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Full text of "Census of the Philippine Islands taken under the direction of the Philippine Legislature in the year 1918"

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NOTE. 

The statistical data given in this Volume One 
must be understood as having been corrected by 
the final statistical data found in Volumes II, III, 
and IV (Parts I and 2). 



nlU 196* 



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CENSUS OF 1918 



GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF THE FIVE INSPECTION DISTRICTS, SHOWING 

THE RELATIVE AREA OF THE PROVINCES AND SUBPROVINCES, 

THE DISTANCES OF THEIR CAPITALS FROM MANILA, 

AND THE NUMBER OF MUNICIPALITIES 



CITY OF MANILA 

DISTRICT No. 3 

14 SQ. MILES 




-7 



DISTRICT 



CENTEH (MRNILR) * 

CAPITftL OF PROVINCE • 
MUNICIPALITY g 

Antft SECTOR 



CENSUS OF THE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Volume I 



^CENSUS 



OF THE 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

TAKEN UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE 
PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 
IN THE YEAR 1918/ 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 

Volume I 

GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND 
CLIMATOLOGY 



DIRECTOR 

IGNACIO VILLAMOR 

ASSISTANT DIRECTORS 
FELIPE BUENCAMINO, Sr. EPIFANIO DE LOS SANTOS 

ALEJANDRO ALBERT LEON Ma. GUERRERO 



COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY THE 



''PP" CENSUS OFFICE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



MANILA 
BUREAU OF PRINTING 
1920 
171073 



CONTENTS. 



Volume I.* — Geography, History, and Climatology. 

Volume II. — Population and Mortality. 

Volume III. — Agriculture. 

Volume IV. — Social Conditions, Judicial Statistics, Manufac- 
tures, Household Industries, and Education. 

VOLUME I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Authority for and scope of the Census, 1, Proclamation of the Governor- 
General, 2. Plan for the taking of the Census, 5. The Assembly of 
Census inspectors in Manila, 10. Instructions to eniunerators and 
Census agents, 13. Difficulties encountered in the urban districts, 16. 
Difficulties in the enumeration of non-Christian Filipinos, 17. Organ- 
ization of the Office of the Philippine Census, 27. Official inspection 
of the Census Office by high Government officials, 29. Permanency of 
the Census Office, 32. Scientific contributions to the Census, 33. Atlas 
of the Philippines with geographical sketches and historical accounts, 34. 
Weather and climate of the Philippines, 36. Results of the Census 
regarding population, agriculture, education, mortality, social statistics, 
and manufactures and household industries, 39. Indications of pros- 
perity and social progress, 55. Usefulness and necessity of Census data 
for constructive measures, 62. 

PREFACE. 

Page. 

Preface to the Atlas of the Philippine Islands 65-71 

GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND STATISTICAL DATA. 

Abra Province 75-77 

Geographical sketch 75 

Historical account 76 

Statistical data 77 

Agusan Province 79-81 

Geographical sketch 79 

Historical account 80 

Statistical data 81 

Albay Province 83-85 

Geographical sketch 83 

Historical account 84 

Statistical data 85 

♦ See separate book entitled "Appendix to Volume I." — (a) Organization of the Philippine 
Census of 1918; (6) Census Acts; Regulations Governing Census Organization of 1918. 

V 



vi CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Antique Province 87-89 

Geographical sketch 87 

Historical account 88 

Statistical data 89 

Bataan Province 91-93 

Geographical sketch 91 

Historical account 92 

Statistical data 93 

Batanes Islands 95-98 

Geographical sketch 95 

Historical account 96 

Statistical data 98 

Batangas Province 99-102 

Geographical sketch 99 

Historical account 100 

Statistical data 102 

Bohol Province 103-105 

Geographical sketch 103 

Historical account 104 

Statistical data 105 

Bukidnon Province 107-109 

Geographical sketch 107 

Historical account 108 

Statistical data 109 

Bulacan Province 111-113 

Geographical sketch Ill 

Historical account 112 

Statistical dcta 113 

Cagayan Province 115-117 

Geographical sketch 115 

Historical account 116 

Statistical data 117 

Oamarines Norte Province 119-121 

Geographical sketch 119 

Historical account 119 

Statistical data 121 

Camarines Sur Province 123-126 

Geographical sketch 123 

Historical account 124 

Statistical data 126 

Capiz Province 127-129 

Geographical sketch 127 

Historical account 128 

Statistical data 129 

Cavite Province 131-133 

Geographical sketch 131 

Historical account 132 

Statistical data 133 

Cebu Province 135-137 

Geographical sketch 135 

Historical account 135 

Statistical data 137 



CONTENTS. vii 



Page. 

City of Baguio ■ 139-140 

Geographical sketch 139 

Historical account 139 

Statistical data 140 

City of Manila , 141-145 

Geographical sketch 141 

Historical account 142 

Statistical data 145 

Cotabato Province 147-150 

• Geographical sketch 147 

Historical account •. 148 

Statistical data 150 

Davao Province 151-153 

Geographical sketch 151 

Historical account 152 

Statistical data 153 

Ilocos Norte Province 155-158 

Geographical sketch 155 

Historical account 156 

Statistical data 157 

Ilocos Sur Province 159-161 

Geographical sketch 159 

Historical account 160 

Statistical data 161 

Iloilo Province 163-165 

Geographical sketch 163 

Historical account 164 

Statistical data 165 

Isabela Province 167-169 

Geographical sketch 167 

Historical account 168 

Statistical data 169 

Laguna Province 171-173 

Geographical sketch 171 

Historical account 172 

Statistical data 173 

Lanao Province 175-177 

Geographical sketch 175 

Historical account 176 

Statistical data 177 

La Union Province 179-181 

Geographical sketch 179 

Historical account 180 

Statistical data 181 

Leyte Province 183-185 

Geographical sketch 183 

Historical account 184 

Statistical data 185 

Mindoro Province 187-189 

Geographical sketch 187 

Historical account 188 

Statistical data 189 



viii CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Misamis Province 191-193 

Geographical sketch 191 

Historical account 192 

Statistical data 193 

Mountain Province — Historical account 195-196 

Amburayan Subprovince — Geographical sketch 197 

Apayao Subprovince: 

Geographical sketch 199 

Statistical data 200 

Benguet Subprovince: 

Geographical sketch 201 

Statistical data 202 

Bontoc Subprovince: 

Geographical sketch 203 

Statistical data 204 

Ifugao Subprovince: 

Geographical sketch 205 

Statistical data 206 

Kalinga Subprovince: 

Geographical sketch 207 

Statistical data 208 

Lepanto Subprovince: 

Geographical sketch 209 

Statistical data 210 

Nueva Ecija Province 211-212 

Geographical sketch 211 

. Historical account 211 

Statistical data 212 

Nueva Vizcaya Province ~ 213-215 

Geographical sketch... 213 

Historical account 213 

Statistical data 215 

Occidental Negros Province 217-219 

Geographical sketch 217 

Historical account 218 

Statistical data 219 

Oriental Negros Province 221-224 

Geographical sketch 221 

Historical account 222 

Statistical data 223 

Statistical data for Siquijor Island 224 

Palaviran Province 225-227 

Geographical sketch 225 

Historical account 226 

Statistical data 227 

Pampanga Province 229-231 

Geographical sketch 229 

Historical account 230 

Statistical data 231 

Pangasinan Province 233-236 

Geographical sketch 233 



CONTENTS. ix 



Pangasinan Province — Continued. Page. 

Historical account 234 

Statistical data 236 

Rizal Province 237-239 

Geographical sketch 237 

Historical account 238 

Statistical data 239 

Romblon Province 241-243 

Geographical sketch 241 

Historical account 242 

Statistical data : 243 

Samar Province 245-247 

Geographical sketch 245 

Historical account 246 

Statistical data 247 

Sorsogon Province 249-252 

Geographical sketch '. 249 

Historical account 249 

Statistical data 251 

Statistical data for Masbate Island 251 

Sulu Province 253-257 

Geographical sketch 253 

Historical account 254 

Statistical data 256 

Surigao Province 259-261 

Geographical sketch 259 

Historical account 260 

Statistical data 261 

Tarlac Province „ 263-265 

Geographical sketch 265 

Historical account 264 

Statistical data 265 

Tayabas Province 267-270 

Geographical sketch 267 

Geographical sketch of Marinduque Island , 268 

Geographical sketch of Polillo Island 268 

Historical account 268 

Statistical data 269 

Zambales Province : 271-273 

Geographical sketch 271 

Historical account 272 

Statistical data 273 

Zamboanga Province 275-277 

Geographical sketch 275 

Historical account. 276 

Statistical data 277 

Islands of thd Philippine Archipelago 279 

Names of Islands of area one square mile or over, by group of 

islands 280 

List of ports 284 

List of geographic names 475-613 

List of mineral resources 614-615 

Index 617-630 



CONTENTS. 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

Page. 

I. Introductory Remarks 291-295 

Climate and weather, 291. Object and general plan of 

this report, 291. Climatological elements, 293. Clima- 

tological and weather service of the Philippines, 293. 

Previous reports on the climate of the Philippines, 294. 

II. Temperature 296-341 

Monthly and annual mean temperature, 296. Variability 
of the monthly and annual means of temperature, 300. 
Mean monthly and annual temperature of the Philip- 
pines compared with those of other selected cities 
of the world, 302. Means of the monthly and an- 
nual extreme temperatures. Temperature map, 306. 
Absolute maximum and minimum temperatures, 
monthly and annual, 307. Longest periods of conse- 
cutive days with maximum temperature of 36° C. or 
more at Manila, 324. Mean daily extremes of tem- 
perature, monthly and annual: mean diurnal range of 
temperature, 325. Mean hourly observations of tem- 
perature at Manila, 330. Mountain temperature. Ba- 
guio health resort, 332. 
III. Rainfall 342-403 

Monthly distribution of rainfall : four types. Climate map 
of the Philippines, 342. Annual average rainfall, 352. 
Annual and seasonal average rainfall by provinces, 
354. Monthly and annual rainfall of the Philippines 
compared with that of several selected cities of the 
world, 354. Monthly and annual rainfall of Baguio 
for the period 1903 to 1918, 362. Variability of the 
monthly and annual average rainfall in Manila, 
365. Annual and monthly extremes of rainfall, 375. 
Greatest rainfall in a single day, 376. Greatest 
rainfall for a single hour in Manila, 381. Average 
monthly and annual rainy days, 381. Remarkable 
floods, 384. Floods in Manila and surrounding prov- 
inces, 384. Floods of July, 1904, 384. Floods of Sep- 
tember, 1914, 385. Floods in central and northern 
Luzon, 389. Floods of October, 1908, 389. Floods of 
October, 1909, 389. Floods of July, 1911, 390. Floods 
in the Visayas and Mindanao, 390. Extraordinary 
periods of drought, 391. Drought of 1903, 394. 
Drought of 1912, 395. Drought of 1915, 397. Longest 
periods of rainless days in the droughts of 1911-1912 
and 1914-1915, 401. 
IV. Relative Humidity and Cloudiness 404-422 

Relative humidity as a climatic factor, 404. Relative 
humidity is high in the Philippines, 405. Mean monthly 
and annual relative humidity, 406. Relative humidity 
in the Philippines compared with that of 22 selected 
cities of United States of America, 406. Extreme 
values of relative humidity for Manila, 415. Mean 
hourly relative humidity for Manila, 422. Mean 
monthly and annual cloudiness, 422. 



CONTENTS. XI 



Page. 

V. Winds 423-439 

Frequency of wind directions: monthly, annual and semi- 
annual percentages, 423; Zamboanga, 423; Surigao, 
436; Cebu, 436; Iloilo, 436; Legaspi, 437; Manila, 437; 
Baguio, 437; Aparri, 437; Monthly and daily velocity 
of the wind, 438. Maximum hourly velocity of the wind 
at Manila, 438. 

VI. Typhoons 445 

List of remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 1903- 
1918, 447. Tracks of remarkable typhoons in the 
Philippines, 1903-1918, 452. Monthly and annual dis- 
tribution of remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 
1903-1918, 459. Percentage and distribution for prov- 
inces and subprovinces of the remarkable typhoons of the 
Philippines, 1903-1918, 459. Ordinary typhoons or de- 
pressions in the Philippines, 1908-1918, 463. Typhoons 
of the Pacific or the China Sea affecting the weather 
of the Philippines, 1908-1918, 465. Grand total of re- 
markable and ordinary typhoons or depressions in the 
Philippines and of the Pacific and China Sea typhoons 
affecting the weather of the Archipelago, 1908-1918, 466. 

Appendix 468-474 

Weather during official holidays in Manila, 1903-1918, 468. 

TABLES. 

Table I. Normal monthly and annual temperatures 298-299 

IL Normal monthly and annual temperatures for several 

selected cities of the world 304-305 

IIL Means of the monthly and annual extreme temperatures.... 308-311 

IV. Extreme monthly and annual temperatures 312-323 

V. Mean daily extremes of temperature, monthly and annual.. 326-327 
VI. Mean hourly temperatures for Manila, monthly, annual 

and semi-annual, 1903-1918 328-329 

VII. Most important temperature data for Baguio, 1903-1918.... 335-336 

VIII. Average monthly and annual rainfall 344-347 

IX. Seasonal average rainfall 358 

X. Normal monthly and annual precipitation for several 

selected cities of the world 360-361 

XI. Monthly and annual rainfall for Baguio, 1903-1918 364 

XII. Annual extremes of rainfall 367 

XIII. Monthly extremes of rainfall 368-374 

XIV. Monthly amount of rain over 500 millimeters registered 

in the Manila Observatory since the year 1865 376 

XV. Greatest monthly and annual rainfall in a single day 377-378 

XVI. Daily amount of rain above 100 millimeters registered in 

the Manila Observatory since the year 1865 379 

XVII. Greatest hourly amount of rain over 40 millimeters regis- 
tered in Manila, 1903-1918 381 

XVIII. Average monthly and annual rainy days 382-383 

XIX. Daily rainfall in the stations of central Luzon, July 12-15, 

1914 384 



xii CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Table XX. Rainfall in the stations of Luzon during the three days, 

September 1, 2 and 3, 1914 386 

XXI. Greatest rainfalls for three successive days in Manila, 

1865-1914 387 

XXII, Rainfall from November to May for several stations of the 

Philippines 392-393 

XXIII. Rainfall in the Philippines during the year 1903 394 

XXIV. Distribution of rainfall at Manila for the months of 

October to May, 1865-1918 396 

XXV. Rainfall at twenty -seven stations of the Philippines, during 

the drought of October, 1911, to May, 1912 398 

XXVI. Rainfall at thirty-eight stations of the Philippines, October, 

1914, to May, 1915 399 

XXVII. Total rainfall for the periods October to May, and Feb- 
ruary to April, for thirty-five stations of the Philippines, 

1911 to 1912, and 1914 to 1915 400 

XXVIII. Longest periods of rainless days in the droughts of 1911- 

1912 and 1914-1915 401-402 

XXIX. Mean monthly and annual relative humidity for several 

stations in the Philippines - 407-411 

XXX. Mean monthly and annual relative humidity of the Phil- 
ippines compared with that of twenty-two selected cities 

of the United States of America 413 

XXXI. Extreme values of the relative humidity for Manila, 1903- 

1918 ; 414 

XXXII. Mean hourly relative humidity for Manila, monthly, an- 
nual and semiannual, 1903-1918 416-417 

XXXIII. Mean monthly and annual cloudiness for several stations 

in the Philippines 418-421 

XXXIV. Monthly percentages of wind directions at several stations 

of the Philippnies 432-433 

XXXV. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

several stations of the Philippines 434-435 

XXXVI. Monthly and daily wind velocity for several stations of the 

Philippines, 1903-1918 440-443 

XXXVII. Maximum hourly velocity of the wind for Manila, 1903- 

1918 444 

XXXVIII. Remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 1903-1918 448-451 

XXXIX. Monthly and annual distribution of remarkable typhoons 

in the Philippines, 1903-1918 460 

XL. Distribution and percentage of remarkable typhoons by 

provinces and subprovinces, 1903-1918 462 

XLI. Distribution and percentage of depressions and ordinary 

typhoons, 1908-1918 462 

XLII. Weather of New Year's day and July 4th in Manila, 1903- 

1918 469 

XLIII. Weather on Occupation and Thanksgiving days in Manila, 

1903-1918 470 

XLIV. Weather on Christmas and Rizal days in Manila, 1903- 

1918 471 



CONTENTS. xiii 

PLATES. 

Page. 

Plate I. Monthly and annual departures from the normal tempera- 
ture at Manila, 1903-1918 301 

II. Normal monthly and annual temperature of the Philippines, 
compared with that of a few selected cities of Europe, 

United States of America, and the Far East 303 

III. Mean hourly temperatures for Manila, 1903-1918 331 

IV. Types of monthly distribution of rainfall in the Philippines. 

(First type) 349 

V. Types of monthly distribution of rainfall in the Philippines. 

(First and second types) 350 

VI. Types of monthly distribution of rainfall in the Philippines. 

(Intermediate A and B types) 351 

VII. Average annual rainfall of provinces and subprovinces 355 

VIII. Average summer rainfall of provinces and subprovinces, 

June to September 356 

IX. Average winter rainfall of provinces and subprovinces, 

November to February 357 

X. Normal monthly and annual precipitation for several 

selected cities of the world 359 

XI. Annual rainfall at Baguio, 1903-1918 363 

XII. Monthly and annual departures from the normal precipita- 
tion at Manila, 1903-1918 366 

XIII. Monthly and annual mean relative humidity: Baguio, Ma- 

nila, Legaspi, Cebu, and Surigao 412 

XIV. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Zamboanga 424 

XV. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Surigao 425 

XVI. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Cebu 426 

XVII. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Iloilo 427 

XVIII. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Legaspi 428 

XIX. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Manila 429 

XX. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Baguio 430 

XXI. Annual and semiannual percentages of wind directions at 

Aparri 431 

XXII. Tracks of remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 1903- 

1906 453 

XXIII. Tracks of remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 1907- 

1910 454 

XXIV. Tracks of remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 1911- 

1913 , 455 

XXV. Tracks of remarkable typhoons in the Philippines, 1914- 

1918 456 

XXVI. Percentage of remarkable typhoons by provinces and sub- 
provinces, 1903-1918 461 



xiv CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Plate XXVII. The weather on New Year's Day and July 4th in 

Manila 472 

XXVIII. The weather on Occupation and Thanksgiving Days in 

Manila 473 

XXIX. The weather on Christmas and Rizal Days in Manila.. ^74 

ILLUSTRATED MAPS. 

Graphic representation of the five inspection districts Frontispiece. 

Facing page — 

Map of the Philippine Islands 72 

Relief map 72 

Forestry map 72 

Abra / 78 

Agusan r 82 

Albay 86 

Antique 90 

Bataan 94 

Batanes 98 

Batangas 101 

Bohol 106 

Bukidnon 110 

Bulacan ; 114 

Cagayan 118 

Camarines Norte 122 

Camarines Sur 126 

Capiz 130 

Cavite 134 

Cebu 138 

City of Baguio 140 

City of Manila 146 

Cotabato 150 

Davao 154 

Ilocos Norte 158 

Ilocos Sur 162 

Iloilo 166 

Isabela 170 

Laguna _ 174 

Lanao -. 178 

La Union 182 

Leyte 186 

Mindoro - 190 

Misamis 194 

Mountain 196 

Amburayan Subprovince 198 

Apayao Subprovince 200 

Benguet Subprovince 202 

Bontoc Subprovince 204 

Ifugao Subprovince 206 

Kalinga Subprovince » 208 

Lepanto Subprovince 210 



CONTENTS. XV 



Facing page — 

Nueva Ecija 212 

Nueva Vizcaya 216 

Occidental Negros 220 

Oriental Negros 224 

Palawan (North) 228 

Palawan (South) 228 

Pampanga 232 

Pangasinan 236 

Rizal 240 

Romblon „ 244 

Samar 248 

Sorsogon (North) : 252 

Sorsogon (South) , 252 

Sulu 258 

Surigao 262 

Tarlac 266 

Tayabas (North) 270 

Tayabas (South) 270 

Zambales 274 

Zamboanga 278 

Meteorological station map 294 

Temperature map 306 

Climate map 352 



INTRODUCTION. 



Authority for and Scope of the Census — Prochiniation of the Governor- 
General — Plan for the Taking of the Census — The Assembly of 
Census Inspectors in Manila — Instructions to Enumerators and 
Special Agents — Difficulties Kncountered in the Urban Districts — 
Difficulties in the Enumeration of Non-Christian Filipinos — Organ- 
ization of the Office of the Philippine Census — Official Inspection 
of the Census Office by High Government Oflicials — Permanency of 
the Census Office — Scientific Contributions to the Census — Atlas 
of the Philippines with Geographical Sketches and Historical 
Accounts — Weather and Climate of the Philippines — Results of the 
Census Regarding Population, x\griculture, Education, Mortality, 
Social Statistics, Manufactures, and Household Industries — Indica- 
tions of Prosperity and Social Progress — Usefulness and Necessity 
of Census Data for Constructive Measures. 

The four volumes of the Census of 1918, as now published, 
contain an accurate and reliable exposition of the data recorded 
by the enumerators and special agents appointed in accordance 
with the provisions of the Census Act. 

The taking of the Census of 1918 is authorized by section 2 of 
Act 2352, approved on February 28, 1914, as amended by sec- 
tion 1 of Act 2766, which reads as follows: 

A census of the Philippine Islands shall be taken under the 
general supervision of the Governor-General and the immediate 
direction of an officer, to be known as the Director of the Census, 
who shall be appointed by the Governor-General, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate. The enumeration shall 
begin on a day to be fixed by the Governor-General, which shall 
be called Census Day, and shall proceed on consecutive days 
from daylight to darkness, including Sundays and holidays, until 
completed; and all data prescribed to be gathered by this Act 
or by regulations issued under it shall be gathered as of twelve 
o'clock of the night preceding that day: Provided, That if the 
Governor-General shall deem it necessary to require that the 
enumeration of any part or parts of the Philippine Islands should 
begin before Census Day, he is hereby authorized to fix the 
time when such enumeration shall begin. 

In accordance with section 36 of the Census Act, the Governor- 
General, in August, 1914, appointed a Committee composed of 
the Executive Secretary of the Philippine Islands, Mr. Charles 
R. Cameron, Colonel J. Lindsay Johnson, and Mr. Epifanio 
de los Santos, Provincial Fiscal of Bulacan. The undersigned, 
as Executive Secretary, then began to render service in connec- 

171073 I 



INTRODUCTION. 



tion with the Census. The committee mentioned dedicated seven 
months to the preliminary study of the most appropriate methods 
to be adopted in the preparation of the Census. In February, 
1915, it submitted its report to the Governor-General, recom- 
mending that the American plan, as adopted for the Census of 
Cuba and for the Philippine Census of 1903, be followed, with 
such modifications as the conditions, laws, usages and customs 
of these Islands would require. The work of that Committee 
consisted principally in the preparation of regulations for the 
execution of the Census Act. It also prepared six regular sched- 
ules for the taking of the census of the population, agriculture, 
schools, mortality, social statistics, and manufactures; two 
special schedules for the census of the non-Christian population, 
and miscellaneous others, with the necessary instructions for the 
collection of the data required in the above schedules. 

On March 2, 1918, the Philippine Legislature, in amending 
the Census Act, appropriated the sum of one million pesos 
(?1,000,000) for the taking of the Census. Subsequently, the 
Governor-General, on May 9, 1918, appointed the undersigned as 
Director of the Census and Dr. Alejandro Albert, Under Secre- 
tary of Public Instruction, Judge Percy M. Moir, of the Court 
of First Instance of Rizal, Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero, of the Bureau 
of Science, and Messrs. Felipe Buencamino, Sr., and Epifanio 
de los Santos, as Assistant Directors. On May 9, 1918, the 
Census officials so appointed held their first meeting for the 
definite organization of the Census work and for the preparation 
of all schedules, instructions, and other printed matter for the 
use of enumerators, and immediately proceeded to revise the 
schedules prepared by the first Census Committee, adopting 
them with certain modifications and introducing new schedules, 
such as that on Household Industries. 

In accordance with section 2 of the Census Act above men- 
tioned, the Governor-General issued Proclamation No. 21, dated 
May 24, 1918, fixing the 31st of December, 1918, as the Census 
Day. The proclamation of the Governor-General is as follows : 

In ancient times countries politically organized have for 
military and economic purposes felt the need of possessing exact 
data with reference to the number of inhabitants, resources and 
occupations. In the Philippines since the time of Buzeta, in 
the year seventeen hundred and ninety-nine, several attempts 
have been made to collect similar data; but a census as it is 
known at the present time, was not taken until nineteen hundred 
and three, when by means of scientific methods the work of 
enumeration was so skillfully prepared that the census of that 
year is considered a success. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Census of Nineteen hundred and three was taken not only 
as a means of determining the number of Filipino people entitled 
to the right of suffrage in electing- members to a popular Assem- 
bly, but also of ascertaining their social and industrial condi- 
tions as indispensable basis for intelligent legislative action for 
the development of the material prosperity of these Islands. The 
taking of that Census, according to the proclamation of the 
Governor-General, William H. Taft, may be considered a proof 
of the capacity of the Filipino people to perform important 
governmental functions; an opinion which was substantiated 
by the results obtained, according to the testimony of General 
Sanger, then the Director of the Census. It is acknowledged, 
however, that owing to the unsettled condition of the Islands 
at the time when the last Census was taken, there have been 
noted, particularly with reference to the social statistics, certain 
omissions or deficiencies which make the conclusions for prac- 
tical and legislative purposes hard to formulate. For this reason 
the Philippine Legislature has deemed it advisable to enact Act 
Numbered 2352, as amended by Act Numbered 2766, directing 
the taking of a new census which will comprise recent and com- 
prehensive data to show not only the actual state of progress 
accomplished by the Filipino people, but also to indicate wherein 
deficiencies which must be corrected may exist, as well as social 
evils which must be remedied. 

It is expected that the new census will be better adapted to 
set forth the actual condition of the Filipino people, encouraged 
by their ideals of progress in all aspects of life, ideals never for 
a moment lost sight of during the last decade and a half. Infor- 
mation relative to inhabitants of towns, besides data concerning 
associations, social and economic institutions, agriculture, in- 
dustry and commerce will be collected. 

In order that this great task of collecting data in a given 
moment of the daily life should be beneficial, the hearty and 
enthusiastic cooperation of the whole people is indispensable, 
because on them depends the outcome of this work. With- 
out such cooperation given with entire faith and confidence 
in the results to be obtained and which will surely redound to 
the credit of the country, it will be impossible to accomplish 
this task successfully. 

Misstatements for the purpose either of exaggerating or of 
toning down facts, make impossible any accuracy in generaliza- 
tions, which are only of value when based upon minute details. 
Such minuteness, however wearisome to the casual person, is 
of transcendental value for a scientific conclusion. For this 
reason the law providing for the taking of the new census in the 
Philippines contains several penal provisions to be imposed upon 
individuals who in any way raise difficulties or impede the census 
work, or knowingly misrepresent data required from them. 

It is hoped that the census will be a genuine expression of the 
actual conditions of the Philippines with her riches and poverties 
fully exposed without pretentions, false modesty, or misrepre- 
sentation. The Census will not, therefore, be a dry and confusing 



INTRODUCTION. 



memorandum book, but a collection of social data, information 
and facts of all kinds, profitable for the statesman, the legislator, 
the executive, the philosopher, the scientist, the manufacturer, 
the merchant, and the agriculturist. In a word, the Census will 
be of indispensable utility to everybody interested in the progress 
and welfare of the Philippines. 

Accuracy in taking down the data should be the rule for all 
those who are directly or indirectly connected with the work, 
for, first and last, the Census is a brief in favor of the political 
and economic ideals to which the Filipino people have always 
aspired. 

There will be no reason for doubting the conclusions drawn 
from the data published in the new Census, for everybody be- 
lieves that the Philippines possesses all the elements that go to 
make up a country with an independent existence. 

From nineteen hundred and three to nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, the progress of the Filipino people has been evident not 
only in the exercise of self-government but in agriculture, in- 
dustry, and commerce. In the Government, there exist Filipinos 
of experience and demonstrated ability in all of its different 
branches. Likewise, in agriculture, industry, and commerce, and 
in the liberal and mechanical arts, a great number of persons 
during this period successfully pursued their respective profes- 
sions and occupations and their experience constitutes today an 
asset of inestimable value to the culture and material develop- 
ment of the Filipino people. Along educational lines, there are 
excellent proofs of the positive results obtained by both the public 
and the private schools ; many of the high-school graduates and 
those of the different colleges of the University of the Philippines 
and of other institutions of learning are now playing an im- 
portant role in the community. 

Though the present period of economic crisis through which 
the world is passing seems a somewhat unfavorable moment for 
the taking of a census in the Philippines, nevertheless when the 
time for world peace comes, which we all long for — ^when the 
great nations determine the status of the small countries, the 
Philippines undoubtedly will be included in that general political 
revision, and therefore ought to be prepared to show the best 
evidence of her progress, a graphic demonstration of her culture, 
in the International Court. 

Now therefore, I, Francis Burton Harrison, Governor-General 
of the Philippine Islands, in pursuance of section two of Act 
Numbered Twenty-three hundred and fifty-two, enacted by the 
Philippine Legislature on the twenty-eight of February, nineteen 
hundred and fourteen, as amended by Act Numbered Twenty- 
seven hundred and sixty-six, enacted by the same Legislature 
on the eighteenth of March, nineteen hundred and eighteen, do 
hereby issue this proclamation, announcing as Census Day the 
thirty-first day of December, nineteen hundred and eighteen, on 
which day the enumeration of the population shall begin in all 
parts of the Philippine Islands, including the territory com- 
prehended in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, and shall 



INTRODUCTION. 



proceed on consecutive days thereafter, including Sundays and 
holidays, until completed. 

It is expected that the enumeration among regularly and spe- 
cially organized provinces and subprovinces, excluding those of 
the Mountain Province, and the Department of Mindanao and 
Sulu will be carried on by the enumerators of urban distri'^ts at 
the rate of not less than fifty persons per day, and of rural 
districts at the rate of not less than thirty persons per day, 
said enumeration to begin at daylight and continue until dark. 
The enumeration in the Mountain Province and the Departm*^nt 
of Mindanao and Sulu will be carried on in the manner prescribed 
by the Director of the Census as circumstances may warrant. 
Any reduction in any district in the rate of enumeration tha« 
established will be made the subject of investigation by the 
inspector, and unless it is found that such reduction in the rate 
of enumeration was due to causes beyond the control of the 
enumerator, pay for the period in excess of that correspond- 
ing to the rate established, may be withheld, pending the decision 
of the Director of the Census. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the great seal of the Government of the Philippine Islands to be 
affixed. 

Given at the city of Manila, this twenty-fourth day of May 
in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighteen. 

Francis Burton Harrison, 

Gove7mor-Ge7ieral. 

Pursuant to the proclamation of the Governor-General, the 
whole Philippine Islands was divided into five districts, to wit; 

No. 1 {Northern District). — Comprising the Province of 
Nueva Vizcaya and the Mountain Province, with the Subprov- 
inces of Benguet, Amburayan, Ifugao, Lepanto, Bontoc, Kalinga 
and Apayao, and the Provinces of Abra, Batanes, Isabela, Ca- 
gayan, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, La Union, and Pangasinan. 

No. 2 {Central District) . — Comprising the Provinces of Tarlac, 
Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Ca- 
vite, Laguna, Tayabas, Batangas, and Mindoro, and the Subprov- 
ince of Marinduque. 

No. 3 {District of Manila) . — Comprising the city of Manila. 

No. ^ {Southern District). — Comprising the Provinces of 
Ambos Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Samar, Leyte, Iloilo, Capiz, 
Antique, Romblon, Oriental Negros, Occidental Negros, Cebu 
Bohol, and Palawan, and the Subprovinces of Siquijor, Masbate, 
and Catanduanes. 

No. 5 {Mindanao District). — Comprising the Provinces of 
Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Sulu, and Zam- 
boanga, or the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, and the Prov- 
inces of Misamis and Surigao. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The above districts were assigned for census purposes to the 
Assistant Directors, as follows: Assistant Director Epifanio de 
los Santos for the first district, Mr. Felipe Buencamino, Sr., for 
the second. Justice Percy M. Moir for the third, Dr. Leon Ma. 
Guerrero for the fourth, and Dr. Alejandro Albert for the fifth 
district. Upon the resignation of Justice Moir, on November 
25, 1918, on account of his appointment to the Supreme Court, 
Dr. Albert took his place in the third district, and in Dr. Albert's 
place, Judge Ponciano Reyes, of the Fourteenth Judicial district, 
was appointed as special inspector, vested with authority and 
delegated power similar to those exercised by the Assistant 
Directors of the Census. Judge Reyes, who perished on De- 
cember 25, 1918, in the wreck of the Qtcantico, was succeeded by 
the Secretary of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, Mr. 
Teopisto Guingona. 

There were organized in all provinces and municipalities pro- 
vincial advisory census boards and municipal and township census 
boards in accordance with the regulations approved by the Gov- 
ernor-General on May 24, 1918. The members of the provincial 
census boards acted as inspectors and auxiliary inspectors of the 
Census, while those of the municipal and township census boards 
performed the duties of special agents. In the Mountain Prov- 
ince, on account of its special conditions, the provincial governor 
was appointed as inspector, while the lieutenant-governors 
were appointed as auxiliary inspectors for their respective sub- 
provinces. A similar organization was adopted for the Depart- 
ment of Mindanao and Sulu, the Secretary of the Department 
being appointed as special census inspector, and the governors 
of the provinces comprising the Department as auxiliary in- 
spectors. Thus, the supervision of the census work was assigned 
to the officials appointed in accordance with the organic regula- 
tions of the census. While the special agents were held re- 
sponsible for the work in the portion of the municipality or 
township assigned to each, the inspectors and auxiliary inspec- 
tors were likewise held responsible for the work in the munic- 
ipalities under their jurisdiction. 

The provincial census boards are charged with the duty of 
lending support and assistance to the officers taking the census 
in each province; to exert all their authority and influence, col- 
lectively and individually, over the people of the province to make 
them cooperate actively and heartily with the Census officers; 
to divide the province into as many inspection districts as may 
be necessary, each district to be composed of one or more con- 
tiguous municipalities, municipal districts, townships, or other 



INTRODUCTION. 



territorial units, as the case may be ; to divide the municipalities, 
municipal districts, or other territorial units within each in- 
spection district into as many enumeration districts as may be 
necessary, in accordance with the basis established in the census 
regulations; to number each inspection district and assign it to 
one of the auxiliary inspectors; and, finally, to discharge in 
territory not organized into municipalities or townships the 
duties herein imposed upon municipal and township advisory 
census boards. 

The members of the municipal advisory census boards are 
bound to exert all their authority and influence, collectively and 
individually, upon the people of their municipality in order to 
make them cooperate actively and heartily with the census of- 
ficers; to furnish the census authorities with any information 
that may be desired in connection with the census work, and to 
act as special agents in the municipality. 

To accomplish this tremendous task in such a manner that it 
would reveal the actual conditions of the country in all its 
aspects, an extensive organization covering even the minutest 
detail of the work was necessary. To this end, as has been 
stated, all the provinces of the Archipelago were divided into 
five districts, each of which was placed under the supervision of 
one Assistant Director; each province was in turn divided into 
three or more inspection districts, and to each inspection district 
one provincial inspector was assigned. Lastly, the municipal- 
ities were divided into enumeration districts of 1,500 inhabitants 
each in urban districts, and of 1,000 each in rural districts. 
Each enumeration district was assigned to one enumerator and 
for every ten enumerators generally one substitute enumerator 
was appointed. A similar organization was adopted for the De- 
partment of Mindanao and Sulu and for the Mountain Province, 
with the only difTerence that the enumeration districts there were 
less extensive, and that the lieutenant-governors of the Mountain 
Province and the governors of the provinces of the Department 
of Mindanao and Sulu were required to perform the same duties 
as the provincial inspectors in their jurisdictions. 

As a rule, three census inspectors were appointed for each 
province and subprovince, with the exception of Manila, Cebu, 
Leyte, Pangasinan, and Iloilo, where a greater number of in- 
spectors was authorized. The total number of inspectors ap- 
pointed was 178. For each municipality and township, three 
special agents were appointed ; the aggregate number of these 
agents was 2,650. Inasmuch as the number of inhabitants of 



8 INTRODUCTION. 



the Philippine Islands was estimated at 11,000,000, it was ne- 
cessary to appoint 9,702 enumerators, besides 1,730 substitute 
enumerators ; their number varied from 1 to 5 in each municipal- 
ity, according to the estimated population of the municipality. 
In addition to the regular and substitute enumerators, auxiliary 
enumerators were appointed in places where their services were 
needed in order to secure a successful accomplishment of the 
census work. These appointments were, therefore, governed 
exclusively by the familiarity of the appointee with the locality 
and the customs and habits of the inhabitants thereof. These 
auxiliary enumerators numbered 824 in all. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the regular enumerators had 
to enumerate both the inhabitants and the farms, special enu- 
merators for Schedule No. 2 (Agriculture) were appointed in 
some provinces where the number of farms was very great. The 
total number of special enumerators for schools and mortality 
was 3,200. Likewise, special enumerators were appointed for 
special areas, institutions, and establishments, such as private 
colleges, convents, hospitals, hotels, steamers, military posts, etc. 

In the Census of 1903, the regular enumerators took charge of 
the schedules relative to population, agriculture, and schools; 
and the special agents, who were then the municipal presidents, 
were in charge of the demographic, social, and industrial statis- 
tics and of Special Schedule No. 7, which was for territories 
not regularly organized. 

In the present census, the regular enumerators filled in only 
the schedules relative to population and agriculture; and the 
special agents, those relative to social statistics, manufactures, 
and household industries, while the special enumerators ap- 
pointed from the Bureaus of Education and Health, filled in 
respectively, the schedules for schools and mortality. 

In connection with the appointment of Census employees such 
as inspectors and special agents, it is gratifying to state that 
there was no lack of personnel sufficiently qualified to hold those 
positions. Many persons of social standing and high culture 
offered their services, animated by the desire to do something for 
their country, and many of them were, after the taking of the 
Census, elected to provincial office such as governor or member 
of the provincial board, while others were elected members 
of the House of Representatives. There was no difficulty in the 
appointment of enumerators for the provinces, except in the 
Department of Mindanao and Sulu and in the Mountain Province. 
In order to be eligible for the position of enumerator, a person 



INTRODUCTION. 9 



had to be over 20 years of age, be able to read and '.vrite 
Spanish or English, know the local language and, abovi all, 
write a legible and clear hand. The difficulty lay in the selec- 
tion from so many candidates, who claimed to possess all the 
qualifications required by the organic regulations. Many regular 
enumerators have a good knowledge of the English language 
and have filled in their schedules in this language; all the 
special enumerators for the schools and some of the enumerators 
for mortality have done so. 

To overcome the lack of personnel in the Mountain Province, 
it was necessary to bring people from the bordering provinces 
of Pangasinan and La Union. This circumstance greatly in- 
creased the cost of enumeration in that province, because besides 
their traveling expenses, they had to be paid subsistence for the 
number of days they stayed in their respective stations before 
the taking of the Census, in order to receive the necessary in- 
structions from the inspectors, familiarize themselves with local 
conditions, and acquire some knowledge of the customs of the 
inhabitants. However, it is a source of satisfaction to state that 
out of 471 enumerators appointed for the Mountain Province, 
80 were young Igorots, educated in the public schools, some of 
them having completed the intermediate course, while others 
had finished the first two years of high school. 

To solve the difficulty encountered in the Department of Min- 
danao and Sulu through the lack of Moros qualified to undertake 
enumeration work, it was found necessary to appoint Christian 
residents of Zamboanga, the teachers of municipal districts, 
and even members of the Constabulary, who had been residing 
in the Department for a certain length of time and were there- 
fore acquainted with local conditions and the usages and customs 
of the inhabitants. The services of some datos or Moro chiefs 
were utilized by appointing them as auxiliary enumerators, to 
accompany the regular men in the enumeration work. A similar 
measure was adopted in the Mountain Province, where certain 
leading Igorots were appointed to act as guides to the enu- 
merators. 

A tremendous task such as the taking of the Census of the 
country in its various aspects, necessarily requires uniformity 
in the work and an exact knowledge of the instructions prepared 
by the Census Office for the filling in of the nine schedules of 
the Census regarding population, agriculture, social conditions, 
schools, mortality, manufactures, household industries, non- 
Christian population, and miscellaneous things. It was deemed 



10 INTRODUCTION. 



necessary, as had been done when the Census of 1903 was taken, 
to summon all the Census inspectors to an assembly, which took 
place on September 30, 1918, in order to familiarize them with 
the instructions regarding the taking of the census, inasmuch 
as they, by reason of their position, were charged with the duty 
of attending personally to the instruction of all enumerators. 

At the same time that the inspectors were summoned to attend 
this assembly, they were advised of their duty to take the pre- 
scribed oath of office and organize as provincial advisory census 
board, with the elective member of the provincial board as 
chairman. In order to avoid all delay in the preparatory work 
of the Census, the inspectors were required to prepare, with 
the assistance of the district engineer, a map without topogra- 
phical details of their respective province or subprovince, show- 
ing the inspection districts into which each province had been 
divided; the municipalities, municipal districts, townships, or 
other territorial units included in each inspection district; the 
barrios included in each of these ; the enumeration districts into 
which the province had been divided by the provincial census 
board ; and the principal inter-provincial and inter-municipal 
roads and the roads connecting barrios of the same municipality, 
giving the distances from one place to another. 

In order to enable the inspectors appointed by the undersigned 
to acquaint themselves with the duties assigned to them, as well 
as with the work intrusted to the special agents and enumerators, 
each was furnished in due time with copies of Census schedules 
1 to 9, the proclamation of the Governor-General, the regulations 
governing census organization, the Census Act, and the instruc- 
tions to enumerators, and with forms of the oath of office. Like- 
wise, they were required to submit a list of proposed special 
agents as well as a list of eligibles for enumerators, carefully 
selected from among such persons in each locality as had the 
qualifications required by the Census Regulations. 

All the inspectors appointed enthusiastically responded to our 
call, except those of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and 
the Mountain Province, who were afterwards convened in their 
respective territories by the provincial inspector. The inaugural 
meeting of the inspectors' assembly was held at the Marble Hall 
on September 30, 1918, and was attended by distinguished Gov- 
ernment officials, including the Governor-General, the President 
of the Senate, members of the Cabinet, and members of the 
Philippine Legislature, whose presence gave special importance 
to the occasion. 



INTRODUCTION. H 



General Sanger, the Director of the Census of 1903, in speak- 
ing of the assembly of Census inspectors held in Manila on a 
similar occasion, says that these inspectors were formally re- 
ceived by the members of the Philippine Commission and by the 
Civil Governor and other high officials, who did everything 
possible to make them understand the object of the Census and 
the importance of the duties and responsibilities they assumed as 
inspectors in accordance with the law. It must have been a source 
of gratification to the inspectors of the Census of 1918 to have 
been given opportunities similar to those accorded to their 
colleagues of 1903, and to have had the privilege of being re- 
ceived by high officials like those mentioned by General Sanger. 

The President of the Senate, Honorable Manuel L. Quezon, 
delivered a speech which was in part as follows : 

There is no progressive country without a census. An ac- 
curate knowledge of the conditions of the people and the con- 
ditions in which they live is essential for the right solution of 
the great problems of government. 

It is particularly necessary to take the census of the Philip- 
pines at this time because we are facing a very critical period 
in our country's history and shall soon be called upon to solve 
very vital and far-reaching questions. 

Your chief object in taking the census should be to secure 
exact data so that we may find out the assets of the Philippine 
Islands and the social conditions of our people. We must not 
hide our vices or our shortcomings. It is only thus that we shall 
be able to improve ourselves. Rizal said: 'Expose the sick on 
the steps of the temple.' This is what you should do so that the 
statesmen and the reformers may apply the necessary remedy. 

And His Excellency, the Governor-General, Hon. Francis 
Burton Harrison, impressing on the inspectors the importance 
of the census work, said, among other things : 

It has been our policy in the Philippines during the last few 
years to place in the hands of Filipinos every bit of the Govern- 
ment work possible, and we trust to you to respond by producing 
a census which will not only be a pride and satisfaction to the 
Philippine people, but a source of security and certainty to the 
United States. President Quezon has said that the most im- 
portant feature of this census is accuracy. We must have ac- 
curacy. I am confident that in the hands of the census officials 
and the distinguished inspectors whom I see before me, the 
facts reported in this census will be accepted at par value by 
every person interested in this matter in the world. If any doubt 
is cast upon the accuracy of the census you take, or the con- 
clusions drawn therefrom, the whole work will have been wasted. 
Mr. Quezon, being a Filipino, was able to say to you that inas- 
much as no people is perfect, the Filipino people is not perfect. 



12 INTRODUCTION. 



You have your defects as well as your high merits. We want 
this Philippine situation to stand on its own feet, and I am all 
the more satisfied to tell you that because I am certain that the 
stand this situation will take will appear very high and noble 
to all the rest of the world. We do not want anybody to prove 
any political theory through the medium of this census; we do 
not want any feature of Philippine life exaggerated or aggrand- 
ized at the expense of any other. We want the plain, simple 
facts, and if those facts are as I have seen during five years 
of friendship and association with your people, you need not 
fear their effect in the eyes of the world. 

Now, I want you to feel that I am as much interested in the 
outcome of your work as any one of you can be. For my part, 
I insist only upon accuracy. The policies, the details, the work 
itself, is to be carried out by the organization before me today. 
I am sure it is going to be straightforward, I am sure it is going 
to be successful, and I am sure it is going to put the Philippines 
in the place it is entitled to in the world. 

It is needless to say that these sentiments uttered by President 
Quezon and Governor-General Harrison have served as a guiding 
light to the inspectors and other ofl^cials of the Philippine Census. 

The assembly lasted for a week. During this time, all questions 
pertaining to the census work were extensively discussed, and 
as comprehensive explanations as possible were given in regard 
to the filling in of the different schedules of the census. In 
order to put this knowledge into practice, seeing that they had 
had no experience in this kind of work, the inspectors were 
given all kinds of schedules to fill in with hypothetical data and 
were thus able to show their ability to instruct the enumerators 
afterwards. In the course of this instruction, many doubts 
arose regarding certain points of the instructions to enumerators, 
but all were solved, apparently to the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. 

The formation of enumeration districts was also discussed 
in this convention. The appointment of regular, auxiliary, and 
substitute enumerators in accordance with the lists submitted 
by the inspectors, was also taken up. This work, however, 
was left unfinished at that time, as some inspectors had failed 
to bring a list of eligibles for these positions and some had 
been unable to arrange the enumeration districts in their prov- 
inces in accordance with the instructions given them by the 
undersigned, upon organizing as provincial census advisory 
boards. It was, therefore, h necessary to postpone the issuance 
of a certain number of appointments until the inspectors had 
returned to their provinces and sent to this office the names 
of the candidates for the positions. This postponement caused 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

no little delay in the work of organization. After six days of 
instruction and practice in the enumeration work, when the 
inspectors had shown their ability to undertake the census work, 
they were given permission to return to their provinces, with 
the advice that they visit their respective districts and instruct 
the regular, auxiliary, and substitute enumerators, as well as 
the special agents, in regard to their duties and responsibilities, 
and inform the inhabitants of their respective provinces of the 
main objects of the census soon to be taken. 

As soon as the census inspectors had returned to their prov- 
inces, the following material necessary for the use of the enu- 
merators in taking the census was mailed to them : all the forms 
of schedules mentioned above, the Census Acts and an abstract 
of its penal provisions, and the proclamation of the Governor- 
General. Translations of these publications into Ilocano, Taga- 
log, and Visayan were extensively distributed in the municipal- 
ities throughout the Archipelago to inform the people at large 
of the main purposes of the Census and thus secure their cordial 
cooperation. 

To protect them from any possible destruction, the census 
forms and other papers mailed to the provinces were provi- 
sionally kept in those of the provincial buildings which offered 
the greatest security, until they were taken to municipal build- 
ings for distribution among the special agents and enumerators. 
The municipal presidents were designated as depositaries of the 
portfolios containing the census papers. How the distribution 
of the census material was to be made and how the census in- 
spectors were to proceed in instructing the enumerators, were 
the objects of repeated circular letters of the central office. 
Pursuant to instructions, the census inspectors went out into 
.their respective districts on the days fixed by them. They as- 
sembled the special agents and enumerators at the most con- 
venient places, required them to take the prescribed oath of 
office, delivered to them their portfolios, and instructed them 
in the performance of their duties. The instruction generally 
lasted three days in each municipality. The inspectors kept 
the undersigned in touch with the progress of their work by 
advising him by telegram, wherever possible, of their arrival 
at, and departure from, each municipality. The incidents that 
took place at that period were too numerous to be related in 
this report. All the difficulties, however, were overcome by the 
laudable efforts put forth by the inspectors, who certified to the 
undersigned before Census Day that everything was prepared 



14 INTRODUCTION. 



for the enumeration work. All measures necessary to insure 
the taking of the Census on the day fixed by the proclamation 
of the Governor-General were therefore taken. 

Before Census Day, the Assistant Directors of the Census 
traveled in their respective districts to ascertain whether the 
provincial census employees were prepared to undertake their 
work, and to help solve all the doubts confronting them. While 
the census was being taken, they kept in constant touch with 
the inspectors, ready to help them to solve all the difficulties 
encountered, while the undersigned stayed at the Central Office 
in Manila, answering inquiries from the provinces and supervis- 
ing the enumeration work all over the Islands. 

For the purpose of acquiring a first-hand knowledge of the 
actual condition of the enumeration work, the undersigned also 
made three extended trips to the central provinces of Luzon; 
to the non-Christian provinces, visiting Nueva Vizcaya, Ifugao, 
Benguet, Bontoc, and Lepanto-Amburayan ; and to the South, 
visiting the Provinces of Misamis, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, 
Jolo, Zamboanga, Lanao, Palawan, and Mindoro. On the first 
trip, he was accompanied by Assistant Directors Buencamino 
and Santos; on the second, by Assistant Director Guerrero, and 
on the last, by Assistant Directors Guerrero and Albert. No 
complaint was received by us as to the manner in which the 
census was taken. We were cordially received everywhere, not 
only by the Igorot people, but also by the Moros of Mindanao 
and Sulu, including those of Ganassi and Parang, all of which 
seems to indicate that the taking of the Census of 1918 was 
welcomed by the people throughout the Archipelago. 

As previously stated, during the enumeration period many 
inquiries were received,, both from the inspectors and the enu- 
merators, as to the procedure to be followed in various matters, 
which they could have solved themselves by the exercise of sound 
discretion. This, however, far from denoting lack of judgment 
on the part of these census employees, was only the result of 
their desire to evade responsibility, and above all, to cooperate 
with the central office, in order that there be uniformity in the 
census work. They all realized the importance of the work 
in which we were then engaged and the value of the results 
thereof, and for this very reason they consulted the Director 
of the Census even in cases of slight doubts, as they were in- 
terested in the success of this great governmental task, the ac- 
complishment of which is a test of the capacity of the Filipino 
people. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 



On account of the enumeration, many questions as to terri- 
torial jurisdiction between provinces, and even between munic- 
ipalities and barrios arose. However, all of them were settled 
by directing that the enumeration should be made by the enu- 
merator or enumerators orginally assigned to the places in 
question, without prejudice to the right of the contending parties 
to appeal to the proper administrative authorities for appro- 
priate action, it being clearly understood that the enumeration 
made did not at all affect any jurisdictional right concerning 
the places in controversy. 

In the enumeration of rural districts, some difficulties were 
encountered, especially in those far distant from the townsites, 
where houses lie at a distance of 6 or 7 miles from each other, 
and there are no roads or trails connecting them. There the 
enumerators had to go around many times in a locality in order 
to avoid omission. Instances also happened where there were 
no persons who could give them the exact location of the houses 
in a certain place, and where they found it necessary to travel 
through their whole district, which caused delay in their work 
and suffering on their part. In these difficult situations they 
were upheld by their devotion to duty and by the realization 
that they were cooperating in a work of national importance in 
assisting in the taking of the census. 

The creation of new barrios, not existing when the Census of 
1903 was taken, and the lack of information or visible bound- 
aries marking the territorial jurisdiction of each municipality 
and barrio constituted a great obstacle to the formation of the 
enumeration districts. The lists of barrios secured from the 
offices of the provincial governments, and some available maps, 
were made the basis, though defective, for carrying on this 
work. In many cases it was necessary for the census inspectors 
to obtain information from the municipal authorities about the 
existing barrios and their respective limits in order to organize 
the final enumeration districts. 

In the organization and distribution of the enumeration dis- 
tricts, the lack of maps with details relative to the location of 
barrios and other inhabited places, and their approximate po- 
pulation and the rivers, roads, and trails connecting one barrio 
with another, caused also no little difficulty. The rivers and 
roads would have been the best boundaries of these districts 
to prevent one enumerator from getting into another's district. 
However, thanks to the census notices fixed on the walls of the 
houses enumerated, duplications were successfully avoided. 



16 INTRODUCTION. 



The taking of the census having coincided with the harvest- 
ing of rice, the enumeration w^as somewhat retarded, as all or 
most of the heads of families and other adults were absent from 
their homes and did not return until after the completion of 
the work, while others came back at midnight. It was, there- 
fore, not always possible for a great number of enumerators 
to comply with the requirements of Proclamation No. 21 by 
the Governor-General, directing to enumerate not less than 50 
persons per day in urban districts and 30 in rural districts. 
In many cases the enumeration had to be made at night, the 
only time when the enumerators could meet the people in their 
houses. 

The main difficulty in the organization of urban districts lay in 
estimating the number of inhabitants of a place or locality. In 
the provinces, where people do not frequently change their resi- 
dence, and where the approximate number of inhabitants in each 
place may be obtained from the municipal officials, this estimate 
was made quite easily. But in a cosmopolitan, bustling city 
like Manila, where a considerable percentage of the population 
live in rented houses, which are vacated with the same frequency 
as they are occupied; where immigrants constantly arrive; and 
where the rich as well as the poor come to fix their abodes; in 
a city, in short, where the population undergoes a remarkable 
change of number, it was in most cases difficult to estimate 
the number of the inhabitants of a given place. To overcome 
this difficulty, the inspectors had to exercise a personal and 
close supervision over the work of the enumerators, which was 
done to our satisfaction. And in order to prevent omissions and 
duplications, this office had to publish in the Manila press in- 
formation about the provisions of the Census Law which pro- 
vide for the punishment of any person neglecting to give notice 
of his not being enumerated; or of his knowledge or belief that 
he himself or any other person or persons were enumerated 
twice, or concealing the fact of his or any other person's or 
persons' prior enumeration from any enumerator on the point 
of enumerating a second time. As a result of this publicity, 
we received various communications asking for enumeration, 
which request was immediately attended to by the enumerators. 
The same was done in the nearby provinces with satisfactory 
results. 

Some of the difficulties experienced in Zamboanga were due 
to the great distances between the houses and the lack of suitable 
means of communication. This is especially true with the Su- 



INTRODUCTION. 17 



banos. They are accustomed to build their houses on the moun- 
tain tops, a practice which made it necessary for the enumerators 
to climb to those places in order to do enumeration work. 
Another difficulty was due to the ignorance of some people, 
Mohammedans and pagans especially, who refused to furnish 
the data courteously requested by the enumerators, believing 
that the pui^ose of taking the census was to impose more taxes 
on them. Some enumerators were charged with carrying 
poison with them and consequently were refused entrance into 
the houses. In such cases, the help of the authorities had to 
be requested. 

The enumeration of the Negritos scattered in the mountains of 
Zambales, Bataan, and Pampanga, on the slopes of Mount Isarog 
(Ambos Camarines), in the hilly parts of Iloilo, Capiz, and 
Antique, and in other mountainous regions of the Islands caused 
no less difficulty, due to their nomadic mode of living. Special 
enumerators were appointed. These had to travel much through- 
out their districts to locate the Negritos indicated by no geo- 
graphical description, due to the absence of a permanent 
residence. It happened not unfrequently that they tried to avoid 
meeting the enumerators, and it was sometimes necessary for 
the enumerators to await the celebration of feasts where the 
people gather, in order to do enumeration work. 

The same may be said regarding the enumeration of the 
Manguianes in Mindoro Province. Due to their shyness and the 
difficulty experienced by the enumerators in reaching their 
settlements, there being no roads or trails, or if there were any, 
they are in the heart of the mountains, along dangerous preci- 
pices, the census inspectors had to make extended trips in order 
to help the enumerators in their work by advising and con- 
vincing the Manguianes of the purpose of the enumeration and 
its advantages. In fact, Inspector Cipriano Liboro says in his 
report : 

All the Manguianes, both young and old, informed me that 
they could not remember any occasion of having been enumerated. 
The only ones who told me that they were enumerated fifteen 
years ago are the Manguianes living on the sea coast. 

The statements made by the inspectors of the Mountain 
Province will show how the census work in these districts was 
carried on. 

Inspector Tomas Blanco of the subprovince of Kalinga has 
thtt following to say : 

171073 — e 



18 INTRODUCTION. 



In many cases, the population of a settlement or barrio was 
too big to make one enumeration district and too small to make 
two districts. It was necessary in several cases to unite one, two 
or three barrios or settlements to constitute one enumeration dis- 
trict. This caused us a great deal of inconvenience in the 
division of the territory comprised in each district, as it was 
very hard to know where one district began and where it ended, 
because the people live in small groups. Not unfrequently one 
sees four or five houses in one group, and each group of houses 
is separated from the others by mountains, rivers, brooks, etc., 
which makes travel extremely difficult. With this difficulty, 
there was a possibility of omission or duplication of enumeration, 
and to overcome this, it was necessary to make a list of the 
names of each group of houses included in each enumeration 
district, with the approximate number of inhabitants in each 
group, and this list was handed to the enumerator, for his 
guidance. And with the assistance of the auxiliary enumerator, 
who was himself a native and one of the influential men in 
the locality, there was practically no confusion in the taking of 
the census. There were no questions of jurisdictional limits of 
any importance. 

Our next difficulty was to get the number of qualified persons 
for enumerators, for we needed 45 men for this purpose and 
there were only about 10 or 15 available in Kalinga. We had 
to take the rest from the lowland provinces. This difficulty 
was aggravated by the fact that when the time of the taking of 
the census drew near, many of those who had expressed a willing- 
ness to come failed to do so and we had to hustle to get others. 
Many of those who came from the coast-provinces, on account of 
their inability to speak the dialect here, had considerable dif- 
ficulty in understanding the people and in making themselves 
understood by them. To minimize as much as possible the dif- 
ficulty thus encountered, we held classes of instruction here at 
Lubuagan for both the regular and auxiliary enumerators, and 
efforts were made to solve all the difficulties that they might 
encounter in the actual work of enumeration. Here the auxiliary 
enumerators played an important part. This being the first 
census of its kind taken in Kalinga, the natives were very 
suspicious as to the motives of the census, and many of 
them actually expressed the belief that the census work was 
only a preliminary step toward the imposition of the land tax, 
etc. (a thing which they do not want, because the education of 
the people is not yet sufficiently advanced to realize the advant- 
ages and benefit of the same). The people, through the special 
agents of the Census, the auxiliary enumerators, the settlement 
presidents, the bacnang (well-to-do), and others, received as 
thorough an explanation as we could give them regarding the 
census work, its purpose, necessity, and importance. The Census 
Law, regulations, etc., were explained to them. I told the peo- 
ple that when the enumeration work began, they would greatly 
facilitate the work if they would be kindly enough to try and 



INTRODUCTION. 19 



be all in their respective houses on the day the enumerators 
worked in their particular sitios, as this would enable the enu- 
merator, without the necessity of asking too many questions, 
to know exactly the number of persons in a house or family, and 
their sex, age, civil status, etc. This advice the people willingly 
followed, with the result that the actual enumeration of the 
population (on Schedule No. 8), was accomplished in the ma- 
jority of cases in ten days instead of thirty. It is true that 
the influenza epidemic, which was at its height when the census 
work was in progress here, interfered with the work, but 
everybody tried to do his part and we managed to accomplish 
everything without serious interruption in the work. 

Inspector Donato Ducusin of Apayao, reports : 

On the part of the enumerators, some complained of the heavy 
rains and swollen rivers, and all complained of the difficulties 
of traveling through the interior of the subprovince in which, 
due to the absence of trails, there are no means of transportation. 
It was impossible to communicate with the enumerators during 
the progress of the enumeration. 

So far as the people are concerned, there was no serious in- 
terruption except in a few unimportant cases, where an enu- 
merator experienced some difficulty in getting the necessary 
information regarding certain persons. This happened only 
among the most ignorant of these primitive people. All the 
rest freely and voluntarily submitted to the enumeration and 
willingly gave the data required for the purpose of the Census. 

Inspector Dosser of Ifugao gives the following information: 

There was considerable difficulty in dividing the province into 
enumeration districts on account of the houses and barrios being 
so widely scattered, and there being no means of telling just 
where one district ended and another began. No questions arose 
regarding jurisdictional limits. 

And, lastly, Governor Calvo, in his report says: 

Regarding the taking of the census, there has been little dif- 
ficulty met in the enumeration, both on the part of the enu- 
merators and the enumerated persons. Our enumerators went 
through the mountains of their respective enumeration districts 
accompanied only by Igorots who acted as guides. As it was 
feared that these people would object to the census being taken, 
because of the requirement of the instructions that each person 
be enumerated individually, it is gratifying to note that there 
has been no occasion for resorting to military or police aid 
for the enforcement of the census instructions. 

As to the difficulties encountered by the enumerators among 
the mountain people of Nueva Vizcaya, Inspector Lope K. Santos, 
governor of the province, says : 



20 INTRODUCTION. 



The recent epidemic disease commonly known as influenza ; the 
fact that the taking of the census coincided with the harvesting 
of the crops; and the deficient and costly transportation have 
been the chief difficulties encountered in the enumeration work 
throughout the province. 

Due to the aforesaid disease, many houses were vacated and 
abandoned. This was especially true in the barrios and other 
isolated places. Members of families surviving the disease then 
raging moved to other houses, to other towns, and even to other 
provinces. Because of the death of many family heads, it was 
rather hard for the enumerators to obtain certain data required 
by schedules Nos. 1 and 2. 

The period for harvesting rice in this province covers the 
months of January and February of each year, and during the 
month fixed for the taking of the census, a considerable number 
of families were living in the rice fields, with nobody left in 
their houses in town to give the information required by the 
enumerators. In many instances, the enumerators had to go 
back to the same house three or four times to make the enumera- 
tion, usually at midnight, when the owners had returned. In 
many towns, the provincial governor had instructed the munic- 
ipal presidents to announce by proclamation by the town crier 
the days on which the enumerators for each barrio would gather 
data, thus avoiding the absence of family heads from their homes. 

As this region is remarkably mountainous, with little popu- 
lation, generally scattered in distant barrios connected only by 
trails, the travel of the enumerators was always difficult and 
expensive. Some of them who had hired horses during the 
month, at one peso and fifty centavos per day, complained of 
the small compensation granted them. 

The enumerators assigned to the mountain regions had to 
provide themselves with thick clothing to protect themselves from 
the cold weather. Some enumerators who became ill after re- 
ceiving census instructions and after beginning enumeration on 
January 1st, were replaced by substitute and auxiliary enu- 
merators. To minimize these difficulties, we adopted the policy 
of employing regular and substitute enumerators of both sexes, 
nearly one-half being females. This was possible because, be- 
sides the existence in this province of sufficiently educated women 
to do the census work of 1918, their cooperation along this line 
was successful in the Census of 1903. We endeavored to assign 
the female enumerators as much as possible to the central dis- 
tricts, inhabited by the Christian population. 

A great number of regular enumerators filled out their sched- 
ules in English, and only a few of them in Spanish. This was 
due to the personnel having been selected from among teachers 
and students of the public schools, with the exception of some 
who had been deemed properly qualified to do the census work 
on account of their experience in the former census, or their 
education and influence in the locality. 

A thing worthy of mention noted during the enumeration of 
the Ilongot people is that the enumerators were able to discharge 



INTRODUCTION. 21 



their duties unmolested in the rancherias visited, with the excep- 
tion of those of Tamsi and Gumyad, where slight opposition 
was offered at the beginning-. However, upon learning the 
real object of the taking of the census, these Ilongots willingly 
submitted to enumeration, answering all questions asked by the 
enumerators. 

Regarding the difficulties experienced in the Department of 
Mindanao and Sulu, Inspector Guingona, in his report, says, 
among other things : 

The appointment of enumerators in remote regions inhabited 
by Moros and pagans met with difficulty in shape of the 
lack of adequate personnel. It was necessary that the enu- 
merator should possess a knowledge of the dialect, the customs 
of the people and the conditions of the locality, and command 
the confidence of the people, or have ability to inspire confidence, 
in the regions where he had to work. No Moros or pagans could 
be appointed, as very few of them were prepared to do the work ; 
and Christians or inhabitants of the coast could not be appointed 
on account of the objections above cited. However, these dif- 
ficulties were overcome by the appointment of members of the 
Constabulary stationed in the regions to be enumerated and by 
the appointment of teachers. Arrangements were made so that 
a man of the locality accompanied the enumerators and served 
as assistant or interpreter at the same time. Some datus were 
also appointed as special agents and their cooperation was se- 
cured in this manner. 

Inspector Calvin B. Carter of Cotabato reports: 

In forming enumeration districts in the province, the greatest 
difficulty encountered was the lack of definite knowledge of the 
territory to be covered. Except in the one organized municipal- 
ity there was no delineation of barrios, and in many cases 
municipal district boundaries were more or less indefinitely 
located. It was necessary to consider the topography of the 
country in relation to difficulty of travel rather than estimated 
population. Fortunately, many of the government officials in 
Cotabato had seen long service in the province and had a fairly 
accurate knowledge of the territory and people. 

Another serious problem was the Moro datu's extreme jealousy 
of his neighboring chief. If part of one chief's territory was in- 
cluded in the enumeration district with that of another chief, he 
became suspicious immediately, thinking that he was losing some 
of his followers and that the census districts were permanent gov- 
ernment divisions or organizations of territory. This difficulty 
could not be overcome in the original formation of districts as 
it would have necessitated many more enumeration districts, 
than allotted to us according to population. Much patient ex- 
plaining, preliminary to beginning actual count, reduced trouble 
from this source to the minimum, although there still exists ill 
feeling and suspicion in some sections. These cases could have 



22 INTRODUCTION. 



been avoided had more assistant enumerators been used and one 
acceptable to each chief been selected for his limited territory, 
but this again would have increased the census personnel and 
expense out of proportion to the good derived. One instance 
will suffice as an example of this petty jealousy which forms so 
great a part of the Moro character. Datu Alimpang was ap- 
pointed assistant enumerator for District No. 6, Buldung, and 
in company with the enumerator for that district visited the 
houses in order. Sultan Agaos of the northern part of Bundan 
became highly offended over him even though it had been ex- 
plained to Agaos that it would be necessary, upon beginning 
the enumeration, to perform the work in the most expeditious 
manner to avoid unnecessary expense and hardship. This chief 
has not yet been convinced that Alimpang did not purposely 
insult him or try to seduce some of his followers. Agaos was 
asked the name and location of all barrios under his jurisdiction 
and through spite failed to give the information regarding one 
distant barrio. After completion of the enumeration, one of 
the residents of this barrio notified the provincial governor that 
he had not been enumerated. It was necessary for the eni;- 
merator to travel from Parang a distance of fifty miles to 
count the sixteen people in this place. 

Due to the small Christian population of Cotabato Province, 
and the fact that nearly all of this population of sufficient in- 
telligence to fill out a census schedule have steady employment 
at lucrative salaries, it was impossible to secure more than five 
enumerators who were not Government employees, the remainder 
being school teachers and Constabulary soldiers. These men, 
specially the latter, needed most careful instruction and super- 
vision. In fact, the task seemed almost hopeless at times. The 
enumerators were divided into groups of from five to nine and 
placed under the immediate direction of a special agent who was 
made responsible for their instruction and the proper perform- 
ance of their duties. They then reported to their respective 
special agents for further instruction and were sent to their 
districts to acquaint the people with the coming census and the 
objects thereof, and to learn as much as possible of the territory 
they were to cover. The assistant enumerators were native 
Mohammedan residents of the districts to which they were as- 
signed, who assisted in the preliminary work. All municipal 
district presidents and important chiefs were called to the pro- 
vincial capital where they were informed of the objects of the 
census and their assistance requested. Upon return to their 
homes these called a meeting of the municipal district council- 
men and instructed them to spread the information throughout 
the province. By these methods, it is believed that every single 
inhabitant knew of the census and its objects, and few cases 
arose where enumerators' questions were looked upon with sus- 
picion. In such cases the special agent or inspector was notified 
and proceeded at once to overcome such suspicion by careful 
explanation. Only one prosecution under the Census Law was 
necessary. 



INTRODUCTION. 23 



After deducting from the small force of Constabulary the men 
appointed as enumerators, and the number of men absolutely 
necessary for guarding the \'^rious stations and other imperative 
work, it was impossible to furnish escorts for enumerators even 
in doubtful parts of the province, among the pagan people. 
Therefore, it is surprising that no single enumerator suffered 
abuse or death since there can be no doubt that many of them 
risked their lives by going alone in a country practically unex- 
plored. This can only be attributed to the thorough preliminary 
work. 

The undersigned, he continues, as provincial governor wishes 
to speak here of the inestimable value to the province of the 
census work aside from the valuable statistical data obtained. 
Enumerators were able to talk and become friendly with people 
who had never before come in contact with a Government official, 
and also gained a knowledge of the practically unexplored por- 
tions of the province which will be of great use to Government 
here. The census of Cotabato Province in 1903 was only an 
estimate because of the unsettled conditions at that time, so that 
no accurate comparison with the present census is possible. 
Some 3,450 Christian Filipinos including men, women, and 
children have immigrated to the province and settled on home- 
steads since 1913. Prior to that date immigration was neg- 
ligible. 

Likewise, the inspectors of Sulu have narrated their experience. 
Inspector N. C. Page states: 

The enumerators themselves, nearly all of whom were Filipino 
teachers, and the auxiliary enumerators, all of whom were Moros, 
acquitted themselves with great credit. Theirs was a difficult 
task, and they did it well, by the use of tact and good judgment, 
and with the least possible friction, and with no loss of life or 
brawls. 

According to the same inspector, the enumeration of his dis- 
trict is as accurate as possible, considering the character of the 
people and their suspicious nature. He says that a Moro will 
not tell one his own name or that of his wife, if the latter is 
present, unless circumstances make it unavoidable or imperative. 

Inspector O. H. Newton says : 

The main difficulty in enumerating the Moro people is the 
reluctancy on the part of the Moro people to tell anything re- 
garding their family history. A Moro does not like to tell his 
name. If you ask a Moro his name, should he have companions, 
he will in turn ask any question about their deceased relatives, 
therefore, we probably did not get the correct mortality of 
1918. The Census of 1903 of Sulu was only an estimate, there- 
fore, and no comparison can be made between 1903 and 1918. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 



Inspector P. D. Rogers made the following statement: 

Great difficulty was experienced in enumerating the people. 
First, there was the question of the auxiliary enumerators. 
The chiefs who were not auxiliary enumerators objected to 
have their people enumerated, as they thought that the auxiliary 
enumerators would have the right to claim all the people enu- 
merated by them. Also many wild rumors sprang up all over 
the province as to the causes of the enumeration, the follow- 
ing being some of the principal rumors afloat as to the cause 
of the enumeration: 

1. That the Government wanted to get a list of all the people, 
so that all the men could be listed and forced to go to war. 

2. That their religion would be changed. 

3. That all the women would be required to wear clothes worn 
by the Christians. 

4. That all the babies would be branded on the posterior the 
same as cattle. 

In this connection, Inspector T. W. Coverston of Lanao sub- 
mitted the following in his report: 

The greatest difficulty encountered in organization for census 
work was found in the lack of personnel sufficiently educated 
and at the same time possessing a necessary knowledge of local 
•conditions and customs to enable them to work harmoniously 
among the Maranaos, who were very suspicious of our reasons 
for taking the census. Our activities in the past have been 
based upon estimates of the population of the various municipal 
district the limits of which were sufficiently well defined to avoid 
confusion or to permit of questions of territorial jurisdiction. 
When a municipal district was divided into two or more enu- 
meration districts each district was given a certain part of the 
district divided by barrios. 

Several months before the taking of the census a campaign 
was organized, the object of which was to inform the people 
in all parts of the province of the coming census and of the 
reasons for taking same. It was believed by the inspectors 
that we would not be successful in taking the census if various 
and conflicting reasons for the census were given. In order 
that we might all be in harmony, a circular letter in the local 
dialect was sent to all municipal district presidents informing 
them that the census would be taken in order that we might 
receive our share of the revenues and that the census was not 
for the purpose of taxation. The same reason was disseminated 
by all deputy governors and the enumerators, and, as a result, 
we found but one man who refused to permit his people to be 
enumerated and he later complied with the request of the enu- 
merator when the deputy governor of that district came to the 
assistance of the enumerator. 

The enumerators, who had to deal with people from all the 
walks of life, occasionally experienced great difficulty in per- 



INTRODUCTION. 25 



forming their duty. There were educated people who strenu- 
ously objected to being enumerated and whom the courteous 
remonstrances of the enumerator would only exasperate them 
still further. Then the enumerator would encounter* a man of 
the rough and boisterous type, who would indulge in bad lan- 
guage and make fun of the census officials and of the questions 
propounded to him. Occasionally, he would meet with a vain in- 
dividual who would insist upon putting down all the academic 
degrees which he possessed or claimed to possess and would 
endeavor to show off his alleged knowledge by engaging in a 
learned conversation with the enumerator, which latter, not 
being in his own house, had to endeavor to make the best of 
the situation. Sometimes a lady of wealth and rank would con- 
sider that she had a right to treat the enumerator with contempt 
and would make him wait for a considerable time and then 
give him all sorts of information except what he required, or 
make him come back day after day. 

The Chinese and Japanese were objecting most vigorously 
to being enumerated during the first days of the taking of the 
Census, but thanks to the circular letters issued by their re- 
spective consuls, upon the request of the undersigned, they at 
last allowed themselves to be enumerated. 

We have only one instance where the census officials had to 
resort to force to secure compliance with the Census Law, and 
that was the "Kulay-Kulay case," reported by Inspector Guin- 
gona, which resulted in the death of some Moros who had to 
be shot. The Awkasa family refused to be enumerated and 
offered armed resistance to the force of the Government, in 
spite of the persuasion employed to make them change their 
attitude. The force employed in this case was extremely ne- 
cessary in order to prevent these recalcitrants not only from 
doing bodily injury to the provincial inspector and his com- 
panions, who had come to enumerate them, but also from dis- 
turbing the public peace and order in Sulu. As the Director 
of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes says: 

No effort appears to have been spared by Government officials 
and by both the local chief, Panglima Agga, and the priest or 
Imam, the latter being the nearest relative of the family. When 
an individual or group of Joloanos or others of our Moham- 
medan population make the preparation the Awkasa family is 
stated to have made, they are practically amok and if the local 
chief and Imam are unable to bring them back to mental equi- 
librium, it is absolutely necessary they be taken into custody 
as otherwise they will inevitably pass to the violent stage of 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

amok when not only must they themselves be killed but some 
and perhaps many innocent persons also be wounded and killed. 

However, in spite of all the difficulties mentioned, which have 
been overcome, it is safe to state that the work of taking the 
census was carried on smoothly, and thanks to the valu-able 
cooperation of the provincial and municipal officials and the 
influence of the inspectors and their assistants in particular, 
and to the hearty cooperation of the people in general, as well 
as the zeal and faithfulness of the enumerators, the enumeration 
of the inhabitants of the Islands was effected in a very satis- 
factory manner. 

The census records disclose two instances where a reenumera- 
tion was made, — the first was the case of enumerator Macario 
Gala of Candelaria, Tayabas, whose house was burned down with 
the Census papers in it; and the second, that of enumerator 
Agaton Pefiaflorida of Buhi, Ambos Camarines, whose port-folios 
containing census papers were lost while he was crossing a lake 
in a sail-boat. 

Generally, the enumeration work was done within the 30 days 
period prescribed in the Governor-General's proclamation. This 
period, however, had to be extended in some provinces, such 
as Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, 
Catanduanes, Batangas, Marinduque, Bohol, Mountain Province, 
Oriental Negros, Occidental Negros, Capiz, and Palawan, and 
in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, owing in part to the 
difficulties of communication and transportation, but largely to 
the influenza epidemic then raging in the Islands and the quar- 
antine in some barrios attacked by smallpox. 

We have spoken extensively of the Census organization, as 
we are convinced that a good organization insures success in 
this kind of work. We tried to follow substantially the Amer- 
ican plan adopted for the taking of the Census of 1903, as we 
were sure that it was the most adequate means of obtaining 
complete and exact data on the various subjects embraced in 
the census schedules under the provisions of the Census Act. 
Yet the , description of the 1918 Census organization would, 
without doubt, appear incomplete if we did not give some ac- 
count of the organization of the central office, which was tem- 
porarily established to coordinate the data obtained by the 
enumerators and compute and arrange the same in the form 
of statistical tables for publication. In the Census of 1903, 
the enumeration work was accomplished in the Philippines, but 
the compilation of data, the preparation of statistical tables, 



INTRODUCTION. 27 

and their publication were done in the United States, where 
there was well-trained personnel and all the necessary machinery 
for census work. This was not the case with the Census of 1918. 
All was done in the Philippines, the enumeration work as well 
as the preparation of the statistical tables. We had, therefore, 
to organize an office with various divisions to cope with the 
different activities arising as the census work was progressing. 
The first thing necessary was to properly arrange the papers 
returned by the census inspectors and systematize the work, 
in order to avoid the loss and insure the methodical handling 
of the papers by the compilers. 

Accordingly, a division of forms and archives was organized 
to separate the papers used from the unused, and to classify 
the former by barrios, municipalities, and provinces. This divi- 
sion was required to bind the schedules into rolls of 25 sheets 
each as to the schedules of population, and of 50 sheets each 
as to the agricultural schedules; while the remaining schedules 
were bound by municipalities, in rolls of from 5 to 20 sheets. 
It was necessary to adopt this method, not only in order to 
avoid confusion in the examination of the schedules, but also to 
have the sheets in such shape that they could be handled by a 
number of compilers without any danger of those sheets going to 
pieces. 

In this division there was an employee named the "Superin- 
tendent of Forms," whose duty it was to take note of all the 
papers going from the Archives to the different compilation 
divisions, and to see that they were returned. This afforded a 
reasonable protection against the loss of any of the papers of 
the Census Bureau. It is from the office of this employee that 
all the schedules were distributed to the various compilation 
divisions, the Archives being somewhat in the nature of a supply 
department. He also received from the various compilation 
divisions the forms on which data have been entered and sent 
them on to the Division of Computation, from which he then 
received the results of the computation work done, which he 
distributed among the several statistical sections. This office 
may be considered as the pivot of the whole of the Census. 

The archives are contained in three large rooms, in which 
all the schedules and other census material are kept with due 
care in order to prevent their destruction by any cause what- 
soever. The archives are arranged by provinces and municipal- 
ities, according to the correlative number of the rolls. 

To collect the data spread upon thousands and thousands of 
schedules and group them conveniently in the form of statis- 



28 INTRODUCTION. 



tical tables, it was necessary to organize the Divisions of Com- 
pilation. 

For the use of these divisions, several forms were prepared, 
on which the compilers entered in figures the data appearing 
on the schedules of the numerators, either grouping in a 
column of the form the data contained in one column of a sched- 
ule, or combining those of two or more columns of the schedules, 
as required by the character of the form. In this manner, 
the compilers grouped entries of the same kind under each of 
the questions appearing in the schedules ; the totals thus obtained 
were then computed by the Division of Computation, and the 
final results were passed on to the various Statistical Sections 
for the preparation of the corresponding tables, which contain, 
in concise form, all information needed for the consideration 
of measures, whether of a legislative, administrative, social, 
or other character, conducive to the improvement of the condi- 
tion of the country, which is the principal purpose of the taking 
of the Census of 1918. 

For the preparation of the personnel which was to take charge 
of the compilation and statistical work, it was deemed advisable 
to organize a training department, which was maintained until 
the schedules returned by the inspectors had been properly 
arranged and were ready for distribution among the compilers. 
This work extended over the first two months of 1919. 

The compilation divisions began to work at the end of Feb- 
ruary, when the schedules of the enumerators began to come 
in ; but their work was rather irregular, due in part to the de- 
fective system of returning the schedules, and partly to the 
preparation of new forms of compilation. It can be safely said 
that the real compilation work began only about the end of 
May, 1919. Of course, in the beginning of the work of com- 
pilation, the compilers newly trained in this work encountered 
serious difficulties which hindered to some extent the rapid ad- 
vancement of the compilation. Instructions to compilers for 
the use of the compilation forms were then prepared. These 
were given orally to the compilers beginning with the organiza- 
tion of these divisions. But in view of the frequent changes 
in the office force, due to resignation and other causes, these 
instructions had to be repeated several times. This increased 
the work of the chiefs of these divisions, and in order to avoid 
difficulties and facilitate the work of the compilers, it was 
deemed advisable to print said instructions which form Bulletin 
No. 2 of the Census Office. 

There are other compilation sections, those for Schools. Social 



INTRODUCTION. 29 



Conditions, Mortality, Manufactures, Household Industries, and 
Judiciary, which are at the same time statistical sections, as 
they compile the data entered in their respective schedules while 
preparing the statistical tables. 

To add up and compute or compare the totals of the data on 
the various forms filled in by the compilation divisions, with a 
view to ascertaining the results thereof, it was necessary to 
organize the division of computation. The personnel of this 
division consisted of 90 educated young men, properly trained 
in operating the "Barret," "Burroughs," and "Monroe" adding 
machines, with 86 of these machines of various makes. If one 
takes into consideration the fact that the compilation divisions 
with 400 compilers were able to fill in about 12,000 forms daily, 
it will be easy to imagine the volume of work done every day 
by the computation division, which is represented by 7,000 
forms, each containing from two to seven columns of figures. 

It was not sufficient, however, to have the data compiled by 
the compilation divisions; it was also necessary to embody in 
statistical tables the results obtained by the computation divi- 
sion, in accordance with the outlined plan of work prepared for 
the publication of the Census. Hence, the necessity of organizing 
the statistical division, which was composed of the most effi- 
cient employees of the office, especially trained for this delicate 
part of our work. This division was subdivided into various 
sections designated as "Population," "Agriculture," and "Mis- 
cellaneous." The latter included the statistical section for 
Schools, Mortality, Social Conditions, Judiciary, Manufactures, 
and Household Industries. The Division of Statistics had charge 
of the preparation of all statistical tables published in the Census, 
under the direction of its chief, Mr. Braulio Bejasa,^ and the 
supervision of the undersigned. In this division there was a 
tabulating section which had charge of the forms and tables 
needed by the compilers and statisticians. 

There were in the Census Office other divisions, such as the 
administrative, property, accounting, translating and proof- 
reading divisions, which performed the duties imposed upon 
similar divisions in other Government offices. 

Inasmuch as this was the first Census Office organized in 
the Philippines, its activities attracted the attention of the pub- 
lic to such an extent that the Office had the privilege of being 
inspected by distinguished persons not connected with the Gov- 
ernment, and by high Government officials, members of the 

* On March 1, 1920, he was required to return to the Bureau of Justice 
when he was appointed assistant attorney. 



30 INTRODUCTION. 



Legislature, department secretaries, the President of the Senate, 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Governor- 
General. 

Certain pessimists expressed the fear that the Filipinos could 
not make a census of their own, because either the organization 
would be deficient or the personnel incompetent. Instead of 
discouraging the Census officials and employees, this only made 
them more enthusiastic and determined in the performance of 
their duties. 

The Committee on Appropriations of the Upper House of the 
Legislature contributed to a certain extent to those pessimistic 
opinions when it submitted an amendment to the Appropriation 
Bill of 1920, as approved by the Lower House, to the effect that 
the appropriations for the Census should be made in the form 
of an itemized statement of expenditures, thus disregarding 
the temporary character of the office and the many unforeseen 
contingencies sure to arise in it. This proposed amendment 
provided, further, that employees of the Bureaus of the Gov- 
ernment detailed to perform duties in the Census Office should 
not be paid the additional compensation fixed in their respective 
appointments unless authorized by the Council of State, which 
body resolved, at a session held on January 14th, 1920, that a 
final decision upon said additional compensation would be made 
as soon as the Census work was completed, taking into con- 
sideration the date of completion and the efficiency shown. Al- 
though the task seemed difficult, we accepted the responsibility 
of carrying out the work contemplated in the Census Act, as 
we considered that an opportunity had been afforded us to 
serve the interests of our country and to show, through the 
efforts of thousands of Census officials and employees from all 
over the Islands, that the Filipinos, as a people, possess that 
integrity, accuracy, and diligence which make a people capable 
of managing its public affairs in a successful manner. 

In this connection, it will not be amiss to quote some author- 
itative opinions on the Census organization. The Governor- 
General, Honorable Francis Burton Harrison, upon inspecting 
the Census Office on September 19, 1919, accompanied by the 
President of the Senate, Hon. Manuel L. Quezon, among other 
things, said: 

I have at heart the functions of the Census a year ago and 
am delighted to find out in the interesting investigation made 
by President Quezon and myself this morning that the stupend- 
ous work of the census is nearing its prompt termination. 

We want to congratulate President Villamor, his assistants, 



INTRODUCTION. 31 



and subordinates for the spirit they have shown in carrying 
on the census work and for the patriotism and enthusiasm they 
have in their hearts, all of which go to demonstrate the ability 
of the Filipino people to the American public and to the Amer- 
ican Congress. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives, Hon. Sergio 
Osmeiia, on the occasion of the inspection of the Census Office 
by himself, accompanied by members of the Philippine Legis- 
lature, on the 11th of November, 1919, delivered this encouraging 
speech : 

It has been gratifying for my colleagues of the Legislature 
and myself to have been afforded this opportunity to examine 
the various divisions of the Census Office. You are not splen- 
didly housed ; this being only a temporary office, it has not been 
possible to provide very good premises for it, and therefore 
we are glad to see that efiorts have been made to arrange the 
departments so that the employees may do their work in an 
orderly and comfortable manner. But, as the saying goes, even 
under the nipa roof of a humble bamboo house great things 
may be accomplished. 

We, the members of the Legislature here present, are firmly 
convinced that in this building — which, perhaps, witnessed im- 
portant events in the past — you will show Filipino capacity once 
more, and that the confidence we reposed in you when we 
placed this work in your hands has not been bestowed in vain. 

For the first time the Filipinos are called upon to do themselves 
this work, which is so important for the country. Since men 
first began to live in communities, there has been a necessity 
of taking some sort of census. The tribal chiefs of old had to 
find out the number of their subjects for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the number of individuals to be taxed. They also had to 
know the effective war strength of the tribe, that is, the number 
of able-bodied men available for armed service. In a modern 
census, much more than that is needed. We are not taking this 
Census for the mere purpose of obtaining the information re- 
ferred to, which is perhaps of little use, but to secure complete 
data which will, as the Director of the Census rightly says, 
be a graphic representation of our own situation, a living image 
of the present life of our country, our resources, our land, our 
territory and its population, the distribution of that population, 
our mode of living, our education, our vices, our virtues, in one 
word, the whole substance of our people. All that work, that 
image, the preparation of which has been entrusted to you, 
must be exact. Just now, certain Government offices have to 
come to get data from the office of the Census. In our cam- 
paign in America we availed ourselves of the Census to get 
information, for example, on educational matters, in order to 
supply the demands of the leaders of Congress. Therefore, 
we who have come here to pay a visit, cannot say anything but 
that the work now being done here is highly important. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 



I wish to say something else. There are problems that the 
country will be confronted with and which will need your 
assistance, such as, for example, the increase of population. It 
is our duty to see how the population increases. We are a 
comparatively numerous people. There are in other countries 
of the earth peoples not so numerous as we are, who, nevertheless, 
live and are respected. But we will not confine ourselves to 
that; we want facts about the growth of our population, and 
one of the things we have learned today in this building is that, 
in spite of the past epidemics, we are going ahead, and that 
our death rate in 1918 was less than that of 1917, and much 
less than that of 1903. 

There are other very important facts which I am sure will be 
confirmed by the Census. For example : One of the main factors 
for a really stable government is an even distribution of property, 
and it is through this office that the world will know the great 
number of small property holders of the Philippines who con- 
stitute the foundation of our orderly and peaceful life. 

In conclusion, I may say that much is expected of the census 
you are now taking. This is your work, and I am sure, and 
the members of the Legislature are sure, that it will be done 
by you with the utmost efficacy. We are anxiously awaiting 
the publication of your work, and when our men and the men 
of other countries see it, they will say that you have done not 
only a useful, but a meritorious work. 

The Director of the Census of the United States, Honorable 
Samuel L. Rogers, in his communication to the undersigned, of 
January 20, 1920, says: "The report submitted by you to the 
Governor-General on September 11th, 1919, is very interesting, 
and I congratulate you upon the good organization you have 
established. I look forward with a good deal of interest to 
receiving copies of the census reports which you state will in- 
clude the provincial maps and descriptive matter as well as the 
statistical tables." 

As has been stated elsewhere in this report, the work of the 
Census Office was greatly handicapped by lack of preparation 
on the part of the employees, who had to be trained before they 
could render efficient service. The experience gained by many 
Filipinos in this kind of work should be utilized for the benefit 
of both the Government and the people, and I earnestly recom- 
mend that this office be made permanent. 

In the great majority of advanced nations there is a central 
office of statistics charged with the collection, compilation and 
periodical publication of information relative to population, 
national wealth, and progress. The taking, usually decennial, 
of a census through the organization of a temporary office is 
objectionable from the viewpoint of its high cost and of the 



INTRODUCTION. 33 



difficulties that in many cases cannot be overcome, because the 
census work thus accomplished is necessarily done hastily. 
Furthermore, the decennial census, once finished, leaves an im- 
mense lacune, shrouded in darkness, which extends over the 
entire decade preceding it, and there is no human power capable 
of forming statistics for that period, where dimness and chaos 
reign supreme. On the other hand, the leaving of the statistical 
work to the scattered and isolated efforts of the various Govern- 
ment offices now publishing statistical information would result 
in confusion, perplexity, and dissatisfaction, and would not 
respond to the requirements of methodization, integration, and 
synthesis prescribed by science for the preparation of all national 
statistics. 

Before we consider the results of the Census, I deem it ad- 
visable to mention the division of the work among the Director 
and his Assistants, so far as the analytical examination or de- 
scriptive part of the statistical tables compiled from the census 
schedules is concerned. While the undersigned supervised the 
preparation of all the statistical tables and had charge of the 
description of the schedule on population, the other schedules 
were assigned to the Assistant Directors for examination and 
comment, as follows: to Mr. F. Buencamino, Sr., the schedule 
of agriculture; that of schools, to Dr. A. Albert; that of mor- 
tality, to Dr. L. Ma. Guerrero; and the schedules of social con- 
ditions, manufacture, and household industry, to Mr. E. de los 
Santos. This arrangement, however, did not prevent the Di- 
rector and his Assistants from preparing other articles. For 
example, Mr. F. Buencamino, Sr., wrote an article on the Banks 
and the undersigned a monograph on criminality, both of which 
are included in Volume IV, while Dr. L. Ma. Guerrero prepared 
an article on medicinal plants which will be found in Volume III. 

Special mention should be made of Dr. Otley Beyer, Associate 
Professor of Anthropology of the University of the Philippines, 
who prepared a paper on the non-Christian tribes which will be 
considered later ; Mr. Francisco Agcaoili, a chemist of the Bureau 
of Science, who wrote on the food value of the most important 
Philippine products; Reverend Father Jose Coronas, the me- 
teorologist of the Weather Bureau, who prepared a report of 
the Climate and Weather of the Philippines, and, lastly, Mr. 
Rafael Medina, Assistant Director of the Bureau of Forestry, 
who wrote an article on the forests of the Philippines. These 
gentlemen had no official connection with the Census Office and 
deserve our most profound gratitude for their valuable con- 
tributions. 

171073 — 3 



34 INTRODUCTION. 



The attention of the reader is called to the Atlas of the Phil- 
ippines or provincial maps published in this volume of the 
Census. They v^ere prepared especially for the Census, at the 
request of the undersigned, by Mr. John Bach, the able cartog- 
rapher of the Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey, who used 
for this purpose, among other sources of information, the data 
recently collected by the Census officials. Every map of the 
series is a new production in the sense that it is a complete 
compilation of all information existing on the date of publication. 
The process of compilation was as follows : 
The boundaries of the province were determined and a poly- 
conic projection was constructed for the area in question, using 
the maximum scale permitted by the size of the page. All shore 
lines were reduced by pantograph from Coast and Geodetic 
Survey charts. Interior provincial boundaries were plotted from 
surveys by the Bureau of Lands, from provisions of the Ad- 
ministrative Code, from Executive Orders or, in a few doubtful 
cases, from information obtained from local officials. In many 
inaccessible regions, the available information is not adequate for 
the exact delimitation of provincial boundaries, but all sources 
were exhausted in the study of this question and it can be con- 
fidently asserted that the boundaries are far superior to those 
shown on previous maps. 

Interior details were filled from various sources. In regions 
covered by maps of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, these were 
used as the base for reduction since they themselves contain a 
digest of all previous information, including more especially the 
detailed topographic surveys by the United States Army. 

In other regions various sources of information were utilized, 
the greatest weight being assigned to road traverses by the 
Bureau of Lands and Public Works. These traverses fixed the 
location of towns, and minor features were adjusted to fit in 
with these. 

For these interior features all maps having any degree of 
authority were freely used. In Mindanao and the Mountain 
Province, unpublished blueprints from Constabulary sources 
furnished a lai;ge part of the data. Sixty-eight blueprints of 
the Census Office compiled from data furnished by inspectors, 
were used to locate many hitherto unplaced barrios. After all 
publications and authentic blueprints had been exhausted, re- 
course was had to sketch maps by municipal presidents. Be- 
tween 1909 and 1916, the Coast and Geodetic Survey collected 
sketches of all municipalities from the presidents thereof. Most 
of these sketches are of no value for absolute locations, but they 



INTRODUCTION. 35 



frequently show the approximate location of otherwise uniden- 
tified barrios or mountains and afford checks on boundaries and 
streams. None of these informations has hitherto been utilized 
in publications. 

In the Mountain Province many obscure points were settled 
by direct correspondence with governors, presidents, and dis- 
'trict engineers. 

The question of spelling received attention not heretofore 
given. The sketches collected from municipal presidents were 
accompanied by lists of barrios and sitios under each jurisdic- 
tion, with particular reference to the local usage in spelling. 
These lists were combined by the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
with similar lists secured from the Bureaus of Education and 
Posts, from the Census of 1903, and from laws, executive orders, 
and proclamations. From these combinations, forms were 
adopted by the Coast and Geodetic Survey for standard use. 
These standard lists have been used in restricted areas where 
new editions of maps have recently appeared, but the great mass 
of these names have not heretofore been used. 

Explanations are given in the text regarding the use of con- 
ventional signs, as well as a general index of all names appear- 
ing in the maps with indications as to the grades of longitude 
and latitude and the province where the place wanted can be 
found. 

These maps are useful not only for the reader in general, 
but also for the public and private schools in particular. Fili- 
pino educators should encourage school boys and girls to learn 
the geography of their province and their country to make them 
conversant with the beauty and wealth of the land where 
they were born, because the acquisition of such knowledge will 
awaken and strengthen the sentiment of patriotism in their 
hearts. Nihil volitum quin prxcognitum. The geographical 
sketch and historical account preceding each map were carefully 
prepared by the provincial section of this oifice, composed of 
Mr. Percy R. Angell, Director of Civil Service, and three able 
members of the Departments of Geography and History of 
the University of the Philippines — Miss Maria Valdez, instructor 
in geography, Mr. Leandro H. Fernandez, associate professor 
of history and author of "A Brief History of the Philippines," 
a text-book used in the public schools, and Mr. Nicolas Zafra, 
instructor in history — who were employed by the Census Office 
for the purpose above indicated. The descriptions are intended 



36 INTRODUCTION. 



to give life to the maps; the texts used as reference for the 
same consisted of sixty-two text-books on Philippine geography, 
twenty-seven text-books on Philippine history, and others. 

The work of the learned Jesuit Father Jose Coronas on the 
Climate and Weather of the Philippines is of great practical 
value. The report published in Volume I of the Census as de-^ 
duced from the period 1903 to 1918, is original and contains* 
very valuable information not only on the general conditions 
of our climate, but also on exceptional weather conditions ex- 
perienced during that period of 16 years. The data given in 
this report will be of exceptional interest to the public in gen- 
eral and most particularly to those who are engaged in agri- 
culture or in commerce in the Philippines. Never before has 
any report been published on the climate of the Philippines with 
such a wealth of data and referring to so many stations dis- 
tributed throughout the Archipelago. 

In the introductory remarks of this report, a short account 
is given of the Climatological and Weather Service of the Phil- 
ippines as it existed at the end of 1918. There were in all, 60 
official stations and 53 voluntary or cooperative stations through- 
out the Archipelago. Weather telegrams are being received 
twice daily from about 50 stations in the Philippines, one sta- 
. tion in Guam, ten stations in Japan, five stations in Formosa, 
five on the China coast and three in Indo-China. A weather map 
of the Far East based on these telegraphic reports is being pre- 
pared daily at the Manila Observatory since 1907, and posted in 
several public places in Manila. There cannot be any doubt that 
the preparation of this weather map has helped considerably 
to improve the forecasting service of the Philippine Weather 
Bureau, especially as regards the forecasting of typhoons. 

Special eft'ort has been made in this report to present in a 
most comprehensive manner the greatest possible amount of 
information referring to the distribution of rainfall in the Phil- 
ippines, as this is considered the most important element of 
our climate. In fact, it is the cause of the different types of 
climate which exist in the Philippines within a characteristically 
tropical climate. A very elaborate and interesting climate and 
rainfall map and a good number of other graphic illustrations 
accompany this part of the report. The different types of 
monthly distribution of rainfall graphically represented in three 
plates will be of the greatest interest to all. A short account 
is also given of the principal floods and periods of drought ex- 
perienced in the Philippines since 1903. 



INTRODUCTION. 37 



The prevalence of typhoons in the Philippines has always 
been a matter of the utmost importance to any one interested 
in our agricultural or commercial activities. The part of the 
report referring to this subject will prove very interesting. The 
matter is presented in a new way which will appeal to every one. 
The author considers first the remarkable typhoons which have 
actually struck the Philippines during the chosen period of 16 
years, and distributes them by provinces and subprovinces ; then 
he takes up the ordinary typhoons of less importance and reg- 
ular depressions that have traversed the Archipelago, distribut- 
ing them also by provinces; and finally he gives the number 
of those typhoons which influenced clearly the weather of the 
Philippines without touching the Archipelago. Typhoons of 
the Far East which on account of their distance from our Islands 
or of their small dimensions had hardly any or little influence 
on our weather are disregarded in this report. This is con- 
sidered a very good idea, because what people desire to know is 
not precisely the frequency of depressions and typhoons in the 
whole Far East, but the frequency of the typhoons which are 
apt to work havoc in the Philippines, and also of those which 
exert a great influence on our weather conditions. 

The article of Mr. Francisco Agcaoili, chief food analyst of 
the Bureau of Science, on 'The Value of Food" is an excellent 
one and contains practical information regarding the nutritive 
value of our common foods. The selection of foods is of par- 
amount importance to maintain health and growth. It is need- 
less to say that an improperly nourished body can neither 
properly function nor eflficiently keep up the routine require- 
ment of the present-day strenuous life. The article prepared 
by Mr. Agcaoili not only shows those common foods which 
may be obtained at reasonable prices and yet have a high nutrit- 
ive value, but also demonstrates that by proper selection of a 
daily diet and by not overeating, more particularly not over- 
crowding the system with a large quantity of one staple food, 
a healthy body is obtained; a clear mind is ever ready to meet 
the daily task ; and waste and luxury are brought to a minimum. 

The importance of the catalogue of medicinal plants prepared 
by Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero is self evident. A flora so abundant 
in endemic species should necessarily contain many plants of 
medicinal and poisonous properties which have a great therapeu- 
tic future and which, if studied pharmacologically, could form 
the original subjects of a genuinely Philippine Pharmacopoeia. 
From time immemorial, our quacks have been using many of 



38 INTRODUCTION. 



our plants for the treatment of the diseases from which the 
inhabitants of our vast Archipelago ordinarily suffer. Quite a 
few of our people are opposed to the use of pharmacy drugs, 
because they are laboring under the queer prejudice that such 
drugs exhaust the force of the patient instead of delivering him 
from the disease which threatens his existence. 

But it must be admitted that, notwithstanding the fact that 
the knowledge of the quack is extremely empirical and crude 
with respect to vegetable pharmacology, he knows how to make 
a timely application of certain matters the action of which in 
the sick organism is of undisputable and sure efficacy, and some- 
times even specific. He displays great ability in the use of purga- 
tives, emetics, febrifuges, vermifuges, remedies for heart disease, 
dysentery, and diarrhea, etc., which he finds abundantly in our 
medical flora. He possesses marvelous medicines for healing 
wounds, and the antidotes administered by quacks have often 
saved the lives of poisoned persons. On the other hand, many 
people are not unaware of the deadly effects of many of the 
plants which they administer judiciously enough to have a cura- 
tive effect, owing to the simplicity of their pharmaceutical 
methods, coupled with their poor knowledge of the nature of the 
beneficient principle of the drug and of the means of extracting 
the same. The reader interested in this matter is referred to 
the catalogue of medicinal plants inserted in the proper chapter 
of Volume III of the present Census. 

