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CENTAURS 

IN ANCIENT ART 



THE ARCHAIC PERIOD 



c 

PAUL v:c: BAUR 



WITH 38 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT AND 15 PLATES 




1912 

KARL CURTIUS 

BERLIN 
W35 



Germany 




SPAMERSCHE BUCHDRUCKEREI IN LEIPZIG 



DEDICATED 
TO My WIFE 



, PREFACE. 

The centaur in ancient literature has often been discussed, but so far as I know 
an exhaustive study of the centaur in ancient art has never been made. Such a 
study seemed to me worth while, especially since an erroneous impression concerning 
the development of the types has become almost universal, due to the limited 
horizon of those who have dealt only casually with this subject. For Nessos, Chiron 
and Pholos Stephani, Compte-Rendu 1865, 102 sqq. and 1873, 73 sqq., 90 sqq. has 
collected valuable material. 

I have attempted to catalogue the various types from the earliest times down 
to the end of the archaic period, 480 B.C., and have made a three-fold division, 
Class A : Centaurs with equine forelegs, Class B : Centaurs with human forelegs, and 
Class C: Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs. So far as it was practical 
I have arranged the examples collected according to locality and in chronological 
order, at the same time attempting to form groups of the various mythological 
subjects. This could not very well be carried out systematically and methodically 
in the archaic period of Attic ceramic art of Class A for various reasons, but espe- 
cially because two different subjects sometimes are found on one and the same vase. 
Occasionally I have included monuments of even later date than 480 B. C., but 
only where the types seemed important for a full understanding of those of earlier 
times. 

It is an agreeable task to acknowledge my indebtedness to my friend and teacher, 
the late Professor Kekule von Stradonitz, who encouraged me to publish this 
work, and to Professor Robert Zahn who also had made a collection of centaurs in 
ancient art which he unselfishly placed at my disposal. Both were of inestimable 
help in making it pleasant for me to collect the material in the Berlin Museum 
and in the Archaeological Apparat of the Berlin University. To Dr. J. Sieveking 
of Munich my hearty thanks are due for his help in procuring illustrative material, 
so too to Dr. Edward Robinson of the Metropolitan Museum and to Drs. J. H. 
Holwerda and M. A. Evelein of Ley den. To all the other curators of Museums 
who have aided me by supplying photographs and other needful information I 
hereby acknowledge my thanks. 

Berlin, April 1912. Paul V. C. Baur. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page 

Preface V 

Abbreviations VIII 

A. Centaurs of Class A with equine forelegs on: 

I. Oriental monuments I 

II. Monuments of the geometric period : 4 

III. Early archaic Melian intaglios 7 

IV. Melian stamped red ware 8 

V. Primitive terracotta figurines: 

a) Boeotia 9 

b) Cyprus 9 

VI. Archaic Attic vases 10 

VII. "Cyrenaic" pottery 53 

VIII. Ionic pottery, Aegean island style 56 

IX. "Euboean" and Corinthian pottery 57 

X. Theban Cabirion ware 61 

XI. Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases 61 

XII." Architectural reliefs: 

a) Assos 68 

b) Samsoun 70 

XIII. Ionic bronze statuette 71 

XIV. Etruscan bronze statuette 71 

XV. Gems, Greek and Etruscan 72 

XVI. Coins 72 

XVII. Etruscan bucchero ware 74 

XVIII. Stamped red ware of uncertain fabric 74 

B. Centaurs of Class B with human forelegs on: 

I. Monuments of the geometric period 78 

II. Primitive bronzes and terracottas 78 

III. Vases of transition period between geometric and later styles 82 

IV. Melian gem 84 

V. Stamped red ware 84 

VI. Cretan stamped relief ware 87 

VII. Rhodian stamped gold plaques 88 

VIII. Bronze reliefs from Olympia 89 

IX. Proto-Corinthian vases 90 

X. Corinthian ware 93 

XI. Clazomenian sarcophagi 95 

XII. Plastic monuments 96 

XIII. Bronze chariot from Monteleone 97 

XIV. "Cyrenaic" pottery 97 

XV. Greek bronze statuettes 98 

XVI. Greek gems 99 

* XVII. Attic vases 100 

XVIII. Etruscan red ware: 

a) Stamped reliefs no 

b) Incised figures 112 



Table of Contents. VII 

XIX. Etruscan bucchero ware: Pa s e 

a) Stamped reliefs 113 

b) Incised figures 115 

XX. Etruscan gold jewelry 117 

XXI. Etruscan bronze statuettes. 117 

XXII. Etruscan ivory monuments 119 

XXIII. Italian metal work 120 

XXIV. Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases 122 

XXV. Etruscan gems 129 

XXVI. Etruscan stone relief 129 

C. Centaurs of Class C with human forelegs but hoofs instead of human feet on: 

I. Clazomenian sarcophagi 130 

II. Clazomenian vases 131 

III. Caeretan hydria 132 

IV. Etrusco-Ionic vases 133 

V. Ionic gem 134 

VI. Cypriote monuments 134 

Conclusion 135 

Addenda "139 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

A . J. A . = American Journal of Archaeology. 
Annali = Annali dell' Institute. 

Ant. Denkm. = Antike Denkmaler, herausgegeben vom K. Deutschen Archaologischen Institut. 
Arch. Anz. = Archaologischer Anzeiger (Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch). 
Arch. Ztg. Archaologische Zeitung. 

Ath. Mitt. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung. 
Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue = E. Babelon-J. A. Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes antiques de la Biblio- 
theque Nationale. 

B. C. H. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique. 
B. S. A . Annual of the British School at Athens. 
Bull. d. Inst. = Bullettino dell'Instituto. 

Bull. Nap. = Bullettino Napolitano. 

Coghill = J. Millingen, Peintures antiques de Vases Grecs de la Collection de Sir John Coghill, Bart. 

Collignon-Couve = Catalogue des Vases peints du Musee National d'Athenes. 

Compte- Rendu Stephani, Compte-Rendu de la Commission Imperiale Archeologique. 

'E(f. 'Ag%. ^EfftifiEQi? 'Ao%aio/.oyixt/. 

Friederichs, Bronzen = C. Friederichs, Berlins Antike Bildwerke II. Cerate und Bronzen im Alten Museum. 

Furtwangler-Reichhold = A. Furtwangler und K. Reichhold, Griechische Vasenmalerei. 

Furtwangler = A. Furtwangler, Beschreibung der Vasensammlung im Antiquarium, Berlin. 

Head, Hist. Num. B. Head, Historia Numorum (i st ed.). 

Helbig, Fuhrer = W. Helbig, Fuhrer durch die offentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Altertumer in Rom. 

Heuzey, Cat. des figurines = L. Heuzey, Les figurines antiques de terre cuite du Musee du Louvre. 

Heydemann = H. Heydemann, Die Vasensammlungen des Museo nazionale zu Neapel. 

Jahn O. Jahn, Beschreibung der Vasensammlung Konig Ludwigs in der Pinakothek zu Munchen. 

Jahrb. = Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts. 

J. H. S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

Laborde = A. de Laborde, Collection de Vases Grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg. 

Masner = K. Masner, Die Sammlung antiker Vasen und Terracotten im K. K. Osterreichischen Museum. 

Micali, Mon. Ined. = G. Micali, Monument! inediti a illustrazione della storia degli antichi popoli italiani. 

Micali, Storia = G. Micali, Monumenti per servire alia storia degli antichi popoli italiani. 

Miiller-Wieseler, D. a. K. = Miiller-Wieseler, Denkmaler der alten Kunst. 

Overbeck, Her. Bildw. = J. Overbeck, Gallerie heroischer Bildwerke der alten Kunst. 

Pettier, Album E. Pettier, Vases antiques du Louvre (Two volumes of plates). 

Pettier, Catalogue = E. Pettier, Catalogue des Vases antiques du Louvre. 

Reinach, Rep. Reliefs = S. Reinach, Repertoire de Reliefs Grecs et Romains. 

Reinach, Rep. Statuaire S. Reinach, Repertoire de la Statuaire Greque et Romaine. 

Reinach, Rep. Vas. S. Reinach, Repertoire des Vases peints Grecs et Etrusques. 

Rev. Arch. = Revue Archeologique. 

De Ridder, Cat. d. Vases Peints A. de Ridder, Catalogue des Vases peints de la Bibliothdque Nationale. 

Robinson = E. Robinson, Catalogue of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Vases, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

Rom. Mitt. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Romische Abteilung. 

Schmidt, Der Knielauf = Eduard Schmidt, Der Knielauf und die Darstellung des Laufens und Fliegens 
in der alteren Griechischen Kunst (Miinchener Archaologische Studien, dem Andenken Adolf Furt- 
wanglers gewidmet). 

Sieveking-Hackl = J. Sieveking und R. Hackl, Miinchener Vasensammlung, I. Bd., Die alteren nicht- 
attischen Vasen. 

Stephani = L. Stephani, Die Vasen-Sammlung der kais. Ermitage. 

Walters = H. B. Walters, Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan Vases in the British Museum, vol. II. Black- 
Figured Vases. 



CLASS A. 

I. ORIENTAL MONUMENTS. 

I. Prism-seal. Fig. I. Steatite. Crete. Berlin, Cat. no. 62. Evans, /. H. S. 1894 
p. 344 fig. 69; Scripta Minoa I p. n fig. 5b. 

A centaur stands to r. with one arm outstretched, the other drawn back; in 
front of him is an unexplained object. Evans, Scripta Minoa I p. 130 dates the 
early prism-seals of Crete between the sixth and eleventh dynasty, and on p. 119 
he says they belong to Early Minoan II and III and to the beginning of Middle 
Minoan. The earliest date then that can be assigned to our prism-seal is 2500 B. C. 
the latest 2000 B.C. Evans does not comment on the very remarkable phenomenon 
of ji centaur in prehistoric Crete. Although I have made a thorough search I have 
not been able to find another example either in the pre-Mycenaean period or in the 
Mycenaean period. This non-existence of the centaur before the geometric period 
is surprising, for in the Minoan period monstrosities fantastic 
and demoniac abound. Every conceivable combination occurs, 
except that of horse and man. Since the centaur on this prism- 
seal is unique in Crete I consider the seal a foreign, probably 
Babylonian, importation. Although Evans considers these 
early seals to be of local manufacture, he does admit on p. 123 
that they and the cylinders show reminiscences of Chaldean 

j Tt -i i r j i j *j_ Fig. i. Detail from T. H. S. 1894 

and Babylonian forms and on p. 243 he admits a remote con- - p 344 fig . 69 . 

nection between primitive pictography of Crete and Anatolia. 

Of course the date of the origin of the centaur depends largely on the date of 
the origin of the horse. Furthermore we must look for the origin of the centaur in 
a locality where the horse was well-known and at home. Ridgeway , Origin and 
Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse p. 198 on authority of Hilprecht, Explorations 
in Bible Lands p. 527 states that "the horse does not appear to have been known in 
that region much before 1500 B. C." Ridgeway holds that "they came to the 
Euphrates Valley from Upper Asia." In Babylonia the horse is called the "Ass 
of the Mountains", which shows that it is a foreign importation. On p. 475 Ridgeway 
says that the horse "originated in North Africa, from whence it has gradually kept 
spreading northward and eastward from at least ioo() B^ C." That the horse was 
introduced from Libya into Crete not earlier than 1500 B. C. is now made highly 
probable by the seal impression found by Evans, B. S. A. XI p. 13 fig. 7, depicting 
a horse being transported in a sailboat. If Hilprecht were correct in his state- 
ment that the horse was not known in Babylonia much before 1500 B.C., then our 
seal could not come from Babylonia, but Ungnad, Orient. Litter aturzeit. 1907 p. 638 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. I 




2 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

proves that the oldest reference to the horse in Babylonia goes back to 2000 B. C. 
One might suppose that we have Libyan influence in this seal, and that the centaur 
is a Libyan invention. If this were true, it would, however, be very surprising that 
the Egyptians did not know the centaur. But since, as we have seen, the horse 
was known in Babylonia as early as 2000 B. C., there is no reason why our prism- 
seal should not have been made in Babylonia. Now since at this time the Hittites 
were in power in Babylonia it is quite possible that the seal was made under Hittite 
influence. 

2. Cassite Boundary Stone. London. Hinke, The Babylonian Expedition of the 
University of Pennsylvania, vol. IV. A New Boundary Stone of Nebuchadrezzar I 
p. 98 fig. 32, Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art III 604 fig. 412, Roscher's Lexikon II i 

P- 1055- 
According to Hinke /. c. p. 7 the Cassite rulers were foreigners, "who came 

most likely from the mountainous regions east of Babylonia," and introduced the 
custom of setting up boundary stones on private land. The text contains curses, 
also symbols of i. shrines or seats of the gods, 2. weapons of the gods, 3. reliefs of 
the gods themselves. The arrow occurs i. alone, or 2. held by a scorpion-man with 
a bow, or 3. by a centaur with a bow. The centaur who is double-headed and winged 
gallops to r. and stretches his bow; he is bearded, wears a pointed cap and a quiver 
on his back. His other head is that of a dragon facing 1., his human head, however, 
faces r. He has two tails as well as two heads, one is that of a horse, the other 
of a scorpion, and under him is a scorpion. On a boundary stone found at Susa, 
Hinke /. c. p. 76 fig. 23 12 , the centaur is also found, but here he is wingless, has 
only one head and one tail. He is walking to the 1. and is about to shoot an arrow. 
This is evidently the symbol out of which the Sagittarius of the zodiac developed. 
The centaur on the boundary stones of Babylonia is, according to my mind, not a 
sign of the zodiac, which would be entirely out of place on such a monument, but 
has power to ward off evil, which fits in well with the curses on the stones. I have 
sought in vain for a satisfactory explanation of the centaur's appearance in the 
zodiac, nor have I been able to discover when this took place. 

Perrot /. c. in connection with the centaur on the boundary stone in the British 
Museum, cites an interesting passage from Berosus (Fr. hist, graec., ed. Didot, vol. II 
fragm. I) to the effect that before human beings lived on earth, it was inhabited by 
monsters, and among these he mentions men with the hindquarters of a horse, 
having the appearance of hippocentaurs, and that images of all these strange beasts 
were to be seen in the. temple of Bel. According to this description the centaurs, 
even though they are called hippocentaurs by Berosus, must have been of my Class B. 
Up to the present not a single example of this class has been found in the Orient, 
but in Etruria under oriental influence they are common enough. Since the Greeks 
from the very beginning were acquainted with both types of centaurs, those with 
equine and those with human forelegs, and since in Babylonia Class A actually 
exists and Class B is recorded, it seems more than probable that the idea of the 
centaur came to the Greeks through the Orient. It is noteworthy that in the 
geometric period the Greek centaurs have not yet mythological significance, unless 
we have an exception in no. 203. At first purely decorative, they soon were supposed 
to have power to avert evil, and as early as the seventh century B. C. stories began 



Oriental monuments. 3 

to^be invented about them. In other words the finished art type existed before any 
legends concerning centaurs were known. These legends arose in connection with 
and in explanation of the art type. 

3. Impression on a clay tablet made from a seal cylinder. Fig. 2. Nippur. Phila- 
' delphia, Mus. No. 3176. Clay, Babylonian Expedition of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, vol. 14, p. 15 and pi. XV. 6, Ward, Seal Cylinders of Western Asia p. 4 
fig. 21. . 

According to Clay the impression representing a centaur which is on all sides 
of the tablet dates from the Cassite period about^i35o B. C., and is accompanied by 
a text which is a payment of salary. The tablet was not large enough to receive 
the entire impression, but the lower border partly preserved has as its most con- 
spicuous element a lozenge pattern. Other sealings of the same period have a trian- 
gular pattern similar to that on the geometric stamped gold diadems nos. 5 and 199 
and to that on the stamped red ware found in Sicily, nos. 197 and 198. The centaur 
with small wings growing out of the small of his back is galloping to r. and is 
about to shoot an arrow T from a bow; his quiver is on his back and over his equine 
body he wears the skin of a wild animal, probably a 
panther, fastened at his waist. On the r. is a date 
tree, and under him three flowers. 

As to the decorative border at each end of the 
cylinder, Clay says: "This seems to be a characteristic 
feature of the seals of the Cassite period. Dr. W. H. 
Ward has suggested that the seal had a thin metal 
cap, presumably of gold, upon which the border 
was cut." 

It would be mere speculation to suppose that because the centaur is found on 
Cassite monuments, it was originated by the Cassites. All we can say is that they 
knew the centaur as early as 1350 B. C. The Hittites, I am convinced, have a better 
claim than the Cassites to the invention of the combination between horse and man. 

As to the vexing question whether the seal cylinders of Assyria, Ward /. c. 
p. 209 fig. 629, p. 210 figs. 631633 should be interpreted as centaurs, there has been, 
so far as I can see, little divergence of opinion, except Ohnefalsch Richter, Kypros, 
Bibel und Homer p. 259 note **, who states that although we find in Assyrian Art 
all kinds of monstrosities made up of man and animal, we do not find real centaurs. 
The fantastic figure 633 Ward calls a centaur, but it is a human-headed lion. If we 
should follow this method and call every human-headed animal a centaur, we would 
have to include the Minotaur in our discussion. It seems to me that unless we hold 
closely to the interpretation of the centaur as a human-headed horse with human 
arms and torso, we shall not be able to make any progress. Fig. 632 is called by 
Ward an archer-centaur shooting a lion-headed winged horse. He is winged, and 
seems to have one human and one equine foreleg. He wears a head-dress of reeds, 
a beard, and a quiver on his back. The figures move from r. to 1. Fig. 631 is also 
called an archer-centaur pursuing a dragon to r. In this as well as in the preceding 
figure the scorpion is also represented in the field. One foreleg is human, but there 
seems to be two others ending in a scorpion's claws. Even less claim has the "archer- 
centaur" on fig. 629, where a bull to 1. is being pursued by a winged monster span- 

i* 




A Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

ning a bow. Here neither the body nor the legs are equine. Ward /. c. p. 382 con- 
siders it "very probable that the Greek Centaur came from this Eastern source." 
Such figures as these probably had no connection with the Greek centaur at all, 
and perhaps not even with the Sagittarius of the zodiac. They are certainly not 
symbols of the zodiac on the cylinder seals. Although their date is not fixed they 
are probably later than the early geometric period, a time when in Greece the 
centaur was already fully established. If we could localize the oriental influence on 
Greece during the ninth century B. C. we would also know the oriental locality 
from which the Greeks derived the idea of the centaur. This Ohnefalsch Richter 
/. c. claims he has done : ,,Der Kentaur ist eine specifisch graecophonikische Schop- 
fung", but he offers no evidence. 

Ward /. c. p. 355 makes the astonishing statement that the Greeks had no use 
for cylinders. How then was the stamped pottery, both Red and Bucchero ware, 
how were the stamped diadems of gold, nos. 5 and 199 made? 

In St. Petersburg I have seen an interesting Persian sheath of gold, found 
in southern Russia, on which are depicted in repousse work all kinds of 
monstrosities, combinations of animal and man, but no real centaurs. See 
E. Pridik, Materialien zur russischen Archaologie (Russian) 1911 Heft 31 
pis. i, 3 and 4. 



II. MONUMENTS OF THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD. 

4. Cup. Dipylon cemetery. Athens. Bruckner and Pernice, Aih. Mitt. XVIII, 1893 
p. 113 fig. 10. Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art VII p. 222 fig. 96. Collignon-Couve, 
Catalogue des vases 352. Two winged centaurs confronted. 

On the inside round the central disc is a band of figures as follows : On a throne 
to 1 . is seated a female deity ; approaching her is a procession of four women holding 
hands and branches; the foremost offers the goddess a crown. Behind the throne 
are two armed warriors to r. separated by a female (?) figure kneeling to r. on a 
stool, and holding in 1. hand a branch, in r. a lyre. Beyond are two winged centaurs 
confronted, rearing with outstretched hands as if about to attack each other. Their 
tails are uplifted and curve in an impossible but decorative manner. According to 
Bruckner I. c. 114 and Perrot /. c. p. 222 the winged figure to r. is a sphinx, but I 
prefer to call it a centaur because it has human hands. Bruckner is very much 
mistaken when he says that winged centaurs do not occur. They occur in Babylonia 
as early as the Cassite period, see nos. 2 and 3 and in Etruria, nos. 285 and 289, and 
on the helmet from Oppeano, no. 303. It is therefore evident that in the early 
geometric period, perhaps as early as the ninth century B.C., oriental influence was 
already felt in Athens; our vase is the earliest illustration of such influence. See 
also Hoernes, Urgeschichte p. 617 and Poulsen, Die Dipylongrdber und die Dipylon- 
vasen p. 114. 

That centaurs did not always live peaceably together is also evinced by the 
cylix of Xenokles, no. 85, where other instances, for the most part Etruscan and 
Etrusco-Ionic, are cited. 



Monuments of the Geometric Period. 5 

5. Stamped gold band. Fig. 3. Corinth. Berlin. Furtwangler, Arch. Ztg. 1884 
pi. 8, i. Centaurs of Class A and Class B in a procession of cavalry and infantry. 
The procession moves from r. to 1. contrary to the usual custom in early Greek 
art; it is led by three centaurs with human forelegs, carrying small branches in 
their hands. The second has a long branch over his shoulder as on the somewhat 
later stamped Bucchero and red ware. They are followed by two cavalry-men, the 
first wearing a helmet. Then come two centaurs with equine forelegs, carrying 
branches, followed by a long procession of infantry holding hands, the leader with 
a lance, the fifth with a bow or a shield. This group is interrupted by a horned 
animal, evidently a sacrificial victim, the same motive occurring again on the lower 
frieze of the same strip of gold. Here some of the cavalry-men have not yet mounted, 
that is, they are preparing to join the procession. In the field, branches and a 
swastika. For a very similar gold fillet from Athens, now in Copenhagen, on which, 
however, no centaurs of Class A are preserved, see no. 199. Similar processions 
with dancing men and women also occur on the geometric pottery, see no. 4 and on 
the fragments found in the excavations of the Argive Heraeum, especially Argive 



nmuamif: 










Fig. 3. Detail from Arch. Ztg. 1884 pi. 8, r. 

Heraeum vol. II pi. 57 fig. 17, where again the swastika and branches which resemble 
arrow-heads decorate the field. It is therefore evident that the gold fillets or diadems 
must be dated not later than the eighth century B. C. Poulsen, Dipylongrdber u. 
Dipylonvasen p. 130 holds that some of the moulds used in stamping the reliefs on 
the diadems came from the Orient, whereas others were of local manufacture. He 
comes to this conclusion because the centaurs do not make an Attic impression, 
being more closely related to the Rhodian stamped reliefs in terracotta, and to the 
Italian Bucchero ware. But as we have seen above, no. 4, there must have been 
stronger oriental influence at Athens during the geometric period than is usually 
granted, and I see no reason why the matrixes used to stamp our gold bands were 
not made in Athens or perhaps in Corinth, to be sure under oriental influence. That 
this same influence was felt in Crete, Rhodes, Melos and elsewhere is made plain 
by the stamped ware of those centers. Perrot, who also discussed these diadems 
in Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art VII p. 246 sq. holds that they were used to decorate 
the head of the dead; the frieze then would represent a funeral procession and the 
centaurs would have sepulchral significance. Now in Italy the centaurs are occa- 
sionally connected with the lower world, they guard the tombs, see no. 317, like 
'Charon they lead the spirits to the lower world, see no. 282 and in course of time 



(5 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

were considered guardians of the gates of Hades, see especially Milchhofer, An/dnge- 
p. 229 and Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1054 S< W' I s it n t therefore probable that the 
connection of centaurs with the lower world on Italian and geometric monuments 
is to be traced back to oriental ideas ? If this is true then not only the art type but 
also the popular conception of the centaur is derived from the Orient. 

It is significant that the zigzag pattern above the figures again occurs on the 
handle of a red ware vase in Heidelberg, no. 280, also on the stamped red ware 
found in Sicily nos. 197, 198, but there below the figures as on the Babylonian sealings 
of the Cassite period, see no. 3. It is, furthermore, of interest to note that the 
stamped red ware of Etruria sometimes contains a double zone of reliefs as here, 
see, for example, Pettier, Album pi. 37 D 282. The meaning of all these resem- 
blances is clear, both Greece and Etruria drew independently on the Orient. 

6. Lead figurines from the Amyklaion near Sparta and from the Menelaion. Therap- 
nai. Now in Nat. Museum, Athens, Antiquarium of Munich and Museum at 

Sparta. Tod and Wace, Catalogue of Sparta Museum p - . 226 sqq. fig. 81, Perrot- 
ChipiezVIII 185 fig. 93, Rev. Arch. 1897 pi. 2 fig. 20. Wace, B. S. A. XV p. 138 
fig. 10, no. 36. Centaurs of Class B also occur. 

The use to which these centaurs were put is not known, it is however probable 
that they were votive offerings. The one in Munich is from the Menelaion; it has 
arms uplifted, human forelegs, and is walking to 1. The tail is broad and flat. The 
National Museum at Athens has one from the same place and one from the Amy- 
klaion. The centaur published by Wace, B. S. A. XV p. 138 fig. 10, 36 probably 
had human forelegs and brandishes a club. It belongs to Wace's Lead III IV 
circa 600 500 B. C., and was found in the Menelaion. 

7. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Dark green stone resembling serpentine. Melos. 
Albertinum, Dresden, Zugangsverz. 1445. Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I 
pi. 61, 3; II p. 272 and III p. 65. 

A centaur standing to r. with uplifted arms, seems to be brandishing a 
stick in each hand. This side of the gem is slightly convex. It is pierced along its 
axis for suspension, and may have been used as an amulet. Furtwangler /. c. Ill 65 
calls attention to the fact that fantastic and demoniac figures are, with the exception 
of the centaur, absent on gems of the geometric period. He also states, and this is 
very true and significant, that the centaur does not appear on gems of the Myce- 
naean period. Indeed, I have not found a single monument of the Mycenaean period 
with the representation of a centaur, though almost every other fantastic combina- 
tion occurs. It is furthermore noteworthy that in the early geometric period the 
centaurs are not yet incorporated in mythology, though they may have sepulchral 
significance. Although they do not occur on Mycenaean monuments, there is at 
least one example of pre-Mycenaean date, see no. I, which I believe to be of Hittite 
workmanship. We have also seen, nos. 2 and 3, that later in Babylonia, under 
Cassite rule, the centaur still flourishes, and I do not doubt that he came to Greece 
sometime after the Mycenaean period, but certainly as early as the beginning of 
the eighth century, if not before. At this time there were no legends associating him 
with Herakles or with the Lapiths. All this developed later, but certainly in the 
seventh century, witness the Melian "island-stones", the "Proto-Corinthian" ware 
etc. It is furthermore noteworthy that in the Orient the centaur had equine forelegs 



Early archaic Melian intaglios. 7 

and \, usually winged, although according to Berosus, see under no. 2, the type 
with human forelegs was also known. The third type, my Class C, with human 
forelegs ending in hoofs, seems to have been an Aeolic invention, which never 
became popular. The old theory that the centaur was first represented with human 
forelegs, out of which type the equine legged centaurs developed, will no doubt die 
hard, for. it had become almost universal in the course of time, It is surprising how 
a rash statement will occasionally be repeated from generation to generation for 
a. century or more, without verification. A glance at my catalogue makes it evident 
that in the Orient the centaur of Class A occurs as early as 2000 B.C. and that on 
the very earliest monuments of the geometric period both types A and B occur side 
by side sometimes on one and the same monument. On the geometric gems the 
change has not yet taken place, but on the Melian stones of the seventh century 
both types occur. 

III. EARLY ARCHAIC MELIAN INTAGLIOS. 

8. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Steatite. Melos. Formerly in Collection Evans, sold 
at auction May 8, 1905 Collection d'un Archeologue-Explorateur, Pierres Gravees 
Antiques, pi. II 18. Date: seventh century B. C. 

A centaur galloping to 1. looks back with both arms uplifted, the palms of his 
hands towards his head. He is bearded, and since no pointed ears are visible, was 
supposed to have human ears, as in oriental and geometric art. He holds no attri- 
butes. His position is more that of a stumbling than of a galloping centaur, the 
hindlegs close together and parallel, the front legs as though he were falling on his 1. 
knee. On Attic b. f . vases this is frequently the type of Nessos, but here it is probably 
one of the centaurs trying to escape the arrows of Herakles, In the Collection Arndt 
is a Melian gem with almost identically the same representation, but there the 
centaur has human forelegs, see no. 214. It is, however, somewhat later in date. 

9. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Steatite. Melos. Bibliotheque Nationale, Cab. d. Med. 
Table Case I 6 M 6252. 

A centaur to 1. with almost the same pose as that on the preceding gem, except 
that the head is turned full face. 

10. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Steatite. Melos. Breslau. Rossbach, Arch.Ztg. 1883 
pi. 16 figs. 15, 16, p. 331; Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 5, 28, II p. 23, 
III p. 73. Engraved on both sides. 

A bearded centaur galloping to 1., looks back, r. hand uplifted, 1. arm stret- 
ched horizontally behind him. He is wounded by an arrow in his equine back. 
His hindlegs are farther apart than on the preceding examples. The wound in his 
back makes it apparent that he is trying to escape the arrows of Herakles, in other 
words we have here an illustration of a legend in abbreviated form. 

11. Intaglio of glandular shape. Steatite. Melos. Berlin, Furtwangler, Geschnittene 
Steine no. 93 pi. Ill, and Ant. Gemmen I pi. 5, 29, II p. 23. 

A bearded centaur galloping to r., looks back, in his uplifted r. hand he holds 
a branch horizontally over his head, in his 1. hand a stone against his chest. One 
foreleg is outstretched, the other is bent at the knee under his body, giving the 



g Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

impression of great speed. This is the only example of a Melian stone with centaur 
to r., the others are to 1. Furthermore it is the only example of the set in which 
the centaur is armed, the others are empty-handed. On no. 12, however, the centaur 
had been armed, but has dropped his branch in his eagerness to escape his pursuer. 
12. Intaglio of glandular shape. Steatite. British Museum, Catalogue p. 44 no. 84. 

Furtwangler, Gemmen I pi. 5, 33, II p. 23; Keller, Tier- und Pflanzenbilder auf 

Munzen u. Gemmen pi. 25, 33. 

A centaur, bearded, long hair down his back, long thick tail, gallops to 1.,. 
looking back, with arms outstretched full length to r. and 1., both thumbs upwards. 
He has dropped his branch in his eagerness to escape Herakles, who, though not 
depicted, is his pursuer. As usual his hindlegs are close together, but for the first 
time on this class of monuments the forelegs are outstretched close together and not 
bent at the knees. A close parallel are the centaurs on the frieze of the temple at 
Assos, no. 182, perhaps even closer are the Samsoun reliefs no. 183, and the Melian 
stamped reliefs no. 13. 

Even in the seventh century as well as in the geometric period, see no. 7, the 
Melian stones were used as amulets, which makes it probable that centaurs as well 
as Medusa had power to ward off evil and it is interesting to note that on some gems 
of the sixth century B. C. Medusa is represented as a centaur, see Furtwangler,. 
Gemmen III p. 101, I pi. 7, 39, 40, so too on a stamped relief pithos in the Louvre, 
Bull. Con. Hell. 1898 pis. 4 and 5. 



IV. MELIAN STAMPED RED WARE. 

13. Fragment of a large pithos. Plaka, Melos. Pollak, Ath. Mitt. XXI, 1896, 
p. 216 sq. pi. 5, i. 

On the 1. end of this fragment is a centaur galloping to r., disheveled hair, r. 
arm hanging at his side, 1. arm uplifted against a nude male figure (Herakles) 
advancing to 1. with 1. arm outstretched and r. arm uplifted as though brandishing 
a club. His weapon is, however, so badly worn that it cannot be made out with 
certainty. Behind Herakles are two centaurs galloping to r., the first holds a 
branch over his r. shoulder, and with 1. hand brandishes another over his head; 
the second centaur is identical with the one facing Herakles, and since the arm of 
the hero is preserved at the r. end of the fragment, it is clear that the matrix contained 
two centaurs to r. opposed by Herakles, constantly repeated round the neck of the 
vase, outside near the rim. The impressions were probably made from a very soft 
stone cylinder, and not from one of wood. That the Melian intaglios, nos. 8 12 
were actually made on that island is certain, see Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen III 73, 
and since the position of the legs on no. 12 is identical with the legs of the centaurs 
on the pithos, we may safely infer that the fragment from Plaka, and a similar frag- 
ment to be described below, are examples of Melian red ware. There is, of course, 
no reason to suppose that all red ware was manufactured in one place. Pollak /. c. 
p. 216 calls the opponent of the centaurs a Lapith, but since the opponent on the 
Melian gems was evidently Herakles, and since the centauromachies at Assos and 
at Samsoun are those of Herakles, I also prefer to see Herakles here. Whether it 



Primitive terracotta figurines. C) 

was the Ionian beardless type of Herakles is not certain, for the details are not 
worked out, nor is it possible to say whether the centaurs were bearded, although 
it is highly probable. On the b. f. amphora no. 174 the centaurs galloping to r. and 
holding a doe are very similar in pose to those on our fragment. 

14. Fragment of a large pithos. PL XII, purchased at Phylakopi, Melos. In possession 
of Dr. D. M. Robinson of Johns Hopkins University, to .whom I am indebted 
for the photograph here reproduced. 

Same subject as the preceding. The height of the relief band is 0.04 m., the 
thickness of the fragment is 0.03 at its rim with a double braid pattern on the edge. 
Since these details correspond exactly with those on the preceding fragment it is 
not only certain that the same cylinder was used but also highly probable that 
Robinson's fragment came from the same pithos as that published by Pollak. 

15. Fragments of red ware pottery. Melos. Stokes, B. S. A. XII p. 79. 

I do not know whether these are from the same engraved cylinder as the 
preceding fragments or from another. The reference given by Stokes is very vague; 
he merely says that some unpublished fragments of cylinder-stamped pottery 
from Melos show centaurs, sphinxes, charioteers and lions. 



V. PRIMITIVE TERRACOTTA FIGURINES. 

A) BOEOTIA. 

16. Terracotta Statuette. Berlin. Antiquarium 8413. Boeotia. Winter, Typen- 
katalog I. p. 36 fig. i. Furtwangler, Arch. Anz. 1895 p. 127, 8. 

The body of the centaur is painted with linear designs, his chest with six large 
pellets in two rows. His r. arm is uplifted but empty, his 1. is slightly outstretched, 
he wears a long beard and has short equine ears. Nose and ears are worked out 
plastically, whereas eyes, eyebrows, beard and mouth are merely painted. It dates 
from the late geometric period, circa eighth century B. C. In the geometric period 
it is often difficult to say whether the centaurs belong to Class A or B, because the 
equine legs are mere stumps without the representation of hoofs, but since the 
human pudenda are not represented in this figurine I have catalogued it under 
Class A. The similar figurine in Cassel no. 209, which is ithyphallic, belongs to 
Class B. Whether the figurine mentioned by Winter /. c. and Diimmler, Ath. 
Mitt. XIII p. 286 in Wiirzburg, Universitdtssammlung 429, with 1. arm uplifted 
and holding an object is of Class A or not I am unable to say. 

B) CYPRUS. 

17. Terracotta Statuette. Cyprus. Louvre, Room A no. 56. Heuzey, Cat. des 
figurines p. 155. Winter, Typenkat. I p. 15 fig. 8. Very crude. 

The nose of the centaur was modeled separately and fastened on the face 
when the clay was still moist. The arms and 1. hindleg are missing. This example 
may be somewhat earlier than no. 16, the large eye, again merely painted, seems 
more archaic. The difference in appearance may, however, only be due to the 
inferior Cypriote style. 

Baur, Centaurs in Anc ; ent Art. 



IO Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

18. Terracotta Statuette. Curium, Cyprus. Ohnefalsch- Richter, Kypros p. 257 
fig. 173, pi. CIV, 6. Reinach, Rev. Arch. 1888 p. 81. 

According to Reinach it was found in a Phoenician tomb and was brought to 
Paris in 1885. The body of the centaur is decorated with geometric designs, so that he 
has the appearance of wearing a garment. On the r. shoulder is painted a swastika. 
His head is uplifted and probably beardless, his nose is long and sharp and might 
easily be mistaken for a horn in the illustration, but Richter expressly states that 
he is not horned. Under his 1. arm he carries a live calf. Usually the prey of centaurs 
is a doe, a hare, a fox, or a bird. Richter interprets the figure as a herdsman, or as 
a centaur about to make a sacrifice. I prefer to call him a hunter with a taste for 
raw meat. Even Pholos, who was semi-civilized, ate raw meat though he served 
cooked meat to his guest (See Roscher, Lexikon II i p. 1041 sq.}. 

VI. ARCHAIC ATTIC VASES. 

19. Nettos Amphora. Athens. Collignon-Couve 657 pi. 28, Antike Denkm. I pi. 57 
p. 46. Fowler and Wheeler, Handbook p. 472 fig. 382. Kretschmer, Vasen- 
inschr. 178. 

On the neck of the vase is represented the centaur Nessos to r., overtaken by 
Herakles, who with 1. foot outstretched and planted in the small of the centaur's 
back is about to dispatch him with his sword. He has grasped with his 1. hand a 
lock of the monster's hair who, with both arms twisted back in an impossible posi- 
tion, as on no. 154 A, begs for mercy. Nessos wears a long beard, a mustache and a 
crescent-shaped back-comb, like that of the fallen centaur on the "Cyrenaic" deinos 
in the Louvre no. 161, cf . also nos. 163, 225, 226. He also has human ears as on nos. 24, 
40, 43, 49, 94, 121, 161, and a human expression of face. Contrary to literary tradition 
Herakles is armed with only a sword instead of bow and arrows, nor does he wear 
the Ionian lion's skin, but merely a short chiton of early Attic style, as on no. 71 
where other examples are cited. Luckily his identity as well as that of Nessos is 
secured by the inscriptions written in early Attic dialect. It is noteworthy that 
Deianeira is missing. That she was represented on the other side of the vase as 
Hoppin (A . /. A . 1900 p. 455 note i) supposes is impossible because the other half 
of the vase is not "entirely restored in plaster" but is made up of ancient fragments. 
Vases decorated on only one side are not uncommon in the early period. A few 
examples taken from the National Museum, Athens, are nos. 353, 824a, 892, 893 
(these are the numbers on the labels). 

Furtwangler in Roschers Lexikon I 2 p. 2147 says: ,,Ich wiisste kein Denkmal 
zu nennen, in dem Herakles eigentlich langes Haar hatte." So far as I know our 
amphora, the one recently found, no. 213 A, the bronze relief no. 222 and the , 
Assos frieze no. 182 are the only representations of Herakles with long hair down 
his back. On later monuments his hair is always short. 

20. Plate, fragmentary. PI. XI. Akropolis. Strong Laconian influence. Unpublished. 
Photograph in German Archaeol. Inst. Athens, VS 251 here reproduced. 
The plate is divided, like the so-called Cyrenaic cylixes, into two fields by a 

heavy line or cord. Above the segment is represented Nessos to r., looking back. 



Archaic Attic vases. 



II 



He is falling on his knees because of the sudden attack of Herakles, who has grasped 
his r. wrist (see nos. 33, 37, 51, 62, 74) with his 1. hand, thus forcing the centaur to 
expose his chest to the thrust of his sword. The hero presses his uplifted 1. knee 
against the flank of Nessos. In the background between these two figures and 
partially covered by the equine body of Nessos, as on nos. 63, 71, is Deianeira to 1. On 
the r. are traces of a male figure (Oineus ?) and of a female figure (his wife ?), both to 1. 
Since the centaur's head is fragmentary it is not certain how his ears were repre- 
sented, though probably equine. Herakles seems to be nude; the sheath of his sword 
hangs from the telamon. In the field is a bird flying to L, as on nos. 96, 227, and 
rosettes of dots as on the Nettos amphora; also loops surrounded with dots. 

In the exergue. are two panthers confronted, with faces turned to front, much 
like those on the "Tyrrhenian" amphora, no. 32. Tongue-pattern border. 
21. Fragment of a vase by Sophilos. Fig. 4. Menidi. Wolters, Jahrb. XIII pi. I. 

Herakles in centauromachy. 




Fig. 4. After Jahrb. XIII pi. r, i. 



Herakles to r. has overtaken a centaur (inscribed KerafvQos]) falling on his 
knees and already wounded in the small of the back by one of the hero's arrows. 
The bow has been thrown to the ground as useless in the hand-to-hand encounter. 
Grasping his opponent by the hair, cf. nos. 19, 22, 28, 213 A, 308, 322, he is 
about to dispatch him with his sword. Blood, painted red, gushes from the 
wound in his hindquarters. The centaur is trying in vain to free himself by 
gripping the 1. arm of Herakles with his r. hand. The 1. leg of the hero disappears 
entirely behind the equine body of the centaur. Judging from the similarity of 
composition in the two preceding vases this leg is either supposed to be outstretched 
or bent at the knee. Since in either case the foot would be visible, we may safely 
infer that its disappearance is due to an oversight on the part of the artist. 
Herakles is bearded and wears an embroidered short chiton. Again the lion's 
skin is missing, so too the club, but since both of these attributes are Ionic/ 
we need not look for them on early Attic monuments before Ionian influence. 

2* 



j 2 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

At his 1. side hangs a quiver full of arrows. On the 1. of this group are two 
centaurs to 1. mortally wounded by the arrows of Herakles. One has already fallen 
and is writhing in agony ; over him, astride, stands the other, but he too will soon 
drop from loss of blood which flows from his 1. hip. With his 1. hand he covers the 
wound. His equine body is shaggy, cf. 161, 200, 222, 226, 228, 22gb, c. For fallen 
centaurs see nos. 23, 31, 155, 161, 183, 228. For Herakles in chiton see under no. 71. 
The dropping of the nu in KhavQoc, for KevxavQo<; is discussed by Kretschmer, 
Vaseninschr. 161 sqq. 

22. Hydria. Brit. Mus., Walters B 50. Nessos adventure. 

"On the shoulder: Two swans confronted with wings spread; rosettes in the 
field. On the body : A Lapith, bearded, in a short chiton, is slaying with his sword 
a Centaur whom he has seized with 1. hand by a long forelock. The Centaur has long 
hair, and the middle of his body is painted in purple. On either side is a female figure 
looking on, with long chiton, and embroidered himation over her head, drawn 
forward in the r. hand." Thus Walters in the catalogue of the British Museum 
interprets this scene. I prefer to call the characters Herakles, Nessos, and two 
spectators, since the main group so closely resembles the Nettos amphora. The 
motif of seizing a centaur by the forelock occurs on a Proto-Attic vase, no. 213 A, 
on aCaeretan hydria, no. 322, and on an Italo-Ionic vase under Chalcidian influence, 
no. 308. 

23. Francois Krater by the painter Klitias and the potter Ergotimos. Chiusi. 
Now in Archaeological Museum, Florence. Wiener Vorlegebldtter 1888 pi. 3. 
Furtwangler-Reichhold I pi. n and 12. Thessalian Centauromachy. Date: 

circa 560 B. C. 

On reverse of neck: Centauromachy in seven groups. Beginning at the left, 
i. a centaur to r. is about to hurl a huge white stone, which he holds behind his 
head in both hands, at Theseus (inscribed) who judging from the position of his 
shield, must have confronted the centaur; 2. a centaur to r., at whose feet lies a 
dead centaur to r., has as his opponent the Lapith Antimachos (inscribed) whose 
helmeted head and long spear are still preserved; 3. Kaineus, half-buried in the 
earth, seen from the front, his head turned to r. brandishes a spear, and is attacked 
by three inscribed centaurs, Hylaios to r. holding a branch in both hands, Akrios 
and Hasbolos to 1., each holding a large stone before them in both hands. Hasbolos 
has a white equine body, but a black human body and black tail; 4. Petraios (in- 
scribed) galloping to r., with a branch uplifted in both hands, attacks the Lapith 
Hoplon to 1.; 5. a centaur inscribed Melanippos (?) who carries a white stone in 
each hand is leaping to r. over the dying body of a fellow-centaur inscribed Pyrrhos 
and is about to attack a Lapith to 1. whose name is lost; 6. two centaurs, one from 1., 
the other from r. attack with branches a Lapith; 7. the Lapith Dryas (inscribed) to 
r. is about to slay a conquered centaur inscribed Orosbios (?) or Oroibios, to 1., 
who begs for mercy. He is beaten down and has an attitude commonly found on 
the vase-paintings representing Nessos. The half-stumbling, half- falling body is 
well drawn, and the tail is tied up at the end. The heads of the centaurs, with 
disheveled hair and beards, long sharp noses and large eyes, differ radically from 
the centaurs on other Attic vases, but resemble the heads of the sileni on the same 
vase. All have equine ears and tufts of hair standing erect above the forehead. Their 



Archaic Attic vases. j -2 

names coincide only rarely with those of the centauromachy depicted on the Shield 
of Herakles, a poem of the seventh century B.C., and seem to have been chosen at 
random. 

It is noteworthy that all the Lapiths fight with the lance, even Kaineus, and 
that we are carried into a new sphere of mythology, into the far north instead of the 
Peloponnesos. The Thessalian centauromachy is not illustrated on any extant 
monument of earlier date, whereas Herakles driving the centaurs from Mt. Pholoe 
is quite commonly found on monuments of the seventh century. Note also that on 
the corresponding band of the obverse the chariot-race in memory of Patroklos is 
depicted. Peleus, Achilles and Theseus are the chief heroes of the Frangois vase, 
Herakles does not occur at all ; and of the gods Dionysos plays the most important 
role. Both in subject-matter and in composition the Frangois vase shows no Pelopon- 
nesian influence. We have here an entirely different type of centaur from that on 
Attic monuments under Peloponnesian influence, and from the type on Ionic monu- 
ments. The human ears of Ionic centaurs are replaced by those of the horse, their 
long hair falling down the back has the coarseness of an equine mane, and the 
expression of face is silenus-like, but not the snub-nosed type of Ionic vase-paint- 
ings. Rare again is the group of three centaurs attacking Kaineus, see under no. 120. 
JJnique in archaic art is the dead centaur, though the dying centaur which also 
occurs on our vase is occasionally found elsewhere, on nos. 21, 31, 155, 161, 183, 228. 

24. Deep Cylix. Fig. 57) Near Tenea. Now in Nat. Mus. Athens. Ross, Archaeo- 
logische Aufsdtze~Tl p. 350 pi. 2, Rayet-Collignon, Ceram. grecque, pp. 68 and 
109, Collignon-Couve 640. Story of Nessos. 

Inside : Herakles to r. with lion's skin drawn over his head in the Ionian fashion, 
quiver and bow one end of which is visible in front of the quiver, the other end 
below his chin at his 1. side, club in r. takes mighty strides to overtake the bearded 
centaur Nessos to r., looking back. Three tufts of hair stand upright above the 
centaur's forehead, but quite different from the arrangement of hair on the Frangois 
vase and on no. 256. His ears are human as on nos. 19, 49, 163. Herakles seizes him 
under the r. armpit, but the rest of the arm is not drawn. Between the two, in the 
foreground, stands Deianeira to 1., her hands in front of her hips, palms together. 
She has long hair with a fillet, long peplos girdled at the waist, but without folds. 
Thiersch (Tyrrhenische Amphoren p. 22 and note i) considers this cylix Chalcidian, 
I prefer to call it Attic, but strongly under Ionic influence. The eyes are here not 
represented as they are in the Chalcidian style. It is impossible to say with certainty 
whether the hero is beardless or not. If he is youthful, we have another argument 
in favor of Ionic influence, see no. 172. 

25. Cylix. PI. VIII. Munich, Jahn88i. Story of Nessos. I am indebted to Dr. J. Sieve- 
king for the photograph here reproduced. 

Inside : Nessos to r., with Deianeira on his back, has been overtaken by Herakles 
who with his 1. hand seizes the centaur by the head and is about to slay him with 
his sword. Herakles is bearded, but entirely nude, not even his sword-sheath is 
represented. For other examples of the nude hero see under no. 161. Deianeira 
in a long tight-fitting peplos, with hair done up on the back of her head in the 
board-like fashion of Urania and others on the Frangois vase, is slipping from his 
back. Although her arms are outstretched in supplication, she does not turn to- 



Centaurs with equine forelegs. 



wards her rescuer. Deianeira sitting forward and not even looking backward seems 
to be the oldest composition of this group although it occurs on later b. f. vases, 
nos. 66, 70. The 1. hand of the centaur, who turns his head towards Herakles, is 




Fig. 5. After Ross, Archaol. Aufsatze II pi. 2. 



uplifted, as if begging for mercy, his r. arm disappears behind Deianeira. He has 
equine ears. His position differs from that of the preceding centaurs brought to a 
sudden standstill in that^both hindlegs are caving in. In the field, meaningless 
inscriptions. 



Archaic Attic vases. I 5 

26. Cylix. Kameiros, Rhodes. Louvre A 478. Pottier, Catalogue p. 171 and Album 
I pi. 17. Story of Nessos. 

Inside: Herakles bearded and nude, fillet in his hair, running to r., has an 
uplifted club in his r. hand and seizes Nessos by the nape of the neck with his 1. 
hand. The centaur gallops to r. but looks back. He is bearded as usual and wears 
a mustache ; a heavy tuft of hair rises above his forehead and his ears are those of 
a horse. His pose is almost identical with that of the centaur on the cylix described 
by Ross, but that of Herakles differs in that there his advanced 1. leg almost dis- 
appears behind the centaur, whereas here Herakles is in the foreground and partially 
covers the equine body of Nessos. On both cylixes the r. arm of the centaur is not 
drawn. 

27. Cylix. Etruria. Louvre F 67. Pottier, Catalogue p. 743 and Album II pi. 68. 
Story of Nessos. 

Inside: Nude Herakles with club attacking Nessos. Almost identical with the 
preceding cylix although the proportions of the figures are heavier. Tongue-pattern 
border. 

28. Plate. Collection de M. E. Auction Catalogue, 2 4 June 1904, Paris, pi. IV 
no. 115 and p. 17. Story of Nessos. 

Within a border of lotus flowers and buds: Herakles to r., lion's skin and 
sword, seizes Nessos to r. by the hair, see under no. 21. The centaur tries to 
free himself with uplifted 1. hand, and with his r. drawn back pushes against 
the hero's chest. As in the two preceding cylixes Herakles is in the foreground, 
almost completely covering the equine body of the centaur, who has equine 
ears. As on the Nettos amphora the monster's head is not turned back, i. e. 
he looks forward. In the field in Attic characters is an inscription giving the 
names of two persons. In the border above the composition are two holes for 
suspension. According to the catalogue it is Corinthian, but to my mind it is 
Attic (Identical with no. 29). 

29. Plate. Former Collection Arndt. Glyptothek, Munich. Story of Nessos. 
Similar to the preceding. Herakles to r. kneels on the back of Nessos and is 

about to slay him. Traces of inscriptions. 

30. Amphora. Basseggio? Gerhard's Apparat in the Library of the Museum of 
Berlin, MappeXIIi35. Peloponnesian influence, cf. Furtwangler in Roscher's 
Lex. I 2 p. 2194 sq. Story of Nessos. 

On the body, under a band of lotus flowers and buds : Nessos kneeling to r. 
looks back and stretches both hands towards Deianeira; she has already escaped to 1., 
and seeks the protection of Herakles, who, swinging his club over his head, walks 
to r. The centaur has a heavy head of hair, long beard, equine ears, but human 
expression of face. Deianeira modestly draws forward with r. hand her himation 
which she wears over her head. On no. 20 she stands in the background, partly 
concealed by Nessos, here she is in the foreground. Herakles bearded, but 
without mustache and as usual with short hair, only wears a small mantle 
hanging from his 1. shoulder, leaving him almost nude. On the r., balancing the 
figure of Herakles is a man to 1., bearded, who wears a petasos. He is not charac- 
terized as king Oineus, but may be a traveler who by chance witnesses this mar- 
velous scene. 



1 6 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

31. Fragment from the Akropolis. Graef, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu 
Athen I pi. 41 no. 635 c, d, and e, and p. 76. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. 

Fragment c : Traces of three centaurs galloping to r. Of the one farthest 
advanced only the white equine body is preserved; of the last only the outstretched 
uplifted hand; whereas of the middle centaur only the legs, hindquarters, 1. hand 
and top of the head are missing. He holds a white stone about the size of his hand; 
his ears are pointed. Two arrows evidently shot from the bow of Herakles are 
flying through the air, one aimed at his head, the other at his chest. 

Fragment d: A centaur kicking with both hindlegs in the air, leaps to r. over 
a dying centaur to r., whose r. hand is altogether out of proportion. (Cf. the falling 
centaurs on nos. 21, 23, 155, 161, 183, 228). He has pointed ears, a long beard 
and breaking eye. We are here dealing with a breed of centaurs quite different 
from those on the Francois vase. 

