IN ANCIENT ART
THE ARCHAIC PERIOD
PAUL v:c: BAUR
WITH 38 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT AND 15 PLATES
SPAMERSCHE BUCHDRUCKEREI IN LEIPZIG
TO My WIFE
The centaur in ancient literature has often been discussed, but so far as I know
an exhaustive study of the centaur in ancient art has never been made. Such a
study seemed to me worth while, especially since an erroneous impression concerning
the development of the types has become almost universal, due to the limited
horizon of those who have dealt only casually with this subject. For Nessos, Chiron
and Pholos Stephani, Compte-Rendu 1865, 102 sqq. and 1873, 73 sqq., 90 sqq. has
collected valuable material.
I have attempted to catalogue the various types from the earliest times down
to the end of the archaic period, 480 B.C., and have made a three-fold division,
Class A : Centaurs with equine forelegs, Class B : Centaurs with human forelegs, and
Class C: Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs. So far as it was practical
I have arranged the examples collected according to locality and in chronological
order, at the same time attempting to form groups of the various mythological
subjects. This could not very well be carried out systematically and methodically
in the archaic period of Attic ceramic art of Class A for various reasons, but espe-
cially because two different subjects sometimes are found on one and the same vase.
Occasionally I have included monuments of even later date than 480 B. C., but
only where the types seemed important for a full understanding of those of earlier
It is an agreeable task to acknowledge my indebtedness to my friend and teacher,
the late Professor Kekule von Stradonitz, who encouraged me to publish this
work, and to Professor Robert Zahn who also had made a collection of centaurs in
ancient art which he unselfishly placed at my disposal. Both were of inestimable
help in making it pleasant for me to collect the material in the Berlin Museum
and in the Archaeological Apparat of the Berlin University. To Dr. J. Sieveking
of Munich my hearty thanks are due for his help in procuring illustrative material,
so too to Dr. Edward Robinson of the Metropolitan Museum and to Drs. J. H.
Holwerda and M. A. Evelein of Ley den. To all the other curators of Museums
who have aided me by supplying photographs and other needful information I
hereby acknowledge my thanks.
Berlin, April 1912. Paul V. C. Baur.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
A. Centaurs of Class A with equine forelegs on:
I. Oriental monuments I
II. Monuments of the geometric period : 4
III. Early archaic Melian intaglios 7
IV. Melian stamped red ware 8
V. Primitive terracotta figurines:
a) Boeotia 9
b) Cyprus 9
VI. Archaic Attic vases 10
VII. "Cyrenaic" pottery 53
VIII. Ionic pottery, Aegean island style 56
IX. "Euboean" and Corinthian pottery 57
X. Theban Cabirion ware 61
XI. Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases 61
XII." Architectural reliefs:
a) Assos 68
b) Samsoun 70
XIII. Ionic bronze statuette 71
XIV. Etruscan bronze statuette 71
XV. Gems, Greek and Etruscan 72
XVI. Coins 72
XVII. Etruscan bucchero ware 74
XVIII. Stamped red ware of uncertain fabric 74
B. Centaurs of Class B with human forelegs on:
I. Monuments of the geometric period 78
II. Primitive bronzes and terracottas 78
III. Vases of transition period between geometric and later styles 82
IV. Melian gem 84
V. Stamped red ware 84
VI. Cretan stamped relief ware 87
VII. Rhodian stamped gold plaques 88
VIII. Bronze reliefs from Olympia 89
IX. Proto-Corinthian vases 90
X. Corinthian ware 93
XI. Clazomenian sarcophagi 95
XII. Plastic monuments 96
XIII. Bronze chariot from Monteleone 97
XIV. "Cyrenaic" pottery 97
XV. Greek bronze statuettes 98
XVI. Greek gems 99
* XVII. Attic vases 100
XVIII. Etruscan red ware:
a) Stamped reliefs no
b) Incised figures 112
Table of Contents. VII
XIX. Etruscan bucchero ware: Pa s e
a) Stamped reliefs 113
b) Incised figures 115
XX. Etruscan gold jewelry 117
XXI. Etruscan bronze statuettes. 117
XXII. Etruscan ivory monuments 119
XXIII. Italian metal work 120
XXIV. Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases 122
XXV. Etruscan gems 129
XXVI. Etruscan stone relief 129
C. Centaurs of Class C with human forelegs but hoofs instead of human feet on:
I. Clazomenian sarcophagi 130
II. Clazomenian vases 131
III. Caeretan hydria 132
IV. Etrusco-Ionic vases 133
V. Ionic gem 134
VI. Cypriote monuments 134
A . J. A . = American Journal of Archaeology.
Annali = Annali dell' Institute.
Ant. Denkm. = Antike Denkmaler, herausgegeben vom K. Deutschen Archaologischen Institut.
Arch. Anz. = Archaologischer Anzeiger (Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch).
Arch. Ztg. Archaologische Zeitung.
Ath. Mitt. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung.
Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue = E. Babelon-J. A. Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes antiques de la Biblio-
B. C. H. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique.
B. S. A . Annual of the British School at Athens.
Bull. d. Inst. = Bullettino dell'Instituto.
Bull. Nap. = Bullettino Napolitano.
Coghill = J. Millingen, Peintures antiques de Vases Grecs de la Collection de Sir John Coghill, Bart.
Collignon-Couve = Catalogue des Vases peints du Musee National d'Athenes.
Compte- Rendu Stephani, Compte-Rendu de la Commission Imperiale Archeologique.
'E(f. 'Ag%. ^EfftifiEQi? 'Ao%aio/.oyixt/.
Friederichs, Bronzen = C. Friederichs, Berlins Antike Bildwerke II. Cerate und Bronzen im Alten Museum.
Furtwangler-Reichhold = A. Furtwangler und K. Reichhold, Griechische Vasenmalerei.
Furtwangler = A. Furtwangler, Beschreibung der Vasensammlung im Antiquarium, Berlin.
Head, Hist. Num. B. Head, Historia Numorum (i st ed.).
Helbig, Fuhrer = W. Helbig, Fuhrer durch die offentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Altertumer in Rom.
Heuzey, Cat. des figurines = L. Heuzey, Les figurines antiques de terre cuite du Musee du Louvre.
Heydemann = H. Heydemann, Die Vasensammlungen des Museo nazionale zu Neapel.
Jahn O. Jahn, Beschreibung der Vasensammlung Konig Ludwigs in der Pinakothek zu Munchen.
Jahrb. = Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts.
J. H. S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies.
Laborde = A. de Laborde, Collection de Vases Grecs de M. le Comte de Lamberg.
Masner = K. Masner, Die Sammlung antiker Vasen und Terracotten im K. K. Osterreichischen Museum.
Micali, Mon. Ined. = G. Micali, Monument! inediti a illustrazione della storia degli antichi popoli italiani.
Micali, Storia = G. Micali, Monumenti per servire alia storia degli antichi popoli italiani.
Miiller-Wieseler, D. a. K. = Miiller-Wieseler, Denkmaler der alten Kunst.
Overbeck, Her. Bildw. = J. Overbeck, Gallerie heroischer Bildwerke der alten Kunst.
Pettier, Album E. Pettier, Vases antiques du Louvre (Two volumes of plates).
Pettier, Catalogue = E. Pettier, Catalogue des Vases antiques du Louvre.
Reinach, Rep. Reliefs = S. Reinach, Repertoire de Reliefs Grecs et Romains.
Reinach, Rep. Statuaire S. Reinach, Repertoire de la Statuaire Greque et Romaine.
Reinach, Rep. Vas. S. Reinach, Repertoire des Vases peints Grecs et Etrusques.
Rev. Arch. = Revue Archeologique.
De Ridder, Cat. d. Vases Peints A. de Ridder, Catalogue des Vases peints de la Bibliothdque Nationale.
Robinson = E. Robinson, Catalogue of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Vases, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Rom. Mitt. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Romische Abteilung.
Schmidt, Der Knielauf = Eduard Schmidt, Der Knielauf und die Darstellung des Laufens und Fliegens
in der alteren Griechischen Kunst (Miinchener Archaologische Studien, dem Andenken Adolf Furt-
Sieveking-Hackl = J. Sieveking und R. Hackl, Miinchener Vasensammlung, I. Bd., Die alteren nicht-
Stephani = L. Stephani, Die Vasen-Sammlung der kais. Ermitage.
Walters = H. B. Walters, Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan Vases in the British Museum, vol. II. Black-
I. ORIENTAL MONUMENTS.
I. Prism-seal. Fig. I. Steatite. Crete. Berlin, Cat. no. 62. Evans, /. H. S. 1894
p. 344 fig. 69; Scripta Minoa I p. n fig. 5b.
A centaur stands to r. with one arm outstretched, the other drawn back; in
front of him is an unexplained object. Evans, Scripta Minoa I p. 130 dates the
early prism-seals of Crete between the sixth and eleventh dynasty, and on p. 119
he says they belong to Early Minoan II and III and to the beginning of Middle
Minoan. The earliest date then that can be assigned to our prism-seal is 2500 B. C.
the latest 2000 B.C. Evans does not comment on the very remarkable phenomenon
of ji centaur in prehistoric Crete. Although I have made a thorough search I have
not been able to find another example either in the pre-Mycenaean period or in the
Mycenaean period. This non-existence of the centaur before the geometric period
is surprising, for in the Minoan period monstrosities fantastic
and demoniac abound. Every conceivable combination occurs,
except that of horse and man. Since the centaur on this prism-
seal is unique in Crete I consider the seal a foreign, probably
Babylonian, importation. Although Evans considers these
early seals to be of local manufacture, he does admit on p. 123
that they and the cylinders show reminiscences of Chaldean
j Tt -i i r j i j *j_ Fig. i. Detail from T. H. S. 1894
and Babylonian forms and on p. 243 he admits a remote con- - p 344 fig . 69 .
nection between primitive pictography of Crete and Anatolia.
Of course the date of the origin of the centaur depends largely on the date of
the origin of the horse. Furthermore we must look for the origin of the centaur in
a locality where the horse was well-known and at home. Ridgeway , Origin and
Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse p. 198 on authority of Hilprecht, Explorations
in Bible Lands p. 527 states that "the horse does not appear to have been known in
that region much before 1500 B. C." Ridgeway holds that "they came to the
Euphrates Valley from Upper Asia." In Babylonia the horse is called the "Ass
of the Mountains", which shows that it is a foreign importation. On p. 475 Ridgeway
says that the horse "originated in North Africa, from whence it has gradually kept
spreading northward and eastward from at least ioo() B^ C." That the horse was
introduced from Libya into Crete not earlier than 1500 B. C. is now made highly
probable by the seal impression found by Evans, B. S. A. XI p. 13 fig. 7, depicting
a horse being transported in a sailboat. If Hilprecht were correct in his state-
ment that the horse was not known in Babylonia much before 1500 B.C., then our
seal could not come from Babylonia, but Ungnad, Orient. Litter aturzeit. 1907 p. 638
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. I
2 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
proves that the oldest reference to the horse in Babylonia goes back to 2000 B. C.
One might suppose that we have Libyan influence in this seal, and that the centaur
is a Libyan invention. If this were true, it would, however, be very surprising that
the Egyptians did not know the centaur. But since, as we have seen, the horse
was known in Babylonia as early as 2000 B. C., there is no reason why our prism-
seal should not have been made in Babylonia. Now since at this time the Hittites
were in power in Babylonia it is quite possible that the seal was made under Hittite
2. Cassite Boundary Stone. London. Hinke, The Babylonian Expedition of the
University of Pennsylvania, vol. IV. A New Boundary Stone of Nebuchadrezzar I
p. 98 fig. 32, Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art III 604 fig. 412, Roscher's Lexikon II i
According to Hinke /. c. p. 7 the Cassite rulers were foreigners, "who came
most likely from the mountainous regions east of Babylonia," and introduced the
custom of setting up boundary stones on private land. The text contains curses,
also symbols of i. shrines or seats of the gods, 2. weapons of the gods, 3. reliefs of
the gods themselves. The arrow occurs i. alone, or 2. held by a scorpion-man with
a bow, or 3. by a centaur with a bow. The centaur who is double-headed and winged
gallops to r. and stretches his bow; he is bearded, wears a pointed cap and a quiver
on his back. His other head is that of a dragon facing 1., his human head, however,
faces r. He has two tails as well as two heads, one is that of a horse, the other
of a scorpion, and under him is a scorpion. On a boundary stone found at Susa,
Hinke /. c. p. 76 fig. 23 12 , the centaur is also found, but here he is wingless, has
only one head and one tail. He is walking to the 1. and is about to shoot an arrow.
This is evidently the symbol out of which the Sagittarius of the zodiac developed.
The centaur on the boundary stones of Babylonia is, according to my mind, not a
sign of the zodiac, which would be entirely out of place on such a monument, but
has power to ward off evil, which fits in well with the curses on the stones. I have
sought in vain for a satisfactory explanation of the centaur's appearance in the
zodiac, nor have I been able to discover when this took place.
Perrot /. c. in connection with the centaur on the boundary stone in the British
Museum, cites an interesting passage from Berosus (Fr. hist, graec., ed. Didot, vol. II
fragm. I) to the effect that before human beings lived on earth, it was inhabited by
monsters, and among these he mentions men with the hindquarters of a horse,
having the appearance of hippocentaurs, and that images of all these strange beasts
were to be seen in the. temple of Bel. According to this description the centaurs,
even though they are called hippocentaurs by Berosus, must have been of my Class B.
Up to the present not a single example of this class has been found in the Orient,
but in Etruria under oriental influence they are common enough. Since the Greeks
from the very beginning were acquainted with both types of centaurs, those with
equine and those with human forelegs, and since in Babylonia Class A actually
exists and Class B is recorded, it seems more than probable that the idea of the
centaur came to the Greeks through the Orient. It is noteworthy that in the
geometric period the Greek centaurs have not yet mythological significance, unless
we have an exception in no. 203. At first purely decorative, they soon were supposed
to have power to avert evil, and as early as the seventh century B. C. stories began
Oriental monuments. 3
to^be invented about them. In other words the finished art type existed before any
legends concerning centaurs were known. These legends arose in connection with
and in explanation of the art type.
3. Impression on a clay tablet made from a seal cylinder. Fig. 2. Nippur. Phila-
' delphia, Mus. No. 3176. Clay, Babylonian Expedition of the University of Penn-
sylvania, vol. 14, p. 15 and pi. XV. 6, Ward, Seal Cylinders of Western Asia p. 4
fig. 21. .
According to Clay the impression representing a centaur which is on all sides
of the tablet dates from the Cassite period about^i35o B. C., and is accompanied by
a text which is a payment of salary. The tablet was not large enough to receive
the entire impression, but the lower border partly preserved has as its most con-
spicuous element a lozenge pattern. Other sealings of the same period have a trian-
gular pattern similar to that on the geometric stamped gold diadems nos. 5 and 199
and to that on the stamped red ware found in Sicily, nos. 197 and 198. The centaur
with small wings growing out of the small of his back is galloping to r. and is
about to shoot an arrow T from a bow; his quiver is on his back and over his equine
body he wears the skin of a wild animal, probably a
panther, fastened at his waist. On the r. is a date
tree, and under him three flowers.
As to the decorative border at each end of the
cylinder, Clay says: "This seems to be a characteristic
feature of the seals of the Cassite period. Dr. W. H.
Ward has suggested that the seal had a thin metal
cap, presumably of gold, upon which the border
It would be mere speculation to suppose that because the centaur is found on
Cassite monuments, it was originated by the Cassites. All we can say is that they
knew the centaur as early as 1350 B. C. The Hittites, I am convinced, have a better
claim than the Cassites to the invention of the combination between horse and man.
As to the vexing question whether the seal cylinders of Assyria, Ward /. c.
p. 209 fig. 629, p. 210 figs. 631633 should be interpreted as centaurs, there has been,
so far as I can see, little divergence of opinion, except Ohnefalsch Richter, Kypros,
Bibel und Homer p. 259 note **, who states that although we find in Assyrian Art
all kinds of monstrosities made up of man and animal, we do not find real centaurs.
The fantastic figure 633 Ward calls a centaur, but it is a human-headed lion. If we
should follow this method and call every human-headed animal a centaur, we would
have to include the Minotaur in our discussion. It seems to me that unless we hold
closely to the interpretation of the centaur as a human-headed horse with human
arms and torso, we shall not be able to make any progress. Fig. 632 is called by
Ward an archer-centaur shooting a lion-headed winged horse. He is winged, and
seems to have one human and one equine foreleg. He wears a head-dress of reeds,
a beard, and a quiver on his back. The figures move from r. to 1. Fig. 631 is also
called an archer-centaur pursuing a dragon to r. In this as well as in the preceding
figure the scorpion is also represented in the field. One foreleg is human, but there
seems to be two others ending in a scorpion's claws. Even less claim has the "archer-
centaur" on fig. 629, where a bull to 1. is being pursued by a winged monster span-
A Centaurs with equine forelegs.
ning a bow. Here neither the body nor the legs are equine. Ward /. c. p. 382 con-
siders it "very probable that the Greek Centaur came from this Eastern source."
Such figures as these probably had no connection with the Greek centaur at all,
and perhaps not even with the Sagittarius of the zodiac. They are certainly not
symbols of the zodiac on the cylinder seals. Although their date is not fixed they
are probably later than the early geometric period, a time when in Greece the
centaur was already fully established. If we could localize the oriental influence on
Greece during the ninth century B. C. we would also know the oriental locality
from which the Greeks derived the idea of the centaur. This Ohnefalsch Richter
/. c. claims he has done : ,,Der Kentaur ist eine specifisch graecophonikische Schop-
fung", but he offers no evidence.
Ward /. c. p. 355 makes the astonishing statement that the Greeks had no use
for cylinders. How then was the stamped pottery, both Red and Bucchero ware,
how were the stamped diadems of gold, nos. 5 and 199 made?
In St. Petersburg I have seen an interesting Persian sheath of gold, found
in southern Russia, on which are depicted in repousse work all kinds of
monstrosities, combinations of animal and man, but no real centaurs. See
E. Pridik, Materialien zur russischen Archaologie (Russian) 1911 Heft 31
pis. i, 3 and 4.
II. MONUMENTS OF THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD.
4. Cup. Dipylon cemetery. Athens. Bruckner and Pernice, Aih. Mitt. XVIII, 1893
p. 113 fig. 10. Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art VII p. 222 fig. 96. Collignon-Couve,
Catalogue des vases 352. Two winged centaurs confronted.
On the inside round the central disc is a band of figures as follows : On a throne
to 1 . is seated a female deity ; approaching her is a procession of four women holding
hands and branches; the foremost offers the goddess a crown. Behind the throne
are two armed warriors to r. separated by a female (?) figure kneeling to r. on a
stool, and holding in 1. hand a branch, in r. a lyre. Beyond are two winged centaurs
confronted, rearing with outstretched hands as if about to attack each other. Their
tails are uplifted and curve in an impossible but decorative manner. According to
Bruckner I. c. 114 and Perrot /. c. p. 222 the winged figure to r. is a sphinx, but I
prefer to call it a centaur because it has human hands. Bruckner is very much
mistaken when he says that winged centaurs do not occur. They occur in Babylonia
as early as the Cassite period, see nos. 2 and 3 and in Etruria, nos. 285 and 289, and
on the helmet from Oppeano, no. 303. It is therefore evident that in the early
geometric period, perhaps as early as the ninth century B.C., oriental influence was
already felt in Athens; our vase is the earliest illustration of such influence. See
also Hoernes, Urgeschichte p. 617 and Poulsen, Die Dipylongrdber und die Dipylon-
vasen p. 114.
That centaurs did not always live peaceably together is also evinced by the
cylix of Xenokles, no. 85, where other instances, for the most part Etruscan and
Etrusco-Ionic, are cited.
Monuments of the Geometric Period. 5
5. Stamped gold band. Fig. 3. Corinth. Berlin. Furtwangler, Arch. Ztg. 1884
pi. 8, i. Centaurs of Class A and Class B in a procession of cavalry and infantry.
The procession moves from r. to 1. contrary to the usual custom in early Greek
art; it is led by three centaurs with human forelegs, carrying small branches in
their hands. The second has a long branch over his shoulder as on the somewhat
later stamped Bucchero and red ware. They are followed by two cavalry-men, the
first wearing a helmet. Then come two centaurs with equine forelegs, carrying
branches, followed by a long procession of infantry holding hands, the leader with
a lance, the fifth with a bow or a shield. This group is interrupted by a horned
animal, evidently a sacrificial victim, the same motive occurring again on the lower
frieze of the same strip of gold. Here some of the cavalry-men have not yet mounted,
that is, they are preparing to join the procession. In the field, branches and a
swastika. For a very similar gold fillet from Athens, now in Copenhagen, on which,
however, no centaurs of Class A are preserved, see no. 199. Similar processions
with dancing men and women also occur on the geometric pottery, see no. 4 and on
the fragments found in the excavations of the Argive Heraeum, especially Argive
Fig. 3. Detail from Arch. Ztg. 1884 pi. 8, r.
Heraeum vol. II pi. 57 fig. 17, where again the swastika and branches which resemble
arrow-heads decorate the field. It is therefore evident that the gold fillets or diadems
must be dated not later than the eighth century B. C. Poulsen, Dipylongrdber u.
Dipylonvasen p. 130 holds that some of the moulds used in stamping the reliefs on
the diadems came from the Orient, whereas others were of local manufacture. He
comes to this conclusion because the centaurs do not make an Attic impression,
being more closely related to the Rhodian stamped reliefs in terracotta, and to the
Italian Bucchero ware. But as we have seen above, no. 4, there must have been
stronger oriental influence at Athens during the geometric period than is usually
granted, and I see no reason why the matrixes used to stamp our gold bands were
not made in Athens or perhaps in Corinth, to be sure under oriental influence. That
this same influence was felt in Crete, Rhodes, Melos and elsewhere is made plain
by the stamped ware of those centers. Perrot, who also discussed these diadems
in Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art VII p. 246 sq. holds that they were used to decorate
the head of the dead; the frieze then would represent a funeral procession and the
centaurs would have sepulchral significance. Now in Italy the centaurs are occa-
sionally connected with the lower world, they guard the tombs, see no. 317, like
'Charon they lead the spirits to the lower world, see no. 282 and in course of time
(5 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
were considered guardians of the gates of Hades, see especially Milchhofer, An/dnge-
p. 229 and Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1054 S< W' I s it n t therefore probable that the
connection of centaurs with the lower world on Italian and geometric monuments
is to be traced back to oriental ideas ? If this is true then not only the art type but
also the popular conception of the centaur is derived from the Orient.
It is significant that the zigzag pattern above the figures again occurs on the
handle of a red ware vase in Heidelberg, no. 280, also on the stamped red ware
found in Sicily nos. 197, 198, but there below the figures as on the Babylonian sealings
of the Cassite period, see no. 3. It is, furthermore, of interest to note that the
stamped red ware of Etruria sometimes contains a double zone of reliefs as here,
see, for example, Pettier, Album pi. 37 D 282. The meaning of all these resem-
blances is clear, both Greece and Etruria drew independently on the Orient.
6. Lead figurines from the Amyklaion near Sparta and from the Menelaion. Therap-
nai. Now in Nat. Museum, Athens, Antiquarium of Munich and Museum at
Sparta. Tod and Wace, Catalogue of Sparta Museum p - . 226 sqq. fig. 81, Perrot-
ChipiezVIII 185 fig. 93, Rev. Arch. 1897 pi. 2 fig. 20. Wace, B. S. A. XV p. 138
fig. 10, no. 36. Centaurs of Class B also occur.
The use to which these centaurs were put is not known, it is however probable
that they were votive offerings. The one in Munich is from the Menelaion; it has
arms uplifted, human forelegs, and is walking to 1. The tail is broad and flat. The
National Museum at Athens has one from the same place and one from the Amy-
klaion. The centaur published by Wace, B. S. A. XV p. 138 fig. 10, 36 probably
had human forelegs and brandishes a club. It belongs to Wace's Lead III IV
circa 600 500 B. C., and was found in the Menelaion.
7. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Dark green stone resembling serpentine. Melos.
Albertinum, Dresden, Zugangsverz. 1445. Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I
pi. 61, 3; II p. 272 and III p. 65.
A centaur standing to r. with uplifted arms, seems to be brandishing a
stick in each hand. This side of the gem is slightly convex. It is pierced along its
axis for suspension, and may have been used as an amulet. Furtwangler /. c. Ill 65
calls attention to the fact that fantastic and demoniac figures are, with the exception
of the centaur, absent on gems of the geometric period. He also states, and this is
very true and significant, that the centaur does not appear on gems of the Myce-
naean period. Indeed, I have not found a single monument of the Mycenaean period
with the representation of a centaur, though almost every other fantastic combina-
tion occurs. It is furthermore noteworthy that in the early geometric period the
centaurs are not yet incorporated in mythology, though they may have sepulchral
significance. Although they do not occur on Mycenaean monuments, there is at
least one example of pre-Mycenaean date, see no. I, which I believe to be of Hittite
workmanship. We have also seen, nos. 2 and 3, that later in Babylonia, under
Cassite rule, the centaur still flourishes, and I do not doubt that he came to Greece
sometime after the Mycenaean period, but certainly as early as the beginning of
the eighth century, if not before. At this time there were no legends associating him
with Herakles or with the Lapiths. All this developed later, but certainly in the
seventh century, witness the Melian "island-stones", the "Proto-Corinthian" ware
etc. It is furthermore noteworthy that in the Orient the centaur had equine forelegs
Early archaic Melian intaglios. 7
and \, usually winged, although according to Berosus, see under no. 2, the type
with human forelegs was also known. The third type, my Class C, with human
forelegs ending in hoofs, seems to have been an Aeolic invention, which never
became popular. The old theory that the centaur was first represented with human
forelegs, out of which type the equine legged centaurs developed, will no doubt die
hard, for. it had become almost universal in the course of time, It is surprising how
a rash statement will occasionally be repeated from generation to generation for
a. century or more, without verification. A glance at my catalogue makes it evident
that in the Orient the centaur of Class A occurs as early as 2000 B.C. and that on
the very earliest monuments of the geometric period both types A and B occur side
by side sometimes on one and the same monument. On the geometric gems the
change has not yet taken place, but on the Melian stones of the seventh century
both types occur.
III. EARLY ARCHAIC MELIAN INTAGLIOS.
8. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Steatite. Melos. Formerly in Collection Evans, sold
at auction May 8, 1905 Collection d'un Archeologue-Explorateur, Pierres Gravees
Antiques, pi. II 18. Date: seventh century B. C.
A centaur galloping to 1. looks back with both arms uplifted, the palms of his
hands towards his head. He is bearded, and since no pointed ears are visible, was
supposed to have human ears, as in oriental and geometric art. He holds no attri-
butes. His position is more that of a stumbling than of a galloping centaur, the
hindlegs close together and parallel, the front legs as though he were falling on his 1.
knee. On Attic b. f . vases this is frequently the type of Nessos, but here it is probably
one of the centaurs trying to escape the arrows of Herakles, In the Collection Arndt
is a Melian gem with almost identically the same representation, but there the
centaur has human forelegs, see no. 214. It is, however, somewhat later in date.
9. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Steatite. Melos. Bibliotheque Nationale, Cab. d. Med.
Table Case I 6 M 6252.
A centaur to 1. with almost the same pose as that on the preceding gem, except
that the head is turned full face.
10. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Steatite. Melos. Breslau. Rossbach, Arch.Ztg. 1883
pi. 16 figs. 15, 16, p. 331; Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 5, 28, II p. 23,
III p. 73. Engraved on both sides.
A bearded centaur galloping to 1., looks back, r. hand uplifted, 1. arm stret-
ched horizontally behind him. He is wounded by an arrow in his equine back.
His hindlegs are farther apart than on the preceding examples. The wound in his
back makes it apparent that he is trying to escape the arrows of Herakles, in other
words we have here an illustration of a legend in abbreviated form.
11. Intaglio of glandular shape. Steatite. Melos. Berlin, Furtwangler, Geschnittene
Steine no. 93 pi. Ill, and Ant. Gemmen I pi. 5, 29, II p. 23.
A bearded centaur galloping to r., looks back, in his uplifted r. hand he holds
a branch horizontally over his head, in his 1. hand a stone against his chest. One
foreleg is outstretched, the other is bent at the knee under his body, giving the
g Centaurs with equine forelegs.
impression of great speed. This is the only example of a Melian stone with centaur
to r., the others are to 1. Furthermore it is the only example of the set in which
the centaur is armed, the others are empty-handed. On no. 12, however, the centaur
had been armed, but has dropped his branch in his eagerness to escape his pursuer.
12. Intaglio of glandular shape. Steatite. British Museum, Catalogue p. 44 no. 84.
Furtwangler, Gemmen I pi. 5, 33, II p. 23; Keller, Tier- und Pflanzenbilder auf
Munzen u. Gemmen pi. 25, 33.
A centaur, bearded, long hair down his back, long thick tail, gallops to 1.,.
looking back, with arms outstretched full length to r. and 1., both thumbs upwards.
He has dropped his branch in his eagerness to escape Herakles, who, though not
depicted, is his pursuer. As usual his hindlegs are close together, but for the first
time on this class of monuments the forelegs are outstretched close together and not
bent at the knees. A close parallel are the centaurs on the frieze of the temple at
Assos, no. 182, perhaps even closer are the Samsoun reliefs no. 183, and the Melian
stamped reliefs no. 13.
Even in the seventh century as well as in the geometric period, see no. 7, the
Melian stones were used as amulets, which makes it probable that centaurs as well
as Medusa had power to ward off evil and it is interesting to note that on some gems
of the sixth century B. C. Medusa is represented as a centaur, see Furtwangler,.
Gemmen III p. 101, I pi. 7, 39, 40, so too on a stamped relief pithos in the Louvre,
Bull. Con. Hell. 1898 pis. 4 and 5.
IV. MELIAN STAMPED RED WARE.
13. Fragment of a large pithos. Plaka, Melos. Pollak, Ath. Mitt. XXI, 1896,
p. 216 sq. pi. 5, i.