The report of Mr. Medina on Philippine forests, published in 
Volume III, contains data of great interest not only to lumber- 
men, but also to the public in general. More than half of the 
total area of the Archipelago is covered with forest, nearly one- 
ninth of which consists of commercial timber. From the in- 
vestigations and estimates made by the Bureau of Forestry, 
it appears that the forests of the Philippine Islands contain ap- 
proximately 200,000,000,000 board feet of commercial timber, 
which, at the average price of ^3.50 per thousand board feet, 
is valued at ^700,000,000. In the report of Mr. Medina, all 
kinds of lumber for building construction and furniture, as well 
as secondary forest products, are described, and an idea is given 
of the various uses made of the same. It also contains data on 
the durability and strength of Philippine lumber, and other 
useful informations on forestry matters. 

From the standpoint of statistics, the taking of the Census 
of 1918 may be considered a success, in the same degree at least 
as the Census of 1903. This is not intended to mean, however, 



INTRODUCTION. 39 



that there were no errors on the part of the enumerators. Some 
of them, of course, made mistakes in making up the schedules, 
but these mistakes were easily corrected, either by the Census 
inspectors who revised the schedules before they were turned 
into the central office, or by the compilation divisions in accord- 
ance with rules prescribed by the undersigned, — thus avoiding 
the necessity of repeating the enumeration work. 

To carry out all the Census work, 17,275 persons were em- 
ployed, 192 of which were females, 12 Americans, 1 Japanese, 
and 4 Chinese. These figures do not include the employes of 
the central office, which numbered altogether 887. It may be 
safely stated, therefore, that the present census was made en- 
tirely by Filipinos. 

On the Census Day, there were 45 organized provinces, 10 
subprovinces, 829 municipalities, 88 townships, 2 cities, 213 mu- 
nicipal districts, and 16,307 barrios. The then Department of 
Mindanao and Sulu comprised the Provinces of Agusan, Bu- 
kidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Sulu, and Zamboanga. 

The total population of the Philippine Islands is 10,350,730, 
of which 9,463,731 are Christians, while 886,999 are recorded 
as non-Christians. Comparing these figures with those of the 
1903 Census, it will appear that the total population has in- 
creased 35,6 per cent, and while the Christian population shows 
an increase of 35.4 per cent, the non-Christians have increased 
36.9 per cent. 

The Director of the Census of 1903, in describing the charac- 
teristics of the Christian Filipinos, says among other things: 

It may be said that the Filipinos are generally subordinate 
to lawful authority, that, under competent officers, they make 
excellent soldiers, and will, in the course of time, it is believed, 
make good citizens. In fact, it is not too much to expect that, 
under the guidance of a free, just, and generous Government, 
the establishment of more rapid and frequent means of com- 
munication, whereby they can be brought into more frequent 
contact with each other, and, with the general spread of educa- 
tion, the tribal distinctions which now exist will gradually dis- 
appear and the Filipinos will become a numerous and homo- 
geneous, English-speaking race, exceeding in intelligence and 
capacity all other people of the Tropics. 

Certainly, the Filipinos have demonstrated during the Amer- 
ican regime that they are good citizens, love peace and order, 
and profess high ideals of progress and justice. 

The increasing transportation facilities are doing untold 
good to the people of the Islands. People from various parts 



40 INTRODUCTION. 



of the country are often seen to commingle and enjoy themselves 
without in the least taking into account their place of origin. 
They consider themselves as Filipinos, and are proud to bear 
this distinctive national appellation. The people are becoming 
united as they become better acquainted with themselves and 
each other and realize their common interest and ethnic affin- 
ities, which are a potent factor in a united and strong Filipino 
people. The sectional pride of the people is subordinate to their 
national consciousness. In order to have the proper internal 
improvements, sectional or local pride is necessary, but far 
from being a disturbing element, it is, as in the United States 
and other enlightened countries, a powerful stimulus for friendly 
and healthy competition to accomplish the best results in any 
given line of work. 

The forces of democracy and equality have been at work in 
the Islands since the time of Burgos and even long before. 
Now the Filipino watches that his rights as a free citizen are 
not trampled upon and that he does not infringe upon those 
of other people. It is true that he still falls short of some of 
his rights and duties, but what he has accomplished makes us 
hope that he will continue to advance towards his goal, self- 
perfection. That the great majority of the people are thrifty, 
ambitious, and hardworking, is a fact substantiated by the 
census data gathered from the schedules of Population, Agri- 
culture, Manufacture, and Household Industries. Were the 
Philippines inhabited by a superstitious people depending only 
upon the blessing of the saints, there would not have been a 
sufficient foundation for the work of the United States in these 
Islands; and the unparalleled progress of the Filipinos under 
the American regime, which has called forth the admiration 
of the entire world, would not have been realized in such a short 
period. It is true that there are superstitions among the Fili- 
pinos, but what country does not have superstitions? Here 
they constitute an exception to the rule. The Filipinos in gen- 
eral know that God helps only those who know how to help them- 
selves, and that they have to work in order to succeed in the 
struggle for life. Let it be said that those Filipino customs — 
acquired by inheritance or education — which isolate the indi- 
vidual and check him in his progress, have already been modified, 
and others will uijidoubtedly be modified as the spirit of inves- 
tigation and criticism which characterizes the present age, 
discovers other customs well in accord with the ideals of im- 
provement and perfection which inspire progressive nations. 



INTRODUCTION. 41 



The description of the non-Christian tribes submitted by Dr. 
H. 0. Beyer, and published in Volume II, is interesting and con- 
tains valuable information for the study of the wild peoples of 
the Philippines in connection with schedules No. 8 and No. 9 
of the Census. He classifies the non-Christians into three 
groups, designating them by the names of Pigmies, Indonesians, 
and Malays. 

The author believes that the Philippine pigmies composing the 
first group represent the remnants not merely of one, but of 
three quite distinct aboriginal races, the first of which is the 
true Negritos, or dwarf men of undoubted Negro affinities ; the 
second a straight-haired dwarf type of strong Mongol affinities 
which may perhaps be termed the Proto-Malay; and the third 
a hairy dwarf man intermediate between the aboriginal Aus- 
tralian and the Ainu of Northern Japan, which he calls the 
Australoid-Ainu. According to the author, the pigmy races have 
been considered as the most ancient inhabitants of these Islands, 
whose presence here is believed to date back to a time when 
the Philippines formed a part of Asia. 

The second group is composed of Indonesians. In later times 
numerous waves of taller migrating peoples found their way to 
these shores. These tall immigrants were of two quite distinct 
racial types. Those who came first presented certain marked 
affinities to the tall races of southern Asia, and this type is what 
the author calls the Indonesians. 

The third group is composed of the migrating people who 
came later. They were shorter and more Mongoloid, and for 
this type the term Malay has come into common use. 

The Malay race is divided again into Pagans and Moham- 
medans. The Pagans, by reason of their mental, social and 
economic characteristics, are considered semicivilized by the 
author. They are subdivided into four main cultural groups; 
namely, the Tingguians, Bontoks, Igorot, and Ifugao, — all dwel- 
ling in the mountainous interior of northern Luzon. Compara- 
tively speaking, the culture of the Tingguians has little in 
common with that of the other three groups, while the Bontok 
culture represents a relatively low state of type which reaches 
its higher development among the Ifugao and Igorot. 

The Mohammedans are divided into at least seven ethnogra- 
phic groups, differing more or less in culture and dialect, the 
members of which live almost exclusively in the Sulu Archipelago, 
the southern end of the Province of Palawan, and the Provinces 
of Zamboanga, Cotabato, and Lanao, on the Island of Mindanao. 
In regard to the culture of these people, the author mentions 



42 INTRODUCTION. 



traits and characteristics which distinguish the Lanaos and 
Maguindanaos more or less from other Moro groups. Their cul- 
ture reveals Indian influence. Their industrial arts and agri- 
culture are more highly developed. The more cultured classes 
are all literate in their own tongue, the Arabic alphabet being 
used for writing. They have a number of manuscript books, 
consisting chiefly of religious works, codes of laws, genealogies 
of the datus, historical works, books of magic, etc. There are 
a few printed pamphlets in the Maguindanao language. The 
social life and beliefs of these groups are interesting to know. 
The institution of polygamy and many other Mohammedan cus- 
toms, both good and bad, prevail among the upper classes. The 
older generation is firmly fixed in these customs, but the young 
people who are attending the public schools are gradually draw- 
ing away from them. Education and continuance of peaceful 
relations will doubtless lead to ultimate assimilation with the 
Christian Filipinos. 

The Moros profess the Mohammedan religion ; they follow the 
Koran and recognize the authorities of Turkey as supreme in 
religious matters. From the moral and religious points of view, 
there are many people who consider the Koran as a good book. 
The trouble is that in its application, the Imams and Panditas 
twist the meaning of the passages of the book and thus the 
people become fanatical and are led away from the truth. We 
have, for example, the practice of going juramentado, in which a 
Moro desiring to commit suicide is put under moral obligation to 
"die killing Christians." This has been imposed upon the people 
by the Panditas and other religious authorities as a command- 
ment of Mohammed. It is a politico-religious custom, the origin 
of which may be traced to the intolerance and hatred which 
formerly appeared to have existed between Christians and Moros, 
and which was made use of by the Panditas to persuade certain 
Moros to "die killing Christians." 

The establishment, however, of civil government in Mindanao- 
Sulu in 1914, under the able and wise administration of Governor 
Carpenter, who inaugurated and pursued a policy which reached 
the hearts of the Mindanao-Sulu people, and especially of the 
Moros, resulted in far-reaching reforms. Considering the past 
history of these Islands, it is almost incredible that such results 
have become possible. The majority of the non-Christians in 
the interior of Mindanao-Sulu have changed their manner of 
dressing and have adopted the garb of the Christians, whom 
they are endeavoring to imitate as much as possible, mingling 



INTRODUCTION. 43 



with them in their work, and assisting in maintaining law and 
order. The Moros have also changed a great deal; the jura- 
mentado is practically a thing of the past; they show greater 
religious tolerance and a high sense of responsibility; they co- 
operate in every way possible with the Christians and the Gov- 
ernment authorities in the maintenance of a government of 
law and order, and do everything they can to identify themselves 
with their Christian brothers. For this reason more great and 
beneficial changes have been accomplished in the last five years, 
in moral, social, and political respects, as well as in the material 
development of the people, than had been accomplished for sev- 
eral centuries past. This progress is principally due to the 
efforts of the Philippine Legislature, which furnished the De- 
partment of Mindanao and Sulu with large annual appropria- 
tions and thus helped to make the policy inaugurated by Governor 
Carpenter a success. 

A similar course should be adopted in order to promote the 
cause of civilization among the non-Christian Indonesians and 
Malays inhabiting the high mountains in the north of Luzon. 
We agree with Dr. Beyer in his opinion that these inhabitants 
of the Philippines are a semi-civilized people, with the exception 
of the Tingguians who live in the townships and rancheynas of 
the Provinces of Abra, the two Ilocos, Nueva Ecija, and Pan- 
gasinan, and whose culture is of a lower grade than that of 
their Christian brothers. 

These semi-civilized people, however, may be said to have 
an idea of justice and property and to be law-abiding and in- 
dustrious people. As to agriculture, their terraced fields show 
perfect workmanship and are a wonder because of the tre- 
mendous labor involved in their construction. The fact is 
that the mental make-up of the people of the mountains of 
Northern Luzon, be they Igorot, Ifugao or Kalinga, is confined 
within the narrow limits of the simple ethics of the family clan, 
where mutual protection is a duty; where any wrong done to 
one of the members is considered as an offence against the 
community itself, since the organization is weakened by it. For 
this reason it is by no means astonishing that their customs, 
morals, mode of living, and notions of justice differ widely from 
those of other Filipinos who have, for a considerable length of 
time, lived under the civilizing influence of Christianity. We 
entertain no doubt regarding their capability of attaining social 
and moral betterment. All that is needed is to adopt such meas- 
ures, governmental, administrative, and others, as will tend to 



44 INTRODUCTION. 



improve their habits and bring about their assimilation. Certain 
Christian missions, like that of the Belgian Fathers, the Epis- 
copalians, the United Brethren and others, are doing wonderful 
work in this direction. It would be desirable that action be 
taken by the Legislature extending to the people of the Mountain 
Province and Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, and Abra the same finan- 
cial aid that was given to the late Department of Mindanao and 
Sulu, for the continued promotion of their progress through the 
opening of new roads connecting those provinces, and the es- 
tablishment of schools even in the remotest rancherias of the 
Igorot. 

The pigmies, commonly known as Negritos, regarding whom 
little hope of their becoming civilized is entertained, may yet 
be induced to adopt the modern social life, if they can be obliged 
to live in communities near the municipalities, in the mountains 
of which they are now scattered, and if they can be given the 
necessary assistance until they shall have become independent 
and self-supporting, after having been trained to habits of work 
and order and taught useful knowledge and the practice of civic 
duties. 

Census Schedule No. 2 contains the necessary data to show 
the condition of agriculture in the Philippines and is similar to 
the schedule for agriculture of the Census of 1903. The sched- 
ule of 1918, however, embodies additional questions which were 
considered necessary for the study of measures tending to facil- 
itate land registration, prevent the consummation of usurious 
contracts, which are detrimental to the development of agri- 
culture and, lastly, locate those provinces where irrigation sys- 
tems ought to be established. Schedule No. 2 was filled in by 
regular enumerators, with the assistance of other enumerators 
especially appointed in cases where the great number of farms 
required it. It was not an easy thing to enumerate the farms, 
due to the fact that the great majority of our farmers do not 
keep records of their properties and products. It was neces- 
sary to furnish the enumerators with a list of the average 
production per hectare of rice, corn, tobacco, sugar cane, etc., 
and the average number of fruits per tree of the most important 
fruit-bearing trees, to be used as memorandum for the farmers 
in case of doubt. Likewise, it was necessary to secure from 
the municipal treasurers, before the taking of the census, a 
list of the declarations of rural and urban property submitted 
by the owners or tenants of the land, wherein the area of the 
property is stated, so that the enumerators, with the aid of 



INTRODUCTION. 45 



said list, could solve any doubt regarding the area of land to 
be enumerated. 

This shows that the Census Office adopted all reasonable meas- 
ures to guarantee the accuracy of the data collected by the 
enumerators. It is not strange, however, to find mistakes made 
by enumerators, for reasons easy to ^mderstand, in collecting 
data regarding products, though these errors were properly 
corrected in the Central Office in accordance with the instruc- 
tions of the undersigned, based on the average of products ob- 
tained by the Bureaus of Science and Agriculture. We can, 
therefore, state that the Census contains exact data on agricul- 
ture. No reference to public lands was made in the Census 
of 1903, due, perhaps, to the difficulties then existing to gather 
the necessary data. The present Census, which combines the 
data collected by the enumerators and the results of surveys 
made by the Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey, Bureau of 
Lands, and Bureau of Forestry, contains a table which gives 
29,629,600 hectares as the approximate area of the Philippine 
Islands, distributed as follows: Of private lands, there were 
4,563,723 hectares, of which 2,415,778 were under cultivation, 
while the rest was not cultivated. The public lands are clas- 
sified into forest of commercial value, 16,609,108 hectares; 
forest of non-commercial value, 2,096,985 ; cogon and open land, 
4,553,049 hectares; mangroves, 262,633 hectares; unexplored 
land, 1,541,245 hectares. 

Comparing the total number of farms in 1918 with that of 
the Census of 1903, it appears that 1,955,276 farms were enu- 
merated in 1918, while only 815,453 farms were registered 
in 1903.^ As regards the area under cultivation, the statistics 
of 1918 show 2,415,778 hectares, as against 1,298,845 in the 
Census of 1903. 

The average area of farms in the Islands in 1918 was 2.33 
hectares, as against 3.47 hectares in 1903, which shows that in 
1918 there was a greater division of property. 

Out of the 1,955,276 farms, 1,946,580 were owned by Fili- 
pinos, 2,678 by Americans, 949 by Europeans, 1,612 by Asiatics, 
and 3, 457. loy other nationalities. As to the extent of irrigation, 
there were 458,747 farms irrigated with natural current and 
13,247 with forced flow ; the rest of the farms were not irrigated. 

' In the Census of 1918, any piece of land not less than 200 square meters 
devoted to agriculture is considered as a "farm," while in the Census of 
1903, any agricultural holding regardless of size was considered as a 
"^arm." 



46 INTRODUCTION. 



As to encumbrances, there were 26,612 farms encumbered or 
mortgaged, and 6,917 sold with right to repurchase, while 
1,921,749 were entirely free from encumbrance. 

The agricultural wealth of the Philippines is shown in the 
tables published in Volume III of the Census. The principal 
products are abaca, coconuts, from which copra is made, sugar- 
cane, tobacco, rice, and corn. The production of these articles in 
1918, compared with that of 1903, shows a considerable increase, 
as may be seen in the comparative tables. Considering one of 
the most important products, as rice, for instance, it will be 
seen that there is a general increase of it in all provinces, Pan- 
gasinan taking the lead with an increase of 596 per- cent over the 
production of the Census of 1903. Regarding sugar cane, there 
is no way of making a fair comparison of the 1918 Census with 
that of 1903, because this Census gives indiscriininately the 
total production of manufactured sugar and cane sugar by prov- 
inces, while the present Census gives separately the production 
of cane and that of manufactured sugar, but there is no doubt 
that all sugar producing provinces have increased their cane 
production. The increase of the production of corn is noticeable 
in all provinces with a maximum increase of 308.61 per cent 
over the production of 1903. The provinces which have the 
greatest production of this grain are Cebu, Isabela, Bohol, Leyte. 
Misamis, and Cagayan. The existence of many oil factories is 
a clear indication of the ever-increasing production of coconuts ; 
these factories having been but recently established in the Phil- 
ippines, have exported a considerable amount of oil according to 
the statistics of the last few years. Abaca also shows a con- 
siderable increase of production; the provinces of Agusan, Ba- 
tangas, Bukidnon, Cotabato, and Bataan, which had no produc- 
tion in the Census of 1903, in the present Census show a 
production of from 2,900 kilos for Bataan, to 4,452,484 for 
Agusan. 

The Census data on large cattle show the possibilities of this 
country so far as stock breeding is concerned. At present the 
shortage of work animals is one of the principal difficulties 
encountered by the agriculturists. For many years prior to 
1918, rinderpest had been reducing the number of our carabaos, 
which are indispensable for the cultivation of rice. However,, 
judging by the number of carabaos shown by the Census of 
1918, it seems that the efforts made by the Bureau of Agri- 
culture in fighting this disease are bearing fruit and that rin- 
derpest is disappearing. If this satisfactory state of affairs. 



INTRODUCTION. 47 



continues, the country will soon have sufficient cattle for the 
cultivation of its farms. The hope expressed by the Director 
of the Census of 1903 with regard to introducing mules and 
American cattle into the Philippines as a substitute for the 
typical carabao for agricultural labor still continues to be un- 
realized, and it is believed that it will remain so while present 
obstacles such as the high price of those animals and the suscep- 
tibility of the mules to surra and of the cattle to rinderpest and 
texas fever, exist. 

The remarkable progress made in agriculture shows that the 
Filipino people work not only to satisfy their present needs, 
but also endeavor to provide for their future welfare and hap- 
piness. This, however, is not intended to mean that the country 
has now reached the maximum of its productive capacity. There 
is still much to be done for the improvement of our agriculture. 
We should teach more agriculture in the public schools and 
should encourage the young generation to pursue this career, 
which is of the utmost importance to the progress of the country. 
We should extend agricultural education to all rural commun- 
ities by multiplying the experimental stations and thus facilitat- 
ing the diffusion of practical knowledge among the agriculturists. 
We should adopt modern methods of cultivation and use scien- 
tific implements, such as tractors, sowing and thrashing ma- 
chines; and it is hoped that with the emplojTiient of sufficient 
capital and labor and with the establishment of the necessary 
irrigation systems, the Philippines will be able to produce all 
that is necessary to meet the needs of the people. 

Schedule No. 3 of the Census of 1918, referring to schools, con- 
tains almost the same set of questions as that of the Census of 
1903. In order to obtain the information required therein, the 
services of public school-teachers properly recommended by the 
Director of the Bureau of Education were utilized. These teach- 
ers have unreservedly given their valuable cooperation in the 
work. It can be said, therefore, that the data contained in this 
table offer all the guarantees of accuracy. However, it should 
be noted that some of the figures in the statistical data of the 
Census of 1918 differ from those of the report of the Director 
of the Bureau of Education for the same year, due to the fact 
that the latter report includes only data up to the month of 
March, 1918, while that of the Census comprises data gathered up 
to the 30th of December of the same year, which was the Census 
Day. Attention is, therefore, invited to the text on schools, 
in Volume IV, where the necessary explanations are given re- 



48 INTRODUCTION. 



garding whatever differences there are between the data pub- 
lished in the Census and those contained in the report of the 
Burau of Education. 

It will be noted there that the present Census not only con- 
tains a greater number of statistical tables than that of 1903, 
but also its tables include the latest details relative to schools 
in the Philippines. The statistical tables demonstrate the great 
progress realized during the last 15 years, not only with respect 
to the total number of public and private schools, but also with 
reference to the personnel, Americans and Filipinos, of both 
sexes, and to the cost of school buildings, school sites, and land 
reserved for gardens, athletic grounds, and fields. 

Wherever a shoolhouse has been built, even in the remotest 
barrios, there are adjoining lots for gardening and the cultiva- 
tion of food products, besides grounds for athletic games, such 
as indoor baseball, outdoor baseball, volley ball, basket ball. 

The public school is the center of all social, physical, and in- 
tellectual activities. In it, the school boys and girls learn many 
things that are not taught to them in their homes, and their 
minds are revolutionized by these revelations. After finishing 
their studies, they apply the knowledge they have acquired to 
everyday life, with the results to be expected. They plant flower 
seeds about their houses, lead a more hygienic life, beautify their 
homes, and eat more nourishing food. They work harder in 
order to acquire the things which they have learned to consider 
as necessary and indispensable to right living. They sometimes 
act as teachers to their parents, brought up in surroundings 
devoid of good ideals, and suffering from the results of a limited 
and deficient schooling in the past. There are many public and 
private school products of this type, and as the years go by, we 
shall surely see them multiply, until their influence for higher 
ideals shall become a decisive factor. The Filipino is a born 
artist and idealist, and if his artistic temperament and idealistic 
nature are supplemented by a substantial education, as is being 
done now, thus enabling him to look upon the problems of life 
squarely and honestly in the face, there is indeed a great future 
awaiting him. Not only is the school population affected by 
the change of regime, but the Filipinos of the passing genera- 
tion have also shared and are taking part in its blessings in 
the way of comfort and noble ideals. 

The Filipino people have bravely responded to all the needs 
of the public schools by donations of land, materials, and vol- 



^INTRODUCTION. 49 



unteer labor for the construction of schoolhouses. Ninety-five 
per cent of the so-called barrio schools have been built by the 
natives, who donated the necessary land, materials, and labor, 
as well as the school supplies. The Philippine Legislature, on 
the other hand, has with the utmost liberality appropriated 
great sums of money for the Bureau of Education during the 
past years. The last of these is the act appropriating the lib- 
eral sum of ^=30,000,000 for additional expenses for the main- 
tenance of barrio schools and for the increase of the salaries of 
the municipal teachers. 

The Census shows that there are 5,720 primary schools, 508 
intermediate, 87 secondary, 178 vocational, 15 colleges, and 2 
universities. There are 17,172 Filipino teachers, 501 American, 
249 Spanish, 58 Chinese, 26 English, and 128 belonging to other 
nationalities. The total enrollment is 789,046. 

The enthusiasm for education is so intense that it has now 
become an increasingly difficult problem for the Government to 
give adequate instruction to the great number of students of 
both sexes who apply for admission to our public schools, colleges, 
and universities. Our young people, the fair hope of the Father- 
land, as Rizal called them, are anxious to educate themselves 
and conscious of their duty to promote the progress of the coun- 
try. They pursue all the branches of learning and take up all 
professions, showing everywhere, both here and abroad, that 
the Filipino student in general possesses, the opinion of many 
travellers to the contrary notwithstanding, great mental ap- 
titude for the study of the sciences and arts. 

For a long time past there has been a class of cultured per- 
sons in the Islands who have had the advantages of a college or 
university education. They do not differ in any essential respect 
from the educated class in other countries so far as influence 
over their fellow citizens is concerned. The number of educated 
people, those who have secured higher culture in colleges or 
universities, is rapidly increasing. The privileges of education 
are now available not only to those who can afl'ord to pay for 
it, but also to the poor. The Philippine Government showed 
great foresight when it provided for the education of hundreds 
of Filipino students in American universities, and it is to be 
hoped that this policy will be continued until a sufficient number 
of specialists in the different branches of learning shall have 
been secured. 

Besides the official institutions established in the Islands, there 

171073 4 



50 INTRODUCTION. 



are some religious and a few non-sectarian schools, which are 
doing their part to impart higher culture to both men and 
women. The old University of Santo Tomas, older than the 
oldest university in the United States, has sent out into the world 
many of the principal leaders of the country in the political, 
judicial, and social life of the people. The Jesuit and Dominican 
Colleges have also done work along these lines. The well-known 
Silliman Institute in Dumaguete, the Liceo de Manila, the Ateneo 
de Manila, the National Academy, the Instituto de Manila, San 
Juan de Letran, the Philippine Law School, the National Law 
College, San Beda College, the Escuela de Derecho, the De la 
Salle College, and the Instituto Burgos, for boys, and the Centro 
Escolar de Senoritas, the Instituto de Mujeres, the Assumption 
College, and the Santa Escolastica College, for girls, are worthy 
of special mention among the private institutions, all of which 
exert great influence along educational lines. 

Schedule No. 4 relates to mortality and is found in Volume 
II. The data shown therein were obtained from the municipal 
registers by special enumerators. These registers are kept by 
the municipal secretaries, who are at the same time the cus- 
todians of the local archives. The law requires that except in 
cases of emergency, no dead body shall be buried without a 
certificate of death (Sec. 1087, Administrative Code of the Phil- 
ippine Islands of 1917) and likewise provides that "it shall be 
unlawful for any person to bury or inter, or to cause to be 
buried or interred, either temporarily or permanently, a dead 
body of any human being or any human remains in any place 
other than such as may lawfully be used for such purpose." 
(Sec. 1073, Ibid.) The occultations of cases and the surrepti- 
tious burials of persons dying from dangerous communicable 
diseases — resorted to mainly for the purpose of evading quaran- 
tine and other restrictive measures prescribed on such oc- 
casions by the health authorities — were practiced only during 
the turbulent period of the reconstruction (1900-1903). The 
strict enforcement of the provisions of the law above quoted, 
which provides a heavy penalty for the delinquent, now in- 
sures the recording of all deaths, except in a limited number 
of cases of undiscovered murder, homicide, or infanticide, the 
aggregate number of which must be so small that they camiot 
affect the general conclusions. The certificate of death at pre- 
sent in use in the Philippine Islands is patterned after the 
American standard and contains the following particulars, to 
wit: The name, age, sex, nationality, and occupation of the de- 



INTRODUCTION. 51 



ceased; whether married or single, widowed or divorced; date 
of death, place of death, cause of death when known; duration 
of illness; residence of deceased; whether deceased was a per- 
manent or transient resident of the municipality in which he 
died; whether the deceased had medical attendance, and if so, 
the name and address of the physician attending ; whether there 
are indications of violence or crime; the date on which the re- 
mains were interred, and the place of burial. 

The climate of the Philippines, like that of the other countries 
lying in the tropical belt, is enervating, but only in certain 
months of the year. The accessibility of certain places during 
this period — notably Baguio in Benguet, Silang in Cavite, Sibul 
Springs in Bulacan and Antipolo in Rizal — all within easy reach 
of Manila either by rail or automobile, offsets in a great meas- 
ure the nefarious influence of the weather and makes living in 
the Philippines more agreeable. Nor do the statistics demon- 
strate that the climate exerts a particularly lethal influence on 
the health of its inhabitants. The general mortality in the 
Philippine Islands is influenced to a large extent by the mor- 
tality in children under 10 years of age, but the mortality in 
persons of 10 years and over, compares favorably with that of 
the registration area of the United States. Moreover, the death 
rate among the Americans in the Philippine Civil Service in 
1918 is only 11.90 per 1,000. However, allowance must be made, 
for the fact that the majority of Americans in the Philippines 
are men in the vigor of life and that physical fitness is a pre- 
requisite to entrance in the Service. 

A relatively small number of the sick received proper med- 
ical attendance, as may be seen in the tables of mortality. A 
great many people living in rural communities cannot afford 
to pay for the services of a physician, usually living in a town 
many kilometers away. They are not entirely opposed to the 
scientific treatment of disease, but their poverty, sometimes 
coupled with ignorance, forces them to solicit the ministrations 
of the local herbolario. This is especially true in cases of acute 
disorders, but in case of a lingering disease, like tuberculosis, 
the people make sacrifices to secure the services of qualified 
practitioners. It should be borne in mind, besides, that the 
number of physicians in the Philippine Islands is far from being 
suflicient for the needs of the inhabitants. On the other hand, 
the attitude of the people towards the institutional treatment 
of disease has undergone a radical change. Where formerly 
they regarded the hospital with horror, they now flock to it, 



52 INTRODUCTION. 



bringing their sick, often only to be turned away for lack of 
accommodation. 

The general death rate for 1918 is 40.6 per 1,000 inhabitants, 
as against 63.3 for 1903. Influenza heads the list of causes 
of death; it caused in the aggregate 84,936 deaths, represent- 
ing a mortality of 897.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. As in the 
rest of the world, when the disease assumed epidemic propor- 
tions, the health authorities were utterly powerless to check 
its onslaught. This is the one epidemic disease that has defied 
all the resources of modern preventive medicine. It exacted 
its toll in thousands of lives and only stopped when the infec- 
tive agent naturally lost its virulence. 

Malaria and malarial cachexia follow in the list with a total 
of 37,703 deaths or a mortality of 398.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. 
Malaria is still endemic in certain isolated regions. The street 
ditches so common before the era of good roads, the cesspools 
beneath the back porch so prevalent everywhere, and the time- 
worn custom of keeping water in uncovered jars, have un- 
doubtedly contributed a great deal to the propagation of 
malaria-bearing mosquitoes, but education and the application 
of recognized hygienic principles and the construction of modern 
highways have reduced the prevalence and mortality from 
this disease. The antimalarial work carried on some years ago 
in the San Jose Sugar Estate in the Island of Mindoro is a 
standing example of what private initiative and modern sanita- 
tion can do. The success of the corporation as a business enter- 
prise became possible only when the place was made habitable, 
and as a result of this work San Jose is probably the most salu- 
brious spot in Mindoro to-day. 

Tuberculosis of the lungs has caused a total of 29,775 deaths, 
representing a mortality of 314.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. Tu- 
berculosis is eminently the result of the present social conditions : 
poverty and overcrowding, and it is significant to note as indi- 
cative of their awakening, that a living wage has become the 
battle-cry of the proletariat. While tuberculosis of the lungs 
is still one of the principal causes of mortality, the percentage 
of deaths from this disease has gone down considerably, due 
to a better knowledge of its causes and its contagious nature 
and due, also, to practice of the health authorities to destroy 
every known focus of infection. Then patients themselves, 
realizing the seriousness of their condition, yet reluctant to 
be separated from home and kindred, willingly submit to a 
partial segregation in their own houses, using separate eating 



INTRODUCTION. 53 



utensils and sleeping apart from the others. With the progress 
in sanitary education and the efforts of the Philippine Islands 
Antituberculosis Society, in intelligent cooperation with the 
Health Service, we may yet hope to control, if not completely 
eradicate, one of the greatest scourges that now afflict the Fili- 
pino people, and, incidentally, the world. 

Cholera and dysentery have caused a combined mortality of 
19,775 or a death rate of 209 per 100,000. Of these deaths 
7,320 or 77.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, were due to cholera alone. 
When it is remembered that the epidemic of 1902 caused a mor- 
tality of 2,000 per 100,000 inhabitants, the figures for 1918 
can certainly be claimed as a distinct triumph of modern sanita- 
tion. Indeed, the efficiency of public health administration may 
be gauged by its ability to keep down the prevalence of and 
mortality from epidemic diseases. To the improved sources of 
water supply — attained by the establishment of gravity sys- 
tems and the drilling of artesian wells — may be attributed the 
reduced mortality from typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera and 
other water-borne infections. 

Smallpox ^ has caused an unusually heavy mortality. There 
were 17,428 deaths, which represent a rate of 184.2 per 100,000 
inhabitants. The immunity conferred by the general vaccina- 
tion in 1907 has apparently been lost, and this in spite of the 
semi-annual vaccinations carried out regularly as required by 
law. In the years following this general vaccination, the mor- 
tality from smallpox was almost negligible, except in very remote 
places, in certain regions of Mindanao and the interior of the 
Islands of Leyte and Samar, where fresh vaccine could not 
be taken. 

Diphtheria and croup have caused a total mortality of 562 
or 5.9 per 100,000 inhabitants; they, therefore, constitute a neg- 
ligible factor in the general mortality. 

Leprosy caused relatively few deaths, considering the num- 
ber of persons afflicted with the disease, there being only 124 
registered for the year under discussion, or a little over 1.3 per 
100,000 of the population. This is due to the fact that the 
majority of the victims of this disease died, as usually happens, 
from other intercurrent diseases, notably influenza and tuber- 
culosis of the lungs. With the establishment in 1906 of the 
Culion Leper Colony for the segregation and treatment of the 
suflerers, much has been accomplished, and the possible dis- 
covery of a cure bids fair to definitively solve this important 

* Including varioloide. 



54 INTRODUCTION. 



health problem by restoring to society some 5,000 of its mem- 
bers and saving the Insular Government an annual expense of 
nearly half a million pesos. 

Beriberi caused a total of 17,689 deaths or 186.9 per 100,000 
inhabitants; 9,790, or 103.4 per cent of these occurred in 
children under one year of age. Infantile beriberi has since 
] 903 been recognized as a separte entity. It was formerly diag- 
nosed as alferecia. The local records used to report it under 
the head of alferecia or as infantile convulsions or infantile 
eclampsia. The works of Williams and Vedder, of Fraser and 
Stanton, Guerrero and Quintos, Crowell and Concepcion and, 
lastly, of Albert, have definitely established the fact that beri- 
beri is transmitted to the infant through the milk of the nursing 
mother suffering from the disease. Fed largely on polished 
rice, her vitality must necessarily be low. The diet consists of 
very little meat, largely pork, and vegetables. The prevalence 
of adult beriberi, especially in nursing mothers, is due, as has 
been found again and again, to poverty, faulty diet, and living 
in unsanitary surroundings. 

The principal causes of infant mortality are congenital de- 
bility, infantile beriberi, acute gastro-intestinal disorders, and 
diseases of the respiratory tract. Moreover, the examinations 
of . the milk of nursing mothers, made by the sanitary com- 
missions of the Philippine Health Service, with the proper 
aseptic precautions, have demonstrated repeatedly the fact that 
owing to the mother's impaired vitality, the milk was contam- 
inated with various pathogenic micro-organisms, besides being 
scanty and poor in quality. 

The real problem of infant mortality lies from birth to under 
two years of age. At very little expense domestic sanitation 
can be much improved and the hygiene of infants raised to a 
higher level. Much may be accomplished by educating the 
nursing mother, as the question of raising healthy offspring, 
while partly economic, is largely one of intelligent motherhood. 

These are, briefly reviewed, the outstanding features of the 
mortality statistics of 1918, and it is gratifying to state that 
the general death rate of the Philippine Islands for 1918 com- 
pares favorably with that of 1903 and also with those of other 
tropical countries, as shown in the report on Mortality. 

Schedule No. 5 has been prepared for the collection of data on 
social conditions, a subject-matter which is extensively discussed 
in Volume IV. Compared with the Census of 1903, in which 
the small number of public hospitals, libraries, and newspapers 
was noticeable, the present Census, relatively speaking, shows 



INTRODUCTION. 55 



remarkable progress in these respects. It is true that the coun- 
try does not yet possess what it ought to have, taking into con- 
sideration the number of its inhabitants, but there is a decisive 
tendency toward that end. The Fihpinos realize more and more 
the advantages of having their ills treated in hospitals, just as 
they grow more and more fond of reading, as a means of ac- 
quiring greater knowledge, and there is no doubt that the neces- 
sary action will be taken to satisfy these needs of the people. 
A sympton of progress not noted in the Census of 1903 is the 
establishment of centers of puericulture, public dispensaries, 
and charitable institutions, and the founding of cooperative 
rural credit associations, clubs, and civic organizations. 

The laboring class in the Census of 1918, compared with that 
of 1903, has also improved in some ways, though not in a degree 
corresponding to the high cost of living caused by the late Eu- 
ropean War. This was evidenced by peaceful strikes of the 
laborers and by the friction between landowners and farm 
laborers which occurred in some parts of the Islands after the 
taking of the Census. 

The growth of our national life has a great influence on the 
intellectual life of the country. It awakens the energies of 
poets, novelists, jurists, philosophers, historians, and statesmen, 
who, inspired by the same ideal, the ideal of the country, con- 
centrate all their energies upon the publication of newspapers, 
magazines, books, and pamphlets enriching Filipino culture. The 
work accomplished by literary men is in many ways worthy 
of notice. Their works, counting only those that are catalogued 
in public libraries, cover a vast range of subjects. Journalism, 
religion, sociology, philology, the sciences, literature, history, 
and belles lettres, all have been objects of study of the Filipinos. 

It is very difficult to estimate the tremendous progress made 
so far as social conditions are concerned. The changes for the 
better are evident everywhere. This improvement is not only 
an intellectual one : it is plainly seen in our dress, in our standard 
of living, in the houses in which we dwell, in the organization 
of numerous societies for mental, physical, and social recreation 
and culture, in the healthier and cleaner sports, in the efficient 
administration of justice, etc. The manifestations of improve- 
ment are manifold and varied. The political parties and meet- 
ings and the discussion of public questions also have their social 
aspect. The theaters where dramas written in local dialects 
are represented, help to bring the people together and therefore 
contribute greatly to increase the amenities of social life. 



56 INTRODUCTION. 



The diffusion of knowledge through the press has also greatly 
bettered social conditions. The average Filipino of our days 
reads or hears almost daily about the social and political ques- 
tions of his country and his views on these things are corres- 
pondingly broadened. The day is not far distant when by 
education, reading, and work, the working classes will reach 
the social and intellectual plane of the common people of the 
more advanced countries. 

The changes for the better are especially noticeable in the 
Filipino women. She has been and is being taught to be a 
good teacher, a solicitous nurse, a woman of society, and a re- 
sourceful wife. Not content to confine her talents to these 
lines of activity, she goes further and devotes her time and 
intellect to higher duties, studying pharmacy, medicine, and 
law. Before the advent of modern civilization she was already 
known as a loving daughter, a helpful wife, an unselfish mother. 
The present method of education gave her a broader view of 
life and greater usefulness to her fellow-beings. All this she 
acquired without sacrificing her natural sweetness and lofty 
sentiments. It is a remarkable fact, undoubtedly attributable 
to the Christian religion, that she occupies a most unique and 
dignified position in the community. Not only in the home does 
the Filipino woman occupy an enviable position, but also in 
society, where she is treated with respect and courtesy. An 
educated Filipino always yields the first place to her. She is 
considered as an equal by her husband and is generally the 
treasurer of the household. Her obedience and unselfish love 
for her husband and family give weight to her opinion on mat- 
ters aff'ecting the household and even the business or profession 
of her husband. In this connection we may say that the Fili- 
pino family is founded on love sanctified by Christian teaching, 
which produces the sublime sentiments of self-denial, protec- 
tion, and gratitude that are the basis of the juridical relations 
between husband and wife and parent and child. 

Another indication of prosperity which the Census reveals is 
the fact that the provinces of the Archipelago are self-support- 
ing, except a few, some of which are of recent creation and will 
need help until they are able to standardize the public taxes. 
However, generally speaking, it is interesting to note that the 
general income of the Insular, provincial, and municipal govern- 
ments all over the Islands, aggregating 1*98,387,749.27, is suf- 
ficient to cover their general expenditures, amounting to 
^91,830,064.01, which leaves a surplus of ^6,557,685.26. All 



INTRODUCTION. 57 



these facts go to prove the stability of these political organ- 
izations. 

Schedule No. 6, on "Manufactures," is set aside for the enu- 
meration of manufacturing establishments of all kinds which 
have produced one thousand pesos or more during the year 1918. 
The result of the present Census, compared with that of 1903, 
shows a really encouraging state of prosperity in this respect. 

When the Census was taken, there were 5,239 factories and 
industrial establishments in the Archipelago, excluding sugar 
and rice mills. The total capital invested in real and personal 
property was ^=164,745, 868.27. The cost of production amounted 
to ^188,943,637. 17. The monthly average number of laborers 
was 70,329. The total monthly average of wages and salaries 
was ^=2,195,183.06, and the value of the aggregate production 
f»=230,485,666.11, which represents a profit of 25 per cent. 

There were 2,663 sugar mills, with a capital of ^52,407,514.09 ; 
the cost of production was ?=21, 837,596.71 ; the monthly average 
number of laborers, 70,722 ; the total monthly average of salaries, 
f=l,406,800.63; and the total value of production ^=82,145,961.59, 
which shows a profit of 115 per cent. There were 452 rice 
mills, with a capital of 1*5,320,209.37; cost of production, 
^3,396, 437. 84; monthly average number of laborers, 2,414; 
total monthly average of salaries, ?=68,895.40 ; total value of pro- 
duction, ^=43,462,805,46, which shows profits amounting to 
753 per cent. These profits which seem to be quite excessive 
are really not so, as one must remember that the cost of produc- 
tion does not include the value of the raw material, the rice. 

In the year 1918, when the Census was taken, there were, 
therefore, altogether, 8,354 manufacturing establishments in the 
Islands, with an aggregate capital investment of ^222,473,591.73 ; 
^214,177,671.72 of expenditures; a total value of production of 
f»=356,094,433.16, and an average profit of 63 per cent. The 
monthly average number of laborers was 143,465 and the total 
monthly average of salaries f*=3,670,879.09. 

We shall now proceed to state the various manufacturing and 
important industrial establishments in the order of their im- 
portance, giving the number of establishments, the capital in- 
vested, the cost of production, the monthly average number of 
laborers, the total monthly average of salaries, and the total 
cost of production. 

By the number of establishments of each class : The following 
industrial establishments number 100 or more: Bakeries and 
cake factories; tailor shops; copra-drying establishments; salt- 



58 INTRODUCTION. 



works; native confectionery factories; fish and shrimp drying 
and salting establishments; slipper factories; oil factories; gold 
and silversmith, watch repairing, jewelry, and optical shops; 
carriage factories ; blacksmith shops ; shoe factories ; embroidery 
shops, and distilleries. 

By the capital invested: The establishments with a capital 
of 1P1,000,000 or more are — oil factories; gas, electric light, 
and power plants; cigar and cigarette factories; distilleries; 
sawmills ; shipyards ; abaca pressing establishments ; ice plants ; 
coal mining industry; iron foundries and machine shops; em- 
broidery shops; printing, lithographing, and bookbinding es- 
tablishments; bakeries and cake factories; salt-works; gold 
mines; shoe factories; gold and silversmith, watch repairing, 
jewelry, and optical shops, and hat and umbrella factories. 

By the cost of production: The manufacturing establish- 
ments which expend ^'l, 000, 000 or more for production, are — 
oil factories ; abaca pressing establishments ; cigar and cigarette 
factories; distilleries; sawmills; bakeries and cake factories; 
gas, electric light, and power plants ; printing, lithographing, and 
bookbinding establishments; tailor shops; soap factories; iron 
foundries and machine shops; embroidery shops; shipyards; 
rope factories ; shoe factories ; slipper factories ; fish and shrimp 
drying and salting establishments; furniture and cabinet fac- 
tories; hat and umbrella factories, carpentry shops, and copra- 
drying establishments. 

By the monthly average number of laborers: The establish- 
ments which, on the average, employ 1,000 or more laborers 
every month, are — cigar and cigarette factories; sawmills; oil 
factories; bakeries and cake factories; tailor shops; embroidery 
shops; gas, electric light and power plants; copra-drying estab- 
lishments; gold mines; salt-works; printing, lithographing, and 
bookbinding establishments; distilleries; coal mining industry; 
shipyards; slipper factories; iron foundries and machine shops; 
abaca pressing establishments; shoe factories, and fish and 
shrimp drying and salting establishments. 

By the total monthly average of salaries: The industrial es- 
tablishments which expend ?=20,000 or more for average monthly 
salaries, are — cigar and cigarette factories; oil factories; saw- 
mills; gas, electric light, and power plants; printing, lithogra- 
phing, and bookbinding establishments; tailor shops; bakeries 
and cake factories; shipyards; distilleries; salt-works; gold 
mines; embroidery shops; copra-drying establishments; iron 



INTRODUCTION. 59 



foundries and machine shops ; slipper factories ; abaca pressing 
establishments ; shoe factories ; furniture and cabinet factories ; 
repair shops; gold and silversmith, watch repairing, jewelry, and 
optical shops, and carriage factories. 

By the total value of production: The manufactures turning 
out ?1,000,000 worth or more of finished products are — oil fac- 
tories; abaca pressing establishments; cigar and cigarette fac- 
tories; sawmills; distilleries; bakeries and cake factories; gas, 
electric light, and power plants; printing, lithographing, and 
bookbinding establishments; tailor shops; iron foundries and 
machine shops; soap factories; ship-yards; embroidery shops; 
shoe factories; rope factories; slipper factories; furniture and 
cabinet factories; fish and shrimp drying and salting establish- 
ments ; hat and umbrella factories ; copra-drying establishments ; 
carpenter shops; aerated and mineral water factories; native 
confectionery factories; ice factories; macaroni, spaghetti and 
vermicelli factories; gold and silversmith, watch repairing, 
jewelry, and optical shops, and tanneries. 

Compared with the Census of 1903, the manufacturing in- 
dustries of the country may be said to have reached a degree 
of development never reached in former years. This is due, 
among other causes, to the increase in production, the oppor- 
tunities derived from the past war, the cooperation of Filipino 
and foreign capital, and, principally, the adoption of scientific 
methods of manufacturing. 

The analysis of the statistical tables made by Assistant Di- 
rector Epifanio de los Santos Cristobal is extremely interesting, 
not only to the public in general, but particularly to the manu- 
facturers, since his comments speak of the great opportunities 
which the country offers for capital investment in manufactur- 
ing enterprises. 

The enumeration of household industries, as shown in Schedule 
7, was made with the object of determining the condition of 
the small industries and of pointing out the means of promoting 
their progress. 

In the 1903 Census, industries with an output of less than 
?1,000 were not enumerated, but only those which produced 
■^1,000 or more. These latter are classified as manufactures in 
the present Census, while those producing more than ?=100 and 
less than ^1,000 a year are considered as household industries. 

It was a hard task to enumerate the household industries and 
the fishing industry, because the people engaged in these indus- 
tries generally do not keep books of account, and at the best 



60 INTRODUCTION. 



write down their notes in pencil in notebooks full of erasures. 
Moreover, the special agents assigned to make this schedule 
noticed that there was much fear on the part of the owners 
that the object of the enumeration was the imposition of a new 
tax. This circumstance explains why the data collected show 
little production, if not loss, in many industries. Nevertheless, 
we may consider that the data compiled by the special agents 
are near the truth. 

It will be noted that only the embroidery, textile, hat, and mat 
industries are to a certain degree well developed, the rest being 
in a rudimentary state. What the laboring class needs to pro- 
mote the progress of these industries, is organization and the 
adoption of modern utensils to improve production. Besides, 
there ought to be the proper division of labor in order to realize 
big profits. Judging from the figures in the schedules on house- 
hold industries, these small industries are only as a supplemen- 
tary means of earning a living, and generally the persons engaged 
in these industries devote but a small part of their time to the 
same. For example, fishing-net weavers do not always weave 
nets, but employ most of their time in some other work, and 
weave only during certain hours of the day and night. 

There were altogether 124,487 registered household industry 
establishments, which produced during 1918 1P31,352,458.74. 
The provinces that have the greatest number of these establish- 
ments are Iloilo, with 14,144; Batangas, with 13,411; Samar, 
with 9,780, and Tayabas, with 9,241. The industries regarded 
as the most important, because of their production or wide dis- 
tribution throughout the Islands, are the following ; Native fiber 
textile industry, native cotton textile industry, native hat mak- 
ing, spinning establishments, native wine making, etc. 

The fishing industry is very important to the country, because 
fish is one of the important foods of the people. The provinces 
along the coast are all engaged in fishing, and although thej'^ 
use more or less antiquated implements, this industry always 
yields profit to the people engaged in it. In the Philippines 
there are 2,107 fish-salting and fish-smoking establishments. 
The most important ones are in Manila and surrounding prov- 
inces, where there is a great demand and where the industry is 
really lucrative. 

The fishing industry is carried on by means of fish ponds, 
corrals, and fish nets. Fish ponds give greater profits and 
generally can be used the whole year. Moreover, they are 
not so exposed to destruction by typhoons as the corrals and 



INTRODUCTION. 61 



fish nets. On the other hand, the corrals and fish nets at times 
give almost fabulous profits to the fisherman. 

With the exception of sixty-seven Japanese fishermen residing 
in the city of Manila and fifty-one foreigners engaged in fishing 
in various provinces of the Archipelago, registered on Census 
Day, the fishing industry in the Philippines may be said to be 
controlled by Filipinos. 

The data on commerce and transportation, corporations, and 
banks, were taken from records existing in various offices of 
the Government, and there is no doubt v.s to their accuracy. 
The comments on commerce and transportation published in 
Volume IV were prepared by one of the officials of the Census 
Office, Mr. Manuel Sityar, formerly professor of mathematics 
and commercial and statistical geography in the "Liceo de 
Manila." 

The data on corporations, railroads, telegraph and post-offices, 
and roads are undoubtedly accurate, as they were taken from 
official records. The increasing business prosperity of the Phil- 
ippines is shown by the table of registered corporations, which 
numbered 1,534, with a subscribed capital of ?115,225,686, out 
of a total of ?=242,201,067. Among the mercantile corporations, 
those organized for the development of natural resources occupy 
the first place. The agricultural corporations rank second only, 
notwithstanding the fact that the Philippine Islands are an 
eminently agricultural country. This may be explained by the 
fact that agriculture is generally not engaged in by corpora- 
tions, for the reason that a considerable area of the land suitable 
for agriculture is owned and cultivated by individuals. There 
is no way of establishing a comparison with the commercial 
activities of 1903 on the basis of the table on corporations, be- 
cause at that time there was not a Corporation Act like the one 
now in force. 

As to the roads of the Philippines, it is gratifying to know 
the great improvements realized since the taking of the Census 
of 1903. The Philippine Legislature has authorized the provin- 
cial governments to double the cedula tax for the purpose of im- 
proving the roads, and this measure, coupled with the eff"ort of 
the engineers of the Bureau of Public Works, has resulted in 
the construction of many good roads and strong bridges, a large 
number of the latter are of steel and cement. 

At the time of the taking of the present Census, the total 
length of roads and highways in the Philippines was 9,595.5 
kilometers, of which 4,500.3 were first class roads. As regards 



Q2 INTRODUCTION. 



the total length of first, second, and third class roads, the Prov- 
ince of Pangasinan comes first, the Province of Cebu, next; the 
Province of Occidental Negros, third ; and the Province of Iloilo, 
fourth. The province occupying the last place has 247.7 kilo- 
meters of first class roads. 

The judicial statistics were reproduced bodily from the offi- 
cial records of the justice of the peace courts, the Insular and 
provincial jails, and the clerk's offices of the courts of First 
Instance and the Supreme Court. The analysis of these tables, 
prepared by the undersigned, appears in Volume IV. 

To mention the multitudinous details of the Census would 
be overstepping the limits of a report like the present one. The 
attention of the reader is, therefore, invited to the four volumes 
of the Census in which he may find interesting information. 

A careful study of the hundreds of statistical tables deduced 
from the Census schedules and the comments upon the same 
will reveal to the impartial observer the great progress realized 
by the Filipinos in all the phases of life during the fifteen years 
intervening between the taking of the Census of 1903 and that 
of 1918. I have examined all the data of the present Census, 
and in all I have found evidence tending to show that the Fili- 
pino people, as a race, possess the energy necessary for pro- 
gress. Their desire for betterment and perfection, constantly 
encouraged by their national aspiration, is manifested in all 
spheres of life. What they need are more ample opportunities 
to develop themselves completely as a people and a nation. 

In view of what the Filipino people have accomplished in 
the trying years of the past in the development of the country 
and the maintenance of a stable government, we sincerly believe 
that upon reaching their ardently desired goal, the independence 
of their country, they will maintain their place in the concert 
of nations with dignity and will demonstrate to the world that 
the United States, in carrying to a successful conclusion her 
noble work in the Philippines, has added to the annals of civil- 
ization what may, perhaps, be their most brilliant page. 

Before concluding, I desire to express to the small army of 
Filipinos who have worked for the Census my high apprecia- 
tion of the zeal and loyalty with which they have performed 
their duties. 

Likewise, I wish to convey, in the name of the Assistant Di- 
rectors as well as in my own, the expression of our gratitude 
to the Governor-General, Honorable Francis Burton Harrison, 



INTRODUCTION. 63 



to the President of the Philippine Senate, Honorable Manuel L. 
Quezon, to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Hon- 
orable Sergio Osmefia, to the Department Secretaries, Bureau 
Chiefs, Census Inspectors, provincial and municipal officials, to 
the press, and to the public at large, for the decided cooperation 
they have given us in the fulfilment of our duties. In terminat- 
ing our task, we are far from entertaining the presumption that 
we have produced a perfect work, but we do believe the data 
which we have compiled in the volumes of the Census are useful 
and necessary for the study of measures conducive to the im- 
provement of the conditions of our country. 
Manila, Mmj 17, 1920. 




Director of the Census. 



PREFACE TO THE ATLAS OF THE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



171073 5 65 



PREFACE TO THE ATLAS OF THE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



PUBLICATION. 



The maps in the following collection were prepared for the 
Philippine Census in the Office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
at Manila during the year 1919. 

The work of compilation of drawings and construction of litho- 
graphic stones was executed by a force of 12 Filipino draftsmen 
and lithographers under the supervision of Mr. John Bach. 
Each map is an entirely new compilation from the most author- 
itative original sources of information. 

The printing was done at the establishment of Carmelo and 
Bauermann, in Manila. Five colors were used in printing; 
black for outlines and names, brown for mountain shading, blue 
for coast fringes, rivers, and lakes; red for municipal symbols 
and either pink, yellow, purple, green, or orange for the land- 
areas. 

MAPS. 

The entire collection consists of 61 maps divided as follows: 

Philippine Islands, political 1 

Philippine Islands, relief 1 

Philippine Islands, forest 1 

Provinces, entire 43 

Provinces, halves 6 

Subprovinces 7 

Cities 2 

Total 61 

The whole territorial extent of each province and subprovince 
with all outlying possessions is shown in true relation across 
intervening water spaces, except in the single case of Albay 
which required the displacement of Catanduanes on a sub-plan. 

Three provinces (Tayabas, Sorsogon, and Palawan) are di- 
vided into northern and southern parts and are each printed 
as two maps. The two parts in each case have the same scale. 

The Mountain Province is shown twice ; once as an entire unit 

67 



63 PREFACE TO THE ATLAS. 

and again as its seven separate subprovinces on larger scale 
maps. These seven separate maps are all given the same color 
as the map of the entire province. 

On the map of the Philippine Islands each province is given 
the distinctive color it bears on its own provincial map. 

SCALE. 

The necessity of fitting all provinces, regardless of area, to a 
uniform size of page results in a wide variation in scale. This 
ranges from 1:305,000 (or 4.8 miles to the inch) in the case of 
Amburayan to 1 :2,113,000 (or 33.4 miles to the inch) in the case 
of Palawan. 

For several maps a diagonal position is used to permit an in- 
crease in what would otherwise be an objectionably small scale. 

The special map of the city of Manila is as large as 1:66,500 
(or 1.0 miles to the inch) while the three special maps of the 
whole archipelago are as small as 1 : 5,000,000 (or 78.9 miles to 
the inch) . 

DATE. 

Compilation was started in February, 1919, and printing in 
April, 1919. Changes in the organization of the administrative 
divisions of the Philippine Islands are so numerous and rapid 
as to seriously handicap map-making. 

After the map of Tayabas was printed the Island of Marin- 
duque was constituted an independent province. Also since the 
date of publication Act No. 2877, effective February 4, 1920, 
rearranges the boundaries of the Mountain Province and of 
Ilocos Sur and La Union. In this rearrangement the Subprov- 
ince of Amburayan entirely disappears while Lepanto, Bontoc 
and Benguet are subject to considerable change. Seven maps 
are thus affected. 

DEFINITIONS. 

Provinces and subprovinces are wholly divided into areas 
called municipalities. These are in turn subdivided into smaller 
a7'eas called barrios.^ Each barrio-area contains its separate 
town known by the name of the barrio; and as the municipal 
area is the sum of a number of barrio-areas a municipality con- 
tains a number of scattered towns. Legally the name of a 
municipality, municipal district or township applies to the whole 
administrative area, sometimes of considerable extent. Popu- 
larly, however, the name is more commonly restricted to the 

* In non-Christian regions the division is usually into municipal districts 
or townships while the subdivision is into barrios or rancherias. 



PREFACE TO THE ATLAS. 69 



most important town in the municipal area. This usage arises 
from the fact that this town as a rule gives its name to the 
municipality and hence does not have any distinct barrio-name. 
When considered as a barrio it is merely called the poblacion. 
As the scale of the maps is not large enough to permit the 
delimitation of municipal boundaries it is necessary to follow 
popular usage and to print the municipal name and symbol at a 
town rather than over an area. Generally this town which 
bears the name of the municipality is also the seat of the local 
government ; but in this respect there are certain irregularities. 

Municipal districts frequently, and municipalities occasionally, 
do not have a poblacion or barrio with the municipal name, and 
hence the seat of government is at a barrio of different name. 
In such cases the red municipal symbol and the name in heavy 
type are printed at the barrio used as the seat of government, 
followed by a parenthesis giving the true barrio name in light 
type. In other cases there is a barrio bearing the municipal 
name but nevertheless the seat of government is at a barrio of 
different name. As in the preceding case the municipal name, 
symbol, and type are given to the barrio at the seat of govern- 
ment followed in parenthesis by the true barrio name, while in a 
different location will be found the municipal name repeated in 
light type but attached to a barrio symbol. 

Such cases are fortunately relatively rare. Most municipal 
names are applicable not only to the entire administrative area 
but also to the most important barrio and to the most populous 
town which is also the seat of government. Barrios are the 
smallest legally-recognized units of area. They do, however, 
contain a number of localities known as sitios. These sitios 
have neither definite boundaries nor areas. Some of them are 
not even inhabited. They are merely places or localities in the 
most general sense. When they contain small centers of popu- 
lation these group together to form the barrios, as the latter 
group together to form municipalities. In a similar way the 
barrio-name is applied to the principal population-group. 

The barrio does not present similar map difficulties since it 
usually contains only one important population-group and since 
very few sitios are shown on the maps. 

CONTENTS. 

The maps show all municipalities, municipal districts and 
, townships. 

. The barrio representation, however, varies with the scale of 
\ the map and the density of population of the region. 



\ 



70 PREFACE TO THE ATLAS. 



On large-scale maps or in sparsely-settled regions practically 
all of the barrios are shown, but on small-scale maps or in 
crowded regions only a fraction can be shown. Out of a total 
of 16,307 barrios, 4,998 or 31 per cent appear on the maps. 

The selection of barrios presented some difficulty since the 
population statistics for 1918 were not available during the 
map compilation, and since many selections had to be made 
solely from lists of names without adequate data to indicate 
the relative importance of the barrios. Space limitation also 
prevented the use of important barrios in crowded sections. 
The maps also show a few sitios in regions where there are no 
barrios. 

Provincial boundaries are shown carefully corrected for the 
latest information available to the date of issue. (See subse- 
quent changes in La Union, Ilocos Sur and the Mountain Prov- 
ince caused by Act No. 2877.) 

Besides the above political features all the natural geographic 
features capable of representation on the scale of each map are 
shown. These include the details of shores and islands, the 
principal rivers and lakes, and the main mountains and ranges. 

Mineral resources are shown with the geological symbol X 
(or two crossed hammers) at the locality of each known outcrop. 
The symbol is followed by the name of the mineral. 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DESCRIPTIONS. 

Each provincial map is accompanied by a short description of 
the salient facts of its geography and history; and by a brief 
table showing statistics of population, production, and public 
instruction. 

LIST OF ISLANDS. 

The Census of 1903 contains a list showing that the Philippine 
Archipelago then comprised 3,141 islands. 

This list was compiled by the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey at a time when modern surveys were just beginning. 
The enumeration was based on the best previous charts, although 
the information in many regions was known to be incomplete. 

The progress of detailed surveys has now covered the greater 
part of the archipelago and large-scale original survey sheets 
are available which have added thousands of small islets. 

For the Census of 1918 the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey has made a new enumeration of islands based on the 
results of its own surveys to the end of the year 1919. 

This list raises the total number of islands to 7,083. The 



PREFACE TO THE ATLAS. 71 

count is final within the surveyed regions, but is subject to 
some additional future increase when the surveys are extended 
to the Sulu Archipelago, the west coast of Palawan, the east 
coast of northern Luzon, and the islands lying between Luzon 
and Formosa. 

Of the total number of islands, only 462 have an area of one 
square mile or over, only 2,441 are of sufficient importance to 
have names, while 4,642 are small unimportant mangrove or 
rocky islets. 

The tabulation gives groups adjacent to the principal islands ; 
and an alphabetical list of names of all islands of one square 
mile or more in area, for each group. 

LIST OF PORTS. 

Following the provincial descriptions and maps is a list of ports 
used by vessels engaged in both interisland and foreign trade. 

The list is arranged in alphabetical order of port names. Each- 
port is shown with its province and with the classification as- 
signed to it by the Public Utility Commission. First class ports 
are provided with wharves and afford protection from storms. 
The majority of them are ports of entry for foreign trade and 
hence have custom houses. Second class ports have some limited 
facilities while third class ports are only open roadsteads. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL 
DESCRIPTIONS AND PRO- 
VINCIAL MAPS. 



73 



ABRA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 



This beautiful mountainous province, drained by \he volumi- 
nous Abra River and its tributaries, falls away from the western 
slopes of the Cordillera towards the coastal plain of Ilocos Sur. 
It is bounded on the north by Ilocos Norte and Apayao, on the 
east and south by the Mountain Province, and on the west by 
Ilocos Sur. It is shut off from the coastal plain by mountains 
except where the Abra River escapes to flow to the sea. 

The province has been considered the seismic center of north- 
em Luzon. The land is extraordinarily broken and traversed 
on all sides by mountains of the third order, hills and rivers. 
The bed rock is volcanic and igneous, overlaid by limestone, 
sandstone and by recent alluvium. 

The Abra River is the highway to the province of Ilocos Sur. 
It rises in Lepanto whence it takes a northerly course to Aguet ; 
from this point it flows westward through the Banauang Gap 
into the sea. In time of heavy rains the river rises quickly 
and as the gap is narrow the flow becomes so much impeded 
that destructive floods result. The current, even in normal 
times, is swift and traveling is difficult. Out of its entire length 
of about 55 miles, 30 miles can be traversed by bamboo rafts. 
It is along this river and its principal tributaries, the Sinalang, 
Tineg, Malanas, Baay, Saquet, and Magayepyep rivers that most 
of the towns and villages are situated. 

Rainfall is plentiful. During the southwest monsoons hur- 
ricanes frequently traverse the region. The northeast winds 
also bring hurricanes, accompanied by thunderstorms which 
are made more violent by the presence of thick forests. 

The drainage basin is covered with luxuriant vegetation. 
Corn, tobacco, and rice are the most important products. The 
mountains are covered with forests containing timber suit- 
able for construction and famous for hardness, durability and 
size. Of the minor forest products, rattan, honey, and wax are 
found in abundance. There is gold dust along the Binongan 
River, Lacub. Of other minerals nothing is known, except that 
traces of copper, coal and iron pyrites have been discovered along 
the Abra River. Of mineral springs only that of the Icmin 
River is known. This has a temperature ranging from 70° to 
80° Fhr. with a flow of 3 to 4 cubic centimeters per second. 

The people occupying the valleys in the west are Ilocanos, 
while those dwelling farther up the mountains are "Tingguianes." 

75 



76 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The latter group themselves into "rancherias," settlements, and 
townships, and plant rice, corn and sweet potatoes. They lead 
a semi-civilized life and display an aptitude to follow the path 
of progress. Greater and greater numbers of them are con- 
verted to Christianity and receive the benefits of school in- 
struction. In Lagaiigilang there is a school of arts and trades 
opened exclusively for the "Tingguianes," and there they learn 
with facility all kinds of household industries. 

Commerce in Abra is not very lucrative because of the dif- 
ficulty of transportation. However, there are a few good roads 
between the towns, that of TaHgadan, which connects this 
province with that of Ilocos Sur, being worthy of special men- 
tion. Horse trails are numerous, and rafts are floated along 
the rivers. The industry of large cattle raising is well advanced. 
The horses of Abra are well-known for their resistance. It may 
be said that this province supplies Northern and Central Luzon 
with all the carabaos needed for agriculture. 

This province has 17 municipalities and 159 barrios. Its 
capital is Bangued with a population of 13,895 inhabitants.^ It 
is located in the west central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The territory now belonging to the province of Abra was 
formerly included within the jurisdiction of the ancient province 
of Ilocos. When this latter province was divided in 1818 into 
the provinces of Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, Abra became a 
part of Ilocos Sur. 

The early history of Abra records nothing notable in the 
way of explorations. Missionary work, however, seems to have 
been undertaken among the mountain peoples of Abra from the 
early days of Spanish occupation. As early as 1598, Augustinian 
friars had already founded the town of Bangued. It appears, 
however, that after 1598 very little success, if any, attended the 
efforts of religious workers. 

The great uprising of the latter half of the eighteenth century, 
known as the Silang Rebellion, had its effects upon Abra. It 
is to be remembered that Diego Silang had willing followers 
in many parts of Ilocos. In Abra his chief lieutenant was 
Pedro Becbec. Becbec, however, later turned traitor to Silang. 
It was he who, in company with Vicos, caused the death of 
Silang. Silang's wife carried on the revolutionary activity of 
her husband. She gathered together the remainder of his loyal 
followers and fled to Abra, where she tried to arouse the people 
against the enemies of Silang. Here she was overpowered by 
a strong force under the command of Manuel Ignacio de Arza. 

The first half of the nineteenth century saw considerable ac- 
tivity on the part of missionaries. During this period there 
were established in Abra several important missions, among 
which were Tayum, founded in 1803; Pidigan, established in 
1823; La Paz, founded in 1832; and Bucay, founded in 1847. 

The same period saw the creation of Abra into a politico- 
military province. This took place in 1846. As constituted, 

' Non-Christian population, 282, not included. 



ABRA. 77 

the new province included what is now the subprovince of Le- 
panto and the following towns: San Jose de Manabo, Bangued, 
Tayum, Pidigan, La Paz, and San Gregorio. In 1847, Bucay 
was founded and made the capital of the province. In 1861, 
however, Bangued took the latter's place as capital of Abra. 

The effects of the Revolution were felt, just as in most 
provinces, in Abra. The moving spirit of the Revolution there 
was Don Bias Villamor. Through his initiative the principales 
of the province set up, about the middle of 1899, a provincial 
government. Leocadio Valera was chosen provincial governor 
and remained in power until Abra fell into the hands of the 
American forces late in 1899. 

Civil government was established in Abra on the 19th of 
August, 1901. In February, 1905, however, the province was 
annexed to Ilocos Sur as a subprovince. It remained as such 
until March, 1917, when, by the passage of Act 2683 that year, 
Abra was again made into a separate province. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 3,820 

Area of farms hectares.... 119,938 

Cultivated lands do 19,128 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 231,347 

Sugar cane tons.... 4,260 

Corn cavans.... 111,819 

Tobacco kilos.... 2,551,500 

Population '61,655 

Number of schools 101 

Primary 93 

Intermediate 6 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 6,778 

Males 4,549 

Females 2,229 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 26.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 1,274 

Production in 1918 1^246,104.48 

Number of manufacturing establishments 28 

Production in 1918 P79, 114.00 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

= Non-Christian population, 10,066, not included. 




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30 



AGUSAN. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Agusan, containing an area of 11,121 square kilometers, is sit- 
uated north of Davao, bounded on the east by Surigao, on the 
west by Bukidnon, and on the north by Surigao and the Bay of 
Butuan, the shores of which make the only seacoast of the 
province. 

Two remarkable features characterize the land; namely, the 
wide fertile valley of the Agusan River, including its extensive 
swamps and lakes, and the mountain ranges of the east and 
west. The mountains are not high, but they are covered with 
fine timber practically untouched, with the exception, however, 
of the region along the bay where a little lumbering is carried on. 

The soil is in general a rich deep humus of the greatest fertil- 
ity and holding a constant moisture. The weather is favorable 
to the growth of plants. The rainfall is very evenly distributed 
throughout the year. There has never been a drought or a de- 
structive typhoon in the Agusan Valley. Abaca and coconuts 
thrive well here. Three crops of corn are grown annually 
in some sections of the province. The climate is sufficiently 
damp, so that rice produces a splendid crop on the bottom 
lands without irrigation. Bananas, papayas and other tropical 
fruits are grown in great abundance, the famous Mindanao 
papaya attaining its perfection in the region about Butuan. 
The greater portion of this rich valley is an open grassland, 
where stock-raising could be profitably carried on. 

The numerous lakes and the extensive area of swampy land 
are sources of incalculable wealth. Choicest fish abound in the 
lakes, While nipa from which tuba and alcohol are obtained, 
and mangroves for fuel and tanning purposes, grow wild in the 
fenlands. These resources, however, have not so far been made 
use of. 

Gold deposits exist in abundance. Most of these deposits 
are found in the mountains on the eastern side of the valley. 
The location of these mines is favorable, they being near rivers. 
There are several gold bearing claims at present under operation. 
There is one waterfall, the Alalum, but its flow is not rapid 
enough to warrant its utilization. 

Agriculture is the chief industry, although fishing on the Bay 
of Butuan is carried on an enormous scale. Because of the 
presence of coral reefs along the seashores, the bay affords a 
good fishing ground. Sardines, lapulapu, pampano, and mac- 
kerel are fished here. The establishment of a cannery could 
be safely undertaken with the sufficient fish in the bay and with 
the constantly increasing market for the product. 

Butuan, the capital and most important towTi of the province, 
is near the mouth of the navigable Agusan River. This river 

79 



80 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

port serves the same purpose for the settlements built along 
Agusan River and its tributaries, as the town of Cotabato to 
the well-scattered towns of the Cotabato Valley. The produce 
of the land is floated on the river on rafts to the town of Butuan 
for shipment particularly to Manila and Cebu. 

The population is composed of Christian and non-Christian 
people. The Christian dwellers come from the different parts 
of the Archipelago. These daring settlers live a pioneer life 
in this productive, but secluded, valley. They live in groups, 
as the early settlers of the first thirteen colonies of America, 
so as to live a life of security in case of any depredation by 
their Mohammedan neighbors who outnumber them. 

This province has 3 municipalities and 101 barrios. Its 
capital is Butuan, with 9,790 inhabitants.^ It is located in the 
northern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of Agusan had its origin in the old politico- 
military comandancia of Butuan which formed part of the 
Province of Surigao at the end of Spanish rule. It was the 
territory included in this politico-military comandancia which 
in September, 1914, was established as the Province of Agusan, 
one of the seven provinces of the Department of Mindanao 
and Sulu. 

Late as was the creation of the Province of Agusan, never- 
theless it was one of the first places in the Philippines to be 
visited by the Spaniards. It is believed that Magellan touched 
there on his way to Cebu. About 17 years later, Francisco de 
Castro, a Portuguese, visited the same spot, baptizing the in- 
habitants of the place including the "regulo" of Butuan. Five 
years after the visit of De Castro, Villalobos appeared at the 
mouth of the Agusan River. He had come all along the coast 
of Surigao in search of provisions. In 1565 Legaspi, having 
received glowing reports about Butuan, also visited it. He was 
well received by Pagbuaya, the chief of Butuan. He left the 
town in April, 1521, after staying there for about a month. 

Missionary work was undertaken in Agusan in the early years 
of the period of exploration and conquest. Before 1600, Jesuit 
missions were already in existence on the banks of the lower 
Agusan River. In 1622, Recollect missions began to be estab- 
lished in Agusan. By that year the Recollects had ascended 
the Agusan River and established a mission in Linao, now Bu- 
nawen, a place far in the interior of Agusan. 

The settlements along the Agusan River suflfered disaster 
at various times. For example, the Moros in 1640 raided Bu- 
tuan and destroyed considerable church property. In 1649, the 
natives of Linao rose in revolt, and razed the mission that had 
been founded there. Later, in 1753, the Moros raided the set- 
tlements along the Agusan River and carried away some 200 
captives. That the settlement at Linao escaped was due to the 
difficulty encountered by the raiders in ascending the river. 

* Non-Christian population, 627, not included. 



AGUSAN. 81 



From the earlier days, Agusan formed part of the province 
of Caraga. In 1860, with the establishment of a politico-mili- 
tary government for Mindanao, Agusan, with the Province of 
Surigao, constituted the East District of Mindanao. This dis- 
trict extended from Butuan Bay to Caraga Bay. In 1870, this 
district was known as the District of Surigao. 

At the end of the Spanish rule, Agusan existed as a politico- 
militarj'- comandancia of Surigao under the name of Butuan. 
It was ruled by a military officer of the rank of captain. 

In 1901, Agusan was included as a subprovince of Surigao 
under the name Butuan. It remained as such until 1907, when 
the Province of Agusan was created by joining the Subprovin- 
ces of Butuan and Bukidnon. Later, in September, 1914, with 
the reorganization of the old Moro Province, the present Prov- 
ince of Agusan was established as one of the seven provinces 
of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. Its capital is Butuan. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 11,121 

Area of farms hectares.... 18,279 

Cultivated lands do 11,256 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 74,091 

Corn do 48,443 

Copra kilos.... 291,420 

Abaca do 4,452,484 

Tobacco do 123,486 

Population '38,323 

Number of schools 48 

Primary 20 

Intermediate 2 

Vocational 26 

Enrollment for 1918 5,751 

Males 3,360 

Females 2,391 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 28.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 43 

Production in 1918 f=14,852.00 

Number of manufacturing establishments 4 

Production in 1918 ^49,595,00 



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' One cavan equals 76 liters. 

^ Non-Christian population, 6,035, not included. 




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ALBAY. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Albay is the central province of the Albay Peninsula through 
which passes the long range of mountains which extends through- 
out the eastern part of the Philippines. The coast is very 
irregular, the most important inlets being Tabaco Bay and 
Albay Gulf; Rapu-Rapu, Batan, Cacraray, and San Miguel are 
islands north of the Albay Gulf. Reefs are found along Rapu- 
Rapu, but elsewhere the coast affords safe anchorage. Bato, 
Tabaco, Malilipot, Bacacay, Lignan, Rapu-Rapu, Puro, and Ma- 
nito are important ports. Catanduanes Island forms a sub- 
province. 

Mayon, Masarana, and Malinao in the east and Catburauan 
in the west are the most important mountains. The first is a 
semi-active volcano, well known for its beautiful, symmetrical, 
and perfect cone that rises over 7,500 feet above sea level 
and serves as landmark throughout the Bicol region. It erupted 
on fifteen occasions during historic times, the one in 1814 being 
the most destructive of all. 

The most important rivers are the Calaunan, Yana, Soboc, 
Ugat, Lagonoy, and Quinali. Those that rise on the slopes of 
the Mayon Volcano fall rapidly and could easily be utilized for 
power. The Caratagan, Mabano, Manlapoc, Burayan, and that 
lying between mountains Pinalayanan and Jalabong-tagotoy are 
the most important lakes. All these teem with fish, especially 
Lake Bato, between Camarines and Albay, from which they are 
taken in truckloads. 

The climate is one of the most attractive features of the 
province. The temperature is even, there being no great 
extremes, and the nights are delightfully cool and refreshing. 
Albay, being mountainous, is well drained and consequently there 
is very little swampy land, although the rainfall is heavy. The 
province is also rich in salubrious mineral springs, the best 
known of these being the Tiwi hot sulphur springs in Naga; 
others are in Cawit, near the town of Manito, and in Parian, near 
Camalig. 

The land is rich and well adapted to hemp, the greatest 
source of wealth, as well as to coconuts, sugar cane, pineapples, 
vegetables and rice. What little swampy land there is, yields 
nipa thatch and alcohol, industries that furnish work to a con- 
siderable number of persons. The forests are extensive, pro- 
viding timber, rattan, pili nuts, and gum elemi for export. 
Gutta-percha and Para rubber trees are extensively cultivated. 
The low hills and wide grass lands afford pasturage for horses, 
cattle, carabaos, goats and sheep. The island of Catanduanes 
will become the center of horse raising in the Philippines, for 
contagious diseases have never gained a foothold there. 

The Subprovince of Catanduanes abounds in gold, copper, and 
iron. The Batan coal mines which are being operated are 
supplying several manufacturing and gas plants. In Pantaon, 

83 



84 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

Albay, there are quarries of marble ; in Ligao, gypsum deposits ; 
and in Guinobatan and Camalig, lime. 

The people are reputed to be among the most industrious in 
the Archipelago, and commerce flourishes. Alcohol is distilled 
from the sap of the coconut palm. Sinamay and pinolpog 
(sinamay with the fibers flattened by beating) are woven for 
export, especially in Daraga. Pots are manufactured in Tiwi. 

Commerce has been greatly assisted by the good roads of 
the province and by the ease with which coal is mined at 
Batan and loaded onto vessels at the mine. Albay is the capital 
of the province, having a population of 53,105 inhabitants. It 
is located in the southeastern part of the province. Virac is 
the capital of the Subprovince of Catanduanes which has 6 mu- 
nicipalities and 95 barrios. Albay has 16 municipalities and 
391 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Little is known regarding the first exploration of the region 
which now constitutes the Province of Albay. It is believed 
that the brave Spanish military oflficer, Luis Enriquez de Guz- 
man, who explored the Islands of Masbate, Ticao, and Burias 
in 1569, also visited portion of Albay. It is probable, however, 
that Capt. Enriquez de Guzman's exploration was to a great 
extent limited to what is now Sorsogon. It is also believed that 
Juan de Salcedo in 1573 explored parts of what is now Albay, 
founding the town of Libon and visiting the neighboring Island 
of Catanduanes. 

At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards, there must have 
already been in existence several centers of population in this 
region. Albay, the present provincial capital, according to 
Cavada, was not formally created until the year 1636. There 
are, however, several towns whose foundation dates further 
back than Albay. Among these may be mentioned Camalig, 
created in 1569, Libon in 1573, Oas in 1587, Polangui in 1589, 
and Malinao in 1600. 

Until very recently when Sorsogon was made into a separate 
province, the Province of Albay included the regions now under 
the jurisdiction of Sorsogon. This whole portion of Luzon was 
known in the early days of the Spanish rule as Ibalon, although 
this denomination probably applied to what is now Sorsogon 
rather than to Albay proper. 

During the second half of the 18th century and the first 
two decades of the nineteenth, the population of Albay showed 
a great increase. The number of people recorded as living in 
Albay in 1755 was 28,469. This figure rose to 80,205 in 1799 
and to 106,333 in 1810. 

In 1818, the recorded population of Albay was only 92,065, 
showing a great decrease from that of 1810. This was to a 
great extent due to the destructive effects of the eruption of 
Mayon Volcano in February, 1814. As a result of this eruption, 
some 1,200 persons were killed and the towns of Kagsawa and 
Budiao were destroyed. 



ALBAY. 85 



In 1846, Albay suffered a slight diminution of territory. This 
was due to the partial segregation of the Islands of Masbate 
and Ticao which, in October of that year, were created into a 
comandancia politico-militar. At the same time, Albay ceded 
to Camarines Sur, Lagonoy, Caramoan, and Sagnay, in the Cara- 
moan Peninsula, in exchange for Camalig, Guinobatan, Maoraro, 
Ligao, Oas, Polangui, Libon, Donsol, and Quipia. 

By 1850, Albay had more than recovered the population she 
lost in 1814. This renewed growth in population was indi- 
cative of the general prosperity of the province at about this 
time. A great factor that contributed to the general prosper- 
ity of Albay at this period was the wise administration of 
Jose Maria Penaranda who became governor of the province in 
May, 1834. It should be remembered that it was this engineer- 
governor who built Albay roads, bridges, and public edifices 
and encouraged agriculture. For decades after Penaranda's 
enlightened rule the general prosperity of the province continued, 
so that in July, 1860, Albay was made an "alcaldia" of the first 
class. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, Albay for a while remained 
at peace. Later, however, like the Camarines Provinces, it came 
under the Revolutionary Government. During the last year of 
its resistance, Pawa and Belarmino were the prominent military 
leaders. 

Civil government was established in Albay on April 26, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,525 

Area of farms _ hectares.... 143,580 

Cultivated lands ., do 110,670 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans *.— 537,095 

Sugar cane- tons.... 6,743 

Corn cavans.... 6,764 

Copra kilos.... 3,630,788 

Abaca do 86,143,464 

Tobacco do 2,657 

Population 258,770 

Number of schools 308 

Primary 292 

Intermediate 11 

High school 2 

Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 22,676 

Males 12,997 

Females 9,679 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 40.3 

Number of establishments of household industries 4,304 

Production in 1918 ■P830,309.87 

Number of manufacturing establishments 62 

Production in 1918 ^485,236.19 



' One cavan equals 7B Ktera. 



86 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL DATA (CATANDUANES) . 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1,471 

Area of farms hectares.... 26,163 

Cultivated lands .-do 21,841 

Production in 1918: 

Rice ^.cavans \... 113,288 

Corn do ' 6,192 

Sugar cane tons.... 911 

Abaca kilos.... 3,066,815 

Population 62,975 

Number of schools , 51 

Primary 49 

Intermediate 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 5,187 

Males 3,152 

Females 2,035 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 28.0 

Number of establishments of household industries 274 

Production in 1918 ?=72,475.71 

Number of manufacturing establishments 10 

Production in 1918 ^=1,212,360.33 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 



ANTIQUE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Antique embraces the narrow mountain 
slopes, valleys, and coastal plain of western Panay. The 
mountain range which curves from northwest to southwest has 
for its highest peaks, Mts. Congcong, Tiguran, Madiaas (at 
the apex of the curve), Baloy, Nangtud, Sipang and Balabac. 
These mountains cut off the rains from the northeast monsoon 
and cause a long dry season such as is found in the Ilocos 
provinces and Zambales. However, the sea on the west and the 
forests on the east have the effect of tempering the climate. 
From May to June atmospheric disturbances are frequent. Be- 
tween April and July thunderstorms and lightning frequently 
work havoc among the coconut trees. 

The coast levels are nowhere broad since spurs from the 
mountain range descend nearly to the coast. The latter is low 
and sandy with many outlying reefs. There are no good har- 
bors. The port of San Jose de Buenavista, the capital, is very 
poor, although during the northeast monsoons it offers a fair 
shelter. Lipata and Pucio offer refuge to vessels during the 
southwest monsoons. The coastwise trade, however, is active, 
and many small steamers and sailboats ply between Antique and 
Iloilo. Salt making and fishing are favored by the climate and 
coast conditions. 

Batbatan, Maralison, and Nagus are islands near the coast. 
About 27 miles off shore are the Sombrero rocks, about the 
size of a launch, generally white and visible for a distance 
of 9 miles. The passage lying between these and the Antique 
coast is clear and free from all reefs. The Semirara Islands 
formerly belonged to Mindoro. They are low but mountainous. 

On the mountain called Cresta de Gallo is a deposit of white 
and colored marble of various grades. On Mount Sinocuestac, 
557 kilometers from Batnongon is a spring whose reddish water 
seems to indicate the presence of copper in the vicinity. 
There has also been discovered in promising quantities chromic 
iron or chromite in this province. Mineral springs are found 
in Aniniy, Barbasa, and Antique, all of which are hot and salty. 
There are a number of caves, in two of which are found birds' 
nests which the natives use in stopping hemorrhage. 

The soil is composed principally of clay and gypsum. Though 
mountainous in places, there are low fertile plains and well- 
watered valleys in the province still awaiting development. 
Sugar cane and copra are raised for export, and rice, corn, and 
beans for local use. Forest products, such as timber for build- 

87 



88 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

ing construction and cabinet work, pitch, gum, resin, wax, and 
honey can be found in abundance. There are plenty of grass- 
lands for pasturing cattle. 

Soil and industrial conditions in Antique are very similar 
to those of Ilocos. The people are industrious and hard workers. 
The manufacture of delicate fabrics from pineapple fiber gives 
employment to hundreds of women and the distillation of al- 
cohol from coconut sap provides work for many men. 

This province has 13 municipalities and 321 barrios. Its 
capital is San Jose de Buenavista with 20,750 inhabitants. It 
is located in the southwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Tradition has it that in early times ten datos from Borneo 
with their followers and slaves landed in Panay Island at a 
place called Sinogbuhan, near the site of the present town of 
Miagao, Iloilo. The Bornean immigrants found the place in- 
habited by Negritos living under the rule of the brave and swift 
Maricudo, from whom they finally purchased the island for one 
gold "sadok" and a gold necklace. Subsequently the island was 
called by the Bornean settlers Madiaas, after a lofty mountain 
bearing that name, and was divided into three "sakops," namely 
Hantik, Aklan, and Irong-irong. In latter times, Hantik became 
Antique, Aklan became Capiz, and Irong-irong, Iloilo. Hantik 
or Antique was placed under the rule of a dato named Soma- 
kuel, who became the founder of Malandog, the first Malay 
settlement in Antique. 

It is believed that the Spaniards found their way to Antique 
immediately after they had established themselves in Oton, Iloilo. 
Spanish influence, however, was not greatly felt until about the 
end of the sixteenth century. The one town of importance in 
those early days was Antique. 

Like the neighboring Provinces of Iloilo and Cebu, Antique 
suffered greatly from the incursions of Moro pirates. Especially 
toward the end of the sixteenth century and in the beginning 
of the seventeenth were these depredations terribly felt. The 
pirates came so often that it became necessary to build a fort 
near the town of Antique and keep a small garrison there. 

Antique was created into a politico-military province in 1790, 
out of portions of Iloilo and Capiz. The town of Antique was 
the first capital. Later, the provincial government was moved 
to Bugasong and for a while the province was often called by 
that name also. In 1802, the capital was moved to San Jose de 
IBuenavista, where it has since remained. 

The history of Antique in the nineteenth century shows a rapid 
increase of population. The following figures bear out this 
statement clearly: In 1810, the population was 89,325; in 1818, 
50,597; in 1840, 57,495 and in 1870, 93,010. 

In 1860, a general reorganization of the provincial govern- 
ment of the Visayas was decreed. The government of Antique, 
however, remained politico-military in character as in previous 
periods. It retained this status to the end of the Spanish rule. 



ANTIQUE. 89 



The Revolution did not make great headway in Antique until 
the year 1898. That year saw the evacuation of the whole Island 
of Panay by the Spaniards. Antique then came under the con- 
trol of the Philippine Revolutionary Government. For some 
time Leandro Fullon served as military and civil commander of 
Antique. 

Civil government was established in Antique on April 13, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA, 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,618 

Area of farms hectares.... 47,418 

Cultivated lands do 32,137 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 595,349 

Sugar cane tons.... 19,368 

Corn cavans.... 91,413 

Copra kilos.... 174,001 

Abaca do........ 528,390 

Tobacco do 51,450 

Population '154,343 

Number of schools 91 

Primary 81 

Intermediate 8 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 10,592 

Males 6,291 

Females 4,301 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 37.9 

Number of establishments of household industries 795 

Production in 1918 ^190,177.12 

Number of manufacturing establishments 10 

Production in 1918 'P28,219.67 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 5,301, not included. 



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ANTIQUE 

Area (Sq. Km.) 2,618 

Population 159,644 

Capital S. JOSEde BUENA- 
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Municipalities 13 

Barrios 321 

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BAT A AN. 



GEOGRAPICAL SKETCH. 

Bataan occupies the whole of the peninsula lying between 
the China Sea and Manila Bay. It forms the southern end of 
the Zambales Range, which terminates in Mount Mariveles, a sup- 
posed extinct volcano situated just in front of Corregidor Island 
at the mouth of Manila Bay. Another important mountain range 
is that of Samal and Orani, Between these two groups of 
mountains is a low pass dividing the province into northern 
and southern sections and allowing communication by trail 
between the east and west coasts. Balanga, the capital, lies 
north of this pass and the latter forms part of the track of 
the typhoons which sweep through from the China Sea. Mari- 
veles possesses an important harbor. Here the ships are de- 
tained and fumigated when necessary before entering or leaving 
Manila Bay. 

West of Mariveles is a quarry of white stone called by the 
Spaniards "marmol de Mariveles." This stone has served as 
material for the pedestal and column of the statue of Charles IV 
in Manila. A well near the quarry produces siliceous water. At 
San Miguel Point is another quarry. 

There are various peculiar phenomena to be found in Bataan. 
Northwest of Dinalupihan is a small conical mountain, 250 me- 
ters high, which has a fresh water lake at the top. In the neigh- 
borhood of Malasimbo are a few shallow marshes, the shores 
and waters of which are tinted red by dust said to be formed 
from the remains of microscopic animalculse (Galionella fer- 
ruginea) . Near Orani is a bed of iron hydride which the people 
of the region used to make into paints for walls and carriages. 
There are also deposits of clay of which "pilones" are made. 
There is also a large deposit of shells which are burned for 
lime used in the indigo and sugar industries. On the shores of 
Orani is a fresh water spring that rises from a spot covered 
daily by the tides. Near the town of Orion is a quaking bog, 
impassable by either man or beast. Another, smaller one, is 
found in Ogon, Balanga. 

The province lacks streams of magnitude or importance for 
navigation, although the Talisay River serves during the rainy 
season to float rafts that bring down timber and sugar cane. 

The eastern coastal plain, ranging from a width of 1 to 15 
kilometers, is the center of population. Along Manila Bay are 
many fish ponds where young fish caught along the western 
coast are reared. 

Rice, corn, sugar, and vegetables are the principal agricultural 
products. The nipa swamps in the neighborhood of Pampanga 
furnish thatch and tuba for alcohol. People of the eastern 

91 



92 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

coast are extensively engaged in coastwise trade and in bring- 
ing vegetables, fruits, and fish to Manila across the bay. The 
forests are a source of supply for local and Manila lumber re- 
quirements. Much bamboo and rattan is also exported to 
neighboring provinces. The open hills of Bataan are thick with 
the grasses called "lambo" and "lasa." When these are dry their 
seeds are removed and they are made into soft brooms for the 
Manila market. 

Most of the people that live along Manila Bay are Tagalogs 
and Pampangos, while those along the western coast are chiefly 
Ilocanos and Zambals. 

This province has 12 municipalities and 43 barrios. Its ca- 
pital is Balanga, with 8,141 inhabitants.^ Balanga is in the east 

central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Before Bataan was created into a province, this region was 
divided between the Province of Pampanga and the "corregi- 
miento" of Mariveles. Pampanga then included the northern 
portion and many of the towns along the coast of Manila Bay. 
The southern portion belonged to the "corregimiento" of Mari- 
veles which included the islands at the entrance of Manila Bay 
and a portion of the Cavite coast. This arrangement was 
changed in 1754 by Governor-General Arandia, who decreed the 
establishment of the province of Bataan. The new province as 
created in 1754, included the following towns : Balanga, Abucay, 
Samal, Orani, Llana-Hermosa, San Juan de Dinalupijan, Pilar, 
and Orion (from Pampanga) ; and Mariveles, Cabcaben, Bagac, 
and Morong (from the "corregimiento" of Mariveles.) 

Among the early Spaniards who entered this region were 
the Dominican friars who devoted their time to the conversion 
of the natives. In that early period there were already in exist- 
ence native villages which were subsequently created into towns. 
Among these early villages were Kamaya, Samal, and Abucay, 
Kamaya later, on became the town of Mariveles. 

There is a beautiful legend connected with the town of Mari- 
veles. A Spanish girl by the name of Maria Velez, who was 
a nun in Santa Clara convent, fell in love with a friar, with 
whom she later eloped to Kamaya, there to await a galleon on 
which they intended to secure passage for Acapulco. The elop- 
ment caused excitement in Manila, and the corregidor with a 
few men was sent to Kamaya in search of the refugees. It is 
said that in memory of the persons involved in this story Kamaya 
was given the name of Mariveles, the big island to the south was 
named Corregidor, the little island to the west was called Monja 
(nun) and another small island, off the Cavite coast, was called 
Fraile. 

During the first two decades of the seventeenth century, the 
coast of Bataan was more than once the scene of battles against 
the Dutch. The first of these encounters took place in 1600 off 

' Non-Christian population, 133, not included. 



BATAAN. 93 



the coast of Mariveles. The Dutch were commanded by Admiral 
Van Noort, while the Spanish-Filipino army was led by the histo- 
rian, Antonio de Morga, then an "oidor" (justice) of the Manila 
Real Audiencia. The Spanish-Filipino squadron suffered heavy 
losses, but the Dutch were nevertheless forced to retreat. Nine 
years later, the Dutch again appeared off the Mariveles coast. 
This time they were led by Admiral Wittert, against whom Gov- 
ernor Silva sent a hastily fitted out squadron of six small vessels 
manned by Spaniards and Filipinos. The Dutch were defeated. 
In spite of these reverses, the Dutch continued their hostile 
visits to the Philippines. In 1646, they bombarded Zamboanga, 
unsuccessfully attacked Cavite and finally effected a landing in 
Abucay, Bataan. Here they committed depredations and mas- 
sacred more than four hundred Filipino soldiers who had laid 
down their arms. They were not driven away until after a 
long siege. 

The history of Bataan during the first part of the nineteenth 
century records a steady growth of population. In 1799, the 
population was 16,654, while in 1818, it was 23,393. The figures 
rose to 39,008 in 1850. 

Bataan was one of the first provinces to rise in revolt. Later, 
when the Revolutionary Congress was called at Malolos, two of 
its staunchest supporters were sons of Bataan. These were 
Pablo Tecson, one of the Secretaries of the Congress, and Tomas 
G. del Rosario. Pedro de Leon acted as provincial governor for 
some time in the name of the Revolutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Bataan on March 2, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1,243 

Area of farms hectares.... 24,785 

Cultivated lands do 14,389 

Production in 1918: 

Rice eavans '.... 366,257 

Sugar cane tons.... 21,990 

Corn eavans.... 7,291 

Abaca kilos.... 2,900 

Population * 56,897 

Number of schools 31 

Primary 28 

Intermediate 1 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 4,413 

Males 2,616 

Females 1,797 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 63.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 422 

Production in 1918 P179,105.73 

Number of manufacturing establishments 58 

Production in 1918 ^=2,021,809.72 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

' Non-Christian population, 1,483, not included. 



ii;' 



BATANES ISLANDS. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Batanes Islands form the northern portion of the 
Philippine Archipelago, and consist of the Islands of Y'Ami, 
North (Inapanga) Nabudis, Siayan, Itbayat, Diego, Dequez, 
Batan, Sabtang, and Ibugos, the last four being inhabited. 
The northernmost island is 270 kilometers from Cape Engano, 
the nearest point of Luzon, 107 kilometers from the Japanese 
island of Little Botel Lobago and 160 kilometers from the south- 
ern point of Formosa, From Mount Iraya of Batan the For- 
mosan mountains can be seen on a very clear day. The Batanes 
are separated from Formosa by the Bashi Channel, which has a 
minimum depth of 1,009 fathoms, and from the Babuyanes by the 
Balintang Channel, which has a minimum depth of 95 fathoms. 
The Balintang Islands, lonely rocks rising perpendicularly from 
the sea, lie in the center of the Balintang Channel and form the 
connecting link between the Batanes and the Babuyanes groups. 
It is believed that in the pre-Miocene times this group of islands 
emerged from the sea as a land mass of considerable extent as 
a result of enormous explosive eruptions. This land was grad- 
ually worn down by streams to an extremely mature topography 
resulting in the formation of the islands. From the Miocene to 
recent times another great uplift took place which renewed the 
activity of the streams and the cutting of step caiions. Volcanic 
activity is still going on as indicated by earthquakes, but the 
land appears to be stationary. The growth of coral reefs is the 
only force that opposes the erosive action of the waves, streams, 
and tides. There are several harbors, however, which afford 
refuge for vessels crossing the Pacific. 

Sabtang, the southernmost island of the group, is extremely 
rugged, but to the northwest there is a strip of arable land. 
The western coast is covered with sand dunes that reach a height 
of about 100 feet. These have dammed back the waters of the 
interior and formed a line of small ponds. The southern coast 
is extremely broken. The principal ridge, Ceskid mountain, 
shows a remarkably serrated sky-line. 

The western part of Sabtang was affected by a gravity fault 
running in a southerly direction through Balintang to Cagayan. 
Later elevation and coral growth built up a limestone mass of 
which Itbayat, Dequez, and Ibugos are remnants. 

95 



96 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The topography of Batan falls into two distinct parts: the 
extreme northern end from Santo Domingo, which is dependent 
on the extinct Iraya Volcano, and the southern end which has a 
topography similar to that of Sabtang. Several hot springs are 
found near Mount Iriga. The island is traversed by several 
ridges. 

The Batanes have a short dry season from February to May \ 
and a long rainy one during the rest of the year. They lie in 
the track of typhoons which often destroy the crops and reduce 
the inhabitants to the verge of starvation. Because of the fre- 
quent typhoons, the people have built most of their houses with 
thick walls of soft stones. Except in a few regions the climate 
is healthful. 

The inhabitants of Batanes are different in race and language 
from those of Itbayat. 

The Batan and Sabtang people are considered to be of Malay 
stock, and those of Itbayat mixed Malayan and Papuan. Batan 
and Sabtang are overpopulated and the arable land is largely 
taken up, so that people emigrate to Balintang Island and 
to Luzon in considerable numbers. Deforestation of the ridges 
for purposes of agriculture has brought about great erosion and 
therefore the carrying of the soil to the sea. The principal 
products are root crops and cattle. The islands are free from 
rinderpest so that they are a great source of supply of cattle for 
Philippine field work and Manila slaughterhouses. 

The people in general are seafarers and the best pilots are 
the most important men of the community. Between Itbayat 
and the southern islands the currents are so strong that the 
natives of Itbayat are completely isolated. They retain their 
own language and peculiar art of basket-making which has at- 
tracted the Bureau of Education and supplied the American 
market. The island is reputed as unhealthful so that it holds 
out no inducements to immigrants and is largely given over to 
pasture land. 

Basco, the capital and port of Batanes Province, has a popula- 
tion of 2,338. 

This province has 6 townships and 19 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Batanes appears to have been well-populated since the early 
years. In 1687, Dampier, an English freebooter who visited the 
place, found the people living in organized communities and in 
possession of a civilization of their own. He remained in Ba- 
tanes for about three months. 

The Spanish government did not undertake to establish its 
authority in Batanes until about the close of the eighteenth 
century. There were various early attempts, however, to carry 
on missionary work among the natives by the friars. The first 
efforts to christianize the natives were made in 1686, when some 



BATANES ISLANDS. 97 

Dominican friars were sent to Batanes. But the work proved 
abortive because of the apparent unhealthfulness of the place, 
two of the friars having died. The work, as a result, had to be 
abandoned. 

Nothing further was done in the way of converting the natives 
until 1718. In that year Fray Juan Bel, newly appointed vicar 
of the Babuyanes, paid a visit to Batanes. The outcome of 
his visit was the establishment of a new mission and the assign- 
ment there of 25 Dominican friars. The new mission was 
established on the Island of Calayan, one of the Babuyanes 
group, Batanes being unhealthful to Europeans. To this island 
natives of Batanes were removed for religious instruction, the 
king being petitioned to bear part of the expenses of transpor- 
tation. The mission remained in existence for some time. 

But the credit of conquering the Batanes Islands and of bring- 
ing them under Spanish authority as a colony of Spain belongs 
to Governor Don Jose Basco, who in 1791 sent an expedition for 
the purpose of establishing civil government in those distant 
islands. Previous to that time Batanes had been abandoned as 
a possible field of colonization, the poverty of its soil and the 
frequency of typhoons making the place fit only for the culti- 
vation of camotes. The expedition consisted of an alcalde mayor, 
two Dominican missionaries, mechanics, and artificers. As a re- 
sult five municipalities were established and made into a district 
of the Province of Cagayan. For this achievement. Governor 
Basco received the title of "Count of the Conquest of Batanes." 
Moreover, one of the municipalities established was named after 
him. 

For a long time after the conquest of Batanes, information re- 
garding those islands was very meager. In 1830, Governor 
Pascual Enrile commissioned Peiiaranda to explore and survey, 
the islands. This resulted in the securing of definite informa- 
tion regarding them. 

