arrived at. Says Sir H. Risley : "Thus, it is scarcely a paradox to 
lay down as a law of the caste organisation in Eastern India that a man's social 
status varies in inverse ratio to the width of his nose." As no measurements 
have been taken of the people in this State, it is not possible for me to say how- 
far the apophthegm that the social status of castes varies inversely with the 
width of the nose is confirmed or contradicted by actual facts. But so far as 
mere appearance is concerned, it is usual to find among the Brahman and other 
high caste people in this state an appreciable section of those who are as flat-faced 
as the lowest among the Dheds and Chamars. Anthropometry, as a test of race, 
is now going out of fashion. In his address to the British Association Professor 
Ridgewey agreed that physical type depends far more on environment than the 
race ; and it has been shown by Walcher that the head at least depends 



CASTE AND RACE. 243 



largely on whether an infant lies on its back or on its side. Moreover, it is now 
recognised that mere numerical .indices are not photography, and the actual 
contours should be shown. It has been argued by Messrs. O'Donnell Crooke, 
Enthovan and others that the conclusions drawn I'roni the Indian measurements 
are not always supported by statistics. Far from its being a law of caste organi- 
zation in Eastern India, where a large number of such measurements were 
taken, that a man's social status varies in inverse ratio to the width of his nose, 
the utmost that can be predicted is that the average nasal index of a large 
number of the members of any caste, indicates in a very uncertain manner the 
amount of aboriginal blood amongst its members and thereby indirectly the 
greater or less respectability of the occupation followed.* 

493. From a note on Melanoglossia by Surgeon-Captain F. P. Maynard, 

„ , , . I.M.S., circulated bv the Census Commissioner for 

Melanoglossia. t t • .1 ' i ■ • ,^ ^ 

India, It appears that the pigmentation 01 the tongue 

varies with the pigmentation of the skin and that pigmented tongues ai'e more 

frequent among Dravidian tribes than among the Aryans. Dr. R. N. Jadhav, 

Superintendent, Central Jail, Baroda, who at my request examined 539 

prisoners of different castes, reported as under : — 

" I came across no case of blue patches amongst children. All that I was 
able to note was pm-ely in relation to the discolom-ation of the tongue in the 
adults as the term Melanoglossia truely implies. The discolouration was of a 
bluish black type varying in shade from a faint blue tint to a distinct bluish 
black discolouration, either along the margins of the tongue or more or less 
confined to the back parts of it towards its base. It was observed in irregu- 
lai'ly circular blotches of the size of a two to four-anna piece. Along the 
margins of the tongue it was in the form of irregular vertical streaks. No 
discolouration either of the gums, entire surface of the tongue or the roof of the 
mouth was met with in any case. There seems to be no particular connection 
between this form of discolouration and malaria, as none of the subjects who had 
Melanoglossia had enlarged spleen or other evidences of malarial cachexia. 
It was met with in subjects of all ages, but the majority was of persons between 
the ages of 25 to 45 years and above all among Hindus belonging to lower 
castes, such as Kolis, Thakardas, Naikas, etc., who form the lower stratum of 
civilized society, though there were some cases amongst higher classes but 
comparatively very few." 

494. It is said by Herr Baelz in his article on the " Races of East Asia, 

D, ^. .... with special reference to Japan," summarv of which 

Blue patches on children. i i i • i i i ^i n ,-i " • • 

had been circulated by the Census Commissioner 

for India, that blue patches are found exclusively amongst children of Mongo- 
lian race. At my request, some Medical Officers examined a few children under 
one year of age, brought before them for treatment, but they failed to discover 
any blue patches on them. 

495. Caste is a social rather than a religious institution. The Jain 

^ ^ . ... religion does not sanction castes, and vet many 

Caste and rehgion, i • r n .i, ^ . ii tt- i o i •' 

Jains lollow the caste-system like Hindus. So long 

as a man submits to the various rules and restrictions of his caste, he may 

believe or disbelieve what he likes in religious matters without in any way 

injuring his social position. In the present Census, some persons returned 

themselves as agnostics, atheists, etc., and yet continue to be members of their 

castes. 

496. The general effect of the caste-syetem has been to sub-divide the 

people into so manv distinct and often antepathetic 
Caste and nationality. • i ^i ^ *" • i i • i , • *• 

social groups that vigorous and combined action lor 

any great common object has been rendered difficult. Living always within 

and for the caste, with little interest beyond it, a Hindu has nti idea of 

Nationality. 