On the 1. end of this fragment is a centaur galloping to r., disheveled hair, r.
arm hanging at his side, 1. arm uplifted against a nude male figure (Herakles)
advancing to 1. with 1. arm outstretched and r. arm uplifted as though brandishing
a club. His weapon is, however, so badly worn that it cannot be made out with
certainty. Behind Herakles are two centaurs galloping to r., the first holds a
branch over his r. shoulder, and with 1. hand brandishes another over his head;
the second centaur is identical with the one facing Herakles, and since the arm of
the hero is preserved at the r. end of the fragment, it is clear that the matrix contained
two centaurs to r. opposed by Herakles, constantly repeated round the neck of the
vase, outside near the rim. The impressions were probably made from a very soft
stone cylinder, and not from one of wood. That the Melian intaglios, nos. 8 12
were actually made on that island is certain, see Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen III 73,
and since the position of the legs on no. 12 is identical with the legs of the centaurs
on the pithos, we may safely infer that the fragment from Plaka, and a similar frag-
ment to be described below, are examples of Melian red ware. There is, of course,
no reason to suppose that all red ware was manufactured in one place. Pollak /. c.
p. 216 calls the opponent of the centaurs a Lapith, but since the opponent on the
Melian gems was evidently Herakles, and since the centauromachies at Assos and
at Samsoun are those of Herakles, I also prefer to see Herakles here. Whether it
Primitive terracotta figurines. C)
was the Ionian beardless type of Herakles is not certain, for the details are not
worked out, nor is it possible to say whether the centaurs were bearded, although
it is highly probable. On the b. f. amphora no. 174 the centaurs galloping to r. and
holding a doe are very similar in pose to those on our fragment.
14. Fragment of a large pithos. PL XII, purchased at Phylakopi, Melos. In possession
of Dr. D. M. Robinson of Johns Hopkins University, to .whom I am indebted
for the photograph here reproduced.
Same subject as the preceding. The height of the relief band is 0.04 m., the
thickness of the fragment is 0.03 at its rim with a double braid pattern on the edge.
Since these details correspond exactly with those on the preceding fragment it is
not only certain that the same cylinder was used but also highly probable that
Robinson's fragment came from the same pithos as that published by Pollak.
15. Fragments of red ware pottery. Melos. Stokes, B. S. A. XII p. 79.
I do not know whether these are from the same engraved cylinder as the
preceding fragments or from another. The reference given by Stokes is very vague;
he merely says that some unpublished fragments of cylinder-stamped pottery
from Melos show centaurs, sphinxes, charioteers and lions.
V. PRIMITIVE TERRACOTTA FIGURINES.
16. Terracotta Statuette. Berlin. Antiquarium 8413. Boeotia. Winter, Typen-
katalog I. p. 36 fig. i. Furtwangler, Arch. Anz. 1895 p. 127, 8.
The body of the centaur is painted with linear designs, his chest with six large
pellets in two rows. His r. arm is uplifted but empty, his 1. is slightly outstretched,
he wears a long beard and has short equine ears. Nose and ears are worked out
plastically, whereas eyes, eyebrows, beard and mouth are merely painted. It dates
from the late geometric period, circa eighth century B. C. In the geometric period
it is often difficult to say whether the centaurs belong to Class A or B, because the
equine legs are mere stumps without the representation of hoofs, but since the
human pudenda are not represented in this figurine I have catalogued it under
Class A. The similar figurine in Cassel no. 209, which is ithyphallic, belongs to
Class B. Whether the figurine mentioned by Winter /. c. and Diimmler, Ath.
Mitt. XIII p. 286 in Wiirzburg, Universitdtssammlung 429, with 1. arm uplifted
and holding an object is of Class A or not I am unable to say.
17. Terracotta Statuette. Cyprus. Louvre, Room A no. 56. Heuzey, Cat. des
figurines p. 155. Winter, Typenkat. I p. 15 fig. 8. Very crude.
The nose of the centaur was modeled separately and fastened on the face
when the clay was still moist. The arms and 1. hindleg are missing. This example
may be somewhat earlier than no. 16, the large eye, again merely painted, seems
more archaic. The difference in appearance may, however, only be due to the
inferior Cypriote style.
Baur, Centaurs in Anc ; ent Art.
IO Centaurs with equine forelegs.
18. Terracotta Statuette. Curium, Cyprus. Ohnefalsch- Richter, Kypros p. 257
fig. 173, pi. CIV, 6. Reinach, Rev. Arch. 1888 p. 81.
According to Reinach it was found in a Phoenician tomb and was brought to
Paris in 1885. The body of the centaur is decorated with geometric designs, so that he
has the appearance of wearing a garment. On the r. shoulder is painted a swastika.
His head is uplifted and probably beardless, his nose is long and sharp and might
easily be mistaken for a horn in the illustration, but Richter expressly states that
he is not horned. Under his 1. arm he carries a live calf. Usually the prey of centaurs
is a doe, a hare, a fox, or a bird. Richter interprets the figure as a herdsman, or as
a centaur about to make a sacrifice. I prefer to call him a hunter with a taste for
raw meat. Even Pholos, who was semi-civilized, ate raw meat though he served
cooked meat to his guest (See Roscher, Lexikon II i p. 1041 sq.}.
VI. ARCHAIC ATTIC VASES.
19. Nettos Amphora. Athens. Collignon-Couve 657 pi. 28, Antike Denkm. I pi. 57
p. 46. Fowler and Wheeler, Handbook p. 472 fig. 382. Kretschmer, Vasen-
On the neck of the vase is represented the centaur Nessos to r., overtaken by
Herakles, who with 1. foot outstretched and planted in the small of the centaur's
back is about to dispatch him with his sword. He has grasped with his 1. hand a
lock of the monster's hair who, with both arms twisted back in an impossible posi-
tion, as on no. 154 A, begs for mercy. Nessos wears a long beard, a mustache and a
crescent-shaped back-comb, like that of the fallen centaur on the "Cyrenaic" deinos
in the Louvre no. 161, cf . also nos. 163, 225, 226. He also has human ears as on nos. 24,
40, 43, 49, 94, 121, 161, and a human expression of face. Contrary to literary tradition
Herakles is armed with only a sword instead of bow and arrows, nor does he wear
the Ionian lion's skin, but merely a short chiton of early Attic style, as on no. 71
where other examples are cited. Luckily his identity as well as that of Nessos is
secured by the inscriptions written in early Attic dialect. It is noteworthy that
Deianeira is missing. That she was represented on the other side of the vase as
Hoppin (A . /. A . 1900 p. 455 note i) supposes is impossible because the other half
of the vase is not "entirely restored in plaster" but is made up of ancient fragments.
Vases decorated on only one side are not uncommon in the early period. A few
examples taken from the National Museum, Athens, are nos. 353, 824a, 892, 893
(these are the numbers on the labels).
Furtwangler in Roschers Lexikon I 2 p. 2147 says: ,,Ich wiisste kein Denkmal
zu nennen, in dem Herakles eigentlich langes Haar hatte." So far as I know our
amphora, the one recently found, no. 213 A, the bronze relief no. 222 and the ,
Assos frieze no. 182 are the only representations of Herakles with long hair down
his back. On later monuments his hair is always short.
20. Plate, fragmentary. PI. XI. Akropolis. Strong Laconian influence. Unpublished.
Photograph in German Archaeol. Inst. Athens, VS 251 here reproduced.
The plate is divided, like the so-called Cyrenaic cylixes, into two fields by a
heavy line or cord. Above the segment is represented Nessos to r., looking back.
Archaic Attic vases.
He is falling on his knees because of the sudden attack of Herakles, who has grasped
his r. wrist (see nos. 33, 37, 51, 62, 74) with his 1. hand, thus forcing the centaur to
expose his chest to the thrust of his sword. The hero presses his uplifted 1. knee
against the flank of Nessos. In the background between these two figures and
partially covered by the equine body of Nessos, as on nos. 63, 71, is Deianeira to 1. On
the r. are traces of a male figure (Oineus ?) and of a female figure (his wife ?), both to 1.
Since the centaur's head is fragmentary it is not certain how his ears were repre-
sented, though probably equine. Herakles seems to be nude; the sheath of his sword
hangs from the telamon. In the field is a bird flying to L, as on nos. 96, 227, and
rosettes of dots as on the Nettos amphora; also loops surrounded with dots.
In the exergue. are two panthers confronted, with faces turned to front, much
like those on the "Tyrrhenian" amphora, no. 32. Tongue-pattern border.
21. Fragment of a vase by Sophilos. Fig. 4. Menidi. Wolters, Jahrb. XIII pi. I.
Herakles in centauromachy.
Fig. 4. After Jahrb. XIII pi. r, i.
Herakles to r. has overtaken a centaur (inscribed KerafvQos]) falling on his
knees and already wounded in the small of the back by one of the hero's arrows.
The bow has been thrown to the ground as useless in the hand-to-hand encounter.
Grasping his opponent by the hair, cf. nos. 19, 22, 28, 213 A, 308, 322, he is
about to dispatch him with his sword. Blood, painted red, gushes from the
wound in his hindquarters. The centaur is trying in vain to free himself by
gripping the 1. arm of Herakles with his r. hand. The 1. leg of the hero disappears
entirely behind the equine body of the centaur. Judging from the similarity of
composition in the two preceding vases this leg is either supposed to be outstretched
or bent at the knee. Since in either case the foot would be visible, we may safely
infer that its disappearance is due to an oversight on the part of the artist.
Herakles is bearded and wears an embroidered short chiton. Again the lion's
skin is missing, so too the club, but since both of these attributes are Ionic/
we need not look for them on early Attic monuments before Ionian influence.
j 2 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
At his 1. side hangs a quiver full of arrows. On the 1. of this group are two
centaurs to 1. mortally wounded by the arrows of Herakles. One has already fallen
and is writhing in agony ; over him, astride, stands the other, but he too will soon
drop from loss of blood which flows from his 1. hip. With his 1. hand he covers the
wound. His equine body is shaggy, cf. 161, 200, 222, 226, 228, 22gb, c. For fallen
centaurs see nos. 23, 31, 155, 161, 183, 228. For Herakles in chiton see under no. 71.
The dropping of the nu in KhavQoc, for KevxavQo<; is discussed by Kretschmer,
Vaseninschr. 161 sqq.
22. Hydria. Brit. Mus., Walters B 50. Nessos adventure.
"On the shoulder: Two swans confronted with wings spread; rosettes in the
field. On the body : A Lapith, bearded, in a short chiton, is slaying with his sword
a Centaur whom he has seized with 1. hand by a long forelock. The Centaur has long
hair, and the middle of his body is painted in purple. On either side is a female figure
looking on, with long chiton, and embroidered himation over her head, drawn
forward in the r. hand." Thus Walters in the catalogue of the British Museum
interprets this scene. I prefer to call the characters Herakles, Nessos, and two
spectators, since the main group so closely resembles the Nettos amphora. The
motif of seizing a centaur by the forelock occurs on a Proto-Attic vase, no. 213 A,
on aCaeretan hydria, no. 322, and on an Italo-Ionic vase under Chalcidian influence,
23. Francois Krater by the painter Klitias and the potter Ergotimos. Chiusi.
Now in Archaeological Museum, Florence. Wiener Vorlegebldtter 1888 pi. 3.
Furtwangler-Reichhold I pi. n and 12. Thessalian Centauromachy. Date:
circa 560 B. C.
On reverse of neck: Centauromachy in seven groups. Beginning at the left,
i. a centaur to r. is about to hurl a huge white stone, which he holds behind his
head in both hands, at Theseus (inscribed) who judging from the position of his
shield, must have confronted the centaur; 2. a centaur to r., at whose feet lies a
dead centaur to r., has as his opponent the Lapith Antimachos (inscribed) whose
helmeted head and long spear are still preserved; 3. Kaineus, half-buried in the
earth, seen from the front, his head turned to r. brandishes a spear, and is attacked
by three inscribed centaurs, Hylaios to r. holding a branch in both hands, Akrios
and Hasbolos to 1., each holding a large stone before them in both hands. Hasbolos
has a white equine body, but a black human body and black tail; 4. Petraios (in-
scribed) galloping to r., with a branch uplifted in both hands, attacks the Lapith
Hoplon to 1.; 5. a centaur inscribed Melanippos (?) who carries a white stone in
each hand is leaping to r. over the dying body of a fellow-centaur inscribed Pyrrhos
and is about to attack a Lapith to 1. whose name is lost; 6. two centaurs, one from 1.,
the other from r. attack with branches a Lapith; 7. the Lapith Dryas (inscribed) to
r. is about to slay a conquered centaur inscribed Orosbios (?) or Oroibios, to 1.,
who begs for mercy. He is beaten down and has an attitude commonly found on
the vase-paintings representing Nessos. The half-stumbling, half- falling body is
well drawn, and the tail is tied up at the end. The heads of the centaurs, with
disheveled hair and beards, long sharp noses and large eyes, differ radically from
the centaurs on other Attic vases, but resemble the heads of the sileni on the same
vase. All have equine ears and tufts of hair standing erect above the forehead. Their
Archaic Attic vases. j -2
names coincide only rarely with those of the centauromachy depicted on the Shield
of Herakles, a poem of the seventh century B.C., and seem to have been chosen at
It is noteworthy that all the Lapiths fight with the lance, even Kaineus, and
that we are carried into a new sphere of mythology, into the far north instead of the
Peloponnesos. The Thessalian centauromachy is not illustrated on any extant
monument of earlier date, whereas Herakles driving the centaurs from Mt. Pholoe
is quite commonly found on monuments of the seventh century. Note also that on
the corresponding band of the obverse the chariot-race in memory of Patroklos is
depicted. Peleus, Achilles and Theseus are the chief heroes of the Frangois vase,
Herakles does not occur at all ; and of the gods Dionysos plays the most important
role. Both in subject-matter and in composition the Frangois vase shows no Pelopon-
nesian influence. We have here an entirely different type of centaur from that on
Attic monuments under Peloponnesian influence, and from the type on Ionic monu-
ments. The human ears of Ionic centaurs are replaced by those of the horse, their
long hair falling down the back has the coarseness of an equine mane, and the
expression of face is silenus-like, but not the snub-nosed type of Ionic vase-paint-
ings. Rare again is the group of three centaurs attacking Kaineus, see under no. 120.
JJnique in archaic art is the dead centaur, though the dying centaur which also
occurs on our vase is occasionally found elsewhere, on nos. 21, 31, 155, 161, 183, 228.
24. Deep Cylix. Fig. 57) Near Tenea. Now in Nat. Mus. Athens. Ross, Archaeo-
logische Aufsdtze~Tl p. 350 pi. 2, Rayet-Collignon, Ceram. grecque, pp. 68 and
109, Collignon-Couve 640. Story of Nessos.
Inside : Herakles to r. with lion's skin drawn over his head in the Ionian fashion,
quiver and bow one end of which is visible in front of the quiver, the other end
below his chin at his 1. side, club in r. takes mighty strides to overtake the bearded
centaur Nessos to r., looking back. Three tufts of hair stand upright above the
centaur's forehead, but quite different from the arrangement of hair on the Frangois
vase and on no. 256. His ears are human as on nos. 19, 49, 163. Herakles seizes him
under the r. armpit, but the rest of the arm is not drawn. Between the two, in the
foreground, stands Deianeira to 1., her hands in front of her hips, palms together.
She has long hair with a fillet, long peplos girdled at the waist, but without folds.
Thiersch (Tyrrhenische Amphoren p. 22 and note i) considers this cylix Chalcidian,
I prefer to call it Attic, but strongly under Ionic influence. The eyes are here not
represented as they are in the Chalcidian style. It is impossible to say with certainty
whether the hero is beardless or not. If he is youthful, we have another argument
in favor of Ionic influence, see no. 172.
25. Cylix. PI. VIII. Munich, Jahn88i. Story of Nessos. I am indebted to Dr. J. Sieve-
king for the photograph here reproduced.
Inside : Nessos to r., with Deianeira on his back, has been overtaken by Herakles
who with his 1. hand seizes the centaur by the head and is about to slay him with
his sword. Herakles is bearded, but entirely nude, not even his sword-sheath is
represented. For other examples of the nude hero see under no. 161. Deianeira
in a long tight-fitting peplos, with hair done up on the back of her head in the
board-like fashion of Urania and others on the Frangois vase, is slipping from his
back. Although her arms are outstretched in supplication, she does not turn to-
Centaurs with equine forelegs.
wards her rescuer. Deianeira sitting forward and not even looking backward seems
to be the oldest composition of this group although it occurs on later b. f. vases,
nos. 66, 70. The 1. hand of the centaur, who turns his head towards Herakles, is
Fig. 5. After Ross, Archaol. Aufsatze II pi. 2.
uplifted, as if begging for mercy, his r. arm disappears behind Deianeira. He has
equine ears. His position differs from that of the preceding centaurs brought to a
sudden standstill in that^both hindlegs are caving in. In the field, meaningless
Archaic Attic vases. I 5
26. Cylix. Kameiros, Rhodes. Louvre A 478. Pottier, Catalogue p. 171 and Album
I pi. 17. Story of Nessos.
Inside: Herakles bearded and nude, fillet in his hair, running to r., has an
uplifted club in his r. hand and seizes Nessos by the nape of the neck with his 1.
hand. The centaur gallops to r. but looks back. He is bearded as usual and wears
a mustache ; a heavy tuft of hair rises above his forehead and his ears are those of
a horse. His pose is almost identical with that of the centaur on the cylix described
by Ross, but that of Herakles differs in that there his advanced 1. leg almost dis-
appears behind the centaur, whereas here Herakles is in the foreground and partially
covers the equine body of Nessos. On both cylixes the r. arm of the centaur is not
27. Cylix. Etruria. Louvre F 67. Pottier, Catalogue p. 743 and Album II pi. 68.
Story of Nessos.
Inside: Nude Herakles with club attacking Nessos. Almost identical with the
preceding cylix although the proportions of the figures are heavier. Tongue-pattern
28. Plate. Collection de M. E. Auction Catalogue, 2 4 June 1904, Paris, pi. IV
no. 115 and p. 17. Story of Nessos.
Within a border of lotus flowers and buds: Herakles to r., lion's skin and
sword, seizes Nessos to r. by the hair, see under no. 21. The centaur tries to
free himself with uplifted 1. hand, and with his r. drawn back pushes against
the hero's chest. As in the two preceding cylixes Herakles is in the foreground,
almost completely covering the equine body of the centaur, who has equine
ears. As on the Nettos amphora the monster's head is not turned back, i. e.
he looks forward. In the field in Attic characters is an inscription giving the
names of two persons. In the border above the composition are two holes for
suspension. According to the catalogue it is Corinthian, but to my mind it is
Attic (Identical with no. 29).
29. Plate. Former Collection Arndt. Glyptothek, Munich. Story of Nessos.
Similar to the preceding. Herakles to r. kneels on the back of Nessos and is
about to slay him. Traces of inscriptions.
30. Amphora. Basseggio? Gerhard's Apparat in the Library of the Museum of
Berlin, MappeXIIi35. Peloponnesian influence, cf. Furtwangler in Roscher's
Lex. I 2 p. 2194 sq. Story of Nessos.
On the body, under a band of lotus flowers and buds : Nessos kneeling to r.
looks back and stretches both hands towards Deianeira; she has already escaped to 1.,
and seeks the protection of Herakles, who, swinging his club over his head, walks
to r. The centaur has a heavy head of hair, long beard, equine ears, but human
expression of face. Deianeira modestly draws forward with r. hand her himation
which she wears over her head. On no. 20 she stands in the background, partly
concealed by Nessos, here she is in the foreground. Herakles bearded, but
without mustache and as usual with short hair, only wears a small mantle
hanging from his 1. shoulder, leaving him almost nude. On the r., balancing the
figure of Herakles is a man to 1., bearded, who wears a petasos. He is not charac-
terized as king Oineus, but may be a traveler who by chance witnesses this mar-
1 6 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
31. Fragment from the Akropolis. Graef, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu
Athen I pi. 41 no. 635 c, d, and e, and p. 76. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe.
Fragment c : Traces of three centaurs galloping to r. Of the one farthest
advanced only the white equine body is preserved; of the last only the outstretched
uplifted hand; whereas of the middle centaur only the legs, hindquarters, 1. hand
and top of the head are missing. He holds a white stone about the size of his hand;
his ears are pointed. Two arrows evidently shot from the bow of Herakles are
flying through the air, one aimed at his head, the other at his chest.
Fragment d: A centaur kicking with both hindlegs in the air, leaps to r. over
a dying centaur to r., whose r. hand is altogether out of proportion. (Cf. the falling
centaurs on nos. 21, 23, 155, 161, 183, 228). He has pointed ears, a long beard
and breaking eye. We are here dealing with a breed of centaurs quite different
from those on the Francois vase.
Fragment e: Two hindlegs of a centaur to r., and a foreleg of the same (?)
stumbling to r. Below the composition is a band of alternating lotus flowers and
Although Herakles is not preserved, it is evident that we have before us his
battle with the centaurs after the opening of the pithos, as on no. 21, and not that
in Thessaly between the Lapiths and centaurs. If the latter myth were meant,
as on the Francois vase, the weapons would be lances or swords, we would expect
a different system of grouping, and at least some trace of the Lapith opponents.
Were it not for the kicking centaur, a motive found only here in the Attic b. f.
period and only once on stamped red ware, no. 198, see also no. 314, but very
frequently in the later periods, I would feel inclined to date these fragments
earlier than the Frangois vase. They are certainly much earlier than the other
Attic representations of this subject, nos. 152 155.
On this monument the centaur's ear is not as long nor as sharply pointed as
usual, but equine ears were doubtlessly meant. Colvin, /. H. S. I p. 146 says that
centaurs sometimes have goat's ears instead of those of a horse, thus showing
"physical affinity to the Satyr". It seems to me that in all cases equine ears were
meant, even on satyrs. That the artists often were careless in drawing equine
ears and did not represent them true to nature is sufficiently evinced by observing
the various types of ears on horses themselves, not to speak of centaurs and sileni.
See also the pregnant remarks on this subject by Bulle, Die Silene in der archaischen
Kunst p. 50.
32. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Italy. Dresden, recent acquisition no. 1647, Herr-
mann, Arch. Anz. 1898 p. 132, Thiersch, Tyrrhenische Amphoren p. 157 no. 25
and p. 45. A: Adventure of Herakles with Nessos. B: Five centaurs gallop
On the shoulder, A: Herakles with lion's skin and chiton takes long strides to r.
and lays his hand heavily on the hindquarters of Nessos. In his r. hand he brandishes
a sword; its sheath hangs at his side. The centaur falls on his foreknees, turns his
head back and begs for mercy with outstretched r. hand, though in his 1. hand he
holds a white stone ready to throw. Between both combatants, partially concealed
by the outstretched arm of Herakles, but on the other hand partially concealing
the equine body of Nessos, as on nos. 24, 30, stands Deianeira to 1. in chiton and
Archaic Attic vases. \j
mantle drawn over her head (cf. no. 30). Behind Herakles is a woman to r. in chiton
and mantle, interpreted by Herrmann as Athena, her attributes, however, are
missing, and behind her is Hermes to r. in mantle and hat, carrying a long herald's
staff. On the r. of the central group is a bearded man in mantle to 1., who places
his r. hand on his head, a gesture of lamentation. Behind him is a draped woman
to 1. These are held to be the parents of Deianeira, but the female figure on the
extreme r. is not interpreted by Herrmann. I prefer to call these figures spectators,
placed there at random to fill the vacant space.
B (Even more fragmentary than A) : Five centaurs much agitated gallop to r.
There is reason to believe with Herrmann, as we shall see under no. 36, that these
centaurs are friends of Nessos. There is, so far as I know, no extant literary tradition
which associates other centaurs with the story of Nessos, although in art we have
four examples, nos. 32, 33, 36, 38. According to Thiersch /. c. p. 23 the Nessos story
only occurs on the younger "Tyrrhenian" amphorae, and on page 27 he interprets
the centauromachy as that of the Lapiths, but where in this case are the Lapiths ?
On both sides: Meaningless inscriptions.
33. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Vulci. Vatican. Museo Gregoriano II pi. 28, 2;
Thiersch /. c. p. 157 no. 28 and p. 46; Holwerda, Jahrb. 1890 p. 244 no. 39;
Helbig, Fuhrer II p. 289 no. 1192. A: Adventure of Herakles with Nessos. B:
Four centaurs to 1.
A : Herakles to r. with lion's skin, swings his sword in his r. hand over his head
and seizes the r. wrist of Nessos (as on nos. 20, 37, 51, 62, 74, cf . also 68) who carries
Deianeira on his back. He supports her with his 1. hand under her knees. The
sudden attack of Herakles brings the centaur to his knees. Both Nessos and Dei-
aneira look back at Herakles as on no. 68. Behind the central group are Athena
and Hermes to r. On the r. are Oineus (?), an old man with grey hair and his wife ( ?)
to 1. and behind them a man turning his back on the central group to converse with
a woman to 1. According to Thiersch /. c. p. 46 the long white stripes on the peplos
of Deianeira and the dotted circles on the mantle of the old man point to the late
b. f. period.
B : Four centaurs armed with missiles as on nos. 40, 42, 176 A, gallop to 1. ;
according to Holwerda they are coming to the rescue of their comrade, see also
nos. 32, 36, 38. All have equine ears, indeed, there are only three examples, nos. 19,
24, 49 in Attic art, where Nessos has human ears, although occasionally other Attic
centaurs are thus depicted, see nos. 40, 43, 94, 121. The pattern-like effect, seen
also on the frieze from Assos, no. 182, is relieved by the drawn-in hindlegs of the
third centaur and by the difference of pose of his 1. arm. In general, the effect of
this vigorous group reminds one of the art of Ionia, see no. 162.
34. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Caere. Louvre E 852 Pottier, Catalogue p. 568;
Mon. dell' Inst. VI pi. 56, 4; Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 156, 5; Thiersch /. c. p. 158
no. 39 and p. 49 where the modern restorations are given. Holwerda, /. c.
p. 242 no. i. Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. 178 sq. A: Birth of Athena. B: The
story of Nessos.
B : The central group is much like that of the preceding vase, but here, if the
restorations are correct, Nessos holds the 1. foot of Deianeira, who raises both arms.
That she wears the krobylos is certain. The 1. hindleg of Nessos is not drawn, but
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Ait. 3
jg Centaurs with equine forelegs.
the type is so well-known that it can be restored with certainty as stretched back
(cf. especially no. 20). Since this is so the inscription (Herakles) and the advanced 1.
leg of the hero must be, at least in part, modern. If Herakles did not originally wear
the lion's skin, we have here an exception to the "Tyrrhenian", but another example
of the Attic type under Peloponnesian influence. Thiersch furthermore refuses to
believe that Herakles held Nessos by the tail, but this very type is found on an
amphora (no. 63) and on a pelike (no. 70) where, however, he wears the lion's skin.
The spectators on the 1. are inscribed Aftevaia and (HeQ)fieg. If these inscrip-
tions are genuine we have another example of Athena without aegis and shield, as
she sometimes appears at the opening of the pithos of Pholos. The spectators on
the r. are inscribed Aewivfat and Oivevg, but the royal father of Deianeira turns
his back on the scene and converses with a woman whose name can no longer be
read. Behind her on the extreme r. are two women conversing, no doubt added to
fill the vacant space. The principal figures are also inscribed (H)eQaxhe<;, AeiaviQa
35. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. The Hague, Museum Meermanno-Westhreenianum.
Holwerda, Jahrb. 1890 p. 244 no. 42 (illustration); Thiersch /. c. p. 159 no. 48
and p. 54. A: The story of Nessos. B: Seven nude men dancing.
A : The position of Nessos is almost identical with that of the preceding vases,
and Herakles, with lion's skin, evidently holds him by the 1. wrist, though their
hands are concealed by Deianeira who with entire body to 1. rides backwards and
is about to slip off the hindquarters of the centaur as on nos. 36, 75. She is between
the arms of her lover whose sword is in the foremost plane. In her struggle to escape,
her peplos has become undone, exposing her 1. shoulder. On the 1. are three female
figures not characterized, and on the r. the same number of women and one old man.
The first figure on the r. is unique in that she holds a torch, but we would hardly
be justified in supposing therefore that the adventure took place at night, or that
it is the marriage- torch. It is merely a whim of the artist.
36. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. PI. I. Vulci. Munich, Jahn 126; Thiersch 1. c. p. 160
no. 52 and p. 55. A: The story of Nessos. B: Thessalian Centauromachy. The
photograph here reproduced is from a drawing by Reichhold, for which I am
greatly indebted to Dr. J. Sieveking.
A : The central group is almost identical with that of the preceding vase, only
here Deianeira already touches the ground with her 1. foot, and she gesticulates
more violently with her hands. Her peplos, embroidered down the front with
sirens, is properly fastened. Herakles is in the foreground, and Deianeira is between
him and Nessos. Instead of the usual figures on the 1., two centaurs advance steal-
thily to r. to succor their kinsman. The first is piebald, as on nos. 39, 74, 76, 162,
he carries a huge white rock on his r. shoulder and is crowned like Nessos. On
the r. is an old man between two women. Reichhold's excellent drawing makes
further description unnecessary. The addition of the two centaurs is noteworthy
and warrants the interpretation given by Holwerda to no. 33 and by Herrmann to
B: Centauromachy of three groups. The centaur of the central group is down
on his r. knee, as Nessos is usually represented, and swings a branch of a tree in
both hands. He is attacked from each side by a Greek hoplite brandishing a spear.
Archaic Attic vases. JQ
On the r. a hoplite to r. is about to transfix with his lance a centaur to r. with
hindlegs drawn in, just as a horse slips when brought to a sudden stand. In his
uplifted 1. hand he holds a white stone, and is crowned. On the 1. a nude hoplite
whose cuirass is missing --he has not taken time to arm himself properly -- rushes
to r. to slay with a lance a centaur to r., who holds a large white rock. All the
centaurs look back; they have peculiar profiles, protruding lips as on nos. 66, 83,
85, and long upturned noses. The system of grouping differs radically from that
on the Frangois vase. On both sides, meaningless inscriptions.
37. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Caere. Cassel 385. Thiersch, /. c. p. 161 no. 75 and
p. 150. A: the story of Nessos.
A: Nessos to r., the usual stumbling type, carries Deianeira on his 1. arm as
on nos. 38, 62. She has long flowing hair and wears the usual Doric peplos. Herakles
of gigantic size, with lion's skin which also covers his head, seizes the r. wrist of the
centaur and threatens him with a huge sword. Behind Herakles is a female figure
to r. and in front of Nessos are two female figures to 1. On each end of the composition
is a man on horseback to fill the vacant space. This type of the Nessos and Dei-
aneira group, which appears also on no. 38 and on the Berlin amphora, no. 62, is
the youngest of the archaic period; the oldest is where she sits on the back of the
centaur, her body to r.; and the intermediary type is where she has turned round
and rides backwards, or rather glides off the centaur's back. Older than any of
these three types is where she has already escaped and stands to 1., no. 20; and
still older is where she is entirely missing, no. 19. In the seventh century B. C.,
however, she already occurs, in or behind the chariot, nos. 213 A, 227.
38. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Vulci. Munich, Jahn 156. Holwerda, /. c. p. 244
no. 44; Thiersch, /. c. p. 159 no. 40 and p. 53. Poorly illustrated: Mon. dell'
Inst. I pi. 26, 10 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 73, 10. A: The story of Nessos.
A: The central group of Herakles, Nessos and Deianeira is similar to that of
the preceding vase; Deianeira is carried on the 1. arm of the centaur. For other
examples of this motif see nos. 37, 62. Behind Herakles is Athena to r. and in front
of Nessos is another centaur to 1. armed with a pine-branch. Cf. no. 36 where two
centaurs come to the aid of Nessos, no. 33 where four centaurs and no. 32 where
five centaurs come to his aid; on the last two vases the centaurs are, to be sure,
depicted on the other side of the vase. The same subject may be depicted on an
Ionian vase, no. 173.
39. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. PL III. Caere. Rome, in possession of Agosto
Castellani. Thiersch /. c. p. 161 no. 59 and p. 52. A: Thessalian Centauromachy.
A: Three monomachies and one fallen warrior; in each group the combatants
are confronted, in this respect unlike no. 36 where the warriors overtake the cen-
taurs. Though the method of grouping is similar to that on the Frangois vase,
nevertheless the centaurs differ in that that there they are rearing whereas here they
are standing. Between the 1. and central groups is a fallen warrior outstretched to 1.
face downward on the ground. Of the group on the r. only enough of the warrior
to r. is preserved to show that his weapon is the sword, which is also used as the
weapon of Lapiths on no. 176 A. The other warriors to 1. fight with the lance, and the
central centaur to r. is armed with a large pine-branch. The profiles of the centaurs
are like those on no. 36, but their ears though pointed are shorter; one is piebald.
2Q Centaurs with equine forelegs.
In the field, meaningless inscriptions. Fallen Lapiths also occur on nos. 96 98,
176, 176 A. The system of grouping is similar to that on no. 118 where, however,
the fallen Lapith is not represented.
40. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Italy. Louvre E 849 Pettier, Catalogue p. 568 not
mentioned by Thiersch. Thessalian Centauromachy.
A continuous band on the shoulder : A centaur to r. partly concealed by a tailless
silenus to r. attacks Kaineus in "Knielauf" to r., who looks back and threatens
him with a sword. As usual a second centaur to 1. helps his comrade; he holds a
large branch in both hands over his head. The next group consists of a fully armed
warrior to r. about to transfix with his lance a fleeing centaur who stumbles to r.
as on no. 36. Contrary to all expectation he has human ears. The combat continues
on the other side of the vase. The weapons of the centaurs are small brick-shaped
objects, like those on nos. 33, 42, 176 A. Silenus in the company of centaurs, (see
also nos. 56, 67, 103, 269, 311, 313 A) points to Ionic influence, where the Bacchic
character of centaurs is more evident than in Attic art:
41. "Tyrrhenian" Amphora. Caere. Gotha 12. Thiersch, /. c. p. 158 no. 35 and
p. 48. A: Thessalian Centauromachy.
A: On the r. is Kaineus, half-buried, but attacked by only one centaur, as on
the r. f. vase, Mon. d. Inst. XI, 14, a curious exception to the rule. According to
Thiersch /. c. p. 47 this is one of the very earliest of the "Tyrrhenian" products, but
I have catalogued it here because of the Kaineus episode.
42. Amphora. Florence Museum. Studi e Mater iali III pi. 2. A complete description
of this vase is promised by Milani, Spicilegio ceramogra/ico in vol. IV of his
Studi e Mat. B: Thessalian Centauromachy. A: Herakles freeing Prometheus.
Thiersch, Tyrrh. Amph. pi. II 6 and p. 142; "similar to Tyrrhenian style."
B: Three monomachies in which the combatants are confronted. On the 1.
a centaur to r., down on r. knee, is attacked by a hoplite to 1. in full armor; his
shield has the Boeotian shape. Partly concealed by his body the centaur of the
central group rears to r. in mortal combat with a warrior whose round shield is
ornamented with a tripod. The centaur of the group on the r., the only one without
long tresses, paws his opponent whose shield-device is a swan. Here too the centaur
advances to r. and the Lapith to 1., whereas the corresponding group on no. 39 is
reversed. Although it is a hand-to-hand combat the warriors fight with lances. The
centaurs are armed with peculiar objects similar to their weapons on nos. 33, 40,
176 A. Their profiles are so similar to that of Nessos on no. 34 that I do not
hesitate to attribute both vases to one and the same painter.
43. Cantharus. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler, 1737; Gerhard, Etrusk. u. Campan.
Vasenb. pi. XIII i. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe.
The centaur Asbolos carrying a branch in both hands stands to 1. with uplifted r.
foreleg and open mouth as though crying out, and awaits the attack of Herakles,
with lion's skin, who rushes to r. brandishing his sword. Behind the hero two
centaurs, Petraios with a huge rock in both hands raised over his head and Hylaios
swinging a branch in both hands, are coming to the assistance of Asbolos. Petraios
is about to hurl the rock while still running, whereas Hylaios stops short to give
more force to his blow. They cowardly attack Herakles from behind. All the figures
are inscribed in archaic Attic letters. Both Herakles and the centaurs are bearded,
Archaic Attic vases. 21
but without mustache. The latter have human ears, as on the Attic vases nos. 19,
24, 40, 49, 94-
According to Philostratos, Heroikos p. 328 = vol. II p. 214 ed. Teubn. Asbolos
was the instigator of the attack on Herakles and was therefore crucified by the
hero. Our vase-painting no doubt follows an older version, where he dispatches
Asbolos with his sword.
43 A. Oenochoe. Certosa. Zannoni. Gli Scavi delta Certosa pi. CVII, 18 Sepolcro 318.
Story of Nessos.
Herakles to r., bearded, in short chiton, sheath at his side, 1. leg raised, seizes
the r. shoulder of Nessos, and threatens him with his sword. Nessos is of the usual
stumbling type; he looks back and grasps the 1. arm of the hero as on no. 173 A.
On the r. is a youthful spectator in long mantle, holding a staff in r. hand. Behind
Herakles on the extreme 1. is his club, and above in the field hang his mantle and
quiver. The pose of Herakles and Nessos is similar to that on the following oenochoe.
For other examples of Herakles in chiton, see under no. 71, cf. also no. 63 for the
discarded club of Herakles.
44. Oenochoe. PI. III. Vulci. Leyden, Roulez, Choix de Vases Feints pi. VIII 2a;
Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 269, 5. Story of Nessos. I am indebted to Dr. Holwerda
for the photograph here reproduced.
Herakles to r., sheath at his side, grasps the r. arm of Nessos just above the
elbow and stabs him below the tail with his sword. As on nos. 20, 25 etc., cf.
no. 161, Herakles is nude; he presses his uplifted 1. knee against the centaur's flank
forcing him down on his knees, according to the usual type. Nessos has a small
stone in his 1. hand and looks back at the hero; he has equine ears and long
tresses, as on nos. 42, 46, 51, 66, 74. On the r. an old man in a mantle, on the 1. an
agitated female figure in a peplos (Deianeira ?) and another old man in a mantle
watch the struggle. The central group is full of action and is well drawn. What
the painter of the early Attic plate no. 20 has clumsily attempted this artist has
The moulded ring at the juncture of shoulder and neck, the handle with its
rivets and the luster of the black glaze, remind us of Chalcidian metal-ware, yet I
hesitate to catalogue our vase under the Euboean examples, though I do believe
that it shows Chalcidian influence. Cf. no. 164.
45. Lekythos. Thebes. Athens, Collignon-Couve 677. On the body: Assembly
of the gods. On the shoulder: Story of Nessos.
The central group is much like the preceding, only here the weapon of
the hero, who is taking mighty strides, is the club. Behind Herakles two and
in front of Nessos three draped figures, one leaning on a staff, are looking on.
Carefully drawn. See also no. 49.
46. Hydria. PI. XI. Munich, Jahn 43. On the shoulder: Story of Nessos. For the
photograph here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking.
In composition the central group is almost identical with the preceding vase.
Herakles, however, is beardless as on nos. 48, 51, 53, 62, 67, 154, 172, 173, 182, 226,
and wears a cuirass and sword at his side. He has not yet overtaken Nessos, but is
about to seize his r. arm, while in his r. the hero swings his club (cf. also no. 30).
Nessos down on 1. foreknee, r. hindleg stretched backwards, holds a white stone
27 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
in his uplifted 1. hand; he has long tresses as on nos. 42, 44, 51, 66, 74. Behind
Herakles a draped female figure to r. (Deianeira?) with outstretched arms, palms
up, wishes the hero well; behind her to r. is a youth. In front of Nessos, facing
him, are three draped figures, the first with a white beard. Because of the close
relationship to the preceding compositions I do not hesitate to identify the club-
man with Herakles even though he is beardless and wears a cuirass. The beard-
less type of Herakles, according to Furtwangler, in Roscher ) sLexikonl2 p. 2151 s^.
is of Ionic origin, though it does occur exceptionally on Attic ware, see esp.
47. Kyathos. Vulci. Vatican, Museo Gregoriano II pi. 4, 4 (first edition). Story of
Herakles, bearded, nude, chlamys over 1. arm, as on nos. 30, 49, 53, 54, 55, 67,
club in r., takes long strides to r. in pursuit of Nessos, who stumbles to r. looking
back. He has just thrown a rock at the hero, which is represented in the air over
the hindquarters of the centaur, and is about to throw another stone which he holds
in 1. hand. On the r. are three male figures, the first and third draped, leaning on
staff to 1., the one between them, nude, to r., looks back, chlamys on r. arm and
staff in 1. On the 1. are two figures; the first wrapped in mantle, leans on staff,
behind him is a nude youth running to r., chlamys over 1. arm, and staff in r.
Missiles in the air are uncommon on archaic monuments, see, however, nos. 31, 105,
48. Amphora. Nola. Naples, Heydemann p. 330 no. 2537. A: Nessos story. B:
Female figure supplicating a centaur.
A: Nessos with pointed ears and silenus-like features, as in Ionic art, has
fallen to r. on his foreknees; in his 1. hand he holds a long branch, in his r.
hand a large white rock. He looks back at Herakles, beardless (see under no. 46),
in short chiton, club in r. hand and 1. arm outstretched, about to seize the
B: A woman wearing chiton, mantle and taenia walks behind a centaur who
also wears a taenia and holds a branch in his 1. hand. She extends her r. hand in
supplication to his bearded chin. To my mind there is no connection between the
two sides of the vase. If the centaur were attacking the woman one would feel
inclined to interpret the scene as an incident at the wedding-feast of Peirithoos,
and one would then be justified in connecting the two sides and in naming the
youthful clubman Theseus or Peirithoos. The transference of the Herakles type
to Theseus is not uncommon, especially where the subject of their adventures
coincides. But the centaur of side B is not attacking the woman, she seems to be
49. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon-Couve 698. Nessos story.
On the body: Herakles to r., bearded, nude as on nos. 20, 25, 44, 50, 51, 53, 161,
164, 218, 228, 310, with chlamys on 1. arm as a shield (see no. 47 where other exam-
ples are cited), brandishes club against bearded Nessos to r., looking back. His r.
front knee touches the ground and with uplifted hand he begs for mercy. The
hands are very carelessly drawn, the fingers look like parenthetical marks. Nessos
as on nos. 19, 24, 163 has human ears. On each side facing the central group is a
youth, wrapped in mantle and leaning on a staff (cf. no. 45).
Archaic Attic vases. 23
50. Lekythos. Eretria. Athens, Collignon-Couve 724. Story of Nessos. Coarse
On the body: Herakles, nude, pursues a fleeing centaur (Nessos) who holds
a stone in each hand. On each side facing the central group is a youth leaning on a
lance. They are spectators, not participants in the combat. For a list of the re-
presentations of the nude Herakles see under no. 49.
51. Lekythos. Gela. British Museum, Walters B 537. Grey-drab ground. Story
On the body: Herakles to r., beardless (see under no. 46), and nude, sword in
sheath at his side, brandishes a club and grasps the r. wrist of Nessos with 1. hand
as on nos. 20, 33, 37, 62, 74. The centaur is of the usual stumbling type to r., and looks
back, armed with a stone in each hand; he has long tresses as on nos. 42, 44, 46, 66,
74. On each side, watching the central group, is a youth in a long chiton and mantle,
holding a spear. We have already had so many examples of this type where the
identity of Nessos is fixed that I do not hesitate to name the centaur, though
Walters leaves his identity uncertain.
52. Lekythos. PI. VII. Munich, Jahn 1266. Story of Nessos. I am indebted to
Dr. Sieveking for the photograph here reproduced.
On body: A nude youth to r., with drawn sword, pursues a centaur fleeing to r.,
who looks back, empty-handed. On the r. of this group is a youth escaping to r. ;
on the 1. a man in himation carrying a staff. If it were not for the last mentioned
figure, a spectator, I would be inclined to interpret this scene as an abbreviated
centauromachy, like the group on the extreme r. of the Caylus Cylix, no. 101, side A.
53. Lekythos. Corinth? British Museum, Walters 6538. Careless drawing.
Story of Nessos.
Herakles to r., beardless (see under no. 46 for other examples) and nude, with
fillet and striped chlamys on outstretched 1. arm (cf . no. 47) as a shield, sword in r.,
is about to slay Nessos to r., looking back. On each side, looking on, is a female
figure in long chiton, mantle and fillet. On the shoulder is a cock between two ivy-
leaves as on the following lekythos, which has the same shape and size.
54. Lekythos, same size and shape as no. 53. Eleusis. Athens, Collignon-Couve 715.
Story of Nessos.
On the shoulder, a cock between two ivy-leaves, as on the preceding lekythos.
On the body: Herakles to 1., chlamys as shield (for similar motive see under 47)
on r. arm, club in 1. hand behind him, about to draw sword with r. hand, advances
against bearded Nessos to 1., looking back, with stone in 1. hand. On the r., behind
Herakles, a draped male figure, leaning on a staff, watches the performance, whereas
on the 1. a draped female figure (Deianeira), looking back, makes good her escape.
Where the female figure merely looks on we are not justified in calling her Deianeira,
but where, as here, she flees from the centaur, the bride of Herakles is doubtlessly
meant. Noteworthy and unique is the arrangement of the central group with the
figures moving to 1. instead of to r. It is highly improbable that the man who
daubed this picture invented the composition ; he evidently copied the work of some
artist. That he was also acquainted with the usual composition to r. is made clear
by his picture on the lekythos no. 53, which is so similar in shape, size and decoration,
both have the cock between ivy-leaves, both have purple accessories and the same
24 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
coarse drawing, that I do not hesitate to attribute both to the same man. Entirely
out of place are the garments suspended in the field, which are thoughtlessly borrow-
ed from the composition of Pholos receiving Herakles.
55. Lekythos. Piraeus. Zurich, Hochschule, Bliimner, Archaeol. Samml. p. 197
no. 77. Story of Nessos.
Herakles, with club in r., chlamys as shield on 1. arm, advances with long
strides to r. against Nessos, who flees to r., but looks back. Beyond the centaur,
Deianeira in chiton and himation, 1. arm uplifted, makes good her escape. Over the
centaur is a flying bird. For bird in field see also nos. 20, 65, 66, 81, 96, 100, 177,
213 A, 225, 227, 315. The background of the lekythos is red.
56. Cup by Oikopheles. Peristeri, Attica. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, P. Gardner
pi. 26. no. 189; Frohner, Burlington Fine Arts Club pi. I and p. 8 sq. (Branteghem
Coll.). Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. pp. 113 and 101. Probably Boeotian fabric.
Interior, round a gorgoneion in center : A frieze composed of four different sub-
jects, a hunting scene, a sphinx, an ithyphallic silenus with human legs and human
ears, looking back at a nymph, and Herakles to r. pursuing a bearded centaur.
The hero, in lion's skin, 1. arm outstretched, holds a sword in r. hand drawn back
to deliver a thrust; he has almost overtaken the centaur who carries a huge white
rock in both hands and gallops to r. looking back. His ears, covered by his shaggy
hair, are probably human. Silenus also occurs on the centauromachy of the "Tyr-
rhenian" vase no. 40. Herakles, wearing lion's skin and sword, and slaying a centaur
again occurs on an Attic plate no. 28, but whether here as there Nessos is meant
remains uncertain. The choice of subjects to the r. and 1. of this group is unique;
there seems to be no connection between the various groups. Frohner says: 'This
cup is the most ancient vase bearing the name of an Athenian artist." This is
certainly an exaggeration. Indeed even Kretschmer, who criticises this overesti-
mation of Frohner, assigns a much too early date. On p. 113 he says: "Zu der alteren
Gruppe der schwarzfigurigen Vasen, die der Francois -Vase an Alter etwa gleich-
stehen mogen, gehoren ausser der Schale des Ergotimos in Berlin noch die nur in
Bruchstiicken erhaltene Amphora des Sophilos und die in ihrer Technik noch alter-
tiimlichere Schale des Oikopheles." That our cup is older than the fragments of
Sophilos (no. 21) is certainly a misstatement. Both Frohner and Kretschmer base
their arguments on the technique, black upon pale clay with white and purple acces-
sories and incised outlines. This, however, is the technique of the two preceding
lekythoi, and does not necessarily mean priority over those vases where the white
color is laid upon a black glaze. The very archaic appearance of the cup by Oikophe-
les is due rather to carelessness as Pottier, Catalogue des Vases Ant. p. 561 very
correctly observes. The inscription informs us that Oikopheles was both the maker
and decorator of the cup: exeQdjLievoev ejue Oixaxpefajc;, Olxco(pfejhj<; efi eygaqpoev.
The use of the more accurate verb exeQdfievoev for the usual enoirjoev is doubtless
the main reason for Kretschmer's assigning an earlier date to our cup than to the
fragments of Sophilos, but Wolters, Jahrb. XIII p. I sqq. is certainly justified in
dating the fragments of Sophilos earlier than the Frangois vase. Both Klitias and
Oikopheles already show archaistic tendencies, the former in his drawing, the latter
in the phraseology of his inscription. They belong nearer to the middle than to
the early decades of the sixth century. Thiersch, Tyrrh. Amph. p. 136 sq. has come
Archaic Attic vases. 25
practically to the same conclusion as to the date of the Francois vase, but he
does not mention Oikopheles.
I am not at all sure that this cup is an Attic production. It will probably turn
out to be Boeotian, when more is known of local Boeotian fabric of the sixth century.
According to Sauer, however, Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1047, it is early Attic, but he
claims that the picture is influenced by Corinthian types. In favor of Boeotian
fabric is the inscription, the shape of the letters being identical with the Boeotian
alphabet on a cylix in Athens, Coll.-Couve 1116, published by Kalinka, Ath. Mitt.
XVII p. 101, pi. 6.
57. Fragment of a Pinax. Akropolis. Photograph in the German Archaeological
Institute, Athens VS 375. Label on pinax: X 7.
Below the pinax is ruled off into four equal spaces, of which only the upper
two are decorated. Above the upper band there must have been a high panel,
containing a picture of a female figure (Athena ?) taking long strides to 1. Only her feet
and the hem of her garment, folds incised, are preserved. On the band immediately
below" her feet is a dog to r. pursuing a hare to r. This subject also occurs on the
cup by Oikopheles (no. 56), but there two hunters and a net are added to the group.
On the band below the dog and hare, Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, no weapons,
swinging his arms, pursues at full speed a centaur, empty-handed, galloping to r.,
looking back. As on the preceding vase it is also here impossible to identify the
58. Cylix. Fig. 6. Forman Collection. Auction catalogue 19 22 June 1899 p. 61
no. 319 and pi. to p. 42. "Kleinmeister" style. Centauromachy on both sides.
Fig. 6. After Forman Collection, pi. to p. 42, 319.
A : Although there are three youths attacking three centaurs the groups are
no longer strictly isolated so as to form monomachies, as on nos. 39 and 42,
but the combatants assist each other, as on the monuments of the later periods.
On the 1., a centaur to r., swinging in his r. hand behind him the leg-bone of a
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art.
2 g Centaurs with equine forelegs.
horse ( ?), holds up his 1. hand as if to parry the blow of a youth who rushes towards
him, brandishing a long staff. Then comes a group of two centaurs, confronted,
attacking a youth to 1. between them. His only weapon is a stone. The centaur
facing him reaches back to deliver a blow with a bone ( ?) held in the r. hand. In
his 1. hand uplifted before him he holds a large stone. The centaur to 1. behind
the youth holds a pine-tree in both hands over his head. From the r. a youth with
staff in r. hand behind him comes to the assistance of his hard-pressed companion.
All the youths wear a short chiton and have a chlamys over their 1. arm as a shield.
B: Here, according to the more primitive arrangement, we have three mono-
machies, but in each the centaur has turned tail and is making good his escape.
Described from 1. to r. we first have a youth to r. with a staff (?) pursuing a centaur
who stumbles to r., with 1. hand on his side as if rubbing the bruises caused by the
beating; he looks back and extends his r. hand towards his antagonist with a gesture
of supplication. The next group consists of a youth to r., brandishing a staff, about
to strike a centaur who gallops to r. with a large rock in his 1. arm. In front of him,
a youth brandishes a staff and pursues a centaur who has come to a sudden stand-
still and turns round awaiting his enemy. He holds in both hands before him a
pine-tree the top of which drags on the ground. This centaur offers a new motive,
full of life and spirit ; indeed, much more originality is shown in this centauromachy
than in other archaic Attic works, and is a good illustration of the relationship
between the "Kleinmeister" series and the Proto-Corinthian style. Also on this
side of the vase the youths with one exception wear short chiton and chlamys
over the 1. arm as a shield; on other Attic vases (see under no. 47) it is Herakles who
thus shields himself. The human abdomen of four of the centaurs is painted purple.
A fragment of a similar cylix representing a piebald bearded centaur galloping
to 1. is now in the Hermitage, a recent acquisition from the Crimea.
59. Hydria. St. Petersburg, Stephani 143. Centauromachy of two groups, the first
of four figures, the second of two.
On the shoulder from 1. to r. : A nude youth to r. with lance attacks from
behind a centaur to r. with white stone in r., who is also attacked from the front
by a Greek hoplite fully armed. Then a centaur to 1., with stone in 1. hand, comes
to the rescue of the first centaur, thus forming a group of four figures. Beyond
this group: A Greek hoplite to r., brandishing his lance, confronts a centaur to 1.,
with stone in 1. hand.
60. Krater with volute handles. St. Petersburg, Stephani 220. Centauromachy
on each side.
A: Seven Greek warriors against six centaurs. The hoplites use lances, the
centaurs have large rocks as weapons; one centaur has two rocks. On the 1. is a
youth to r., wrapped in his mantle, looking on.
B : Similar to A, but the last mentioned youth is missing, and two of the centaurs
have two rocks.
61. Lekythos. Girgenti. Munich, Jahn 772. Story of Nessos.
Nessos wounded in breast and back by three arrows flees with outstretched
arms, in r. hand a stone, and crying out with pain looks back at Herakles, bearded,
lion's skin over his head and shoulders, who approaches from behind and is spanning
his bow to shoot a fourth arrow. Between both is a veiled female figure (Deianeira)
Archaic Attic vases. 27
with uplifted hands. Behind Herakles stands an armed warrior, lance in r. hand,
his 1. uplifted (lolaos). In front of Nessos, a bearded man in mantle (Oineus), sits
on a camp-stool and holds a scepter. Jahn interprets the centaur as Eurytion, but
that legend does not occur on Attic vases of the archaic period ; it occurs only later,
as Furtwangler in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2194 sq. correctly states. On an archaic
vase of Ionic style, no. 308, Eurytion does occur, but with human forelegs.
62. Amphora. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1702. Story of Nessos.
Nessos kneeling to r. looks back and holds Deianeira on his 1. shoulder, as on
nos. 37, 38. She faces 1. and both hands are outstretched towards Herakles, youthful
(as on nos. 46, 48, 51, 53, 67, 154, 172, 173, 182, 226), who holds the centaur's r. wrist
with his 1. hand as on nos. 20, 33, 37, 51, 74, and thrusts his sword into the back of the
monster, cf. nos. 34, 44, 70 and the cylix by Onesimos, Furt.-Reich. II pp. 133, 134
figs. 35, 36. The human body of Nessos is painted red, as on the Chalcidian lekythos
no. 163. On the r. are three figures looking on, first, a female figure who holds her
mantle aside from her face with one hand, then two bearded men, draped. On the 1.
of the central group are two figures looking on, the first female, the other male and
bearded. The ear of Nessos is concealed by the body of Deianeira, but was probably
supposed to be equine. He is crying out.
According to Furtwangler, Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2151 sq. the youthful
beardless type of Herakles is Ionic in its origin, and on p. 2153 he refers to our
amphora as Attic under Chalcidian influence. The lack of beard, however, is not a
criterion, for Herakles is always bearded on Chalcidian ware. Our vase belongs to
the group of "Tyrrhenian" amphorae.
63. Amphora. Italy. Louvre F 14. Pettier, Catalogue p. 719. Nessos story.
In a panel: Herakles to r. seizes Nessos by the tail (as on nos. 34, 70) with his 1.
hand, and brandishes his sword in his r. hand; his club stands behind him, as on
no. 43 A. In the background, partially concealed by Nessos, as on nos. 20, 71,
stands Deianeira to 1. Facing Nessos is a draped figure to 1.
63A. Amphora. Capua. Castellani. Heydemann, Arch.Ztg. 1869 (vol. 27) p. 34 no. 3.
Story of Nessos. A : Nessos and Deianeira. B : Herakles and Athena. Crude style.
A: Nessos, fleeing, embraces with his r. arm Deianeira who sits on his back.
Below, to indicate water, are according to Heydemann, three dolphins, the only
representation in early Greek art where the river Euenos is indicated. Deianeira
lifts both hands and looks back, as on nos. 64, 65, 69, at Herakles who is on the
other side of the vase.
B: Herakles, holding bow and arrows in his 1. hand, and club in r., pursues
Nessos on the other side of the vase. Behind the hero stands Athena with lance and
helmet in her hands.
The river Euenos is represented on a Roman mosaic in Madrid, published by
Quilling, in Roscher, Lex. Ill i, 286, see also p. 282 sqq. Of our amphora he had no
64. Krater, soc. Amphora a colonnette. Italy. Louvre F 307. Pottier, Catalogue
p. 801. Story of Nessos.
Nessos to r. carries Deianeira on his back, who turns round and extends both
hands (as on nos. 63 A, 65, 69) towards Herakles, with club in r. hand, sword at
his side, short chiton, and 1. leg raised, as on no. 77. On the r. a draped figure is
2 g Centaurs with equine forelegs.
looking on. The following vase has a very similar representation of the chief group,
only there the hero's weapon is a sword.
65. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 84. Nessos story.
A: Nessos to r. carries off Deianeira on his back, who turns round and extends
both hands (as on nos. 63 A, 64, 69) towards bearded Herakles, with taenia, chiton
and chlamys. The hero stretches out his 1. hand to seize the centaur, and brandish-
es a sword in his r. hand. On the 1. looking on, a female figure and a bearded male
figure, both only partially preserved; on the r. a draped male figure leaning on
a staff, behind him a flying bird, cf. no. 55. Under the handle, traces of a horse.
The chief group is almost identical with the preceding vase, where the weapon of
Herakles is the club. The number of the minor figures depends entirely upon the
available space, they have no significance whatever.
66. Pelike. Vulci. Present owner unknown. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II 117,
118, 3 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 63, 4. Story of Nessos.
A: Nessos to r., long tresses, taenia, has come to a stand-still and looks back at
Deianeira, whom he holds on his back; his r. hand under her 1. arm, his 1. hand on
her r. knee. Deianeira looks forward as on nos. 25, 70; her r. hand before her face,
her 1. hand behind her. She wears sandals. Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, quiver
and bow on his back, sheathed sword at his side, wields his club in his r. and stretches
out his 1. hand to rescue his bride from the clutches of the monster. On the 1. a woman
with an oenochoe, on the r. an old man watch the rescue. On the extreme 1. a bird
flies to r., whereas on nos. 20, 96, 227 a bird flies to 1. Nessos is no longer represented
in the early archaic stumbling manner, but as standing upright, as on no. 173.
67. Amphora. Nola. British Museum, Walters B 278. "Coarse style, accessories
faded." A: Story of Nessos. B: Satyr and Maenad.
A: Nessos to r. carries Deianeira to r. on his back; she wears a himation,
taenia, and holds a branch in her r. hand. Herakles, youthful as on no. 62 where
other examples are cited, with chlamys as shield on 1. arm (other examples are
cited under no. 47), advances to r. and attacks Nessos with a spear, the only example
of Herakles with this weapon. Walters, evidently for this reason, puts a question
mark behind the word Herakles, but to my mind there is no doubt that Herakles
was meant by the painter of this vase, because of the close adherence to the stereo-
type theme. That our artist tried to be original is also evinced by the branch in the
hand of Deianeira. On the r. is an old man (Oineus) seated on a camp-stool, staff in
hand, as on no. 61, in long white chiton and mantle.
B : "A Satyr to r., with a lyre, pursuing a Maenad, who runs away to r., looking
back at him, with hair looped up, long chiton and himation, branches in r. hand,
crotala in 1." There is certainly no direct connection between the two sides, but
it is interesting to note the occurrence of these subjects on one and the same vase,
because both subjects are found on the cup by Oikopheles (no. 56), and both types
on the Thraco-Macedonian archaic coins. For a silenus in the presence of centaurs
see nos. 40, 311.
68. Pelike. Collection Santangelo no. 144. Naples, Heydemann, p. 668. Story of
Herakles to r., bearded, in chiton and lion's skin, a large quiver at his side,
brandishes a sword against Nessos, who, with Deianeira on his back, has fallen to r.
Archaic Attic vases. 2Q
on his foreknees. Herakles grasps with his 1. hand the r. of Nessos, which the cen-
taur lifts to his head, a new motive. He looks back at the hero and holds a stone
in 1. hand. Deianeira, draped, r. hand uplifted, rides forwards on his back, but looks
back at her rescuer, as on no. 33. On the 1. stands a male figure to r. in chiton and
mantle, 1. hand uplifted. On the r. are two figures, a draped youth, who flees
to r. and looks back, and a bearded male figure in mantle and taenia, who looks on.