At the end of Spanish rule, Batanes was a politico-military 
province with Santo Domingo de Basco as capital. As con- 
stituted then the province included the following towns : Santo 
Domingo de Basco, San Carlos de Magatao, San Jose de Ibana, 
Visita de San Antonio, San Vicente de Saptang, Santa Maria 
de Mayan, and San Bartolome. 

In September, 1897, Batanes came under the control of the 
Revolutionary Government. This government remained in 
power until 1899, when the Americans took possession. 

With the establishment of civil government, Batanes was made 
a part of Cagayan. It remained as such until 1909, when it 
was separated from Cagayan and organized as a special province 
with Santo Domingo de Basco as capital. 

171073 7 



98 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL DATA, 



192 



Approximate area square kilometers.... 

Area of farms hectares.... 8,529 

Cultivated lands do 691 

Production in 1918: , „„_ 

Rice cavans .... 3,347 

Corn !'"""'""'"'' do 16,515 

Copra kilos.... 1,701 

Tobacco do 9,450 

Population ^'^\^ 

Number of schools 21 

Primary 18 

Intermediate 2 

High school 1 

Enrollment for 1918 1,963 

Males 1,165 

Females 798 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 35.9 

Number of establishments of household industries 42 

Production in 1918 ?=10,652.66 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 



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BATANGAS. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

BATANGAS, situated on the southwestern coast of Luzon, 
borders on the China Sea, with Cavite and Laguna on the north 
and Laguna and Tayabas on the east. The coast is very irreg- 
ular, Balayan and Batangas Bays being the largest indentations, 
while Nasugbu, Talin, Santiago, Janao, and Coloconte Bays also 
offer good anchorage. Off the western coast of the province 
there are several reefs, but these present no difficulty to the 
navigator entering the harbors. The most important ports are 
Nasugbu, Calatagan, Balayan, Calaca, Lemery, Taal, San Luis, 
Bauan, Batangas, Lobo, and San Juan. Maricaban and Verde 
are islands on the southwest coast. The former is mountain- 
ous and forested. At Laiya off the coast between San Juan 
and Lobo are the famous Lobo submarine gardens. During 
fair weather the water is as clear as crystal and the submarine 
growth may be seen in all its varied colors and interesting 
splendor. 

The province is considered the most picturesque in the Ar- 
chipelago, particulary on account of its wide perspectives and 
of Lake Bombon, in the center of which is an island formed by 
the crater of Taal Volcano. Inside this crater there is also a 
lake where formerly there were three. Taal Volcano has ex- 
perienced several destructive eruptions during historic times, 
the last one being in January, 1911. Lake Taal (Bombon) is 
about 10 meters deep and 2.5 meters above sea level. It is 
said that formerly sea water from Balayan Bay flowed through 
the Pansipit River into Lake Taal, and boats could therefore pass 
into the interior of the province. Other mountains are the Ba- 
tulao range to the west of Lake Taal, Malocot, and Malarayat 
on the east, and Lobo, Bartolino, and Banoy on the south. The 
mountains on the west are covered with vegetation in contrast 
with those of the east which are almost bare. 

The climate is warm and humid though it varies locally accord- 
ing to topography. It may be divided into three seasons : first, 
between the end of October and the beginning of March when 
the north winds bring very little rain; second, between March 
and the beginning of July when the dry and warm south and 
east winds blow ; third, between July and October when the winds 
of the second quadrant bring hurricanes and typhoons. 

The valleys and slopes of this rugged country are extremely 
fertile because of the disintegrated volcanic rock that is carried 
down from the mountains by the rivers. Rice, sugar, hemp, 

99 



100 GEOGRAFHY AND HISTORY. 

citrus fruits, coconuts, corn, mangoes, and other fruits and veg- 
etables are grown in abundance for local use and (rice excepted) 
for export use. Formerly, coffee was one of the principal 
sources of wealth, but the blight has ruined the industry. Ef- 
forts are now being made to reestablish it. 

The forests cover an area of about 97,965 hectares. They 
are thickest in the regions of Santo Tomas, San Juan, and 
Rosario. Lumbang seed for oil, paints, varnishes, and illumina- 
tion purposes and lumber are exported. Great herds of horses, 
famous throughout the Archipelago, carabao and cattle are raised 
on the mountain slopes. 

The shores and lakes abound in fish. Lake Bombon furnishes 
a great supply although it is said that much of the fish caught 
therein has to be well seasoned to rid it of its disagreeable 
sulphur taste. 

The land is well drained by rivers and streams, the most 
important being Calumpang, Pansipit, Palico, Obispo, Malaquing 
Hog, and Bancoro. Outside of its mineral springs and sulphur, 
Batangas has no mineral wealth except some copper ore. The 
San Juan sulphur springs, the Bauan hot springs, and the Ro- 
sario fresh water spring are the most famous. Aside from the 
above, Batangas may well be proud of her caves and grottos. 
The two largest are found in the slopes of the Mount Pulan Suya 
and Camatingue of San Juan, one of which has an opening 40 
meters in circumference. Issuing therefrom is an underground 
river which connects with Lake Taal and flows through the 
Batulao range. Along its course are extensive galleries and 
chambers lined with fantastically shaped stalactites and stalag- 
mites; and at the approach of an eruption of Taal Volcano, it 
emits a weird sound, audible at great distances. 

The inhabitants of the province are Tagalogs. Bauan and 
Lipa are famous for the fine jusi and pina cloths manufactured 
there and for the knotted abaca that is sent to Japan for the 
manufacture of Tagal hats. Embroidery is a growing industry. 
Trading is extensively carried on and in each of the towns is a 
market for the sale of its particular products. 

This province has 25 municipalities and 552 barrios. Its 
capital is Batangas with a population of 41,182. It is located 
in the south central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards there were already, 
in what is now Batangas Province, large centers of population 
like Nasugbu, Balayan, and Batangas. Native settlements also 
existed along the Pansipit River. These settlements are be- 
lieved to have been in existence long before the Spaniards dis- 
covered the Philippines. In fact, according to tradition, the 
region now known as Batangas was settled by Dato Balensusa 
and Dato Dumangsil, two of the ten datos who purchased Panay 
Island from the Negritos. (See Antique.) It is believed that 
these two datos founded the first Malay villages at the mouth 
of Taal River. 



BATANGAS. 101 



Batangas was explored by Martin de Goiti and Juan de Sal- 
cedo on their way to Manila in 1570. From Mindoro, these two 
brave explorers crossed over to the coast of Batangas. Goiti 
went directly to and explored the neighborhood of Balayan, 
while Salcedo sailed up the Pansipit River into the interior. 
Rejoining each other at Balayan, Goiti and Salcedo then pro- 
ceeded to Manila, sailing along the western coast of Batangas, 
then known as the region of Tuley. 

The Province of Batangas was created in 1581, its jurisdic- 
tion extending over a vast territory including what is now Ba- 
tangas, Mindoro, Marinduque, and all the land southeast of 
Laguna as far as Camarines. The name of the province was 
then Bombon, or Balayan, with the capital at the town of Bala- 
yan. At a later date, the outlying regions were separated 
and Batangas proper became the only constituent part of the 
province. 

The name of the province was changed twice during the 18th 
century. In 1732, the capital was moved from Balayan to Taal 
and the whole province was called, from that time on, after its 
new capital. But in 1754, when Batangas became the provincial 
capital, the present name was adopted. 

Throughout the seventeenth century the coast towns of Ba- 
tangas suffered greatly from Moro attacks. During Acuiia's 
rule, for example, the Moro pirates committed depredations on 
the coast villages. Stone forts were erected at various points 
along the coast — in Lemery, Taal, Bauan, and Batangas — but 
still the Moros came. In 1675, they captured the town of Ba- 
layan, and in 1754 thirty-eight of their vessels appeared off the 
coast of Batangas. 

Another periodical source of danger to the people of Batan- 
gas was the Taal Volcano. This volcano, which from time 
immemorial the natives had looked upon with superstitious in- 
terest, erupted several times during the eighteenth century. As 
a result of its eruption in 1716 and 1754, several towns in the 
neighborhood were ruined. Its eruption in the nineteenth cen- 
tury did not result in so much destruction, but the most recent 
one was accompanied by heavy loss in human lives and property. 

In 1763, the northern part of Batangas was visited by the 
British. It will be remembered that an expedition under the 
command of Backhouse was sent by the British authorities then 
occupying Manila in search of the treasure of the galleon "Phil- 
ippine." The expedition which failed to find the coveted treasure 
went as far as Lipa and plundered the town. 

The history of Batangas during the nineteenth century was 
that of a period of economic growth. Coffee, which was intro- 
duced in 1814, became the most important crop of the province. 
From the time of its introduction into Lipa, that town became 
very prosperous. Lipa alone, in 1887, produced 70,000 piculs of 
coffee. This crop, however, subsequently began to diminish 
until it was practically destroyed in 1892. 

Batangas was one of the first provinces to start the Revolution. 
Two of the few great leaders of this period were sons of Ba- 



102 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



tangas, namely, the great lawyer and statesman Apolinario 
Mabini and Miguel Malvar, the famous general. When the Re- 
volutionary Government was established, Manuel Genato served 
for some time as provincial governor of Batangas. 
Civil government was established on May 2, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 3,289 

Area of farms - hectares.... 178,083 

Cultivated lands do 82,639 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 669,805 

Sugar cane tons... 253,936 

Com cavans.... 83,329 

Copra kilos-... 840,100 

Abaca do 1,131,748 

Tobacco do 35,945 

Population 340,195 

Number of schools 175 

Primary 156 

Intermediate 13 

High school 3 

Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 18,866 

Males 11,848 

Females 7,018 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 42.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 13,411 

Production in 1918 P2,596,728.15 

Number of manufacturing establishments 119 

Production in 1918 ^=872,247.03 

' One cavan equals 75 liters. 



BOHOL. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

BoHOL Province — the name was derived from the barrio of 
Bohol where the Spaniards first landed on the coast — includes 
the Island of Bohol and a number of smaller ones around the 
coast. It has an area of about 3,978 square kilometers and is tra- 
versed by mountains and rivers. The coast line, 161 miles in 
extent, is for the most part regular in form and where there are 
indentations, especially along the north and west coasts, the reefs 
make navigation dangerous. Between the shore and the island 
reefs, however, fine places for anchorage are to be found. 
At Tagbilaran, the capital, a safe harbor was provided by 
cutting a channel through the reef. On the south, the shores 
are so precipitous and the water too deep that anchorage is 
dangerous. The water on the coast is shallower. It is only by 
cutting passageways through the reefs that the great possibil- 
ities in the interior may be developed. 

Without counting the Cordilleras of Bohol, Valencia, and 
Garcia-Hernandez, Bohol has as many as 167 mountains, the 
highest of which are Alimerio and Bunucan in Tubigon, Maja- 
ligin and Lusday in Guindulman, Carohabol, Canhumangad, and 
Caloyhuan in Jagna, Canloboj and Campusa in Catigbian. From 
these lofty peaks can be obtained a wonderful view of extensive 
valleys and fields whose boundaries disappear on the horizon. 

There are few rivers and these are so insignificant that the 
fertile interior valleys lack the water necessary for luxuriant 
production. With the aid of irrigation ditches, however, agri- 
cultural products in the interior may be greatly increased. The 
scenery along the banks of the two important rivers, Loboc and 
Inabanga, is delightful. The former river is navigable from 
Loay to Loboc, and the latter for small launches and native craft 
only. Cataracts and waterfalls may often be seen in the interior. 

The climate is not uniform throughout Bohol because of topo- 
graphic conditions. It is usually warm and dry along the coast 
and cold and humid in the interior. Rainfall, however, is evenly 
distributed. Baguios, though not frequent, occur during the 
change of the monsoons. Dimiao suffers the most from their 
visitations. Dimiao and its neighborhood furnish the greater 
part of the emigrants to Leyte and to Mindanao. 

In the interior is a fertile plateau, cogonales and grasslands 
where once roamed large numbers of cattle and carabaos, now 
almost exterminated by the rinderpest. Rice, coconuts, hemp, 
and corn are the most important agricultural products. The 

103 



104 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

soil is especially adapted to the last named, and coconuts and 
hemp are raised principally for export. Forests are also ex- 
tensive except in the regions near the coast where the land has 
been denuded of them in a shameful manner. Resin, pitch, gum, 
wax and honey are the minor forest products found. 

In Lison is a coal mine, but due to the poor quality of the 
product and the inaccessibility of the location it has not been 
developed. The mineral springs in Guindulman as well as 
those in San Juan, Cajidoon, Napo, Lubod, and Cambalaguin, 
are reputed to be efficacious in curing skin diseases. Edible 
birds' nests are gathered in the Canaoan Cave. Other caves 
are found in Baclayon, Guindulman, Jagna, and Sierra Bullones. 
"Buri," "ticog," and "salacot" hats are made in almost every 
town. The weaving of "piiia" and sinamay cloth is a specialty 
in Baclayon, Loboc, Jagna, and Duero, and "saguran" weaving 
in Talibon, Inabanga, Baclayon, and Jetafe. Mat making is an 
important industry. The commercial exploitation of the pearl 
and shell banks in the Bohol seas has only recently been begun. 
The catching of the flying lemur and the tanning and prepara- 
tion of its hide is a new occupation. Most of the towns are 
found along the coast so that a great proportion of the inha- 
bitants are engaged in coastwise and interisland trade. 

This province has 36 municipalities and 460 barrios. The 
capital, Tagbilaran, has 12,590 inhabitants. It is situated in 
the southwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

It is believed that the Magellan expedition visited the little 
Island of Panglao southwest of Bohol and the vicinity of the 
town of Bool, which gave the larger island its present name. 
It was not until 1565, however, that the Spaniards became well 
acquainted with Bohol. In that year, Legaspi visited the island 
and performed with Chief Sicatuna the ancient Filipino ceremony 
of the blood compact. He succeeded in making friends with 
the natives and in securing provisions from them. 

During the early days of Spanish rule, Bohol was under the 
jurisdiction of Cebu. This island, therefore, did not figure con- 
spicuously in the, early Spanish records. 

In 1622, a great rebellion broke out in Bohol. The leader of 
this revolt, which was really an armed protest against Jesuitical 
influence, was a Babaylan by the name of Tamblot. The up- 
rising rapidly spread throughout the entire island ; only the 
towns of Loboc and Baklayon remained peaceful. The rebels 
retreated "to the summit of a rugged and lofty hill, difficult of 
access," and there fortified themselves. It took the government 
six months to suppress this rebellion. 

Another rebellion, no less formidable than the Tamblot up- 
rising, broke out in Bohol in 1744. It gained strength in 1750 
under the leadership of Dagohoy, who for a long time was the 
whole soul of the movement. The rebellion affected almost the 
entire island and lasted for over eighty years. The government 
sent several expeditions to put down the revolt, but without 



BOHOL. 105 



success. The rebels established a native government and lived 
as an independent people. This v^^as, perhaps, the most success- 
ful revolt the Filipinos ever conducted from the viewpoint of 
duration of resistance. 

In 1854, Bohol vi^as separated from Cebu and, with the Island 
of Siquijor, was made a politico-military province. In 1860, 
when the provincial governments of the Visayas were reor- 
ganized, Bohol retained this status. She remained a politico- 
military province till the end of the Spanish rule. 

The suppression of the Dagohoy revolt in 1828 and the sub- 
sequent return to peaceful life of some 20,000 rebels who laid 
down their arms, resulted in the establishment and enlargement 
of several towns. According to Governor Ricafort, the "reduced 
insurgents were formed into the following new villages: Ca- 
tigbian with 1,967 souls, Batuanan with 6,266, Cabulao with 
790, Balilijan with 2,100, and Vilar with 930." The rest were 
distributed in other towns. 

The Revolution did not readily spread to Bohol. Later, how- 
ever, Bohol was greatly influenced by the Cebu movement. The 
natives rose and established a local Revolutionary Government. 
For sometime Pedro Samson was the conspicuous military leader. 

Civil government was organized in Bohol on April 20, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 3,978 

Area of farms hectares.... 131.874 

Cultivated lands do 55,220 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 437,973 

Sugar cane tons.... 1,966 

Corn cavans.... 468,945 

Copra kilos.... 8,243,693 

Abaca do 646,334 

Tobacco do 136,500 

Population 359,600 

Number of schools 265 

Primary 243 

Intermediate 16 

High school 2 

Vocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 27,495 

Males 15,300 

Females 12,195 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 31.5 

Number of establishments of household industries 8,818 

Production in 1918 ^=2,063,681.56 

Number of manufacturing establishments 11 

Production in 1918 ^55,976.00 



' One cavan equals 76 liters. 




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BUKIDNON. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

BuKiDNON Province occupies the great fertile plateau of 
Mindanao that is bounded on the north and west by Misamis, 
on the east by Agusan, on the south and southeast by Davao, and 
on the southwest and west by Lanao and Cotabato. Separating 
Bukidnon from Davao and Agusan is a long range of mountains 
running northward from Mount Pinamalic to Butuan Bay at 
Diuata Point. A few extinct volcanic peaks, like Mount Tang- 
kulang and Mount Katanglad, rise here and there, but for the 
most part the land is rolling and cut into deep and wide canyons 
by the Cagayan, the Pulangi, and the Tagoloan Rivers and 
their branches and other rivers. 

Though the province is nearer the equator than the Island 
of Luzon, the climate is pleasant by reason of the altitude and 
the usual extreme of heat of a tropical region is lacking. The 
rainfall is abundant and the province lies outside the path of 
typhoons. 

It contains immense areas of fertile soil unsurpassed for 
grazing and general farming. There are at least 300,000 hec- 
tares of open grass-covered land which would yield rich returns 
under the plow. The Bukidnons themselves, learning to use 
modern agricultural implements, are taking advantage of their 
opportunities, this being clearly evidenced by the beautiful fields 
of corn surrounding their settlements, by the increased plant- 
ings of rice and camotes, and by the great increase in the ex- 
portation of hemp and coffee. The lower levels of Bukidnon 
produce the best grade of hemp in northern Mindanao. Corn 
grows to a height of 13 feet on the Bukidnon plateaus, the 
stalks supporting two ears. Two crops may be grown annually. 

Transportation, especially in the interior, is difficult. Along 
the lower reaches of the rivers trade is carried on with the 
neighboring provinces. Articles that are imported or exported 
pass through the port of Cagayan. Abaca and coffee are shipped 
out of the province. The people of Bohol go to Bukidnon via 
the Cagayan River, Misamis or Agusan for the "sud-sud" or 
tikug hats which the natives make. At present there is a 
road being constructed through the main section of the province. 
The greater portion of the Bukidnon territory is nearly level 
prairie land, but as a rule the roads are built along the canyons, 
varying in depth to 500 feet. 

There are some Manobos and a few Moros in the province, 
but the greater part of the inhabitants are Bukidnons who are 
timid, peaceable farmers. 

107 



108 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



The land offers indeed great possibilities, and homesteading 
and immigration into the fertile prairies should be encouraged 
by all means. The Government is now teaching the Bukidnons 
to come down from their hillside homes and live in settlements 
in the valleys. 

There are no large towns. MalaybaTay is the capital. 

This province has 4 municipalities, 9 municipal districts, and 
144 barrios. Its capital has a population of 9,868 inhabitants. 
It is located in the southeastern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of Bukidnon, as the name implies, is the home 
of the Bukidnons. This people, it is believed, formerly in- 
habited that territory of northern Mindanao which at present 
belongs to the Province of Misamis, but that they retired into 
the interior as Visayan immigrants settled the country. 

Very little, if anything, was known of Bukidnon in the early 
years. As a matter of fact, a considerable portion of this 
province remained unexplored up to as late as 1908. The towns 
of Malitbog and Claveria were among the first, if not the first, 
to be founded. And they were founded in 1849. In 1850, Ma- 
litbog was described as having "24 houses," while Claveria was 
known to have "27 houses." The inhabitants of these tovms 
were then exempted from the tribute. 

About the middle of the nineteenth century a considerable 
portion of what is now the Province of Bukidnon was under 
the jurisdiction of Misamis, for this latter province then was 
described as extending between "six and eight leagues into the 
interior." 

In 1860, a politico-military government was established for 
Mindanao, and Bukidnon, together with what is now Misamis, 
was organized into one of the six districts into which the Island 
of Mindanao was divided. This district was known as the 
northern district. Its capital was the town of Misamis. This 
district subsequently became the Province of Misamis. 

At the end of Spanish rule, Bukidnon formed part of the 
District of Misamis, one of the seven districts of Mindanao. 
This district was ruled by an army officer of the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel. It had a population of 126,313 and had its capital 
at the town of Cagayan. 

Bukidnon as a part of Misamis came under the control of the 
Revolutionary Government in December, 1899. In that year, 
the Revolutionists assumed control of the Province of Misamis. 
They remained in power for three months. 

With the establishment of civil government, Bukidnon be- 
came a subprovince of Misamis. It remained as such until 
1907 when it was made a subprovince of the Province of Agusan 
which was created that year. When the Department of Min- 
danao and Sulu was created in September, 1914, Bukidnon be- 
came a province of the department with its capital at Malaybalay. 



BUKIDNON. 109 



STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 10,026 

Area of farms hectares.... 15,656 

Cultivated lands do 7,679 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 25,376 

Corn do 16,881 

Copra kilos.... 3,938 

Abaca do 360.297 

Tobacco : do 22.250 

Population '25,299 

Number of schools 11 

P imary 1 

Vocational 10 

Enrollment for 1918 1,281 

Males 800 

Females 481 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

2 Non-Christian population, 22,512, not included. 




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BUKIDNOIS^ 



Area (Sq. Km.) 10,026 

Population 47,811 
Capital MALAYBALAY 

Municipalities 4 

Municipal districts 9 

Barrios 144 
Elevations in meters 



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BULACAN. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Bulacan, named from the Tagalog word 
"bulac," meaning cotton, which was once a principal product 
of the region, lies in the central part of Luzon, its bound- 
aries touching those of Nueva Ecija on the north and north- 
east, Tayabas on the east, Rizal on the south, Manila Bay on 
the south and southwest, and Pampanga on the west. Except 
where the province touches Manila Bay, there is no coast line. 
This portion of the province is low, swampy land intersected by 
the numerous esteros of the delta, or by the distributaries of 
the Rio Grande de Pampanga. 

The eastern mountainous portion with Mount Oryod as its 
highest peak at an elevation of 1,170 meters is part of the crest of 
the great Cordillera of Luzon, and part of the western boundary 
is the extensive Candaba swamp which marks a pronounced 
depression in the low plain between the Cordillera and the 
Zambales Range. In general, therefore, this province lies tilted 
toward the east and the rainfall caught in the mountains and 
foothills makes its way west. The eastern portion, though less 
developed, is where lie the iron, coal, gold and limestone deposits, 
the mineral springs, of which Sibul and Marilao are the most 
important, the valuable forests and the beautiful little mountain 
valleys and basins that must sooner or later prove very attrac- 
tive to Filipino adventurers, homeseekers and farmers of the 
younger generation. 

The climate is distinctly tropical. Except in the region of 
the Candaba swamp where malarial diseases prevail, it is very 
favorable both to human life and to agriculture. The province 
is not very much exposed to typhoons. 

The soil, which is of alluvial and volcanic origin, is rich. 
Rice, corn, sugar, pineapples, bananas, betel nut, mangoes, and 
all sorts of vegetables are raised in the well irrigated and 
low-lying lands. The nipa swamps which supply most of the 
nipa thatches, vinegar and alcohol are the principal resources 
of a great many people. The forests cover over 89,980 hectares 
and yield good commercial timber and many minor forest prod- 
ucts. 

The land is well drained by the Pampanga and the Angat 
River systems. The field regions bordering the coast are ir- 
rigated by the fresh water that is backed up by the tide. 

Aside from agriculture and mining, the industries of the 
province are making hats (Baliuag) and silk textiles, weaving, 

111 



112 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

tanning, fish breeding, distilling alcohol, and furniture-making. 
Baliuag, Meycauayan, Obando, Polo, Hagonoy, and San Miguel 
are the centers of these industries. Some of the people are also 
engaged in domestic commerce and in trade between the prov- 
ince and Manila which has to be supplied by the fruit, vegetable 
and other farm products of the province. 

This province has 23 municipalities and 371 barrios. Its 
capital is Malolos, with 26,444 inhabitants. It is located in the 
southwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

BuLACAN was one of the earliest provinces founded by the 
Spanish government, its creation dating as far back as 1578. 
It appears that even before the arrival of the Spaniards there 
were already in existence, in what is now Bulacan, thriving 
native settlements. On these settlements were founded the 
towns which the first missionaries erected in the early years 
of the conquest. Among these were Calumpit (founded in 
1572), Meycauayan (in 1576), Bulacan (in 1578), Malolos (in 
1580), Hagonoy (in 1581), and Bocaue (in 1582). 

The early history of Bulacan records no serious uprising such 
as those which at various times took place in other provinces. 
The disorders which occurred in Malolos in 1643, resulting from 
the activities of a certain Don Pedro Ladia, appear to be the 
only ones of importance which occurred in the early years of the 
history of this province. Ladia, who was a native of Borneo, 
claiming that he was a descendant of Raja Matanda, went about 
exhorting the people to overthrow Spanish rule and to place 
him in power as their king. His efforts failed, however; he 
was quickly apprehended and his rebellious activities put to 
an end. 

In the events which followed the arrival of the British in 
1762, Bulacan figured rather conspicuously, serving as a center 
of resistance during the British occupation of Manila. Anda, 
just before the capitulation of the city, escaped to this province 
where he organized a government of his own to carry on hostil- 
ities against the British and to hold the country in its loyalty 
to Spain. The province was also the scene of armed conflict 
during this period. Captain Slay of the British army in the 
course of his expedition to Bulacan in January, 1763, undertaken 
to destroy Anda's forces there, came to blows with the Spaniards 
and their Filipino allies on more than one occasion. In one 
of those encounters, at Marisanto, the Spaniards and their 
native allies put up a determined fight against a superior force 
under Slay, but in the end their resistance was overcome and 
most of them were put to the sword. 

The period intervening between the British occupation and 
about the middle of the nineteenth century was a period of mate- 
rial growth and prosperity in the history of Bulacan. Agricul- 
ture was furthered, new plants were introduced, and industries 
developed. Among the industries which flourished during this 



BULACAN. 113 



time that of weaving may be mentioned. It is estimated that 
in 1850 there were in operation throughout the province 1,500 
looms for the weaving of silk, cotton and sinamay fabrics, and 
prosperity reigned. 

The same period also saw the provincial boundaries extended. 
The region which includes the important town of San Miguel 
de Mayumo and the neighboring places was formerly a part 
of Pampanga. In 1848, when changes were made in the bound- 
aries of Pampanga, this region was adjudicated to Bulacan. 

Even before the outbreak of the Revolution, Bulacan was al- 
ready prepared for an uprising. Some of the best known fig- 
ures like M. H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce, whose names are 
connected with the period of propaganda, are sons of this prov- 
ince, which was one of the first to raise the standard of revolt. 
Later, when the Revolutionary government was established, Bu- 
lacan came under its control and Isidoro Torres was appointed 
to act as governor. 

Some of the most notable events of the Revolution took place 
here and their scenes have become places of historic interest. 
It was at Biac-na-bato, in the mountains of Bulacan, where in 
December of 1897 the famous Pact of Biac-na-bato was con- 
cluded, and the town of Malolos was for some time the capital 
of the Archipelago. It was in Malolos that in 1897 Philippine 
independence was proclaimed. Here also, in the historic church 
of Barasoain, the Congress which drafted the Constitution of 
the Republic held its sessions. 

Civil government was established in Bulacan on February 
27, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,608 

Area of farms hectares... 92,103 

Cultivated lands do 70,837 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans^.... 1,522,315 

Sugar cane tons.... 61,812 

Corn cavans.... 74,697 

Tobacco kilos.... 40,000 

Population '248,180 

Number of schools 205 

Primary 185 

Intei-mediate 17 

High school 1 

Vocational 2 

Enrollment for 1918 24,815 

Males 14,740 

Females 10,075 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 53.6 

Number of establishments of household industries 5,529 

Production in 1918 1*1,380.281.32 

Number of manufacturing establishments ' 207 

Production in 1918 f>=2,748,412.28 



171073- 



' One caran equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 683, not included. 



GAGAYAN. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Cagayan occupies the lower basin of the 
Cagayan River. Its eastern coast is high and mountainous. 
The north coast bordering on the North China Sea is low; that 
on the south touching Kalinga is high, while the one adjoining 
Apayao is low and swampy. The northern coast has been largely 
built up by the deltas of the Cagayan and Abulug Rivers. Be- 
tween the low mountains are large valleys fertilized by allu- 
vial soil that is deposited by the rivers every year. Northern 
Cagayan is adapted to rice but not to tobacco as in the south, as 
it is low and exposed to the sea breezes. Rainfall is abundant 
with the coming of the northeast monsoons. The forests that 
crown the mountains invite electrical disturbances during the 
rainy season. 

The tobacco-producing region occupies the whole of the Chico- 
Cagayan Valley. Coconuts are also grown here. Besides to- 
bacco and rice, corn is also cultivated. There is much sugar 
land but little sugar is grown on account of lack of transporta- 
tion. East of the Cagayan Valley is the extensive Cagayan 
Lake. The nipa swamps do not constitute an important source 
of revenue as in Bulacan and Pampanga. Formerly there 
were distilleries in Abulug and Pamplona, but with the impo- 
sition of internal-revenue taxes the industry was destroyed. 
The forests are extensive and contain much hard wood, but the 
lack of transportation facilities prevent their exploitation. 
Near the ends of the mountain chains in the east and west are 
wide grassy plains suitable for cattle. Formerly, large herds 
grazed there but the rinderpest has thinned them out. 

No minerals of value are found in Cagayan. In the vicinity 
of Mount Maguipit is a bed of copper while near Mount Cagua 
there are a few veins of coal. There are several caves or grot- 
tos, the largest of which, famous for the edible birds' nests that 
are found in it, is at Mount Quira. 

Except in the tobacco and rice regions, the occupation of the 
people is chiefly that of trading. The Cagayan River is the 
one commercial outlet. Rafts and bancas are sent up the river 
for tobacco that is gathered and stored in the warehouses of 
Aparri where boats from Manila call once a week. This latter 
port is so exposed that vessels have to proceed for some distance 
up the river to find shelter. The Abulug River is deep, but very 
swift and infested by crocodiles. Along the coast the fishing 
industry attains considerable importance. The people salt or 
dry the fish and export great quantities to Isabela and to the 
Ilocano provinces. 

The people are Ibanags and Ilocanos. There are also many 
Negritos on the low hills of the marshes, Aetas on the Sierra 
Madre and Kalingas and Apayaos on the cordillera. Cagayan 
is fairly well populated, but it needs more people to develop 

115 



116 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



it. The Claveria-Bangui Road when finished will tend to in- 
crease the influx of Ilocano settlers. 

Two kilometers from the northwestern corner of the Cagayan 
Peninsula is the Island of Palani where a light-house is estab- 
lished on Cape Engaiio. About forty kilometers north of Ca- 
gayan is the Babuyanes group. In these islands are two active 
volcanoes, one in the Didicas Rocks and another now in the 
solfataric stage in Camiguin. They are said to have first ap- 
peared in 1857. 

Rice, tobacco, and sugar are the principal agricultural prod- 
ucts of these islands, while fishing and cattle raising are im- 
portant industries. The climate is salubrious, though the region 
lies in the path of typhoons. 

This province has 23 municipalities and 493 barrios. Its 
capital is Tuguegarao, with 19,284 inhabitants. It is located in 
the south central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The narrow strip of territory along the northern coast of 
Cagayan, and the northern part of the Cagayan Valley, were 
among the regions of Luzon early visited by the Spaniards. 
These places served as bases for the conquest of and the im- 
plantation of the cross in northeastern Luzon. What later be- 
came the Province of Cagayan or Nueva Segovia had its origin 
in these regions. As early as 1583, the political division of 
Cagayan was already recognized. 

The exploration of Cagayan began during the administration 
of Guido de Lavezares (1572-1575) . The first explorer was Juan 
de Salcedo, who in 1572 visited some of the northern coast towns 
like Pamplona, Abulug, and Aparri. Another well known ad- 
venturer in this region was Captain Juan P. Carreon, who led 
an expedition in 1581 for the purpose of driving away the 
Japanese corsair Tayfusa who was then threatening the coast 
towns of Cagayan. Carreon, after driving away Tayfusa, 
founded the town of Nueva Segovia (now Lal-loc) on the banks 
of the Cagayan River and explored the neighboring regions. A 
decade later, Luis Perez Dasmgiliias also explored the ter- 
ritory. He sailed up the eastern coast of Luzon from Bina- 
ngunan de Lampon and visited the towns of Aparri, Abulug, 
and Pamplona. 

In spite of its isolation from the western provinces of Luzon, 
Cagayan was often influenced by events from that quarter. 
The rebellion which Malong started in 1660 in Pangasinan had 
its echo in the region along the northern coast of Cagayan, 
especially in Pata and Bangan. The Silang Rebellion of 1763 
also had its effect in Cagayan. It was the occasion for an 
uprising in Tuguegarao, Cabagan, and Ilagan. 

The injustices of the tobacco monopoly were felt in all the 
tobacco-producing regions throughout the Islands, but more so 
in Cagayan than elsewhere, especially during the time of Al- 
calde Mayor Jose Martinez Canas. In fact, the enforcement of 
the tobacco monopoly resulted on more than one occasion in the 



CAGAYAN. 117 



reduction of the population of Cagayan by the emigration of 
numbers who sought to escape it. 

As constituted in the early days, the Province of Cagayan in- 
cluded roughly all the territory east of the Cordillera central 
mountains and north of the Caraballos del Sur. In the course 
of time there were formed out of this extensive region new 
provinces and comandancias. In 1839, Nueva Vizcaya was 
created into a separate politico-military province. Isabela was 
created a province and separated from Cagayan in 1856. In 
1889, by order of General Weyler, the territory roughly coexten- 
sive with the present Subprovince of Kalinga was organized into 
the 'Tartido de Itaves," VN^hile the following year the region 
north of the newly created "Partido" was organized into the 
comandancia of Apayao. 

The effect of the Revolution was not at once felt in Cagayan. 
But about the middle of August, 1898, the revolutionists under 
the command of Colonel Daniel Tirona landed at Aparri from 
Steamer Luzon, formerly the Compania de Filipinas. His 
forces took Aparri and then proceeded to Lal-loc. On the 31st 
of August, the revolutionary army entered Tuguegarao. 

Civil government was established in Cagayan in September, 
1901. 

In 1908, the Philippine Commission passed an Act establishing 
the Mountain Province, whereupon Kalinga and Apayao, which 
had hitherto been a part of Cagayan, were created as subprov- 
inces of the Mountain Province. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 7,788 

Area of farms hectares.... 117,625 

Cultivated lands do 50,599 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 894,671 

Sugar cane tons.... 905 

Corn cavans.... 423,825 

Copra kilos.... 227,212 

Tobacco do 15,127,350 

Population - 184,337 

Number of schools 199 

Primary 179 

Intermediate 15 

High school 1 

Vocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 17,408 

Males 10,190 

Females 7,218 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 46.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 1,025 

Production in 1918 1P^288,813.29 

Number of manufacturing establishments 63 

Production in 1918 P438,481.69 



• One cavan equals 76 liters. 

2 Non-Christian population, 15,601. not inluded. 





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GAMARINES NORTE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Camarines Norte occupies the northernmost part of the 
southeastern cordillera which runs throughout the length of 
the Bicol Peninsula. This portion of Ambos Camarines is dis- 
tinct from southern Camarines particularly in physiography 
and natural resources. 

The coast is exposed to the northeast monsoons, but it is 
so well indented that there are places which afford safe an- 
chorage. Capalonga, Mambulao, Paracale, and Gubat are well 
protected by promontories. Along the northeast coast there are 
several islands known as the Calagua group. Tinaga, the largest 
of the group, is mountainous and bordered by reefs on the north 
and west. 

The mountains, the most important of which are Bagacay and 
Colase, are covered with timber suitable for construction pur- 
poses. The most important rivers are the Basigon and the Labo. 

The climate is agreeable because of the mountains and vege- 
tation. The cold and the heat are felt intensely during the 
north and the south monsoons, respectively. 

The land is, in general, sandy and stony, but fertile in many 
places. The valleys near the coast are tilled for rice, corn, and 
other products. Rice, however, is imported. Abaca is culti- 
vated extensively on the hillsides. There are vast areas of 
grassland. 

The place is rich in mineral resources. Gold is found in 
many places and its commercial exploitation is being carried on 
in Mambulao and Paracale. Iron, silver, lead, and copper are 
also found. The exploitation of these mines will surely develop 
the country which is not so far advanced as the southern portion. 
There are also several mineral springs. 

Daet is the most important commercial town. The mines of 
Mambulao and Paracale are, however, making these two towns 
the centers of industry and, naturally, of commerce. The region 
is sparsely settled. Most of the people are Tagalogs, immigrants 
from Tayabas. 

historical account. 

Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur for over two centuries 
and a half formed only one political unit, namely, the Province 
of Camarines or Bicol, later better known as Ambos Camarines. 
These two regions from 1573 to 1829 made up the Province of 
Camarines; in 1829, they were separated, only to be reunited 
in 1854 as Ambos Camarines. In 1857, they were again sepa- 

119 



120 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

rated but joined once more in 1893. From that year till the 
present March, 1919, they continue to form one province. In 
fact, these two regions existed as separate provinces only for 
about sixty years. ^ 

The region generally known as Camarines Norte was explored 
by Juan de Salcedo in 1571. It will be remembered that Salcedo 
in that year, after subduing the towns of Taytay and Cainta, 
marched accross Laguna and Tayabas and visited the gold mines 
at Mambulao and Paracale. It appeared that Salcedo was at- 
tracted to this region by the news obtained from the natives 
regarding the abundance of gold. Spanish influence, however, 
did not make itself felt until the permanent establishment of a 
Spanish garrison in Naga by Captain Pedro de Chaves. This 
was accomplished during De Sande's administration. 

At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards, there were already 
several native settlements in what is now Camarines Norte. 
Besides the mining towns of Mambulao and Paracale, there 
also existed the settlements of Indan and Daet. Paracale is 
described by early Spanish chroniclers as having about 2,000 
inhabitants and possessing gold in abundance. The mines Sal- 
cedo found to be "excellent, very rich, and more than thirty 
or forty estados in depth." 

The towns of Capalonga, Mambulao, Paracale, Indan, and 
Labo are inhabited chiefly by Tagalogs, the remaining towns of 
Camarines Norte, although predominantly Visayan, show strong 
Tagalog influence. This is because Camarines Norte, especially 
its northern section, was settled from the neighboring Province 
of Tayabas. The immigrants are believed to have come mostly 
from the tov^ni of Mauban. 

The state of affairs in Camarines Norte about the middle 
of the seventeenth century may be seen from the following data, 
taken from an account of the Franciscan missions in this region 
in 1649, to wit: (a) Capalonga had a population of 400 souls 
and possessed a bamboo church and convent, (b) Paracale had 
a population of 800 and a bamboo church and convent, (c) 
Indan had a population of 1,800 and a wooden church and convent 
and (d) Daet had a population of 1,200 with a wooden church 
and convent. 

In 1829, when the Province of Camarines was divided, Cama- 
rines Norte was assigned the following towns: Daet, Talisay, 
Indan, Labo, Paracale, Mambulao, Capalonga, Ragay, Lupi, and 
Sipocot. However, in 1846 Camarines Norte lost to Camarines 
Sur the towns of Sipocot, Lupi, and Ragay in exchange for Si- 
ruma. 

As already indicated, Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur 
were again united in 1854, only to be separated once more three 
years later. But in 1893, they were again united so that there 
was but one Province of Camarines during the Revolutionary 
period and the subsequent years. 

* An Act has been passed by the Philippine Legislature, March, 1919, 
authorizing the Governor-General to separate these two regions into the 
provinces of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur. 



CAMARINES NORTE. 121 

Civil government was established in Ambos Camarines on 
April 27, 1901. 

The Act passed March, 1919, authorizing the Governor-Gen- 
eral to divide Ambos Camarines into two provinces, assigns to 
Camarines Norte the following towns: Capalonga, Mambulao, 
Paracale, Indan, Labo, San Vicente, Talisay, Daet, Basud, and 
the islands along her coast. Daet will be made the capital. 

STATISTICAL DATA.^ 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,018 

Area of farms .—hectares.... 190,215 

Cultivated lands do 107,782 

Production in 1918: 

Rice --cavans'.... 705,572 

Sugar cane tons... 5,472 

Corn - cavans.... 9,049 

Copra kilos.... 5,699,682 

Abaca do 24,285,481 

Tobacco do 8,400 

Population ^50,822 

Number of schools 238 

Primary 223 

Intermediate 8 

High school 3 

"V ocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 16,777 

Males 9,992 

Females 6,785 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 35.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 4,038 

Production in 1918 890,572,68 

Number of manufacturing establishments 82 

Production in 1918 1,897,643.94 

^ All data hereon are for Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur unless otherwise indicated. 

- One cavan equals 75 liters. 

^ Refers to Carnarines Norte only. Non-Christian population, 795, not included. 



CAMARINES SUR. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Camarines Sur embraces the valleys of the Bicol River and 
its branches, the volcanic regions of Mounts Isarog and Iriga, 
and the Caramoan Peninsula. 

The climate is distinctly tropical. The typhoons which occur 
during the change of the monsoon pass through the country, but 
do not cause very much damage. 

The land bordering on Ragay Gulf is traversed by low moun-' 
tains from which rise many but short rivers. This region is 
not very fertile, and with the exception of Ragay and Pasacao its 
population is sparse. Caves and grottos are found in Lupi, 
Ragay, Bula, Libmanan, and Pasacao. 

The valley of the Bicol River is very fertile. It is here 
where most of the towns are located. Below the headwaters 
of the southern branch of the Bicol, there are lakes, the Buhi, 
Bato, and Baao nipa swamps and mangroves. These lakes and 
the coasts are sources of fish for export. In Lake Buhi are 
found the smallest fish in the world. It takes hundreds of them 
to make a handful. 

Mounts Isarog and Iriga, extinct volcanoes, are conical and, 
although low in altitude, they seem to appear high when com- 
pared with the low flats up the Bicol. These volcanic cones 
supply the valleys with fertile soil carried down during the 
rainy season. 

Caramoan Peninsula, jutting toward the northeast, forms a 
distinct physiographic province. The region is mountainous 
and of extreme relief. Geologists say that Caramoan Penin- 
sula was formerly an island and had been joined to the main- 
land by deposits built up through eruptions of Isarog Volcano. 
The higher elevations culminating in Saddle Peak (elevation, 
1,031 meters) in the Calinigan group of mountains, lie in the 
southern part of the peninsula, but extend west through the 
central portion. Mount Putianay, one of the prominent western 
peaks, displays a white scar near its summit, which makes it 
conspicuous from the direction of the town of San Jose. The 
eastern end of the peninsula is rugged, but the hills attain only 
moderate elevations. The northern coast and the outlying 
islands are low and are fringed at places with swamps. The 
principal drainage systems discharge on the northern coast; 
no large river has developed so as to control the topography, 
but a series of short streams with tidal lower courses serve to 
carry away the run-off from an exceedingly heavy rainfall. 

The peninsula is very sparsely inhabited and a splendid forest 
covers its western half. The forest yields a great deal of rattan, 

123 



124 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

the rattan industry together with hemp planting and fishing 
being the principal industries. Some of the small islands to 
the north of Caramoan abound with coconut groves. 

The southern coast of the peninsula is bounded by straight 
lines; within a short distance from the shore the sea attains 
depths of 900 meters. The southern coast, in contrast, is sinuous 
with numerous indentations and the adjacent sea is shallow. 

The forest resources make the peninsula important. Gold, 
copper, mercury, coal, clay, stone, and gravel are the minerals 
already discovered, but which are so far unexploited with the 
exception of stone and gravel which are now used locally. 

The exports of Camarines Sur are abaca, copra, forest pro- 
ducts, fish and manufactured articles. Pili nuts and the resin 
obtained from the tree, sinamay made from abaca, and chairs 
made of bamboo and rattan are the most important exports. 
There are a number of distilleries in which alcohol is manu- 
factured from the sap of the nipa and coconut palms. 

A considerable amount of the products of Camarines is trans- 
ported on its rivers and roads. Small steamers from Manila 
ascend the Bicol River to Naga, the capital, and flat-bottomed 
boats go as far as Nabua. The road from Naga extends through 
the Bicol Valley to Albay. Iriga is an important town on this 
road. 

The people are Bicols and are among the most industrious and 
progressive of the Archipelago. 

This province and Camarines Norte form what is known as 
the Province of Ambos Camarines and both have 40 municipal- 
ities and 558 barrios. Its capital is Naga, with 9,468 inhabit- 
ants. It is located in the central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Juan de Salcedo, the explorer of Camarines Norte and many 
other regions of the Islands, was also responsible for the open- 
ing up of what is generally known as Camarines Sur to the 
Spaniards. In 1573, during the administration of Guido de 
Lavezares, he led an exploring expedition into this region and 
founded the "villa" of Santiago de Libon, a town now belonging 
to Albay. He left at this place a small garrison of eighty 
Spanish soldiers under the command of Captain Pedro de Chaves. 
It was this small garrison that became the nucleus of Spanish 
power in the Bicol regions, for a little later, in order to continue 
the work so well begun by Salcedo, Governor De Sande ordered 
Captain Chaves to found the Spanish City of Nueva Caceres on 
the site of the then already prosperous native settlement of 
Naga. The city was accordingly built and immediately became 
the capital of the old Province of Camarines. 

Besides Naga, there were already at the time of the arrival 
of the Spaniards, several other centers of population in what 
is generally called Camarines Sur and especially along the banks 
and in the immediate neighborhood of the Bicol River. Among 
these early native towns were Libmanan, Canaman, Minalabac 
and Bula. 



CAMARINES SUR. 125 



Peaceful as the people of Camarines appear to have been, 
yet the history of the province shows that she has not been 
altogether free from rebellious tendencies. About the middle 
of the seventeenth century, when the great Sumoroy revolt was 
in progress in the neighboring island of Samar, the people of 
Camarines declared themselves against Spain. Disturbances of 
a rebellious character also occurred in this region during the 
British occupation of Manila when Spanish power seemed to be 
on the decline. 

Up to the year 1829, there was but one Province of Cama- 
rines. This comprised the regions generally known as Cama- 
rines Norte and Camarines Sur and parts of the present Province 
of Albay. But, in 1829, the province was divided into Camarines 
Norte and Camarines Sur. The latter province as constituted 
that year had four main sections, namely: (a) The district of 
Nueva Caceres consisting of the towns of Tabaco, Naga, Cama- 
ligan, Canaman, Magarao, Bonbon, Quipayo, Calabanga, Libma- 
nan, Milaor, San Fernando, and Minalabac; (b) the district of 
Rinconada consisting of the towns of Bula, Baao, Nabua, Iriga, 
Buhi, and Bato; (c) the district of Iriga consisting of the towns 
of Libon, Polangui, Oas, Ligao, Camalig, and Capsava; and (d) 
the district of Isarog consisting of Goa, Tigaon, Tinambag, and 
the mission of Manguirin. 

The delineation of Camarines Sur was greatly changed in 
October, 1846, when she lost Siruma to Camarines Norte and 
the towns of Camalig, Guinobatan, Ligao, Oas, Polangui, Libon, 
Mauraro, Quipia and Donzol to Albay. At the same time, how- 
ever, she acquired from Camarines Norte a few towns in the 
territory between the Bicol River and Tayabas and the Ragay 
Gulf, and from Albay the Caramoan Peninsula. 

In 1854, the Camarines provinces were united to be again 
separated three years later. During this brief period of union, 
the province lost the Island of Burias which in 1856 was created 
into a separate comandancia politico-militar. Camarines Norte 
and Camarines Sur remained as separate provinces from 1857 
to 1893 when they again were reunited. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, anti-friar propaganda 
was already on foot in Camarines Sur. In 1897, several pro- 
minent residents of this province among whom were Manuel 
and Domingo Abella were executed at Manila for alleged con- 
spiracy against Spain. When the Revolutionary Government 
was established, Camarines Sur, then a part of the Province of 
Ambos Camarines, came under its control. 

Civil government was established in Ambos Camarines on 
April 27, 1901. 

An Act was passed by the Philippine Legislature, March, 1919, 
authorizing the Governor-General to divide Ambos Camarines 
into two provinces. This Act gives Camarines Sur the following 
towns: Cabusao, Canaman, Cabalonga, Camaligan, Gainza, Lib- 
manan, Lupi, Magarao, Milaor, Minalabag, Naga, Pamplona, 
Pasacao, Ragay, San Fernando, Sipocot, Baao, Buhi, Bula, Bato, 
Caramoan, Goa, Iriga, Lagonoy, Nabua, Pili, Sagnay, San Jose, 
Siruma, Tigaon, and Tinambac. Naga was made the capital. 



126 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

STATISTICAL DATA.' 

Approximate area* square kilometers.— 5,366 

Population '218,980 

' Data for production, schools, rate of mortality, number of establishments of household 
industries, and manufacturing establishments are included in Camarines Norte. 
2 Non-Christian population, 750, not included. 



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CAPIZ. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The name of this province is said to have been derived from 
the Visayan word "Kapis," the name of a pearl shell that is 
found in abundance on the coast. From the western range that 
separates it from Antique, the land slopes northeastward to the 
Visaj'-an sea, while the eastern and southern boundaries are 
formed by the Province of Iloilo. The coast is somewhat ir- 
regular in places. The capital, Capiz, has a harbor that is well- 
sheltered from the northeast and southwest winds and so has 
Pontevedra, where the arms of the land surrounding it reach 
far out into Pilar Bay. All along the coast of Capiz there are 
small islands which seem to be of coral reef or of sandbar origin. 

The southwestern part of Capiz is very mountainous. Be- 
tween this and Antique are found peaks of considerable size 
like Baloy, Nantud, Magosolan, Toctocan, Balabac, and Tina- 
yunga. The western portion is drained by the Aclan River and 
its tributaries and the eastern side by the Panay River and its 
affluents. 

The climate is tropical. There is only one short dry season. 
The rains are heaviest during the northeast monsoons. At the 
time of the change in the direction of the winds the typhoons 
that cross Samar also pass through Capiz and frequently cause 
much damage in Dumalag, Ibajay, Jamindan, Mambusao, and 
Sapian. 

The land may be considered as divided into two regions, the 
Aklan Valley, and the Panay plain called Ilaya. The Aklan 
Valley produces and exports abaca and copra in greater quanti- 
ties than Ilaya. Coconut plantations are found along the coasts 
and hemp is grown along the river banks and mountain slopes. 
Rice and corn are also raised though not in sufficient quantities 
for even local consumption. 

In Ilaya, rice and sugar are the principal products. The 
eastern part is especially adapted to sugar cane and the central 
portion is the rice granary of Panay and Negros. The land 
under cultivation for sugar, while extensive, is very small com- 
pared with that now lying idle for lack of capital to develop it. 

Around Capiz and at the mouths of the Panay River and its 
tributaries are extensive swamps overgrowm with nipa palms 
and mangroves. The nipa sap was formerly distilled for alcohol, 
but with the increase in the internal-revenue tax this industry 
was ruined. However, with capital, sugar could be extracted 
from the sap. At present nipa thatching is exported from Capiz, 

127 



128 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

Panay, and Pontevedra ; and lumber and firewood, from Sibuyan 
and New Washington, respectively. 

The forests are rich in trees that yield timber suitable for 
construction purposes as well as gum, pitch, and resin. Dao, 
Dumalag, Dumarao, Libacao, Madalag, Balete, and Jamindan are 
the most favored localities in forest wealth. 

Deposits of coal, gold, gypsum, and granite are hidden in the 
mountains of Capiz, but the hand of man has not yet unearthed 
them for commercial purposes. Mineral springs are found in 
Buruanga, Jamindan, Libucao, and Mamburao. 

A few of the natural attractions in Capiz are the numerous 
waterfalls, the natural bridge of "Suhut" in Dumalag and the 
famous caves of the same town. Near the natural bridge a 
spring of sulfurous and salty water bubbles forth. The cave 
of Dumalag is a charming manifestation of the work of nature. 
An hour's walk from the entrance leads one to a place where 
the roof has collapsed and trees have grown to gigantic heights, 
the cave continuing to an unknown distance. Everywhere within 
are to be found fantastically shaped stalactites and stalagmites. 

The weaving of textiles is an industry well developed in Capiz. 
Almost every house in Aklan contains several looms for the 
women of the house. The towns of Calivo, Makato and Ibahay 
supply the markets of Manila with fiber fabric known by the 
names of the towns from which they come. Bags for sugar are 
woven from buri leaves. A fabric known as Daet or saguran, 
made of buri fiber for hats, slippers, mats, household adorn- 
ments and sail, is also woven. 

Commerce, local as well as interisland, is extensive. The 
roads are good and each river outlet has a good port. This 
province has 25 municipalities and 510 barrios. Its capital 
is Capiz with 21,996 inhabitants. It is located in the north- 
eastern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

It is believed that the term Capiz comes from the Bisayan 
word "Kapid" meaning twins. This name, which the whole 
province has come to bear, was first given to the town of Capiz, 
it is said, in commemoration of the twins that were born there 
in the early days of its history. 

The ancient name of Capiz was Aklan. The ten datos who 
once purchased Panay from the Negritos (see Antique) divided 
the island into three "sakops." One of these "sakops" was 
Aklan, which was placed under the rule of a dato called Bangkaya 
who became, according to this tradition, the founder of the 
first Malay settlements in what is now Capiz. 

The Spaniards entered Capiz as early as 1569. It was Le- 
gaspi himself who built the first Spanish settlement on Panay 
Island, on the site of the present town of Panay. This settlement 
was the second Spanish settlement in the Philippines, the first 
being San Miguel (Cebu) which the Spaniards partially aban- 
doned in 1569 on account of repeated Portuguese attacks of 
the previous years. 



CAPIZ. 129 

When the Spaniards entered Capiz, they found a few native 
settlements already established in this region. ^ Among these 
early centers of population which were later organized into towns 
were, besides Panay, Bulacale, Aclan, Dumarao, Ibahay, and 
Dumalag. Batan and Mamburao were organized during the 
first decade of the seventeenth century. 

Capiz was organized into a politico-military province in 1716. 
Before this time, this region was included within the jurisdic- 
tion of Oton, Iloilo. As organized in 1716, Capiz embraced not 
only its present territory but also the neighboring islands of 
Romblon, Maestre de Campo, Tablas, and Sibuyan. 

Like the rest of the Visayan provinces, Capiz at the end of 
Spanish rule was still a politico-military province. 

The revolutionists entered Capiz in 1898. Immediately there- 
after, Panay island was abandoned by the Spaniards. Capiz, 
like Antique and Iloilo, came under the Revolutionary govern- 
ment. For some time, Ananias Diokno was the civil and military 
commander of Capiz. 

Civil government was established in Capiz on April 15, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 4,429 

Area of farms hectares.... 99,784 

Cultivated lands do 56,555 

Production in 1918: 

Rice ....cavans^.... 840,880 

Sugar cane tons.... 16,818 

Corn cavans.... 30,892 

Copra ...kilos.... 3,032,289 

Abaca do 843,522 

Tobacco do 99,750 

Population =283,907 

Number of schools 176 

Primary 159 

Intermediate 14 

High school 2 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 21,574 

Males 12,629 

Females 8,945 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 32.8 

Number of establishments of household industries 4,257 

Production in 1918 18,131 

Number of manufacturing establishments 51 

Production in 1918 ?=237,414.61 



171073 9 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 8,589, not included. 




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CAVITE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Cavite, in the southwestern part of Luzon, lies along the 
shore of Manila Bay. It has an area of about 1,202 sq. km. 
Except at the extremities, the coast, which extends from Sangley 
Point in the northeastern part to Limit Point in the southwest, 
is very regular and free from barrier reefs that would obstruct 
navigation. It boasts of a fine harbor, so situated as to make it 
an excellent location for a naval station. Cavite is the capital 
of the province and is noted for its dockyards. 

The province may be divided geographically into two parts, 
which present striking contrasts. The northern portion is a 
level plain, dotted here and there by low swelling mounds, while 
the southern half is traversed by mountain ranges. But those 
mountains are not high enough to serve as a barrier to invasion. 
The only high peak is Mount Sungay, which rises about 752 
meters above sea level. 

The climate changes with the seasons. The highlands receive 
much rainfall during the northeast monsoon, but little or none 
from FebiTiary to April. But when the southwest monsoon 
comes, it brings abundant rains in the southern and southwestern 
parts of the province causing the rivers to overflow and destroy 
crops and other property. 

The plain of Cavite is very fertile because it is of volcanic 
origin. The most important agricultural products are rice, 
hemp, sugar, copra, cacao, coffee, and corn. Rice is produced 
in nearly all the towns of the province. It is raised both on 
irrigated and unirrigated land. Hemp is grown principally in 
the towns of Alfonso, Indang, Mendez and Amadeo and largely 
exported to Japan. Sugar cane is cultivated in the towns of 
Naic, Silang, Malabon, and Carmona, while coconuts are grown 
mostly in the towns of Alfonso, Indang, and Silang. Most of 
the products grown in this province are sent to the markets of 
Manila by boats and by rail. Large numbers of cows, carabaos, 
horses, and sheep are raised on the wide grazing grounds of the 
province. 

The swamps, which are few in number and of little significance, 
are usually found near the seacoast. Some of the plants found 
in them are utilized for their fiber, while dwarf trees are used 
for fuel purposes. The mountains are clear of forests so that 
the highlands are practically all under abaca cultivation. The 
lumber found in the province is not hard and durable enough 
for heavy construction purposes. 

Cavite furnishes but few minerals, the most important of 
which is a soft stone which is used for building purposes. 

The rivers are short, but navigable for small boats. Most of 
them rise in the mountains of Indang and Silang and discharge 

131 



132 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

their waters in Laguna de Bay; while the rest find their outlets in 
Manila Bay. Although the rivers are short and of recent origin, 
the geological formation of the country is such as to make it 
favorable for drilling artesian wells for irrigation purposes. 
These rivers teem with fish although most of the fish supply is 
obtained along the seacoast. 

The inhabitants are mostly Tagalogs. About fifty per cent 
of them can speak the Spanish language, thus showing the in- 
fluence of the Spaniards who lived there for hundreds of years. 
Farming is the chief occupation of the inhabitants of the interior, 
salt-making and fishing of the dwellers along the coast, while 
on the hills and higher levels of the province the people largely 
devote themselves to cattle raising and lumbering. 

This . province has 20 municipalities and 171 barrios. Its 
capital is Cavite, with 22,163 inhabitants. It is located in the 
northern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards in Manila, the 
region which was later organized into the politico-military 
Province of Cavite was but sparsely populated. The centers of 
population in those early days were Kawit, Bacoor, Maragon- 
don. As late as 1735, the population of the province was only 
about 5,904 souls. 

Cavite was created a politico-military province in 1614. It 
then occupied approximately its present territory except Ma- 
ragondon and the neighboring region bordering on the south 
channel. Maragondon and neighboring territory were annexed 
to Cavite in 1754, when they were separated from the corre- 
gimiento of Mariveles to which they had previously belonged. 

The town of Cavite, once a barrio of Kawit but now the 
capital of the province, owes its growth to the navy yard which 
the government there early established. Here the ships used 
in the Manila-Acapulco trade and in southern expeditions 
against the Mohammedan pirates were fitted out. 

The history of Cavite in the seventeenth century records two 
events of historical importance, namely, the Dutch attack of 
1647 and the foundation of the settlement of Ternate. 

In 1647 a Dutch squadron suddenly made its appearance off 
the coast of Cavite and bombarded the fort. It is said that 
the Dutch fired more than 2,000 cannon balls at the fort and 
almost succeeded in capturing the place, but in the end, however, 
they were forced to withdraw. 

The settlement of Ternate was founded in 1660, as a result 
of the abandonment of the Moluccas by the Spanish govern- 
ment about this time. It appears that when the Spaniards 
withdrew their forces from the Island of Ternate, the Jesuit 
missionaries took their converts with them back to Manila. To 
provide homes for these exiles the Jesuits later founded the 
town of Ternate near the old town of Maragondon. 

From very early times, the fertile soil of Cavite attracted 
the attention of enterprising religious orders and later on the 
rich coastal plain was gradually converted into flourishing 



CAVITE. 133 



haciendas. The administration of their vast estates, however, 
resulted in numerous conflicts between the orders and the 
tenants. Agrarian disputes arose, especially in the towns of 
Imus, Malabon, Kawit, and Silang and drove such men as Luis 
Parang and Juan Upay to the mountains where they preferred 
to live as outlaws. Later, about 1869, similar troubles broke 
out, the refractory element being headed by Eduardo Camerino. 

In 1872, a military mutiny led by Lamadrid took place in 
Cavite. This mutiny though insignificant in itself had important 
political results. The government made it an excuse for the 
execution of three leading native priests, Dr. Jose Burgos and 
Fathers Gomez and Zamora, and for the exile of many innocent 
Filipino leaders of the liberal movement of 1869-1871. This 
was the first uprising in which the educated class was involved. 

From the beginning to the very end of the Revolution, Ca- 
vite was the center of military operations. Zapote bridge, for 
example, was more than once the scene of hard fighting. 
Practically every town in the province was at one time or an- 
other fought over. Many of the leaders of the Revolution, like 
Emilio Aguinaldo, who was President of the Philippine Republic, 
his cousin Baldomero, Noriel, Trias, and others are sons of 
Cavite. Moreover, when the Revolutionary Government was 
established, Bacoor was really the first capital. For a time, 
the province was governed by Ladislao Diwa in the name of 
the Revolutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Cavite on June 11, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 1,202 

Area of fai-ms hectares.... 66,582 

Cultivated lands do 31,572 

Production in 1918: 

Rice ; cavans\... 416,872 

Sugar cane tons.... 13,556 

Corn - cavans.... 7,215 

Copra kilos.... 300,731 

Abaca do 6,049,736 

Tobacco do 3,500 

Population 157,347 

Number of schools 96 

Pi'imary 83 

Intermediate 11 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 15,728 

Males 8,878 

P'emales 6,850 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 64.7 

Number of establishments of household industries 2,401 

Production in 1918 5*577,442.92 

Number of manufacturing establishments 209 

Production in 1918 ^^811.081.17 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 



it 



CEBU. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Island is bounded on the north by the Visayan Sea, on 
the west and northwest by the Taiion Strait, on the south by 
the Mindanao Sea, on the southwest by the Bohol Strait and 
on the east by the Camotes Sea. Although the mountains extend 
through almost the entire length of Cebu, the island is the lowest 
of the Visayas. The highest peak, found at the central portion, 
is Mount Uling (1,013 meters), so called for the black color 
of the coal that is found in the region. From this peak the 
land falls away on all sides to form the central plateau, which 
is one of the most densely peopled regions of the island. In 
the north and south are several other plateaus, but these are 
not well populated because of less fertile soils and the absence 
of streams that afford good drainage. The coast is irregular 
and though reefy has fine places for anchorage. In fact, it is the 
reefs that give the island many a sheltered harbor with a deep 
approach. 

Because of the proximity of the mountains of Samar, Leyte, 
and Negros that cut off the moist winds from the northeast 
and southwest, respectively, the island does not receive enough 
rain for the cultivation of rice. The conditions of rainfall 
and of the soil make corn the staple food of the people. They 
also make the region of the capital and other nearby towns 
more salubrious, although the climate is warmer. Cebu is 
visited by terrible hurricanes at the approach of the equinox. 

The plains yield as many as three crops of corn a year. 
Coconuts, sugar cane, abaca, peanuts, bananas, pineapples, ca- 
motes, and tobacco are other products. 

The island is rich in minerals, of which gold and coal are the 
most important. Industries are well developed in Cebu. Good 
fishing banks found along the shores furnish the people with 
food for local use and for export. Hogs and goats are raised for 
local use. Poultry raising enables the people to export chickens 
and eggs to neighboring islands and even to Manila. Cotton 
cloth, woven for local use and sinamay, made from the fiber 
extracted from banana and pineapple leaves, are exported. 
Much tuba is collected in the coconut regions. 

This province has 50 municipalities and 880 barrios. Its cap- 
ital is Cebu, with 65,300 inhabitants. It is located in the east 
central part of the province. 

historical account. 

The town of Cebu or Sugbu existed as a prosperous native 
settlement before the discovery of the Philippines by Magellan. 
Its king, who appeared to be the recognized leader of a great 

135 



136 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

part of the Island of Cebu, was well known to the people of 
some of the settlements along the coasts of the neighboring 
islands. Judged from the Chinese plates, bells and gongs found 
in Cebu by the Spaniards in 1521, this town must have had 
trade connections with China in pre-Spanish times. In fact, 
several days before Magellan arrived in Cebu a boat from Siam 
had anchored in the port to trade with the Cebuanos. 

The Island of Cebu, was discovered by Magellan on April 7, 
1521. The town was then under the rule of Raja Humabon, a 
powerful chief who had eight subordinate chieftains and a force 
of some two thousand warriors under him. Magellan made 
friends with Humabon and succeeded in baptizing him, his wife, 
and as many as eight hundred of his men. Magellan also en- 
deavored to bring the people of Mactan under Spanish influence. 
In this attempt, he met his death while engaged in battle with 
the people of Opon who were then under Chief Lapulapu. 

Forty-four years after Magellan's time, Legaspi occupied the 
town of Cebu which was then under the rule of Tupas. Here 
Legaspi founded the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines 
which he called San Miguel. The town, which was planned in 
the shape of a triangle, was defended on the land side by a 
palisade and on the two sides facing the sea by artillery. The 
name of the town was later changed to the City of the Most 
Holy Name of Jesus "in honor of an image of the Child Jesus 
which a soldier had found in one of the houses." 

The establishment of the Spanish settlement in Cebu brought 
to this island the Portuguese who then disputed the ownership 
of the Archipelago. In 1566, 1568, and 1570, Portuguese ex- 
peditionary forces were sent to Cebu to drive away the Spaniards. 
First in 1568 and again in 1570, the Portuguese blockaded Cebu, 
but in both cases the blockade resulted in a failure. 

The people of Cebu did not suffer as much from the blockades 
as they did from the frequent attacks of the Moro pirates. The 
coast towns especially suffered terribly from these incursions 
which became quite a constant menace to life and property toward 
the end of the sixteenth century. These raids continued well 
into the seventeenth century. 

About the middle of seventeenth century, on the occasion of 
the Sumoroy revolt in Samar, the people of Cebu showed great 
restlessness. Only the presence of substantial government force 
prevented a general revolt. Similar rebellious tendencies were 
manifested by the people of this island during the British oc- 
cupation of Manila. 

The population of Cebu showed marvelous increase during 
the nineteenth century. Buzeta and Bravo gave the following 
figures: 100,000 souls in 1799; 334,790 in 1846, and 389,073 in 
1850. Many towns were also founded during this time, among 
which are Naga (1829), Talisay (1834), San Fernando and 
Cordoba (1844-1866), and Alcoy and Santander (1866-1880). 

In 1863, Cebu was thrown open to foreign trade. This 
event was important, for it resulted in the general economic 
growth of the province. From that time on, Cebu prospered as 
a trading port until it became a worthy rival of Iloilo. 



CEBU. 137 

Like many of the other Visayan islands, Cebu did not im- 
mediately join the Revolution. Later, however, the standard 
of revolt was raised . and the Spaniards had to evacuate the 
island in December, 1898. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 4,836 

Area of farms hectares... 252,316 

Cultivated lands do 128,819 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 223,907 

Sugar cane ...tons.... 47,755 

Corn cavans.... 5,377,527 

Copra kilos.... 26,423,014 

Abaca do 3,959,215 

Tobacco do........ 3,639,658 

Population ~ 857,410 

Number of schools ^^^ 

Primary 335 

Intermediate 25 

High school 3 

Collegiate 1 

Vocational 2 

Enrollment for 1918 43,361 

Males 26,992 

Females 16,369 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 28.0 

Number of establishments of household industries 5,666 

Production in 1918 ^1,411,771.88 

Number of manufacturing establishments 2'i4 

Production in 1918 =?14,099,885.67 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 










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CITY OF BAGUIO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

About 160 miles to the north of Manila, situated high up 
among the Benguet mountains, is Baguio, the capital of Benguet, 
and one time the summer capital of the Philippines. Baguio 
ranges in elevation from 4,500 to over 5,500 feet and is sur- 
rounded practically on all sides by high mountains and connect- 
ing ridges almost 8,000 feet above sea level. 

The city of Baguio covers an area of 49 square kilometers. 
First class roads wind along its pine-covered hills and afford 
beautiful glimpses of the luxuriant vegetation. The scenery is 
everywhere beautiful and in many sections truly magnificent. 
Rolling hills enclose valleys which are steep in some places and 
gently sloping in other parts. 

There are two first class roads leading to Baguio, one of 
which is the Benguet Road well known for its "Zig-zag." The 
other route is the Naguilian Road running from Bauang town 
and along the Bauang and Ribsuan River through the Naguilian 
Valley. Government automobiles are operated to carry freight 
and passengers from the lowlands to Baguio. 

The resident people of the city are now 5,462, and the annual 
number of visitors is rapidly encreasing. The population of 
Baguio is composed mostly of Filipinos and Americans. There 
are also many foreigners engaged in various kinds of business 
enterprises. The Igorots in the neighboring rancherias go to 
the city for the purpose of selling their goods or to work in the 
construction of roads. 

The most famous places of interest are the open-air amphi- 
theater, Camp John Hay, Burnham Park, Teachers' Camp, 
Government Center, Mirador, the Athletic Grounds, and several 
others. 

This city is located in the south central part of the Subprovince 
of Benguet, 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The first Spaniard to visit Baguio is believed to be Guillermo 
Galvey, who in 1829 led an expedition into the mountain country 
and succeeded in reaching the Trinidad Valley and the neigh- 
boring territory. Galvey's diary kept during this expedition 
reveals his astonishment and delight upon his discovery of this 
region, where "the Spaniards saw with enthusiasm the carefully 
separated and walled fields growing camotes, taro, and sugar 
cane." 

Baguio proper, to the end of Spanish rule, was nothing but 
a small Igorot rancheria with a few dispersed Igorot dwellings. 
The only Government officials of any importance residing there 
were a Spanish vacunador and an Ilocano directorcillo. It should 
be remembered that the important town of Benguet then was 
Trinidad, not Baguio. 

139 



140 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



However, during the last decade of the nineteenth century, 
the place where now Baguio stands had already begun to attract 
the attention of a few men. The Spaniards made attempts to 
establish a health resort in Baguio and to study the best possible 
way of connecting Baguio with either Pangasinan or La Union. 
An agent was sent by the Jesuits during the time of Antonio 
Bajar, the last Spanish commander of Benguet, to Mirador Hill 
to survey the place and make recommendations for the erection 
of an observatory. 

The favorable location of Baguio and its beautiful environment 
early attracted the attention of the Americans. When civil 
government was established in Benguet in November, 1900, the 
capital of the new province was located in Baguio. In 1904, 
the famous American landscape architect, D. H. Burnham, visited 
the place and made plans for its improvement and beautification. 
In 1908, the Bureau of Education started the Teachers' Camp, 
now one of the attractions of Baguio. Finally, in 1909, the 
township of Baguio was incorporated under the name of "City 
of Baguio." 

From the time of its incorporation to the present, Baguio 
steadily grew in prosperity and popularity. Modern conven- 
iences were introduced one after another such as telephones, 
electric lights, water works, and sewerage system. To-day, Ba- 
guio is not only one of the most beautiful spots in the Philippines, 
but also one of the cleanest and coolest. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 49 

Population * 5,462 

Number of schools 7 

Primary 2 

Intermediate 3 

High school 2 

Enrollment for 1918 852 

Males 536 

Females 316 



^ Non-Christian population, 6,490, not included. 



CITY OF MANILA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Manila is the most beautiful and interesting city on the shores 
of the China Sea. It is situated at the mouth of the Pasig River, 
on the west coast of the Island of Luzon. Besides being the 
metropolis and capital, it is now one of the most important ports 
of call and entry in the Far East. Because of its beauty and 
importance, it has also been named the "Pearl of the Orient." 

The city is practically divided into two parts by the Pasig 
River which runs through it. To the north of the river, near 
its mouth, lie the districts of San Nicolas, Binondo, and Tondo, 
the last being the oldest part of the city. These form the 
business center of the city. The Escolta, traversing the district 
of Binondo and close to the Pasig River, is the most important 
business thoroughfare. The Rosario, another busy street in the 
same district, is chiefly occupied by Chinese stores. The other 
principal districts north of the river are Santa Cruz, Quiapo, 
Sampaloc, and San Miguel. To the south of the Pasig River 
are the Old City, surrounded by a thick and high stone-wall, 
Ermita, Malate, Paco, Singalong, Pandacan, and Santa Ana. 

Tondo is the most thickly populated and on that account it 
is not an attractive district. The greatest portion of the res- 
idents here are native Tagalogs. Ermita, San Miguel, Malate, 
and Paco are the seat of the best residences in the city. 

Manila covers a large area, and an extensive system of trans- 
portation is required to carry the people to different parts of 
the city. Electric cars furnish transportation to the majority 
of the traveling public. Automobiles, calesas, and carretelas 
are other means of public conveyance. Manila is provided with 
a modern water-system, a sewerage, and electric light system. 
Gas is also used for lighting houses and for fuel. Recently an 
automatic telephone system has been installed in addition to the 
old system. 

The city has a population of 283,613, the greater portion of 
which are Tagalogs. The other native elements are Ilocanos, 
Pampan^os, Visayans, and Bicols. Of all the foreigners, the 
Americans are the greatest in number. There are thousands of 
Chinese who are either merchants or laborers. The rest of the 
residents are Spaniards, Englishmen, Japanese, and citizens of 
various foreign countries. 

The hot season commences in March and continues until July. 
The rainy days begin in August and last till December. The 
climate is generally warm except in the months of November, 

141 



142 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

December, and January when the temperature is rather mild. 
Frequently, storms from the Pacific bring heavy rains causing 
destructive floods in the suburbs. 

The places of recreation and amusement can compare favor- 
ably with those of any American city of its size. There are fine 
cinematographs and theaters. Other places of interest are the 
Luneta, where the Constabulary Band plays on most evenings, the 
athletic grounds around the Walled City, the Mehan Gardens, the 
churches, and the Cementerio del Norte. Being the capital of 
the Philippines, Manila has many fine buildings, monuments, and 
parks. The seat of Government is the Ayuntamiento in the 
Walled City. A number of fine school buildings have been con- 
structed, such as the Philippine Normal School, the Philippine 
School of Arts and Trades, the Philippine General Hospital, and 
the buildings of the University of the Philippines. Among the 
imposing monuments are those to Rizal, Legaspi and Urdaneta, 
and Magellan. 

As the chief commercial center in the Philippines, Manila 
has an excellent harbor. The port is protected from the waves 
by a breakwater. Behind this wall, where the water is calm, 
large steamers from foreign countries load and unload beside 
modern piers. Along the shore south of the Pasig River is the 
water front. There are warehouses in which goods are stored. 
The mouth of the river is used by small steamers and sailing 
vessels, especially those engaged in coastwise and inter-island 
trade. Launches, casco, and barges ply up and down the river 
transporting cargo to or from the ships. 

The Pasig River, flowing through Manila, is crossed by several 
high bridges. Big vessels can not go under these bridges, but 
launches pass beneath them. Several roads and railroad lines 
enter the city. These are the ways on which products of the 
provinces are brought for the local factories or to be exported. 
Cheap transportation for freight is made possible by the esteros, 
or estuaries, which enter the land all around Manila Bay and 
are often connected with one another. Along these arms of 
the sea are built the cigar factories, distilleries, cold-storage 
plants, saw mills, vegetable oil factories, rice mills, and cotton 
mills. 

As a distributing center, Manila receives the greatest portion 
of the imported products for the various parts of the Philippines, 
From the different provinces inter-island boats bring tobacco, 
sugar, copra, and hemp for export. Rice, firewood, vegetables, 
fruits, poultry products, mats, and zacate are brought in from 
the neighboring provinces for local use. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The name "Manila" is derived from the Tagalog word May- 
nila, meaning "there are nilas." Nila was a kind of plant which 
used to abound on the Pasig River. In the beginning what 
subsequently became Intramuros was known as May-nila. 

At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards, Maynila (now 
Intramuros) was ruled by Rajah Soliman. It was then a 
strongly protected town being surrounded by a heavy palisade 



CITY OF MANILA. 140 



and defended by many well-armed warriors. Opposite to it, 
on the northern bank of the Pasig, stood another thriving town. 
It was ruled by Rajah Lakandola, the King of Tondo. 

Manila was first visited by the Spaniards in 1570. Legaspi, 
hearing of the existence of a prosperous Mohammedan com- 
munity in Luzon, sent an expedition to it under the command 
of Martin de Goiti. De Goiti anchored at Cavite and sent a 
message of friendship to Rajah Soliman. Soliman was willing 
to befriend the Spaniards but would not submit to Spanish au- 
thority. This attitude of Soliman led to friction and trouble. 
In June, 1570, De Goiti attacked Soliman's city, captured it 
after a stout resistance and having taken possession of it in the 
name of the King of Spain, returned to Panay. The next year, 
the Spaniards returned. This time Legaspi himself led the ex- 
pedition. The inhabitants of May-nila seeing the coming of the 
Spaniards set fire to the place and fled to the neighboring town of 
Tondo. Rajah Lakandola accepted the offer of friendship with 
Legaspi. Soliman, however, remained irreconcilable. He gath- 
ered a strong force and prepared to expel the Spaniards. The 
decisive battle was fought at Bangcusay. Here the Filipinos 
were defeated, Soliman himself perishing in the struggle. 

Legaspi then began to rebuild the city of Soliman. He ordered 
the construction of 150 wooden houses for the Spaniards and 
a palace for himself. Besides, he established a new government 
for the city, appointing two judges, twelve aldermen and several 
other officers. He called it, the "distinguished and ever loyal 
city" and in it he established the seat of government of the 
Philippines. In the meantime, the surrounding communities 
came under religious influence. Towards the end of 1578, mis- 
sions were established in Santa Ana, San Miguel, Dilao (now 
Paco), Sampaloc, and Pandacan. 

Since the early years, Manila was threatened with danger from 
various sources.. What proved to be a constant source of danger 
for a long while were the Chinese. Even as early as 1574, Ma- 
nila was threatened from this danger. In that year, Limahong 
with a fleet of sixty-two Chinese warships bearing a force of 
3,000 men, besides a large number of women, tried to take the 
city. His attempt, however, failed. At various times during 
the following century, the Chinese rose in revolt. In the revolt 
of 1602, the Chinese did considerable damage. They set on fire 
buildings in Tondo and Quiapo and for a time threatened to 
capture Intramuros. In 1662, the Chinese in Manila again re- 
volted, while, in 1686, a number of them under the leadership of 
Tingco conspired to kill the Spaniards. It was to minimize 
the danger of a Chinese uprising that during the early years, 
Chinese were confined to a particular place in the city, known 
as the Parian or Alcaiceria. 

A notable event in the history of Manila during the eighteenth 
century was the occupation of the city by the British in 1762. 

The British occupation was an echo of the Seven Year's War 
in which England and Spain had taken opposite sides. The 
British arrived in September, 1762. They were under the com- 



144 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

mand of Admiral Cornish and General Draper. They remained 
in the city until June, 1764. 

In 1830, with the adoption of a more liberal commercial policy, 
the port of Manila which had up to that time been a closed 
port was thrown open to foreign commerce. Manila grew in 
importance as a result of this policy. The number of commercial 
houses in Manila increased rapidly. By 1842, there were 12 
foreign firms in the city and in 1859 three more were established. 
Before 1850, consulates were maintained in Manila by France, 
the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and Belgium. 

Manila up to about the middle of the nineteenth century formed 
part of the ancient Province of Tondo. This province included 
almost the whole of what is now the Province of Rizal. In 1859, 
a decree was issued establishing a civil government for the 
Province of Manila. With this decree what formally was the 
Province of Tondo became the Province of Manila. According 
to this decree the civil governor of the province was also corre- 
gidor of the city of Manila. 

In 1863, Manila was visited by a severe earthquake which 
resulted in great loss of life and property. Among the build- 
ings destroyed by the shock was the Cathedral of Manila. 
Almost all the people who happened to be inside the church at 
the time of the occurrence of the earthquake perished among its 
ruins. Among the victims was Father Pedro Pelaez, one of 
the early champions of the cause of the Filipino clergy. Another 
public calamity occurred in the city in 1867. In September of 
that year, Manila was visited by a severe typhoon which resulted 
in the inundation of the suburbs of the city. For a time bancas 
were the only means of transportation in several places of 
the city. 

In 1880, Manila was visited by a severe earthquake which 
reduced to ruins many of the public buildings of the city and 
almost all the churches. 

The city of Manila may be said to be the birthplace of the 
Katipunan, for it was here in a house on Calle Azcarraga where 
on the 6th of July, 1892, Andres Bonifacio with Deodato Are- 
llano, Valentin Diaz, Ladislao Diwa, and some others, founded the 
association. The Katipunan was discovered by Father Gil, the 
curate of Tondo, on the 19th of August, 1896. 

With the outbreak of the Katipunan in August, 1896, Manila, 
as a port of the Province of Manila, was declared to be in a 
state of war. Hostilities took place at various places on the 
outskirts of the city, such as Caloocan, Balintawak, and San Juan 
del Monte. 

Manila fell into the hands of the Americans on August 13th, 
1898. A military government was in control of the city for 
some time. 

With the establishment of civil government, the old Province 
of Manila was abolished, and some of the towns which belonged 
to it were given to the newly created Province of Rizal. To the 
city of Manila with its present limits was granted on August 7, 
1901, a charter which vested the government of the city in a 



CITY OF MANILA. 145 



municipal board composed of five members, three of whom were 
directly appointed by the Governor-General, two, the president 
of an advisory board and the city engineer, being ex-ofRcio 
members. In June, 1908, the charter was amended so as 
to give to the people of the city some participation in the gov- 
ernment. According to the amended charter, the government 
was vested in a municipal board of six members, three appointive 
members, the city engineer, and two elective members. Recently, 
a further amendment was introduced in the charter of the city 
giving to the people much greater participation in the affairs of 
municipal government. With the new amendment, the govern- 
ment of the city is vested in a mayor appointed by the Governor- 
General and ten councillors elected by the qualified voters of 
the city. • 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 36 

Area of farms hectares.... 769 

Cultivated lands do 607 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 24,200 

Corn do 509 

Population 283,613 

Number of schools HI 

Primary 34 

Intermediate 25 

High school 22 

Collegiate 10 

Vocational .' 18 

University 2 

Enrollment for 1918 59,085 

Males 38,974 

Females 20,111 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 51.4 

Number of establishments of household industries 528 

Production in 1918 ^308,627.90 

Number of manufacturing establishments 1,586 

Production in 1918 =P147,564,454.87 



> One cavan equals 75 liters. 

171073 10 



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CAIOOCAN 



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REFERENCES 






m.. 






\ 



RizalM 



Aquarium 
Ayuntamienlo 

(Govt Hdqus) 
Bank. Phil Nat. 
Bilibid Prison 
Bridge, Ayala 
Bnd|3, Colgaxte 
Bridge. Jo'ies 
Bridge, 0^ Spam. 
Bridge, Sta Cruz 
City Hall 

Club, Army &■ Navy 
Club, Elks 
Club, filipino. 
Club. Manila 
Club, Nacionalista. 
Club, Spanish, 
C and n Survey 
Custom House 
Fort Santiago 
Gas Plant. 
Hoipilal, Army, 
hospital, Philippine 

General 
Hospital, S Lazaro. 
Hospital S J de Oios 
Hospital, St Paul 



26 Hotel de France 

71 Hotel. Luneta 

28 Hotel Manila 

29. Library Philippine 

30 Luneta New 

31 LuneU, Old 

32 Malacanan Palace 

33 Marine Railways 
3* Market. Arranque 
35. Market. Dinsona 
.36. Market, Gaga'angm 
37 Market Paco. 

38. Market, Omnia 

39. Market. S La7ai'j 
W). Market, Sta Mesa 
41 Market. Tondo 

3 Masonic Temple' 

4? Miibeurii Philippine 

i3 Museum. Slo. Tomas 

W Normal School 

it) Observatory 

46 Police Station Luneta 

47 Police Station. Meisir 
46 Post i. Tsl. Office 

43 Power House, dec 

50 Prinlinj. Bureau of 

51 R B Sation Mam 
52. R R Station, Paco 
53 Science Bureau af 



J^ 






Mi^. 



i<- 



>^e. finlicBoiit 



I 54. Senate, Philippine 

17. Treasury. Philippine 

55 University of the 

Philippines 

56 Warehouses. U S 
57. Warehouses. P I 
58 Y M C A 



-1 37 



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CJTY or MANILA 



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Area (Sq. Km.) 36 

Perimeter (Km.) 26.8 

\ Mean monthly Min. 21.9 C 
"/ Mean monthly Max. 31.1 C° 
Humidity (average) 19.5'7'c 

Population 283,613 



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COTABATO. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

CoTABATO, a term which signifies a "stone fort," is the name 
of the province occupying the entire southwestern portion of 
Mindanao. Together with the small island of Bongo, it has an 
area of about 24,916 square kilometers. The coast is regular 
with few important indentations; namely, the PoUoc Harbor 
on the northwest, the Linao and Tuna bays on the west, and the 
Sarangani Bay on the southwest. These indentures are deep, 
landlocked harbors, and are therefore good for anchorage. 

There are big towns near the coasts. Most of them are 
found along the rivers, especially along the Cotabato River 
and its tributaries. Cotabato, the capital, is at the mouth of 
the river, and forms an important shipping center. The Co- 
tabato River system, though not as swift as the Rhine River 
of Germany, serves the same purpose to Cotabato as the Rhine 
to Germany, in the sense that it forms the chief means of com- 
munication, and transportation for conveying finished products 
and raw materials from the different towns to the coast. 

In general, Cotabato is mountainous, excepting the broad 
valleys which are drained by the great but sluggish river system. 
The mountain ranges on the north are low in comparison with 
those of the west, south, and east. The highest peaks on the 
western range are Mount Blik (1,226 meters) and Mount Bi- 
naca, (1,021 meters) ; those of the south are Mount Matutum, a 
recently formed volcano, (2,292 meters), and Mount Latian 
(1,612 meters). On the eastern border, Mount Magolo (1,450 
meters) , and Mount Apo (2,929 meters), the highest peak in the 
Archipelago, are the most important. These mountains are 
densely wooded with the finest and hardest timber to be found 
in the Archipelago. With the exception of that small portion 
around Sarangani Bay, where logging is being carried on, most 
of the forested area is not yet exploited. The most important 
forest products, which are at present exported in great quantity, 
are the candlenut, almaciga, and gutta-percha. 

The climate is agreeable. The province receives little rain- 
fall during the northeast monsoons, because the mountains along 
the eastern border are lofty, thus preventing the rain clouds 
to pass over them; consequently, only a little shower falls on 
the Cotabato Valley. But when winds come, the land receives 
much rainfall, causing the rivers to overflow their banks and 
renew the fertility of the soil by depositing the sediment which 
thev carry from the mountains to the plains. 

147 



148 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The soil recently put under cultivation, is very fertile and 
productive. It is well fitted to rice cultivation. But because 
of the scarcity of laborers to cause the soil to produce the greatest 
yield, only a small area of this great and resourceful plain of 
Mindanao is under the experimental stage of development 

On the eastern side of the valley are many extensive but 
shallow swamps, such as the Liguasan and Libungan. Large 
lakes, as Buluan and Cebu, and many small ones abound. These 
natural basins yield an immense wealth for the country. On 
the marshes, mangroves and nipa grow in abundance, while 
the lakes teem with the rarest and choicest fish. 

Sulphur is abundant near and around Mount Apo, an extinct 
volcano. The difficult ascent and the lack of transportation 
facilities make exploitation impossible at present. Mineral 
springs can be found near the town of Cotabato. 

The population of the province is very sparse. The Christian 
people, who emigrated from the different parts of the Philippine 
Archipelago to exploit this rich valley, built their homes along 
the river basins and near the bays accessible to commerce. Lum- 
bering and agriculture are the most important industries of these 
people. The Moros, who inhabit the interior valleys and in- 
accessible coastal plains, manufacture trays, krises and other 
implements of warfare from brass imported from Singapore. 
The Moros possess valuable jewels and ornamental gongs and 
dishes imported from China during the early days. 

.This province has 2 municipalities and 218 barrios. Its capital 
is Cotabato, with 4,105 inhabitants.' It is located in the north- 
western part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The term "Mindanao" or "Maguindanao" was originally 
given to the town now known as Cotabato and its immediate 
vicinity. The word is derived from the root "danao," which 
means inundation by a river, lake, or sea. The derivative "Min- 
danao" means "inundated" or "that which is inundated." "Ma- 
guindanao" means "that which has inundated" .... The 
"Cotabato" is in Moro, Kuta watu, which means "fort." As the 
sultan of Maguindanao became more powerful, however, he 
extended his dominion over the neighboring territory until it 
included the whole valley of the Rio Grande and the seacoast. 

Islam was successfully introduced and firmly established in 
Mindanao by one man. This same man founded the Sultanate 
in Maguindanao and reformed the whole system of government 
among his converts. His full name was Sharif Mohammed Ka- 
bungsuwan, and he is believed to have established himself in this 
region toward the end of the fifteenth century. 

Garcia Jofre de Loaisa, who in 1525 led an expedition from 
Coruiia, Spain, reached the coasts of Mindanao, which Urdaneta 
called Bendanao, in October, 1526. Loaisa entered one of the 
ports, which, judged from the description, must have been Pollok 
or some place in Illana Bay, remaining there about ten days. 

' Non-Christian population, 1,772, not included. 



COTABATO. 149 



If this is so, Loaisa and Urdaneta were the first Spaniards 
to visit Cotabato. 

The first attempts to conquer the Maguindanao Moros were 
made by Rodriguez de Figueroa and Pedro de Almonte. Rodri- 
guez de Figueroa in 1596 occupied the town of Tampacan and 
tried to restrain the Moros from their piratical activities. The 
people of the region, however, under the leadership of their 
brave chieftains Malaria, Silongan and Buhisan, attacked the 
little band of Spaniards. Figueroa was killed and the Spaniards, 
on the death of their commander, abandoned the place. Forty- 
three years later. General Almonte, who was then operating in 
Lanao, penetrated into Cotabato and established a small presidio 
at Buhayen. 

These early attempts to bring Cotabato under control were 
soon abandoned. For a period of over two hundred years, 
or from 1640 to the middle of the nineteenth century, the Ma- 
guindanao Moros, Maranao, were really an independent people 
recognizing no authority except that of their datos or sultan, 
and obeying no laws but their own. 

In June, 1851, Cotabato was again visited by the Govern- 
ment forces. An expeditionary force attacked and occupied 
Pollok. The Spaniards were not blind to its strategic position 
and immediately converted it into a naval base. Three years 
later, Pollok was made a politico-military district dependent 
on Zamboanga. 

The subjugation of Cotabato now started on a more determined 
policy. The year 1861 saw three campaigns in this region. The 
first one, which was led by General Salcedo and the then Coman- 
dante politico-militar of Mindanao, sailed up the Cotabato River 
and reached as far as the site of the present town of Cotabato. 
After some difficulty, the Sultan and his father, Dato Arnirol, 
recognized Spanish authority, the irreconcilables retiring to 
Pagalufigan. The second was conducted by Enrique Garcia 
Carrillo, politico-military governor of Davao, and had for its 
objective the acquisition of Lake Buluan region. The expedition 
reached as far as a place called Mailad, where a fort capable of 
accommodating two hundred soldiers, was built. The third was 
led by Captain Casto Mendez-Nunez and Lieutenant Malcampo. 
This expeditionary force sailed up the Cotabato River and finally 
succeeded in taking Pagulungan. 

In 1862, the military base at Tamantaka was established. 
Immediately, thereafter, Cotabato was founded. Then other 
interior towns were occupied and military establishments set up. 
By 1872, Cotabato was so far more advanced than any other 
region and was made the temporary capital of the whole Island 
of Mindanao for a period of three years. At the end of Spanish 
rule, Cotabato, then the fifth district of Mindanao, was composed 
of the politico-military comandancia of Pollok and the military 
districts of Malabang, Reina Regente, Taceran, Babia, Illana, 
Baras, and Lebac. 

Early in 1899, Cotabato was evacuated by the Spaniards. A 



150 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



native government under Roman Vilo was set up. A rival More 
government, however, was also organized under Dato Piang. 

In 1903, when the Moro Province was created, Cotabato be- 
came one of its districts. In 1914, civil government was 
established in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and Co- 
tabato was organized as one of the provinces of the department. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... ^^'21S 

Area of farms hectares... -^^'fn? 

Cultivated lands do 4,301 

Production in 1918: „^„.r 

Rice cavans .... 36,645 

Corn ZZZ do 22,013 

Copra kilos... 33,610 

Abaca do 162,121 

Tobacco do 2.5,000 

Population "21,391 

Number of schools 8 

Primary 4 

Intermediate 1 

Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 545 

Males 366 

Females 179 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 27.6 

Number of establishments of household industries 36 

Production in 1918 ^11,104.00 

Number of manufacturing establishments 4 

Production in 1918 ^338,150.08 

1 One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 147,800, not included. 



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Area (Sq. Km.) 24.916 

Population 169,191 
Capital COTABATO 

Municipalities 2 

Municipal districts 35 

Barrios 218 
Elevations in meters 






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DAVAO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Davao Province occupies the southern part of the Agusan 
Valley, the southern part of the eastern coastal plain, and 
the coastal plains around Davao Gulf. 

The coasts of Davao are much indented and if it were not for 
the big waves caused by the south and southwest monsoons, there 
would be many good harbors. The principal anchoring ground 
is found in the passage between the mainland of Davao and the 
west coast of the Island of Samal. It is an open roadstead with 
a depth ranging from 8 to 15 fathoms. Baganga, Garaga, Pu- 
jada, Cateel, and Malalag bays also offer safe places for anchor- 
age during certain seasons. 

In the Davao Gulf are found the Islands of Samal and Ta- 
licud. Sarangani and Balut are other islands south of Point 
Tinasa. 

The land is exceedingly mountainous. The ranges of mount- 
ains run in almost all directions, the one along its western 
boundary being the highest and longest. The most important 
peaks are Mounts Latian, Magolo, Sinako, Malambo, Apo, 
Matutum, and Saddle, the last three of which are semi-active 
volcanoes. Apo is the highest mountain in the Philippines. 

Between the mountain ranges are wide fertile valleys through 
which flow wide, navigable rivers that overflow their banks 
annually. The most important rivers are Agusan, Davao, La- 
sang, Libuganon, Cateel, and Mohanook. 

The climate along the coasts is wholesome and agreeable. The 
rainfall is evienly distributed throughout the year. The typhoon 
belt does not cross this region. 

Because of the fertile soil and fine climate, agriculture is 
much encouraged. Almost all of the arable land of Davao is 
in the hands of Japanese corporations. A few Christian Fili- 
pinos from the Visayan islands and Luzon and a few Moros also 
own farms. Large abaca plantations have been set out on the 
plains around Davao Gulf, and, along the shores, thousands of 
coconut trees have been planted. Abaca fiber and copra are 
exported. Coffee, cacao, and rice are also raised successfully. 

The mountains are covered with forests yielding hard woods 
which are excellent for building purposes. The slopes are 
covered with grass that could support thousands of cattle. Coal 
is found in the mountain near the Mayo River, and sulphur, 
almost in a pure state, covers the top of .Mount Apo. These, 
together with the agricultural lands and the pearl and fish 
wealth of the coasts, will undoubtedly make Davao one of the 
richest provinces in the future. 

More than a half of the population are pagans, among whom 

151 



152 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



are the Mandayas and Bagobos who form the largest tribes. 
The Bagobos, taken as a group, have many customs in common 
with the Christian FiHpinos. The Mandayas are the most nu- 
merous and the most powerful pagan people of Mindanao. Of all 
the non-Christian tribes in the island, they have the best develop- 
ed primitive civilization. Their women weave excellent cloth, 
which is dyed in curious and ornamental patterns, and the men 
make daggers, spears, and other articles of metal. They also 
grow corn, mountain rice, and an excellent quality of hemp. 

The Bagobos, being fond of horses, raise very good ones. 
They trade by barter with the Moro and Chinese merchants. 

Davao is the capital and principal port of this province. 

The province has 7 municipalities and 236 barrios. Its cap- 
ital, Davao with 13,046 inhabitants,^ is located in the west central 
part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

In 1847, D. Jose Oyanguren, a native of Vergara, of the 
Province of Nueva Guipuzcoa, Spain, led a successful expedition 
to what is now the town of Davao. Two years later, he organized 
the neighboring regions, together with a strip of territory from 
the province of Caraga (now Surigao) into a new province. 
He called this province Nueva Guipozcoa, in honor of his home 
province; the capital, which was established in what is now the 
town of Davao, he called Vergara in honor of his native town. 
In this province of Nueva Guipozcoa, the present Province of 
Davao had its origin. 

Parts of Davao were visited by the early Spanish explorers. 
For example, the Island of Sarangani was visited by Alvaro de 
Saavedra during the latter part of 1528. Saavedra stopped here 
for about three days on his way to the Moluccas. The towns 
of Baganga and Manay on the eastern coast of the province 
were visited by Villalobos in 1543, and found to be uninhabited. 
Villalobos also paid a visit to the Island of Sarangani whither 
he went in search of provisions. The Spanish soldiers under 
his command planted corn on the island from which they obtained 
a good harvest. 

Up to about the middle of the nineteenth century, Davao was 
under the jurisdiction of the sultanate of Mindanao. In 1844, 
however, Governor Figueroa of Zamboanga and Agustin Boca- 
llan, a brigadier in the Spanish army, obtained from the sultan 
of Mindanao the cession of this vast region to the Spanish gov- 
ernment. 

The cession of Davao was followed by its conquest by Jose 
Oyanguren. Immediately after the cession of Davao, Oyanguren 
went to visit it. He was so impressed by the possibilities of the 
region that when he returned to Manila, he proposed to lead an 
expedition thither for the purpose of bringing the region under 
Spanish sovereignty, expelling or pacifying the Moros, establish- 
ing Christian settlements, and opening up communication with 
the inhabitants in the interior. Permission was duly granted 
by Governor Narciso Claveria. Oyanguren became the first 



' Non-Christiaij population, 2,144, not included. 



DAVAO. 153 



governor of the province newly created by him. As then 
constituted, Nueva Guipuzcoa included the territory bordering 
on the Gulf of Davao, together with a strip of territory from 
the old province of Caraga including the towns of Tandag, Tago, 
Lianga, Mision de San Juan, Bislig, Jinatuan, Cateel, Quina- 
blangan, Dapa, and Baganga. 

In 1858, the Province of Nueva Guipuzcoa was abolished as 
such and in its stead there were created two politico-military 
comandancias : Bislig and Davao. In 1860, these comandancias 
were included in the District of Davao, one of the six districts into 
which Mindanao was divided. The District of Davao comprised 
the southeastern territory of Mindanao. 

At the end of the Spanish rule, Davao was one of the seven dis- 
tricts of the politico-military government of Mindanao. It was 
governed by an army officer of the rank of major. Davao then 
included two politico-military comandancias: Mati and Glan. 
Each was under a captain of the Spanish army. 

In 1903, the Moro Province was established. This included the 
Sulu Archipelago and the whole Island of Mindanao with the 
exception of Misamis and Surigao. Davao became a district of 
this province. 

In September, 1914, the Moro Province was abolished and 
in its stead there was created the Department of Mindanao and 
Sulu, comprising seven provinces. Davao became one of the 
provinces of this department, with the capital at Davao. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 19,389 

Area of farms hectares.... 110,628 

Cultivated lands do 34,092 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '.... 80,228 

Corn do 7,191 

Copra - kilos.- 354,074 

Abaca do 12,911,323 

Tobacco do 28,049 

Population '66,293 

Number of schools 68 

Primary 47 

Intermediate 2 

Vocational 19 

Enrollment for 1918 5,913 

Males 3,880 

Females 2,033 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 51.3 

Number of establishments of household industries 152 

Production in 1918 77,396.60 

Number of manufacturing establishments 44 

Production in 1918 P=385,918.69 

' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 53.011, not included. 



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ILOCOS NORTE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

This Province occupies the whole of the coastal plain in the 
northwestern corner of Luzon. The Cordillera del Norte, which 
separates it from Abra and Cagayan, extends along the eastern 
border to the China Sea in the north. Along this range, the 
highest peaks are Simminublan, Burnay, Sicapco, Licud, Dinawa- 
nang, and Quilang. 

The coastline is so regular that although there are several 
ports, such as Gabut, Laoag, Bangui, Diriqui, and Currimao, the 
last named is the only one which offers any protection from the 
north winds. 

The climate is humid but generally favorable except during the 
rainy season from May to September when the hurricanes which 
form in the Pacific sweep across this region to the China Sea. 
The hottest months are from April to July. The land being open 
towards the north and west, the people suffer from the effects 
of the change of the direction of the monsoons. 

The land, especially towards the west, is level, sandy along the 
shore and stony along the rivers. Much soil is washed down 
from the mountains and as most of that of the plains is clayey, 
it is, therefore, adapted to the growth of rice. There are no 
swamp lands. A few lakes are to be found, among which the 
Nagpartian and the Dacquel a Danum (Paoay Lake) are the 
largest. The latter has a depth of about 10 meters and is 
located only about 3 kilometers from the sea. A canal from 
this lake to the seashore would permit vessels to penetrate in- 
land and would assuredly develop the region commercially. 