Fragment e: Two hindlegs of a centaur to r., and a foreleg of the same (?) 
stumbling to r. Below the composition is a band of alternating lotus flowers and 
buds intertwined. 

Although Herakles is not preserved, it is evident that we have before us his 
battle with the centaurs after the opening of the pithos, as on no. 21, and not that 
in Thessaly between the Lapiths and centaurs. If the latter myth were meant, 
as on the Francois vase, the weapons would be lances or swords, we would expect 
a different system of grouping, and at least some trace of the Lapith opponents. 
Were it not for the kicking centaur, a motive found only here in the Attic b. f. 
period and only once on stamped red ware, no. 198, see also no. 314, but very 
frequently in the later periods, I would feel inclined to date these fragments 
earlier than the Frangois vase. They are certainly much earlier than the other 
Attic representations of this subject, nos. 152 155. 

On this monument the centaur's ear is not as long nor as sharply pointed as 
usual, but equine ears were doubtlessly meant. Colvin, /. H. S. I p. 146 says that 
centaurs sometimes have goat's ears instead of those of a horse, thus showing 
"physical affinity to the Satyr". It seems to me that in all cases equine ears were 
meant, even on satyrs. That the artists often were careless in drawing equine 
ears and did not represent them true to nature is sufficiently evinced by observing 
the various types of ears on horses themselves, not to speak of centaurs and sileni. 
See also the pregnant remarks on this subject by Bulle, Die Silene in der archaischen 
Kunst p. 50. 

32. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Italy. Dresden, recent acquisition no. 1647, Herr- 
mann, Arch. Anz. 1898 p. 132, Thiersch, Tyrrhenische Amphoren p. 157 no. 25 
and p. 45. A: Adventure of Herakles with Nessos. B: Five centaurs gallop 
to r. 

On the shoulder, A: Herakles with lion's skin and chiton takes long strides to r. 
and lays his hand heavily on the hindquarters of Nessos. In his r. hand he brandishes 
a sword; its sheath hangs at his side. The centaur falls on his foreknees, turns his 
head back and begs for mercy with outstretched r. hand, though in his 1. hand he 
holds a white stone ready to throw. Between both combatants, partially concealed 
by the outstretched arm of Herakles, but on the other hand partially concealing 
the equine body of Nessos, as on nos. 24, 30, stands Deianeira to 1. in chiton and 



Archaic Attic vases. \j 

mantle drawn over her head (cf. no. 30). Behind Herakles is a woman to r. in chiton 
and mantle, interpreted by Herrmann as Athena, her attributes, however, are 
missing, and behind her is Hermes to r. in mantle and hat, carrying a long herald's 
staff. On the r. of the central group is a bearded man in mantle to 1., who places 
his r. hand on his head, a gesture of lamentation. Behind him is a draped woman 
to 1. These are held to be the parents of Deianeira, but the female figure on the 
extreme r. is not interpreted by Herrmann. I prefer to call these figures spectators, 
placed there at random to fill the vacant space. 

B (Even more fragmentary than A) : Five centaurs much agitated gallop to r. 
There is reason to believe with Herrmann, as we shall see under no. 36, that these 
centaurs are friends of Nessos. There is, so far as I know, no extant literary tradition 
which associates other centaurs with the story of Nessos, although in art we have 
four examples, nos. 32, 33, 36, 38. According to Thiersch /. c. p. 23 the Nessos story 
only occurs on the younger "Tyrrhenian" amphorae, and on page 27 he interprets 
the centauromachy as that of the Lapiths, but where in this case are the Lapiths ? 
On both sides: Meaningless inscriptions. 

33. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Vulci. Vatican. Museo Gregoriano II pi. 28, 2; 
Thiersch /. c. p. 157 no. 28 and p. 46; Holwerda, Jahrb. 1890 p. 244 no. 39; 
Helbig, Fuhrer II p. 289 no. 1192. A: Adventure of Herakles with Nessos. B: 
Four centaurs to 1. 

A : Herakles to r. with lion's skin, swings his sword in his r. hand over his head 
and seizes the r. wrist of Nessos (as on nos. 20, 37, 51, 62, 74, cf . also 68) who carries 
Deianeira on his back. He supports her with his 1. hand under her knees. The 
sudden attack of Herakles brings the centaur to his knees. Both Nessos and Dei- 
aneira look back at Herakles as on no. 68. Behind the central group are Athena 
and Hermes to r. On the r. are Oineus (?), an old man with grey hair and his wife ( ?) 
to 1. and behind them a man turning his back on the central group to converse with 
a woman to 1. According to Thiersch /. c. p. 46 the long white stripes on the peplos 
of Deianeira and the dotted circles on the mantle of the old man point to the late 
b. f. period. 

B : Four centaurs armed with missiles as on nos. 40, 42, 176 A, gallop to 1. ; 
according to Holwerda they are coming to the rescue of their comrade, see also 
nos. 32, 36, 38. All have equine ears, indeed, there are only three examples, nos. 19, 
24, 49 in Attic art, where Nessos has human ears, although occasionally other Attic 
centaurs are thus depicted, see nos. 40, 43, 94, 121. The pattern-like effect, seen 
also on the frieze from Assos, no. 182, is relieved by the drawn-in hindlegs of the 
third centaur and by the difference of pose of his 1. arm. In general, the effect of 
this vigorous group reminds one of the art of Ionia, see no. 162. 

34. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Caere. Louvre E 852 Pottier, Catalogue p. 568; 
Mon. dell' Inst. VI pi. 56, 4; Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 156, 5; Thiersch /. c. p. 158 
no. 39 and p. 49 where the modern restorations are given. Holwerda, /. c. 
p. 242 no. i. Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. 178 sq. A: Birth of Athena. B: The 
story of Nessos. 

B : The central group is much like that of the preceding vase, but here, if the 
restorations are correct, Nessos holds the 1. foot of Deianeira, who raises both arms. 
That she wears the krobylos is certain. The 1. hindleg of Nessos is not drawn, but 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Ait. 3 



jg Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

the type is so well-known that it can be restored with certainty as stretched back 
(cf. especially no. 20). Since this is so the inscription (Herakles) and the advanced 1. 
leg of the hero must be, at least in part, modern. If Herakles did not originally wear 
the lion's skin, we have here an exception to the "Tyrrhenian", but another example 
of the Attic type under Peloponnesian influence. Thiersch furthermore refuses to 
believe that Herakles held Nessos by the tail, but this very type is found on an 
amphora (no. 63) and on a pelike (no. 70) where, however, he wears the lion's skin. 
The spectators on the 1. are inscribed Aftevaia and (HeQ)fieg. If these inscrip- 
tions are genuine we have another example of Athena without aegis and shield, as 
she sometimes appears at the opening of the pithos of Pholos. The spectators on 
the r. are inscribed Aewivfat and Oivevg, but the royal father of Deianeira turns 
his back on the scene and converses with a woman whose name can no longer be 
read. Behind her on the extreme r. are two women conversing, no doubt added to 
fill the vacant space. The principal figures are also inscribed (H)eQaxhe<;, AeiaviQa 
and Neooq. 

35. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. The Hague, Museum Meermanno-Westhreenianum. 
Holwerda, Jahrb. 1890 p. 244 no. 42 (illustration); Thiersch /. c. p. 159 no. 48 
and p. 54. A: The story of Nessos. B: Seven nude men dancing. 

A : The position of Nessos is almost identical with that of the preceding vases, 
and Herakles, with lion's skin, evidently holds him by the 1. wrist, though their 
hands are concealed by Deianeira who with entire body to 1. rides backwards and 
is about to slip off the hindquarters of the centaur as on nos. 36, 75. She is between 
the arms of her lover whose sword is in the foremost plane. In her struggle to escape, 
her peplos has become undone, exposing her 1. shoulder. On the 1. are three female 
figures not characterized, and on the r. the same number of women and one old man. 
The first figure on the r. is unique in that she holds a torch, but we would hardly 
be justified in supposing therefore that the adventure took place at night, or that 
it is the marriage- torch. It is merely a whim of the artist. 

36. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. PI. I. Vulci. Munich, Jahn 126; Thiersch 1. c. p. 160 
no. 52 and p. 55. A: The story of Nessos. B: Thessalian Centauromachy. The 
photograph here reproduced is from a drawing by Reichhold, for which I am 
greatly indebted to Dr. J. Sieveking. 

A : The central group is almost identical with that of the preceding vase, only 
here Deianeira already touches the ground with her 1. foot, and she gesticulates 
more violently with her hands. Her peplos, embroidered down the front with 
sirens, is properly fastened. Herakles is in the foreground, and Deianeira is between 
him and Nessos. Instead of the usual figures on the 1., two centaurs advance steal- 
thily to r. to succor their kinsman. The first is piebald, as on nos. 39, 74, 76, 162, 
he carries a huge white rock on his r. shoulder and is crowned like Nessos. On 
the r. is an old man between two women. Reichhold's excellent drawing makes 
further description unnecessary. The addition of the two centaurs is noteworthy 
and warrants the interpretation given by Holwerda to no. 33 and by Herrmann to 
no. 32. 

B: Centauromachy of three groups. The centaur of the central group is down 
on his r. knee, as Nessos is usually represented, and swings a branch of a tree in 
both hands. He is attacked from each side by a Greek hoplite brandishing a spear. 



Archaic Attic vases. JQ 

On the r. a hoplite to r. is about to transfix with his lance a centaur to r. with 
hindlegs drawn in, just as a horse slips when brought to a sudden stand. In his 
uplifted 1. hand he holds a white stone, and is crowned. On the 1. a nude hoplite 
whose cuirass is missing --he has not taken time to arm himself properly -- rushes 
to r. to slay with a lance a centaur to r., who holds a large white rock. All the 
centaurs look back; they have peculiar profiles, protruding lips as on nos. 66, 83, 
85, and long upturned noses. The system of grouping differs radically from that 
on the Frangois vase. On both sides, meaningless inscriptions. 

37. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Caere. Cassel 385. Thiersch, /. c. p. 161 no. 75 and 
p. 150. A: the story of Nessos. 

A: Nessos to r., the usual stumbling type, carries Deianeira on his 1. arm as 
on nos. 38, 62. She has long flowing hair and wears the usual Doric peplos. Herakles 
of gigantic size, with lion's skin which also covers his head, seizes the r. wrist of the 
centaur and threatens him with a huge sword. Behind Herakles is a female figure 
to r. and in front of Nessos are two female figures to 1. On each end of the composition 
is a man on horseback to fill the vacant space. This type of the Nessos and Dei- 
aneira group, which appears also on no. 38 and on the Berlin amphora, no. 62, is 
the youngest of the archaic period; the oldest is where she sits on the back of the 
centaur, her body to r.; and the intermediary type is where she has turned round 
and rides backwards, or rather glides off the centaur's back. Older than any of 
these three types is where she has already escaped and stands to 1., no. 20; and 
still older is where she is entirely missing, no. 19. In the seventh century B. C., 
however, she already occurs, in or behind the chariot, nos. 213 A, 227. 

38. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Vulci. Munich, Jahn 156. Holwerda, /. c. p. 244 
no. 44; Thiersch, /. c. p. 159 no. 40 and p. 53. Poorly illustrated: Mon. dell' 
Inst. I pi. 26, 10 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 73, 10. A: The story of Nessos. 

A: The central group of Herakles, Nessos and Deianeira is similar to that of 
the preceding vase; Deianeira is carried on the 1. arm of the centaur. For other 
examples of this motif see nos. 37, 62. Behind Herakles is Athena to r. and in front 
of Nessos is another centaur to 1. armed with a pine-branch. Cf. no. 36 where two 
centaurs come to the aid of Nessos, no. 33 where four centaurs and no. 32 where 
five centaurs come to his aid; on the last two vases the centaurs are, to be sure, 
depicted on the other side of the vase. The same subject may be depicted on an 
Ionian vase, no. 173. 

39. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. PL III. Caere. Rome, in possession of Agosto 
Castellani. Thiersch /. c. p. 161 no. 59 and p. 52. A: Thessalian Centauromachy. 
A: Three monomachies and one fallen warrior; in each group the combatants 

are confronted, in this respect unlike no. 36 where the warriors overtake the cen- 
taurs. Though the method of grouping is similar to that on the Frangois vase, 
nevertheless the centaurs differ in that that there they are rearing whereas here they 
are standing. Between the 1. and central groups is a fallen warrior outstretched to 1. 
face downward on the ground. Of the group on the r. only enough of the warrior 
to r. is preserved to show that his weapon is the sword, which is also used as the 
weapon of Lapiths on no. 176 A. The other warriors to 1. fight with the lance, and the 
central centaur to r. is armed with a large pine-branch. The profiles of the centaurs 
are like those on no. 36, but their ears though pointed are shorter; one is piebald. 

3* 



2Q Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

In the field, meaningless inscriptions. Fallen Lapiths also occur on nos. 96 98, 
176, 176 A. The system of grouping is similar to that on no. 118 where, however, 
the fallen Lapith is not represented. 

40. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Italy. Louvre E 849 Pettier, Catalogue p. 568 not 
mentioned by Thiersch. Thessalian Centauromachy. 

A continuous band on the shoulder : A centaur to r. partly concealed by a tailless 
silenus to r. attacks Kaineus in "Knielauf" to r., who looks back and threatens 
him with a sword. As usual a second centaur to 1. helps his comrade; he holds a 
large branch in both hands over his head. The next group consists of a fully armed 
warrior to r. about to transfix with his lance a fleeing centaur who stumbles to r. 
as on no. 36. Contrary to all expectation he has human ears. The combat continues 
on the other side of the vase. The weapons of the centaurs are small brick-shaped 
objects, like those on nos. 33, 42, 176 A. Silenus in the company of centaurs, (see 
also nos. 56, 67, 103, 269, 311, 313 A) points to Ionic influence, where the Bacchic 
character of centaurs is more evident than in Attic art: 

41. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Caere. Gotha 12. Thiersch, /. c. p. 158 no. 35 and 
p. 48. A: Thessalian Centauromachy. 

A: On the r. is Kaineus, half-buried, but attacked by only one centaur, as on 
the r. f. vase, Mon. d. Inst. XI, 14, a curious exception to the rule. According to 
Thiersch /. c. p. 47 this is one of the very earliest of the "Tyrrhenian" products, but 
I have catalogued it here because of the Kaineus episode. 

42. Amphora. Florence Museum. Studi e Mater iali III pi. 2. A complete description 
of this vase is promised by Milani, Spicilegio ceramogra/ico in vol. IV of his 
Studi e Mat. B: Thessalian Centauromachy. A: Herakles freeing Prometheus. 
Thiersch, Tyrrh. Amph. pi. II 6 and p. 142; "similar to Tyrrhenian style." 

B: Three monomachies in which the combatants are confronted. On the 1. 
a centaur to r., down on r. knee, is attacked by a hoplite to 1. in full armor; his 
shield has the Boeotian shape. Partly concealed by his body the centaur of the 
central group rears to r. in mortal combat with a warrior whose round shield is 
ornamented with a tripod. The centaur of the group on the r., the only one without 
long tresses, paws his opponent whose shield-device is a swan. Here too the centaur 
advances to r. and the Lapith to 1., whereas the corresponding group on no. 39 is 
reversed. Although it is a hand-to-hand combat the warriors fight with lances. The 
centaurs are armed with peculiar objects similar to their weapons on nos. 33, 40, 
176 A. Their profiles are so similar to that of Nessos on no. 34 that I do not 
hesitate to attribute both vases to one and the same painter. 

43. Cantharus. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler, 1737; Gerhard, Etrusk. u. Campan. 
Vasenb. pi. XIII i. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. 

The centaur Asbolos carrying a branch in both hands stands to 1. with uplifted r. 
foreleg and open mouth as though crying out, and awaits the attack of Herakles, 
with lion's skin, who rushes to r. brandishing his sword. Behind the hero two 
centaurs, Petraios with a huge rock in both hands raised over his head and Hylaios 
swinging a branch in both hands, are coming to the assistance of Asbolos. Petraios 
is about to hurl the rock while still running, whereas Hylaios stops short to give 
more force to his blow. They cowardly attack Herakles from behind. All the figures 
are inscribed in archaic Attic letters. Both Herakles and the centaurs are bearded, 



Archaic Attic vases. 21 

but without mustache. The latter have human ears, as on the Attic vases nos. 19, 

24, 40, 49, 94- 

According to Philostratos, Heroikos p. 328 = vol. II p. 214 ed. Teubn. Asbolos 

was the instigator of the attack on Herakles and was therefore crucified by the 
hero. Our vase-painting no doubt follows an older version, where he dispatches 
Asbolos with his sword. 
43 A. Oenochoe. Certosa. Zannoni. Gli Scavi delta Certosa pi. CVII, 18 Sepolcro 318. 

Story of Nessos. 

Herakles to r., bearded, in short chiton, sheath at his side, 1. leg raised, seizes 
the r. shoulder of Nessos, and threatens him with his sword. Nessos is of the usual 
stumbling type; he looks back and grasps the 1. arm of the hero as on no. 173 A. 
On the r. is a youthful spectator in long mantle, holding a staff in r. hand. Behind 
Herakles on the extreme 1. is his club, and above in the field hang his mantle and 
quiver. The pose of Herakles and Nessos is similar to that on the following oenochoe. 
For other examples of Herakles in chiton, see under no. 71, cf. also no. 63 for the 
discarded club of Herakles. 

44. Oenochoe. PI. III. Vulci. Leyden, Roulez, Choix de Vases Feints pi. VIII 2a; 
Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 269, 5. Story of Nessos. I am indebted to Dr. Holwerda 
for the photograph here reproduced. 

Herakles to r., sheath at his side, grasps the r. arm of Nessos just above the 
elbow and stabs him below the tail with his sword. As on nos. 20, 25 etc., cf. 
no. 161, Herakles is nude; he presses his uplifted 1. knee against the centaur's flank 
forcing him down on his knees, according to the usual type. Nessos has a small 
stone in his 1. hand and looks back at the hero; he has equine ears and long 
tresses, as on nos. 42, 46, 51, 66, 74. On the r. an old man in a mantle, on the 1. an 
agitated female figure in a peplos (Deianeira ?) and another old man in a mantle 
watch the struggle. The central group is full of action and is well drawn. What 
the painter of the early Attic plate no. 20 has clumsily attempted this artist has 
successfully accomplished. 

The moulded ring at the juncture of shoulder and neck, the handle with its 
rivets and the luster of the black glaze, remind us of Chalcidian metal-ware, yet I 
hesitate to catalogue our vase under the Euboean examples, though I do believe 
that it shows Chalcidian influence. Cf. no. 164. 

45. Lekythos. Thebes. Athens, Collignon-Couve 677. On the body: Assembly 
of the gods. On the shoulder: Story of Nessos. 

The central group is much like the preceding, only here the weapon of 
the hero, who is taking mighty strides, is the club. Behind Herakles two and 
in front of Nessos three draped figures, one leaning on a staff, are looking on. 
Carefully drawn. See also no. 49. 

46. Hydria. PI. XI. Munich, Jahn 43. On the shoulder: Story of Nessos. For the 
photograph here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking. 

In composition the central group is almost identical with the preceding vase. 
Herakles, however, is beardless as on nos. 48, 51, 53, 62, 67, 154, 172, 173, 182, 226, 
and wears a cuirass and sword at his side. He has not yet overtaken Nessos, but is 
about to seize his r. arm, while in his r. the hero swings his club (cf. also no. 30). 
Nessos down on 1. foreknee, r. hindleg stretched backwards, holds a white stone 



27 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

in his uplifted 1. hand; he has long tresses as on nos. 42, 44, 51, 66, 74. Behind 
Herakles a draped female figure to r. (Deianeira?) with outstretched arms, palms 
up, wishes the hero well; behind her to r. is a youth. In front of Nessos, facing 
him, are three draped figures, the first with a white beard. Because of the close 
relationship to the preceding compositions I do not hesitate to identify the club- 
man with Herakles even though he is beardless and wears a cuirass. The beard- 
less type of Herakles, according to Furtwangler, in Roscher ) sLexikonl2 p. 2151 s^. 
is of Ionic origin, though it does occur exceptionally on Attic ware, see esp. 

P- 2153. 

47. Kyathos. Vulci. Vatican, Museo Gregoriano II pi. 4, 4 (first edition). Story of 
Nessos. 

Herakles, bearded, nude, chlamys over 1. arm, as on nos. 30, 49, 53, 54, 55, 67, 
club in r., takes long strides to r. in pursuit of Nessos, who stumbles to r. looking 
back. He has just thrown a rock at the hero, which is represented in the air over 
the hindquarters of the centaur, and is about to throw another stone which he holds 
in 1. hand. On the r. are three male figures, the first and third draped, leaning on 
staff to 1., the one between them, nude, to r., looks back, chlamys on r. arm and 
staff in 1. On the 1. are two figures; the first wrapped in mantle, leans on staff, 
behind him is a nude youth running to r., chlamys over 1. arm, and staff in r. 
Missiles in the air are uncommon on archaic monuments, see, however, nos. 31, 105, 
106, 162. 

48. Amphora. Nola. Naples, Heydemann p. 330 no. 2537. A: Nessos story. B: 
Female figure supplicating a centaur. 

A: Nessos with pointed ears and silenus-like features, as in Ionic art, has 
fallen to r. on his foreknees; in his 1. hand he holds a long branch, in his r. 
hand a large white rock. He looks back at Herakles, beardless (see under no. 46), 
in short chiton, club in r. hand and 1. arm outstretched, about to seize the 
centaur. 

B: A woman wearing chiton, mantle and taenia walks behind a centaur who 
also wears a taenia and holds a branch in his 1. hand. She extends her r. hand in 
supplication to his bearded chin. To my mind there is no connection between the 
two sides of the vase. If the centaur were attacking the woman one would feel 
inclined to interpret the scene as an incident at the wedding-feast of Peirithoos, 
and one would then be justified in connecting the two sides and in naming the 
youthful clubman Theseus or Peirithoos. The transference of the Herakles type 
to Theseus is not uncommon, especially where the subject of their adventures 
coincides. But the centaur of side B is not attacking the woman, she seems to be 
importuning him. 

49. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon-Couve 698. Nessos story. 

On the body: Herakles to r., bearded, nude as on nos. 20, 25, 44, 50, 51, 53, 161, 
164, 218, 228, 310, with chlamys on 1. arm as a shield (see no. 47 where other exam- 
ples are cited), brandishes club against bearded Nessos to r., looking back. His r. 
front knee touches the ground and with uplifted hand he begs for mercy. The 
hands are very carelessly drawn, the fingers look like parenthetical marks. Nessos 
as on nos. 19, 24, 163 has human ears. On each side facing the central group is a 
youth, wrapped in mantle and leaning on a staff (cf. no. 45). 



Archaic Attic vases. 23 

50. Lekythos. Eretria. Athens, Collignon-Couve 724. Story of Nessos. Coarse 
drawing. 

On the body: Herakles, nude, pursues a fleeing centaur (Nessos) who holds 
a stone in each hand. On each side facing the central group is a youth leaning on a 
lance. They are spectators, not participants in the combat. For a list of the re- 
presentations of the nude Herakles see under no. 49. 

51. Lekythos. Gela. British Museum, Walters B 537. Grey-drab ground. Story 
of Nessos. 

On the body: Herakles to r., beardless (see under no. 46), and nude, sword in 
sheath at his side, brandishes a club and grasps the r. wrist of Nessos with 1. hand 
as on nos. 20, 33, 37, 62, 74. The centaur is of the usual stumbling type to r., and looks 
back, armed with a stone in each hand; he has long tresses as on nos. 42, 44, 46, 66, 
74. On each side, watching the central group, is a youth in a long chiton and mantle, 
holding a spear. We have already had so many examples of this type where the 
identity of Nessos is fixed that I do not hesitate to name the centaur, though 
Walters leaves his identity uncertain. 

52. Lekythos. PI. VII. Munich, Jahn 1266. Story of Nessos. I am indebted to 
Dr. Sieveking for the photograph here reproduced. 

On body: A nude youth to r., with drawn sword, pursues a centaur fleeing to r., 
who looks back, empty-handed. On the r. of this group is a youth escaping to r. ; 
on the 1. a man in himation carrying a staff. If it were not for the last mentioned 
figure, a spectator, I would be inclined to interpret this scene as an abbreviated 
centauromachy, like the group on the extreme r. of the Caylus Cylix, no. 101, side A. 

53. Lekythos. Corinth? British Museum, Walters 6538. Careless drawing. 
Story of Nessos. 

Herakles to r., beardless (see under no. 46 for other examples) and nude, with 
fillet and striped chlamys on outstretched 1. arm (cf . no. 47) as a shield, sword in r., 
is about to slay Nessos to r., looking back. On each side, looking on, is a female 
figure in long chiton, mantle and fillet. On the shoulder is a cock between two ivy- 
leaves as on the following lekythos, which has the same shape and size. 

54. Lekythos, same size and shape as no. 53. Eleusis. Athens, Collignon-Couve 715. 
Story of Nessos. 

On the shoulder, a cock between two ivy-leaves, as on the preceding lekythos. 

On the body: Herakles to 1., chlamys as shield (for similar motive see under 47) 
on r. arm, club in 1. hand behind him, about to draw sword with r. hand, advances 
against bearded Nessos to 1., looking back, with stone in 1. hand. On the r., behind 
Herakles, a draped male figure, leaning on a staff, watches the performance, whereas 
on the 1. a draped female figure (Deianeira), looking back, makes good her escape. 
Where the female figure merely looks on we are not justified in calling her Deianeira, 
but where, as here, she flees from the centaur, the bride of Herakles is doubtlessly 
meant. Noteworthy and unique is the arrangement of the central group with the 
figures moving to 1. instead of to r. It is highly improbable that the man who 
daubed this picture invented the composition ; he evidently copied the work of some 
artist. That he was also acquainted with the usual composition to r. is made clear 
by his picture on the lekythos no. 53, which is so similar in shape, size and decoration, 
both have the cock between ivy-leaves, both have purple accessories and the same 



24 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

coarse drawing, that I do not hesitate to attribute both to the same man. Entirely 
out of place are the garments suspended in the field, which are thoughtlessly borrow- 
ed from the composition of Pholos receiving Herakles. 

55. Lekythos. Piraeus. Zurich, Hochschule, Bliimner, Archaeol. Samml. p. 197 
no. 77. Story of Nessos. 

Herakles, with club in r., chlamys as shield on 1. arm, advances with long 
strides to r. against Nessos, who flees to r., but looks back. Beyond the centaur, 
Deianeira in chiton and himation, 1. arm uplifted, makes good her escape. Over the 
centaur is a flying bird. For bird in field see also nos. 20, 65, 66, 81, 96, 100, 177, 
213 A, 225, 227, 315. The background of the lekythos is red. 

56. Cup by Oikopheles. Peristeri, Attica. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, P. Gardner 
pi. 26. no. 189; Frohner, Burlington Fine Arts Club pi. I and p. 8 sq. (Branteghem 
Coll.). Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. pp. 113 and 101. Probably Boeotian fabric. 

Interior, round a gorgoneion in center : A frieze composed of four different sub- 
jects, a hunting scene, a sphinx, an ithyphallic silenus with human legs and human 
ears, looking back at a nymph, and Herakles to r. pursuing a bearded centaur. 
The hero, in lion's skin, 1. arm outstretched, holds a sword in r. hand drawn back 
to deliver a thrust; he has almost overtaken the centaur who carries a huge white 
rock in both hands and gallops to r. looking back. His ears, covered by his shaggy 
hair, are probably human. Silenus also occurs on the centauromachy of the "Tyr- 
rhenian" vase no. 40. Herakles, wearing lion's skin and sword, and slaying a centaur 
again occurs on an Attic plate no. 28, but whether here as there Nessos is meant 
remains uncertain. The choice of subjects to the r. and 1. of this group is unique; 
there seems to be no connection between the various groups. Frohner says: 'This 
cup is the most ancient vase bearing the name of an Athenian artist." This is 
certainly an exaggeration. Indeed even Kretschmer, who criticises this overesti- 
mation of Frohner, assigns a much too early date. On p. 113 he says: "Zu der alteren 
Gruppe der schwarzfigurigen Vasen, die der Francois -Vase an Alter etwa gleich- 
stehen mogen, gehoren ausser der Schale des Ergotimos in Berlin noch die nur in 
Bruchstiicken erhaltene Amphora des Sophilos und die in ihrer Technik noch alter- 
tiimlichere Schale des Oikopheles." That our cup is older than the fragments of 
Sophilos (no. 21) is certainly a misstatement. Both Frohner and Kretschmer base 
their arguments on the technique, black upon pale clay with white and purple acces- 
sories and incised outlines. This, however, is the technique of the two preceding 
lekythoi, and does not necessarily mean priority over those vases where the white 
color is laid upon a black glaze. The very archaic appearance of the cup by Oikophe- 
les is due rather to carelessness as Pottier, Catalogue des Vases Ant. p. 561 very 
correctly observes. The inscription informs us that Oikopheles was both the maker 
and decorator of the cup: exeQdjLievoev ejue Oixaxpefajc;, Olxco(pfejhj<; efi eygaqpoev. 
The use of the more accurate verb exeQdfievoev for the usual enoirjoev is doubtless 
the main reason for Kretschmer's assigning an earlier date to our cup than to the 
fragments of Sophilos, but Wolters, Jahrb. XIII p. I sqq. is certainly justified in 
dating the fragments of Sophilos earlier than the Frangois vase. Both Klitias and 
Oikopheles already show archaistic tendencies, the former in his drawing, the latter 
in the phraseology of his inscription. They belong nearer to the middle than to 
the early decades of the sixth century. Thiersch, Tyrrh. Amph. p. 136 sq. has come 



Archaic Attic vases. 25 

practically to the same conclusion as to the date of the Francois vase, but he 
does not mention Oikopheles. 

I am not at all sure that this cup is an Attic production. It will probably turn 
out to be Boeotian, when more is known of local Boeotian fabric of the sixth century. 
According to Sauer, however, Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1047, it is early Attic, but he 
claims that the picture is influenced by Corinthian types. In favor of Boeotian 
fabric is the inscription, the shape of the letters being identical with the Boeotian 
alphabet on a cylix in Athens, Coll.-Couve 1116, published by Kalinka, Ath. Mitt. 
XVII p. 101, pi. 6. 

57. Fragment of a Pinax. Akropolis. Photograph in the German Archaeological 
Institute, Athens VS 375. Label on pinax: X 7. 

Below the pinax is ruled off into four equal spaces, of which only the upper 
two are decorated. Above the upper band there must have been a high panel, 
containing a picture of a female figure (Athena ?) taking long strides to 1. Only her feet 
and the hem of her garment, folds incised, are preserved. On the band immediately 
below" her feet is a dog to r. pursuing a hare to r. This subject also occurs on the 
cup by Oikopheles (no. 56), but there two hunters and a net are added to the group. 
On the band below the dog and hare, Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, no weapons, 
swinging his arms, pursues at full speed a centaur, empty-handed, galloping to r., 
looking back. As on the preceding vase it is also here impossible to identify the 
centaur. 

58. Cylix. Fig. 6. Forman Collection. Auction catalogue 19 22 June 1899 p. 61 
no. 319 and pi. to p. 42. "Kleinmeister" style. Centauromachy on both sides. 




Fig. 6. After Forman Collection, pi. to p. 42, 319. 



A : Although there are three youths attacking three centaurs the groups are 
no longer strictly isolated so as to form monomachies, as on nos. 39 and 42, 
but the combatants assist each other, as on the monuments of the later periods. 
On the 1., a centaur to r., swinging in his r. hand behind him the leg-bone of a 



Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 



2 g Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

horse ( ?), holds up his 1. hand as if to parry the blow of a youth who rushes towards 
him, brandishing a long staff. Then comes a group of two centaurs, confronted, 
attacking a youth to 1. between them. His only weapon is a stone. The centaur 
facing him reaches back to deliver a blow with a bone ( ?) held in the r. hand. In 
his 1. hand uplifted before him he holds a large stone. The centaur to 1. behind 
the youth holds a pine-tree in both hands over his head. From the r. a youth with 
staff in r. hand behind him comes to the assistance of his hard-pressed companion. 
All the youths wear a short chiton and have a chlamys over their 1. arm as a shield. 

B: Here, according to the more primitive arrangement, we have three mono- 
machies, but in each the centaur has turned tail and is making good his escape. 
Described from 1. to r. we first have a youth to r. with a staff (?) pursuing a centaur 
who stumbles to r., with 1. hand on his side as if rubbing the bruises caused by the 
beating; he looks back and extends his r. hand towards his antagonist with a gesture 
of supplication. The next group consists of a youth to r., brandishing a staff, about 
to strike a centaur who gallops to r. with a large rock in his 1. arm. In front of him, 
a youth brandishes a staff and pursues a centaur who has come to a sudden stand- 
still and turns round awaiting his enemy. He holds in both hands before him a 
pine-tree the top of which drags on the ground. This centaur offers a new motive, 
full of life and spirit ; indeed, much more originality is shown in this centauromachy 
than in other archaic Attic works, and is a good illustration of the relationship 
between the "Kleinmeister" series and the Proto-Corinthian style. Also on this 
side of the vase the youths with one exception wear short chiton and chlamys 
over the 1. arm as a shield; on other Attic vases (see under no. 47) it is Herakles who 
thus shields himself. The human abdomen of four of the centaurs is painted purple. 

A fragment of a similar cylix representing a piebald bearded centaur galloping 
to 1. is now in the Hermitage, a recent acquisition from the Crimea. 

59. Hydria. St. Petersburg, Stephani 143. Centauromachy of two groups, the first 
of four figures, the second of two. 

On the shoulder from 1. to r. : A nude youth to r. with lance attacks from 
behind a centaur to r. with white stone in r., who is also attacked from the front 
by a Greek hoplite fully armed. Then a centaur to 1., with stone in 1. hand, comes 
to the rescue of the first centaur, thus forming a group of four figures. Beyond 
this group: A Greek hoplite to r., brandishing his lance, confronts a centaur to 1., 
with stone in 1. hand. 

60. Krater with volute handles. St. Petersburg, Stephani 220. Centauromachy 
on each side. 

A: Seven Greek warriors against six centaurs. The hoplites use lances, the 
centaurs have large rocks as weapons; one centaur has two rocks. On the 1. is a 
youth to r., wrapped in his mantle, looking on. 

B : Similar to A, but the last mentioned youth is missing, and two of the centaurs 
have two rocks. 

61. Lekythos. Girgenti. Munich, Jahn 772. Story of Nessos. 

Nessos wounded in breast and back by three arrows flees with outstretched 
arms, in r. hand a stone, and crying out with pain looks back at Herakles, bearded, 
lion's skin over his head and shoulders, who approaches from behind and is spanning 
his bow to shoot a fourth arrow. Between both is a veiled female figure (Deianeira) 



Archaic Attic vases. 27 

with uplifted hands. Behind Herakles stands an armed warrior, lance in r. hand, 
his 1. uplifted (lolaos). In front of Nessos, a bearded man in mantle (Oineus), sits 
on a camp-stool and holds a scepter. Jahn interprets the centaur as Eurytion, but 
that legend does not occur on Attic vases of the archaic period ; it occurs only later, 
as Furtwangler in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2194 sq. correctly states. On an archaic 
vase of Ionic style, no. 308, Eurytion does occur, but with human forelegs. 

62. Amphora. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1702. Story of Nessos. 

Nessos kneeling to r. looks back and holds Deianeira on his 1. shoulder, as on 
nos. 37, 38. She faces 1. and both hands are outstretched towards Herakles, youthful 
(as on nos. 46, 48, 51, 53, 67, 154, 172, 173, 182, 226), who holds the centaur's r. wrist 
with his 1. hand as on nos. 20, 33, 37, 51, 74, and thrusts his sword into the back of the 
monster, cf. nos. 34, 44, 70 and the cylix by Onesimos, Furt.-Reich. II pp. 133, 134 
figs. 35, 36. The human body of Nessos is painted red, as on the Chalcidian lekythos 
no. 163. On the r. are three figures looking on, first, a female figure who holds her 
mantle aside from her face with one hand, then two bearded men, draped. On the 1. 
of the central group are two figures looking on, the first female, the other male and 
bearded. The ear of Nessos is concealed by the body of Deianeira, but was probably 
supposed to be equine. He is crying out. 

According to Furtwangler, Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2151 sq. the youthful 
beardless type of Herakles is Ionic in its origin, and on p. 2153 he refers to our 
amphora as Attic under Chalcidian influence. The lack of beard, however, is not a 
criterion, for Herakles is always bearded on Chalcidian ware. Our vase belongs to 
the group of "Tyrrhenian" amphorae. 

63. Amphora. Italy. Louvre F 14. Pettier, Catalogue p. 719. Nessos story. 

In a panel: Herakles to r. seizes Nessos by the tail (as on nos. 34, 70) with his 1. 
hand, and brandishes his sword in his r. hand; his club stands behind him, as on 
no. 43 A. In the background, partially concealed by Nessos, as on nos. 20, 71, 
stands Deianeira to 1. Facing Nessos is a draped figure to 1. 
63A. Amphora. Capua. Castellani. Heydemann, Arch.Ztg. 1869 (vol. 27) p. 34 no. 3. 
Story of Nessos. A : Nessos and Deianeira. B : Herakles and Athena. Crude style. 

A: Nessos, fleeing, embraces with his r. arm Deianeira who sits on his back. 
Below, to indicate water, are according to Heydemann, three dolphins, the only 
representation in early Greek art where the river Euenos is indicated. Deianeira 
lifts both hands and looks back, as on nos. 64, 65, 69, at Herakles who is on the 
other side of the vase. 

B: Herakles, holding bow and arrows in his 1. hand, and club in r., pursues 
Nessos on the other side of the vase. Behind the hero stands Athena with lance and 
helmet in her hands. 

The river Euenos is represented on a Roman mosaic in Madrid, published by 
Quilling, in Roscher, Lex. Ill i, 286, see also p. 282 sqq. Of our amphora he had no 
knowledge. 

64. Krater, soc. Amphora a colonnette. Italy. Louvre F 307. Pottier, Catalogue 
p. 801. Story of Nessos. 

Nessos to r. carries Deianeira on his back, who turns round and extends both 
hands (as on nos. 63 A, 65, 69) towards Herakles, with club in r. hand, sword at 
his side, short chiton, and 1. leg raised, as on no. 77. On the r. a draped figure is 



2 g Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

looking on. The following vase has a very similar representation of the chief group, 
only there the hero's weapon is a sword. 

65. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 84. Nessos story. 

A: Nessos to r. carries off Deianeira on his back, who turns round and extends 
both hands (as on nos. 63 A, 64, 69) towards bearded Herakles, with taenia, chiton 
and chlamys. The hero stretches out his 1. hand to seize the centaur, and brandish- 
es a sword in his r. hand. On the 1. looking on, a female figure and a bearded male 
figure, both only partially preserved; on the r. a draped male figure leaning on 
a staff, behind him a flying bird, cf. no. 55. Under the handle, traces of a horse. 
The chief group is almost identical with the preceding vase, where the weapon of 
Herakles is the club. The number of the minor figures depends entirely upon the 
available space, they have no significance whatever. 

66. Pelike. Vulci. Present owner unknown. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II 117, 
118, 3 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 63, 4. Story of Nessos. 

A: Nessos to r., long tresses, taenia, has come to a stand-still and looks back at 
Deianeira, whom he holds on his back; his r. hand under her 1. arm, his 1. hand on 
her r. knee. Deianeira looks forward as on nos. 25, 70; her r. hand before her face, 
her 1. hand behind her. She wears sandals. Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, quiver 
and bow on his back, sheathed sword at his side, wields his club in his r. and stretches 
out his 1. hand to rescue his bride from the clutches of the monster. On the 1. a woman 
with an oenochoe, on the r. an old man watch the rescue. On the extreme 1. a bird 
flies to r., whereas on nos. 20, 96, 227 a bird flies to 1. Nessos is no longer represented 
in the early archaic stumbling manner, but as standing upright, as on no. 173. 

67. Amphora. Nola. British Museum, Walters B 278. "Coarse style, accessories 
faded." A: Story of Nessos. B: Satyr and Maenad. 

A: Nessos to r. carries Deianeira to r. on his back; she wears a himation, 
taenia, and holds a branch in her r. hand. Herakles, youthful as on no. 62 where 
other examples are cited, with chlamys as shield on 1. arm (other examples are 
cited under no. 47), advances to r. and attacks Nessos with a spear, the only example 
of Herakles with this weapon. Walters, evidently for this reason, puts a question 
mark behind the word Herakles, but to my mind there is no doubt that Herakles 
was meant by the painter of this vase, because of the close adherence to the stereo- 
type theme. That our artist tried to be original is also evinced by the branch in the 
hand of Deianeira. On the r. is an old man (Oineus) seated on a camp-stool, staff in 
hand, as on no. 61, in long white chiton and mantle. 

B : "A Satyr to r., with a lyre, pursuing a Maenad, who runs away to r., looking 
back at him, with hair looped up, long chiton and himation, branches in r. hand, 
crotala in 1." There is certainly no direct connection between the two sides, but 
it is interesting to note the occurrence of these subjects on one and the same vase, 
because both subjects are found on the cup by Oikopheles (no. 56), and both types 
on the Thraco-Macedonian archaic coins. For a silenus in the presence of centaurs 
see nos. 40, 311. 

68. Pelike. Collection Santangelo no. 144. Naples, Heydemann, p. 668. Story of 
Nessos. 

Herakles to r., bearded, in chiton and lion's skin, a large quiver at his side, 
brandishes a sword against Nessos, who, with Deianeira on his back, has fallen to r. 



Archaic Attic vases. 2Q 

on his foreknees. Herakles grasps with his 1. hand the r. of Nessos, which the cen- 
taur lifts to his head, a new motive. He looks back at the hero and holds a stone 
in 1. hand. Deianeira, draped, r. hand uplifted, rides forwards on his back, but looks 
back at her rescuer, as on no. 33. On the 1. stands a male figure to r. in chiton and 
mantle, 1. hand uplifted. On the r. are two figures, a draped youth, who flees 
to r. and looks back, and a bearded male figure in mantle and taenia, who looks on. 

69. Pelike. Munich, Jahn 1081. A: Story of Nessos. B: Amazonomachy. 

A: Herakles to r., bearded, in chiton and lion's skin, quiver at his side, pursues 
with drawn sword Nessos, who, with Deianeira riding forwards on his back, holds a 
stone in each hand. Both look back at Herakles; she with outstretched arms, as on 
nos. 63 A, 64, 65. On the r. are two figures, a bearded nude man, with chlamys 
thrown over 1. arm, and a draped youth; on the 1. is a draped bearded male figure, 
looking on. 
69A. Amphora. Heydemann, Bull. d. Inst. 1869 p. 146, 3. Story of Nessos. 

Herakles, in chiton and lion's skin, armed with bow and sword pursues Nessos, 
who carries Deianeira on his back. The centaur looks back at the hero and tries 
to make good his escape. Identical with 163 A? 

70. Pelike. Collection Durand. Present owner unknown. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. 
pi. 117, 118, i == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 63, 2. Story of Nessos. 

Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, seizes Nessos by the tail (as on nos. 34, 63) 
with his 1. hand, and stabs him with a sword in his hindquarters, as on nos. 34, 44, 62. 
On the back of the rearing centaur, who turns round with outstretched r. hand, 
rides Deianeira to r., as on nos. 25, 66, 67. Between the outstretched legs of Herakles 
is a rabbit to r. This is the first example of a rearing or galloping Nessos, a later 
type than the stumbling centaur. 

71. Amphora. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1835. Story of Nessos. 

Herakles, bearded, in short chiton, as on nos. 19, 21, 43 A, 64, 65, 77, 163, 
163 A, 213 A, 222, 226, sheath at side, sword in r., overtakes Nessos to r., who 
has a silenus-like expression ; he looks back and holds a large rock in both hands 
before him. The hero seizes with his 1. hand the centaur's beard, a new motive, 
quite common in the later periods. This motive again occurs on no. 176 A. Between 
their heads, in the background, stands Deianeira to 1., as on nos. 20, 63. On the 
1. is a bearded spectator. 

An interesting example of transference of types is seen on the Attic vases which 
represent the contest of Herakles with Acheloos (Berlin, Furtw. 1852 == Gerhard, 
Etr. camp. Vasenb. pi. XV, XVI, 3, 4; Brit. Mus. B 228, and B 313), where Acheloos 
is depicted like Nessos, but with split hoofs and a horn on his head. Moreover not 
only this monster but also Herakles and the minor figures are composed on the 
type of the Nessos story. See also under no. 157 for another example of transference 
of types, in that case Herakles banqueted by Acheloos according to the composition 
of Pholos entertaining his guest Herakles. A third example is on a. r. f. krater in 
the British Museum F 43, Passeri, Pict. Etr. II 117 where Herakles, "nude and 
beardless, seizes a centaur round the middle, raising him off the ground", as the 
hero, in his struggle with the Nemean lion raises him off the ground, /. H. S. XXV 
1905, p. 269 fig. 6; p. 268 figs. 4 and 5, or as he so often carries the Erymanthian 
boar. In this case it is impossible to say which is the original type. 



2Q Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

72. Amphora. Altenburg. Mentioned by Furtwangler in Roscher's Lex. I 2 p. 2194. 
Story of Nessos. 

Herakles to r. pursues Nessos who throws a stone at him. Deianeira flees. 

73. Cylix. Munich, Jahn 706. A and B: Story of Nessos. 

Exterior, A : Herakles to r., with drawn sword, pursues a fleeing centaur (Nessos) 
to r. In front of Nessos Deianeira, in Doric peplos open down the r. side, escapes to r. 
Meaningless inscription in the field. 

B : Same as A, but here Deianeira's peplos is properly fastened. It is surprising 
to find the same subject twice illustrated on one vase. One would be inclined to 
interpret the warrior not as Herakles but as a Lapith, and the fleeing female figure 
as one of the Lapith women at the wedding-feast of Peirithoos, if the Thessalian 
centauromachy in the presence of women could be proved to occur on archaic 
Attic vase-paintings. Since this cannot be proved, it seems better to hold to the 
interpretation above offered. 

74. Amphora. Vulci. British Museum, Walters B 227. Illustr. Robert, Mon. 
Ant. IX p. 19 fig. 3. A: Story of Nessos. 

A: Herakles to r., short chiton and lion's skin, the tail of which is tucked in 
under his belt, sheathed sword at his side, brandishes his club against Nessos, whom 
he holds by the r. wrist, as on nos. 20, 33, 37, 51, 62. The centaur is trotting to r., 
looking back; he has long tresses as on no. 51, where other examples are cited, and 
his equine body is piebald as on 36, 39, 76, 162. On the r. is an agitated female 
figure, in peplos and mantle, looking on. Walters identifies her with Deianeira. 
The school of Douris developed this composition, see Br. Mus. E 176, illustrated in 
Robert, Mon. Ant. IX p. 22 fig. 4. 

75. Olpe. Nola. Naples, Heydemann p. 325 no. 2517. Dubois Maisonneuve, 
Introd. 62, i. Story of Nessos. 

Deianeira in chiton, mantle, taenia, rides backwards (as on nos. 35, 36) with 
arms raised in fear and tries to escape the embrace of Nessos to r., who, looking back 
with outstretched arms, has dropped his branch. Herakles is no doubt omitted 
through lack of space, as on nos. 78, 79. 

76. Cylix. Munich, Jahn 436. A: Nessos story. B: Satyr, bearded. 
Exterior, A : Herakles, bearded, nude, pursues with uplifted r. hand, and club 

in 1. (as on no. 155), a fleeing bearded centaur (Nessos) with outstretched arms, 
and piebald equine body (cf. no. 74 for other examples of piebald centaurs). 

77. Cylix. Berlin, Furtwangler 2053. A: Story of Nessos. 

Exterior A: Between two large eyes, Herakles, bearded, in chiton, sword in 
sheath, pursues with club a centaur (Nessos) stumbling to r., who holds a white 
rock in uplifted 1. hand. He has silenus-like features, equine ears and, due to an 
oversight of the painter, three hindlegs, one outstretched and two drawn in. For 
Herakles in chiton see under no. 71. 

78. Plate. Athens. Now in Nat. Mus. Athens, Collignon-Couve mo. Border of 
leaves like cylix no. 24. Mentioned by Heydemann, Gr . Vasenb. pi. V 6 p. 5 note 
I2b, and Dumont-Chaplain, Ceram. I* p. 335 note 3. Story of Nessos. 
Deianeira, in peplos, willingly rides to r. on the back of a prancing centaur to r. 

Her 1. hand rests on his equine body, her r. arm is round his human back, whereas 
his r. arm is round her waist and his 1. hand touches her knees. Both are looking 



Archaic Attic vases. o i 

back. Nessos has a long nose, beard, but no mustache. The drawing is crude, the 
clay a yellowish grey, apparently without slip. 

There are two holes in the rim of the plate for suspension. If it were not for 
the r. f. cylix, no. 79, on which a female figure and centaur similarly grouped are 
inscribed as Nessos and Deianeira, one would hardly be inclined to identify our group 
with the Nessos story, but would merely call it centaur and nymph. 

79. Fragment of severe r. f. cylix, Epictetan style. British Museum, Smith E 42. 
Formerly restored as a plate "when the inscription was incised. The purple 
letters are, however, quite legible." See Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. p. 77. 
Illustr. Inghirami, Pitture di VasiFittili II pi. 119; Millin, Myth. Gall. pl.CXVIII 
fig. 456, and D'Hancarville, Antiq. Etr. IV pi. 31. Mentioned by Colvin, /. H. S. 
I p. 117. 

Interior: Nessos (inscribed Niao^ gallops to r. but turns his human body 
to 1. and is drawing with both hands the body of Deianeira (erroneously inscribed 
AaivaveQo), who rides on his back, closer to him, so as to be able to kiss her. 
She shows no resistance whatsoever and seems to have become reconciled to her 
fate, because of her utter helplessness. Nessos has long tresses down his back and 
wears an ivy- wreath. Part of his tail and hindlegs are missing. Deianeira wears a 
rich Ionic chiton and a mantle drawn over her head. The monster's hair is very 
carefully dressed and his long beard neatly trimmed; his features are quite human. 
Another advance over the b. f. style is the more natural twist to his human body. 
Since the severe r. f. vases are in many cases as early in date as late b. f. ware, 
I have considered it necessary to include them in our list. It may be of interest 
to note in passing that the Nessos story is not at all popular in the fourth cen- 
tury B. C. There is, however, an interesting hydria of that period from S. Italy in 
Copenhagen, Sophus Birket Smith, De malede Vaser no. 203, and a bell-shaped 
krater also from S. Italy, Passed, Pict. Etr. II pi. 199; both probably illustrate 
this story. 

80. r. f. Amphora. "Style of Kleophrades" the potter. Munich 2316, Jahn 55. 
Beazley, /. H. S. XXX 1910, pi. VIII and p. 50 no. 13 a. A: Herakles. B: 
Centaur. 

A: Herakles, with club in r. hand behind him and bow in 1. hand, advances 
against a centaur on the other side. His lion's skin covers his head and is thrown 
over his 1. arm.- 

B : Centaur, bald, snub nose like that of a silenus, gallops to 1. and holds a huge 
cliff in both hands behind his head, resting on his shoulders. This cliff, with the 
exception of that on no. 103, is much larger than the weapons of centaurs in the 
sixth century, where the largest stones usually do not exceed the size of the 
centaur's head, whereas here it is almost five times the size of his head. The shaggy 
beard of the centaur is brown. Although his position is almost identical with that 
of the first centaur on the extreme 1. of the centauromachy on the Frangois vase, 
yet our artist is advanced in anatomical drawing, witness the median line. With the 
r. f. style bald centaurs become popular. The artist may have had the Nessos 
episode in mind, though certainty cannot be gained on this point. It is interesting 
to note that the centaurs representing other legends on vases from the workshop 
of the potter Kleophrades are far more advanced in type than the centaur on our 



o 2 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

Munich amphora. (See Beazley, /. c. p. 52 no. 16; p. 57 no. 19 b; p. 59 nos. 21 
and 22). This must be explained by the fact that Herakles versus a centaur was 
so popular in Attic art of the sixth century that the rather archaic type was still 
uppermost in the imagination of the severe r. f. artists. Where the story was new 
they were unhampered by conventional types. 

We have now sketched the development of the Nessos adventure from its 
earliest to its latest appearance on b. f. Attic vases, and have incidentally included 
some centauromachies. In the following group we shall dispose of the few genre- 
scenes, such as centaurs on the hunt, and those which serve purely decorative 
purposes and then shall finish the centauromachies. 