69. Pelike. Munich, Jahn 1081. A: Story of Nessos. B: Amazonomachy.
A: Herakles to r., bearded, in chiton and lion's skin, quiver at his side, pursues
with drawn sword Nessos, who, with Deianeira riding forwards on his back, holds a
stone in each hand. Both look back at Herakles; she with outstretched arms, as on
nos. 63 A, 64, 65. On the r. are two figures, a bearded nude man, with chlamys
thrown over 1. arm, and a draped youth; on the 1. is a draped bearded male figure,
69A. Amphora. Heydemann, Bull. d. Inst. 1869 p. 146, 3. Story of Nessos.
Herakles, in chiton and lion's skin, armed with bow and sword pursues Nessos,
who carries Deianeira on his back. The centaur looks back at the hero and tries
to make good his escape. Identical with 163 A?
70. Pelike. Collection Durand. Present owner unknown. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb.
pi. 117, 118, i == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 63, 2. Story of Nessos.
Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, seizes Nessos by the tail (as on nos. 34, 63)
with his 1. hand, and stabs him with a sword in his hindquarters, as on nos. 34, 44, 62.
On the back of the rearing centaur, who turns round with outstretched r. hand,
rides Deianeira to r., as on nos. 25, 66, 67. Between the outstretched legs of Herakles
is a rabbit to r. This is the first example of a rearing or galloping Nessos, a later
type than the stumbling centaur.
71. Amphora. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1835. Story of Nessos.
Herakles, bearded, in short chiton, as on nos. 19, 21, 43 A, 64, 65, 77, 163,
163 A, 213 A, 222, 226, sheath at side, sword in r., overtakes Nessos to r., who
has a silenus-like expression ; he looks back and holds a large rock in both hands
before him. The hero seizes with his 1. hand the centaur's beard, a new motive,
quite common in the later periods. This motive again occurs on no. 176 A. Between
their heads, in the background, stands Deianeira to 1., as on nos. 20, 63. On the
1. is a bearded spectator.
An interesting example of transference of types is seen on the Attic vases which
represent the contest of Herakles with Acheloos (Berlin, Furtw. 1852 == Gerhard,
Etr. camp. Vasenb. pi. XV, XVI, 3, 4; Brit. Mus. B 228, and B 313), where Acheloos
is depicted like Nessos, but with split hoofs and a horn on his head. Moreover not
only this monster but also Herakles and the minor figures are composed on the
type of the Nessos story. See also under no. 157 for another example of transference
of types, in that case Herakles banqueted by Acheloos according to the composition
of Pholos entertaining his guest Herakles. A third example is on a. r. f. krater in
the British Museum F 43, Passeri, Pict. Etr. II 117 where Herakles, "nude and
beardless, seizes a centaur round the middle, raising him off the ground", as the
hero, in his struggle with the Nemean lion raises him off the ground, /. H. S. XXV
1905, p. 269 fig. 6; p. 268 figs. 4 and 5, or as he so often carries the Erymanthian
boar. In this case it is impossible to say which is the original type.
2Q Centaurs with equine forelegs.
72. Amphora. Altenburg. Mentioned by Furtwangler in Roscher's Lex. I 2 p. 2194.
Story of Nessos.
Herakles to r. pursues Nessos who throws a stone at him. Deianeira flees.
73. Cylix. Munich, Jahn 706. A and B: Story of Nessos.
Exterior, A : Herakles to r., with drawn sword, pursues a fleeing centaur (Nessos)
to r. In front of Nessos Deianeira, in Doric peplos open down the r. side, escapes to r.
Meaningless inscription in the field.
B : Same as A, but here Deianeira's peplos is properly fastened. It is surprising
to find the same subject twice illustrated on one vase. One would be inclined to
interpret the warrior not as Herakles but as a Lapith, and the fleeing female figure
as one of the Lapith women at the wedding-feast of Peirithoos, if the Thessalian
centauromachy in the presence of women could be proved to occur on archaic
Attic vase-paintings. Since this cannot be proved, it seems better to hold to the
interpretation above offered.
74. Amphora. Vulci. British Museum, Walters B 227. Illustr. Robert, Mon.
Ant. IX p. 19 fig. 3. A: Story of Nessos.
A: Herakles to r., short chiton and lion's skin, the tail of which is tucked in
under his belt, sheathed sword at his side, brandishes his club against Nessos, whom
he holds by the r. wrist, as on nos. 20, 33, 37, 51, 62. The centaur is trotting to r.,
looking back; he has long tresses as on no. 51, where other examples are cited, and
his equine body is piebald as on 36, 39, 76, 162. On the r. is an agitated female
figure, in peplos and mantle, looking on. Walters identifies her with Deianeira.
The school of Douris developed this composition, see Br. Mus. E 176, illustrated in
Robert, Mon. Ant. IX p. 22 fig. 4.
75. Olpe. Nola. Naples, Heydemann p. 325 no. 2517. Dubois Maisonneuve,
Introd. 62, i. Story of Nessos.
Deianeira in chiton, mantle, taenia, rides backwards (as on nos. 35, 36) with
arms raised in fear and tries to escape the embrace of Nessos to r., who, looking back
with outstretched arms, has dropped his branch. Herakles is no doubt omitted
through lack of space, as on nos. 78, 79.
76. Cylix. Munich, Jahn 436. A: Nessos story. B: Satyr, bearded.
Exterior, A : Herakles, bearded, nude, pursues with uplifted r. hand, and club
in 1. (as on no. 155), a fleeing bearded centaur (Nessos) with outstretched arms,
and piebald equine body (cf. no. 74 for other examples of piebald centaurs).
77. Cylix. Berlin, Furtwangler 2053. A: Story of Nessos.
Exterior A: Between two large eyes, Herakles, bearded, in chiton, sword in
sheath, pursues with club a centaur (Nessos) stumbling to r., who holds a white
rock in uplifted 1. hand. He has silenus-like features, equine ears and, due to an
oversight of the painter, three hindlegs, one outstretched and two drawn in. For
Herakles in chiton see under no. 71.
78. Plate. Athens. Now in Nat. Mus. Athens, Collignon-Couve mo. Border of
leaves like cylix no. 24. Mentioned by Heydemann, Gr . Vasenb. pi. V 6 p. 5 note
I2b, and Dumont-Chaplain, Ceram. I* p. 335 note 3. Story of Nessos.
Deianeira, in peplos, willingly rides to r. on the back of a prancing centaur to r.
Her 1. hand rests on his equine body, her r. arm is round his human back, whereas
his r. arm is round her waist and his 1. hand touches her knees. Both are looking
Archaic Attic vases. o i
back. Nessos has a long nose, beard, but no mustache. The drawing is crude, the
clay a yellowish grey, apparently without slip.
There are two holes in the rim of the plate for suspension. If it were not for
the r. f. cylix, no. 79, on which a female figure and centaur similarly grouped are
inscribed as Nessos and Deianeira, one would hardly be inclined to identify our group
with the Nessos story, but would merely call it centaur and nymph.
79. Fragment of severe r. f. cylix, Epictetan style. British Museum, Smith E 42.
Formerly restored as a plate "when the inscription was incised. The purple
letters are, however, quite legible." See Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. p. 77.
Illustr. Inghirami, Pitture di VasiFittili II pi. 119; Millin, Myth. Gall. pl.CXVIII
fig. 456, and D'Hancarville, Antiq. Etr. IV pi. 31. Mentioned by Colvin, /. H. S.
I p. 117.
Interior: Nessos (inscribed Niao^ gallops to r. but turns his human body
to 1. and is drawing with both hands the body of Deianeira (erroneously inscribed
AaivaveQo), who rides on his back, closer to him, so as to be able to kiss her.
She shows no resistance whatsoever and seems to have become reconciled to her
fate, because of her utter helplessness. Nessos has long tresses down his back and
wears an ivy- wreath. Part of his tail and hindlegs are missing. Deianeira wears a
rich Ionic chiton and a mantle drawn over her head. The monster's hair is very
carefully dressed and his long beard neatly trimmed; his features are quite human.
Another advance over the b. f. style is the more natural twist to his human body.
Since the severe r. f. vases are in many cases as early in date as late b. f. ware,
I have considered it necessary to include them in our list. It may be of interest
to note in passing that the Nessos story is not at all popular in the fourth cen-
tury B. C. There is, however, an interesting hydria of that period from S. Italy in
Copenhagen, Sophus Birket Smith, De malede Vaser no. 203, and a bell-shaped
krater also from S. Italy, Passed, Pict. Etr. II pi. 199; both probably illustrate
80. r. f. Amphora. "Style of Kleophrades" the potter. Munich 2316, Jahn 55.
Beazley, /. H. S. XXX 1910, pi. VIII and p. 50 no. 13 a. A: Herakles. B:
A: Herakles, with club in r. hand behind him and bow in 1. hand, advances
against a centaur on the other side. His lion's skin covers his head and is thrown
over his 1. arm.-
B : Centaur, bald, snub nose like that of a silenus, gallops to 1. and holds a huge
cliff in both hands behind his head, resting on his shoulders. This cliff, with the
exception of that on no. 103, is much larger than the weapons of centaurs in the
sixth century, where the largest stones usually do not exceed the size of the
centaur's head, whereas here it is almost five times the size of his head. The shaggy
beard of the centaur is brown. Although his position is almost identical with that
of the first centaur on the extreme 1. of the centauromachy on the Frangois vase,
yet our artist is advanced in anatomical drawing, witness the median line. With the
r. f. style bald centaurs become popular. The artist may have had the Nessos
episode in mind, though certainty cannot be gained on this point. It is interesting
to note that the centaurs representing other legends on vases from the workshop
of the potter Kleophrades are far more advanced in type than the centaur on our
o 2 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
Munich amphora. (See Beazley, /. c. p. 52 no. 16; p. 57 no. 19 b; p. 59 nos. 21
and 22). This must be explained by the fact that Herakles versus a centaur was
so popular in Attic art of the sixth century that the rather archaic type was still
uppermost in the imagination of the severe r. f. artists. Where the story was new
they were unhampered by conventional types.
We have now sketched the development of the Nessos adventure from its
earliest to its latest appearance on b. f. Attic vases, and have incidentally included
some centauromachies. In the following group we shall dispose of the few genre-
scenes, such as centaurs on the hunt, and those which serve purely decorative
purposes and then shall finish the centauromachies.
81. Amphora. Vulci. British Museum, Walters B 214; Overbeck, Her. Bildw. p. 521
note. Hunting scene.
On shoulder of obverse: "A bird flying to r. between two Centaurs, who hold
stones in their r. hands to hurl at it: on either side, a palmette". Colvin, /. H. S. I
p. 122 says that the bird is as big as the centaurs. On archaic monuments, see under
no. 174, the centaurs usually hunt small game, birds, hares, foxes, or deer. Large
game, such as the lion, does not occur in the archaic vase-paintings. At first glance
the hunt for large game would seem to be limited to the monuments of the late
Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman periods, but the fact that they wear skins of lions,
tigers, or panthers on works of art of the fifth century B. C. proves, as Colvin correctly
observes, that they were considered as hunters of wild beasts even then. The earliest
representations of a centaur shielding himself with the skin of a wild animal are
found on nos. 104 106; on the archaic gem, no. 316, he wears the skin of a
wild animal over his shoulders. On an archaic gem, probably under Phoenician
influence, no. 240, is found the only archaic representation of a centaur attacking a
82. Amphora. Present owner unknown. Gerhard, Apparat in the library of the
Berlin Museum, Mappe XV 41. Centaur and fox.
A bearded centaur, walking to r., looks back; his hairy chest is shown as usual
in front view. His nose is long, his eyes are of the late b. f. period, and his hair falls
down his back and over his shoulder in long tresses. Like all the centaurs on Attic
archaic monuments he is not bald but has a heavy head of hair. In his r. hand
drawn back so that it reaches the middle of his equine body he holds a living fox,
lifting it by the tail. The forelegs of the hunter's prey touch the ground, the hindlegs
are pawing the air, and his head is turned to 1. For other examples of centaurs
characterized as hunters see under no. 174. On an incised Etruscan Bucchero vase,
no. 292, we find another example of a centaur with hairy chest.
83. Cup. PI. VIII. Leyden. Holwerda, Cat. Ill 36. Dr. J. H. Holwerda, to whom I am
indebted for the photograph here reproduced, considers the cup an Ionic-
Cypriote product; it is, however, Boeotian.
Inside: A bearded centaur, long nose and protruding lips like nos. 36, 66, 85,
gallops to r., about to hurl a stone with 1. hand drawn back. His ear, though pointed,
does not resemble that of a horse. In Attic art the equine ears of centaurs are differ-
ently drawn. Nevertheless in composition he is very similar to nos. 84 and 85
and is therefore catalogued at this point. The cup evidently imitates a bronze
Archaic Attic vases.
84. Cylix. PL I. Orvieto. Karlsruhe, Schumacher, Arch. Anz. V, 1890 p. 2. Outside
A: Combat between two centaurs. B: Combat between two cocks.
A : Battle between two centaurs, the one to the r. fights with his fists, unless
he holds very small stones, as on the following cylix, the other is about to deliver a
blow with a pine-tree which he holds uplifted in both hands behind his head. Their
tails are uplifted and they rear so that their forelegs overlap in heraldic fashion.
As is usual in Attic art they have equine ears. Below the rim is inscribed %aiQe
%al TiieC [ei] ev, the syllable si being repeated by mistake. The shape of the cylix
is identical with that of the following example, signed by Xenokles. It is referred
to by Walters, History of Ancient Pottery II 146 in a misleading manner, as though
the centaurs were fighting with cocks.
85. Cylix by Xenokles. PI. II. Caere. Van Branteghem Coll., Frohner, Cat. of Bur-
lington Fine Arts Club pi. 2 and p. 10. Now in Boston Mus. no. 366. See also
Klein, Vasen mit Meister signatured p. 81 no. 12. Combat between two centaurs.
Exterior, A : Two centaurs confronted, the one facing r. holds a stone in each
hand, the other brandishes in both hands above his head the branch of a tree
without foliage. They are bearded, have equine ears, long nose and protruding
lips, as on nos. 36, 66, 83, giving them a very bestial expression. Below the rim is
inscribed Xaevoxheg: enoisoev:
The figures are painted upon yellow clay, relieved by white and purple, with
details incised. Centaurs fighting among themselves, as on the foregoing vase and
the one before us, are rare on ancient monuments, although the type does occur on
Etruscan Bucchero, no. 285, and on Etruscan imitations of Greek vases, as for
instance, nos. 178, 313, 313 A, 324, the first belonging to Class A, the second and
third to Class B and the last to Class C. The subject occurs in Attic art under
oriental influence, no. 4, as early as the geometric period.
86. Amphora. Palermo Museum, no. 1460.
Two bearded centaurs, confronted, attempting to uproot a tree. One of the
centaurs has been incorrectly restored in modern times with human forelegs; they
should be equine like those of the other centaur. For a similar motive see no. 173,
an Attic amphora in Munich.
87. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 68.
A: Two centaurs flee in opposite directions under a tree.
88. Cylix. Ruvo. Naples, Heydemann p. 392 no. 2799. Careless drawing.
Exterior, A: A centaur galloping to r.
Exterior, B : The same as A. On each side, meaningless inscriptions. Here the
centaurs are purely decorative, as on the following cylixes.
89. Cylix. Poli, Cyprus. British Museum, Walters B 408. "Purple and white
Exterior, A: A centaur gallops to r., holding a stone in each hand, like the
centaur to r. on the Xenokles cylix, no. 85.
Exterior, B : The same as A. This cylix is of the early b. f. period, because of
its depth and off-set lip.
90. Cylix. Munich, Jahn 883. Same shape as preceding cylix.
Exterior, A: A centaur galloping to 1. with a stone in each hand.
Exterior, B: The same as A.
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art.
oj Centaurs with equine forelegs.
91. Fragment of rim of cylix. Naukratis. British Museum, Walters B 6oo 54 .
Purple accessories and incised lines.
Exterior: A centaur galloping to r.
92. Kyathos. Italy. Louvre F 163. Pottier, Catalogue p. 775.
Between two large human eyes a centaur with a white stone in each hand
gallops to r. Style of Nikosthenes.
93. Plate. Athens. Benndorf, Griech. u. Sicil. Vasenb. pi. VIII, 2.
Interior : On a double line above an empty exergue is a centaur, with uplifted
tail, rearing to r. and looking back; he holds a rhyton in 1. hand in front of him, but
his r. hand drawn back over his equine body is empty. A drinking-horn in the
hand of a centaur also occurs on nos. 137, 141, 142.
94. Sieve in shape of cylix with lid. Louvre. Not catalogued. Coarse style.
On the first band round the disc-shaped center of the lid are five centaurs
galloping to r., empty-handed, with human ears.
95. Cylix. Vienna, Sacken-Kenner, Wiener Munz- u. Ant. 'Cab. 161, 52; Laborde I
pi. 70 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 203, i.
Exterior : Under each handle is a pair of large eyes, to ward off evil influence,
and between the eyes on one side is a bearded centaur galloping to r. His hindlegs
are concealed by one of the eyes. Between the pair of eyes under the handle is a
seated female draped figure, interpreted as a maenad. There does not seem to be
any connection between the two figures, which to my mind are merely decorative.
96. Cylix. PI. XII. Munich, Jahn 549. Very crude drawing. Centauromachy.
For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking.
Interior: A bearded centaur to r., with a huge white stone in his r. hand sup-
ported against his human back, tramples on an armed Lapith, who has fallen prone
upon the ground. The warrior lifts his helmeted head and looks back. For a similar
motive see the following vase. In the field, a bird flying to 1., as on nos. 20, 227.
The vase is Attic under Ionic influence, see no. 173.
97. Amphora. Vulci. Durand coll. 363. British Museum, Walters B 176.
Centauromachy. Careful style.
A: In a panel, Monomachy, "a Centaur to 1. tramples on a Lapith, and raises
a white rock in his arms to hurl upon him. The Lapith is fallen backwards to 1.;
he is bearded and fully armed, with high-crested helmet, short embroidered chiton,
parameridia, and Boeotian shield on r. arm, in 1. hand a white stone." For similar
subjects see the preceding and following vases.
98. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 86. Centauromachy.
A: Monomachy, a bearded centaur raises a large rock in both hands to hurl
upon a fallen Lapith, fully armed. For a similar subject see the preceding vase.
99. Lekythos. Tanagra. Athens, Collignon-Couve 701. Light background, purple
and white accessories. Centauromachy.
On the body : Two monomachies, in which the armed Lapiths are in the center
of the composition, back to back, each confronting a centaur. The centaur to the r.
has fallen on his front knees.
100. Cylix. Tanagra. Athens, Collignon-Couve 825. Centauromachy.
Exterior A : A nude Lapith wearing Doric helmet, Boeotian shield, and greaves
he has evidently not taken time to put on his cuirass - - has fallen to r. on his r.
Archaic Attic vases. 35
knee, and looks back. He is hard pressed on both sides by a' bearded galloping cen-
taur with stones in their hands, but is about to receive assistance from a nude
Lapith with spear in r. hand and chlamys on 1. arm as a shield. This composition
is very similar to one of the groups on the Forman cylix, no. 58.
B : Same as A except that the nude Lapith on the extreme r. is missing, thus
forming a group like that of the Kaineus episode, but not to be identified with it.
In the field is a flying bird, under one of the handles, a fish. The tails of the centaurs
are painted red.
101. Cylix. Collection Caylus. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. De Ridder, Vases
peints p. 227 no. 331. One side is illustrated in Caylus, Rec. d'Antiq. II pi. 35,
but does not agree in all details with De Ridder's description. Centauro-
A: Described from 1. to r., a warrior wearing helmet, lance and shield walks
to r. but looks back. A centaur to r., armed with branch pursues a warrior fleeing to
r., whose escape is cut off by the next centaur to 1., also armed with branch. The
next figure is a warrior to r., pursuing a centaur to r., who looks back. On the extreme
r. is a warrior to r.
B : A centaur galloping to 1. is pursued by a warrior to 1., who, in his turn, is
threatened by a centaur to 1., holding a branch in each hand. On the r. of this group
is a warrior to 1., who turns almost completely round to attack a pursuing centaur
to 1. On the extreme r. a warrior approaches the last mentioned group, but looks
back. There are on this side of the cylix two groups of three figures each; in the first,
two centaurs and one Lapith, in the second, one centaur and two Lapiths. On side A
there are seven figures, but the warrior on the extreme 1. falls entirely out of the
two groups. The only difference in the system of grouping is that the two centaurs
attacking one Lapith are confronted.
102. Cylix. Berlin, Furtwangler 1754. Cen tauromachy..
Exterior A: Two monomachies. In the group on the 1. a warrior to r., with
Corinthian helmet and shield, attacks with uplifted lance a centaur to 1. who
raises his 1. hand to hurl a stone, whereas with his outstretched r. hand he grasps
the rim of his opponent's shield. Though this motive is very rare in the archaic
period (see no. 176) it is quite common on later monuments, see /. H. S. XXX
p. 52 sq. no. 16 where other r. f. examples are given. A large stone on the ground
between the fore-and hindlegs of the centaur is another uncommon occurrence on
b.'f. vase-paintings. Our vase-painter was probably influenced by some masterpiece
in painting or sculpture. In the group on the r. a warrior to 1. like the first warrior,
but not so well preserved, pursues a centaur to 1., who looks back to hurl a stone
from his uplifted r. hand at his adversary. Between his hindlegs on the ground is a
rock, see also no. 115. The four figures of the picture are so arranged that both
centaurs move to 1. between the confronting warriors. The centaurs have snub
103. Cylix. Berlin, Furtwangler 2047. Centauromachy.
Exterior: Under each handle is a fallen warrior attacked by two rearing cen-
taurs. Under one handle one of the centaurs rests both forelegs on the handle,
under the other the corresponding centaur to 1. rests only one foreleg on the handle.
The warrior fallen to 1. seizes the hindleg of one of the centaurs, a common motive
^5 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
on Etruscan ash-urns. On one side the centaur to r. holds a white rock in both hands,
and the centaur to 1., looking back, threatens with his fist. On the other side the
centaur to 1. shakes his r. fist and holds a grey rock at his side in his 1., but the
centaur to r. twists his human body so that both arms are outstretched behind him
and encircle a huge white rock, much larger than his head. Their faces are grotesque,
their beards are red, and over their foreheads rise tufts of hair, as on the Frangois
vase. On one side of our cylix between two large human eyes is a silenus embracing
a maenad. He has human legs and a type of face identical with that of the centaurs.
There is, however, no apparent connection between the silenus and the centaurs;
the same holds true for nos. 56, 67.
104. Lekythos. Coghill 35,2 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 12, 7. Centaurojnachy..
Two nude warriors wearing Attic helmets advance with long lances to r. against
a centaur rearing to 1., who brandishes a branch in r. hand and shields himself with
a leopard's skin over his 1. arm. The warrior nearest the centaur, with sword in
sheath at his side, has a round shield on 1. arm. His r. knee- and 1. foot rest on a rock
which gives him more power of resistance. The warrior behind him, a beardless
youth, advances cautiously with a chlamys wrapped round his 1. arm as a shield.
The skin over the 1. arm of the centaur (cf. also no. 316) proves that the Greeks even
in the archaic period considered centaurs to be hunters of wild animals, although
they are not represented as such until later times, except on an archaic gem, probably
under Phoenician influence, no. 240. If this lekythos is of the b. f. style, as is reported,
it is another illustration of a centaur so turned that his human back is visible. On
the Wiirzburg b. f. amphora, no. 125, we find another illustration of a centaur with
his human back turned towards the spectator, cf. also nos. 176, 183.
105. r. f. Amphora a colonnette. Coghill 40 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 14, I, 2. Engle-
field, Ancient Vases, engraved by Moses, pi. 23. Centauromachy.
Almost identical with the preceding, except that the first warrior's spear has
a sauroter, and that he kneels somewhat differently. The second warrior wears a
petasos instead of a helmet, and the chlamys round his arm is somewhat longer.
In the field, meaningless inscriptions. Furthermore, a flying spear to r. is depicted
above the heads of the two warriors. Missiles flying through space are not common
on archaic monuments, we have had only two examples thus far on Attic vase-
paintings, no. 31 and the kyathos in the Vatican, no. 47; see also the following
amphora and no. 162.
Reinach is unwarranted in doubting the genuineness of this painting. It only
stands to reason that one man should paint the same picture more than once. Now
that we have a larger repertoire of vase-paintings at our disposal, quite a number of
duplicates can be enumerated. It is, however, surprising that he painted one in
the b. f., the other in the r. f. style. I have not seen either of these vases, but judging
from the poor illustrations, it seems highly probable, that the lekythos is also of the
r. f. style.
106. r. f. Amphora. Vienna, Sacken-Kenner, Wiener Munz- u. Ant. Cab, p. 203, 144;
Laborde I pi. 37 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 187. Centauromachy.
In a panel: Combat between two Greek warriors and a centaur. Similar to
the preceding vase-painting, but here the panel cuts off the hindquarters of the
centaur and one leg of the youth with the petasos. The meaningless inscriptions are
Archaic Attic vases.
also missing, but the spear over the heads of the Lapiths is represented, as on no. 105.
Even in the later r. f . period, when the centaurs are represented as bald, this system
of grouping occurs, though with only one Lapith, on the vase illustrated in Reinach,
Rep. Vas. II p. 281, 3 - Tischbein I pi. n.
107. Amphora. Sicily. Auction Catalogue, Paris, 1.8 20 March 1901, pi. Ill no. 20
and p. 8. A: Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe. B: Thessalian centauromachy.
In a panel, A: Herakles to r. seizes by the hair a centaur whp has fallen to 1.
onto his-foreknees and looks back; his r. arm touches the ground, his 1. arm is uplifted,
his whole equine body and hindlegs are in the air in an awkward position, as if
leaning against the r. border of the panel. From the 1. another centaur to r. comes
to his rescue, and with a large branch attacks Herakles from behind.
In a panel, B : A hoplite pierces with his lance a centaur who defends himself
with branches of a tree. There is evidently no connection between the two sides.
108. Lekythos. In possession of J. P. Anderson. Moses' Antique Vases pi. i. Pre-
sent location unknown. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe.
On body: Herakles in lion's skin, sword at side, empty-handed (?), pursues
with mighty strides to r. a fleeing centaur, who, with a stone in each hand gal-
lops to r., looking back. On the 1. another centaur galloping to r., a stone in
each hand, has almost overtaken the hero. For a similar type of Herakles see
no. 43, where he has three antagonists. The absence of the pithos on both of
these vases is noteworthy, but we must remember that the battle was not decided
at the pithos, and that Herakles pursued them a great distance. Therefore the
centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe may be represented on vase-paintings and other
monuments even where the pithos is missing, as we have already seen on no. 43.
As noted above, nos. 32, 33, 36, 38, there may have been a battle between Herakles
and the comrades of Nessos after his death, not preserved in literature, but it is not
probable that our lekythos illustrates that battle, which is only hinted at on the
109. Kyathos. Pis. VI, VII. Munich, Jahn 1176. Coarse style. On the handle a
bud in relief, and a moulded palmette with long stem, in imitation of metal.
Centauromachy. I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking for the photographs here
A bearded warrior to 1. with high crested helmet, cuirass, and shield (?)
or rock on 1. arm, crouches as he transfixes with his lance a centaur to r., who is
about to hurl a huge white rock at his adversary. On the r. of this group another
centaur to 1. balances a white rock on his 1. arm and holds another rock under his
r. arm against his human side. The field is decorated with vines, and the group
is bounded by a pair of lions confronted, with one forepaw raised, regardant,
as on the kyathos in the British Museum 6463.
no. Lekythos with white ground. 0.18 m. high. Gela. Palermo Museum. Not
published. Cen tauromachy .
A bearded centaur to r., holding a stone in r. hand, attacks a kneeling warrior
to 1., who defends himself with his shield and threatens his opponent with his
lance. He wears a high-crested helmet. When we recall the similar group on the
preceding vase it seems probable that we have here a detailed scene from some
-g Centaurs with equine forelegs.
in. Lekythos. 0.27 m. high. Gela. Palermo Museum. Not published. Centauro-
A bearded centaur to r. attacks with a branch (?) a kneeling warrior to r.,
who looks back at the centaur and defends himself with his shield. He wears a
112. Lekythos, white ground. Munich, Jahn 1278. Centauromachy^
A galloping centaur between two armed warriors. See also nos. 36, 59,
113, 171, 175 A, for a centaur between two warriors.
113. Oenochoe of peculiar shape. Naples, Santangelo no. 235. Heydemann
p. 687. Centauromachy. Careful style.
A bearded nude warrior to 1., with helmet, shield on r. arm, lance in 1. hand,
pierces the chest of a centaur who looks back at and stretches his r. hand towards
a second warrior with shield and lance. With his 1. hand the centaur grasps the
lance of the first warrior, a unique motive. For other left-handed warriors with
shield on r. arm see nos. 97, 166. Our vase is probably Attic under Chalcidian
influence, see under no. 166.
114. Lekythos, neck broken off. 0.13 m. high. Palermo Museum. Not published.
Crude style. Cent auromach y .
A bearded centaur, rearing to r., with a stone in 1. hand, is attacked from behind
by a warrior to r. On the following vase the figures are similarly grouped.
115. Oenochoe. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters 6504. Coarse style. Cen-
In a red panel: "A Greek warrior or Lapith, fully armed, with chlamys, de-
vice of ivy-wreath on shield, advances to r., attacking with his spear a Centaur,
who retreats, turning back to hurl a stone at him, which he holds in 1. hand. Beneath
the Centaur's feet is a rock; in the background a tree." Although the composition
is similar to that of Herakles and Nessos, Walters is certainly right in interpreting
the warrior as a Lapith because his weapon is a spear. A rock under a centaur's
feet we have already found on no. 102 ; the tree see also the next vase indicates
that the scene takes place out of doors. Indeed, not until the next or fifth century
do we find the centauromachy taking place indoors, in the banquet hall of Peirithoos.
In the archaic period it seems as if the expedition of the Lapiths against the cen-
taurs was planned a considerable time after the wedding.
116. Oenochoe. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters, B 622. "Design much worn . . .
purple accessories." Centauromachy.
In a white panel: A "Lapith, fully armed, with a drawn sword in r. hand,
rushes to r. on a Centaur, who kneels to 1. on 1. foreleg, and with 1. arm seizes
the other's sword, endeavouring to push him away with his r. hand. Beneath the
Lapith's feet is a rock; behind him are his spear and shield. On the further side
of the Centaur is a pine-tree." This is the third example on Attic b. f. vase-paint-
ings where a centaur seizes his enemy's armor, on no. 102 he grasps the rim of the
Lapith's shield (cf. also no. 176), on no. 113 his lance, and here his sword.