• Crooke '8 Tribes afld Castes, Vol. I, p. cxivii. 



244 CHAPTER XI — CASTE, TRIBE OR RACE. 



497. Considered from the industrial point of view, the occupational castes 

^ ^ . .. have plaved the part of trade guilds and helped the 

Caste and occupation. ^ :• r ^ • . . P i ", , , 

preservation oi ancient arts. A caste may be looked 

upon as a co-operative society in full working order. It forms an effective 

agency for the suppression of immorality and ^^ce, and is useful in the support 

and relief of the destitute poor. It has kept alive for ages the doctrine of the 

dignity of the hereditary priesthood. It has been the efficient practical means 

of safeguarding Hinduism and maintaining its principles, traditions and 

customs against religious reformers within its own body and also against the 

aggressions of alien religions. 

498. It is generally supposed that abstinence from meat is an essential 
Caste and animal food. ^ condition of Brahmanism. But according to all 

authorities, the Brahmans andlother twice-borns used 
meat in ancient times.* The flesh of five species of five-clawed animals is 
permitted to be eaten in the Dharina Sutras and even beef is allowed by 
Apstamba (1—17, 30, 37). Most of the sacrifices of the old Vedic religion were 
animal sacrifices, and the animals killed by suffocation for the purpose were 
goats, sheep, cows or bulls and horses. It is impossible that the idea of offering 
meat to gods could have originated, unless men themselves liked and used it. 
But the influence of Buddhism and of Jainism threw discredit on the practice, 
and those who re-edited Hindu Law in the fourth century of the Christian Era 
and later, i.e., the writers of the Smritis of Manu and Yajnyavalkya lay 
down the old permissive precept, but hedge it round with so many restrictions 
that it amounts almost to prohibition. But in modern times, the Brahmans of 
Bengal, Mithila, Kashmir and Sindh do use meat, while in countries which 
were for a long time under the influence of Buddhism and Jainism, such as 
Gujarat, even the lower castes abstain from it. 

499. Viewed at a given moment, caste seems fixed and immutable, but 
j^ great changes have taken place in the past and are 

^ ^^ ^^' still going on. Gujarat is pre-eminently a land of 

castes. In no part of India are the sub-divisions so minute as in Gujarat. Besides 
new castes formed by new settlements, one leading influence is the reception of 
non-Hindu foreigners and aboriginal tribes into the Brahmanic fold. When a new 
community accepts Brahmanism, it is not absorbed into any section of the old 
community, but forms itself into a separate caste and sometimes several castes, 
the separating element being its calling or trade. 

Three separating influences — calling, marriage and food — are still at work 
forming new castes. The cleanliness or dirtiness of the calling, the acceptance 
of marriage within or without a caste or of widow marriage and strictness in the 
excluding of forbidden food, not only form new castes but also determine their 
social status. A few instances are given below : — 

(1) A section of Kolis left off their traditional occupation of menial 

labour and took to the making of bricks. They came to be 
known as Dalwadi or Talvari, tlaat is cutters, because they dug 
ponds and made bricks. This new and honourable profession 
gave them a high social status, and in course of time, tliey came 
to be known as a new caste of Kolis. They now call themselves 
Rajputs and have severed all connection with the other Kolis. 

(2) Kandoi is an occupational term, meaning sweetmeat-maker. It is 

the occupation of a section of Shrimali Vanias, which is looked 
upon as degraded owing to its following this calling. Till 
recently, interdining and intermarriage were allowed between 
them and the other Shrimali Vanias. But, of late, they are 
looked upon as degraded, and though interdining is allowed, 
intermarriage is stopped, and the sweetmeat-making Shrimali 
Vanias have formed a new caste as Kandois. 



• Dr. Bhandarkar's " Social History of India," Indian Social Reform, page 14. 



NEW CASTES. 245 



(3) Kharvas (salt-carriers) have such surnames as Chohan, Gohil, 

Jhala, Parmar, Sisodia and Vaghela, and their tradition 'n that 
having taken to salt manufacture and sea-faring, they sunk 
from Rajputs and formed a separate caste. 