81. Amphora. Vulci. British Museum, Walters B 214; Overbeck, Her. Bildw. p. 521 
note. Hunting scene. 

On shoulder of obverse: "A bird flying to r. between two Centaurs, who hold 
stones in their r. hands to hurl at it: on either side, a palmette". Colvin, /. H. S. I 
p. 122 says that the bird is as big as the centaurs. On archaic monuments, see under 
no. 174, the centaurs usually hunt small game, birds, hares, foxes, or deer. Large 
game, such as the lion, does not occur in the archaic vase-paintings. At first glance 
the hunt for large game would seem to be limited to the monuments of the late 
Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman periods, but the fact that they wear skins of lions, 
tigers, or panthers on works of art of the fifth century B. C. proves, as Colvin correctly 
observes, that they were considered as hunters of wild beasts even then. The earliest 
representations of a centaur shielding himself with the skin of a wild animal are 
found on nos. 104 106; on the archaic gem, no. 316, he wears the skin of a 
wild animal over his shoulders. On an archaic gem, probably under Phoenician 
influence, no. 240, is found the only archaic representation of a centaur attacking a 
lion. 

82. Amphora. Present owner unknown. Gerhard, Apparat in the library of the 
Berlin Museum, Mappe XV 41. Centaur and fox. 

A bearded centaur, walking to r., looks back; his hairy chest is shown as usual 
in front view. His nose is long, his eyes are of the late b. f. period, and his hair falls 
down his back and over his shoulder in long tresses. Like all the centaurs on Attic 
archaic monuments he is not bald but has a heavy head of hair. In his r. hand 
drawn back so that it reaches the middle of his equine body he holds a living fox, 
lifting it by the tail. The forelegs of the hunter's prey touch the ground, the hindlegs 
are pawing the air, and his head is turned to 1. For other examples of centaurs 
characterized as hunters see under no. 174. On an incised Etruscan Bucchero vase, 
no. 292, we find another example of a centaur with hairy chest. 

83. Cup. PI. VIII. Leyden. Holwerda, Cat. Ill 36. Dr. J. H. Holwerda, to whom I am 
indebted for the photograph here reproduced, considers the cup an Ionic- 
Cypriote product; it is, however, Boeotian. 

Inside: A bearded centaur, long nose and protruding lips like nos. 36, 66, 85, 
gallops to r., about to hurl a stone with 1. hand drawn back. His ear, though pointed, 
does not resemble that of a horse. In Attic art the equine ears of centaurs are differ- 
ently drawn. Nevertheless in composition he is very similar to nos. 84 and 85 
and is therefore catalogued at this point. The cup evidently imitates a bronze 
original. 



Archaic Attic vases. 



33 



84. Cylix. PL I. Orvieto. Karlsruhe, Schumacher, Arch. Anz. V, 1890 p. 2. Outside 
A: Combat between two centaurs. B: Combat between two cocks. 

A : Battle between two centaurs, the one to the r. fights with his fists, unless 
he holds very small stones, as on the following cylix, the other is about to deliver a 
blow with a pine-tree which he holds uplifted in both hands behind his head. Their 
tails are uplifted and they rear so that their forelegs overlap in heraldic fashion. 
As is usual in Attic art they have equine ears. Below the rim is inscribed %aiQe 
%al TiieC [ei] ev, the syllable si being repeated by mistake. The shape of the cylix 
is identical with that of the following example, signed by Xenokles. It is referred 
to by Walters, History of Ancient Pottery II 146 in a misleading manner, as though 
the centaurs were fighting with cocks. 

85. Cylix by Xenokles. PI. II. Caere. Van Branteghem Coll., Frohner, Cat. of Bur- 
lington Fine Arts Club pi. 2 and p. 10. Now in Boston Mus. no. 366. See also 
Klein, Vasen mit Meister signatured p. 81 no. 12. Combat between two centaurs. 
Exterior, A : Two centaurs confronted, the one facing r. holds a stone in each 

hand, the other brandishes in both hands above his head the branch of a tree 
without foliage. They are bearded, have equine ears, long nose and protruding 
lips, as on nos. 36, 66, 83, giving them a very bestial expression. Below the rim is 
inscribed Xaevoxheg: enoisoev: 

The figures are painted upon yellow clay, relieved by white and purple, with 
details incised. Centaurs fighting among themselves, as on the foregoing vase and 
the one before us, are rare on ancient monuments, although the type does occur on 
Etruscan Bucchero, no. 285, and on Etruscan imitations of Greek vases, as for 
instance, nos. 178, 313, 313 A, 324, the first belonging to Class A, the second and 
third to Class B and the last to Class C. The subject occurs in Attic art under 
oriental influence, no. 4, as early as the geometric period. 

86. Amphora. Palermo Museum, no. 1460. 

Two bearded centaurs, confronted, attempting to uproot a tree. One of the 
centaurs has been incorrectly restored in modern times with human forelegs; they 
should be equine like those of the other centaur. For a similar motive see no. 173, 
an Attic amphora in Munich. 

87. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 68. 

A: Two centaurs flee in opposite directions under a tree. 

88. Cylix. Ruvo. Naples, Heydemann p. 392 no. 2799. Careless drawing. 
Exterior, A: A centaur galloping to r. 

Exterior, B : The same as A. On each side, meaningless inscriptions. Here the 
centaurs are purely decorative, as on the following cylixes. 

89. Cylix. Poli, Cyprus. British Museum, Walters B 408. "Purple and white 
accessories." 

Exterior, A: A centaur gallops to r., holding a stone in each hand, like the 
centaur to r. on the Xenokles cylix, no. 85. 

Exterior, B : The same as A. This cylix is of the early b. f. period, because of 
its depth and off-set lip. 

90. Cylix. Munich, Jahn 883. Same shape as preceding cylix. 
Exterior, A: A centaur galloping to 1. with a stone in each hand. 
Exterior, B: The same as A. 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 



oj Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

91. Fragment of rim of cylix. Naukratis. British Museum, Walters B 6oo 54 . 
Purple accessories and incised lines. 

Exterior: A centaur galloping to r. 

92. Kyathos. Italy. Louvre F 163. Pottier, Catalogue p. 775. 

Between two large human eyes a centaur with a white stone in each hand 
gallops to r. Style of Nikosthenes. 

93. Plate. Athens. Benndorf, Griech. u. Sicil. Vasenb. pi. VIII, 2. 

Interior : On a double line above an empty exergue is a centaur, with uplifted 
tail, rearing to r. and looking back; he holds a rhyton in 1. hand in front of him, but 
his r. hand drawn back over his equine body is empty. A drinking-horn in the 
hand of a centaur also occurs on nos. 137, 141, 142. 

94. Sieve in shape of cylix with lid. Louvre. Not catalogued. Coarse style. 

On the first band round the disc-shaped center of the lid are five centaurs 
galloping to r., empty-handed, with human ears. 

95. Cylix. Vienna, Sacken-Kenner, Wiener Munz- u. Ant. 'Cab. 161, 52; Laborde I 
pi. 70 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 203, i. 

Exterior : Under each handle is a pair of large eyes, to ward off evil influence, 
and between the eyes on one side is a bearded centaur galloping to r. His hindlegs 
are concealed by one of the eyes. Between the pair of eyes under the handle is a 
seated female draped figure, interpreted as a maenad. There does not seem to be 
any connection between the two figures, which to my mind are merely decorative. 

96. Cylix. PI. XII. Munich, Jahn 549. Very crude drawing. Centauromachy. 
For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking. 

Interior: A bearded centaur to r., with a huge white stone in his r. hand sup- 
ported against his human back, tramples on an armed Lapith, who has fallen prone 
upon the ground. The warrior lifts his helmeted head and looks back. For a similar 
motive see the following vase. In the field, a bird flying to 1., as on nos. 20, 227. 

The vase is Attic under Ionic influence, see no. 173. 

97. Amphora. Vulci. Durand coll. 363. British Museum, Walters B 176. 
Centauromachy. Careful style. 

A: In a panel, Monomachy, "a Centaur to 1. tramples on a Lapith, and raises 
a white rock in his arms to hurl upon him. The Lapith is fallen backwards to 1.; 
he is bearded and fully armed, with high-crested helmet, short embroidered chiton, 
parameridia, and Boeotian shield on r. arm, in 1. hand a white stone." For similar 
subjects see the preceding and following vases. 

98. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 86. Centauromachy. 

A: Monomachy, a bearded centaur raises a large rock in both hands to hurl 
upon a fallen Lapith, fully armed. For a similar subject see the preceding vase. 

99. Lekythos. Tanagra. Athens, Collignon-Couve 701. Light background, purple 
and white accessories. Centauromachy. 

On the body : Two monomachies, in which the armed Lapiths are in the center 
of the composition, back to back, each confronting a centaur. The centaur to the r. 
has fallen on his front knees. 

100. Cylix. Tanagra. Athens, Collignon-Couve 825. Centauromachy. 
Exterior A : A nude Lapith wearing Doric helmet, Boeotian shield, and greaves 

he has evidently not taken time to put on his cuirass - - has fallen to r. on his r. 



Archaic Attic vases. 35 

knee, and looks back. He is hard pressed on both sides by a' bearded galloping cen- 
taur with stones in their hands, but is about to receive assistance from a nude 
Lapith with spear in r. hand and chlamys on 1. arm as a shield. This composition 
is very similar to one of the groups on the Forman cylix, no. 58. 

B : Same as A except that the nude Lapith on the extreme r. is missing, thus 
forming a group like that of the Kaineus episode, but not to be identified with it. 
In the field is a flying bird, under one of the handles, a fish. The tails of the centaurs 
are painted red. 

101. Cylix. Collection Caylus. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. De Ridder, Vases 
peints p. 227 no. 331. One side is illustrated in Caylus, Rec. d'Antiq. II pi. 35, 
but does not agree in all details with De Ridder's description. Centauro- 
machy. 

A: Described from 1. to r., a warrior wearing helmet, lance and shield walks 
to r. but looks back. A centaur to r., armed with branch pursues a warrior fleeing to 
r., whose escape is cut off by the next centaur to 1., also armed with branch. The 
next figure is a warrior to r., pursuing a centaur to r., who looks back. On the extreme 
r. is a warrior to r. 

B : A centaur galloping to 1. is pursued by a warrior to 1., who, in his turn, is 
threatened by a centaur to 1., holding a branch in each hand. On the r. of this group 
is a warrior to 1., who turns almost completely round to attack a pursuing centaur 
to 1. On the extreme r. a warrior approaches the last mentioned group, but looks 
back. There are on this side of the cylix two groups of three figures each; in the first, 
two centaurs and one Lapith, in the second, one centaur and two Lapiths. On side A 
there are seven figures, but the warrior on the extreme 1. falls entirely out of the 
two groups. The only difference in the system of grouping is that the two centaurs 
attacking one Lapith are confronted. 

102. Cylix. Berlin, Furtwangler 1754. Cen tauromachy.. 

Exterior A: Two monomachies. In the group on the 1. a warrior to r., with 
Corinthian helmet and shield, attacks with uplifted lance a centaur to 1. who 
raises his 1. hand to hurl a stone, whereas with his outstretched r. hand he grasps 
the rim of his opponent's shield. Though this motive is very rare in the archaic 
period (see no. 176) it is quite common on later monuments, see /. H. S. XXX 
p. 52 sq. no. 16 where other r. f. examples are given. A large stone on the ground 
between the fore-and hindlegs of the centaur is another uncommon occurrence on 
b.'f. vase-paintings. Our vase-painter was probably influenced by some masterpiece 
in painting or sculpture. In the group on the r. a warrior to 1. like the first warrior, 
but not so well preserved, pursues a centaur to 1., who looks back to hurl a stone 
from his uplifted r. hand at his adversary. Between his hindlegs on the ground is a 
rock, see also no. 115. The four figures of the picture are so arranged that both 
centaurs move to 1. between the confronting warriors. The centaurs have snub 
noses. 

103. Cylix. Berlin, Furtwangler 2047. Centauromachy. 

Exterior: Under each handle is a fallen warrior attacked by two rearing cen- 
taurs. Under one handle one of the centaurs rests both forelegs on the handle, 
under the other the corresponding centaur to 1. rests only one foreleg on the handle. 
The warrior fallen to 1. seizes the hindleg of one of the centaurs, a common motive 

5* 



^5 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

on Etruscan ash-urns. On one side the centaur to r. holds a white rock in both hands, 
and the centaur to 1., looking back, threatens with his fist. On the other side the 
centaur to 1. shakes his r. fist and holds a grey rock at his side in his 1., but the 
centaur to r. twists his human body so that both arms are outstretched behind him 
and encircle a huge white rock, much larger than his head. Their faces are grotesque, 
their beards are red, and over their foreheads rise tufts of hair, as on the Frangois 
vase. On one side of our cylix between two large human eyes is a silenus embracing 
a maenad. He has human legs and a type of face identical with that of the centaurs. 
There is, however, no apparent connection between the silenus and the centaurs; 
the same holds true for nos. 56, 67. 

104. Lekythos. Coghill 35,2 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 12, 7. Centaurojnachy.. 
Two nude warriors wearing Attic helmets advance with long lances to r. against 

a centaur rearing to 1., who brandishes a branch in r. hand and shields himself with 
a leopard's skin over his 1. arm. The warrior nearest the centaur, with sword in 
sheath at his side, has a round shield on 1. arm. His r. knee- and 1. foot rest on a rock 
which gives him more power of resistance. The warrior behind him, a beardless 
youth, advances cautiously with a chlamys wrapped round his 1. arm as a shield. 
The skin over the 1. arm of the centaur (cf. also no. 316) proves that the Greeks even 
in the archaic period considered centaurs to be hunters of wild animals, although 
they are not represented as such until later times, except on an archaic gem, probably 
under Phoenician influence, no. 240. If this lekythos is of the b. f. style, as is reported, 
it is another illustration of a centaur so turned that his human back is visible. On 
the Wiirzburg b. f. amphora, no. 125, we find another illustration of a centaur with 
his human back turned towards the spectator, cf. also nos. 176, 183. 

105. r. f. Amphora a colonnette. Coghill 40 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 14, I, 2. Engle- 
field, Ancient Vases, engraved by Moses, pi. 23. Centauromachy. 

Almost identical with the preceding, except that the first warrior's spear has 
a sauroter, and that he kneels somewhat differently. The second warrior wears a 
petasos instead of a helmet, and the chlamys round his arm is somewhat longer. 
In the field, meaningless inscriptions. Furthermore, a flying spear to r. is depicted 
above the heads of the two warriors. Missiles flying through space are not common 
on archaic monuments, we have had only two examples thus far on Attic vase- 
paintings, no. 31 and the kyathos in the Vatican, no. 47; see also the following 
amphora and no. 162. 

Reinach is unwarranted in doubting the genuineness of this painting. It only 
stands to reason that one man should paint the same picture more than once. Now 
that we have a larger repertoire of vase-paintings at our disposal, quite a number of 
duplicates can be enumerated. It is, however, surprising that he painted one in 
the b. f., the other in the r. f. style. I have not seen either of these vases, but judging 
from the poor illustrations, it seems highly probable, that the lekythos is also of the 
r. f. style. 

106. r. f. Amphora. Vienna, Sacken-Kenner, Wiener Munz- u. Ant. Cab, p. 203, 144; 
Laborde I pi. 37 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 187. Centauromachy. 

In a panel: Combat between two Greek warriors and a centaur. Similar to 
the preceding vase-painting, but here the panel cuts off the hindquarters of the 
centaur and one leg of the youth with the petasos. The meaningless inscriptions are 



Archaic Attic vases. 



37 



also missing, but the spear over the heads of the Lapiths is represented, as on no. 105. 
Even in the later r. f . period, when the centaurs are represented as bald, this system 
of grouping occurs, though with only one Lapith, on the vase illustrated in Reinach, 
Rep. Vas. II p. 281, 3 - Tischbein I pi. n. 

107. Amphora. Sicily. Auction Catalogue, Paris, 1.8 20 March 1901, pi. Ill no. 20 
and p. 8. A: Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. B: Thessalian centauromachy. 

In a panel, A: Herakles to r. seizes by the hair a centaur whp has fallen to 1. 
onto his-foreknees and looks back; his r. arm touches the ground, his 1. arm is uplifted, 
his whole equine body and hindlegs are in the air in an awkward position, as if 
leaning against the r. border of the panel. From the 1. another centaur to r. comes 
to his rescue, and with a large branch attacks Herakles from behind. 

In a panel, B : A hoplite pierces with his lance a centaur who defends himself 
with branches of a tree. There is evidently no connection between the two sides. 

108. Lekythos. In possession of J. P. Anderson. Moses' Antique Vases pi. i. Pre- 
sent location unknown. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. 

On body: Herakles in lion's skin, sword at side, empty-handed (?), pursues 
with mighty strides to r. a fleeing centaur, who, with a stone in each hand gal- 
lops to r., looking back. On the 1. another centaur galloping to r., a stone in 
each hand, has almost overtaken the hero. For a similar type of Herakles see 
no. 43, where he has three antagonists. The absence of the pithos on both of 
these vases is noteworthy, but we must remember that the battle was not decided 
at the pithos, and that Herakles pursued them a great distance. Therefore the 
centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe may be represented on vase-paintings and other 
monuments even where the pithos is missing, as we have already seen on no. 43. 
As noted above, nos. 32, 33, 36, 38, there may have been a battle between Herakles 
and the comrades of Nessos after his death, not preserved in literature, but it is not 
probable that our lekythos illustrates that battle, which is only hinted at on the 
"Tyrrhenian" amphorae. 

109. Kyathos. Pis. VI, VII. Munich, Jahn 1176. Coarse style. On the handle a 
bud in relief, and a moulded palmette with long stem, in imitation of metal. 
Centauromachy. I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking for the photographs here 
reproduced. 

A bearded warrior to 1. with high crested helmet, cuirass, and shield (?) 
or rock on 1. arm, crouches as he transfixes with his lance a centaur to r., who is 
about to hurl a huge white rock at his adversary. On the r. of this group another 
centaur to 1. balances a white rock on his 1. arm and holds another rock under his 
r. arm against his human side. The field is decorated with vines, and the group 
is bounded by a pair of lions confronted, with one forepaw raised, regardant, 
as on the kyathos in the British Museum 6463. 
no. Lekythos with white ground. 0.18 m. high. Gela. Palermo Museum. Not 

published. Cen tauromachy . 

A bearded centaur to r., holding a stone in r. hand, attacks a kneeling warrior 
to 1., who defends himself with his shield and threatens his opponent with his 
lance. He wears a high-crested helmet. When we recall the similar group on the 
preceding vase it seems probable that we have here a detailed scene from some 
larger centauromachy. 



-g Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

in. Lekythos. 0.27 m. high. Gela. Palermo Museum. Not published. Centauro- 

machy. 

A bearded centaur to r. attacks with a branch (?) a kneeling warrior to r., 
who looks back at the centaur and defends himself with his shield. He wears a 
Doric helmet. 

112. Lekythos, white ground. Munich, Jahn 1278. Centauromachy^ 

A galloping centaur between two armed warriors. See also nos. 36, 59, 

113, 171, 175 A, for a centaur between two warriors. 

113. Oenochoe of peculiar shape. Naples, Santangelo no. 235. Heydemann 
p. 687. Centauromachy. Careful style. 

A bearded nude warrior to 1., with helmet, shield on r. arm, lance in 1. hand, 
pierces the chest of a centaur who looks back at and stretches his r. hand towards 
a second warrior with shield and lance. With his 1. hand the centaur grasps the 
lance of the first warrior, a unique motive. For other left-handed warriors with 
shield on r. arm see nos. 97, 166. Our vase is probably Attic under Chalcidian 
influence, see under no. 166. 

114. Lekythos, neck broken off. 0.13 m. high. Palermo Museum. Not published. 
Crude style. Cent auromach y . 

A bearded centaur, rearing to r., with a stone in 1. hand, is attacked from behind 
by a warrior to r. On the following vase the figures are similarly grouped. 

115. Oenochoe. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters 6504. Coarse style. Cen- 
tauromachy. 

In a red panel: "A Greek warrior or Lapith, fully armed, with chlamys, de- 
vice of ivy-wreath on shield, advances to r., attacking with his spear a Centaur, 
who retreats, turning back to hurl a stone at him, which he holds in 1. hand. Beneath 
the Centaur's feet is a rock; in the background a tree." Although the composition 
is similar to that of Herakles and Nessos, Walters is certainly right in interpreting 
the warrior as a Lapith because his weapon is a spear. A rock under a centaur's 
feet we have already found on no. 102 ; the tree see also the next vase indicates 
that the scene takes place out of doors. Indeed, not until the next or fifth century 
do we find the centauromachy taking place indoors, in the banquet hall of Peirithoos. 
In the archaic period it seems as if the expedition of the Lapiths against the cen- 
taurs was planned a considerable time after the wedding. 

116. Oenochoe. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters, B 622. "Design much worn . . . 
purple accessories." Centauromachy. 

In a white panel: A "Lapith, fully armed, with a drawn sword in r. hand, 
rushes to r. on a Centaur, who kneels to 1. on 1. foreleg, and with 1. arm seizes 
the other's sword, endeavouring to push him away with his r. hand. Beneath the 
Lapith's feet is a rock; behind him are his spear and shield. On the further side 
of the Centaur is a pine-tree." This is the third example on Attic b. f. vase-paint- 
ings where a centaur seizes his enemy's armor, on no. 102 he grasps the rim of the 
Lapith's shield (cf. also no. 176), on no. 113 his lance, and here his sword. 

117. Oenochoe. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters, B 623. Centauromachy. 
In a drab panel: "A Centaur to 1. rushes upon a Lapith, wielding a pine-tree 

in both hands ; the Lapith is fallen back with one leg doubled under him, and tries 
to defend himself with his spear. He is fully armed, with parameridia, and three 



Archaic Attic vases. 



39 



pellets on his shield as device. In the field, imitation inscription." Walters further- 
more says: "The centaur may be named Petraios, and the Lapith Hoplon; cf. 
the Frangois vase." To me it does not seem suitable to assign names in this case, 
because our group is not at all similar to that on the Frangois vase. 

118. Kyathos. Pis. VI, VII. Munich, Jahn 1244. On the handle a bud in relief and a 
moulded palmette with long stem, in imitation of metal, like no. 109. Centauro- 
machy, three monomachies. I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking for the photo- 
graphs here reproduced. 

From 1. to r. : i. A rearing centaur to r., wielding a pine-tree in both hands 
over his head confronts a fully armed standing hoplite brandishing a spear. 

2. A rearing centaur to r., holding a branch in both hands over r. shoulder, 
attacks a fully armed hoplite with high-crested helmet crouching to L, with one 
leg doubled under him as on the preceding vase. 

3. A hoplite advancing to r. pierces with his spear the equine chest of a rearing 
centaur to L, looking back. He too brandishes a pine-tree in both hands, has long 
tresses, and human expression of face, characteristic of Attic art. The system of 
grouping is like that on the "Tyrrhenian" amphora no. 39 where, however, a dead 
Lapith is added between groups one and two. 

119. Amphora. Heidelberg. Inedited. Kaineus episode. Kaineus, fully armed, 
is attacked by two centaurs, confronted. 

120. Oenochoe. Munich, Jahn 1258. Kaineus episode. 

Kaineus, fully armed, buried up to his knees, defends himself with his sword 
against two rearing centaurs, who hurl huge rocks held in both hands upon him. 
On the Frangois vase three centaurs attack Kaineus, but on the later monuments 
the number of centaurs is almost always limited to two. Three centaurs, however, 
occur on the early r. f. amphorae a colonnette, one in the Palermo Museum, 
Heydemann, Arch. Ztg. 1871, p. 54 no. 40 Sommer no. 9070, another in the collection 
Raoul Warocque, part I, 1903, p. 48 sq. no. 84 with illustration, and the third in 
the Harrow School, Smith, The Burlington Magazine II 1903 pi. VII, E. A. Gardner 
/. H. S. 1897 pi. 6, probably identical with the Bodleian vase, Sambon, Le Musee 
I p. 32 with illustration. On all of these Kaineus is seen as on the Frangois vase 
from the front ; there are two centaurs on the 1. and one on the r., reversing the group- 
ing on the Frangois vase where two centaurs are on the r., and one on the L; on 
the first the centaurs are purely Attic, with heavy head of hair and human features, 
on the other vases they are more bestial and bald-headed. Contrary to the archaic 
b. f. period, the early r. f. vases represent the enemies of the invulnerable hero 
either already wounded or in the act of being wounded with a sword plunged 
deep into their bodies. The Raoul Warocque vase is a good example of the latter; 
the early r. f. stamnos, Louvre, Pettier, Album pi. 95 G 55 exemplifies the former 
type. For a later r. f. vase, which holds more strictly to the archaic motif, see 
no. 127. 

E. A. Gardner I. c. p. 299 sqq. discusses the legend of Kaineus in an interesting 
and suggestive manner. On p. 301, following Mannhardt, he expresses the opinion 
that the centaurs of Homer and Hesiod had nothing distinctly equine about 
them, and that their peculiar form "is probably due either to some accidental 
combination or to some too literal interpretation of a metaphor used by an early 



AQ Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

poet; it really has no more to do with the origin of the Centaur than has the late 
and more artistic combination of man and horse that we see in the sculpture and 
painting of the fifth century." Gardner follows the common but erroneous idea 
that centaurs of my Class B are older than those of Class A. He does not realize 
that both classes occur on early geometric monuments side by side, see no. 5, 
otherwise he would not have made the rash statement quoted above. Ridge way 
too, Early Age of Greece I 173 sqq. is of the same opinion: "It is clear then that 
the Pheres (of Homer) are as yet nothing more than a mountain tribe and are not 
yet conceived as half-horse half-man/' but he does not explain how and when the 
change took place. As stated elsewhere I am of opinion that the centaurs were 
of oriental, probably Hittite origin, and that the legends and myths of the Greeks 
grew round the art-type, and in explanation of it. 

Loeschcke, Banner Studien Kekule gewidmet p. 252 sqq. discusses the schema 
of a hoplite (Kaineus) between two centaurs confronted in connection with the 
schema of a fallen Amazon between Achilles and Penthesileia confronted and on 
horseback. He is of opinion that it originated as a circular picture (Rundbild\ 
an outgrowth of two motives taken from the oldest gems, a) two animals in 
heraldic position, b) a human being taming two monsters confronted. It is re- 
markable that although the Kaineus episode fits very well into a circular space 
it never occurs on the inside of a cylix. 

121. Amphora. PI. IV. Ley den, Roulez, Choix de Vases Feints pi. XI 2 a = Reinach, 
Rep. Vas. II 272, 4. Kaineus episode. For the photograph here reproduced 
I am greatly indebted to Drs. J. H. Holwerda and M. A. Evelein. 
Between palmettes on stems, two rearing centaurs confronted, as on the pre- 
ceding vase, are about to hurl huge white rocks at Kaineus, fully armed, buried 
up to his knees in the ground, who defends himself with a lance about to pierce 
the body of the centaur on the 1. This centaur has human ears and human expression 
of face, whereas the other has equine ears, very silenus-like features and open mouth. 
Kaineus moves to r., but turns to 1., with his back to us. The back view of human 
beings is not common in the sixth century. Other examples of Kaineus with his 
back to the spectator are nos. 123 A, 125, 176 A and a r. f. stamnos in the Louvre, 
Pettier, Album pi. 95 G 55. Note also that the centaur to r. holding a white rock 
on his shoulders in both arms has the profile of his face drawn in front of it, 
i. e. on a white background. This occurs again on an Ionic vase probably made 
in Italy, no. 171. 

122. Oenochoe. Corneto. Auction catalogue, Paris, u 14 May 1903, p. 17 no. 54 
and pi. I no. ii. Kaineus episode. 

Between two centaurs confronted Kaineus fully armed moves rapidly to 1., 
but twists his upper body to r., so that his chest is visible, and threatens the centaur 
on the r. with his lance. This centaur swings a rock in both hands behind his 
head and lifts his front r. leg as high as the Lapith's shoulder. The centaur on 
the 1. swings a huge rock in both hands behind him. Kaineus is entirely above 
ground, even his feet are visible, whereas on the Fra^ois vase he is buried up to 
his waist. There is more originality and vigorous action shown in our vase-painting 
than is commonly seen on Attic representations of this episode. The most vigorous 
representation is on the Italo-Ionic hydria in Naples, see no. 176 A. 



Archaic Attic vases. 41 

123. Amphora. Vatican. Museo Gregoriano II pi. 30, Helbig, Fiihrer II 2 p. 293 
no. 1 202. On one side: Herakles clubbing centaurs at the pithos, see below, 
no. 152. On the other side: Kaineus episode. 

As in the preceding vase-painting Kaineus is entirely above ground, but moves 
to r., turning to 1. in order to attack the centaur on the 1., who rears and holds 
a huge rock in both hands in front of him. The centaur on the r., confronting 
the other centaur, swings a rock in both hands behind him so as to hurl it with 
more force. Both have long tresses. Kaineus carries a Boeotian shield and wears 
a double-crested helmet as on nos. 176, 176 A. 

123 A. Shape not mentioned. Akrai. Judica, Antichitd di Acre, pi. 29, i. Kaineus 
episode. 

Kaineus, above ground and seen from behind, in helmet, cuirass, greaves, 
and with a round shield on 1. arm, takes long strides to r. between two centaurs 
confronted. He leans far to r., so that his body has a diagonal position, like the 
warriors on the frieze of the Mausoleum, and turning to 1. threatens one of the 
centaurs with a spear. Both centaurs rear slightly, and attack him with their 
fists, or perhaps with very small stones. They are bearded and have equine ears. 
For other examples of Kaineus with his back to the spectator see under no. 121. 

124. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 527. Very crude. Kaineus episode. 

Kaineus, fully armed, has fallen on one knee between two centaurs confronted, 
who hurl rocks at him. 

125. Amphora. PI. V. Wiirzburg no. 97. Kaineus episode. Urlichs, Verzeichniss 
III 1872, no. 115. 

Kaineus, with his back turned towards us, his 1. leg buried almost to the hip, 
his r. leg buried to the knee, aims his spear at the rearing centaur on the 1., who 
holds a large white rock in his 1. arm and a leafless branch of a tree upright in his 
r. hand. The confronting centaur on the r. is seen from the back, i. e. his human 
body is twisted so far to his r. that his human back is visible, a rare occurrence 
on b. f. ware, though found on an Etrusco-Ionic stamnos no. 176, and on an Italo- 
lonic hydria, no 176 A. On his r. shoulder he carries a large white rock, in his 1. 
hand a branch held horizontally. Kaineus wears a short chiton, and perhaps a 
short breast-plate ; over both arms he has thrown a chlamys arranged like a shawl ; 
his helmet has a high crest, and his shield, seen in profile, has two white pellets 
visible as device. A shield device of three pellets is seen on the Lapith's shield 
no. 117. The rear view of Kaineus again occurs on nos. 121, 176 A, 123 A. On 
the extreme r. and 1. are palmettes with long stems as on no. 121. Loeschcke, Banner 
Studien Kekule gewidmet p. 252 incorrectly catalogues this vase under his group 
IX subdivision i b) where the hoplite kneels or collapses but does not sink into the 
earth. It belongs in his subdivision 2. 

126. Lekythos. Gela. Arch. Ztg. 1871 p. 12 no. 6. Kaineus (?) episode. Poor state 
of preservation. 

Between two centaurs, confronted, and wielding branches is a beardless 
warrior (Kaineus?) fallen to the ground. 

127. r. f. Hydria. Gnathia, coll. Barone. Bull. Nap. VI pi. 2 and p. 21 = Reinach, 

Rep. Vas. I 474, i. Present location not known. Kaineus episode. 
Kaineus, front view, head turned to his r., holds sword in r. in a listless 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 



42 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

attitude. The centaur to r., baldheaded, places his 1. hand on the shoulder of the 
Lapith and holds a branch in his r. hand. The other centaur, to 1., with a taenia 
round his bald head, raises a large rock in both hands behind his head. Behind 
this centaur an armed warrior rushes to 1. to succor Kaineus. On the extreme 
1. a fully armed hoplite runs to 1., from his shield hangs a leathern apron decorated 
with a large human eye. He seems to be attacking an invisible foe, for his threaten- 
ing attitude is not that of retreat. For early r. f. representations of this episode 
see under no. 120. I have included this hydria in my list, because, though it may be 
as late as 450 B. C., it nevertheless copies the archaic motives even more closely 
than the early r. f. vase-paintings referred to above, which probably date before 
480 B. C. 

128. Amphora. British Museum; Walters B 226. See also Gerhard, Arch. Ztg. 
1865 p. 81 sqq. note 4; Colvin /. H. S. I p. 115. Pholos welcoming Herakles. 

A: "On the 1. is Pholos to r., carrying a large bough over his 1. shoulder, 
from which hang a hare and a fox tied by the forelegs, and a bird tied by its beak; 
he is laying his hand in that of Heracles, who confronts him. Heracles is bearded, 
with short embroidered chiton, sword and quiver at girdle, club over 1. shoulder, 
from which the lion's skin is suspended. Behind him is Hermes seated to 1., bearded, 
with long hair, fillet, striped embroidered chlamys, petasos, endromides and caduceus. 
By the side of Pholos is a hind walking to r." 

Perhaps the oldest representation of the greeting is the bronze group from 
Olympia, no. 203. 

129. Amphora. Corneto-Tarquinii. Arch. Anz. 1867 p. 5 no. 16, Bullettino 1866 
p. 234 no. i. 

The centaur Pholos, to r. carrying a branch over his shoulder from which is 
suspended his prey, a hare and a bird, extends his r. hand in greeting to Herakles, 
who holds his club in 1. and has a quiver on his back. Behind the hero stands 
Hermes. 

130. Amphora. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II pi. 119 and 120, 7 = Reinach, Rep. 
Vas. II p. 64, 4; Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 fig. I. According to Gerhard, 
text p. 129 note 28 this vase is now in Berlin, where, however, I have looked 
in vain for it. A: Herakles and Pholos at the closed pithos. 

A: Herakles to r., with lion's skin over his head, and club over 1. shoulder, 
quiver on his back incorrectly restored, is in animated conversation with Pholos, 
who confronts him. Between them, half-buried in the earth as on no. 137 is the 
huge wine-pithos with a white cover, probably a stone. Herakles touches the lid 
with his r. hand, as if urging Pholos to open the jar of wine, but the centaur, who 
has just returned from the chase a fox ( ?) hangs from a long pole which he carries 
over his 1. shoulder - - protests. Suspended from the tongue-pattern above the 
picture is a hare tied by the forelegs. If Gerhard's drawing is accurate, the fox 
too hangs from the tongue-pattern instead of from the pole. On the r. are Athena, 
turning her back on the scene, and Hermes, facing her ; they are holding an animated 
conversation and are gesticulating like the Greeks of the present day. Hermes has 
two hats, one in the nape of his neck, the other on his head; this is perhaps 
due to modern restoration. Athena wears the aegis, a high-crested helmet, and 
carries a spear in her r. hand. 



Archaic Attic vases. 



43 



131. Amphora. Bologna. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II pi. 119 and 120, 3 = Reinach, 
Rep. Vas. II p. 64, 2. A: Herakles draws wine from the pithos at the mouth 
of the cave of Pholos. 

A: Herakles with lion's skin over head and shoulders, quiver on his back, 
sword at his side, bends to r. over the open pithos, and draws wine in a cantharus. 
His club leans against the pithos which is buried up to the shoulder in the earth. 
On the r. is the cave of Pholos represented as a cliff, as on nos. 132, 154 A, from which 
he is emerging; only the front part of his body is visible. He has a long venerable 
beard, equine ears, long tresses over his shoulders, a heavy mustache, and upright 
tufts of hair over his forehead, reminding one of the centaurs on the Frangois vase. 
On the 1. Athena and Hermes intently watch the proceedings; Hermes with the 
kerykeion and attired as on no. 128; Athena as on no. 130, but with a fox and hare 
hanging from her spear, elsewhere the prey of Pholos, as on no. 128. The presence 
of Athena, who accompanies Herakles on his labors, is only natural, but that 
of Hermes on this and the preceding vases is not so easily explained. 

132. Hydria. PI. III. Munich, Jahn 435. Herakles draws wine from the pithos 
at the mouth of the cave of Pholos. For the photograph here reproduced 
I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking. 

In a panel: Herakles, wearing a short chiton over which is the lion's skin, 
bow and quiver on his back, sword at his side, stoops to r. over the pithos from 
which he fills a cantharus with wine. On the r. is the cave or grotto of Pholos, 
who emerges from it, placing his 1. hand on the white lid of the pithos which leans 
against its rim, while with r. hand he points to the contents of the jar. His equine 
forelegs are also visible, he has shaggy eye-brows, long beard and long tresses. 
Behind Herakles is Athena to r. looking back, wearing peplos, mantle, aegis and 
helmet; in her r. hand she holds a spear, her 1. is uplifted. Her attention is attracted 
by the approach of two centaurs to r., whose equine bodies are cut off by the 1. 
border of the panel. The one in advance of the other looks back and lifts his r. 
hand in astonishment; the other, with a bough of four branches in his extended 
1. hand, seems to listen eagerly to the words of his companion. The sweet aroma 
of the wine has attracted them and they are about to resent the opening of the vat, 
the common property of all the centaurs. 

133. Amphora with lid. Italy. Louvre F 208 bis. Pettier, Catalogue p. 784 sq. and 
for the technique, especially the relief-lines, p. 671. Herakles lifts the lid 
from the pithos in the presence of Pholos. 

In a panel: Herakles to r., wearing lion's skin but not over his head, braces 
himself with 1. foot on the rim of the buried pithos and lifts the lid with both hands. 
His bow and quiver hang in the background, as on nos. 138, 139. Facing Herakles 
is the king of the centaurs, Pholos, but with only the front part^ of his body vis- 
ible; the rest is cut off by the border of the panel instead of by the cave, as on 
the preceding vases. In order to make his identity as king of centaurs more evident, 
our artist represents him draped, even though he has equine forelegs. I know 
of no other example of a draped Pholos of Class A; for those of Class B see under 
no. 228. In his 1. hand held downwards is a limb of a tree with several branches. 
The club of Herakles leans against the lip of the pithos. Behind him is Athena 
to r., and in the background, a dog to 1. On the 1. which is fragmentary, are the 

6* 



,, Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

remains of a quadriga, of which at least the front parts of the horses had been 
depicted. In the field, ivy- or grape-vines. The amphora dates from the 
end of the sixth century and is contemporaneous with the early r. f. style. It 
differs from the group to which it belongs by the addition of the dog and the 
quadriga. When we recall the dog and quadriga of Peleus on the Attic b. f. vase- 
painting no. 248, representing the handing over of the child Achilles to Chiron, 
it seems reasonable to conclude that our vase-painter had some such picture in 
mind. Without assuming a confusion of types on his part it would be impossible 
to explain the unique appearance of quadriga and dog, so entirely out of place 
in our vase-painting. 

This vase is missing in the list given by Hofer in Roschers Lexikon III 2 
p. 2420 sqq. 

134. Amphora with lid. Munich, Jahn 622. A: Herakles draws wine from the 
pithos, Micali, Storia pi. 99, 9. B: Two centaurs.. 

A: Between two large human eyes, Herakles, with lion's skin over head and 
shoulders, bow and quiver tied together on his back, bends to r. over the pithos 
almost buried in the earth and draws wine in a cup held in both hands. There are 
no accompanying figures, even Pholos is not represented. In the field, ivy- or 
grape-vines as on the preceding amphora. 

B: Between two eyes, two centaurs, attracted by the aroma of the wine, 
approach; both are armed with a branch. On the amphora no. 132 they are re- 
presented on the same side, behind Herakles. 

135. Amphora. Louvre? Millin, Myth. Gall. pi. 117, 439; Gerhard, Arch. Ztg. 
1865 p. 82 note 5. Herakles draws wine from the pithos at the cave of Pholos. 

Herakles, wearing lion's skin over short chiton, bow and open quiver on his 
back, stands to r. and fills a cup with wine from the pithos, which is buried in the 
earth at the mouth of the cave of Pholos. The lid of the pithos leans against its 
rim. Behind Herakles is a centaur, perhaps Pholos, to r., with a pine-tree in r. 
hand and with uplifted 1. In the field, branches. 

Millin interprets this scene incorrectly as Herakles washing at a well to cleanse 
himself from the murder of the centaurs. 

That Pholos is meant by this centaur is made highly probable by the similar 
grouping on the amphora in Zurich, no. 268, where the centaur behind Herakles is 
draped and has human forelegs, thereby characterizing him with certainty as Pholos. 

136. Oenochoe. Durand Coll. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II pi. 119 120, 5, 6 

= Reinach, Rep. Vas. II p. 64, 3. Ferrer's Reallexikon p. 399 pi. 103 fig. i; 

Baumeister's Denkmdler p. 659 no. 726; Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2421 

fig. 2. Herakles drawing wine from the pithos in the presence of two centaurs. 

In a panel: Herakles to r., wearing lion's skin over short chiton, bow and quiver 

tied together on his back, club leaning against the rim of the pithos over which 

he bends, draws wine in a cantharus. The lid leans against the opposite side of 

the pithos. Two centaurs, one on the extreme r., the other on the extreme 1. of 

the central figure, look on with gestures of astonishment. To name either of these 

centaurs Pholos seems to me unwarranted, since they are not at all differentiated; 

both are more probably hostile centaurs attracted by the wine, as the approaching 

centaurs on no. 132. 



Archaic Attic vases. 



45 



137. r. f. Stamnos. Stackelberg, Grdber der Hellenen, pi. 41. Herakles drawing 
wine from the pithos in the presence of two centaurs. Probably identical 
at least in the design with the r. f. amphora d colonnette in Munich, Jahn 746. 
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria I p. 410 refers to a stamnos in the 
Museo Bruschi, but mentions only Herakles and Pholos. 

In a panel: Herakles to r., with lion's skin over short chiton, club leaning 
against pithos, but placed in the foreground instead of at one side as on the b. f. 
vase-paintings, bends over the pithos drawing wine with his r. hand and supporting 
himself with his 1. hand against the rim. Here, as on no. 130, the pithos is not buried 
as deep as usual. Two centaurs, confronted, watch the hero, the one on the r., 
carrying over his 1. shoulder a branch of a tree with leafless twigs from which 
are suspended a hare and a fox tied by the forelegs, just as on no. 128 where Pholos 
is certainly meant; the one on the 1. holding a rhyton in his extended 1. hand as 
though clamoring for his share of wine. Only the front part of his body is represented, 
the rest is cut off by the panel. Here there seems to be no doubt that the artist 
intended us to see Pholos in the centaur facing 1., his r. hand is uplifted as though 
he were restraining the other centaur, whom Stackelberg names Anchios. Jahn, 
however, identifies that centaur with Pholos, because he holds the rhyton, but on 
no. 141 the centaur with the rhyton is certainly not Pholos. 

It is noteworthy that there was a pottery of r. f . ware in Athens whose painters 
were interested in reproducing old types of b. f. style, instead of attempting new 
compositions. They preferred the shapes of stamnos and of amphora a colonnette. 
These painters were also interested in the Kaineus episode; under no. 120 I have 
enumerated the examples of their work. In another workshop owned by Kleophrades 
of whom Beazley in the /. H . S. XXX, 1910, p. 38 sqq. has made a careful study, 
the b. f. types are somewhat modified, as for example, the r. f. stamnos in Corneto, 
Coll. Breschi, /. H. S. 1910 p. 59 no. 21 and pi. 9, 2. Here as on no. 141 Herakles 
stands on the r. side of the pithos as he fills his cantharus, and the lid leans against 
its 1. side. Pholos has changed places with the hero, i. e. he is on the 1. side of the 
pithos facing r. The other side of this stamnos represents two centaurs, carrying 
pointed amphorae; the second one looks back. They are evidently to be connected 
with the obverse and are attracted by the aroma of the sweet-smelling wine. On 
another early r. f. vase, the inside of a cylix now in Harrow School Museum, in- 
scribed Lysis kalos, Herakles is missing, and Pholos ( ?) armed with a branch lifts 
the lid off the pithos. (Klein, Die griech. Vasen mit Lieblingsinschr . z 116 no. 12; 
Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 no. 3.) The identity of Pholos is not certain, 
especially since on an Italian scarab a similar scene occurs, but with two centaurs, 
Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 19 fig. 30. 

In the Palermo Museum I have seen an amphora with volute handles, like that 
in the Museum of Bologna (Mon. d. Inst. XI pis. 14 and 15 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. 
I p. 221) with a representation, on one side of the neck, of Herakles and Pholos 
at the pithos, surrounded by other centaurs, scarcely differing from the b. f. types, 
and a Thessalian centauromachy on the other side. 

On another group of r. f. vases, of the amphora a colonnette shape, Herakles 
holds the lid of the pithos, which is of such peculiar shape that it might easily 
be mistaken for a swaddled babe. In the example in St. Petersburg (Stephani, 



4(5 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

Vasensammlung 1272) an unscrupulous person painted in modern times a face, 
a foot and a snake on the lid, thereby puzzling several eminent archaeologists 
for many years (see Furtwangler, Rom. Mitt. VII 333 note i). These modern 
additions are now erased. The other examples of this group are a) Chiusi, Inghi- 
rami, Museo Chiusino I pi. 80; b) Palermo Museum, not published. Robert, Antike 
Sarkophagreliefs III I p. 158 says that since the fifth century B. C. the "Pholos- 
Abenteuer ist fur die Kunst so gut wie verschollen" . To be sure the story of 
Pholos is not as popular in art after the fifth century as, for example, the story 
of Nessos, but judging from the coins of Alexandria it must have been popular 
in the Alexandrian school as late as the Roman period, see R. Brauer, Zeitschrift 
fiir Numismatik XXVIII p. 102 sq., and pi. V 19; cf. also Keller, Tier und Pflanzen- 
bilder auf Munzen und Gemmen pi. XXV no. 28. But also in the fourth century, 
before the Hellenistic period, the story of Pholos is represented in art, though 
very rarely, witness the bell-shaped krater in Athens, Collignon-Couve 1919, 
where the expression of one of the centaurs is similar to that on the Praeneste 
Cista, publ. in Mon. d. Inst. 1862 vol. VI VII pi. 61 62. See also d'Hancarville, 
Antiquites Etrusques Grecques et Romaines vol. Ill pi. 20. 

138. Amphora. Italy. Louvre F 379. Pettier, Catalogue p. 810, much restored, 
decadent style. Herakles drawing wine from the pithos in presence of Pholos (?) 

In front of a white rhyton, lying in the foreground, is Herakles to r., in lion's 
skin, with both hands plunged into the pithos, as on no. 134. His bow and quiver 
hang in the background as on nos. 133, 147, 150. On the other side of the pithos 
is a centaur, perhaps Pholos, confronting Herakles, his r. hand raised, his forelegs 
partly concealed by the pithos. 

This vase is not mentioned by Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq. 

139. Lekythos with cream-colored ground. Italy. Louvre F 470. Pottier, Catalogue 
p. 815, Album pi. 87. Crude style. Herakles opens the pithos in presence 
of two centaurs. 

Herakles to r., with lion's skin over his short chiton, stands with one foot 
on the shoulder of the pithos (see under no. 143), which is buried in the earth, 
and is pushing away the lid. On the other side is a centaur confronting him, lifting 
his 1. hand in astonishment. On the 1. of Herakles is another centaur to r., who 
also shows astonishment. Above the raised lid of the pithos are suspended the hero's 
quiver and bow, as on nos. 133, 138, and behind him hang a garment and his club. 
In the field, branches. Here again neither of the centaurs is characterized as Pholos, 
which need not surprise us, for sometimes, as we shall see on the next vase-painting, 
Pholos is not present. It is noteworthy that on the lekythoi dealing with this 
subject, the club of Herakles no longer leans against the pithos, but, with his gar- 
ment wrapped round it, is suspended, usually from a twig, in the background. 

Not mentioned by Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq. 

140. Oenochoe. Cab. Durand 272. Present location not known. Gerhard, Arch. 
Ztg. 23, 1865, p. 81 sqq. note 5. Herakles at the pithos, but Pholos is missing. 
Herakles bends over the pithos; opposite him sits Athena. That Pholos 

is here not represented makes it probable that he is also missing on the vases 
discussed above, nos. 134, 136, 139, where one or two centaurs are depicted without 
any distinguishing marks. Certainty can only be gained where he is characterized 



Archaic Attic vases. 47 

as a huntsman, or where he is draped. Furthermore, see nos. 141, 142, 228, 267, 
268, the vase-painter sometimes makes his identity absolutely certain by repre- 
senting him not only draped but also with human forelegs, an honor usually bestowed 
only on Chiron. The undraped Pholos with human forelegs also occurs, as well 
as the undraped Chiron, the former on nos. 230, 269, 270, the latter on no. 242; 
on no. 308 the nude Eurytion with human forelegs occurs. 

141. Lekythos. Gela. Palermo. Heydemann, Arch. Ztg. 1871 p. 13 no. n. Hera- 
kles at the pithos in the presence of Pholos, Class B, and another centaur, 
Class A. Klugmann, Bullettino 1876 p. 141. 

Pholos to r., crowned with ivy- wreath, human forelegs, wearing a white 
chiton and himation (cf. nos. 142, 228, 267, 268), shoulders a branch on which hang 
a hare and a fox ( ?), and with his r. hand dips a cantharus into the pithos. On the 
1., behind him, is a female figure stretching head and 1. hand forwards, much 
interested in the central figures. On the other side of the pithos, Herakles in 
lion's skin, club at his side, plunges both hands into the pithos in his eagerness 
to help Pholos draw the wine. On the r., behind Herakles, is another centaur, 
with equine forelegs, to 1. looking back; in his 1. hand he holds a rhyton. This vase- 
painting settles the question of identity in regard to the centaurs with similar 
attributes on nos. 137, 142; they are not Pholos. 

According to Heydemann /. c. the female figure is the wife of Pholos; it seems 
to me more probable that she is a mere spectator, since she is not characterized 
as Athena, placed here to fill the vacant space, or to make the grouping more sym- 
metrical. Neither in literature nor in archaic art is there any reference to wife 
or family of Pholos, cf. Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 243. 

142. Lekythos. Gela. Zurich, Antiquarisches Museum der sog. Kunstkammer, 
Benndorf, Antiken von Zurich, Mitteilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft, 
Band XVII Heft 7 p. 155 no. 342, reprinted by Ulrich and Heinzmann, 
Catalog, part II p. 42 no. 2296. Careless style. Pholos, Class B, and another 
centaur, Class A, at the pithos. 

In the middle is a pithos, partly buried in the earth ; in the background, grape- 
vines and a palm-tree. On the r. is Pholos to 1. looking back, with human forelegs 
and long garment, cf. no. 141 for other examples, and behind him on the extreme 
r. is a white column, indicating his house, as on no. 153. On the 1. of the pithos, 
instead of finding Herakles, as usual, a centaur is depicted with equine forelegs, 
who holds in his 1. hand a rhyton, as on nos. 137, 141. The 1. end of the painting 
is erased, accord' ng to Benndorf. 

143. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon-Couve 863. Herakles at the pithos in the 
presence of Pholos (?). Coarse style. 

Herakles to r., wearing the lion's skin, pushes back the lid of the pithos with 
his 1. hand and fills an oenochoe with wine. He rests his 1. foot on the shoulder 
of the pithos, as on nos. 139, 147, 150, 267. Behind him is a seated female figure 
to r., and on a twig above her hangs his garment. Above the raised lid of the pithos 
hangs his quiver. Confronting Herakles, but on the other side of the pithos, is 
Pholos (?) rearing to 1. Above his equine back hangs another garment on a twig. 
On the extreme r., a male figure with chlamys over his shoulder departs, looking 
back. 



jg Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

144. Lekythos. Copenhagen, Sophus Birket Smith, De malede Vaser no. 78, 
Heydemann, Griech. Vasenbilder p. 5 to pi. V 5 note 10 (d). 

Like the preceding lekythos, except that the youth holds the club of Herakles 
and may therefore with more probability be named lolaos. 

145. Lekythos. Present location not known. Heydemann, Griech. Vasenb. p. 5 
to pi. V 5 note 10 (c) says this vase is in Athens, but it is not in the National 
Museum, at least I could not find it there. 

Like the preceding vase-painting, except that on the r. two bearded men take 
the place of the youth. They are moving away from the scene but look back. 
These minor figures, which serve as spectators as well as to fill vacant space, 
can no more be named than the similar figures on the r. or 1. of the Nessos 
episode. 

146. Lekythos with white ground. Palermo. Heydemann, Arch. Ztg. 1871 p. 13 
no. 12. Coarse style. 

Like no. 143, except that the female figure behind Herakles departs with 
uplifted hands and looks back. Heydemann /. c. identifies the departing male 
figure with Hermes. 

147. Lekythos with white ground. Collection Oppermann, Paris, Bibliotheque 
Nationale, A. de Ridder, Catalogue des Vases Feints, p. 203 fig. 34 no. 308. 
Herakles received by Pholos at the pithos. Crude style. 