117. Oenochoe. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters, B 623. Centauromachy.
In a drab panel: "A Centaur to 1. rushes upon a Lapith, wielding a pine-tree
in both hands ; the Lapith is fallen back with one leg doubled under him, and tries
to defend himself with his spear. He is fully armed, with parameridia, and three
Archaic Attic vases.
pellets on his shield as device. In the field, imitation inscription." Walters further-
more says: "The centaur may be named Petraios, and the Lapith Hoplon; cf.
the Frangois vase." To me it does not seem suitable to assign names in this case,
because our group is not at all similar to that on the Frangois vase.
118. Kyathos. Pis. VI, VII. Munich, Jahn 1244. On the handle a bud in relief and a
moulded palmette with long stem, in imitation of metal, like no. 109. Centauro-
machy, three monomachies. I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking for the photo-
graphs here reproduced.
From 1. to r. : i. A rearing centaur to r., wielding a pine-tree in both hands
over his head confronts a fully armed standing hoplite brandishing a spear.
2. A rearing centaur to r., holding a branch in both hands over r. shoulder,
attacks a fully armed hoplite with high-crested helmet crouching to L, with one
leg doubled under him as on the preceding vase.
3. A hoplite advancing to r. pierces with his spear the equine chest of a rearing
centaur to L, looking back. He too brandishes a pine-tree in both hands, has long
tresses, and human expression of face, characteristic of Attic art. The system of
grouping is like that on the "Tyrrhenian" amphora no. 39 where, however, a dead
Lapith is added between groups one and two.
119. Amphora. Heidelberg. Inedited. Kaineus episode. Kaineus, fully armed,
is attacked by two centaurs, confronted.
120. Oenochoe. Munich, Jahn 1258. Kaineus episode.
Kaineus, fully armed, buried up to his knees, defends himself with his sword
against two rearing centaurs, who hurl huge rocks held in both hands upon him.
On the Frangois vase three centaurs attack Kaineus, but on the later monuments
the number of centaurs is almost always limited to two. Three centaurs, however,
occur on the early r. f. amphorae a colonnette, one in the Palermo Museum,
Heydemann, Arch. Ztg. 1871, p. 54 no. 40 Sommer no. 9070, another in the collection
Raoul Warocque, part I, 1903, p. 48 sq. no. 84 with illustration, and the third in
the Harrow School, Smith, The Burlington Magazine II 1903 pi. VII, E. A. Gardner
/. H. S. 1897 pi. 6, probably identical with the Bodleian vase, Sambon, Le Musee
I p. 32 with illustration. On all of these Kaineus is seen as on the Frangois vase
from the front ; there are two centaurs on the 1. and one on the r., reversing the group-
ing on the Frangois vase where two centaurs are on the r., and one on the L; on
the first the centaurs are purely Attic, with heavy head of hair and human features,
on the other vases they are more bestial and bald-headed. Contrary to the archaic
b. f. period, the early r. f. vases represent the enemies of the invulnerable hero
either already wounded or in the act of being wounded with a sword plunged
deep into their bodies. The Raoul Warocque vase is a good example of the latter;
the early r. f. stamnos, Louvre, Pettier, Album pi. 95 G 55 exemplifies the former
type. For a later r. f. vase, which holds more strictly to the archaic motif, see
E. A. Gardner I. c. p. 299 sqq. discusses the legend of Kaineus in an interesting
and suggestive manner. On p. 301, following Mannhardt, he expresses the opinion
that the centaurs of Homer and Hesiod had nothing distinctly equine about
them, and that their peculiar form "is probably due either to some accidental
combination or to some too literal interpretation of a metaphor used by an early
AQ Centaurs with equine forelegs.
poet; it really has no more to do with the origin of the Centaur than has the late
and more artistic combination of man and horse that we see in the sculpture and
painting of the fifth century." Gardner follows the common but erroneous idea
that centaurs of my Class B are older than those of Class A. He does not realize
that both classes occur on early geometric monuments side by side, see no. 5,
otherwise he would not have made the rash statement quoted above. Ridge way
too, Early Age of Greece I 173 sqq. is of the same opinion: "It is clear then that
the Pheres (of Homer) are as yet nothing more than a mountain tribe and are not
yet conceived as half-horse half-man/' but he does not explain how and when the
change took place. As stated elsewhere I am of opinion that the centaurs were
of oriental, probably Hittite origin, and that the legends and myths of the Greeks
grew round the art-type, and in explanation of it.
Loeschcke, Banner Studien Kekule gewidmet p. 252 sqq. discusses the schema
of a hoplite (Kaineus) between two centaurs confronted in connection with the
schema of a fallen Amazon between Achilles and Penthesileia confronted and on
horseback. He is of opinion that it originated as a circular picture (Rundbild\
an outgrowth of two motives taken from the oldest gems, a) two animals in
heraldic position, b) a human being taming two monsters confronted. It is re-
markable that although the Kaineus episode fits very well into a circular space
it never occurs on the inside of a cylix.
121. Amphora. PI. IV. Ley den, Roulez, Choix de Vases Feints pi. XI 2 a = Reinach,
Rep. Vas. II 272, 4. Kaineus episode. For the photograph here reproduced
I am greatly indebted to Drs. J. H. Holwerda and M. A. Evelein.
Between palmettes on stems, two rearing centaurs confronted, as on the pre-
ceding vase, are about to hurl huge white rocks at Kaineus, fully armed, buried
up to his knees in the ground, who defends himself with a lance about to pierce
the body of the centaur on the 1. This centaur has human ears and human expression
of face, whereas the other has equine ears, very silenus-like features and open mouth.
Kaineus moves to r., but turns to 1., with his back to us. The back view of human
beings is not common in the sixth century. Other examples of Kaineus with his
back to the spectator are nos. 123 A, 125, 176 A and a r. f. stamnos in the Louvre,
Pettier, Album pi. 95 G 55. Note also that the centaur to r. holding a white rock
on his shoulders in both arms has the profile of his face drawn in front of it,
i. e. on a white background. This occurs again on an Ionic vase probably made
in Italy, no. 171.
122. Oenochoe. Corneto. Auction catalogue, Paris, u 14 May 1903, p. 17 no. 54
and pi. I no. ii. Kaineus episode.
Between two centaurs confronted Kaineus fully armed moves rapidly to 1.,
but twists his upper body to r., so that his chest is visible, and threatens the centaur
on the r. with his lance. This centaur swings a rock in both hands behind his
head and lifts his front r. leg as high as the Lapith's shoulder. The centaur on
the 1. swings a huge rock in both hands behind him. Kaineus is entirely above
ground, even his feet are visible, whereas on the Fra^ois vase he is buried up to
his waist. There is more originality and vigorous action shown in our vase-painting
than is commonly seen on Attic representations of this episode. The most vigorous
representation is on the Italo-Ionic hydria in Naples, see no. 176 A.
Archaic Attic vases. 41
123. Amphora. Vatican. Museo Gregoriano II pi. 30, Helbig, Fiihrer II 2 p. 293
no. 1 202. On one side: Herakles clubbing centaurs at the pithos, see below,
no. 152. On the other side: Kaineus episode.
As in the preceding vase-painting Kaineus is entirely above ground, but moves
to r., turning to 1. in order to attack the centaur on the 1., who rears and holds
a huge rock in both hands in front of him. The centaur on the r., confronting
the other centaur, swings a rock in both hands behind him so as to hurl it with
more force. Both have long tresses. Kaineus carries a Boeotian shield and wears
a double-crested helmet as on nos. 176, 176 A.
123 A. Shape not mentioned. Akrai. Judica, Antichitd di Acre, pi. 29, i. Kaineus
Kaineus, above ground and seen from behind, in helmet, cuirass, greaves,
and with a round shield on 1. arm, takes long strides to r. between two centaurs
confronted. He leans far to r., so that his body has a diagonal position, like the
warriors on the frieze of the Mausoleum, and turning to 1. threatens one of the
centaurs with a spear. Both centaurs rear slightly, and attack him with their
fists, or perhaps with very small stones. They are bearded and have equine ears.
For other examples of Kaineus with his back to the spectator see under no. 121.
124. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 527. Very crude. Kaineus episode.
Kaineus, fully armed, has fallen on one knee between two centaurs confronted,
who hurl rocks at him.
125. Amphora. PI. V. Wiirzburg no. 97. Kaineus episode. Urlichs, Verzeichniss
III 1872, no. 115.
Kaineus, with his back turned towards us, his 1. leg buried almost to the hip,
his r. leg buried to the knee, aims his spear at the rearing centaur on the 1., who
holds a large white rock in his 1. arm and a leafless branch of a tree upright in his
r. hand. The confronting centaur on the r. is seen from the back, i. e. his human
body is twisted so far to his r. that his human back is visible, a rare occurrence
on b. f. ware, though found on an Etrusco-Ionic stamnos no. 176, and on an Italo-
lonic hydria, no 176 A. On his r. shoulder he carries a large white rock, in his 1.
hand a branch held horizontally. Kaineus wears a short chiton, and perhaps a
short breast-plate ; over both arms he has thrown a chlamys arranged like a shawl ;
his helmet has a high crest, and his shield, seen in profile, has two white pellets
visible as device. A shield device of three pellets is seen on the Lapith's shield
no. 117. The rear view of Kaineus again occurs on nos. 121, 176 A, 123 A. On
the extreme r. and 1. are palmettes with long stems as on no. 121. Loeschcke, Banner
Studien Kekule gewidmet p. 252 incorrectly catalogues this vase under his group
IX subdivision i b) where the hoplite kneels or collapses but does not sink into the
earth. It belongs in his subdivision 2.
126. Lekythos. Gela. Arch. Ztg. 1871 p. 12 no. 6. Kaineus (?) episode. Poor state
Between two centaurs, confronted, and wielding branches is a beardless
warrior (Kaineus?) fallen to the ground.
127. r. f. Hydria. Gnathia, coll. Barone. Bull. Nap. VI pi. 2 and p. 21 = Reinach,
Rep. Vas. I 474, i. Present location not known. Kaineus episode.
Kaineus, front view, head turned to his r., holds sword in r. in a listless
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art.
42 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
attitude. The centaur to r., baldheaded, places his 1. hand on the shoulder of the
Lapith and holds a branch in his r. hand. The other centaur, to 1., with a taenia
round his bald head, raises a large rock in both hands behind his head. Behind
this centaur an armed warrior rushes to 1. to succor Kaineus. On the extreme
1. a fully armed hoplite runs to 1., from his shield hangs a leathern apron decorated
with a large human eye. He seems to be attacking an invisible foe, for his threaten-
ing attitude is not that of retreat. For early r. f. representations of this episode
see under no. 120. I have included this hydria in my list, because, though it may be
as late as 450 B. C., it nevertheless copies the archaic motives even more closely
than the early r. f. vase-paintings referred to above, which probably date before
480 B. C.
128. Amphora. British Museum; Walters B 226. See also Gerhard, Arch. Ztg.
1865 p. 81 sqq. note 4; Colvin /. H. S. I p. 115. Pholos welcoming Herakles.
A: "On the 1. is Pholos to r., carrying a large bough over his 1. shoulder,
from which hang a hare and a fox tied by the forelegs, and a bird tied by its beak;
he is laying his hand in that of Heracles, who confronts him. Heracles is bearded,
with short embroidered chiton, sword and quiver at girdle, club over 1. shoulder,
from which the lion's skin is suspended. Behind him is Hermes seated to 1., bearded,
with long hair, fillet, striped embroidered chlamys, petasos, endromides and caduceus.
By the side of Pholos is a hind walking to r."
Perhaps the oldest representation of the greeting is the bronze group from
Olympia, no. 203.
129. Amphora. Corneto-Tarquinii. Arch. Anz. 1867 p. 5 no. 16, Bullettino 1866
p. 234 no. i.
The centaur Pholos, to r. carrying a branch over his shoulder from which is
suspended his prey, a hare and a bird, extends his r. hand in greeting to Herakles,
who holds his club in 1. and has a quiver on his back. Behind the hero stands
130. Amphora. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II pi. 119 and 120, 7 = Reinach, Rep.
Vas. II p. 64, 4; Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 fig. I. According to Gerhard,
text p. 129 note 28 this vase is now in Berlin, where, however, I have looked
in vain for it. A: Herakles and Pholos at the closed pithos.
A: Herakles to r., with lion's skin over his head, and club over 1. shoulder,
quiver on his back incorrectly restored, is in animated conversation with Pholos,
who confronts him. Between them, half-buried in the earth as on no. 137 is the
huge wine-pithos with a white cover, probably a stone. Herakles touches the lid
with his r. hand, as if urging Pholos to open the jar of wine, but the centaur, who
has just returned from the chase a fox ( ?) hangs from a long pole which he carries
over his 1. shoulder - - protests. Suspended from the tongue-pattern above the
picture is a hare tied by the forelegs. If Gerhard's drawing is accurate, the fox
too hangs from the tongue-pattern instead of from the pole. On the r. are Athena,
turning her back on the scene, and Hermes, facing her ; they are holding an animated
conversation and are gesticulating like the Greeks of the present day. Hermes has
two hats, one in the nape of his neck, the other on his head; this is perhaps
due to modern restoration. Athena wears the aegis, a high-crested helmet, and
carries a spear in her r. hand.
Archaic Attic vases.
131. Amphora. Bologna. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II pi. 119 and 120, 3 = Reinach,
Rep. Vas. II p. 64, 2. A: Herakles draws wine from the pithos at the mouth
of the cave of Pholos.
A: Herakles with lion's skin over head and shoulders, quiver on his back,
sword at his side, bends to r. over the open pithos, and draws wine in a cantharus.
His club leans against the pithos which is buried up to the shoulder in the earth.
On the r. is the cave of Pholos represented as a cliff, as on nos. 132, 154 A, from which
he is emerging; only the front part of his body is visible. He has a long venerable
beard, equine ears, long tresses over his shoulders, a heavy mustache, and upright
tufts of hair over his forehead, reminding one of the centaurs on the Frangois vase.
On the 1. Athena and Hermes intently watch the proceedings; Hermes with the
kerykeion and attired as on no. 128; Athena as on no. 130, but with a fox and hare
hanging from her spear, elsewhere the prey of Pholos, as on no. 128. The presence
of Athena, who accompanies Herakles on his labors, is only natural, but that
of Hermes on this and the preceding vases is not so easily explained.
132. Hydria. PI. III. Munich, Jahn 435. Herakles draws wine from the pithos
at the mouth of the cave of Pholos. For the photograph here reproduced
I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking.
In a panel: Herakles, wearing a short chiton over which is the lion's skin,
bow and quiver on his back, sword at his side, stoops to r. over the pithos from
which he fills a cantharus with wine. On the r. is the cave or grotto of Pholos,
who emerges from it, placing his 1. hand on the white lid of the pithos which leans
against its rim, while with r. hand he points to the contents of the jar. His equine
forelegs are also visible, he has shaggy eye-brows, long beard and long tresses.
Behind Herakles is Athena to r. looking back, wearing peplos, mantle, aegis and
helmet; in her r. hand she holds a spear, her 1. is uplifted. Her attention is attracted
by the approach of two centaurs to r., whose equine bodies are cut off by the 1.
border of the panel. The one in advance of the other looks back and lifts his r.
hand in astonishment; the other, with a bough of four branches in his extended
1. hand, seems to listen eagerly to the words of his companion. The sweet aroma
of the wine has attracted them and they are about to resent the opening of the vat,
the common property of all the centaurs.
133. Amphora with lid. Italy. Louvre F 208 bis. Pettier, Catalogue p. 784 sq. and
for the technique, especially the relief-lines, p. 671. Herakles lifts the lid
from the pithos in the presence of Pholos.
In a panel: Herakles to r., wearing lion's skin but not over his head, braces
himself with 1. foot on the rim of the buried pithos and lifts the lid with both hands.
His bow and quiver hang in the background, as on nos. 138, 139. Facing Herakles
is the king of the centaurs, Pholos, but with only the front part^ of his body vis-
ible; the rest is cut off by the border of the panel instead of by the cave, as on
the preceding vases. In order to make his identity as king of centaurs more evident,
our artist represents him draped, even though he has equine forelegs. I know
of no other example of a draped Pholos of Class A; for those of Class B see under
no. 228. In his 1. hand held downwards is a limb of a tree with several branches.
The club of Herakles leans against the lip of the pithos. Behind him is Athena
to r., and in the background, a dog to 1. On the 1. which is fragmentary, are the
,, Centaurs with equine forelegs.
remains of a quadriga, of which at least the front parts of the horses had been
depicted. In the field, ivy- or grape-vines. The amphora dates from the
end of the sixth century and is contemporaneous with the early r. f. style. It
differs from the group to which it belongs by the addition of the dog and the
quadriga. When we recall the dog and quadriga of Peleus on the Attic b. f. vase-
painting no. 248, representing the handing over of the child Achilles to Chiron,
it seems reasonable to conclude that our vase-painter had some such picture in
mind. Without assuming a confusion of types on his part it would be impossible
to explain the unique appearance of quadriga and dog, so entirely out of place
in our vase-painting.
This vase is missing in the list given by Hofer in Roschers Lexikon III 2
p. 2420 sqq.
134. Amphora with lid. Munich, Jahn 622. A: Herakles draws wine from the
pithos, Micali, Storia pi. 99, 9. B: Two centaurs..
A: Between two large human eyes, Herakles, with lion's skin over head and
shoulders, bow and quiver tied together on his back, bends to r. over the pithos
almost buried in the earth and draws wine in a cup held in both hands. There are
no accompanying figures, even Pholos is not represented. In the field, ivy- or
grape-vines as on the preceding amphora.
B: Between two eyes, two centaurs, attracted by the aroma of the wine,
approach; both are armed with a branch. On the amphora no. 132 they are re-
presented on the same side, behind Herakles.
135. Amphora. Louvre? Millin, Myth. Gall. pi. 117, 439; Gerhard, Arch. Ztg.
1865 p. 82 note 5. Herakles draws wine from the pithos at the cave of Pholos.
Herakles, wearing lion's skin over short chiton, bow and open quiver on his
back, stands to r. and fills a cup with wine from the pithos, which is buried in the
earth at the mouth of the cave of Pholos. The lid of the pithos leans against its
rim. Behind Herakles is a centaur, perhaps Pholos, to r., with a pine-tree in r.
hand and with uplifted 1. In the field, branches.
Millin interprets this scene incorrectly as Herakles washing at a well to cleanse
himself from the murder of the centaurs.
That Pholos is meant by this centaur is made highly probable by the similar
grouping on the amphora in Zurich, no. 268, where the centaur behind Herakles is
draped and has human forelegs, thereby characterizing him with certainty as Pholos.
136. Oenochoe. Durand Coll. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. II pi. 119 120, 5, 6
= Reinach, Rep. Vas. II p. 64, 3. Ferrer's Reallexikon p. 399 pi. 103 fig. i;
Baumeister's Denkmdler p. 659 no. 726; Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2421
fig. 2. Herakles drawing wine from the pithos in the presence of two centaurs.
In a panel: Herakles to r., wearing lion's skin over short chiton, bow and quiver
tied together on his back, club leaning against the rim of the pithos over which
he bends, draws wine in a cantharus. The lid leans against the opposite side of
the pithos. Two centaurs, one on the extreme r., the other on the extreme 1. of
the central figure, look on with gestures of astonishment. To name either of these
centaurs Pholos seems to me unwarranted, since they are not at all differentiated;
both are more probably hostile centaurs attracted by the wine, as the approaching
centaurs on no. 132.
Archaic Attic vases.
137. r. f. Stamnos. Stackelberg, Grdber der Hellenen, pi. 41. Herakles drawing
wine from the pithos in the presence of two centaurs. Probably identical
at least in the design with the r. f. amphora d colonnette in Munich, Jahn 746.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria I p. 410 refers to a stamnos in the
Museo Bruschi, but mentions only Herakles and Pholos.
In a panel: Herakles to r., with lion's skin over short chiton, club leaning
against pithos, but placed in the foreground instead of at one side as on the b. f.
vase-paintings, bends over the pithos drawing wine with his r. hand and supporting
himself with his 1. hand against the rim. Here, as on no. 130, the pithos is not buried
as deep as usual. Two centaurs, confronted, watch the hero, the one on the r.,
carrying over his 1. shoulder a branch of a tree with leafless twigs from which
are suspended a hare and a fox tied by the forelegs, just as on no. 128 where Pholos
is certainly meant; the one on the 1. holding a rhyton in his extended 1. hand as
though clamoring for his share of wine. Only the front part of his body is represented,
the rest is cut off by the panel. Here there seems to be no doubt that the artist
intended us to see Pholos in the centaur facing 1., his r. hand is uplifted as though
he were restraining the other centaur, whom Stackelberg names Anchios. Jahn,
however, identifies that centaur with Pholos, because he holds the rhyton, but on
no. 141 the centaur with the rhyton is certainly not Pholos.
It is noteworthy that there was a pottery of r. f . ware in Athens whose painters
were interested in reproducing old types of b. f. style, instead of attempting new
compositions. They preferred the shapes of stamnos and of amphora a colonnette.
These painters were also interested in the Kaineus episode; under no. 120 I have
enumerated the examples of their work. In another workshop owned by Kleophrades
of whom Beazley in the /. H . S. XXX, 1910, p. 38 sqq. has made a careful study,
the b. f. types are somewhat modified, as for example, the r. f. stamnos in Corneto,
Coll. Breschi, /. H. S. 1910 p. 59 no. 21 and pi. 9, 2. Here as on no. 141 Herakles
stands on the r. side of the pithos as he fills his cantharus, and the lid leans against
its 1. side. Pholos has changed places with the hero, i. e. he is on the 1. side of the
pithos facing r. The other side of this stamnos represents two centaurs, carrying
pointed amphorae; the second one looks back. They are evidently to be connected
with the obverse and are attracted by the aroma of the sweet-smelling wine. On
another early r. f. vase, the inside of a cylix now in Harrow School Museum, in-
scribed Lysis kalos, Herakles is missing, and Pholos ( ?) armed with a branch lifts
the lid off the pithos. (Klein, Die griech. Vasen mit Lieblingsinschr . z 116 no. 12;
Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 no. 3.) The identity of Pholos is not certain,
especially since on an Italian scarab a similar scene occurs, but with two centaurs,
Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 19 fig. 30.
In the Palermo Museum I have seen an amphora with volute handles, like that
in the Museum of Bologna (Mon. d. Inst. XI pis. 14 and 15 = Reinach, Rep. Vas.
I p. 221) with a representation, on one side of the neck, of Herakles and Pholos
at the pithos, surrounded by other centaurs, scarcely differing from the b. f. types,
and a Thessalian centauromachy on the other side.
On another group of r. f. vases, of the amphora a colonnette shape, Herakles
holds the lid of the pithos, which is of such peculiar shape that it might easily
be mistaken for a swaddled babe. In the example in St. Petersburg (Stephani,
4(5 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
Vasensammlung 1272) an unscrupulous person painted in modern times a face,
a foot and a snake on the lid, thereby puzzling several eminent archaeologists
for many years (see Furtwangler, Rom. Mitt. VII 333 note i). These modern
additions are now erased. The other examples of this group are a) Chiusi, Inghi-
rami, Museo Chiusino I pi. 80; b) Palermo Museum, not published. Robert, Antike
Sarkophagreliefs III I p. 158 says that since the fifth century B. C. the "Pholos-
Abenteuer ist fur die Kunst so gut wie verschollen" . To be sure the story of
Pholos is not as popular in art after the fifth century as, for example, the story
of Nessos, but judging from the coins of Alexandria it must have been popular
in the Alexandrian school as late as the Roman period, see R. Brauer, Zeitschrift
fiir Numismatik XXVIII p. 102 sq., and pi. V 19; cf. also Keller, Tier und Pflanzen-
bilder auf Munzen und Gemmen pi. XXV no. 28. But also in the fourth century,
before the Hellenistic period, the story of Pholos is represented in art, though
very rarely, witness the bell-shaped krater in Athens, Collignon-Couve 1919,
where the expression of one of the centaurs is similar to that on the Praeneste
Cista, publ. in Mon. d. Inst. 1862 vol. VI VII pi. 61 62. See also d'Hancarville,
Antiquites Etrusques Grecques et Romaines vol. Ill pi. 20.
138. Amphora. Italy. Louvre F 379. Pettier, Catalogue p. 810, much restored,
decadent style. Herakles drawing wine from the pithos in presence of Pholos (?)
In front of a white rhyton, lying in the foreground, is Herakles to r., in lion's
skin, with both hands plunged into the pithos, as on no. 134. His bow and quiver
hang in the background as on nos. 133, 147, 150. On the other side of the pithos
is a centaur, perhaps Pholos, confronting Herakles, his r. hand raised, his forelegs
partly concealed by the pithos.
This vase is not mentioned by Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq.
139. Lekythos with cream-colored ground. Italy. Louvre F 470. Pottier, Catalogue
p. 815, Album pi. 87. Crude style. Herakles opens the pithos in presence
of two centaurs.
Herakles to r., with lion's skin over his short chiton, stands with one foot
on the shoulder of the pithos (see under no. 143), which is buried in the earth,
and is pushing away the lid. On the other side is a centaur confronting him, lifting
his 1. hand in astonishment. On the 1. of Herakles is another centaur to r., who
also shows astonishment. Above the raised lid of the pithos are suspended the hero's
quiver and bow, as on nos. 133, 138, and behind him hang a garment and his club.
In the field, branches. Here again neither of the centaurs is characterized as Pholos,
which need not surprise us, for sometimes, as we shall see on the next vase-painting,
Pholos is not present. It is noteworthy that on the lekythoi dealing with this
subject, the club of Herakles no longer leans against the pithos, but, with his gar-
ment wrapped round it, is suspended, usually from a twig, in the background.
Not mentioned by Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq.
140. Oenochoe. Cab. Durand 272. Present location not known. Gerhard, Arch.
Ztg. 23, 1865, p. 81 sqq. note 5. Herakles at the pithos, but Pholos is missing.
Herakles bends over the pithos; opposite him sits Athena. That Pholos
is here not represented makes it probable that he is also missing on the vases
discussed above, nos. 134, 136, 139, where one or two centaurs are depicted without
any distinguishing marks. Certainty can only be gained where he is characterized
Archaic Attic vases. 47
as a huntsman, or where he is draped. Furthermore, see nos. 141, 142, 228, 267,
268, the vase-painter sometimes makes his identity absolutely certain by repre-
senting him not only draped but also with human forelegs, an honor usually bestowed
only on Chiron. The undraped Pholos with human forelegs also occurs, as well
as the undraped Chiron, the former on nos. 230, 269, 270, the latter on no. 242;
on no. 308 the nude Eurytion with human forelegs occurs.
141. Lekythos. Gela. Palermo. Heydemann, Arch. Ztg. 1871 p. 13 no. n. Hera-
kles at the pithos in the presence of Pholos, Class B, and another centaur,
Class A. Klugmann, Bullettino 1876 p. 141.
Pholos to r., crowned with ivy- wreath, human forelegs, wearing a white
chiton and himation (cf. nos. 142, 228, 267, 268), shoulders a branch on which hang
a hare and a fox ( ?), and with his r. hand dips a cantharus into the pithos. On the
1., behind him, is a female figure stretching head and 1. hand forwards, much
interested in the central figures. On the other side of the pithos, Herakles in
lion's skin, club at his side, plunges both hands into the pithos in his eagerness
to help Pholos draw the wine. On the r., behind Herakles, is another centaur,
with equine forelegs, to 1. looking back; in his 1. hand he holds a rhyton. This vase-
painting settles the question of identity in regard to the centaurs with similar
attributes on nos. 137, 142; they are not Pholos.
According to Heydemann /. c. the female figure is the wife of Pholos; it seems
to me more probable that she is a mere spectator, since she is not characterized
as Athena, placed here to fill the vacant space, or to make the grouping more sym-
metrical. Neither in literature nor in archaic art is there any reference to wife
or family of Pholos, cf. Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 243.
142. Lekythos. Gela. Zurich, Antiquarisches Museum der sog. Kunstkammer,
Benndorf, Antiken von Zurich, Mitteilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft,
Band XVII Heft 7 p. 155 no. 342, reprinted by Ulrich and Heinzmann,
Catalog, part II p. 42 no. 2296. Careless style. Pholos, Class B, and another
centaur, Class A, at the pithos.
In the middle is a pithos, partly buried in the earth ; in the background, grape-
vines and a palm-tree. On the r. is Pholos to 1. looking back, with human forelegs
and long garment, cf. no. 141 for other examples, and behind him on the extreme
r. is a white column, indicating his house, as on no. 153. On the 1. of the pithos,
instead of finding Herakles, as usual, a centaur is depicted with equine forelegs,
who holds in his 1. hand a rhyton, as on nos. 137, 141. The 1. end of the painting
is erased, accord' ng to Benndorf.
143. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon-Couve 863. Herakles at the pithos in the
presence of Pholos (?). Coarse style.
Herakles to r., wearing the lion's skin, pushes back the lid of the pithos with
his 1. hand and fills an oenochoe with wine. He rests his 1. foot on the shoulder
of the pithos, as on nos. 139, 147, 150, 267. Behind him is a seated female figure
to r., and on a twig above her hangs his garment. Above the raised lid of the pithos
hangs his quiver. Confronting Herakles, but on the other side of the pithos, is
Pholos (?) rearing to 1. Above his equine back hangs another garment on a twig.
On the extreme r., a male figure with chlamys over his shoulder departs, looking
jg Centaurs with equine forelegs.
144. Lekythos. Copenhagen, Sophus Birket Smith, De malede Vaser no. 78,
Heydemann, Griech. Vasenbilder p. 5 to pi. V 5 note 10 (d).
Like the preceding lekythos, except that the youth holds the club of Herakles
and may therefore with more probability be named lolaos.
145. Lekythos. Present location not known. Heydemann, Griech. Vasenb. p. 5
to pi. V 5 note 10 (c) says this vase is in Athens, but it is not in the National
Museum, at least I could not find it there.
Like the preceding vase-painting, except that on the r. two bearded men take
the place of the youth. They are moving away from the scene but look back.
These minor figures, which serve as spectators as well as to fill vacant space,
can no more be named than the similar figures on the r. or 1. of the Nessos
146. Lekythos with white ground. Palermo. Heydemann, Arch. Ztg. 1871 p. 13
no. 12. Coarse style.
Like no. 143, except that the female figure behind Herakles departs with
uplifted hands and looks back. Heydemann /. c. identifies the departing male
figure with Hermes.
147. Lekythos with white ground. Collection Oppermann, Paris, Bibliotheque
Nationale, A. de Ridder, Catalogue des Vases Feints, p. 203 fig. 34 no. 308.