(4) Modh Ghanchis, a sub-caste of the oil-pressers' caste, were 

originally Modh Vanias. Owing to their having taken' to the 
degrading profession of oil-pressing, they were looked upon 
as degraded and came to be regarded as a section of the 
Ghanchi caste. 

(5) Parajia Brahmans belonged to the Audich stock and formerly lived 

at the village of Ismaliya, whence they migrated to Paraj near 
Junaghad. They became the priests of Ahirs and Charans and 
ate with them. They also allowed widow-marriage and were 
therefore looked upon as a degraded class, with whom no 
Brahman can have any intercom'se. 

(6) Gandhraps (musicians) were originally Nagar Brahmans of the 

Chitroda division. They still wear the sacred thread. Divorce 
and widow-marriage are not allowed among them. But on 
account of the degrading profession of acting as fiddlers to 
songstresses, they were looked upon as degraded and have now 
no connection whatever with the parent caste. Thev form a 
separate caste by themselves and are inferior in the social scale 
even to ordinary craftsmen. 

(7) Kalal (liquor-sellers) were originally Kan bis or Rajputs. Owino- to 

the degrading nature of their profession, they had to separate 
themselves from the parent castes, and formed a new caste of 
their own. 

(8) Kachhias (market gardeners) are said to be Kolis wdio took to the 

growing of garden produce, and on account of their change of 
profession, formed a separate caste. 

(9) About the Vyas caste, found chiefly in the Kadi and Baroda Districts, 

it is said that they are the descendants of 108 Brahmans of 
different castes, who about 400 years ago, conducted the penance 
ceremony performed by a Brahman jester in the service of a 
Musalman king of Ahmedabad. The families which took part in 
these ceremonies were excommunicated and formed a separate 
caste. 

(10) Some Lewa Kanbis, who are the followers of a Kabir Panthi 

Bhagat, named Uda, have become peculiarly exclusive in their 
habits and have formed a new caste of Kanbis. They are 
very exclusive in their habits and do not drink from a 
brass or copper pot touched even by a Brahman. 

(11) Mochis or leather- workers, whom high class Hindus do not touch, 

are, by leaving their old unclean calling, rising in the social 
scale. Those of them who have become Chandlajara or spano-le- 
makers, Chitara or painters, and Rasam'a or electroplaters, are 
gradually forming distinct castes by stopping social relations 
with the original leather-workers. 

(12) Bhojak, Parajia, Pokarna, Rajgor, Raval and Saraswat are new 

castes formed by Brahmans, considered degraded on account of 
dining with their i/ajamuns, or serving low castes as priests. 

(13) Bhatias and Luhanas, who turned strict vegetai'ians, separated 

from their original tribe and formed new castes. 

(14) The Lewa and Kadwa Kanbis originally Gujjars, having given up 

the use of animal food, formed separate castes. 

(15) Tapodhans were originally Audich Brahmans, but were looked 

upon as degraded (jwing to thtsir practising widow marriage and 
acting as priests in Shaiva temples, and formed a new caste. 



246 CHAPTER XI CASTE, TRIBE OR RACE. 



500. Some new castes are formed by those who, ashamed of their low 

caste, in their days of prosperity, gradually conceal 
Rising in social status. -^^ ^^^ assume a better name in its place. 

The first stage for a number of people who discover in themseWes some 
quality of social distinction is to refuse to give their women in marriage to 
other members of the same caste, from which nevertheless they continue to take 
wives. After a time, when their numbers have increased and they have bred 
women enough to supply material for a jus connubii of their own, they close 
their ranks, marry only among themselves and pose as a superior sub-caste of 
the main caste to which they belong. Last of all they break off all connection 
with the parent stock, assume a new name which ignores or disguises their 
orio-inal affinities and claim general recognition as a distinct caste. The 
Kadia-Kumbhar caste of Navsari is an illustration of the first stage. Being in 
better circumstances than their caste-brethren, they first gave up their 
traditional occupation of pot-making and took to brick-laying or carpentry. 
After some time they ceased giving their daughters in marriage to the pot- 
making Kumbhars, but continued to take wives from them. They thus became 
a superior section of their caste and came to be known as Kadia-Kumbhars or 
Sutaria Kumbhars. Recently they have broken off all connection with the 
potter caste and neither intermarry nor eat with its members. The next move 
will probably be to drop the qualifying term, Kumbhar, and to pass themselves 
off as simple Kadias or Sutars, and nobody will know that they were originally 
Kumbhars. The Luhars of the City of Baroda, formerly formed one sub-caste 
of the Luhar caste. But it has recently split up into two sections, the 
Eupaghada or silversmiths and Lodhaghada or ironemiths. The Rupaghadas 
having assiuned a higher social position on account of their working in silver, 
refuse to associate with the Lodhaghadas. They interdine, but do not inter- 
marry with them, and form to all intents and purposes a new sub-caste. In the 
same' way some Luhars, who work as carpenters, returned themselves as Luhar- 
Sutars and not simply as Luhar. They have not yet broken with the iron- 
smiths, but there should be no wonder, if they do so, as the profession of a 
Sutar is considered to be of a higher social status than that of a Luhar. 