Herakles to r. in lion's skin, 1. leg uplifted and partly concealed by the pithos, 
on the shoulder of which his foot doubtlessly rests, lifts its lid with his 1. hand and 
is about to plunge an oenochoe into its contents. Behind him stands a female figure 
to r., wearing a krobylos, and lifting her long chiton with her 1. hand to prevent it 
from dragging (cf. the archaic female figures in the Museum on the Akropolis). 
On no. 143 the corresponding female figure is seated. On the lekythos from Corinth, 
no. 150 and on that from the Kerameikos, no. 149 she has the attributes of Athena. 
In the field between Herakles and this figure is suspended from a twig his chlamys 
folded over his club; above the pithos hang his bow and quiver. Facing the hero 
is Pholos on the other side of the pithos. His hair is done up in a peculiar knot 
on the back of his head: it is, however, not the krobylos. On the extreme r. is a 
youthful male figure (lolaos?) walking to r., a chlamys over his extended 1. arm, 
and a spear in his r. In the field between his head and that of Pholos are suspended 
on a twig another club and chlamys. This reduplication of the hero's attributes 
is doubtlessly due to the love of symmetry on the part of the vase-painter. It 
occurs again on the following vase presumably painted by the same man, and on 
no. 151 club and chlamys hang from the branch of a tree on each side of the 
composition. 

Missing in the list of representations of Pholos given by Hofer, Roscher's 
Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq. 

148. Lekythos with white ground. Athens, Collignon-Couve 974. Herakles opens 
the pithos in presence of Pholos. Crude style. 

Like the preceding lekythos, except that the youthful male figure carries 
two lances and looks back. Furthermore the drapery over the clubs is arranged 
less naturalistically. 



Archaic Attic vases. 49 

149. Lekythos with yellowish ground. Kerameikos, Athens. Collignon-Couve 
972; Heydemann, Griech. Vasenb. PL V 5. Herakles opens the pithos in the 
presence of Pholos. 

Herakles to r., with lion's skin, the tail caught up under the girdle, one foot 
against the side of the pithos, the lid of which the hero has pushed back, draws 
wine with a ladle (?). Contrary to all the former representations of this subject 
Herakled does not hold the lid, it stands of its own accord, as if on a hinge. Furtherr 
more, the pithos has a peculiar shape, note especially its thin neck, very similar 
to the pithos on no. 155. In his usual position on the r. stands Pholos, with uplifted 
r. hand expressive of astonishment. Herakles has no doubt opened the pithos 
against his will. In his 1. hand he holds a staff with two prongs. On the 1. stands 
Athena to r., with helmet and lance. In the field, branches, but not the armor 
of the hero. The youthful figure (lolaos?) is also missing. 

150. Lekythos. Corinth. British Museum, Walters B 536. "White accessories." 
Herakles opens the pithos in presence of Pholos. 

"Heracles to r., with lion's skin over his short chiton, stands with one foot 
on the neck of the pithos, which is buried in the earth; he has just pushed away 
the lid. On the other side of it is Pholos confronting him, holding out a simpuhtm 
in r. hand, inl. a staff with two cross-pieces (as on no. 160); his r. foreleg is raised 
to the edge of the pithos. Above are suspended Heracles' quiver and bow; behind 
him is Athene to r. with high-crested helmet, aegis, long chiton and himation, 
spear in 1. hand. In the field, branches." In many respects this picture is much 
like the preceding, but the pithos is opened with the consent of Pholos, who, in- 
stead of the gesture of astonishment, holds the ladle ready to hand over to 
Herakles. 

151. Lekythos. Athens. Collignon-Couve 973, Heydemann, Griech. Vasenb. p. 5 
to pi. V 5 note 10 (b). Herakles opens the pithos in presence of Pholos. 

Herakles to r. with lion's skin, stands with 1. foot on the shoulder of the pithos 
and holds its lid open with his 1. hand, drawing wine with hisr. hand. On the other 
side of the pithos confronting him is Pholos, with both hands outstretched towards 
the hero. On account of this gesture Heydemann is inclined not to see Pholos 
in this figure, but a centaur attracted by the aroma of the wine. If he were right 
we would be compelled to give up the appellation Pholos on no. 149 which is so 
closely allied to no. 150, where the identification of Pholos is certain, that it is 
impossible for me to agree with Heydemann. Above the pithos is suspended the 
hero's quiver. On a tree which bounds the composition on each side are suspended 
his chlamys and club. Here again the reduplication of attributes for symmetry's 
sake, as on no. 147. 

152. Amphora. Vatican. Museo Gregoriano II pi. 30, Helbig, Fuhrer II 2 p. 293 
no. 1 202. A: Herakles driving three centaurs from the pithos. B: Kaineus 
episode, see no. 123. 

A: The centaurs we have seen approaching the pithos on the amphorae nos. 
132 and 134 have resented the hospitable reception given Herakles by their king 
and demand their share of the wine. Herakles to r., wearing a short chiton and 
lion's skin, with bow and quiver on his back, sword at his side, pommels the centaurs 
with his club. The one in the foreground has fallen to his knees to r. and begging 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 7 



CQ Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

for mercy with outstretched r. arm looks back, as Nessos is so often represented. 
A second centaur with both hands outstretched is trying, to escape to r. by leaping 
over the pithos, but Herakles has seized him by the hair; he too looks back at his 
persecutor. In the background on the 1. partly concealed by Herakles is a third 
centaur to 1., turning his human body to r., with both arms uplifted, as if deploring 
the situation. That he is Pholos is made probable by the centaur inscribed Pholos 
on no. 155 who has the same position, and makes the same gesture. None of the 
centaurs is armed. 

153. Lekythos. Stettin. Formerly collection A. Vogell, Auction catalogue, Cassel, 
May 26, 1908 pi. I fig. 20, no. 78. Herakles driving the centaurs from the 
pithos. 

The cave of Pholos has been replaced by a Doric column (see no. 142) on the 
left of which Herakles, wearing the lion's skin, walks to r., with bow and arrows 
in 1. hand and club in r. in pursuit of a centaur on the r. of the column, branch 
in 1. hand, held horizontally over his back, r. arm outstretched towards Herakles. 
He looks back at the hero and, as on the preceding vase, jumps over the pithos 
sunk into the earth. According to the description in the catalogue there are several 
centaurs, although only one is visible in the illustration. 

154. Hydria. British Museum, Walters 651 and p. 20. Herakles pursuing four 
centaurs who have come to taste the wine. 

"On the shoulder, Heracles (?) pursuing four Centaurs to r. : On the extreme 
1. is Heracles (?), beardless, in short purple chiton, sword in r. hand; he has seized 
by the arm the last Centaur, who turns round with a stone in 1. hand, to hurl it 
at him. The next Centaur has a stone in r. hand; his 1. is extended to the second, 
who has both arms raised." Walters' description is not complete, for he does not 
mention the foremost centaur. I have not seen this vase, which Walters calls 
an imitation of Corinthian style. In the Nessos story we have had so many examples 
of the youthful Herakles, nos. 46, 48, 51, 53, 62, 67, that we need not hesitate 
to call this youthful hero by the same name. For the youthful beardless Herakles 
in general, see Furtwangler, Roschers Lexikon I 2 p. 2151 sq. who proves that this 
type is Ionic in its origin. Hartwig, Jahrbuch 1893 p. 161 gives a list of the early 
Attic r. f. vases where the youthful Herakles occurs. 

154 A. Shape not mentioned. Akrai. Judica, Antichitd di Acre, pi. 30. Herakles 
driving the centaurs from the cave of Pholos. 

On the extreme 1. is a cave in front of which stands Pholos (?) to r., holding 
a stone in uplifted 1. hand; his hindlegs are concealed by the cliff, his forelegs are 
those of a horse. In front of him is Herakles, in chiton and lion's skin, quiver in 
an impossible position in front of his r. shoulder; he holds a club in hisr. hand behind 
him, his 1. is outstretched. With mighty strides he pursues a fleeing centaur, 
who gallops to r. and looking back stretches both hands in supplication towards 
Herakles, like Nessos on no. 19. Under him two hillocks are indicated. On the 
extreme r. is another centaur, to 1., who is coming to the assistance of his 
comrade; he holds a rock in his uplifted 1. hand drawn back. All the centaurs 
are bearded and have equine ears. In field, branches. The pithos is not repre- 
sented. 



Archaic Attic vases. e I 

155. Amphora. Tolfa near Civita-vecchia. Louvre F 266. Pettier, Catalogue 
p. 789 and Album pi. 81 and p. 122; Arch. Anz. 1867 p. 5 no. 18; Bullettino 
1866 p. 229 sq. An uninterrupted frieze encircling the vase as on nos. 40, 
162: Herakles putting to flight five centaurs who came to taste the wine. 

Herakles, bearded, holds in his extended r. hand his bow, which is spanned, 
and in his 1. hand he brandishes his club as on no. 76. He. wears the lion's skin, 
a quiver at his 1. side, and takes mighty strides to 1. Behind him, half-buried 
in the earth, is a pithos of peculiar shape, with narrow neck, as on .no. 149, and 
on its lip stands a cantharus. On the r. stands Athena to 1., looking back, with high- 
crested helmet, spear in r., aegis and long peplos. On the 1. of the hero a centaur 
inscribed <&olo<; xevra(v^Qov , and therefore without doubt Pholos, the king of 
the centaurs, gallops to 1., but turns round and raises his 1. hand in supplication; 
in his r. hand he holds a branch. The gesture of Pholos is so similar to that of the 
centaur on the 1. of Herakles on no. 152 that I do not hesitate to assign the name 
of Pholos to him too. Under him is a fallen centaur to 1., with r. arm outstretched 
on the ground, holding a stone in his r. hand. Cf. the fallen centaur on nos. 21, 23, 
31, 161, 183, 228. Further to the L, and forming without interruption the other side 
of the vase, is a centaur galloping to 1., with a branch is his r. hand. Confronting 
him is a fourth centaur similarly armed, hastening to the assistance of his hard- 
pressed brethren, and behind him a fifth centaur, also to r., who looks back and 
lifts his 1. hand. Strong Ionic influence. 

Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2423 holds that this vase-painting supports 
Kliigmann's interpretation (Bullettino 1876, 141 sqq.} of the so-called Cyrenaic 
deinos in the Louvre, see below no. 161, to the effect that Pholos is threatened 
by Herakles. To my mind this does not necessarily follow, because on our amphora 
Herakles is not threatening Pholos, but the king of centaurs supplicates the hero 
in behalf of his subjects. 

156. Oenochoe. Fig. 7. Collection Oppermann 40, Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, 
A. de Ridder, Cat. d. Vases Peints p. 180, no. 271; Gerhard Arch. Ztg. 1865 
pi. 201, i, 2. pp. 81 83, Reinach, Rep. Vas. I p. 397, i, 4. The banquet- 
scene before the cave of Pholos. 

At the mouth of the cave of Pholos, under the shade of a net-work of 
branches, from which are suspended the bow and quiver and looped quiver-band 
of Herakles, the hero, crowned with ivy- wreath, reclines to 1., resting his 1. arm 
on a cushion and holding a skyphos of wine in his r. hand. His himation is thrown 
over his 1. shoulder and is wrapped round his legs. At his feet kneels Pholos with 
an oenochoe of wine, urging his guest to have another drink. In the background 
on the 1., just inside the cave, and partly concealed by it, is the huge pithos of wine, 
the common property of the centaurs. That it is not buried in the earth is a license 
of the vase-painter, otherwise it would have been hidden by the body of the centaur. 
Pholos, who is also crowned in honor of the occasion, has a much longer beard 
than that of Herakles, a snub nose and long equine ears. The painter furthermore 
attempted to characterize his bestial nature by drawing his eye in a less human 
manner than that of the hero; his profile is that of the Ionic type of silenus. In 
the illustrations of earlier scenes of the story the spectator's point of view is 
usually such that only one side of the mouth of the cave is visible, as on nos. 



c 2 Centaurs with .equine forelegs. 

131, 132, 154 A, but here both sides of the cave are represented, as on nos. 135, 
1 60, 267. I call attention to these points because it is not often that a fixed 
locality is depicted on the Attic b. f. vases; and so far as I know the examples have 
never been collected. 
157. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 691. Coarse style. A: Banquet-scene before the 

cave of Pholos. B: Dionysos with rhyton, served by a silenus. 

A: Similar to the preceding vase-painting, but Herakles holds a cantharus, 
and above hang club and chlamys as well as bow and quiver. 




Fig. 7. After Arch. Ztg. 1865 pi. 201, r. 



We have already seen, under no. 71, that the usual composition of Herakles 
slaying Nessos was used to represent, by mere transference of types, the contest 
of Herakles with Acheloos. The same phenomenon occurs here, for in Gerhard's 
Apparat in the library of the Berlin Museum, Mappe XII 15 there is a tracing 
of an amphora, Coll. Dorow, which represents Acheloos, full face, kneeling like 
Pholos and administering to the wants of the ever-thirsty Herakles, who reclines 
to 1. The interesting subject of transference of well-known compositions to illustrate 
a less common myth or legend is now being investigated by Herr Froschle who 
will in the near future publish his results. 



"Cyrenaic" pottery. 53 

158. Amphora. Florence, Etruscan Museum, Heydemann, Drittes Hallisches 
Winkelmannsprogramm, Mitth. aus denAntik. Samml. inOber- undMittelitalien 
p. 95 no. 47. A : Pholos entertaining Herakles. B r Silenus entertaining Dionysos. 

A: Herakles reclining to 1., resting 1. elbow on a cushion, holds a cantharus in 
1. hand and rests his r. hand on his r. (?) knee. He wears a taenia in his hair; above 
are suspended lion's skin, bow and quiver. From the 1. a bearded centaur, Pholos, 
approaches, holding in his r. hand an oenochoe, from which he is about to replenish 
the cup of his guest. Over his 1. shoulder he carries a branch on which are tied 
two foxes and a hare, all of them dead. Behind Pholos is the open pithos half 
buried in the earth, the white lid leaning against its side. Contrary to the preceding 
examples Pholos is standing, as on nos. 159, 160. 

B : Dionysos reclining like Herakles is being served by a silenus, an interesting 
parallel to side A, even closer than on the preceding vase. I call attention to the 
reverse of these two vases because they give us a better insight into the nature 
of the centaurs, showing their relationship to the sileni. The Bacchic side of their 
nature is often overlooked or denied. To be sure it is more apparent on Ionic 
and Italo-Ionic monuments, especially no. 311, though on the "Tyrrhenian" 
amphora no. 40 the association between centaurs and silenus is quite as clear. 

159. Skyphos. Englefield, Ancient Vases, engraved by Moses, pi. 29. Pholos 
offers the reclining Herakles wine. 

Herakles reclining to 1., resting r. hand on 1. knee, is about to take a rhyton 
from the extended 1. hand of Pholos who stands, as on the preceding vase, con- 
fronting him. In the field, vines. 

160. Lekythos with white ground. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Robinson 348. 
Herakles reclining at mouth of cave of Pholos. Crude design and much worn. 

Pholos to r., holding a staff with two cross-bars, as on no. 150, in his r. hand, 
the himation (?) of Herakles in his 1. hand, approaches his guest who reclines to 1. at 
the mouth of the cave, his 1. arm resting on a cushion, hisr. hand worn away, his legs 
wrapped in his mantle. Both sides of the cliff representing the entrance to the cave 
are indicated as on no. 156, so that we have the front and not the usual side view of 
the cave, but here the body of Herakles fills the entire space so that Pholos is re- 
presented beyond the entrance. Between Pholos and the 1. cliff of the cave is a 
peculiar object, perhaps the rim of the pithos covered with a rock. According to 
Robinson the shoulder and mouth of the pithos are visible, but his description is not 
accurate; e. g. he mistakes the cliffs forming the mouth of the cave for two columns. 

This is not mentioned in Hofer's list, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq. 



VII. "CYRENAIC POTTERY. 

161. Deinos. Fig. 8. Caere. Louvre E 662. Pottier, Catalogue p. 527, Album p. 62; 

Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 215 sqq. pis. 12 and n, I == Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 

p. 433, 8; Droop, /. H. S. 1910 p. 31; Dugas and Laurent, Rev. Arch. 1907 

p. 49 no. 17. Herakles pursuing six centaurs, four of Class A and two of Class B. 

Herakles nude, as on nos. 20, 25, 26, 27, 44, 49, 50, 51, 53, 164, 182, 218, 224, 

228, 310, and bearded, with bow and quiver strapped on his back but differing 



54 



Centaurs with equine forelegs. 



from nos. 130, 131, 132, 134, 135, 136 in that they are fastened by a double cross- 
belt, as on nos. 162, 163, rests on r. knee to r., brandishes a club in r. hand, and 
with his 1. hand seizes the 1. wrist of a bearded centaur confronting him. In the back- 
ground partially concealed by the centaur's body is a tree, which grows in a very 
unnatural way to fill the vacant space over his back. This centaur has a complete 
human body, also human ears, and from the small of his back grows an equine 
body. His expression is quite as human as that of Herakles, whom he supplicates 
with outstretched r. hand. Back to back with this centaur is another with human 
forelegs running away with a branch over his r. shoulder. Puchstein. /. c. p. 242 
incorrectly calls him beardless. The four centaurs behind Herakles have equine 
forelegs but human ears as on nos. 19, 24, 40, 43, 49, 94, 121, 162, 163, 176, 176 A, 




Fig. 8. After Arch. Ztg. 1881 pi. 12, i. 



182, 184, 185. The one immediately behind Herakles, with hairy chest, has fallen 
on his foreknees to r., but still clings with r. hand to his tree which rests on his 
1. shoulder, and his head is twisted completely round, so that he looks upward. 
The next centaur has a similar pose to 1., but looks downward and holds his branch 
in 1. hand. His backhair is fastened with a crescent-shaped comb similar to that 
worn by Nessos on no. 19. In front of him on the extreme 1. two centaurs gallop 
to 1., making good their escape, one has a branch in each hand, the other still 
shoulders one branch but has dropped the other. The four centaurs with equine 
forelegs have quite a different expression of face from that of their two comrades 
with human forelegs, due to their almond-shaped eyes; and three of them have 
shaggy bodies, both human and equine, as on no. 200. For other examples of 
fallen centaurs see nos. 21, 23, 31, 155, 183, 228. 

.It was formerly almost universally held that centaurs with human forelegs 
were of an earlier type than those with equine forelegs, but as early as the geometric 



"Cyrenaic" pottery. ec 

period, both types appear together on one monument, witness no. 5. Furthermore, 
the theory was almost universal that centaurs with human forelegs represented 
Chiron or at least a more noble breed than those with equine forelegs. Hofer in 
Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2423, accordingly interprets the two centaurs on the r. 
of Herakles as Pholos and Chiron. In Attic art, where, in the sixth century, 
only Chiron and Pholos have human forelegs, such an interpretation would be 
permissible, but since in the first place "Cyrenaic" pottery does not show the 
slightest trace of Attic but marked Ionic influence, and since in the second place 
the Attic distinction between centaurs of my Class A and Class B was not made 
elsewhere, witness the frieze of the temple at Assos, no. 182, on which there are 
among others three centaurs with human forelegs pursued by Herakles, it necessarily 
follows that Hofer 's interpretation of our deinos is incorrect. 

The recent excavations at Sparta have led the English excavators to claim, 
I fear too rashly, that "Cyrenaic" pottery was manufactured in Laconia. Although 
the question of Ionic and oriental influence on Laconian art needs further study, 
I opine that the foreign influence came by way of Crete. Milchhofer, Anfdnge 
der Kunst 171 sqq. with marvellously keen insight argues against the Cyrenaic 
manufacture of the socalled Cyrenaic vases, and considers them Cretan products; 
on p. 183 he calls attention to their close connection with early Spartan monuments. 
For the results of the Spartan excavations, see British School Annual XIV especially 
p. 44; XV p. 23 sqq. and J. P. Droop, /. H. S. 1910 pp. I 34. 

The attitude of Herakles, on one knee, occurs a) on the bronze relief from 
Olympia, no. 222, where he is shooting an arrow at a shaggy centaur with human 
forelegs. There too a tree is in the background partially concealed by the centaur, 
who, as on our deinos, begs for mercy. On both monuments the quiver of Herakles 
is fastened on his back and not at his side, b) On the Berlin Proto-Corinthian 
lekythos no. 226, where Herakles pursues with bow and arrows four centaurs 
with human forelegs, three of them with shaggy human bodies. The wounded 
centaurs fall in a much more naturalistic manner than on our deinos, where the 
poses are very artificial and stiff. The spirit of the Proto-Corinthian lekythos 
is seen on no. 58 and on other works of the Attic "Kleinmeister" and especially 
on the vases painted by Nikosthenes. Now Droop /. c. p. 30 states that Nikosthenes 
knew and imitated the "Laconian" style. It seems to me more probable that the 
Ionic influence on the "Cyrenaic" and Proto-Corinthian ware is more responsible 
for the style of Nikosthenes. Only indirectly then is there any connection between 
the so-called Laconian style and that of Nikosthenes. c) On the stamped red ware 
found in Italy which shows marked oriental influence, though the original center 
of manufacture was probably Crete. Here again it is an archer who confronts a 
centaur, in this case with equine forelegs, witness the reliefs from Cotrone, 
no. 196, where Herakles is nude as on our deinos, but where contrary to a) and b) 
the pithos of Pholos is represented, d) On the terracotta reliefs from Samsoun 
no. 183 where, however, the quiver is worn on the 1. side of the hero, who also 
wears the lion's skin. On only one of the centaurs pursued by Herakles are the 
forelegs preserved, and they are equine. Here perhaps stronger than elsewhere 
is Ionic influence seen; it would probably come nearer the truth to call this 
relief a genuine Ionic product. 



eg Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

VIII. IONIC POTTERY, AEGEAN ISLAND STYLE. 

162. Amphora. Caere. Berlin, Furtwangler 1670. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. 
pi. 119 120, i == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 64, i. Clarke, Assos, American 
Papers 1898 p. 165 fig. 38. Herakles pursuing six centaurs. The design en- 
circles the vase, as on nos. 40, 155, forming a continuous frieze. 
Herakles, bearded, in short chiton over which he wears the lion's skin, open 
quiver on his back fastened with two bands that cross on his chest (cf. 163), takes 
mighty strides to r. and is about to shoot an arrow at the retreating centaurs, 
who gallop to r. The one just in front of the hero has his chest pierced by an arrow 
and extends his 1. hand probably to take one of the two stones his comrade turns 
back to hand him. Under the first centaur's body is a stone falling to earth. The 
third centaur partly concealed by the second holds a stone in his r. hand and is 
wounded like the first; the fourth looks back and like the third has a white tail; 
the fifth leaps over a large rock, he is piebald; and the sixth, who is farthest from 
Herakles jumps over the branch of a tree which he has dropped in his anxiety 
to escape. He has much longer hair and a more silenus-like nose than his brethren. 
Behind Herakles stands a female figure to r., whose gestures are those of one 
who wishes the hero well, but she does not bear the attributes of Athena. Although 
the whole composition moves to r., it is more vigorous than no. 161; the centaurs 
on our amphora gallop like spirited steeds, those on the deinos are like wooden 
hobby-horses. The difference is especially noticeable in the two types of Herakles; 
on the deinos which is certainly not earlier in date than our amphora he kneels 
in a highly archaic fashion, whereas on the amphora he rushes forwards like a 
whirl-wind. The painter of the deinos lagged far behind his contemporaries in other 
art-centers. And still there is strong Ionic influence in both vases, such as the human 
ears of the centaurs, the large round eyes of Chalcidian shape, especially on the 
amphora, the snub noses, and the fact that the frieze forms a continuous band round 
the vase. Zahn considers this Berlin vase to be of the same fabric as the Phineus 
cylix in Wiirzburg; Furtwangler catalogued it in 1885 as Chalcidian, but later, 
in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2194 called it Attic under Chalcidian influence. Zahn's 
opinion appeals to me very much, for both the Phineus cylix and our amphora 
are better than the Attic or Chalcidian style, but, nevertheless, were painted 
in a locality which must have had close connections with Athens and Chalkis, 
as Furtwangler in the text to Furtw.-Reichh. pi. 41 p. 209 correctly says in his 
characterization of the style of the Phineus cylix. He furthermore /. c. p. 220 
considers Naxos the probable home of that cylix, but at present with our limited 
material and limited knowledge of the art on the Ionic islands certainty cannot be 
gained. It is, however, only in a general way that the Phineus cylix and our Berlin 
amphora resemble each other. On close analysis the differences begin to weigh 
heavily; e. g. characteristic of the Phineus vase is the low-cut neck on the dress of 
female figures, the emphasis of the glutaeus, the outline of the legs made visible by 
the clinging drapery and finally the broken wreath in the hair of the female figures. 
Not one of these characteristic peculiarities is found on the female figure of our 
vase. She wears a peplos which hangs like a bag from her shoulders, absolutely 



"Euboean" and Corinthian pottery. 



57 



concealing the outline of her body. This is more in keeping with the Attic style. 
The features of the centaurs, however, differ in marked manner from those on Attic 
monuments. Those on the Francois vase are of an entirely different breed, the 
same holds true for those on no. 31, indeed the examples might be multiplied 
indefinitely without finding any marked similarity between Attic centaurs and 
those of our vase. There is still another point worthy of notice. I refer to the stone 
flying through the air. On early Attic vases I have found it only once, viz. on no. 47, 
though arrows fly through the air on no. 31 and a spear on the early r. f. vases 
nos. 105, 106. A piebald centaur again occurs on the "Tyrrhenian" amphorae 
nos. 36, 39, on nos. 74, 76, and on a "Kleinmeister" fragment recently found in 
the Crimea, and now in the Hermitage. 

Dr. Zahn has called to my attention an amphora of the same fabric (Auction 
Catalogue, Paris, March 18 20, 1901, pi. 2 no. 13) which contains on one side 
three centaurs running to r., but Herakles is missing. 



IX. "EUBOEAN" AND CORINTHIAN POTTERY. 

163. Lekythos. Fig. 9. Corinth. British Museum, Walters B 30 PI. I. "Designs 
black on red ground, with incised lines and accessories of white and purple. 
On the neck, a moulded ring." Story of Nessos. 
"On the body, Nessos carrying off Deianeira: The Centaur gallops to r., looking 

back : he has long hair, and carries Deianeira in his arms ; she has long hair with 




Fig. 9. After Catalogue of Vases, British Museum, II pi. I. B 30. 

a fillet, long purple chiton, and arms extended; her flesh is painted white. Behind 
Nessos runs Heracles pursuing, bearded, with a fillet, short purple chiton with 
chevron border, sword and double cross-belt, 1. hand raised, in r. his club; his 
face is painted purple. Confronting the Centaur is a panther rearing to 1., with 
face turned to the front. In the field, rosettes and leaves." Walters /. c. catalogues 
this vase under Corinthian style, but I believe that it has the characteristics of 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 8 



eg Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

Chalcidian fabric. Perhaps the best way to bring out its characteristics is to show 
wherein it differs from other styles, and since the subject occurs most frequently 
on archaic Attic vase-paintings, we may profitably begin with them. The most 
apparent difference is the doll-like appearance of Deianeira; her head is not half 
the size of that of Herakles, not to mention Nessos, whereas in Attic art the differ- 
ence in size is scarcely noticeable, cf. nos. 35, 36, 37, 38, 62, etc. Never in the Attic 
style of b. f. vase-painting is Deianeira held as she is here, i. e. in both arms of the 
centaur on her back as a babe would be carried, but either sits on his back, her 
body turned forward, as on nos. 25, 33, 64 68, 70, or with her body turned backward, 
as on nos. 35, 36, 75 or she is held upright on one arm of Nessos, as on nos. 37, 
38, 62. Never in archaic Attic ceramic art does the outline of the human figure 
show beneath the drapery as here ; never do we find the garment curved at the bottom 
running to a point in back. These are Chalcidian characteristics. Cf. the Chal- 
cidian hydria in Munich, Furtwangler-Reichhold text pp. 165 167 and pi. 31 
and pi. 32 below, where also the point of the beard of Zeus is turned back, as on 
our lekythos the beard of Herakles. The rosettes which adorn the field occasionally 
occur on Chalcidian pottery, though they are commonly found on Corinthian 
b. f. ware. The ungainly forelegs of the galloping Nessos are paralleled only on 
the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161, where, however, the type of centaur is quite different. 
The technical peculiarities of the Chalcidian hydria in Munich, to which Reichhold 
/. c. calls attention, also occur on our lekythos, in that the outlines of the figures 
are incised only when the figures overlap, note especially the end of the club, 
the r. elbow of Herakles and the tail of Nessos. This, to be sure, also holds true for 
the much older Nettos amphora, no.jig, where, as on our lekythos, the back-hair 
of Nessos is fastened behind his ears to prevent its falling in tresses over his shoulders, 
but on our lekythos it seems to be a band and not a metal comb, cf. also nos. 161, 
225, 226. The short hair of the hero proves nothing, as it is almost universal. The 
arrangement of his chiton (cf. no. 163 A) is, however, rare (the Nettos amphora 
again offering the closest analogy); so too the shape of his club, and the double 
cross-belt for his sword, although the double cross-belt for his quiver does occur on 
nos. 161, 162. On nos. 64, 65 the chiton of Herakles has the Attic cut; the difference 
is evident at a glance. Nor are the human ears of Nessos any help in fixing the style 
of the picture, for they occur already on the earliest b. f . vase that has come down 
to us, no. 19, and are found sporadically throughout the later b. f. period, also on the 
"Cyrenaic" ware and in Ionia, where they are more in keeping with the human 
forelegs of centaurs. But the expression of face due to the long nose is found again 
only on the hydria no. 165. Very remarkable is the panther which takes the place 
of the usual spectators. A lion in the company of centaurs occurs on the Etruscan 
goblets no. 193 (see also no. 281 A), and on an Ionic vase no. 235; a panther 
supporting himself against a centaur's back is found on an Etruscan Bucchero 
goblet, no. 283, and a ram and panther follow a centaur on no. 291, see also 
nos. 304 and 305. For a female figure held similarly in the arms of a centaur 
see no. 163 A, the Thraco-Macedonian coins, no. 191, the terracotta group from 
Tanagra, no. 208, the electron stater from northern Ionia, no. 190, the Ionic 
gem no. 325 and especially the Italo-Ionic amphora under Chalcidian influence, 
no. 308. 



"Euboean" and Corinthian pottery. 59 

163 A. Amphora. Italy. Munich, Staatsbesitz i. Sieveking-Hackl pi. 33 no. 834 

p. 96 fig. 95. Story of Nessos. Italo-Chalcidian style. Identical with 69 A? 

Nessos with human ears and red beard gallops to r., looking back. He carries 

Deianeira in his arms, almost as on no. 163, only here her position is somewhat 

more perpendicular. She wears a red chiton with black stripe and a mantle drawn 

over her head; both arms are extended. Behind Nessos runs Herakles pursuing, 

curly hair as on no. 310, red beard, short red chiton as on no. 163, quiver on his 

back, sword in sheath at his side, another sword in r. hand, and a bow in 

extended 1, 

164. Oenochoe. Samian Necropolis. Boehlau, Aus ionischen und italischen 
Nekropolen p. 140 and pi. 5, 2 and 2 a. Story of Nessos. 

Herakles, bearded, nude, advances to r. with 1. foot forward; in r. hand drawn 
back he holds a sword, and seizes with 1. hand the centaur Nessos who kneels 
on all fours to r., looking back. It is impossible to say whether the centaur's ear 
is equine or human, for the drawing is extremely sketchy, as though the artist 
were imitating metal repousse work. The two bands beneath the composition 
and the moulded ring on the neck near the shoulder are also imitations of bronze 
work. Boehlau /. c. holds that this oenochoe is probably not Attic but Ionic, at 
the same time admitting that the drawing is too sketchy to reach any conclusions 
concerning its style; the shape of the pitcher, however, and its heraldic compo- 
sition lead him to assign it to Chalcis or some center strongly under her influence. 
Thus far I agree with Boehlau but when he says: "die Komposition entspricht der 
auf der Netos amphora," I think he might have found closer analogies, so for in- 
stance the oenochoe in Leyden, no. 44, no. 25, or even no. 46 at least for the pose of 
Nessos. For the position of the r. arm of the hero, which shows that he used his 
sword to stab and not to cut, see especially the fragment of Sophilos, no. 21, and 
for a list of the nude type of Herakles see under no. 161. 

165. Hydria. Louvre E 803. Pottier, Catalogue II p. 555. Incorrectly identified 
by Hoppin in Argive Heraeum II p. 163 with Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. 
117 118 i. Story of Nessos. 

Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, but not worn over his head as a helmet, quiver 
and bow on his back, holds long sword in horizontal position and hastening 
to r. with mighty strides is about to stab Nessos, who has equine ears. On his 
back sits Deianeira, looking round at Herakles. The centaur places his 1. hand 
in front of his human body and his r. to his forehead. The group is bounded on 
1. and r. by a female figure in mantle. 

Herakles in the lion's skin, but not drawn over his head, occurs more frequently 
in his amazonomachy ; it is not limited to any one style, and is not therefore 
significant. See Furtwangler, in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2147. Quiver and bow 
on his back occur more frequently in connection with his visit to Pholos. The sub- 
ject in general occurs quite commonly on early b. f. amphorae under Peloponnesian 
influence, see especially nos. 66, 70, also on "Tyrrhenian" amphorae, nos. 34, 38. 
But the reason for assigning this vase to the Chalcidian group is the style rather 
than the composition, and the distribution of the designs, especially the two graz- 
ing hinds on the neck. The centaur has the same long nose so conspicuous on 
no. 163, and red color is profusely used on beards, hair, drapery and faces. Both 



6o Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

Pettier /. c. and Furtwangler, Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2194 consider our vase 
probably Chalcidian. 

166. Amphora. PL V. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters B 25. A: Centauro- 
machy. B: Two sirens confronted; between them, a palmette. On neck: 
lotus flower and palmette, intertwined so as to form a cross. 

A: "Two warriors in combat: the one on the 1. has a visored helmet, greaves, 
and shield, and is attacking with his spear: the one on the r. moves away to r. 
looking back; he is similarly armed, and is hurling his spear with 1. hand. On the 
r. a Centaur gallops up to his defence, with a stone in 1. hand. In the field, patterns 
of dots and a star of eight points." What Walters calls a star is a circle of 
twelve dots. It does not seem probable to me that the centaur is coming to the de- 
fence of the warrior, although on no. 176, such a scene is actually depicted. I 
interpret the scene as two warriors advancing against the centaur, the one on the 
r. looking back to see if assistance is close at hand, a composition which on the 
Attic vases does not occur until about a century later, 'and then much clearer, 
see nos. 104 106. Noteworthy is the armor of our Lapiths, helmet, shield, spear 
and greaves, but not cuirass, as on the cylix from Tanagra, no. 100, see also 
no. 1 66 A. Left-handed Lapiths with shield on r. arm are not common on ancient 
monuments, although they do occur, witness nos. 97, 113. 

Walters /. c. has catalogued our vase under those of Corinthian style, though 
in a letter I recently received from him he writes: "I must say that I am rather 
doubtful if the vase is really Corinthian, though it was catalogued as such. I expect 
it will turn out to be Chalcidian, in common with several others catalogued under 
the head of Corinthian. But we don't quite know yet what are the characteristics 
of the Chalcidian fabric." That is evidently very true, but I think we are safe 
in calling our amphora Chalcidian. It belongs to a group of amphorae, all with 
rays rising from the foot, but instead of being placed close together as usual, there 
is an interval of space between each ray. Above this comes a heavy black band, 
about 2Vg inches broad, above which on a narrow line is the main picture. On 
the neck of our vase are two lotus flowers and two palmettes cross-wise intertwined, 
identical with that pictured on p. 83 fig. 22 in Thiersch, Tyrrh. Amph., who, how- 
ever, /. c. p. 82 claims this ornament for his "Tyrrhenian" style, and denies that it 
ever occurs on Chalcidian or Corinthian vases. He is certainly mistaken in this, 
for nobody would hold our amphora to be of the "Tyrrhenian" style. To his group 
/. c. p. 144, one of which is illustrated on his pi. II 8, he should have added Louvre 
E 810 Pottier, Album pi. 57, and to the variation of this group /. c. p. 145 Thiersch 
should have added our amphora. Had we no other criterion the composition of 
the main group would make it impossible to assign this small class of vases to Attica, 
as proposed by Thiersch. 
i66A. Lekythos. Greece. Munich. Staatsbesitz 68. Sieveking-Hackl p. 30 no. 346 

fig- 44, P- 3i fig- 45- 

Nude warrior to r., helmet, shield, brandishing a lance, inscribed in Corinthian 
letters Hippobatas, confronts a galloping centaur who holds a stone in 1. hand 
drawn back. The style is similar to no. 166. 



Theban Cabirion ware. Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 6 1 



X. THEBAN CABIRION WARE. 

167. Skyphos. Temple of the Cabiri, Thebes. British Museum, Walters B 77. 
"Designs black on deep buff ground, with incised lines. Of local manufacture."' 

A: "Centaur to r., with shaggy hair, beard, and tail, holding a crooked staff 
in r. hand, and a tree in 1., confronts two grotesque beardless male figures in hi- 
matia, carrying sticks, that of the front one knotted; behind them, a tree. This 
scene probable represents Peleus bringing the young Achilles to Chiron." If this 
interpretation of Walters were correct, it would be the only example in early 
Greek art of an equine forelegged Chiron. The nose and mouth of the centaur and 
that of the first human figure are those of a dog. The ears are not represented. 

Although the Cabirion ware is black- figured it is later than the Attic b. f. 
style, and probably dates from the end of the fifth century B. C. 

168. Fragment. Temple of the Cabiri, Thebes. National Museum, Athens, not 
published. Case 62, no number. 

A centaur to 1., 1. hand behind his back, equine ears, face broken off. 



XI. ITALO-IONIC AND ETRUSCO-IONIC VASES. 

169. Amphora. Corneto. Berlin, Furtwangler 1675. Endt, Beitrdge zur ionischen 
Vasenmalerei p. 48 fig. 22. A and B: Procession of centaurs. 

On each side are two centaurs walking to 1.; they have large equine ears, 
long beards painted red, also long red hair, white belly, r. hand outstretched but 
empty, over 1. shoulder they carry long pine-branches. 

According to Endt I. c. this belongs to a group of Ionic vases manufactured 
in Pontos about 600 B. C. His arguments do not seem to me convincing. For 
the type of centaur in Pontos see the Samsoun reliefs, no. 183. 

170. Amphora. Wiirzburg III 84 Diimmler, Rom. Mitt. 1887 p. 191 no. i. Endt, 
Beitrdge zur ion. Vasenm. p. 46 fig. 20 and p. 47 fig. 21, Procession of centaurs. 
On each side there are three centaurs walking to 1., the last on each side is 

represented only from the middle of his equine body, the rest of the body and hind- 
legs are cut off by the broad black vertical band (which characterizes this group) 
on which the handle is fastened. As on the preceding vase the r. hand is extended 
and empty, the 1. holds a pine branch over 1. shoulder. Under the first and second 
centaur of each side, between their fore- and hindlegs is a crane to 1. 

For Endt's Pontic attribution see under preceding number. Diimmler states 
that one of the three centaurs on each side is beardless, which is a point in favor 
of Italiot fabric, for in the sixth century youthful centaurs are extremely rare in 
Greece, but quite common in Italy, see under no. 281 where the examples are cited. 

171. Amphora. Fig. 10. Vulci. Leake Collection. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum, 
E. Gardner, Catalogue of Greek Vases p. 15 and pi. VI no. 43. A: Two warriors 
attacking a fallen nude giant. B: Centaur between two warriors. 

B: A centaur, bearded, equine ears, white belly, gallops to 1. and is about 
to hurl a huge white rock, which he holds in both hands behind his head, at a 



62 



Centaurs with equine forelegs. 



warrior to r., who brandishes a spear in his r. hand, and holds a shield in 1. The 
warrior wears a helmet and $alog over forehead, close-fitting breast-plate to waist, 
white chiton beneath it, and greaves; his sword is at his side. Under the shield 
of the warrior and under the centaur is a quail or partridge, the first to 1., the other 
to r., precisely similar to the birds in the decorative friezes above and below. In 
the Tomba del Triclinio, Corneto, Moscioni 8631 the same bird is depicted under 
a table. The second warrior, on the r., is similarly armed and is about to spear 
the centaur in the back. 

According to Gardner, /. c. the vase is either of Ionic fabric or more probably 
a local Italian imitation of it. Although it belongs to the same group as nos. 169, 

170, it is not mentioned in Endt's list. It 
differs from the two preceding amphorae in 
that the subject is mythological. In the long 
list of centauromachies on Attic b. f. ware 
there is not one example on which the figures 
are grouped as here, although on no. 121 one 
of the centaurs holds his rock similarly, and 
there as here the profile of the centaur's face 
is drawn in front of the rock, i. e. on a white 
background, here with incised lines. Similarly 
on the b. f. amphora, Louvre F 226 the pro- 
file of Poseidon is painted on the white back- 
ground which represents the island of Nisyros. 
The closest analogy to our group is found on 
nos. 36, 59, 112, 113, where, however, the 
centaur is to r. 

172. Amphora. Vulci. Bibliotheque Natio- 
nale, Paris, de Ridder, Vases Feints 
p. 79 sq. no. 173. Milliet Giraudon III 
pi. 140 141. Diimmler, Rom. Mitt. 
1887 p. 173 174. Endt, Beitrdge VIII 
p. 39. Ed. Schmidt, Der Knielauf p. 311 
fig. 30. A: Herakles and centaur. B: 
Centaur. 

A : In a panel on the shoulder, Herakles running to r. in archaic fashion with 
f. knee touching the ground, attacks a bearded centaur with pointed ears, three 
branches in each hand, who gallops to 1., towards his enemy. Herakles wears the 
lion's skin drawn over his head, he is beardless and in r. hand behind him swings 
a club of unique shape, in 1. hand outstretched, perhaps a bow though it looks 
more like a branch. The composition is very vigorous, much more so than on Attic 
monuments. The centaur cannot be named; it is certainly not Nessos, whom 
Herakles overtakes from behind. The illustration on the other side must be taken 
as part of our composition, and there we see in front of a laurel tree a centaur 
galloping to 1., armed with three branches in each hand, evidently coming to the 
rescue of his kinsman. He too is bearded and has long hair combed back from his 
forehead. Both hold their branches in similar fashion, r. hand advanced, 1. hand 




Fig. 10. After Catalogue of Vases, Fitzwilliam Museum, 
pi. VI no. 43. 



Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 63 

swung backwards to give more impetus to the blow. Not only is the club of the 
hero of unique shape, but also the leafless bundle of branches in the hands of 
the centaurs. The episode is the same as on the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161 where 
the nude bearded hero is also on one knee and holds a club, where a tree grows 
in the background, and where one of the centaurs confronts Herakles. The wooden- 
ness of that composition is in vast contrast to the animation of this. That Herakles 
is youthful and wears the lion's skin is another point in favor of the Ionic origin 
of this composition; see also no. 173. It is not always possible to say whether the 
hero with lion's skin drawn over his head is beardless or not; one of the doubtful 
cases is the peculiar type of Herakles on no. 24. Among the animals on the frieze 
below the main composition is a griffin, a creation of Ionic imagination never oc- 
curring on Attic monuments. For a similar composition also of Italo-Ionic fabric, 
but of Class B, see no. 307. 
173. Amphora. PI. VI. Munich, Jahn 650. A: Herakles and centaur. B: Centaur. 

For the photographs here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking. 

A: In a panel on the body: Herakles, beardless, with short chiton and dotted 
lion's skin over head and fastened in front of chest, brandishes a club in r. hand 
over his head, and, walking to r. with 1. leg advanced, seizes a bearded centaur, 
with short hair, by the r. shoulder. The centaur, whose type of face differs from 
that on other Attic monuments, note his small pointed ears, and whose hands are 
round pellets probably to indicate his fists, looks back at Herakles in a threatening 
attitude. Jahn incorrectly states that he is beardless. The system of grouping 
is that of Herakles pursuing Nessos, but because of the centaur on the reverse, 
which must be interpreted in connection with the observe, I feel inclined to view 
the whole as a centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe, as on the preceding vase. There is, 
however, a bare ^possibility that it is the Nessos story after all, for on some of the 
"Tyrrhenian" amphorae other centaurs come to the rescue of Nessos, see nos. 32, 

33, 36, 38. 

B : A centaur to 1. bearded, short hair, equine ears, is tugging with both hands 
at a palm-tree which he is trying to uproot as a weapon against Herakles. The 
theme is not common, I only know of one other example, no. 86, but there two 
centaurs are uprooting a tree. 

I have catalogued this vase here merely because of the similarity of subject 
to the preceding vase, not because I consider it of the same group. It probably 
is Attic under Ionic influence. The group of side A differs radically from that on 
other Attic monuments, where Nessos only once stands upright, see no. 66, on no 
other monument does the hero lay his 1. hand on the centaur's r. shoulder. Peculiar 
also is the short hair of the centaurs, though not unique. On the "Tyrrhenian" 
amphorae, nos. 36, 39 there is already a tendency to shorten the hair of centaurs; 
on no. 96 it is already accomplished. See also the tendency to represent centaurs 
with short hair on the Chalcidian amphora no. 166, on no. 164, and on the 
"Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161. It therefore seems probable that the short hair of 
centaurs is due to some unknown Ionic type. 
173 A. Amphora. Feoli Collection. Wiirzburg. Urlichs, Verzeichniss der Antiken- 

sammlung III 1872, no. 105. Herakles pursuing two centaurs, who have 

wounded a Lapith. 



Centaurs with equine forelegs. 




B : Herakles, bearded, armed with club, pursues two fleeing bearded centaurs 
with equine ears. The hero has already seized one of the centaurs who holds a 
large stone in his 1. hand, and with his r. hand grasps the 1. arm of Herakles, as on 
no. 43 A, in his futile attempt to check the onslaught. The other centaur with 
r. arm stretched back towards his companion is also about to throw a stone. In 
front of him is a wounded warrior, fully armed. Thus we have in this amphora, 
which I know only through the description in the Verzeichniss, a curious combination 
of the Arcadian and Thessalian myth. This is the only archaic example of Herakles 

taking part in the Thessalian centauromachy, 
but it is noteworthy that the Etruscan vase- 
painters of the sixth century do not follow 
the traditions known to us through Attic art, 
they allow themselves privileges that would 
fill a dull conventional Attic vase-painter's 
heart with misgivings. 

174. Amphora. Fig. n. Munich, Jahn 573. 
Wiener V orlegebldtter 1890 91 pi. 12, la. 
Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176. Karo, /. H. S. 
1899 p. 146. Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 21, 585 
p. 59 fig. 70. B : Two centaurs charac- 
terized as hunters. 

B: On shoulder, two bearded centaurs 
gallop to r. holding a doe between them, the 
first looks back and with r. hand behind him 
holds the hindlegs of the doe, the other cen- 
taur brandishes a twig in r. and with 1. hand 
holds its forelegs, so that the doe stands to 
1. in the natural position of walking. Under 
each centaur is an animal, a dog and a pan- 
ther (?). The composition is very vigorous, 
in spirit much like the galloping centaurs on 
no. 162, on the Assos frieze no. 182 and on the 
Melian stamped relief no. 13. Zahn /. c. con- 
siders our amphora the latest development 
of Clazomenian style in western Greek art, 

especially in Attic art; Karo /. c. calls it Ionic, and Furtwangler in Furtwangler- 
Reichhold text I p. 222 attributes it to one of the Cyclades islands, but not to 
Naxos. In the present unsatisfactory state of our knowledge concerning Ionic art- 
centers it seems to me to be impossible to say more than that we have here an 
example of some unknown Ionic fabric of far reaching influence, or perhaps even 
an Italiot imitation, compare especially the double row of ivy-leaves on the lip 
and body of our vase with the similar decoration on the frescoes in the Tomba del 
Triclinio, Corneto, Moscioni 8631. 

Centaurs on the hunt do not often occur on Attic b. f. ware, there is, however, 
a centaur with a fox on no. 82, and two centaurs hunting a bird occur on no. 81. To 
be sure, Pholos and Chiron are characterized as hunters of small game, such as fox, 




Fig. ii. After Wienei Vorlegeblatter 1890 91 pi. 12, i a. 



Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 6? 

bird and hare, though they are never represented as actually hunting; for Pholos 
see no. 128 130, 137, 141, 158, and for Chiron nos. 241 246, 248, 252, 253, 256, 
257, 260. A living doe captured by a centaur occurs on the Proto- Attic bowl 
no. 211, on a terracotta statuette from Cyprus, no. 206, on Rhodian gold plaques 
no. 221, on the Etrusco-Ionic amphora, no. 179, see also no. 315 A, and on a Greek 
sarcophagus of the fourth century B. C. in Constantinople, Joubin, Monuments 
funeraire z , frontispiece and p. 58 no. 75. On the Corneto tripod, no. 281, a centaur 
has torn a fawn to pieces, like a Maenad, and carries the front half of the animal on 
a branch. A similar fate will probably befall a fawn, for the possession of which 
a struggle is taking place between two winged centaurs on an Etruscan Bucchero 
cup, no. 285. On an Etruscan gold plaque in granulated work, no. 293, a centaur 
with two branches confronts a fawn, and on a bronze bowl in repousse work, 
no. 305 a centaur carries a dead fawn by the hindlegs. That centaurs also hunt 
wild game is made evident by the lion's or tiger's skin which they sometimes use 
as a shield, see no. 104, or wear round their shoulders, no. 316. 

The dog accompanying the centaurs on our vase is of interest, and perhaps 
of importance for the question of style, making Zahn's hypothesis of Clazomenian 
influence probable, because dogs occur only once again with hunting centaurs 
in archaic art, namely, on the lid, of a Clazomenian sarcophagus, no. 320; otherwise 
only Chiron is accompanied by a dog. 

175. Amphora. Capri. Berlin, Furtwangler 2132. 

A: A bearded centaur with equine ears gallops to r. through space. In his 
uplifted r. hand he swings a branch, and drags another behind him in his 1. hand. 
According to Furtwangler it is Campanian. For another example of a centaur 
galloping through space, see no. 181. 

175 A. Hydria. Munich. Sieveking-Hackl no. 897 p. 122 fig. 139. Centauro- 

machy. 

On the body: A group of three; one centaurs to 1. between two warriors. 
In his r. the centaur brandishes a club, with his 1. he grasps the wrist of a 
warrior falling to 1. On the r. of the centaur is a second warrior whose attitude 
is not clear. 

176. Stamnos. PI. IX. Vienna. Hofmuseum, no. 406. Sacken, Archaeol. Epigraph. 
Mitt. Ill 1879 P- T 35- It i s -4 2 m - high. A: On shoulder, centaur and two 
Lapiths; on body, Kaineus episode. B: On shoulder, centaur and female 
figure. 

A: On shoulder, in the center, a fallen nude warrior, supporting himself 
on 1. arm still holding shield, is according to Sacken being covered by the shield 
of his companion on 1. who advances to r. brandishing a spear against a centaur 
on r., bearded, human ears, who advances to 1., grasping the rim of the shield 
of his opponent as on no. 102 and using a branch as weapon. This is the usual 
interpretation, but it seems more probable that the centaur is guarding the fallen 
warrior against the other whose spear is aimed at his neck from which blood flows. 
I prefer the second interpretation even though we have no literary evidence to 
bear it out. For a fallen warrior between Lapith and centaur see also nos. 39, 

176 A. Were it not for the wound in the fallen warrior's neck I would have more 
confidence in the first interpretation. This vase-painting may well be taken as 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 9 



66 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

evidence in favor of Walters' interpretation of no. 166. It is noteworthy that 
the Lapiths are bare-headed. 

A : On body, in the center Kaineus, front view, buried to his knees, in a short 
close-fitting breast-plate, visored helmet with two crests, in each outstretched 
hand an uplifted sword, in stiff heraldic position, is attacked from each side 
by a bearded centaur with long branch, the but end aimed at the Lapith's head, 
the pointed end extending through the dividing line well into the design on the 
neck. Both centaurs have human ears and long hair, the human ears pointing 
to Ionic influence, either direct or by way of Athens. The double-crested helmet 
occurs also on two other vases, nos. 176 A, 123, the latter representing Kaineus. 

It is hardly necessary to add that Kaineus actually wore two crests on his 
helmet, though a naive explanation used to be offered that it was one crest seen 
from both sides. On no. 123, however, where the face of Kaineus is in profile 
it would have been much easier for the artist to paint only one crest, but he still 
insists on representing both. The centaur on the r., and also the one on the shoulder 
of the vase, have their human backs turned to the spectator, so too the youth in 
combat with a fallen youth on the reverse. On archaic monuments this is rare; 
other examples are nos. 121, 123 A, 125, 176 A, 183, 322. The type of head, especially 
the way the hair is arranged round the forehead, reminds one very strongly of 
bronze technique. 