Herakles received by Pholos at the pithos. Crude style.
Herakles to r. in lion's skin, 1. leg uplifted and partly concealed by the pithos,
on the shoulder of which his foot doubtlessly rests, lifts its lid with his 1. hand and
is about to plunge an oenochoe into its contents. Behind him stands a female figure
to r., wearing a krobylos, and lifting her long chiton with her 1. hand to prevent it
from dragging (cf. the archaic female figures in the Museum on the Akropolis).
On no. 143 the corresponding female figure is seated. On the lekythos from Corinth,
no. 150 and on that from the Kerameikos, no. 149 she has the attributes of Athena.
In the field between Herakles and this figure is suspended from a twig his chlamys
folded over his club; above the pithos hang his bow and quiver. Facing the hero
is Pholos on the other side of the pithos. His hair is done up in a peculiar knot
on the back of his head: it is, however, not the krobylos. On the extreme r. is a
youthful male figure (lolaos?) walking to r., a chlamys over his extended 1. arm,
and a spear in his r. In the field between his head and that of Pholos are suspended
on a twig another club and chlamys. This reduplication of the hero's attributes
is doubtlessly due to the love of symmetry on the part of the vase-painter. It
occurs again on the following vase presumably painted by the same man, and on
no. 151 club and chlamys hang from the branch of a tree on each side of the
Missing in the list of representations of Pholos given by Hofer, Roscher's
Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq.
148. Lekythos with white ground. Athens, Collignon-Couve 974. Herakles opens
the pithos in presence of Pholos. Crude style.
Like the preceding lekythos, except that the youthful male figure carries
two lances and looks back. Furthermore the drapery over the clubs is arranged
Archaic Attic vases. 49
149. Lekythos with yellowish ground. Kerameikos, Athens. Collignon-Couve
972; Heydemann, Griech. Vasenb. PL V 5. Herakles opens the pithos in the
presence of Pholos.
Herakles to r., with lion's skin, the tail caught up under the girdle, one foot
against the side of the pithos, the lid of which the hero has pushed back, draws
wine with a ladle (?). Contrary to all the former representations of this subject
Herakled does not hold the lid, it stands of its own accord, as if on a hinge. Furtherr
more, the pithos has a peculiar shape, note especially its thin neck, very similar
to the pithos on no. 155. In his usual position on the r. stands Pholos, with uplifted
r. hand expressive of astonishment. Herakles has no doubt opened the pithos
against his will. In his 1. hand he holds a staff with two prongs. On the 1. stands
Athena to r., with helmet and lance. In the field, branches, but not the armor
of the hero. The youthful figure (lolaos?) is also missing.
150. Lekythos. Corinth. British Museum, Walters B 536. "White accessories."
Herakles opens the pithos in presence of Pholos.
"Heracles to r., with lion's skin over his short chiton, stands with one foot
on the neck of the pithos, which is buried in the earth; he has just pushed away
the lid. On the other side of it is Pholos confronting him, holding out a simpuhtm
in r. hand, inl. a staff with two cross-pieces (as on no. 160); his r. foreleg is raised
to the edge of the pithos. Above are suspended Heracles' quiver and bow; behind
him is Athene to r. with high-crested helmet, aegis, long chiton and himation,
spear in 1. hand. In the field, branches." In many respects this picture is much
like the preceding, but the pithos is opened with the consent of Pholos, who, in-
stead of the gesture of astonishment, holds the ladle ready to hand over to
151. Lekythos. Athens. Collignon-Couve 973, Heydemann, Griech. Vasenb. p. 5
to pi. V 5 note 10 (b). Herakles opens the pithos in presence of Pholos.
Herakles to r. with lion's skin, stands with 1. foot on the shoulder of the pithos
and holds its lid open with his 1. hand, drawing wine with hisr. hand. On the other
side of the pithos confronting him is Pholos, with both hands outstretched towards
the hero. On account of this gesture Heydemann is inclined not to see Pholos
in this figure, but a centaur attracted by the aroma of the wine. If he were right
we would be compelled to give up the appellation Pholos on no. 149 which is so
closely allied to no. 150, where the identification of Pholos is certain, that it is
impossible for me to agree with Heydemann. Above the pithos is suspended the
hero's quiver. On a tree which bounds the composition on each side are suspended
his chlamys and club. Here again the reduplication of attributes for symmetry's
sake, as on no. 147.
152. Amphora. Vatican. Museo Gregoriano II pi. 30, Helbig, Fuhrer II 2 p. 293
no. 1 202. A: Herakles driving three centaurs from the pithos. B: Kaineus
episode, see no. 123.
A: The centaurs we have seen approaching the pithos on the amphorae nos.
132 and 134 have resented the hospitable reception given Herakles by their king
and demand their share of the wine. Herakles to r., wearing a short chiton and
lion's skin, with bow and quiver on his back, sword at his side, pommels the centaurs
with his club. The one in the foreground has fallen to his knees to r. and begging
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 7
CQ Centaurs with equine forelegs.
for mercy with outstretched r. arm looks back, as Nessos is so often represented.
A second centaur with both hands outstretched is trying, to escape to r. by leaping
over the pithos, but Herakles has seized him by the hair; he too looks back at his
persecutor. In the background on the 1. partly concealed by Herakles is a third
centaur to 1., turning his human body to r., with both arms uplifted, as if deploring
the situation. That he is Pholos is made probable by the centaur inscribed Pholos
on no. 155 who has the same position, and makes the same gesture. None of the
centaurs is armed.
153. Lekythos. Stettin. Formerly collection A. Vogell, Auction catalogue, Cassel,
May 26, 1908 pi. I fig. 20, no. 78. Herakles driving the centaurs from the
The cave of Pholos has been replaced by a Doric column (see no. 142) on the
left of which Herakles, wearing the lion's skin, walks to r., with bow and arrows
in 1. hand and club in r. in pursuit of a centaur on the r. of the column, branch
in 1. hand, held horizontally over his back, r. arm outstretched towards Herakles.
He looks back at the hero and, as on the preceding vase, jumps over the pithos
sunk into the earth. According to the description in the catalogue there are several
centaurs, although only one is visible in the illustration.
154. Hydria. British Museum, Walters 651 and p. 20. Herakles pursuing four
centaurs who have come to taste the wine.
"On the shoulder, Heracles (?) pursuing four Centaurs to r. : On the extreme
1. is Heracles (?), beardless, in short purple chiton, sword in r. hand; he has seized
by the arm the last Centaur, who turns round with a stone in 1. hand, to hurl it
at him. The next Centaur has a stone in r. hand; his 1. is extended to the second,
who has both arms raised." Walters' description is not complete, for he does not
mention the foremost centaur. I have not seen this vase, which Walters calls
an imitation of Corinthian style. In the Nessos story we have had so many examples
of the youthful Herakles, nos. 46, 48, 51, 53, 62, 67, that we need not hesitate
to call this youthful hero by the same name. For the youthful beardless Herakles
in general, see Furtwangler, Roschers Lexikon I 2 p. 2151 sq. who proves that this
type is Ionic in its origin. Hartwig, Jahrbuch 1893 p. 161 gives a list of the early
Attic r. f. vases where the youthful Herakles occurs.
154 A. Shape not mentioned. Akrai. Judica, Antichitd di Acre, pi. 30. Herakles
driving the centaurs from the cave of Pholos.
On the extreme 1. is a cave in front of which stands Pholos (?) to r., holding
a stone in uplifted 1. hand; his hindlegs are concealed by the cliff, his forelegs are
those of a horse. In front of him is Herakles, in chiton and lion's skin, quiver in
an impossible position in front of his r. shoulder; he holds a club in hisr. hand behind
him, his 1. is outstretched. With mighty strides he pursues a fleeing centaur,
who gallops to r. and looking back stretches both hands in supplication towards
Herakles, like Nessos on no. 19. Under him two hillocks are indicated. On the
extreme r. is another centaur, to 1., who is coming to the assistance of his
comrade; he holds a rock in his uplifted 1. hand drawn back. All the centaurs
are bearded and have equine ears. In field, branches. The pithos is not repre-
Archaic Attic vases. e I
155. Amphora. Tolfa near Civita-vecchia. Louvre F 266. Pettier, Catalogue
p. 789 and Album pi. 81 and p. 122; Arch. Anz. 1867 p. 5 no. 18; Bullettino
1866 p. 229 sq. An uninterrupted frieze encircling the vase as on nos. 40,
162: Herakles putting to flight five centaurs who came to taste the wine.
Herakles, bearded, holds in his extended r. hand his bow, which is spanned,
and in his 1. hand he brandishes his club as on no. 76. He. wears the lion's skin,
a quiver at his 1. side, and takes mighty strides to 1. Behind him, half-buried
in the earth, is a pithos of peculiar shape, with narrow neck, as on .no. 149, and
on its lip stands a cantharus. On the r. stands Athena to 1., looking back, with high-
crested helmet, spear in r., aegis and long peplos. On the 1. of the hero a centaur
inscribed <&olo<; xevra(v^Qov , and therefore without doubt Pholos, the king of
the centaurs, gallops to 1., but turns round and raises his 1. hand in supplication;
in his r. hand he holds a branch. The gesture of Pholos is so similar to that of the
centaur on the 1. of Herakles on no. 152 that I do not hesitate to assign the name
of Pholos to him too. Under him is a fallen centaur to 1., with r. arm outstretched
on the ground, holding a stone in his r. hand. Cf. the fallen centaur on nos. 21, 23,
31, 161, 183, 228. Further to the L, and forming without interruption the other side
of the vase, is a centaur galloping to 1., with a branch is his r. hand. Confronting
him is a fourth centaur similarly armed, hastening to the assistance of his hard-
pressed brethren, and behind him a fifth centaur, also to r., who looks back and
lifts his 1. hand. Strong Ionic influence.
Hofer, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2423 holds that this vase-painting supports
Kliigmann's interpretation (Bullettino 1876, 141 sqq.} of the so-called Cyrenaic
deinos in the Louvre, see below no. 161, to the effect that Pholos is threatened
by Herakles. To my mind this does not necessarily follow, because on our amphora
Herakles is not threatening Pholos, but the king of centaurs supplicates the hero
in behalf of his subjects.
156. Oenochoe. Fig. 7. Collection Oppermann 40, Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale,
A. de Ridder, Cat. d. Vases Peints p. 180, no. 271; Gerhard Arch. Ztg. 1865
pi. 201, i, 2. pp. 81 83, Reinach, Rep. Vas. I p. 397, i, 4. The banquet-
scene before the cave of Pholos.
At the mouth of the cave of Pholos, under the shade of a net-work of
branches, from which are suspended the bow and quiver and looped quiver-band
of Herakles, the hero, crowned with ivy- wreath, reclines to 1., resting his 1. arm
on a cushion and holding a skyphos of wine in his r. hand. His himation is thrown
over his 1. shoulder and is wrapped round his legs. At his feet kneels Pholos with
an oenochoe of wine, urging his guest to have another drink. In the background
on the 1., just inside the cave, and partly concealed by it, is the huge pithos of wine,
the common property of the centaurs. That it is not buried in the earth is a license
of the vase-painter, otherwise it would have been hidden by the body of the centaur.
Pholos, who is also crowned in honor of the occasion, has a much longer beard
than that of Herakles, a snub nose and long equine ears. The painter furthermore
attempted to characterize his bestial nature by drawing his eye in a less human
manner than that of the hero; his profile is that of the Ionic type of silenus. In
the illustrations of earlier scenes of the story the spectator's point of view is
usually such that only one side of the mouth of the cave is visible, as on nos.
c 2 Centaurs with .equine forelegs.
131, 132, 154 A, but here both sides of the cave are represented, as on nos. 135,
1 60, 267. I call attention to these points because it is not often that a fixed
locality is depicted on the Attic b. f. vases; and so far as I know the examples have
never been collected.
157. Amphora. Munich, Jahn 691. Coarse style. A: Banquet-scene before the
cave of Pholos. B: Dionysos with rhyton, served by a silenus.
A: Similar to the preceding vase-painting, but Herakles holds a cantharus,
and above hang club and chlamys as well as bow and quiver.
Fig. 7. After Arch. Ztg. 1865 pi. 201, r.
We have already seen, under no. 71, that the usual composition of Herakles
slaying Nessos was used to represent, by mere transference of types, the contest
of Herakles with Acheloos. The same phenomenon occurs here, for in Gerhard's
Apparat in the library of the Berlin Museum, Mappe XII 15 there is a tracing
of an amphora, Coll. Dorow, which represents Acheloos, full face, kneeling like
Pholos and administering to the wants of the ever-thirsty Herakles, who reclines
to 1. The interesting subject of transference of well-known compositions to illustrate
a less common myth or legend is now being investigated by Herr Froschle who
will in the near future publish his results.
"Cyrenaic" pottery. 53
158. Amphora. Florence, Etruscan Museum, Heydemann, Drittes Hallisches
Winkelmannsprogramm, Mitth. aus denAntik. Samml. inOber- undMittelitalien
p. 95 no. 47. A : Pholos entertaining Herakles. B r Silenus entertaining Dionysos.
A: Herakles reclining to 1., resting 1. elbow on a cushion, holds a cantharus in
1. hand and rests his r. hand on his r. (?) knee. He wears a taenia in his hair; above
are suspended lion's skin, bow and quiver. From the 1. a bearded centaur, Pholos,
approaches, holding in his r. hand an oenochoe, from which he is about to replenish
the cup of his guest. Over his 1. shoulder he carries a branch on which are tied
two foxes and a hare, all of them dead. Behind Pholos is the open pithos half
buried in the earth, the white lid leaning against its side. Contrary to the preceding
examples Pholos is standing, as on nos. 159, 160.
B : Dionysos reclining like Herakles is being served by a silenus, an interesting
parallel to side A, even closer than on the preceding vase. I call attention to the
reverse of these two vases because they give us a better insight into the nature
of the centaurs, showing their relationship to the sileni. The Bacchic side of their
nature is often overlooked or denied. To be sure it is more apparent on Ionic
and Italo-Ionic monuments, especially no. 311, though on the "Tyrrhenian"
amphora no. 40 the association between centaurs and silenus is quite as clear.
159. Skyphos. Englefield, Ancient Vases, engraved by Moses, pi. 29. Pholos
offers the reclining Herakles wine.
Herakles reclining to 1., resting r. hand on 1. knee, is about to take a rhyton
from the extended 1. hand of Pholos who stands, as on the preceding vase, con-
fronting him. In the field, vines.
160. Lekythos with white ground. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Robinson 348.
Herakles reclining at mouth of cave of Pholos. Crude design and much worn.
Pholos to r., holding a staff with two cross-bars, as on no. 150, in his r. hand,
the himation (?) of Herakles in his 1. hand, approaches his guest who reclines to 1. at
the mouth of the cave, his 1. arm resting on a cushion, hisr. hand worn away, his legs
wrapped in his mantle. Both sides of the cliff representing the entrance to the cave
are indicated as on no. 156, so that we have the front and not the usual side view of
the cave, but here the body of Herakles fills the entire space so that Pholos is re-
presented beyond the entrance. Between Pholos and the 1. cliff of the cave is a
peculiar object, perhaps the rim of the pithos covered with a rock. According to
Robinson the shoulder and mouth of the pithos are visible, but his description is not
accurate; e. g. he mistakes the cliffs forming the mouth of the cave for two columns.
This is not mentioned in Hofer's list, Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2420 sqq.
VII. "CYRENAIC POTTERY.
161. Deinos. Fig. 8. Caere. Louvre E 662. Pottier, Catalogue p. 527, Album p. 62;
Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 215 sqq. pis. 12 and n, I == Reinach, Rep. Vas. I
p. 433, 8; Droop, /. H. S. 1910 p. 31; Dugas and Laurent, Rev. Arch. 1907
p. 49 no. 17. Herakles pursuing six centaurs, four of Class A and two of Class B.
Herakles nude, as on nos. 20, 25, 26, 27, 44, 49, 50, 51, 53, 164, 182, 218, 224,
228, 310, and bearded, with bow and quiver strapped on his back but differing
Centaurs with equine forelegs.
from nos. 130, 131, 132, 134, 135, 136 in that they are fastened by a double cross-
belt, as on nos. 162, 163, rests on r. knee to r., brandishes a club in r. hand, and
with his 1. hand seizes the 1. wrist of a bearded centaur confronting him. In the back-
ground partially concealed by the centaur's body is a tree, which grows in a very
unnatural way to fill the vacant space over his back. This centaur has a complete
human body, also human ears, and from the small of his back grows an equine
body. His expression is quite as human as that of Herakles, whom he supplicates
with outstretched r. hand. Back to back with this centaur is another with human
forelegs running away with a branch over his r. shoulder. Puchstein. /. c. p. 242
incorrectly calls him beardless. The four centaurs behind Herakles have equine
forelegs but human ears as on nos. 19, 24, 40, 43, 49, 94, 121, 162, 163, 176, 176 A,
Fig. 8. After Arch. Ztg. 1881 pi. 12, i.
182, 184, 185. The one immediately behind Herakles, with hairy chest, has fallen
on his foreknees to r., but still clings with r. hand to his tree which rests on his
1. shoulder, and his head is twisted completely round, so that he looks upward.
The next centaur has a similar pose to 1., but looks downward and holds his branch
in 1. hand. His backhair is fastened with a crescent-shaped comb similar to that
worn by Nessos on no. 19. In front of him on the extreme 1. two centaurs gallop
to 1., making good their escape, one has a branch in each hand, the other still
shoulders one branch but has dropped the other. The four centaurs with equine
forelegs have quite a different expression of face from that of their two comrades
with human forelegs, due to their almond-shaped eyes; and three of them have
shaggy bodies, both human and equine, as on no. 200. For other examples of
fallen centaurs see nos. 21, 23, 31, 155, 183, 228.
.It was formerly almost universally held that centaurs with human forelegs
were of an earlier type than those with equine forelegs, but as early as the geometric
"Cyrenaic" pottery. ec
period, both types appear together on one monument, witness no. 5. Furthermore,
the theory was almost universal that centaurs with human forelegs represented
Chiron or at least a more noble breed than those with equine forelegs. Hofer in
Roscher's Lexikon III 2 p. 2423, accordingly interprets the two centaurs on the r.
of Herakles as Pholos and Chiron. In Attic art, where, in the sixth century,
only Chiron and Pholos have human forelegs, such an interpretation would be
permissible, but since in the first place "Cyrenaic" pottery does not show the
slightest trace of Attic but marked Ionic influence, and since in the second place
the Attic distinction between centaurs of my Class A and Class B was not made
elsewhere, witness the frieze of the temple at Assos, no. 182, on which there are
among others three centaurs with human forelegs pursued by Herakles, it necessarily
follows that Hofer 's interpretation of our deinos is incorrect.
The recent excavations at Sparta have led the English excavators to claim,
I fear too rashly, that "Cyrenaic" pottery was manufactured in Laconia. Although
the question of Ionic and oriental influence on Laconian art needs further study,
I opine that the foreign influence came by way of Crete. Milchhofer, Anfdnge
der Kunst 171 sqq. with marvellously keen insight argues against the Cyrenaic
manufacture of the socalled Cyrenaic vases, and considers them Cretan products;
on p. 183 he calls attention to their close connection with early Spartan monuments.
For the results of the Spartan excavations, see British School Annual XIV especially
p. 44; XV p. 23 sqq. and J. P. Droop, /. H. S. 1910 pp. I 34.
The attitude of Herakles, on one knee, occurs a) on the bronze relief from
Olympia, no. 222, where he is shooting an arrow at a shaggy centaur with human
forelegs. There too a tree is in the background partially concealed by the centaur,
who, as on our deinos, begs for mercy. On both monuments the quiver of Herakles
is fastened on his back and not at his side, b) On the Berlin Proto-Corinthian
lekythos no. 226, where Herakles pursues with bow and arrows four centaurs
with human forelegs, three of them with shaggy human bodies. The wounded
centaurs fall in a much more naturalistic manner than on our deinos, where the
poses are very artificial and stiff. The spirit of the Proto-Corinthian lekythos
is seen on no. 58 and on other works of the Attic "Kleinmeister" and especially
on the vases painted by Nikosthenes. Now Droop /. c. p. 30 states that Nikosthenes
knew and imitated the "Laconian" style. It seems to me more probable that the
Ionic influence on the "Cyrenaic" and Proto-Corinthian ware is more responsible
for the style of Nikosthenes. Only indirectly then is there any connection between
the so-called Laconian style and that of Nikosthenes. c) On the stamped red ware
found in Italy which shows marked oriental influence, though the original center
of manufacture was probably Crete. Here again it is an archer who confronts a
centaur, in this case with equine forelegs, witness the reliefs from Cotrone,
no. 196, where Herakles is nude as on our deinos, but where contrary to a) and b)
the pithos of Pholos is represented, d) On the terracotta reliefs from Samsoun
no. 183 where, however, the quiver is worn on the 1. side of the hero, who also
wears the lion's skin. On only one of the centaurs pursued by Herakles are the
forelegs preserved, and they are equine. Here perhaps stronger than elsewhere
is Ionic influence seen; it would probably come nearer the truth to call this
relief a genuine Ionic product.
eg Centaurs with equine forelegs.
VIII. IONIC POTTERY, AEGEAN ISLAND STYLE.
162. Amphora. Caere. Berlin, Furtwangler 1670. Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb.
pi. 119 120, i == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 64, i. Clarke, Assos, American
Papers 1898 p. 165 fig. 38. Herakles pursuing six centaurs. The design en-
circles the vase, as on nos. 40, 155, forming a continuous frieze.
Herakles, bearded, in short chiton over which he wears the lion's skin, open
quiver on his back fastened with two bands that cross on his chest (cf. 163), takes
mighty strides to r. and is about to shoot an arrow at the retreating centaurs,
who gallop to r. The one just in front of the hero has his chest pierced by an arrow
and extends his 1. hand probably to take one of the two stones his comrade turns
back to hand him. Under the first centaur's body is a stone falling to earth. The
third centaur partly concealed by the second holds a stone in his r. hand and is
wounded like the first; the fourth looks back and like the third has a white tail;
the fifth leaps over a large rock, he is piebald; and the sixth, who is farthest from
Herakles jumps over the branch of a tree which he has dropped in his anxiety
to escape. He has much longer hair and a more silenus-like nose than his brethren.
Behind Herakles stands a female figure to r., whose gestures are those of one
who wishes the hero well, but she does not bear the attributes of Athena. Although
the whole composition moves to r., it is more vigorous than no. 161; the centaurs
on our amphora gallop like spirited steeds, those on the deinos are like wooden
hobby-horses. The difference is especially noticeable in the two types of Herakles;
on the deinos which is certainly not earlier in date than our amphora he kneels
in a highly archaic fashion, whereas on the amphora he rushes forwards like a
whirl-wind. The painter of the deinos lagged far behind his contemporaries in other
art-centers. And still there is strong Ionic influence in both vases, such as the human
ears of the centaurs, the large round eyes of Chalcidian shape, especially on the
amphora, the snub noses, and the fact that the frieze forms a continuous band round
the vase. Zahn considers this Berlin vase to be of the same fabric as the Phineus
cylix in Wiirzburg; Furtwangler catalogued it in 1885 as Chalcidian, but later,
in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2194 called it Attic under Chalcidian influence. Zahn's
opinion appeals to me very much, for both the Phineus cylix and our amphora
are better than the Attic or Chalcidian style, but, nevertheless, were painted
in a locality which must have had close connections with Athens and Chalkis,
as Furtwangler in the text to Furtw.-Reichh. pi. 41 p. 209 correctly says in his
characterization of the style of the Phineus cylix. He furthermore /. c. p. 220
considers Naxos the probable home of that cylix, but at present with our limited
material and limited knowledge of the art on the Ionic islands certainty cannot be
gained. It is, however, only in a general way that the Phineus cylix and our Berlin
amphora resemble each other. On close analysis the differences begin to weigh
heavily; e. g. characteristic of the Phineus vase is the low-cut neck on the dress of
female figures, the emphasis of the glutaeus, the outline of the legs made visible by
the clinging drapery and finally the broken wreath in the hair of the female figures.
Not one of these characteristic peculiarities is found on the female figure of our
vase. She wears a peplos which hangs like a bag from her shoulders, absolutely
"Euboean" and Corinthian pottery.
concealing the outline of her body. This is more in keeping with the Attic style.
The features of the centaurs, however, differ in marked manner from those on Attic
monuments. Those on the Francois vase are of an entirely different breed, the
same holds true for those on no. 31, indeed the examples might be multiplied
indefinitely without finding any marked similarity between Attic centaurs and
those of our vase. There is still another point worthy of notice. I refer to the stone
flying through the air. On early Attic vases I have found it only once, viz. on no. 47,
though arrows fly through the air on no. 31 and a spear on the early r. f. vases
nos. 105, 106. A piebald centaur again occurs on the "Tyrrhenian" amphorae
nos. 36, 39, on nos. 74, 76, and on a "Kleinmeister" fragment recently found in
the Crimea, and now in the Hermitage.
Dr. Zahn has called to my attention an amphora of the same fabric (Auction
Catalogue, Paris, March 18 20, 1901, pi. 2 no. 13) which contains on one side
three centaurs running to r., but Herakles is missing.
IX. "EUBOEAN" AND CORINTHIAN POTTERY.
163. Lekythos. Fig. 9. Corinth. British Museum, Walters B 30 PI. I. "Designs
black on red ground, with incised lines and accessories of white and purple.
On the neck, a moulded ring." Story of Nessos.
"On the body, Nessos carrying off Deianeira: The Centaur gallops to r., looking
back : he has long hair, and carries Deianeira in his arms ; she has long hair with
Fig. 9. After Catalogue of Vases, British Museum, II pi. I. B 30.
a fillet, long purple chiton, and arms extended; her flesh is painted white. Behind
Nessos runs Heracles pursuing, bearded, with a fillet, short purple chiton with
chevron border, sword and double cross-belt, 1. hand raised, in r. his club; his
face is painted purple. Confronting the Centaur is a panther rearing to 1., with
face turned to the front. In the field, rosettes and leaves." Walters /. c. catalogues
this vase under Corinthian style, but I believe that it has the characteristics of
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 8
eg Centaurs with equine forelegs.
Chalcidian fabric. Perhaps the best way to bring out its characteristics is to show
wherein it differs from other styles, and since the subject occurs most frequently
on archaic Attic vase-paintings, we may profitably begin with them. The most
apparent difference is the doll-like appearance of Deianeira; her head is not half
the size of that of Herakles, not to mention Nessos, whereas in Attic art the differ-
ence in size is scarcely noticeable, cf. nos. 35, 36, 37, 38, 62, etc. Never in the Attic
style of b. f. vase-painting is Deianeira held as she is here, i. e. in both arms of the
centaur on her back as a babe would be carried, but either sits on his back, her
body turned forward, as on nos. 25, 33, 64 68, 70, or with her body turned backward,
as on nos. 35, 36, 75 or she is held upright on one arm of Nessos, as on nos. 37,
38, 62. Never in archaic Attic ceramic art does the outline of the human figure
show beneath the drapery as here ; never do we find the garment curved at the bottom
running to a point in back. These are Chalcidian characteristics. Cf. the Chal-
cidian hydria in Munich, Furtwangler-Reichhold text pp. 165 167 and pi. 31
and pi. 32 below, where also the point of the beard of Zeus is turned back, as on
our lekythos the beard of Herakles. The rosettes which adorn the field occasionally
occur on Chalcidian pottery, though they are commonly found on Corinthian
b. f. ware. The ungainly forelegs of the galloping Nessos are paralleled only on
the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161, where, however, the type of centaur is quite different.
The technical peculiarities of the Chalcidian hydria in Munich, to which Reichhold
/. c. calls attention, also occur on our lekythos, in that the outlines of the figures
are incised only when the figures overlap, note especially the end of the club,
the r. elbow of Herakles and the tail of Nessos. This, to be sure, also holds true for
the much older Nettos amphora, no.jig, where, as on our lekythos, the back-hair
of Nessos is fastened behind his ears to prevent its falling in tresses over his shoulders,
but on our lekythos it seems to be a band and not a metal comb, cf. also nos. 161,
225, 226. The short hair of the hero proves nothing, as it is almost universal. The
arrangement of his chiton (cf. no. 163 A) is, however, rare (the Nettos amphora
again offering the closest analogy); so too the shape of his club, and the double
cross-belt for his sword, although the double cross-belt for his quiver does occur on
nos. 161, 162. On nos. 64, 65 the chiton of Herakles has the Attic cut; the difference
is evident at a glance. Nor are the human ears of Nessos any help in fixing the style
of the picture, for they occur already on the earliest b. f . vase that has come down
to us, no. 19, and are found sporadically throughout the later b. f. period, also on the
"Cyrenaic" ware and in Ionia, where they are more in keeping with the human
forelegs of centaurs. But the expression of face due to the long nose is found again
only on the hydria no. 165. Very remarkable is the panther which takes the place
of the usual spectators. A lion in the company of centaurs occurs on the Etruscan
goblets no. 193 (see also no. 281 A), and on an Ionic vase no. 235; a panther
supporting himself against a centaur's back is found on an Etruscan Bucchero
goblet, no. 283, and a ram and panther follow a centaur on no. 291, see also
nos. 304 and 305. For a female figure held similarly in the arms of a centaur
see no. 163 A, the Thraco-Macedonian coins, no. 191, the terracotta group from
Tanagra, no. 208, the electron stater from northern Ionia, no. 190, the Ionic
gem no. 325 and especially the Italo-Ionic amphora under Chalcidian influence,
"Euboean" and Corinthian pottery. 59
163 A. Amphora. Italy. Munich, Staatsbesitz i. Sieveking-Hackl pi. 33 no. 834
p. 96 fig. 95. Story of Nessos. Italo-Chalcidian style. Identical with 69 A?
Nessos with human ears and red beard gallops to r., looking back. He carries
Deianeira in his arms, almost as on no. 163, only here her position is somewhat
more perpendicular. She wears a red chiton with black stripe and a mantle drawn
over her head; both arms are extended. Behind Nessos runs Herakles pursuing,
curly hair as on no. 310, red beard, short red chiton as on no. 163, quiver on his
back, sword in sheath at his side, another sword in r. hand, and a bow in
164. Oenochoe. Samian Necropolis. Boehlau, Aus ionischen und italischen
Nekropolen p. 140 and pi. 5, 2 and 2 a. Story of Nessos.