501. By such processes as those mentioned above and by a variety of 

complex social influences, whose working cannot be 

Types of castes. precisely traced, a number of types or varieties of 

castes have been formed which may be divided into four categories, viz., (1) 

functional, (2) sectarian, (3) race and (4) mixed castes, /. e., castes derived from 

the union of persons of different castes. 

502. The functional type. — This is so numerous that community of function 

is ordinarily I'egarded as the chief factor in the 
Functional castes. evolution of caste. Almost every caste professes to 

have a traditional occupation, though many of its members have abandoned it. 
This type includes the caste of Brahmans or priests, Vanias or traders, and 
artizans, such as Mochi (shoe-maker), Luhar (blacksmith), Sutar (carpenter), 
Soni (goldsmith), Darji (tailor), Ghanchi (oil-presser), Machhi (fisherman), &c. 
There is a separate caste or group of castes for every one of the occupations that 
were followed in earlier times before the introduction of machinery. The func- 
tional castes are not the same all over Lidia. Each of the old important 
political divisions evolved its own functional groups. The Audich and Modh 
Brahmans of Gujarat are quite different from the Deshastha and Koknastha 
Brahmans of the Deccan ; the Lad Vania caste of Baroda and Dabhoi is quite 
different from the caste of Vanias or Komatis of Southern Lidia. The Mochis, 
Darjis, Luhars, Goldsmiths and other artizan castes of Gujarat, Deccan, Bengal 
and other Provinces of India form quite distinct castes, and have nothing in 
common except the same profession. They all have different customs and are 
often known by different names. 

503. Sectarian type.— There are some castes whose existence began as a 

religious sect. The Atit, Gosai and Jogi castes 
Sectarian castes. ,^^j^_^^^g ^^ ^j^-^ category. The Jogis are the descen- 

dants of persons who after having been ascetics returned to worldly life and 
having lost their original caste, found a now caste as Jogis or ascetics. 



OniGIN OK PfB-CAfiTFS. 247' 



504. The tribal type.—'Vh.e Rajput, Maratha, Koli, Kanbi, Rabari, Kathi, 
„^^ ^ Vaglier and such other castes, which do not owe 

their origin to function, though they are generally 
identified Avitli particular trades or occupations, belong tci this class. These com- 
munities were originally tribes or races, but on entering tlu; fold of Hinduism, 
they imitated the Hindu social organization and were thus gradually hardened 
into castes. 

505. The mixed type. — There are some castes which are formed by cross- 
Mixed castes '"S"> e-^-» tt<^ Barad Nagar. Those members of 

the Nagar caste, who could not get brides within 
their own caste, formed themselves into a new caste known by this 
name, on account of their excommunication [bahar Icarvun) from the parent 
caste. The Khavas and Gola castes have also been formed by the union of 
persons of different castes serving as personal attendants to Rajput Chiefs. 
Among the higher castes in the Deccan, it is a common practice to take as 
maid-servants and concubines, women belonging to the lower clean castes. 
The offsprings of their maid-servants are known as Kharchya, like the 
Shagirdpeshas of Bengal. They form a regular caste of the usual type and ai'e 
divided into endogamous groups with reference to the caste of the male 
parent, e.g., Sindhe, etc. 

III. — Oiigin of sub castes. 

506. The very names of the sub-castes given in Imperial Table XHI show 

^ . . , . ^ that the differentiation by sub-castes must have / 

Origin of sub-castes. • 4.1 j? -j • j-iy ^ 1 t • / 

arisen partly trom residence in different localities,) 

partly from difference in occupation and partly from other causes. The general " 

conclusion that can be drawn from t