B: On shoulder, a female figure in long chiton and himation which flutters 
behind her is piercing with her spear in uplifted r. the body of a centaur stumbling 
to 1., with branch over 1. shoulder and r. hand uplifted in supplication. He seems 
to be beardless. For other examples of beardless centaurs in the archaic period 
see under no. 281. A female figure similarly clad takes part in a combat between 
two youths on the body of the vase just below our scene. Since she does not wear 
helmet and aegis we are not justified in calling her Athena. Both this scene and 
that on the shoulder of the other side, are episodes not handed down through liter- 
ary tradition. Attic art, on the other hand, illustrates the well-known conventional 
themes; the only exception is on the reverse of an Attic amphora no. "48 where a 
female figure supplicates a centaur. 
176 A. Hydria. Naples, Heydemann p. 388 no. 2781. Klein, Jahreshefte des osterr. 

archdol. Institutes. XIII p. 158 fig. 85. Centauromachy of three groups. 

On the shoulder : In the center, Kaineus, fully armed, his back turned towards 
the spectator (see under no. 121 for other examples), his r. leg buried up to the 
knee, seizes one of his confronting opponents by the beard with his r. hand 
a rare motive in archaic art, cf. no. 71, but common enough in the later periods 
- and defends himself with sword in 1. hand against a second centaur. The centaur 
to 1. is rearing to free himself from the hero's grasp, he paws him and is about to 
hurl a stone and a peculiarly shaped object like that in the hands of the centaurs on 
the "Tyrrhenian" amphorae, nos. 33, 40, 42. The centaur to r. brandishes a branch, 
similar to that on no. 313, and seems to have human ears, whereas those of his 
comrade are equine. On the r. of Kaineus a spear-point, a shield and two helmets 
fill the vacant space, a picturesque touch which brings home to us the fierceness 
of the battle; on the 1. of the knight his youthful servant creeps along the ground, 
holding an arrow and a sword ready to hand his master. On each side of this 



Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 67 

central group a Lapith attacks a centaur over the fallen body of a comrade. The 
dying Lapiths are marvelously well posed ; how helpless and childlike is the similar 
subject on no. 39, a "Tyrrhenian" amphora! The fallen Lapith on the r. has a 
double-crested helmet decorated with horse-tails, one of which is wound round 
his r. arm. The centaur over him has human ears and is youthful, as is common 
enough in Italiot art, see the examples cited under no. 281; he turns his human 
back towards the spectator, as on the Samsoun relief, no. 183, where other examples 
are given. On the extreme r. a sword is stuck into the ground; it does not belong 
to any of the figures depicted, but indicates that more than six Lapiths took 
part in the combat. The opponent of the youthful centaur wears a Phrygian 
cap, and like his fallen companion carries a sword. The sword is not the usual 
weapon of Lapiths in the archaic period, it occurs however on the "Tyrrhenian" 
amphora, no. 39, on the Caeretan hydria, no. 322, and on the Attic vase, no. 116. 
All the centaurs are rearing, which adds much to the vigor of the composition, 
all except the youthful one are roaring with open mouth. The din of battle is 
deafening. Compare for instance the centauromachy on the Franois vase, how 
well-behaved and well-groomed they are, and with what clock-like precision each 
plays his part. There is no danger connected with their rearing, their missiles 
are daintily handled and are thrown with little force. On the other hand, as Klein 
has well pointed out, the vigor of action in our vase-painting is superb, and one is 
tempted to see in it a copy of some famous picture, painted by an Ionic master. The 
technique does not seem good enough to assign our vase to Ionia, herein I cannot 
follow Klein. I prefer to see in it an Italiot work, inspired to be sure by Ionia. 

177. Hydria. Munich, Jahn 269. Centaur pursued by two youths. 

On the shoulder : A centaur with outstretched arms gallops to r. and is pursued 
by two youthful figures ; the first, with loin-cloth, wields a club, the second, similarly 
attired, brandishes a spear in r. and has a shield on 1. arm. On the extreme 1. 
a bird flies upwards ; under the centaur is another bird, and flowering plants spring 
from the ground. These plants make me suspect that our hydria is not purely 
Attic, but Attic under Ionic influence. 

On an Attic lekythos, no.. 51, Herakles nude and beardless attacks Nessos 
with a club and on each side is a youthful spectator with a spear. But never do 
the spectators on the Attic monuments come to the assistance of Herakles, though 
on no. 47 they are agitated. I therefore hesitate to identify the youthful clubman 
on our hydria with Herakles, though, on the other hand, the club is not used in 
archaic art as the weapon of Lapiths. 

178. Hydria. Vulci. British Museum, Walters B 60. Two centaurs confronted. 
"On the shoulder: Two Centaurs crouching, confronted, with outstretched 

arms, as if about to wrestle." Centaurs attacking each other are rare; I know of 
only two examples of At tic b. f. fabric, viz. nos. 84, 85, and only three other examples 
of Etrusco-Ionic fabric, nos. 313, 313 A, 324, the first and second of Class B, the 
third of Class C. The subject, to be sure, occurs even as early as the geometric 
period, see no. 4. Another hydria from Vulci, also an Etrusco-Ionic product, no. 312, 
represents a dancing centaur with human forelegs, which makes it evident that the 
two types of centaurs of my Class A and B were known to and indiscriminately copied 
by these Etruscan imitators. They were even familiar with the type of Class C. 



5g Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

179. Amphora. PI. IX. Munich, Jahn 155. Gerhard's Apparat in Library of 
Berlin Museum, Mappe XIV 51. Micali, Storia pi. 99, 7 gives the shape of 
the amphora and obverse. Sieveking-Hackl, Colored plate and pi. 33, 836 
p. 98 fig. 98. B : Two centaurs as hunters. 

B : Two centaurs, equine ears, long hair, long red beards and long tails, con- 
fronted; the one on the 1. looks back, lifts his 1. foreleg, holds a fawn by the neck with 
r. hand, and shoulders a branch with 1. hand; the one on the r. stands quietly, holding 
a similar branch in r. and a fawn in 1. The fawns are struggling for their freedom. 
One hindleg of each fawn and the head of one are white. The peculiar type of face, 
the conventionalized leaves of the branches or rather small trees, for on one the 
roots are visible, can be seen to advantage on the plate, a photograph of a careful 
and accurate drawing by Reichhold, for which I am greatly indebted to Dr. Sieve- 
king of the Archaeological Seminary at Munich. It is of Etrusco-Ionic style. 

For the various kinds of game hunted by centaurs, see under no. 174, and for 
similar conventionalized bushes see the Etrusco-Ionic lekythos no. 323. 

1 80. Amphora. Palermo Museum no. 1499 (1522). Not published. 

Two bearded centaurs running to 1. with tendrils in their hands. They have 
equine ears, very human profiles, and long hair falling down the back, represented 
in a most conventionalized manner, like nos. 312, 313. In the Berlin Museum there 
is a b. f . amphora of the same style, not yet catalogued, on which six sileni sporting 
with nymphs are depicted, five with human legs ending in hoofs and one with 
human feet; only one is not bearded. Their hair stands out in back in exactly 
the same manner as that of the centaurs on our amphora. The shape of the ears 
and of the eyes, however, is slightly different. 

181. Amphora. Ruvo. Naples, Heydemann p. 306 no. 2445. A and B: Centauro- 
machy. 

A : A bearded centaur, holding a branch behind his head in both hands, gallops 
to r. through space. On the r. and on the 1. is a large lily. 

B: A warrior, in chiton, with helmet, shield and drawn sword, pursues the 
centaur of the other side. The outline of the centaur is mere brush work, without 
incisions, though inner incised lines mark the details. It is probably local Italian 
(Campanian?) ware. For another example of a centaur galloping through space, 
see no. 175. 



XII. ARCHITECTURAL RELIEFS. 

A) ASSOS. 

182. Frieze and Metopes. Assos. Louvre. Boston. Constantinople. Clarke, 
Papers of Archaeological Institute of America, Part I 1898, p. 142 fig. 35 four 
retreating centaurs; p. 150 fig. 37 Pholos, Herakles and three retreating cen- 
taurs of Class B, in Boston ; p. 171 fig. 39 and p. 286 fig. 75 fragment of a metope ; 
p. 285 fig. 72 metope in Louvre; p. 265 fig. 59, p. 267 fig. 60 fragments of 
architrave blocks in Louvre; p. 268 fig. 61, p. 269 fig. 62 reconstruction with 
the centauromachy in its supposed position. See also Reinach, Rep. Reliefs 



Architectural reliefs. go 

p. 4 figs. 7, 8 p. 5 figs. 9, 10 p. 6 fig. 16. Reinach incorrectly states that the 

architrave block representing Herakles pursuing three centaurs of Class B 

in presence of Pholos is in Constantinople; it is in Boston. 

According to Clarke the last three architrave blocks of the east end of the 
southern side contained thirteen centaurs galloping to r. to the assistance of seven 
centaurs in front of Pholos and Herakles on the first two architrave blocks of the 
eastern. fa9ade. The two sculptured metopes, each representing a centaur to r. 
he places over the centaur slabs of the eastern architrave. 

Beginning then at the 1. end of the eastern architrave we have Pholos, nude, 
human forelegs to r., holding a skyphos in r. hand, his 1. uplifted in astonishment. 
In front of him is Herakles to r., beardless, nude, 1. foot advanced, bending slightly 
forwards, and shooting from a rather small bow an arrow not indicated in relief, 
but probably painted. He is in pursuit of seven centaurs to r., the first three 
immediately in front of him have human forelegs, the others have equine forelegs. 
Of these the first, third and fourth look back, and only the third is armed ; he carries 
a club over his 1. shoulder, but I cannot make out the object in the hand of the first 
centaur ; the fifth clenches his 1. fist and roars with wide open mouth. Fillets decorate 
their heads, their back-hair falls in one heavy mass, like that of Herakles, they have 
human ears and highly archaic poses. Note especially the mathematical precision 
in the overlapping of their legs, the r. and 1. legs being precisely parallel, note 
also their outstretched hands with 1. thumbs upwards, r. thumbs downwards, 
and the monotonous curve of their tails. All this gives a highly decorative effect 
to the composition. In his preliminary report Clarke called the fragmentary 
figure, behind Herakles, lolaos but now, /. c. p. 153 he abandons that interpretation 
in favor of Pholos, and I am sure all will agree with him in this. But when, I. c. 
p. 160 he argues that this centauromachy belongs to the first half of the fifth century, 
because Herakles is depicted without the lion's skin and because of his beardless 
youthful form, he is certainly mistaken. Furtwangler in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 
p. 2140 cites convincing examples to show that as early as the seventh century 
B. C. Herakles occurs without the lion's skin, which is also missing on the Nettos 
amphora, and /. c. p. 2151 sq. Furtwangler proves that in Ionic and Cypriote 
art the youthful hero occasionally occurs in the early archaic period. That the Assos 
frieze is extremely archaic is seen not only by the naive grouping of the centaurs, 
but also by the long hair of Herakles, which occurs again on the Nettos amphora. 
Concerning another point I beg to differ with Clarke, who /. c. p. 169 considers 
the four centaurs with equine forelegs the work of another artist. To my mind 
they show the same hand. 

The centaurs on the architrave slabs in the Louvre need not detain us long. 
All but one hold weapons in their hands, all gallop to r. in exactly the same pose 
as their brethren discussed above. I for one do not "observe the difference between 
the easy canter of the centaurs advancing in regular file to the attack, and the head- 
long flight of those who retreat in terror before the victorious arms of the hero" 
(Clarke I. c. p. 270). 

Similar again in pose and weapons are the centaurs of the metopes ; the metope 
in the Louvre is in almost perfect state of preservation, the face alone being battered, 
the one more recently found is very fragmentary. The fact that the centaurs 



y o Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

of the metopes have no opponents is another argument in favor of the early 
date of the temple at Assos. Centaurs on metopes of the fifth century fight with 
Lapiths. 

The closest parallel to the centauromachy on the architrave blocks is no. 162, 
where the centaurs have the same pose, though none of them has human forelegs. 
Further than this the resemblance does not hold, because Herakles wears the lion's 
skin over a chiton and behind him stands a female figure, probably Athena. I 
cannot therefore agree with Clarke /. c. p. 166 who claims "that both of these 
representations were influenced by some common model." For a centauromachy 
on Mt. Pholoe in which Herakles pursues centaurs of Class A and of Class B as here 
see no. 161. Why the people of Assos chose this centauromachy I cannot say. 
The same subject appears again on some architectural fragments in terracotta 
at Samsoun in Pontos, see no. 183, and Pholos undraped also occurs on nos. 130, 
131, 135, 137, 149 etc. of Class A and on nos. 269, 270 of Class B. 



B) SAMSOUN. 

183. Frieze of terracotta. PI. XIV, a d. Samsoun. Constantinople. Macridy-Bey, 
Une citadelle archa'ique du Pont, in the Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen 
Gesellschaft 1907, 4 pi. 16, fig. 22 and p. 174, Herakles in front of the pithos; 
pi. 17 figs. 23, 24, 26, fragments of centaurs. For the photographs here repro- 
duced I am indebted to Macridy-Bey and to Dr. Th. Wiegand. 
On a terracotta fragmentary plaque, 0.25 m high and now only 0.23 m long, 
is represented a large pithos not buried in the earth but standing on the ground. 
It has a peculiar shape and a small foot. On the r. of it is Herakles to r. in lion's 
skin drawn over his head and fastened by the forepaws in front of his chest. His 
r. knee touches the ground and his 1. foot, now missing, was evidently advanced 
in the usual position of an archer. He spans his bow; the arrow, not represented, 
was probably painted. At his 1. side hangs his open quiver, in which five arrows 
are visible. The pithos makes it evident that the relief when complete represented 
Herakles driving the centaurs from the cave of Pholos. PI. XIV fig. d is a fragment 
of the same frieze, 0.12 m high and 0.15 m long; it represents the two equine 
forelegs of a centaur leaping to r. over a companion who with both arms outstretched 
and bearded head uplifted is falling to r.; only one of his equine forelegs is visible. 
For a similar motive see nos. 23, 31 and for fallen centaurs in general see nos. 21, 
155, 161, 228. On fragment fig. c, height 0.12 m, length 0.13 m is represented on the 
r. the tail of a centaur and the top end of a branch which he evidently held. On 
the 1. of this is a centaur to r. looking back with his human back turned towards 
the spectator ; his painted beard is clearly visible. Macridy-Bey believes this figure to 
represent an Amazon or at least a woman, but Dr. Zahn, who at my request examined 
the figure carefully, agrees with me that it is a centaur. It need not surprise us 
to find the rear view of the human back of a centaur in the archaic period, for, 
although not common, it does occur, see nos. 125, 176, 176 A. In the severe r. f. 
style of about 500 B. C. this phenomenon becomes more frequent. Fig. b is a 
fragment, 0.18 m high and 0.14 m long, representing the hindquarters and tail 



Ionic bronze statuette. Etruscan bronze statuette. 7i 

of a centaur to r. and four branches of a large tree which he evidently carried 
over his shoulder. Behind him is visible part of the arm of another centaur. Thus 
in all we have evidence for at least six centaurs. 

The fragment, Macridy-Bey, /. c. pi. 17 fig. 25, representing a lion (?) running 
to r., belongs to the same frieze but probably not to our centauromachy. I have 
not seen these reliefs, but there seems to be no reason to .doubt the supposition 
of Macridy-Bey that they once decorated the wooden entablature of a temple. 
They date from the end of the sixth century B. C. 



XIII. IONIC BRONZE STATUETTE. 



184. Bronze statuette. Fig. 12. Asia Minor. 

A. Sambon, Le Musee III pi. I. 

A bearded centaur, human ears, heavy 
mustache, fillet in hair, gallops to r. with 
both hands uplifted behind his head and 
is about to throw a short peculiar object 
similar to that in the hands of the centaurs 
on the "Tyrrhenian" amphora, no. 42. The 
statuette is an admirable product of a school 
closely allied to the Ionic vase no. 174 which 
Zahn considers the latest development of 
the Clazomenian style. According to rumor 
this masterpiece is now in private posses- 
sion in the United States. 




Fig. 12. After Le Musee III pi. I. 



XIV. ETRUSCAN BRONZE STATUETTE. 



185. Decoration for a helmet. Fig. 13. Etruscan tomb, Cor- 
neto. Helbig, Annali d. Inst. 1874 tav. d'agg. K no. i, 
and p. 47. 

A bearded centaur lashing his tail and looking upward, 
holds an uprooted tree in both hands at his r. side. He 
has long tresses down his back, and human ears. The base 
is convex and decorated with a pure Ionic palmette. It pro- 
bably dates from the early decades of the fifth century 
B. C., and is Etruscan under Ionic influence. For other 
examples of centaurs on helmets and as shield devices see 
under no. 232. 




Fig. 13. After Annali 1874 pi. K 



72 Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

/ * 

XV. GEMS, GREEK AND ETRUSCAN. 

1 86. Greek Scarab. Carnelian. Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Furtwangler, Ant. 
Gemmen I pi. VIII 6, II p. 37 no. 6 and III p. 101. 

A centaur galloping to r., looks back; bearded, hair combed back from the 
forehead, as on the Frangois vase, tail uplifted, club in 1., twig in r. Furtwangler 
calls attention to the same type on the archaic Cyzicene coins, Num. Chron. 1887 
pi. II 24. To my mind the resemblance is so slight that the comparison is unwar- 
ranted. In the first place, the Cyzicene electrum coins are not archaic, but pro- 
bably date from the fourth century, in the second place, the centaur is reclining 
to 1. The uplifted tail is the only similarity. 

187. Greek Scarab. Carnelian. Collection Arndt. 

A bearded centaur stumbling to 1., looks back ; over his r. shoulder is a branch, his 
1. hand is pressed against the small of his back, as if to staunch the flow of blood 
from a wound. He is certainly supposed to be fleeing from Herakles. His pose 
is similar to that of the stumbling centaur on the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161, but 
not nearly so wooden. 

188. Etruscan Scarab. Carnelian. Berlin. Furtwangler, Geschnittene Steine 

Pi- 5, 234. 

A centaur standing to r., with a branch in 1. hand, his r. hand pressed to his 
side; looks upward. 

189. Etruscan Scarab. Carnelian. Berlin, Furtwangler, Geschnittene Steine pi. 5,235. 
A centaur to r. looks back with uplifted arms. 

The Italian gems a globolo, though they give a very primitive impression, are 
late. The types, however, often go back to the archaic period, see Furtwangler, 
Ant. Gemmen I pi. 20 fig. 73, winged centaur, Munich; Chabouillet, Pierres gravees 
de la bibliotheque imperials 1680 1688; of these no. 1682 is also winged; Rossbach, 
Annali 1885 pi. G. H. nos. 31, 32; Sambon, Corolla numismatica, In Honour of 
Barclay Head, pi. XIV nos. n 13. 



XVI. COINS. 

190. Electron stater. Phocaic standard. Northern Ionia. Head, Hist. Num. 

p. 174 fig. 113. Brit. Mus. Cat. Ionia p. 9 no. 42, pi. II 3. Babelon, Traite 

des Monnaies pi. v. 17, and text p. 134 no. 198. Svoronos, Journal Intern. 

d'Archeol. Numism. 1908 p. 122 no. 363, pi. 8 fig. 10. Centaur and Nymph. 

A bearded centaur walking leisurely to r., looks back; he has a snub nose, 
long hair and carries off a draped female figure in his arms. She is evidently a 
willing victim, for she clasps him round the neck, and is about to kiss him. His 
r. arm supports her back, his 1. arm encircles her legs behind the knees, which 
are bent. On the Chalcidian vase, no. 163 (see also no. 163 A) Nessos carries 
Deianeira similarly, but there his 1. arm supports her back, so that she faces back- 
ward, whereas here the nymph faces forward. On the Thraco-Macedonian coins 
the nymph struggles in the arm of the centaur. See also no. 325. 



Coins. 



73 



As a rule coins of the archaic period contain only one figure and not a group. 
Now since a similar group is found on the coins of Thrace (Centaur and Nymph) 
and Thasos (Silenus and Nymph) it was customary to assign our Phocaic stater 
to the same region. Babelon, I. c. objects with convincing reasons to this attri- 
bution; not only the standard but also the style, fabric and provenance make 
it impossible to assign our stater to Thasos or Thrace. Babelon then calls atten- 
tion to the similar mill-sail design on the reverse of Chian coins, and their similar 
fabric, but catalogues it with the uncertain coins of northern Ionia. Svoronos /. c. 
is of the same opinion. A scarab from northern Ionia, or perhaps Aeolis, no. 325, 
represents the same subject, but there the centaur has human forelegs ending 
in hoofs. 

191. Thraco-Macedonian silver stater of Babylonian standard, Lete, Zaleia, 
Orrhescii, Diony ...., and .... ernaion or .... eknaion. Head, Hist. Num. 
p. 175 fig. 115 (Zaleia). Babelon, Traite pi. 46 figs. 6 15, pi. 50 figs. 20 
and 21 (Lete). Mac Donald, Hunterian coll. pi. XIX 16 (Lete). Berlin, 
Beschreibung der Ant. Munzen II p. 75, pi. IV 33 (circa 450 B. C. Diony ...), 
pi. IV 35 and p. 91 (Lete), pi. V 46 and p. 105 (Orrhescii). Br. Mus. Cat. 
Macedonia p. 147, no. 9, p. 148 no. i, p. 149 (Zaeelii). Keller, Tier- und 
Pflanzenbilder auf Munzen u. Gemmen pi. XI 41. 

Bearded centaur galloping to r. with a nymph clad in long peplos in both arms. 
With his r. arm he supports her back, with his 1. arm her legs under the knees, 
so that she lies face upward in his arms. Her r. hand is uplifted as if struggling 
in his embrace. The type differs somewhat from that of Northern Ionia, see 
no. 190, but it is identical with the group of Nessos and Deianeira on the Chalcidian 
vase, no. 163. The type was evidently borrowed from Ionia, where the Bacchic 
influence on the centaur is apparent. Occasionally the centaurs of our coins are 
bald and have a silenus-like profile, and sometimes a silenus takes the place of the 
centaur, as on the coins from Thasos (Babelon, Traite pi. 55 fig. 24) where the ithy- 
phallic silenus has human legs ending in hoofs. 

Babelon /. c. p. 1066 sq. no. 1477 discusses the retrograde inscription ending 
in eQvalcov and restores it Mr/xvjteQva or MyxvjieQvalov a town of the Chalcidice. 
Perhaps the inscription refers to the Saioi, a Thracian tribe = = Sintoi. 

Head /. c. p. 174 follows Leake, Northern Greece III p. 213 in identifying the 
Orrhescii with the Satrae, whereas Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece p. 343 note 2 
with even less probability identifies them with the Orestae. 

192. Lete? Babelon, Traite pi. 50 fig. i; Hunter, Nummi pop. et urb. pi. 33, 4; 
Mac Donald, Hunterian Coll. pi. XIX 15. 

Bearded centaur, bald, long tresses behind his shoulders, runs to r., looks 
back, one knee almost touching the ground as on the Melian gem, no. n, both 
arms uplifted, in 1. hand a stone. 

Lete also has the centaur type holding a cantharus in r. on his back (Imhoof- 
Blumer Mon. Gr. p. 82 no. 81, Babelon, Traite p. 1115 no. 1560) and the cen- 
taur type holding a cantharus in both hands on his back (Imhoof-Blumer /. c. 
no. 82). 



Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. IO 



7 , Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

XVII. ETRUSCAN BUCCHERO WARE. 

193. Holkion. Chiusi? Boston. Robinson, Catalogue no. 299. From Dixwell 
Collection formerly a portion of a public collection in Chiusi, sold in Florence 
in 1875. 

The design is stamped from a cylinder containing three figures, a lion, a centaur 
and a chimaera ( ?). I know of no other example of a centaur with equine, forelegs 
on Bucchero ware, although the goblet, Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 174, 3, from 
Cortona may be another example; here again three figures are stamped with a 
cylinder: a centaur shouldering a branch, a winged lion with protruding tongue 
and a squatting sphinx with one paw uplifted; all to 1. 



XVJII. STAMPED RED WARE OF UNCERTAIN 

FABRIC. 

194. Larnax. PI. XIII. Tanagra. Athens, Nat. Mus. no. 4298 is fragmentary, 
no. 718 is in perfect state of preservation, and is pierced with a round hole 
in the bottom. It is 0.83 m long, 0.51 m broad and 0.20 m deep. Terracotta 
covered with white slip. Milchhofer, Ath. Mitt. 1879, P- 55? Anfdnge der Kunst 
p. 76, Studniczka, Ath. Mitt. 1886 p. 87, Fabricius, Ath. Mitt. 1886 p. 148. 
Pettier, Bull. Corr. Hell. 1888 p. 496 no. 6. Savignoni, A.J. A. V p. 411. 
Pollak, Ath. Mitt. 1896 p. 217. 

A repetition of a group of three figures rolled from a cylinder along the outer 
edge of a larnax or sarcophagus. Each group is bounded by a perpendicular line, 
giving a metope-like effect, 0.145 m l n g an d 0.05 m high. The stamped relief is 
here not nearly as distinct as on the fragment of a similar larnax no. 4298. It is 
evident that the relief was stamped with a cylindrical shaped matrix, because 
the figures run round the blunted corners of the larnax without interruption, 
which would have been impossible had a flat matrix been used. The decorator 
began at one of the corners, and after he had rolled the cylinder over the four 
sides ended abruptly with half of a centaur at the corner of the starting point. 
There are three figures in each group: i. on the 1. a sphinx squatting to 1., one 
paw uplifted, 2. in the center a centaur walking to r. holding a pine-branch almost 
horizontally behind him in his uplifted r.; in his extended 1. he holds another 
pine-branch at the but end perpendicularly before him. He has a sharp prominent 
nose and a pointed beard. The ears were evidently supposed to be human, though 
they are not represented. As on no. 13 there is no detail work inside the silhouette. 
3. On the r. is a man on horse-back to r., holding a short lance (?) in each hand, 
and the reins in the 1. hand. These figures make a very primitive impression, 
the horse's neck is arched as on the Melian amphora, Conze, Melische Thongefdsse 
pi. I, the horse also stands in the same position. The back of the centaur sags like 
that of an old horse as also on the Melian stamped relief no. 13, but even more so. 
The sphinx has wings which curve back at the end in oriental fashion, her hair 



Stamped red ware of uncertain fabric. 7 c 

(cf. the Rhodian gold plaques no. 221) falls in a triangular-shaped mass rilled 
horizontally, above which there is a single spiral-shaped tuft like that on Mycenaean 
monuments. Near the end of her tail is a knob-like swelling. The peculiar method 
of representing the hair in tufts on the tail of the centaur is paralleled again on the 
Melian gems, nos. n, 12, and precisely the same profile occurs on the centaur of 
the Melian gem no. 8. 1 therefore believe that the cylinder from which the impressions 
were made on the larnakes from Tanagra was manufactured in Melos. Although 
the Tanagra reliefs make a very primitive impression I am convinced that they 
date not before the early decades of the seventh century B. C. 

Pettier /. c. p. 496 and p. 506 relying on Hollaux has made a peculiar mistake 
in that he describes two centaurs in each group, and states that Homolle noticed 
an interesting detail, namely, that the figures representing the same subject on 
each fragment are not absolutely identical, the proportions being different. To 
verify this observation I made careful measurements but could not find the slightest 
difference. If Homolle is not mistaken there must be other fra*gments of the same 
subject in the Museum at Athens which I was not able to find, though I made 
a thorough search. Pettier has furthermore claimed to have noted on a large 
pithos found at Caere a decoration analogous to that of our reliefs from Tanagra. 
Pollak /. c. quotes Pottier as stating (Mon. grecs. 1888 p. 55 no. 10) that there is 
in Athens a fragmentary relief from Melos, which is identical with those from 
Tanagra. If that is true we have another bit of evidence in favor of my theory 
that Melos manufactured the cylinder used in decorating the larnakes from 
Tanagra. 

195. Stamped plaques of terracotta. Argive Heraeum. National Museum, Athens. 
Waldstein-Hoppin, Argive Heraeum II p. 53 pi. 49, 8 a. 

Fragment of a plaque with raised border and stamped panels, representing 
i. a warrior (Herakles?) kneeling to 1., 2. a centaur walking with long strides to r.; 
he has human ears, long beard, fillet in hair and a pine-branch in r. hand close to 
his chest. Hindlegs and tail are missing. In the field, a rosette. 3. Tail of a horse ( ?) 
to 1. The panels are stamped so deeply into the surface, that the reliefs do not reach 
the plane of the border. In the field between the sunken panels are also rosettes 
and circles. The sunken panels are stamped so evenly into the flat surface of the 
plaque that it seems impossible to have been accomplished with a cylinder, but 
rather with a square flat matrix, so often used in Etruria. 

Our plaque was evidently dedicated to Hera, but it would be useless to speculate 
on the reasons for making such an offering to the goddess. For a terracotta statuette 
of a centaur also found in the Heraeum see no. 210. It is noteworthy in this con- 
nection that centaurs also occur on the pinakes dedicated to Poseidon at Corinth, 
see no. 229. 

Hoppin /. c. dates the plaque correctly from the beginning of the sixth century, 
but one of the arguments advanced in fixing the date is certainly not valid. He 
says : "This type of centaur with the forelegs of a horse is later than that with human 
forelegs. When exactly the later type was introduced cannot be determined, 
there being no distinct dividing line between the two types which often appear 
side by side. On archaic gems, however, only the later type occurs .... So far as 
can be judged from other monuments which illustrate the later type, we are justified 

10* 



(j Centaurs with equine forelegs. 

in regarding our relief as one of the earliest examples of that type." On p. 181 
Hoppin states that the change from human to equine forelegged centaurs "occurred 
about the beginning of the sixth century." I have proved elsewhere that such 
arguments are valueless since the two types occur side by side on the earliest 
monuments of the geometric period. It is also a misstatement that centaurs of 
my class B do not occur on archaic gems, see nos. 214, 240, 316. Contrary to most 
of the stamped reliefs of this period there is sharp detail work, the eye and ear, 
for instance, being very distinctly represented. Perhaps the shape of the rosette 
above the centaur will give a clue to the fabric. It is found under the horse on the 
Melian vase, Conze, Melische Thongefdsse pi. i, Rayet-Collignon, Hist. Cer. Grecque 
pi. 2. On the same class of vases the human eye is also represented exactly as on 
our centaur. To me it therefore seems probable that our plaque or at least the 
matrix is of Melian fabric. 
196. Fragments of pithoi. Cotrone. von Duhn, Notizie d. Scavi 1897 p. 357 

fig. 14 (Marchese Albani), fig. 15 (Marchese Lucifefo), p. 351 fig. 8, p. 352 
fig. 9. 

On the fragment fig. 14 we have a cylinder-stamped relief bounded above and 
below by a tongue-pattern. Conspicuous is the large pithos of Pholos standing 
on a base, or its own foot, and not buried in the earth. On the r. a satyr with human 
forelegs but with a horse's tail rests one foot on the base of the pithos and places 
one hand against its rim. The satyr is not as tall as the pithos, and cannot there- 
fore see the contents, although that is what he is evidently attempting to do. On 
the 1. of the pithos is Herakles, nude, bearded (?), r. leg advanced, 1. leg bent, 
his knee touching the ground, shooting an arrow from his bow. Confronting him 
is a centaur to r., brandishing a branch behind him in his r. and extending his 
1. towards Herakles. These three figures and the pithos evidently make up the 
whole group, because on the r. of the satyr is the same centaur to r., but in frag- 
mentary condition. 

On fragment fig. 15 a similar scene but from a different cylinder is stamped, 
for there are still visible the pithos of Pholos and the nude figure of Herakles walking 
to 1., long hair hanging down his back, and shooting an arrow, which is not de- 
picted. His bow is of the same small size as on the Assos frieze, and his position 
is much the same. On the ground to the 1. of Herakles a small branch is represented, 
standing upright, but probably just dropped by a centaur. 

That we have another example of Melian fabric before us, or at least types 
copied from Melian products, is made probable by the close resemblance of the cen- 
taur on the first fragment and the stamped ware from Plaka, no. 13. Be that as 
it may, we are certainly dealing with borrowed Ionic types and not with local 
Italian inventions. 

On fragments figs. 8 and 9 we find represented a centauromachy, but probably 
not that of Herakles. On the first of these fragments is a centaur to 1., about 
to strike a blow with a club, which is rarely used as the weapon of centaurs. On 
the other fragment a centaur again to 1. is fighting an adversary, but the relief 
is so worn that one cannot make out the motive, but he seems, as von Duhn cor- 
rectly noticed, to be rearing somewhat like the centaur on the stamped fragment 
from Akragas, no. 198. These fragments also go back to some center where centaurs 



Stamped red ware of uncertain fabric. 77 

with equine forelegs were preferred; Rhodes is therefore out of the question, because 
on the monuments of that school centaurs only of Class B occur; the same is true 
of Crete, see nos. 219, 220. von Duhn, however, /. c. p. 358, note i, mentions a 
communication from Evans that similar fragments were found in the eastern 
part of Crete, much like the Proto-Corinthian style, representing a centaur bran- 
dishing a tree which Evans calls a palm; another similar fragment is published 
in the Academy 1896 July 4, p. 18. But since nothing is said of the type of centaur 
I doubt whether they are of my Class A. 

197. Fragment of a stand or bowl. Lilybaion, Sicily. Palermo Museum. Kekule, 
Ant. Tenacotten II pi. 56, 2 and p. 83. Probably the centauromachy of 
Herakles. 

A cylinder-stamped relief bounded above by a tongue-pattern like that on the 
fragment from Cotrone, no. 196, but below by a zigzag pattern, like that on the 
stamped gold diadem from Corinth, no. 5. On the 1. end of the fragment is a centaur 
galloping to r., with hind- and forelegs close together and outstretched, as on the 
frieze from Assos no. 182 and the bronze statuette no. 184. He holds a branch or 
perhaps two in each hand, his 1. is outstretched, his r. is behind him, much like one 
of the centaurs on the relief from Melos, nos. 13, 14. The next centaur also gallops 
to r., with legs in the same position, his hindlegs are overlapped by the forelegs 
of the centaur behind him. He holds a huge rock in both hands uplifted behind 
his head as on the Italo-Ionic vase no. 171. To the r. of this centaur is a fragment 
of a third, preserved to the middle. Judging from the drawn-in position of his 
hindlegs he is stumbling to r. He holds three branches in one hand behind him. 
When compared with the falling centaurs on the "Cyrenaic" deinos. 161, one is 
struck by the marked stylistic difference. The closest analogy is to be found in 
the Attic "Kleinmeister" style no. 58. Loeschcke, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 40 sqq. dis- 
cusses these reliefs and holds that they are local Sicilian ware, made in Syracuse. 
Kekule /. c. p. 52 proves that this hypothesis is wrong, but does not attempt to 
name the home of the fabric. To my mind Melos has as good a claim as any other 
center. 

198. Fragment of a stand or bowl. Akragas (Girgenti). Palermo Museum. Ke- 
kule, Ant. Tenacotten II pi. 56, 3. pp. 52 and 83. Thessalian centauro- 
machy. 

The border is identical with that of the preceding fragment. There are three 
groups of monomachies. An armed Lapith, perhaps Kaineus, kneeling to 1. stabs 
with a dagger a centaur, with his human back turned towards the spectator, 
rearing to r., who holds both hands above his head. A branch with three twigs 
which he has just dropped is in the field to the 1. of the centaur. In the next group 
a bearded centaur to r. holds a Lapith round the waist. The Lapith, bearded, 
nude, with shield on 1. arm behind him stabs the centaur with a dagger in the nape 
of the neck. The next Lapith, seen from behind, has a shield on 1. arm and bran- 
dishes a spear against the centaur of the central group, whereas a third centaur, 
on the extreme r. looks back and kicks at the third Lapith. He holds a huge stone 
in both hands. For other kicking centaurs see nos. 31, 314. 

Kekule /. c. p. 52 mentions a similar relief from the same cylinder, also found 
in Girgenti. They date from the fifth century B. C. 



7 g Centaurs with human forelegs. 

CLASS B. 

I. MONUMENTS OF THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD. 



199. Stamped gold band. Athens. Copenhagen. Furtwangler, Arch. Ztg. il 
pi. 9, i and p. 101 sq. Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art VII p. 247 fig. 115. 

It is said to have been found in one of the oldest Dipylon graves. Here the 
reliefs are not continuous as on the similar band, no. 5, but have a metope-like 
effect, the whole composition being made up of only two different stamps used 
alternately. Furtwangler /. c. p. 101 sq. interprets the group on which the centaur 
does not occur, as a battle scene between a mounted knight and a warrior on foot. 
The group which concerns us particularly represents a centaur to r. with human 
forelegs holding a short twig behind his back, as on the band from Corinth no. 5. 
Behind him is a procession of dancing men moving in the opposite direction, with- 
out any apparent connection with the centaur. On the gold band from Corinth 
now in Berlin, which is evidently of the same fabric, centaurs of both classes, 
A and B, occur, whereas here only Class B is represented. The closest analogies 
to these stamped bands of gold are i. a stamped handle of a red ware vase, now 
in Heidelberg, no. 280, 2. a repousse" relief in two bands on a silver dagger sheath 
found at Praeneste, no. 306. 

200. Bronze plaque. Dodona. Carapanos, Dodone et ses mines pi. 19 fig. 5, and 
text p. 36 no. 27. 

A centaur to 1. is engraved on the plaque, the upper part of which, with the 
human torso of the centaur, is missing. The whole figure is covered with incised 
dots to indicate the shaggy appearance of the centaur, as on no. 161. Sometimes 
only the human part is shaggy, cf. nos. 222, 226, 228, and on no. 21 only the equine 
body is shaggy. A technical peculiarity of all centaurs in the geometric period 
can best be illustrated here; I refer to the way the human forelegs are added 
to the equine body without indicating the buttocks. In later times an equine 
bo c dy is attached to a complete human figure. On the geometric monuments, 
however, human forelegs take the place of equine forelegs, the human torso not 
connected with them, but growing out of the equine body. Therefore the human 
pudenda are lacking. This earlier form of Class B, reminiscences of which are found 
on the stamped ware of Etruria, is a strong argument in favor of my thesis that 
the earliest type of centaur has equine forelegs and that the type with human 
forelegs is a later development. 

201. Lead Figurines from the Amyklaion and from the Menelaion. See no. 6. 



II. PRIMITIVE BRONZES AND TERRACOTTAS. 

202. Bronze statuette. Fig. 14. Olympia, lower stratum of Altis. Treu, Olympia, 
Ausgrabungen IV pi. 13 'fig. 215 also text pi. 21, and p. 16. 
The centaur stands at rest on an open-work base decorated with geometric 

designs; his r. hand is placed on his chest, his 1. arm and tail are broken off. That 



Primitive bronzes and terracottas. 



79 



the tail was long is made evident by the fact that there are traces of it on the base. 
He has human pudenda and a very primitive head without any modeling. According 
to Boehlau, Jahrb. 1887 p. 41 the centaur occurs only on the late geometric monu- 
ments and is an importation from Asia Minor. But judging from its occurrence 
on the early geometric vase no. 4, it had reached Continental Greece from the 
Orient earlier than is usually supposed. Boehlau, however, is right in ci^ng this 
bronze statuette as late geometric, for it already has the human pudenda added; 
it probably dates from the eighth century B. C., and shows Ionic influence. 
203. Bronze group. Fig. 15. Olympia. Parisian antiquity-dealer. Sambon, Le 
Mus6e III p. 429 fig. 3. Pholos greeting Herakles? 
A bearded centaur with human 
ears and pudenda, short hair but long 





Fig. 14. After Olympia IV pi. 13 fig. 215. 



Fig. 15. After Le Musee III p. 429 



tail reaching to his feet and fastened to the plinth on which he stands, confronts 
a bearded nude male figure, standing on the same plinth, whose arms he grasps 
with both hands. The man is a head taller than the centaur. Both wear a peculiarly 
shaped pointed cap which differs, however, from the pilos and from the pointed 
hats of the Scythian archers. The closest analogies are found on a geometric fibula, 
Bates, A. J. A. 1911 p. 3 fig. 2, p. 7 fig. 4, see also pp. 14 16; on the stamped 
pithos B.C.H. 1898 p. 463 fig. 8 and pi. 6; on a Boeotian cantharus in Berlin, 
worn by Troilos, Arch. Anz. 1891 p. 116 fig. 10; on a Boeotian terracotta figurine, 
representing a centaur, see no. 209; on a late Mycenaean head of terracotta from 
the Amyklaion 'Ey. *AQ%. 1892 pi. 4 figs. 4 and 4a; on a lead figurine from the Mene- 
laion, B. S. A. XV p. 128 fig. 30; on a bronze statuette found at Athens no. 238; 
and on a Cypriote terracotta figurine, no. 205. 



g0 Centaurs with human forelegs. 

This is certainly one of the most remarkable monuments ever excavated, 
not only because it is a group, an extremely rare phenomenon in the geometric 
period to which it belongs, but also because of its subject. The interpretation 
offered by A. Sambon 1. c. p. 429, Peleus and Chiron, as on the Francois vase, 
may be correct. As an alternative he offers another explanation: the divine Chiron 
consoling the spirit of Achilles, as on the Cypselus chest. On b. f. vase-paintings, 
see no. 128, the greeting of Herakles by Pholos occurs in much the same manner, 
and since, as Bates /. c. has shown, Herakles wears the peaked cap in the geometric 
period, I surmise that we have in this bronze group the same subject. Be that as 
it may, we here have the earliest mythological scene between man and centaur, 
dating probably from the end of the eighth century B.C. 

204. Bronze statuette. Cyprus. British Museum, Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes no. 184. 
"Centaur, with human forelegs, the equine body attached behind; r. arm ad- 
vanced ... Very rude." In his introduction p. XXXVIII Walters says of this and 
similar statuettes: "In Cyprus and Sardinia again are found rude primitive bronze 
figures which owe something primarily to Greek influence, but bear the unmistak- 
able impress of local handiwork." Is it not more probable that the same oriental 
influence (Hittite?) was at work in both places, Greece and Cyprus, not to speak 
of Etruria ? 

205. Terracotta statuette. Idalium, Cyprus. Metropolitan Museum, New York, 
no. 2728. Cesnola, Coll. of Cypr. Ant. II pi. 27 fig. 218; Ohnefalsch Richter, 
Kypros pi. CIV, 9 also in text p. 257 fig. 174; Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art 
III 600 fig. 411. Found in a tomb. Ionic Greek influence. Traces of color. 

This centaur is bearded and wears a cap as on nos. 203, 238, his r. hand is 
broken off, on his 1. arm he carries a shield. The hindlegs are formless, but the fore- 
legs, though clumsy, indicate human knees. Whether the forefeet ended in hoofs 
like the Cypriote lime-stone group in Geneva, see no. 326, is possible, but since 
certainty cannot be gained on this point, I have preferred to catalogue it under 
Class B rather than Class C. I know of only the following additional examples 
of a centaur carrying a shield, a) Graeco-Roman gem in the British Museum, 
Cat. p. 146 no. 1235. b) Etruscan scarab of the later style, Furtwangler, Ant. 
Gemmen I pi. 18 fig. 73. 

It is remarkable that this and the following centaur were found in a tomb. 
Were they put there to guard the spirit of the dead ? If so we would have in Cyprus 
the same custom common to the Etruscans. 

206. Terracotta statuette. Curium, Cyprus. British Museum, Walters, Cat. of 
Terracottas p. 39 A 227, Murray, Excavations in Cyprus p. 70 fig. no, Winter, 
Typenkat. Nachtrage under 15, 7d. Found in a tomb in 1895, excavated 
under the Turner Bequest. 

"Centaur, with equine forelegs and human pudenda; he has a snub nose, short, 
thick beard, and long hair projecting in a flat mass at the back. In his 1. arm he 
carries a doe, the legs drawn in together, very roughly modelled. He has a stiff 
flat tail, standing out horizontally; his feet are not indicated. The whole has been 
covered with a white slip; the Centaur's breast is red, and on his shoulder and above 
the pubes are black stripes, his hair and beard are black, and the doe has black 
markings on the legs.".... "End of sixth century B. C., under Archaic Greek in- 



Primitive bronzes and terracottas. 8 1 

fluence; the Centaur is well modelled, especially the head. Right arm lost." Accor- 
ding to the above description of Walters he has equine forelegs, but since his feet are 
not indicated and since he has human pudenda, it seems more reasonable to cata- 
logue this figurine under Class B. For other centaurs with a doe as prey, see under 
no. 174, and for the tail standing out horizontally see no. 313. 

207. Terracotta statuettes. Cyprus. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros p. 255 sqq., 
pis. XL VI I nos. 8 10, 12 16 and 18 are from a grove of Apollo at Limniti; 
no. 17, now in Berlin, was found in Amathus; No. n, Berlin, from Paphos 
or Limniti. See also Reinach, Rev. Arch. 1881 p. 81 for no. 12; and Winter, 
Typenkat. I 15, 7, Roscher's Lexikon II i p. 1075, for no. 13. 

All of these centaurs are characterized by horns and bovine ears; some seem 
to be beardless, others are represented with protruding tongues, Medusa-like. All 
are fragmentary, but on nos. 8 and 13 the human pudenda are preserved, conse- 
quently they belong to Class B. They date from the sixth century B. C. 

For the origin of the horned centaurs, according to a Cypriote legend, see 
Richter /. c., who furthermore on p. 258 derives those with protruding tongue 
from the Bes type. In the light of recent finds, see under no. 240, they are more 
probably derived from the Medusa type. Horned centaurs occur only rarely in 
the later periods, i. on the skyphos with white figures on a black ground, now 
in St. Petersburg, Stephani, Vasensamml. 916; 2. on the silver vase in Munich, 
Arneth, Antike Gold- und Silbermonumente p. 81 SXI; 3. on the marble sarcophagus, 
Naples Museum, no. 6776, a pair of centaurs drawing the chariot of Dionysos, 
where only the male centaur has horns. 

208. Terracotta group. Tanagra? PI. X. Athens. Winter, Typenkat. I p. 36 fig. 2; 
Reinach, Chronique d* Orient II p. n = Rev. Arch. 1892 p. 75. Centaur 
carrying a Nymph (?). 

A youthful beardless centaur, human pudenda, carries a draped female figure, 
face upward, in his arms in front of him. The legs and tail are fragmentary; his 
head is slightly uplifted and is covered with a fillet or cap. The arms and hands 
show no modeling. The whole has been covered with a white slip; on his equine 
back are three long brown stripes and five cross-stripes; the tail had been simi- 
larly decorated. The face of the female figure in his arms is mutilated. Her body 
shows no modeling and looks very primitive, though the group certainly dates from 
the end of the seventh century B. C. 

On the Athenian vase-paintings which represent Nessos carrying off Deianeira 
she is always held differently; on the Chalcidian vase, no. 163 and on no. 163 A 
the pose is similar. On the Thraco-Macedonian coins, however, where the centaur 
cannot be identified, he carries a nymph in the same position as here; see no. 191, 
so too on the Ionic gem no. 325. Nevertheless, I suspect that Nessos and Deianeira 
are represented in this group after all, especially since Nessos is represented with 
human forelegs on the fragment from the Heraeum at Argos, no. 227, and on 
no. 213 A, though there, to be sure, he does not carry the bride of Herakles. 
Beardless centaurs are rare in the early periods except in Cyprus, Rhodes and 
Etruria (see under no. 226), but since our group was a gift of Stauros Andropulos, 
who lived and made his collection in Boeotia, there seems to be little doubt as 
to its Boeotian provenance. 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. U 



82 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



209. Terracotta statuette. Tanagra. Formerly in Dummler's possession, now in 
Museum of Cassel, Inv. I Terrak. no. 420. Diimmler, Ath. Mitt. XIII p. 286 = 
Kleine Schriften III p. 165 fig. 129. 

A most remarkable figurine and unique in the history of centaurs because 
he is ithyphallic. His arms and legs are broken off; he is bearded, has human (?) 
ears and wears a pointed cap. His body, both human and equine, is striped like 
that of a zebra. For similar cap worn by a centaur, see the bronze group, no. 203. 

210. Terracotta statuette, fragmentary. Heraeum, Argos. National Museum, 
Athens. Chase, Argive Heraeum II p. 40 no. 242, pi. XLVIII u. 
"Fragment of Centaur, top of head, legs and horse's body missing. The break 

at buttocks shows plainly that the figure was a centaur. He has a long, pointed 
beard, in which a triangular hole marks the mouth. The 1. hand is pressed against 
the 1. hip; the r. was apparently raised. White slip. Light yellow clay." Pudenda 
not indicated, but enough of the forelegs is preserved to show that they were 
human. 

It seems that the centaur was a suitable votive offering to Hera, see also 
no. 195. 



III. VASES OF TRANSITION PERIOD BETWEEN 
GEOMETRIC AND LATER STYLES. 

211. Bowl. Fig. 16. Thebes. Athens, Nat. Mus. Collignon-Couve, Cat. no. 464; 

Boehlau, Jahrb. II p. 39 pi. IV; Brunn, Griech. Kunstgeschichte I p. 133 

fig. 103. 

A bearded centaur walking to r. holds a young doe by the neck in extended 
r. and two pine-branches in 1. behind his back and confronts a grazing hind. Then 




Fig. 16. After Jahr- 



comes a hind walking to r. confronting another centaur to 1., who seizes it by the 
neck with his r. hand; in his 1. he holds behind his back a branch decorated with 
spirals. The space Bunder each centaur is filled with a large oriental palmette. 
In the field, interposed zigzag lines, as on the Melian amphora, Rayet-Collignon 
pi. 2, Asiatic rosettes, lozenges and circles surrounded by dots. Under one of the 



Vases of transition period between geometric and later styles. g^ 

hinds is a large conventionalized ivy-leaf. The centaurs are very awkwardly drawn, 
the equine bodies, as on the Polledrara vase no. 315, are much too long and thin, 
the legs are much too large in proportion to the bodies ; buttocks and human pudenda 
are not indicated. The whole effect is non-Greek, even on the primitive stamped 
red ware of the islands and of Etruria there is nothing similar enough to make de- 
cisive comparisons, although on the Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221, a centaur holds 
a doe in similar fashion. There are faint reminiscences of the Mycenaean art of 
Melos, cf. especially the fisherman, Phylakopi, pi. 22 Fowler- Wheeler, Handbook 
of Greek Archaeology p. 50 fig. 12. When more is known of Asiatic art, especially 
that of the Hittites, the influence at work on this peculiar style, which is neither 
Mycenaean nor Geometric, will be more apparent. The technique is silhouette 
drawing in dark brown varnish except the heads and tails of the centaurs which 
are drawn in outline, with of course no incisions, as on the following vase-painting 
from Rhodes. Although the centaurs cannot be paralleled, the hinds are in the style 
of Phaleron vases. It probably dates from the first half of the seventh century B.C. 
212. Fragment from neck of large vase. Kameiros, Rhodes. Salzrnann, Necropole 
de Camiros pi. 39; Brunn, Griech. Kunstgesch. I p. 141 fig. no. 

A bearded centaur to 1. is about to pluck a branch from a tree. Benind him 
is a winged horse with a human head, but no arms, which Brunn also calls a centaur. 
For a similar monster see the Cypriote vase Brunn /. c. p. 128 fig. 95, Perrot-Chipiez, 
Hist d. I' Art III p. 707 fig. 519; also the late so-called centaurs on the coins of Gaul, 
Head, Hist. num. p. 9, Jullian, Histoire de la Gaule II p. 143 and note 9, and the 
"Assyrian" cylinder, King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, 2nd ed. pi. II fig. 2. 

This vase is probably of local Rhodian manufacture though the type of heau 
is closely allied to a "Proto-Melian" fragment, Poulsen, Fondation Piot, Mon. 
et Mem. 1909 pi. 3 and p. 25 sqq. on which a centaur was probably depicted, though 
Poulsen considers it to be a human being, seated. That fragment was found in 
Delos, and dates from the middle of the seventh century B. C. 




buch 1887 pi. 4. 



213. Oenochoe. Aegina. Thiersch, in Furtwangler, Aegina I p. 437, 32, pi. 127, 12. 
A centaur to r., human torso broken away, held two pine-branches behind 
him in one hand, and one pine-branch before him, in the other. In the field, geometric 
zigzag lines, as on the preceding vases, and a lozenge pattern with projecting 
lines, as on the Proto-Attic (Phaleron) jug, Jahrb. II pis. 3 and 4 = Fowler- WTieeler, 



g , Centaurs with human forelegs. 

Handbook p. 471 fig. 381, and similar to the Proto-Corinthian lekythos no. 225. 
The shape of the oenochoe is like the Phaleron pitchers. 

213 A. Amphora. New York. Miss Richter, Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, April, 1912 pp. 68 sqq. Story of Nessos. Middle of seventh century B. C. 