Herakles, bearded, nude, advances to r. with 1. foot forward; in r. hand drawn
back he holds a sword, and seizes with 1. hand the centaur Nessos who kneels
on all fours to r., looking back. It is impossible to say whether the centaur's ear
is equine or human, for the drawing is extremely sketchy, as though the artist
were imitating metal repousse work. The two bands beneath the composition
and the moulded ring on the neck near the shoulder are also imitations of bronze
work. Boehlau /. c. holds that this oenochoe is probably not Attic but Ionic, at
the same time admitting that the drawing is too sketchy to reach any conclusions
concerning its style; the shape of the pitcher, however, and its heraldic compo-
sition lead him to assign it to Chalcis or some center strongly under her influence.
Thus far I agree with Boehlau but when he says: "die Komposition entspricht der
auf der Netos amphora," I think he might have found closer analogies, so for in-
stance the oenochoe in Leyden, no. 44, no. 25, or even no. 46 at least for the pose of
Nessos. For the position of the r. arm of the hero, which shows that he used his
sword to stab and not to cut, see especially the fragment of Sophilos, no. 21, and
for a list of the nude type of Herakles see under no. 161.
165. Hydria. Louvre E 803. Pottier, Catalogue II p. 555. Incorrectly identified
by Hoppin in Argive Heraeum II p. 163 with Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb.
117 118 i. Story of Nessos.
Herakles, bearded, in lion's skin, but not worn over his head as a helmet, quiver
and bow on his back, holds long sword in horizontal position and hastening
to r. with mighty strides is about to stab Nessos, who has equine ears. On his
back sits Deianeira, looking round at Herakles. The centaur places his 1. hand
in front of his human body and his r. to his forehead. The group is bounded on
1. and r. by a female figure in mantle.
Herakles in the lion's skin, but not drawn over his head, occurs more frequently
in his amazonomachy ; it is not limited to any one style, and is not therefore
significant. See Furtwangler, in Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2147. Quiver and bow
on his back occur more frequently in connection with his visit to Pholos. The sub-
ject in general occurs quite commonly on early b. f. amphorae under Peloponnesian
influence, see especially nos. 66, 70, also on "Tyrrhenian" amphorae, nos. 34, 38.
But the reason for assigning this vase to the Chalcidian group is the style rather
than the composition, and the distribution of the designs, especially the two graz-
ing hinds on the neck. The centaur has the same long nose so conspicuous on
no. 163, and red color is profusely used on beards, hair, drapery and faces. Both
6o Centaurs with equine forelegs.
Pettier /. c. and Furtwangler, Roscher's Lexikon I 2 p. 2194 consider our vase
166. Amphora. PL V. Kameiros. British Museum, Walters B 25. A: Centauro-
machy. B: Two sirens confronted; between them, a palmette. On neck:
lotus flower and palmette, intertwined so as to form a cross.
A: "Two warriors in combat: the one on the 1. has a visored helmet, greaves,
and shield, and is attacking with his spear: the one on the r. moves away to r.
looking back; he is similarly armed, and is hurling his spear with 1. hand. On the
r. a Centaur gallops up to his defence, with a stone in 1. hand. In the field, patterns
of dots and a star of eight points." What Walters calls a star is a circle of
twelve dots. It does not seem probable to me that the centaur is coming to the de-
fence of the warrior, although on no. 176, such a scene is actually depicted. I
interpret the scene as two warriors advancing against the centaur, the one on the
r. looking back to see if assistance is close at hand, a composition which on the
Attic vases does not occur until about a century later, 'and then much clearer,
see nos. 104 106. Noteworthy is the armor of our Lapiths, helmet, shield, spear
and greaves, but not cuirass, as on the cylix from Tanagra, no. 100, see also
no. 1 66 A. Left-handed Lapiths with shield on r. arm are not common on ancient
monuments, although they do occur, witness nos. 97, 113.
Walters /. c. has catalogued our vase under those of Corinthian style, though
in a letter I recently received from him he writes: "I must say that I am rather
doubtful if the vase is really Corinthian, though it was catalogued as such. I expect
it will turn out to be Chalcidian, in common with several others catalogued under
the head of Corinthian. But we don't quite know yet what are the characteristics
of the Chalcidian fabric." That is evidently very true, but I think we are safe
in calling our amphora Chalcidian. It belongs to a group of amphorae, all with
rays rising from the foot, but instead of being placed close together as usual, there
is an interval of space between each ray. Above this comes a heavy black band,
about 2Vg inches broad, above which on a narrow line is the main picture. On
the neck of our vase are two lotus flowers and two palmettes cross-wise intertwined,
identical with that pictured on p. 83 fig. 22 in Thiersch, Tyrrh. Amph., who, how-
ever, /. c. p. 82 claims this ornament for his "Tyrrhenian" style, and denies that it
ever occurs on Chalcidian or Corinthian vases. He is certainly mistaken in this,
for nobody would hold our amphora to be of the "Tyrrhenian" style. To his group
/. c. p. 144, one of which is illustrated on his pi. II 8, he should have added Louvre
E 810 Pottier, Album pi. 57, and to the variation of this group /. c. p. 145 Thiersch
should have added our amphora. Had we no other criterion the composition of
the main group would make it impossible to assign this small class of vases to Attica,
as proposed by Thiersch.
i66A. Lekythos. Greece. Munich. Staatsbesitz 68. Sieveking-Hackl p. 30 no. 346
fig- 44, P- 3i fig- 45-
Nude warrior to r., helmet, shield, brandishing a lance, inscribed in Corinthian
letters Hippobatas, confronts a galloping centaur who holds a stone in 1. hand
drawn back. The style is similar to no. 166.
Theban Cabirion ware. Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 6 1
X. THEBAN CABIRION WARE.
167. Skyphos. Temple of the Cabiri, Thebes. British Museum, Walters B 77.
"Designs black on deep buff ground, with incised lines. Of local manufacture."'
A: "Centaur to r., with shaggy hair, beard, and tail, holding a crooked staff
in r. hand, and a tree in 1., confronts two grotesque beardless male figures in hi-
matia, carrying sticks, that of the front one knotted; behind them, a tree. This
scene probable represents Peleus bringing the young Achilles to Chiron." If this
interpretation of Walters were correct, it would be the only example in early
Greek art of an equine forelegged Chiron. The nose and mouth of the centaur and
that of the first human figure are those of a dog. The ears are not represented.
Although the Cabirion ware is black- figured it is later than the Attic b. f.
style, and probably dates from the end of the fifth century B. C.
168. Fragment. Temple of the Cabiri, Thebes. National Museum, Athens, not
published. Case 62, no number.
A centaur to 1., 1. hand behind his back, equine ears, face broken off.
XI. ITALO-IONIC AND ETRUSCO-IONIC VASES.
169. Amphora. Corneto. Berlin, Furtwangler 1675. Endt, Beitrdge zur ionischen
Vasenmalerei p. 48 fig. 22. A and B: Procession of centaurs.
On each side are two centaurs walking to 1.; they have large equine ears,
long beards painted red, also long red hair, white belly, r. hand outstretched but
empty, over 1. shoulder they carry long pine-branches.
According to Endt I. c. this belongs to a group of Ionic vases manufactured
in Pontos about 600 B. C. His arguments do not seem to me convincing. For
the type of centaur in Pontos see the Samsoun reliefs, no. 183.
170. Amphora. Wiirzburg III 84 Diimmler, Rom. Mitt. 1887 p. 191 no. i. Endt,
Beitrdge zur ion. Vasenm. p. 46 fig. 20 and p. 47 fig. 21, Procession of centaurs.
On each side there are three centaurs walking to 1., the last on each side is
represented only from the middle of his equine body, the rest of the body and hind-
legs are cut off by the broad black vertical band (which characterizes this group)
on which the handle is fastened. As on the preceding vase the r. hand is extended
and empty, the 1. holds a pine branch over 1. shoulder. Under the first and second
centaur of each side, between their fore- and hindlegs is a crane to 1.
For Endt's Pontic attribution see under preceding number. Diimmler states
that one of the three centaurs on each side is beardless, which is a point in favor
of Italiot fabric, for in the sixth century youthful centaurs are extremely rare in
Greece, but quite common in Italy, see under no. 281 where the examples are cited.
171. Amphora. Fig. 10. Vulci. Leake Collection. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum,
E. Gardner, Catalogue of Greek Vases p. 15 and pi. VI no. 43. A: Two warriors
attacking a fallen nude giant. B: Centaur between two warriors.
B: A centaur, bearded, equine ears, white belly, gallops to 1. and is about
to hurl a huge white rock, which he holds in both hands behind his head, at a
Centaurs with equine forelegs.
warrior to r., who brandishes a spear in his r. hand, and holds a shield in 1. The
warrior wears a helmet and $alog over forehead, close-fitting breast-plate to waist,
white chiton beneath it, and greaves; his sword is at his side. Under the shield
of the warrior and under the centaur is a quail or partridge, the first to 1., the other
to r., precisely similar to the birds in the decorative friezes above and below. In
the Tomba del Triclinio, Corneto, Moscioni 8631 the same bird is depicted under
a table. The second warrior, on the r., is similarly armed and is about to spear
the centaur in the back.
According to Gardner, /. c. the vase is either of Ionic fabric or more probably
a local Italian imitation of it. Although it belongs to the same group as nos. 169,
170, it is not mentioned in Endt's list. It
differs from the two preceding amphorae in
that the subject is mythological. In the long
list of centauromachies on Attic b. f. ware
there is not one example on which the figures
are grouped as here, although on no. 121 one
of the centaurs holds his rock similarly, and
there as here the profile of the centaur's face
is drawn in front of the rock, i. e. on a white
background, here with incised lines. Similarly
on the b. f. amphora, Louvre F 226 the pro-
file of Poseidon is painted on the white back-
ground which represents the island of Nisyros.
The closest analogy to our group is found on
nos. 36, 59, 112, 113, where, however, the
centaur is to r.
172. Amphora. Vulci. Bibliotheque Natio-
nale, Paris, de Ridder, Vases Feints
p. 79 sq. no. 173. Milliet Giraudon III
pi. 140 141. Diimmler, Rom. Mitt.
1887 p. 173 174. Endt, Beitrdge VIII
p. 39. Ed. Schmidt, Der Knielauf p. 311
fig. 30. A: Herakles and centaur. B:
A : In a panel on the shoulder, Herakles running to r. in archaic fashion with
f. knee touching the ground, attacks a bearded centaur with pointed ears, three
branches in each hand, who gallops to 1., towards his enemy. Herakles wears the
lion's skin drawn over his head, he is beardless and in r. hand behind him swings
a club of unique shape, in 1. hand outstretched, perhaps a bow though it looks
more like a branch. The composition is very vigorous, much more so than on Attic
monuments. The centaur cannot be named; it is certainly not Nessos, whom
Herakles overtakes from behind. The illustration on the other side must be taken
as part of our composition, and there we see in front of a laurel tree a centaur
galloping to 1., armed with three branches in each hand, evidently coming to the
rescue of his kinsman. He too is bearded and has long hair combed back from his
forehead. Both hold their branches in similar fashion, r. hand advanced, 1. hand
Fig. 10. After Catalogue of Vases, Fitzwilliam Museum,
pi. VI no. 43.
Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 63
swung backwards to give more impetus to the blow. Not only is the club of the
hero of unique shape, but also the leafless bundle of branches in the hands of
the centaurs. The episode is the same as on the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161 where
the nude bearded hero is also on one knee and holds a club, where a tree grows
in the background, and where one of the centaurs confronts Herakles. The wooden-
ness of that composition is in vast contrast to the animation of this. That Herakles
is youthful and wears the lion's skin is another point in favor of the Ionic origin
of this composition; see also no. 173. It is not always possible to say whether the
hero with lion's skin drawn over his head is beardless or not; one of the doubtful
cases is the peculiar type of Herakles on no. 24. Among the animals on the frieze
below the main composition is a griffin, a creation of Ionic imagination never oc-
curring on Attic monuments. For a similar composition also of Italo-Ionic fabric,
but of Class B, see no. 307.
173. Amphora. PI. VI. Munich, Jahn 650. A: Herakles and centaur. B: Centaur.
For the photographs here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. Sieveking.
A: In a panel on the body: Herakles, beardless, with short chiton and dotted
lion's skin over head and fastened in front of chest, brandishes a club in r. hand
over his head, and, walking to r. with 1. leg advanced, seizes a bearded centaur,
with short hair, by the r. shoulder. The centaur, whose type of face differs from
that on other Attic monuments, note his small pointed ears, and whose hands are
round pellets probably to indicate his fists, looks back at Herakles in a threatening
attitude. Jahn incorrectly states that he is beardless. The system of grouping
is that of Herakles pursuing Nessos, but because of the centaur on the reverse,
which must be interpreted in connection with the observe, I feel inclined to view
the whole as a centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe, as on the preceding vase. There is,
however, a bare ^possibility that it is the Nessos story after all, for on some of the
"Tyrrhenian" amphorae other centaurs come to the rescue of Nessos, see nos. 32,
33, 36, 38.
B : A centaur to 1. bearded, short hair, equine ears, is tugging with both hands
at a palm-tree which he is trying to uproot as a weapon against Herakles. The
theme is not common, I only know of one other example, no. 86, but there two
centaurs are uprooting a tree.
I have catalogued this vase here merely because of the similarity of subject
to the preceding vase, not because I consider it of the same group. It probably
is Attic under Ionic influence. The group of side A differs radically from that on
other Attic monuments, where Nessos only once stands upright, see no. 66, on no
other monument does the hero lay his 1. hand on the centaur's r. shoulder. Peculiar
also is the short hair of the centaurs, though not unique. On the "Tyrrhenian"
amphorae, nos. 36, 39 there is already a tendency to shorten the hair of centaurs;
on no. 96 it is already accomplished. See also the tendency to represent centaurs
with short hair on the Chalcidian amphora no. 166, on no. 164, and on the
"Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161. It therefore seems probable that the short hair of
centaurs is due to some unknown Ionic type.
173 A. Amphora. Feoli Collection. Wiirzburg. Urlichs, Verzeichniss der Antiken-
sammlung III 1872, no. 105. Herakles pursuing two centaurs, who have
wounded a Lapith.
Centaurs with equine forelegs.
B : Herakles, bearded, armed with club, pursues two fleeing bearded centaurs
with equine ears. The hero has already seized one of the centaurs who holds a
large stone in his 1. hand, and with his r. hand grasps the 1. arm of Herakles, as on
no. 43 A, in his futile attempt to check the onslaught. The other centaur with
r. arm stretched back towards his companion is also about to throw a stone. In
front of him is a wounded warrior, fully armed. Thus we have in this amphora,
which I know only through the description in the Verzeichniss, a curious combination
of the Arcadian and Thessalian myth. This is the only archaic example of Herakles
taking part in the Thessalian centauromachy,
but it is noteworthy that the Etruscan vase-
painters of the sixth century do not follow
the traditions known to us through Attic art,
they allow themselves privileges that would
fill a dull conventional Attic vase-painter's
heart with misgivings.
174. Amphora. Fig. n. Munich, Jahn 573.
Wiener V orlegebldtter 1890 91 pi. 12, la.
Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176. Karo, /. H. S.
1899 p. 146. Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 21, 585
p. 59 fig. 70. B : Two centaurs charac-
terized as hunters.
B: On shoulder, two bearded centaurs
gallop to r. holding a doe between them, the
first looks back and with r. hand behind him
holds the hindlegs of the doe, the other cen-
taur brandishes a twig in r. and with 1. hand
holds its forelegs, so that the doe stands to
1. in the natural position of walking. Under
each centaur is an animal, a dog and a pan-
ther (?). The composition is very vigorous,
in spirit much like the galloping centaurs on
no. 162, on the Assos frieze no. 182 and on the
Melian stamped relief no. 13. Zahn /. c. con-
siders our amphora the latest development
of Clazomenian style in western Greek art,
especially in Attic art; Karo /. c. calls it Ionic, and Furtwangler in Furtwangler-
Reichhold text I p. 222 attributes it to one of the Cyclades islands, but not to
Naxos. In the present unsatisfactory state of our knowledge concerning Ionic art-
centers it seems to me to be impossible to say more than that we have here an
example of some unknown Ionic fabric of far reaching influence, or perhaps even
an Italiot imitation, compare especially the double row of ivy-leaves on the lip
and body of our vase with the similar decoration on the frescoes in the Tomba del
Triclinio, Corneto, Moscioni 8631.
Centaurs on the hunt do not often occur on Attic b. f. ware, there is, however,
a centaur with a fox on no. 82, and two centaurs hunting a bird occur on no. 81. To
be sure, Pholos and Chiron are characterized as hunters of small game, such as fox,
Fig. ii. After Wienei Vorlegeblatter 1890 91 pi. 12, i a.
Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 6?
bird and hare, though they are never represented as actually hunting; for Pholos
see no. 128 130, 137, 141, 158, and for Chiron nos. 241 246, 248, 252, 253, 256,
257, 260. A living doe captured by a centaur occurs on the Proto- Attic bowl
no. 211, on a terracotta statuette from Cyprus, no. 206, on Rhodian gold plaques
no. 221, on the Etrusco-Ionic amphora, no. 179, see also no. 315 A, and on a Greek
sarcophagus of the fourth century B. C. in Constantinople, Joubin, Monuments
funeraire z , frontispiece and p. 58 no. 75. On the Corneto tripod, no. 281, a centaur
has torn a fawn to pieces, like a Maenad, and carries the front half of the animal on
a branch. A similar fate will probably befall a fawn, for the possession of which
a struggle is taking place between two winged centaurs on an Etruscan Bucchero
cup, no. 285. On an Etruscan gold plaque in granulated work, no. 293, a centaur
with two branches confronts a fawn, and on a bronze bowl in repousse work,
no. 305 a centaur carries a dead fawn by the hindlegs. That centaurs also hunt
wild game is made evident by the lion's or tiger's skin which they sometimes use
as a shield, see no. 104, or wear round their shoulders, no. 316.
The dog accompanying the centaurs on our vase is of interest, and perhaps
of importance for the question of style, making Zahn's hypothesis of Clazomenian
influence probable, because dogs occur only once again with hunting centaurs
in archaic art, namely, on the lid, of a Clazomenian sarcophagus, no. 320; otherwise
only Chiron is accompanied by a dog.
175. Amphora. Capri. Berlin, Furtwangler 2132.
A: A bearded centaur with equine ears gallops to r. through space. In his
uplifted r. hand he swings a branch, and drags another behind him in his 1. hand.
According to Furtwangler it is Campanian. For another example of a centaur
galloping through space, see no. 181.
175 A. Hydria. Munich. Sieveking-Hackl no. 897 p. 122 fig. 139. Centauro-
On the body: A group of three; one centaurs to 1. between two warriors.
In his r. the centaur brandishes a club, with his 1. he grasps the wrist of a
warrior falling to 1. On the r. of the centaur is a second warrior whose attitude
is not clear.
176. Stamnos. PI. IX. Vienna. Hofmuseum, no. 406. Sacken, Archaeol. Epigraph.
Mitt. Ill 1879 P- T 35- It i s -4 2 m - high. A: On shoulder, centaur and two
Lapiths; on body, Kaineus episode. B: On shoulder, centaur and female
A: On shoulder, in the center, a fallen nude warrior, supporting himself
on 1. arm still holding shield, is according to Sacken being covered by the shield
of his companion on 1. who advances to r. brandishing a spear against a centaur
on r., bearded, human ears, who advances to 1., grasping the rim of the shield
of his opponent as on no. 102 and using a branch as weapon. This is the usual
interpretation, but it seems more probable that the centaur is guarding the fallen
warrior against the other whose spear is aimed at his neck from which blood flows.
I prefer the second interpretation even though we have no literary evidence to
bear it out. For a fallen warrior between Lapith and centaur see also nos. 39,
176 A. Were it not for the wound in the fallen warrior's neck I would have more
confidence in the first interpretation. This vase-painting may well be taken as
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 9
66 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
evidence in favor of Walters' interpretation of no. 166. It is noteworthy that
the Lapiths are bare-headed.
A : On body, in the center Kaineus, front view, buried to his knees, in a short
close-fitting breast-plate, visored helmet with two crests, in each outstretched
hand an uplifted sword, in stiff heraldic position, is attacked from each side
by a bearded centaur with long branch, the but end aimed at the Lapith's head,
the pointed end extending through the dividing line well into the design on the
neck. Both centaurs have human ears and long hair, the human ears pointing
to Ionic influence, either direct or by way of Athens. The double-crested helmet
occurs also on two other vases, nos. 176 A, 123, the latter representing Kaineus.
It is hardly necessary to add that Kaineus actually wore two crests on his
helmet, though a naive explanation used to be offered that it was one crest seen
from both sides. On no. 123, however, where the face of Kaineus is in profile
it would have been much easier for the artist to paint only one crest, but he still
insists on representing both. The centaur on the r., and also the one on the shoulder
of the vase, have their human backs turned to the spectator, so too the youth in
combat with a fallen youth on the reverse. On archaic monuments this is rare;
other examples are nos. 121, 123 A, 125, 176 A, 183, 322. The type of head, especially
the way the hair is arranged round the forehead, reminds one very strongly of
B: On shoulder, a female figure in long chiton and himation which flutters
behind her is piercing with her spear in uplifted r. the body of a centaur stumbling
to 1., with branch over 1. shoulder and r. hand uplifted in supplication. He seems
to be beardless. For other examples of beardless centaurs in the archaic period
see under no. 281. A female figure similarly clad takes part in a combat between
two youths on the body of the vase just below our scene. Since she does not wear
helmet and aegis we are not justified in calling her Athena. Both this scene and
that on the shoulder of the other side, are episodes not handed down through liter-
ary tradition. Attic art, on the other hand, illustrates the well-known conventional
themes; the only exception is on the reverse of an Attic amphora no. "48 where a
female figure supplicates a centaur.
176 A. Hydria. Naples, Heydemann p. 388 no. 2781. Klein, Jahreshefte des osterr.
archdol. Institutes. XIII p. 158 fig. 85. Centauromachy of three groups.
On the shoulder : In the center, Kaineus, fully armed, his back turned towards
the spectator (see under no. 121 for other examples), his r. leg buried up to the
knee, seizes one of his confronting opponents by the beard with his r. hand
a rare motive in archaic art, cf. no. 71, but common enough in the later periods
- and defends himself with sword in 1. hand against a second centaur. The centaur
to 1. is rearing to free himself from the hero's grasp, he paws him and is about to
hurl a stone and a peculiarly shaped object like that in the hands of the centaurs on
the "Tyrrhenian" amphorae, nos. 33, 40, 42. The centaur to r. brandishes a branch,
similar to that on no. 313, and seems to have human ears, whereas those of his
comrade are equine. On the r. of Kaineus a spear-point, a shield and two helmets
fill the vacant space, a picturesque touch which brings home to us the fierceness
of the battle; on the 1. of the knight his youthful servant creeps along the ground,
holding an arrow and a sword ready to hand his master. On each side of this
Italo-Ionic and Etrusco-Ionic vases. 67
central group a Lapith attacks a centaur over the fallen body of a comrade. The
dying Lapiths are marvelously well posed ; how helpless and childlike is the similar
subject on no. 39, a "Tyrrhenian" amphora! The fallen Lapith on the r. has a
double-crested helmet decorated with horse-tails, one of which is wound round
his r. arm. The centaur over him has human ears and is youthful, as is common
enough in Italiot art, see the examples cited under no. 281; he turns his human
back towards the spectator, as on the Samsoun relief, no. 183, where other examples
are given. On the extreme r. a sword is stuck into the ground; it does not belong
to any of the figures depicted, but indicates that more than six Lapiths took
part in the combat. The opponent of the youthful centaur wears a Phrygian
cap, and like his fallen companion carries a sword. The sword is not the usual
weapon of Lapiths in the archaic period, it occurs however on the "Tyrrhenian"
amphora, no. 39, on the Caeretan hydria, no. 322, and on the Attic vase, no. 116.
All the centaurs are rearing, which adds much to the vigor of the composition,
all except the youthful one are roaring with open mouth. The din of battle is
deafening. Compare for instance the centauromachy on the Franois vase, how
well-behaved and well-groomed they are, and with what clock-like precision each
plays his part. There is no danger connected with their rearing, their missiles
are daintily handled and are thrown with little force. On the other hand, as Klein
has well pointed out, the vigor of action in our vase-painting is superb, and one is
tempted to see in it a copy of some famous picture, painted by an Ionic master. The
technique does not seem good enough to assign our vase to Ionia, herein I cannot
follow Klein. I prefer to see in it an Italiot work, inspired to be sure by Ionia.
177. Hydria. Munich, Jahn 269. Centaur pursued by two youths.
On the shoulder : A centaur with outstretched arms gallops to r. and is pursued
by two youthful figures ; the first, with loin-cloth, wields a club, the second, similarly
attired, brandishes a spear in r. and has a shield on 1. arm. On the extreme 1.
a bird flies upwards ; under the centaur is another bird, and flowering plants spring
from the ground. These plants make me suspect that our hydria is not purely
Attic, but Attic under Ionic influence.
On an Attic lekythos, no.. 51, Herakles nude and beardless attacks Nessos
with a club and on each side is a youthful spectator with a spear. But never do
the spectators on the Attic monuments come to the assistance of Herakles, though
on no. 47 they are agitated. I therefore hesitate to identify the youthful clubman
on our hydria with Herakles, though, on the other hand, the club is not used in
archaic art as the weapon of Lapiths.
178. Hydria. Vulci. British Museum, Walters B 60. Two centaurs confronted.
"On the shoulder: Two Centaurs crouching, confronted, with outstretched
arms, as if about to wrestle." Centaurs attacking each other are rare; I know of
only two examples of At tic b. f. fabric, viz. nos. 84, 85, and only three other examples
of Etrusco-Ionic fabric, nos. 313, 313 A, 324, the first and second of Class B, the
third of Class C. The subject, to be sure, occurs even as early as the geometric
period, see no. 4. Another hydria from Vulci, also an Etrusco-Ionic product, no. 312,
represents a dancing centaur with human forelegs, which makes it evident that the
two types of centaurs of my Class A and B were known to and indiscriminately copied
by these Etruscan imitators. They were even familiar with the type of Class C.
5g Centaurs with equine forelegs.
179. Amphora. PI. IX. Munich, Jahn 155. Gerhard's Apparat in Library of
Berlin Museum, Mappe XIV 51. Micali, Storia pi. 99, 7 gives the shape of
the amphora and obverse. Sieveking-Hackl, Colored plate and pi. 33, 836
p. 98 fig. 98. B : Two centaurs as hunters.
B : Two centaurs, equine ears, long hair, long red beards and long tails, con-
fronted; the one on the 1. looks back, lifts his 1. foreleg, holds a fawn by the neck with
r. hand, and shoulders a branch with 1. hand; the one on the r. stands quietly, holding
a similar branch in r. and a fawn in 1. The fawns are struggling for their freedom.
One hindleg of each fawn and the head of one are white. The peculiar type of face,
the conventionalized leaves of the branches or rather small trees, for on one the
roots are visible, can be seen to advantage on the plate, a photograph of a careful
and accurate drawing by Reichhold, for which I am greatly indebted to Dr. Sieve-
king of the Archaeological Seminary at Munich. It is of Etrusco-Ionic style.
For the various kinds of game hunted by centaurs, see under no. 174, and for
similar conventionalized bushes see the Etrusco-Ionic lekythos no. 323.
1 80. Amphora. Palermo Museum no. 1499 (1522). Not published.
Two bearded centaurs running to 1. with tendrils in their hands. They have
equine ears, very human profiles, and long hair falling down the back, represented
in a most conventionalized manner, like nos. 312, 313. In the Berlin Museum there
is a b. f . amphora of the same style, not yet catalogued, on which six sileni sporting
with nymphs are depicted, five with human legs ending in hoofs and one with
human feet; only one is not bearded. Their hair stands out in back in exactly
the same manner as that of the centaurs on our amphora. The shape of the ears
and of the eyes, however, is slightly different.
181. Amphora. Ruvo. Naples, Heydemann p. 306 no. 2445. A and B: Centauro-
A : A bearded centaur, holding a branch behind his head in both hands, gallops
to r. through space. On the r. and on the 1. is a large lily.
B: A warrior, in chiton, with helmet, shield and drawn sword, pursues the
centaur of the other side. The outline of the centaur is mere brush work, without
incisions, though inner incised lines mark the details. It is probably local Italian
(Campanian?) ware. For another example of a centaur galloping through space,
see no. 175.
XII. ARCHITECTURAL RELIEFS.
182. Frieze and Metopes. Assos. Louvre. Boston. Constantinople. Clarke,
Papers of Archaeological Institute of America, Part I 1898, p. 142 fig. 35 four
retreating centaurs; p. 150 fig. 37 Pholos, Herakles and three retreating cen-
taurs of Class B, in Boston ; p. 171 fig. 39 and p. 286 fig. 75 fragment of a metope ;
p. 285 fig. 72 metope in Louvre; p. 265 fig. 59, p. 267 fig. 60 fragments of
architrave blocks in Louvre; p. 268 fig. 61, p. 269 fig. 62 reconstruction with
the centauromachy in its supposed position. See also Reinach, Rep. Reliefs
Architectural reliefs. go
p. 4 figs. 7, 8 p. 5 figs. 9, 10 p. 6 fig. 16. Reinach incorrectly states that the
architrave block representing Herakles pursuing three centaurs of Class B
in presence of Pholos is in Constantinople; it is in Boston.
According to Clarke the last three architrave blocks of the east end of the
southern side contained thirteen centaurs galloping to r. to the assistance of seven
centaurs in front of Pholos and Herakles on the first two architrave blocks of the
eastern. fa9ade. The two sculptured metopes, each representing a centaur to r.
he places over the centaur slabs of the eastern architrave.
Beginning then at the 1. end of the eastern architrave we have Pholos, nude,
human forelegs to r., holding a skyphos in r. hand, his 1. uplifted in astonishment.
In front of him is Herakles to r., beardless, nude, 1. foot advanced, bending slightly
forwards, and shooting from a rather small bow an arrow not indicated in relief,
but probably painted. He is in pursuit of seven centaurs to r., the first three
immediately in front of him have human forelegs, the others have equine forelegs.