The mountains are covered with fine timber trees, and resin, 
honey, and wax are found on their slopes. Between the Cor- 
dillera and the coastal plain are low hills which make fine grazing 
lands. Cattle raising, however, has declined as an important 
occupation of the people, although it is being revived because 
of the increasing prices of carabaos and cattle in the neighboring 
provinces. 

A few grottos or caves are found near the mountains of the 
interior. There are a number of stone quarries. Limestone 
is found on Mount Calvario, San Nicolas and in Burgos. The 
beach supplies a great amount of coral for road building. East 
of Cape Bojeador are manganese and asbestos deposits which 
are being exploited. 

Farming is the most important occupation and rice is the 
principal product. Corn, beans, peas, tobacco, and cotton are 

155 



156 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



planted after the rice harvest season. Sugar cane is widely 
produced, but most of the juice is made into an alcoholic bever- 
age called "basi." The amount of fertile and well drained land 
is somewhat limited so that the land holdings are small. Fish- 
ing is carried on extensively, both in the sea and fresh water. 

Commerce in foodstuffs is not great, as the people produce 
almost everything they need on their small farms, but rice, peas, 
and beans are exported to Hocos Sur and Cagayan and tobacco 
and maguey to Manila. The weaving of textiles is the principal 
industry among women throughout the province. Paoay spe- 
cializes in the weaving of towels and figured blankets, Batac in 
cloth for wearing apparel and plain blankets, and San Nicolas 
in silk handkerchiefs. Along the coast, salt is produced from 
the sea water by heating. Mat making and the pottery industry 
are also well developed. 

Laoag, which means "clear" in the dialect of the people, is 
the name of the capital and the center of commerce. It is 
situated on the bank of the Laoag River, and through it passes 
the first-class road which connects all of the coastal towns from 
San Fernando, La Union, to Pangasinan. 

The people residing along the coast and in the plains are 
Ilocanos. Up in the mountains are a few Tinguianes, Igorots, 
and Apayaos who venture to come down only to trade their wax, 
rattan, and honey with the Christians. The Ilocanos are noted for 
their industry. Not having sufficient land for their activities 
in Ilocos Norte, they emigrate in large numbers to Nueva Ecija, 
Tarlac, Pangasinan, Cagayan, and Isabela. Many of them have 
travelled as far as Mindanao in search of farm lands. 

This province has 16 municipalities, 3 rancherias and 361 
barrios. Its capital, Laoag, has 38,294 inhabitants. It is located 
in the west central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards there was already a 
region known as Ilocos, which included the greater part of north- 
western Luzon. The centers of population seem to have been 
Laoag and Vigan. 

The Spaniards created this region into the Province of Ilocos, 
with Vigan as the capital, but by a royal decree of 1818, the 
northern part was separated and erected into a province called 
Ilocos Norte. To the new province were assigned the following 
towns: Bangui, Nagpartian, Pasuquin, Bacarra, Vintar, Sarrat, 
Piddig, Dingras, Laoag, San Nicolas, Batac, Paoay, and Badoc. 
At the time Ilocos Norte was made a separate province, the towns 
above mentioned had a population of 135,748. 

It is believed that even before the arrival of the Spaniards, 
the Chinese and Japanese traders were already familiar with the 
coast towns of Ilocos. Spanish exploration of Ilocos began as 
early as 1572, when Juan de Salcedo made his famous trip along 
the Ilocano coast. During this trip, he visited what is now Ilocos 



ILOCOS NORTE. 157 



Norte, occupying Laoag, which even then seems to have been 
the chief center of population of that region. He explored the 
mouth of the Laoag River and had several encounters with the 
hostile natives. He also sent a punitive expedition to a town 
called Bacal, probably the present town of Batac. 

The history of Ilocos Norte from the beginning of the Spanish 
rule to the first decades of the nineteenth century records many 
important revolts, which may be classified as those that were 
caused by the ''tributes" and forced labor and those that were 
caused by the monopolies. 

The first important revolt caused by the injustices arising out 
of the collection of tributes by the encomenderos occurred in 
Dingras in 1589. The next, arising out of the same causes, took 
place in 1660. This uprising was led by Don Pedro Almasan 
of San Nicolas, who, influenced by the action of Andres Malong 
in Pangasinan, proclaimed himself king and his daughter and 
son-in-law as heirs apparent. 

Two revolts of consequence were caused by the monopolies. 
In 1788, an uprising occurred in Laoag caused by a general dis- 
content over the tobacco monopoly, when, it is said, about 1,000 
persons rose up in arms. In 1807, another revolt resulted from 
the injustices of the wine monopoly. The leaders of this up- 
rising were one Ambaristo and Pedro Mateo. The centers of 
the movement were Sarrat, Laoag, Batac, and Paoay. 

The nineteenth century records no important revolts in the 
history of Ilocos Norte. On the other hand, the economic pro- 
gress of the province during this period was well marked. As 
a result of the operations of the Real Compania de Filipinas, the 
textile industry was developed on a large scale. The manu- 
facture of indigo was also encouraged in Ilocos Norte as well as 
in the other Ilocos provinces. Toward the close of the nine- 
teenth century, economic progress was furthered by the abolition 
of the tobacco monopoly. 

Like many other provinces, Ilocos Norte espoused the cause 
of the Revolution. Gregorio Aglipay of Batac, now the head of 
the Philippine Independent Church, was among the first to join 
the ranks of the Revolutionists. The Revolutionary Army under 
the command of General Manuel Tinio occupied Ilocos Norte 
as well as the other Ilocano provinces in the name of the Re- 
volutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Ilocos Norte on September 
1, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 



Approximate area .....square kilometers... 

Area of farms hectares... 

Cultivated lands do 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '... 

Sugar cane tons... 

Corn cava7is... 

Copra kilos... 

Tobacco do 



3,349 
62.547 
44,856 

1,435,599 

82.525 

127,693 

2,352 

1,623,944 



> One caran equals 7P liters. 



158 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL DATA — continued. 

Population '217,436 

Number of schools 157 

Primary 138 

Intermediate 14 

High school 1 

Vocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 18,584 

Males 11,029 

Females 7,555 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 36.5 

Number of establishments of household industries 1,584 

Production in 1918 332,975.82 

Number of manufacturing establishments 27 

Production in 1918 ?=248,055.73 

^ Non-Christian population, 1,515, not included. 



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ILOCOS NORTE 

Area (Sq. Km.) 3,349 

Population 218,951 

Capital LAOAG 

Municipalities 16 

Municipal districts 3 

Barrios 361 
Elevations In meters 

Kilometers 



150 



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ILOCOS SUR. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

iLOCOS SuR, another typhoon-swept region, is the narrower 
of the Ilocos provinces. In some parts, the branch of the Cor- 
dillera range, that separates it from Abra, runs clear to the coast, 
which is so reefy that there are very few places that offer safe 
shelter for vessels. Pandan is the principal port. Although it 
is sheltered from the north winds, the harbor at Salomague is 
sought only during a typhoon. A mile to the northwest of 
Salomague harbor is an island surrounded by a reef which runs 
southwest and forms with the coast the side of a passage through 
which boats pass into the harbor. Another island on the coast 
is Pingit, low, covered by forest, and surrounded by a reef that 
makes the coast unapproachable. 

The mountains are almost bare of timber so that rainfall is 
scanty and the land sandy in character. The rice produced is 
not enough for the provincial needs, quantities being imported 
from Ilocos Norte and Pangasinan. The land is especially 
adapted to the growth of maguey, a fiber which constitutes the 
principal export. Sugar is also another article that is exported 
in quantities. Indigo was once a great source of wealth, but 
production has greatly declined as a result of the manufacture 
of cheap aniline dyes in Germany. 

There are no metal mines in Ilocos Sur. Narvacan has great 
deposits of lime carbonate. Formerly, jasper was found in 
abundance. In Bantay there are quarries of a poor quality of 
stone, and in the neighborhood there are indications of the exist- 
ence of copper. There are very few mineral springs. The only 
one of importance lies two kilometers from Santa Maria at the 
foot of Mount Lubung. 

The rivers that drain the province, with the exception of the 
Abra River, are short and swift. Usually the lakes are found 
along the shore, but those in Santo Domingo and Candon are 
located far enough inland to add to the fertility of the region. 

Because the soil will not support the population, a great many 
persons have turned to manufacture and trade. These gave rise 
to industrial specialization in different towns. Those along the 
coast extract salt from the sea water and export it in great 
quantities to inland provinces. In San Esteban, there is a quarry 
of stone from which mortars and grindstones are made. San 
Vicente, Vigan, and San Ildefonso specialize in woodworking, 
the first in carved wooden boxes and images and the others in 

159 • 



160 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



household furniture. Most of the wood used in these handicrafts 
is imported from Abra and Cagayan. Bantay is the home of 
skilled silversmiths. In the other towns saddles, harness, slip- 
pers, mats, pottery, and hats are made and exported to some 
extent. Candon on the coast exports great quantities of coconuts 
to Ilocos Norte. Sisal and hemp fiber extraction and weaving 
of cotton cloth are common household industries throughout the 
province. 

Most of the people are Ilocanos but there are also some Tin- 
guianes, Igorots, and Negritos living on the slopes of the Cor- 
dillera. 

This province has 21 municipalities and 441 barrios. Its 
capital is Vigan, with 17,764 inhabitants. It is located in the 
northwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Due to the rapid increase of population of the old Province of 
Ilocos which included all of the Ilocos and part of the mountain 
country, it was deemed necessary to divide this extensive region 
into two provinces; namely, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. The 
division was made in 1818, pursuant to a real cedula dated 
February 2 of that year. The capital of the new province was 
Vigan. As created in 1818, Ilocos Sur included the northern part 
of what is now La Union as far as the town of Namacpacan, 
now Luna, and approximately what is now Abra Province. But 
later these southern and eastern extremities were separated. 

The exploration of Ilocos Sur began in 1572, when Juan de 
Salcedo made his famous expedition into the Ilocano country. 
It was to this illustrious Spaniard that Ilocos Sur as well as 
Ilocos Norte owe a good deal of their early prosperity. It should 
be remembered that Salcedo was the encomendero of Vigan and 
Lieutenant-Governor of Ilocos. He was the founder of the 
Spanish city of Fernandina which he erected in the heart of the 
ancient and prosperous Ilocano settlement of Vigan. He was 
also the moving spirit for the evangelization of the neighboring 
territory. 

In direct contrast to Salcedo's beneficent influence was the 
terror felt by the natives on the occasion of Limahong's landing 
in Sinait in 1574. This Chinese pirate, it should be remembered, 
effected a landing in the above mentioned town for the purpose 
of plunder while on his way to Manila. 

Ilocos Sur embraces within its confines some of the oldest 
towns of the Philippines. Besides Vigan, several other towns 
already existed in this region before the close of the sixteenth 
century; namely, Santa, Narvacan, Bantay, Candon, and Sinait. 

Among the several disorders and revolts recorded in the history 
of Ilocos Sur, two stand out prominently. These uprisings 
were the Malong rebellion of 1660 and the Silang rebellion of 
1763. Malong, who was trying to carve out a kingdom for 
himself in Pangasinan and the neighboring territory, sent his two 
able generals, "Count" Gumapos and Jacinto Macasiag to the 
north to effect the conquest of this region. Gumapos and Ma- 



ILOCOS SUR. 161 



casiag, however, proceeded only as far as Vigan, from which 
place they were recalled by Malong. Diego Silang who led the 
great rebellion of 1762 dominated the greater part of Ilocos Sur. 
He fought pitched battles with the Spanish forces at Vigan and 
Cabugao and practically succeeded in establishing a government 
of his own in Ilocos Sur. 

The greater portion of the first half of the nineteenth century 
was a period of economic development in Ilocos Sur as well as 
in Ilocos Norte. During this time the exploitation of the cotton, 
tobacco, and indigo industries was greatly encouraged. 

The effects of the Revolution were not readily felt in Ilocos 
Sur. But toward the beginning of the year 1898, anti-govern- 
ment propaganda already existed in Candon, where a sort of 
Revolutionary government had been established shortly before 
the arrival of the Americans in Manila, Moreover, Don Mariano 
Acosta later took possession of the government of Ilocos Sur 
in the name of the Philippine Revolutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Ilocos Sur on September 
1, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1,145 

Area of farms hectares.... 62,091 

Cultivated lands do ' 53,045 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 711,053 

Sugar cane tons.... 179,202 

Corn cavans.... 180,597 

Copra ...kilos.... 394,541 

Tobacco do 883,349 

Population =216,274 

Number of schools 146 

Primary 127 

Intermediate 13 

High schoal .- 2 

Vocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 18,534 

Males 11,795 

Females 6,739 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 31.7 

Number of establishments of household industries 5,349 

Productions in 1918 ^=1,363,338.15 

Number of manufacturing establishments 128 

Production in 1918 ?464,480.57 



171073 11 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

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ILOILO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Iloilo, one of the three provinces which form the Island of 
Panay, occupies the entire southern portion of the island. The 
coast is very irregular, especially in the southeastern part, and 
is dotted with many small islands, the most important of which 
is Guimaras, which is separated from the mainland by the Iloilo 
Strait. The province has an area of 5,284 square kilometers. 
Iloilo, the capital, is about 258 miles away from Manila. It is 
located on a narrow arm of the sea, and by its favorable location 
has become the most important port of western Visayas. Large 
vessels from China, Japan, Europe, and the United States, put 
into Iloilo for sugar. The most important market towns are 
Iloilo, Jaro, Oton, and Pototan. 

In general, the land is mountainous, the highest peaks being 
Mount Baloy, Mount Inaman and Mount Igadalig which form 
a chain running along the borders of Antique and Iloilo. The 
climate is milder and cooler than that of the other provinces 
of western Visayas. The southwest monsoons that bring mois- 
ture are usually accompanied by winds of such violence that 
they paralyze traffic and. industry and ruin the crops. On the 
mountains grow hard woods suitable for shipbuilding and fur- 
niture-making, while on the hillsides cacao, hemp and sibucao 
for dyeing purposes are grown. 

The amount of arable land for the growing of sugar cane, 
rice, com, tobacco, hemp and other tropical products is about 
131,269 hectares, while 148,877 hectares still remain idle. The 
province ranks third in the production of rice, and although the 
sugar industry is coming to the fore, the output is still small in 
comparison with that of Negros because of the lack of centrals. 
But the future holds better prospects there than in Negros, on 
account of the well-situated port of Iloilo, the navigable rivers, 
transportation facilities and the industrious inhabitants of the 
province. Pasture lands are scarce and cattle raising does not 
flourish. While the wide level lands produce abundant crops, 
the mountains, besides furnishing hard wood for heavy con- 
struction purposes, are rich in resins and building stone. Gold 
and natural gas have already been located and exploited, but 
they are poor in quality and limited in quantity so that there 
is little possibility of development. Mineral springs are said 
to exist in Maasin, Tubungan, Janiuay and Nagaba. Not only 
is the land productive, but also the rivers and adjacent seas. 

163 



164 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



They teem with fish, and afford the inhabitants an easy means 
of communication. At present, irrigation projects are intended 
to bring the. arid and idle lands under cultivation, and to make 
Iloilo the wealthiest province in the Visayan group. 

With the exception of a few Americans, Europeans, and Chi- 
nese, the people are mostly Visayans, active and industrious. 
The principal pursuits of the people are farming, weaving jusi, 
pifia, maguey, hemp fiber and silk, lumbering and fishing. In 
the weaving industry, they resemble the Ilocanos except that here 
they weave the fine pina for camisas while in Ilocos they make 
heavy, durable cotton blankets and towels. 

This province has 31 municipalities and 1,310 barrios. Its 
capital is Iloilo, with 49,808 inhabitants. It is situated in the 
southwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

According to tradition, the first ten datos from Borneo (see 
Antique) to settle Panay Island landed in the neighborhood of 
the present town of Miagao. These datos, who finally purchased 
the island from the Negritos, then inhabiting that region, divided 
Panay into three districts called "sakops." One of the three 
"sakops" was called Irong-irong, which presumably is the present 
Province of Iloilo. Irong-irong was placed under the rule of a 
dato called Paiburong, who became the founder of the first Malay 
settlements in Iloilo. 

The Spaniards began to enter Iloilo as early as the time of 
Legazpi. In the settlements here they found a people who were 
in the habit of painting (tattooing) their bodies. Among the 
largest of these early settlements was Ogton, more generally 
called Oton at a later time. Janiuay, Dumangas, and Tigba- 
nuan were also old centers of population. 

Immediately following their entrance into this region, the 
Spaniards established themselves at Oton; but it was not till 
the time of Governor Ronquillo (1580-1583) who founded the 
villa of Arevalo that Spanish power really made itself felt. This 
villa appeared to have immediately superseded Oton in import- 
ance and became the capital of the alcaldia, the jurisdiction of 
which included practically all of the Island of Panay and a 
great part of the Island of Negros. Iloilo, now the provincial 
capital, did not gain its present position till the year 1688. 

Iloilo, like Antique and Cebu, suffered greatly from the raids 
of the Moros and the Dutch toward the end of the sixteenth 
century and in the beginning of the seventeenth. Forts were 
established at Oton, Arevalo and Iloilo, but the pirates of the 
high seas continued their periodic visits, and even extended their 
activities further north. 

During the eighteenth century, the Province of Iloilo lost a 
good deal of her territory, as a result of the creation of Capiz 
in 1716 and of Antique in 1798. Her jurisdiction over a part 
of the Island of Negros also ceased in 1798. 

The nineteenth century was a period of prosperity in the his- 
tory of Iloilo. The population of the province reveals a steady 



ILOILO. 165 



increase. The province in 1818 had only a population of 176,901 
souls; these figures rose to 277,571 in 1845 and to 348,371 in 
1870. This prosperity of the province was greatly enhanced 
as a result of the opening of the port of Iloilo to foreign trade 
in 1855. 

At the end of Spanish rule, Iloilo v^as a politico-military 
province like the rest of the Visayan provinces. 

Iloilo vv^as evacuated by the Spaniards late in 1898. But sev- 
eral months before this event, the revolutionists w^ere already 
active in this province. Subsequent to the evacuation of Iloilo 
by the Spaniards, the province came under the control of 
the Revolutionary Government. The prominent revolutionary 
leaders were Martin Delgado and Pablo Araneta, the former 
serving for a while as military and civil commander. 

Civil government was established in Iloilo on April 11, 1901. 

I STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 5,284 

Area of farms hectares.... 280,146 

Cultivated lands do 131,269 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 2,248,264 

Sugar cane tons.... 31,453 

Corn cavans.... 76,087 

Copra kiloa... 2,053,720 

Abaca do 3,648,892 

Tobacco do 1,394,146 

Population =501,862 

Number of schools 346 

Primary 299 

Intermediate 35 

High school 6 

Collegiate 2 

Vocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 44,910 

Males 25,830 

Females 19,080 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 40.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 14,144 

Production in 1918 ^4,221,893.81 

Number of manufacturing establishments 150 

Production in 1918 P3,021,578.18 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

^Non-Christian population, 6,410. not included. 




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ISABELA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

This chief tobacco province of the Philippines occupies the 
upper part of the Cagayan Valley. Along the eastern coast runs 
the Sierra Madre which ends at Escaparda Point in Cagayan. 
The southern part is traversed by the branches of the Caraballo 
Mountains while to the west lie the foot hills of the range that 
traverse Ifugao, Bontoc, and Kalinga. The land is well-drained 
by the Cagayan River and its two most important tributaries, 
the Magat and the Abuluan. The rivers are the principal means 
of communication and transportation. All articles of commerce 
are transported on the Cagayan River from and to Aparri at its 
mouth. Trade with the people of Ifugao, Bontoc, and Kalinga 
is carried on through the rivers. 

The climate is healthful and is very favorable to the growth 
of tobacco. The northeast monsoons bring heavy rains which 
wash down the fertile mountain soil and find their way into 
the rivers that deposit the silt all along the plains. Every 
year, the tobacco fields are fertilized in this manner. Corn is 
another important crop, much of it being used as a staple food, 
although much rice is important from northern Cagayan. 

The province possesses vast resources. The forests of the 
Caraballo and Sierra Madre are scarcely touched because of the 
lack of transportation. There are extensive tobacco lands avail- 
able for homesteading or which can be leased very cheaply 
from the Government. The grasslands of the slopes ofl'er great 
possibilities for cattle industry. Much fish is caught in the 
rivers and game abounds on the grassy plains and in the forests. 

There are very few towns and, save Palanan, they are all 
located along the Cagayan, Magat and Abuluan Rivers. Palanan 
Bay on the east is exposed to the weather and the anchorage 
is reefy. The town is separated from the rest of the prov- 
ince by great mountains which make communication and travel 
difficult and dangerous. Ilagan, the capital, lies at the junction 
of the Cagayan and the Abuluan Rivers. The people are prin- 
cipally Ibanags, but on the plains there are also to be found 
many liocano settlers and traders. The Sierra Madre Moun- 
tains are peopled by Catalanganes, Ilongotes, Bunganases, and 
Mayoyaos. Isabela is much larger than Cagayan but it has 
only one-half as many people. Better transportation facilities 
and government encouragement would assuredly result in in- 
creased immigration, settlers and laborers being the chief need 
of Isabela. 

167 



168 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

This province has 13 municipalities and 249 barrios. Its 
capital is Ilagan, with 23,259 inhabitants.' It is located in the 
north central part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of Isabela was created, with Ilagan as its capital, 
in May, 1856, out of territories belonging to Cagayan and Nueva 
Vizcaya. To form the new province, the towns of Cabagan and 
Tumauini, together with a few rancherias, were taken from 
Cagayan ; and the towns of Ilagan, Gamu, Angadanan, Camarag 
(now Echague), Carig, and Palanan were detached from Nueva 
Vizcaya for the purpose. From this newly created province, 
the military comandancia of Saltan, which had hitherto belonged 
to Nueva Vizcaya, was made dependent. 

Prior to this reorganization, there already existed, in what is 
now Isabela, centers of population. Some of these settlements 
like Camarag, Angadanan, and Nagali, have disappeared and 
new towns have taken their places. When the missionaries 
arrived, they chose some of these old settlements as centers of 
missionary activity. For example, the old towTi of Cabagan, 
which later was called San Pablo, was for a long time the 
headquarters of missionary propaganda. Moreover, P. Pedro 
Jimenez, as early as 1677, carried his religious movement in the 
regions of Gamu, Ilagan and Itugud. 

Like many other provinces, Isabela was the scene of important 
uprisings. In 1763, for example, stirred by the influence of 
the Silang Rebellion in Ilocos, the people of Isabela revolted, led 
on by Dabo and Juan Morayac. The centers of rebellion were 
Ilagan and Cabagan. Again in 1785, another revolt broke out. 
This time the rebellion was led by Labutao and Baladon. The 
rebellion was caused by the grievances of the people against the 
collection of tribute and the enforcement of the tobacco monopoly. 

Unlike many other provinces, Isabela was not readily affected 
by the revolution on account of its isolation. It was not until 
late in 1898 that the province came under the control of the 
revolutionists, when Colonel Daniel Tirona occupied the north- 
eastern provinces of Luzon. 

A historical spot of Isabela is the little town of Palanan near 
the Pacific Coast. It was here that General Emilio Aguinaldo 
maintained his headquarters until his capture in March, 1901. 

Civil government was established in Isabela on August 
23, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 10,495 

Area of farms hectares... 48,360 

Cultivated lands do 22,523 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 20,395 

Sugar cane tons... 1,014 

Corn cavans.... 667,143 

Copra kilos... 778 

Tobacco do 11,373,917 

' Non-Christian population, 171, not included. 
-One cavan equals 76 liters. 



ISABELA. 169 

STATISTICAL DATA — continued. 

Population ^109,082 

Number of schools 84 

Primary - 79 

Intermediate 3 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 9,932 

Males 5,945 

Females 3,987 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 41.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 438 

Production in 1918 '^98,154.96 

Number of manufacturing establishments 20 

Production in 1918 ^78,621.00 

' Non-Christian population, 3,883, not included. 



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LAGUNA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Laguna is situated on a narrow plain which 
lies to the east, south, and southwest of Laguna de Bay. It 
is separated by ranges of. mountains from the Provinces of 
Tayabas, Batangas, and Cavite. The fertile mountain slopes 
varying in width from 2 to 20 miles and in altitude from 100 
to 7,000 feet, furnish ideal conditions for the cultivation of 
coconuts, rice, sugar cane, abaca, corn, and a great variety of 
fruits and vegetables, all of which find a ready market in Manila. 

The climate is very pleasant, the usual temperature being 
several degrees cooler than that of Manila. The rainy season 
lasts for a longer time than in other provinces because of the 
dense vegetation. Being protected by mountain ranges, of 
which the most important peaks are Maquiling, Malepunyor, 
San Cristobal, and Banahao, typhoons are less violent than in 
the more exposed provinces. 

Concentration of industries is well marked in Laguna. Some 
of the largest kind of hempen cables are made in the rope 
factory at Santa Cruz. Buntal hats and pandan mats are made 
in Majayjay and Luisiana, pandan hats in Cavinti, Sabutan 
hats in Mavitac, rattan chairs in Paquil and Los Bahos, wooden 
slippers in Biiian and Calamba and abaca slippers in Lilio. 
Furniture is also made in Paete, soap in Santa Cruz, crude 
pottery in Lumban, better grade of glazed pottery in San Pedro 
Tunasan, coconut wine in the upper towns, and embroidery in 
Lumban. Mineral waters are bottled in Los Baiios, Pagsanjan, 
and Magdalena. A steam saw mill is located in Santa Maria. 
In Los Banos is a stone quarry that supplies crushed stone for 
the Provinces of Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, Batangas, and Tayabas. 

The province, besides having a rich soil, has an abundance 
of water supply. The Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the 
Philippines, pennits of easy and cheap transportation. Fifteen 
of the 28 municipalities are reached by water and a line of 
steam launches provides a daily service between the lake and 
port of Manila. The lake abounds in fish. The swamps along its 
eastern shores are overgrown with pandan groves. The bay is 
covered during the rainy season with the pink-flowered lotus 
plant. Along the low shores are veritable hunting grounds 
which abound in snipe and wild ducks. 

In picturesque scenery, Laguna is unequalled. The Pagsan- 
jan gorge is considered one of the beauty spots of the world. 
Between Majayjay and Luisiana, the turbulent Botocan River 

171 



172 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



takes a 200-feet plunge over a precipice, forming the largest 
waterfall in the Islands. In the San Pablo Valley, there are 
nine beautifully set crater lakes. Banahao, a mountain having 
an elevation of 7,382 feet is covered with vegetation of all kinds. 
In the crater of San Cristobal at an elevation of about 5,000 
feet is a beautiful fresh water lake. Though rather difficult 
of access at present, it promises to become the summer resort 
of south central Luzon. The mineral springs in Pansol and Los 
Baiios well repay a visit. Los Baiios is the seat of the College 
of Agriculture of the University of the Philippines. 

The people are mostly Tagalogs, there being a considerable 
admixture of Chinese blood in certain localities. 

Santa Cruz is the capital, and has 14,151 inhabitants. It is 
located in the northeastern part of the province. 

This province has 28 municipalities and 581 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The region around the Laguna de Bay was one of the earliest 
to be visited by the Spaniards in Luzon. In 1571, Juan de 
Salcedo, in answer to a challenge made by the natives of Ca- 
inta (now belonging to Rizal), led an expedition against that 
town, attacked its forts and forced the people to surrender. 
The submission of Cainta having been received, Salcedo next 
took the neighboring town of Taytay. Thence he led his 
victorious army along the southern coast of the bay, exploring 
the neighborhood as he went and finally struck out for the gold 
mines of Paracale. Among the interior towns he visited in 
Laguna were Nagcarlan, Lilio and Majayjay, at which points 
he encountered determined resistance from the natives. 

Laguna at this early date was already fairly well populated. 
Among the early towns, besides Nagcarlan, Lilio, and Majayjay, 
were Bay, Pila, and Pangil. The great center of population 
at that time seems to have been the town of Bay, which was 
the capital of the province till 1688 when the seat of govern- 
ment was moved to Pagsanjan. Santa Cruz, the present 
capital, did not achieve its present position until 1858. 

In 1639, some of the towns along the southwestern coast 
of the bay became involved in a large Chinese rebellion which 
spread as far as Manila. The uprising began in Calamba and 
quickly spread to the neighboring towns. The revolt was not 
suppressed until after about 20,000 Chinese lost their lives and 
property amounting to seven million pesos was destroyed. 

Serious disturbances again occurred in the western part of 
the province in 1763 when a British army under the command 
of Backhouse invaded this region in search of the treasure of 
the galleon "Philippino." Backhouse plundered the towns but 
made no attempts to hold them. 

Two events of importance in the history of Laguna took 
place in the nineteenth century. 

The first of this was the revolt of the Cofradia in 1840. This 
movement, which was led by Apolinario de la Cruz, had its center 
in Tayabas, but it quickly spread to certain towns in Laguna 



LAGUNA. 173 



like Majayjay, Bay and Binan. In fact, Bay was for a while 
the center of the disturbance. 

The second event was the agrarian dispute in Calamba, the 
native town of Dr. Jose Rizal, in which the family of the hero 
became involved. This particular disturbance is worthy of note 
because of the extreme cruelty exercised by the Government 
in the ejection of the tenants. 

A number of changes took place in the boundaries of the 
province between 1853 and 1883. Laguna, or Bay, as it was 
sometimes called, from the time of its creation till 1853 was 
bounded as follows: on the north, Manila and Nueva Ecija; 
on the east, the Pacific Ocean; on the south, Tayabas and Ba- 
tangas; and on the west, Cavite. But in 1853, when the district 
of Morong was created, Laguna lost to the newly created dis- 
trict the greater part of its territory north of the bay includ- 
ing the towns of Agono, Binangonan, Morong, Baras, Tanay, 
Pililla, and Jalajala. To make up for this loss, however, she 
acquired from Nueva Ecija the district of Infanta in 1858, 
and from Batangas the town of San Pablo in 1883. 

Laguna was one of the first provinces to raise the standard 
of revolt. During the early months of the Revolution the 
military leaders used to meet secretly in the underground 
cemetery at Nagcarlan. When the Revolutionary Government 
was established, Escolastico Salandanan became the governor 
of the province. 

Civil government was organized in Laguna on July 1, 1902. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1,870 

Area of farms hectares.... 97,178 

Cultivated lands do 65,695 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 832,164 

Sugar cane tons.... 295,426 

Corn ." cavans.... 24,229 

Copra kilos.... 31,809,313 

Tobacco do 4,550 

Population -195,213 

Number of schools 210 

Primary 178 

Intermediate 19 

High school 1 

Vocational 12 

Enrollment for 1918 22,419 

Males 12,996 

Females 9,423 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 59.7 

Number of establishments of household industries 3,029 

Production in 1918 ?=833,718.67 

Number of manufacturing establishments 459 

Production in 1918 P2,940,848.68 



^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 158, not included. 



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Population 195,371 

Capital SANTA CRUZ 

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Barrios 581 

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LANAO. 



- GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Lanao Province occupies the plateau region around Lake 
Lanao and extends to Iligan Bay on the north and to Illana Bay 
on the south. Iligan Bay, which is separated from Illana Bay 
by an isthmus about 13 miles wide, is well protected against 
the winds, hence, the presence of the two good ports of Kalam- 
bugan and Iligan. 

A line drawn across Lake Lanao in a southwesterly direction 
divides the province into two geographical areas: First, the 
exceedingly mountainous northwestern region that slopes from 
the ranges along the lake to the Pangil and Iligan Bays, and, 
second, the southeastern portion, having an older topography, 
which gradually slopes from the highlands on the northern 
border of Cotabato to the lake. The most important rivers of 
the former region are the Liangan, Agus and Bayug. All of 
these empty into Iligan Bay. Along the shores of Pangil Bay 
are extensive mangrove and nipa swamps. The road from 
Dansalan, the capital, to Iligan runs along the Agus River. The 
rivers of the southeastern region, of which Malaig and Putian 
are the most important, empty into Lake Lanao. There are 
many waterfalls in this province which could be utilized as 
sources of power. 

Lake Lanao is believed to have been formed as a result of 
the subsidence of the land accompanying the eruption of vol- 
canoes in the surrounding country. The smaller lakes in the 
same region are crater lakes. Mounts Makaturing, Lulukan, 
and Ragang are active volcanoes. 

The climate, especially around Lake Lanao, is very cool. 
Many of the people living on the lowlands of Mindanao go to 
Dansalan and spend the hot season there. This place can be 
converted into a fine summer resort like Baguio. 

Rice and corn are raised only for local consumption. Coffee 
and abaca are planted to some extent. In some parts of the 
province, the soil is well adapted to sweet potatoes and peanuts. 
The climate is favorable to the cultivation of many crops of the 
temperate zone. 

Fishing is an important industry both in the lake region 
and along the coasts. The Moros of Lanao make mats of fikug 
and send them to Iligan for sale. At some places of the lake 
shore, articles of brass are made. This brass work is different 
from that of the Moros in the Cotabato Valley. Lumbering is 
also an industry, and an excellent grade of lumber is exported 
from the northern coast. 

175 



176 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The population is composed of Moros who occupy the eastern 
shore of Lake Lanao, and of Visayans who live in the coast 
towns. In this province there are no primitive pagans. 

Dansalan is its capital, with 5,988 inhabitants. It is located 
in the northeastern part of the province. 

This province has 3 municipalities, 35 municipal districts, and 
283 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The first attempt made by the Spanish Government to bring 
the territory now known as Lanao under its control took place 
during the administration of Governor-General Hurtado de 
Corcuera. In 1637, Corcuera himself led an expedition against 
Sultan Corralat. He arrived in Zamboanga in February, 1637, 
and from there proceeded to Corralat's stronghold at Lancitan, 
which appeared to have been located on the coast of Lanao, 
though there is no town of this name at present in this region. 
The Moro stronghold was defended by some 2,000 warriors, 
but it was finally taken, the Spaniards capturing "about thirty- 
five cannons and lantakas and more than one hundred muskets 
and arquebuses." Two years later this attempt was followed 
by a decisive campaign into the interior led by General Pedro 
de Almonte, with the cooperation of Alcalde Mayor Francisco 
de Atienza of Caraga. 

Spanish power, however, was really never established in 
Lanao. After Corcuera's rule, the Maranaos were left much 
to themselves. They remained practically an independent 
people, constituting several Mohammedan states, almost to the 
end of Spanish rule. 

Beginning from the administration of Governor-General 
Weyler, a series of campaigns was started to bring the Lanao 
region under Government control. In 1891, Government forces 
occupied Malabang and other towns along the south coast. 
Despujols continued the campaigns, but it was left for Governor- 
General Blanco to establish Spanish power in this region. The 
governor landed in 1894 in Iligan with a force of 3,000 men 
under the immediate command of General Parrado and succeeded 
in taking, among other Moro cottas, the stronghold at Marahui, 
reputed to be the strongest of the kind in Lanao. 

In 1895, in pursuance to a gubernatorial decree dated at 
Marahui on October 8 of that year, Lanao was organized into 
a district with a politico-military government. It became the 
seventh district of Mindanao and Sulu. 

In 1896, a few members of a batallion of disciplinarios rebelled 
in Iligan, then a part of Misamis. This uprising was really 
a phase of the Philippine Revolution. Aside from the killing 
of some Spanish officers, this event had no serious results. 

In 1903, the Moro Province was established with Lanao as 
one of its districts. In 1914, civil government was established 
in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, and Lanao became 
one of the seven provinces of the department. 



LANAO. 177 



STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 6,317 

Area of farms hectares.... 3,930 

Cultivated lands do 1,628 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans ^... 12,817 

Sugar cane tons.... 3,217 

Corn cavans.... 8,159 

Copra kilos.... 217,959 

Abaca do 100,524 

Tobacco do 500 

Population ' 12,230 

Number of schools 12 

Primary 10 

Intermediate 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 1,253 

Males 757 

Females 496 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 33.3 

Number of establishments of household industries 49 

Production in 1918 P=16,363.81 

Number of manufacturing establishments 10 

Production in 1918 ¥=493,957.27 



171073 12 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

-Non-Christian population, 82,716, not included. 



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LA UNION. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 



With the exception of Abra, La Union is the most moun- 
tainous of the Ilocano provinces. It is only near the coast and 
where wide plains are found. Whatever arable lowland there 
is elsewhere is found along the river valleys. The rivers are 
numerous, short, and swift, and lakes are found near the coast. 

The mountains cover an area of about 168,414 hectares. They 
are not thickly forested and wood for construction is now scarce 
because of the excessive cutting of timber. Aside from salt, 
lime, and pottery clay, La Union has no mineral wealth. At 
the foot of Mount Bayabas is a hot salt spring. 

The people and agricultural products of this province are 
similar to those of the provinces to the north. La Union is not, 
however, so much affected by the tj^hoons. Tobacco, rice, sisal 
hemp, sugar, coconuts, corn, and cotton form the most important 
products. Although the land is near the coast, the rivers fer- 
tilize the plains with silt, so that La Union ranks third in tobacco 
production. Sisal, sugar, and coconuts are important exports. 
Rice is imported. 

Very little cotton is produced, yet weaving is an important 
industry. Cotton cloth is exported to Manila, and to the moun- 
tain people. Vegetables, chickens, and eggs are exported to 
Baguio. Much fish is caught along the shores and salted and 
dried. It is shipped to the inland towns. The making of bas- 
kets, mats, ropes, native hats, lace, and embroidery are as yet 
only household industries. The raising of bananas for their 
sheaths which, when dried, are used for wrapping purposes, 
is also an industry that might be profitably developed. Caba, 
one of the smallest towns, receives annually about f*=20,000 for 
its "alupasi," the local name for the dried banana sheaths. 
The making of articles of adornment out of shells is another 
household industry still in its infancy which had its origin in the 
little town of Santo Tomas. Pottery clay is found practically 
in every municipality. Salt and lime are made in all the towns 
of the coast. 

Darigayos, San Fernando, Pandan, Taboc, and Santo Tomas 
are ports that offer fine anchorage; of these San Fernando, 
the capital, has the best harbor. Steamers that ply between 
Aparri and Manila usually stop here for tobacco. The Manila- 
North Road that passes through almost all of the coastal towns 
meets the Manila-North Railroad at Bauang. These two afford 
easy means of transportation and help to foster commerce along 
the lines of route. 

179 



180 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



The population is industrious and is composed mostly of Ilo- 
canos, but there are a few Pangasinanes in the southern part. 
In the eastern mountains, there is to be found a number of 
Igorots. 

San Fernando is the capital, with 19,885 inhabitants. It is 
located on the northwestern part of the province. 

This province has 14 municipalities and 354 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of La Union was created in 1854 out of towns 
which had heretofore belonged to the Provinces of Ilocos Sur 
and Pangasinan. Ilocos Sur, previous to this time, extended as 
far as Namacpacan (Luna). All the territory south of Namac- 
pacan belonged to Pangasinan. It was the union of portions of 
Ilocos Sur and Pangasinan that gave the new province its name. 
As constituted, the new province included the following towns: 
Bangar, Namacpacan (now Luna), Purao (now Balaoan), Ba- 
latao, which then included the present towns of Bacnotan and 
San Juan, San Fernando, Bauang, Naguilian, Aringay, Agoo, 
and Santo Tomas. 

The region now belonging to La Union was explored by Juan 
de Salcedo in 1572. P. San Agustin records that the first town 
touched by Salcedo was "Atuley." No such town exists at pres- 
ent, but undoubtedly it must have been in what is now La Union. 
Another town visited by Salcedo was that of Purao, now Balaoan. 
In these towns Salcedo met with vigorous opposition on the 
part of the natives, especially in the inland town of Purao. 

Although La Union was not created until after the middle of 
the nineteenth century, nevertheless it includes within its 
boundaries some of the oldest towns in the Archipelago. Among 
these are the former town of Purao (now Balaoan), Bauang, 
and Agoo. 

An important event in the early history of La Union was the 
attempt of Malong in 1661 to make this region a part of his 
kingdom. It should be remembered that Malong sent an army 
of 3,000 men under the command of Gumapos and Makasiag to 
subjugate the Ilocano country. This army encountered the 
Government forces sent to oppose it at the town of Agoo and 
sent them down to an overwhelming defeat. Then it trium- 
phantly made its way through La Union up to Vigan. 

According to the Guia Oficial (1898), the population of La 
Union at the end of the Spanish rule was about 116,000. Ac- 
cording to Cavada, the population of the same province about 
1876 was in the neighborhood of 8,500. This marvelous increase 
of population in about a generation was due to the influx of 
Ilocano immigrants from the north. 

The effects of the Revolution were felt in La Union from the 
beginning. The Government arrested a few individuals who 
were looked upon as "dangerous." Later, General Manuel Tinio 
entered La Union. The province came under the control of the 
Revolutionary Government and Lucino Almeida acted as gov- 
ernor. 



LA UNION. 181 

Civil government was established in La Union on August 15, 

1901. Since that time nothing of importance has taken place 

in the history of La Union, except the adjudication to the Sub- 
province of Amburayan of a narrow strip of territory inhabited 
by Igorots, along the eastern boundary of the province. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 907 

Area of farms hectares... 65,933 

Cultivated lands do 45,708 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 850,728 

Sugar cane tons.... 41,022 

Corn cavans.... 43,759 

Copra kilos.... 223,889 

Tobacco do 9,406,768 

Population 160,575 

Number of schools 97 

Pi'imary 78 

Intermediate 17 

High school 1 

Vocational - 1 

Enrollment for 1918 16,726 

Males 10,848 

Females 5,878 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 35.9 

Number of establishments of household industries 820 

Production in 1918 ^182,253.82 

Number of manufacturing establishments 4 

Production in 1918 W0,995.00 



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Area (Sq. Km.) 907 

Population 160,575 

Capital SAN FERNANDO 

Municipalities 14 

Barrios 354 

Elevations in meters 



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LEYTE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Leyte is one of the largest and most fertile islands in the 
eastern Visayan group. The province of that name embraces 
the Islands of Lej^e, Maripipi, Biliran. Guiguintangan, Panaon, 
Limasawa (five wives), and several other small adjacent ones. 
The Island of Leyte is situated southwest of Samar and is 
separated from it by the San Juanico Strait, which is said to be 
one of the most beautiful waterways in the world, but dangerous 
because of its swift current. The province covers an area of 
7,783 square kilometers, but only a small portion of the land 
available for cultivation is as yet under tillage, because of the 
unfavorable topography of the country, the scarcity of labor, 
and the lack of capital necessary for the development of idle 
lands and for the opening of roads through the forests and re- 
mote valleys. The coast is much indented, especially at Cari- 
gara Bay on the north, Sogod Bay on the south, Leyte Gulf on 
the east, and Ormoc Bay on the west. 

Tacloban, the capital, is the most important seaport on the 
eastern coast, while Ormoc is the outlet on the western part. 

Like Samar and other Visayan islands, Leyte is traversed by 
many low mountain ranges. The ridge which extends from the 
northwestern part of the province to its southeastern extrimity 
is very rugged and almost impassable. There are also many ex- 
tinct volcanoes of which Mahagrao is the most important. 

The climate is agreeable and healthful. Due to its geograph- 
ical position the island is favored with rainfall continously 
throughout the year. The northern part of the province is often 
visited by typhoons during the period of the northeast monsoon, 
whereas the southern and central parts are seldom affected bj"- 
them. Oftentimes the high winds which pass over the northern 
part of Leyte are so violent as to blow down large buildings, 
uproot big trees, and damage the entire crops planted on this 
portion of the island. 

The coastal plains and the interior valleys are fertile and 
productive. Hemp and copra are the most important products 
exported. Although rice is grown in all the towns of Leyte, 
corn is the principal food of the people. Other products raised 
in the plains are tobacco, bananas, papayas, and pineapples. 
The swamps are wooded with nipa and mangroves, while the 
mountains yield rattan and timber for various purposes. 
At present there are thousands of hectares of virgin forests 
which await the enterprising Filipino capitalist to convert them 
into actual source of wealth. 

183 



184 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

Among the domestic animals are cattle, carabaos, hogs, horses, 
and goats. There was abundance of cattle and carabaos in 
Leyte before the Insurrection, but the ravages of war and animal 
diseases have greatly reduced their number. 

V/hile the rivers, lakes and seacoasts abound in fish, the moun- 
tains are well timbered. Coal is found in the towns of Leyte, 
Ormoc and Jaro. Petroleum and asphalt are also found in the 
town of Leyte, the latter being mined for street paving purposes. 
Gold is found in Pintuyan and San Isidro; sulphur around Ma- 
hagnao ; mineral springs in the crater of Mahagnao, Ormoc, San 
Isidro, Caibiran, Mainit, Burawen, and Carigara. 

The healthful climate and productive soil of Leyte attract 
many immigrants from Bohol, Cebu, Masbate, and Samar. The 
people are industrious and friendly, their most important pur- 
suits being farming and fishing. Lumbering is neglected 
because of the lack of good roads, and because nearly all the 
inhabitants live near the coast away from the sources of supply. 

This province has 46 municipalities and 969 barrios. The 
capital is Tacloban, with 15,478 inhabitants. It is located in 
the northeastern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

LiMASAWA, an islet south of Leyte, has the unique distinction 
of being the place where mass was first celebrated in the Philip- 
pines. Toward the end of March, 1521, Magellan discovered 
this little island, which then appeared to be a prosperous com- 
munity. It was here that Magellan met Rajas Calambu and 
Ciagu, who feasted the Spaniards and exchanged presents with 
them. 

Leyte, which was generally called Tandaya in the early days, 
was the first island of the Philippine Archipelago to receive the 
name of "Felipina." On the occasion of Villalobos' expedition in 
1543, a party visited this island in search of food, and gave the 
place the name that, in a modified form, the whole Philippines 
now bears. Legazpi also touched here, visiting the neighborhood 
of Abuyog and the Island of Limasawa. 

During the early days of Spanish rule, Leyte like Samar, 
was under the jurisdiction of Cebu. Later, Leyte was erected 
into a separate political division. By 1735, Leyte was already 
reported as a politico-military province having jurisdiction over 
Samar. 

In 1622, a religious revolt broke out in Leyte, the leaders of 
which were Bancao, chief of Limasawa, and his high priest, 
Pagali. The center of the uprising was the town of Carigara, 
on the northern coast, where Bancao had erected a temple sacred 
to the diwatas. The rebellion spread to several neighboring 
towns. Bancao, the leader, was an old friend of the Spaniards, 
having received Legazpi in a friendly fashion in 1565. It ap- 
pears, however, that the old chief gave up Catholicism in his 
last days and went back to the practices of his former religion. 

Twenty-seven years after the revolt of Bancao. another up- 



LEYTE. 185 

rising took place in Leyte. This was merely an echo of the 
Sumoroy rebellion then in progress in Samar. The center of 
disturbances in Leyte was a village called Bacor, where the 
church and the convent were burned by the rebels. 

In 1768, Leyte and Samar were separated, each constituting a 
politico-military province by itself. From time to time the 
capital of the province of Leyte was changed from one to^vn 
to another. The first capital was Carigara; it was transferred 
to Palo, then to Tanawan, and finally, to Tacloban. 

In pursuance with the royal decree of July 31, 1860, which 
ordered the reorganization of the provincial governments of the 
Visayas, a politico-military government was confirmed for Leyte. 
To the end of Spanish rule, the form of government in Leyte 
remained politico-military. 

In 1874, Tacloban was opened to foreign trade. This event 
is important inasmuch as it resulted in the quickening of the 
economic life of Leyte. 

The Revolution did not spread to Leyte readily. Later, how- 
ever. General Vicente Lukban took possession of that province 
as well as of Samar in the name of the Revolutionary Govern- 
ment. The people of Leyte, like those of Samar, then joined 
hands with the expeditionary troops from Luzon, in order to 
expel the Spaniards from the island. 

Civil government was organized in Leyte on April 22, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 7,783 

Area of farms hectares.... 212,043 

Cultivated lands do 105,715 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 536,641 

Sugar cane tons.... 18,816 

Corn ; cavans.... 453,511 

Copra kilos.... 8,458,637 

Abaca do 58,857,827 

Tobacco do 559,300 

Population 597,995 

Number of schools 314 

Primary 279 

Intermediate 31 

High school 1 

Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 40,813 

Males 22,549 

Females 18,264 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 38.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 5,638 

Production in 1918 f*l,005,117.29 

Number of manufacturing establishments 84 

Production in 1918 ^31,670,213.10 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 



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MINDORO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The island formerly called Mait is named Mindoro (from the 
Spanish phrase Mi7ia de Oro or gold mine), as mining is said 
to have once been its great source of wealth, Mindoro is divided 
into two distinct parts, the western and the eastern, by a range 
of mountains of which Mount Halcon is the highest peak. Other 
important peaks in the province are Mounts Calavite, Buco, and 
Hagdanan. The eastern part of Mindoro gets it rain from the 
northeast monsoon. The western part which has a long dry 
season receives the southwest winds. Atmospheric disturbances 
are most frequent during the change of the monsoons. The 
climate is healthful. 

The coast is very irregular and has very many harbors. Ca- 
lapan, Puerto Galera, Santa Cruz de Mindoro, San Andres, Sa- 
blayan, Palanan, Mangarin, Bulacao, and Pola on the mainland, 
and Lilic and Looc on Lubang Island, are the best places for 
safe anchorage. All along the coast, especially on the south and 
north, there are many islands. Off the coast of Mindoro, in 
Verde Island Passage, is a beautiful submarine garden like the 
one on the Batangas coast. 

The island is traversed by numerous rivers the most important 
of which are Baco, Baruyan, Calapan, Abra de Hog, and Subaan 
on the north, Silonay, Sinabu, Navotas, Caoayan, Pola, Pinama- 
layan, and Aglubang in the east; Caguray, and Bulalacao in 
the south, and Sinambolan, Bagbuajan, Mangpong, and Arunay 
in the west. These rivers have many falls and rapids and 
could be well harnessed for power. Lake Naujan has a circum- 
ference of about 25 kilometers. Crocodiles, wild ducks, and 
much fish inhabit the lake. 

Although in general the land is rugged in character, the coastal 
and river valley plains offer extensive fertile irrigation lands to 
the agriculturist. Rice, copra, abaca, sugar, and corn are the 
principal products. Fruits and vegetables grow in abundance. 
Along the coasts are extensive nipa swamps which could be 
used as a source of thatch and sap for alcohol, vinegar, or sugar. 
The mountains on the southwest are forested, and the slopes are 
suitable for pasturage. The northeastern part, especially on the 
mountains southwest of Lake Naujan, is heavily wooded. Trans- 
portation facilities which could be easily built towards the sea 
coast will open up this region as a great lumbering center. 

Gold is found in the rivers Binabay, Baco, Bongabong, and 
Magasawan Tubig. Coal of good quality is found north and west 
of Bulalacao, white marble northwest of Mount Halcon, slate 
deposits near the headwaters of Pagbaban and other rivers of 
the western coast, sulphur and gypsum on Lake Naujan and 
south of Calapan, hot springs between the sea and the north- 
western part of Lake Naujan, and salt springs in Dumagan, 
Bulalacao, Guano deposits are found in the caves. 

187 



188 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

Mindoro is sparsely populated; it needs immigrants to take 
advantage of the free public lands, to raise rice, coconuts, sugar, 
and abaca, and to exploit the forests and mines. The inhabitants, 
few as they are, are engaged in very many of these industries. 
The sugar industry is well developed, as shown by the existence 
of a sugar central. Cattle and poultry are raised in considerable 
quantities. Lumbering, too, is quite extensively practiced. The 
rubber tree grows well in Mindoro and the rubber industry is 
quite well developed. The fishing industry is lucrative. Off 
the west coast of Mindoro is one of the most important fishing 
banks of the Philippines. 

The people are mostly Tagalogs. There are, however, a 
number of Visayan and Ilocano immigrants. Calapan, the 
largest town, is the capital, and has 12,684 inhabitants.^ It is 
located in the northeastern part of the province. 

This province has 12 to^vnships and 108 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Mindoro was known to the Chinese even before the coming 
of the Spaniards to these shores. It is believed that Chinese 
traders made frequent visits to this island as well as to other 
places in the Philippines for purposes of trade. When the 
Spaniards arrived, they found evidences of the existence of 
commercial relations between the natives and the Chinese. Sal- 
cedo, while exploring Mindoro in 1570, found two Chinese junks 
anchored at the mouth of Baco River. These junks were found 
to be laden with Chinese merchandise. 

The Spaniards first visited Mindoro in 1570. It was in this 
year that De Goiti and Salcedo, while on their way to Manila, 
had occasion to explore the coasts of Mindoro. They sailed 
along the western shore of the island touching at the Island of 
Ilin, the mounth of Baco River, Mamburao, and Lubang. The 
next year Legaspi, while on his way to the conquest of Manila, 
also visited the island and brought its inhabitants under Spanish 
authority, imposing upon them the royal tribute. 

In the early years, Mindoro was administered as a part of the 
province of Bonbon, now Batangas. About .the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, however, the island was separated from 
Bonbon and organized into a corregimiento, with Puerto Galera 
as capital. Of this newly organized corregimiento the Island 
of Marinduque became a part. 

Mindoro, like many other provinces, was for several years 
a victim of Moro piracy. In fact, its history throughout the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is practically a story of 
the constant struggle between the islanders and the Moro pirates. 
The Moros established two strongholds on the island : Mamburao 
and Balete. From these places, they sallied forth to attack de- 
fenseless communities, destroying property and carrying people 
away into slavery. As a result of these depredations, whole 
communities were destroyed or abandoned by their inhabitants. 
Pinamalayan and Masanlay (Bulalacao) were once deserted by 
their former inhabitants for fear of Moro attacks. Ilin, once 

Non-Christian population, 770, not included. 



MINDORO. 189 



a prosperous community on the southwest coast of the island, 
was totally destroyed by the buccaneers. 

For a long time the Spanish authorities were unable to put 
a stop to Moro depredations upon communities on the Island of 
Mindoro. The successful expedition sent against Mamburao, 
the Moro stronghold in Mindoro, during the governorship of 
Simon de Anda served to put an end momentarily to the activities 
of the Moros. But no sooner had the Spanish force withdrawn 
than piracy was resumed. 

It was not until the close of the eighteenth century that the 
Spanish government began to deal effectively with such activities. 
The inhabitants gradually lost fear of the Moros and began to 
come down to live in their former homes. As a result, communi- 
ties developed and population grew. The population of Min- 
doro which in 1800 numbered only 15,845 had increased by 1845 
to 28,795, and five years later this number increased to 35,136. 
In the year 1837, the capital of the province was transferred to 
Calapan, where it has remained to the present. 

Mindoro, like many other provinces, came under the Revolu- 
tionary Government soon after the latter was established. Min- 
doro continued to be under it until 1901, the year when the 
Americans occupied the island. 

Mindoro was made a part of Marinduque in June, 1902, when 
it was organized into a regular province. Five months later, 
however, Mindoro, with the island of Lubang, was separated 
and organized into a special province. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 10,173 

Area of farms hectares.... 131,331 

Cultivated lands do 33,036 

Production in 1918: 

Rice -■ cavans \... 112,951 

Sugar cane tons... 68,226 

Corn cavans.... 10,175 

Copra kilos.... 1,199,241 

Abaca do 1,141,597 

Tobacco do 4,800 

Population =60,778 

Number of schools 62 

Primary , 53 

Intermediate 6 

High school 1 

Vocational 2 

Enrollment for 1918 5,536 

Males 3,307 

Females 2,229 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 46.7 

Number of establishments of household industries 1.049 

Production in 1918 f*186,022.93 

Number of manufacturing establishments 13 

Production in 1918 P45,475.56 

1 One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 13,044, not included. 



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MISAMIS. 



V GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Misamis may be roughly divided into three 
parts ; namely, the narrow coastal plain bordering the Bukidnon 
district and extending from Diuata Point to the town of Lugait, 
on the east side of Iligan Bay; the coastal plain on the west 
side of the Bay; and Camiguin Island. 

The coast is very irregular, indented with large open bays, 
like those of Gingoog, Macajalar, and Iligan. Although Misamis 
is a coastal province, there are but few large towns, the most 
important of which are Catarman and Mambajao on the Island 
of Camiguin, Oroquieta, and Cagayan, the capital of Misamis 
Province. The town of Cagayan, situated at the mouth of the 
river of the same name, is the center of trade. Most of the 
products of the Bukidnon people are sent here by rafts for export. 

The province has a very rugged surface, but the mountains 
are low, excepting Mount Malindang, with 2,427 meters eleva- 
tion, and a volcanic cone at Camiguin, 1,333 meters high. 

The climate is healthful. During the northeast monsoons, 
the land receives abundant rainfall, though less than the amount 
of precipitation that falls on the eastern side of Mindanao. 
Strong winds are not common, so that abaca and coconuts thrive 
well. 

The soil along the coast is favorable for the growth of coconuts, 
while the leeward sides of the hills are excellent regions for 
abaca cultivation. These two chief crops form the source of 
wealth of the province. Rice is imported on a large scale. 

Coal, gold, and sulphur, found around the volcano of C>amiguin, 
are the minerals of Misamis. These mineral deposits have not 
been mined yet, because of the lack of capital and labor. 

Most of the people are Visayans, chiefly from the Islands of 
Bohol, Negros, and Cebu. The inhabitants are engaged in agri- 
culture, fishing, and salt-making. The non-Christian people 
who form a part of the population do some cultivation in the 
interior valleys. 

Cagayan, the capital, has 28,164 inhabitants. It is located in 
the northwestern part of the province. This province has 15 
municipalities and 186 barrios. 

historical account. 

The first Spaniards to arrive in the regions which now 
constitute the Province of Misamis were missionaries, whose 
leaders were the Recollects. They landed in 1622 at a place 
not far from where Cagayan at present stands. Shortly after, 

191 



192 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

the Jesuits arrived and began to carry on missionary work 
in what is now western Misamis, 

At the time of the arrival of the missionaries, Mohammedan 
influence prevailed in what is now Misamis. Its regions were 
included in the vast Kingdom of Cgrralat, Mohammedan King 
of Mindanao. The lord of this region was Salanpang, a vassal 
to King Corralat, Upon hearing of the pjesence of the Re- 
collects within his territory, Corralat prepared to expel them. 
But Salanpang, who had become a convert to Christianity, gave 
the missionaries protection. He removed to Cagayan which 
he fortified strongly against Corralat. The Recollects found 
safety in this place. They built their convent here and made 
it the center of their missionary activity. 

The original inhabitants of Misamis were the Bukidnons, but 
these retired into the interior as immigrants from the Visayan 
Islands arrived. These immigrants came mainly from Bohol 
and Cebu. They founded settlements along the coast and on 
the Island of Camiguin. The first settlement to be established 
on the Island of Camiguin was Guinsiliban. The growth of 
population as a result of this immigration was rapid. 

As first constituted, Misamis formed part of the Province of 
Cebu. Later it was made a cori^egimiento. In 1818, Misamis 
had the status of a province, with four distinct divisions called 
"partidos." These divisions were as follows: (1) Partido de 
Misamis, which included the forts of Misamis and Iligan, besides 
Loculan and Initao; (2) Partido de Dapitan, including Dapitan, 
Lobungan, and a number of villages; (3) Partido de Cagayan, 
which included Cagayan and a number of villages like Iponan, 
Molugan, Hasaan, and Salay; and (4) the Partido of Catarman, 
on the Island of Camiguin, which included the town of Catarman, 
and the villages of Mambajao, Guinsiliban, and Sagay. In 1850 
Misamis constituted one of the four political divisions into which 
Mindanao was divided, including within its jurisdiction a great 
portion of what is now Lanao, all of Bukidnon, and the northern 
portion of what is now Cotabato. 

Except during the first decades of the nineteenth century 
when the population of Misamis suffered considerable reduction 
as a result of Moro attacks, the history of Misamis showed a 
continuous growth of population. About the beginning of the 
nineteenth century it was 56,390. By 1818, this had been re- 
duced to 26,226. But from that time on the number of inhabit- 
ants steadily grew. In 1870, the population was 78,104. In 
1887, this had grown to 116,024, and ten years later it had 
increased to 169,356. 

At the end of Spanish rule, Misamis constituted one of the 
seven districts of Mindanao. It was governed by an army ofiicer 
of the rank of lieutenant-colonel. The capital was Cagayan de 
Misamis. The comandancia of Dapitan with the towns of Da- 
pitan, Dipolog and Lobungan was a dependency of this province. 

Misamis came under the Revolutionary Government in De- 
cember 1899. It remained so for about three months, at the 
end of which time it fell into the hands of the Americans. 



MISAMIS. 193 



Civil government was established in Misamis May 15, 1901. 
As constituted, Misamis included what is now the Subprovince 
of Bukidnon. In 1907, Bukidnon was given to Agusan, which 
was created into a province that year. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,668 

Area of farms hectares.... 75,082 

Cultivated lands do 46,348 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 166,533 

Sugar cane tons.... 960 

Corn cavans.... 375,240 

Copra kilos.... 23,748,487 

Abaca do 8,561,922 

Tobacco do 13,500 

Population 198,981 

Number of schools '. 128 

Primary 124 

Intermediate 3 

High school 1 

Enrollment for 1918 14,539 

Males 7,418 

Females 7,121 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 47.4 

Number of establishments of household industries 910 

Production in 1918 ^=241,579.52 

Number of manufacturing establishments 26 

Production in 1918 f=142,015.08 

1 One cavan equals 75 liters. 
171073 13 



MOUNTAIN PROVINCE. 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Mountain Province, the third largest province in the 
Philippines, comprises that wide mountainous territory lying 
between Cagayan, Isabela, and Nueva Vizcaya and the Ilocos 
provinces. It is made up of several subprovinces, namely, Apa- 
yao, Kalinga, Lepanto, Bontoc, Ifugao, Benguet, and Amburayan. 

The exploration of the regions now included in the Mountain 
Province started as early as 1663. It was in this year that 
Governor-General Diego de Salcedo sent an expedition under 
the command of Pedro Duran de Monforte which succeeded in 
penetrating as far as Kayan, in Lepanto. In 1756, the Alcalde 
Mayor of Pangasinan, Manuel Arza, made an attempt to lead 
an expedition into these regions. Nothing, however, came of 
this attempt. 

In 1785, on the occasion of an uprising among the Kalingas, 
an expedition was sent from Cagayan by order of Governor- 
General Basco for the purpose of restoring order. During the 
first half of the nineteenth century, several important expeditions 
were made into the mountain country, largely by the famous 
Spanish explorer, Guillermo Galvey. This brave military officer 
led no less than forty-five expeditions into the mountain regions, 
the most famous of which were made in 1829, 1832, 1833, and 
1837. On these occasions, he visited the greater part of the 
southern portion of what is now the Mountain Province. He 
touched Trinidad, Lutab, and Kalayan (Benguet), Kiangan and 
Mayoyao (Ifugao), Kayan (Lepanto), and Suyoc (Amburayan). 
Galvey, however, shared the honors of the exploration of Le- 
panto with Antonio Hernandez, a Spanish military engineer. It 
was Hernandez, who, about the year 1850, visited the greater 
part of Lepanto for the purpose of gathering general informa- 
tion with a view to making maps and mining plans. 

At the end of the Spanish rule, the region which now forms the 
Mountain Province was divided into several politico-military 
comandancias as follows : Cabugaoan, situated just east of Ilocos 
Norte; Apayao, adjoinmg Cabugaoan to the east; Itaves, now 
the Subprovince of Kalinga; Bontoc; Lepanto, with its depend- 
ency, Tiagan; Amburayan; Kiangan, now approximately Ifugao; 
and Benguet and Cayapa, now eastern Benguet. These coman- 
dancias were formed at various times. The earliest of these 
politico-military comandancias to be formed were Benguet 
(1846), Lepanto (1852), and Bontoc (1859). The latest ones 
created were Amburayan (1889), Cabugaoan (1891), and Ca- 
yapa (1891). 

195 



196 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



In the early years of the Revolution this territory was prac- 
tically unaffected by the war. But later, the revolutionists 
penetrated into some of these districts. For example, Ambu- 
rayan was for a while governed by Pio Ancheta in the name 
of the Revolutionary Government. Benguet was likewise for a 
while governed by Juan Carino. General Luna is believed to 
have visited Cervantes for the purpose of establishing in that 
place an impregnable stronghold that could be used in case of 
necessity. Aguinaldo, in his memorable retreat that ended at 
Palanan, passed through Benguet, Lepanto-Bontoc, Ifugao, and 
Kalinga. The famous battle of Tila Pass in Lepanto, where 
General Gregorio del Pilar made his gallant stand, may also be 
mentioned in this connection. 

Of all the regions included in what is now the Mountain Prov- 
ince, Benguet was the first to be organized as a province under 
American Rule. Civil government was established in Benguet 
as early as 1900, when Baguio was made capital. The next 
region to receive provincial organization was Lepanto-Bontoc. 
Lepanto-Bontoc was organized as a province in 1902, with Cer- 
vantes as capital. It had three subprovinces, namely, Ambu- 
rayan, Lepanto, and Bontoc, which included part of the territory 
now approximately known as the Subprovince of Kalinga. 
Kalinga, however, was created as a separate subprovince of 
Lepanto-Bontoc in 1907. Apayao, from 1901, formed part of 
Cagayan Province, but it was created a subprovince in 1907. 
Ifugao from 1902 formed part of Nueva Vizcaya. 

Such was the governmental system which obtained in the 
mountain country until 1908. Then the Mountain Province was 
organized as a special province of the Archipelago, with Bontoc 
as capital. The newly created province includes as subprovinces 
the following units : Benguet, Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc, Ifu- 
gao (separated from Nueva Vizcaya), Kalinga, and Apayao 
(separated from Cagayan). 



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AMBURAYAN. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

AMBURAYAN, the only mountain subprovince possessing a 
coastline, is separated from Benguet and Lepanto by a high 
range of mountains of which Guirayan and Malaya are the 
highest peaks. The other mountain ranges run east and west 
between the rivers. The main road to the interior of this 
region is through a pass at an elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000 
feet above sea level. 

The whole subprovince is drained by the Amburayan River 
and a few small streams that flow into the sea across La Union. 
The valley of the Bakun and that of the main branch of the 
Amburayan comprise the southern two-thirds of Amburayan. 
The northern third is occupied by the valley of the Chico branch. 
The southern part is very inaccessible. The rivers are too swift 
and precipitous even for rafts. There are no roads of any 
importance except one horse trail from Tagudin to Alilem, the 
former capital. 

The climate is the same as that of Ilocos Sur and La Union. 
The rainfall comes from the west coast. 

Amburayan is very poor in natural resources. The only low- 
land under cultivation is the narrow coastal plain around Ta- 
gudin. The rest of the cultivated areas is confined to the valleys 
of the three branches of the Amburayan River. Here the Igorot 
villages are surrounded by rice terraces irrigated in the same 
manner as those of Lepanto and Benguet. The Bakun district 
has the most striking rice terraces. This region is a great 
plateau surrounded by high precipices difficult of access. Parts 
of the trails to Bakun consist of ladders hundreds of feet high 
on the side of cliffs. On this plateau are found the great am- 
phitheatres of rice terraces. Sweet potatoes, vegetables, and 
tobacco are raised and exported. Coconut trees and mangoes 
are also found in large numbers. 

There are pine forests on the Malaya range. On the moun- 
tains deforested by Igorots, there are grass lands, but cattle 
raising is limited. 

There are but few metallic minerals. Some deposits of as- 
bestos and a low quality of copper ores are reported to exist in 
the range between the Amburayan and Malaya. The southern 
part of the subprovince which may contain minerals, has not 
yet been explored. Clay for common pottery is the only mineral 
used. 

The great water power available from the Amburayan river 
is not being utilized. There is at present a project to establish 

197 



198 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

an irrigation system from this river to water the fields of 
Bangar, Balaoan and Luna. 

Fishing is extensive along the coasts. In the interior, little 
fish is found, for the rivers are too swift. 

Baskets are made for export. Excellent weaving is done in 
the valleys where cotton is grown. 

Tagudin is the only town inhabited by an entirely Christian 
population. On the valley of the Chico are many villages of 
Christian and non-Christian Igorots who have the same indus- 
tries as the people of Tagudin and Lepanto. 

This subprovince and Lepanto have 1 municipality, 19 town- 
ships, and 191 barrios. Its capital is Tagudin, with 11,237 in- 
habitants. It is located in the northwestern part of the province. 

Note. — For statistical data, see Lepanto. 



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AMBURAYAN 

SUB -PROVINCE 

(MOUNTAIN PROV.) 

Area (Sq. Km.) 917 

Population 32,096 

Capital 

Municipalities 

Townships 

Barrios 

Elevations in meters 

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APAYAO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 



From the Cordillera range on the western border, the Sub- 
province of Apayao slopes eastward down to the valley of the 
Cagayan River. The eastern portion from the Tauit and Abu- 
lug Rivers is covered by an extensive nipa swamps, dotted here 
and there by low hills. 

The most important river, the Abulug, makes a remarkable 
curve, starting from the headwaters of the Apayao River in 
the northwest, then going southeastward to Kabugao whence it 
makes a northeasterly bend to the sea. Other rivers are the 
Talifugo, the Matalak, and the Sinundungan. 

Maize, camotes or sweet potatoes, and a great number of 
coconuts and bananas are grown. Upland rice is planted in 
kaiiigins, or fire clearings in the forests. Tobacco planted in 
these clearings is sold to the lowlanders and marketed as Cagayan 
tobacco. 

Apayao contains one of the richest virgin forests of the 
Philippines, but because of the difficulty of transportation 
lumber is not cut on a commercial scale. Beeswax and rattan, 
however, are gathered and exchanged for pots, cloth and metals 
with the lowlanders. 

Mineral resources are as yet little explored. There are a 
few undeveloped copper and ore deposits on the Apayao and 
Talifugo Rivers. Limestone is also found. Fine clay for pot- 
tery is sold to the Ibanags of Isabela from whom the Apayaos 
buy the finished products. 

Apayaos hunt a great deal and fish by means of traps in 
the rivers. Crocodiles are plentiful in the Abulug and Tauit 
Rivers. The Negritos hunt deer and wild carabaos on the 
swamp hills. 

The Apayao villages are found along the rivers and the in- 
habitants become expert in managing their rafts or boats in the 
rapids. They are essentially a river people and are reluctant to 
settle in the valleys. The population is thickest in Kabugao 
where many rivers flow together. This town is the capital and 
is located in the south central part of the subprovince. 

Health conditions in the western half of the province are ex- 
cellent, but in the swamps pernicious malaria and skin diseases 
of all kinds are prevalent. 

This subprovince has 5 townships, 60 settlements, and 136 
rancherias. 

199 



200 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL DATA.^ 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 4,898 

Population '427 

Number of schools 2 

Primary 2 

Enrollment for 1918 80 

Males 45 

Females _ 35 

1 See production of non-Christians, Mountain Province. 

2 Non-Christian population, 10,696, not included. 



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STJB-PRnVlNCE 

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Population 

Capital 

Townships 

Rancherias 



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11.123 

KABUGAO 

5 

136 



Elevations in meters 



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B?o 



BENGUET. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The subprovince may be divided into three geographical areas : 
the valley of the Bued River which rises from the Bagnio plateau ; 
the Agno River of Benguet Valley occupying the northern 
and northeastern parts of Benguet; and the Kapangan district, 
which embraces the headwaters of the Amburayan and Bauang 
Rivers. These different divisions are separated from one another 
by ranges of mountains, the one separating the Agno Valley 
from the Kapangan district being the higher. This range is 
second to the Cordillera Central in height. It is on the eastern 
border of Benguet that the highest peaks of Luzon are found. 

The land is well drained, but the rivers are all precipitous 
with large rapids and falls. In several places the slopes are 
so steep that landslides are common occurrences. There are 
also several lakes, most of them small in size, on the tops of 
mountains. Lake Trinidad is the largest, having a perimeter of 
about 4 kilometers. The Baguio Lake, although large in area, 
is a combination of several pools. 

The climate is, in general, humid, cool, and healthful. Al- 
though it is cool and refreshing in Baguio, it is colder in La 
Trinidad and Haight's Place, which is about 3,000 feet higher 
than Baguio itself. La Trinidad is the garden of Benguet. 
Strawberries, celery, cabbages, and other temperate fruits and 
vegetables are exported to Manila. In Haight's Place, the high- 
land moss and lichen show how low the temperature gets during 
the year. 

Although the land is mountainous and hilly, the different 
industries have great possibilities. Agriculture is well devel- 
oped, and although rice is imported, the people raise millet, 
beans, corn, and sweet potatoes in considerable quantities. 
Coffee is raised and exported in the Kayan district. 

There are vast tracts of land where cattle could be raised on 
a large scale, and if it were not fo.* the fear of cattle disease, 
the Mountain Province would rank as the chief cattle-raising 
region in the Philippines. 

Benguet is at present the most important gold-mining district. 
The Igorots exploited the mines long before the coming of the 
Spaniards, and it is said that because of much experience, the 
Igorots are more skillful gold miners than those who use their 
knowledge of chemistry and mining engineering. Hot springs 
are found at Klondikes, Daklan, and Bunguias. Coal deposits 
exist in Mount Kapangan. 

201 



202 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The women weave cotton cloth for their skirts and jackets 
and for the men's G-strings. Local commerce is generally 
carried on by barter. The Igorots exchange gold nuggets for 
some of their necessaries. Cotton cloth in plaids or checks, 
hogs, chickens, dogs, and salt are also imported from the low- 
land regions. 

The people, with the exception of those in La Trinidad and 
Baguio, are Igorots. A few of them have been christianized 
and taught the industries of the Ilocanos. The Igorots are 
peaceful and industrious people. 

This subprovince has 14 townships and 95 barrios. Its capital 
is La Trinidad, with 503 inhabitants.^ It is located in the west 
central part of the subprovince. 

STATISTICAL DATA." 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,593 

Area of farms hectares.... 389 

Cultivated lands do 87 

Population M,126 

Number of schools .• 42 

Primary 34 

Intermediate 4 

High school 2 

Vocational 2 

Enrollment for 1918 - 3,475 

Males 2,616 

Females 859 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 134.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 27 

Production in 1918 P13,659.00 

Number of manufacturing establishments 20 

Production in 1918 ^634,518.82 

^ Non-Christian population, 2,572, not included. 

- See production of non-Christians, Mountain Province. 

" Non-Christian population, 35,329, and Christian population of Baguio, 5,462, not included. 



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SUB-PROVINCE 

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Area (Sq. Km.) 2,593 

Population 39,455 

Capital LA TRINIDAD 

Townships 13 

Barrios 95 

Elevations In meters 



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BONTOC. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Subprovince of Bontoc is exceedingly mountainous. 
There are no level spaces or plains except in the extreme eastern 
part where the rolling foothills descend into the Cagayan 
Valley. Sepaiating Bontoc from Lepanto and Ifugao is the 
Cordillera central on the west and the Polls Range on the 
south. The highest peaks along the border are Mounts Meng- 
meng, Sipitan, and Amuyao. 

The land may be divided into three well-marked geographical 
areas: 1. The valley of the upper Chico and its tributaries. 

2. The Siffu (Cadaclan) valley and its branches occupying the 
eastern portion that slopes eastward to the Cagayan valley. 

3. The valley of the Tanodan River between the Chico and the 
Siffu Valleys. These valleys are separated from one another 
by high mountains that average 2,000 meters in height. 

The climate of the western half is similar to that of the 
southwestern half of Kalinga. The eastern half receives its 
rainfall from the east after the winds have passed through the 
Cagayan valley so that it is much drier than the western portion. 

The mineral resources of the region have not yet been ex- 
plored, consequently very little is known of them. Deposits of 
iron of considerable size have been developed and in places, 
as Tanolo for instance, small veins of lead and silver are found. 
Mainit is noted for a hot salt spring from which the natives 
extract large quantities of salt for local use and for export 
to Kalinga and Lepanto. There are two other hot springs in 
Sadanga. Other non-metallic minerals are clay from which 
the natives make pottery and stone used by the Bontocs to build 
the walls of their rice terraces. 

The most important crops raised are rice, sweet potatoes, 
millet, and tobacco of a poor quality. There are very few fruits 
and vegetables. Rice terraces are usually found at the bottoms 
of river valleys and are carried only a short distance up the 
mountain sides. Probably more camotes are raised in Bontoc 
than in any other part of the Archipelago. Sweet potatoes are 
grown in terraces among the rice fields and also between the 
houses. The patches are so planted that the wayfarer is struck 
by the appearance of the curious geometric figures in which 
the sweet potatoes are planted. Millet is raised as a dry crop 
on the hillsides above the rice terraces. 

Fish is caught to some extent along the Chico river. Except 
chickens and dogs there are no domestic animals. Carabaos 

203 



204 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



are allowed to run loose in fenced-in areas, and killed when 
wanted for food. There are only a few wild animals, the only- 
important ones being the wild pigs, carabaos, and deer in the 
extreme eastern portion. 

Besides agriculture and pottery-making, the principal indus- 
tries consist of basket-making, lumbering, weaving, and metal- 
working. Bamboo and rattan baskets are exported to the low- 
lands. In Fidelisan a large sawmill has been erected which 
is operated by water-power for the pine lumber in the forests. 
The women, by means of their hand looms, weave a great deal 
of highly colored cloth out of yarn which they get by barter 
from the people of Isabela and Abra. The men manufacture 
head-axes and knives from steel which they obtain in the same 
way from the Igorots in the west. 

Most of the towns are much larger than those of the other 
subprovinces and are located along the rivers flowing through 
the valley bottoms. The people are being gradually christianized 
and take to education readily. 

This subprovince has 7 townships and 47 barrios. Its capital 
is Bontoc, with 609 inhabitants.^ It is located in the south- 
western part of the subprovince. 

STATISTICAL DATA.' 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1,528 

Population "811 

Number of schools 14 

Primary 10 

Vocational 4 

• Enrollmet for 1918 888 

Males 611 

Females 277 

^Non-Christian population, 10,107, not included. 

" See production of non-Christians, Mountain Province. 

2 Non-Christian population, 32,770, not included. 



IFUGAO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Polls Mountain range on the north and west forms the 
border of the Subprovince of Ifugao and cuts it off from Benguet 
and Lepanto in the west and from Bontoc in the north. Mount 
Pulog (2,924 meters) in the southwestern corner is the highest 
peak in Luzon and second only to Mount Apo of Mindanao in 
the Philippines. The Polls pass through this range and is 1,940 
meters above sea level. Mountains cover the western two-thirds 
of the province. The eastern third, practically uninhabited, 
slopes gradually away into the valley of the Magat River. This 
region is one of the most fertile spots in the Philippines and 
is a part of the best tobacco-producing region of Isabela. It 
has always been a neutral ground between the Christians and 
the Apayaos. 

The southeast winds bring so much moisture that in the 
northern part of the province it rains all the year round. The 
land is well drained and the locality healthful. 

The north central part of Ifugao, included within a radius of 
20 kilometers on either side of the Kiangan-Banaue road, is 
sparsely populated. 

"The soils are of basalt rock origin, very fertile and extensively 
cultivated. The chief agricultural product is rice, which is 
grown on terraces along the mountain sides. Nowhere in the 
Philippines Is irrigation developed to the point reached in Ifugao. 
There are approximately 100 square miles of irrigated rice 
terraces that are watered by great ditches that run for miles. 
The terraces are all buttressed with stone walls which measure 
a total length of about 12,000 miles. It is believed that the 
construction of the present terraces and irrigation systems has 
taken from twelve to fifteen hundred years of time." — Beyer. 

The Ifugaos have so utilized every drop of available water 
supply that in most places it is useless to construct any more 
ditches for lack of water, a deficiency mostly due to deforestation. 
Several areas have been abandoned awaiting reforestation. 

Potatoes, taro, tobacco, cotton, and a great variety of vegeta- 
bles, such as peas, beans, and unions, are grown by the Ifugaos. 

Except non-metals, no valuable minerals have as yet been 
discovered. There is a small seam of coal along the border of 
Ifugao and Nueva Vizcaya near Cawayan, but it is not mined 
because of the difficulty of transportation. Around Kiangan, 
and especially to the south of it, there are deposits of lime suit- 
able for mortar. There are extensive areas of good building 

205 



206 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

stone such as terrace walls are made of, hard basic rocks of 
diorites and conglomerates. There is also good pottery clay. 
Salt springs and deposits of rock salt are found in the lower 
Cadaclan and in the valleys of the Asin and Andangan Rivers. 
The salt finds a large local market. 

No animals are used for field work, for everything is done 
by hand. When the rice fields become dry, fish for food is 
raised in ponds. Deer and wild carabaos are plentiful in the 
uninhabited regions. 

Two dialects are spoken in Ifugao, a circumstance evidently 
due to the separation of the inhabitants into two divisions. by 
the range of mountains between the Alimit and the Ibulao Rivers. 

The Ifugaos are a very industrious people as shown in their 
terrace construction of rice fields. They only need education 
and Christianity to make them one of the great factors in the 
progress of these Islands. 

This subprovince has 3 townships and 191 barrios. Its capital 
is Kiangan, with 276 inhabitants.^ It is located in the south- 
western part of the province. 

STATISTICAL DATA.^ 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,012 

Population .._ '294 

Number of schools 13 

Primary 13 

Enrollment for 1918 1,150 

Males 989 

Females 161 

1 Non-Christian population, 37,897, not included. 

- See production of non-Christians, Mountain Province. 

^ Non-Christian population, 66,280, not included. 



KALINGA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Except where this subprovince touches Cagayan and Isabela, 
it is entirely surrounded by a high range of mountains whose 
peaks range from 1,514 to 2,576 meters in height. Geograph- 
ically, it may be divided into three regions: first, the more or 
less mountainous western third west of the Chico River 
drainage basin; second, the valley of the Chico and its bran- 
ches; third, the level plains region between the Chico River 
and Cagayan Province. The tops of the mountains are covered 
with pine forests and the slopes which are exceedingly rugged 
and precipitous are either bare or covered with grass. The land 
is barren because of continuous forest fires and landslides. 
The central valley region is the most densely populated. The 
principal products are irrigated upland rice, camotes and maize. 
Rice is planted in terraces along the bottoms of river valleys, 
not on the slopes of the mountains as in Ifugao, and three crops 
are commonly raised. This cereal is cheaper and more plentiful 
in Kalinga than in any other subprovince. The eastern third 
is covered with grass and thinly inhabited. 

The rivers are young and therefore rapid. Although there 
are many rapids and falls for power the water is utilized only 
in the southern part for irrigating the few terraces on the 
mountain sides. There are no lakes so that the rivers are the 
only source of the meager fish supply. 

The climate of the subprovince difters according to the region. 
The northeastern half which gets its rain from the Cagayan 
Valley has a well marked wet and long dry season. The south- 
western half depends upon the west winds so that it receives 
much greater rainfall. 

Very little is known about the minerals of the region. There 
are no mining claims and the only industry that is based on the 
produce of the soil is pot-making which is confined to the lower 
part of the Chico River Valley. 

On the whole, the land is unfertile and unprepossessing. 
Agriculture is difficult without the aid of irrigation and fertiliza- 
tion of the soils. Cattle raising holds out hope for the prosper- 
ity of the subprovince. 

Besides rough pottery, the people also engage in bamboo and 
rattan basket-making, weaving and metal-working. Rattan is 
gathered in the forest along the western border, the only part 
where there is a true virgin forest. Weaving is carried on in the 
southern portion and metal-working by the Tinguianes on the 

207 



208 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



western border, especially in Balbalasang. Their chief products 
are head-axes, bolos, and spears. Steel is obtained by barter 
with the Ilocanos. 

There is very little outside trade. The people in the west 
trade with Abra, those in the east with the Ibanags of Cagayan 
and those in the south with Bontoc. Rice and baskets are the 
only exports. 

The inhabitants of Kalinga are the most mixed of any prov- 
ince of northern Luzon. Lubuagan is the capital and largest 
town, and has 226 Christian inhabitants.^ It is located in the 
southwestern part of the subprovince. This subprovince has 
4 townships and 39 barrios. 

STATISTICAL DATA.^ 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,940 

Area of farms hectares.... 22 

Cultivated lands do 17 

Population ^272 

Number of schools 10 

Primary _ 10 

Enrollment for 1918 1,230 

Males 918 

Females 312 



1 Non-Christian population, 8.952. 

- See production of non-Christians, Mountain Province. 

3 Non-Christian population, 25,352, not included. 




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LEPANTO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Lepanto consists of the upper Abra River Valley, except a 
small area bordering on Ifugao and Bontoc which is drained 
by the headquarters of the Chico River. Running along the 
boundary of this subprovince are lofty mountains, the highest 
being the Polls Range. There are as many as 200 mountain 
peaks, the best known, not necessarily the highest, being Mount 
Data. Because of these high mountains, intercourse in former 
times throughout the region was done up and down the river 
valleys. 

The climate is similar to that of the west coast, the rainfall 
coming mainly from the west winds. 

The land, although exceedingly mountainous, has very little 
virgin forest, this being found only on the border range. Pines 
are the only trees found and are scattered on the mountain sides. 
The greater part of the country is covered with grass and the 
river valleys are cultivated. There are as many as 15 to 20 
crater lakes found in various places. One lake is found at the 
top of Mount Data and another one at Mount Cagubata, to which 
the Igorots go for pilgrimage. 

The cultivated area is found chiefly on the headwaters of the 
Chico and Abra River Valleys. Lepanto is next to Ifugao in 
the number of rice terraces. Camotes for local use, pineapples 
for export, and sugar cane for basi are also raised. Cotton is 
cultivated in large quantities in the region from Sabangan to 
Insuda in the Chico Valley, and from Angaki to the Abra border. 

Lepanto and Benguet are the regions having the most minerals 
in Luzon. All the mountain ranges in the southern part have 
millions of pesos worth of copper ore deposits. Mankayan is 
the center of the copper mining industry. Here, the Spaniards 
found the Igorots using the Chinese method of mining and smelt- 
ing. At present, there are about 50 or 60 American miners in 
the region, but not much actual work is done for lack of capital. 

Suyoc is the gold mining center. Here is found one of the 
most striking features of the world. A whole side of a range 
of mountains, about 15 kilometers across, slides down to the 
valley. On this slide, known as the Palidan Slide, are found 
parts of gold veins which must have their connection somewhere 
else. Gold mining has great possibilities in the region, but the 
work would prove profitable only to large companies. The 
rough topography of the land and the lack of transportation 
facilities are the only difficulties encountered. Some Filipinos, 
especially the Igorots, are interested in gold mining. 

The household industries are well developed. Clay products, 
such as pots, jars, and pipes made for export, are the best 
in the Mountain Province. The men are experts in metal-work- 

171073 14 209 



210 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

ing. They make weapons, pots, and spoons out of copper which 
they mine and smelt by native process. They also manufacture 
iron or steel spears, bolos, knives, and tools of all sorts, which 
they sell to or barter with the natives of the lowlands. Gold 
is used by them in making ear-rings and other ornaments. They 
also carve wood into images, bowls, ornaments and other utensils. 

The women make sufficient cloth for their own use and for 
sale. They spin, dye, and weave the cotton raised there. The 
Tinguians who live in the region north of Concepcion-Angaki 
and in San Emilio weave cloth for export to western Abra. 

Cattle-raising is more extensive m Lepanto than in any other 
subprovince. Thousands of horses are allowed to run wild. 
These are exported to Bontoc, Ifugao, and Ilocos. There is 
but little fishing done in the rivers. Eels in large numbers are 
raised for religious purposes in Lepanto. 

Lepanto is accessible by two roads, one passing from west to 
east, the Tagudin-Bontoc road, and the other from south to 
north, from Benguet passing through Mankayan, Cervantes, and 
Angaki to Candon. 

Most of the people, except along the borders of Ifugao and 
Abra, are Igorots. 

Its capital is Cervantes, with 2,513 inhabitants.^ It is located 
in the southwestern part of the subprovince. 

Lepanto has no municipality. It has 19 townships and 191 
barrios, with Amburayan. 

STATISTICAL DATA.'' 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,678 

Area of farms hectares.... 9,568 

Cultivated lands do 7,251 

Production in 1918: 

Rice ; cavans ".... 138,751 

Sugar cane tons.... 2,581 

Corn cavans.... 9,056 

Copra kilos.... 6,247 

Tobacco do 128,000 

Population "36,432 

Number of schools 61 

Primary 56 

Intermediate 4 

High school 1 

Enrollment for 1918 5,400 

Males 3,333 

Females 2,067 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 92.5 

Number of establishments of household industries 453 

Production in 1918 ?=79,528.63 

Number of manufacturing establishments 5 

Production in 1918 ?10,660.00 



' Non-Christian population, 3,259, not included. 

^ IncludinK data for Amburayan. 

" One carav e(iual.s 75 liters. 

' Non-Christian population, 31,772, not included. 



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NUEVA EGIJA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

NuEVA EcijA is the easternmost of the provinces in the fertile 
central plain of Luzon. Tilting westward from the Caraballo 
mountains, it is bounded on the north by Pangasinan and Nueva 
Vizcaya, on the east by Nueva Vizcaya and Tayabas, on the 
south by Pampanga and Bulacan, and on the west by Tarlac and 
Pangasinan. 

The province is new and sparsely settled. Most of the in- 
habitants are immigrants from the Tagalog, Ilocano, and Pan- 
gasinan regions. 

At present, Nueva Ecija is second in rice production and a 
large part of its crop is exported. Vegetables and fruits are 
abundant. Corn, sweet potatoes and sugar cane are important 
products. 

The rolling hills towards the mountains are suitable for pas- 
ture lands. The mountains are thick with untouched forests 
that yield fine wood and minor forest products. 

In the mountains and rivers gold is found. Placer mining is 
the method used to recover it. There are many mineral and 
hot springs, the ones at Bongabon and Pantabangan being the 
most important. 

The land is well drained by the Pampanga River and its trib- 
utaries. Though the rivers are too small to be navigable 
for cascos except in the rainy season, the basin affords easy 
road making. There are a few lakes, the San Francisco, the 
Talavera, and the Paitan being the most important. They teem 
with fish. 

Cabanatuan, the capital, San Isidro and Gapan are the chief 
commercial towns. There is a Government Agricultural School 
at Muiioz which is attended by students from different provinces. 

This province has 26 municipalities and 223 barrios. The 
capital is located in the southwestern part of the province, and 
has 15,282 inhabitants. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

In 1705, Governor Fausto Cruzat created a portion of Pam- 
panga into a military comandancia of that province, naming 
the district Nueva Ecija, in honor of his native city. In that 
newly created comandancia, what is now the Province of Nueva 
Ecija had its humble origin. 

From a military comayidancia , Nueva Ecija grew into a prov- 
ince of important dimensions. In 1818 her limits extended to the 
Pacific and included regions which now form part of other 
provinces. The town of Palanan, now belonging to Isabela, 
was once a part of Nueva Ecija. The northern portion of what 
is now Tayabas, including the towns of Baler, Casiguran, In- 
fanta, and Polillo, was also included within the limits of Nueva 
Ecija. 

Extensive as was the territory of Nueva Ecija, her population 
up to the middle of the nineteenth century remained compar- 

211 



212 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



atively small, being only 9,165 in 1845. In 1848, however, Ga- 
pan, San Isidro, Cabiao, San Antonio, and Aliaga were separated 
from Pampanga and added to Nueva Ecija. The adjudication of 
these towns to Nueva Ecija raised the population to 69,135, 
besides enlarging her already extensive territory. 

It was not long, however, before great portions of this territory 
were taken away and Nueva Ecija was reduced to practically 
her present limits. In 1853, the district of Principe, now a part 
of Tayabas, was formed out of Baler, Casiguran and two other 
towns of Nueva Ecija. In 1856, Isabela was created into a 
province and Palanan and the neighboring regions were given 
to the newly created province. Two years afterwards, Bina- 
ngonan and Polillo were also separated from Nueva Ecija to 
form part of Infanta which was created a military district that 
year. 

Nueva Ecija was one of the first eight provinces to raise the 
standard of revolt in 1896. Later, when the Revolutionary Gov- 
ernment was formed in 1898, Nueva Ecija came under its control. 
Felino Cajucom for some time acted as governor. 

Civil government was organized in Nueva Ecija on June 11, 
1901. 

The seat of government of Nueva Ecija was transferred from 
one place to another at various times. Baler was the first 
capital, Bongabong the second, and Cabanatuan the third. In 
1852, the capital was moved to San Isidro where it remained 
until 1912, at which time it was restored to Cabanatuan. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 5,359 

Area of farms hectares.... 205,410 

Cultivated lands do 97,159 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans^.... 4,150,937 

Sugar cane tons.... 6,598 

Corn cavans.... 39,908 

Tobacco kilos.... 769,955 

Population =226,052 

Number of schools 155 

Primary 144 

Intermediate 9 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 18,771 

Males 11,585 

Females 7,186 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 40.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 376 

Production in 1918 ^^142,248.59 

Number of manufacturing establishments 39 

Production in 1918 P161,610.16 

1 One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 1,584, not included. 



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NUEVA ECIJA 



Area (Sq. Km.) 

Population 227,636 

Capital CABANATUAN 

Municipalities 26 

Barrios 

Elevations in meters 




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NUEVA VIZCAYA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Nueva Vizcaya is in the north central part 
of Luzon and is bounded by Isabela and the Mountain Province 
on the north, Nueva Ecija and Taj'^abas on the south, the Pacific 
Ocean on the east, and Pangasinan and the Mountain Province 
on the west. From the south and west, Nueva Vizcaya may be 
reached via Nueva Ecija or Pangasinan from where there are 
trails, passable for horses, which connect the said provinces with 
the Bayombong-Santa Fe Road, a distance of 49 kilometers from 
the capital of the province. 

The present number of Christian inhabitants of the province 
is 28,432. 

There are vast areas of fertile public land, suitable for rice, 
tobacco, sugar, beans, potatoes, coffee, cacao, coconuts, and 
abaca, practically untouched, as well as virgin forests filled with 
all classes of valuable timber. 

Nueva Vizcaya forms part of the so-called Cagayan Valley 
and is the gateway to and granary of the tobacco-producing 
provinces of Isabela and Cagayan, whose valleys are each year 
fertilized by the waters of the Cagayan and Magat Rivers, 
arising in the forest clad hills and valleys on Nueva Vizcaya. 

The climatic conditions of Nueva Vizcaya are unsurpassed. 
There are places the climate of which is similar to that of 
Baguio. There are also places of scenic beauty, such as Salinas, 
which are not inferior to world-famous objectives of tourist 
travel. The salt springs at Salinas have been from time im- 
memorial the source of this essential food element to the peoples 
of even distant regions. The application of modern methods 
of salt production is one of the activities of the provincial govern- 
ment in the development of our marvelous natural resources. 

The province has 8 townships and 153 barrios. Its capital 
is Bayombong, with 5,585 inhabitants.^ It is located in the 
northwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

As early as 1839, Governor Luis Lardizabal, upon the advice 
of the Alcalde Mayor of Cagayan, issued an order creating 
Nueva Vizcaya into a politico-military province. The order was 
approved by a Royal Decree dated April 10, 1841. The new 
province included the regions comprising the old missions of Ituy 
and Paniqui, in addition to the towns of Gamu, Furao, and 



' Non-Christian population, 34, not included. 

213 



214 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



Ilagan. At the time of its creation, the new province had a 
population of about 19,754 souls. 

As created in 1839, Nueva Vizcaya comprised a rather exten- 
sive territory including not only v^hat is now Nueva Vizcaya, but 
also the present Subprovince of Ifugao and a good deal of the 
present Province of Isabela, But when Isabela was created in 
1856, Nueva Vizcaya ceded to the newly created province a good 
deal of her northeastern territory, including Camarag, her cap- 
ital. The capital of Nueva Vizcaya was moved to Bayombong. 

The history of Nueva Vizcaya, like that of many other prov- 
inces of the Philippines, antedates its creation as such. The 
early history of what is now Nueva Vizcaya is, to a great extent, 
really the history of the missions of Ituy and Paniqui. As far 
back as 1609, the mission of Ituy was already organized. Among 
the early missionary centers established in this region were 
the now defunct town of San Miguel, founded in 1632, and the 
town of Aritao, founded in 1665. Bayombong was in the be- 
ginning a missionary center of Ituy. So was Bagabag. 

The work of the missionaries proceeded under great difficul- 
ties, inasmuch as the natives disputed with them every inch of 
territory and resisted their advance. Military expeditions were 
therefore dispatched to these regions from time to time. Gas- 
par de la Torre, for example, sent in 1745 such an expedition 
under the leadership of a native soldier by the name of Lorenzo 
Dipagang. Three years later, another expedition was again 
dispatched under the command of Vicente de Ibarra, a Spanish 
military officer, ably seconded by a native soldier by the name 
of Cuarto Maddela. In 1832, Guillermo Galvey led another ex- 
pedition through these regions which traversed the towns of 
Bayombong, Lumabang (now Solano), and Bagabag. But per- 
haps the most famous of all the expeditions through this territory 
was the one led by D. Mariano Oscarriz in 1847 and 1848. He 
explored the Ifugao country and visited Palanan. 

The influence of the Revolution was not felt at once in Nueva 
Vizcaya. It was not until the latter part of 1898 that the 
Revolutionists, after having taken Cagayan and Isabela, occupied 
Nueva Vizcaya. Bayombong, whither Jose V. Perez Martinez, 
the last Spanish governor of Isabela had fled, capitulated in Sep- 
tember, 1898. 

Civil government was established in Nueva Vizcaya in Jan- 
uary, 1902. But in September, 1905, Nueva Vizcaya was made 
a special province. Three years later, when the Mountain Prov- 
ince was created, the Ifugao territory of Nueva Vizcaya was 
detached and given to the newly created province. To compen- 
sate it for this loss, Nueva Vizcaya was given the region for- 
merly known as the comandancia of Binatangan, which had 
hitherto been a part of Isabela. 



NUEVA VIZCAYA. 215 



STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 9,143 

Area of farms hectares.... 8,327 

Cultivated lands do 5,674 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 318,696 

Sugar cane tons.... 2,895 

Corn cavnns.... 8.811 

Tobacco kilos.... 391,000 

Population '28,432 

Number of schools 34 

Primary 25 

Intermediate 2 

High school 1 

Vocational 6 

Enrollment for 1918 3,434 

Males 2,051 

Females 1,383 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 102.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 55 

Production in 1918 ^10,206.50 



^ One cavan equals 75 liter.s. 

- Non-Christian population, 7,387, not included. 



\d'o 




OCCIDENTAL NEGROS. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Occidental Negros occupies the northern 
and western parts of the Island of Negros. It has an area of 
8,097 square kilometers about 110,256 hectares of which are 
actually under cultivation. The coast is very much more ir- 
regular than that of Oriental Negros. By reason of the coral 
reefs which abound near the coast, particularly to the west, 
navigation is very dangerous and difficult. Large vessels cannot 
enter the port of Bacolod, the capital, because of shallow water 
in the harbor. Sugar from the province is carried by "lorchas" 
to the port of Iloilo, the greatest terminal port of call in western 
Visayas, for export. Escalante, sheltered by coral reefs, is an 
important harbor in the northeastern part, while San Carlos, 
which is also protected by Refugio or Sipauay Island, is an 
important port of call on the west. 

The northern and western parts of Occidental Negros are a 
vast level plain, while the remaining portion is practically a 
land of sierras of varying elevations. Mount Silay and Mount 
Mandalagan are the highest peaks in the province. The western 
part of the province, though covered with mountains which are 
overgrown with valuable timber and rattan, is much more ac- 
cessible than the eastern side of the island. Coal deposits have 
been discovered but their extent is not yet known. A medicinal 
spring is found in the town of Murcia. 

The province enjoys a very cool and invigorating climate. 
Rainfall is abundant, except in the south where a long dry 
season is experienced. This is because the high mountains on 
the north cut off the rain brought by the northeast monsoons. 

The coastal plain is broken up here and there by many large 
rivers, the most navigable of which are the Silay River, the 
Hog, the Binalbagan and the Bago. 

The soil is of limestone origin, well adapted to the growth 
of sugar-cane. About 75 per cent of all the exported sugar 
from the entire Archipelago comes from Occidental Negros. Ba- 
colod, Bago, Talisay, San Carlos, Hog, the Binalbagan are the 
centers of sugar industry. Occidental Negros has as many as 
518 haciendas, and six sugar centrals in actual operation. Rice, 
hemp, and tobacco are chiefly raised in the town of Escalante, 
while corn is produced in San Carlos. Copra is exported from 
the southern towns. 

The province is but thinly populated and the necessary hands 
are lacking to develop the limitless resources of the mountains 
and plains. Most of the laborers come from the Island of 
Panay, principally from Iloilo and Capiz. 

While the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture, 
a goodly percentage is employed in lumbering, an industry which 
is being rapidly developed by the establishment of sawmills. 

217 



218 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



This province has 25 municipalities and 442 barrios. Its cap- 
ital is Bacolod, with 19,350 inhabitants.' It is located in the 
northwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Occidental Negros may be said to be one of the latest prov- 
inces to be created under Spanish rule, for it was only in 1890 
that it came into existence as a province. Previous to that time 
it formed an integral part of the Island and Province of Negros. 
The old name of this island was Buglas, but the Spaniards who 
first visited the island, seeing the place inhabited by Negritos, 
gave to it the name which it has ever since borne. Fray Andres 
de Urdaneta visited the island in 1569, landing at the mouth of 
Danao River, within the territory which now belongs to Occi- 
dental Negros. 