On the body: Herakles to 1., bearded, long hair as on nos. 19, 182, 222, 
wearing chiton (see under no. 71), shoes (cf. no. 226) and sheath at his side, 
grasps Nessos who is half-kneeling to r. by the hair, as on nos. 19, 21, 22, 28, 
308, 322. In his other hand he wields a long sword. Nessos, entirely nude, 
extends both arms in a beseeching attitude; he has dropped his branch, cf. 
nos. 12, 75, 161, 162, 198, 228. Above Nessos is a flying owl, cf. no. 55 where 
other examples of flying birds are cited. Behind Herakles is Deianeira sitting 
to 1. in a quadriga, watching the contest; in her 1. hand, drawn back, she holds 
the whip and reins. Only once again is the chariot of Herakles depicted, namely 
on no. 227, where the centaur also has human forelegs. On the extreme r. there 
is a spectator running to 1. 

On the neck: A lion to r. devouring a hind. For the peculiar mane cf. the 
lion on no. 227. 

On the shoulder: Two grazing animals to r. 



IV. MELIAN GEM. 

214. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Chalcedony. Arndt Collection. 

A centaur to L, bearded, uplifted hands, looks back; his hindlegs are drawn in 
and are placed close together as if at rest, his forelegs are agitated, as if running 
at full speed in the archaic Knielauf -Schema. This is the only Melian gem of Class 
B, all the others are of Class A and are older. On our gem, the long back hair is 
indicated, the equine body is better drawn than on no. 8, though the hands 
are quite as primitive. Another proof that Arndt' s gem is younger than those of 
Class A is the material, instead of steatite, chalcedony. 

V. STAMPED RED WARE. 

215. Fragment of a large vase. Kameiros. Salzmann, Necropole de Camiros pi. 26, 
i; Milchhofer, Anf. d. Kunst p. 75 fig. 48; Roscher, Lexikon II I p. 1046, 3. 

The cylinder used in stamping this frieze contained a group of two figures, 
a youthful, beardless centaur standing to r., holding in one hand before him a 
small tree, roots and all, and in the other hand behind him probably a small stone. 
Confronting him is a male figure, in one hand, extended, a sword, the point of which 
almost touches the face of the centaur; in the other hand behind him a double-ax. 
Because of the double-ax Milchhofer /. c. p. 116 identifies the human figure with 
Zeus. He erroneously attributes the centaur's small branch to the same figure 
and calls it a thunderbolt, entirely overlooking the sword. Sauer, Roscher's Lex. 
II i p. 1047 interprets it as the adventure of Herakles, and Stokes, B. S. A. XII 
p. 78 as a Lapith and centaur. Stokes furthermore calls attention to fragments 



Stamped red ware. 3c 

of probably the same pithos, now in the British Museum A 568. If I were convinced 
that the cylinder used was the handiwork of a Greek craftsman I should have more 
faith in Sauer's interpretation. But nowhere on Greek monuments do we find 
this type of centaur with short, thick and bushy tail, with abnormally short equine 
body and long legs, repeated. To be sure, there are reminiscences of this style 
in stamped golden bands, nos. 5, 199, but there the equine bodies of the centaurs 
are in better proportion to their legs. The subject does, however, occur again, 
but reversed, on a fragment found in Datcha, Caria, see no. 216; to me this is 
significant, for it points the way. The myth, if it is a mythological illustration, 
is non-Greek, but oriental. The types and even the lily and scroll pattern above 
the frieze are oriental. For the scroll and rope pattern see the Hittite cylinders, 
Ward, Cylinders and other ancient oriental seals, in the Library of J . P. Morgan 
pi. XXVIII 204, 207, 209, and on the 
cylinder fig. 203 there seems to be a 
Hittite centaur, although Ward calls 
it a man. 

216. Fragment of a large vase. Fig. 17. 
Datcha on the Carian coast. 
Athens. Dummler,^A. M^.XXI 
p. 230 fig. i. 

The group is identical with that 
of the preceding number only here the 
beardless centaur faces 1. and the war- 
rior r. Below the frieze is a scroll pat- 
tern and above are traces of a lily 
pattern, cf . Salzmann, Necr. d. Cami- 
ros pi. 27, 4. The Berlin Museum has 
recently acquired fragments from Dat- 
cha stamped with the same design; 
on these it is evident that the centaur holds a small branch upright in one hand 
behind him, and in the other an uprooted tree. 

217. Fragment of a large vase, probably a pithos. PL XI. Datcha. Athens. Dummler, 
Ath. Mitt. XXI 1896 pi. 6. A smaller fragment of the same vase is also in 
the National Museum, Athens, 5604. 

The cylinder from which the frieze was made, consisted of two figures, a 
centaur, human pudenda, walking to r.; in 1. uplifted behind him he holds a small 
stone in his clenched fist, in r. outstretched a small twig of a pine. Confronting 
him is a male figure to 1., sword in his outstretched hand, wielding in the other 
hand a double ax. Although in subject the scene is similar to the preceding examples 
from Rhodes and Datcha, nevertheless the technique is more advanced. The 
hair is indicated; that of the centaur is not as long as that of the warrior. The pro- 
portion between equine body and legs of the centaur is better, the tail is more 
naturalistic, but the highly arched back is very noteworthy, and occurs again 
on the early Proto-Corinthian oenochoe, no. 224, where a similar scene is depicted. 
Below the relief band is a lily pattern like that of the older Carian stamped ware, 
see no. 215. Above the frieze is a unique decoration of a double row of two concentric 




Fig. 17. From a photograph. 



gg Centaurs with human forelegs. 

circles, separated by a lozenge pattern. Between this and a similar pattern on a 
smaller scale, is a frieze of bigae with eight-spoked wheels. Behind the charioteer 
is a warrior brandishing a spear. The horses are well drawn, although their backs 
too are somewhat arched. There is absolutely no connection between the horses 
of this stamped red ware and the Tanagra larnax no. 194, where the horses have 
swan-like necks, and the equine backs of the centaurs sag like that of a very old 
horse. There must have been another frieze of centaurs, for traces of a third band 
with a human forelegged centaur to r. are visible. Although his body is just as 
long as on the lower frieze, his legs are considerably shorter. 

As has been noted above, the double row of concentric circles is unique, but 
a single row occurs on a Hittite cylinder, Ward, Cylinders in Library of J . P. 
Morgan pi. XXXIV, 261 where also the oriental wheel with eight spokes is found. 
It seems to me that Hittite influence is strong on the stamped ware of Caria and 
Rhodes, so too on the stamped red ware of Etruria, whereas the red ware larnax 
found in Tanagra shows no direct oriental, but Melian influence. Another center 
for the manufacture of stamped pottery is Crete, see nos. 219, 220. 
218. Fragments of a large vase. Heraeum. Athens, Nat. Mus. Hoppin, Argive 

Heraeum II p. 180 sqq. pi. 63 figs, i 3. Herakles and centaur. Light 

yellow clay. 

The cylinder used in stamping the relief band contained two figures, Herakles 
to r. nude, neither lion's skin nor quiver, about to shoot an arrow from a large 
bow at a centaur, confronting him, who stretches out his 1. hand in supplication 
and holds a long pole over r. shoulder. Herakles stands upright, the centaur walks 
leisurely; pudenda not indicated. The arrow of Herakles is of the same shape 
as that of the bronze relief from Olympia, no. 222. The relief is very flat, without 
details, so that it is impossible to distinguish r. arm or leg from 1. Above and 
below the relief /. c. fig. i is a raised rope pattern; fig. 3 has the rope above, but since 
the lower part is missing it is impossible to know whether or not the same system 
was used; on fragment fig. 2, however, below the rope pattern are three rows of 
herring-bone pattern incised. That these borders were not part of the cylinder as 
on the Cassite cylinders, is made clear by the fact that the craftsman was often 
negligent in rolling his cylinder, so that the head of Herakles occasionally extends 
into the rope pattern. From the different system of ornamentation on fragments i 
and 2 it is clear that they came from different parts of the vase or, what is even 
more probable, from different vases. The shape cannot have been that of a pithos, 
for the lower rim on fragment i is still preserved. It may have been a support 
for a pithos or deinos, or more likely a vase with a very high foot, like the Melian 
amphorae. The resemblance to the known centers of manufacture of stamped 
ware is not close enough to assign these fragments to any known style. The color 
of the clay is so light that it is misleading to call it red ware; the same is true 
of the stamped plaque found in the Heraeum no. 195. Even the terracotta figurine 
of a centaur from the same site, no. 210 is of the same clay, if my memory does 
not fail me. For the episode of Herakles shooting at a centaur on the Italian 
stamped ware see no. 196. There, however, the small type of bow is used as 
on the Assos frieze. The only point of similarity is the absolute nudeness of 
Herakles. 



Cretan stamped relief ware. 87 

VI. CRETAN STAMPED RELIEF WARE. 

219. Fragment of a large pithos. PL XIII. Eleutherna. Museum at Candia. 

Centaur to r., human pudenda, long beard, long hair down his back, but no 
tresses, large human ears, arms extended in opposite directions, 1. hand empty, 
r. hand missing, but probably empty. Most remarkable is his large head, the herring- 
bone pattern in his hair above his forehead, and the stumpy body especially from 
hips to shoulders. Indeed, his arms are attached just above the point where human 
and equine bodies meet, so that his chest is entirely lacking. For other examples 
of centaurs whose human torso is too short see nos. 238, 290, 291, 315. He is walking 
with 1. leg forward, bent at the knee. On either side, the centaur is framed in by 
two perpendicular relief lines like ropes. Above is the rim of the vase and below, 
where the shoulder begins, there is a large tongue-pattern, under which are traces 
of another monster with similar hair and beard, but with a very Semitic nose, 
in direct contrast to the centaur's which is long and pointed. This monster reminds 
one much of the "triton" on the ivory plaque in the Louvre, Pollak, Rom. Mitt. 
1906 pi. i6c, which Pollak /. c. p. 328 considers the handiwork of lonians in Cyprus, 
but which I consider Cretan under oriental influence. On the vase-paintings the 
closest analogy is found on local Etruscan fabric, see no. 180, where the back- 
hair projects in the same manner. Compare also the Rhodian gold plaques no. 221 
for the same parallel incisions in the hair. 

It seems almost incredible that figures as large as those on our pithos - 
the centaur is almost one foot long were stamped by means of a stone cylinder. 
And yet they do not give the impression of being modeled entirely by hand, though 
details were added later with a sharp stylus. The rope-pattern bordering the 
centaur on r. and 1. is interrupted by his extended arm and by his tail, but that 
might have been done in the matrix. The regularity of the tongue-pattern makes 
it probably that at least there a cylinder was used. When finished the vase did 
not have the effect of red ware, for the unclean clay is covered as occasionally 
on Etruscan fabric, see no. 281, with a white slip and the centaur was painted 
dark blue; traces of the color are still visible. Thus the effect was that of black- 
figured ware. Judging from the good modeling of the equine body the pithos 
dates from the early decades of the sixth century. We evidently have local Cretan 
fabric in this example, for, though in minor points such as the herring-bone design 
in the hair we have the same phenomenon on the Theban pithos B.C. H. 1898 
p. 467, nevertheless, striking analogies are not found outside of Crete. Compare, 
for example, the hair on the terracotta figurine of a female deity from Praesos, 
Halbherr A.J. A. V pi. 10 no. 4a and p. 386; also the hair on the terracotta 
plaques from Praesos, Halbherr, I. c. pi. 12 nos. I and 3. For the sharply pointed 
nose of the centaur and his projecting chin cf. A . J. A V pi. n no. 2 and pi. 12 no. i. 
On the fragments of pithoi from Prinia a similar leaf moulding or tongue-pattern 
occurs, A. J. A. V pi. 13 no. 6. In Lyttos too stamped red ware of the same period 
has been found, see Fabricius, Ath. Mitt. XI 135 sqq. and pi. 4, below. From the 
Minoan period down to the middle of the sixth century stamped red ware was 
popular in Crete but on the pithoi of Knossos centaurs do not occur. Indeed, 



go Centaurs with human forelegs. 

I have not been able to find the slightest trace of the centaur in Greece before the 
geometric period. This hybrid is therefore not at home in Crete. I have shown else- 
where that the centaur on the Pre-Mycenaean prism-seal found in Crete was not 
of local manufacture. 

220. Two fragments of terracotta plaques. Praesos. Louvre. Demargne, Bull. 
Con. Hell. 1902 p. 576 figs. 3 and 3 a. 

The two fragments, though from different moulds, supplement each other. 
A bearded centaur to 1. is almost down on one knee and dips wine from a large 
amphora with a skyphos. According to Demargne it is Pholos dipping wine for 
his host Herakles. As a rule, however, it is a pithos in which the wine of the centaurs 
is kept, whereas here the shape is similar to the Melian amphorae. Somewhat 
different again in shape is the cask of Pholos on the stamped relief found at 
Cotrone, no. 196, and on the terracotta frieze from Samsoun, no. 183. 

In the Louvre I have seen an unpublished fragment of the same subject, but from 
still another mould, for the centaur is crying out with open mouth. All these frag- 
ments date from the sixth century B. C. 

VII. RHODIAN STAMPED GOLD PLAQUES. 

221. Plaques from a necklace. Kameiros. British Museum, Berlin and Boston. 
Salzmann, Necrop. de Camiros pi. i; Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1076; Daremberg- 
Saglio, Diet. I 2 p. 789 fig. 1285; Arch. Anz. XIX 1904 p. 41 figs. 5 6; 
Marshall, Catalogue of Jewellery in Brit. Mus. p. 88 nos. 1115 1117 pi. XL 

A youthful, male centaur, wearing Egyptian wig and waistcloth (see also 
nos. 227, 290, 297), both of which are found in Cretan art, walks to 1., r. hand 
pressed to his chest, in 1. hand stretched back he holds the young of a doe by the 
neck, cf. no. 211. For other monuments on which the doe is the prey of cen- 
taurs see under no. 174. Unique for this early period end of seventh century 
is the almost full-face view. Other plaques from the same necklace represent the 
winged oriental Artemis carrying in each hand a wild animal by the tail (cf . also 
the following number). The Etruscans (Micali, Storia pi. 20, i) who also have the 
winged Artemis side by side with the centaur evidently received her from the same 
oriental, probably Hittite, source at work on the island of Rhodes. When Milch- 
hofer, Anfdnge d. Kunst p. 96, see also p. 222 note i, compared the Rhodian plaques 
with a Cypriote silver vase found in the Regulini-Galassi tomb, he was certainly on the 
right track, but he did not go far enough and so did no t trace both to their common Asiatic 
source. In this way the analogous phenomena in Cretan, Cypriote, Etruscan and Ionic 
art can satisfactorily be explained. They all go back to the same oriental source. 

Though only one mould was used for the centaur-type on the plaques in the 
Louvre, three different moulds were used for the Artemis- ty pe ; on one which is 
smaller than the rest she holds a bird in each hand by the neck. In the Boston 
Museum there are six centaur plaques, not of gold but of electron, pressed from 
three different moulds. On one there are two rosettes. Boston also has examples 
of the winged and bee-Artemis. If, as some believe, our centaur-type is female, 
it would be the only example for the archaic period, see under no. 301. 



Bronze reliefs from Olympia. So 



VIII. BRONZE RELIEFS FROM OLYMPIA. 

222. Repousse plaque. Olympia. Athens. Ausgrab. v. Olympia III pi. 23. Furt- 
wangler, Ergebnisse, Olympia IV pi. 38 and p. 100 no. 696; Brunn, Kunstgesch. 
I p. 121 fig. 84; Roscher, Lex. II I p. 1047; Fowler -Wheeler, Handbook of 
Greek Archaeology p. 325; Schmidt, Der Knielauf p. 309 fig. 28. Centauro- 
machy on Mt. Pholoe. 

Herakles, bearded, long tresses, kneels on r. knee to r., in the archaic Knie- 
lauf-Schema, the usual attitude of archers, and shoots an arrow from a small bow 
at a bearded centaur, long tresses, shaggy human body, human pudenda, fleeing 
to r. He looks back at the hero and extends his r. hand in supplication, though 
it is too late, since his body is already pierced by two arrows causing wounds from 
which blood flows, and he is in the act of collapsing. In the background, partially 
concealed by the body of the centaur is the trunk of a tree with three branches, 
indicating the locality, the oak forests of Mt. Pholoe. Herakles wears a short chiton 
(as on nos. 19, 21, 43 A, 64, 65, 71, 77, 163, 163 A, 213 A, 226) decorated with dots 
in rosette form and with a broad border. From two bands which cross on his chest 
(as on nos. 161, 162) hang quiver and sword. His beard is not as long as that of 
the centaur, nor is his mustache as heavy. Through lack of space our artist could 
not represent the fleeing comrades of this centaur, as, for example, on the Assos 
frieze, no. 182, the Samsoun reliefs, no. 183, the amphora in Berlin, no. 162, and 
the Proto-Corinthian vase, no. 226. On the last-mentioned vase, Herakles is kneel- 
ing in almost the same attitude, but his bow is larger and of a different shape, 
he is beardless, and the centaurs have only the shaggy bodies in common, 
otherwise their pose is far less graceful. The fact that our artist has not attempted 
to represent the human forelegged centaur in rapid motion adds much to the artistic 
effect. For the same reason the sedate Chiron never seems ridiculous, as do other 
centaurs of Class B where rapidity of action is depicted. Especially noteworthy 
is the long hair of Herakles, which is paralleled only three times, i. on an Attic 
vase of the same date, seventh century, the famous Nettos amphora, no. 19, where 
the hero also wears a chiton, but of somewhat different cut; 2. on no. 213 A; and 3. 
on the Assos frieze, no. 182. 

Above the band of our plaque representing Herakles and a centaur are two 
smaller bands, i. three eagles, 2. two griffins confronted; below the centauro- 
machy is the "Persian Artemis" holding in each hand a lion by one of its hind- 
legs. As we have just seen this oriental Artemis is found associated with the centaur 
on Etruscan and Rhodian monuments (see under no. 221), and since the griffin, 
as Boehlau Jahrb. II p. 64 note 26 following Furtwangler has shown, is a Rhodian 
invention, it is highly probable that our bronze relief from Olympia was made 
under Rhodian, or, what is practically the same, under Argive influence. 

According to Furtwangler /. c. p. 100 it is highly probable that the plaque once 
adorned the base of a thymiaterion. 

223. Fragment of a bronze relief. Olympia. Furtwangler, Ergebnisse IV text 
p. 105 inventar 4591. 

Equine body of a centaur to r., with one of his human forelegs preserved, 
according to Furtwangler's note and sketch of 1879. 

, Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



IX. PROTO-CORINTHIAN VASES. 

224. Oenochoe. Megara Hyblaea, Necropolis. Orsi, Mon. Antichi I p. 810. Height 
0.41 m. 

A bearded centaur, human pudenda, takes long strides to r., he holds a twig 
in r. hand behind him and extends his 1. in supplication towards a nude youth 
(Herakles?) confronting him with a sword. The twig is like those in the hands 
of centaurs on no. 226, and on the bowl from Thebes in the style of Phaleron ware, 
no. 211. The composition is similar to that on stamped red ware from Caria and 
Rhodes, no. 217. As regards the large size of the vase and the lack of decoration 
in the field it differs from the following and somewhat later Proto-Corinthian 
lekythoi of the second half of the seventh century B. C. 

The recent literature on the still unsolved problem concerning the place 
of manufacture of this so-called Proto-Corinthian ware is collected by Prinz, Klio, 
Beiheft 7, p. 70 sqq. 

225. Lekythos. Fig. 18. Provenance unknown. Boston Museum. Hoppin, A. 
J. A. 1900 pi. 6 and p. 443 sq. Harrison, Prolegomena p. 383 fig. 118. 

A bearded centaur taking long strides to r. holds a pine-branch in r. hand 
extended behind him, and a staff in outstretched 1. He wears a short chiton girdled 
at the waist, and his backhair is adorned with a metal comb, as on the Nettos 
amphora no. 19 and the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161. Confronting him is a bearded 




man, his hair dressed in the same manner, wearing a similar chiton, who lays hands 
on the staff of the centaur; in his uplifted 1. he brandishes a four-pronged object, 
like the roots of a tree, and at his side is a large sword. On the r. is a nude youth- 
ful figure, running away to r. in archaic fashion with one knee almost touching the 
ground, holding a sword in his r. hand, his 1. uplifted. He too wears a metal comb 
in the nape of his neck. In front of him is an unidentified object, a disc on a stand. 
On the disc two eagles are perched, and in the field on either side is a flying eagle. 
The rest of the field is filled with tendrils, swastikas, rosettes, scrolls and lozenge 
patterns ; the latter occurring similarly on the oenochoe of Phaleron style found on 
Aegina, no. 213. For birds in field see under no. 55. 



Proto-Corinthian vases. gi 

So long as the mysterious object remains uninterpreted I fear the meaning 
of the whole scene will be hidden. The birds look more like parrots than eagles. 
There may be a clue in the fact that the centaur wears a chiton; because draped 
centaurs, with the exception of the one on the Rhodian gold plaque (no. 221), 
who merely wears a Cretan loin-cloth, and with the exception of those on Etruscan 
monuments, nos. 290, 291, 300, 301, represent either Chiron or Pholos. It is pos- 
sible that Nessos on no. 227 is draped, but here he would not come into consider- 
ation. On the b. f. lekythos, no. 52, a youth runs away from the scene of Herakles 
pursuing Nessos, but he is not armed as here. Hoppin /. c. p. 454 sqq. interprets 
the scene as Herakles coming to the rescue of lolaos who is pursued by a centaur, 
whereas Walters, History of Ancient Pottery II p. 102 note 2 goes one step farther 
and interprets it as the "battle which ensues after the pithos was opened." I am 
not convinced that either of these interpretations is correct; it is probably the 
illustration of a legend unknown to us. The way in which the centauromachy 
on Mt. Pholoe was treated on Proto-Corinthian ware is seen in the following 
example. 
226. Lekythos. Fig. 19. Corinth. Berlin, Furtwangler 336; Furtwiingler, Arch. 

Ztg. 1883 pi. 10 and 153 sqq.\ Brunn, Gr. Kunstgesch. I p. 149 figs. 118 122. 

Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. 





Fig. 19. After Arch. Ztg. 1883 pi. 10, i. 



12* 



92 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



On the body, a picture encircling the vase : the central position is occupied by 
the youthful Herakles, on r. knee shooting an arrow from a large bow, which has a 
unique shape, at a retreating line of four wounded centaurs. Herakles wears boots, 
cf. no. 213 A, a short chiton and a quiver on his back, as on the bronze relief from 
Olympia no. 222. His bow and especially his arrows are quite unique in that the 
feather of the latter is in the middle of the shaft. All the centaurs are wounded, the 
first and third, counting from Herakles, are falling in awkward poses, all but the 
first have shaggy human bodies, as on nos. 222, 228. In one hand each holds a 
branch with voluted stems as on nos. 211, 224, with the other - - and this is a new 
motif - - three of them are trying to extract arrows which pierce their bodies. All 
the figures have back-combs in their hair, as on nos. 19, 161, 225, and the fourth 
centaur wears the krobylos. Two of the centaurs are beardless, a rare occurrence in 
the archaic period, except on Etruscan (see under no. 281), on Cypriote (no. 18), on 
Rhodian (nos. 215, 216, 221), on Corinthian (no. 22ga) monuments, and on a terra- 
cotta figurine probably found at Tanagra, no. 208. With all these analogies we 
are still unable to locate the center of manufacture of Proto-Corinthian ware. Per- 
haps when analogies are found for the shape of the bow and arrows, for the booted 
Herakles, and for the mysterious object on no. 225 the perplexing problem may be 
solved. 

In the field, rosettes made up of radiating lines connecting dots, and peculiar 
crosses. 

227. Fragment of a receptacle for a deinos (?). Fig. 20. Heraeum. Hoppin, 
Argive Heraeum II pi. 67, 3 and p. 161 sqq. Story of Nessos. 

^ The bearded centaur Nessos to r., looking back, is being 

pursued by Herakles, of whom only the sword remains. In 
the foreground, stands a draped female figure, partially con- 
cealing the equine body of the centaur, her r. hand uplifted, 
hailing her rescuer; she must, therefore, be Deianeira, as Ed- 
ward Robinson correctly noticed. But what has not been 
noticed are the traces of a chariot in or behind which Deia- 
neira stands; see also no. 213 A. Herakles has evidently drop- 
ped his bow, which he had used effectively - - note the arrow 
piercing the small of the back of Nessos - - and now fights 
with his sword in the hand-to-hand encounter, as on no. 21. 
Our fragment, which dates from the seventh century, is the 
oldest illustration of this legend on which the bride of the 
hero is also depicted; but see also no. 2 13 A. Over the head 
of Deianeira flies a bird to the 1. as on nos. 20, 96. Most 
remarkable is the waist-band or belt which makes it probable 
that the centaur was draped, like no. 225. I have, therefore, catalogued this 
fragment under the Proto-Corinthian ware, though it also has some of the charac- 
teristics of Proto-Attic ware, see especially no. 211. If it is Argive ware it is 
a local copy of Proto-Corinthian. In the band above our picture is a lion to 1., 
cf. no. 213 A. 




Fig. 20. After Waldstein, Ar- 
give Heraeum II pi. 67, 3. 



Corinthian ware. 



93 



X. CORINTHIAN WARE. 

228. Skyphos. Fig. 21. Louvre, Room L no. 173. Colvin, /. H. S. I pi. i; Rayet- 
Collignon, Hist, de la Ceram. p. 55 fig. 31; Harrison, Prolegomena p. 386 
fig. 122. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. 

In a cave a large pithos is depicted, half buried in the' ground, above which 
are suspended the bow, quiver and sheathed sword of Herakles. At the mouth 
of the cave stands Pholos to 1., bearded, crowned, wearing a long garment, partially 
concealed by an altar on which fire-brands are heaped. For other examples of 
Pholos, draped, see nos. 133, 141, 142, 267, 268. In his 1. he holds a wine-cup and 
raises his r. hand in astonishment, for Herakles is driving a band of eleven centaurs 
from the cave. The hero is bearded and nude; he pursues the frightened centaurs 
to the 1. with fire-brands in both hands. Like Pholos the centaurs have very long 
beards; all have human ears and human pudenda; they are armed with trees, 
roots and all. The first centaur, nearest Herakles, has fallen face downwards 
upon the ground with outstretched arms. The second, fifth, seventh and last 
centaur, who heads the line, look back, though they are fleeing as rapidly as the 
rest of their companions. On the extreme 1. a draped female figure and a bearded 
male figure, in tight fitting chiton, holding a scepter, both to r., are interested 
spectators. 

For other examples of the nude Herakles and of falling centaurs see under 
no. 161. The shagginess of the centaurs is represented in archaic art in three 
different ways, on the Attic vase no. 21 the equine body, on the "Cyrenaic" vase 
no. 161 and on an incised bronze plaque found at Dodona no. 200 the whole body, 
both human and equine, is shaggy, whereas on the Proto-Corinthian lekythos 
no. 226 and the bronze repousse relief found at Olympia no. 222 only the human 
body is shaggy, as on the Corinthian vase under discussion, though it is probable, 
see no. 229 c), that both the second and third types occur at Corinth. It is significant 
that in the art of Ionia and of Etruria shaggy centaurs do not occur. On no other 
class of monuments are the beards quite as long as here. On the chest of Cyp- 
selus Herakles was represented shooting at centaurs, not driving them away with 
fire-brands. This vase-painting can, therefore, scarcely be taken as an illustration 
of the centauromachy on that chest, if the description and interpretation of Pau- 
sanias V 19, 7 9 are accurate. That Chiron, who was also represented on the chest 
of Cypselus, does not occur on a single example of Corinthian ware, is very remark- 
able, especially when one considers the vast amount of pottery of that style pre- 
served to us. 

229. Pinakes of terracotta. Fig. 22. Penteskouphia, southwest of Acrocorinth. 
Berlin. Dedicatory offerings to Poseidon and Amphitrite. 

a) Furtwangler, Vasensammlung 769; Pernice, Antike Denkmdler II pi. 29, 
5 and p.6. On a fragmentary pinax or tablet, a youthful centaur, human pudenda, 
diadem in hair, a long tress hanging from his ear over his shoulder, walks to 1. 
looking back at a peculiar bearded figure, full face, wearing a sleeveless chiton and 
evidently seizing the centaur by both wrists. I am completely at a loss as to the 
interpretation of this figure; the mask-like face prevents us from interpreting 



Clazomenian sarcophagi. 



95 



it as Herakles, though it may be Medusa or perhaps Phobos. The centaur wears 
a necklace as well as a diadem, and holds an object in his r. hand which is 
probably a branch. In style the drawing seems to me more Chalcidian than 
Corinthian. The youthfulness of the centaur is no criterion, for it occurs on a 
variety of monuments having no direct connection, for example, on Proto-Corinthian, 
Cypriote, Rhodian and Etruscan monuments; see under no. 226. 

b)- Furtwangler 910; Ant. Denkm. I pi. 7 fig. 7 a. On a fragmentary pinax, 
the shaggy human forelegs and a small 
part of the equine body of a centaur 
running to r . ; blood gushes from a wound 
in his back. His opponent was evidently 
Herakles. 

c) Furtwangler 774; Ant. Denkm. 
II pi. 30, 13. The fragmentary 1. side 
of a pinax, with the hindquarters of a 
shaggy horse. That it was a centaur 
is made highly probable by the pine- 
branch depicted horizontally over his 
back, as though he were shouldering it. 

d) Furtwangler 470 ; Pernice, Jahrb. 
1897 p. 1 8 explains this fragment as 
Poseidon riding a dolphin. To my mind 
it is a bearded centaur to r. down on 
his foreknees, looking back. His attri- 
bute, which Pernice does not attempt 
to explain, seems to be a pine-branch 
held in both hands. It may be Nessos 
defending himself against Herakles who 
has beaten him down . He wears a taenia 

like a) but the shape of his long beard Fig . 22 . After Antike De nkmaier n P i. *>, 5 . 

is like that of the centaurs on no. 228. 

Although many of the pinakes have special bearing on the deities to whom 
they are offered, there are nevertheless quite a number which have no religious 
significance whatever, as, for example, scenes from the workshops of potters. 
The centaur-representations were doubtlessly dedicated to Poseidon, not because 
there was any connection between him and the centaurs, but merely because the 
donor took a fancy to the subject. Similarly we must explain the offerings of cen- 
taurs to Zeus at Dodona (no. 200) and at Olympia (nos. 202, 203), to Hera at Argos 
(nos. 195, 210, 227), to Athena on the Akropolis (nos. 236, 237), to Menelaos and 
Helen at Therapnai and to Apollo at Amyklai (no. 6). 




XI. CLAZOMENIAN SARCOPHAGI. 



See Class C nos. 319, 320. 



q Centaurs with human forelegs. 

XII. PLASTIC MONUMENTS. 

230. Frieze from the temple at Assos. Since centaurs of Class A as well as of Class B 
occur on this frieze it has already been catalogued under no. 182. Of Class B 
there are three centaurs in addition to Pholos; all are nude. The nude type 
of Pholos with human forelegs also occurs on nos. 269, 270. All the represen- 
tations of Pholos with equine forelegs are nude, except no. 133. 

231. Frieze on cornice of old temple at Ephesos. British Museum. Hogarth, 
Br. Mus. Excavations at Ephesos, p. 301 fig. 87 (restoration) and Atlas pi. 
XVII figs. 33, 8, 20, 23, 13, 32, 7, 4 where the fragments of the group 
are illustrated. Murray, /. H. S. X pi. 4 fig. 6, p. 2 fig. i. 

Acording to Murray's attempted restoration based on eight fragments, an 
armed Lapith to 1. in the presence of two female spectators, one on either side, 
is attacking a centaur kneeling to 1. On the r. and 1. of the group is a gargoyle 
in the shape of a lion's head. 

Of another group, Hogarth, Atlas, pi. XVII fig. 9 and text p. 307 no. 56 there 
is preserved a grotesque bearded head to r. "thrust forwards, as if that of a centaur 
in combat." 

232. Shield device on one of the three shields of a lime-stone statue of Geryon. 
Found in temple, Golgoi. Cesnola, Coll. of Cypriote Antiquities I pi. 83 no. 544. 
"Triple-bodied warrior (Geryon) with three shields, dressed in a short kilt; 

the heads, necks and shoulders broken away. The r. arm is raised and broken off 
at the wrist. Upper borders of the shields broken away. The shield on the 1. has 
a design, in low relief, representing, on the 1., Athene with shield and spear; in the 
centre Perseus, wearing a short jacket, and with sword pointed at the Gorgo 
Medusa, whose arms are raised towards the head. On the centre shield a warrior 
bearing a shield, with three other figures, indistinct and mutilated. On the r. 
shield a centaur, of archaic fashion, with human forelegs; the head and part of 
the body broken away. On the kilt of Geryon, two figures, with raised swords, 
combating lions. Remains of red color visible on the kilt and on the three shields." 
On the vase-paintings where centaurs occur as shield devices they are in violent 
motion, and always of Class A; here the centaur is walking leisurely to r. For 
the centaur as shield device see E. H. Meyer, Indogerm. Myth. I p. 74 and note 
i, and especially Chase, Harvard Stud. XIII p. 100; to whose list must be added 
i. our fragment; 2. the Attic b.f. pelike in the British Museum, Walters B 191 where 
the device on the shield of Ares "is a centaur to 1. with r. foreleg raised, brandishing 
a pine-tree"; 3. the Strangford shield in the British Museum, Conze, Arch. Ztg. 
1865 p. 38 and pi. 196 197, Michaelis, Parthenon pi. 15 fig. 34, where one of the 
warriors has as device on his shield a centaur, wounded in back, galloping to 1.; 
4. the r. f. vase in Berlin, illustrated Paris auction sale n 14 May 1903 pi. Ill 2 
and frontispiece. Decorative centaurs also occur on helmets; see for example, 
i. the Etrusco-Ionic statuette no. 185; 2. the helmet from Oppeano no. 303; 3. the 
r. f . crater in the British Museum, Cat. Ill E 469 where the opponent of Zeus wears 
a helmet decorated on the crown with a centaur brandishing a tree in both hands; 
4. the bronze helmet from southern Italy, now in the Berlin Antiquarium, Lipper- 



Bronze chariot from Monteleone. "Cyrenaic" pottery. g7 

heide collection, Friederichs, Bronzen no. ion, on which are incised Herakles and 
lolaos attacking a galloping centaur who brandishes a pine-branch in r. Of this 
there is a tracing in Gerhard's Apparat Mappe XXIX 58 in the Library of the Berlin 
Museum; 5. the bronze helmet on which in repousse work is represented a cupid 
riding on the back of a centaur to r., illustrated in Montfaucon, Antiquitates Graecae 
et Romanae (1757) pi. CXI, 16; 6. the helmet of the famous Pasquino; 7. the helmet 
of Perseus on a cameo decorated with a centaur galloping to 1. and shooting an 
arrow at a crouching warrior, Babelon, Cat. d. Camees ant. et. mod. de la Bibl. 
Nat. pi. XXII no. 228 and text p. 103, also Daremberg-Saglio, Diet. p. 975 fig. 
1261; 8. the Phrygian helmet of Athena on a coin of Velia, Lucania, decorated 
with a female centaur with drapery over 1. arm, Cat. Greek Coins in BY. Mus., 
Italy p. 311 no. 73. Only once to my knowledge does a centaur occur on a dagger- 
sheath, no. 306. It is noteworthy that in most of these examples the centaur is 
purely decorative, only rarely does he serve to ward off evil influence. 

XIII. BRONZE CHARIOT FROM MONTELEONE. 

233. Fig. 23. Metropolitan Mus. New York. Furtwangler, Brunn-Bruckmann 
Denkm. griech. u. rom. Sculptur pis. 586 and 587 and text (Sonderabdruck) 
p. 9 fig. 14. Schmidt, Knielauf p. 321 fig. 37. 

On the lower band: A bearded centaur with a pine- 
branch over 1. shoulder, from which is suspended a hare 
tied by its fore- and hindlegs, sits in a most peculiar fashion 
on a stool under his human body, whereas his equine body 
projects behind the stool. His feet are broken away. The Fig . 23 . Detai i from Brunn-Bmckmann, 
figure probably represents either Chiron or Pholos. The Denk ler - Tex fi t g t 4 pls - 586 and 5 * 7 ' 
man who composed this centaur certainly had a delicious 

sense of humor, such as is lacking in Attic but common enough in Ionic art. Very 
remarkable is the way the hare is tied to the branch, namely, by all fours instead 
of merely by the forelegs; the only other similar instance is on the Etruscan 
Bucchero goblet, no. 283. 

XIV. "CYRENAIC" POTTERY. 

234. Deinos. Both classes of centaurs are represented, see no. 161. 

235. Lekythos-shaped amphora. Sakkarah. Cairo Museum no. 38939. 0.38 m high. 
A row of eight decorative centaurs in the presence of a lion who shows no 

hostility towards them. The centaurs, bearded, human pudenda, human ears, carry 
long branches in 1. and almost kneel on the r. leg. One of them has two branches; 
that in 1. hand is uplifted, that in his r. is being dragged along. For wild animals 
associated with centaurs see under no. 163. 

Since the above paragraph was written this vase has been published by 
Edgar, Catalogue du Musee du Caire, Greek Vases p. 82 sqq. pis. V and VI. See 
also v. Bissing, Arch. Anz. 1901 p. 57 sq. It is apparent from the illustrations 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 1 3 




gg Centaurs with human forelegs. 

that it is not "Cyrenaic" but belongs to some unknown Ionic center, closely 
related to Italo-Ionic ware. v. Bissing believes that it was probably made at 
Daphnae. Professor Zahn tells me that there is another vase of the same fabric 
in Bonn, found at Naukratis, representing sileni with human forelegs. 

XV. GREEK BRONZE STATUETTES. i 

236. Akropolis, Athens, Nat. Museum, de Ridder, Bronzes trouves sur I'Acropole 
d'Athenes p. 146 no. 430 fig. 98; Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 692, 4. 

A bearded centaur, human pudenda, whose hindlegs are close together and 
re-st on the fragment of a base, but whose human forelegs are far apart as though 
taking long strides, turns his human body somewhat to his r., thus bringing the 
head almost full face. Over his 1. shoulder he carries a twigless, gnarled limb of 
a tree and rests his empty r. hand on the r. flank. The head shows strong Ionic 
influence, his long hair falls in tresses down his back similar to the following example, 
which is, however, somewhat later in date. His human feet are broken off, and 
with them the front part of the plinth. 

237. Akropolis, south of Parthenon. Collection Opperman, Bibliotheque Nationale. 
Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue p. 219 no. 514; Babelon, Cab. d. Med. p. 335 
no. 514 fig. 160; Ross, Archaeol. Aufsdtze I pi. 6; Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 
p. 692, 6, Miiller-Wieseler, D.A.K. II pi. XLVII fig. 592. 

A bearded centaur, heavy mustache, human forelegs, human pudenda, r. 
arm resting on r. flank, 1. hand raised and holding a club over 1. shoulder, takes 
long strides with his forelegs, but as on the preceding example, his hindlegs are 
close together, giving a most unnatural effect, as though the inert equine body 
were being dragged along. How much more artistic is the galloping centaur of 
Class A, no. 184. His tail, his 1. foot and hindlegs from knees down are broken off. 
There are no traces of a plinth. 

Votive offering of centaurs to Zeus at Dodona and at Olympia, to Hera at 
Argos, to Poseidon and Amphitrite at Corinth, to Menelaos and Helen at Therapnai 
and to Apollo at Amyklai have thus far been found, see under no. 229. 

238. Statuette. Akropolis, south of Parthenon. Nat. Mus. Athens, de Ridder, 
p. 145 fig. 97 no. 429. /. H . 5. 1889 p. 268. 

This bronze statuette is somewhat smaller than the preceding example, but 
the head is considerably larger, being very much out of proportion. The equine 
pudenda are indicated, so too were the human pudenda which are now missing. 
His head is modeled not much above the equine body, a peculiarity found again 
on the stamped pithos from Crete, no. 219, on the Polledrara hydria no. 315 and on 
other Etruscan monuments, nos. 290, 291. He wears a cap shaped somewhat 
like a fez, similar to the cap worn by the Cypriote terracotta centaur, no. 205, 
and by the bronze group of man and centaur, no. 203. Our statuette is so poorly 
cast that the features do not show clearly, and the hands are very clumsy. The 
forelegs are broken away, but they were certainly human. In his r. hand he 
holds a stick, the end of which touches his cheek; in his 1. he holds a club which 
rests on his equine back. His 1. hindleg is advanced; he is walking leisurely in a 



Greek gems. 



99 



much more naturalistic manner than the preceding examples. It is evident that 

none of the three bronze statuettes representing centaurs found on the Akropolis 

is of local manufacture, because on the Attic vase-paintings of this period only 

Pholos and Chiron are of Class B. Nos. 236 and 237 are Ionic, whereas the statuette 

under discussion may be either 

Cypriote or Cretan. 

239. Statuette. Fig. 24. Murcia, 

Spain. Archaeological Mu- 
seum, Madrid. Hiibner, 

Jahrb. 1898 p. 122 figs. 4 

and 5; Reinach, Rep. Sta- 

tuaire III p. 205, 6; Arndt, 

Einzelverkauf 1717. Melida, 

Revista de Archives I 1897 

p. 513 pis. 17 and i8 4 

A bearded centaur, human 
pudenda, a long curl hanging 
over his 1. shoulder, the curl 
over his r. shoulder broken 
off, a mass of long hair down 
his back, is walking leisurely 
to r., but turns his human body 
to his r. so that his head is full 
face as on nos. 236, 237, where 
the pose of the r. hand is also 
the same as here. An improve- 
ment over the statuettes 
found on the Akropolis is the 
advanced r. hind-and 1. foreleg, 

a correct attitude for a walking centaur. The legs are broken off at the knees. 
As to style it seems to be an Ionic product under oriental influence, and dates 
from the sixth century B.C. Archaic Greek bronze statuettes are rarely found in 
Spain, see my article in A. J. A. XI (1907) p. 182 sqq. 




Fig. 24. From a photograph. Arndt, Einzelverkauf 1717. 



XVI. GREEK GEMS. 

240. Greek Scarab. Carnelian. Private possession, England. Furtwangler, Ant. 

Gemmen I pi. VI, 45, II p. 29 no. 45, III p. 101. 

A bearded centaur to 1. is wrestling with a lion who, although he turns his 
head to 1., buries his claws into the hips of the centaur. The centaur threatens 
him with a stone in his uplifted 1. hand. Because of the type of head which reminds 
one of Bes, and because of the subject which does not occur elsewhere in archaic 
Greek art, Furtwangler /. c. p. 101 considers our gem to be Greek under Phoenician 
influence and compares the male winged demon with head of Bes and body of 
lion on his pi. VII fig. 41, a replica of which he publishes /. c. Ill p. 444 fig. 220 

13* 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 

where the resemblance is even closer, for the demon has an equine body. Closely 
allied to this type, as Furtwangler very correctly observes, are the archaic Greek 
gems on which a winged Gorgo struggles with a lion or boar, illustrated Furtwangler 
1. c. pi. VII 39 and 40, see also II p. 35, III p. 101 and p. 444 where the literature 
is given; on p. 101 note i a replica from the Frohner collection is cited, which is 
now in the Boston Museum, no. 01. 7558. On this replica it is clear that the long 
wings grow from her human shoulders, that the small wings grow from her human 
heels and that she wears a long garment leaving the advanced r. leg bare from the 
knee down, furthermore that her tongue protrudes as on the Cypriote terracotta 
figurines, no. 207, and that her equine body is male, not female. With the excep- 
tion of the wings this type is similar to the stamped relief on a Boeotian pithos 
B. C. H. 1898 pi. 5 representing Perseus about to slay Medusa. If, as is usually 
thought, the equine body is a mere hint that Pegasos will be born from the de- 
capitated body of Medusa, then our gems are without motif. But I do not believe 
that the equine body of Medusa has any connection with the birth of Pegasos, since 
she is closely related to the centaurs, see no. 312, also Milchhofer, Anfange p. 155, 
and Hannig, Roscher's Le%. s. v. Pegasos p. 1749. 



XVII. ATTIC VASES. 

241. Francois Vase. Also centaurs of Class A: see no. 23. Furtwangler-Reichhold 
I pi. i and 2. 

Leading the procession of gods to honor the newly wedded pair, Peleus and 
Thetis, is the centaur Chiron (inscribed) who grasps the r. hand of his old friend 
in hearty greeting. Over his r. shoulder, but for the moment held in the 1. hand, 
is a pine-tree from which are suspended by their forelegs the centaur's wedding 
presents, two hares and a fox; not a deer as Furtwangler, /. c. text p. 3 states, 
because the claws of the animal are distinctly visible. Chiron, with long beard, 
mustache, human ears, to be sure, not visible, but if they were equine they could 
not be hidden by his hair, and short tight-fitting chiton, is partially hidden by 
Iris, his companion. His expression of face is not as wild as that of his brethren 
on the centauromachy of the same vase; his long hair is combed back from his 
forehead. The chiton covers about one-third of his equine back; his forefeet are 
missing. That he is the first to congratulate Peleus is only natural, for through 
his friendship and advice Peleus has procured his bride . They shake hands in the most 
approved fashion; cf. the greeting between Pholos and Herakles, no. 128. 

242. Deep Cylix. PI. X. Collection Feoli, Wiirzburg. Micali, Storia pi. 87, i; 
Apparat, Berlin Museum, Mappe XII 40; Mon. d. Inst. I 27, 40 = Reinach, 
Rep. Vas. I 75, 40. Peleus brings Achilles to Chiron. I am indebted to Pro- 
fessor Bulle for the photograph here reproduced. He assures me that the 
clay and technique are Attic. 

Outside A: Peleus to 1., short chiton and chlamys in which is wrapped the child 
Achilles, carried so that he faces his father; he approaches Chiron, bearded, equine 
ears, pine-branch over r. shoulder, from which are suspended, in the usual manner, 
two hares. Contrary to all custom Chiron is nude, with human pudenda indicated; 



Attic vases. JOI 

he is walking with 1. foot advanced, but both forelegs are bent at the knees, whereas 
his hindlegs, as on the bronze statuettes nos. 236, 237 and on the "Cyrenaic" 
deinos no. 161 are close together. His 1. hand is uplifted, as if in astonishment, 
or perhaps in greeting. Behind Peleus is a female figure and behind Chiron three 
similar figures; all are draped and have their heads covered with their mantles, 
which they draw aside with one hand. According to Micali they represent Thetis 
and three female companions; I prefer to call them spectators. On the extreme 
1. the scene is bounded by two geese confronted, and on the r. by a single goose 
to 1. The rim is bounded by a double row of ivy-leaves. 

243. Amphora. PI. II. Vulci. Munich, Jahn 611. Side A: Micali, Storia pi. 76, 
2; both sides: Kliigmann, Arch. Ztg. 1876 pi. 17 and p. 1995^. Reinach, 
Rep. Vas. I 419, i. I am greatly indebted to Dr. Sieveking for the photograph 
of a drawing by Reichhold here reproduced. 

A: Hermes (inscribed) bearded, petasos, embroidered chiton, chlamys over 
both shoulders, carries in 1. arm the child Herakles (inscribed); in his r. hand 
the messenger -god holds the caduceus. He flies with winged boots through the 
air to r., but looks back. The hair of the child is plaited in back, and the ends 
of the braids are fastened over his forehead but under the cork-screw curls, the 
fashionable coiffure of young men, witness the bronze head of a youth from Her- 
culaneum > in the Naples Museum, Collignon, Hist. d. I. Sculpt. I p. 303, and the 
marble head in the Akropolis Museum, Brunn-Bruckmann, pi. 460, Collignon, 
/. c. p. 362. Neither Herakles on this picture nor Achilles on the preceding vase- 
painting are very young babes, for they are not swaddled, but wear a chlamys, 
and a taenia in their hair. Under the feet of Hermes is inscribed %aiQe ov and 
on the r. Kalbt; 6 Jtal^. 

B: A bearded centaur, with a peculiar tuft of hair over his forehead, like 
that of Chiron on no. 256, equine ears, shoulders a large pine-branch from which 
are suspended two hares by the forelegs and two birds by the beak; his r. hand is 
outstretched and in the background is his dog. He wears an embroidered mantle 
arranged diagonally across his chest, leaving his r. shoulder bare; it falls almost 
to the knees of his human forelegs and covers more than half of his equine back, 
thus concealing the juncture of equine and human body. The drapery was not 
added, as is often supposed, to conceal the awkward and inartistic combination 
of horse and man, but to indicate the high rank of the centaur. In this case it is 
evidently Chiron, the venerable instructor of heroes, about the receive Herakles, 
for it is clear that both sides of the amphora must be connected. Kliigmann /. c. 
p. 200 mentions a r. f. amphora from Vulci on which the same scene is represented 
on both sides, just as here. Does he refer to the vase catalogued under no. 254? 
He also discusses the various tutors of Herakles. Although on vase-paintings 
only Achilles and Herakles occur as pupils of Chiron, in literature there is men- 
tioned a long list of his pupils, see Escher, in Pauly-Wissowa, Reallex. s. v. Chiron 
p. 2304 (5). 

244. Amphora. Naples. Coll. Santangelo no. 160. Heydemann, Vasensamml. 
p. 672. Peleus bringing Achilles to Chiron. 

Peleus, bearded, with chiton and himation, carries on his 1. arm the infant 
Achilles, who, draped in mantle, looks at Chiron, standing before them. The centaur 



jQ2 Centaurs with human forelegs. 

is bearded, has equine ears, and extends his r. hand in welcome; over his 1. shoulder 
he carries a branch from which are suspended two hares. At his feet is his faithful 
dog. Behind Peleus stands Hermes looking back at the group, winged boots, 
himation and petasos; in his r. a caduceus. His presence is remarkable, and may 
be due merely to the confusion of the Herakles and Achilles episodes on the part 
of the vase-painter. It is, however, noteworthy that on the next example both 
Athena and Hermes are spectators. 

245. Lekythos with white ground. Eretria. Athens, Collignon-Couve 966. Chiron 
giving Achilles a hunting lesson. 

On the r. is Chiron to 1., bearded, with long tresses, human ears, wearing a 
chiton and himation which reaches to the knees, as on no. 252; he carries a large 
branch over his r. shoulder, and rests his 1. hand on the shoulder of a nude boy 
to 1., evidently Achilles. The child holds a lance in each hand, and a looped strap 
in his r., used in hurling the lance. At his feet is a doe to 1. Confronting Chiron 
and the youth is Peleus wearing a pilos and krobylos, and carrying, as usual, two 
spears. On the 1. watching the central group are Hermes and Athena, characterized 
by their attributes. 

Collignon and Couve offer no interpretation of this unique scene, but judging 
from the interest Chiron seems to be taking in the youth, it is a lesson in throwing 
the lance. The presence of the gods is remarkable; I have no other explanation than 
that they are mere spectators, added by the vase-painter to fill the vacant space. 

246. Lekythos. Camarina. Collection Canonico Pacetti in Scicli. Benndorf, 
Griech. u. Sicil. Vasenb. pi. 41, i and p. 86. 

Chiron, bearded, human ears, wearing a short chiton, pine-branch over r. 
shoulder, from which is suspended a hare, knotted stick in 1., stands to 1. and dis- 
misses Peleus, bearded, petasos, short chiton and chlamys, laced boots, two spears 
in r., 1. hand raised, waving farewell as he walks away to 1., looking back. Between 
the two stands Achilles, taller than usual, indeed he is almost full-grown. On the 
extreme 1. stands a draped female figure to r., 1. hand raised. According to Benn- 
dorf /. c. she is certainly not Thetis, but probably Chariklo, the wife of Chiron, 
see however no. 251. In the field: xcdog vai%i and a meaningless inscription 
probably intended for Peleus. 

247. Oenochoe with white background. Fig. 25. Vulci. Blacas Coll. Br. Mus., 
Walters B 620. Colvin, /. H. S. I pi. 2 ; Harrison, Prolegomena p. 384 fig. 
121. Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. p. 86 note 433, 5. According to Pettier, 
Cat. d. Vases ant. du Louvre III p. 882 it is in the style of Nikosthenes. Peleus 
brings the babe Achilles to Chiron. 

Chiron bearded, with long tresses, human ears, long himation, reaching to his 
ankles, arranged diagonally across his chest leaving his r. shoulder bare; over his 
1. shoulder a pine-branch without prey, r. hand extended, stands to r. awaiting 
the arrival of Peleus, who on the r. advances to 1., bearded, with long himation, 
holding the infant Achilles before him in both arms. The child is comfortably 
sitting to 1. on the outstretched hands of his father ; they are being greeted by the 
dog of Chiron. Between Chiron and the dog is a tree. 

The amphora of the Coll. Dzialynski, Rev. Arch. 1868 p. 351, 13 illustrates the 
same subject in a similar manner, but I have no personal knowledge of this vase. 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 

248. Hydria. Overbeck, Gall, heroischer Bildw. pi. XIV 2; Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. 
Ill pi. 183 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 91, 6. 

In a panel on the body: Chiron to 1. bearded, human ears, short mantle, the 
equine body cut off at the middle by the border of the panel, holds a branch up- 
right in his r. hand, the but end touching the ground; it has suspended from its 
twigs two hares and a fox. Confronting him stands the youthful Achilles, nude, 
holding a taenia in r. hand; the 1. is outstretched in greeting. Behind him stands his 
father Peleus, petasos, high boots, chiton, two spears in 1., his r. extended over his 
son's head. On the extreme 1. are the four horses of a quadriga to r., a dog to r. as 
on no. 133 and a draped female figure (Thetis ?) with branches in her hair. They have 
evidently made the long journey in a chariot. In the field, meaningless inscription. 

249. Hydria. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1900. 

In a panel on the body: Chiron to 1., short mantle, bearded, equine ears, long 
hair, crowned with projecting twigs, like the female figure on the preceding vase, 
and like all the other figures of this vase ; he holds in his r. two long branches over 
his shoulder, and extends his 1. in greeting. Only his human body and part of 
his equine body are represented, the rest is cut off by the panel. He is smelling 
a flower which a man to r., in a costume like that of Hermes, who may, however, 
be Peleus, holds to his nose. Behind him is a female figure, draped, walking to r. 
and holding in each hand a torch, called Thetis or Artemis (?) by Furtwangler. 
On the extreme 1., part of the four horses of a quadriga to r. and a bearded male 
figure (Dionysos? according to Furtwangler) to r., in a long robe, perhaps the 
charioteer. In the field, meaningless inscriptions. 

250. Hydria. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1901. 

In a panel on the body: Chiron to 1., bearded, ivy-wreath, mantle, equine body 
cut off by edge of panel; in his r. he holds a long branch upright, the but end 
resting on the ground, as on no. 248, but without prey. Confronting him stands 
Peleus in his usual garb, armed with two spears in his 1., and a sword at his side. 
Again as on no. 248 he holds his r. hand outstretched over the head of the boy 
Achilles, nude, long hair, taenia, who extends both hands to Chiron. On the 1. 
is a chariot to 1. and the hindlegs of four horses; in the chariot stands a beardless 
youthful charioteer, long chiton, sword, shield on back, holding the reins and a 
goad. In the foreground on the 1. is a draped female figure to 1., crowned with long 
twigs as on the two preceding vases, 1. hand uplifted, Thetis (?) according to Furt- 
wangler. If Thetis accompanied her husband on the journey we have here an illus- 
tration of a lost literary tradition. Behind the chariot stands a tree, from the 
branches of which hang a hare and a fox. 

251. r. f. Cylix. Italy. Berlin, Furtwangler 4220. Severe style. Thetis leaves 
her son Achilles with Chiron. 

Outside A: Chiron (inscribed) to r., bearded, equine ears, wears himation 
which reaches to his human knees and leaves his r. shoulder bare; his face is broken 
away. Over 1. shoulder he carries a branch, and extends his r. hand to a boy in- 
scribed 'A%d(h)e[v<;] , who stretches out both arms to Chiron, as though in greeting. 
Achilles is nude and has his long hair done up in a krobylos. On the r. is a draped 
female figure, inscribed Bens running away to r., looking back. Her attitude 
makes it impossible to interpret the scene as the carrying away of Achilles from 



Attic vases. 



105 



Chiron by his mother ; it is certainly a tradition in which Thetis, not Peleus, brings 
the child to Chiron. This makes Furtwangler's tentative interpretation of the late 
b. f. vase, no. 250, more probable, and Benndorf s interpretation of no. 246 less 
probable ; though in our illustration, to be sure, Peleus is missing. 

252. r. f. vase. Louvre. Colvin, /. H. S. I p. 138 fig. 4. Severe style. Peleus 
bringing the boy Achilles to Chiron. 

On the r. is Chiron to 1., bearded with long tresses, crowned, human ears, 
chiton and himation over 1. shoulder, reaching to his knees; he holds a leafless 
branch over 1. shoulder, from which are suspended a fox and a hare. In front of 
him is a tree. On the 1. is Peleus advancing to r. in traveler's costume, urging 
his son Achilles, who walks before him, to approach Chiron. The boy is nude 
and has long hair, and is receiving a hearty welcome from the centaur, who not 
only looks encouragingly at the child but also extends his r. hand. 

Chiron in both chiton and himation occurs again on a b. f. vase no. 245 and on 
no. 255 in the style of Douris, but there is no similarity of style between the two 
r. f. vases, though they are of the same period. 

253. r. f. Amphora. Caere. Louvre, Pettier, Album pi. 88 G 3 p. 136 and Catalogue 
III p. 881 sq. Severe style, signed by the potter Pamphaios. Klein, Meistersign. 
p. 96 no. 26. Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. p. 131, 113 for Chiron, never spelled 
Cheiron on Attic vases. 

Chiron (inscribed) to r., bearded, human ears, taenia in hair, tresses over 
shoulder, long himation leaving r. breast bare, in 1. hand over shoulder a branch 
from which is suspended a hare, holds on his extended r. hand the infant Achilles 
(inscribed). The child has his arms wrapped in his mantle and sits facing the cen- 
taur. On a late b. f. vase, no. 247 the child sits on the hands of his father, but in 
the opposite direction; on the same vase the centaur is almost identical in pose 
and drapery. 

The potter signs himself <l>ai(palo<; for Ha^alot;. His ware must have been 
very popular, for several styles of decoration can be made out on his pottery. 
See the able discussion of Pamphaios by Pettier, I. c. p. 882 and p. 762 sq. who is 
of opinion that this potter continued the traditions of his master Nikosthenes. 

254. r. f. Amphora painted by Praxias. Vulci. Collection Principe di Canino. 
Present owner unknown. Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. p. 86 note 433 b); 
Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. p. 226 no. 211. 

A: Peleus (inscribed) holding Achilles in his arms. 

B: Chiron (inscribed) holding the infant Achilles (inscribed) in his arms. 

Kretschmer /. c. agrees with de Witte in dating this vase in the period of 
decadence, and presumes that Praxias lived in one of the colonies of southern 
Italy. The similarity of subject, however, to the preceding vase signed by the potter 
Pamphaios, makes it seem more probable to me that Praxias belongs to the early 
r. f . period. I make this statement with all reserve, realizing the rashness of attempt- 
ing to date a vase which I have never seen. 

255. r. f. Skyphos. Gela. Orsi, Mon. Ant. 1906 p. 83 fig. 54, no. 3. Style of Douris. 
Chiron sacrificing. 

A centaur, standing sedately to r. pours a libation of wine from an omphalos 
phiale, and holds a staff in 1. hand. The wine flows in two streams from the saucer. 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 14 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 

His human body is draped in a long chiton over which he wears a mantle leaving 
his r. shoulder bare. He wears a heavy beard, long tresses, has human ears and a 
taenia in his hair. His head is too large for his body, which gives his human body 
a heavy-set appearance, like no. 253. His expression of face is more like that of 
Dionysos than of a centaur. In the English translation of Pettier, Douris p. 84 
fig 24, the figure of Zeus shows such close similarity of style, note especially the 
long lock of hair behind the ear, also the drawing of the hands and ear, that I do 
not hesitate to assign our skyphos to the same school. The subject is unique; 
the centaur is evidently Chiron, not Pholos. On a r. f . hydria of a more advanced 
period, now in the Nat. Mus. Athens, Collignon - Couve no. 1246, a centaur is 
represented with a cantharus in 1., and a pine-branch in r., on which are tied two 
hares. Although this centaur, in the catalogue, is called without doubt Chiron, the 
wine-cup seems to point rather to Pholos. Our skyphos can scarcely be taken as 
evidence in favor of the interpretation of Collignon and Couve because the wine 
in the libation-bowl is used for a sacrifice, whereas that in the cantharus for 
quenching the thirst. The branch with the prey does not help to solve the problem, 
because it is carried by Pholos as well as by Chiron, see nos. 128, 129, 137, 141, 158. 

256. Amphora. Gela. Orsi, Mon. Ant. vol. 17 p. 468 fig. 333 and pi. 34. Chiron 
watching Peleus and Thetis wrestle. 

The central group represents Peleus, bearded, wrestling with Thetis. On the 
1., facing them is Chiron, human ears, bearded, a peculiar tuft of hair standing 
upright over his forehead, over his 1. shoulder a branch from which are suspended 
two hares and a bird. He wears a long himation leaving his r. shoulder bare. At 
his feet, between his fore- and hindlegs is his dog to r., as on no. 243. His r. hand 
is extended towards Thetis, whose r. arm crosses his, as if in supplication, but his 
sympathies are evidently with Peleus. This is the only example of the wrestling- 
match, in the presence of Chiron, in which Peleus appears as an old man, as on the 
Fran9ois vase no. 241. The type of face of Chiron resembles that on nos. 243, 
246, 247, the tuft of hair, but somewhat differently arranged, occurs on nos. 24, 

243- 

257. Hydria. PI. IV. Vulci. Leyden, Roulez, Choix de vases peints pi. 12, 2 

= Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 272. 7. Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (51). Chiron watching 
Peleus and Thetis wrestle. For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted 
to Dr. Holwerda. 

In a panel on the body: The central group represents Peleus, beardless, gar- 
ment tied round his waist, wrestling with Thetis, who transforms herself into a 
lion. On the r. is a draped female figure, a Nereid, rushing away to r., looking 
back. On the 1., watching the central group, stands Chiron, bearded, long tresses, 
human ears, in a short mantle, leaving his human legs and r. shoulder bare, but 
which covers about half of his equine back, as on no. 243; he carries a branch 
over 1. shoulder, from which are suspended a hare and a fox, and raises his 1. hand 
encouragingly. Only on the Frangois vase, no. 241, and on no. 256 is Peleus bearded. 

258. Lekythos. Athens. Berlin, Furtwangler 2003; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (52). 
Chiron watching Peleus and Thetis wrestle. 

Peleus, beardless, nude, sword at side, wrestles with Thetis who transforms 
herself into fire and a lion. On the r. a draped Nereid escapes to r., but looks 
\ 



Attic vases. 



107 



back; in each hand she holds a dolphin. On the 1. is Chiron to r., in short mantle, 
bearded, long hair bound with a taenia; he swings in each hand a short burning 
torch. In the field, meaningless inscriptions. The torches held by Chiron here 
and on nos. 259, 264 seem to have no special meaning, unless the vase-painter 
supposed that the scene took place at night. I do not believe that they are wedding 
torches. For another centaur with torch see Reinach, Rep. Vas. II p. 289, 2. 

259. Lekythos. Louvre, inedited. Chiron watching Peleus wrestle with Thetis. 
On the extreme r. is a cliff, or mouth of a cave, from which Chiron emerges 

to 1., as on no. 266. He is draped and holds a torch in each hand; at his feet is a 
white dog to 1., partly concealed by the centaur's forelegs. The central group 
consists of Peleus to r. wrestling with Thetis. This is the only example of this 
episode before the cave of Chiron, and reminds one of the later episode where 
Peleus has conquered Thetis and leads her, a willing bride, to the cave of Chiron 
where they are married (no. 266). 

260. Pelike. Munich, Jahn 380; Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. Ill pi. 227; Overbeck, 
Gall. her. Bildw. pi. 7 no. 5; Forrer, Reallex. p. 399 pi. 103; Luckenbach, 
Abbildungen zur alt. Gesch. 7 p. 82; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (53). Chiron watch- 
ing Peleus and Thetis wrestle. 

A: The central group represents Peleus (inscribed), youthful and beardless, 
long tresses and taenia in hair, garment round his waist, sword in sheath at his side, 
wrestling with Thetis (inscribed), who transforms herself into fire (flames rise 
from her shoulders), into water (waves trickle down her breast), and into two panthers 
attacking the hero. She appeals with outstretched r. hand to Chiron for help, 
but in vain, for the centaur gives his undivided attention to Peleus. Chiron (in- 
scribed) is as usual on the 1. side facing the wrestlers; he has human ears, long 
tresses, taenia in hair, and a branch over 1. shoulder from which hang two hares. 
He wears a short mantle, leaving his r. shoulder bare, as on no. 257. Under his 
body is inscribed Patrokyia for Patrokleia ( ?), the meaning of which is not clear, 
although it seems to refer to Chiron. On the r. a draped Nereid, inscribed Pont- 
meda for Pontomeda flees to r., looking back. 

261. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon 328; Michaelis, Arch. Anz. 1861 p. 200 no. 14; 
Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (54). Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. p. 6 pi. VI fig. I note 3 (g). 

I have neither been able to find this vase in the National Museum, Athens, 
nor in the catalogue of Collignon and Couve. According to the description Thetis 
transforms herself into a snake or dragon, Chiron has human forelegs, and Nereus 
is sitting on a camp-stool. 

262. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon-Couve 885. Very crude. 

Chiron to r. bearded, draped, human forelegs, watches Peleus wrestle with 
Thetis, who turns herself into a lion. On the r. is an altar on which a fire burns. 
A similar altar occurs on a r. f. vase depicting the same subject, no. 265. 

263. Krater with volute handles. Munich, Jahn 538; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (59). 
Peleus wrestles with Thetis, in presence of Chiron. 

On neck: Peleus with a garment round his waist wrestles with Thetis, at 
whose side stands Chiron in a chlamys, extending his r. arm. On each side two 
Nereids escape, and on the 1. is Hermes, added merely to fill the vacant space. On 
the extreme r. and 1. is a large eye. 

14* 



io8 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



264. Amphora. Vienna, Masner, p. 26 no. 226; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 201 no. 13. 
Chiron watching Peleus and Thetis wrestle, distributed on both sides of the 
vase. 

A: Peleus wrestles with Thetis. 

B : Chiron, bearded, in mantle arranged so as to leave r. shoulder bare, stands 
to r. and holds in each hand a torch as on nos. 258, 259. In front of him is Nereus to r. 
looking back. 

265. r. f. Pelike. Vulci. Overbeck, Gall, heroisch. Bildw. p. 186, 34; De Witte, 
Cat. d. 1. coll. Magnoncourt p. 46 no. 58; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 203 (73). Chiron 
watching Peleus wrestle with Thetis. 

A : Peleus, youthful and beardless, crowned, nude except chlamys over shoulders, 
sword at side, wrestles with Thetis who transforms herself into a snake and a panther. 
On either side of the group, a Nereid, the one on the r. with a dolphin in her r. 
hand, near her a dragon partially concealed in a grotto. - On a b. f. lekythos found 

in Athens, no. 258, a 
Nereid is depicted with 
a dolphin in each hand. 
On the 1. of the central 
group is Chiron, beard- 
ed, crowned, in a long 
mantle which leaves 
his r. shoulder bare; 
he holds a branch in 1. 
hand. 

B: Without inter- 
ruption, two Nereids, 
Doris, Nereus and an 
altar on which burns a 
fire, as on no. 262. 
Throughout the 

Fig. 26. From Overbeck, Gallerie heroischer Bildwerke pi. VIII 6. nTSt half Of the fifth 

century B. C. Chiron 

is represented on Attic vases with human forelegs, the latest examples being the 
famous Amazon vase from Ruvo, Naples, Heydemann 2421 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. 
II 278; and the lid of a lekane, Naples 2638 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 78; but in the 
second half of the fifth and in the fourth century the change has already taken 
place and he has equine forelegs, witness Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw. VII 8 and 
VIII 5, also Passeri, Picturae Etruscorum I pi. 8. Miss Harrison, Prolegomena p. 384 
has overlooked these examples. The wrestling-match often occurs without Chiron 
as a witness, as on the Louvre vases F 301 ; G 42, 53, 65, etc. 

266. r. f . Stamnos. Fig. 26. Chiusi. Palermo Museum 1503; Overbeck, Gall, 
her. Bildw. pi. VIII 6 and p. 197 no. 46; Inghirami, Mus. Chiusino I 46 47 
and Vasi fittili I 77 78. According to Hartwig, Meistersch. 578 sq. it belongs 
to the late severe r. f. style, resembling the later style of Douris. Graef, 
Jahrb. I p. 204 (104) erroneously calls it b. f. Marriage of Peleus and Thetis at 
home of Chiron. 




Attic vases. 



109 



On the r. is a cave as on no. 259, from which Chiron, bearded, long tresses, 
crowned, human ears, in chiton and himation (cf. nos. 252, 255), is emerging. He 
supports himself with a staff in 1. hand and extends his r. in greeting and welcome 
to the youthful Peleus and his bride Thetis. Peleus's body is seen from the front; 
his head, however, is in profile to r. He carries two spears in his 1., is crowned, 
his petasos hangs between his shoulders; he wears high boots as on no. 252, a chiton, 
over which is a skin of a wild animal, and a sword on his side. He is leading 
Thetis by the wrist; she wears a chiton and himation. All the figures are inscribed, 
and between the bride and groom is inscribed NixoorQaros Kaloc. (Klein, Vasen mit 
Lieblingsinschr. p. 126, 3. 

Although strictly speaking this vase does not belong to the archaic period 
I have included it in my catalogue, because it is the only example of the wedding 
in the cave of Chiron. On the Francois vase the wedding feast takes place in or 
in front of the palace of Thetis. 

267. Lekythos with white background. Eretria. Boston, Robinson 336. Herakles 
and Pholos at the pithos. 

Pholos to 1., bearded, human ears, wreath of grape-leaves in his hair, pine- 
branch in his 1. hand, but resting on r. shoulder (as Chiron on Francois vase 
no. 241), is draped to ankles in a long himation. He rests his r. hand on the rim of 
the wine-pithos buried in the earth up to its shoulder. Confronting him on the other 
side of the pithos is Herakles eagerly grasping its rim with both hands; he wears 
the lion's skin, his bow hangs in the background, his club rests against the rim of 
the pithos, and his 1. foot is placed against its shoulder, as on nos. 139, 143, 147, 
150. In the background partially concealed by the pithos is a palm-tree, as on 
no. 142, which Robinson I. c. erroneously takes to be the wine spurting upwards. 
On the extreme r. and 1. are cliffs representing the mouth of the cave, as on 
nos. 135, 156, 160. For Pholos draped, but with equine forelegs see no. 133, and for 
other examples of the draped type of Pholos with human forelegs see nos. 141, 
142, 228, 268. Pholos of Class B occasionally occurs entirely nude, as on nos. 230, 
269, 270. 

268. Amphora. PI. IV. Corneto. Zurich, Sammlung des eidgenossischen Poly- 
technikums. Blumner, Archaeol. Samml. zu Zurich p. 173 no. 10; Benndorf, 
Mitt. d. Antiquarischen Gesellsch. in Zurich XVII Heft 7 p. 169 no. 411. 

Herakles and Pholos at the pithos. 

Herakles to r., in chiton and lion's skin, stoops with bent knees under the 
weight of the stone lid which he is removing from the buried pithos. Behind him 
also to r. is Pholos, bearded, equine ears, in tight-fitting chiton leaving his human 
forelegs bare. He lifts his 1. hand in astonishment or admonition. Usually the 
pithos is between Herakles confronting Pholos. Here, however, as on no. 135 the 
centaur is behind the hero. For other examples of Pholos draped see under no. 267. 

269. Kyathos. British Museum, Walters B 464. Herakles and Pholos at the 
pithos. 

"In the centre is Heracles to r., bearded, with lion's skin, over a short em- 
broidered chiton, and sword; he has just lifted off the lid of the pithos, which is 
partly buried in the earth. Facing him is Pholos, with long tresses and pointed 
beard and a horse's body attached to his human body at the hips, holding out a 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 

pine-branch in both hands. Behind Heracles is Athene to r., . . . 1. hand extended 
to Heracles. On either side, eyes, black with purple pupils and white rings. In the 
field, vine-branches with grapes. On either side of the handle, a Satyr to r., one 
looking back at the other; they have long hair, and ivy- wreaths round their bodies." 
For other examples of Pholos of Class B nude, see nos. 230, 270. 

270. Lekythos PL II. Metropolitan Museum, New York, 08. 258, 29. Height 
0.17 m. Herakles and Pholos at the pithos. For the photograph here re- 
produced, I am indebted to Dr. Edward Robinson. 

Herakles to r., in chiton and lion's skin, rests his 1. hand on a huge rock 
which serves as the lid of the pithos and extends his r. hand in conversation with 
Pholos who faces him on the other side of the wine- jar. The centaur, bearded, 
human ears, long tresses, extends both hands, evidently objecting to the plan 
of the hero. He is unique in that his human legs are attached to his equine body, 
in other words instead of the usual human abdomen lie has the chest of a horse. 
Like the preceding example and Pholos on the Assos frieze, no. 230, he is without 
drapery. In the field, vine-branches with grapes. 

271. Lekythos. Herakles received by draped Pholos, Class B, in the presence 
of another centaur, Class A. See no. 141. 

272. Lekythos. Pholos draped, Class B, and another centaur, Class A, at the 
pithos. See no. 142. 



XVIII, ETRUSCAN RED WARE. 

A) STAMPED RELIEFS. 

273. Small pithos. Caere. Louvre, Pettier, Album I p. 42 D 254, pi. 36. 

The body is covered with a series of stamped metopes which form six zones 
repeating two motives, the one, a winged sphinx to r., the other, a beardless centaur 
to r. carrying a branch with leaves on his 1. shoulder, as on D 264 and 265. Oc- 
casionally an irregularity occurs in that a centaur is stamped on the sphinx band. 
Same technique as the following vases. 

274. Pithos. Caere. Louvre, Pottier, Album I pi. 36 0264 and p. 43; Catalogue 
II p. 387, 389; identical with Hermitage, Stephani, Vasensamml. no. 527. 

Below a band of interlaced semicircles is a zone of stamped metopes repeating 
three subjects, a bearded gorgo-mask full face, a winged griffin to 1., and between 
them a centaur, beardless, with human forelegs running to r., holding a branch 
over his 1. shoulder. Three separate flat matrixes were used, not a cylinder. Pottier 
/. c. p. 387 considers this method the earlier in date. The same method was employed 
in stamping the gold centaur-plaques from Rhodes, no. 221. Although these pithoi 
were evidently made in Etruria, the designs are of oriental perhaps Hittite origin, 
at any rate the source is the same as that for Ionia. It seems to me more probable 
that Ionia and Etruria have the same common source than that Etruria is completely 
under direct Ionic influence, especially since the centaur on Etruscan stamped, 
incised and painted ware is not closely enough allied to the centaur of Ionia to 
warrant direct influence. 



Etruscan red ware. Ill 

275. Pithos. Caere. Louvre, Pettier, Album I pi. 36 D 265. 

Same technique as the preceding pithos, but there are seven zones of stamped 
panel pictures, the third and fifth representing a centaur stamped from the same 
mould as that used on the two preceding vases. The other zones represent a sphinx 
to r. as on D 254. 

276. Pithos. Caere. Louvre, inedited. 

On. a zone of stamped metopes are two motives, a rider to r. and a centaur 
to r., not alternating, but each occurring in consecutive order a number of times. 
Here the centaur is from a mould which differs from that of D 254, 264 and 265, 
in that he has a long pointed beard and a longer branch with five instead of three 
stems. A warrior on horseback to r., a winged sphinx to 1. and a centaur of Class 
A occur on the frieze of a larnax stamped with a cylinder, found at Tanagra, 
no. 194, where, however, the types are totally different. 

277. Pithos. Caere. Vienna, Masner, Samml. ant. Vasen p. 19 fig. 12 no. 207; 
identical with decoration of pithos in St. Petersburg, Hermitage, Stephani, 
Vasensamml. no. 1065. 

Five flat quadrangular moulds were used for the metope-like decoration on the 
shoulder below a guilloche, whereas near the base is an animal frieze of five figures 
rolled from a cylinder. The stamped designs occur in the following order : a chimaera 
to r., six times; a centaur to r., beardless, nude, twig with leaves (as on Polledrara 
hydria, no. 315) in uplifted r., held horizontally behind his back, seven times; 
nude (?) man, bearded, long hair, shooting an arrow from a large bow to 1., behind, 
in the field, hangs his quiver, occurs only once; warrior on horseback to r., like 
Louvre, Pettier, Album pi. 38, D 354, seven times; the archer to 1. already men- 
tioned as facing the centaurs, twice; and finally a hoplite to 1., four times. The 
archer is probably Herakles shooting at the centaurs. 

278. Pithos. Caere. St. Petersburg, Hermitage, Stephani, Vasensamml. no. 909. 
Cf. Loeschcke, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 42. 

In addition to the five subjects stamped on no. 277 there is a sixth, a centaur 
armed with a double ax, occurring seven times in succession. Both groups of 
centaurs are confronted by the archer, presumably Herakles. It is only on the 
Etruscan stamped red ware that the double ax is found as a weapon of centaurs; 
on the stamped red ware from Rhodes and the Carian coast, nos. 215 217, it 
is the weapon of the opponent of a centaur. 

279. Pithos. Caere. Vienna, Masner, Samml. ant. Vasen no. 208. 

Four different subjects occur in the metope-like spaces: i. a centaur to r., 
over r. shoulder a twig with seven leaves, in 1. hand a spear the but end of which 
rests on the ground; as on the Bucchero ware no. 282, only there the centaur 
walks to L; 2. a lion; 3. a rider; 4. a deer; all to r. 

280. Handle of a vase. PI. XII. Heidelberg. Height 0.12, breadth 0.049 m - 
Here published for the first time by kind permission of Professor von Duhn. 
For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. H. Hofmann. 

The style differs considerably from that of the stamped pithoi from Caere. 
In the first place it is earlier, in the second place, although the designs are in panels 
they are bordered by zigzag lines and a plaited pattern. Visible in our illustration 
are i. a mountain goat (?) to r. nibbling at the leaves of a tree; 2. a centaur to r., 



j j 2 Centaurs with human forelegs. 

holding in uplifted hand a long flexible stem terminating in a bud; at his feet 
hooked stems spring from the ground. 3. a lion to r. devouring a human leg. The 
zigzag border occurs on the stamped gold diadems of the geometric period, no. 5; 
the ornaments in the field are common on Italiot ivory carvings, nos. 301, 302, 
and on bronze repousse work. 

Exactly the same plaited pattern occurs on a Hittite cylinder of perhaps 
1500 to 1200 B. C., Ward, Cylinders and other oriental seals, in Library of J. P. 
Morgan pi. XXXI, 234. This similarity is significant, and is another point in 
favor of my theory that the Etruscans were directly influenced by Hittite art. 
281. Tripod. PI. XV. Corneto, Museo Municipale. Furtwangler, Arch. Ztg. 

1884 p. 107; Cecil Smith, /. H. S. 1894 p. 210. Date: early decades of sixth 

century. Dr. A. M. Harmon has kindly given me the photograph here 

reproduced. 

A large basin with two handles and three legs ending in lion's claws. On the 
upper part of each leg is a quadrangular panel; one contains a moulded relief 
of Theseus and the Minotaur, the other two a centaur to L, with branch over 1. 
shoulder from which is suspended the forepart of a fawn, whose limp legs seen 
in the background reach the ground. The head and long ears of the animal hang 
over the centaur's hindquarters. The reliefs are covered with a yellowish white 
slip, as on Cretan stamped ware, no. 219, and still show traces of color, note the 
spots on the fawn and the rosettes of pellets in the field. The centaur seems to be 
beardless, as is usual in Etruscan art, witness the Polledrara hydria, no. 315, 
the bronze bowl, no. 305, the stamped reliefs nos. 273 275, 277, the Etruscan 
stamnos, no. 176, the amphorae, nos. 315 A, 170, the statuettes, nos. 294 296, 
298 300, occasionally Etrusco-Ionic ware, nos. 313, 176 A, Bucchero ware, 
nos. 282 287, 291, incised red ware, no. 281 A, and the helmet from Oppeano, 
no - 33; otherwise youthful centaurs in the archaic period are found on a Proto- 
Corinthian lekythos, no. 226, on a Corinthian pinax, no. 229 a), on Rhodian gold 
plaques, no. 221, on Rhodian stamped red ware, nos. 215, 216, on some of the 
terracottas of Cyprus, no. 18 and probably on a Tanagra group, no. 208. The 
shape of the branch with voluted stems occurs similarly on Proto-Corinthian, 
nos. 224, 226, and on Proto- Attic fabrics, no. 211. The dismembered fawn does 
not occur elsewhere, though the living deer or doe is found on quite a number 
of fabrics, Rhodian, Cypriote and Attic-Ionic, see under no. 174. For two winged 
centaurs fighting for the possession of a dead fawn, see no. 285. 



B) INCISED FIGURES. 

281 A. Oenochoe. Chiusi. Museo Preistorico del Collegio Romano. Karo, Bullettino 
di Paletnologia italiana XXVI 1900 pi. Ill 8 and p. 35 fig. A; Montelius, 
Civilisation II pi. 216, 8 and p. 962 fig. 8. 

Under the handle on the body is an incised palmette, below which is a lion 
to r. looking back. On either side of a highly conventionalized tree a group of 
three figures, strictly symmetrical, are incised : a winged horse, a youthful centaur 
with human ears, pudenda not indicated, and a griffin. The centaur to r. holds 



Etruscan bucchero ware. 

a bunch of tendrils in his extended 1. hand, and is walking with 1. foot forward. 
The corresponding centaur walks with r. foot forward to 1. and holds a branch 
in his extended r. hand. On no. 312 a centaur again occurs behind a winged 
horse. 

XIX. ETRUSCAN BUCCHERO WARE. 

A) STAMPED RELIEFS. 

282. Amphora. Chiusi. Berlin, Furtwangler 1545. Perhaps identical with Micali, 
Storia XIX, i; XX, ii; Milchhofer, Anfdnge p. 76 fig. 49 = Roscher, Lex. II I 
p. 1057. "Centaur in Orcus". 

The relief which encircles the shoulder of the vase consists of a group of four 
figures impressed from a cylinder and repeated twelve times as follows: On the 1. 
an enthroned beardless figure to r., wearing a long garment, holds a scepter crowned 
with a lotus flower; from the r. there advance towards him two nude beardless 
youths each holding a spear, and a centaur, beardless, elongated body, a long branch 
with five pronged stems in r. hand over his shoulder. If Micali' s illustration is 
accurate the centaur holds a spear in one hand but the branch extending from his 
shoulder is without support. According to Milchhofer /. c. p. 229 the seated personage 
is the king of the nether world, and E. H. Meyer, Indog. Myth. I p. 60 interprets the 
two warriors as Theseus and Peirithoos, who forced their way into Hades. To 
me it seems more probable that the youths are spirits being led by a centaur to 
the king of the dead. r 

283. Holkion or Goblet. Chiusi. Berlin, Furtwangler 1550. Gerhard, Apparat, 
in Library of Berlin Museum, Mappe XXX 37 ; Micali, Storia XX, I ; Martha, 
L'Art Etr. p. 466, fig. 304 A. 

The relief which encircles the cup near the rim consists of a group of six figures, 
stamped with a cylinder four times as follows: The "Persian Artemis", front view 
except the head which is turned to L, curved wings on her back, holds a swan by 
the neck in her r. hand; her 1. uplifted is empty. On the r. is a beardless centaur 
to L, human pudenda, a branch with four forked stems over his shoulder; what 
Furtwangler considers a dead hare in his hands, is nothing more than the pronged 
end of his branch. Between the centaur and Artemis is a kid or a doe standing on 
its hindlegs, and behind the centaur is a panther standing upright and supporting 
himself against his back. On the r. of the panther is a second centaur to r., shoulder- 
ing a branch on which is tied a dead fawn by its fore- and hindlegs. Facing him is 
a chimaera and finally a youth to 1. with sword held upright in his extended hand. 
I have followed Gerhard's tracing in my description, which differs slightly from 
that of Furtwangler and Micali. If Micali's illustration is accurate it was made 
from a different cylinder, note especially the plants springing from the ground. 
Without tectonic division the figures are grouped, but there is apparently no inner 
connection. The so-called Persian Artemis, however, occurs again on the gold 
necklaces from Rhodes, alternating with a centaur, no. 221, a harmless panther 
confronts Nessos on the Chalcidian vase, no. 163, see also no. 291, and a peaceful 
lion is depicted among a band of centaurs on the Ionic vase, no. 235. The 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 1 5 



jj> Centaurs with human forelegs. 

chimaera also occurs on Etruscan stamped red ware, but there facing the oppo- 
site direction, no. 277, and along with a lion and centaur with equine forelegs 
on a Bucchero vase in Boston, see no. 193, the only example of a centaur of 
Class A on Etruscan stamped ware. Very rare is the method of tying the prey 
to the branch; in Attic art the fox and hare are tied by the forelegs, though in 
Etrusco-Ionic art, witness the centaur on the Monteleone chariot, no. 233, the prey 
is sometimes tied by all fours. 

284. Vase. Micali, Storia XX 8; Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 240. 

The cylinder contained a group of five figures as follows: A nude youth to r., 
a stone in each hand pursues a beardless centaur to r. looking back, who is about 
to hurl a stone with his 1. hand at the youth. This group occurs similarly, but 
with different weapons, on a Corinthian skyphos no. 228, where Herakles is chasing 
the centaurs from the pithos, but the resemblance is not close enough to give a 
similar interpretation to our group. On the r. comes a youth with a spear, then 
a kneeling youth facing a warrior with spear, sitting to 1. on a camp-stool. All 
the figures seem to wear crested helmets, as on no. 3 15 A, though it may be a 
conventional way of representing long hair down the back. 

285. Cup with two handles. Berlin, Furtwangler 1556. 

Below a border of intertwined lotus flowers is a cylinder stamped frieze en- 
circling the cup. On the 1. is a group of three figures, one seated on a throne, 
the other two approaching with wine-pitchers. On the r. are two youths attacking 
each other. In the center are two beardless winged centaurs, confronted, struggling 
for the possession of a dead fawn which they hold by the fore- and hindlegs verti- 
cally between them. On a tripod from Corneto, no. 281, the outcome of a similar 
struggle is probably depicted, where a centaur carries off the front half of a fawn; 
and on an Italian repousse bowl made under Etruscan influence, no. 305, a centaur 
carries a dead fawn. Outside of Etruria winged centaurs only occur in Babylonia 
during the Cassite period, nos. 2 and 3, and in one example of Greek art under 
oriental influence, no. 4; this is a strong argument in favor of the direct influence 
of the Orient on Etruria. The winged centaur on the helmet from Oppeano, no. 303, 
shows Etruscan influence. 

286. Bowl on high stem. Berlin, Furtwangler 1560; cf. Pellegrini, Museo Civico 
di Bologna, Catalogo dei Vasi Antichi Dipinti nos. 146 and 147. 

The relief, stamped by means of a cylinder, is made up of the following figures, 
repeated four times: A female (?) and a nude male figure confronted, between 
them a doll-like human figure, front view; then on the r. a centaur with uplifted 
tail, r. arm raised; then two youths confronted, probably boxers; and finally 
a man confronting a woman. Similar, if not identical, is the relief on a cylix from 
Chiusi in the Museo Civico di Bologna, no. 146, and on a plate, also from Chiusi 
in the same museum, no. 147. Centaurs with uplifted tails are rare in archaic 
art, the only other examples known to me are the Greek scarab no. 186, the 
bronze statuette no. 300, and the Dipylon vase under oriental influence no. 4, 
though a centaur lashing his tail occurs as decoration of a helmet, no. 185. 

287. Boat-shaped vase. Chiusi. Berlin, Furtwangler 1563; Micali, Storia XX 13. 
Cylinder-impression: A female (?) figure, draped, seated on a throne to r. 

(under the throne is a bird to 1.) is receiving a taenia from a female votary followed 



Etruscan bucchero ware. 




by another with an oenochoe. Behind her but without any apparent connection is a 
centaur, beardless, to L, shouldering a long branch, the but end of which with roots 
attached curves downwards before him, and finally three nude youths marching to 1. 

288. Pithos. Chiusi. Bologna, Pellegrini 143. 

Like the red ware pithoi from Caere in that the decoration is not rolled from 
a cylinder, but stamped with a flat square seal. In a series of recessed metopes : 
A rough figure of a headless centaur, evidently due to the fact that the curved 
surface on the shoulder of the pithos was not well adapted to the use of a flat mould. 
This is an interesting example of the use of a red ware mould on Bucchero ware. 

289. Goblet or Holkion. Fig. 27. Chiusi. Florence. Helbig, Annali, 1877. Tav. 
d'agg. UV, 7 and p. 407; Forrer, Reallexikon p. 127 fig. 112. Montelius, 
La Civilisation primitive en Italie II p. 987, pi. 224, 7. 

The frieze below 
the rim contains a repe- 
tition of three figures: 
A winged centaur beard- 
ed ( ?), in his 1. he holds 
a fluttering bird by its 
legs, in his r. a twig; 
in front of him are a 
unicorn and a deer, all 
to r. Winged centaurs 
are rare ; they occur on 
a Babylonian boundary 
stone of the Cassite period, no. 2, on a Cassite seal impression no. 3, on an Attic 
geometric vase under oriental influence, no. 4, occasionally on Etruscan Bucchero 
ware no. 285 and on a helmet from Oppeano, no. 303. In the field above the 
animals are stars. 

B) INCISED FIGURES. 

290. Goblet or Holkion. Fig. 28. Micali, Monumenti inediti pi. 27, 4 and text 
p. 160. 

Between two wild animals to r. is a beard- 
ed centaur, shouldering a small branch and 
running at full speed to r. ; his human forelegs 
are entirely out of drawing. He wears a waist- 
cloth like that of the centaur on the Rhodian 
gold plaques, no. 221, cf. also no. 227; the guil- 
loche below the incised band finds an analogy 
on Rhodian stamped red ware, no. 215. This 
does not mean that Rhodes influenced Etruscan 
art, it merely means that both Rhodes and 
Etruria borrowed from a common source. As 
we have so often had occasion to note the 
hindlegs do not take part in the vigorous motion 
of the forelegs. The Cretan waist-cloth occurs Fig . 38 . Aftet 



Fig. 27. After Annali 1877 pi. UV, 7. 




Monument! inedra P i. 27,4. 
15* 



116 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



elsewhere in Etruscan art, for example, on a bronze statuette, no. 297, and on an 
Etrusco-Ionic lekythos, no. 323, where, however, it is worn by a young man, prob- 
ably Herakles. Somewhat similar in technique is the draped centaur brandishing 
a sword in r., on an oenochoe from Falerii, Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 323, 9. 
291. Cantharus. Fig. 29. Corneto. Berlin, Furtwangler 1541; Karo, De arte 

vascularia antiquissima quaestiones p. 13 and pi. i. 

A : A youthful centaur holding in each hand conventionalized elaborate tendrils 
and wearing a sleeveless chiton, as on the Proto-Corinthian lekythos no. 225, 
runs with rapid strides to L, his hindlegs as well as his forelegs taking part in the 
action. He has long hair, human ears, and the customary Etruscan elongated 



Fig. 29. After Karo, De arte vasculana antiquissima quaestiones pi. i. 




equine body. Behind him are a ram and a panther, both to 1. For other wild animals 
in the company of centaurs see under no. 163. In the field are rosettes and from 
the ground spring exotic plants. 

B: The foremost figure of the procession, which moves to L, is a bridled 
horse with a wild-cat on his back, then comes a sphinx and finally a fawn on 
whose back a puma has sprung. The wild cat is not attacking the horse, but the 
puma is biting the fawn in the neck. Remains of red color once rubbed into the 
incisions are still visible. This side is also illustrated in Montelius, Civilisation II 
pi. 300, i. 
292. Cantharus. Louvre, inedited. 

A bearded centaur, hairy chest as on no. 82, tendril in extended r. hand, 
human pudenda, takes long strides to 1. As on no. 291 his equine body is not only 
far too long but it joins his human body at a higher point than usual. Then 



Etruscan gold jewelry. Etruscan bronze statuettes. \\j 

comes a griffin to r. devouring a hare ( ?), and behind the griffin as well as behind 
the centaur the protome of a stag. A tree springs up in the background behind 
the centaur, whose back is covered with a row of incisions shaped like fish-hooks. 

' XX. ETRUSCAN GOLD JEWELRY. 

293. Pendant. Vetulonia. Munich. Karo in Milani, Studi e Materiali II p. 136 
fig. 129. 

On a gold plaque in granulated work is represented a centaur rearing to 1., 
with a branch in each hand, confronting a fawn in heraldic fashion. For the as- 
sociation of centaur and fawn or doe see no. 174. 



XXI. ETRUSCAN BRONZE STATUETTES. 

294. Berlin, Friederichs, Bronzen 2297. Collection Roller. 

On a flat plinth stands a beardless centaur with human pudenda, 1. foreleg 
slightly advanced, 1. hindleg considerably advanced; his upper arms are close 
to his body, but his lower arms are extended horizontally, and his hands are empty. 
His hair which looks like a wig compare the Rhodian gold plaque no. 221 - - is 
merely blocked out. His equine back is pierced by a nail which once extended 
through the plinth which may have been fastened to some other object, perhaps 
the lid of a cist a. Other examples of beardless centaurs in the archaic period are 
cited under no. 281. 

295. Berlin, Friederichs, Bronzen 2296. 

This centaur differs from the preceding in that it is somewhat larger, circa 
3V 4 inches high, and the hindlegs are close together, not worked out plastically. 
His outstretched arms are slightly raised and his hair is marked with incisions. 
The end of his tail is fasten- 
ed to the plinth. 

296. Boston Museum no. 
09.291. Fig.3oaandb. 
Gift of Harold W. Par- 
sons. Height 0.083, 
Length of plinth 
0.067 m - Mentioned 
A. /. A. XIV p. 390. 
I am indebted to L. D. 
Caskey for the photo- 
graphs here repro- 
duced. 

Similar to the Berlin 
examples just cited, but 
here even the forelegs are 
not separated, and large Fi g . 30 . From photographs. 





jjg Centaurs with human forelegs. 

ears are crudely indicated. The hands too are very crude; only the thumbs are 
modeled. Furthermore the support between body and plinth is again broken off, 
and does not pierce the plinth. This is probably identical with the statuette for- 
merly in the Collection Tyszkiewicz, Helbig, Bull. d. Inst. 1871 p. 68. 

297. Mon. d. Inst. 1836 pi. 29; Miiller-Wieseler D. a. K. II pi. 47 fig. 591; Darem- 
berg-Saglio, Diet. I p. ion fig. 1283; Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1078 fig. n; 
Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 692, I. 

This statuette differs essentially from the preceding examples in that the 
centaur is bearded and wears a tight fitting waist-cloth of Cretan shape like that 
on the Rhodian plaque, no. 221, and the Etruscan goblet, no. 290. His tail is broken 
off and the plinth curves upwards at its ends. I cannot identify the object in his 
hand. 

298. Louvre. Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II p. 692 no. 2. 

Beardless centaur with human pudenda and human ears, hands broken off, 
stands on a plinth. Later in date than the preceding examples, but still archaic. 

299. Florence. Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 692 no. 3; Gerhard, Annali 1837 P- 1 4 2 
note 2. 

Same attitude as the preceding examples but long tresses and more advanced 
style; he too has human pudenda indicated, and is beardless. 

300. Citta di Castello, Umbria. Florence. Pellegrini, Notizie degli Scavi 1902 
p. 481 fig. i; Reinach, Rep. Statuaire III p. 285, 4. 

This is a most remarkable statuette, unique in the history of centaurs, for 
not only his forelegs but also his hindlegs are human, ending in human feet. His 
r. forearm is extended and his fingers are closed as if he once held some object; 
his 1. arm is broken off at the elbow. Like the Berlin and Boston examples his 
equine body is pierced with a nail, which evidently had served to fasten it to a 
plinth. The whole anterior part of the centaur is clothed in a tight-fitting chiton, 
which leads Pellegrini to at least raise the question as to the sex, but he rejects 
the hypothesis that it may be a female centaur on account of the short hair and 
flat chest. In this I agree with him, especially since draped centaurs do occur, 
not only as Chiron and Pholos, but also as nameless ones, witness i. the draped 
centaur on the Proto-Corinthian vase, no. 225, who, however, is bearded, 2. the 
youthful centaur incised on a Bucchero vase no. 291 and 3. the so-called "Centauressa" 
on the Chiusi ivory situla, no. 301, not to mention those who wear the waist-cloth. 
A further peculiarity of our bronze statuette is the uplifted tail like that of a lion, 
which occurs again on the Dipylon vase under oriental influence, no. 4, on the 
Greek scarab, no. 186, and on the Bucchero stamped ware, no. 286. Strictly speak- 
ing, this centaur does not belong to Class B, but since it is the only example 
of a centaur with human hindlegs, it does not seem worth while to catalogue it 
separately under a fourth Class D. It was evidently a mere whim of the artist, 
without any mythological significance. I feel inclined to explain in a similar 
manner the b. f. vase-fragment in the possession of Masner, Arcfa Epigr. Mitt. 1892 
p. 128, where a horse with uplifted lion's tail and human arms instead of forelegs 
is depicted. 



Etruscan ivory monuments. j 1 g 

XXII. ETRUSCAN IVORY MONUMENTS. 

301. Situla. Chiusi. Mon. d. Inst. X pi. 39 a. Boehlau, Aus. Ion. u. Ital. Nekro- 
polen p. 119 fig. 64, and Jahrb. II p. 42; Helbig, Bull. d. Inst. 1874 p. 210; 
Kliigmann, Bull. d. Inst. 1876 p. 143. Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 225, 7. 

On the third band from the top are a row of animals and a rider, types which 
appear on other Etruscan monuments, and among them, but with no inner con- 
nection, two centaurs, one to r. fully preserved, and one to 1. of which only the equine 
body and horizontal branch ending in a lotus flower over its back are preserved. 
The former is of especial interest, because its human body is draped to the ankles 
in a tight-fitting garment girdled at the waist. In his uplifted r. he holds a tendril 
of lily pattern. Beneath his feet a conventionalized plant ending in volutes springs 
from the ground. The elongated body of the centaur finds its closest analogy 
in Etruscan art, especially on the Polledrara vase no. 315, so too the lotus flower 
and the other animals, especially the unicorn, see no. 289, and stag, no. 292. Next 
to Etruria, where we have another example of a draped centaur of non-mytholo- 
gical character, see no. 291, the closest analogy to our monument is found on Proto- 
Corinthian vases, where not only the draped centaur again occurs, see no. 225, 
but also the stem with lily flowers in the hand of the centaurs, see nos. 224, 226. 
Here too the arched back of the centaur is found. Note, furthermore, similar branches 
in the hand of the centaur on the Proto- Attic vase found in Thebes, no. 211, where 
again the elongated bodies of the centaurs are very marked. On monuments from 
Praeneste, see nos. 302, 306, the plants which spring from the ground are analogous. 
To my mind these monuments from Praeneste show Etruscan influence. But how 
about the Proto-Corinthian and Proto- Attic parallel cases ? It seems to me un- 
warranted to trace all these monuments back to Aeolis or to Aeolic influence, 
as Boehlau is inclined to do, or to find with Helbig Phoenician influence, or even, 
as some would have it, Chalcidian influence here. Does it not seem far more prob- 
able to suppose that Etruria did not get these peculiar types by way of the Greeks 
of Asia Minor, but that the same common source is to be found in oriental art, 
presumably in that of the Hittites, both for the Greeks of Asia Minor and for the 
Etruscans ? 

I have taken for granted above that the draped centaur is male, though 
Boehlau considers it female. If the artist meant to represent a "centauressa" 
he would probably have given the figure long hair, like that of the female figures 
in the second band of our situla. Not until the fifth century are female centaurs 
represented in Greek art, the earliest examples being a most beautiful terracotta 
figurine, a recent acquisition of the Berlin Museum, and a gem published by Furt- 
wangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 12, 41, both of Class B. 

302. Ivory arm. Praeneste, Barberini Collection. Villa Giulia. Delbriick, Arch. 
Anz. 1910, pp. 183-186 and 181 fig. i. Pinza, Bullettino d. Commissione Arch. 
Comunale di Roma 1910 pp. 60 sq. } fig. 2. 

Among the ivories of this collection are three human arms from the elbow 
down, decorated with carved relief zones on the sleeves from wrist to elbow. For 
the most part these zones contain animals, lions, stags, sphinxes, chimaeras 



J2Q Centaurs with human forelegs. 

and centaurs, all of them belonging to the repertoire of Etruscan artists. From 
the ground lilies and similar plants spring as on the ivory situla from Chiusi, 
no. 301, which was evidently made under the same influence at work on the ivory 
arms. How wide-spread this influence was in Italy and Greece we are just beginning 
to realize. In addition to the animal friezes there are others of intersecting curved 
lines with small flowers and palmettes, as on nos. 301, 305 etc., made under the 
spell of Hittite art. Pinza, /. c. considers the ivory arms from Praeneste parts 
of musical instruments. 



XXIII. ITALIAN METAL WORK. 

303. Bronze Helmet. Oppeano, in province of Verona. Florence. Montelius, 
La Civilisation Primitive en Italic Septentrionale I pi. 49, 2 and text p. 268 
where the literature is given; Daremberg-Saglio, Did. II s. v. galea p. 1446 fig. 
3460; Forrer, Reallex. p. 343 pi. 88 fig. 3. 

The helmet is cone-shaped and is made of two pieces, riveted together. Between 
bands of chequer pattern is one in repousse work of animals ; among these, between 
two horses, is a winged centaur to 1., beardless, with highly arched back and very 
short tail more like that of a stag than a horse. Much has been written about the 
origin and date of this art. Montelius is usually several centuries too early in his 
system of dating, it is certainly not earlier than 500 B. C. Hoernes, Urgeschichte 
der Menschen p. 655 discusses our helmet in connection with similar finds at Este; 
he is, however, mistaken when he calls our centaur a sphinx. To be sure, on the bronze 
situla Benvenuti, Montelius /. c. pi. 54, i, there is a winged sphinx with arms, 
wearing a waist-cloth; a monster which at first glance looks like a centaur. Perhaps 
it is incorrect to call this combination of man and lion a sphinx, at any rate we 
have no right to include it in our catalogue of centaurs, no more than the man- 
lion on oriental seals. We have already seen, nos. 2 and 3 that winged centaurs 
occur in Babylonia, in Athens under oriental influence, no. 4, and as late as the 
sixth century in Etruria, nos. 285, 289; furthermore that the youthful type of 
centaur is common in Etruria, though occasionally found in Greece, see under 
no. 281 where the other examples are cited. It seems to me that the centaur came to 
northern Italy not by way of Illyria, see Kretschmer, Gesch. d. Gr. Sprache p. 254, 
but by way of Etruria. The Etruscan type of winged centaur occurs even later on 
an Italian scarab in sardonyx, Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 20 fig. 73. For 
other examples of a centaur used as a helmet-decoration, see under no. 232. 

304. Bronze vase. Repousse work. Praeneste. Helbig, Bull. d. Inst. 1866 p. 144 
no. 16.; Kliigmann, Bull d. Inst. 1876 p. 143. 

One of the friezes is made up of a centaur with a branch in r. hand, a sphinx, 
a lion, a ram, a lion and a horse, a haphazard combination of animals commonly 
found on Etruscan monuments. 

305. Bronze bowl. Repousse work. Fig. 31. Collection Lipperheide. Ley den, 
inv. 10/3, I. Auction Catalogue, Munich 22 Feb. 1910, p. i no. 6 and pi. VI 6. 
Mentioned by Reisch, Arch. Anz. 1894 p. 127. The drawing here reproduced- 
I owe to the kindness of Drs. J. H. Holwerda and M. A. Evelein. 



Italian metal work. 



121 



The decoration on the inside of the bowl is as follows: Below the rim is a 
row of lotus flowers connected by a looped pattern, then comes a plaited pattern, 
between which and the disc-shaped bottom of the bowl is a frieze of animals, 
consisting of a boar, a sphinx (?), a panther (see under no. 163 for other examples 
of the association of centaur with panther), a chimaera, a winged panther ( ?), and 
a beardless centaur to 1. holding a dead fawn by the hindlegs. Within the circle 
is a series of foreparts of animals alternating with conventionalized plants. Here 
again the haphazard combination of animals, the youthfulness of the centaur, 
see under no. 281, and the protome of animals, no. 292, point to Etruscan influence, 






* r~\ ;r^9 




Fig. 31. From a tracing. 

which in its turn goes back to what I consider to be Hittite influence. The same 
plaited pattern is found, as has been noted above, no. 280, on a Hittite cylinder 
not later than 1200 B. C. According to Reisch /. c. the bowl was probably made in 
Italy after Ionic models; it seems to me, however, more reasonable to suppose 
that the primary source of this fabric is the Orient, from which Etruria drew her 
inspiration at first hand, and not indirectly by way of Ionia. Nobody, of course, 
would deny that there was direct Ionic influence in Etruria, the vase-paintings 
make that sufficiently apparent, but that does not exclude direct oriental influence 
in other branches of art. 
306. Silver dagger-sheath. Fig. 32. Praeneste. Rome, Prehistorical Museum. 

Mon. d. Inst. 1876 pi. 31, 5 a; Bull. d. Inst. 1876 p. 123; Helbig, Ftihrer 

II 2 p. 444 no. 1521. 



Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 



16 



122 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



The sheath is decorated on both sides with repousse reliefs; on one side only 
four figures remain, on the other is represented the following scene in two bands: 
Above are grazing animals, horses (?) and oxen, on the 1. a man, fallen on his back, 
defending himself with a dagger against a lion who is biting him in the 1. foot. 
From the other side, beyond the division line of the two bands, he seems to be 




Fig. 32. After Mon. d. Inst. 1876 pi. 31, 5 a. 

attacked by a centaur accompanied by a dog. The centaur seizes the fallen warrior 
or hunter by the hair, and brandishes a pine-branch in his uplifted r. behind 
him. Below the division line are depicted grazing stags and fawns and a kneeling 
hunter about to shoot an arrow at them. The whole scene gives a non-Hellenic 
but oriental impression, as does also the arched back of the centaur. For a similar 
arrangement of reliefs in two bands see nos. 5, 199, and frequently on stamped 
Etruscan Bucchero ware. I am therefore inclined to consider this a local Italian 
imitation of oriental art, though Milchhofer, Anfdnge p. 222 note I, is convinced 
that it is an importation. 



XXIV. ITALO-IONIC AND ETRUSCAN PAINTED 

VASES. 

307. Amphora. Fig. 33. Italy. Munich, Jahn 151; Micali, Storia pi. 95; Schmidt, 
Der Knielauf p. 313 fig. 32. Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 33, 838, p. 102 fig. 106. 
Mentioned by Helbig, Annali 1863 p. 228 note 2; Robert, Annali 1874 
p. 101; Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 241 note 73. A: Story of Amphiaraos. 
B: Herakles attacking two centaurs. 

Herakles, bearded, in chiton and lion's skin, swings a club behind him in 
uplifted r. and with extended 1. arm hastens to the attack against two centaurs who 
confront him. Like the hero they run in archaic fashion, one knee almost touching 
the ground. They have human pudenda, long hair, long beards, one has equine the 
other human ears, and each carries a branch in his uplifted 1. hand behind him. The 
composition is full of vigor. In the field, trees and conventionalized flowers spring from 
the ground, similar to those on other Italian and Etruscan monuments. In the art 
of continental Greece there is no attempt in the archaic period to depict a landscape 
background as elaborate as this. Not often do we find the centaurs making a stand 
against the hero, usualy they turn tail and are pursued. The composition of two 
centaurs to 1. attacking Herakles to r. occurs only once again in archaic art, also 
on a vase of Italo-Ionic fabric, no. 172, but there one of the centaurs is on the other 



Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases. 



123 



side of the vase. It is interesting to note that on no. 172 the centaurs have equine 
forelegs; it is therefore evident that both types were used promiscuously in Italy 
and Ionia without any attempt to distinguish between those of superior wit and 
character, such as Chiron and Pholos, and the common herd of bestial centaurs. 
On the Melian stamped reliefs, nos. 13, 14, we find a similar composition, but re- 
versed; a hero to 1. confronted by two centaurs to r., and on two Proto-Corinthian 
vases, nos. 224, 225, a hero to 1. confronts one centaur to r. Furthermore on the 
"Cyrenaic" deinos, no. 161, Herakles is again to r. and is confronted by one centaur, 
the others are fleeing. Similarly Herakles to r. confronts a centaur on stamped 
relief fragments found in the Argive Heraeum, no. 218, and the composition rever- 
sed occurs on stamped fragments from Cotrone, no. 196. The very earliest compo- 




Fig. 33. After Munchener Archaologische Studien p. 313 fig. 32. 

sition of a centaur taking stand against a hero is found on the Rhodian fragments, 
nos. 216, 217. 

But to come back to our amphora and the question of fabric. Robert, I. c. 
considers it Corinthian, Helbig and Micali, Etruscan, Loeschcke, an Etruscan copy 
of a Greek original, Puchstein /. c. agrees with Loeschcke, and Schmidt, /. c. calls 
it Ionic. The exact center of manufacture is not yet fixed, though in a general 
way we may say Italy, and, as is seen by the style, technique and love of landscape, 
it is strongly influenced by Ionia. The fact that one of the centaurs has equine 
the other human ears proves that there was no fixed rule in this matter. This 
holds true even for Chiron and Pholos ; on Attic vases the former occurs five times 
with equine ears to twelve times with human ears. Frazer, in his Commentary 
on Pausanias, vol. Ill p. 620 considers it probable that our centauromachy was 
copied from the chest of Cypselus, but Pausanias V 19, 9 says distinctly that the 
man is shooting at the centaurs, whereas here he attacks them with a club. Further- 
more the phraseology of Pausanias and the usual Corinthian type of Herakles 

1 6* 



12 A Centaurs with human forelegs. 

make it probable that on the Cypselus chest the hero was not represented in the 
lion's skin, but nude, as, for example, on the Assos frieze. 

308. Amphora. PL IV. Corneto. Zurich, Sammlung des eidgenossischen Poly- 
technikums. Benndorf, Antiken von Zurich p. 170 no. 415; Bliimner, Archaeol. 
Samml. zu Zurich p. 174 no. 14. A: Bacchic procession. B: Herakles pursuing 
a centaur who carries off a woman. 

In a panel: A bearded centaur to r., looking back, carries in both arms a female 
figure wearing an Ionic chiton with sleeves. In the background immediately 
behind the human body of the centaur, and partially concealed by the middle 
of his equine back, is Herakles to r., in chiton and lion's skin, beardless (?), seizing 
the centaur by the forelock with his 1. hand, and brandishing his club in his r. 
On the extreme 1. stands a female figure to r., with long hair and a chiton over 
which she wears a short jacket with sleeves, according to Bliimner. She stretches 
out her hand in astonishment. 

It is instructive to note the very small size of the female figure and the manner 
in which she is carried, namely, on her back as an infant would be held. Deianeira 
in the arms of Nessos has a similar pose on no. 163 A, and identically the same 
pose on a Chalcidian lekythos, no. 163, where the same discrepancy in size between 
centaur and female figure is also found. I do not believe that this close resem- 
blance is accidental, but feel convinced that, though our amphora was made in 
Italy, it shows Chalcidian influence. Nevertheless, the silenus-like expression of 
the centaur and his human forelegs show Ionic influence. It is probably not an 
illustration of the Nessos episode, but of some local myth, perhaps that of Mnesi- 
mache rescued by Herakles from the centaur Eurytion, as Furtwangler, in Roscher's 
Lexikon I 2 p. 2195 suggests. The motif of a centaur seized by a lock of his front 
hair is rare, it does however occur on a Proto- Attic vase, no. 213 A, on a Caeretan 
hydria, no. 322, and on an Attic hydria under Ionic influence, no. 22. 

309. Fragments of a large vase. Fig. 34. Museo Kircheriano. Paribeni, Mon. 
Antichi XIV p. 294 fig. 7. Mentioned A.J.A.X p. 192. 

According to Paribeni the fragments show a frieze of silenus-like centaurs, 
but in the illustration the figure on the r. seems to be a silenus. Both have long 
beards, equine ears and human pudenda; they swing their arms violently as they 
gallop to 1. with uplifted r. leg; the one on the 1. looks back. Since they are empty- 
handed, and since no trace of Herakles has been found, it is rather rash to con- 
sider them fleeing centaurs on Mt. Pholoe, routed by Herakles. It was more probably 
a purely decorative frieze of curvetting centaurs in the presence of a silenus, as 
on no. 311. Paribeni calls the fabric Ionic or Rhodian of the second half of the 
sixth century, but I consider it a copy of an Ionic vase made in Italy. 

310. Aryballos. Fig. 35. Greece. New York, Metropolitan Museum. Sambon, 
Collection Canessa p. 55 no. 210 = Le Musee III p. 5 fig. 4. 

Herakles, bearded, curly hair, almost nude, runs to r. in archaic fashion, his r. 
knee touching the ground, and is just overtaking a centaur to r., who looks back 
and holds a branch by its tip in his extended 1. hand; his r. hand, however, is 
outstretched towards the hero's chin in supplication. Herakles brandishes a sword 
in r. and seems to be seizing the wrist of the centaur; at his r. side is his sheath. The 
centaur is bearded, wears a taenia, and has long hair hanging down his back; his 



Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases. 



125 



ears are human. Behind Herakles is a peculiar object which looks like a Koppa, 
on the extreme 1. is a star of six rays round three concentric circles, and above 
the r. hand of the centaur is a rosette. 




Fig. 34. After Monumenti Antichi XIV p. 294 fig. 7. 



According to the label in the Metropolitan Museum it is Corinthian and was 
found in Greece. I would be much surprised if the reported provenance were cor- 
rect, for it is certainly not Corinthian. The incorrect position of the sheath, the 
peculiar shape of the sword and of the branch, not to mention the star, are not 
found on Corinthian ware. It seems to me a rather careful local Italian imitation 



126 



Centaurs with human forelegs. 



of two different styles, Chalcidian and eastern Ionic. For Herakles with curly 
hair see no. 163 A. A similar bearded nude Herakles is found on an Attic pitcher 

under strong Chalcidian in- 




Fig. 35. After Le Musee III p. 5 fig. 4. 



illustrated. Whether or no 
the same story is depicted 
on our aryballos cannot be 
determined; it might just as 
well be an abbreviated form 
of the centauromachy on Mt. 
Pholoe. W T e now have suffi- 
cient proof that Nessos was 
sometimes represented with 
human forelegs in the seventh century B. C., see nos. 213 A, 227. For the nude 
Herakles, see under no. 49. 

311. Bowl. PI. I. Munich, Jahn 957. Sieveking-Hackl pi. 41 no. 985 p. 150 fig. 195. 
For the photograph of a drawing made by Reichhold, here reproduced, 1 am 
greatly indebted to Dr. Sieveking. 

Between tendrils ending in a palmette are two centaurs running to r., bearded, 
equine ears, long hair; each holds a branch in r. hand, and the foremost, who has 
a white tail, looks back. They are followed by an ithyphallic bearded silenus with 
long hair, white tail, human legs ending in hoofs; he too looks back. Judging from 
Reichhold' s very careful drawing the second centaur's human forelegs end in one 
human foot and one equine hoof ; he is thus a combination of Class B and of Class C, 
whereas the foremost centaur, who also has human pudenda, is purely of Class B. 
In the field, between the centaurs, springs from the ground a conventionalized 
plant ending in volutes, so commonly found in Etruscan art. The vase was evidently 
made in Italy and probably under the influence of that particular Ionic school 
which invented the type of centaur with human forelegs ending in hoofs, but of 
Clazomenian influence, see nos. 318 320, there is not a trace. That these centaurs 
belong to the train of Dionysos is seen by their association with the silenus. The 
Bacchic element in ^centaurs is much rarer in the archaic period than later. In 
Attic archaic art there is only one example, no. 40, where the connection between 
centaurs and silenus is as apparent as here. On an inedited fragment of a r. f. Attic 
vase in the National Museum, Athens, no. 10461, probably from the Cabirion, 
Thebes, dating from the middle of the fifth century, a bearded centaur with equine 
forelegs, a panther's skin as shield over 1. arm, attacks with a tree- trunk a satyr, 
who begs for mercy. On another r. f. Attic vase, Reinach, Rep. Vas, II p. 289, 
2, we find satyr and centaur on friendly terms; the former carries a thyrsos and 
fruit, the latter a torch and a branch decorated with ribbons, a pinax and a dead 
bird. The Campanian black relief vase in Ley den, Roulez, Rev. Arch. 1852 pi. 
199, 2 does not represent a satyr, as is usually supposed, but a youth in the pre- 
sence of a female centaur. That the illustration given by Roulez is inaccurate 
I was able to convince myself by examining a cast of this vase which Dr. M. A. 
Evelein has kindly sent me. 



Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases. 



312. Hydria. Vulci. British Mu- 
seum, Walters 663. Micali, 
Mon. Ined. pi. 39; Dumm- 
ler, Kleine Schriften III 
p. 281 no. 8 = Rom. Mitt. Ill 
p. 177; Colvin, /. H. S. I 
p.i6i note 2. Dancing cen- 
taur and Pegasos. 

On the body: Pegasos to 1. 
followed by a centaur with r. 
arm advanced, 1. arm drawn 
back, r. leg raised above the tail 
of Pegasos in a most abandoned 
dance. He has human ears, long 
hair in wavy lines down his back, 
and is bearded. On his tail is 
perched a large bird to 1. ; in the 
field, branches. Walters cor- 
rectly catalogues it as an Etrus- 
can imitation. That these same 
Etruscan imitators were familiar 
with centaurs of my Class A is 
made apparent by such examples 
as nos. 178 1 80. For the asso- 
ciation of Pegasos with centaurs 
it is interesting to note that they 
were considered closely related 
by the ancient Greeks, the mo- 
ther of Pegasos appearing on a 
Theban stamped pithos, Bull. 
Corr. Hell. 1898 pi. 4 in centaur 
form. See also my remarks un- 
der no. 240. 

313. Kyathos on high stem. 
Fig. 36. Collection Fon- 
tana. Breslau University 
no. 8079, 6. Hoernes, Arch. 
Epigr. Mitt. II p. 32 no. 52. 
Diimmler Kleine Schriften 
III p. 283 no. 14 and Bei- 
lage to p. 280 = Rom. Mitt. 
Ill p. 178 no. 14 and Bei- 
lage fig. 10. 

A combat between two cen- 
taurs confronted; to the assist- 
ance of one a third centaur 




1 2 Centaurs with human forelegs. 

hastens. On the 1. a centaur runs to r. holding in both hands drawn back behind 
his head a branch with which he is about to strike his opponent, who holds a simi- 
larly shaped branch in his 1. hand drawn back, and extends his r. Behind him is 
a large ivy-leaf, and on the extreme r. a third centaur in exactly the same pose and 
with the same kind of weapon runs to 1. The branches in the hands of these cen- 
taurs are of a most peculiar shape, resembling the antlers of a stag, see also 
no. 176 A. The two centaurs facing 1. have equine ears and a long mass of wavy back- 
hair projecting horizontally as on the preceding vase. The centaur facing r. has 
human ears and short hair; all have human pudenda, are beardless, see under 
no. 281, and have long tails projecting horizontally, as on the Cypriote terracotta 
figurine no. 206. The composition is bounded by a lily like that on the ivory situla 
from Chiusi, no. 301, and on the Proto-Attic bowl from Thebes, no. 211, which 
shows strong oriental influence. 
313 A. Amphora, fragmentary. Munich. Sieveking-Hackl no. 840 p. 105 fig. in. 

A: Three sileni and Dionysos. B: Two centaurs confronted. 
On either side of a conventionalized growing plant two bearded centaurs 
with equine ears are threatening each other with uplifted fists; the one on the 
r. brandishes a branch, the one on the 1. is very fragmentary. 

314. Amphora. Arezzo. Gamurrini, Annali 1872 p. 279; Henzen, Bull. d. Inst. 
1869 p. 73 and Kliigmann, Bull. d. Inst. 1876 p. 143. Centauromachy. 

The technique of this vase is most peculiar, the figures being stamped in relief 
and painted. A centaur, looking back, kicks at the 1. leg of his enemy and is about 
to hurl a rock at him. His opponent is armed with helmet, cuirass, shield and lance 
which he is about to thrust at the centaur. In the field, branches and ivy. On the 
other side there is only a human leg preserved. For other kicking centaurs see 
nos. 31, 198. Probably not archaic. 

315. Polledrara Hydria. Vulci. British Museum, Cecil Smith, /. H. S. 1894 
pi. 7 fig. 5; Hugo Prinz, Klio, Beiheft VII p. 62. 

On the neck: From r. to 1., a chariot drawn by two horses, a dog seated to r., 
a bird flying downwards (as on the Clazomenian fragment, Ant. Denkm. II pi. 
56, 3), then the Minotaur, Theseus and Ariadne. "The scene on the left of this 
is not separated from it by any tectonic division of the field, and therefore might 
be taken as a continuation of the Minotaur group : it consists however of a series 
of figures which as a composition may well stand as a separate group, and this 
is the more probable from the fact that the figure in it next to Ariadne moves in 
a direction contrary to her own. First on the right come two Centaurs, moving to 
the left in single file : they are of the transitional Ionic type, with human forelegs, 
and apparently are beardless: each carries over his shoulder, not the usual pine- 
tree, but a tree of which the trunk hanging downwards ends in a broad splay, 
tapering off to a point, and the stem, tapering horizontally over the back, has 
pairs of leaves and terminates at the top in a bunch of leaves grouped like the 
petals of a lotus flower. Close behind the shoulders of the Centaur a dead fawn 
hangs by its forelegs from the stem of the tree: the left arm of the centaur seems 
to pass round it." Confronting them are three spectators, two female, the other 
male. In the field, lotus flowers spring from the ground, one under the foremost 
centaur, between whose hindlegs is a rosette. On the extreme 1. are two bigae 



Etruscan gems. Etruscan stone relief. 12Q 

confronted and a female figure to 1. between them. It is evident that on this frieze 
the centaurs are purely decorative and bear no relationship to the Minotaur myth, 
though it is noteworthy that on the Corneto tripod, no. 281, one leg is stamped 
with the Minotaur myth and the other two with a centaur carrying the forepart 
of a dead fawn suspended from a branch. 

Prinz, /. c. catalogues our hydria under Lesbian ware, but Cecil Smith /. c. 
p. 218 $q. after careful analysis and due consideration thinks that "the best solution 
which presents itself for the Polledrara fabric is that it was a local Italian ware, 
made possibly at Caere under the combined influences of Ionian and Naukratian im- 
ports acting on an artistic basis principally derived from Corinth"; he dates it 
about 600 B. C. His arguments seems to me convincing, for we here find all the 
characteristics of Etruscan types of centaurs, their youthfulness, their elongated 
bodies, their attributes, and especially characteristic are the decorations which 
fill the field. 
315 A. Amphora. British Museum. Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 380, 4. 

On shoulder: Between a row of warriors to r. and to 1. is a youthful centaur 
to r. shouldering a branch and holding a doe by its hindlegs; its forelegs touch 
the ground. He seems to wear a helmet. Cf. no. 284. 



XXV. ETRUSCAN GEMS. 

316. Scarab. Carnelian. British Museum, Catalogue no. 380 pi. E; J. H. S. I 
p. 130 fig 2; Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 17, 69, II p. 86. 
A centaur running to 1. in archaic fashion with 1. knee touching the ground, 
holds a stone in each uplifted hand ; over his shoulders he wears the skin of a wild 
animal, cf. nos. 104 106. His head is full face, his beard disheveled, he has a 
silenus-like expression and equine ears. The similar examples in Paris, Cabinet des 
Medailles, Bibliotheque Nationale, Chabouillet, Pierres gravees nos. 1863 and 1864, 
see under no. 189, though archaic in type, are later in execution. The heads of 
centaurs in the archaic period are usually seen in profile, the full face type only 
occurring on a Melian gem, no. 9, and on Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221. 



XXVI. ETRUSCAN STONE RELIEF. 

317. Stele. PL XII. Corneto. Florence. Pal. Peruzzi(?). Montelius, Civilisation 
II pi. 302, 2. 

The original edge of the relief slab is preserved above and on the r. side, and 
has a raised border decorated with diagonal incisions. Within this border is re- 
presented a centaur to 1., carrying a branch with a double set of voluted twigs at 
its point, similar to the proto- Attic vase-painting no. 211. His long hair down 
his back is only blocked out as on the Etruscan bronze statuettes, nos. 294, 296, 
and the hair on his head is also without modeling, so that it has the appearance 
of a cap. His hindlegs are broken off just above the hoofs and the forelegs just 
above the ankles ; it is evident however that this centaur belongs to Class B because 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. * 17 



Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs. 

the contour of the human buttocks is clearly indicated. His tail is represented 
only where it joins the body, the rest is cut off by the border of the panel. The equine 
body is thin and lacking in modeling, as on no. 211; indeed, the art of Continental 
Greece during the transition between the Geometric Period and the sixth century, 
a period of strong oriental influence, possesses much in common with local Etruscan 
art of the archaic period. As noted above, the 1. end is not the original border, 
but how far the slab extended towards the 1. is impossible to say. If, as I believe, 
it is a tomb-stone, we have additional evidence for the connection between centaurs 
and the lower world, in this case the guardian of the spirit of the dead; see also 
no. 282. 

CLASS C. 

I. CLAZOMENIAN SARCOPHAGI. 

318. Berlin, Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 169 sqq. and Antike Denkmdler II pi. 58. 

On the long sides of the rim, near the top of the sarcophagus are two centaurs, 
the one of the 1. side faces r., the one on the r. side faces 1. They have silenus-like 
faces, beards, equine ears, human pudenda, and their human forelegs end in hoofs. 
In their hands they hold diagonally a long pole, but end downwards, and their 
half-kneeling attitude seems to indicate that they are vaulting. They certainly 
are not meant to be attacking each other, nor have they any mythological or re- 
ligious significance; they are purely ornamental. 

319. Athens, National Museum. K. Romaics, 'Ecpy/ueQis 'AQxaiohoyixtf 1907 
p. 199 sqq. and pi. 9; A. J. A. XII p. 360 fig. I. 

Two decorative centaurs facing inwards on the long sides of the rim, holding 
the same position as the centaurs on no. 318, are represented, not in a kneeling 
position but as running, and armed with branches; they are badly worn. The 
one on the r. side facing 1. is of Class B, i. e. his human forelegs end in human feet. 
Of this I am convinced, though Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176 note 13, is of the impression 
that Gillieron's illustration in the 'EqrqpeQis is faulty. I carefully scrutinized the 
original on several occasions when the light was favorable, and am satisfied that 
both Romaios and Gillieron observed correctly. The centaur on the 1. side, however, 
has human forelegs ending in hoofs, as on the Berlin sarcophagus. Again their 
expression of face is like that of a silenus, and they are bearded . One cannot overestimate 
the importance of these centaurs, for in the Clazomenian sarcophagi we have the 
most convincing examples of Ionic or perhaps Aeolic ceramic painting. It certainly 
was not the school which strongly influenced Etruria, although on no. 311 we have 
a centaur with at least one foreleg ending in a hoof, and on no. 324 two centaurs 
of Class C, but with entirely different expression of face. Nor does it seem probable 
that the type of centaur which I catalogue as Class C was invented in Clazomenae, 
especially since both types, B as well as C, occur on the sarcophagus, under 
discussion, and since on the London sarcophagus, no. 320, it is possible that 
only Class B is represented. At any rate the centaurs with human forelegs 
ending in hoofs are short-lived; they had no future. They must be considered 
a mere whim like the bronze statuette of a centaur, no. 300, whose hindlegs are 



Clazomenian vases. 1 3 1 

human, and yet it is surprising that the type spread over so large a territory, 
occurring not only in Asia Minor and Cyprus but also in Italy. Dummler, Kleine 
Schriften III p. 274, has correctly noticed the similarity between our Class C 
and a Class of Ionic sileni, originally closely allied hybrids, and objects to the 
theory that we have in Class C a mixture of A and B. Our third type, it is 
true, is not an outgrowth of such a combination, but is a side issue, so to speak, 
of Class B, or as Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176 puts it, it is "typologisch nur eine Abart 
jener alten Gestalten in der die vollkommen menschliche Figur mit dem Pferde- 
hinterteil verbunden ist." 
320. London. Murray, Terracotta Sarcophagi p. 12 fig. 5. Centaurs on the hunt. 

On the lid of a sarcophagus we see in one gable an Ionic column of the style 
found in Neandria and elsewhere in Aeolis, dividing the field into two halves, and a 
meander dividing each half into an upper and lower part, the upper probably con- 
taining sphinxes, now badly worn, the lower centaurs confronted, also very much 
destroyed. The one in the 1. compartment runs to r. and brandishes a branch of 
a tree, at his side is a dog to r. ; the centaur in the r. compartment runs to 1. and is 
also accompanied by a dog. Whether they are attacking each other as Murray suggests 
is not certain because the shaft of the column effectively separates them. To be sure, 
centaurs fighting amongst themselves do occur, though rarely, witness nos. 4, 
84, 85, 178, 285, 313, 313 A, 324; all these cases are genre scenes. Noteworthy is the 
dog accompanying one of the centaurs, elsewhere only Chiron owns a dog, except 
on the amphora no. 174 which Zahn considers the latest development of the Clazo- 
menian style, and on the dagger-sheath, no. 306. Because of the dogs I consider 
them hunters. 

I have catalogued the centaurs on this lid under Class C because I am not at 
all sure, see also Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176, that the illustration is correct. Where, 
as in this case, the figures are badly worn, hoofs might easily be mistaken for 
human feet. Of course it is possible that they belong to Class B, especially since 
on the sarcophagus in Athens, no. 319, one of the centaurs is certainly of Class B. 
The Aeolic form of capital on this sarcophagus is to my mind significant, and in- 
dicates the influence at work in Clazomenae. 



II. CLAZOMENIAN VASES. 

321. Fragments, probably of an amphora. Clazomenae. Berlin. Inv. no. 4531 
Ac and d. Kjellberg, Antike Denkmdler II pi. 56 figs. 4 and 5. 
On one fragment (fig. 4) is depicted the hindquarters and tail of a centaur 
to 1., identified by Kjellberg, because of the pine-branch over the horse's back. 
On the 1. of the centaur there remains the torso of a female figure, also to 1. On 
the other fragment, probably belonging to the same vase, is a bearded centaur 
to r., head and feet missing, his extended r. arm is bent at the elbow and the fingers 
of a human hand clutching his wrist are visible; in his 1. arm he holds a pine-branch. 
The hands are very poorly drawn, if the painter intended them for hands; they 
look more like hoofs. It is exceedingly unfortunate that this vase is so fragmentary, 
for it evidently represented a mythological subject. The presence of the female 

17* 



132 



Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs. 




figure seems to point to an illus- 
tration of the Thessalian cen- 
tauromachy, so too the hand of 
a youth or maiden seizing one 
of the centaurs' wrists. The 
same motif occurs on the follow- 
ing vase. 



III. CAERETAN 
HYDRIA. 

322. Caere. Fig. 37. LouvreEyoo. 
Pettier, Catalogued p. 537$^. 
and Album p. 66 where the 
literature is given. Helbig, 
Annali d. Inst. 1863 pi. E. 
= Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 309 



Thessalian Centauromachy. 

There are two monomachies, 
symmetrically arranged, back to 
back. On the 1. a centaur paint- 
ed red, with the exception of 
hair, beard, mustache, tail and 
hoofs which are black, rears to 
1. with an uprooted tree in both 
hands behind his head. He is 
overtaken by a warrior seen from 
behind; cf. the Samsoun relief, 
no. 183, where, however, it is a 
centaur who turns his human 
back on the spectator; both 
man and centaur show the 
same back view on the Etrusco- 
lonic stamnos, no. 176, on the 
Italiot hydria, no. 176 A; and on 
the Attic b. f. amphora, no. 125, 
in Wiirzburg, a centaur and 
Kaineus are seen from behind; 
whereas on the b. f. amphora, 
no. 121, in Ley den, Kaineus 
fights with his back to the spec- 
tator. But to come back to our 
Lapith, he seizes the centaur's 



Etrusco-Ionic vases. 



133 



1. wrist, so as to drive the thrust of his sword home. The centaur, who has equine 
ears and a snub nose, looks back in a helpless way. On the r. the centaur is painted 
black, except hair, tail and hoofs which are white ; his position tallies with that of 
the other centaur. On both, the hands are incorrectly drawn. The Lapith to r. has 
in addition to the helmet, cuirass, greaves and sword a long lance with which he 
attacks his opponent whom he grasps by the long forelocks. On no. 308, an Italo- 
lonic amphora under Chalcidian influence Herakles seizes the centaur Eurytion by 
a lock of hair in the same manner; see also nos. 22, 213 A. 

It is still an unsolved question where the Caeretan hydriae were made, but 
whether in Italy, Aeolis or Ionia makes little difference, since they were doubtlessly 
made under Ionian influence, as is evinced by the short bodies, large heads, oval 
shaped eye and clumsy proportions, and by their showing much vigor of action 
and strong facial expression. When Kjellberg and Boehlau publish their terracotta 
frieze found in the Aeolic Larissa perhaps the place of manufacture of the Caeretan 
hydriae will be fixed. When compared with the type of centaur on the Clazomenian 
sarcophagi it is evident that the similarity is not close enough to warrant any 
connection except in a most general way. 

IV. ETRUSCO-IONIC VASES. 

323. Lekythos. Depoletti. Gerhard' s A pparat in the Library of the Berlin Museum, 
Mappe XII 12, i Herakles (?) and centaur. 

A beardless man (Herakles?) to r., in loin-cloth like that of the centaur on 
no. 290, brandishes a club in r. hand and holds with 1. hand the branch of a growing 
bush, another branch of which is held by a centaur to 1., who holds in his uplifted 
1. a pomegranate flower or perhaps an ivy leaf. He is bearded, has equine ears, 
a snub nose, large round eyes, long wavy hair hanging in a mass down his back 
and human pudenda. A similar bush springs from the ground behind the youth. 
The fabric is evidently Etruscan based on an Ionic original. The conventionalized 
bushes resemble those in the hands of centaurs on no. 179. 

324. Hydria. PI. III. Munich, Jahn 1039. Sieveking-Hackl pi. 39 no. 895. Combat 
between two centaurs. For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted 
to Dr. J. Sieveking. 

On the body, two sphinxes with large teats like those of the lionesses on the 
wall of the "Tomba delle Leonesse", Corneto (Moscioni 8626, Durm, Handb. d. 
Architektur II 2 p. 138 fig. 157 = Ant. Denkm. II pi. 42), and with palmettes 
growing from their heads, as on the Clazomenian sarcophagus, no. 319, are seated 
in opposite directions, back to back; between them hangs the skin of a panther, 
head down. On the shoulder, two sphinxes. In the field, ivy leaves. 

On the neck, two centaurs confronted, are attacking each other. The one on 
the 1. facing r. has one hand extended, the other drawn back; he is lashing his tail, 
and his hindlegs are slightly above the ground, as though he were prancing. 'The 
one on the r. facing 1. jumps or kicks in a similar manner; both arms are drawn back 
in an impossible position. Both are bearded, have equine ears, long wavy hair in a 
mass and human pudenda. As in the preceding vase we have here too an example of 
Etrusco-Ionic fabric. For the subject of the combat between centaurs see under no. 85. 



134 



Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs. 



V. IONIC GEM. 

325. Scarab of Ionic or perhaps Aeolic style. Striped agate. Sicily. British Museum, 

Catalogue no. 295; King, Handbook of engraved gems pi. 65, 6, and Ancient 

gems and rings II pi. 33, 8; Furtwangler, Gemmen I pi. 8, 5 and II p. 37 no. 5; 

/. H. S. I p. 130 fig. 3; Harrison, Prolegomena p. 383 fig. 120; Keller, Tier- 

und Pflanzenbilder auf Munzen und Gemmen pi. 25, 34. Centaur and Nymph. 

A centaur to 1., crowned and bearded, human pudenda, holds a nymph, in 

a half reclining position, in both arms, one arm supporting her shoulders, the other 

her knees, as the terracotta group no. 208, the Chalcidian vase no. 163, the Italo- 

Chalcidian vase no. 163 A, and the Thraco-Macedonian coins, no. 191. Especially 

interesting is the comparison between our gem and the coin from Thasos, Babelon, 

Traite pi. 55 fig. 24, where a silenus with human legs ending in hoofs carries a 

nymph in the same position, another proof of the similarity of character between 

centaur and silenus. On a coin of Phocaic standard, no. 190, the same subject 

is depicted; perhaps both the coin and our gem were made under Aeolic influence. 



VI. CYPRIOTE MONUMENTS. 

326. Lime-stone group. Fig. 38. Cyprus. Geneva. Nicole, Meidias, in Mem. de 
rinst. Nat. Gen. XX p. 59 fig. 3; Deonna, Rev. Arch. XII 1908 p. 168 fig. 15 
and p. 169 fig. 16. Centaur and Nymph. 
A bearded centaur with equine ears and head turned to his r. side is embracing 

a nymph who stands with her back towards him in front of his human body. Both 

stand on a plinth, from which rises a thick 
support between the centaur's legs. His 
1. arm is slipped under her arm and his 
hand rests on her 1. breast; his r. hand 
rests against her r. arm. She coquetishly 
lifts her chiton. Traces of black and red 
paint are still visible. According to Ni- 
cole this unique group dates from the fifth 
century B. C., but Deonna is probably 
right in assigning it to the sixth century. 
If, as I surmise, the centaurs of Class C 
are an Aeolic invention, it would not be 
surprising to find them in Cyprus, where 
the Aeolic form of capital is also known. 
It may be that some of the Cypri- 
ote terracottas catalogued under Class B 
had hoofs attached to their human fore- 
legs, but since the feet are either broken 
off, as on nos. 205, 207, or are not indi- 
cated, see no. 206, certainty cannot be 

Fig. 38. After Revue Arch. XII, 1908 p. 168 fig. 15. gained On tillS 




Conclusion. 



135 



CONCLUSION. 

The earliest representations of centaurs are found in Babylonia, where they 
are either purely decorative or have power to ward off evil. In the Minoan and 
Mycenaean periods I did not find a single monument with the representation of 
a centaur, though almost every other fantastic combination of animal and man 
occurs. Not before the geometric period is the centaur introduced into Greece, 
derived probably from the Hittites to whom the horse was known as early as 2000 
B. C. It is a fair inference that the idea of the centaur could only arise among 
people to whom the horse was well-known. It is noteworthy that in the early 
geometric period, i.e. the ninth and first half of the eighth centuries B.C., the cen- 
taur is not yet illustrative of legend or myth ; he has either purely decorative or per- 
haps sepulchral significance. Not until the end of the eighth century, see no. 203, 
? do we have the first mythological subject depicted. I am of opinion, therefore, 
that the art type was known to the Greeks before there were any myths or legends 
concerning the centaurs, and that the stories arose in connection with and in 
illustration of the art type. The etymology of the word centaur is not known. 

The earliest centaur type is not that of my Class B with human forelegs, but 
of Class A with equine forelegs, though we have literary evidence to the effect 
that hippocentaurs with human forelegs were also known in Babylonia, see under 
no. 2. The Greeks, however, from the very beginning were aquainted with both 
types of centaurs, those with equine and those with human forelegs, as is evinced 
by the occurrence of both types on one and the same monument of the geometric 
period, no. 5. A third type, my Class C, with human forelegs ending in hoofs, 
seems to have been an Aeolic invention of the sixth century B. C., which never 
became popular. Up to the present it has been almost universally held that cen- 
taurs were first represented with human forelegs, out of which type the equine legged 
centaurs developed, but a glance at my catalogue makes such a theory untenable. 

Let us now review the legends illustrated on archaic monuments. We have 
already seen that in the beginning centaurs have decorative and probably sepulchral 
significance, also power to avert evil. In Etruria, nos. 282, 317, and probably 
in Cyprus, nos. 205, 206, the oriental sepulchral significance still prevails in the 
sixth century, and it may here be not out of place to add that the Christian idea 
of the centaur as described by Dante can be traced by way of Rome back to Etruria. 
In the seventh century B. C.the_ legends associating the centaurs with Herakles 
and perhaps with the Lapiths aroseTDiirthe Melian gems of that period is found 
a centaur trying to escape the arrows of Herakles; the hero, however, is not 
represented. On vases of the transition period, see nos. 213 A and 227, Nessos 
occurs with human forelegs. On Attic vase-paintings of the archaic period the 
following myths and legends are illustrated: i. the Nessos adventure, 2. Pholos 
welcoming Herakles, 3. the opening of the pithos, 4. Pholos entertaining Herakles, 
5. the centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe, 6. the Thessalian centauromachy, especially 
the Kaineus episode, 7. Peleus wrestling with Thetis in the presence of Chiron, 
8. the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, where Chiron is the first to congratuTaTe 
the newly wedded couple; on a r. f. stamnos of the fifth century, no. 266, 



136 



Conclusion. 



we find the only representation of Chiron inviting Peleus and Thetis to enter 
his cave, where they are married, 9. Peleus bringing the child Achilles to Chi- 
ron; on a severe r. f. cylix, no. 251, Thetis takes the place of Peleus, 10. Her- 
mes bringing the child Herakles to Chiron, n. Chiron teaching Achilles to throw 
the lance, no. 245. Of genre scenes there are: 12. Chiron sacrificing, no. 255, 
13. centaurs on the hunt, nos. 81, 82; 14. combat between two centaurs, nos. 84, 85, 
and 15. purely decorative centaurs, as on no. 95. Of all these subjects illustrated 
I in archaic Attic art the NeSQS___stpry is the most popular, though in the later r. 
f. period it is extremely rare. Of myths not mentioned in extant ancient literature 
there are on Attic vase-paintings two: i. centaurs coming to the aid of Nessos, 
nos. 32, 33, 36, 38, and 2. a woman supplicating a centaur, no. 48, whereas on an 
Etrusco-Ionic vase, no. 176, a centaur is on his knees before a woman, and on the 
same vase a centaur protects one warrior against another. It is noteworthy that 
the Thessalian centauromachy in archaic art never takes place in the presence 
of Lapith women, nor in the banqueting hall of Peirithoos, as in later art ; it seems, 
therefore, as if the expedition of the Lapiths against the centaurs was planned 
a considerable time after the wedding feast. The prey of centaurs in the archaic 
period is the fox, the hare, the deer and the bird, see also my remarks under 
no. 81. 

The centauromachy of Herakles is found not only in Attic art, but also on a 
"Cyrenaic" deinos, no. 161, on an Ionic amphora, no. 162, on Italo-Ionic amphorae, 
nos. 172, 173 A, 307, on the architectural reliefs from Assos and Samsoun, 
nos. 182, 183, on stamped red ware from Cotrone, no. 196, from Sicily, no. 197, 
and from the Argive Heraeum, no. 218, on a bronze plaque from Olympia, no, 222, 
on the Proto-Corinthian vases, nos. 224, 226, and on a Corinthian skyphos, 
no. 228. The story of Nessos also occurs on Chalcidian pottery, nos. 163 165, on the 
Proto-Attic vase, no. 213 A, and on the fragment, no. 227. Pholos entertaining 
Herakles may also occur on the Cretan stamped relief plaques, no. 220, otherwise 
this subject is limited to Attic art. The story of Eurytion seems to occur only once 
in archaic art, on an amphora made in Italy under Chalcidian influence, no. 308. 
Remarkable is the paucity of centaur representations on Corinthian monuments, 
even though the subject was well known from the famous chest of Cypselus. 

Outside of Attica the Thessalian centauromachy occurs in Chalkis, no. 166, 
on Italiot pottery, nos. 171/181, on Etrusco-Ionic pottery, nos. 176, 176 A (Kaineus 
episode), furthermore an a painted relief vase from Arezzo, no. 314, on stamped 
red ware from Sicily, no. 198, perhaps on the sima of the old temple of Artemis 
at Ephesos, no. 231, and on a Caeretan hydria, no. 322. 

Centaurs characterized as hunters occur, as we have seen, on Attic monuments, 
furthermore on a Proto-Attic bowl, no. 211, on an Ionic amphora, no. 174, and 
Clazomenian sarcophagus, no. 320, on Etrusco-Ionic amphorae, nos. 179, 315 A, on 
a terracotta statuette from Cyprus, no. 206, on Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221, 
on a terracotta tripod from Corneto, no. 281, on an Etruscan Bucchero cup, 
no. 285, on an Etruscan gold plaque, no. 293, and on a bronze bowl in repousse 
work, no. 305. 

Centaurs attacking each other are found not only in Attic art, but also in 
Ionic and Italo-Ionic, nos. 313, 324, and in Etrusco-Ionic art, no. 178. 



Conclusion. 



137 



Centaurs sporting with nymphs are represented on Thraco-Macedonian coins 
of Babylonian standard, no. 191, on gold and electron coins of Phocaic standard, 
no. 190, on a scarab of northern Ionic or perhaps Aeolic style, no. 325, and on a 
Cypriote lime-stone group, no. 326, probably under Aeolic influence, and perhaps 
on a terracotta group from Tanagra, no. 208. In this connection must be mentioned 
the only extant ithyphallic centaur, no. 209, and the centaur sporting with Pegasos, 
no. 312., an Etruscan imitation of Ionic style. 

In addition to the subjects which defy all attempts of interpretation on Attic' 
and Etrusco-Ionic vase-paintings already mentioned, nos. 48 and 176, must be 
added the bronze group of the geometric period, no. 203, the Proto-Corinthian 
lekythos, no. 225, and the Etruscan stamped ware, nos. 282, 284, the Rhodian 
stamped ware, nos. 215 217, and the Corinthian pinax, no. 22ga). 

Chiron in the archaic period always has human forelegs and is draped, with 
one exception, no. 242, where he is nude. It was left entirely to the whim of the 
artist whether Chiron should have human or equine ears; on Attic vase-paintings 
he occurs five times with equine to twelve times with human ears. 

As a rule Pholos has equine forelegs and is nude, on the Attic amphora, 
no. 133, however, an equine forelegged Pholos is draped. When Pholos is represented 
with human forelegs he is sometimes nude, as on nos. 230, 269, 270, and sometimes 
draped, as on nos. 141, 142, 228, 267, 268. 

In addition to Chiron and Pholos, other centaurs, who cannot be identified, 
are sometimes draped, e. g. on a Proto-Corinthian vase, no. 225, on a Bucchero 
incised vase, no. 291, a bronze statuette from Umbria, no. 300, and on an ivory 
situla from Chiusi, no. 301. 

Centaurs wearing merely a loin-cloth are nameless with one exception, where 
Nessos is represented, on a fragment of the transition period found in the Argive 
Heraeum, no. 227. They occur on Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221, on an Etruscan 
Bucchero goblet with incised figures, no. 290, and on a bronze statuette, no. 297. 

Winged centaurs are rare, they are found, however, on a Babylonian boundary 
stone of the Cassite period, no. 2, on a Cassite seal impression, no. 3, on an Attic 
geometric vase under oriental influence, no. 4, occasionally on Etruscan Bucchero 
ware, nos. 285, 289, and on a bronze helmet from Oppeano, no. 303. 

In Greece beardless centaurs are rare in the archaic period, but in Italy under 
the influence of Asia Minor they are quite common, witness the Polledrara hydria, 
no. 315, the stamped red ware reliefs nos. 273 275, 277, 281, the Etruscan stamnos, 
no. 176, the Italiot hydria, no. 176 A, the amphorae nos. 170, 315 A, the Etruscan 
bronze statuettes, nos. 294 296, the Etrusco-Ionic vase, no. 313, the Etruscan 
red and Bucchero ware, nos. 281 A, 282 287, 291, the bronze helmet from Op- 
peano, in the province of Verona, no. 303, and the bronze bowl, no. 305. Of 
youthful beardless centaurs in Greece I have found only a few, and they too show 
oriental influence, either direct or indirect, for instance, the Rhodian gold plaques, 
no. 221, the Rhodian stamped red ware, nos. 215, 216, the Cypriote terracotta, 
no. 18, the Proto-Corinthian lekythos, no. 226, and the Corinthian pinax, no. 229a). 
Centaurs with short hair are probably of Ionic origin, see under no. 173. Shaggy 
centaurs do not occur in Ionic and Etruscan art; they are characteristic of Con- 
tinental Greece. Their absence in Ionia is probably mere chance. Shagginess is 

Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 1 



138 



Conclusion. 



represented in archaic art in three different ways, I. on the Attic vase-fragment 
by Sophilos, no. 21, the equine body alone is shaggy, 2. on the "Cyrenaic" vase, 
no. 161, and on an incised bronze plaque from Dodona, no. 200, the whole body, 
both human and equine, is shaggy, whereas 3. on the Proto-Corinthian lekythos, 
no. 226, the Corinthian vase, no. 228, and on the bronze repousse relief from Olympia, 
no. 222, only the human body is shaggy. 

Just before going to press I have received a dissertation by Hermann Oelschig, 
De centaur omachiae in arte graeca figuris, Halle, 1911. For convenience's sake I 
shall adopt his system of grouping, giving first his examples and then those he has 
overlooked. 

I. HERAKLES. 

1. Routing centaurs: nos. 182, 226, 222, 228 (not Proto-Corinthian but Co- 
rinthian), 154, 155, 154 A, 108, 152, 21, 173 A (Wiirzburg 105 not 102), 173. In 
addition to these Oelschig might have added: nos. 31, 57, 153, 162, 183, 197, 310. 

2. Some of the centaurs oppose Herakles: nos. 307, 172, 161, 43, 278, 277, 77, 
76, 80. Of these I prefer to catalogue nos. 76, 77 as Herakles and Nessos. In ad- 
dition to Oelschig's examples I have found the following: nos. 13, 14, 107, 195 (?), 
196, 218, 323 (?). 

3. Herakles pursuing one centaur (Nessos or Eurytion), a) still pursuing, 
not yet overtaken: nos. 49, 45, 47, 53. To these I can add: nos. 48, 50, 52 (incor- 
rectly catalogued by Oelschig under III 5 d), 56, 57. b) where the centaur is already 
captured: 164, 19, 26, 27, 51. In addition I have found: nos. 43 A, 22, 28, 29. 

4. Herakles rescuing a woman from a centaur (Nessos), a) Deianeira standing 
still: nos. 44, 74, 71, 61, 24. My additional examples are: nos. 20, 30, 32, 46, 63 
(incorrectly catalogued by Oelschig under I 40), 227. On no. 213 A she is sitting 
in the chariot. 

b) Deianeira tries to escape: nos. 54, 73, 72. I have found one more example: 
no. 55- 

c) Deianeira sitting on the back of Nessos: nos. 70, 66, 34, 67, 63 (belongs under 
I 4 a), 69, 65, 25, 63 A, 68, 36, 35, 78, 75, 79. To these may be added: nos. 64, 
165, probably 69 A. 

d) Nessos carrying Deianeira in his arms : nos. 163, 308 (probably not Nessos) 
69 A (see under c), 33, 38, 62. See also nos. 37, 163 A, 208 (?), 325 (Centaur and 
Nymph), and cf. 326. 

e) Deianeira escapes from his arms: No archaic examples. 

II. THESSALIAN CENTAUROMACHY IN PRESENCE OF WOMEN. 

No archaic examples, unless perhaps no. 321. 

III. THESSALIAN CENTAUROMACHY, NO WOMEN PRESENT. 

i. Centaur and Lapith confronted: nos. 215, 216, 217 (Lapith?), 23, 60, 59, 
176 A, 109, 118, 99, 225 (?). My additional examples are: nos. 39, 42, 58, no, 
i66A, 224, cf. also nos. in, 203. 



Addenda. 



139 



2. One seizes the other: nos. 102, 116. To these may be added: nos. 113, 
175 A, 176, 231. 

3. One puts the other to flight: nos. 198, 50 (to my mind Herakles and Nessos), 
101, 177 (belongs under III 5 f), 311 (here, however, Silenus does not pursue the 
centaurs), 181, 115, 102, 322. Furthermore I have found: nos. 40, 58, 114, 284, 314. 

4. One or the other is wounded and falls to the ground, a) confronted: no. 23. 
A better example is no. 116, see also no. 117. 

b) One pursues the other: nos. 36, 116 (does not belong here, because they are 
confronted), 101 (see III 3), 118 (confronted), 98, 176 A, 97, 96. See also no. 3o6(?). 

5. Where a group of three are depicted, a) a Lapith surrounded by two cen- 
taurs : nos. 123 (Kaineus), 124 (Kaineus), 125 (belongs under III 5 b), 59, 100, 
103, 123 A (Kaineus). To these may be added: nos. 58, 40 (Kaineus), 122 (Kaineus). 

b) Kaineus partially buried: nos. 23, 121, 120. My additional examples are: 
nos. 119, 125, 126, 127, 176, 176 A, see also no. 41 where Kaineus is attacked by 
one centaur. 

c) One centaur between two Lapiths : nos. 36, 112. See also nos. 175 A, 171, 113,59. 

d) A centaur pursuing a Lapith to whose aid another Lapith comes: no. 52. 
I interpret this example as Herakles and Nessos and an agitated spectator on the 
r., because on the 1. there is another spectator. Oelschig might have added: 

e) Two Lapiths to r. attacking a centaur to 1. : nos. 104, 105, 106, 166 and 

f) Two Lapiths to r. pursuing a centaur to r. : no. 177. 



ADDENDA. 

To no. 16. The statuette referred to in Wiirzburg is of Class B, inv. no. 1604, 
Collection Margaritis, from Greece. It is far more advanced in 
technique than the Munich statuette no. 210 A (addenda). 
16 A. Four terracotta statuettes. Athens (Boeotian ?). The Hague, Scheurleer, 
Catalogue eenev Verzameling Egyptische, Grieksche, Romeinsche en andere 
Oudheden, The Hague 1909, pi. 17, 2, p. 114 no. 194. 

Two of these centaurs wear a chlamys over 1. arm; all are galloping to r. 
They have big mouths, broad noses and long beards; their tails project hori- 
zontally. The 1. arm is extended, the r. drawn back but bent at the elbow. 
All have metal rings on their heads for suspension, so too the statuette of a 
youth on horse-back which belongs to this set. Probably a child's toy. 
78 A. Plate. Tubingen. Story of Nessos. Diameter o. 16 m. 

Within a border of rays, as on nos. 24, 78, is Nessos to r., bearded, equine 
ears; he looks round at Deianeira, draped, who sits to r. on his back, but turns 
her head away from him. Above her r. arm, which rests on his flank, is a 
bird flying to r. Herakles, as on nos. 75, 78, 79, is not represented. 
83 A. Cup. Karditsa, Boeotia. The Hague, Scheurleer, Catalogus, pi. 36, 2, p. 189 

no. 388. Boeotian fabric. 

Outside, encircling the vase without interruption : Two centaurs to r. pursue 
a nude youth with chlamys over 1. shoulder; in front of him are two centaurs 
running to r., the foremost looking back. Then comes another nude youth to 

1 8* 



, . o Addenda. 

r., looking back and brandishing a club in 1. ; in front of him is a centaur to r., 
looking back; and finally a third nude youth to r., who, although confronted 
by a centaur, looks back. There is no inner connection between the groups, 
no real battle, although the centaurs are armed with stones. The youths seem 
to wear leather caps; the centaurs have equine ears and long beards, in com- 
position identical with the centaur on a cup of exactly the same shape, no. 83. 
83 B. Cylix. Italy. Wurzburg, Urlichs, Verzeichniss III 155. 

Inside: A bearded centaur with a stone in each hand, the r. drawn back, 
the 1. extended, gallops to r. and looks back. He has equine ears and white 
marks on his body. 
90 A. Cylix. Italy. Wurzburg. Urlichs, Verzeichniss i 85. 

Exterior, A : A centaur galloping to 1. with a stone in each hand pursues a doe. 
To no. 173 A. Certainly Attic. Herakles is nude, the first centaur grasps him 
by the shoulder. The fallen warrior under the other centaur 
half reclines to 1. but looks to r. 
201 A. Six-sided Intaglio. Steatite. Collection Arndt. 

A centaur walking to 1. holds a bird (?) in front of him, and with the 
other hand drawn back holds the r. hand of a draped figure who fills the upper 
right hand corner; her feet are on a level with the centaur's equine back, but 
behind him. Under the centaur is a bird to r., behind him a triangular-shaped 
object. Both figures have extremely small heads. The centaur seems to be 
bearded; human pudenda are not indicated. 

210 A. Terracotta Statuette. Greece. Collection Margaritis, Auction Catalogue, 
no. 180. Munich Antiquarium, no. 771 a. Height 0.155 m. 

Chest and equine back are painted red, human forelegs with feet roughly 
indicated are striped like a zebra, the tail projects, the r. arm is curved upward. 
The eyes are not worked out plastically, but are merely painted on the primi- 
tively modeled face; he has human pudenda. 

Dr. Arndt possesses a similar figurine, height 0.12 m, also of the geometric 
period. It is painted red. 

To no. 240. "Phoenician" Scarab. Carnelian. Babelon, Coll. Pauvert de la Chapelle, 
Intailles et Camees pi. V 41 and p. 20 : A winged bearded centaur to 1., 
human pudenda not indicated, holds a boar in both hands before him. 
295 A. Bronze Statuette. Munich Antiquarium, no. IV 1155. Acquired in Baden- 
Baden. Hallstadt period. Height 0.065, length of plinth 0.04 m. 

As on the Etruscan similar examples the equine body is pierced, also the 

plinth. The face is merely a round ball, with only the nose indicated; his hands 

are at his hips. His human forelegs are close together; he has human pudenda. 

To no. 302. In Bollettino d'Arte, 1909 p. 168 fig. 3, a centaur is visible on 

the lowest band of one of these ivory arms. He is stumbling to r., 

looks back and extends his r. arm. 

To no. 311. Judging from the original it seems impossible to say whether these 
centaurs have hoofs or human feet. 

Examples of Campanian black ware in Berlin and Munich, Collection Arndt, 
Glyptothek, stamped from the same mould used on the Leyden vase, make 
it evident that Roulez's drawing is accurate after all. 



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