It appears that Occidental Negros, and in fact the whole Island 
of Negros, unlike many regions in the Philippines, was very 
sparsely populated in the early years. In what is now Occidental 
Negros, Hog and Binalbagan appear to be the only native settle- 
ments at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards. These settle- 
ments were later erected into towns, Binalbagan in 1575, and 
Hog in 1584. 

It was perhaps due to this scarcity of population that the 
Island of Negros was organized as it was at first. Negros being 
divided, for purposes of administration, between Iloilo and Cebu. 
According to this arrangement, practically what is now Occi- 
dental Negros formed part of the Province of Iloilo. In 1734, 
however, the island was made into a military district by itself. 
Of this district, Negros Occidental became a part. The new 
district had Hog as capital for a time. Later the seat of govern- 
ment was transferred to Himamaylan from which in 1849, it 
was removed to Bacolod, at present the capital of Occidental 
Negros. 

Such was the status of Negros, a military district (up to about 
the middle of the 19th century. Then in 1856 Negros was raised 
to the category of a politico-military province, Don Emilio Sara- 
via being the first politico-military governor. It was during the 
governorship of Saravia that several towns of Occidental Negros, 
like San Isidro, San Carlos and Calatrava were established. 

The last half of the nineteenth century was a period of rapid 
material growth and development in the history of Occidental 
Negros. One evidence of this development was the growth of 
population. In 1856, there began a great influx of immigrants 
into the island from neighboring provinces like Antique, Capiz, 
and Cebu. A considerable number of the immigrants found their 
way to what is now Occidental Negros, settling in districts 
which had hitherto been sparsely, if at all, inhabited. As a 
consequence of such an influx of immigrants, the population 
of Occidental Negros increased from about 18,000 in 1850 to 
148,137 in 1887. Another result was the establishment of new 

' Non-Christian population, 64, not included. 



OCCIDENTAL NEGROS. 219 



towns. In 1860, there were founded the important towns of 
Saravia, Valladolid and Escalante. 

The economic prosperity which set in during the same period 
was shown by the marked increase in the production of sugar. 
This result was due to the stimulus given to the cultivation of 
cane sugar by the opening of ports like Iloilo and Cebu to 
foreign commerce. The Island of Negros soon led the other 
provinces in the production of sugar. In 1856, Negros produced 
only about 4,000 piculs. This amount was increased to 100,000 
in 1864, and 2,000,000 in 1893. In Occidental Negros, the cul- 
tivation of cane sugar soon began to be made on a large scale. 
The years 1860-61 saw the beginning of the creation of large 
haciendas like San Ildefonso de Minuluan, Silay, and Vista- 
Alegre. Modern machinery also began to be used, and by 1864 
seven machines, operated by steam, were being used in the towns 
of Bacolod, Minuluan, and Bago. 

During the last decade of the nineteenth century two important 
events occurred in the history of Occidental Negros. One was 
the division in 1890 of the Island and province of Negros which 
had theretofore existed as a politico-military province since 1856. 
The other took place in 1898. In November of that year the 
Spanish authorities capitulated at Bacolod to the Revolutionists 
under Juan Araneta. Immediately thereafter a Revolutionary 
Government was established, Juan Araneta acting as governor. 
Under this government Occidental and Oriental Negros were 
once more united and so remained until the establishment of 
civil government when the former divisions were reestablished. 

Civil government was established in Occidental Negros, April 
20, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 8,094 

Area of farms hectares.... 253,997 

Cultivated lands do 110,256 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans'.... 904.337 

Sugar cane tons.... 898,508 

Corn cavans.... 304,408 

Copra do 2,240,228 

Abaca do 6,080,539 

Tobacco do 1,080,508 

Population - '392,665 

Number of schools 176 

Primary 145 

Intermediate 26 

High school 3 

Vocational 2 

Enrollment for 1918 24,756 

Males 14,140 

Females 10,616 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 38.8 

Number of establishments of household industries 2,:io8 

Production in 1918 P812,544.20 

Number of manufacturing establishments 78 

Production in 1918 ?=2,034,697.26 



' One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 4,660, not included. 



Var. 



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OCCIDENTAL NEGROS 



Area (Sq. Km.) 


8,094 


Population 


397,325 


Capital 


BACOLOD 


Municipalities 


25 


Barrios 


442 



Elevations in meters 



KilometerjS 



10 



3C' 



I I 



I 



ORIENTAL NEGROS. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

This Province, belonging to the eastern Visayan group, forms 
a part of the Island of Negros. It comprises the region east of 
the central range of the Island of Negros, Siquijor Island, and 
a number of smaller ones lying adjacent. It is separated from 
Occidental Negros by a chain of rugged mountains and from the 
Island of Cebu by the Taiion Strait. The province, covering 
an area of 4,926 square kilometers, is sparsely populated, because 
the surface of the land, with the exception of a narrow seaboard, 
is hilly. 

The coast is very irregular. The most important indentations 
are the North Bais Bay and the South Bais Bay. The latter, 
besides having a deeper entrance, is a safer place for anchorage 
than the former, which is obstructed by coral reefs. 

The climate is like that of Cebu. The province has but little 
rainfall, because it is shut off from the east by the mountains 
of Cebu and from the west by those of Occidental Negros ; con- 
sequently, the rivers are short, but are navigable for small boats 
carrying on local trade. 

The soil is sterile, being of limestone origin. The chief food 
of the people is corn. Kapok and coconuts are exported. Abaca 
and sugar cane are also grown but to a limited extent. The 
animals raised are similar to those of Cebu. There are two large 
lakes in Oriental Negros, namely. Lake Balinsasayao, and Lake 
Lanao which is the crater of an extinct volcano. There are 
two active volcanoes, one of which, called Canlaon, is in the 
extreme north, and the other one, which emits smoke and gases, 
is near Dumaguete. 

The mountains are covered with forests of fine timber, but the 
difficulty of transporting logs to the coast is so great that lum- 
bering is not much of an industry among the people. Sulphur 
has been discovered at Tayasan and Mount Tanglad. The town 
of Dauin is well known for its medicinal spring. 

Most of the people live near coasts, where they have better 
facilities to engage in interisland commerce. There chief occu- 
pations are farming, sinamay weaving, embroidering, and the 
making of mats and hats from the leaves of buri palms and of 
chairs and other furniture from rattan. 

The capital is Dumaguete, a town so situated on the mouth 
of a river as to make it an important commercial center. It 
has 16,227 inhabitants. Some of the other important towns 
are Tolong, Bais, Vallehermoso, La Libertad, Tayasan, Tanjay, 

221 



222 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

Dauin, Siaton, and Siquijor in the Island of Siquijor. The in- 
terior of the province has only a few towns and the means of 
communication between them is poor. 

This province has 17 municipalities and 217 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Oriental Negros, like its sister province to the west, was 
not created into a separate province until 1890. On this account 
it has the distinction of being one of the last few provinces to 
be created by the Spanish government. Previous to 1890 
Oriental Negros was an integral part of the Island and Province 
of Negros. This island was formerly known as Buglas, but the 
name was changed to "Negros" by the early Spaniards because 
of the fact that at the time Negritos abounded on the Island. 

Like Occidental Negros, Oriental Negros was at the time of 
the arrival of the Spaniards far from being a well-populated 
region. There were not to be found here thriving native settle- 
ments such as existed in other regions of the Philippines, even 
before the arrival of the Spaniards, Dumaguete, formerly 
known as Managuit, a name which was given to it by Moro 
pirates, seems to be the only settlement in Oriental Negros 
when the Spaniards arrived. Some of the towns of early 
creation were founded at the close of the 18th century and the 
beginning of the 19th. Dauin, for example, was founded in 
1787; Tayasan, in 1790; Jimalalud, in 1797; Guijulngan, in 1800; 
and Bacong, in 1801. 

As first constituted, what is now Oriental Negros was placed 
under the jurisdiction of the Province of Cebu, As such, it 
remained until 1734, when the whole Island of Negros was made 
into a separate military district. Of this district, Oriental Ne- 
gros became an integral part. 

Like many other provinces. Oriental Negros sufi'ered long and 
greatly from the ravages of Moro pirates. As a matter of 
fact the Moros continued to make incursions upon the coast 
towns of the province down to as late as 1873. As a defensive 
measure, watch-towers were erected along the coast. In these 
towers men were stationed to watch for the approach of the 
Moros, One of such towers, built in 1811, is still standing in 
Dumaguete, 

In 1856, the military district of Negros was raised to the 
category of a politico-military province. In the same year began 
the immigration into Negros of people from neighboring prov- 
inces like Antique, Capiz, and Cebu, As a result of such immi- 
gration, the population of Oriental Negros increased considerably. 
In 1850, it was estimated to be a little over 20,000, In 1887, 
however, this number had increased to 122,754, 

The second half of the 19th century was a period of economic 
prosperity for the Island of Negros and incidentally for the 
Province of Oriental Negros as well as for Occidental Negros. 
This period saw the opening of the ports of Iloilo and Cebu to 
foreign commerce. The opening of the ports gave incentive to 



ORIENTAL NEGROS. 223 

the production of sugar in Negros. In 1856, only about 4,000 
piculs of sugar were produced. However, in 1864, this amount 
had increased to 100,000 piculs, while in 1893 the amount reached 
the 2,000,000 mark. 

In 1890, the Island and Province of Negros was divided into 
two politico-military provinces : Occidental and Oriental Negros. 
Oriental Negros remained as such till the close of Spanish rule. 
As constituted in 1898, it included the following towns : Ambian, 
Ayungon, Ayuquitan, Bacong, Bais, Bayanan, Canoan, Dauin, 
Dumaguete (capital), Guijuliigan, Manjuyod, Nueva Valencia, 
Siaton, Tanjay, Tayasan, Tolon, and Zamboanguita. Moreover, 
it included in its jurisdiction the Island of Siquijor, which for- 
merly was a dependency of the Province of Bohol. 

The Revolution had its effects also in Oriental Negros, where 
the people, shortly after the outbreak of the Revolution, rose in 
revolt. The uprising led to the capitulation of the Spaniards 
in November, 1898. A Filipino Revolutionary Government was 
immediately thereafter established, Juan Araneta acting as gov- 
ernor. Under this government Negros was constituted as a 
single province, known as the ''Politico-Military Government of 
Negros." 

With the establishment of civil government, the island was 
again divided into Occidental and Oriental Negros. In Oriental 
Negros, civil government was established May 1, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 4,926 

Area of farms hectares... 83,434 

Cultivated lands do 37,839 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '.... 69,315 

Sugar cane tons.... 31,092 

Corn cavans.... 494,509 

Copra , kilos.... 3,938,223 

Abaca do 2,713,228 

Tobacco do 578,520 

Population ^ 215,515 

Number of schools 117 

Primary 104 

Intermediate .,. 11 

High school 1 

Collegiate 1 

Enrollment for 1918 14,336 

Males 8,527 

Females 5,809 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 36.0 

Number of establishments of household industries 1,09? 

Production in 1918 ^208,517. 00 

Number of manufacturing establishments 12 

Production in 1918 ^143,545.43 



' One cavan equals 7.5 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 26, not included. 



224 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL' DATA (SIQUIJOR). 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 123 

Area of farms hectares.... 12,190 

Cultivated lands do 7,369 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 7,180 

Sugar cane tons.... 216 

Corn cavans.... 29,831 

Copra kilos.... 765,263 

Abaca do 65,130 

Tobacco do 109,063 

Population 56,695 

Number of schools 33 

Primary 32 

Intermediate 1 • 

High school 

Vocational 

Enrollment for 1918 3,535 

Males 1,985 

Females 1,550 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 30.0 

Number of establishments of household industries 910 

Production in 1918 M55,259.36 

Number of manufacturing establishments 

Production in 1918 ..-.. 

1 One cavan equals 75 liters. 



122 




ORIENTAL NEGROS 



30 



Area (Sq. Km.) 4,926 

Population 272.236 

Capital DUMAGUETE 

Municipalities 

Barrios 

Elevations In meters 



'*" Cs 



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PALAWAN. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The long and narrow Island of Palawan lies across the Sulu 
Sea between the Islands of Mindoro on the north and Borneo 
on the south. This province, with an enormous area of 14,553 
square kilometers, includes the island of Palawan and about 200 
other small islets, of which the Calamian Group, Cuyo, Duma- 
rang, Cagayanes, and Balabac, are the most important. 

The eastern coast contains many deep, landlocked bays and 
excellent harbors, with a depth ranging from 2 to 20 fathoms. 
These arms of the sea are well-protected from terrific storms, 
and from the influence of strong currents and big waves of the 
Sulu sea. The western coast is bordered with dangerous coral 
reefs, so that there is practically no trade carried on here. The 
bays of Bacuit, Imuruan Ulugan, and the Malampaya Sound, 
afford good places for anchorage on the west coast. 

The climate is rather warm, because of its long dry season. 
The rainclouds during the northeast monsoons practically lose 
all their moisture before reaching the southwestern parts of the 
Archipelago, so that Palawan receives no rainfall at this time. 
When the southwest winds come, the land receives torrential! 
rains, which are not so evenly distributed as to support the 
growth of abaca. 

A chain of mountain ranges of considerable height runs 
throughout the entire length of the island, dividing it into two 
distinct parts. The highest peak on the south is Mount Man- 
talingahan. with 2,086 meters elevation, Mount Gantung on the 
center, with 1,788 meters, and the Cleopatra Needle Peak on the 
north, which is 1,585 meters high above sea level. The proxim- 
ity of these mountains to the coasts gives rise to short rivers 
of little importance. The forests are rich in valuable woods, 
rattan, beeswax, resins and barks for tanning leather, which 
are exported in great quantities. 

The narrow plain along the coasts, and the valleys in the 
interior are fertile and productive. Rice, corn, and sweet po- 
tatoes are raised for local use, though rice is imported to a 
considerable amount. Coconuts thrive best along the seashores, 
and form the chief item for export. Oranges are also exported 
from the Island of Cuyo. 

There are plenty of grazing grounds on some of the small 
islands where cattle and carabaos are raised and exported. 

The island is rich in mineral resources. Iron, sulphur, gold, 
lead, antimony, and quartz, are believed to exist because of the 
geological conditions. So far, copper is the only mineral dis- 
covered, but not yet exploited. 

The chief industry of the people is fishing, gathering trepangs, 
seashells, and edible birds' nests on the limestone cliffs near the 
shores. Trepangs and edible birds' nests are excellent food for 
the Chinese, and are therefore exported to China. The seashells 
are exported to Manila for making buttons. 

The capital is Puerto Princesa, having 5,827 inhabitants.' It 



' Non-Christian population, 645, not included. 
171073 15 225 



226 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



is the largest town and chief seaport of Palawan on the east 
coast. Taytay is the chief seaport on the north. Cuyo and 
Balabac are other towns of commercial importance. The latter 
trades with the Spice Islands, particularly Borneo, while Puerto 
Princesa and Cuyo deal with the ports of Manila and Iloilo. 

The proximity of the island to the Dutch East Indies and 
to Borneo puts Palawan in a very advantageous position com- 
mercially. Besides the favorable location, Palawan is favored 
by the valleys of great fertility, the well protected ports, the 
easily exploited virgin forests and the rich fishing banks. 

The Palawan group has a very few people. The Tagalogs and 
the Visayans occupy the northern part of Palawan and some 
of the best islands on the north; the Moros live in the south, 
while the Bataks, the Tagbanuas, and the primitive Palawans 
inhabit the impregnable interior. 

This province has 8 townships, 3 settlements, and 132 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The settlements of the province of Palawan were undoubtedly 
among the- earliest to come under Mohammedan influence. It is 
believed that the Mohammedan movement which overran all of 
Oceania between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries took 
two distinct courses on reaching the Philippines. One of these 
led to Mindanao, while the other lay through the string of 
islands which constitute the present province of Palawan. 

The Spaniards established their authority first in the northern 
portion of the province, over the islands of the Calamianes group. 
They organized these into a province, known as Calamianes. 
The southern portion of the province, that which includes the big 
Island of Paragua, was then a part of the sultanate of Borneo 
and as such was beyond Spanish authority. However, in the 
early part of the eighteenth century, the Spaniards established 
a garrison at Taytay in the northern portion of the island. 
Later they built a fort there capable of accommodating a garrison 
of 700 men. From that time on, Taytay became the bulwark of 
Spanish authority in that portion of Paragua, as well as an 
advanced post of Catholicism. The Moros tried to capture it 
in 1730 and again in 1735, but their attemps failed each time. 

About the middle of the same century, the Spanish government 
obtained from the Sultanate of Borneo the cession of the southern 
part of Paragua. The attempt was soon after made to extend 
Spanish authority to the newly acquired territory by establishing 
there a colony similar to the one at Taytay. The enterprise, 
however, had to be abandoned because of the outbreak of fever 
from which a considerable number of the expeditionary force 
perished. 

During the nineteenth century several changes were made in 
the organization of the province. In 1818, practically all the 
territories which now belong to Palawan was known as the prov- 
ince of Calamianes. This province had its capital at Taytay. 
In 1858, Calamianes was divided into two provinces: Castilla 
and Asturias. The first comprised the Calamianes group and 
adjacent islands, and the northern portion of Paragua. Its 



PALAWAN. 



227 



capital was Taytay. Asturias included the rest of Paragua to- 
gether with the Island of Balabac, which early that year was 
made into a politico-military province under the name of Prin- 
cipe Alfonso. This province had its capital at Puerto Princesa 
Later, during the time of Governor Izquierdo, a further change 
was made. The Island of Paragua was organized into a separate 
politico-military province with Puerto Princesa as capital. At 
the end of Spanish rule, the Province of Palawan was divided 
into three district politico-military provinces: Calamianes, Pa- 
ragua, and Balabac. 

Among the places of special interest in Palawan may be men- 
tioned Balabac, on the island of the same name. It will be 
remembered that a great number of the men who were exiled in 
1896 because of alleged complicity in the Katipunan, which in 
August of that year raised the standard of revolt, were sent to 
Balabac. 

Civil government was established June 23, 1902. The province 
as organized was known as Paragua. It included practically 
what belonged to the former province of Castilla, namely, the 
Calamianes group and adjacent islands and that part of the 
Island of Paragua north of the 10° north latitude. The cap- 
ital was first established at Cuyo. Later, however, it was 
moved to Puerto Princesa. 

In 1903, the boundary of the province was extended to include 
its present territory. 

In 1905, the name Paragua was changed to Palawan, the 
present name of the province. 



STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 

Area of farms hectares.... 

Cultivated lands _ do 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 

Sugar cane tons.... 

Corn cavans.... 

Copra kilos.... 

Abaca do 

Tobacco _ do 

Population „ _ 

Number of schools 



Primary 

Intermediate 

Higrh school 

Vocational 

Enrollment for 1918 

Males : 

Females 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 

Number of establishments of household industries 

Production in 1918 

Number of manufacturing establishments 

Production in 1918 



3,151 
1,342 



32 
2 
1 
1 

4,493 



14,553 
41,566 
11,628 

86,531 

1,092 

6,337 

768,662 

1,075,684 

45,200 

' 45,989 

36 



59.3 

24 

P=8,579.00 

3 

'P24,709.35 



1 One cavwn equals 75 liters. 

* Non-Christian population, 23,072, not included. 



120 






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PALAWAN 

NORTHERN PART 



(Entire Province) 

Area (Sq. Km.) 14,553 

Population 69,061 

Capital PUERTO PRINCESA 
Townships 8 

Barrios 132 

Elevations in meters 



Kilometers 



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119° 



PAMPANGA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

With the exception of the western portion which embraces 
the low hills of the Zambales range, and of Mount Arayat, Pam- 
panga is the lowest and most level of all the provinces of the 
Philippines. 

As the province is destitute of mineral wealth, the people 
depend mostly upon agriculture, lumbering, fishing, and other 
industries. The areas of fertile heavy soil in the northern part 
make Pampanga the chief sugar-raising province of Luzon and 
the second in the Philippines. The central and southern portions 
and the areas bordering the Candaba swamp export much rice. 
Other parts of the plain produce corn, peanuts, bananas, man- 
goes, and other fruits and some vegetables. The mountains of 
the west and Mount Arayat supply much timber. The Negritos 
of the Zambales side trade rattan and beeswax with the low- 
land people. The low hills contain fine grasslands for cattle 
and horses. The eastern portion, embracing almost one-fifth 
of the area of the province, is covered by the Candaba swamp, 
which is a principal resource of the people for alcohol and nipa 
thatch. The delta of the Pampanga River in the south bordering 
Manila Bay is also covered with mangrove swamps which supply 
firewood and tan bark. It is also the home of the fishermen. 

Besides farming, sugar making, lumbering, and fishing, the 
people are engaged in several other industries, such as the 
distillation of alcohol, buri hat making, and pottery. Thousands 
of pilones for the sugar industry and quantities of clay jars for 
the surrounding provinces are manufactured. 

The sedimentary character of the soil and the topography of 
the province favor the drilling of artesian wells, over 300 of 
which are at present in use. 

Pampanga is an exceptionally fertile plain and, with initiative 
and efi'ort, the inhabitant has every opportunity to become pros- 
perous by taking advantage of the great possibilities around 
him. 

Commerce is fostered by cheap transportation. The tributa- 
ries and estuaries of the river afford easy means of travel. 
Small boats ply in the rivers from one town to another, carrying 
goods to or from Manila. The railroad has greatly assisted the 
development of the province. Many of the inhabitants are 
traders and those from Macabebe are given to traveling in other 
provinces. 

This province has 21 municipalities and 410 barrios. Its 
capital is San Fernando, with 21,092 inhabitants. It is located 
in the southeastern part of the province. 

229 



230 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Soon after the Spaniards occupied Manila in 1571, they learned 
that north of Manila Bay along the bank of a great river, there 
lived brave people called Pampangans. This people had several 
prosperous settlements, among the most important of which at 
that early time were Lubao, Betis, Macabebe, Bacolor, Candaba, 
and Arayat. 

A story is told anent the refusal of the people of what is now 
southern Pampanga to receive the Spaniards as friends. It 
appears that soon after Legazpi had occupied Manila, a delega- 
tion of prominent natives from Macabebe and Hagonoy went to 
Tondo to persuade Rajah Lacandola to expel the newcomers. 
Legazpi learned of the arrival of the delegation and sent two 
Spaniards to receive them and to conduct them to his palace in 
the belief that they had come to declare their allegiance to Spain. 
But the native delegates, true to their intentions, refused the 
friendly overtures of Legazpi's envoys. The king of Macabebe, 
who led the delegation, is reported to have told the Spaniards: 
"May the sun split my body into halves, and may my women 
folks heap their hatred on me, if I should ever become a friend 
of the Castilians." 

To overcome the resistance of the Pampangans, Legazpi sent 
Martin de Goiti with an army to effect the submission of the 
region north of Manila Bay. At Lubao and Betis, the Spaniards 
met great opposition. The Pampangans entrenched themselves 
in strong forts and at first successfully resisted the Spanish 
attacks. However, after great difficulties, Goiti succeeded in 
advancing and early in 1572 had the greater part of what is now 
Pampanga under control. In the course of his exploration, he 
penetrated as far north as the shores of the Lingayen Gulf. 

Hardly had the conquest of Pampanga been completed, when 
this region was formally created into a province with Bacolor 
as capital. As created, the new province occupied a vast region, 
including parts of the present Provinces of Bataan, Tarlac, and 
Nueva Ecija. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century, two great re- 
bellions broke out in the province. The first of these took place 
in 1645 as a result of the injustices connected with the collection 
of tributes. It spread quickly and extended to Zambales. The 
second revolt took place fifteen years later as a result of the 
forcible employment of natives in the work of cutting timber 
and of the failure of the Government to pay for large amounts 
of rice collected in Pampanga for the use of the royal officials. 
The leader of the rebellion was Francisco Maniago. It spread 
rapidly among the inhabitants of the towns along the banks 
of the Pampanga River, and was only suppressed after drastic 
measures were taken by Governor-General Manrique de Lara. 

It may also be mentioned that the attempt of Andres Malong 
to annex Pampanga to his projected kingdom of northern and 
western Luzon occured at this time. Malong sent an army of 
6,000 men under Melchor de Vera to effect the conquest of 



PAMPANGA. 231 



Pampanga. This army reached as far as Magalan, but here it 
met the Spanish forces which forced it to retreat. 

The province of Pampanga as created in 1571 comprised a 
vast region which, however, was reduced from time to time. 
In 1754, when the Province of Bataan was created, it was given 
a narrow strip of Pampangan territory comprising the towns of 
Dinalupihan, Hermosa, Orani, Samal, Abucay, Balanga, Pilar, 
and Orion. In 1848, by adjudication to Nueva Ecija, Pampanga 
lost the towns of Gapan, San Isidro, Cabiao, San Antonio and 
Aliaga, as well as the town of San Miguel and its neighborhood 
which was given to Bulacan. For the third time in 1860, Pam- 
panga lost a portion of her territory. It was in this year that 
its northwestern district including the towns of Bamban, Capas, 
Concepcion, Victoria, Tarlac, Mabalacat, Magalan, Porac, and 
Florida Blanca was detached and erected into a comandancia 
politico-militar. The last four towns, however, were returned 
to Pampanga in 1873. 

Pampanga was one of the first provinces to start the Revolu- 
tion. During the early part of the war, Mariano Llanera com- 
manded the Revolutionary forces. Later, Tiburcio Hilario took 
possession of the province as governor in the name of the Re- 
volutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Pampanga on February 
13, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers... 2,132 

Area of fai'ms hectares.... 149,472 

Cultivated lands do 100,400 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavnns '.... 1,773,401 

Sugar cane tons.... 1,019,779 

Corn erf vans.... 81,031 

Tobacco kilos.-.. 3,036 

Population . = 256,022 

Number of schools 132 

Primary 115 

Intermediate 15 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 17,563 

Males : 11,118 

Females 6,445 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 52.1 

Number of establishments of household industries 3,688 

Production in 1918 f*l, 124,701.95 

Number of manufacturing establishments 136 

Production in 1918 Pl,178,018.50 



^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

■ Non-Christian population. 1,619, not included. 



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PANGASINAN. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Geographically, the province may be divided into two parts, 
the northwestern which occupies the peninsula bordering Lin- 
gayen Gulf on the east and the China Sea on the north and west, 
and the central and eastern regions which include the main 
portion of the Agno River delta and the drainage basin. 

The relief of northwestern Pangasinan, is quite moderate, 
seldom reaching a height over 130 meters. This region, within 
comparatively recent times, has been gently uplifted above sea- 
level and erosion has subsequently cut out the various topogra- 
phical forms of the extensive plateau. The erosion generally 
is immature and the majority of the rivers are incised in narrow 
sharp valleys which broaden into a flood plain just before enter- 
ing the sea. Mount San Isidro forms a prominent feature of the 
landscape. It has a conical shape with two conical points which 
apparently represent stocks of volcanic events. The major part 
of the mountainous region is unforested. Sufficient mangrove 
firewood is cut near the sea-coast. Cogon and talahib are found 
everywhere except in the cultivated valleys where rice, coconuts, 
and tobacco are raised. On the southern end, the hills embrace 
the headwaters of the Alaminos and Balincaguin Rivers and 
are characterized by narrow valleys and precipitous slopes. The 
rivers are rapidly cutting canyons. Cliffs and buttes are fre- 
quently seen. The Alaminos flood plain is the largest valley in 
area (75 square kilometers). 

Coral reefs, recent and living, fringe the shore lines. Harbors 
are found at several places along the coast, narticularly, at Sual 
where there is deep, well-protected water. Except for coastwise 
trade, Sual is not now utilized, although during the Spanish 
regime it was one of the centers of foreign commerce. Now all 
imports and exports are handled by the Manila Railroad Com- 
pany. Dasol Bay has also a fine anchorage, the depth ranging 
from 14 to 20 fathoms. Bolinao harbor is well-sheltered, and 
the narrow southern entrance is 20 feet deep. 

The occurrence of copper, gold, silver, iron, manganese, and 
antimony has been confirmed, but the known deposits appear 
to be of no value. Mineral springs are found in Mangatarem, 
Balungao, and Pozorrubio. 

The eastern portion is pnrt of the central Luzon Dlain built 
of the flats and delta of the Agno, and makes Pangasinan one of 
the richest provinces of the Archipelago. 

Rice, tobacco, and coconuts are the principal products. The 
rice lands are so extensive and so fertile that during hard times 

233 



236 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



The Revolution did not gain headway in Pangasinan until the 
latter part of the year 1897. A few towns then became the 
scene of rebellious activities, especially San Quintin. In the 
beginning of 1898, in spite of the Pact of Biac-na-bato, disturb- 
ances were going on in various towns like Balincaguin, Agno, 
Alaminos, and San Nicolas. When the Revolutionary Govern- 
ment was proclaimed, Pangasinan, like many other provinces, 
came under the control of the new government. 

Civil government was established in Pangasinan on February 
18, 1901. 

In 1903, Pangasinan saw a slight alteration in her boundary. 
In that year, the province acquired the northern portion of 
Zambales comprising the towns of Alaminos, Bolinao, San Isidro, 
Infanta, Anda, Bani, and Agno. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... ,5,035 

Area of farms hectares.... 203,050 

Cultivated lands „ do 138,812 

Pi'oduction in 1918: 

Rice cavansK... 13,504,931 

Sugar cane tons.... 143,890 

Corn cavans.... 183,641 

Copra kilos.... 2,789,926 

Tobacco do 8,337,625 

Population 567,734 

Number of schools _ 391 

Primary 348 

Intermediate 32 

High school 3 

Collegiate 1 

Vocational 7 

Enrollment for 1918 44,157 

Males 26,229 

Females 17,930 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 46.6 

Number of establishments of household industries 3,702 

Production in 1918 ^931,603.51 

Number of manufacturing establishments 119 

Production in 1918 ^=1,386,050.67 



1 Or jan equals 75 liters. 



RIZAL. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

RiZAL Province lies to the north of Laguna de Bay, and ex- 
tends from Manila Bay on the west to the Sierra Madre moun- 
tains on the east. It has an area of 2,328 square kilometers, 
about 13,237 hectares are devoted to the cultivation of rice. 
Between Manila Bay and the mountain ranges the country is 
dotted with hills. The land near Manila Bay and that separating 
the lake and the bay are low and flat. 

Pasig, the capital, is an important commercial town. It is 
located on the Pasig River, which connects the Laguna de Bay 
and the Manila Bay. It has 16,174 inhabitants. The Pasig 
River is navigable throughout the year. Numerous steam 
launches and bancas ply between the city of Manila and lake 
towns. Malabon, noted for her bay fisheries and fish ponds, 
furnishes Manila with choice fish to the value of thousands of 
pesos every year. Ducks are raised on the Pasig River and 
poultry and eggs are sent daily by the lake towns to Manila. 
Pateros is the center of the poultry industry. 

The climate in general is healthful. The province is seldom 
visited by typhoons, being protected from violent winds by the 
Sierra Madre on the east and by the Batangas and Laguna 
mountains on the southwest. Novaliches and Antipolo, situated 
on high plateaus, are much frequented during the hot season 
of the year. 

The soil is well adapted to the cultivation of rice of which the 
town of Mariquina is the chief producing region. Sugar cane 
ranks next in importance, but the industry is not well developed 
because of the lack of capital. Coconuts are raised in the lake 
region and cacao and colfee on the leeward sides of the moun- 
tains and hills. Other minor products are maguey, abaca, maiz, 
and various kinds of fruits. The business of raising livestock 
flourishes because of the encouragement the people receive from 
the Agricultural Station at Alabang. Rattan and firewood arc 
taken from the forests and timber is found on the high mountains. 

The most important mineral resources of the province are clay, 
stone, lime, iron, and coal. Neither iron nor coal occurs in great 
quantities, and they are respectively of lower quality than the 
iron of Bulacan and the coal of Batan Island, so that there is 
very little likelihood of their exploitation. There are several 
waterfalls in the province, but whether they could be used to 
advantage as a source of power remains to be seen. The head- 
waters of the Montalban River furnish the water supply for the 
city of Manila. 

237 



238 GEOGRArHY AND HISTORY. 

Embroidery work has assumed considerable proportions in the 
town of Parariaque, while in that of Mariquina the chief industry 
is the making of shoes and slippers. Along the borders of the 
Pasig River much grass (zacate) is cultivated to furnish the 
Manila market with green fodder for horses and carabaos. 

This province has 26 municipalities and 203 barrios. Its cap- 
ital is Pasig, with 16,174 inhabitants. It is located in the south- 
western part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of Rizal was created in 1901 out of the Spanish 
military district of Morong and several towns which up to that 
time belonged to the province of Manila. It was named after 
Jose Rizal, the most beloved of Filipino heroes. 

Late as was the creation of Rizal Province, the region never- 
theless includes some of the oldest towns in the Philippines. 
Some of these, like Paranaque, Pasig, Taytay, and Cainta, were 
already thriving native settlements even before the arrival of the 
Spaniards. In fact, it is believed that some of the earliest 
Tagalog settlements in Luzon were established in this region, 
particularly in that part of it which is traversed by the Pasig 
River. 

The first Spaniard to visit the region which now belongs to 
Rizal was Juan de Salcedo, In 1571, he travelled up the Pasig 
for the purpose of bringing the people of Taytay and Cainta 
under Spanish authority. These two places were at that time 
large centers of population, surrounded by well-cultivated fields 
and trading with the neighboring settlements and with the 
Chinese. Salcedo, after bringing them under Spanish authority, 
explored the neighboring regions, traversing what is now La- 
guna and going as far as Paracale. 

The Chinese uprising in 1639 was the occasion of more or less 
serious disturbances in various places of the province, during 
which considerable damage to property was done. The Chinese 
burned the churches at Pasig, San Mateo and Taytay. The 
uprising was of brief duration, however, and order was soon 
restored. 

About a hundred years after the Chinese uprising of 1639, 
the province again became the scene of serious disturbances. 
About the middle of the year 1762, a British force arrived in the 
Islands and occupied Manila. Anda, in his attempt to starve 
the British and force their withdrawal, detailed a Spanish force 
at Pasig to prevent the transportation of provisions from La- 
guna to Manila, whereupon the British commander. Backhouse, 
sent troops to dislodge them. At the battle of Maybonga, the 
Spaniards were defeated and forced to retire to Mariquina. The 
British then turned to Pasig, which they occupied after a slight 
resistance, and remained there until their departure from the 
Islands in 1764. 

An important event in the history of Rizal was the creation 
in 1853, from portions of Manila and Laguna, of the military 
district of Morong. This district was made to include the region 



RIZAL. 239 

belonging to the towns of Taytay, Cainta, Antipolo, and Boso- 
boso, of the Province of Manila, and the region belonging to the 
towns of Morong, Baras, Tanay, Pililla, Binangonan, Jalajala, 
and Angono, of the Province of Laguna. The capital was estab- 
lished at Morong and the district became the nucleus of the 
present Province of Rizal. 

What is now Rizal includes the places like San Juan del Monte. 
Caloocan, and Pasig where first blood was shed in the Revolution. 
In this province also is to be found the historic spot of Balin- 
tawak, where Andres Bonifacio and his little band of loyal 
followers sounded the "cry of Balintawak," the call for the 
outbreak of the Revolution. 

When the Revolutionary Government was established, it 
brought under its control that part of the province of Manila 
which was later given to Rizal, Ambrosio Flores acting as gov- 
ernor. To the new province were added towns like Caloocan, 
Las Pihas, Mariquina, Novaliches, Pateros, etc., which formerly 
belonged to Manila. 

Civil government was established in Rizal at the time of its 
creation, June, 1901, Pasig being made its capital. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,328 

Area of farms hectares.... 43,283 

Cultivated lands do 18,187 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 408,373 

Sugar cane tons.... 35,760 

Corn cavans.... 10,027 

Abaca .: do 2,530 

Tobacco do 34,000 

Population '227,135 

Number of schools 148 

Primary 128 

Intermediate 13 

High school 3 

Vocational 4 

Enrollment for 1918 18,774 

Males 11,251 

Females 7,523 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 65.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 2,091 

Production in 1918 ^=765,566.92 

Number of manufacturing establishments 343 

Production in 1918 ^,886,914.91 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

' Non-Christian population, 3,070, not included. 



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ROMBLON. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Romblon, lying north of the Island of Panay, 
is composed of three large islands, Tablas, Sibuyan, and Romblon, 
and several small islets. Its estimated area is 1,308 square kilo- 
meters. The first two islands are thinly populated. 

The capital of the province is Romblon, located on the island 
of the same name, about 187 miles from Manila, has 10,457, 
inhabitants. This town has a deep, well-sheltered harbor w^hich 
makes it one of the most excellent seaports south of Luzon. 
Port Concepcion, Maestre de Campo, and Looc, on Looc Bay, 
Tablas Island, are also important ports and trade centers. 

The numerous mountains of the islands are low, with the ex- 
ception of the peaks of Sibuyan, some of which range from 1,219 
to 2,057 meters above sea level. The mountain tops are covered 
with forests of local importance, while the slopes and table lands 
are covered with grass on which animals without number could 
graze. 

The climate of the islands is conducive to the productivity of 
the hills and valleys. The winds from the southwest, which 
are usually accompanied by destructive haguios, bring copious 
rainfall into the land. But these high winds which pass over 
the islands da more harm than good, because lives and property 
are often destroyed and crops damaged. 

The valleys in the interior and the plains along the coasts would 
yield immense crops if they were cultivated intensively. Abaca 
and copra, the chief products, are exported to Manila and Iloilo, 
from which they are shipped to foreign countries. Corn and 
rice, which form the chief staple food of the people, are not 
grown to a considerable extent, so that rice is imported. Hun- 
dreds of cattle raised on the vast grazing lands are exported to 
Manila and Tayabas on the hoof. 

The most important mineral resources are gold, in Sibuyan, 
and marble, in Romblon. The gold deposit has not yet been 
worked, but the marble deposit has been quarried and in use for 
years, and is now disappearing. Gypsum is mined on the little 
Island of Banton. 

The people, consisting largely of Visayans, are peaceful agri- 
culturists. Stock-raising, logging, and the making of mats from 
the leaves of the buri palm, also form the chief occupations of the 
Christian people. The women of Romblon are famous through- 
out the islands for crochet laces and bedspreads which they 

171073 16 . 241 



242 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



make for home use and for export. There are a few bands of 
pagans who make clearings (kaingins) in the forest. These 
people, the Mangyans and Negritos, have no permanent settle- 
ments and wander from place to place in the interior in quest 
of food. 

This province has 8 municipalities and 138 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Islands of the Province of Romblon were known to the 
Spaniards from the early years. Loarca, who visited the Phil- 
ippines about 1582, wrote of the Islands of Simara, Banton, 
Romblon (then called Donblon), and Tablas (then known as 
Osigan). He estimated that the population of Simara was 150; 
that of Banton, 200; of Romblon, 250; and of Tablas, 250. 
The islands in the Romblon group were then included within the 
jurisdiction of the town of Arevalo. 

The Recollects arrived at Romblon in 1635. Previous to this 
time, the islands were administered by the secular clergy. Some 
of the inhabitants of Romblon, therefore, were already Christians 
at the time of the arrival of the Recollects. In 1637, there were 
in what is now Romblon Province seven missionary centers, 
namely: Romblon which had a population of 5,858 ; Badajoz, with 
a population of 3,356 ; Banton, with a population of 4,717 ; Caji- 
diocan, with a population of 7,132; Odiongan with a population 
of 5,705; Looc, with a population of 5,449; and Magallanes, 
which had a population of only 859. 

■ Romblon did not wholly escape the raids which were made 
at various times upon many a province of the Philippines. In 
1646, considerable damage was inflicted by the Dutch in an attack 
on Romblon. But the greatest injury was that received at the 
hands of the Moros. During the period of Moro piracy scarcely 
a year passed in which they did not attack Romblon, burning 
villages and churches and carrying away the inhabitants to 
captivity. In 1753, the year when the Moro fleets practically 
covered the Visayas seas, the town of Romblon was attacked 
by a strong force of Moros. The enemy, however, was repulsed, 
thanks to the fort which protected the town. 

In 1818, the following islands in the Romblon group formed 
part of the Province of Capiz : Romblon, with the town of Rom- 
blon; Sibuyan, with the towns of Cauit, Pagalar, and Cajidiocan; 
Banton, with the town of Banton; Tablas, with the towns of 
Guintinguian, Agbagacay, Odiongan, Lanan, and Looc; Simara, 
with San Jose and Coloncolon; and the island of Maestre de 
Campo, with the town of Sibali. In 1853, these islands were 
organized into a politico-military comandancia dependent upon 
Capiz. They remained in this status up to the end of the 
Spanish rule. 

In 1898, the islands of Romblon were governed by an army 
officer with the rank of captain. The capital was the town of 
Romblon. Besides the capital, the following towns were at the 
time in existence: Azagra, Badajoz, Banton, Cajidiocan, Cor- 
cuera, Looc, Magallanes, Odiongan. Despujol, and Santa Fe. 



ROMBLON. 243 



Romblon came under the Revolutionary Government in 1898. 
Coronel Riego de Dios, commander of the Revolutionary forces, 
for a time ruled the province. 

Civil government was first established in Romblon on March 
16, 1901. In 1907, it was annexed to Capiz as a subprovince, its 
revenues being insufficient for its support. Recently, however, 
Romblon was separated from Capiz and made once more a 
separate province. 

Of late, many of the towns of Romblon have been depopulated 
because of the emigration of their inhabitants to such places as 
the mines of Masbate and Mindoro and the sugar plantations 
of Hawaii. Some of the towns thus depopulated are Maga- 
llanes and Azagra, on the Island of Sibuyan, and Santa Fe, 
Despujol, and Concepcion on the Island of Tablas. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1,308 

Area of farms hectares.... 34,513 

Cultivated lands do 17,161 

Production in 1918: 

Rice caverns \... 111,893 

Corn do 6,143 

Copra kilos.... 3,653,634 

Abaca do 587,561 

Tobacco do 83,000 

Population 64,576 

Number of schools 42 

Primary 39 

Intermediate 2 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 5,373 

Males 3,277 

Females 2,096 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 31.3 

Number of establishments of household industries 857 

Production in 1918 ^=140,963. 38 

Number of manufacturing establishments 12 

Production in 1918 ^45,147.20 



^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 



SAMAR. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Samar is the fourth largest island of the Philippines. It lies 
southeast of Luzon, and is separated from the Province of Sor- 
sogon by the San Bernardino Strait. The province, covering 
an area of 13,576 square kilometers, comprises the Island of 
Samar and 146 other small adjacent islands, v^hich are moun- 
tainous. Some of these, important because of their ports, are 
Laoang, Capul, and Homonhon. Daran Island protects Maqueda 
Bay from the strong currents and violent waves of the sea, and 
thus makes it a safe harbor. 

Catbalogan, the capital, is located on Maqueda Bay and is an 
important seaport. It has 13,863 inhabitants. This town has 
the advantage of being a commercial center in the eastern Vi- 
sayas, because it lies about half-way between the ports of Manila 
and Zamboanga. Because of the irregularity of its coastline, 
the island has many important seaports, among which are Ca- 
tarman, Borongan, and Calbayog. 

There is not an island in the Archipelago which has so rugged 
a surface as the Island of Samar, hence its sparsity of popula- 
tion. But all of her mountain ranges are low, so that there 
is no part of the island which does not receive rainfall during 
the northeast monsoon. It has many short, navigable rivers 
on both the east and west coasts and traveling across the island 
may be accomplished almost entirely by means of bancas. Due 
to the rugged nature of the interior of the country, nearly all 
of the towns are located near the coast. Another characteristic 
feature of the mountain regions is the presence of caves, of which 
the most noted is the Sohotan Cave near Basey. River trans- 
portation is the chief means of communication. The most im- 
portant rivers are the Catubig, Ulot, Dolores, Suribao, Llorente, 
and Gandara. 

The climate is cool and healthful. But the geographical posi- 
tion of the island is such that it often suffers from violent and 
destructive typhoons, usually during the months of September 
and October. The frequent damage to crops is injurious to the 
progress of agriculture. 

The land devoted to agriculture is very small. Only the fertile 
coastal plains and some of the accessible interior valleys are at 
present under tillage. Rice is the chief food of the people, while 
coconuts are raised for export. Cacao and abaca are planted on 
the hillsides, and tobacco, camotes, and corn are grown in the 
valleys for local use. The swampy parts of the island yield 
material for making mats. 

245 



246 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The forests, which cover about two-thirds of the entire prov- 
ince, yield valuable timber for various purposes. But the largest 
part of the forest area is still unexplored and undeveloped be- 
cause of the lack of capital and labor. 

The scanty population is made up of Bicols, Tagalogs, Bohola- 
nos, and Cebuanos, who live near the coast. They are engaged 
in agriculture, weaving abaca fiber and silk, and fishing along 
the coast. 

Samar has 37 municipalities, 522 barrios and 6 rancherias. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

To Samar belongs the distinction of being the first island of 
the Philippine Archipelago to be discovered by the Spaniards. 
On March 16, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan sighted an island then 
called Zamal by the natives. The island, which is now called 
Samar, was described as having lofty mountains. The day fol- 
lowing, the Spaniards efi:'ected a landing on the little Island 
of Homonhon, where two huts were built for the sick sailors. 
Homonhon was then uninhabited, but a few natives from the 
neighboring Islet of Suluan came in a parao to see the new- 
comers. 

During the early days of Spanish rule, Samar, then often 
called Ibabao, was under the jurisdiction of Cebu. Later, it 
was declared a separate province, but in 1735, Samar and Leyte 
were united and created into a province, with Carigara in Leyte 
as capital. This arrangement, however, did not prove very satis- 
factory, and in 1768 Samar was again separated from Leyte. 
From that time on to the present, Samar has always constituted 
a political unit by itself, with Catbalogan as capital. 

In 1649, the greater part of the Island of Samar became 
involved in a great rebellion which became the signal for a 
general uprising in the Visayas and in parts of Mindanao. This 
rebellion had its center in Palapag and was headed by Sumoroy. 
The cause was enforced labor in connection with shipbuilding. 
The uprising began in June, 1649, and was not suppressed till 
the middle of the year following. The rebels fortified themselves 
in the mountains and there established an independent settle- 
ment. "From here they went forth from time to time and 
harassed the Spanish forces sent against them. In these little 
skirmishes, they were usually victorious. Indeed, they became 
contemptuous of the Spaniards. On one occasion, when the 
Spanish captain asked them for the head of Sumoroy in atone- 
ment for what he had done, they sent him the head of a swine." 

Till the beginning of the nineteenth century, the coast towns 
of Samar were a constant prey to the attacks of the pirates 
from the south. Moro vintas were frequently seen in the waters 
of Samar. The natives of the island suffered greatly from the 
depredations accompanying these visits and in consequence, until 
about the middle of the nineteenth century, the population of 
Samar remained small. 

In 1860, in pursuance to the royal decree of July 31 of that 
year, which ordered the reorganization of the provincial gov- 



SAMAR. 247 



ernments of the Visayas, Samar was created into a politico- 
military province, and maintained that status until the end of 
the Spanish regime. 

The Revolution did not immediately spread to Samar. Later, 
however, General Vicente Lukban took possession of the island 
in the name of the Revolutionary Government. The people of 
Samar then raised the standard of revolt and with the expedi- 
tionary force from Luzon expelled the Spaniards from the island. 

Civil government was established in Samar on June 17, 1902. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 13,556 

Area of farms hectares.... 177,357 

Cultivated lands do 93,671 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 468,080 

Sugar cane tons.... 514 

Corn cavans.... 118,715 

Copra „ kilos.... 13,777,315 

Abaca do 12,849,729 

Tobacco do 263,872 

Population -362,399 

Number of schools 186, 

Primary 174 

Intermediate S 

High school 1 

• Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 24,491 

Males 14,061 

Females 10,430 

Rate of mortality Rer 1,000 inhabitants 31.3 

Number of establishments of household industries 9,780 

Production in 1918 ^2,345,993.88 

Number of manufacturing establishments 149 

Production in 1918 ^=584,656.13 



^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 17,812, not included. 



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Population 380,211 
Capital CATBALOGAN 

Municipalities 37 

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Barrios 522 
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SORSOGON. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

SORSOGON occupies the southernmost tip of the Bicol Peninsula. 
The province, covering an area of 5,890 square kilometers, con- 
sists of Sorsogon, the Islands of Masbate, Burias, and Ticao, and 
about 145 islets. The coast is very irregular, the largest in- 
denture being the Gulf of Sorsogon. This deep, landlocked body 
of vv^ater is one of the finest harbors in the Philippines. 

Sorsogon, the capital, located on the gulf, is an important 
commercial town. It has 17,049 inhabitants. The town of Pilar 
is noted for her shipyards. Ships, lorchas, and boats are built 
here from fine timber grown nearby. Bacon, Gubat, Bulan, 
Matnog, and Bulusan are the largest towns on the coast. 

The land is mountainous and covered with excellent lumber 
suitable for shipbuilding and furniture-making. Rattan grows 
in abundance in the forests, and a great quantity is exported to 
Manila and the neighboring provinces. Mount Bulusan, with 
an elevation of 1,560 meters, is an active volcano. 

The mineral resources are coal and sulphur, but they are as 
yet unexploited. Sulphur is abundant in Mount Bulusan region. 

The climate is noted for its coolness. There are two rainy 
seasons, one during the northeast and the other during the 
southwest monsoon ; as a result, vegetation grows luxuriantly. 

The fertile soil of Sorsogon leads the people to engage chiefly 
in agriculture. About 78,452 hectares are under tillage. The 
chief products are abaca, the best in Luzon, and coconuts, which 
grow along the seashore. The less important crops are corn, 
sugar, and pili nuts. The cultivation of abaca is far more re- 
munerative than that of rice, so that much of the cereal used 
for consumption is imported. 

The Province of Sorsogon is noted for its beautiful scenery. 
The Ginulajon waterfalls, near the capital, the wild vegetation 
and the cataracts along the Irosin River, the medicinal hot 
springs at Mombon, Bujan, and Mapaso, together with the 
beautiful panorama from the Bulusan Volcano are especially 
striking. Like Mount Vesuvius, Mount Bulusan has an old 
crater, and a new cone that has appeared on the slopes. In- 
side the crater, about 500 feet deep, are two pools of hot water 
which form the basin from which the Irosin River rises. 

The people are all Bicols, industrious and thrifty. Fishing, 
next to agriculture in importance, is carried on along the coasts. 
Weaving cloth from abaca, and the making of slippers from the 
same fiber, are the chief household industries. 

The Province of Sorsogon has 16 municipalities and 279 
barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of Sorsogon as constituted at present is made 
up of Sorsogon proper, formerly a part of Albay, and the 

249 



250 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



Islands of Masbate, Ticao, and Burias. This province is one 
of the youngest in the Island of Luzon, having been created 
toward the end of Spanish rule. 

The Islands of Masbate, Ticao, and Burias were explored in 
1569 by Captain Luis Enriquez de Guzman. Captain Andres 
de Ibarra subsequently continued the exploration of these islands 
and furthered Spanish influence. It is believed that Enriquez 
de Guzman also landed on the mainland and travelled over the 
region of Ibalon, which according to Morga, was then a port 
of Sorsogon. 

The earliest step taken by the Spaniards to secure a permanent 
hold on Sorsogon was the establishment of a mission in Casigu- 
ran, a port in the Bay of Sorsogon. In the years following, 
Spanish activities spread to Bacon and Sorsogon. It appears 
that Sorsogon, the present provincial capital, was in the begin- 
ning only an outgrowth of Bacon. 

The first serious disturbance that occurred in Sorsogon took 
place in 1649 on the occasion of the Sumoroy uprising in Samar. 
Influenced by this uprising, the people of Sorsogon rose in 
rebellion and drove away the Spanish friar of the town of 
Sorsogon. The people of Masbate also revolted and killed a 
Spanish alferez stationed there. 

A great event in the history of Sorsogon was the invention 
of a hemp-stripping machine by a priest named Espellargas, 
about 1669. The invention was made in Bacon, where it seems 
hemp then abounded. The contrivance was ingeniously con- 
structed and was quite well adapted to local conditions. 

Many of the galleons that the Spanish Government used in 
the Manila-Acapulco trade were built in Sorsogon, especially 
on the Island of Bagatao, at the entrance of Sorsogon Bay. 
Many of these ships were wrecked while navigating the waters 
of Sorsogon. It should be remembered that these vessels 
laid their course for Mexico via the San Bernardino Strait, a 
passage which abounds in dangerous currents, shoals, and rocks. 
For example, the galleon San Cristobal was wrecked in 1733 
near the Calantas Rock. In 1793, the galleon Magallanes also 
ran aground at this place. Other vessels went down in this 
neighborhood from time to time, as the Santo Cristo de Burgos, 
in 1726, near Ticao, and the San Andres, in 1798, near Naranja 
Island. 

The Island of Masbate, like Sorsogon proper, was at first 
a part of Albay. In 1846, however, it was separated from 
Albay and with Ticao was made a separate commidayicia 
politico-militar, with Gium, on the Asid Gulf, as capital. The 
prosperity of Masbate dates as far back as 1837. In that 
year, many settlers were attracted to this island by the news 
of the abundance of gold in the neighborhood of the present 
town of Aroroy. The story is told that even the Chinese 
flocked in considerable numbers to the harbor of Aroroy, tell- 
ing the people that they were going "al oro." It is believed 
that this town was named Aroroy or Aloroy from this incident. 



SORSOGON. 251 



Like Albay, at the outbreak of the Revolution, Sorsogon re- 
mained peaceful. Later, however, it came under the Revolu- 
tionary Government. For sometime, the prominent military 
leader here, as in Albay, was Vito Belarmino. 

Civil government was established in Masbate on March 18, 
1901, and in Sorsogon on April 30 of the same year. Recently, 
however, Masbate lost its status as a province and was annexed 
to Sorsogon. 

STATISTICAL DATA (SORSOGON). 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 4,345 

Area of farms hectares.... 117,686 

Cultivated lands do 78,452 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '.... 169,591 

Sugar cane tons.... 688 

Corn cavans.... 5,871 

Copra kilos... 5,144,285 

Abaca do 22,215,344 

Tobacco do 12,652 

Population 178,362 

Number of schools 92 

Primary 85 

Intermediate 5 

High school 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 11,832 

Males 7,096 

Females 4,736 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 36.6 

Number of establishments of household industries 781 

Production in 1918 1^245,810.16 

Number of manufacturing establishments 68 

Production in 1918 ?4,848,223.79 

STATISTICAL DATA ( MASBATE ) . 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 1.545 

Area of farms hectares.... 50,610 

Cultivated lands do 22,220 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '.... 84,036 

Sugar cane tons.... 797 

Corn cavans.... 68,732 

Copra _ „ kilos.... 5,082.697 

Abaca do 1,629,044 

Tobacco do 189,590 

Population , 67,334 



^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 



252 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL DATA (masbate) — Continued. 

Number of schools ^" 

Primary 45 

Intermediate 1 

High school 1 

Enrollment for 1918 5,179 

Males 3,084 

Females 2,095 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 17.8 

Number of establishments of household industries 326 

Production in 1918 f=100,110.09 

Number of manufacturing establishments 21 

Production in 1918 ?298,271.00 








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SULU. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

SuLu Province includes all of the islands of the Sulu Ar- 
chipelago, which form one of the three connections of the Philip- 
pines with the Island of Borneo and prove the geologic theory 
that the Philippines belong to the same geographic region as 
Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and, therefore, to Asia and not to 
Oceania. They bear the same relation to Asia as the Antilles 
to America. 

Geologists have theorized that the islands are made of a 
multitude of madreporic isles growing in circular form on 
and around submarine mountain tops. With the help of the 
waters saturated with carbonic acid gas, the calcareous sub- 
stances were dissolved and, therefore, left the interlaced branches 
of the coral reefs to be crystalized into hard rock which 
formed docks against the soil, debris and other sediments. With 
the uplifts, ancient and recent, caused by volcanoes, the deposits 
emerged from the sea as islands. Further deposition was caused 
by the lava which was ejected from some of the volcanic cones. 
Brydon found as many as 7 layers of lava on some of the islands. 
The Sulu Archipelago is very often affected by earthquakes, the 
Sulu Sea, a seismic center, constituting one of the most irregular 
and consequently most unstable regions of the Philippine group. 

Even where there are no islands, the Sulu Sea is dotted with 
coral reefs which make navigation dangerous. The environ- 
ment has, however, taught the people to avoid the perils of the 
sea, their principal resource. The waters of the Sulu Sea are 
warmer than those of the adjacent oceans, for, being nearly 
inclosed, and its connections with the China Sea and the Pacific 
every^vhere shallow, only the warm surface water can flow 
through the passages connecting them. The topography is 
young, Bahu and Butpula being mere hills and Sumatanguis 
alone (2,940 feet) rising to the dignity of a mountain. What- 
ever valleys there are, most of them are cut up by swift streams. 
Nature, however, has spared neither beauty nor verdure, nor 
luxuriance which are found throughout the islands. On some of 
the coral reef islands, no fresh water is found. 

The climate is warm and moist, for Sulu is near the equator. 
The rainfall is well distributed throughout the year and t>T)hoons 
pass far north of the Archipelago. 

Because of the formation of the land, the character of the 
soil and the climate, Sulu Province has a greater variety of 
products than any other part of the Philippines. Besides all the 

253 



254 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

crops of other parts of the Islands, and fruits such as oranges, 
lanzones, mangoes, and jacks, several fruits not known in the 
islands to the north are grown; for instance, the mangosteen 
and durian. Carabao, cattle, and horses are raised in Jolo for 
export. 

Fishing is the most important industry. Jolo is the center for 
most of the pearling fleet. Sitanki, Omapui, Tumindao, Balim- 
bing,- Landubas, Laja, and Siasi are other important fishing 
centers. The sea turtle, fish of all kinds, and the trepang are 
caught. Beautiful trays and combs and other articles are made 
from the back of the sea turtle, and fish and trepang are cured 
and exported. Most of the fishing industry is in the hands 
of Chinese and Japanese, so that it is high time for Filipinos 
to go out also and exploit their sea wealth. 

The Sulu Archipelago, especially Jolo, the capital and principal 
port, trades with Zamboanga, Borneo, and Singapore. This town 
has 5,796 Christian inhabitants ^ and is located in the north- 
western part of the Island of Jolo. Chinese merchants traded 
with Sulu long before the arrival of Legaspi in the Philippines. 
When Manila and Cebu were yet small settlements, Jolo was 
already a city, the most important in the Philippines. 

Sulu has almost as many people as Zamboanga. As the land 
area is small, this shows that the islands are well populated. 
Both Samals, the latest Malayan group to arrive in the Phil- 
ippines, and Sulus live along the coasts, but the population living 
in the interior and cultivating the soil is largely Sulu. These 
are the most powerful and most highly cultured of the Moham- 
medan groups. 

This province has 1 municipality, 26 municipal districts, and 
99 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

Inhabiting the shores and coasts of the numerous islands 
which constitute the Sulu Archipelago, the people of this region 
naturally take to a seafearing life. Long before Legaspi colo- 
nized Cebu, foreign traders were already familiar with Sulu 
waters. On the other hand, native boats brought silk, amber, 
silver, scented woods and porcelain from China and Japan; 
gold dust, wax, dyes, salt-peter, slaves and food stuffs from 
Luzon, the Bisayas and Mindanao; gunpowder, cannon, brass, 
copper, iron, rubies, and diamonds from Malacca and Brunei; 
and pepper and spices from Java, the Moluccas and Celebes. 

Mohammedanism was introduced and firmly established in the 
Archipelago by three men ; namely, Makdum, Raja Baginda, and 
Abu Bakr. Makdum was a noted Arabian scholar who, after in- 
troducing Mohammedanism into Malacca, visited almost every 
island of the Sulu Archipelago toward the end of the fourteenth 
centiyy and made numerous converts especially in Bevansa and 
Tapal. Raja Baginda, soon after the arrival of Makdum, came 
by way of Zamboanga and Basilan. He was of princely rank 
and is believed to have come accompanied by ministers of state. 
He settled in Bevansa and became the supreme ruler of Sulu. 

* Non-Christian population, 14,423. 



SULU. 255 

Abu Bakr, who seemed to have been quite a learned man, arrived 
in Bevansa about the middle of the fifteenth century. Here, he 
lived with Raja Baginda, teaching the people the Mohammedan 
religion. He later married Parasimuli, the daughter of Raja 
Baginda, and succeeded his father-in-law as sultan. 

The reign of Abu Bakr (1450-1480) was noteworthy not only 
because of the firm establishment of Mohammedanism, but also 
because of the governmental reforms then effected. Abu Bakr 
reorganized the government of Sulu, dividing it into five main 
administrative districts, each under a Panglima. He promul- 
gated a new code of laws which became the guide for all officials 
of the state. During his reign, Sulu's power was felt not only in 
Mindanao and the Visayas, but even in Luzon. 

The administration of Governor-General Sande (1575-80) was 
the beginning of a continuous state of warfare between Spain and 
Sulu which lasted to within two decades before the end of the 
Spanish rule. Sande wanted to reduce Sulu to a subject state, 
impose tribute on its people, secure for the Spaniards the trade 
of the Archipelago, and convert the inhabitants to Catholicism. 
To attain these ends, he sent Captain Rodriguez de Figueroa to 
Sulu with a large army. This expedition, however, accomplished 
nothing beyond the arousing of the Sulus to hostility and the 
inception of numerous Moro raids on the Visayas and Luzon. 

During the first half of the seventeenth century, the Spanish 
Government sent at least five expeditions of importance to Jolo 
for punitive purposes. The first of these expeditions was led 
by Gallinato in 1602; the second, by Cristobal de Lugo in 1628; 
the third, by Olaso Ochotegui in 1630; the fourth, by Governor- 
General Corcuera in 1638, and the fifth, by General Pedro de 
Almonte in 1639. Perhaps the one conducted by Governor Cor- 
cuera in 1638 deserves attention, as it resulted in the first 
Spanish occupation of the town of Jolo. Corcuera made several 
gallant attacks on the forts of Jolo, which were repulsed with 
equal bravery by the Sultan's men. The fighting converted it- 
self into a long siege of three and a half months, the Sulus finally 
abandoning their capital. Corcuera occupied the town, recon- 
structed its forts and left there a garrison of two hundred 
Spaniards and two hundred Pampangans under General Pedro de 
Almonte. In 1646, however, this garrison was recalled to Manila 
and Sulu was abandoned. 

The reign of Sultan Alimud Din I (1737-1773) forms an 
interesting chapter in Sulu history. This extraordinary man 
generally referred to by Spanish writers as Don Fernando de 
Alimudin, suffered as a result of the disloyalty and ambitions 
of the usurper Bantelan a long period of exile in Manila where 
he was "converted" to Catholicism by the then archbishop- 
governor of the Philippines and later thrown into prison with 
his household and immediate followers, due to the suspicions of 
the Spanish governor of Zamboanga as to the sincerity of his 
professed friendship for Spain. As a ruler, Alimud Din ap- 
peared to have been both able and progressive. Soon after 
his accession to the throne in 1737, he revised the Sulu code of 



256 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



laws, reorganized the juridical system, had parts of the Koran 
and some Arabic texts on law and religion translated into Sulu, 
prepared an Arabic-Sulu vocabulary so that the people could 
learn Arabic, and tried to suppress piracy. 

Aside from the repeated attempts of the British to gain a 
permanent foothold in Sulu, the other important event in Sulu 
history during the nineteenth century was the second occupation 
of the Archipelago by the Spaniards. This event, which was 
facilitated by the use of steam war vessels on the part of the 
Spanish government, occurred in 1850. Governor-General Ur- 
biztondo sent an expedition to Tongkil and Jolo which resulted 
in the "incorporation of the Sultanate of Sulu into the Spanish 
Monarchy." Sulu really became a Spanish protectorate and the 
Sultan, among other things, agreed to allow the Spanish govern- 
ment to erect a trading post at Jolo and to establish a small 
garrison there, ostensibly to protect the trading post. Not con- 
tent with this, Spain in 1876 sent another expedition to Sulu. 
Malcampo, who led this expedition, repeated the feats of Urbiz- 
tondo in 1850 and left a large garrison in Jolo under Captain 
Pascual Cervera, who was given the title of ''politico-military 
governor" of Sulu. In 1878, Sulu was constituted into a regular 
district of the general politico-military government of Mindanao. 

The period between 1884 and 1894 was a period of civil war 
in Sulu. The cause of this internecine war was the succession 
to the sultanate. There were two strong candidates; namely, 
Datu Alimuyud Din and Raja Muda Amirul Kiram. Each pro- 
claimed himself Sultan. For sometime, the Spanish governor of 
Sulu hesitated as to which party to support. Finally, a third 
man, Datu Harun, whose signal services to the Spanish govern- 
ment in the establishment of order in Palawan strongly rec- 
ommended him for the sultanate, was proclaimed sultan by 
Governor-General Terrero at Manila. The situation became 
worse, as the people refused to accept the Spanish nominee. 
Finally, Harun withdrew from the sultanate and Amirul Kiram 
was allowed to ascend the throne in 1894. 

Spain evacuated Sulu in May, 1899, turning the local govern- 
ment over to the Americans. 

In 1903, the Moro Province was orgainzed and Sulu was made 
one of its districts. In 1914, civil government was established 
in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and Sulu became one of 
its regularly constituted provinces. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 2,802 

Area of farms hectares.... 4,571 

Cultivated lands do 3,823 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans^.... 17,843 

Sugar cane tons.... 107 

Corn cavans.... I,2fi0 

Copra kilos.... 177,631 

Abaca do 696 

Tobacco do 7,507 

' One cava7i equals 75 liters. 



sum. 257 

STATISTICAL DATA — Continued. 

Population '6,582 

Number of schools 25 

Primary 23 

Intermediate 1 

Vocational 1 

Enrollment for 1918 2,169 

Males 1,796 

Females 373 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 73.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 242 

Production in 1918 ^57,604,35 

Number of manufacturing establishments 18 

Production in 1918 P^204,562.42 

1 Non-Christian population, 161,393, not included. 
171073 17 



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SURIGAO. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Surigao is located in the northeastern part 
of the Island of Mindanao. It comprises the northern half 
of the eastern coastal plain and mountain slopes of Mindanao, 
and several islands, the largest of which are Dinagat and Surigao. 
It has an area of about 7,483 square kilometers. It is separated 
from Agusan Province, except at Lake Mainit, by the Diuata 
range, the highest peak of which rises to a height of 1,838 meters. 

The coast is very irregular, and although it offers many places 
for anchorage, it is much exposed to the northeast monsoon and 
the southeast winds. The tides of the Pacific cause high waves 
to break along the shore, but during the southwest monsoon 
season the coast is safe. 

The climate is healthful. The northeast monsoon brings con- 
siderable rainfall. Typhoons and earthquakes are very seldom 
felt and do not cause the immense damage inflicted elsewhere. 

The rivers, though short, are navigable for boats that go down 
to the ports for abaca fiber and copra. Lake Mainit, the crater 
of an extinct volcano, is a great source of fish. There are hot 
springs nearby. 

Abaca, copra and maize are the most important agricultural 
products. The area of arable land is extensive, but very little 
is under cultivation. The forests have fine hard wood suitable 
for building material. There is much fine timber in the forests 
of Mindanao, though little lumber is now obtained. The best 
of the timber obtainable equals iron and concrete in durability. 

Coal, iron, copper and gold deposits form another source of 
wealth. Gold is at present mined. Hydraulic mining is em- 
ployed in the northeastern part, where waterfalls furnish the 
motive power. 

With the exception of agriculture and mining, Surigao can 
not boast of highly developed industries. Weaving of baskets 
and hats and embroidery are taught in the schools. The people 
of Dinagat export "tikug" hats. Those living along the coast of 
the mainland are engaged in fishing and catching tortoises, the 
shells of which are sold in the market. 

Trade along the seacoast is quite considerable. The province 
has also regular steamship communication with Manila, Cebu, 
Tacloban, Catbalogan, Calbayog, and other points in the Ar- 
chipelago. Transportat^'on throughout the province itself or 
from the capital to other coast towns is generally effected by 
means of steamboats and launches. Roads to connect some of 
the municipalities with each other are now being constructed. 

259 



260 - GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

There are but few towns in this province, and the population 
is largely made up of Visayans, who originally immigrated from 
Cebu and Bohol; those coming from the latter island constitute 
about one-half of the total population. Immigration from Leyte, 
Iloilo, and other distant provinces is also increasing yearly. 
There is a very insignificant number of non-Christians, Manobos 
and Aetas, who, through frequent contact with the civilized 
inhabitants, are gradually adopting the customs and habits of 
the latter. The people who live around Lake Mainit are Negritos. 

This province has 14 municipalities and 146 barrios. Its cap- 
ital is Surigao, with 15,792 inhabitants.^ It is located in the 
northwestern part of the province. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

What is now Surigao was once a part of the old province of 
Caraga which in former years existed in northeastern Mindanao. 
The term "Caraga" was derived from the "Caragas," the name 
applied to the people who at the time of the arrival of the 
Spajiiards inhabited Surigao. It is believed that the Caragas 
were of Visayan stock, mixed probably with Manobos and other 
peoples of Mindanao. They were a warlike people, noted for 
their bravery and ferocity. 

The eastern coast of Surigao was explored by Villalobos in 
1543. Bernardo de la Torre, a member of the expedition of 
Villalobos, named the land which they sighted Cesarea Caroli, 
in honor of the reigning sovereign of Spain, Charles V. This 
name was later applied to the whole Island of Mindanao. Vi- 
llalobos, however, was not the first to visit Surigao. That honor 
belongs to a Portuguese, Francisco de Castro, who visited the 
towns of Butuan and Surigao five years before the arrival of 
Villalobos. He baptized the natives of those places, including 
the regulo of Butuan and that of Surigao, to whom he gave the 
name Antonio Galvan in honor of the governor of Ternate. 

The Recollects endeavored to establish missions in what is now 
Surigao Province as early as 1597, but their efforts were a failure 
due to the hostility and resistance offered by the Caragas to the 
Spaniards. The government was forced to launch an expedition 
against the natives in 1609 before Spanish authority could be 
established under the command of Juan de Vega. This expe- 
dition consisted of 400 Spaniards and a number of native allies. 
It proved a success, the Caragas being defeated, and more than 
1,500 Christian prisoners being liberated. The Spaniards there- 
upon erected a fort at Tandag as an outpost of Spanish authority. 

Like many other provinces, Surigao suffered severely from 
Moro raids. Probably the most destructive of these was the 
one that took place in 1752. In that year, the Moros practically 
covered the seas of Visayas with their fleets, frequently bringing 
desolation and ruin to the places they visited. In what is now 
Surigao, the town of Surigao and the Island of Siargao were 
attacked. Surigao was devastated and ruined. Nearly all her 
population of 2,000 souls were either killed or carried away 
to the Island of Siargao, where about 1,600 persons were also 
either slain or carried away to slavery. 

* Non-Christian population, 459, not included. 



SURIGAO. 261 



Up to 1849, Surigao included that part of southeastern Min- 
danao which now belongs to Davao. This territory, however, 
was ceded to Nueva Guipozcoa, which was made a province in 
1849. To this newly created province were ceded the following 
towns: Tandag, Tago, Lianga, Mission de San Juan, Bislig, 
Jinatuan, Catel, Quinablengan, Dapa, and Baganga. 

By the decree of 1860 establishing a politico-military gov- 
ernment for Mindanao, what is now Surigao Province together 
with the present Province of Agusan, became one of the six 
districts into which Mindanao was divided. It was known as 
the East District and was supposed to include the territory 
lying between the Butuan and Caraga Bays. This territory 
was known in 1870 as the district of Surigao, 

At the close of the Spanish rule, Surigao constituted one of the 
seven districts of Mindanao. Its boundaries then were prac- 
tically the same as those of the province at the time of the 
establishment of civil government. It was ruled by an army 
officer with the I'ank of major. The capital was Surigao. There 
were, besides the capital, 27 other towns. The district had a 
population of 93,000 Christian Filipinos. This district included 
the politico-military comandancia of Butuan. 

Civil government was established in Surigao May 15, 1901. 
As constituted at the time, Surigao included as a subprovince, 
the former politico-military comandancia of Butuan, Upon the 
creation in 1911 of the Province of Agusan, Butuan was sep- 
arated from Surigao. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 7,483 

Area of farms hectares.... 67,420 

Cultivated lands do 44,651 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans''.... 507,671 

Sugar cane tons.... 1,250 

Corn cavans.... 58,655 

Copra kilos.... 4,608,527 

Abaca do 7,230,899 

Tobacco do 18,292 

Population m9,357 

Number of schools „ _ 110 

Primary 101 

Intermediate 5 

High school 1 

Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 11,662 

Males 6,122 

Females 5,540 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 26.4 

Number of establishments of household industries 841 

Production in 1918 , P=269,109.61 

Number of manufacturing establishments 8 

Production in 1918 P60, 200.25 



* One cavan equals 75 liters. 

* Non-Christian population, 2,665, not included. 



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TARLAC. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

TARLAC is situated in the central plain of Luzon, surrounded 
by the Provinces of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and 
Zambales. It has an area of 3,051 square kilometers, about 
57,477 hectares of which are under cultivation. The capital of 
the province is Tarlac, an important commercial town. It is 
located in the east central part of the province and has 23,886 
inhabitants.^ Camiling, Moncada, Gerona, Victoria, and Capas, 
are also important trade centers, connected by good roads. 
Some of the rivers flow into the Agno River and the Chico 
Pampanga River. Lake Pinac and Lake Victoria furnish good 
sport for wild duck hunters. 

The land forms two distinct geographical areas. The north- 
ern and eastern parts of the province consist of an extensive 
level plain, while the rest is covered with mountains which abound 
with timber suitable for building material and furniture making. 
The minor forest products are anahaw, palasan, rattan, honey, 
and bojo for sawali. Buri and anahaw are found in the swamps. 
Deposits of chalk and limestone have been discovered, but so far 
nothing has been done toward their exploitation. Medicinal 
springs are also found in the province, the two most notable 
of which are the spring of O'Donnell, in the municipality of 
Capas, and that of Sinait. 

The fertility of the soil makes agriculture the most important 
industry of the people. Like the western provinces of Luzon, 
Tarlac receives its copious rainfall during the southwest mon- 
soon, but unlike them it raises two crops of rice a year, by means 
of irrigation, particularly in the town of San Miguel. The people 
are industrious, but a large part of the arable lands still lie 
untouched for lack of work animals and capital. While rice 
constitutes the chief crop, sugar and tobacco are also raised in 
large quantities. Corn, beans, potatoes, coconuts, and pineap- 
ples are also grown. Goats, sheep, and cattle are raised on 
the grassy hillsides and uncultivated plains. 

The population is composed of Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Pangasi- 
nanes, and Pampangos, emigrants from their respective regions 
where the struggle for existence is keen. Besides agriculture, 
they also engage in the making of furniture of various kinds 
and of wooden clogs. Little attention is paid to lumbering, the 
chief interest of the people being centered on agriculture. 

This province has 16 municipalities and 262 barrios. 



^ Non-Christian population, 653, not included. 

263 



264 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The Province of Tarlac was one of the latest to be created 
during Spanish rule. Formerly the region which now belongs 
to Tarlac was shared by the Provinces of Pampanga and Pan- 
gasinan. The first step towards the creation of this region 
into a province was taken in 1860, with the erection of a portion 
of western Pampanga into a military comandancia, which in- 
cluded the following towns: Bamban, Capas, Concepcion, 
Mabalacat, Magalang, Porac, Florida Blanca, Victoria, and 
Tarlac, which latter was made the capital. This comandancia 
was the nucleus of what later became the Province of Tarlac. 

Considered from the viewpoint of the foundation of its towns, 
Tarlac appears to be a province of late development. With the 
possible exception of Tarlac, which was founded in 1686, not 
one of the towns which belong to the province of Tarlac was 
founded earlier than the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
The oldest towns in this province, except that of Tarlac, were 
founded in comparatively late years. For example, Bamban 
was not created until 1710; Capas, not until 1712; and Paniqui, 
not until 1754. 

The early history of Tarlac records another important event 
besides the foundation of its early towns, and that is the up- 
rising of 1762, headed by Juan de la Cruz Palaris. This revolt 
had its effects upon Tarlac, especially the northern section of the 
province. The town of Paniqui, responding to the appeal of 
Palaris for action against the Spaniards, joined other towns in 
raising the standard of revolt. 

The population of the region of Tarlac remained practically 
stationary for quite a number of years. But with the influx 
of immigrants from the north, especially the Ilocanos, the popu- 
lation steadily grew. The immigrants found their way through 
Pangasinan to the northern part of Tarlac, settling in such towns 
as Camiling, Gerona, and Paniqui. The extent of this immi- 
gration may be seen by a glance at the growth of population 
in the towns just mentioned within a period of about two de- 
cades. According to reliable records, the population of Cami- 
ling, Gerona, and Paniqui about the year 1850 was 14,266. In 
1870, it had increased to 33,941. 

This marvelous growth of that section probably led to the 
erection of the military comandancia of Tarlac into a regularly 
organized province. In 1873, the prosperous portion of Pan- 
gasinan which included the towns of Camiling, Gerona, and 
Paniqui was segregated from that province and made part of 
the new Province of Tarlac, which was created in that year. 
The newly created province included all the towns which formed 
part of the military comandancia of Tarlac, with the exception 
of Mabalacat, Magalang, Porac, and Florida Blanca, which were 
returned to Pampanga. 

Tarlac apparently showed unmistakable signs of unrest on 
the eve of the outbreak of the Revolution, for Governor Blanco 
included in his decree of August, 1896, the Province of Tarlac 
among the eight provinces where a state of war was declared 



TARLAC. 265 



to be in existence. Indeed Tarlac, like most provinces, was ripe 
for revolt. Later, when Malolos was evacuated, the town of 
Tarlac became for a time the headquarters of the Philippine 
Revolutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Tarlac on the 18th of 
February, 1901. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 3,051 

Area of farms hectares.... 107,955 

Cultivated lands do 64,477 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavarLs"^.... 1,931,233 

Sugar cane tons.... 69,093 

Corn cavans.... 9,528 

Copra kilos.... 365,194 

Tobacco do 1,112,159 

Population '168,265 

Number of schools 180 

Primary 170 

Intermediate 9 

High school 1 

Enrollment for 1918 16,268 

Males 9,901 

Females 6,367 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 36.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 764 

Production in 1918 P201,049.06 

Number of manufacturing establishments 32 

Production in 1918 M19, 114.53 



1 One cavan equals 75 liters. 

^ Non-Christian population, 3,757, not included. 



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Barrios 

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TAYABAS. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

Tayabas is the second largest province of Luzon. It occupies 
the eastern coastal plain south of Nueva Vizcaya. Covering an 
area of 10,865 square kilometers, it embraces the Islands of 
Marinduque, Polillo, Patnanongan, Alabat, and many smaller 
ones. The coast is indented by many open bays, such as Din- 
galan, Lamon, Tayabas, and Ragay Gulf. Short but navigable 
streams traverse the whole country, the most important of which 
are Umaray, Kanan and Agos. 

The Sierra Madre runs along the whole length of the province, 
so that only a narrow strip of land along the coast and the 
river valleys is available for growing crops. Copra, abaca, and 
corn are raised for export, rice and vegetables for local use. 
The mountains are densely wooded, but these resources have 
not been developed, except on the outskirts of the forests. There 
are unlimited areas of rolling hills, covered with succulent 
grasses where grazing could be profitably carried on. 

Mineral resources are abundant, especially in the Bondoc Pe- 
ninsula where gold, coal, and petroleum are found. These have 
been worked to some extent, but without much success, because 
of the lack of capital and labor and the difficulty of transporta- 
tion. 

There are other industries. Aside from agriculture and 
mining, hat-making in Lucban, Mauban, and Tayabas is an im- 
portant source of wealth. Lumbering is in its first stages. 
There is a lumber camp at Guinayangan and a modern saw 
and planing mill in Lucena. The Botocan Falls, where a stream 
40 feet wide makes a leap of 190 feet, could supply the entire 
province with light and power for all its needs. 

With the exception of the towns of Baler and Infanta, there 
are but a few settlements in the east. Most of the important 
towns are located along the shores of Tayabas and Lamon Bays. 
Lucena, the capital, is an important commercial town on the 
Manila-Hondagua railway line. It is located in the southwest- 
ern part of the province. It has 11,939 inhabitants. The towns 
of Gumaca, Mauban, and Atimonan, protected from high winds 
by the Islands of Polillo and Alabat, are important coastal trade 
centers. 

The population of Tayabas is very sparse. All the Christian 
inhabitants are found along the shores, chiefly on Lamon Bay. 
Among them are found Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Bicolanos, and Vi- 
sayans. The primitive tribes occupy the mountainous regions 
of the interior. 

267 



268 GEOGRAPHY AND jHISTORY. 



MARINDUQUE. 

Marinduque, separated from Tayabas by the Mompog Pass, 
is a hilly island covered with evergreen grass and shrubs. The 
climate is agreeable. Cattle, firewood, and sinamay, are exported 
to Tayabas. Abaca and coconuts are the leading products, while 
sugar cane, rice, and corn, are raised for local use. Gold, zinc, 
lead, and copper, are found in the island. The chief markets 
are Boac, the capital, and Santa Cruz, on the Santa Cruz harbor, 
which has an average depth of from 7 to 15 fathoms. Another 
important harbor is Port Balanacan in the northwest, with 
an average depth of from 6 to 12 fathoms. 

POLILLO. 

The Island of Polillo is separated from Tayabas by the 
Polillo Strait. Like Marinduque, Polillo has a rugged surface. 
It is sparsely populated. The mineral resources of the island 
are gold, coal, oil, and lead. Trepang is found on the coasts and 
exported to China. The town of Polillo, located on a fine harbor 
of the same name, is the largest on the island and is the center 
of trade. 

This province, Tayabas, has 28 municipalities and 630 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The region now known as Tayabas was explored by the 
Spaniards in 1571 and 1572. In 1572, Juan de Salcedo visited 
what is now the central portion of Tayabas on the occasion 
of his march across Laguna to Paracale. The following year, 
Salcedo led his famous expedition around the northern coast 
of Luzon. He visited the contracosta towns of Casiguran, Baler, 
and Infanta. 

The territory which now constitutes the Province of Tayabas 
was at one time under the jurisdiction of various provinces. 
The southern and central portions, for example, were in 1585 
under the jurisdiction of the province of Bonbon, sometimes 
called Balayan. The northern portion was divided between La- 
guna and Nueva Ecija. 

In 1591, Tayabas was created into a province under the name 
of Kalilaya. Its capital was the town of Kalilaya, now Unisan. 
However, by about the middle of the eighteenth century, the 
capital was moved to the town of Tayabas. The new capital 
in the course of time gave the province its present name. 

Another important event in the annals of Tayabas is the 
revolt of the Cofradia in 1841. This revolt was led by Apoli- 
nario de la Cruz, once a lay brother in the San Juan de Dios 
Hospital. The rebellion spread to a few towns in the neighbor- 
ing Provinces of Laguna and Batangas. Apolinario was called 
by his followers "the king of the Tagalogs." 

Like many other provinces, Tayabas suffered from Moro de- 
predations. In 1798, a fleet of some twenty-five Moro boats 
harassed the towns of Casiguran, Palanan, and Baler and took 



TAYABAS. 269 



450 captives. The towns along the southern coast of Bondoc 
Peninsula were also at their mercy. These depredations con- 
tinued almost to the end of the Spanish rule. 

Tayabas was among the first provinces to join the Revolution. 
On August 15, 1898, General Miguel Malvar took possession 
of Tayabas in the name of the Revolutionary Government. 

Civil government was established in Tayabas on March 12, 
1901, with Lucena as the capital. On June 12, 1902, the district 
of Principe, formerly a dependency of Nueva Ecija, and the 
district of Infanta, including Polillo, formerly a dependency of 
Laguna, were annexed to Tayabas. Six months later, Marin- 
duque, which up to that time had been a separate province, 
was also annexed to Tayabas. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 9,943 

Area of farms hectares.... 191,678 

Cultivated lands do 102,122 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans\... 373,071 

Sugar cane tons.... 1,40S 

Corn cavans.... 6,709 

Copra _ kilos.... 43,694,676 

Abaca do 2,451,163 

Tobacco do 4,500 

Population '209,851 

Number of schools ' 168 

Primary 141 

Intermediate 25 

High schools 2 

Enrollment for 1918 22,131 

Males 13,228 

Females 8,903 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 41.2 

Number of establishments of household industries 9,241 

Production in 1918 ?=2,422,295.17 

Number of manufacturing establishments 413 

Production in 1918 ^=1,695,726.49 

STATISTICAL DATA (MARINDUQUE) . 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 922 

Area of farms hectares.... 33,303 

Cultivated lands do 14,669 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans \... 82,317 

Sugar cane tons.... 646 

Corn cavans.... 493 

Copra _ kilos...- 3,421,436 

Abaqa do 2,709,946 

Tobacco do 1,059 



1 One cavan equab 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 1,745, not included. 



270 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 



STATISTICAL DATA (marinduque) — Continued. 

Population 56,876 

Number of schools 40 

Primary - 36 

Intermediate 3 

High school 1 

Enrollment for 1918 6,247 

Males 3,806 

Females 2,441 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 50.8 

, Number of establishments of household industries 491 

Production in 1918 W37,670.54 

J Number of manufacturing establishments 15 

Production in 1918 f=89,389.04 



ZAMBALES. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The Province of Zambales, with an area of 3,680 square 
kilometers, lies in the western part of Luzon, between the Prov- 
inces of Pangasinan on the north, and Bataan on the south. 
It includes the Islands of Hermana Mayor, Hermana Menor, 
Salvador, Capones, Los Frailes, and several other minor ones. 
The coast is very irregular, notably so on the southern and 
northwestern parts of the province. Along the west coast, there 
are no good harbors to protect shipping from the turbulent 
waters of the China Sea. On the south, however, there are two 
well sheltered ones, Olongapo and Subic, wherein the water 
ranges in depth from 6 to 20 fathoms. Transportation in the 
province is exceedingly difficult. There are few good roads, 
and although there are many rivers, they are short and sluggish. 
The most important of these latter are the Cabaluan, Bucao, 
and the Grulio. The swamps at the mouths of these rivers 
are overgrown with lApa and mangroves. ,- 

Iba is the capital of the province. It is located in the western 
part and has 5,451 inhabitants.'^ Subic, on the Bay of the same 
name, is an important port. Olongapo is a naval station that 
boasts of one of the largest floating dry docks in the world. 
Almost all the large towns are located near the coast. 

The land on the north is not so rugged as that of the south. 
The mountains are covered with extensive forests of fine timber, 
of which few have been exploited as yet because of the difficulty 
of transportation, and the impassable nature of the mountains. 
Rattan, tan bark and a small amount of timber are exported to 
the nearby provinces. 

The climate is similar to that of the other western provinces of 
northern Luzon. Heavy storms are frequently experienced in- 
land during the southwest monsoon. Conditions in the coastal 
plain are favorable to the cultivation of rice, of which a large 
amount is exported to Cebu and Batangas. The land along 
the coast and foothills in the north are adapted to the gro-wi:h 
of coconuts. Sugar, tobacco, and mangoes are raised for local 
use. The fertile valleys in the interior and the hillsides are 
covered with grass on which thousands of cattle, carabaos, and 
horses feed. 

Deposits of copper, zinc, and coal, await hands to exploit 
them, and mineral waters are found in the vicinity of Iba, Subic, 
and Palanig. 

^ Non-Christian population, 239, not included. 

271 



272 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The scanty population is composed principally of Ilocanos. 
A number of Tagalogs inhabit the southern part of the province, 
and in the mountain fastnesses a few Negritos dwell in their 
accustomed seclusion. 

The province has 13 municipalities and 113 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The exploration of Zambales began in 1572. In that year, 
Juan de Salcedo sailed along the coast of this region, visiting 
some of the native settlements on the way. The little band of 
explorers on the third day of their voyage reached Cape Bolinao 
(now belonging to Pangasinan), where they met a Chinese sam- 
pan in which a native chieftain and a number of his followers 
were being held captive. Salcedo liberated the prisoners, by 
which act of generosity he gained the good will and loyalty of 
the natives. 

Zambales was organized into a province immediately after 
Salcedo's exploration of this region. The capital was first es- 
tablished in Masinloc, but was moved later to Iba. As created 
in 1572, the new province included all of the coastal plain from 
the Gulf of Lingayen to Subic Bay. Though a very small 
province, Zambales was nevertheless, one of the earliest to be 
organized. 

The name of the new province was taken from that of the 
people (Zambals) who inhabited this locality. This people, it 
appears, had already, before the arrival of the Spaniards, es- 
tablished several villages which became the nucleus of new 
towns. Among the earliest organized in Zambales were Ma- 
sinloc (1607), Iba (1611), and Santa Cruz (1612). 

Like Bataan and several other provinces of the Philippines, 
Zambales was visited by the Dutch during the early part of the 
seventeenth century. It was in 1617 that Admiral Spielbergen, 
with a powerful fleet appeared off the coast of Playa Honda. 
The Government forces, under the command of Juan Ronquillo, 
sallied out and engaged the Dutch squadron. Spielbergen dis- 
played much bravery, but was defeated. 

The Zambals were known to be one of the bravest and most 
warlike people of the Philippines, ever ready to join uprisings 
in the neighboring provinces. The Pampangos, for example, 
who revolted in 1645, found numerous sympathizers and com- 
rades at arms among the Zambals. In fact, the uprising readily 
spread to Zambales. And in 1660, this same people became the 
voluntary allies of Andres Malong of Pangasinan. 

About the middle of the nineteenth centuiy and after, the 
population of Zambales showed marvelous increase. In 1818, it 
was 18,841 ; but this figure rose to 95,260 in 1847. During this 
period, moreover, new towns were founded like San Antonio 
(1836), San MarceHno (1843), San Narciso (1849), and San 
Felipe (1860). This great increase in population was due to 
Ilocano immigration. 

The Revolution did not readily spread to Zambales, but in the 
early part of 1898, in spite of the Pact of Biac-na-bato, dis- 



ZAMBALES. 273 



turbances occurred in this province. The Revolutionists seized 
the telegraph lines between Manila and Bolinao and besieged the 
cable station. 

Civil government was established in Zambales on August 28, 
1901. Then as formerly, Zambales extended to the Lingayen 
Gulf; but in 1903 the northern portion of the province, compris- 
ing the towns of Alaminos, Bolinao, San Isidro, Infanta, Anda, 
Bani, and Agno, was detached and given to Pangasinan. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 3,680 

Area of farms hectares.... 36,674 

Cultivated lands do 27,257 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '.... 635,295 

Sugar cane tons.... 2,589 

Corn cavans.... 2,297 

Copra kilos.... 172,152 

Tobacco do 15,750 

Population '80,088 

Number of schools 70 

Primary 62 

Intermediate 5 

High school 1 

Vocational 2 

Enrollment for 1918 10,631 

Males 6,257 

Females 4,374 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 46.7 

Number of establishments of household industries 293 

Production in 1918 P81,978.82 

Number of manufacturing establishments : 9 

Production in 1918 ^48,846.26 



^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

- Non-Christian population, 3,532, not included. 
171073 18 



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Population 83,620 

Capital IBA 

Municipalities 13 

Barrios 113 
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ZAMBOANGA. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

The ZAMBOANGA Peninsula lies on the northwestern part of 
Mindanao. The province, with an area of 16,532 square kilo- 
meters, comprises the peninsula, Olutanga Island and the Basilan 
group. The coast is very rough and full of many deep in- 
dentures, the most important of which are the Bays of Sibuguey, 
Dumanpulas, Pagadian, Dapitan, Sindangan, Sibuko, and Port 
Sibulan. The bays are deep, ranging from 3 to 27 fathoms, 
but are open roadstead, while Port Sibulan, with a depth of 
from 2 to 15 fathoms, is well sheltered by the Island of Olutanga 
near its entrance. 

Zamboanga, located on the southern extremity of the penin- 
sula, is the capital of the province and the Department of Min- 
danao and Sulu, and has 30,872 inhabitants.^ This port is about 
512 miles distant from Manila via the west coast of Mindoro, and 
about 519 miles from the Capital City via Verde Island Passage. 
All the largest towns are situated near the coast, the most 
important of these are Sibucao, Sindangan, Kumalarang, and 
Dapitan. 

The province is exceedingly mountainous. These mountains 
are well wooded and contain the best timbers for shipbuilding 
and furniture-making. The mountains in the north central part 
are not yet explored because of the absence of good roads and 
long rivers as natural highways. But the forest resources around 
the bays of Sibuguey and Dumanquinlas, where sawmills are 
established, are under exploitation. Guttapercha for insulating 
cable wires and almaciga for varnish are the most important 
forest products for exports. 

The province has a delightful climate, except during the months 
of November to January, when it is exceptionally cold. The 
rainy season lasts from May to October. The rivers flow over 
their banks and destroy the crops. The land is seldom visited 
by strong winds, so that famine is rarely felt there. 

The broad coastal plains can support thousands of people, if 
extensively cultivated. The soil is very fertile, and very well 
suited for abaca and coconut growing. Abaca and copra are the 
chief export crops, while rice is cultivated largely for home 
use. On the plateaus and hillsides, cattle, horses, carabaos, and 
sheep are raised. 

Coal and gold are found on the peninsula. The situation of 
these mineral deposits is very favorable, but because of the lack 
of capital and labor, they still remain intact. 



* Non-Christian population, 4,143, not included. 

275 



276 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY. 

The population can be divided into three groups, namely, the 
Christian people, the Moros, and the Pagans. The Christians 
live mostly along the coasts and do the tilling of the arable 
coastal plains. They are the most progressive people of Min- 
danao. The Moros inhabit the regions along the rivers and 
coasts, while the primitive people occupy the interior. 

Basilan Island is hilly, three-fourths of its area being covered 
with forests. Lumbering is being carried on in this island, 
a lumber mill having already been established in Isabela, its 
largest town. 

There are plantations for the growing of rubber here. Copra 
and abaca are exported. 

This province has 5 municipalities, 14 municipal districts, and 
43 barrios. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

It is believed that Dapitan is the first point within the con- 
fines of the present Province of Zamboanga to have been visited 
by the Spaniards. Legaspi in 1565 touched at the town of 
Dapitan, one of the oldest towns in the Philippines. This town, 
which was founded by immigrants from Bohol, became noted 
later as the place where Dr. Jose Rizal lived as an exile. By 
1631, the Spanish missionaries were already at work in this 
region and in other parts of northern Mindanao. 

During the early decades of the seventeenth century, several 
armed encounters between the Christian Filipinos and the 
Spaniards on the one hand, and the Moros on the other, took 
place in Zamboangan territory. In 1628 and again in 1630, the 
Island of Basilan was the objective of primitive expeditions 
against the Moros. In 1636, the governor of Zamboanga de- 
feated the famous Tagal, brother of the Sultan of Magindanao, 
off the coast of Punta de Flecha. It is said that about three 
hundred Moros together with their famous "admiral" perished 
in this battle. 

Due to these frequent encounters with the Moros, it was 
thought wise to establish a fort in Zamboanga. Consequently, 
as early as 1636, Don Juan de Chaves founded Zamboanga and 
began the construction of Fort Pilar. In 1662, however, the fort 
was abandoned due to the withdrawal of the garrison, which was 
recalled to Manila to defend the capital against the threatening 
attack of the Chinese pirate Kotsen or Koxinga. Half a century 
later, the king ordered the refortification of Zamboanga, but this 
was not done till the rule of Bustamante, who rebuilt the fort 
in 1719. 

In order to strengthen the Spanish position in Zamboanga and 
in the neighboring region, three companies of Zamboanga volun- 
teers were organized in 1832. In 1847, this volunteer organiza- 
tion was made into two companies of two hundred and fifty 
men each. 

The Province of Zamboanga had its beginnings in the old 
"corregimiento militar" of Zamboanga. In 1837, the government 
of this "corregimiento" was changed to a "gobierno militar." In 



ZAMBOANGA. 277 



1860, Zamboanga was one of the six districts into which Min- 
danao and Sulu were divided. At the end of the Spanish rule, 
Mindanao and Sulu were divided into seven districts, Zamboanga 
being the most important of the seven. From the beginning 
of the Spanish rule to the end, Zamboanga town was the capital 
of Mindanao, excepting the brief period between 1872 and 1875 
when the general government was located at Cotabato. 

Dapitan, now a part of Zamboanga, was created a politico- 
militarj' comandancia in 1863. At the end of the Spanish rule, 
it was still a politico-military comandancia dependent on Mi- 
samis. 

In 1897, as a part of the Philippine Revolution, a rebellion 
broke out in Zamboanga under the leadership of Isidoro Midel 
and Melanio Ramos. This uprising did not secure important 
results. In 1898, the Philippine Revolutionary Government 
appointed Vicente Alvarez general of the revolutionary forces 
in this region. General Alvarez attacked the Spanish forces, 
which were then being concentrated in Zamboanga, and finally 
took possession of the province. 

In 1903, the Moro Province was organized with Zamboanga as 
one of the districts. In 1914, civil government was established 
in the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, Zamboanga becoming 
one of the regularly constituted provinces of the department. 
The town of Zamboanga was made the capital. 

STATISTICAL DATA. 

Approximate area square kilometers.... 16.582 

Area of farms hectares.... 35,717 

Cultivated lands _ _...do 21,959 

Production in 1918: 

Rice cavans '.... 124,823 

Sugar cane tons.... 1,985 

Corn _ _ _ cavans 43,455 

Copra ....'. kilos.... 1,407,460 

Abaca do 3,437,324 

Tobacco do 29,299 

Population _ * 77,001 

Number of schools 60 

Primary 51 

Intermediate 5 

High school 1 

Vocational 3 

Enrollment for 1918 7,565 

Males 4,392 

Females 3,173 

Rate of mortality per 1,000 inhabitants 38.3 

Number of establishments of household industries 170 

Production in 1918 » P59,811.08 

Number of manufacturing establishments ' 6 

Production in 1918 ^=588,562.82 

^ One cavan equals 75 liters. 

2 Non-Christian population, 70,990, not included. 

' Including two establishments of Nueva Vizcaya. 




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ISLANDS OF THE PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 



[In groups adjacent to principal islands and with reference to naming.] 



Principal island. 



Luzon 

Mindanao 

Samar 

Negros 

Palawan 

Panay 

Mindoro 

Leyte 

Cebu 

Bohol 

Masbate 

Sulu group . . . 
Romblon group 

Total . . 



Number of Number of, 'lAreaofone 

named unnamed j Total. square mile 
islands, i islands, i | or over. 



406 

420 

266 

21 

619 

132 

42 

52 

56 

80 

50 

272 

25 



1,050 
634 
437 
147 
1,149 
500 
109 

80 
195 

50 

59 
176 

56 



1,456 

1,054 

703 

168 

1,768 

632 

151 

132 

251 

130 

109 

448 

81 



80 
72 
46 

5 
82 
26 

9 

8 
14 
11 

9 
99 

2 



2,441 4,642 7,083 



463 



Note. 
islets. 



-The unnamed islands are small unimportant mangrove or rocky 



The above values were obtained from the topographic sheets of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey received to December 31, 1919. In the unsurveyed 
regions north of Luzon, Sulu Archipelago, and west coast of Palawan, the 
counting was done on the best charts available. 



Approximate areas of principal islands^ 



Island. 



Square 
miles. 



Luzon 40 

Mindanao *. 36 

Samar 5 



Ncgros. . , 
Palawan. 
Panay. . , 
Mindoro. 
Leyte. . . 



Cebu. 

Bohol 

Masbate 

All other islands , 



,814 
,906 
,124 
,903 
,500 
,448 
,794 
,799 
,695 
,534 
,255 
,628 



Total land area of Archipelago 114,400 



Note. — Islands over 1 square mile, 463. 

' For areas of other islands see table in Volume II under paragraph : "Population and 
Density of Islands." 

279 



NAMES OF ISLANDS OF AREA ONE SQUARE 
MILE OR OVER. 



Alabat I. 
Alibi jaban I. 
Babuyan I. 
Bagatao I. 
Balesin I. 
Basot I. 
Batan I. 
Batan I. 
Burias I. 
Busin I. 
Butauanan I. 
Cabalete I. 
Cabalitian I. 
Cabaloa I. 
Cabarruyan I 
Cacraray I. 
Cagbulauan I 
Calayan I. 
Calintaan I. 
Camiguin I. 
Canimo I. 



Awasan I. 
Balukbaluk I. 
Balut I. 
Basilar! I. 
Bayagnan I. 
Bilabid I. 
Bobuan I. 
Bongo I. 
Bucas Grande I. 
Byby I. 
Capaquian I. 
Cepaya I. 
Cobeton I. 
Condona I. 
Daco I. 
Dassalan I. 
Dinagat I. 
Boot I. 
East Bucas I. 

280 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO LUZON. 



[Total number 

Canton I. 
Caringo I. 
Corregidor I. 
Catanduanes I. 
Dalupiri I. 
Diogo I. 
Fuga I. 
Guintinua I. 
Haponan I. 
Hermana Mayor 

I. 
Hermana Manor 

I. 
Ibugos I. 
Itbayat I. 
Jomalig I. 
Juac I. 

Kalongkooan I. 
Kalokot I. 
Karlagan I. 
Lahuy I. 



of Islands, 80.] 

Lamit I. 
Lucsuhin I. 
Luzon I. 
Mabudis I. 
Maculabo I. 
Malabungut I. 
Maniwayan, I. 
Maricaban I. 
Marinduque I. 
Matalvi I. 
Mompog I. 
Pagbilao I. 
Palasan I. 
Palaui I. 
Panay I. 
Panuitan I. 
Patnanongan I, 
Pinget I. 
Polillo I. 
Porongpong I. 
Quinabugan I. 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO MINDANAO. 



[Total number 

General I. 

Great Santa Cruz 

I. 
Hanigad I. 
Hibuson I. 
Hikdop I. 
Hinatuan I. 
Igat I. ' 
Kabo I. 
Kaludlud I. 
Kangbangyo I. 
Kauluan I. 
Lajanosa I. 
Lamagon I. 
Lanahuan I. 
Lanhil I. 
Lead I. 
Ludguron I. 
Lutangan L 



of islands, 72.] 

Maanoc I. 
Mahaba I. 
Malamaui I. 
Malanipa I. 
Manangal I. 
Mataja I. 
Mawes I. 
Middle Bukas I. 
Mindanao I. 
Mosapelid I. 
Nonoc I. 
Olutanga I. 
Palmas L 
Pilas L 
Pisan I. 
Poneas I. 
Pujada L 
Sakul L 
Saluping L 



Quinalasag I. 
Rapurapu I. 
Sablayan I. 
Sabtang I. 
Salomague I. 
Salvador I. 
San Miguel I. 
Santa Cruz L 
Santiago I. 
Siapar L 
Sibauan I. 
Silanguin I. 
Talim L 
Templo I. 
Tinaga I. 
Tubutubu I. 
Verde I. 
Volcano L 
Y'Ami I. 



Samal I. 
Sangboy I 
Sarangani 
Siargao I. 
Sibago L 
Sibale L 
Sibanoc I. 
Takela I. 
Talabera I. 
Talicud L 
Tamuk L 
Tapiantana 
Teinga I. 
Tictauan I. 
Tona L 
Unib I. 



I. 



ISLANDS OF THE PHILIPPINES. 



281 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO SAMAR. 



Aguada I. 
Almagro I. 
Bani I. 
Batag I. 
Biri I. 
Botic I. 
Buad I. 
Buri I. 
Cabaun I. 
Cagnipa I. 
Cahayagan I. 
Calicoan I. 



[Total number 

Camandag I. 
Canahauan I. 
Caperangasan I. 
Capul I. 
Catalaban I. 
Dalupiri I. 
Daram I. 
Dernasan I. 
Destacado I. 
Escarpada I. 
Gilbert I. 
Gintarcan I. 



of islands, 46.] 

Goyam I. 
Hilaban I. 
Homonhon I. 
Karikiki I. 
Laoang I. 
Libucan I. 
Manicani I. 
Maravilla I. 
Nabugtusan I. 
Parasan I. 
Samar I. 
San Andres I. 



San Juan I. 
Santo Niiio I. 
Suluan I. 
Sundara I. 
Tagapula I. 
Talisay I. 
Timpasan I. 
Tinau I. 
Tubabao I. 
Tubabao 7. 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO NEGROS. 



Daco I. 
Molocaboc I. 



[Total number of Islands, 5.] 

j Refugio I. 
I Negros I. 



Siquijor I. 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO PALAWAN. 



Agutaya I. 
Alava I. 
Albaguen I. 
Bagambangan I. 
Balaba? I. 
Bancalan I. 
Bantac I. 
Baquit I. 
Batas I. 
Binatican I. 
Binulbulan I. 
Bisucay I. 
Boayan I. 
Bugsuk I. 
Bulalacao I. 
Cabilauan I. 
Cabulauan I. 
Cabuli I. 
Cacnipa I. 
Cadlao I. 
Cagayan I. 



Binanan I. 
Binuluangan I. 
Batbatan I. 
Borocay I. 
Calagnaan I. 
Caluya I. 
Gigante North I. 



[Total number 

Calabadian I. 
Calabugdong I. 
Calibang I. 
Canabungan I. 
Candaraman I. 
Canipo I. 
Canipo I. 
Capare I. 
Capnoyan I. 
Casian I. 
Catalat I. 
Chindonan I. 
Coron I. 
Culion I. 
Cuyo I. 
Debangan I. 
Delian I. 
Depagal I. 
Dibanca I. 
Dicabaito I. 
Dit I. 



of islands, 82.] 

Dondonay I. 
Galoc I. 
Ibobor I. 
Icadambanauan I. 
Hoc I. 
Lagen I. 
Lajo I. 
Lamud I. 
Linapacan I. 
Lubic I. 
Malanao I. 
Malubutglubut I. 
Manamoc I. 
Mantangule I. 
Maobanen I. 
Marily I. 
Matinloc I. 
Maytiguid I. 
Miniloc I. 
Nangalao I. 
Pachiri I. 



Palawan I. 
Paly I. 
Pandanan I. 
Passage I. 
Patoyo I. 
Popototan I. 
Quiniluban I. 
Ramos I. 
Rasa I. 
Tagauayan I. 
Tambon I. 
Tampel I. 
Tangat I. 
Tapiutan I. 
Tara I. 
Tuluran I. 
Uson I. 
Verde N. I. 
Verde S. I. 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO PANAY. 



[Total number 
Gigante South I. 
Guimaras I. 
Guiuanon I. 
Igbon I. 
Inampulugan I. 
Malangaban I. 
Panay I. 



of islands, 26.] 

Pandan I. 
Pan de Azucar I. 
Panubulon I. 
Pinamucan I. 
Sicogon I. 
Sibay I. 
Sibato I. 



Semirara I. 
Tago I. 

Tagubanhan I. 
Tandog I. 
Tabon I. 



282 



ISLANDS OF THE PHILIPPINES. 





ISLANDS BELONGING TO MINDORO. 






[Total number of islands, 9.] 




Ambulong I. 


Cabra I. 


Ilin I. 


Mindoro I. 


Ambil I. 


Golo I. 


Lubang I. 


Tambaron I. 


Buyallao I. 










ISLANDS BELONGING TO LEYTE. 




t 


[Total number of islands, 8.] 




Bacol I. 


Gigantangan I. 


Leyte I. 


Maripipi I. 


Biliran I, 


Gumalac I. 


Limasawa I. 


Panaon I. 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO CEBU. 
[Total number of islands, 14.] 



Bantayan I. 


Guintacan I. 


Mactan I. 


Pacijan I. 


Carnasa I. 


Jibitnil I. 


Malapascua I. 


Ponson I. 


Cebu I. 


Jilantangan I. 


Olango I. 


Poro 1. 


Doong I. 


Lipayran I. 








ISLANDS BET,ONGING TO BOHOL. 






[Total number of islands, 11.] 




Banacon I. 


Jandayan I. 


Mahanay I. 


Panglao I. 


Bohol I. 


Jau I. 


Pamilican I. 


Sandingan I. 


Cabilao I. 


Lapinin I. 


Pangangan I. 






ISLANDS BELONGING TO MASBATE. 






[Total number of islands, 9.] 




Bugtung I. 


Jintotolo I. Matabao I. 


Naro I. 


Carogo L 


Masbate I. Napayauan I. 


Ticao I. 


Deagan I. 


ISLANDS BELONGING TO SULU. 
[Total number of islands, 92.] 




Balanguingui I. 


Capual I. 


Maniacolat I. 


Simonor I. 


Bambannan I. 


Daluman I. 


Mantabuan I. 


Sipac I. 


Banaran I. 


Dammi I. 


Manucmanca I. 


South Ubian I 


Bangalao I. 


Dasaan I. 


Marungas I. 


Sulade I. 


Basbas I. 


Datu-Bato I. 


Minis I. 


Tabawan I. 


Basbas I. 


Deato-Bato I. 


North Ubian I. 


Tabulunga I. 


Bilatan I. 


Doc Can I. 


Omapui I. 


Taluc I. 


Bintoulan I. 


Dongdong I. 


Panducan I. 


Tambagaan I. 


Bitinan I. 


Gujangan I. 


Pangasinan I. 


Tandubas I. 


Bolipongpong I. 


Hegad I. 


Pangutarang I, 


Tandubato I. 


Bongao I, 


Island (no name) 


Pantocunan I. 


Tapaan I. 


Buan I. 


Island (no name) 


Papahag I. 


Tapul I. 


Bubuan I. 


Jolo I. 


Paquia I. 


Taruc I. 


Bubuan I, 


Kinapusan I. 


Parol I. 


Tatalan I. 


Bucutua I. 


Kuad Basang I. 


Pata I. 


Tawitawi I. 


Bulan I. 


Kulassein I. 


Patian I. 


Teomabal I. 


Bulicutin I. 


Lapac I. 


Sangasanga I. 


Tigungun I. 


Cabingaan I. 


Laparan I. 


Secubun I. 


Tonkil I. 


Cabucan I. 


Latuan I. 


Siasi I. 


Tubalubac I. 


Cacataan I. 


Lintian I. 


Sibutu I. 


Tubigan I. 


Cagayan Sulu I. 


Little Calupag I. 


Sigboye I. 


Tumindao I. 


Calupag I. 


Loran I. 


Simaluc I. 


Tulayan I. 


Cap I. 


Lupa I. 


Simisa I. 


Usada I. 



ISLANDS OF THE PHILIPPINES. 



283 



Alad I. 
Banton I. 
Carabao I. 



ISLANDS BELONGING TO ROMBLON. 
[Total number of islands, 9.] 



Cobrador I. 
Maestre de Cam- 
po I. 



Romblon I. 
Sibuyan I. 



Simara I. 
Tablas I. 



LIST OF PORTS IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



Name. 



Aborlan.. . 
Alabat. . . . 

Allen 

Aparri . . . . 
Aroroy. . . . 
Atimonan . 



Baelayon. 
Bacnotan. 
Bacolod.. 
Bacon. . . 
Baganga. 
Bais 



Balabac. . 
Balamban. 
Balangiga . 
Balayan. . 
Baler 



Balingasag . 
Banga. . . . 
Bangui. . . , 
Be 



Jarili. 



Barugo 

Basco 

Batan 

Batan 

Batangas. . . 

Bato 

Bauan 

Baybay 

Binalbagan. , 

Boac 

Bogo 

Bolbok 

Bolinao 

Bolton 

Borongan. . . 

Boston 

Bugasong. . . 
Bulalacao. . . 

Bulan 

Bulusan. . . . 
Bungau. . . . 
Buruanga. . . 
Butuan 

Cabadbaran. 
Cabalian. . . 
Cabangan. . 

Cadiz 

Cagayan. . . . 
Cagayan . . . . 
Calapan. . . . 
Calauag. . . . 

284 



Class. 


Province. 


3 


Palawan. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Samar. 


2 


Cagayan. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


2 


Tayabas. 


3 


Bohol. 


3 


La Union. 


3 


Occidental Negros. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Davao. 


2 


Oriental Negros. 


2 


Palawan. 


3 


Cebu. 


3 


Samar. 


3 


Batangas. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Misamis. 


2 


Zamboanga. 


3 


Ilocos Norte. 


3 


Cebu. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Batanes. 


3 


Albay. 


3 


Capiz. 


2 


Batangas. 


3 


Albay. 


3 


Batangas. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Occidental Negros. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Cebu. 


3 


Batangas. 


2 


Pangasinan. 


3 


Davao. 


2 


Saraar. 


3 


Davao. 


3 


Antique. 


3 


Mindoro. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


2 


Sulu. 


3 


Capiz. 


3 


Agusan. 


3 


Agusan. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Zambales. 


3 


Occidental Negros. 


! 1 


Misamis. 


2 


Sulu. 


3 


Mindoro. 


3 


Tayabas. 



PORTS IN THE PHILIPPINES. 



285 



Name. 



Calbayog 

Calivo 

Caluya 

Camp Overton. 
Candelaria. . . . 

Candon 

Cantilan. . . . . . 

Capalonga. . . . 

Capiz 

Carangian. . . . 

Carcar 

Carigara 

Casiguran 

Casiguran. . . . 

Cataingan 

Catanauan. . . . 

Catarman 

Catbalogan. . . 

Cateel 

Catmon 

Cavite 

Cebu 

Coron 

Cotabato 

Culion 

Currimao 

Cuyo 



Daet 

Dagupan. . . . 

Danao 

Dapa 

Dapitan 

Davao 

Dimiao 

Dipolog 

Diriqui 

Dolores 

Donsol. . . . . . 

Dulag 

Dumaguete. . 
Dumanjug. . . 

Escalante. . . . 

Gasan 

Gingoog 

Gubat 

Guinayangan . 

Guiuan 

Gumaca 

Halsey 

Himamaylan . 
Hinatuan. . . , 

Hindang 

Hondagua. . . 

Iba. 

Ibajay 

Iligan 

Iloilo 

Infanta , 



Class. 



Province. 



3 


Samar. 


3 


Capiz. 


3 


Antique. 


3 


Lanao. 


3 


Zambales. 


3 


II0C03 Sur. 


3 


Surigao. 


3 


Camarines Norte. 


3 


Capiz. 


3 


Samar. 


3 1 


Cebu. 


3 


Leyte. 


2 


Sorsogon. 


3 


T ay abas. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Samar. 


2 


Samar. 


3 


Davao. 


3 


Cebu. 


3 


Cavite. 


1 


Cebu. 


3 


Palawan. 


3 


Cotabato. 


2 


Palawan. 


3 


Ilocos Norte. 


2 


Palawan. 


3 


Camarines Norte. 


3 


Pangasinan. 


3 


Cebu. 


3 


Surigao. 


2 


Zamboanga. 


2 


Davao. 


3 


Bohol. 


3 


Zamboanga. 


3 


Ilocos Norte. 


3 


Samar. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Leyte. 


2 


Oriental Negros. 


3 


Cebu. 


2 


Occidental Negros 


3 


Taj'abas. 


3 


Misamis. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Tayabas. 


2 


Samar. 


3 


Tayabas. 


1 3 


Palawan. 


1 3 


Occidental Negros 


3 


Surigao. 


3 


Leyte. 


9 


Tayabas. 


2 


Zambales. 


3 


Capiz. 


3 


Lanao. 


1 


Iloilo. 


3 


Tayabas. 



286 



PORTS IN THE PHILIPPINES. 



Name. 



Isabela . 



Jagna. . 
Jimenez . 
Jolo. . . . 



Kawayan. . . 
Kolambugan . 



Lagonoy. . . . 
Laguimanoc . 

Laoag 

Laoang 

Larena 

Lavezares. . . 

Lebak 

Legaspi 

Lemery 

Lianga 

Liloan 

Llorente. . . . 

Loay 

Looc 

Lubang 

Lucena 

Luna 



Maasin 

Macalelon. . . 
Magallanes.. . 
Malabang. . . . 
Malangas. . . . 

Malita 

Malitbog. . . . 
Mambajao. . . 

Manapla 

Manila 

Margosatubig. 
Maribojoc. . . , 
Mariveles. . . . 

Masbate 

Masinloc. ... 

Mati 

Matnog 

Mauban 

Mercedes. . . . 

Merida 

Misamis 



Naga 

Narvaean 

Nasipit 

Nasugbu 

Nato 

Naujan 

New Washington. 



Odiongan . 
Olongapo. 

Oras 

Ormoc. . . 
Oroquieta. 
Oslob 



Class. 


Province. 


2 


Zamboanga. 


3 


Bohol. 


3 


Misamis. 


1 


Sulu. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Lanao. 


2 


Camarines Sur. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Ilocos Norte. 


i 3 


Samar. 


i 3 


Oriental Negros. 


3 


Samar. 


2 


Cotabato. 


2 


Albay. 


: 3 


Batangas. 


3 


Surigao. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Samar. 


3 


Bohol. 


3 


Romblon. 


3 


Mindoro. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


La Union. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Lanao. 


1 


Zamboanga. 


3 


Davao. 


2 


Leyte. 


3 


Misamis. 


3 


Occidental Negros 


1 


Manila. 


3 


Zamboanga. 


3 


Bohol. 


2 


Bataan. 


1 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Zambales. 


2 


Davao. 


3 


Sorsogon. 


3 


Tayabas. 


3 


Camarines Norte. 


3 


Leyte. 


3 


Misamis. 


3 

3 


Camarines Sur. 
Ilocos Sur. 



3 Agusan. 

3 Batangas. 

3 Camarines Sur. 

3 Mindoro. 

3 Capiz. 

3 , Romblon. 

2 j Bataan. 

3 : Samar. 

2 1 Leyte. 

3 I Misamis. 
3 i Cebu. 



PORTS IN THE PHILIPPINES. 



. 287 



Name. 



Palauig 

Palompon 

Paluan 

Pambuhan. . . . 
Pambuhan Sur. 

Panacan 

Pandan 

Pandan 

Paracale 

Parang 

Pasacao 

Pilar 



Glass. 



Pinamalayan. 

Pitogo 

Placer 



Polillo 

Puerto Galera. . 
Puerto Princesa. 



Quezon. 



Ragay . . . 
Romblon. 



Sabajig. , 
Sablayan. 
Sagay. . . 



Salcedo 

Salomagui 

San Carlos 

San Esteban 

San Fernando 

San Fernando 

San Isidro . . 

San Jose 

San Jose de Buenavista. 

San Julian 

San Pascual. . 

San Vicente 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Cruz 

Siasi 



Sir J. Brooke. 

Sitanki 

Sogod 

Sorsogon. . . . 

Sual 

Subic 

Sulat 

Surigao 



Taal 

Tabaco. . 
Tacloban. 
Taft 



Tagbilaran. 
Tagudin. . . 
Talisayan. . 
Taytay . . . . 
Torrijos. . . 



Province. 



3 Zambales. 

2 ! Leyte. 

3 Mindoro. 
3 Samar. 

3 Samar. 

3 Palawan. 

3 Albay. 

3 I Ilocos Sur. 

3 Camarines Norte. 

3 Cotabato. 

3 I Camarines Sur. 

3 1 Sorsogon. 

3 Mindoro. 

3 Tayabas. 

3 , Surigao. 

2 I Tayabas. 

3 1 Mindoro. 
1 Palawan. 

Tayabas. 

3 Camarines Sur. 

1 Romblon. 

3 Camarines Sur. 

3 J Mindoro. 

3 i Occidental Negros. 

3 I Samar. 

3 Ilocos Sur. 

1 Occidental Negros. 
3 Ilocos Sur. 

2 La Union. 

3 1 Sorsogon. 
3 I Leyte. 

1 Mindoro. 

2 Antique. 

3 Samar. 

3 Sorsogon. 

3 Cagayan. 

3 Davao. 

3 Tayabas. 

3 Zambales. 

2 Sulu. 

3 Palawan. 

2 Sulu. 

3 Leyte. 

2 Sorsogon. 

2 Pangasinan 

2 Zambales. 

3 Samar. 

1 Surigao. 



3 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 


Batangas. 

Albay. 

Leyte. 

Samar. 

Bohol. 

Mt. Province. 


3 
3 
3 


Misamis. 
Palawan. 
Tayabas. 



288 . 



PORTS IN THE PHILIPPINES. 



Name. 

Unisan 

Villaba 

Virac 

Zamboanga 

Zumarraga 




Province. 



Tayabas. 

3 I Leyte. 

2 ' Albay. 

1 Zamboanga. 

3 Samar. 



THE CLIMATE AND WEATHER OF THE 
PHILIPPINES, 1903 TO 1918. 



171073 19 289 



THE CLIMATE AND WEATHER OF THE PHILIP- 
PINES, 1903 TO 1918. 



By Rev. Jose Coronas, S. J., 
Chief of the Meteorological Division, Weather Bureau. 



I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Climate and weather. — The difference between climate and 
weather is thus expressed by Hann in his Handbook of Clima- 
tology:^ 

"By climate we mean the sum total of the meteorological phe- 
nomena that characterize the average condition of the atmosphere 
at any one place on the earth's surface. That which we call 
weather is only one phase in the succession of phenomena whose 
complete cycle, recurring with greater or less uniformity every 
year, constitutes the climate of any locality. Climate is the sum 
total of the weather as usually experienced during a longer or 
shorter period of time at any given season. An account of a 
climate, therefore, means a description of the average state of 
the atmosphere." 

In other words, what we mean by iveaiher is the meteorological 
conditions of a particular hour, day, month, year or season of the 
year, while climate means the average of the weather experienced 
for a longer or shorter period of years. 

Object and general plan of this report. — It is our intention in 
this report not only to consider the average of the atmospheric 
conditions of the Philippines as deduced from the period of ob- 
servations 1903 to 1918, but also to call the attention of our 
readers to some extraordinary conditions of the weather for a 
particular day, month, year or season of the year. Hence, the. 
reason of our title Climate and Weather of the Philippines. This 
method of considering climate and weather together seems to be 
more satisfactory: first because it is very difficult at times to 
draw exactly the dividing line between weather and climate ; and 
secondly because very frequently, if not always, the same tables of 
observations may be properly used to study both the climate and 
the weather.^ 

' English translation by Ward, page 1. 

'^ See The Weather and Climate of Chicago by Cox and Armington, 
page XXIV. 

291 



292 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

A word of explanation may be necessary as to the period of 
observations chosen, 1903 to 1918. This report is being prepared 
at the request of the Director of the Census, Hon. Ignacio Villa- 
mor, to be included in the Census of the Philippine Islands of 
1918. Now, in the preceding Census of the Philippines of 1903, 
the climatological conditions of the Philippines were also studied 
with observations of previous years up to 1902, inclusive. Hence 
it is but proper, in order to avoid repetitions, that we consider 
the new period beginning with 1903 and ending on December 31, 
1918, the date of the present Census. Besides, a good number of 
our official climatological stations now in operation, and estab- 
lished since the time of the reorganization of the Philippine Me- 
teorological Service in 1901, had not been yet opened at the 
beginning of 1902 ; and, therefore, even for the sake of uniformity, 
it was considered far better not to include in our period the year 
of 1902, although several of our stations had been already es- 
tablished in the preceding year 1901. We did not consider it 
wise either to include in this work a more previous period of 
observations under the Spanish Government, because the Official 
Climatological Service was then limited only to the Island of 
Luzon, and, therefore, there could be no uniformity in the results 
that we might obtain for Luzon as compared with those for the 
Visayas and Mindanao. If further on, time and occupations 
allow us to take up a more detailed study of the meteorological 
conditions in a particular place, use may be made of all records 
available for such a place. 

Yet, whenever necessary or convenient, especially when we 
lacked reliable observations for the last period 1903 to 1918, 
use has been made also in this report of the observations taken in 
former years, particularly in the preparation of our temperature 
and rainfall maps. 

That the period of 16 years here chosen is sufficient to get an 
accurate knowledge of our climate may be shown from the fact 
that the annual average rainfall of Manila as deduced from this 
period differs from the average deduced from 54 years of obser- 
vation (1865 to 1918) by only -f-17.2 mm.; and the average 
annual temperature and humidity, also for Manila, deduced from 
the same period of 16 years differ from those deduced from 34 
years of observation (1885 to 1918) by —0.2° C. and —0.1 per 
cent, respectively. 

This report has been prepared in a rather short time, if com- 
pared with the amount of work in calculations which it involves. 
It is true that the Director of the Census requested it to be 
prepared on a letter to the Director of this Bureau dated as early 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 293 

as July 6, 1919, and that the latter directed the author of these 
lines to prepare it, immediately after that letter was received. 
But an extraordinary period of typhoons in the Far East, with 
an unprecedented series of heavy rains and floods, that occurred 
in Luzon from the end of July to the beginning of September, 
did not only cause our routinary work in the Meteorological 
Division to be two or three months behind time, but also rendered 
several of our employees unable to attend to their duties for a 
good number of days owing to overwork. Hence it was found 
almost impossible to undertake the preparation of this report 
until November, 1919. Furthermore, even from November until 
the time the report was finished, it was necessary to do this 
work only at such times as the ordinary routinary office duties 
would allow. These circumstances have made it impossible to 
prepare an exhaustive report on the matter, as it was our desire 
to do. It has been our endeavor, however, to present in a most 
comprehensive manner some of the most interesting data con- 
cerning the weather and the climate of the Philippines for the 
period chosen. 

Climatological elements.' — ^The most important elements of 
climate are temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind direction and 
force, cloudiness, and storms, some of these elements being at 
times quite independent one from the other, while in other cases 
they are intimately connected. Thus rainfall and winds are in 
many cases, particularly in summer and autumn, intimately con- 
nected here in the Philippines with the frequency, position and 
intensity of the storms which are called typhoons in the Far East 
or baguios in the Philippines. Atmospheric pressure and its 
variations, as Hann says,^ are of secondary importance as cli- 
matic factors. Hence they have been disregarded in this report, 
except in so far as they are connected with typhoons. 

Temperature and rainfall may be considered for any region, 
but most particularly for the Philippines, as the climatic elements 
of greatest importance, temperature making of our climate a tro- 
pical climate, while the distribution of rainfall gives way to a 
definite subdivision of climates within a characteristic tropical 
climate. Accordingly, it is our intention in this report to give 
more space to these two elements, although we will give also 
some information on the other elements, at least for a few 
selected stations. 

Climatological and tveather service of the Philippines. — It 
may not be out of place to add here a few words on the 
Climatological and Weather Service in the Philippines. There 

^ Handbook of Climatology, English translation, page 70. 



294 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

were in all 60 official climatological stations maintained by the 
Weather Bureau at the end of 1918: One branch station at 
Baguio; 6 first class stations, four of them in Luzon and two in 
the Visayas; 12 second class stations, six in Luzon, four in the 
Visayas, and two in Mindanao ; 30 third class stations, including 
the two stations of Guam and Yap; and 11 rain stations. Be- 
sides, Manila Observatory had 53 voluntary or cooperative 
rain stations, where rain observations were made daily and 
sent monthly to the Central Office. All these stations are shown 
in the accompanying map. 

Hourly observations of all climatological elements are made 
regularly during the day at Manila and Baguio; six daily ob- 
servations (2, 6, and 10 a. m., 2, 6, and 10 p. m.) in all the 
first and second class stations; and two daily observations (6 
a. m. and 2 p. m.) in all the other stations, both official and 
volunteer. The time used for these observations throughout 
the Philippines is that of the meridian 120° east of Greenwich. 

Weather telegrams are received twice daily from all the first, 
second and third class stations of the Philippines ; also from one 
station in Guam, ten stations in Japan, including the Bonin and 
the Loochoo Islands, 5 stations in P"'ormosa, 5 stations on the 
China Coast, and 3 stations in Indochina. Based on these tel- 
egraphic reports a weather map of the Far East is being pre- 
pared daily at the Central Office since 1907 and exhibited in 
several public places of Manila. Together with the weather 
map a table is also given with the most important climatological 
observations made throughout the Far East, but especially in 
the Philippines, and the daily weather forecast for the next 
twenty-four hours, covering the whole Archipelago. A model of 
our daily weather map of the Far East may be seen in Plate I 
of The Quantico Typhoon, December 25, 1918, by Rev. Jose 
Coronas, S. J., 1919; also in Historia del Observatorio de Manila 
por el P. M. Saderra Maso, 1915, page 161. 

Previous reports on the climate of the Philippines. — The first 
attempt to publish some notes on the climate of the Philippines 
was made by Manila Observatory in 1899. They were prepared 
by us and distributed in monthly sheets under the title Charac- 
teristic conditions of the Weather in Ma^iila during the mo7ith of 

Then during the second half of the same year 

1899 we prepared a voluminous work on the Climatologia de Fi- 
lipinas, with many tables and illustrations, which was published 
as a part of El Archipielago Filipino, printed in Washington at 
the expense of the United States Government. An English 
translation of same appeared in Vol. IV of the Report of the 



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I 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 295 

First Philippine Commission to the President, 1901, pages 113 
to 357. A brief resume of these two works, as far as they 
referred to the climate of Manila, was published by the author 
in a small pamphlet Interesting Climatological Data concerning 
the Weather of Manila, 1900. 

When the Census of the Philippines of 1903 was being pre- 
pared. Rev. Jose Algue, the Director of the Weather Bureau, 
contributed to it another report on the Climate of the Philip- 
pines. But as the time allowed to prepare it was very limited, 
he had to avail himself of many illustrations and tables pub- 
lished, as stated above, in El Archipielago Filipino, by bring- 
ing them up to date (1902 inclusive) as far as practicable; 
two new maps, however, and several new tables were introduced 
in this report. He also published two pamphlets on the climate 
of Baguio in 1902 and 1909, respectively. 

As the distribution of rainfall is one of the most important 
elements of the climate of the Philippines, mention should be 
made here of two pamphlets published by Rev. Miguel Saderra 
Maso in 1907 and 1914, respectively, The Rainfall in the Philip- 
pines and Annual Amount and Distribution of Rainfall in the 
Philippines, where the climate of the Philippines was divided 
into three types according to the different monthly distribution 
of rainfall. 

Rev. Jose Algue, in another pamphlet issued in 1915 as a 
contribution to the Panama Pacific International Exposition, 
represented in a map three types of climate as based on the 
monthly distribution of rainfall in the Philippines, and studied 
carefully the characteristics of the most important climatological 
elements for each of the three types. 

All the above mentioned reports, except those on Rainfall, 
are either exhausted or not intended for free distribution ; hence 
it is earnestly hoped that the present one will help to satisfy the 
natural desire of many who so often apply to the Weather 
Bureau for data and information regarding the climate of the 
Philippines. 



II. TEMPERATURE. 

Monthly and annual mean temperature. — Table I gives 
the monthly and annual mean temperature for 52 stations 
well distributed throughout the Philippines. An extra column 
is added showing the annual range of the mean monthly tem- 
perature for each station, or in other words, the difference 
between the means of the warmest and the coldest months. 

It will be noticed in Table I, and the same may be said of 
other similar tables throughout this report, that in several cases 
a period shorter than 16 years has been used, even in cases of 
stations which have been in existence during the whole period. 
To give an explanation of this, we repeat here what Rev. Miguel 
Saderra Maso says referring to the rainfall records published 
in his pamphlet Annual Amount and Distribution of Rainfall 
in the Philippines: 

It is to be regretted that our records are not as complete as 
could be expected : there are many local causes which can hardly 
be controlled. The principal ones are sudden sickness of the 
observers, frequent unexpected resignations, and destruction 
of instruments by typhoons. These causes, due to the special 
conditions of the Islands, and chiefly to the poor transportation 
facilities, are responsible for long delays in sending both ap- 
paratus and substitutes or successors to the sick or retiring 
observers. 

At times the records have been found so incomplete that 
several full years of observations had to be disregarded in the 
preparation of our tables. Months with less than 25 days of 
observation have not been included in our calculations. 

We wish to say a word on the method followed in this report 
in obtaining the mean daily and hence the mean monthly and 
annual temperatures for each of our stations. In our desire 
not to change the mean values published in our monthly bulletins 
and annual reports, different methods have been followed for 
different stations according to the number of observations which 
have been taken in them. The mean temperatures given for 
Manila are the average of 24 daily observations, and those for our 
first and second class stations have been deduced from six daily 
observations (2, 6, 10 a. m.; 2, 6, 10 p. m.). Those for all the 

296 



TEMPERATURE. 297 



other stations have been obtained by the common formula ^ 
(minimum + maximum). After a careful comparison of these 
three methods made with the Manila observations, we can safely 
say that the means deduced from 24 daily observations and those 
obtained from six daily observations, as stated above, are prac- 
tically the same, while the means deduced from the daily extremes 
are somewhat too high, the differences being, as an average, 
about 0.5° C. As we could not prescind from several other 
sources of error in our observations, like differences in the ins- 
tallation of the thermometer shelter, small defects of the instru- 
ments, etc., not to say anything on personal errors, we did not 
think it convenient to apply any correction to our temperature 
means as published in our previous publications, even when 
derived from the extreme daily values. 

Concerning the monthly and annual mean temperature for 
the Philippines, as they appear in Table I, the following re- 
marks may be of interest to our readers : 

1. The mean annual temperature for the whole Archipelago, as 
deduced from the means of all the stations situated near the sea 
level is 26.9° C. Baguio and Silang being high stations, their 
corresponding temperatures have not been included in the cal- 
culation, and will not be considered in these remarks. 

2. The difference between the annual average temperature of 
the southernmost stations, like Jolo and Zamboanga, and that 
of the northernmost stations, like Aparri and Basco, is less than 
1° C, the annual average of the former being 26.6° C. and 
that of the latter, 25.8° C. 

3. Yet, the annual range of the mean monthly temperature is 
very small in Jolo and Zamboanga, 1° C, and 0.6° C, respectively, 
while in Aparri and Basco it reaches 5.1° C. and 6.1° C, re- 
spectively. The increase of this annual range, however, is not 
entirely proportionate in many cases with the increase in lati- 
tude of the stations, a fact which would tend to show that the 
difference in the annual range of temperature does not depend 
only on the difference of latitude, but may often depend also 
on the local conditions of a particular place, particularly as 
regards the prevailing winds, the position of the islands or of 
the stations, and the relative position of high or low pressure 
centers. 

4. While in the great majority of the stations the maximum 
monthly mean temperatures are those of April to May, yet in a 
few stations the highest of the monthly means is that of August. 

5. Following are the monthly mean temperatures for the whole 



298 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table I. — Normal monthly 

Tabla I. — Temperaturas nor 



Station. 
Estaci6n. 



Province or Subprov- 

INCE. 

Provincia o subpro- 
vincia. 



Jolo Sulu 

Zamboanga Zamboanga. . . . 

Davao Davao 

Cotabato j Cotabato 

Cagayan I Misamis 

Butuan j Agusan 

Dumaguete I Oriental Negros . 

Tagbilaran ! Bohol. 



Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 

Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buenavista 

Tuburan 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbat.e 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat ; 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac. , Catanduanes 

Naga \ Ambos Camarines 

Batangas Batangas 

Atimonan | Tayabas 

Silang j Cavite 

Paracale Ambos Camarines 

Santa Cruz I Laguna 

Manila ! Manila 

Antipole j Rizal 

Iba I Zambales 

San Isidro i Nueva Ecija 

Tarlac Tarlac 

Baler Tayabas 

Dagupan Pangasinan 

Bolinao i Pangasinan 

Baguio I Benguet 

San Fernando La Union 

Echague Isabela 

Vigan I llocos Sur 



Palawan 

Surigao 

Leyte 

Cebu 

Occidental Negros . 

Iloilo 

Antique 

Cebu 

Palawan 

Leyte 

Samar 

Leyte 

Capiz 

Samar 

Samar 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Samar 

Sorsogon 

Albay 

Mindoro 



Tuguegarao. 
Laoag. 
Aparri . 
Basco. . 



Cagayan . 
llocos Norte . 
Cagayan . . . . 
Batanes 



Length 
OF Re- 
cord. 
Periodo 
de obser- 
vaciones. 



Years. 
An OS. 



16 
16 
16 
10 
11 
12 

9 
16 

5 
16 
16 
16 

6 
16 
16 

7 
14 
16 

7 
15 
16 
11 
16 
11 
15 

6 
11 
16 
10 
11 
10 
12 
16 

8 

8 

9 
16 

9 

9 
16 
16 
12 
16 
11 
16 
16 
11 
13 
14 
11 
16 
16 



Janua- 
ry. 
Enero. 



°C. 



Ferrua- 

RY. 

Febrero. 



March. 
Marzo. 



oC. 



26.2 
26.4 
26.2 
27.2 
25.6 



25 

26 

25 

25 

25 

25.8 

26 

25.9 

25.6 

26.2 

25.5 

26.9 

25.2 

26.3 

25 

25 

25 

24 

26 

26 

24 

25.8 

25.6 

25.7 

25.6 

25.1 

25 

25 

24 

25 

24 

24.5 

25 

25.2 

24.7 

25.7 

24.4 

25.5 

25.9 

16.5 

25 

23.7 

25.4 

23.3 

25 

22.9 

22.4 



26 

26.3 

26.4 

27.6 

25.8 

25.4 

26 1 

25.7 

25.4 

25.5 

26 

26 

26 

25.8 



26 

25 

26 

25 

26 

25 

25 

25 

24 

26.6 

26.5 

25.3 

25.9 

25.6 

25.6 

25.6 

25 

26 

25 

24 

24 

25 

25 

25.5 

25.2 

25.2 

26.3 

24.5 

25.8 

26 

16.6 

25.1 

24.2 

25.6 

24 

25.6 

23.2 

22.5 



»C. 



26.2 

26.5 

26.0 

28.2 

26.5 

26 

26.8 

26.3 

26.7 

25.9 

26.5 

26.8 

26.8 

26.8 

27.3 

26.1 

28 

25.8 

27.1 

26.3 

26.6 

26.2 

25.7 

27.5 

27.8 

26 

26.6 

26.5 



26 
25 



26.3 

27 

26.3 

26.7 

27.9 

25.4 

27.1 

27.2 

17 7 

26.8 

26.1 

26.9 

26.2 

27.2 

24.8 

24.1 



26.8 



25.8 


26.2 


27.8 


25.2 


25,3 


26.4 


24.2 


24.4 


25.3 


25 


24.9 


25.9 


24.9 


25.2 


26.5 



April. 

Abril. 



"C. 



26.8 

26.8 

27.6 

28.5 

27.5 

27 

27.5 

27 

27.6 

26.5 

27.3 

27.7 

27.9 

27.8 

28.2 

27.5 

29 

26.4 

27.7 

27.1 

27.6 

26.8 

26.5 

28.6 

29 

26.9 

27.7 

27.5 



27 

26 

27 

29 

27 

26.3 

27.1 

27.7 

27.8 

23 

27 

28 

29 

26 

28 

28.7 

18.6 

28 6 

28.1 

28.1 

27.9 

28 5 

26.5 

26.2 



TEMPERATURE. 



299 



and annual temperatures. 

males mensuales y anuales. 



May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Septem- 
ber. 


Octo- 


Novem- 
ber. 


Decem- 
ber. 


Annual. 


Mean 

Annual 

Range. 

Oscilacion 

media anual. 


Mayo. 


Junio. 


Julio. 


Agosto. 


Septiem- 
bre. 


ber. 
Octubre. 


Novlem- 
bre. 


Diciem- 
bre. 


Anual. 


oC. 


oC. 


"C. 


oC. 


"C. 


"C 


°C 


"C. 


"C. 


"C. 


27 


26.7 


27 


26.8 


26.8 


26.6 


26.4 


26.4 


26.6 


1 


26.9 


26.6 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.6 


.6 


27.5 


26.9 


26.7 


26.9 


27 


27 


26.9 


26.4 


26.9 


1.4 


28.3 


27.7 


27.1 


27.1 


27.3 


27.6 


27.6 


27.4 


27.6 


1.4 


28 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.2 


26.8 


26.6 


26 


26.8 


2.4 


28.1 


27.7 


27.6 


27.6 


27.4 


26.9 


26.1 


25.6 


26.7 


3 


27.6 


27.4 


27.4 


27.7 


27.5 


27.1 


27 


26.8 


27.1 


1.6 


27.6 


27.3 


27.4 


27.4 


27.3 


26.9 


26.5 


26.1 


26.8 


1.9 


27.5 


27 


27 


26.9 


27 


26.6 


26.4 


26 


26.7 


2.2 


27.2 


27.3 


27.4 


27.6 


27.4 


27 


26.3 


25.9 


26.6 


2.1 


28 


28 


27.5 


27.4 


27.1 


27.2 


26.8 


26.4 


27 


2.2 


28.1 


27.8 


27.4 


27.5 


27.3 


27.1 


26.8 


26.5 


27.1 


2.1 


28.3 


27.5 


26.6 


26.6 


26.7 


26.8 


26.4 


26.3 


26.8 


2.4 


27.9 


27.3 


26.8 


26.8 


26.6 


26.6 


26.4 


26 


26.7 


2.3 


28.3 


27.5 


26.8 


26.9 


26.8 


27.1 


27 


26.8 


27.1 


2.1 


28.4 


28 


27.8 


27.7 


27.4 


27.2 


26.7 


26 


27 


2.9 


28.7 


27.9 


27.4 


27.4 


27.2 


27.5 


27.6 


27.4 


27.7 


2.1 


26.8 


26.7 


26.7 


26.8 


26.6 


26.1 


25.8 


25.7 


26.2 


1.6 


28 


28 


28.3 


28.5 


28.3 


27.8 


27.4 


27 


27.6 


2.2 


27.7 


27.4 


27.3 


27.6 


27.4 


26.9 


26.4 


26 


26.8 


2.2 


28 


27.5 


27 


27 


26.7 


26.7 


26 6 


26 3 


26.8 


2.4 


27.3 


27.4 


27.4 


27.6 


27.6 


26.9 


26.5 


26.3 


26.8 


2 


27 


27 


27.1 


27.5 


27.1 


26.5 


25.7 


25.4 


26.3 


2.6 


29.3 


29.1 


28.4 


28.4 


28.2 


28.1 


27.5 


26.9 


27.9 


3.1 


29.4 


29 


28. 3 


28.4 


28.2 


28 


27.6 


26.9 


28 


2.9 


27.6 


27.2 


27.4 


27.4 


27.2 


26.8 


26.4 


26 


26.6 


2.7 


28.4 


28.4 


28 


28.4 


28.1 


27.4 


26.9 


26.3 


27.3 


2.6 


28.1 


27.9 


27.3 


27.3 


27 


27.1 


26.6 


26.2 


26.9 


2.5 


28 


27.9 


27.5 


27.6 


27.2 


27.2 


26.9 


26.2 


27 


2.4 


27.6 


27.7 


27.6 


27.9 


27.5 


27 


26.7 


26.3 


26.9 


2.3 


28.2 


28.2 


27.9 


28.1 


27.7 


27 


26.3 


25.6 


26.8 


3.2 


29 


28.6 


27.6 


27.7 


27.2 


27 


26.6 


26.1 


27.4 


3.2 


28.2 


27.9 


27.4 


27.5 


27 


26.9 


26.5 


25.8 


26.8 


3 


25.9 


25.2 


24.4 


24.7 


24.8 


24.9 


24.7 


24.1 


24.9 


2.2 


27.7 


27.8 


27.6 


27.6 


27.2 


26.7 


26.5 


25.9 


26.7 


2.9 


28.4 


28.1 


27.5 


27.5 


27 


26.8 


26.2 


25.6 


26.8 


3.5 


28.2 


27.7 


26.8 


26,9 


26.6 


26.3 


25.6 


24.9 


26.4 


3.7 


28.8 


28 


26.4 


26.2 


26.1 


26.2 


26 


25.5 


26.6 


3.8 


28.1 


27.6 


26.8 


26.6 


26.6 


26.8 


26.4 


25.8 


26.6 


2.9 


28.3 


27.7 


26.5 


26.5 


26.4 


26.4 


25.6 


25.2 


26.5 


3.6 


29.3 


28.7 


27.5 


27.5 


27.4 


27.4 


26.6 


26.1 


27.5 


3.6 


27.7 


28.1 


27.9 


28.2 


27.5 


26.7 


26.1 


25.2 


26.5 


3.8 


28.5 


28 1 


27 


27 


27 


27.2 


26.6 


25.9 


27 


3 


28.8 


27.9 


26.9 


26.8 


26.8 


27.3 


27 


26.5 


27.2 


2.9 


18.9 


18.9 


18.1 


17.9 


18 


18 


17.7 


17.4 


17.9 


2.4 


29.1 


28.4 


27.6 


27.5 


27.3 


27.2 


26.3 


25.8 


27.1 


4.1 


29.1 


29.2 


28.3 


28.2 


27.8 


26.6 


25.2 


24.3 


26.7 


5.5 


28.6 


28.1 


27.2 


26.8 


27 


27.2 


26.9 


26.1 


27 


3.2 


28.6 


28.8 


27.8 


27.6 


27.2 


26.2 


24.8 


23.8 


26.4 


5.5 


28.9 


28.5 


27.7 


27.2 


27.6 


27.4 


26.7 


26 


27.2 


3.9 


27.4 


28 


27.7 


27.4 


27.1 


26.3 


25.1 


23.7 


25.8 


5.1 


27.5 


28.5 


28.2 

1 


27.9 


27.5 


26.6 


24.8 


23 


25.8 


6.1 



300 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

Archipelago as deduced from the averages of all our stations 
given in Table I, disregarding those of Baguio and Silang: 

°C. 

January 25.4 

February 25.6 

March 26.5 

April 27.6 

May 28.1 

June 27.8 

July 27.4 

August 27.4 

September 27.2 

October 26.9 

November 26.5 

December 25.9 

Annual average 26.9 

Accordingly, the year might be divided into seven warmer 
months (April to October) with a mean monthly temperature of 
26.9° C. to 28.1° C, and five colder months (November to 
March) with a mean monthly temperature of 25.4° C. to 26.5° 
C. May is the warmest month, and January the coldest. 

6. As for Manila and other places with similar monthly dis- 
tribution of temperature, the year might be divided into three 
warmer months (April to June), four colder months (November 
to February) and five months of intermediate temperature 
(March and July to October). 

Variability of the monthhj and annual means of temperature. — 
It is often said that a tropical climate is characterized by an 
extraordinary regularity in the sequence of its diurnal monthly 
and annual changes of temperature. To show this clearly we 
have decided to give in Plate I a graphical representation of 
the monthly and annual departures from the normal tempera- 
ture at Manila for each of the months and years of the period 
1903 to 1918. 

The regularity shown in this plate is indeed very remarkable. 
The greatest annual departure in excess of the normal is +0.8° 
C, and the greatest in defect is —0.5° C. As to the monthly 
departures, the greatest in excess is -|-1.6° C, whilst the greatest 
in defect is —1.4° C. Taking the hottest months of the years, 
April to May, it appears that the highest temperatures were 
recorded in the years 1903, 1912 and 1915, three years which 
are considered the driest of the whole period for the Philippines, 
not precisely as to the annual rainfall but as to the winter and 
spring rainfall, as we shall see later. The coldest months, Jan- 
uary and February, show the lowest temperatures in the year 



MONTHLY AND ANNUAL DEPARTURES FROM THE 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AT MANILA 
1903 - 1918 




PLATE 



302 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

1918 with a departure from the normal of —1.4° C. and —1.1° 
C, respectively. 

What has just been said on the variability of the monthly 
and annual means of temperature at Manila can surely be applied 
vi^ith no great differences to all the other stations of the Philip- 
pines. 

It follows from the foregoing how exact Hann and other 
meteorologists are when they state that in the tropics only 
five years of observation are needed to give accurate monthly 
and annual means or normals of temperature/ while for other 
countries like those of Europe or the United States of America 
at least twenty years of observations are usually required for 
a normal value. Hence it is that, although we use indifferently 
in this report the words mean and average for the mean tem- 
perature deduced from 16 years of observation, they can rightly 
be taken as real normals in the strict sense of this word, and 
this is true even in cases of mean values deduced from less than 
16 years, but more than 5 years of observation. 

Mean monthly and annual temperatures of the Philippines 
compared with those of other selected cities of the world. — It 
may be of interest to our readers to have the mean monthly and 
annual temperatures of the Philippines compared with some 
of the most important cities of the world. For this purpose 
we give in Table II the mean monthly and annual temperatures 
for six cities of Europe, four cities of the Far East, besides Manila 
and Baguio, two cities of India, six of the United States of North 
America, one of Mexico and one of Cuba. We add at the end 
five stations of the southern hemisphere showing an inverse 
monthly distribution of temperature. 

In Plate II the monthly distribution of temperature is gra- 
phically shown for six stations of the Philippines, three other 
cities of the Far East (Hongkong, Shanghai, and Tokio), three 
selected cities of North America (New York, Chicago, and San 
Francisco, California) and three of Europe (London, Madrid, 
and Paris). The mean annual temperatures are given in figures 
for each place. 

The differences more or less pronounced in the monthly as well 
as in the annual temperatures are so clearly distinguished, both 
in the table and the plate, that we do not think it necessary to 
make any remark on them. Attention should be called, however, 
to the great similarity of the mean monthly distribution and 

^ See Hann's Handbook of Climatology, English Translation by Ward, 
page 10. 



NORMAL MONTHLY AND ANNUAL TEMPERATURE Or THE PHILIPPINES COMPARED 
WITH THAT OF A FEW SELECTED CITIES OF EUROPE, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 
AND THE FAR EAST. 



30 
20 


January 

rebruary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 










°c 

30 
20 

♦ 10 


-10 

30 
ZO 

♦ 10 

o 

-10 

30 
20 

♦ 10 


-10 




































































































































































^ 




- 


— 






^ 




































,___ 




'- 
















— 
















- 


■^ 


















^ 






























































1 


nn 


aal 


25 


e 


c 















— 






~™ 






















A 


nn 


ual 


2 


.1' 


c 




























A 


Di 


11 


/"< 


















; 


nn 


lal 


1' 


.9 


°C 


















Ceb\L 

















































BiT-ijiki- 


O 






























































































































































































1 — 




























































































30 

20 

+ 10 



-10 


























































































































































... 












_ 


^ 




— 


.^ 






_ 


















_ 










_ 












^ 


— 


— 




— 
































































































Ai 


nu 


1.: 


6. 


°( 
















1 


nn 


Lial 


21 


.6 


»c 














\ 


nn 


usi 


2! 


.4 


"C 






















li 


o 


h 


>■ 




















t^ 


?-^ 


0- 


















. 


M< 


ir 


/i 


a. 
















































































































































































































































































































































30 
20 
■no 

-10 












































































































































































/* 


- 






s 




















y 




V 












































/ 












\ 
















y 


^ 




\ 


V 




















/ 




S 


I 










L 


^ 


/ 
















\ 












/ 










N 


V 














/ 


I' 








\ 








































y 


r^ 












\ 


^ 










,^ 


/ 












^ 














A 


fin 


lal 


22 


ft 














/ 


r 


A 


inu 


al. 


15.1 


°c 






\ 








V 


/ 


All 


-lUj 


1. 1 


iJ 


•c 






\ 










i 


\o 


m 


u 


OJ 


p,</ 












-^ 






'A 


a 


ni 


f^ 


a 


i 










•^ 








'c 


X- 


r'o 






















































































































































































30 

20 

+10 



-10 




















































































30 
20 

♦ 10 


-10 










































































































































































/ 




s 






















/^ 




\ 














































/ 






\ 


V 


















/ 








\ 


























-^ 
















/ 










\ 


k 














/ 










\ 


V 








^ 




- 


-' 


' 










s 


S 










/ 


1 












\ 






— 






/ 














\ 






































/ 


Ar 


nu 


.1. 


II" 


; 






V 






/ 


f 


« 


nn 


lal 


111 


•c 






\ 












An 


1U 


1, 


i.« 


•c 












-^ 


y 




o 


.i 


•c 


9 


o 






\ 






-^ 






A' 


?f\ 


'■ ^ 


^^ 


-k 
















'a 


« 


/: 


^c 


n 


r/ 


r<r 


r 


































































































30 
20 
+ 10 

-10 




















































































30 

20 . 
♦ 10 


-40 




































































































































































































/ 




\ 


















































'- 




S 










- 










/ 








\ 


















/ 


'^ 


-> 


\ 


















J 


/ 








N 












y 


/ 










\ 


V 














/ 










S 














^ 


^ 












s 


s. 






-^ 


' 














\ 


\ 










/ 














\ 








■* 






A 


n 


al 


19 


•c 


















> 


nn 


al 


13. 


•c 












-' 


.'' 




An 


tu 


1. 1 


).0 


'C 






\ 












I 


■yi 


a 


O 


n- 










-- 










V 


j<: 


> 


^ 


















i 


'a 


ri 


s 

























































































PLATE n. 



304 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table II. — Normal monthly and annual temperatures 

Tabla II. — Temperaturas normales, mensuales y anuales. 



City. 
Ciudad. 


Latitude. 
Latitud. 


Longitude of 

Greenwich. 

Longitud de 

Greenwich. 

o ' 

120 59 E 

120 36 E 
8 W 

2 20 E 

3 42 W 
13 21 E 
16 21 E 
12 28 E 

116 28 E 

121 11 E 
114 12 E 
139 45 E 

88 26 E 
72 54 E 
87 37 W 
74 W 
77 3 W 

122 26 W 
90 4 W 

118 15 W 
99 8 W 
82 21 W 
58 21 W 
77 1 W 
71 40 W 
43 10 W 

151 11 W 


Janua- 
ry. 
Enero. 


Februa- 
ry. 
Febrero. 


March. 
Marzo. 


April. 
Abril. 


A^anila. ... 


o 

14 
16 
51 
48 
40 
52 
48 
41 
39 
31 
22 
35 
22 
18 
41 
40 
38 
37 
29 
34 
19 
23 
34 
12 
33 
22 
33 


f 

35 

25 
34 
50 
24 
33 
15 
54 
57 
12 
15 
41 
32 
54 
53 
43 
54 
48 
58 

3 
26 

9 
37 

4 
.1 
54 
51 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
S 
S 

s 
s 
s 


<=C. 

24.5 

16.5 

3.4 

2.3 

4.5 

— .7 

— 1.7 
6.8 

— 4.7 
3.6 

15.6 

2.8 

18.4 

23.6 

— 4.4 

— 1.1 

.6 
10 

12.2 
12.2 
12.2 
21.3 
24.1 
22 
17.2 
25.2 
21.8 


25 

16.6 
4.3 
3.6 
6.3 

:l 

8.3 

— 1.7 
4.1 

14.7 

3.6 

21.3 

23.8 

— 3.3 

— .6 
1.7 

11.1 
13.9 
12.8 
13.8 
22.2 
23.5 
23.2 
17.3 
25.4 
21.4 


oC. 

26.3 
17.7 
5.6 
5.9 
8.5 
2.9 
3.9 
10.4 
5 

7.8 

17.1 

6.8 

26.3 

25.6 

1.1 

3.3 

5.6 

12.2 

17.2 

13.9 

15.8 

22.9 

21 

22.9 
15.9 
25 
20.6 


"C. 

27.8 

18.6 

8.9 

9.9 

11.7 

7.7 

9.4 

13.7 

13.7 

13.2 

21.2 

12.4 

29.4 

27.8 

7.8 

8.9 

11.7 

12.8 

20.6 

15.6 

17.8 

24.5 

17.3 

21.3 

14.6 

23.6 

18.1 


"Rapuio. . . 


Tjondon 


Paris 


Madrid 


Berlin 




RomG ■ • 


Pekinc 




Honffkonff 


Tokio 


Calcutta 






New York 


VVashinfftoti. 


San Francisco. 


















Sydney 



Note. — The observations for the cities of the United States are taken from the Clima- 
tology of the United States by Alfred Judson Henry ; those for Shanghai from La Tempe- 
rature en Chine by Rev. H. Gauthier, S. J. ; those for Tokio from the "Results of the 
Meteorological Observations made in Japan," published by the Central Meteorological Observa- 
tory of Tokio ; those for Hongkong from "The Climate of Hongkong," by T. F. Claxton ; and the 
rest from "Lehrbuch der Meteoro!ogie" by Dr. Julius von Hann. (Nota. — Las observaciones 



TEMPERATURE. 



305 



for several selected cities of the world. 

de varias ciudades escogidas del mundo. 





















Mean An- 










Septem- 


Octo- 


Novem- 


Decem- 




nual 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


ber. 


ber. 


ber. 


Annual. 


Range. 


Mayo. 


Junio. 


Julio. 


Agosto. 


Septiem- 
bre. 


ber. 
Octubre. 


Noviem- 
bre. 


Diciem- 
bre. 


Anual. 


Oscilaci6n 
media 
anual. 


•C. 


"C. 


"C. 


"C. 


°C. 


"C. 


OC. 


"C. 


oC. 


"C. 


28.2 


27.7 


26.8 


26.9 


26.6 


26.3 


25.6 


24.9 


26.4 


3.7 


18.9 


18.9 


18.1 


17.9 


18 


18 


17.7 


17.4 


17.9 


2.4 


1'2.1 


15.7 


17.3 


16.7 


14.2 


9.9 


6.1 


4 


9.9 


13.9 


13 


16.5 


18.3 


17.7 


14.7 


10.1 


5.8 


2.7 


10 


16 


15.9 


20.4 


24.7 


24.2 


19.1 


13.2 


8.2 


4.3 


13.4 


20.4 


12.7 


16.7 


18.1 


17.4 


13.9 


9 


3.6 


.5 


8.5 


18.8 


14 


17.7 


19.6 


18.8 


15.2 


9.8 


3.5 


— .6 


9.2 


21.3 


17.8 


21.6 


24.6 


24.2 


21.1 


16.4 


11.2 


7.6 


15.3 


17.8 


19.9 


24.5 


26 


24.7 


19.8 


12.5 


3.6 


— 2.6 


11.7 


30.7 


18.5 


23 


26.8 


26.9 


22.8 


17.5 


11.1 


5.6 


15.1 


23.3 


24.9 


27.2 


27.7 


27.4 


26.9 


24.6 


20.7 


17 


22.1 


13 


16.5 


20.5 


24.1 


2.5.4 


22 


15.8 


10.1 


5.2 


13.8 


22.6 


29.8 


29.2 


28,3 


28 


28.1 


26.7 


22.4 


18.5 


25.5 


11.4 


29.2 


28 


26.4 


26.3 


26.3 


27.1 


26.3 


24.7 


26.3 


5.6 


13.9 


18.9 


22.2 


21.7 


17.8 


11.7 


3.9 


— 1.7 


9.1 


26.6 


15.6 


20.6 


23.3 


22.8 


18.9 


13.3 


6.7 


1.1 


11.1 


24.4 


17.8 


22.8 


25 


23.9 


20 


13.9 


7.2 


2.2 


12.7 


24.4 


13.9 


15 


15 


15 


16.1 


15.6 


13.3 


10.6 


13.4 


6.1 


23.9 


27.2 


28.3 


27.8 


26.1 


21.1 


16.1 


12.8 


20.6 


16.1 


17.2 


19.4 


21.7 


22.2 


21.1 


17.8 


15.6 


13.3 


16.9 


10 


18.1 


17.6 


16.9 


16.7 


16.2 


14.8 


13.5 


12 


15.4 


6.1 


26.2 


27.4 


27.7 


27.7 


26.9 


25.5 


23,7 


22 


24.8 


6.4 


13.4 


10.8 


10.3 


11.6 


13.9 


16.6 


19,9 


22,8 


17.1 


13.8 


1 19.2 


17 


16.1 


16.2 


16.6 


16.9 


19,1 


21,3 


19.3 


7.1 


13.1 


12 


11.7 


11.4 


12.2 


13.7 


15 


17.2 


14.3 


5.9 


21.8 


•20.3 


19.9 


20.4 


20.8 


21.7 


22 9 


24.7 


22.6 


5.5 


14.7 


12.6 


11.2 


12.5 

1 


14.7 


17.5 


19,1 


20.9 


17.1 


10.6 



de las ciudades de Estados Unidos se ban tornado de "Climatology of the United States," per 
Alfred Judson Henry ; las de Shanghai, de "La Temperature en Chine," por el R. P. H. 
Gaulhier, S. J. ; las de Tokio, de "Results of the MeteoroloKical Observations made in Japan" 
publicado por el Observatorio Meteorologico Central de Tokio ; las de Hongkong, de "The 
Climate of Hongkong" por T. F. Claxton ; y las restantes de "Lehrbuch der Meteorologie" 
por el Dr. Julius von Hann.) 



171073- 



-20 



306 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

mean annual range of temperature of San Francisco, California, 
with that of a tropical station. San Francisco has a latitude 
somewhat higher than Tokio and considerably higher than 
Shanghai. Yet while Tokio and Shanghai have a very pro- 
nounced annual range of temperature similar to that of other 
cities situated in the temperate zone, San Francisco (and almost 
the same could be said of other cities on the west coast of 
North America) has a very small annual range, almost iden- 
tical with that of Aparri in the Philippines. 

It may be worth mentioning also that the mean annual tem- 
perature of San Francisco is only 4.5° C. lower than that of 
Baguio. Hence, we may say that on the west coast of North 
America there are places in which, in spite of a high latitude, 
owing to the combined action of ocean currents and winds, 
the mean monthly and annual temperatures do not differ much 
from those of Baguio, and the annual range of temperature is 
quite similar to that of our stations in the Philippines, partic- 
ularly of those in northern Luzon. 

Means of the Ttioiithly and annual extreme temperatures. 
Temperature Map. — It was our first intention to include in our 
Temperature Map, besides the mean annual temperature, the 
absolute maximum and minimum temperatures for all our sta- 
tions and for the whole period 1903 to 1918. But as such 
absolute extreme values may only occur once in fifteen, twenty, 
thirty or more years, we have thought it would help to acquire 
a better knowledge of our climate if instead of the absolute 
extreme values of temperature, we would include in our map 
the means of the extreme annual temperatures recorded during 
the period mentioned. This will give quite an accurate idea of 
the highest and lowest temperatures which we may expect in 
the Philippines during the year. 

In Table III our readers will find the mean values not only of 
the annual extremes of temperature, but also of the monthly 
extremes. The mean values of the annual maximum temper- 
atures vary in the Philippines from 33.2° C. to 39.9° C. It is 
to be remarked, however, that means as high as 38° C. or more 
are only shown in the stations situated in the plains of Pangasi- 
nan, in the great valley of the Cagayan River, and in the 
provinces of Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. Practically all our sta- 
tions of the Visayas and Mindanao give mean values lower than 
36° C, while a great majority of the stations in Luzon, partic- 
ularly in the central and western part of the island, appear with 
mean values higher than 36° C. What we say of the means of 





00 aor~^ 




S 

H 






-o^ 




TEMPERATURE. 307 



the annual extreme temperatures may be applied also, with 
slight changes, to the means of the monthly extremes of tem- 
perature. 

As to the mean values of the absolute annual and monthly 
minimum temperatures the following remarks may be of interest : 

(1) The highest values are those of the Visayas and Mindanao, 
while the lowest are those of Luzon, just the opposite of what 
has been said on the mean absolute maximum temperatures. 
Those of the Visayas and Mindanao range between 16.7° C. 
and 20.9° C; and those of Luzon, between 15.0° C. and 18.9° C. 

(2) Hence it follows that the mean absolute monthly and annual 
ranges of temperature are considerably greater in Luzon than in 
the Visayas- and Mindanao. (3) The highest mean absolute 
annual range is that shown by Tuguegarao records, 24.9° C. ; 
while the lowest is that of Cuyo, 13.3° C. (4) As a rule, it 
seems that the annual minimum temperatures of the stations 
in which cloudy and rainy weather prevails in winter, are not 
so low as those of the stations situated in the central and western 
parts of the Islands. This is particularly apparent in the Visayas 
and southeastern Luzon. 

Our readers should remember that in these remarks we pre- 
scind from the mountain temperature of Baguio. 

Absolute maximum and miniynum temperatures, monthly and 
annual. — Table IV contains very interesting data concerning 
the absolute highest and lowest temperatures recorded in 
each of our stations. First we give the highest and lowest 
temperatures per month with the corresponding monthly ex- 
treme range, and then the absolute highest and lowest tem- 
peratures of the whole period 1903 to 1918 with the corresponding 
annual extreme range. What has been said above in the remarks 
made about Table III can, with due proportion, be said also 
about the present table. We will only say here that the extreme 
range of the period varies from 16.1° C. in Cuyo to 30.0° C. in 
Tuguegarao. The absolute highest temperature for Luzon is 
42.2° C, and the lowest 12.1° C, whilst the highest and lowest 
for the Visayas and Mindanao were 38.2° C. and 13.3° C, 
respectively.' 



^ We wish to remark here that a few of the extreme temperatures given 
in Table IV seem to differ too much from those of other not distant stations. 
Although we have been very careful in having all the observations well 
checked and revised, it has been impossible in some cases to decide with 
certainty whether the difference was to be attributed to local conditions 
or to any defect of the instrument or mistake on the part of the observer. 
Yet, as we could find no evidence of such a mistake or defect, we did not 
feel justified to prescind from these observations. 



308 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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TEMPERATURE. 



309 






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310 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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15 

o 



> 






o 
.a 



4^ CL 



o 



a 

cs 
Q. 

a ca 



all 









o 
a 

<1 l-l 






a 
a 
a 

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ca rt 

n Q 



B 
O 

o 0) ca 



o 
ca 

B 

"o 



■4-> O"" 

2 " B 



ID 



- ■ if ^ = 



eacacac---3ca0.« 



o 
s 



316 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



■XS 




(U 




^ 




c 


C 




*o 


-l-> 




fl 


u 


o 


3 
a 


u 








-*-» 




a 


CO 


O 


» 


u 


?v 




s 




•w 


Q> 


5^ 


■a 


Si. 




g 


>, 


<a 




•» 






41 


i*o 


-a 


5^ 


2 


S 


fi 


1 


s 


•W 


in 


s 


s 


c 


.g 




■w 


as 


!;< 




01 


-S" 








s 


^4 


o 


3 


g 


■s 






<» 


S 


<» 


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5- 


H 



z S 

•-5>-5 



s ■=« 


c 




t--^ic>r5 


en 


00 


■* 


IN«0 


in 


1-1 


o> 


i-ir-lin t- 


CO 


CT>QO 




05 


iH 


t- 09U3 


S K c 

« z & 


o 
c 


c 


»-( rH .— 1 .— ( 


1— < 




CO 

r-t 


1-1 T-l 


■* 




1— ( 


COtJIH"^ 
^^ »-* 1— 1 1-* 


1-4 


1-1 1-1 


1-1 


CO 

1-H 


rH 


in in to M 

rHrHrHi-l 


H <.« 




































^«S 










































l-T(<co woooo 


t- 


t-00 


t- 


CO 


■*Ot-t-OCI':1<OOCOC-0 00 


00 00 00 CO 00 


t-inoOHf 


5 o 

|3 






.-lO-H — 




o 


f-H 




o 


1-1 


1-1 -H ,-- o o — o 




rH —J 


O r- 


o — 


o 


0-HrH,H 






CJ OT Oi 0> C3^ Ci Ci 

T-. tH tH 1-1 T-4 tH tH 


i-< 


oicv 

T-" 1-1 




en 
1-t 


Oi 0^ Ci CI oi cr. Cj 
1-1 i-t 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-* i-( 


35 35 350 
rH 1—1 rH iH 


G5 05 Cr. 05 05 


35 C5 C5 0> 
iH rHi-lrH 








05rJ<t-C0 


t- 


00 


t- 


TfOO 








m-^ t- 


in 


<s» 




N 


in 


ooeoio 


§s 






OOOO >-l 


o 


CTS 


O 


-HUS 


T-4 


iH 


(N 


1— 1 1— 1 1— ' iH 


(N 


OrH 


(N 


IN 


o 


O rH rH rH 




^ 


iHNN N 


I.M 


T-H 


IN 


IN 1-1 


IN 


IN 


N 


INIMNIN 


IN 


eicj 


(N 


IN 


N 


ININNIN 


Sis 


































S^ 










































r-J CO IC "X* 


05 


IN 


N 


cj Tfi in o (N to 


N 


50«Dinicojinco«o 


1* 


If* in in Hf lo lo 


1^ 






i-IOOO 


O 


»— ( 


tH 


iH 1-1 O iH 1-* 1-1 


1— 1 


00--I0 


j-i r- 


i-tiH 


O 


O rHr- 


O fi r-*f-t 






a ^a o^ 


o> 


OS 


m 


O O Oi Oi O O) 


OJ 


^^m<jiaoi^G> 


C5 


C5 O) O^ G5 05 C5 05 






tH ,-t T-t tH 


tH 


1— I 


r-l 


1-1 l-l 


^ 1—1 


iH 1-1 


1—1 


1— ( 1— 1 1-* 1— . 


T~t 1— 


iH rH 


rH 


1-t 


r^ 1— 


rH rH 1— 1 Vh 


























/ 








J 


s ^ 
Sr 






OOONOO 


to 


«o 


t-H 


50^ 


lO 


iH 


05 


■^ in in -^f 


00 


05 t- 




1-H 


to 


t-OOW 






lA W »C «D 


lO 


t- 


Tjl 


in Tji 


in 


in 


■"f 


1* in into 


CO 


•^Tii 


to 


to 


1* 


intoooTi< 






^ 


CO CO so 05 


CO 


CO 


CO 


coco 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO CO CO CO 


CO 


CO CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO CO CO CO 





































> 

f— 1 


h3 




H 






I 








5 ri <« C 

o 



KjiinrHco to CO in 


Oj 


05 


N 


to 


eOrH05 00 ■* 


HtC- 


1-i 


to to tOOOTfO] 


lOrH t- C- -qi to OJ 
rH rHiH rH ^^ r^ y-^ 




rH 


in 


CO 
rH 


tointoi* IN 

rHrHrnrH rH 






in CO t-Tf t-co 

rH rH i-l rH iH rH 



K o 



t-COrJi-l O CO t- 00 CO 00 Ifl CO CO 



o ooco-^co t- c:c<j -^00 n oo comeaco 

1-H O »-H O O '-H O »— I 1—1 1-H »-H 1-1 O •-<»-« i-H 

OV 00)0)0 O 0)0 OO) o o oooo 



2-- 
>3S 



COIONIO 05 -^ t- Nt- lO lO 



iot-o»'* to US'* 



,Oi-IOO O 1-1 rH rH 05 iH 

Cje<ie^iN(N cj oi N N rH N 



o 



rHrH05rH M OC O 

N 04 rH cq w rH cq 



ea rH rH 05CaOrH 

IN eq w rHNiNM 



5o 



cot-mtooc^irDCDTrio i- 

i-H O O O O rH »-4 O »-H O O 

oooo o.o o oo o o 



rH OOi-hO 1-1 O r-t 
O OOOO O OO 



lO lO VO lO -^ iC U5 

O y~K r^ ,-, ,-i ,— 1 ^H 
O O O OOOO 






t- coooint-iNMtO'ii i> 

. in CO t- t- in t- Tj* to m -^ in 

^ CO CO CO CO CO CO CO coco co co 
o 



rH t- tC to Tt CJ C- 



in t-tototo in mm 
CO cocococo CO coco 



to 
CO 



to Hji to t-OOrf 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 



§1 

tH rt 



s 

CO 

O o iS 



■^ E 

>. 
(9 
bi 

a 



w t« 



u m 



bo 
S bd eU 



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'C 
3 
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o 






3 

u 



s 
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OS 

B 

3 

PQ 

0) 

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■ Oj C 

:§£ 

o^ c-2 

M O ca 3 
CQhhWH 



£.5 
E 3 

CO 






a 2 £^6 2 
ca o c!j2 o t« 



M 



TEMPERATURE. 



317 



rHCO N 



■-It-'^ t- r-i 05 CO t- t~ t- 00 
LOtOtf) -J" t- ■^ to lO ^ -^ Oi 



<M N -* N 

t- C^ lO W lO 



.H in oi ^ -^ c^ 
t- o in N m '^ CO 



eoeo N sDoooo ■'i< rfeOi-iocooM m <r>TtooTj<t-oO'^t-ooc-ioiot- oo t- 

O ^H r-< ^ »-i O O ^^ tH i-* »-< ^^ »-) O O O O ^ ^ O O ^^O -^ ^ -H O -H rH O 



la lo iH u3 00 



eoeod-* ■<* lo 



O ^H o OOi-l W t- 03 »-< T-( »-^ ^^ 05 Oi Oi f-i -H CO »-4 O OOOO-^ *-( 1-t 
NN IM NNNNT-iMC<l0Je'Jp),-i,H.-Heac<l-H^MNlM'-i(MC^M 



OiOl 


M 

cn 


iniNNcoc-iMNNNv-oinco 

C5 C^OSO^^^^C^C^^O^ 


mN-<f 00 lo 

-H ^ rH tH r-t 


oc 

o 




05 O) C^ O ^ 

T-t fH F-l ^ f-( 


CO 00 

O — ' 



to 1-t OJrHOO t- r-l TfSC-t-M t- C- U5 t- 00 rH CO 00 .^ CO 00 T)l 

«Dt- t- intr-c:-ixi-^t-«oc-i-i-oaiCT!t£>oo«omoc-om — t-t-i-o 
coco CO cococo CO cococococococo co co co co O] C3 co ^co^co co co 



.a 



•s 






9) 



lo t- o>eo;o to ooo>im«o^woo co la -^ ih '<i< co n lo-^ooco 'q< ih 
«Dt- in ioa5oom«ecot-oooioO(NiMt-oo«oiocooocoincooocO".o 

i-t tH iH t-4 r-* r-t rH rH r-t rH i— i rH rH C<J W r1 r^ rH rH rH iH W rH M t-H rH rH 



ooocot-ooc-ooo rH ooMrHeooooOTi<coio50 o> eo t- oo «5 ooiocoo-^m-* 

•rH rH rH rH rH rH rH O rH OrHrHrHrHrHOOOO O r-t O rH O rHrHOrHOOO 

005C^0030^?595 05 0)0)00)05030^050) O) 05 05 O) O) 030)0)0505050) 



•V 

> 



lO rH 05 M ■«t N rH 



[- -^ rH <X> «) rH O) 



oo rJ Ot>0 rH t-NOO0)0500 00 05 rH rH 

N<M (N Mr,MN.-<OJIM(>arHrHrHrHrH(MCl 



CO O t--Ht-0 o o 

rH CnI rHM-<N W rH 



t-N N irawN r- t-inc<iinin5Stotric-'»i« «o \a t-Nmoo noO'>iioo oo oo 

OrH rH — 1 rH -H O O -H rH rH r- r-l O O O — ■ O rH O -H rH rH -H O rH -H rH -H 

050 05 ^ ^ <Ti 05 0)0)05050)0)0505050) O) O) C^ ^ ^ ^ Oi d ^ ^ O) 05 



X> 



I 



lOM ei 



MOO 0> 



C4V00 0> Oi rl Ui 



•^ a a lot-coQO t)< 00 



<ot- 
vi CO 



I- 5DI-00 te M" to t> 00 00 00 O rn t- O) oo to t- oo OtOrHOO to •>* 

CO cococo CO cocococococo^ ^ co co co oi w co ^co^co co co 



o 
.0 



^ 






0.3 •* 



Si * ^ 
1 « a 



M? r, — "S 

^ t- c rt ■*-' rti C 



a 



a 

- "2 c 
•g -C «=• 
.2 Si «* 

e o c 

- <" 01 



(C 



3 a 



o o 



■s s Mia 



o 

u 

a 

CD 



ta 



be o 

= CO 



o >zo < wChwS<«73 h ca Q 03 m p3 w w>Hh^ < 






a Id 

23 



318 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



^ 





H ^ 


r" 




T— ( 




in to o> 


f-) 


N 


■>3<C0 


in 


to 


OS CO CO 


CO 


in OS 00 OS 


00 


T* 


to 








.U5 


CO 


1-1 »H rH 


U5 


in 

T-H 


CO to 


in 




WN tT 

rH r^ r-t 


rH 


COrH T)<e^ 


r-t 


Hi" 

r-t 


■O" 




£5 53 


rt 


o 
































o 








































iH 


tH 


00 Til 05 i-H to 00 


CO 


U5 00 


OS 


CO 


int-Tf 


^00 


t-rHOOO 


Tjl 








^6 














Ot-I 


o 


o 


rHOO 


rH rH 


^ !-> 1-t 1-* 


o 


o 














Oi 05 05 CS 05 05 


05 


05 05 


OS 


C-. 


OS OS OS 


OS OS 




OS 














""^ 






r-t rH 


^^ 


i-t 


r-ir-*T^ 


r-t rH 


r-t f~i 1-i r-t 


rH 


rH 


r-^ 




i»< 




































NIMUM. 

inima. 
























, 










^ X 






oc 




US lo 


T* 


e4 


law 


lO 


04 


COrH 


OS 


-inoea 


a> 




a> 


n^ 






o> 


OS 


00 050 


t-H 


— .< 


-HOO 


rH 


rH 


rH OO 


o 


rHrHOS M 


o 


rH 


o 


n o 




O 










eg 


N-H 


(M 


e<i 


(Mwe-j 


O} 


iMNrHN 


OJ 


M 


ca 


USI 




o 






























« 


S^ 










































r)< 


«3 


lA CD 05 


lO 


T* 


Ntj. 


to 


00 


c- toos 


-Hintot-t-toc-t-inc-tot- 


1-00 


















.— ( 


•—1 rH 


^^ 


rH 


rHOOrHrHrHOtHrHrHOrHrH 


rH rH 














05 Oi 05 


CT> 


05 


Oi 05 


OS 


OS 


OSOSOSOSO^OSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOS 
















•— ' 


l-H rH 


1—1 


1-^ 


y-i r^ T^ r-i i-t ~ 




rH rH 


.-^ rH 




























































X 








, , 


_^ 










05 


(M 


«OTf 

toinio 


ir. 


•<* 

CO 


(35 r- 

r)( lO 


1^ 


00 

in 


OS to-* 


00 


o>T« OS 


in 


in 


to 




si 




Ivi 




m 


CO CO CO 


CO 


c? 


CO CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 




CO 


CO 


eo 






O 


































































* Z X (3 



o 



CO eo torn 

^^ in rt in 



CO OS c- m t-os CO t- osos os oo to 

lo cot- T(< ■* (N N •* ca cococoN co -v m 




■^■qit-OOt-t-HjloO 

OOOOrirHrH^I 

ososososososcsos 



I- 

o 

OS 



o inooeotD os toton" inoo t-ooeoN oo n oorH 

rH O rH O O O OOO O rH O O O rH ^^ rH O r^ 

OS csososo^ OS oiosos osos osososos OS OS osos 



00 cooo t- 



r- to rH 



.CS rH OOO O OS rHOO r-t rH rHOO rH rH rH O N rH © O 

t_)rH (M (NM(M IN rHlNr-w eqNiMOa N COMNCa N 00 CO 

o 



CO in u J to OS 00 It 00 o t3< to rntoinino _-,. - 

rH r^ OOO -^ ^^ T^ r^ r^ -^ r-t ^^ r^ Ci r-~ ^^ OrHrHrHrHrHrHrH ^^ 

OS OS OSOSOS OS OSOSOSOSO. OSOSOSOIOS OS OSOSOSOSOSCSOSOS OS 

rH r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t -^ r-t r-t r-t r-t r-i r~-t -^ r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t 



OS CO in in (N t> 00 rH oo 

OrHrHrHrHrHrH r-^ r-^ 



eacooo t- rHcomeo 



o 



in mm 
CO CO CO 



to 
CO 



m mto to m ^tco^f 
CO COCO CO CO cococo 



CO 
CO 



mnf com 
CO CO CO CO 



m 

CO 



m 
CO 



CO 
OS 



o 



c 

c« 
o 

s 



ea o « 

Cue 



3 
25 



S a 



M t3 



C 

3 



O C 



•a 
o 

4' ed O 



Cl Hi-H M «<5 OPS 



> 

c 

3 

n 

■o 

crj 
O 
•-> 



M 
W 



3 = ^2 






N 

'5. 

o 



c 

St 

u 

c 
o 

o 

n 



TEMPERATURE. 



319 






W «o t- 
00 «> ira Ti< 






lO 00 00OMU3 ';o Mc-t-o;© 



^ u3 00 «D (O iH c^ o> lo oooor-i ^ t- r-i N «o 00 taio 

O *-< 1-f ^-H O ^^ ^ O ^H ^^O*-" ^H O r- r- O ^ ^O 



in 

o 
a; 



^o-^t-Mtoeot-oseoi-imtot-t- 

00.-i,-.0— .OO— ■»^0.-'00 



CO 0) iH CO T^ o> 



o>-i^wo ■-< a-, o o ^ 
wiNMCiM oa ■-I ca N iM 



a> CO ma co to co lO ;o t-iiooo'^i o> omi:- o 



CON^-J O r-tOO 00 






U5 O! t- «0 00 M C35 m lO ;0 05 50 CO 02 rf CD O O «5 t- CO tO O tO T)< «D O <C t- IC O 50 50 t- CO O 

i-lO'-'^OOO-H ^ ^o — OO-Hrt — ,-! ,-1 ^CO-H^^ O -HO— <^ -^ -lO— *o — 
05^OiO5C505Oid Ci OSOSO^OiOiC^C-CiJl Ci O^OiGSdOSO 05 CiClClC^ d ClOlCS^^ 



,2 



01 

■o 

41 

a 

n 

o 

c 

01 



00 to t- lo t- 



Wirtki^TftO lO t* to to lO 
COCOCOCOCO CO CO CO CO CO 



lOMtOtO 



to CJtOtD-il' rC cOtO tO 

CO cocococo CO coco CO 



Tl" tyjTjl Oi U5 Ol T!<3500 

t- to coinin-<t 00 -g« 05 ic 1^ 0? 

CO CO COMNCO CO COCOCOCOOT 



lo T)! to CO to 

-H --I -H -H --t 


CO 


00 

CO 


to 


lO 
ir3 


to 


in 


■O'^OiO) iH o>co 

tDCO->l"!l" to cooo 

»-t — H — H --( -H 1-H *-l 


05 




00 




lO 

o; 


to COOOO) 

C-l N 30 '^ CO 
--» CI *-" »-" -H 


t- r-1 1- CO O 

05 G5 O C5 O 


c~ 

o 

Oi 


CO 

Oi 


to 


o 


OS 

o 

OJ 


o 

*-< 




o 

05 


1— ( 
CTl 


05 


iHtOC<|00 
-J0--0 
05 05 05 05 

T-< -H t— 1 -H 


00 

o 

05 


-H T? ri tC •* 

— o — oo 

05 05 05 05 05 



00 ■»)< 05 05 (35 lO C~-^M'<a' lO N 



m -^ 05 -H 



ON-i-^O O rH o O O 
OINNNIN N N N <M N 



O inN-^.-i O 005 CC — • O OIMCOO O — 050— o 
IM -^(MIMiM N N'-i — ca M M — rtiM C^ CJ — — CMM 



toioNocto ira r)<ioooi.o N 00 cominio lO com co to us mwcom o omirato^o 

O— ^ — — hO ^H -H-^-HrH -H O — <^^— t-H ^H — «^^ O O 1— < -HO— H— ^ — H O— H--IOO 
05 0105 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 C5 05 



.a 
' Eh 



tONt-tOTji to N U5 ■^ ■^ to M00<-<e0 to rite 00 



in'Xit-'^to to la lo to t- 

COCOCOCOCO CO CO CO CO CO 



in w in to to to ^ t* 

CO cocococo CO coco 



ej Tj<N to o> 00 CO 

to 00 mintom 05 ■^-'t~S3 
CO CO coeoNco CO co'^cococo 






el's 

oJ.S o ta 3 V a ■ 






0) 

t« 



u,£a;Ko kJ u > Z CO ■< 



a 

c 

g, 

eg 

N 

5 f^ - = 
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wcua; 



cw2 



o 
a 
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c 
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C4 C 



B 

a 



^ o 
"5 e 

o 5 oj 

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tc S <« 



2 o o * 

c T ii & :=&Sic 

rt rt » o ej c3 n 



a 

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3 a •- t^ 



£w H caCcQCffir. 



C3 

eg 

f .2f 3 5 &« 

a >E-»J<aa 



o 

c 

0) 

0) 



320 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



T3 




a; 




S 




C 


fi 


•l-H 


*r> 


-U 


•M 


c 


S 


o 


T 


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O 


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s 




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5^ 


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a 


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as 




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8 


-3 

1 


S 


to 


s 


C 


i 


S 




09 


'W 


C^ 


S 


fcJ 


e 






+3 


;3» 


X 


•■^.i 




►s? 




S 


»i4 


o 


S 




2 




(i> 


u 


a 


s 


S 


^ 


0) 


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H 



r I— I 



1 

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l-H 


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^ 




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oo 



Oh a 
WOT 



a o.S'S 

B! Z X nl 

a 052 g 



M c-i ■* 

M ;0 lO 



N ec th i;o -^ cc vf (M <» ;o 
«0 IM »l>iOiO-^MMIN ^ 



OOlM 050 in 00 OT tH oc 
-H'*«"*(Min to CO •»<• titoto 



o 



|x] 






o ^ 00 1- -rf OS 1-1 CO r^ CO «fi -^ 00 ^ oo t*- Tf -^ eo 

»-' O '-<0'-"0'-''-<Oi-<i-H'-*'-'00000 l-H 



00 OOt^i-tCOtOCO t- 00 CO COC?. CO 

O OO^i-'Oi-' o •-• ^ ^^^ 

a oi a^ c^ (jj Ci cs Ci o c^ o^ooi 






lO ^ N 

• 05 O 05 

Cj'-' JJ -^ 

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324 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

The extreme temperatures of the whole period for Manila 
are 38.6° C. and 14.5'' C. : they were registered in May, 1915, and 
January, 1914, respectively. In the year 1915, Manila was 
greatly affected by one of the most extraordinary periods of 
drought experienced in the Philippines, as we shall see later on. 
The month of April had also the highest monthly temperature 
of the period, 38.0° C, in 1915. In another most extraordinary 
period of drought of 1912, the highest temperatures for April 
and May (37.5° C. and 38.3° C.) were not much below those 
for April and May, 1915. The maximum, 38.3° C, is identical 
with the one observed in May, 1889, the only occasion during 
the previous 32 years, 1880 to 1911, on which the thermometers 
had reached such a height. The hot period of 1889 coincided 
likewise with a scarcity of rain, since not a drop of rain fell 
during May and only 3.5 mm. during April. From 1865 to 1880 
we find in our records only one year with maximum temperatures 
higher than that of 1915. It was 1878, which was considered as 
an extraordinarily hot year: the absolute maximum was then 
39.7° C. on May 17, while on May 2 and April 29 temperatures 
as high as 38.7° C. and 39.2° C, respectively, were ob- 
served. As to the absolute minimum, 14.5° C, we can safely 
state that it is the lowest recorded in Manila since 1865. It is 
true that in our bulletins there appear two minimum tempera- 
tures as low as 12.1° C. and 12.2° C, observed in December, 1870, 
and December, 1871; but a careful comparison of the minimum 
temperatures for these months with the temperature readings 
for 6 a. m. leaves hardly any doubt as to the unreliability of 
those minimum temperatures. 

Longest periods of consecutive days with maximum tempera- 
ture of 36° C. or more at Manila. — The number of consecutive 
days with very high maximum temperature is one of the data 
most interesting in the description of any climate. The short 
time at our disposal for the preparation of this report, prevents 
us from giving at present such information for other stations but 
Manila. And even as regards Manila we shall only make here 
a few remarks, hoping that on another occasion we may be able 
to take up this matter again and more in detail. As the periods 
of drought in the Philippines generally occur during the hottest 
months of the year, the highest temperatures and the longest 
periods of very high temperatures are to be looked for in 
the periods of the most extraordinary droughts. During the 



TEMPERATURE. 325 



severe drought of 1912, no less than 27 times the daily maximum 
temperature was 36^ C. or more, the hot spell of 16 consecutive 
days (April 20 to May 5) being especially noteworthy. During 
the drought of 1915, there were 22 maximum daily temperatures 
above 36° C. in April, and 12 in May, a total in two months of 
34. A careful study of the records of the Manila Observatory 
for previous years shows that since 1865 only the years 1878 
and 1889 can compare with the two just mentioned in the 
number of days of so high maximum temperatures. In the year 
1878 there were 8 cases in April, 20 in May, and 9 in June, in 
which the maximum daily temperature was higher than 36° C, 
and two periods of 9 consecutive days with such a high tempera- 
ture. Our records for that year show also that there was an 
extraordinary period of 37 consecutive days without rain (April 
12 to May 18). In the year 1889 maxima as high as 36^ C. 
or more were recorded on 7 days in April and 16 days in May: 
a total of 23 days. Eleven of these maxima occurred on con- 
secutive days (May 7 to 17). This hot period of 1889 coincided 
likewise with a scarcity of rain as stated above. 

Mean daily extremes of temperature, monthly and annual; 
mean diurnal range of temperature. — Hann has the following to 
say on this climatic element in his Handbook of Climatology:^ 

The amount of the diurnal range of temperature, or the diurnal 
amplitude of temperature, is a very noteworthy climatic element, 
and should be included in every account of a climate which aims 
to be at all complete. This element is expressed by the differ- 
ence between the mean temperatures of the warmest and the 
coldest hours of the day, and is then called the periodic amplitude; 
or, it is expressed by the difference between the mean minima and 
the mean maxima of the month, obtained from the readings of a 
maximum and minimum thermometer. The latter is known as 
the non-periodic amplitwle. 

Table V contains the mean daily maximum and mean daily 
minimum temperatures, monthly and annual, for a few selected 
stations of the Philippines : two from Mindanao, two from the 
Visayas, and six from Luzon. The mean diurnal range or non- 
periodic amplitude is also included for each station. Table VI 
gives the mean hourly temperature observations for Manila, 
with the corresponding mean diurnal range or periodic amplitude. 
Lack of time prevents us at present from giving similar obser- 

* English translation by Ward, page 12. 



326 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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TEMPERATURE. 



327 



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329 



330 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

vations for any other station besides Manila. A few remarks 
will be made now on the information included in these two 
tables as far as they refer to the diurnal range of temperature. 

1. Comparing Table V with Table I, it is evident that the 
difference between the mean highest temperature of the day 
throughout the year and the mean lowest temperature is con- 
siderably greater in the Philippines than the difference between 
the mean temperature of the warmest month of the year and 
that of the coldest month. In other words, the mean diurnal 
range of temperature is much greater here than the mean annual 
range. Although we give in Table V the mean diurnal range 
of temperature for only ten selected stations, yet it may be 
safely stated that the annual mean diurnal range varies in the 
Philippines from about 6° C. to 12° C, while according to 
Table I the mean annual range of temperature varies from 
0.6° C. to 6.1° C. 

2. As was to be expected, the greatest ranges are those of 
the stations in the western and central part of Luzon, including 
the Cagayan Valley. 

3. The diurnal range of temperature as deduced from hourly 
observations of Manila is naturally smaller than that deduced 
from the daily absolute extremes of temperature. 

4. The diurnal range for the rainy months, June to October, 
is much smaller than that of the dry months, November to 
May. This and the next remark may hold good for other 
stations having a monthly distribution of rainfall similar to 
that of Manila, but not for stations having a quite different 
monthly distribution of rainfall. We say this, because the rainy 
days have the greatest amount of cloudiness, and to the state 
of cloudiness or nebulosity more than to any other cause is 
to be attributed the decrease in the daily oscillation of tem- 
perature of which we now speak. 

5. The months of the greatest daily oscillation in Manila are 
January to May, the highest ranges being those of March and 
April. July, August and September have the smallest oscilla- 
tions, while June, October, November and December may be 
considered as the months of intermediate oscillation. 

Mean hourly ohservations of iemveratui'e at Manila. — Table 
VI gives the mean temperature at Manila for each of the twenty- 
four hours of the day. The following conclusions may be de- 
rived from this table : 



Annual 



June 10 
October 



"C. 
31 
30 
29 
26 
27 
26 
25 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 

31 
30 
29 
28 
27 
26 
25 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 



MEAN HOURLY TEMPERATURES FOR MANILA 
1903 -1918. 

la. 2a 3a 4a 5a 6a 7a 8a. 9a. lOallillOOn Ip 2p. 3p. 4p. 5p. 6p. 7p. 8p. 9p lOpflpHldt. 



1 







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l\ ^ 




^ ^ "^"""^ 


^ ^_/ 











31 

30 

29 

2S 

27 

26 

25 

24 

23 

22 

21 

20 

31 
30 
29 
28 
27 
26 
2S 
24 
23 
22 
2 I 
20 



»ein,t&'* 



tlein,?S.3 




PLATE 111. 



332 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

1. There is only one daily oscillation of temperature with a 
minimum at about 6 a. m. and a maximum at about 2 p. m. 

2. During the rainy months, June to October, the maximum 
is generally advanced to 1 p. m., while in the other months, 
November to May, it is at times somewhat retarded, to 3 p. m., 
the mean value being the same at 2 p. m. and 3 p. m. 

3. The hours of the greatest increase and of the greatest 
decrease of temperature are from 6 to 9 a. m. and from 4 to 7 
p. m., respectively. 

Mountain temperature. Bagnio health reso7't. — We can only 
say here a few words on the climate of Baguio, the most im- 
portant health resort in the Philippines. For further details 
and information our readers are referred to the two pamphlets 
on the subject published by Rev. Jose Algue, S. J., The Climate 
of Baguio, 1902, and Mirador Observatory, Baguio, Benguet, 
1909. 

We read the following in Descriptive Meteorology by W. L. 
Moore, page 269: 

The most equable temperature on the globe will be found on 
the high table lands and plateaus of the tropics. Bogota, in 
the United States of Colombia, has an average temperature 
of about 59° F. (15° C.) for all months of the year, and the 
range for the entire year is less than is often experienced in a 
single day in some parts of the middle latitudes. But while 
the ideal temperature may be found on the higher elevations 
of the tropics, the rainfall is much greater and more continuous 
than in this country. 

At sea level in the tropics extreme conditions of heat and 
moisture produce great physical discomfort. But even under 
the equator it is possible to escape the tropical heat of low 
levels by ascending from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Fortunately for the Philippines, the distribution of rainfall in 
Baguio is of the first type (see Chapter III of this report), 
with three dry months, January, February and March, and at 
least three others, April, November, and December, with a re- 
latively small amount of rain. Hence it is that we have in 
Baguio for at least six months during the year an ideal tem- 
perature without the discomforts proper of a rainy season. If 
the heavy rains which are so characteristic of Baguio during 
July, August and September, would be continuous throughout 



TEMPERATURE. 



333 



the year, the climate of that place would be the most unbearable, 
even in spite of its ideal temperature.^ 

That the plateaus of Baguio, about 1,450 meters above the 
sea level and 175 miles from Manila, enjoy climatic conditions 
which are greatly beneficial to the health, not only of the Euro- 
peans and Americans, but also of the Filipinos, has been repeated 
over and over again in many medical reports. The following 
statements of Colonel William H. Arthur may be of interest : 

Experience has shown that a large number of cases of disease 
or injury, or patients convalescing from surgical operations, 
recover much more rapidly in the cool mountain climate of Baguio 
than in the depressing heat and humidity of the plains. Before 

' Such may be considered the climate on Mount Banahao in Tayabas Prov- 
ince, where, with a temperature even lower than on the plateaus of Baguio, 
the rainfall is heavy and well distributed throughout the entire year, 
as will be shown in the next chapter. Although observations have 
been made on Mount Banahao for only one year, yet it may please our 
readers that we reproduce here the temperature observations as tney were 
published by William H. Brown in The Philippine Journal of Science, C 
XII, page 322. 

Temperature for periods of four weeks in forest at the top of Mount 
Banahao, Luzon, P. I. Altitude, about 2,100 meters. 



Four weeks ending — 



I Maxi- 
I mum. 



oC. 




Dec. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 



1, 1915 17.7 



29, 191.5. 

26, 1916 

23, 1916. 

22, 191G. 

19, 1916. 

1916. 

1916. 

1916. 

1916. 

6, 1916. 

4, 1916. 

1, 1916. 

Average 



17, 

14, 

12, 

9, 



17.1 
16.0 
15.8 
17.8 



Mini- 
mum. 



17. 
19. 
18. 
22. 
23. 
19. 
17. 
17. 



"C. 


oC. 


10.6 


14 9 


10.0 


13.8 


8.3 


13.4 


7.7 


13.2 


5.0 


13.5 


10.3 


13.5 


11.1 


15.0 


14.3 


15.1 


12.5 


15.7 


9.2 


15.2 


12.2 


14.9 


12.2 


15.8 


14.5 


15.6 



15.9 
14.7 
14.6 
14 2 
15.0 
14.5 
16.2 
17.6 
17.4 



16. 
16. 
15 
15. 



13.3 
13.1 

12.0 
12.0 
12.2 
12 4 
13.8 
15.2 
14 8 
14.1 
14 6 
14.2 
14.7 



14.6 



15.7 



13.6 



The annual mean temperature here given for Banahao is lower than 
that of Baguio by 3.3° C. 

Mr. Brown says the following regarding the v%'ay these observations 
were made: 

"Owing to the difficulty of making trips to the top of Mount Banahao 
to obtain regular records of climatic condition, the writer was compelled 
to have most of this work done by an assistant, Macario Ocampo, who 
had had no scientific training. For this reason the only instruments 
employed were a rain gauge, a recording thermometer, and a recording 
hygrometer. The results obtained from these are probably about as ac- 
curate as would be expected from the instruments as the reading of a rain 
gauge is very simple and the records from the hygrometer and thermo- 
meter were checked by the writer at various times. The hygrometer and 
thermometer were in a case with louver sides and a lattice bottom and 
were about 75 centimeters above the ground." 



334 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

the establishment of this mountain refuge from the heat of the 
plains, many cases of this class were transferred to the United 
States that are now brought back to health at Camp John Hay 
and Camp Keithley. The beneficial effect of the change in 
climate is particularly noticeable in people who have become 
run down after one or more hot seasons spent at the lower 
levels. 

The great value of a refuge in the mountains from the effect 
of prolonged heat is shown in medical reports, which indicate 
the classes of cases especially benefited, but there are a great 
many others not reported and not actually sick but whose vitality 
and resistance are more or less diminished and who find great 
benefit from an occasional sojourn in the mountains of Benguet 
or the highlands of Mindanao, especially during the hottest part 
of the year. 

In Table VII we offer to our readers a most complete summary 
of the temperature observations taken at Baguio during the 
period 1903 to 1918. It will be noticed that the observations 
referring to the extreme temperatures are divided into two 
periods. This has been considered necessary on account of the 
considerable difference between the maximum and minimum tem- 
peratures recorded during the second period at Mount Mirador, 
from 1909 to 1918, and those recorded during the first period, 
from 1903 to 1908, in one or two different places from 55 to 
60 meters below. Both maximum and minimum temperatures of 
the first period were lower than those of the second period. We 
did not think it necessary to introduce any division of period 
into the mean monthly and annual temperatures, as there was 
practically no difference between the mean values deduced from 
the first period and those deduced from the second period. That 
all differences disappeared in the mean values of the two periods, 
may be attributed to the different methods followed in finding 
these means. As the Baguio station was only a third class station 
from 1903 to 1908, no more than two observations were made 
daily, and hence the daily means had to be deduced from the daily 
extremes, while the daily mean values for the second period were 
deduced from six daily observations. Now, mean daily tempera- 
tures obtained by the first method give for Baguio a mean 
difference of -fl.2° C. if compared with means obtained by 
the second method. Hence it is that the mean monthly 
and annual temperatures obtained from the first period are 
almost identical with the means obtained from the second period. 
In other words, the mean monthly and annual temperatures 
which we publish here can be practically considered as means 
deduced from 16 years of observation at Mount Mirador. 



TEMPERATURE. 



335 



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336 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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'8161-6061 'aoiaaj UNOjas 



TEMPERATURE. 337 



As to the information given in Table VII, we will only call the 
attention to the following: 

1. The mean annual temperature of Baguio, 17.9° C, differs 
from that of Manila by —8.5° C. The differences of the monthly 
means vary from —7.5° C. in December to —9.3° C, in May. 

2. The mean annual range of temperature, that is the dif- 
ference between the mean temperature of the warmest month 
and the mean of the coldest month, is 2.4° C, somewhat smaller 
than that of other nearby stations on the sea level. 

3. The lowest air temperature in 16 years has been 3° C. 
The mean of the annual minimum temperatures, however, is 
7.4° C. for the first period of observations, and 9.9° C. for the 
second period. In our Temperature Map the mean of the two 
periods is given. The absolute minimum 3° C. was recorded in 
January, 1907, which was an extraordinarily cold year for 
Baguio. 

4. Speaking in general, we may say of the temperature of 
Baguio that it is about 8 or 9 degrees lower than in the other 
stations of Luzon on the sea level, but otherwise it follows 
the laws of a characteristically tropical climate as to the diurnal, 
monthly and annual range, as to the warmest and coldest months 
of the year and the warmest and coldest hours of the day, etc., 
etc. 

Before finishing this chapter the attention of our readers 
should be called to a fact which may help to have a better 
knowledge of the climate of Baguio and may be of special value 
to agriculture. We had heard at times that real frost was 
observed and even a thin crust of ice formed in little pools at 
the foot of Mount Mirador, even when the air temperature both 
on the top of Mirador and in another station on a plateau near 
the City Hall was several degrees above the freezing point. 
During the winter of 1918 to 1919, the observer at Mirador, Mr. 
Pastor P. Daroy, made a series of observations which leave no 
doubt on this matter. As observations of this kind are not very 
common, we think it will please our readers if we copy them here 
as they are recorded in the monthly bulletins of Mirador Observ- 
atory. We will only add in each particular case, in which the 
minimum temperature on the pools is given, the minimum air 
temperature as recorded on the same day within our thermometer 
shelters on the top of Mirador and on the plateau near the 
City Hall. 

171073 22 



338 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

Decembe?' 8, 1918. — Real frost observed in the pool or sink- 
hole commonly known as "San Jose spring" and in other similar 
places. The most delicate plants were killed to a height of one 
meter and a half above the ground. 

December 12, 1918. — Frost again in ''San Jose spring," but 
less than on the 8th. A minimum thermometer on the grass 
read —0.9° C. The minimum air temperature for Mirador was 
13.3° C, and the minimum on the plateau near the City Hall, 
10.2° C. 

December 23, 1918. — Frost again in "San Jose spring," but 
much greater than before. A minimum thermometer on the 
grass read —2.7° C. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 
12.4° C, and on the plateau near the City Hall, 10.1° C. 

December 2U, 1918. — Frost in "San Jose spring." Two mini- 
mum thermometers had been placed on the grass the preceding 
afternoon: they read this morning —4.2° C. and —3.5° C, 
respectively. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 12.1° C, 
and on the plateau near the City Hall, 9.7° C. 

January 12, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: one minimum thermo- 
meter on the grass read —1.1° C. Minimum air temperature 
on Mirador, 13.5° C; on the plateau near the City Hall, 10.6° C. 

January 13, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: two minimum thermo- 
meters on the grass read —2.8° C. and —3.0° C, respectively. 
Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 13.5° C. ; on the plateau 
near the City Hall, 9.7° C. 

January lU, 1919.— Frost in San Jose: two minimum thermo- 
meters on the grass read —2.0° C. and —2.8° C, respectively. 
Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 13.1° C. ; on the plateau 
near the City Hall, 10.1° C. 

Januui'y 23, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: one minimum thermo- 
meter on the grass read —3.9° C. Minimum air temperature 
on Mirador, 11.4° C; on the plateau near the City Hall, 8.9° C. 

January 2U, 1919. — Frost was observed to-day not only in 
"San Jose spring," but also in many other places in Baguio. 
One minimum thermometer on the grass at San Jose read 
—8.9° C. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 13.0° C. ; on 
the plateau near the City Hall, 7.9° C. A basin with water is 
placed in the evening on the grass in order to observe whether 
ice be formed the next morning. 

January 25, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: the minimum thermo- 
meter on the grass read —5.8° C. Minimum air temperature 



TEMPERATURE. 339 



on Mirador, 11.8° C; on the plateau near the City Hall, 9.4° C. 
A crust of ice from two to three centimeters thick was found 
in the basin placed on the grass the preceding evening. 

January 26, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: minimum on the grass 
—3.5° C. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 12.4° C. ; on 
the plateau near the City Hall, 10.7° C. Ice was found on the 
basin, but not as thick as that of the preceding day. 

January 27, 1919. — More frost than yesterday in San Jose: 
minimum on the grass, —4.5° C. Minimum air temperature on 
Mirador, 11.3° C; on the plateau near the City Hall, 8.0° C. 

Ja7iuu7'y 28, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: minimum on the grass, 
—5.2° C. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 11.2° C; on 
the plateau near the City Hall, 8.4° C. A crust of ice was found 
in the basin as thick as on the 25th. 

Januxiry 30, 1919. — Frost in San Jose: minimum on the grass, 
—2.0° C. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 13.3° C; on 
the plateau near the City Hall, 9.7° C. 

Januxiry 31, 1919. — More frost than yesterday: minimum on 
the grass, —3.9° C. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 
13.9° C; on the plateau near the City Hall, 11.4° C. 

February 1, 1919. — Minimum on the grass at San Jose, —1.2° 
C, but no frost. Minimum air temperature on Mirador, 12.2° 
C; on the plateau near the City Hall, 10.2° C. 

It may be well to remark that the pool or spring of San 
Jose where these observations were made is about 80 meters 
below the thermometer shelter on the top of Mount Mirador and 
about 20 meters below the other shelter on the plateau near the 
City Hall. 

It is evident from the foregoing that many times frost was 
observed in the pool of San Jose when the air temperature in 
Baguio was many degrees above the freezing point; and that 
the difference between the grass temperature in the pool and 
the minimum air temperature as registered in our two stations 
of Baguio was indeed very remarkable. This difference varied 
from 13.4° C. to 21.9° C. (minimum on the grass in the pool 
compared with minimum of air temperature on Mount Mirador) , 
and from 11.1° C. to 16.8° C. (minimum on the grass in the 
pool compared with minimum of air temperature on the plateau 
near the City Hall), the maximum being that of the 24th of 
January, 1919, when the grass temperature in the spring of 
San Jose was —8.9" C, and the minimum air temperature re- 
corded in our two stations of Baguio were 13.0° C. and 7.9° C, 
respectively. The difference between the minimum tempera- 



340 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

tures on the top of the mountain and those on the plateau near 
the City Hall should also be noticed. 

We believe that these facts are not so uncommon in Baguio, 
as many people may think, especially in nights of clear sky 
and of no wind. Our observer at Baguio, when asked whether 
these phenomena did not occur there before 1918, said that he 
did not doubt that it happened often before, but that no attention 
had been paid to it. 

Our readers may like to have an easy explanation of these 
facts, and we think that no better one can be given than that 
offered by the famous meteorologist. Dr. Julius Hann, in his 
Handbook of Climatology.^ He says as follows: 

Terrestrial radiation: Nocturnal cooling. — There is another, 
and a contrasted effect of the loss of heat by radiation which is 
of great importance climatically, and may be directly observed 
with much greater ease. This is the nocturnal cooling of the 
free surfaces of bodies to a temperature below that of the air. 
On clear nights the temperature of the surface of the earth, or 
of plants, often falls considerably below that of the air at some 
distance above the earth's surface. The temperature of the air 
being that of which we wish to obtain a record, thermometers 
are protected from the effects of nocturnal radiation by means 
of shelters. This is necessary because thermometers, like almost 
all other bodies, are much better radiators than the air itself, 
which cools but slightly by radiation. Different bodies cool, as 
the result of nocturnal radiation, by different amounts, as is 
shown by the varying quantities of dew which form upon their 
surfaces. For climatological purposes the intensity of nocturnal 
radiation is best measured by means of a minimum thermometer 
laid directly upon a surface of short grass, and by means of a 
thermometer laid on the bare ground and ligthly covered with 
earth. 

The difference between the minimum temperature in the free 
air and that of the air close to the grass or the surface of the 
earth, is a measure of the loss of heat by nocturnal radiation. 
Observations of this sort, although easily made, are nevertheless 
not available for many climates. The English meteorological 
stations alone are generally provided with radiation thermo- 
meters. 

In Vienna, the readings of a minimum thermometer which was 
freely exposed on the grass averaged lower than those of the 
minimum thermometer in the shelter, four or five feet above 
the surface, by the following amounts : in spring, 1.3° ; in 
summer, 1.8° ; in autum, 1.3° ; mean monthly extremes, in spring, 
2.1°. We may therefore conclude that frost can occur in the 

' English translation by Ward, pages 41 and 42. See also Mirador 
Observatory, by Father Algue, page 9. 



TEMPERATURE. 341 



neighborhood of Vienna even when the mean nocturnal minimum 
temperature is +2° to +3°. These differences are still greater 
in drier climates, especially at greater altitudes above sea level; 
and frost can occur when the air temperature is 5° to 6°, if radia- 
tion is favored by a clear sky, and if the absence of wind makes 
it possible for considerable differences of temperature to be 
produced between bodies in the air and the air itself. On the 
dry plateau of Yemen, with a nocturnal minimum of only +8°, 
Glaser saw the pools in the vicinity frozen over in the early 
morning. 



III. RAINFALL. 

Monthla/ distribution of rainfall: four types. Climate Map 
of the Philippines. — There cannot be any doubt that the most 
interesting feature of the climate of the Philippines is the 
monthly distribution of rainfall. If this element would be about 
the same throughout the Archipelago, there would hardly be 
any difference of climate in the Philippines. But as it is, the 
different position of the islands which makes them or part of 
them more or less exposed to the general winds prevailing in 
the Philippines, both in winter and in summer, is the principal 
cause of our different kinds of climate in spite of the relatively 
small extension of the Archipelago from east to west, especially 
in Luzon. In winter the rains of the Philippines are mainly 
due to the northeasterly air currents, which, coming directly 
from the Pacific, cause abundant rains to fall over the eastern 
part of the Archipelago. Hence they are sometimes called 
"NE monsoon rains." In summer and autumn our rains are 
mainly due to the influence of typhoons which either cross the 
Islands, generally from eastsoutheast to westnorthwest, or pass 
some distance to the north. These rains, though they are quite 
general throughout the Archipelago, are more abundant in Luzon 
and the Visayas, and exceptionally heavy at times in the western 
part of these Islands which is more exposed to the westerly and 
southwesterly winds. As the great majority of typhoons that 
occur from June to October pass to the NE or N of the Philip- 
pines or cross the northern part of Luzon, the winds from 
west and southwest are the most prevailing during that season. 
This summer and autumn rainfall may be rightly called "cyclonic 
rainfall" as distinguished from the "NE monsoon rainfall." 
These cyclonic rains are far from being continuous, their fre- 
quency depending entirely on the frequency of typhoons. 

The following remarks on the winter rainfall in the Philip- 
pines made by Rev. Miguel Saderra Maso in his pamphlet An- 
nual Amount and Distribution of Rainfall in the Philippines, 
may be of interest to our readers : 

These winter rains cannot be called continuous, for they de- 
pend not only on the fluctuations of the continental center of 
high pressure, but also on the barometric oscillations of less 
342 



RAINFALL. 343 



importance which occur in the southern part of the Philippines. 
Whenever the N winds are due to the formation and advance 
of the continental center of high pressure, the barometric 
gradient is very conspicuous as far as 13° lat. N, but not in 
lower latitudes, although the winds from the N and NE keep 
their strength all along the northern and eastern coasts of the 
Archipelago as far as 6° lat. N. It sometimes happens that 
when the barometers rise very much on the Continent and in 
the neighboring seas, the northers reach as far as the center 
and W of Luzon and the Visayas, with cloudy and wet weather, 
known in the country as the ''dirty norther." In this case the 
N winds may be considered as normal, as they are also when the 
barometric gradient is specially pronounced, owing to some de- 
pression crossing the southern part of the Archipelago. But 
there is a special case which happens frequently and which 
must be reckoned as a peculiar circumstance of the Philippine 
norther, viz, that sometimes when the continental center of high 
pressure decreases and the barometers fall considerably on the 
China coast and in the neighborhood of Formosa, slight de- 
pressions are formed which remain almost stationary between 
the Visayas and Mindanao. When this occurs, the northers lose 
all their force above 20° lat. N, but continue in the Archipelago, 
sometimes with considerable strength and with rain for about 
a week. This is due entirely to the slow development and move- 
ment of the depression in the S. 

The epoch or date on which the winter rains usually begin 
is very uncertain ; isolated periods of the NE monsoon may 
occur at the beginning of November or even during October, 
while on the other hand there are years in which the first 
northers do not come till the second half of December. The 
same happens with regard to the end of the period; though 
during the months of January and February the center of high 
pressure advances toward the E and SE, and consequently the 
winds in the Archipelago veer quickly to the E, nevertheless 
it is not extraordinary to have a few gusts of N wind after the 
middle of February. 

The other rains that occur mainly in spring, and may be 
called "thunderstorm rains," are of little importance as com- 
pared with the other two kinds of rainfall just mentioned, and 
they are generally observed only in the afternoon or in the 
evening. 

Our Table VIII gives the average monthly distribution of 
rainfall for 70 stations of the Philippines. Based on these ob- 
servations, and taking in consideration the greater or less pre- 
valence of either of the two most important periods of rain, 
we have tried to divide this monthly distribution of rainfall 
into four types: two altogether opposite types and two other 
intermediate types. Graphs for a good number of stations 



844 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table VIII. — Average 

Tabla VIII.— Promedio 
FIRST TYPE. 



Station. 
Estaci6n. 



Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buenavista 

Cuyo 

San Jose 

Mamburao 

Batangas 

Ambulong,Tanauan,Batangas 

Silang 

Santa Cruz 

Corregidor 

Cavite 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Balanga 

Olongapo 

Marilao 

Arayat 

Iba 

San Isidro 

Tarlac 

Dagupan 

Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando 

Candon 

Vigari 

Laoag 

Cape Bojeador 



Province oh Subprov- 

INCE. 

Provincia o subprovincia. 



Occidental Negros . 

Iloilo 

Antique 

Palawan 

Mindoro 

do 

Batangas 

do 

Cavite 

Laguna 

Cavite 

do 

Manila 

Rizal 

Bataan 

Zambales 

Bulacan 

Pampanga 

Zambales 

Nueva Ecija 

Tarlac 

Pangasinan 

.... do 

Benguet 

La Union 

Ilocos Sur 

. . . .do 

Ilocos Norte 

do 



Length or 
Record. 

Periodo de 

observa- 

cion. 



Years. 
Alios. 



6 
16 
16 
15 

5 

2 
11 

6 
11 

9 
14 

4 
16 

7 

6 
15 

3 

5 
10 
16 
16 
16 
15 
16 
16 
16 
16 
11 

3 



Months. 
Meses. 



January. 
Enero. 



Feb- 
ruary. 
Febrero. 



mm. 

111.2 

56.6 

35.7 

13.2 

13.2 

3.2 

25.6 

33.6 

37.9 

57.1 

11.8 

17.5 

20.6 

29.3 

18.2 

5.5 

11.3 

10.2 

6.9 

14.4 

8.5 

10.4 

17.1 

30.5 

6 

5.6 
1.2 
4.6 
5.7 



771771. 

63.9 

46.1 

22.5 

18.8 

13.1 

2.3 

19.8 

10.2 

20 

31 

6.5 

6.5 

11.6 

17 

7.3 

2.6 

6.3 

6.7 

5.3 

7.6 

9.8 

20.7 

16.9 

18.4 

8.2 

8.6 

6.9 

7.6 

13.1 



March. 
Marzo. 



7H771. 

15.3 
28.6 
15.4 

3.4 
12.7 

9.4 

7.3 

9.7 
20.8 
34.3 

3.8 
11.3 
19.4 
13.3 

7 

8.6 

8.1 

8 
31.5 
13.6 
19.2 
29.2 
21.8 
47.8 

9.1 
10.8 
11.7 

6 
38 



SECOND TYPE. 



Caraga . . . . 
Butuan , . . . 
Surigao . . . . 
Guiuan . . . . 
Tacloban . . 
Borongan . . 
Catbalogan . 

Batag 

Gubat 

Legaspi . . . . 

Virac 

Atimonan . . 
Paracale . . . 



Davao 

Agusan 

Surigao 

S-mar 

Leyte 

Samar 

do 

do 

Sorsogon 

A] bay 

C atanduanes 

Tayabas 

Ambos Camarines . 



5 
15 
16 

6 
15 
16 

3 

6 
13 
16 
11 
16 

8 



294.8 

246.4 

484.6 

743.6 

355.9 

635.3 

639.1 

554.4 

313.3 

376.3 

230 

244.2 

459.1 



402.4 

204.1 

342 

309.2 

220.7 

426.7 

283.1 

332.2 

234.8 

273.2 

222.4 

127.2 

276.7 



270.3 
166.9 
296.8 
260.3 
155.7 
258.5 
175.5 
180.4 
171.9 
171.5 
152.9 
89.2 
205.1 



THIRD OR INTERMEDIATE A TYPE. 



Zamboanga 

Cagayan, Misamis. 

Balingasag 

Dumaguete 

Iwahig 

Cebu 

Tuburan 

Capiz 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Lucena 

Bayombong 

EcbagUe 

Tuguegarao 

Aparri 



Zamboanga .... 

Misamis 

do 

Oriental Negros . 

Palawan 

Cebu 

do 

Capiz 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Tayabas 

Nueva Vizcaya . 

Isabela 

Cagayan 



16 

9 

6 

8 

5 

16 

7 

16 

15 

15 

3 

8 

11 

16 

16 



64.2 

51.7 

75.2 

90.6 

102.5 

95 

112.3 

162.3 

181.8 

121.8 

257.8 

34.8 

66.1 

32.9 

135.8 



55.7 
40.7 
51.7 
112.4 
89.1 
73.5 
67.5 
100.9 
139.3 
88.5 
61.4 
29.6 
38.3 
22.3 
86.4 



28.7 
38.1 
25.6 
33.5 
45.5 
48.6 
40.9 
29.9 
55.7 
49.9 
43.3 
37.6 
51.6 
34.3 
E7.7 



RAINFALL. 



345 



monthly and annual rainfall. 

mensual y anual de lluvia. 
PRIMER TIPO. 



M ONTHS — C ONTINUED. 

Meses — Continuacion. 



April. 
Abril. 



May. 
Mayo. 



June. 
Junio. 



mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


24.5 


138.6 


236 


36.7 


146 


262.3 


57.5 


185 


347.5 


23.5 


167.1 


284.3 


59.4 


160.5 


356.8 


29.9 


271.8 


595 


28.8 


100.4 


146.7 


73.1 


132.8 


237.3 


53.8 


177.9 


258.9 


43 


136.8 


195.3 


42 


112.7 


341.7 


16 


20.9 


281.1 


47.7 


112.6 


202.1 


39.9 


119.4 


301.5 


51.6 


248.6 


292.4 


47.5 


205.9 


362.8 


48.6 


154.3 


360.6 


27.6 


131.2 


240.9 


51.5 


235.4 


448.2 


50.7 


179.2 


204.6 


66.7 


179.7 


217.8 


91.2 


256.4 


293.1 


38.1 


232.2 


390.1 


123.9 


402.5 


399.3 


17 


191.6 


304.7 


14.6 


202.4 


317.7 


29.4 


197.3 


339 


10.3 


203.1 


300.1 


38.7 


63.6 


211.2 



SEGUNDO TIPO. 



148.5 
132.8 
220.3 
159.8 
132.9 
232.1 
145.5 
120.5 

88.6 
126.4 
128.4 

88.7 
102.9 



203.7 

156.4 

137.8 

250.8 

155.4 

224.3 

114 

153.4 

103.9 

133.6 

148.9 

158.4 

178.7 



103.6 
166.1 
131.8 
238.4 
199.9 
255.2 
269.7 
250.9 
133.7 
207.3 
238.5 
186.6 
216.1 



July. 
Julio. 



, mm. 

I 413.5 
380.6 
554.5 
385 
505.5 
327 
259.6 
270.6 
474.7 
246.8 
631 
329.7 
456.7 
559.3 
596.1 
779.2 
545.1 
373.5 

1,009.2 
383,2 
419 
566.7 
727.4 

1,074.7 
621.8 
716.8 
757.2 
690.5 
419.8 



August. 
Agosto. 



mm. 
305.2 
347 
511.9 
391.4 
434.5 
997 
150.2 
198.1 
386.4 
231.7 
538.1 
231.7 
368.6 
531.2 
484.2 
832.4 
372.5 
212.8 
919.3 
288.8 
354.7 
471.6 
621 
1,080.3 
. 664.4 
694.7 
819.8 
834.1 
344.1 



OCTO- 



Septem- 

BER. 



Novem- 
ber. 

Noviem- 
bre. 



mm. 

302.1 

317.8 

513.2 

374.2 

415 

485.4 

312.5 

433.9 

384.8 

310.9 

485.4 

291.8 

358.2 

580.8 

404.5 

614.7 

280.1 

307 

773 

293.3 

340.8 

471.6 

531.4 

845.2 

451.8 

459 

476.8 

717 

395.6 



.3 

.8 
.3 
.9 



mm. 

256.8 

272.2 

371.8 

263 

476.5 

323.2 

215. 

212. 

179. 

238. 

190 

197.3 

186 

253.8 

233.4 

238,6 

183.2 

223 

194.1 

198 

175. 

209, 

186. 

432. 

172. 

208, 

191, 

272. 



247.4 



mm. 
119.2 
188.6 
169.2 
129.1 
105.1 
48.2 
164.8 

99 

147.4 

187.4 

73.4 

78.2 

107.8 

136.6 

65.9 

71.8 

59.1 

59.5 

38.8 

79.8 

79.6 

60.7 

50.1 

85.8 

42.5 

42.1 

19.4 

36.3 

110.6 



DeCEM- AfNUAL. 

EER. Anual. 

Diciem- 
bre. I 



Tnm. 

186. 

127. 
61. 
56 
88, 
23, 

111. 
92 

120, 

158. 
41. 
69 
71. 

114. 
33. 
35. 
73.9 
38 
30.3 
42.1 
38.9 
20 
14.3 
56.3 
8,6 
11,2 
10.3 
22.7 
39.2 



142.7 

123.3 

133.6 

169.3 

173.7 

191.6 

148.8 

124.7 

172.6 

230.7 

242 

204.4 

290.2 



75.7 
106.3 

93.3 
105 
136.8 
135.8 
187.4 
165.3 
101.3 
172.5 
128.5 
139.1 
171.8 



67.4 


128.4 


142.9 


161.6 


151 


239.2 


181.4 


282,4 


150.3 


202,2 


187 


308.8 


256.9 


230.4 1 


164.1 


327.8 1 


192.7 


272.9 


251.7 


328.8 


163.7 


319.2 


286.4 


357,3 


243.2 


522.7 j 



171.9 
250.3 
401.1 
359,2 
275,1 
488,4 
238.3 
395.8 
394.8 
348.8 
368.8 
435.1 
494.8 



422.6 

294.7 

552.2 

4.14 

350.7 

605 

393.1 

416.2 

506 

488.5 

440.4 

401.1 

507.8 



mm. 
2,172.8 
2,210.1 
2,845.4 
2,109 
2,640.5 
3,116 
1,542.1 
1 ,803.1 
2,262.3 
1,871.9 
2,478.3 

1 ,551 
1,962. 
2,696. 

2 ,442 , 
3,205 
2,103, 
1,638, 
3,743.5 
1,755.3 
1 ,909.8 
2,500.9 
2,846.5 
4,597,6 
2,498.2 
2,691.8 
2,860.6 
3,104.4 
1,927 



2,432 

2,151.8 
3,183,7 
3,513,4 
2,509.3 
3,948.7 
3,081.8 
3,185,7 
2,686.5 
3,109.3 
2,783.7 
2,717.7 
3,669.1 



TERCER TIPO O TIPO INTERMEDIO A. 



42,4 


73.3 


95.4 


107.7 


94.9 


99.8 


117.4 


102.6 


107.7 


989.8 


34,1 


98.2 


198.2 


152.8 


185.1 


192,5 


162.5 


77.8 


122.6 


1 ,354.3 


21.3 


47.8 


177.8 


241 


179 


274.4 


225.9 


253.6 


86 2 


1 ,659.5 


27.4 


110.2 


163.2 


135.7 


86.8 


126 


208.6 


127.3 


149.5 


1.371,2 


33.8 


186.4 


231.3 


215.3 


166 


196.4 


241.8 


289.9 


417.8 


2,215.8 


38.6 


95 


180.6 


157.1 


142.5 


189.8 


224.9 


138.2 


146 


1,629,8 


9.9 


59.9 


130.7 


148.5 


99.6 


178.1 


170 


153 


114.5 


1,284.9 


53.1 


180.8 


291.2 


333.1 


249.6 


291.8 


440.2 


285.1 


257 . 7 


2,675,7 


36.9 


79.1 


135.5 


189.3 


162.8 


185.7 


143.3 


183.5 


220.5 


1.713,4 


60.7 


127.8 


216.1 


272.3 


155.1 


218.8 


299,5 


286.2 


233 


2,129.7 


59 


126.9 


190.2 


124.8 


93.3 


192.5 


273,9 


167.4 


256 . 1 


1.846.6 


70 


164.1 


77.2 


153 


124.5 


178 


132,9 


107.3 


77.3 


1,186.2 


69 


155.4 


99.8 


202 


208.6 


205.5 


215,9 


223.2 


157.6 


1,683 


79.3 


134.5 


140.3 


225 


208 


292 4 


296.8 


292.1 


158.8 


1,916.7 


42.6 


120.7 


153.7 


172.8 


231.8 


248.3 


337.4 


300.3 


242.2 


2,129.7 



346 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table VIII. — Average monthly 

Table VIII. — Promedio mensual 
FOURTH OR INTERMEDIATE B TYPE. 



Station. 
Estacion. 



Jolo . . . 
Isabela . 
Davao . 



Province or Subprov- 

INCE. 

Provincia o Subprovinda. 



Sulu 

Zamboanga . 
Davao 



Cotabato I Cotabato . 

Dapitan 

Tagbilaran 

Maasin 

Ormoc 

Calbayog 

Calapan 

Naga 

Baler 

Basco 



Zamboanga 

Bohol 

Leyte 

. . ..do 

Samar 

Mindoro 

Ambos Camarines 

Tayabas 

Batanes 



Lenght of 
Record. 

Periodo de 

observa- 

cion 



Months. 
Meses. 



Years. 
Anos. 



January. 
Enero. 



15 
16 
16 
12 
13 
16 
16 
16 
16 
10 
14 
15 
16 



128. 

84, 
118 

91. 
166. 

86. 
222 
175. 
210. 
117.8 
131.4 
244.5 
243.4 



Feb- 
ruary. 
Febrero. 



March. 
Marzo. 



mm. 
106.1 

84.6 
134.9 

84.2 
128.3 

81.6 
158.1 
111.8 
177.2 

77.7 

82.9 
139.1 
116.3 



mm. 
85.6 
53.6 

161.3 
75.2 
71.6 
71.6 

133.6 
85.8 

134 
75 
59 

201 

120 



Mean annual rainfall for the Philippines, 2,366.1 mm. 

Mean seasonal rainfall for the Philippines /J""^ to ^l^^^fj' ^''^}^aK ™™- 

iNovember to May, 929.2 mm. 



RAINFALL. 



347 



and annual rainfall — Continued. 

y anual de lluvia — Continuacion. 
CUARTO TIPO O TIPO INTERMEDIO B. 









Months — Continued. 
















M eses — C ontinuacion . 




















Septem- 


OCTO- 


Novem- 


Decem- 


Annual. 
Annual. 


April. 


May. 


JUNY. 


July. 


August. 


ber. 


ber. 


ber. 


Abri!. 


Mayo. 


Junio. 


Julio. 


Agosto. 


Septiem- 
bre. 


Octubre. 


Noviem- 
bre. 


Diciem- 
bre. 




Tmti, 


Tnm, 


TWWl. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


133.4 


187.6 


219.3 


169.6 


190.9 


177.8 


230.3 


197 


157.3 


1 ,983.1 


83.1 


139 


208.4 


197.4 


204.3 


197.9 


258.6 


153 


152.7 


1,817.2 


162.8 


256.6 


258.6 


190.1 


193 


198 


255.8 


166.5 


194.7 


2,290.3 


163.2 


243 


261.4 


282.4 


250.9 


232 


264.2 


204.2 


120.2 


2,272.1 


136.2 


110.2 


178.2 


169.3 


110.7 


130.1 


238.9 


362.2 


297 


2,099.2 


59.7 


78.4 


145.4 


168.9 


129 


154.6 


198.6 


164.1 


152.4 


1,490.9 


66 


134.9 


158.4 


255.7 


220 A 


280 


227.3 


314.6 


333.4 


2,504.7 


74.3 


87.4 


202.9 


270.6 


270 


272.8 


234.6 


207.9 


201.2 


2,194.7 


116 


160.4 


208.3 


216.1 


185.1 


272.7 


257.8 


2.56.3 


278.8 


2,473.1 


110.2 


170.1 


242.7 


227.1 


101.2 


235.4 


252.2 


310.5 


205 


2,125.1 


84.2 


127.1 


202.6 


254.6 


156.9 


278.5 


271.6 


266.9 


338.5 


2,254.3 


283.6 


276.9 


285.1 


293.3 


150.5 


318.1 


388.3 


346.9 


363.7 


3,291.3 


112.8 


236.5 


160.8 


291.1 


375.9 


346.8 


354.9 


355.5 


378.8 


3,092.9 



Lluvia media anual para Filipinas, 2,366.1 mm. 

Lluvia media en Filipinas para las diferentes estaciones , -, . . , . ,„„ „ 
ano IJunio a octubre, 1,436.9 mm. 
"VNoviembre a mayo, 929.2 mm. 



del aiio 



348 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

grouped into these four types are reproduced in Plates IV, V, 
and VI. 

A few words will be said now on each of these four types, 
reference being made to our Climate Map which represents 
graphically their distribution throughout the Archipelago. 

First type : Two pronounced seasons, dry in winter and spring, 
wet in summer and autumn. Only the cyclonic or summer rain- 
fall prevails, the other being hardly noticeable; hence the dry 
season of winter lasting from three to six or seven months. As 
represented in our Map, this is the type shown by the monthly 
distribution of rainfall in all the stations on the western part 
of the Islands of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan, and the 
western and southern part of Panay. 

Strictly speaking, by a dry month in the Philippines should 
be understood a month with less than 50 millimeters of rain; 
yet sometimes a month with even more than 100 millimeters of 
rain is considered a dry month, especially if it comes after three 
or more very dry months. Thus Father Saderra Maso says:^ 

It is noteworthy that the mean rainfall of May in the central 
plains and mountain regions of Luzon surpasses the monthly 
normal average; nevertheless, this month is considered as a dry 
one because the rain is not sufficient to prepare the fields for 
the next rice crop. 

Second type : No dry season ; with a very pronounced maximum 
rain period in winter. The regions enjoying this type of climate 
or of monthly distribution of rainfall are Catanduanes, Sor- 
sogon, the eastern part of Albay, the eastern and northern part 
of Ambos Camarines, a great portion of the eastern part of 
Tayabas, practically the whole of Samar, the eastern part of 
Leyte, and a great portion of the eastern part of Mindanao. 
There is in the regions of this type much of cyclonic or summer 
and autumn rainfall; but the maximum monthly rainfall is 
generally that of December and January, while the monthly 
amounts of rain for the summer and autumn months are far 
from being so great. There is not a single month dry in regions 
of this type, the minimum monthly rainfall occurring in some 
places in spring, and in other places in summer. 

Third or Intermediate A type : No very pronounced maximum 
rain period; with a short dry season lasting only from one to 
three months. This type is intermediate between the preceding 

^Annual Amount and Distribution of Rainfall in the Philippines, 
page 8. 



Types of Monthly Distribution of Rainfall in the Philippines 


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II 






Ml 


41 ( 


3R(I 1 




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Tl 


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-ill 


III 








III 












III 


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1 


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- 


,.5 ■ 


Aj 


U 


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■11 


II 


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... 




iiiiiiinniriiiiiiir 



plate IV. 




PLATE V. 



Types or Monthly Distribution of Rainfall in the Philippines 



— JO t: -o J3 
«5 (- *• - - 



•- — -o ^ ^ -O 

i2;s<"" — ' 



i; •■- »- 



>' X <** a> 






EE 

u o u 
O Z O 



E 



300. 

200. 

100. 



300. 

200. 

100. 


400. 



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TUGI 



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llt"-"1[t.lt 




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MA!>E ATE 



rm n TT1 nn 




300. 
200. 
100. 

300. 
200. 
100. 



C\ii s 




h 



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llHiltni 



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D JUACUETl^ 



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llill 




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.zoo 

.100 



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.200 

.100 

. 
.400 



J 00 
.200 



.100 

. 



J 00 
J 00 
.100 
_Q- 



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unlit 



m 



300. 
200. 
100. 

300. 
200 
100 



.. II 





K AC ^ 



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m? n " nm""" 



.300 
.200 

100 






PLATE VI. 



352 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



two, although it approaches more the first type inasmuch as 
there is in it a short dry season. Regions with this type of 
climate are the western part of Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva 
Vizcaya Provinces, the easternmost part of the Mountain Prov- 
ince, a small portion of the southern part of Tayabas, Masbate, 
and Romblon, the northeastern part of Panay, the eastern part of 
Negros, the central and southern part of Cebu, part of Misamis, 
Agusan and Bukidnon Provinces, the peninsula of Zamboanga, 
and a good portion of eastern Palawan. The short dry season 
experienced in regions of this type occurs in some places in 
winter, and in other places in spring. 

Fourth or Intermediate B type : No very pronounced maximum 
rain period and no dry season. This is also an intermediate 
type between the first and the second, but approaching more 
the second inasmuch as there is no dry season in it. Regions 
with this type of climate are the Batanes Province, the east- 
ernmost part of northern Luzon from Cagayan Province to about 
one-third of the Tayabas east coast, the western part of Ambos 
Camarines and Albay Provinces, the Bondoc Peninsula, the 
eastern part of Mindoro, Marinduque, a small portion of Samar 
near Calbayog, the western part of Leyte, the northernmost part 
of Cebu, the Islands of Bohol, Jolo and Basilan, and a great 
portion of Mindanao, including the Provinces of Lanao and Co- 
tabato, the western part of Davao and Misamis Provinces and 
the eastern part of Zamboanga Province. 

Both cyclonic and NE monsoon rains as well as thunderstorm 
rains are experienced in these regions with not a single month 
dry during the year, the minimum monthly rainfall occurring 
generally in spring, although in Davao it takes place in January. 

The reason why the Batanes and the easternmost part of north- 
ern Luzon have this fourth type of climate and not the second 
type like the regions of the eastern part of the rest of the 
Archipelago, may be this: typhoons crossing northern Luzon 
and the Batanes Islands are the most frequent in summer, 
hence the amount of cyclonic or summer rains over that region 
is so great, that no matter how much rain may fall there during 
the NE monsoon, the period of winter rain is no more pro- 
nounced than the period of summer and autumn rain. Our 
readers are referred to the graphs of Basco and Baler in 
Plate VI. 

Annual average rainfall. — In the last column of Table VIII 
the annual average rainfall is given for 70 stations of the Phil- 
ippines. The same information for a good number of stations 



<1 ^-ss iisl ill I ^ 


llimeters 
cent 




"S 

-, C3 

-. „ >n <= -g 






^-Mf ^lei rn i y. 


— '^ -0C3O ^, "l;;^:' 

■^ c Zl _' oJ -=) CO ^4^ 




>.*• \«/ v^ V^ 







lo^ 



["^ 






*<». 



*fc. 




RAINFALL. 353 



is graphically represented in our Climate Map. The length of 
record from which this average has been deduced could not be 
uniform, as it is shown in the same Table VIIL Yet, there are 
no less than 45 stations with a length of record of either 16 years 
or at least more than 10 years. For these the annual averages 
obtained may be considered as normals, it being almost certain 
that the variations which such an average may undergo with 
more years of observations, will be of little importance. 

By averaging all the annual means of the 70 stations included 
in Table VIII, we may give as the annual average rainfall for 
the Philippines 2,366.1 mm. The annual means for a single 
station vary between 4,597.6 mm. and 989.8 mm. The greatest 
annual mean is that of Baguio, Benguet, and such a great amount 
of rainfall is undoubtedly due to the elevation of the place aided 
by local topographic features. The least annual rainfall is that 
of Zamboanga: but here we wish to remark that our attention 
has been often called to the fact that the present position of the 
rain gage is not well suited to the purpose, and that, if a better 
position could be obtained in the future, the average annual 
amount of rain for that place may possibly change. Yet, it is 
significant that two years of observations made there by a 
conscientious observer, in a position very different from the 
present, more than twenty years ago, gave also an annual rainfall 
below 1,000 mm.^ 

Our Climate Map gives in figures the annual average of rain- 
fall for 65 stations. It will be noticed that many of the stations 
shown in the map of our meteorological stations are not included 
either in this Climate Map or in the Temperature Map of the 
preceding chapter. The reason is that many of these stations 
have been established quite recently, and, therefore, the observa- 
tions made in them are not enough to give any approximate 
monthly or annual average. 

The stations showing an annual average of over 2,500 mm. 
are those on the east and west coast of Luzon, on the west coast 
of Mindoro, on the north and west coast of Panay, on the east 
and south coast of Leyte, and practically all the stations of 
Samar, Catanduanes, Batanes, and northeastern Mindanao. On 
the contrary, the stations showing an annual average of less 
than 2,000 mm. are those of the interior of Luzon, those of the 
south coast of Batangas and Tayabas Provinces, those of Mas- 
bate, Cebu, Bohol, southern Negros, the coast of Misamis Prov- 
ince, Zamboanga, Basilan, and Jolo. Attention should be called 



' See El Archipielago Filipino, Tomo II, pag. 111. 

171073 23 



354 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

to the annual rainfalls of Antipolo and Silang, which appear 
to be greater than in the nearby stations, due probably to the 
height of those two stations above the sea level. 

Annual and seasonal average rainfall by provinces. — To make 
the matter more interesting, we represent in Plates VII, VIII, 
and IX the annual and seasonal average rainfall by provinces 
and subprovinces, as far as the number of records available at 
present allows us to give this information. As to the annual 
average represented in Plate VII, Benguet subprovince occupies 
the first place with an annual amount of over 4,000 mm. Then 
follow with a mean amount of over 3,000 mm. the Provinces of 
Zambales, Samar, Surigao, Albay, Ilocos Norte and Batanes. 
The provinces with the least annual amount are those of Nueva 
Vizcaya, Misamis, Oriental Negros, Bohol and Cebu. 

In order to show in a most striking way the difference between 
the distribution of rainfall in the Philippines in the different 
seasons of the year, we have taken only the four months in which 
the summer or cyclonic rains are more abundant, viz, June, July, 
August, and September, and compare the average amount of 
rainfall for these months with that of the other four months 
in which the NE monsoon rains occur, viz, November, December, 
January and February. This information is given in Table IX 
for our stations divided into four types as above, while it is gra- 
phically represented by provinces in Plates VIII and IX. These 
two plates show clearly (1) that the average rainfall of the 
period June to September for the whole Archipelago is much 
greater than that of the period November to February : (2) that 
the provinces of the western part of Luzon, which are more 
affected by the cyclonic rains, are the driest in the period of 
winter rains; and (3) that, on the contrary, several of the driest 
provinces during the summer period, like Surigao, Davao on the 
Pacific coast, etc., are the most benefited by the winter rains. 

Monthly and annual rainfall of the Philippines compared with 
that of several selected cities of the world. — Plate X and Table 
X contain very interesting information referring to the monthly 
and annual average rainfall for several selected cities of the 
world as compared with that of the Philippines. We use in 
Plate X the same scale for all the stations in order that our 
readers may notice immediately the great difference between the 
annual rainfall of different countries, but most particularly be- 
tween the small amount of annual rainfall for European coun- 
tries and the great amount proper of tropical countries. 



AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL OF PROVINCES AND SUBPROVINCES. 



PROVINCE OR SUBPROVINCt. 

BEHOBET (Biguio) 

ZAMBALES (Hi) 

SAMAB (BaUff, Calbftjog, CKtbalogun, BorongftO, Ouiaan). 

SVBIQIO (Snricao) 

AL8AY (L(c>ipi) 

OOCOS NOBTE(Uo«t) 

BATANES (Bum) 

AHB03 CAMARINES (Psmealc. Naga) 

ILOCOS SDElVitan) 

ANTIQUE (San Joae it Bu'uviiU) 

CAIANDnAMES (Vii«c) 

SORSOOON (Oubal) 

CAPIZ(Capii) 

MTNDORO (Calapan, Mamburno, San Joae) 

TAYABAS (Baler, AtimoDoi), Lucena) 

PAHOASBIAK (Datupui) 

LA ITNION (San Fernando) 

BATAAN (Balanja) 

IXVTE (TftCloban, Ormoc, Maatin) 

DAVAO (Davao) 

COTABATO (CoUbau) 

PALAWAN (Iwahit) 

aoao (iioiio) 

OCCIDENTAL KEOBOS (BMolod) 

A0U8AR (Bntoiui) 

BOHBLON (Eomblon) 

BULACAH (Marilao) 

SDin (Jolo) 

KAjnLt 

CAOATAM (Tiiple|!»l«i) 

TAKIAC (TirUc) 

LAOUNA (Santa Cm) 

KUEVA ECUA (San Uldn) . 

MAIBATE (Haabate) 

ISABELA(Ecbapie) 

PAKPAIIOA (Anyal) 

ZAKBOAKOA (DapiUn, Zamboanga. Itabcla) 

CATTTE (Carlle) 

BATASOAS (BaUnfai) 

CEin(Cebg) 

BOHOL (Tajbllarmn) 

ORIENTAL KEOROS (Doma(iKU) 

mSAlOS (Ca«»7M) 

■VETA VIZCATA (B4joBbo»f) 



u> at a 



SOS 

to O rj 



BSSQ 




PLATE VII 



AVERAGE SUMMER RAINFALL OF PROVINCES AND SUBPROVINCES: JUNE 

TO SEPTEMBER. 



PROVINCE OR SUBPROVINCE. 

BENGUET (Baguio) 

ZAMBALES (Iba) 

ILOCOS NORTE (Laoag) 

ILOCOS SUR(Vigan) 

LA UUION (San Fernando) 

ANTIQUE (San Jose de Buenavista) 

PANGASINAN (Dagupan) 

BATAAN (Balanga) 

MINDORO. Southern part of (San Jo»e) 

BULACAN (Marilao) -- 

MANILA 

TARLAC (Tarlac) 

ILOILO (Iloilo) 

OCCIDENTAL NEGEOS (Bacolod) 

BATANES (Basco) 

NUEVA ECIJA (San Isidro) 

CAPIZ (Capiz) 

CAVITE (Cavite) 

PAMPANGA ( Arayat ) 

COTABATO (Cotabato) 

LAGUNA (Santa Cruz) 

LEYTE. Western part of (Ormoc, Maasin) 

AMBOS CAMARINES, Northern part of (Paracale)... 

AMBOS CAMARINES, Southern part of (Naga) 

SAMAR, Western part of (Calbayog, Catbalogan) 

BATANGAS (Batangas) 

CAGAYAN (Tuguegarao) 

ROMBLON (Romblon) 

ALBA Y (LegaspO 

DAVACGulf of (Davao) 

TAYABAS (Atimonan) 

PALAWAN llwahig) 

MINDORO, Northern part of (Calapan) 

CATANDUANES (Virac) 

SULU (Jolo) 

MISAMIS (Cagayan) 

SAMAR, Eastern part of (Batag, Borongan, Guiuan)-. 

ISABELA (Echague) 

MASBATE (Masbate) 

CEBTJ (Cebu) 

LEYTE, Eastern part of (Tacloban) 

ZAMBOANGA. Southern part of (Isabela, Zamboanga). 

SORSOGON (Gubat) 

BOHOL (Tagbilaran) 

ZAMBOANGA. Northern part of (Dapitan) 

AGUSAN (Butuan) 

NUEVA VIZCAYA (Bayombong) 

ORIENTAL NEGROS (Dumaguete) 

SUBIQAO (Surigao) 

DAVAO, Pacific coait of (Gang*) 



o 




o 


O 


o 


O 


o 






o 




O 


o 


CU 


«d- 


U3 


CD 


o 


OJ 


fNJ 


CM 


CSi 


CM 


ro 




PLATE VIII. 



AVERAGE WINTER RAINFALL OF PROVINCES AND SUBPROVINCES: NOVEM 

TO FEBRUARY. 



BER 



PROVINCE OR SUBPROVINCE. 

SAMAR. Eastern part of (Batag, Borongan, Ouiuan) 

STOIGAO (SnriBao) 

AMBOS CAKARrNES. Northern part of (Paracale) 

ALBAY (legaspi) 

SORSOGON (Gubat) 

DAVAO. Pacific coast of (Caraga) 

CATAKDUANES (Virac) 

SAMAR, Western part of (Calbayog. Catbalogan) 

TAYABAS (Atimonan) 

LEYTE, Eastern part of (Tacloban) 

BATANES (Basco) 

AGUSAN (Butuan) 

ZAMBOANGA, Northern part of (Dapitan) 

PALAWAN (Iwahig) 

LEYTE. Western part of (Ormoc. Uaasin) 

AMBOS CAMARINES, Southern part of (Naga) 

CAPIZ (Capiz) 

ROMBLON (Rorablon) 

MASBATE (Masbate) 

MINDORO. Northern part of (Calapaa) 

DAVAO GULF (Davao) 

StTLUdolo) 

CAOAYAN (Tnguegarao) 

COTABATO (CouTmto) 

BOHOL (Tagbiiaian) 

OCCIDENTAL NEGROS (Bacolod) 

ORIENTAL NEGROS (Dnmagnete) 

ISABELA (Echague) 

CEBU(Cebu) 

LAGUNA (Santa Cmz) 

ILOILO (Iloilo) 

ZABIBOANGA, Sonthem part 0/ (Iiabela, Zamboanga) 

BATANGAS (Batangai) 

MISAMIS (Cagayan) 

ANTIQUE (San Jose de Buenavista) 

NUEVA VIZCAYA (Bayombong) 

MINDORO, SoBtheni part of (Ban Joie) 

MANILA 

BEHQTOKBagnio) , 

CAVITE (Cavite) 

BtTLACAN (Marilao) 

NTOVA ECIJA(San Iiidn) 

TARLAC (Tarlac)-.-_ 

BATAAN (Ba'anga) 

PAMPANOA (Arayat) 

PANOASINAN (Dagnpaa) 

ZAMBALES (Iba) 

IL0C08 NORTE (Laoag) 

LA UNION (San Fernando) 

ILOCOS BUB(V}gan) 




PLATE IX. 



358 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table IX. — Seasonal average rainfall for many stations of the Philippines. 

Tabla IX. — Lluvia media en las diferentes estaciones del aiio. 



FIRST TYPE.— PRIMER TIPO. 



Station. 
Estacion. 



June to Sep 

TEMBER. 

De Junio a 



Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buena- 

vista 

Cuyo 

San Jose, Mind'oro . . 

Mamburao 

Batangas 

Ambulong, Tanauan, 

Batangas 

Silang 

Santa Cruz, Laguna . 

Corregidor 

Cavite 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Balanga 

Olongapo 

Marilao 

Arayat 

Iba 

San Isidro, Nueva 

Eclja 

Tarlac 

Dagupan 

Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando, La 

Union 

Candon 

Vigan 

Laoag 

Cape Bojeador 



November 
to Feb- 

RUAKY. 

a„..t;„v„K..« I De Noviem- 
Septiembre. breaFebrero. 



1,256.8 
1 ,307 . 7 

1,927.1 

1,434.9 

1,711.8 

2,404.4 

869 

1,139.9 
1,504.8 
984.7 
1,996.2 
1,134.3 
1,385.6 
1,972.8 
1,777.2 
2,589.1 
1,558.3 
1,134.2 
3,149.7 



mm. 
480.8 
418.9 



288 
217 
219 
77 
321 



1,169 
1,332 
1,803 
2,269 
? ,399 



2 ,042 . 7 
2,188.2 
2,392.8 
2,541.7 
1,370.7 



234 . 8 
325.7 
434.2 
133.6 
171.2 
211.3 
297.2 
124.6 
115.3 
150.6 
114.4 
81.3 

143.9 
136.8 
111.8 

98.4 
191 

65 3 

67.5 

37.8 

71.2 

168.6 



SECOND TYPE.— SEGUNDO TIPO. 



Caraga . . . 
Butuan. . . . 
Surigao. . . . 
Guiuan. . . . 
Tacloban . . 
Borongan. . 
Catbalogan 
Batag 



m. 
389 


4 


538 


6 


509 


7 


694 


1 


660 


7 


769 


6 


862 


8 


705 





mm. 
1,291.7 
995.5 
1,779.9 
1,866 
1,202.4 
2,155.4 
1,553.6 
1,698.6 



SECOND TYPE.— SEGUNDO TIPO. 



Station. 
Estacion. 



June to Sep 

TEMBER 

De Junio a 
Septiembre. 



Gubat . . . 
Legaspi . . 
Virac .... 
Atimonan 
Paracale . 



mm. 
600 
862 
772 
816 



921.3 



I November 
TO Feb- 
ruary. 
De Noviem- 
bre a Febrcro. 



mm. 
1,448.9 
1,486.8 
1,261.6 
1,207.6 
1,738.4 



THIRD TYPE.— TERCER TIPO. 



Zamboanga 
Cagayan . . . 
Balingasag. . 
Dumaguete. 

Iwahig 

Cebu 

Tuburan . . . 

Capiz 

Masbate . . . 
Romblon . . . 

Lucena 

Bayombong, 
EchagUe. . . . 
Tuguegarao. 
Aparri 



mm. 


1 


397 


8 


728 


6 


872 


2 


511 


7 


809 




670 




556 


9 


1,165 


7 


673 


3 


862 


3 


600 


8 


532 


7 


715 


9 


865 


7 


806 


6 



mm. 
330.2 
292.8 
466.7 
479.8 
899.3 
452.7 
447.3 
806 
725.1 
729.5 
742. 
248. 
475. 
506. 
764. 



FOURTH TYPE.— CUARTO TIPO. 



Jolo 

Isabela, Basilan. 

Davao 

Cotabato 

Dapitan 

Tagbilaran 

Maasin 

Ormoc 

Calbayog 

Calapan 

Naga 

Baler 

Basco 



mm. 


mm. 


757.6 




588.6 


808 




474.9 


839.7 




614.1 


1,026.7 




499.8 


588.3 




954 


597.9 




484.7 


914.5 


1 


,028.4 


1,016.3 




696.3 


882.2 




922.5 


806.4 




711 


892.6 




819.7 


1,047 


1 


,094.2 


1.174.6 


1 


,094 



^rt)RMAL MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION FOR SEVERAL 
SELECTED CITIES OF THE WORLD 






=^ 



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500 
400 
300 
200 
100 



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II II II II II II II II II II II 



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400 
300 



200 



600 
500 
400 



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— 


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\ 


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^ 
































































4rfr 


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— 


— 


— 






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— 


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1 








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600 



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PLATE X. 



360 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table X. — Normal monthly and annual preci 

Tabla X. — Lluvias normales, mensuales y 



City. 
Ciudad. 


Latitude. 
Latitud. 


Longitude 

OP 

Greenwich. 
Longitud de 
Greenwich. 


Jan- 
uary. 
Enero. 


Febru- 
ary. 
Febrero. 


March, 
Marzo. 


Manila 


o 

14 

16 

51 

48 

40 

52 

48 

41 

39 

31 

22 

35 

22 

18 

41 

40 

38 

37 

29 

34 

19 

23 

34 

22 

33 


35 N 

25 N 
34 N 

50 N 
24 N 
33 N 
15 N 
54 N 

57 N 
12 N 
15 N 
41 N 
32 N 
54 N 

53 N 
43 N 

54 N 
48 N 

58 N 
3 N 

26 N 
9 N 

37 S 
54 S 

51 S 


o / 
120 59 E 

120 36 E 
8 W 

2 20 E 

3 42 W 
13 21 E 
16 21 E 
12 28 E 

116 28 E 

121 11 E 
114 12 E 
139 45 E 

88 26 E 
72 54 E 
87 37 W 
74 W 
77 3 W 

122 26 W 
90 4 W 

118 15 W 
99 8 W 
82 21 W 
58 21 W 
43 10 W 

151 11 W 


mm. 

20.6 

30.5 

51 

36 

34 

39 

34 

73 
3 

53.2 

36.6 

55.3 

11 
3 

50.8 

96.5 

86.4 
114.3 
116.8 

71.1 
4 

69 

74 
119 

94 


mm. 

11.6 

18.4 

41 

33 

28 

37 

37 

59 
5 

57.9 

42.9 

72.3 

24 


58.4 

99.1 

91.4 

86.4 
119.4 

71.1 
5 

58 

66 
110 
140 


mm. 
19.4 
47.8 
43 , 
38 ■ 
45 
47 
51 
63 ] 

87.8 ! 
75.9 
111.1 
33 

; 

63.5 1 
104.1 
104.1 

81.3 
132.1 

68.6 

15 

46 

117 ! 
137 
138 I 


Baguio 


London 


Paris 

Madrid 

Berlin 

Vienna 


Rome 

Peking 


Shanghai 




Tokio 


Calcutta 


Bombay 


Chicago 


New York 


Washington 


San Francisco 


New Orleans 


Los A ngeles 


Mexico 


Habana . . 


Buenos Aires 




Svdnev 





Note. — The above data are taken from the same publications mentioned in the foot-note 
of Table II, page 305 except those for Shanghai which are taken from the Revue Mensuelle, 
of Zikawei Observatory. 



RAINFALL. 



361 



pitation for several selected cities of the world. 

anuales de varias ciudades escogidas del mundo. 



April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Septem- 
ber. 


Octo- 


Novem- 

EER. 


Decem- 


Annual. 


Abril. 


Mayo. 


Junio. 


Julio. 


Agosto. 


Septiem- 
bre. 


ber. 
Octubre. 


Noviem- 
bre. 


ber. 
Diciembre. 


Anual. 


WITW. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


Tnm. 


Tnin. 


vi7n. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


47.7 


112.6 


202.1 


456.7 


368.6 


358.2 


186 


107.8 


71.3 


1,962.6 


123.9 


402.5 


399.3 


1,074.7 


1.080.3 


845.2 


432.9 


85.8 


56.3 


4,597.6 


42 


49 


57 


61 


61 


61 


69 


58 


54 


647 


43 


45 


54 


52 


54 


50 


61 


45 


46 


557 


47 


45 


30 


12 


12 


33 


45 


47 


41 


419 


35 


44 


63 


69 


57 


42 


51 


47 


49 


580 


50 


72 


71 


67 


68 


42 


51 


46 


48 


637 


59 


55 


38 


16 


28 


69 


104 


113 


83 


760 


16 


36 


77 


240 


161 


65 


16 


7 


2 


634 


95.7 


90.4 


181.8 


149.6 


144.6 


114.4 


90 


50.7 


30,9 


1 ,147 


140 


297.5 


398.3 


319 


364.8 


245.6 


124.7 


36.1 


31.2 


2,112.6 


129.2 


151.8 


166.3 


139.7 


114.7 


203.3 


184.1 


104.7 


58,7 


1,491.2 


55 


144 


302 


325 


342 


262 


130 


17 


7 


1,652 


1 


14 


522 


624 


378 


278 


45 


12 


1 


1,878 


68.6 


88.9 


94 


91.4 


71.1 


76,2 


66 


66 


53.3 


848.2 


83.8 


81.3 


83.8 


114.3 


114.3 


88.9 


94 


91.4 


86,4 


1,137.9 


81.3 


96.5 


101.6 


114.3 


101.6 


88.9 


78.7 


71.1 


78,7 


1 ,094.6 


45.7 
129.5 


17.8 
101.6 


5.1 
157.5 






7.6 
119.4 


33 
76.2 


71.1 
96.5 


109.2 
109.2 


571.5 


"ieo "" 


"i44!8' 


1,463 


27.9 
15 


12.7 
51 


2.5 
104 








20.3 
43 


38.1 
11 


83.8 
4 


396, 1 


"i64 " 


"123 " 


"ios" 


584 


72 


114 


182 


128 


153 


170 


188 


78 


55 


1 ,313 


72 


76 


71 


55 


59 


79 


92 


73 


99 


933 


116 


92 


47 


41 


47 


58 


78 


104 


138 


1 ,091 


145 


129 


137 


109 


72 


82 


" 


80 


66 

1 


1,265 



Nota. — Los datos de esta tabla se han tomado de las mismas publicaciones mencionadas en 
la nota al pie de la Tabla II, pag-ina 305, e.xceptos Ios de ShanRhai que se ban tomado de 
Revue Mensuelle del Observatorio de Zikawei. 



362 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Monthly and annual rainfall of Baguio for the period 1903 
to 1918. — As there is so much interest attached to the rainfall 
observations of Baguio, we thought it convenient to give here in 
Table XI all the monthly and annual amounts of rainfall for 
that place during the whole period of 1903 to 1918. Besides, 
in Plate XI we offer year by year a graphic representation of 
the annual amount of rainfall for the same place and for the 
same period of 16 years. The year 1911 surpasses all the others 
with the enormous annual amount of 9,038.3 mm.^ Next to this 
are the years 1913 and 1914 with annual amounts of over 
6,000 mm. The greatest monthly amounts are those of July 
and August, 1911, with 3,381.7 mm. and 2,521.7 nmi., respec- 
tively. As an average, July and August are the rainiest months 
of the year, and February the driest month. 

*We call the annual amount of 9,038.3 mm. (355.84 inches) enormous, 
because it is really so if compared with the mean annual rainfall for 
Baguio, 4,597.6 mm. (181 inches). But Baguio is far from being the wet- 
test place on earth, as shown from the fact that this enormous 
amount of rainfall is still below the average annual rainfall of Cherra- 
punji, in the Khasi Hills in India, 10,820 mm. (426 inches). 

Recent observations show that in the Hawaiian group of islands there 
is another damp spot, at least as rainy as Cherrapunji. The following 
notes by G. K. Larrison {Monthly Weather Review," Vol. 47, No. 5, Wash- 
ington, 1919), may be of interest to our readers: 

"Cherrapunji, in the Khasi Hills in India, which is said to have the 
greatest known annual rainfall on the earth, has a rival for the world's 
maximum wetness in Mount Waialeale, elevation 5,080 feet, on the Island 
of Kauai, Hawaiian Territory. 

According to the Memoirs of the Indian Meteorological Department, 
volume 22, 1913, the mean annual rainfall at Cherrapunji is 426 inches. 
The maximum precipitation is supposed to have occurred in 1861, when 
905 inches was recorded, but there are grave doubts concerning the ac- 
curacy of this record. 

During the periods August 2, 1911, to March 26, 1914, and May 31, 1915, 
to August 13, 1917, a total of 1,782 days, there was recorded on Mount 
Waialeale a total precipitation of 2,325 inches, or an average of 1.3047 
inches per day. In a 365-day year this would amount to an annual pre- 
cipitation of about 476 inches. The years of 1918 and 1914, for which, 
unfortunately, no records were obtained, were the wettest since the local 
Weather Bureau office was established in the Hawaiian Islands. Though 
comparative estimates are always unsatisfactory, reliable records obtained 
at near-by stations indicate that in both 1914 and 1918 the rainfall at 
this station exceeded 600 inches. From May 21, 1915, to May 30, 1916, 
the recorded rainfall at Mount Waialeale was 561 inches. 

Mount Waialeale is the peak of the Island of Kauai, and is inaccessible 
except to the most expert mountaineers. For this reason it has been very 
difficult to maintain the station and it was finally discontinued on account 
of inability to get mountaineers to make the necessary regular visits." 

Mr. H. Kondo, the Director of Taihoku Observatory, says {"The Rain- 



AHNTJAL RAIKFALL AT BAGUIO 

19 O 3 - 13 18 



5 s 


OOOOO o— — 
fT> en en (Ti Oi (DCTlOl 


CM ri -s 

en <r> a 


1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


fnm. 

9000 




































97 50 




































6S00 




































6250 




































8000 




































7750 




































7500 




































7250 




































7000 




































$750 




































6500 




































6250 




































6000 




































5750 
































5500 


































5250 


































5000 
































. 


4750 




































4500 












1 


— 




















4250 








































— 








































- 






— 




3500 




— 


— 


1 


















— 


— 


— 


- 












— 










2500 






2250 













1750 








1250 












750 
500 








250 










Ins. 

3S0 
340 
330 
320 
310 
300 
290 
260 
270 
260 
250 
240 
230 
220 
210 
200 
190 
ISO 
170 
160 
ISO 
140 
130 
120 
MO 
100 
90 

eo 

70 
60 
SO 
40 
30 
20 

10 





ff> 0> <T> 0> ff* ^ 



01 (n o> CT> 



<j> fft c* tn 



PLATE XI. 



364 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



00 



o 

•<s> 

Oi OS 



00 



1^ 



•I 

i 

e 
s 



X 
Eh 



o 

Oi 



s 
bo 

pq 

4) 

■ri 

01 

s 






1^ 


t-OT ;ooot-oo CO n la <y> Oi (O -rf 

i-lN00OTf"vOP5O00.tl<(Mt-000»N0> 

'-iO(3>coofr--<tc4coio.*CT>e<30c--ai 
to M rH eq .-<^in in •* o 00 o ^i_<35^ic 00 00 

eoTi<Ti<Tiico-<f-<i'coo5«50«ocowM'^ 


vn 
t-' 

OS 

in 




Decem- 
ber. 
Diciembre. 


05 M 00 00 in 00 to 00 05 lo ocoio 

•<*OI>eJt:-Ot-<MtOtOT-lt-COT»i;C 
lO r-ir-MDOOCi t- t-t OS C^ 'rj* 


CO 

to 

in 


Novem- 
ber. 

Noviem- 
bre. 


catoecff>co(Mco ooiot-'^-<l"Nt^!0 
tDMasint-0'-Hco«C'-<oosiot-coco 

COlO 00 -Jj- 00 00 t- r-l to to (N ■* r-l «0 


00 

in 

00 


o 3 

oo 


iHtONt-tOr-IOSO^tOOlO^NOOlOOSOS 


OS 
CO 

1 
1 


COCOlrtCO-^OSlOt-'<3'rHCSCO(Nlf5»-'0:) 
00t0C0r}<05O00N'^*^00tDC0O-H0S 
00 N !N <M ''iO l^' "-i •* "H oo (N N e<i 

1-i rH 


Septem 

BER. 

Septiem- 
bre. 


t-inosiOi-imc<lc-rHiMoo-^iraoo 


(N 

in 
oc 


o<-io>05tO(NO^m05 0o-*(Nooir:tD 
aSr-lcC-^OOt-rrlNC'a'OOO-^Mt:- 
^ IC C- OS lO T-( t- O t>^t- '-^'-itD to to to 


Si 

D « 


OS OS in ■* OS 00 OS t- 1- (M 1-1 ■<* nt)i 

t-tOCOONt-tOtO-^t-O-HOlOt-Tl* 
tOtOC^ltOOOOtOli^NOS-^rHWCOt-^ 

c-i/soiraococom '^^'R.^l'^.'^'^ "^ 

,-1 T-I.H N iH 1-1 Ca rH ,-1 


CO 
o 

00 

o 


>^ 6 

D 3 


ooosc-T-itr-ccoONC-ooeot-toososi-i 


o 


o^cc-^iotocoio-Hcoo^-HtoosC'] 
Sos<NiorHOOOooooc<itDe<it~t.--o 

,HrH r-ICO'H'-l ""IIN 


Z S3 
D 3 


•"^lOCOC-NOS-^M-^CJUSOOCOrHt--* 


CO 

trs 

OS 
CO 


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toootOTfc^t-^co^too^oooot-co 

.-104t-eOC<3r-iCaiM(M'<1'-*-«l'IMiM(Mt- 


00 r-( 00 00 ;C t£> C- 00 ■<? •* ■^ M .H (DCi 


in 
o 




t- in CO th Tf to 'S< tot-.-iosto 

t-e<itotOrHooocotDoot-<t--*Nc-os 
osost-t- ■>3<tot--<j< OS .H t- CO to 1-1 

tH tH r-lr-lr-ieq i-l i-l 1-t i-l 


OS 

CO 


K 6 

U t9 

Is 


in to inooootooo mm osiniHcoto*^ 
toooscor-ti^inosi-iiHcqinincaosTji 

ri N 1-1 N to N CO (M 00 Oiy-t O -"t lO 


00 


Feb- 
ruary. 
Febrero. 


lO 00 Tf ost-oseo ■^'^w 

oor-i ooNt-t-ffaoootoejN 
CO iHio CO ■* .^i-Hin 


00 


Jan- 
uary. 
Enero. 


riO) Nt-Tf OOCOteO ^NTl<tO 

intooii'OcO'«i'ineqNtoocococ-c^ 

0Or-(r1t-Tf TJ< N(0 


in 

o 

CO 








C4 

'i 


cO'tintot-ooosO'-iNeo-fl'intDt-oo 

OOOOOOO'-'T-'rHi-li-tiHrHiHi— 1 
OSOiOSOiOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOSOS^ 





RAINFALL. 



365 



Variability of the monthly and annual average rainfall in 
Manila. — Plate XII represents the monthly and annual depar- 
tures from the normal precipitation in Manila during the period 
1903 to 1918. The departures for the driest months December, 
January, February, March, and April are very insignificant. 
The greatest departures and the greatest irregularities are cha- 
racteristic of the months of July, August, and September. The 
greatest annual departure by defect is that of 1903, with a total 
annual rainfall that differs from the normal by —932.2 mm., 
while the greatest annual departure by excess is that of 1908, 
with an annual amount of rain that differs from the normal by 
-(-518.4 mm. 



fall in the Island of Formosa," 1920, page 4) that the most rainy spot in 
the Far East is probably Kashoryo, a station in northern Formosa situated 
on a mountain slope at the head of a valley open to the northeast, a few 
miles south of Keelung. The average annual rainfall for that station is 
7,176 mm. 

Yet, on the light of the rainfall observations made recently on Mount 
Banahao in the Philippines (see a foot-note in the preceding chapter) there 
seems to be sufficient reason to believe that there is in our Archipelago 
at least one spot as wet as Kashoryo. The observations at Mount Banahao 
were made from November, 1915, to November, 1916, the rain-gauge being 
carefully observed once every week. We reproduce here a table containing 
the results of these observations as they were published by Mr. W. H. 
Brown in the "Philippine Journal of Science," C. XII, page 320. 

Rainfall in inillimeters at the top of Mount Banahao, Luzon, Philippine 
Islands. Altitude, about 2,100 meters. 



Week ending-7 


Rainfall. 


1915. 


jnm. 


Nov. 10 


85.0 


17 


271.0 


24 


285.0 


Dec. 1 


221.0 


8 


163. C 


15 


140.0 


22 


94.0 


29 


301.0 


1916. 




Jan. 5 


183.0 


12 


92.0 


19 


145.0 


26 


476.0 


Feb. 2 


598.0 


9 


2.3 


16 


105.0 


23 


152.0 


Mar. 1 


65.0 




95.0 



Week ending — 



1916— Continued. 
Mar. 15 

22 

29 

5 

12 

19 

26 

3 

10 

17 

24 

31 

7 

14 

21 

28 

July. 5 

12 

19 



Rainfall. 



Week ending- 



Rainfall. 



Apr. 



May 



June 



vfitn, 

31.5 

26.5 

167.0 

5.2 

136.0 

105.0 

198.0 

101.0 

71.5 

270.0 

171.0 

50.1 

143.0 

130.0 

60.1 

96.0 

98.0 

264.0 

80.0 



1916 — Continued. mm. 

July. 26 70.1 

Aug. 2 1 34 . 5 

9 1 22.0 

16 I 48 1 

23 ' 40.7 

30 I 39 .i 

Sept. 6 42.0 

13 [ 51.1 

20 184 



Oct. 



Nov, 



27. 

4. 

11. 

18. 



178.0 

21.i.0 

78.0 

205.0 

25 181.0 

3« I 412.0 



7,468.2 



■ Nine days. 



The following remarks are made by Mr. Brown on the monthly distribu- 
tion of rainfall on Mount Banahao: 

"The rainfall on the northern and northeastern slopes of Mount Banahao 
is distributed throughout all the months of the year, and there are no 
distinct wet and dry seasons. 



MONTHLY AND ANNUAL DEPARTURES FROM THE 

NORMAL PRECIPITATION AT MANILA 

1903-1918 


Jan. 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr. 

May 

JuN. 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

VtA1« 


1905 


1904 


I80S 


1906 


1907 


1906 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Normal 
mm. 

20.6 
11.6 
19.4 
47.7 
M2.« 
202. 1 
4567 
3686 
358 2 
1860 
1078 
71.3 
19626 




































































































































































































































































mm 





































































































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— 



PLATE XII. 



RAINFALL. 



Table XII. — Annual extremes of rainfall. 

Tabla XII. — Valores extremes anuales de Uuvia. 



367 



Station. 
Estacion. 



Jolo 

Isabels, Basilan . 
Zamboanga .... 

Davao 

Cagayan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete^. . . . 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig-' 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 



Maximum. Year. Minimum. 
Maxima. Aiio. Minima. 



Year. 
Alio. 



Bacoloda 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buenavista . 

Tuburan4 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan - 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 2 

Gubat 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Sil 



ilang . 



Paracale'. . 
Santa Cruz, 
Corregidor . 
Manila . . . . 
Antipolo4. . 
Olongapo . . 
Iba 



Laguna4. 



San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. 

Tarlac 

Baler 



Dagupan 

Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando, La Union . 

Echague 

Candon 

Vigan , 



Tuguegarao . 
Laoag . 



Aparri . 
Basco . 



mm. 




3,003.7 


1917 


2,515 


1917 


1 ,527,1 


1916 


3,326.9 


1910 


1,814.5 


19(}9 


2,853.5 


1916 


2,117 


1917 


1,975.1 


1903 


3,266 


1917 


4,650.9 


1918 


3 ,627 6 


1916 


2,242.7 


1910 


2,209.2 


1907 


3 ,092 . 6 


1904 


3,388.4 


1909 


1,692.1 


1904 


2,476.4 


1916 


3,016 


1916 


5,269 


1916 


3,806.9 


1918 


5,243 


1903 


5,385.6 


1918 


3,545.2 


1918 


2,371.2 


1918 


2,655.3 


1916 


4,257.3 


1917 


3,757.1 


1908 


4,311.4 


1917 ' 


2,786.5 


1909 


3,688 


1917 


2,817.3 


1917 


1,908.8 


1915 


4,270.1 ' 


1908 


3,416.9 


1908 


6,292 


1917 


2,014.8 


1914 


3,172.6 


1914 


2,481 


1908 


3,676.2 


1914 


"4,593 


1914 


4,775.1 [ 


1914 


2,505.2 


1908 


2,665 


1908 


4,784 


1906 


3,352.7 


1911 


3,457 


1913 


9,038.3 


1911 


3,272.9 


1914 


2,265.7 


1917 


4,070.6 


1913 


4,696.8 


1911 


3,411.4 


1906 


4,181.9 


1918 


3 ,004 . 6 


1911 


4,053 5 


1917 



1,140.9 

990.6 

707.4 
1,612.2 
1,302.7 
1 ,267 . 5 

610.6 

9.53 
1,348.9 
1 ,895.8 
1 ,262 . 3 

780.2 
1,958.2 
1.781.4 
1,760.6 

958.7 
1,661.1 
1,406.9 
2,180.6 
1 ,812.9 
1,186.5 
2,564.7 
1,431.7 

927 
1,754 
1,721 
1 ,960 
1,888 
1,740 
2,240 
1,463.4 
1,193.3 
1,767.3 

1 ,703.6 

2 ,075 . 5 
1,622.1 
1 ,406.1 
1 ,030.4 
2,359.4 
1,368 
3,021.4 
1.203.7 
1 ,527.5 
2,232 

1 ,820 . 6 
2,061.6 
3,194.8 
1 ,801 
1 ,205 . 6 
1 ,681 
1,772 

934.5 
1,938.6 
1,213.7 
2,034.2 



.4 
.6 

.3 

.7 



1914 

1914 

1903 

1903 

1918 

1914 

1914 

1905 

1914 

1915 

1905 

1914 

1906 

1905 

1903 

1903 

1906 

1911 

1914 

1905 

1914 

1914 

1914 

1914 

1914 

1914 

1912 

1914 

1918 

1912 

1914 

1916 

1911 

1905 

1914 

1918 

1903 

1903 

1916 

1912 

1916 

1910 

1903 

1913 

1910 

1903 

1907 

1909 

1914 

1915 

1907 

1914 

1912 

1914 

1905 



^ Only eigrht complete years of observation. (Solo ocho afios completos de obeervacidn ) . 

* Only five complete years of observation. (Solo cinco anos completos de observacion) . 
'Only six complete years of observation. (Solo seis anos completos de observacion). 

* Only seven complete yeare of observation. (Solo siete afios completos de observacion). 

» Annual maximum, although it is the total of only seven months of observations, no 
records being available for the months of January to May, 1914. (Maxima anual, aunque es 
el total de solo siete meses de observaciones, pues no se hicieron observaciones de enero a 
mayo de 1914.) 



368 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XIII. — Monthly extremes of rainfall. 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremes mensuales de lluvia. 



Station. 
Estacion. 



Jolo. 



Isabela, Basilan . 
Zamboanga .... 

Davao 

Caraga 

Cotabato 

Cagayan 

Dapitan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete . . . . 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 

Bacolod 



January. 
Enero. 



Max- 
imum. 
Mixima. 



466.3 

298.2 
302 
195.4 
366 
209.1 
209.8 
609.4 
565.4 
200.3 
201.8 
188.4 
,183.9 
774.4 
327.6 
255.7 

Iloilo 197-8 

168.3 

240.2 

83.6 

549 

1,788.8 

1,385.1 

627 
2,191.4 
690.8 
511.9 
270.2 
844.1 
783.8 
799.3 
227 
573.1 
341.3 
88.9 
699.8 

69.3 

79.9 

1,099.2 

118,8 

34.5 

65 
107.8 
24.4 

23.2 

43 

21.1 

23.8 

528.3 

45.5 

90.9 



San Jose de Buenavista 

Tuburan 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Ambulong, Tanauan, 

Batangas 

Silang 

Paracale 

Santa Cruz, Laguna . . . 

Corregidor 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Olongapo 

Iba 



San Isidro, Nueva Ecija 

Arayat 

Tarlac 

Baler 

Dagupan 



Bolinao . 



Baguio I 146.9 

San Fernando, • La 

Union 25.4 

Echaglie \ 150.9 

Candon i 38.7 

Vigan [ 14.2 

Tuguegarao 121.2 



Laoag . 
Aparri , 
Basco . 



Year. 
Ano. 



37 
303.8 
399.9 



1918 

1316 
1916 
1917 
1906 
1909 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1916 
1918 
1918 
1904 
1907 

1907 

1916 
1907 
1907 
1916 
1918 
1918 
1916 
1918 
1918 
1916 
1917 
1917 
1904 
1904 
1916 
1917 
1904 
1916 
1917 

1917 
1906 
1917 

1916 

1907 

1913 
1913 
1904 

1913 

1916 
1906 
1912 
1906 
1917 

1914 

1913 

1913 
1917 
1916 
1916 

1913 

1916 
1911 
1915 



Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 

mm. 
3 

13.2 

1.8 

22.1 

140.2 
16.4 
13.7 
22.2 
90.3 
16.3 
4.5 
12.3 

105.3 

33.8 

7.9 

31.4 



2.8 


14 

40.2 
98 
84.3 
17.3 

196.5 
27.4 
22.2 
24.4 

159.7 
95.5 
77.8 
13.8 

101.3 

12.7 

3.6 

73.5 

2.8 

2.5 

225.7 

15.1 









Year. 
Ano. 



Max- 
imum. 
Maxima. 









7. 







6.9 



1.8 



4.8 
125.2 



1903 i 

1905 

1915 1 

1903 

1907 

1906 

1913 

1908 

1908 

1911 

1912 

1915 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 
1905 

(*) 

1914 1 

1912 

1911 

1912 

1912 

1905 

1915 

1905 

1914 

1905 

1912 

1912 

1912 

1915 

1910 ; 

1905 i 

1915 
1905 
1912 ! 
1914 I 
1918 ' 
1905 

1905 
1914 
(*) 

a 1903 

1914 

a 1905 

1907 

1905 

1914 

1918 

1918 

1905 

a 1914 

bl903 

1904 

1905 

1914 

(*) 
1915 

(*) 
(*) 

1905 

(*) 

1905 

1910 



mm. 
452.8 

272.5 

183 

352.6 

707.4 

160 

124.1 

368.8 

508.2 

261.2 

160.8 

159.5 

830.7 

372.9 

196.3 

178.3 

209.4 

114.4 

263.9 

113.1 

286.9 

751.3 

453.4 

352.4 

914.3 

381 

474 

258.3 

894.5 

519.7 

736.8 

97.4 
482.4 
316.6 

74.8 
375.6 



26.4 

43.7 

772.5 

82.3 

26.1 

29.6 

58.1 

9.1 

27.8 

38.9 

16.5 

30.2 

325.2 



February. 
Febrero. 



Year. 
Ano. 



Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 



1904 

1904 
1911 
1910 
1903 
1904 
1918 
1904 
1911 
1916 
1910 
1917 
1908 
1911 
1910 
1904 

1916 

1916 
1904 
1904 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1904 
1918 
1917 
1907 
1917 
1917 
1904 
1917 
1911 
1917 
1911 
1911 
1908 

1916 
1911 
1917 

1911 

1911 

1908 
1916 
1916 

1916 

1917 
1906 
1911 
1908 



Year. 
Ano. 



mm. 


.8 
.5 


192.8 





3.3 

3.7 






58.5 




.3 




13.7 



2.5 
28.9 
12.1 

1.9 
34.8 

4.4 



5.1 
28.7 
13.7 
41.4 
30.5 
13.8 




.3 




17 

1.8 















38.1 



1905 
1906 
1914 
1906 
1915 
1906 
1915 
1915 
1915 
1915 
1915 
1915 
1914 
1915 
1915 
1915 
1906 

C1906 
1914 

(•) 
1905 

(*) 
1914 
1915 
1914 
1914 
1915 
1914 
1906 
1903 
1914 
1905 
1905 
1915 
1914 
1905 
1915 
1915 

1916 
1906 
1915 

1915 

dl905 

1906 

1913 

1915 

(*) 

1903 

1914 

el903 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1907 

1906 



t 108 


1909 





! 


1907 
1914 


73.4 


1904 





1 


a 1906 
1912 


52.3 


1918 





/ 
I 


B1903 
1907 


34.5 


1916 







(*) 


79.8 


1911 


4.3 




1915 


43.6 


1916 







(*) 


63.6 


1916 





f 


h 1907 


70.2 


1916 





1 


1912 


48.3 


1908 







(') 


250.5 


1916 


3.8 




1906 


1 266.3 


j 1907 


12.6 




1906 



• Several years, 
a Also 1918. 
•> Also 1905. 



'Also 1915. 

<> Also 1907 and 1908. 

• Also 1906 and 1907. 



'Also 1913. 

s Also 1914 and 1915. 

" Also 1914. 



RAINFALL. 



369 



Table XIII. — Monthly extremes of rainfall — Continued. 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremes mensuales de lluvia — Continuacion. 



Station. 
£staci6n. 



March. — Marzo. 



Max- 
imum. 
M4xima. 



Jolo 

Isabela, Basilan . 

Zamboanga .... 

Davao 

Caraga 

Cotabato 

Cagayan 

Dapitan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete .... 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 

Bacolod 

Iloilo 



San Jose de Buenavista 

Tuburan 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Ambulong, Tanauan, 
Batangas 

Silang 

Paracale 

Santa Cruz, Laguna . . . 

Corregidor 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Olongapo 



233.8 
165.3 

103 

481.6 

445.5 

156.7 

143.2 

201.4 

301 

103.8 

197 

92 
680 
495 
106 

36 



Iba. 



San Isidro, NuevaEcija. 



551 
85 

24 

64 
29 

41 
115 



Arayat . . 

Tarlac . . . 

Baler 

Dagupan . 

Bolinao . . 



Baguio 

San Fernando, 
Union 



La 



EchagUe 
Candon . 

Vigan . . 



Tuguegarao . 

Laoag 

Aparri 

Basco 



.3 

.4 

4 
9 
9 



289. 
436. 
561. 
77. 
521. 
429. 
145. 
194. 
317.9 
403.5 
459.7 
194.3 
278.5 
146.3 

15.5 

230.9 

18 
92.8 



70.9 

33.8 

78.8 



501. 
109. 

91 

149. 



38.7 

160.3 
56.3 

53.8 

83.7 

20.4 
196.7 
370.5 



Year. 
Alio. 



112.5 ] 
46.3 I 
67.2 
24.7 



Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 



1917 

1909 

1911 
1917 

1916 

1908 
1917 

1918 
1910 
1918 

1904 

1910 
1906 
1910 

1917 

1917 

1910 

1918 
1908 





18.7 

83 

10.8 




46 

2.1 

3.6 


81.9 

1.3 



7K7W, 

1906 17.7 
1908 

1913 

1908 
1904 
1904 
1909 
1916 
1908 
1918 
1907 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1908 
1908 

1918 

1907 

1918 

1918 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1908 
1918 
1910 
1910 
1918 
1909 
1917 
1910 
1917 
1910 

1917 .3 

1917 I 10.4 



55.1 



43 

5 
62 

3 

7 

1 

33.8 
27.9 
23 
28.7 
59.4 





2.1 



79.7 
3.3 



April. — Abril. 



Year. 
Ano. 





6.4 

1.3 





2.9 




1918 





1917 


» 1 


1917 
1917 
1913 




16 1 



1908 

/ "■ 1903 

\ 1905 

f b 1903 

I 1905 

1903 

1905 

1912 

1915 

1915 

1905 

1915 

1915 

1914 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 

1905 

f 1903 

I 1904 

1905 

(*) 

1912 
1912 
1912 
1911 
1912 
1905 
1915 
1903 
1915 
1905 
1905 
1914 
1913 
1905 

1914 

1905 

1914 

/ 1904 

il d 1905 

1914 

1913 

I (•) 
1903 
1914 

' (•) 

f 1903 

\ 1915 

( 1903 

I 1907 

,/ c 1903 

1 1905 

1903 

1904 

1903 

f 1904 

\ 1905 

, 1912 

(•) 

1914 

(•) 

(*) 

d 1903 
1904 

(•) 

1903 

1911 



Max- I 
imum. 
Maxima. 



Tflffl, 

316.1 
206.2 

110.5 

306.8 
199.3 
276 . 3 
109.8 
553.2 
246 

66.8 
203 

78 
451.6 
186.2 
145.2 
113.4 



157.8 
146.7 

40 

79.3 

203.3 

271.9 

261.4 

178.5 

485.1 

218.9 

123.3 

125.5 

206 

147 

387 

251 

272 



86 



161.6 

682 

260.4 

126.1 

246.4 

81.4 

274.7 
64 

105.3 

217.2 

50.8 
142.6 
252.1 



Year. 
Alio. 



Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 



1: 228.8 ; 
102.6 , 
|l 283.5 

105 

185.7 

149.7? 
80.4 

145 

173.8 
84.9 

186.4 
146.8 
118.5 



• Several years. 
» Also 1911. 

171073 24 



«> Also 1908. 

= Also 1905 and 1907. 



>• Also 1914. 
• Also 1907. 



1917 
1904 

1904 

1910 
1906 
1918 
1910 
1918 

1918 : 

1917 
1904 

1917 i 
1913 
1916 
1904 
1904 
1904 

1916 

1904 

1918 , 

1916 ; 

1916 
1910 
1904 
1910 
1911 
1904 
1910 
1916 
1904 
1911 
1911 
1913 
1914 

1914 

1911 

1914 

1910 

1911 
1911 

1911 

1905 
1914 

1905 
1911 
1916 

1905 

1905 
1904 
1918 

1905 . 

1911 

1911 

1911 
1911 

1911 

1910 

1917 
190G 
1908 



Tnvi. 


9.6 



22.6 
112.5 
38.6 
4.8 
12 
64 
.5 
4.5 
.8 
78.9 
6.6 
1 

1.1 
1 







14.7 

57.1 

57.6 

.5 

.9 

.8 



26 
9 



10 

39. 

2. 

32. 
9. 





2 



8.4 


11.2 

2.1 
96.3 
10.5 



1.3 



8.7 









.9 
9.5 



97. 
20. 


10.7 
29.8 

8.9 
37.7 
25.6 



Year. 
Afio. 



1905 
1905 

1908 

1914 
1907 
1915 
1914 
1915 
1911 
1912 
1906 
1915 
1917 
1918 
1915 
1905 
1909 

1915 

1903 
1907 
1915 
1915 
1912 
1915 
1915 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1907 
1917 
1909 
1909 
1915 
1909 
1903 
f 1908 
1912 
1912 

1915 

1906 

1912 
1912 
1903 
1906 
1908 
1918 
1903 
1906 

1903 

1904 

1904 

1918 
1908 
1912 

1915 

1907 

1909 
1916 
1913 
1909 
1912 
K 1912 
1914 

1912 



1916 
1918 



f Also 1916. 
( Also 1918. 



370 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XIII. — Monthly extremes of rainfall — Continued. 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremes mensuales de lluvia — Continuacion. 



Station. 
Estaci6n. 



Jolo 

Isabela, Basilan 

Zamboanga 

Davao 

Caraga 

Cotabato 

Cagayan 

Dapitan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 

Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buena- 

vista 

Tuburan 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Ambulong, Tanauan, 

Batangas 

Silang 

Paracale 

Santa Cruz, Laguna. . 

Corregidor 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Olongapo 

Iba 

San Isidro, Nueva Ecija 

Arayat 

Tarlac 

Baler 

Dagupan 

Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando, La 

Union 

EchagUe 

Candon 

Vigan 

Tuguegarao 

Laoag 

Aparri 

Basco 



May. 
Mayo. 



Max- 
imum. 
Maxima. 



mm. 

426.1 

30^.3 

162.6 

546.3 

332.6 

352.3 

195.2 



307 

302. 

261. 

195. 

261 

374. 

337 

245. 

206.2 

271.9 



411.2 

121.2 

348.5 

260 

546.6 

343 . 5 



404. 
617. 
529. 



173.8 

259.7 

346 

245. 

477. 

297. 

280. 

324. 

227.9 

505.7 



184.6 
276.7 
357.6 
195.1 
436.6 
476.5 
264 . 1 

■ 696.3 
756.6 
518.5 
448.2 
478.6 
518.2 
360.8 
872.2 

1,397.8 



512.6 

284.9 

691.6 

678.7 

377 

852.7 

338.5 

677 



Year. 
Alio. 



1916 
1915 
1916 
1910 
1905 
1905 
1917 
1905 
1916 
1917 
1916 
1917 
1916 
1914 
1917 
1908 
1910 

1914 
1904 
1910 
1916 
1916 
1913 
1904 
1913 
1906 
1915 
1908 
1913 
1906 
1916 
1909 
1911 
1916 
1908 
1916 

1913 
1908 
1916 
1916 
1906 
1908 
1914 
1906 
1910 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1910 
1910 
1906 

1906 
1915 
1906 
1906 
1910 
1915 
1908 
1906 



Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 



mm. 

65.7 

41.1 



127.6 

102.7 

149.7 

17.3 



20.5 

11.7 

1.5 

127.7 

17.8 


29.2 
91.3 
12.2 

27.5 

9.4 
27.7 

4.9 
16.7 
17 
34 
32 
23 

1 

4 
11 
10 
30 
73 
16 


14 
24 



67 

43 

48 

45 
6 

15 

39 

13 

69.8 

38.1 
8.1 

39.4 
132.4 

51.9 

18.6 
131.8 

2.1 
55 

5.1 
.5 
21.9 
27.4 
10.6 
21 



Year. 
Afio. 



June. 
Junio. 



1903 
1910 
1908 
1903 
1907 
1918 
1912 
1906 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1915 
1912 
1912 
1905 
1903 
1912 

1912 
1905 
1905 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1905 
1915 
1912 
1918 
1912 
1912 
1905 
1912 
1907 

1916 
1905 
1912 
1913 
1918 
1903 
1913 
1912 
1912 
1903 
1903 
1905 
1911 
1918 
1912 
1903 

1912 
1918 
1912 
1912 
1905 
1912 
1914 
1905 



Max- 
imum. 


Year. 
Alio. 


Min- 
imum. 


Maxima. 


Minima. 


mm. 




mm. 


460.7 


1910 


19.6 


365 


1906 


54 


180.9 


1906 


25.3 


414.5 


1909 


98.1 


172.8 


1907 


35.8 


444.3 


1918 


136.5 


288.5 


1915 


132.2 


394 


1918 


21.3 


245.8 


1909 


47.4 ' 


293.2 


1917 


90.8 1 


277.4 


1906 


46.7 i 


353.6 


1915 


83.3 ! 


230.4 


1914 





277.9 


1908 


45.4 


303 


1918 


33 


399.2 


1904 


145.9 


456.4 


1904 


110.4 


640.8 


1914 


181.7 


281.2 


1908 


61.3 


526 


1914 


139 . 8 


388.6 


1918 


82.5 ' 


398.5 


1915 


100.3 : 


317.6 


1908 


55.2 


736.8 


1906 


159.5 


470.4 


1908 


111.3 


421.9 


1918 


60.7 


382.3 


1918 


20.3 


448.2 


1916 


52.3 1 


388.6 


1918 


83.5 ! 


287.1 


1908 


29.8 i 


509.8 


1918 


56 


423.7 


1910 


86.2 


459.5 


1918 


73.3 


430.6 


1918 


76.5 


357.7 


1918 


19 


424.4 


1914 


78 


360.1 


1914 


134.2 


428.7 


1904 


139.5 


415.8 


1918 


74.4 


365.7 


1914 


108.5 


856.7 


1914 


46.8 ; 


437.1 


1904 


79.3 


624 


1914 


40.7 


1,190.1 


1904 


82.8 


787.1 


1914 


205.3 


505.3 


1904 


22.7 


474.3 


1904 


30 


495.1 


1904 


78.1 


623.9 


1915 


108.9 


614.2 


1904 


162.8 


844 


1904 


122.4 


983.5 


1904 


168.4 


706.6 


1904 


104.7 


311.6 


1912 


23.5 


818.4 


1904 


36.3 


753 


1904 


59.2 


372.6 


1904 


38.9 


708.2 


1918 


90.5 


351 


1918 


11.7 


619.3 


1907 


18.3 



Year. 
Ano. 



1905 
1905 
1905 
1912 
1904 
1906 
1913 
1907 
1905 
1914 
1912 
1914 
1905 
1913 
1909 
1905 
1910 

1913 
1909 
1903 
1913 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1913 
1915 
1912 
1913 
1912 
1913 
1912 
1912 
1915 
1913 
1903 

1915 
1909 
1912 
1912 
1913 
1910 
1915 
1910 
1910 
1915 
1903 
1909 
1913 
1917 
1903 
1903 

1909 
1910 
1915 
1909 
1910 
1915 
1903 
1909 



RAINFALL. 



371 



Table XIII. — Monthly extremes of rainfall — Continued. 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremes mensuales de lluvia — Continuacion. 



Station. 
Estacion. 



July. 
Julio. 



August. 
Agosto. 



Max- 
imum. 
Maxima. 



Jolo 

Isabela, Basilan 

Zamboanga 

Davao 

Caraga 

Cotabato 

Cagayan 

Dapitan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 

Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buena- 

vista 

Tuburan 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat. 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Ambulong, Tanauan, 

Batangas 

Silang 

Paracale 

Santa Cniz, Laguna. . 

Corregidor 1 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Olongapo 

Iba 

San Isidro, Nueva Ecija 

Arayat 

Tarlac 

Baler 

Dagupan 

Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando, La 

Union 

EchagUe 

Candon 

Vigan 

Tuguegarao 

Laoag 

Aparri 

Basco 



7W7TO. 

292 

369.4 

214.6 

341.4 

227.1 

350 

248.3 

374.7? 

204.7 

249 

564.9 

343.3 

217 

508.5 

279 

415.1 

758.5 

837.1 

202.5 

789.6 

596. 

311. 

355. 

936. 

371 

395. 

395. 

521.4 

248.2 

370.5 

447.7 

371.7 

435.1 

476.9 

490.9 

428.4 

417.4 

732.4 

572.1 

484.7 

,100 1 

698.5 

778.8 

,401.1 

,832.2 

676.4 

643 . 5 

924.9 

788.1 

,300.4 

,891.4 

,381.7 

,078.7 
285.3 

,431.2 

,6^1.5 
5,52 . 6 

,294 
506.6 
645.6 



Year. 
Alio. 



1903 
1909 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1903 
1909 
1912 
1916 
1912 
1912 
1917 
1911 
1909 
1909 
1906 
1911 

1913 

1909 

1911 

1913 

1913 

1913 

1903 

1909 

1917- 

1913 

1913 

1915 

1909 

1909 

1913 

1909 

1912 

1913 

1913 

1913 
1909 
1911 
1911 
1913 
1911 
1913 
1918 
1911 
1911 
1905 
1911 
1909 
1911 
1911 
1911 

1911 
1917 
1918 
1911 
1911 
1918 
1911 
1917 



Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 



Year. 
Ano. 







7W7W, 

12.9 
73.6 


1918 
1918 



Max- 
imum. 
Maxima. 



27.5 

38.4 

15.7 
172.8 

13.3 

25.9 

25 

60 

27 

69, 

37, 

69 

34 
233 

57 



238.6 
115.1 
141 

28.1 

64.4 

25.4 

82 

49.3 
101 . 1 

46.2 

55 

13 

57 

67 

78 

24 

87 

62.5 

54.8 

219.1 
239.2 

85.9 
104.4 
207.5 
179 9 
168 
175.5 
418.3 
154.1 
142.5 
191.5 

86.2 
100.1 
254.2 
276.9 

178.9 

88.8 
144.3 
259.8 

75.9 
285.1 

22 

88.3 



1907 
1914 
1904 
1907 
1910 
1910 
1914 
1914 
1918 
1914 
1918 
1903 
1914 
1907 
1910 

1910 
1904 
1906 
1904 
1918 
1904 
1918 
1918 
1916 
1904 
1918 
1918 
1910 
1904 
1914 
1918 
1914 
1910 
1904 

1914 
1910 
1914 
1910 
1916 
1916 
1916 
1912 
1910 
1916 
1903 
1915 
1910 
1916 
1910 
1916 

1916 
190S 
1916 
1915 
1916 
1916 
1910 
1916 



mm, 

433.4 

396.5 



192 

328 

121 

313 

317 

274 

193 

162 

250.8 

207.9 

161.5 

377.5 

228.8 

438.8 

762 



920.6 

230 

711.1 

530.2 

181.2 

282.9 

675.4 

254.4 

348.3 

344.7 

290.5 

254.4 

188.3 

315.7 

197.9 

195.8 

267.3 

390.1 

243.8 

296.3 

629.4 

259 

378.7 

1,077.9 

656.6 

832.8 

1,634.5 

1,360.2 

513.6 

290.5 

748.6 

366 

914.4 

1,081.1 

2,521.7 

1,148.6 
365.5 

1,941 

1,864 
631.5 

1 , 830 . 8 
500.9 
910.7 



Year. 
Ano. 



I Min- 
imum. 
Minima. 



1917 
1917 
1907 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1913 
1918 
1913 
1916 
1912 
1916 
1907 
1907 
1912 
1907 
1904 

1918 
1906 
1918 
1905 
1912 
1904 
1906 
1905 
1903 
1918 
1904 
1916 
1913 
1912 
1913 
1913 
1918 
1912 
1907 

1914 
1912 
1913 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1914 
1914 
1912 
1912 
1905 
1907 
1918 
1914 
1914 
1911 

1914 
1918 
1916 
1916 
1911 
1914 
1911 
1903 



38. 

53. 

25. 
104. 

40. 
187. 

84. 

11. 

33. 

37. 

8. 

111. 

4. 

64. 



64.8 

200.2 

72.8 



93 
26 
179 
65 
43 
39 
53 
39 
75 
30.9 
70.6 
80.3 

9 
40.3 
36.3 
17.3 
69.5 
32.4 
36.1 

61.6 
161.3 

79.5 

85. 
241 

71 
305. 
257. 
556 
125, 
199 
155. 

21.7 
217.3 
137.8 
366.9 



.3 
.6 
.1 

.7 
.3 

.2 
.4 

.7 



91 
114.1 
157.1 
313.6 

55 
130.6 

97.6 
112 



Year. 
Alio. 



1905 
1914 
1908 
1918 
1904 
1903 
1909 
1908 
1903 
1915 
1911 
1914 
1903 
1903 
1914 
1903 
1909 

1903 
1908 
1903 
1911 
1917 
1911 
1918 
1911 
1915 
1909 
1911 
1915 
1910 
1909 
1910 
1909 
1903 
1909 
1911 

1917 
1909 
1916 
1917 
1903 
1909 
1917 
1912 
1917 
1909 
1903 
1903 
1916 
1909 
1909 
1909 

1909 
1910 
1909 
1918 
1909 
1909 
1906 
1915 



!l 



372 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XIII. — Monthly extremes of rainfall — Continued. 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremes mensuales de lluvia — Continuacion. 



Station. 
Estacion. 


September. 
Septiembre. 




October. 
Octubre. 




Maxi- 
mum. 
Maxima. 


Year. 
Ano. 


Mini- 
mum. 
Minima. 


Year. 
Ano. 


Maxi- 
mum. 
Maxima. 


' Year. 
Ano. 


Mini- 
mum. 
Minima. 


Year. 
Ano. 


Jolo 


mm, 

330.3 

385.5 

168.9 

478.1 

125.8 

405.5 

322.4 

196.8 

238 

220.5 

310.7 

288.6 

290.6 

381.3 

391.5 

417.1 

616.4 

866.4 

342,8 

644.8 

601.3 

284.9 

254.5 

597.1 

352.5 

666.2 

316 

402.4 

252.8 

480.4 

509 

491.2 

283.4 

479.5 

676.8 

726.8 

1,022.8 

681.1 

430.6 

632.6 

963.6 

887.7 

1,100.9 

1,647.7 

1,407.2 

383,4 

482.6 

490.1 

715 

934.4 

907.8 

2,108.1 

982.6 

414.7 

1,179.6 

1,491.1 

749.6 

1,380.8 

510.2 

777.3 


1908 
1908 
1908 
1909 
1906 
1908 
1911 
1904 
1908 
1917 
1908 
1917 
1908 
1908 
1908 
1908 
1914 

1908 
1908 
1910 
1908 
1916 
1908 
1903 
1910 
1908 
1916 
1916 
1916 
1906 
1906 
1914 
1916 
1917 
1914 

1908 

1914 
1914 
1917 
1914 
1914 
1914 
1914 
1914 
1914 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1913 
1913 
1913 

1913 
1918 
1913 
1913 
1906 
1913 
1906 
1912 


mm, 
43,6 

101.6 
62,6 
61 9 
28.4 

132,2 
57 3 
40,7 
5.1 
34.8 
31.4 
91,9 
64.2 

151,7 
47.3 

227.6 

146,3 

276,4 
24.9 

150,2 
87.7 
49 
74 

115.8 
47.9 
94.7 
84.5 
44.6 

111.4 
73 7 
92.2 
77.7 
81.2 

128 

130.7 

81 

215 

121.7 

115.5 

214.8 

181.4 

149.7 

2.59 

234.4 

434.2 

165.2 

112.5 

220,7 

134,3 

214,7 

167.9 

172.5 

82 1 

84,9 
122.5 
183.8 

65.3 
182.3 

69 
147.2 


1911 
1912 
1905 
1914 
1905 
1917 
1918 
1918 
. 1918 
1914 

1907 1 

1914 i 
1917 

1914 ; 

1913 
1905 
1903 

1918 ! 

1907 

1918 

1914 

1918 

1907 

1913 

1918 

1907 

1914 

1903 

1914 

1904 

1918 

1913 

1914 

1918 

1917 

1907 

1917 

1911 

1914 

1913 

1911 

1903 : 

1917 ' 

1912 i 

1915 

1917 

1903 

1903 

1913 

1915 

1903 

1908 

1908 
1910 

1908 ( 

1915 i 
1909 
1908 
1904 
1915 j 


mm. 

420.4 

418.5 

298.8 

462.9 

343.2 

404.2 

294.6 

386,2 

300,7 

359.9 

383,3 

353,8 

402 

657.1 

588.3 

362.5 

559.5 

1,064.4 
304 
551.1 
483.5 
350 2 
320.7 

1,494,6 
629.9 
487.1 
279.5 
489.9 
526.8 
594.9 
619.7 
375.8 
694.5 
639.3 
570.7 

556.2 

325.6 
423.8 
835,8 
325.6 
403 
340.6 
421.6 
475.7 
425.3 
412.2 
388.4 
365.3 
648.4 
603.8 
506 
1,509.1 

420.5 
342,4 
529.5 
543.5 
681.2 
858,9 
663,4 
734.1 


1905 
1916 
1909 
1909 
1904 
1917 
1913 
1905 
1004 
1917 
1913 
1914 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1905 
1912 

1915 
1905 
1915 
1912 
1914 
1910 
1905 
1904 
1906 
1917 
1912 
1916 
1904 
1904 
1910 
1916 
1913 
1915 
f 1904 
I 1915 

1915 
1908 
1917 
1916 
1918 
1917 
1918 
1912 
1912 
1909 
1904 
1906 
1916 
1908 
1909 
1908 , 

1915 
1912 
1915 
1915 
1903 
1909 
1906 
1903 1 


mm. 

117.5 
72.2 
17,4 

116 5 
52.6 

112.7 
29.1 
63.6 
54.2 
92.1 

109.7 

169 6 

112.8 
84.5 
43.7 

100.5 
50 

41.4 
94.8 
22,6 
63.9 
136.3 
103.4 
95.2 
98.9 
62 

18.5 

173.1 

147.7 

57.3 

94.4 

106 

74.6 

41.5 

5.5 

169.9 

47.7 
38,4 

193.7 
42.4 
13.3 
9.7 
41.4 
8.6 
50.3 
13.6 

144.5 
46.3 
86.4 
69.6 
41,8 
63.2 

22.4 
60 

15,3 
21,6 
11.5 
140 
79.3 


1903 


Isabela, Basilan 

Zamboanga 


1914 
1911 


Davao 


1917 


Caraga 


1903 


Cotabato 


1914 


Cagayan 


1914 


Dapitan 


1906 


Butuan 


1914 


Dumaguete 


1914 


Taghilaran 


1906 


Iwahig 


1918 


Surigao 


1905 


Maasin 


1908 


Cebu 


1918 


Bacolod 


1908 


Iloilo 


1914 


San Jose de Buena- 
vista 


1914 


Tuburan 


1908 


Cuyo 


1914 


Ormoc 


1908 


Guiuan . ... 


1918 


Tacloban 


1918 




1908 


Borongan 


1918 


Calbayog 


1918 


Masbate 


1914 


Romblon 


1918 


Batag. . . 


1914 


Gubat 


1909 


Legaspi 


1911 


Calapan 


1918 


Virac 


1911 


Naga 


1914 


Batangas 


1911 


Atimonan 


1911 


Ambulong, Tanauan, 
Batangas 


1914 


Silang 


1907 


Paracale 


1918 


Santa Cruz, Laguna . . . 
Corregidor 


1914 
1911 


Manila 


1911 


Antipolo 


1914 


Olongapo 


1914 


Iba 


1914 


San Isidro, Nueva Ecija 
Arayat 


1914 
1905 


Tarlac 

Baler 

Dagupan 

Bolinao 


1911 
1905 
1907 
1914 


Baguio 

San Fernando, La 
Union 


1914 
1914 


Echagiie 

Candon 

Vigan 

Tuguegarao 

Laoag. . 


1914 
1914 
1907 
1911 
1911 


Aparri 


1907 


Basco 


1907 







RAINFALL. 



373 



Table XIII. — Monthly extrevies of rainfall — Continued. 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremos mensuales de lluvia — Continuacion. 



Station. 
Estacion. 



Jolo 

I^abela, Basilan 

Zamboanga 

Davao 

Caraga 

Cotabato 

Cagayan 

Dapitan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Ccbu 

Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buena- 

vista 

Tuburan 



November. 
Novicmbre. 



Maxi- 
mum. 
Maxima. 



mm. 
465.4 
335.1 
238.7 
290 
178.3 
408.7 
174.5 
624.4 
692 
258.3 
281.6 
,035.9 
693.9 
748.5? 
289.3 
189.8 
460.5 



507.1 
256.4 

Cuyo I 452.4 

i 424.6 
664 
392 . 8 

664 . 8 
835.3 
411.7 
400.2 
637.2 
666 
833.6 
566.1 
747.4 

553 . 9 
557.1 
465.3 

1,277.9 



Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban . . 

Capiz 

Borongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Ambulong, Tanauan, 

Batangas 195.6 

Silang 359.6 

Paracale 1,095.6 

Santa Cruz, Laguoa. . 384.3 

Corregidor I 200 . 9 

Manila 229.2 

Antipolo 2a2.4 

Olongapo 268 . 7 

Iba 126.4 

Sanlsidro, NuevaEcija 359.7 

Arayat 207 . 8 

Tarlac 288.5 

Baler 764 . 1 

Dagupan 230 . 2 

Bolinao 210.5 

Baguio 236.2 

San Fernando, La 

Union \ 159.5 

Echagiie 446 . 2 

Candon 166 . 1 



Vigan. 



94.5 



Tuguegarao 1 ,315.7 

Lauag 104 . 5 

Aparri 785.4 



Basco. 



Year. 
A3o. 



1910 
1910 
1910 
1908 
1906 
1908 
1909 
1912 
1904 
1917 
1909 
1917 
1910 
1912 
1909 
1908 
1910 

1908 
1904 

1910 

1909 
1917 
1908 
1904 
1909 
1903 
1908 
1909 
1917 
1903 
1909 
1917 
1917 
1903 
1908 
1908 

1915 
1908 
1917 
1917 
1915 
1917 
1917 
1915 

1915 

1908 

1906 

1908 
1917 

1908 

1915 
1903 



710.7 



1909 



Dece.mber. 
Diciembre. 



MUM. "'^EAR. 

Minima, '^'^o- 



TtlTtl. 

59 
13 
27 
48 
31 

70.5 
9 

153.8 

69.5 

42.5 

74.2 

45.5 

175.9 

1C3.6 

28.3 

96.9 

2.8 

2.1 
76 

1.5 

85.8 
178 
137 

33.3 
348 

82.3 

58.7 

72.9 
174 
193.9 

89 

58.2 
137.4 

41.3 
2.4 

52.3 

24.7 

10.1 

112.2 

27.6 



6.1 

8.3 







1.3 

1.8 
43.5 



.3 

8.6 



Maxi- 
mum, j 
Maxima. 



1903 





1917 


6 


1903 





1903 





1906 


21 


1909 





1906 


36 



6 
121.2 



1905 
1911 
1911 
1914 
1904 
1913 
1911 
1907 
1908 
1911 
1915 
1918 
1911 
1914 
1913 
1907 
1914 

1911 
1906 

1913 

1918 

1914 

1914 

1914 

1918 

1911 

1913 

1914 

1914 

1913 

1905 

1918 

1911 

1914 

1911 i; 

1911 

1913 j 

1905 

1911 

1911 

1911 

1911 ' 

1918 

1914 

1911 

1918 

1911 

1903 

1914 
1911 

1911 j] 

1918 
1918 

1911 
1918 
1911 
1911 
1918 
• 1911 
1914 

1918 

1911 

1911 
1904 



mm. 

297.1 

331.9 

279.6 

494.3 

553.2 

2r.2.4 

438.7 

591.6 

636.6 

370.2 

382.5 

809.1 

949.5 

688.1 

425.7 

429.2 

528.3 

534 
223.6 

164 

391.6 

733.4 

574.6 
1,505.7 

912 

716.7 

522.3 

494? 

633.1 
1 ,324 . 6 
1,130.6 

327.6 

829 

990.7 

345 

926.2 

264.8 

346.3 

998.3 

377.3 

189 

182.3 

318.6 

146.8 

92.1 

200.5 

156.6 

150.9 
779.8 

85.1 

49.2 
276.6 



42.8 

276.6 

52.6 

44.9 

335.9 

54.6 

479.9 
739.1 



Year. 
Afio. 



1916 
1907 
1916 
1908 
1904 
1908 
1909 
1903 
1909 
1915 
1909 
1916 
1909 
1909 
1903 
1903 
1903 



MlNI- 
I MUM. 

i Minima. 



Year. 
Ano. 



1915 

1903 

1903 

1903 
1903 

1917 

1909 
1911 

1911 
1909 
1908 

1915 

1916 

1909 

1916 
1916 



.6 

.9 

8 

9 



mm. ! 
68.6 
31.5 i 
16 
75.9 

195. 

55. 

4 

155. 
73.5 
46.7 
32 4 
41.2 

272.4 

140.7 
50.7 
94 
26.9 



\ 1909 





1 1908 


43.6 


1903 





1916 


42.1 


1915 


236 2 


1908 


140.8 


1903 


25.6 


1908 


278.8 


1915 


45.7 


1915 


43.2 . 


: 1908 


43.3 


1917 


169.8 


1903 


83.8 


1903 


71.7 


1909 


108.9? 


1915 


92.2 


1915 


42.4 


1915 


16.3 


1915 


57.6 


1915 


26.4 


1907 


9.4 


1915 


49.2 


1915 


58.6 


1915 





1915 


8 


1915 


32.4 



1. 



114! 








53.1 





44.8 


42 

187.8 



I " 



1914 
1904 
1904 
1914 
1903 
1904 
1914 
1P04 
1914 
1918 
1911 
1918 
1912 
1905 
190f 
1906 
1904 

1911 
1903 
1906 
1911 
1911 
1914 
1911 
1914 
1911 
1914 
1905 
1911 
1914 
1911 
1911 
1912 
1911 
1911 
1914 
1911 

1914 
1906 
1912 
1911 
1906 
1911 
1913 
1914 

1918 

1904 
1904 
1905 
1905 
1911 
1910 
1914 
1918 
1904 

1914 
1918 
1918 
1912 
1913 



(•) 



1918 
1914 
1918 
1918 
1918 



♦ Several years. 



■ Also 1911. 



"Also 1918. 



374 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XIII. — Monthly extremes of rainfall — Continued, 

Tabla XIII. — Valores extremes mensuales de lluvia — Continuacion. 



Station. 
Estaeion. 



Jolo 

Isabela, Basilan 

Zamboanga 

Davao 

Caraga 

Cotabato 

Cagayan 

Dapitan 

Butuan 

Dumaguete 

Tagbilaran 

Iwahig 

Surigao 

Maasin 

Cebu 

Bacolod 

Iloilo 

San Jose de Buenavista 

Tuburan 

Cuyo 

Ormoc 

Guiuan 

Tacloban 

Capiz 

Bor.ongan 

Calbayog 

Masbate 

Romblon 

Batag 

Gubat 

Legaspi 

Calapan 

Virac 

Naga 

Batangas 

Atimonan 

Ambulong, Tanauan, Batangas 

Silang 

Paracale 

Santa Cruz, Laguna 

Corregidor 

Manila 

Antipolo 

Olongapo 

Iba 

San Isidro, Nueva Ecija 

Arayat 

Tarlac 

Baler 

Dagupan 

Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando, La Union 

EchagUe 

Candon 

Vigan 

Tuguegarao 

Laoag 

Aparri 

Basco 







Annual. 






Anual. 


Maximum. 
Maxima. 


Month and 

Year. 
Mes y Afio. 


Minimum. 
Minima. 


Month and 

Year. 
Mes y Afio. 


mm. 






mm. 




466.3 


1. 


1918 





fix, IV, 1905. 
Ill, 1906. 


418.5 


X, 


1916 





Ill, 1903, 1905. 


302 


I, 


1916 





fill, 1903, 1905. 
IIV, V, 1908. 


546.3 


V, 


1910 





II, 1915. 


707.4 


II, 


1903 


15.7 


VII, 1904. 


444.3 


VI, 


1918 





II, 1915. 


438.7 


XII, 


1909 





II, III, 1915. 


624.4 


XI. 


1912 





fill, 1915. 
IV, 1906. 


692 


XI, 


1904 


3.7 


II, 1915. 


370.2 


XII, 


1915 





II, 1915. 


564.9 


VII, 


1912 





II, 1915. 


1,035.9 


XI, 


1917 





II, III, 1914. 


1,183.9 


I, 


1918 





VI, 1905. 


774.4 


I, 


1918 





fll, 1915. 
IV, 1912. 


588.3 


X, 


1912 





II, 1915. 


438.8 


VIII, 


1907 


.3 


II, 1906. 


762 


VIII, 


1904 





fll, 1906, 1914. 
tin, 1905. 


1,064.4 


X, 


1915 





(*) 


342.8 


IX, 


1908 





fill, 1905. 
IIV, 1903. 


789.6 


VII, 


1911 





(•) 


601.3 


IX, 


1908 


2.5 


II, 1914. 


1,788.8 


I. 


1918 


16.7 


V, 1912. 


1,385.1 


I, 


1918 


12.1 


II, 1914. 


1,505.7 


XII, 


1903 


.5 


IV, 1915. 


2,191.4 


I, 


1918 


32.9 


V, 1912. 


716.7 


XII, 


1915 


3.3 


Ill, 1905. 


522.3 


XII, 


1915 





fll, 1906. 
IIV, 1909. 


637.2 


XI, 


1909 


1.3 


Ill, 1903. 


894.5 


II, 


1917 


11.7 


V, 1915. 


1,324.6 


XII, 


1903 


8.9 


IV, 1909. 


1,130.6 


XII, 


1903 


23 


Ill, 1905. 


747.4 


XI. 


1917 


13.8 


I, 1912. 


829 


XII, 


1915 


13.8 


II, 1914. 


990.7 


XII, 


1915 





II, III, V, 1905. 


676.8 


IX, 


1914 





fll, 1915. 

IIV, 1908, 1912. 


1,277.9 


XI, 


1908 


.3 


II, 1915. 


1,022.8 


IX, 


1914 





II, 1915. 


732.4 


VII, 


1909 





fll, 1906. 

till, 1904, 1905. 


1,099.2 


I. 


1917 


17 


II, 1915. 


632.6 


IX. 


1914 


1.8 


II, 1915. 


1,100.1 


VII. 


1913 





(*) 


887.7 


IX. 


1914 





(*) 


1,100.9 


IX. 


1914 





fl, 1914. 
\II, 1915. 


1,463.5 


VIII. 


1907 





(•) 


1,832.2 


VII. 


1911 





(•) 


676.4 


VII, 


1911 





(*) 


643.5 


VII. 


1905 





(•) 


924.9 


VII, 


1911 





(•) 


788.1 


VII, 


1909 


6.4 


III, 1904 


1,300.4 


VII. 


1911 





(*) 


1,891.4 


VII, 


1911 





(•) 


3,381.7 


VIL 


1911 





(•) 


1,148.6 


VIII. 


1914 





(•) 


446.2 


XI, 


1917 


2.9 


III, 1914 


1,941 


VIII, 


1916 





(•) 


1,864 


VIII, 


1916 





(•) 


1,315.7 


XI, 


1906 





fll. 1907, 1912. 
\I1I, 1903, 1904. 


1,830.8 VIII, 


1914 





(•) 


785.4 XI, 


1906 





III, 1903. 


910.7 VIII, 


1903 


9.5 


IV, 1918. 


• Several 


years. 









RAINFALL. 375 



Annual and monthly extremes of rainfall. — Table XII contains 
the annual extremes of rainfall of 55 stations for the period 
1903 to 1918. Prescinding from Baguio that appears with a 
maximum annual precipitation of 9,038.3 mm., the highest values 
are those of Paracale, on the north coast of Ambos Camarines, 
Borongan and Guiuan, in the eastern part of Samar, and Capiz, 
on the northern coast of Panay Island: they all appear with an 
annual maximum amount of rainfall above 5,000 mm. As for 
Manila, the year of maximum rainfall was 1908 with an annual 
amount of 2,481.0 mm., while 1903 was the year of mini- 
mum rainfall with an annual amount of only 1,030.4 mm. For 
the years 1865 to 1902, the maximum annual rainfall was 



"The northeast monsoon strikes the Islands on the eastern coast. As 
there are no high mountains masses northeast of Mount Banahao, this 
monsoon brings heavy rains to the northern and northeastern slopes of 
the mountain. The moisture carried by the northeast monsoon is largely 
deposited on the eastern half of the Islands; and the monsoon continues 
over the western half of the Archipelago as a drying wind, which results 
in a marked dry season in the latter region. The southwest monsoon is not 
nearly so strong as the northeast monsoon, and although it brings rains 
on the western side of the Archipelago, much of the rain which comes at 
this season of the year is the result of the cyclonic disturbances (typhoons), 
which cause the deposition of rains on both sides of the Islands. Thei'e- 
fore, also during this season, heavy rains occur on the northern slopes of 
Mount Banahao." 

As shown in the table given above, the annual rainfall for Mount Ba- 
nahao from November, 1915, to November, 1916, was 7,468.2 mm., an amount 
which differs very slightly from the annual average of Kashoryo. And 
although this is the annual rainfall of only one year, yet we consider it 
very probable that the average of many years of observation would not 
differ much from that amount, because, although the rainfall for November 
and December, 1915, as well as that for January, 1916, were considerably 
above the normal owing to the unusually frequent depressions and typhoons 
of those months, yet, on the other hand, the rains during the typhoon 
season in 1916 were much below the normal owing to an extraordinary 
lack of typhoons in the Philippines during that season, as stated in our 
Monthly Bulletins and Annual Report for 1916. Hence we believe that 
there was a kind of compensation between the winter and the summer 
rainfall, and therefore, that the annual rainfall obtained must not differ 
much from the normal. 

Again, the monthly distribution, as shown in the table above, is proper 
of the second type with no dry season and a very pronounced maximum 
rain period in winter. But for the reasons just given we believe that 
with more years of observations the mean summer and autumn rainfall 
would increase, and, on the contrary, the mean winter rainfall would not 
be so pronounced, thus showing for Mount Banahao a monthly distribu- 
tion of rainfall of the fourth type with no dry season and no very pro- 
nounced maximum rain period: in other words, with heavy rains well 
distributed throughout the entire year. 



376 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



that of 1867 with an amount of 2,978.8 mm.S and the minimum 
was that of 1885 with an annual amount of only 906.5 mm. 
This was the only year drier than 1903. 

In Table XIII the maximum and minimum monthly rainfalls 
are given for the same period of 1903 to 1918. Baguio has an 
absolute monthly maximum of 3,381.7 mm. (July, 1911). The 
Iiighest monthly maximum for stations with a pronounced maxi- 
mum rain period in winter is that of Borongan, on the eastern 
coast of Samar, with the amount of 2,191.4 mm. (January, 
1918). The absolute monthly maximum for Manila is 887.7 
mm. (September, 1914). This was exceeded only three times in 
the previous period of 1865 to 1902: September, 1867, 1,469.7 
mm.; July, 1899, 1,190.9 mm.; and August, 1877, 1,095.6 mm., as 
can be seen in Table XIV in which only monthly amounts of 
rain over 500 mm. are included. 

Table XIV. — Monthly amounts of rain over 500 millimeters registered 
in Manila Observatory since the year 1865. 



Year. 



1865. 
1867. 
1869. 
1872. 
1876. 
1877. 
1877. 
1880. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1887. 
1888. 
1890. 
1891. 
1891. 
1895. 



Month. 



September. 
. . ..do 



October . . . 

August. . . . 
September. 

July 

August. . . . 

July 

....do... . 



do 

do 

September. 

July 

September. 

June 

July 

June 



Amount. 



mm. 
687.9 
,469.7 
589.7 
798.8 
520.3 
602 
.,095.6 
809.8 
573.6 
754 . 6 
721 
738 
680.6 
536.7 
655.5 
642.7 
539.5 



Year. 



1896. 
1899. 
1900. 
1902. 
1904. 
1905. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1911. 
1912. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1917. 
1918. 



Month. 



August. . . . 

July 

August. . . . 
September. 

July 

do 

do 

August. . . . 

July 

do 



do 

Augu.=t. . . . 

July 

September. 

July 

do.... 



Amount. 



mm. 
6.50 . 2 

1,190.9 
770.9 
523.3 
682.2 
594.4 
504 
645 
561.8 
698.5 
529 
656.6 
570.6 
887.7 
606 
621.9 



Greatest rainfall in a single day. — Table XV gives for each 
station and for every month of the year the greatest amount 
of rain observed in a single day. Prescinding from Baguio, 
which is the only station showing an absolute maximum daily 
rainfall above 800 mm., Candon in Ilocos Sur and Laoag in Ilocos 
Norte, are the only stations with a maximum daily precipita- 
tion of more than 500 mm. The maximum daily rainfall for 



^ Although the year 1919 does not enter in the period chosen for this 
report, it may interest our readers to know that it broke all our records 
since 1865 both as to the monthly and to the annual rainfall. The total 
annual rainfall was 3,920.6 mm.: it is 941.8 mm, above the maximum 
of 1867. The monthly rainfall for August, 1919, was 1,983.0 mm., an 
amount which differs by +513.3 mm. from the monthly maximum ever 
observed before in Manila since 1865. This maximum was that of Sep- 
tember, 1867, with a monthly rainfall of 1,469.7 mm. 



RAINFALL. 



377 



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CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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RAINFALL. 



379 



Manila is 271.5 mm. Our readers may like to know that this 
absolute maximum daily rainfall was exceeded only three times 
in the years, 1865 to 1902, and that daily rainfalls of over 
200 mm. are rather seldom registered in Manila. This is shown 
by Table XVI in which we give all the daily amounts of rain 
above 100 mm. recorded in Manila since the year 1865. 

As to Baguio, the absolute maximum rainfall observed in a 
single day is as great as 879.8 mm., an amount which is above 
the annual average rainfall of many cities of Europe and of 
the United States. This heavy rain occurred during a typhoon 
which crossed the northern part of Luzon on July 14 to 15, 1911. 
No less than 2,238.7 mm. of water were collected by the rain- 
gauges of Baguio in four days, as follows: July 14, 879.8 mm.; 

Table XVI. — Daily amounts of rain above 100 millimeters registered in 
' Manila Observatory since the year 1865. 



Year. 


Date. 


Amount. 


Year. 


Date. 


Amount. 


1865 


Sept. 
Juy 12 
Sept. 23 
Sept. 24 
Sept. 25 
Sept. 26 
Sept. 30 
Oct. 7 
Nov. 22 
June 23 
July 19 
Aug. 2 
Aug. 20 
Sept. 26 
May 12 
Aug. 2 
Aug. 3 
Aug. 22 
Aug. 30 
July 17 
Sept. 13 
June 21 
Aug. 1 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 15 
July 30 
Sept. 20 
Nov. 20 
July 29 
July 30 
Aug. 4 
Sept. 15 
May 24 
June 28 
June 29 
Au?. 20 
July 28 
Oct. 20 
Jan. 1 
July 28 
July 29 
July 30 
July 20 
July 21 
July 21 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 20 
Oct. 5 
July 23 
Aug. 16 
July 15 


114 

145 

135 

330 

306.3 

162.4 

126 

172 

139.1 

102.8 

101.8 

107.6 

105.2 

128 

101.8 

226.5 

129.2 

176.1 

124.8 

104 . 5 
117.8 
111.4 
118 
149.1 
192.7 
128.8 
162.3 
102.6 
166 
290.1 
111.6 
213.1 
166.8 
119.6 
139.3 
118.8 
176.8 
165.2 
186.1 
154.6 
156.9 
114 
178.3 ' 

179.5 ; 

115.7 
164.8 
125.3 

118.6 j 
109.2 
107.4 
124.3 


1890 


July 16 
Nov. 11 
June 15 
July 25 
July 26 
Sept. 15 
Nov. 16 
June 24 
June 25 
June 26 
Sept. 2 
June 28 
July 9 
July 10 
July 18 
July 19 
July 20 
Sept. 20 
June 27 
Oct. 3 
Oct. 14 
June 17 
Sept. 22 
June 25 
July 12 
July 13 
April 29 
July 1 
July 2 
May 18 
July 29 
Oct. 26 
May 29 
Aug. 5 
July 15 
Aug. 13 
July 31 
Sept. 9 
Sept. 10 
June 2 
June 3 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 2 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 11 
Nov. 3 
July 11 
July 9 
Aug. 11 
Oct. 15 


mm. 
189 1 


1867 


1890 


153 8 


1867 


1891 


252 7 


1867 


1 1891 


136 8 


1867 


1891 


139 4 


1867 


1891 


115 8 


1867 


1891 . . . 


180 6 


1867 


1895 


143 4 


1868 


1895 


111 6 


1869 


1895 


106 5 


1869 


1895 


115 6 


1869 


1899 


105 2 


1869 


1899 


209 8 


1869 


1899 


158 7 


1870 


1899 


169 3 


1872 


1899 


253 5 


1872 


1899 


148 8 


1872 


1899 


180 8 


1874 .' 


i 1900 


107 


1876 


1901 


103 9 


1876 


1901 


101 4 


1877 


1902 


116 3 


1877 


' 1902 


123 2 


1877 


1904 


107.4 


1877 


1 1904 


226.2 


1878 . 


1904 


197 5 


1879 


1905 


143.1 


1879 


1905 


185.6 


1880 


1905 


200.4 


1880 


1906 


144.9 


1880 


1 1907 


141.9 


1880 


' 1907 


124.7 


1881 


' 1908 


121 6 


1881 . . . 


1908 


102.8 


1881 


1911 


117 


1881 . 


1911 


133.1 


1882 


1912 


157.6 


1882 


1913 


105.8 


1883 


1913 


128.2 


1883 


1914 


106.3 


1883 . . . 


1914 


109.7 


1883 


1914 


169.5 


1 884 


1914 


234.7 


1884 


1914 


114.5 


1887 


1915 


103.3 


1887 . . 


1915 


105.4 


1887. . . 


1917 


107.6 


1887 


1918 


271.5 


1888 


1918 


135.7 


1888 


1918 


194.3 


1890 







380 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

July 15, 733.6 mm.; July 16, 424.9 mm.; and July 17, 200.4 mm. 
These daily amounts of rain are counted as it is customary in 
the Philippines from 6 a. m. of one day to 6 a. m. of the next 
day. But the most remarkable thing is that taking only the 
period of hours in which the rains fell with most heaviness, we 
have the incredible amount of 1,168.1 mm. recorded, as shown 
in a Friez Quadruple Register in only 24 hours, from noon of 
the 14th to noon of the ISth.^ 

^ The following note is reproduced here from a footnote of a pamphlet 
which we published in 1912 on "The Extraordinary Drought in the Phil- 
ippines — October, 1911, to May, 1912.'' 

"As a curiosity we mention that, as far as we are aware, there are 
only two instances known in which the torrential rains of four conse- 
cutive days exceeded this rainfall at Baguio. Both occurred likewise 
at stations of great elevations, the one at Cherrapunji, in the Khasi 
Mountains, India; the other at a place called Silver Hill, in the mountains 
of eastern Jamaica. 

The rains at Cherrapunji referred to, occurred from June 12 to 15, 
1876, and the total amount of 2,586.7 millimeters (101.84 inches) was 
distributed over the four days as follows: June 12, 773.4 millimeters 
(30.45 inches) ; June 13, 196.8 millimeters (7.75 inches) ; June 14, 1,036.3 
millimeters (40.80 inches); and June 15, 580.1 millimeters (22.84 inches). 
We are indebted for these particulars to the Director-general of ob- 
servatories, India, who, replying to an inquiry, assured us that these 
figures represent the absolute maximum of rainfall for four consecutive 
days and for twenty-four hours, respectively, observed at Cherrapunji 
from 1871 to 1911. There are no records antedating 1871. 

The second instance of most extraordinary rains occurred at Silver 
Hill in November 1909. According to the Scientific American, 2,451.1 
millimeters (96.50 inches) fell in four days, and on two days 1,460.5 
millimeters (57.50 inches). That these figures are at least approximately 
correct is indicated by the records of the nearest stations. 

From the time at which this note was written, we have learned of a few 
other cases in which similar daily amounts of rain have been recorded. 
In Funkiko, Formosa, we find a three days' rainfall with 2,071 mm. (81.54 
inches) on July 18-20, 1913 (July 18, 400 mm.; July 19, 638.0 mm.; July 20 
1,033 mm.), and one day's rainfall with 1,034 mm. on August 31, 1911. 
In Honomu, Hawaii, there was a heavy daily downpour of 811.5 mm. 
(31.95 inches), the heaviest ever recorded in that territory, on February 
20, 1918. 

It would seem very probable that heavy daily rainfalls like those men- 
tioned must have occurred also in Kashoryo, Formosa : but unfortunately we 
have no daily records from that place, as the gauge there is read only 
on the 1st, 10th and 20th of each month. 

Although Baguio is not one of the wettest places of the world, yet the 
record of 1,168.1 mm. in 24 hours is considered, as far as known, a world's 
rainfall record for a period of 24 consecutive hours (See Monthly Weather 
Review, Vol. 47, No. 5, page 302). 



RAINFALL. 381 



Greatest rainfall for a single hour m Manila. — It being im- 
possible at present to give this information for any considerable 
number of our stations, we have taken from the records of the 
Central Office all the cases in which an hourly amount of rainfall 
over 40 mm. has been registered in Manila from 1903 to 1918. 
This information is included in Table XVII. The greatest hourly 
rainfall for the whole period is 65 mm. from 9 to 10 p. m. on 
April 29, 1905, when a typhoon was traversing Luzon north of 
Manila between San Fernando, La Union, and Dagupan. This 
is also the greatest hourly rainfall recorded in Manila since 1885, 
as the maximum of the period 1885 to 1902 was 60 mm. on May 
21, 1892, from 5 to 6 p. m. 

It may be added here that the greatest hourly amount of rain 

Table XVII. — Greatest hourly amount of rain over UO millimeters registered 

in Manila, 1903-1918. 

Tabla XVII. — Cantidades maximas de lluvia en una hora naayores de 40 millimteros registradaa 

en Manila, 1903-1918. 



Amount. 
Cantidad. 



Date. Hoi r. 

Fecha. Hora. 



Tntn. 

52.2 August 26, 1903 7:00- 8:00 p. m. 

44.5 July 12,1904 1:.50- 2:30 p.m. 

46 July 13,1904 2:3.o- 3:25 a.m. 

41.2 Sept. 20,1904 3:00-4:00 p.m. 

65 April 29, 1905 8:00- 9:00 p. m. 

57.4 June 8,1905 11:00-12:00 mdt. 

48.4 July 29,1907 9:00-10:00 p.m. 

47 May 10,1909 1:00-2.00 p.m. 

43.2 June 18,1909 4:00-5.00 a.m. 

44.5 August 13, 1910 9:00-10:00 a. m. 

46.5 April 14,1913 .^>:00- 6:00 p.m. 

40.9 June 12,1913 7:00-8:00 p.m. 

42.9 June 26,1915 10:00-11:00 p.m. 

42.7 ." June 24,1917 3:00-4:00 p.m. 

47.4 August 7,1917 1:00-2:00 p.m. 

50.3 August 19, 1918 6:00-7.00 p.m. 



registered in Baguio during the typhoon of July, 1911, mentioned 
above, was 89.9 mm., from 4 to 5 p. m. of July 14th. 

Average monthlij and annual rainy clays. — The study of a 
climate would not be complete if together with the amount of 
monthly and annual rainfall, the number of rainy days would 
not be given. By a rainy day is generally understood a day 
of rain in which 0.1 millimeter of water or more has fallen. 
Table XVIII gives the average monthly and annual rainy days 
for 53 stations of the Philippines divided into the four t\T)es 
of climate. The regions with the second type show the greatest 
number of rainy days, generally over 200. Borongan, on the 
eastern coast of Samar, appears with the maximum number, 242. 

By averaging the mean annual number of rainy days of the 



382 



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384 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



53 stations included in Table XVIII, we have an annual average 
of 159 rainy days for the whole Archipelago. 

Remai'kable floods. — It is not our intention to give here a com- 
plete list of all the floods observed in the Philippines during the 
period 1903 to 1918, but only to mention the most remarkable 
as far as we have found them described in our Monthly Bulletins 
for that period. By floods we do not mean the inundations 
caused at times on the coasts of the Islands by the so-called 
hurricane or cyclonic waves which accompany the cyclones or 
typhoons in their movement of progression on the sea. We wish 
to mention only floods produced by heavy rains, whether these 
rains connected with typhoons or not. 

Floods in Manila and surrounding provinces. — The most im- 
portant floods in Manila and surrounding provinces for the period 
chosen are those of 1904 and 1914.^ And it may be well to 
remark that in both cases there was no typhoon near Manila, 
but only quite distant typhoons over the Pacific northeast of the 
Philippines. 

Floods of July, 1904.. — On the floods of 1904 the following data 
are taken from the General Weather Notes for July, 1904, by 
Rev. Miguel Saderra Maso: 

Table XIX. — Daily rainfall in the stations of central Luzon for July 

12-15, 190 Jt. 



Station. 


July 12. 


July 13. 


July 14. 


July 15. 


Total. 


Tuguegarao_ _ _. . 


m,m.. 

8.3 
6.9 
117.9 
252.2 
393.7 
124.7 
145.8 
374.4 
128.3 
161.3 
176.8 
112.3 
166.1 
175.0 
226.2 
120.6 
103.6 
12.7 
0.2 


7nm. 

12.1 

10.9 

2.0 

1.3 

41.4 

4.3 

6.4 

79.0 

46.7 

49.0 

83.8 

73.4 

167.6 

305.8 

197.5 

341.1 

155.7 

90.7 

3.3 


TO»n. 
""742" 

10.4 

16.5 

26.4 

54.1 

21.8 

76.2 

36.1 

87.9 

110.5 

183.9 

35.6 

59.2 

52.2 

69.6 

142.5 

59.7 

1.3 


mm. 

1.5 
81.5 

1.5 
22.6 
12.4 
70.1 
22.6 
50.8 
34.3 
42.7 
70.1 
134.4 
46.2 
75.2 
34.0 
62.5 
54.9 
26.9 


mm. 
21.9 


Vigan__ 


173.5 


Candon 


131.8 


San Fernando, Union 

Baguio.. 


292.6 
473.9 


Bolinao 


253.2 


Dagupan . .. 


196.6 


Masinloc , _ 


580.4 


Tarlac . . 


245.4 


Arayat _ . 


340.9 


Porac _ 


441.2 


01ongapo,__ _. 


504.0 


Marilao. 


415.5 


Balanga. 


615.2 


Manila _. 


509.9 


Sta. Ana, Manila ,. 


593.8 


Corregidor 


456.7 


Malahi Island . 


190.0 


Atimonan 


4.8 







^ More important than any of these were the floods of 1919, of which 
we expect to give interesting details in a separate pamphlet. They were 
particularly remarkable for their extraordinary protracted duration. As 
to the heaviness of the rain that produced such floods, something has 
been said above in a footnote. 



RAINFALL. 385 



Looking now at the distribution of the rains as revealed in 
this table we find that the western coast of Zambales, the slopes 
on the east of its great mountain range, and the valley of the 
Pasig give us the greatest amounts and in about equal quantities. 
This precipitation explains the inundations of Tarlac, Zambales, 
Bataan, Manila, and even the disastrous flood of San Juan del 
Monte ; for the soil in this last place is more or less broken and 
stony with a subsoil of volcanic tuff, which could not possibly 
absorb such an enormous quantity of water in a short time. The 
reader may imagine what would have been the effects of the 
flood if that immense amount of water which covered the plains 
of Santa Ana, Pasay, Uliuli, Sampaloc, etc., for many miles had 
been forced to escape through a narrow and steep channel. The 
newspapers published full accounts of the flood and the heavy 
losses it caused. 

Floods of September, 1914. — On occasion of the floods of 1914, 
the author of these lines published a detailed account of the heavy 
rains that caused them, together with a comparative study of 
those rains and floods and other heavy rains or floods of the 
preceding years since 1865. Part of the information given there 
will be reproduced here, as it is considered particularly in- 
teresting: ^ 

Many still remember the heavy rains and the consequent 
floods that occurred in Manila and in several provinces of the 
western part of Luzon during the first few days of this month 
of September. We have brought together here all the data we 
could obtain on the subject and we believe that it will not be 
without interest to our readers. 

In the following table we give the amount of rain that was 
registered in our stations of Luzon on each of the three con- 
secutive days of heavy rain, together with the total fall for the 
three days. 

As the period of extraordinary rains began in Manila a little 
before midnight of August 31 and ended at about 6 a. m. on 
September 3, it follows that, as we reckon the daily rainfall for 
the Philippines from 6 a. m. to 6 a. m. of the next day, August 
31 must be counted as one of the three days of heavy rain, 
whereas, if we would count the daily rainfall from midnight to 
midnight, September 3 should be included as one of the rainy 
days instead of August 31. Something similar happened in some 
of the other stations. 

A cursory examination of the table shows the following facts : 

(1) The rainiest zone of the period was that which includes 
the western part of the island from the Province of Pangasinan 
to that of Batangas, both included. It will also be remembered 
that in the provinces of this zone there occurred the greatest 
floods, the effects of which were spoken of for several days in 
the Manila press. 

(2) The rains were not equally heavy throughout the whole 

* The Typhoons and Floods of September, 19U, by Rev. Jose Coronas, 
S. J., Manila, 1914. 

171073 25 



386 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XX. — Rainfall in the stations of Luzon during the three days, Sep- 
tember 1, 2, 3, 1914. 



Stations. 



Aparri 

Laoag 

Tuguegarao 

Vigan 

Candon 

Echaglie 

San Fernando, La Union 

Baguio 

Bolinao 

Dagupan 

Baler 

Tarlac 

San Isidro, Nueva Ecija . 
Iba 



Olongapo 

Montalban 

Antipolo 

Manila: 

In the park 

On the tower 

Lamao 

Alabang 

Corregidor 

Santa Cruz, Laguna 

Paracale 

Silang 

Ambulong, Tanauan, Batangas. 

Atimonan 

Batangas --. 

Nueva Caceres - 

Legaspi 



August 
31. 



mm. 



J 56.6 



77.3 



190.6 



16.5 



17 



264.2 
114.8 

151.4 
127.3 



95.5 



Sep- 


Sep- 


Sep- 


tember 1. 


tember 2. 


tember 3. 


m.m,. 


mm. 


mm.. 





1 


1 


78.7 


59.4 




3.8 


15.7 





61 


99.5 


65.6 


51.4 


36.3 







8.1 


25.1 


44.2 


132.5 


51.4 


259.5 


95.6 




15.5 


60.5 


i24.8 


129.3 


96.7 


184.6 


1.8 


6.4 




5.4 


17.8 


18.6 


55.1 


19.6 




59.7 


67 


296.1 


165.1 


146.6 


422.1 


274.3 


182.9 


1 


282.9 


248.9 


1 


239.4 


249.2 


i 


176.2 


223.2 




147.8 


186.4 


196.9 


121.9 


108 


106.7 


63.2 


85.1 


225 


157.2 


92.4 




6.4 


1.8 





101.9 


80 


102.3 


97.5 


103.4 


228.3 


34.6 


26.1 


33.8 


. 54.4 


25.2 


244.9 


5.8 


2.1 


2.6 


12 


3.8 


6.3 



Total in 
3 days. 



2 

194.7 

19.5 

226.1 

165 

33.2 

228.1 

545.7 

200.8 

410.6 

24.7 

41.8 

91.7 

422.8 

733.8 

721.4 

646.6 

640 

526.7 

531.1 

336.6 

373.3 

345.1 

8.2 

284.2 

429.2 

94.5 

324.5 

10.5 

22.1 



of this zone, nor were the maximum falls recorded on the same 
dates. The heaviest rains fell (prescinding from Baguio) in 
Olongapo, Antipolo, Lamao, Manila, and Montalban; in other 
words, the Provinces of Rizal and Bataan and the southern part 
of the Province of Zambales. The greatest amount of rain of the 
three days was recorded on the 1st, in Antipolo, Montalban, and 
Santa Cruz, Laguna; on the 2d, in Manila; and on the 3d, in 
Bolinao, Dagupan, Iba, Olongapo, Lamao, Corregidor, Silang, 
Ambulong, and Batangas. 

(3) Outside the zone mentioned above, the rains of this period 
were somewhat abundant in the western part of northern Luzon, 
viz., in the Provinces of La Union, Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte ; 
but small throughout the whole of the eastern part of the island. 

With regard to the hourly distribution of the rain in Manila 
during the three days, September 1, 2, and 3, we may note 
that the hours in which it rained most were from 11 p. m., 
August 31, to 6 a. m. September 1 (92 mm. on the tower and 
103.2 mm. in the park, in seven hours), from 8 p. m., September 
1, to 8 a. m. of the 2d (184.8 mm. on the tower and 250 mm. 



RAINFALL. 



387 



in the park, in twelve hours), and from 9 p. m. of the 2d to 
6 a. m. of the 3d (105.5 mm. on the tower and 117.2 mm. in the 
park, in nine hours) . We do not think that the flood would have 
been so high if the amount of rain that actually fell had been 
better divided during the hours of these three days. 

To form some idea of the extraordinary rainfall in Manila 
during these days it will be sufficient to point out the following 
facts : 

(a) The normal rainfall of Manila for the whole of the month 
of September, is 370.3 ^ mm. ; so that the amount of rain that 
fell in the first three days of September, 1914, was 148.4 mm. 
greater than the normal of the whole month. Moreover, even 
the rainfall of the first two days was 33.9 mm. greater than the 
normal. 

(b) During the last fifty years there have only been two 
occasions on which the rainfall for three consecutive days was 
greater than in the present period. These quantities were 804.7 
mm. for September 24, 25, and 26, 1867, and 571.6 mm. for 
July 18, 19, and 20, 1899. Two other amounts which come close 
to that of this year are 500.5 mm. for July 28, 29, 30, 1880, 
and 475.9 mm. for July 12, 13, 14, 1904. 

It will not be without interest to copy here from the records 
of the Observatory the following data concerning the greatest 
rainfalls for three days that have occurred in Manila since 1865 : 

Table XXI. — Greatest rainfalls for three successive days in Manila, 1865- 

19U. 



Year. 



1867 
1872 
1880 
1883 
1884 



Month. 



September 
August. . . 

July 

do ... . 

, ...do 



Days. 



24 
25 
26 
2 
3 
4 
28 
29 
30 
28 
29 
30 
20 
21 
22 



Daily 


Total in 


Year. 


ramfali. 


3 days. 


mm. 


mm. 




336 






306.3 


\ 804.7 


1890 


162.4 






22b.. 5 






129.2 


[ 383.1 




27.4 
44.4 




1899 


166 


[ 500.5 




290.1 






154.6 






156.9 


[ 425.5 


1904 


114 






178.3 


i 




179.5 


[ 420 


1914 


62.2 




1 



Month. 



July , 



do. 



Days. 



.do. 



.do. 



September . 



14 

15 

16 

9 

10 

11 

18 

19 

20 

12 

13 

14 

1 

2 

3 



Daily Total in 
rainfall. 3 days. 



tn 771. 

58. 
124. 
189. 
209. 
158. 

54. 
169. 
253 
148. 
226. 
197. 

62. 
169. 
234. 
114. 



771771. 

372.1 
423.2 
571.6 
475.9 
518.7 



It may be asked whether the floods observed in these periods 
were as great as the total amount of rain during the three days 
would seem to indicate. As we have not at hand data on floods 
that occurred previous to 1899, we restrict ourselves to the floods 
of 1899, 1904, and 1914. Of these three, the greatest was the 
one of 1904; then comes very similar in character, although 
perhaps a little inferior, that of this year, 1914; and in the 
third place the flood of 1899, which was of very slight importance 
compared with the other two. And yet, against what we would 

^ The normal given in this report obtained from the period 1903-1918 
i<s 358.2 mm. 



388 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

expect, we find that the total amounts of rain for the three days 
corresponding to these floods are in inverse order, viz., 1899, 1914, 
and 1904. If instead of three days we take only two days, the 
result is not much more satisfactory, for we have 423.7 mm. in 
1904, 422.8 mm. in 1899, and 404.2 mm. for 1914; so that the 
rainfall in two days is almost the same for 1904 and 1899 and 
both of them greater than in 1914, and yet, as was indicated 
above, the floods of 1904 and 1914 were very similar, and that 
of 1899 very much smaller. 

Prescinding from other circumstances that could influence 
more or less the greatness of the floods, and fixing our attention 
only on the manner in which the greater or less amount of rain 
probably influences the flood, we believe that it is not so much the 
sum total of rain in two or three consecutive days that has the 
greatest influence in producing greater or smaller floods, as the 
greater or less amount of rain accumulated in intervals of a few 
hours. Moreover, even supposing the same or similar quantities 
of rain in the same number of hours, the greatness of the con- 
sequent flood will depend in great part on whether this rainy 
period has followed two or three days of more or less wet weather 
during which the subsoil has already been saturated, or has 
followed two or three days of little or no rain. 

With this, let us see what happened in the three floods we are 
engaged upon. In 1904, which is the year of the greatest floods, 
281.1 mm. of rain fell in fifteen hours (July 12, 1 p. m. to 
July 13, 4 a. m.), while in 1899 and 1914 the greatest amount 
accumulated in twelve hours was respectively 182 mm. (July 19, 
i a. m. to 1 p. m.), and 184.8 mm. (September 1, 8 p. m. to 
September 2, 8 a. m.). According to this it would appear that 
the flood of 1899 ought not to have been less than that of 1914, 
nor the one of 1914 so similar to that of 1904. Nevertheless, 
it must be remembered that while the three days of rainfall 
in 1899 began suddenly after six days of practically no rain, 
in 1914 they took place after a series of wet days and specially 
after two days in which the rain had been somewhat heavy, viz., 
43.3 and 57.9 mm., respectively, on August 30 and 31. On the 
other hand, although it is true that the three days of rain in 
1904 had also been preceded by a few more or less wet days, 
yet these rains were of much less importance than those which 
preceded the 1914 period of rains; thus during the two days 
preceding July 12, 1904, only 30.5 and 26.7 mm. were collected 
in the gauges of Manila, and during these same days there 
were intervals of several hours without any rain at all, with 
more than five hours sunshine on the 10th, and more than two 
hours on the 11th, while in 1914 there were only two hours of sun- 
shine on the 30th and none at all on the 31st of August. Hence 
though the accumulation of water in a determinated period of 
hours was considerably less in 1914 than in 1904, nevertheless 
the saturated condition of the subsoil at the beginning of the 
three days of abundant rain in September, 1914, caused the 
flood to be much greater than would otherwise have been the 
case. 



RAINFALL. 339 



Floods in central and northern Luzon. — These floods are gen- 
erally caused by typhoons crossing the northern part of Luzon 
during the typhoon season from May to October, and especially 
from July to September. They are quite frequent, particularly 
in the Provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, owing 
to the frequency of typhoons striking the northernmost part of 
Luzon. We say that these floods are generally produced by 
tj^hoons crossing northern Luzon, not to exclude possible cases 
in which floods may be produced at times in northeastern Luzon 
by heavy rains owing to northerly currents so common in the 
winter months. Thus we see a case, recorded in the Monthly 
Bulletin of the Manila Observatory for December, 1903, of great 
floods that occurred in the region of the Cagayan River as an 
effect of strong and protracted northerly winds produced by the 
coexistence of a high pressure center to the north of Luzon and 
of a low pressure area covering the Visayas, Mindanao, and the 
Sulu Sea. Another similar case, but of much greater impor- 
tance, is mentioned in the Monthly Bulletin for November, 1906, 
in which the rains in northeastern Luzon were so abundant, 
especially in the southern part of Cagayan Province and in Isa- 
bela Province, that Tuguegarao reported the enormous amount of 
1,086.9 mm. of rain in only eleven days: from November 20 to 
30. The consequent floods were terrible, causing in the Caga- 
yan Valley great loss of life and incalculable material damages. 

The most important of these floods produced by typhoons in 
central and northern Luzon during the period 1903 to 1918 are 
those of October, 1908, October, 1909, and July, 1911. In the 
three cases a severe typhoon was traversing the northernmost 
part of Luzon. The following is taken from what we said on 
these floods in three of our pamphlets concerning typhoons.^ 

Floods of October, 1908. — The floods were general in all the 
rivers of central and northern Luzon, and so extraordinary that 
a similar flood is almost unknown in the Philippines. To the 
data given above by eyewitnesses we have to add that the flood 
of the Agno River destroyed several kilometers of railroad track 
of the Dagupan Railroad, and that the Bued River cut away a 
considerable part of the plateau of Pozorrubio and caused great 
damage to the Benguet Road. 

Floods of October, 1909.— The first typhoon of October 17 to 
18, which was of much greater intensity, was, moreover, accom- 

' Three Typhoons in Luzon, October 4 to IS, 1908, The Typhoons of Oc- 
tober, 1909, and The Typhoons of July, 1911, by Rev. Jose Coronas, S. J., 
1909 and 1911. 



390 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

panied by torrential rains, at least in some provinces of Luzon, 
and even at considerable distances from the vortex. These 
caused unusually heavy floods, such as have rarely been seen in 
the Philippines. The extraordinary rainfall of October 17 and 
18 and the consequent flood v^^ere responsible for so extensive 
damages along the famous Benguet Road, that the latter had 
to be closed to traffic for two months. 

To the slow progress of this typhoon must likewise be at- 
tributed — not precisely the fact that in some regions the rains 
were so excessively heavy — but that, like the hurricane winds, 
they lasted for so many hours. The amount of water which 
fell at Baguio during the twenty-four hours from 6 a. m. of the 
17th to 6 a. m. of the 18th is the largest on record in the Phil- 
ippines ' viz, 689.7 millimeters (27.15 inches). 

Rains so extraordinary in intensity and duration could not 
fail to produce terrible floods in central and northern Luzon as 
already mentioned. 

Floods of July, 1911. — The most striking feature of this ty- 
phoon were the extraordinarily heavy rains which from July 
14 to 17 fell in western Luzon, but especially in Baguio. It 
seems incredible that during so short an interval of time 2,238.7 
millimeters should have fallen at Baguio; and we would have 
had difficulties in believing it, had we not found it thus registered 
by the pluviometer on the "quadruple register" as used at the 
first-class stations of the Weather Bureau. 

The total amount of precipitation for Baguio was distributed 
over the four days as follows: On the 14th, 879.8 millimeters; 
15th, 733.6 millimeters; 16th, 424.9 millimeters; 17th, 200.4 milli- 
meters. 

The accounts which the daily papers published of the enormous 
losses caused by the heavy rains and consequent floods on July 
16 to 18, are presumably still fresh in the memory of everybody. 
Above all the damages done to the railway from Manila to 
Naguilian and Camp One, and to the Benguet Road deserve to 
be mentioned. 

Floods in the Visayas and Mindanao. — These floods, like those 
of northern Luzon, occur mainly during typhoons or depressions 
that cross the Visayas or Mindanao, particularly from November 
to January, or also while low-pressure areas cover those islands 
in the winter months. Severe typhoons and consequent heavy 
rains and floods are quite frequent in Samar and Leyte. 

In December, 1903, great floods were reported from the Vi- 
sayas and northern Mindanao; also from northern Mindanao 
on December, 1909, and from the Visayas on January, 1916. 
But the most remarkable were those of Mindanao during a 
typhoon on the 22d to 24th of January, 1916. 



^ We said this in 1909: This daily amount, however, was surpassed during 
the heavy rains of July, 1911. 



RAINFALL. 391 



The following is taken from one of our pamphlets on ty- 
phoons : ^ 

The floods that occurred in Mindanao as an effect of the heavy 
rains observed there, are generally considered as the worst and 
most destructive experienced in many years in that island. The 
losses were enormous, particularly in Agusan Province, where 
all the rivers rose to an average of about 25 feet (7 to 8 meters) 
above their ordinary level, all the towns having been 3 to 4 
feet (one meter or more) under the water, and some of them 
10 to 16 or even 17 feet (3 to 5 meters). 

It can be surely stated that the immense region from Ebro 
and Los Martires to Veruela and Gracia was transformed into 
a great lake where only the tops of the trees were visible. The 
crops were a complete loss in many of the tovras, a great number 
of labor animals was killed, and many houses, wharfs, and 
bridges were practically swept away by the rushing waters. 

In the Provinces of Lanao and Bukidnon many strong bridges 
were washed away, a great number of roads were destroyed 
or greatly damaged, and the crops, particularly in the low 
valleys, were either totally or partially lost. In Misamis Prov- 
ince there were enormous losses caused by the floods to the 
crops, bridges, and roads. The rivers throughout the province 
rose to a height of about 21 to 22 feet (6 to 7 meters) above 
their ordinary level. In Davao Province a great deal of damage 
was done to roads and bridges, some of them having been totally 
destroyed: in the town of Moncayo the water was 20 feet (6 
meters) high in the streets, and practically all the houses and 
bridges were destroyed. In the Province of Zamboanga the 
bridges between the Capital and the Penal Colony of San Ramon 
were destroyed by the torrential rains. 

Extraordinary periods of drought. — From what has been said 
above on the general causes of rainfall in the Philippines, it 
is evident that, as they generally affect the whole Archipelago, 
if at any time there is a failure of rainfall, it will generally be 
felt not only in Luzon but also in the Visayas and Mindanao. 
The periods of extraordinary drought, however, are not, as a 
rule, very long, but rather limited to the winter and spring 
months. Hence it is that a year of extraordinary drought in 
the Philippines does not necessarily mean a very dry year as a 
whole, because the rains that fall in summer and autumn often 
fully compensate the lack of rain of the first part of the year. 
Thus the extraordinary drought of October, 1911, to May, 1912, 
was hardly noticed in the annual amounts of those two years 
corresponding to Manila and in the general amounts of the 
stations on the western part of Luzon. 

Table XXII will help one to see at once the years in which there 



* The Typhoons and Floods of January, 1916, by Rev. Jose Coronas, S. J., 
Manila, 1916. 



392 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XXII. — Rainfall from November to May for 

Tabla XXII. — Lluvia de noviembre a mayo para 





Zamboanga. 


. Davao. 


Surigao. 


Year. 
Afio. 


Total in 

7 Months. 

Total de 

7 meses. 


Percent- 
age OF 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 


Total in 

7 Months. 

Total de 

7 meses. 


Percent- 
age of 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 


Total in 

7 Months. 

Total de 

7 meses. 


Percent- 
age OP 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 


1902-1903 


mm. 
148.3 


mm. 
35.3 


mm. 
684.6 
1,234.2 
1,211.7 


mm. 
58.4 
105.2 
103.3 


mm. 
1,318.7 
2,487.5 
1,278.7 


mm. 
55.9 
105.4 

54.2 


1903-1904 


1904-1905 


299.8 
281.5 
496.6 
137 


71.5 

67.1 

118.4 

32.7 


1905-1906 


1906-1907 


1,182.5 
1,896.2 


100.8 
161.6 






1907-1908 


3,282.3 
2,319.1 
3,290.3 
2,628.8 
1,268.9 


139 

98.2 
139.4 
111.4 

53.8 


1908-1909 


1909-1910 






1,891.3 

1,334.5 
975.7 
895.7 

1,064.7 
505.6 

1,303.6 

1,057 

1,188 


161.2 

113.7 
83.2 
76.3 
90.8 
43.1 

111.1 
90.1 

101.3 


1910-1911 






1911-1912 


315.2 
390.6 
348,1 
168.7 
802.3 
806.1 
840.5 


75.1 

93.1 

83 

40.2 
191.2 
192.1 
200.3 


1912-1913 


1913-1914 






1914-1915 . . . 




1,494.5 
3,061.9 
2,505.5 
3,390.7 


63.3 
129.7 
106.1 
143.6 


1915-1916 


1916-1917 


1917-1918 




Mean 


419.6 


i 1,173.2 




2,360.6 




Media 






* 


Leo 


VSPI. 


Batangas. 


Atimonan. 


Ykar. 
Ano. 


Total in 7 

Months. 

Total de 7 

meses. 


Percent- 
age OF 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 


Total in 7 

Months. 

Total de 7 

meses. 


Percent- 
age of 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 


Total in 7 

Months. 

Total de 7 

meses. 


Percent- 
age of 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 


1902-1903 


mm. 
1,014.8 
3,475 

713.4 
1,372.6 
1,881.6 
2,614.1 
2,119.1 
2,840.8 
2,377.5 

800.1 
1,904.6 
1,259.6 

745.8 
2,611.1 
2,856.1 
1,983.7 


mm. 
53.1 
181 9 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 

657 
1,913.6 
1,130.2 
1,336 
1,502.8 
1 ,942 . 5 
2,866 
1,419.6 
1,845.1 

346.7 
1,276.6 
1,289.2 

512.4 
2,716.8 
2,888 
1,608.4 


mm. 
41.6 

121.5 
71.6 
84.7 
95.2 

123.1 

181.6 
90 

116.9 
22 
80.9 
81.7 
32.5 

172.1 

183 

101.9 


1903-1904 






1904-1905 


37.3 

71.8 

98.5 

136.8 

110.9 

148.7 

124.4 

41.9 

99.7 

65.9 

39 

136.6 

149.5 

103.8 






1905-1906 






1906-1907 






1907-1908 


423.4 
891.1 
566.1 
776.4 

82.5 
381.3 
340.7 

88.3 
853.2 
326.3 
353.3 


91.6 

192.8 

122.6 

168.1 

17.9 

82.6 

73.7 

19.2 

184.6 

70.7 

76.4 


1908-1909 


1909-1910 


1910-1911 


1911-1912 


1912-1913 


1913-1914 


1914-1915 


1915-1916 


1916-1917 


1917-1918 




Mean 


1,910.6 




462.1 




1,578.2 




Media 






( 



RAINFALL. 



393 



several stations of the Philippines, 1903 to 1918. 
varias estaciones de Filipinas, 1903 a 1 918. 



Cedu. 



Total in 

7 Months. 

Total de 

7 meses. 



mm. 
348.6 

1 ,262 . 8 
255.3 
380.9 
667.8 
820 
531.6 

1,308.3 
741.3 
252.5 



307.3 
'224.9 



897 
865 . 8 



Percent- 
age OF 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 



mm. 

55.1 
199.4 

40.3 

60.2 
105.5 
129.5 

84 
206.6 
117.1 

39.9 



48.6 
35.5 



141. 
136. 



ILOILO. 



Capiz. 



Total in 

7 Months. 
Total de 
7 meses. 



m,m. 

336.1 
1,093 

472.5 



Calbayog. 



Percent- 
age OP 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 



Total in 

7 Months 

Total de 

7 meses. 



Percent- 
age op 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

dela 

normal. 



Total in 

7 Months, 

Total de 

7 meses. 



mm. 
52.1 
171.3 
74.1 



434.2 
709.5 
7 AT A 
1,012.1 
937.8 I 
165.4 I 
774.5 
485 
257.8 
867.8 
766.2 
511 



68.1 
111.2 
117.1 
158.6 
147 

25.9 
121.4 

76 

40.4 
136 
120.1 

80.1 



mm. 

543.3 
3,259.9 

953.9 



mm. 
51.8 
310.8 
90.9 



mm. 

652.8 
1.918.8 

603.7 
1,194.7 



661 



1,073 

244.3 

864.9 

483.4 

. 213.9 

1,578.5 

1,118.1 

1,593.2 



63 



102.3 
23.3 

82.4 

46.1 

20.4 

150.5 

106.6 

151.9 



1,363 
1 ,263 
1,901 
1,650 
522. 

1 ,230 

943. 

504 
2,336 
1,638, 

2 ,239 



Percent- 
age OF 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

dc la 

normal. 



mm. 
49 
144.2 
45.4 
89.8 



102.4 

94.9 

142.9 

124 

39.3 

92.5 

70.9 

37.9 

175.5 

123.1 

168.3 



633.2 



638 



1,049 



1,330.9 



Manila. 



Total in 7 

Months. 

Total de 7 

meses. 



Percent- 
age OF 
, Normal. 

Por ciento 
de la normal. 



Olongapo. 



Total in 7 

Months. 

Total de 7 

meses. 



mm. 
191.1 
368.6 
303.2 
437 
347.3 
708.1 
588.2 
681.1 
559.9 
84.9 
430.1 
223.2 
157 
567.3 
367.1 
431.2 



48.2 
92.9 
76.4 

110.2 
87.6 

178.5 

148.3 
"146.5 

141.2 
21.4 

108.4 
56.3 
39.6 

143 
92.6 

108.7 



Percent- 
age OF 

Normal. 
I Por ciento 
de la normal. 



mm. 
152.5 
299.6 



mm. 



45.9 
90.2 



171.4 


51.6 


463 


139.3 


600.2 


180.6 


728.9 


219.3 


377.1 


113.5 


38.4 


11.6 






i95.8 


58.9 



San Isidro. 



Dagupan. 



Total in 7 

-Months. 

Total de 7 

meses. 



Percent- 
age OF 
Normal. 
Por ciento 
de la normal. 



Total in 7 

Months. 
Total de 7 
meses. 



mm. 
256 
438.8 
245.3 
605.3 



352.1 
276 

332.3 



106 
83. 



531.7 

592.4 

535.1 

531.3 

188.8 

296 

339.8 

228,3 

525 . 5 

428.5 

430.7 

411.6 



mm. 

62.2 
106.6 

59.6 
147.1 



Percent- 
age OF 

Normal. 

Por ciento 

de la 

normal. 



129.2 

143.9 

130 

129.1 

45.9 

71.9 

82.6 

55.5 

127.7 

104.1 

104.6 



mm. 
317 
543.1 
296.8 
1 ,009 . 7 
403.3 
485.2 
704.9 
609 
489.1 
260.6 
563.4 
301.7 
342.2 
558.8 
471.2 
476.8 

489 6 



mm. 
64.7 

110.9 
60.6 

206.2 
82.4 
99.1 

144 

124.4 
99 9 
53.2 

115.1 
61.6 
69.9 

114.1 
96.2 
97.4 



394 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



was an extraordinary lack of rainfall during the period 1903 
to 1918. Only a few stations have been chosen, for which the 
total rainfall from November to May is given for every year of 
that period together with the percentage of the normal for the 
seven months, November to May. 

It appears from this table ,that there has been a general lack 
of rain in the years 1903, 1905, 1912, 1914, and 1915. But the 
most important and more general periods of drought were those 
of 1903, 1912, and 1915. A few words on each of them will 
be of interest. 

Drought of 1903. — As far as Manila is concerned we may say 
that the distribution of rainfall for the year 1903 was very 
extraordinary. There was a considerable lack of rain through- 
out the year, except only in December, thus making that year 
the driest on record since 1865 with the only exception of 1885. 
That the conditions shown by Manila records did not differ 

Table XXIII. — Rainfall in the Philippines during the year 190S. 





January to May. 


June to October. 


station. 


Normal. 


1903 


Differ- 
ence. 


Per 
cent. 


Normal. 


1903 


Differ- 
ence. 


Per 
cent. 


Aparri 


mm. 
528.8 

66 

97 
146.7 
262.4 
184.2 
927.8 
604.3 
974.4 
334.3 
331.5 
476.7 
1,532 1 
733.9 
235.1 
624.6 


Tnm. 
260.6 
188.8 

72.7 
118.6 

60.8 

62.4 
330,1 
257,9 
552.6 
180.7 
169.8 
164.7 
836.4 
509.9 

71.8 
229.3 


mm. 
—268.2 
+ 122.8 

— 24.3 

— 28.1 
—201,6 
—121.8 
—588.7 
—346.4 
—421,8 
—153.6 
—161.7 
—312 
—695.7 
—224 
—163.3 
—295.2 


49 
286 
75 
81 
23 
34 
37 
43 
57 
54 
51 
34 
55 
69 
31 
44 


mTn. 

969.2 

495.1 

1,704.9 

2,242.2 

1,349.6 

1,-536.2 

1,316.6 

1,261.9 

1,228.3 

1,272.9 

852.6 

1,748.2 

734.9 

891.5 

464.8 

721.9 


mm. 

1,033 

1,105.1 

1,826.5 

1,795,5 
982.9 
773.7 
722.6 

1,184.1 
759 

1,249.4 
758.2 

1,234.6 
540.5 
794.6 
321.3 

1,074.7 


tnm. 
+ 63.8 
+ 610 
+ 121,6 
—446.7 
—366.7 
—762 . 5 
—593.9 

— 77.8 
—469.3 

— 23.5 

— 94.4 
—513.6 
—194.4 

— 96.9 
—143.6 
+352.8 


107 


Tuguegarao 


223 


Vigan 


107 


Bolinao 


80 


San Isidro 


73 


Manila 


50 


Daet 


55 


Atimonan 


94 


Legaspi 


62 


Iloilo 


98 


Cebu 


89 


Bacolod 


71 


Surigao 


74 


Davao 


89 


Zamboanga 


69 


Jolo 


149 









November to December. 




Annual. 




Station. 


Normal. 


1903 


Differ- 
ence. 


Per 
cent. 


Normal. 


1903 


Differ- 
ence. 


Per 

cent. 


Aparri 


mm,. 
490.1 
139.3 
65.8 
42.5 
157.8 
194.5 
642.5 
794.2 
758.1 
189,1 
288 
826.3 
895.6 
262.5 
186.2 
288 


561.3 
441.9 
119.1 
147.5 
210.4 
194.3 
1,575.6 
1,073.9 
1,573.4 
652.8 
504.9 
691.2 
600.2 
307.7 
277.7 
405.2 


mm. 
+ 71.2 
+ 302.6 
+ 53.3 
+ 105 
+ 52.6 
— .2 
+ 933.1 
+279.7 
+815.3 
+463.7 
+216.9 
+264.9 
—295.4 
+ 55.2 
+ 91.6 
+117.2 


115 
317 
181 
347 
133 
100 
245 
135 
208 
345 
175 
181 
67 
122 
149 
141 


mm. 
1,988.1 
700.4 
1,867.7 
2,431.4 
1,769.8 
1,914.9 
2,886.8 
2,660.4 
2 ,960 . 8 
1,796,3 
1.472.1 
2,561.2 
3,162.6 
1,877.9 
886.1 
1,634.4 


mm,. 
1,854.9 
1,735.8 
2,018.3 
2,061.6 
1,254,1 
1,030.4 
2,628.3 
2,515.9 
2,885 
2,082.9 
1 ,432.9 
1,990.5 
1 ,977,1 
1 ,612.2 
670.8 
1,709.2 


mm. 

— 133.2 
+ 1,035,4 
+ 150.6 

— 369.8 

— 515.7 

— 884.6 

— 268.6 

— 144.6 

— 76.8 
+ 286.6 

— 39.2 

— 560.7 
—1,185.6 

— 265.7 

— 215.3 
+ 174.8 


93 


Tuguegarao 


248 


Vigan 


108 


Bolinao 


86 


San Isidro 


71 


Manila 


64 


Daet 


91 


Atimonan 


95 


Legaspi 


97 


Iloilo 


116 


Cebu 


97 


Bacolod 


78 


Surigao 


63 


Davao 


86 


Zamboanga 


76 


Jolo 


111 







RAINFALL. 395 



much from those shown by the observations of several other 
stations throughout the Archipelago, can be easily deduced from 
Table XXIII and the following remarks taken from the General 
Weather Notes for December, 1903, by Rev. Miguel Saderra 
Maso: 

We believe that this table which is a continuation of the one 
we presented in the General Weather Notes of May, will not 
be without interest, for it shows very clearly how really abnormal 
the distribution of the rainfall has been this year throughout 
the Archipelago. We include in this table only the principal 
stations from which we possess data taken previous to the es- 
tablishment of the Philippine Weather Bureau, so that we may 
obtain a truer normal value. To make things more clear, we 
have divided the year into three periods, namely, the dry season, 
January to May; the rainy season, June to October; and the rela- 
tively dry season, November to December. We find then, first, 
that this year has been a relatively dry year all over the Islands, 
since the total rainfall, except at very few places, has been 
below the normal ; second, that the deficit is due to the scant 
rainfall during the first two periods of the year, so that if it 
were not for the abundant compensation in December, the year 
1903, even considering the total rainfall alone, would have been 
from every point of view one of the driest years ever known 
in the Archipelago. 

Drought of 1912. — The period of drought obsei'ved in the 
Philippines from October, 1911, to May, 1912, was by far more 
acute and severe than that of 1903; and judging from the re- 
cords of Manila, we have every reason to believe that certainly 
for Manila and very probably for a large number of other 
stations, it was the worst ever experienced since the foundation 
of the Manila Observatory in 1865. This may be shown by the 
following table and remarks, which we reproduce from one of 
our pamphlets on this subject ' although we have added as an ap- 
pendix after the table the years 1912 to 1918 in order that the 
same table may help later to study the drought of 1914-1915. 

In the following table XXIV we offer to the reader statistics 
which show clearly to what extraordinary and almost incredible 
an extent the rainfall of the last eight months has been deficient, 
even if compared with the driest years which Manila has ex- 
perienced since meteorological records are being kept. The 
table comprises the following data: (1) The total rainfall during 
the three months of October, November, and December, for each 
year from 1865 to 1911 ; (2) the total rainfall during the five 
months of January to May, for each year from 1866 to 1912; 



* The Extraordinary Drought in the Philippines, October, 1911, to May, 
1912, by Rev. Jose Coronas, S. J., Manila, 1912. 



396 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



(3) the total rainfall for the eight months, October to May, 
for each year of the period under consideration; and finally 

(4) the mean or normal amounts of rain for each of the three 
preceding groups of months for the period 1865 to 1911. 

Table XXIV. — Distribution of rainfall at Manila for the months of Oc- 
tober to May, 1865-1918. 



Years. 


October 
to 

Decem- 
ber. 


January 

to 

May. 


October 

to 

May. 


Years. 


October 

to 
Decem- 
ber. 


January 

to 

May. 


October 

to 

May. 


1865-66 


mm. 

380.9 

672.4 

362.1 

431.7 

832.5 

390.7 

338.4 

363.4 

356.7 

198.7 

265.7 

181.2 

296.3 

311.6 

550.1 

314.9 

311.6 

602.6 

237.7 

258.3 

172.6 

516.3 

470.0 

290.5 

698.3 

480.2 

405.3 

231.3 


mm. 

230.4 

243.0 

84.0 
216.6 
325.7 

40.1 
182.7 
206.7 

76.0 
154.0 
256.9 
203.6 
101.5 
329.8 
226.9 
194.6 
240.9 
432.6 
102.8 

29.0 
158.0 
402.5 

77.3 
117.2 
193.0 
126.3 
177.9 
243.2 


mm. 

611.3 

915.4 

446.1 

648.3 

1,158.2 
430.8 
521.1 
570.1 
432.7 
352.7 
522.6 
384.8 
397.8 
641.4 
777.0 
509.5 i 
552.5 

1,035.2 
340.5 
287.3 
330.6 
918.8 
547.3 
407.7 
891.3 
606.5 
583.2 
474.5 


1893.94 


mm. 
187.3 
393.1 
261.3 
139.2 
338.4 
536.9 
450.0 
391.4 
865.1 
198.3 
270.0 
241.2 
212.3 
572.8 
340.3 
573.2 
426.2 
539.9 
23.8 


m7n, 
205.4 
292.1 
192.9 

96.6 
332.7 
211.0 

73.5 
109.7 

94.4 

62.4 
174.3 
201.7 
398.7 

97.2 
589.7 
253.6 
319.9 
265.4 

70.8 


mm. 
392.7 


1866-67 


1894-95 


685.2 


1867-68 


1895-96 


454.2 


1868-69 


1896-97 


235.8 


1869-70 


1897-98 . . 


671 1 


1870-71 


1898-99 


747 9 


1871-72 


1899-1900 

1900-1 


523 5 


1872-73 


501 1 


1873-74 


1901-2 


959 5 


1874-75 


1902-3 


260 7 


1875-76 


1903-4 


444 3 


1876-77 


1904-5 


442 9 


1877-78 


1905 6 


611.0 


1878-79 


1906-7 


670 


1879-80 


1907-8 


930.0 


1880-81 


1908-9 


826.8 


1881-82 


1909-10 


746.1 


1882-83 


1910-11 


805.3 


1883-84 


1911-12 


94.6 


1884-85 


Mean 




1885-86 


380.5 


200.3 

251.7 
154.3 
63.6 
176.9 
184.6 
126.3 


580.8 


1886-87 




1887-88 


i 1912-13 


348.8 
188.6 
133.6 
555.8 
406.1 
645.5 




1888-89 


600.5 


1889-90 


1 1913-14 


342.9 


1890-91 


1914-15 


197.2 


1891-92 


1915-16 


732.7 


1892-93 


1916-17 


590.7 




1917-18 


771.8 









Even a cursory inspection of the table leads to the following 
conclusions : 

{a) The rainfall at Manila for the months of October to 
December, 1911, differs from the normal for these three months 
by —356.7 millimeters. 

(6) For the five months from January to May, 1912, this dif- 
ference amounts to —129.5 millimeters. 

(c) For the eight months, from October 1, 1911, to May 31, 
1912, the total rainfall at Manila remained 486.2 millimeters 
below the normal amount for this period. 

{d) The total amount of rain which fell at Manila during 
October, November and December, 1911, differs by —115.4 milli- 
meters from the minimum recorded for the same three months 
during the forty-six years preceding. The said minimum oc- 
curred on October to December, 1896, and was 139.2 millimeters. 
It must further be remarked that only during five other years 
the rainfall during these months had remained below 200 milli- 
meters. On the other hand, the heaviest rainfalls recorded 
for these three months in question during the same period, were 
832.5 and 865.1 millimeters, corresponding to October to De- 
cember of 1869 and 1901, respectively. 



RAINFALL. 397 



(e) As regards the precipitation at Manila during the five 
months from January to May, 1912, we find that the amount is 
not the absolute minimum of rainfall for this group of months 
during the period 1865 to 1912, since three years show a still 
smaller quantity, to wit, 1871, 1885, and 1903. 

(/) The total rainfall for the eight months from October, 1911, 
to May, 1912, is, however, 141.2 millimeters below the absolute 
minimum which had been recorded for these months during the 
entire period. The latter was 235.8 millimeters, and belongs to 
the months of October, 1896, to May, 1897. Only three times 
since the establishment of the Manila Observatory had the total 
rainfall corresponding to these eight months been less than 
300 millimeters. The greatest total for this group of months 
was 1,158.2 millimeters, and fell from October, 1869, to May, 
1870. 

In order to show that this drought was general throughout 
the Archipelago, Table XXV and the following remarks are taken 
from the pamphlet mentioned above: 

The fact that in a series of observations covering so long a 
period and made at so many different stations positive differences 
are so very rare is, beyond doubt, a very noteworthy and striking 
circumstance. If we prescind from the positive signs shown 
by the differences for the six stations in northern Luzon during 
December, there remain only one or another, certainly well 
isolated case, which has little or no significance if we consider 
the long period of eight months and the number of stations. 
That the rains during December exceeded the normal amount for 
that month at the stations in northern Luzon was due to a 
typhoon which, though out of season and abnormal in character, 
brought beneficial rains to this part of the Archipelago, and more 
particularly to the valleys of Benguet, Isabela, and Cagayan 
Provinces. The track of this typhoon may be seen in the 
Monthly Bulletin of the Weather Bureau for December, 1911. 
The vortex of this storm passed north of, and close to, Tugue- 
garao in the evening of December 8. 

Drought of 1915. — In the table given above, showing the rain- 
fall at Manila for the months of October to December and October 
to May, it is evident that the year 1915 occupies the second 
place after 1912 as a year of extraordinary drought. That this 
period of drought was also general throughout the Archipelago 
is shown by Table XXVI, which was prepared in 1915 but has 
not yet been published. 

A comparison between the droughts of 1911-1912 and 1914^ 
1915 may not be out of place. For this reason Table XXVII 
has been prepared which it is thought will be of the greatest 
interest. 



398 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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401 



It seems to follow from this table: (1) that the two droughts 
must be considered as very extraordinary and very general 
throughout the Philippines; (2) that taking the whole period 
of eight months from October to May, the drought of 1911-1912 
was more severe than that of 1914-1915; and (3) that consider- 
ing only the months of February to April, the latter, with the 
exception of northern Luzon, was more severe, especially in 
southeastern Luzon, the eastern Visayas and eastern Mindanao. 
And almost the same result would have been obtained if the 
months of January and May had been included in the second 
period, as seems to be shown by the preceding table, in which 
the difference from the normal is given for each station and 
each month. 

Longest periods of rainless days in the droughts of 1911-1912 
and 1914-1915. — We will finish this chapter by giving in the 
following table XXVIII the longest periods of rainless days 
observed at several stations of the Philippines during the two 
severest periods of drought of which we have just spoken. 
Periods of less than 15 days have not been considered of suffi- 
cient importance to be included in the table. For stations having 
several periods of more than 15 rainless days, only the longest 
periods are mentioned. 

Table XXVIII. — Longest periods tf rainless days in the droughts of 

1911-1912 and 191U-1915. 



Station. 



Jolo . . . 
Isabela . 



Zamboanga . 

Davao 

Cotabato . . . 

Cagayan . . . 

Dapitan . . . 
Butuan . . . . 

Dumaguete . 
Tagbilaran . 



Iwahig. 
Surigao . 
Maasin . 

Cebu . . . 
IloJlo . . . 



San Jose de Buenavista 
Cuyc 



Drought of October 1911, to 
May, 1912. 



Number 
of days. 



30 
21 

37 

26 

18 
15 
22 
35 



15 
51 
32 
28 
23 
29 



15 
23 
46 

16 

22 
34 
35 
56 
23 
36 
112 
36 



Periods. 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Mar 



18-Feb. 

25-Feb. 

3-Apr. 

15-Apr. 

11-28. 
Mar. 14-28. 
Nov. 5-26. 
Mar. 6-Apr. 



16. 

14. 

8. 



Mar 
Mar 



May 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Apr. 



3-17. 

8-Apr. 
29-May 

7-Feb. 

8-30. 
28-Mav 



27. 

30. 

3. 

26. 



May 
Mar. 
Apr. 

May 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Nov. 

Mar. 



3-17. 

8-30. 

16-May 

9-24. 

14-Feb. 

8-Apr. 
12-May 16. 
17-Jan. 11. 
13-Feb. 

6-Apr. 
M-Mar. 

6-Apr. 



31. 



4. 

10. 



4. 

10. 

4. 

10. 



Drought of October 1914, to 
May, 1915. 



Number 
of days. 



27 
36 

31 
43 
38 
38 
38 

55 
20 
57 
33 
16 
67 

27 
33 



65 
25 
48 
22 
25 
68 
22 
59 
44 

22 
125 



Periods. 



Feb. 4- Mar. 2. 
Jan. 23-Feb. 27. 

Dec. 1.5-Jan. 14. 
Jan. 16-Feb. 27. 
Jan. 22-Feb. 28. 
Jan. 22-Feb. 28. 
Jan. 22-Feb. 28. 

Feb. 13-Apr. 8. 
Feb. 8-27. 
Jan. 2l-Mar. 18. 
Mar. 21-Apr. 22. 
Nov. 2-17. 
Jan. 22-Mar. 29. 

Jan. 29- Feb. 24. 
Mar. 19-Apr. 20. 



Jan. 

Apr. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Jan. 

Mar. 



22-Mar. 27. 
13-May 7. 
19-Mar. 7. 
29-Apr. 19. 

1-25. 
20-Mar. 28. 
30-Apr. 20. 
19-Mar. 13. 
20-May 2. 



Dec. 6-27. 
Dec. 29-May 2. 



171073- 



-26 



402 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XXVIII. — Longest periods of rainless days in the droughts of 
1911-1912 and i9i^-i5i 5— Continued. 



Station. 



Drought of October 1911, to 
May, 1912. 



Drought of October 1914, to 
May, 1915. 



Ormoc . . . 

Capiz .... 

Calbayog . 
Masbate . 
Romblon . 



Naga. 



Batangas . 
Atimonan . 



Ambulong, Tanauan, Batangas 



Silang 

Santa Cruz, Laguna . 



Manila . 



Antipolo . 



Corregidor . 
Olongapo . . 

Iba.. 



San Isidro, Nueva Ecija . 
Tarlac 



Dagupan . 



Bolinao 

Baguio 

San Fernando, Union . 
Echague 



Candon . 
Vigan . . 



Tuguegarao . 
Laoag 



Aparri . 
Basco . 



Number 
of days. 



29 

21 
29 
17 



22 

22 
25 
45 
15 



24 
23 



24 
22 

25 
24 
22 
25 
22 
24 

44 
64 

62 

48 
45 
33 
22 
21 
44 
25 
41 
36 
29 
43 
30 
26 
31 
27 
39 
49 
36 
36 
33 
27 
50 
100 
35 

26 

51 
29 

138 
23 
43 

165 

43 
24 
67 
28 
102 
23 
19 



Periods. 



Apr. 28-May 26. 

Mar. 6-26. 
Apr. 28-May 26. 
Jan. 13-29. 

Mar. 20-Apr. 10. 

Oct. 24-Nov. 14. 
Feb. 22-Mar. 17. 
Mar. 23-May 6. 
Mar. 3-17. 



Oct. 21-Nov. 13. 
Feb. 7-29. 



Oct. 

Nov. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Oct. 
Feb. 

Jari* 

Mar. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

Apr. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Feb. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Mar. 



7. 
11. 



24-Nov. 16. 
20-Dec. 11. 
19- Apr. 12. 
14-May 7. 
26-Nov. 16. 
18-Mar. 13. 
. 16-Apr. 6. 
13-May 6. 

25-Dec. 7. 
8-Apr. 11. 

14-Mar- 15. 
19-May 5. 
24-Dec. 
10-Jan. 
22-Mar. 14. 

9-29. 
25-Dec. 7. 
22-Mar. 17. 
19-Apr. 28. 

2-Dec. 7. 
18-Mar. 17. 
26-Dec. 7. 
11-Jan. 
11-Feb. 

8-Mar. 
11-Apr. 
11-Jan. 
20-Mar. 
10-Apr. 

2-Dec. 
11-Jan. 
18-Mar. 15. 
19-Dec. 7. 
11-Mar. 19. 
21-Apr. 24. 



9. 

5. 

9. 

6. 

8. 

8. 
14. 

7. 
12. 



Feb. 20-Mar. 16. 

Oct. 18-Dec. 7. 
Dec. 10-Jan. 7. 
Jan. 9-May 25. 
Oct. 2-24. 
Oct. 26-Dec. 7. 
Dec. 12-May 24. 

Feb. 1-Mar. 14. 
Mar. 18-Apr. 10. 
Oct. 2-Dec. 7. 
Dec. 12-Jan. 8. 
Jan. 29-May 9. 
Mar. 19-Apr. 10. 
Feb. 25-Mar. 14. 



Number 
of days. 



29 
21 

25 



21 
16 
19 
22 
19 
19 
43 
37 

16 
21 
29 
24 
21 



Periods. 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 



29-Feb. 26. 

26-Mar. 18. 
30-Apr. 23. 



24 
23 
21 
25 
24 

59 
22 



29 
35 
71 



38 
64 



24 
36 
46 

39 
35 
21 



18 
36 
37 

32 
58 
99 
24 
27 
26 
25 

44 
122 
25 
48 
68 
22 
22 
28 

97 
49 
16 



Mar. 

Mar. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Apr. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Mar. 



19. 
12. 



21. 



30-Apr. 
28-Apr. 

3-21. 
31 -Feb. 
23-Mar. 13. 

1-19. 
31-Mar. 14. 
22-May 3. 

13-28. 
23-Jan. 12. 
31-Feb. 28. 

2-25. 
28-Apr. 17. 



Jan. 30-Feb. 22. 
Mar. 29-Apr. 20. 
Jan. 31-Feb. 20. 
Mar. 28-Apr. 21. 
Apr. 23-May 16. 

Jan. 14-Mar. 13. 
Apr. 23-May 14. 



Oct. 18-Nov. 15. 
Dec. 25-Jan 28. 
Feb. 23-May 4. 



Dec. 16-Jan. 22. 
Feb. 24-Apr. 28. 



Jan. 29-Feb. 21. 
Mar. 26-Apr. 30. 
Jan. 7-Feb. 21. 

Nov. 15-Dec 23. 
Dec. 25-Jan. 28. 
Feb. 1-21. 



Dec. 27- Jan. 13. 
Jan. 17-Feb. 21. 
Mar. 29-May 4. 

Nov. 8-Dec. 9. 
Jan. 27-Mar. 25. 
Nov. 15-Feb. 21. 
Feb. 23-Mar. 18. 
Mar. 20-Apr. 15. 
Jan. 26-Feb. 20. 
Mar. 1-25. 

Oct. 1-Nov. 13. 
Dec. 16-Apr. 16. 
Oct. 2-26. 
Oct. 28-Dec. 14. 
Jan. 8-Mar. 16. 
Dec. 15-Jan. 5. 
Jan. 30-Feb. 20. 
Feb. 22-Mar. 21. 

Nov. 14-Feb. 18. 
Mar. 15-May 2. 
Apr. 8-23. 



RAINFALL. 403 



Special attention should be called to the most extraordinary 
period of over 100 days without rain observed in Cuyo, Candon, 
Vigan and Laoag in the drought of 1911 to 1912, and in Cuyo 
and Candon in the drought of 1914 to 1915. It follows from the 
data given in Table XXVIII that the longest periods of rainless 
days occurred in the western part of the Archipelago. Not to be 
misled, however, we must remember that this was to be ex- 
pected if we take into consideration the normal monthly distribu- 
tion of rainfall in the Philippines. Because, on the one hand, 
the western part of the Archipelago is the region in which, even 
in normal years, the dry season is very pronounced, especially 
during the months of December to April, while, on the other 
hand, the eastern coasts of southern Luzon, Samar, Leyte and 
Surigao have in normal years the most persevering and abundant 
rains from November to January or February. Hence it is that 
the percentage of rainfall given in Table XXVII shows better 
the severity of the drought for a particular place than the ab- 
solute amount of rainfall or the number of rainless days. 



IV. RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 

Relative hv/midity as a climatic factor. — We take from Hann's 
Handbook of Climatology ^ the following remarks on the re- 
lative humidity of the air as a climatic factor: 

For purely climatological purposes the relative humidity is, 
unquestionably, the most convenient expression for the amount 
of water vapour in the air. When we describe the air as being 
damp, or dry, we are usually speaking quite unconsciously of the 
relative humidity. The air is moist in our climate in winter, 
notwithstanding the small amount of water vapour which it then 
contains; while the air is dry in summer, although it then con- 
tains two or three times as much vapour as in winter. The 
relative humidity, next to the temperature, determines the need 
which is felt by organisms for water, and also controls evapo- 
ration. 

The relative humidity is, furthermore, by no means an ex- 
pression which is used only in computations. It is a perfectly 
definite climatic factor, as can be seen from the fact that it is 
directly indicated by organic substances. All organic substances 
are more or less hygroscopic, and their condition, so far as it 
depends upon the humidity of the air, is determined by the 
relative, and not by the absolute, humidity. Thus it happens 
that organic substances, such as membranes or hairs, furnish 
us with excellent means for the direct measurement of the re- 
lative humidity of the air. All other measurements of humidity 
are indirect, and involve a somewhat difficult calculation, the 
results of which are in certain respects less accurate than those 
obtained by means of the hair hygrometer. The readings of 
the psychrometer below freezing are a case in point. The rela- 
tive humidity is therefore the most natural expression for the 
humidity of the air as a climatic factor, for it reacts directly 
upon organic substances. 

In The Weather and. Climate of Chicago by Cox and Armington 
we find the following statements on the same subject which will 
be of interest to our readers: 

The term humidity has reference to the quantity of moisture 
present in the air at all times in the state of invisible vapor. 
The air is said to be dry when but little is present, and humid 
when the quantity is relatively considerable. If the quantity of 
moisture is measured as weight per unit of volume, as, for 
example, grains per cubic foot, the numerical value is designated 
the absolute humidity. If, however, as is most common in 

' English translation by Ward, page 52. 
404 



HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 405 



statistics relating to weather and climate, the measurement is 
expressed as a percentage of the quantity of vapor that can 
possibly exist at the temperature in question, then the numerical 
value is called the relative humidity. 

The conditions of humidity have at times fully as much to 
do with comfort and salubrity as do those of temperature, sun- 
shine, and wind. Paradoxical as it may seem, a high degree 
of humidity makes a hot wave sensibly hotter, and a cold wave 
colder, than is the case when the amount of moisture in the air 
is relatively low. High humidity in warm weather, by materially 
retarding the evaporation of perspiration from the pores of the 
body, prevents the cooling produced by this process in other 
heated periods. On the other hand, during times of cold weather, 
by penetrating the clothing and communicating dampness to it, 
an atmosphere with high humidity increases the conductive 
qualities of the fabric and permits a more rapid escape of the 
body's heat. The disagreeable features of damp climates, 
whether warm or cold, and the comparative pleasantness of 
regions in which the atmosphere has a low percentage of moisture 
are well known. Residents of the foothills along the eastern 
sides of the Rockies, and those of the dry sections of the interior 
Northwest, experience temperatures of zero and below with less 
discomfort than even much higher winter temperatures bring 
to localities of greater relative humidity; and the heat of many 
arid regions is rendered less oppressive by the extreme dryness 
of the air, while very moist climates are enervating at tempe- 
ratures but little above the average. 

Relative humidity is high in the Philippines. — That there is a 
very great amount of water vapor in the atmosphere of the 
Philippine Islands will be clearly seen from the data which will 
be presently given. This quantity of vapor is due to the ex- 
traordinary evaporation from the seas that surround them on 
all sides, to the richness of their vegetation, to the different 
prevailing winds in the different seasons of the year, and finally 
to the abundant rains so proper of a tropical country. The 
first two may be considered as general causes of the great 
humidity which is generally observed in all our islands through- 
out the year, while the other two may influence in a different 
degree the humidity of the different months of the year and 
of the different regions of the Archipelago. Thus in winter, 
when the rains are so abundant in the eastern part of the Philip- 
pines owing to the prevailing northeasterly winds, the humidity 
must be greater there than in the western part where a dry 
season prevails. On the contrary, from June to October, the 
rains, although quite general throughout the Archipelago, are 
more abundant in the western part of the Philippines, which is 
. more exposed to the prevailing westerly and southwesterly 



406 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



winds; hence the humidity of the air is greater there than in 
the eastern part of the Archipelago.^ 

Mean monthly and annual relative humidity. — Table XXIX 
gives the mean monthly and annual relative humidity for 
thirteen stations of the Philippines, together with the mean 
annual range for each station. The highest annual mean is that 
of Baguio, with 85.7 per cent; then follow, in order, the annual 
means of Surigao and Paracale, in which stations the rains 
are frequent throughout the whole year. The stations with the 
lowest annual humidity are Cebu, in the Visayas; and Vigan, 
Dagupan, San Isidro (Nueva Ecija), and Manila, in the central 
and western part of Luzon. The annual means of the thirteen 
stations chosen vary between 85.7 per cent and 76.7 per cent. 

The greatest mean annual range, 19.9, is that of San Isidro, 
Nueva Ecija, in the interior of Luzon, and the lowest, 3.3, is that 
of Paracale, on the northern coast of Camarines. Generally 
speaking, stations more exposed to the northeast monsoon have 
the lowest annual ranges of humidity ; they have also the highest 
annual means. These stations show the highest monthly mean 
humidity in December, while in the others the highest monthly 
mean is that of August or September. With a few exceptions, 
the lowest monthly mean for all the stations chosen is that of 
April. 

Plate XIII gives a graphic representation of the monthly dis- 
tribution of relative humidity in Baguio, Manila, Legaspi, Cebu, 
and Surigao. This plate shows clearly: (1) the small annual 
range of Cebu and Legaspi as compared with that of the other 
three stations; (2) that the mean monthly minimum of Surigao 
is that of August, which may be the case with other stations of 
Mindanao, owing to their distance from the summer typhoon 
belt; (3) that the lowest monthly mean of Baguio is that of 
February: and as Vigan has its minimum also in February (see 
Table XXIX) , this may possibly be the case in all the stations 
of northwestern Luzon; (4) that the highest monthly mean of 
Legaspi, Cebu and Surigao is that of December, while Baguio 
shows the highest mean in August, and Manila in September. 

Relative humidity of the Philippines, compared with that of 
22 selected cities of the United States of America. — In Table 
XXX 2 we give the monthly and annual relative humidity for 
a few stations in the Philippines, together with that of 22 

* See Climatologia de Filijrinas in El Archipielago Filipino, Vol. II, pages 
55 and 56. 

^ This table has been prepared with data published in Climatology of 
the United States, by A. J. Henry, Washington, 1906. 



HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 



407 







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408 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 







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HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 415 



selected cities of the United States of America. But in order 
that a good comparison can be made, it should be remarked that 
while the humidity for the Philippines is the average of 24 or 6 
daily observations, that of the United States has been deduced 
from only two daily observations, at 8 a, m. and 8 p. m. Now, 
monthly and annual mean values of relative humidity obtained 
by the last method are almost invariably higher than those 
obtained by the other two methods used in the Philippines. 
Hence, in making the comparison, the United States values should 
be considered even lower than what they appear in Table XXX. 
It is evident from this table that, with the exception of places 
near the coasts, the monthly and annual means of relative hu- 
midity for the United States are much lower than those of the 
Philippines. Our readers will notice, however, the great dif- 
ference between the values of different stations of the United 
States. To explain this, we should bear in mind that there are 
several factors that determine the amount of humidity in the 
air, like temperature, altitude, surrounding mountains, distance 
from the sea or lakes, etc. 

The geographic distribution of relative humidity in the United 
States is thus described by Henry: ^ 

The chief characteristics of the geographic distribution of 
relative humidity in the United States are as follows: (1) 
Along the coasts there is a belt of high humidity at all seasons, 
the percentage of saturation ranging from 75 to 80 per cent. 

(2) Inland from about the ninety-seventh meridian eastward to 
the Atlantic coast the amount varies between 70 and 75 per cent. 

(3) The dry region is in the Southwest, where the average annual 
value is not over 50 per cent. In this region is included Arizona, 
New Mexico,- southwestern Colorado, and the greater portion 
of both Utah and Nevada. The mean annual relative humidity 
in the remaining portion of the elevated country comprised be- 
tween the one hundredth meridian on the east and the Sierra 
Nevada and Cascades on the west varies between 50 and 65 
per cent. 

In July, August, and September the mean values in the South- 
west sink as low as 20 and 30 per cent, while along the Pacific 
coast districts they continue about 80 per cent the year around. 
In Atlantic coast districts and generally east of the Mississippi 
River the variation from month to month is not great. April 
is probably the driest month in the year. 

Extreme values of relative humidity for Maniln. — In Table 
XXXI complete information is given concerning the extreme 
values of relative humidity for Manila. The annual mean daily 



* Climatology of the United States, page 61. 



416 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 



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HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 



419 



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420 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



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HUMIDITY AND CLOUDINESS. 



421 






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1 



422 CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 

range deduced from the mean daily maximum and mean daily 
minimum of the whole period 1903-1918 is 30.4. The extreme 
range as deduced from the absolute extreme values of the same 
period is 73, the highest absolute humidity having been 100 
per cent and the lowest 27 per cent. The monthly absolute 
highest humidity is 99 per cent for the three months February to 
April, and 100 per cent for the other nine months of the year. 
The monthly absolute lowest humidity varies from 27 per cent 
in May to 55 in September. 

Mean hourly relative humidity for Manila. — Table XXXII 
shows the hourly mean values of relative humidity in Manila 
for every month, together with the annual and semi-annual 
values. There is only a single daily oscillation, altogether op- 
posite to the daily temperature oscillation described in chapter 
II, the minimum occurring during the early hours of the after- 
noon, and the maximum in the early morning. The annual 
mean daily range is 24.4, it being smaller in the summer months 
when the temperature oscillation is also smaller, and greater in 
the months of February to April, when the temperature range 
is likewise greater. The semi-annual daily range is 27.8 for 
the period of November to May, and 19.8 for the period of June 
to October. 

Mean monthly and anrntal cloudiness. — We give in Table 
XXXIII the mean monthly and annual cloudiness for thirteen 
stations of the Philippines. Cloudiness means the portion of 
sky covered by clouds, and this is expressed in tenths of the 
whole sky. Thus, for instance, a cloudiness of 5.5 indicates 
that 55 per cent of the whole sky is covered by clouds. Our 
mean values are based upon observations made between 6 a. m. 
and 7 p. m. only. 

The mean annual cloudiness as shown in the table varies from 
4.4 in Vigan to 7.1 in Tacloban. As a rule, there is a direct 
relation between cloudiness, rainfall and relative humidity, al- 
though this relation does not always appear so clearly in the 
average values. Hence the monthly distribution of cloudiness 
in the regions in the eastern part of the Philippines, where 
rains are so frequent during the whole year, is quite different 
from that of the regions in the western part of the Archipelago, 
where a dry season prevails in winter and spring. The cloudi- 
ness of Vigan is very small if compared with that of the other 
stations included in Table XXXIII, especially from November 
to April; and the same must be the case in practically all the 
stations of Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte, as they are the driest in 
winter and spring. 



V. WINDS. 

Both the wind velocity and the frequency of the different wind 
directions are considered as important climatic factors. It is 
to be regretted that we can not give at present more complete 
information concerning these elements, particularly as to the 
number of gales experienced in each station or in each of our 
provinces and subprovinces ; but we hope that on some future 
occasion we may be able to say something more on this matter. 
Even in regard to the frequency of different wind directions, data 
are given here but for a few stations, the time allowed for this 
report being too limited to attempt to include more stations, as 
was done in some of the preceding chapters. 

Frequency of ivind di7'ections: monthly, an7iual and semi- 
annual percentages. — Table XXXIV shows the monthly percent- 
ages of wind directions for eight stations of the Philippines, while 
the corresponding annual and semi-annual percentages are given 
in Table XXXV, and graphically represented in eight plates, 
XIV to XXI. The stations chosen are Zamboanga and Surigao, 
for Mindanao; Cebu and Iloilo, for the Visayas; and Legaspi, 
Manila, Baguio, and Aparri, for Luzon. The Manila percentages 
are deduced from 24 daily observations and given for sixteen 
points of the compass ; but those of the other seven stations are 
deduced from six daily observations and for only eight points 
of the compass, by joining two points in one as shown in Tables 
XXXIV and XXXV. Zamboanga and Baguio are the only sta- 
tions which appear with a period of observations of less than six- 
teen years, the reason being that six daily observations have been 
made only since July, 1909, in Baguio, and since October, 1916, 
in Zamboanga. The period of two years for Zamboanga is too 
small, and the percentages given for that station are, therefore, 
not so valuable as those obtained for the other stations. Yet, 
we thought it better to include here the wind frequency for 
that place, even though the data given have to be considered 
as of a temporary character. 

We will now say a few words on the results obtained for 
each of the stations chosen, particularly on the annual and semi- 
annual percentages. 

Zamboanga. — There is only a slight difference between the 
three graphs representing the annual and semi-annual percent- 

423 



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432 



CLIMATE AND WEATHER. 



Table XXXIV. — Monthly percentages of wind directions at several stations 

of the Philippines. 



Tabla XXXIV. 



-Percentajes mensuaJes de las direcciones del viento en varias estaciones de 

Filipinas. 

ZAMBOANGA. 1917-1918. 



Direction. 
Direccion. 


January. 
Enero. 


February. 
Fpbrero. 

1 


March. 
Marzo. 


1 
April. 
Abril. 




June. 
Junio. 


July. 
Julio. 


August. 
Agosto. 


September. 
Septiembre. 


October. 
Octubre. 


November. 
Noviembre. 


Qi5 


N, NNE 


18 


19 


21 


23 


26 


19 


27 


19 


13 


13 


16 


25 


NE, ENE 


24 


17 


9 


12 


10 


11 


14 


8 


10 


5 


9 


12 


E, ESE 


13 


10 


6 


4 


6 


5 


6 


3 


5 


2 


7 


8 


SE, SSE 


5 


7 


7 


8 


8 


10 


15 


10 


9 


9 


6 


7 


S, SSW 


2 


5 


5 


3 


3 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


5 


3 


SW, WSW 


3 


4 


5 


6 


9 


11 


10 


8 


9 


9 


12 


6 


W, WNW 


11 


14 


25 


22 


16 


20 


15 


26 


15 


25 


15 


16 


NW, NNW 


6 


3 


3 


7 


6 


11 


5 


8 


9 


9 


3 


8 


Calm 


18 


21 


18 


15 


16 


12 


7 


15 


26 


24 


28 


1. 



SURIGAO, 1903-1918. 



N, NNE 

NE, ENE 

E, ESE 

SE, SSE 

S, SSW 

SW, WSW 

W, WNW 

NW, NNW 

Calm 



11 


1 

11 ! 


32 


29 ! 


14 


16 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


6 


4 


1 29 

i 


30 

! 



6 

30 

20 

5 

3 

2 

1 

3 

29 



6 
22 
20 ! 

6 

3 

3 

2 

3 
34 ; 



6 


4 


14 


8 


15 


11 


5 


5 


6 


8 


6 


12 


4 


6 


4 


5 


39 


40 



2 
3 

t! 

9 ! 
26 I 
13 

37 j 

I 



2 


2 


4 


1 
5 


3 


3 


7 


16 


3 


3 


6 


9 


1 


2 


3 


3 


10 


8 


6 


6 


36 


30 


19 


11 


12 


12 


9 


4 


4 


5 


5 


8 


29 


35 


41 


37 



7 
24 
15 

4 
3 
4 
2 
6 
35 



CEBU, 1903-1918. 



N, NNE 


27 


23 


22 


15 


8 


6 


3 


2 


3 


9 


19 


24 


NE, ENE 


39 


41 


40 


37 


20 


12 


4 


3 


4 


13 


23 


37 


E, ESE 


9 


10 


13 


13 


10 


7 


2 


2 


2 


6 


7 


5 


SE, SSE 





1 


1 


1 


4 


4 


3 


2 


2 


4 


2 


1 


S, SSW 


1 


1 


1 


2 


10 


11 


14 


14 


15 


7 


4 


2 


SW, WSW 


1 








1 


7 


15 


32 


34 


28 


15 


6 


3 


W, WNW 














2 


4 


8 


9 


7 


5 


3 


1 


NW. NNW 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


2 


Calm 


23 


24 


23 


28 


37 


37 


33 


30 


85 


87 


32 


26 



ILOILO, 1903-1918. 



N, NNE 


43 


42 


40 


36 


18 


13 


c 


3 


6 


17 


33 


42 


NE, ENE 


47 


48 


48 


41 


21 


13 


6 


4 


6 


22 


39 


46 


E, ESE 


4 


4 


6 


8 


7 


4 


2 


2 


1 


4 


3 


3 


SE, SSE 














1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


S, SSW 














4 


7 


7 


6 


4 


4 


1 





SW, WSW 


1 


1 


1 


5 


23 


33 


55 


64 


54 


26 


10 


S 


W, WNW 














2 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


1 





NW. NNW 


2 


1 


1 


2 


5 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


1 


Calm 


2 


3 


8 


7 


19 


19 


16 


16 


20 


20 


11 


6 



LEGASPI, 1903-1918. 



N, NNE 


80 


25 


22 


18 


11 


6 


8 


1 


4 


18 


27 


32 


NE, ENE 


51 


50 


52 


50 


36 


25 


9 


5 


8 


27 


41 


49 


E. ESE 


7 


10 


16 


17 


15 


11 


4 


5 


5 


7 


8 


6 


SE, SSE 











1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 





S, SSW 











1 


3 


6 


7 


6 


7 


4 


1 





SW, WSW 











1 


5 


13 


35 


46 


35 


12 


8 


1 


W. WNW 














2 


4 


10 


14 


10 


5 


2 


1 


NW, NNW 


1 











1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


Calm 


11 


14 


» 


12 


28 


33 


81 


28 


28 


29 


16 


10 



WINDS. 



433 



Table XXXIV. — Monthly percentages of vnnd directions at several stations 

of the Philippines — Continued. 

Tabla XXXIV. — Percentajes mensuales de las direcciones del viento en varias estaciones de 

Filipinas — Continuacion. 

MANILA, 1903-1918. 







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Direccion. 


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Febrero 


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3 


2 


3 


5 


8 


9 


NNE 


8 


6 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


6 


10 


11 


NE 


8 


7 


6 


4 


5 


4 


3 


3 


3 


6 


10 


9 


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5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


3 


2 


2 


2 


4 


5 


5 


E 


6 


8 


10 


8 


6 


5 


3 


2 


2 


4 


6 


5 


ESE 


6 


11 


14 


14 


8 


7 


3 


2 


3 


5 


5 


4 


SE 


7 


10 


16 


17 


10 


9 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


3 


SSE 


1 


2 


4 


5 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


1 


1 


S 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


4 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


SSW 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


5 


7 


8 


6 


3 


1 


1 


SW 


2 


2 


2 


3 


7 


8 


14 


18 


12 


4 


2 


2 


WSW 


4 


4 


4 


5 


8 


9 


15 


19 


15 


7 


4 


3 


W 


5 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


4 


4 


WNW 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


NW 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


NNW 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


4 


3 


Calm 


29 


24 


20 


20 


25 


25 


23 


21 


27 


34 


32 


34 



N, NNE 


3 


3 


2 


3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


4 


4 


2 


3 


NE, ENE 


5 


5 


7 


7 


8 


7 


4 


5 


4 


7 


5 


7 


E, ESE 


43 


39 


31 


27 


21 


28 


17 


10 


18 


30 


44 


44 


SE, SSE 


16 


14 


14 


14 


14 


18 


12 


6 


10 


13 


17 


18 


S, SSW 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


SW, WSW 


16 


18 


21 


19 


21 


16 


29 


32 


23 


16 


13 


14 


W, WNW 


8 


11 


16 


19 


20 


17 


23 


33 


27 


16 


9 


8 


NW, NNW 


2 


2 


2 


3 


6 


4 


5 


5 


7 


5 


2 


1 


Calm 


6 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


4 


4 


6 


6 


6 

1 


8 



APARRI, 1