Of these the first, third and fourth look back, and only the third is armed ; he carries
a club over his 1. shoulder, but I cannot make out the object in the hand of the first
centaur ; the fifth clenches his 1. fist and roars with wide open mouth. Fillets decorate
their heads, their back-hair falls in one heavy mass, like that of Herakles, they have
human ears and highly archaic poses. Note especially the mathematical precision
in the overlapping of their legs, the r. and 1. legs being precisely parallel, note
also their outstretched hands with 1. thumbs upwards, r. thumbs downwards,
and the monotonous curve of their tails. All this gives a highly decorative effect
to the composition. In his preliminary report Clarke called the fragmentary
figure, behind Herakles, lolaos but now, /. c. p. 153 he abandons that interpretation
in favor of Pholos, and I am sure all will agree with him in this. But when, I. c.
p. 160 he argues that this centauromachy belongs to the first half of the fifth century,
because Herakles is depicted without the lion's skin and because of his beardless
youthful form, he is certainly mistaken. Furtwangler in Roscher's Lexikon I 2
p. 2140 cites convincing examples to show that as early as the seventh century
B. C. Herakles occurs without the lion's skin, which is also missing on the Nettos
amphora, and /. c. p. 2151 sq. Furtwangler proves that in Ionic and Cypriote
art the youthful hero occasionally occurs in the early archaic period. That the Assos
frieze is extremely archaic is seen not only by the naive grouping of the centaurs,
but also by the long hair of Herakles, which occurs again on the Nettos amphora.
Concerning another point I beg to differ with Clarke, who /. c. p. 169 considers
the four centaurs with equine forelegs the work of another artist. To my mind
they show the same hand.
The centaurs on the architrave slabs in the Louvre need not detain us long.
All but one hold weapons in their hands, all gallop to r. in exactly the same pose
as their brethren discussed above. I for one do not "observe the difference between
the easy canter of the centaurs advancing in regular file to the attack, and the head-
long flight of those who retreat in terror before the victorious arms of the hero"
(Clarke I. c. p. 270).
Similar again in pose and weapons are the centaurs of the metopes ; the metope
in the Louvre is in almost perfect state of preservation, the face alone being battered,
the one more recently found is very fragmentary. The fact that the centaurs
y o Centaurs with equine forelegs.
of the metopes have no opponents is another argument in favor of the early
date of the temple at Assos. Centaurs on metopes of the fifth century fight with
The closest parallel to the centauromachy on the architrave blocks is no. 162,
where the centaurs have the same pose, though none of them has human forelegs.
Further than this the resemblance does not hold, because Herakles wears the lion's
skin over a chiton and behind him stands a female figure, probably Athena. I
cannot therefore agree with Clarke /. c. p. 166 who claims "that both of these
representations were influenced by some common model." For a centauromachy
on Mt. Pholoe in which Herakles pursues centaurs of Class A and of Class B as here
see no. 161. Why the people of Assos chose this centauromachy I cannot say.
The same subject appears again on some architectural fragments in terracotta
at Samsoun in Pontos, see no. 183, and Pholos undraped also occurs on nos. 130,
131, 135, 137, 149 etc. of Class A and on nos. 269, 270 of Class B.
183. Frieze of terracotta. PI. XIV, a d. Samsoun. Constantinople. Macridy-Bey,
Une citadelle archa'ique du Pont, in the Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen
Gesellschaft 1907, 4 pi. 16, fig. 22 and p. 174, Herakles in front of the pithos;
pi. 17 figs. 23, 24, 26, fragments of centaurs. For the photographs here repro-
duced I am indebted to Macridy-Bey and to Dr. Th. Wiegand.
On a terracotta fragmentary plaque, 0.25 m high and now only 0.23 m long,
is represented a large pithos not buried in the earth but standing on the ground.
It has a peculiar shape and a small foot. On the r. of it is Herakles to r. in lion's
skin drawn over his head and fastened by the forepaws in front of his chest. His
r. knee touches the ground and his 1. foot, now missing, was evidently advanced
in the usual position of an archer. He spans his bow; the arrow, not represented,
was probably painted. At his 1. side hangs his open quiver, in which five arrows
are visible. The pithos makes it evident that the relief when complete represented
Herakles driving the centaurs from the cave of Pholos. PI. XIV fig. d is a fragment
of the same frieze, 0.12 m high and 0.15 m long; it represents the two equine
forelegs of a centaur leaping to r. over a companion who with both arms outstretched
and bearded head uplifted is falling to r.; only one of his equine forelegs is visible.
For a similar motive see nos. 23, 31 and for fallen centaurs in general see nos. 21,
155, 161, 228. On fragment fig. c, height 0.12 m, length 0.13 m is represented on the
r. the tail of a centaur and the top end of a branch which he evidently held. On
the 1. of this is a centaur to r. looking back with his human back turned towards
the spectator ; his painted beard is clearly visible. Macridy-Bey believes this figure to
represent an Amazon or at least a woman, but Dr. Zahn, who at my request examined
the figure carefully, agrees with me that it is a centaur. It need not surprise us
to find the rear view of the human back of a centaur in the archaic period, for,
although not common, it does occur, see nos. 125, 176, 176 A. In the severe r. f.
style of about 500 B. C. this phenomenon becomes more frequent. Fig. b is a
fragment, 0.18 m high and 0.14 m long, representing the hindquarters and tail
Ionic bronze statuette. Etruscan bronze statuette. 7i
of a centaur to r. and four branches of a large tree which he evidently carried
over his shoulder. Behind him is visible part of the arm of another centaur. Thus
in all we have evidence for at least six centaurs.
The fragment, Macridy-Bey, /. c. pi. 17 fig. 25, representing a lion (?) running
to r., belongs to the same frieze but probably not to our centauromachy. I have
not seen these reliefs, but there seems to be no reason to .doubt the supposition
of Macridy-Bey that they once decorated the wooden entablature of a temple.
They date from the end of the sixth century B. C.
XIII. IONIC BRONZE STATUETTE.
184. Bronze statuette. Fig. 12. Asia Minor.
A. Sambon, Le Musee III pi. I.
A bearded centaur, human ears, heavy
mustache, fillet in hair, gallops to r. with
both hands uplifted behind his head and
is about to throw a short peculiar object
similar to that in the hands of the centaurs
on the "Tyrrhenian" amphora, no. 42. The
statuette is an admirable product of a school
closely allied to the Ionic vase no. 174 which
Zahn considers the latest development of
the Clazomenian style. According to rumor
this masterpiece is now in private posses-
sion in the United States.
Fig. 12. After Le Musee III pi. I.
XIV. ETRUSCAN BRONZE STATUETTE.
185. Decoration for a helmet. Fig. 13. Etruscan tomb, Cor-
neto. Helbig, Annali d. Inst. 1874 tav. d'agg. K no. i,
and p. 47.
A bearded centaur lashing his tail and looking upward,
holds an uprooted tree in both hands at his r. side. He
has long tresses down his back, and human ears. The base
is convex and decorated with a pure Ionic palmette. It pro-
bably dates from the early decades of the fifth century
B. C., and is Etruscan under Ionic influence. For other
examples of centaurs on helmets and as shield devices see
under no. 232.
Fig. 13. After Annali 1874 pi. K
72 Centaurs with equine forelegs.
XV. GEMS, GREEK AND ETRUSCAN.
1 86. Greek Scarab. Carnelian. Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Furtwangler, Ant.
Gemmen I pi. VIII 6, II p. 37 no. 6 and III p. 101.
A centaur galloping to r., looks back; bearded, hair combed back from the
forehead, as on the Frangois vase, tail uplifted, club in 1., twig in r. Furtwangler
calls attention to the same type on the archaic Cyzicene coins, Num. Chron. 1887
pi. II 24. To my mind the resemblance is so slight that the comparison is unwar-
ranted. In the first place, the Cyzicene electrum coins are not archaic, but pro-
bably date from the fourth century, in the second place, the centaur is reclining
to 1. The uplifted tail is the only similarity.
187. Greek Scarab. Carnelian. Collection Arndt.
A bearded centaur stumbling to 1., looks back ; over his r. shoulder is a branch, his
1. hand is pressed against the small of his back, as if to staunch the flow of blood
from a wound. He is certainly supposed to be fleeing from Herakles. His pose
is similar to that of the stumbling centaur on the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161, but
not nearly so wooden.
188. Etruscan Scarab. Carnelian. Berlin. Furtwangler, Geschnittene Steine
Pi- 5, 234.
A centaur standing to r., with a branch in 1. hand, his r. hand pressed to his
side; looks upward.
189. Etruscan Scarab. Carnelian. Berlin, Furtwangler, Geschnittene Steine pi. 5,235.
A centaur to r. looks back with uplifted arms.
The Italian gems a globolo, though they give a very primitive impression, are
late. The types, however, often go back to the archaic period, see Furtwangler,
Ant. Gemmen I pi. 20 fig. 73, winged centaur, Munich; Chabouillet, Pierres gravees
de la bibliotheque imperials 1680 1688; of these no. 1682 is also winged; Rossbach,
Annali 1885 pi. G. H. nos. 31, 32; Sambon, Corolla numismatica, In Honour of
Barclay Head, pi. XIV nos. n 13.
190. Electron stater. Phocaic standard. Northern Ionia. Head, Hist. Num.
p. 174 fig. 113. Brit. Mus. Cat. Ionia p. 9 no. 42, pi. II 3. Babelon, Traite
des Monnaies pi. v. 17, and text p. 134 no. 198. Svoronos, Journal Intern.
d'Archeol. Numism. 1908 p. 122 no. 363, pi. 8 fig. 10. Centaur and Nymph.
A bearded centaur walking leisurely to r., looks back; he has a snub nose,
long hair and carries off a draped female figure in his arms. She is evidently a
willing victim, for she clasps him round the neck, and is about to kiss him. His
r. arm supports her back, his 1. arm encircles her legs behind the knees, which
are bent. On the Chalcidian vase, no. 163 (see also no. 163 A) Nessos carries
Deianeira similarly, but there his 1. arm supports her back, so that she faces back-
ward, whereas here the nymph faces forward. On the Thraco-Macedonian coins
the nymph struggles in the arm of the centaur. See also no. 325.
As a rule coins of the archaic period contain only one figure and not a group.
Now since a similar group is found on the coins of Thrace (Centaur and Nymph)
and Thasos (Silenus and Nymph) it was customary to assign our Phocaic stater
to the same region. Babelon, I. c. objects with convincing reasons to this attri-
bution; not only the standard but also the style, fabric and provenance make
it impossible to assign our stater to Thasos or Thrace. Babelon then calls atten-
tion to the similar mill-sail design on the reverse of Chian coins, and their similar
fabric, but catalogues it with the uncertain coins of northern Ionia. Svoronos /. c.
is of the same opinion. A scarab from northern Ionia, or perhaps Aeolis, no. 325,
represents the same subject, but there the centaur has human forelegs ending
191. Thraco-Macedonian silver stater of Babylonian standard, Lete, Zaleia,
Orrhescii, Diony ...., and .... ernaion or .... eknaion. Head, Hist. Num.
p. 175 fig. 115 (Zaleia). Babelon, Traite pi. 46 figs. 6 15, pi. 50 figs. 20
and 21 (Lete). Mac Donald, Hunterian coll. pi. XIX 16 (Lete). Berlin,
Beschreibung der Ant. Munzen II p. 75, pi. IV 33 (circa 450 B. C. Diony ...),
pi. IV 35 and p. 91 (Lete), pi. V 46 and p. 105 (Orrhescii). Br. Mus. Cat.
Macedonia p. 147, no. 9, p. 148 no. i, p. 149 (Zaeelii). Keller, Tier- und
Pflanzenbilder auf Munzen u. Gemmen pi. XI 41.
Bearded centaur galloping to r. with a nymph clad in long peplos in both arms.
With his r. arm he supports her back, with his 1. arm her legs under the knees,
so that she lies face upward in his arms. Her r. hand is uplifted as if struggling
in his embrace. The type differs somewhat from that of Northern Ionia, see
no. 190, but it is identical with the group of Nessos and Deianeira on the Chalcidian
vase, no. 163. The type was evidently borrowed from Ionia, where the Bacchic
influence on the centaur is apparent. Occasionally the centaurs of our coins are
bald and have a silenus-like profile, and sometimes a silenus takes the place of the
centaur, as on the coins from Thasos (Babelon, Traite pi. 55 fig. 24) where the ithy-
phallic silenus has human legs ending in hoofs.
Babelon /. c. p. 1066 sq. no. 1477 discusses the retrograde inscription ending
in eQvalcov and restores it Mr/xvjteQva or MyxvjieQvalov a town of the Chalcidice.
Perhaps the inscription refers to the Saioi, a Thracian tribe = = Sintoi.
Head /. c. p. 174 follows Leake, Northern Greece III p. 213 in identifying the
Orrhescii with the Satrae, whereas Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece p. 343 note 2
with even less probability identifies them with the Orestae.
192. Lete? Babelon, Traite pi. 50 fig. i; Hunter, Nummi pop. et urb. pi. 33, 4;
Mac Donald, Hunterian Coll. pi. XIX 15.
Bearded centaur, bald, long tresses behind his shoulders, runs to r., looks
back, one knee almost touching the ground as on the Melian gem, no. n, both
arms uplifted, in 1. hand a stone.
Lete also has the centaur type holding a cantharus in r. on his back (Imhoof-
Blumer Mon. Gr. p. 82 no. 81, Babelon, Traite p. 1115 no. 1560) and the cen-
taur type holding a cantharus in both hands on his back (Imhoof-Blumer /. c.
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. IO
7 , Centaurs with equine forelegs.
XVII. ETRUSCAN BUCCHERO WARE.
193. Holkion. Chiusi? Boston. Robinson, Catalogue no. 299. From Dixwell
Collection formerly a portion of a public collection in Chiusi, sold in Florence
The design is stamped from a cylinder containing three figures, a lion, a centaur
and a chimaera ( ?). I know of no other example of a centaur with equine, forelegs
on Bucchero ware, although the goblet, Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 174, 3, from
Cortona may be another example; here again three figures are stamped with a
cylinder: a centaur shouldering a branch, a winged lion with protruding tongue
and a squatting sphinx with one paw uplifted; all to 1.
XVJII. STAMPED RED WARE OF UNCERTAIN
194. Larnax. PI. XIII. Tanagra. Athens, Nat. Mus. no. 4298 is fragmentary,
no. 718 is in perfect state of preservation, and is pierced with a round hole
in the bottom. It is 0.83 m long, 0.51 m broad and 0.20 m deep. Terracotta
covered with white slip. Milchhofer, Ath. Mitt. 1879, P- 55? Anfdnge der Kunst
p. 76, Studniczka, Ath. Mitt. 1886 p. 87, Fabricius, Ath. Mitt. 1886 p. 148.
Pettier, Bull. Corr. Hell. 1888 p. 496 no. 6. Savignoni, A.J. A. V p. 411.
Pollak, Ath. Mitt. 1896 p. 217.
A repetition of a group of three figures rolled from a cylinder along the outer
edge of a larnax or sarcophagus. Each group is bounded by a perpendicular line,
giving a metope-like effect, 0.145 m l n g an d 0.05 m high. The stamped relief is
here not nearly as distinct as on the fragment of a similar larnax no. 4298. It is
evident that the relief was stamped with a cylindrical shaped matrix, because
the figures run round the blunted corners of the larnax without interruption,
which would have been impossible had a flat matrix been used. The decorator
began at one of the corners, and after he had rolled the cylinder over the four
sides ended abruptly with half of a centaur at the corner of the starting point.
There are three figures in each group: i. on the 1. a sphinx squatting to 1., one
paw uplifted, 2. in the center a centaur walking to r. holding a pine-branch almost
horizontally behind him in his uplifted r.; in his extended 1. he holds another
pine-branch at the but end perpendicularly before him. He has a sharp prominent
nose and a pointed beard. The ears were evidently supposed to be human, though
they are not represented. As on no. 13 there is no detail work inside the silhouette.
3. On the r. is a man on horse-back to r., holding a short lance (?) in each hand,
and the reins in the 1. hand. These figures make a very primitive impression,
the horse's neck is arched as on the Melian amphora, Conze, Melische Thongefdsse
pi. I, the horse also stands in the same position. The back of the centaur sags like
that of an old horse as also on the Melian stamped relief no. 13, but even more so.
The sphinx has wings which curve back at the end in oriental fashion, her hair
Stamped red ware of uncertain fabric. 7 c
(cf. the Rhodian gold plaques no. 221) falls in a triangular-shaped mass rilled
horizontally, above which there is a single spiral-shaped tuft like that on Mycenaean
monuments. Near the end of her tail is a knob-like swelling. The peculiar method
of representing the hair in tufts on the tail of the centaur is paralleled again on the
Melian gems, nos. n, 12, and precisely the same profile occurs on the centaur of
the Melian gem no. 8. 1 therefore believe that the cylinder from which the impressions
were made on the larnakes from Tanagra was manufactured in Melos. Although
the Tanagra reliefs make a very primitive impression I am convinced that they
date not before the early decades of the seventh century B. C.
Pettier /. c. p. 496 and p. 506 relying on Hollaux has made a peculiar mistake
in that he describes two centaurs in each group, and states that Homolle noticed
an interesting detail, namely, that the figures representing the same subject on
each fragment are not absolutely identical, the proportions being different. To
verify this observation I made careful measurements but could not find the slightest
difference. If Homolle is not mistaken there must be other fra*gments of the same
subject in the Museum at Athens which I was not able to find, though I made
a thorough search. Pettier has furthermore claimed to have noted on a large
pithos found at Caere a decoration analogous to that of our reliefs from Tanagra.
Pollak /. c. quotes Pottier as stating (Mon. grecs. 1888 p. 55 no. 10) that there is
in Athens a fragmentary relief from Melos, which is identical with those from
Tanagra. If that is true we have another bit of evidence in favor of my theory
that Melos manufactured the cylinder used in decorating the larnakes from
195. Stamped plaques of terracotta. Argive Heraeum. National Museum, Athens.
Waldstein-Hoppin, Argive Heraeum II p. 53 pi. 49, 8 a.
Fragment of a plaque with raised border and stamped panels, representing
i. a warrior (Herakles?) kneeling to 1., 2. a centaur walking with long strides to r.;
he has human ears, long beard, fillet in hair and a pine-branch in r. hand close to
his chest. Hindlegs and tail are missing. In the field, a rosette. 3. Tail of a horse ( ?)
to 1. The panels are stamped so deeply into the surface, that the reliefs do not reach
the plane of the border. In the field between the sunken panels are also rosettes
and circles. The sunken panels are stamped so evenly into the flat surface of the
plaque that it seems impossible to have been accomplished with a cylinder, but
rather with a square flat matrix, so often used in Etruria.
Our plaque was evidently dedicated to Hera, but it would be useless to speculate
on the reasons for making such an offering to the goddess. For a terracotta statuette
of a centaur also found in the Heraeum see no. 210. It is noteworthy in this con-
nection that centaurs also occur on the pinakes dedicated to Poseidon at Corinth,
see no. 229.
Hoppin /. c. dates the plaque correctly from the beginning of the sixth century,
but one of the arguments advanced in fixing the date is certainly not valid. He
says : "This type of centaur with the forelegs of a horse is later than that with human
forelegs. When exactly the later type was introduced cannot be determined,
there being no distinct dividing line between the two types which often appear
side by side. On archaic gems, however, only the later type occurs .... So far as
can be judged from other monuments which illustrate the later type, we are justified
(j Centaurs with equine forelegs.
in regarding our relief as one of the earliest examples of that type." On p. 181
Hoppin states that the change from human to equine forelegged centaurs "occurred
about the beginning of the sixth century." I have proved elsewhere that such
arguments are valueless since the two types occur side by side on the earliest
monuments of the geometric period. It is also a misstatement that centaurs of
my class B do not occur on archaic gems, see nos. 214, 240, 316. Contrary to most
of the stamped reliefs of this period there is sharp detail work, the eye and ear,
for instance, being very distinctly represented. Perhaps the shape of the rosette
above the centaur will give a clue to the fabric. It is found under the horse on the
Melian vase, Conze, Melische Thongefdsse pi. i, Rayet-Collignon, Hist. Cer. Grecque
pi. 2. On the same class of vases the human eye is also represented exactly as on
our centaur. To me it therefore seems probable that our plaque or at least the
matrix is of Melian fabric.
196. Fragments of pithoi. Cotrone. von Duhn, Notizie d. Scavi 1897 p. 357
fig. 14 (Marchese Albani), fig. 15 (Marchese Lucifefo), p. 351 fig. 8, p. 352
On the fragment fig. 14 we have a cylinder-stamped relief bounded above and
below by a tongue-pattern. Conspicuous is the large pithos of Pholos standing
on a base, or its own foot, and not buried in the earth. On the r. a satyr with human
forelegs but with a horse's tail rests one foot on the base of the pithos and places
one hand against its rim. The satyr is not as tall as the pithos, and cannot there-
fore see the contents, although that is what he is evidently attempting to do. On
the 1. of the pithos is Herakles, nude, bearded (?), r. leg advanced, 1. leg bent,
his knee touching the ground, shooting an arrow from his bow. Confronting him
is a centaur to r., brandishing a branch behind him in his r. and extending his
1. towards Herakles. These three figures and the pithos evidently make up the
whole group, because on the r. of the satyr is the same centaur to r., but in frag-
On fragment fig. 15 a similar scene but from a different cylinder is stamped,
for there are still visible the pithos of Pholos and the nude figure of Herakles walking
to 1., long hair hanging down his back, and shooting an arrow, which is not de-
picted. His bow is of the same small size as on the Assos frieze, and his position
is much the same. On the ground to the 1. of Herakles a small branch is represented,
standing upright, but probably just dropped by a centaur.
That we have another example of Melian fabric before us, or at least types
copied from Melian products, is made probable by the close resemblance of the cen-
taur on the first fragment and the stamped ware from Plaka, no. 13. Be that as
it may, we are certainly dealing with borrowed Ionic types and not with local
On fragments figs. 8 and 9 we find represented a centauromachy, but probably
not that of Herakles. On the first of these fragments is a centaur to 1., about
to strike a blow with a club, which is rarely used as the weapon of centaurs. On
the other fragment a centaur again to 1. is fighting an adversary, but the relief
is so worn that one cannot make out the motive, but he seems, as von Duhn cor-
rectly noticed, to be rearing somewhat like the centaur on the stamped fragment
from Akragas, no. 198. These fragments also go back to some center where centaurs
Stamped red ware of uncertain fabric. 77
with equine forelegs were preferred; Rhodes is therefore out of the question, because
on the monuments of that school centaurs only of Class B occur; the same is true
of Crete, see nos. 219, 220. von Duhn, however, /. c. p. 358, note i, mentions a
communication from Evans that similar fragments were found in the eastern
part of Crete, much like the Proto-Corinthian style, representing a centaur bran-
dishing a tree which Evans calls a palm; another similar fragment is published
in the Academy 1896 July 4, p. 18. But since nothing is said of the type of centaur
I doubt whether they are of my Class A.
197. Fragment of a stand or bowl. Lilybaion, Sicily. Palermo Museum. Kekule,
Ant. Tenacotten II pi. 56, 2 and p. 83. Probably the centauromachy of
A cylinder-stamped relief bounded above by a tongue-pattern like that on the
fragment from Cotrone, no. 196, but below by a zigzag pattern, like that on the
stamped gold diadem from Corinth, no. 5. On the 1. end of the fragment is a centaur
galloping to r., with hind- and forelegs close together and outstretched, as on the
frieze from Assos no. 182 and the bronze statuette no. 184. He holds a branch or
perhaps two in each hand, his 1. is outstretched, his r. is behind him, much like one
of the centaurs on the relief from Melos, nos. 13, 14. The next centaur also gallops
to r., with legs in the same position, his hindlegs are overlapped by the forelegs
of the centaur behind him. He holds a huge rock in both hands uplifted behind
his head as on the Italo-Ionic vase no. 171. To the r. of this centaur is a fragment
of a third, preserved to the middle. Judging from the drawn-in position of his
hindlegs he is stumbling to r. He holds three branches in one hand behind him.
When compared with the falling centaurs on the "Cyrenaic" deinos. 161, one is
struck by the marked stylistic difference. The closest analogy is to be found in
the Attic "Kleinmeister" style no. 58. Loeschcke, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 40 sqq. dis-
cusses these reliefs and holds that they are local Sicilian ware, made in Syracuse.
Kekule /. c. p. 52 proves that this hypothesis is wrong, but does not attempt to
name the home of the fabric. To my mind Melos has as good a claim as any other
198. Fragment of a stand or bowl. Akragas (Girgenti). Palermo Museum. Ke-
kule, Ant. Tenacotten II pi. 56, 3. pp. 52 and 83. Thessalian centauro-
The border is identical with that of the preceding fragment. There are three
groups of monomachies. An armed Lapith, perhaps Kaineus, kneeling to 1. stabs
with a dagger a centaur, with his human back turned towards the spectator,
rearing to r., who holds both hands above his head. A branch with three twigs
which he has just dropped is in the field to the 1. of the centaur. In the next group
a bearded centaur to r. holds a Lapith round the waist. The Lapith, bearded,
nude, with shield on 1. arm behind him stabs the centaur with a dagger in the nape
of the neck. The next Lapith, seen from behind, has a shield on 1. arm and bran-
dishes a spear against the centaur of the central group, whereas a third centaur,
on the extreme r. looks back and kicks at the third Lapith. He holds a huge stone
in both hands. For other kicking centaurs see nos. 31, 314.
Kekule /. c. p. 52 mentions a similar relief from the same cylinder, also found
in Girgenti. They date from the fifth century B. C.
7 g Centaurs with human forelegs.
I. MONUMENTS OF THE GEOMETRIC PERIOD.
199. Stamped gold band. Athens. Copenhagen. Furtwangler, Arch. Ztg. il
pi. 9, i and p. 101 sq. Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art VII p. 247 fig. 115.
It is said to have been found in one of the oldest Dipylon graves. Here the
reliefs are not continuous as on the similar band, no. 5, but have a metope-like
effect, the whole composition being made up of only two different stamps used
alternately. Furtwangler /. c. p. 101 sq. interprets the group on which the centaur
does not occur, as a battle scene between a mounted knight and a warrior on foot.
The group which concerns us particularly represents a centaur to r. with human
forelegs holding a short twig behind his back, as on the band from Corinth no. 5.
Behind him is a procession of dancing men moving in the opposite direction, with-
out any apparent connection with the centaur. On the gold band from Corinth
now in Berlin, which is evidently of the same fabric, centaurs of both classes,
A and B, occur, whereas here only Class B is represented. The closest analogies
to these stamped bands of gold are i. a stamped handle of a red ware vase, now
in Heidelberg, no. 280, 2. a repousse" relief in two bands on a silver dagger sheath
found at Praeneste, no. 306.
200. Bronze plaque. Dodona. Carapanos, Dodone et ses mines pi. 19 fig. 5, and
text p. 36 no. 27.
A centaur to 1. is engraved on the plaque, the upper part of which, with the
human torso of the centaur, is missing. The whole figure is covered with incised
dots to indicate the shaggy appearance of the centaur, as on no. 161. Sometimes
only the human part is shaggy, cf. nos. 222, 226, 228, and on no. 21 only the equine
body is shaggy. A technical peculiarity of all centaurs in the geometric period
can best be illustrated here; I refer to the way the human forelegs are added
to the equine body without indicating the buttocks. In later times an equine
bo c dy is attached to a complete human figure. On the geometric monuments,
however, human forelegs take the place of equine forelegs, the human torso not
connected with them, but growing out of the equine body. Therefore the human
pudenda are lacking. This earlier form of Class B, reminiscences of which are found
on the stamped ware of Etruria, is a strong argument in favor of my thesis that
the earliest type of centaur has equine forelegs and that the type with human
forelegs is a later development.
201. Lead Figurines from the Amyklaion and from the Menelaion. See no. 6.
II. PRIMITIVE BRONZES AND TERRACOTTAS.
202. Bronze statuette. Fig. 14. Olympia, lower stratum of Altis. Treu, Olympia,
Ausgrabungen IV pi. 13 'fig. 215 also text pi. 21, and p. 16.
The centaur stands at rest on an open-work base decorated with geometric
designs; his r. hand is placed on his chest, his 1. arm and tail are broken off. That
Primitive bronzes and terracottas.
the tail was long is made evident by the fact that there are traces of it on the base.
He has human pudenda and a very primitive head without any modeling. According
to Boehlau, Jahrb. 1887 p. 41 the centaur occurs only on the late geometric monu-
ments and is an importation from Asia Minor. But judging from its occurrence
on the early geometric vase no. 4, it had reached Continental Greece from the
Orient earlier than is usually supposed. Boehlau, however, is right in ci^ng this
bronze statuette as late geometric, for it already has the human pudenda added;
it probably dates from the eighth century B. C., and shows Ionic influence.
203. Bronze group. Fig. 15. Olympia. Parisian antiquity-dealer. Sambon, Le
Mus6e III p. 429 fig. 3. Pholos greeting Herakles?
A bearded centaur with human
ears and pudenda, short hair but long
Fig. 14. After Olympia IV pi. 13 fig. 215.
Fig. 15. After Le Musee III p. 429
tail reaching to his feet and fastened to the plinth on which he stands, confronts
a bearded nude male figure, standing on the same plinth, whose arms he grasps
with both hands. The man is a head taller than the centaur. Both wear a peculiarly
shaped pointed cap which differs, however, from the pilos and from the pointed
hats of the Scythian archers. The closest analogies are found on a geometric fibula,
Bates, A. J. A. 1911 p. 3 fig. 2, p. 7 fig. 4, see also pp. 14 16; on the stamped
pithos B.C.H. 1898 p. 463 fig. 8 and pi. 6; on a Boeotian cantharus in Berlin,
worn by Troilos, Arch. Anz. 1891 p. 116 fig. 10; on a Boeotian terracotta figurine,
representing a centaur, see no. 209; on a late Mycenaean head of terracotta from
the Amyklaion 'Ey. *AQ%. 1892 pi. 4 figs. 4 and 4a; on a lead figurine from the Mene-
laion, B. S. A. XV p. 128 fig. 30; on a bronze statuette found at Athens no. 238;
and on a Cypriote terracotta figurine, no. 205.
g0 Centaurs with human forelegs.
This is certainly one of the most remarkable monuments ever excavated,
not only because it is a group, an extremely rare phenomenon in the geometric
period to which it belongs, but also because of its subject. The interpretation
offered by A. Sambon 1. c. p. 429, Peleus and Chiron, as on the Francois vase,
may be correct. As an alternative he offers another explanation: the divine Chiron
consoling the spirit of Achilles, as on the Cypselus chest. On b. f. vase-paintings,
see no. 128, the greeting of Herakles by Pholos occurs in much the same manner,
and since, as Bates /. c. has shown, Herakles wears the peaked cap in the geometric
period, I surmise that we have in this bronze group the same subject. Be that as
it may, we here have the earliest mythological scene between man and centaur,
dating probably from the end of the eighth century B.C.
204. Bronze statuette. Cyprus. British Museum, Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes no. 184.
"Centaur, with human forelegs, the equine body attached behind; r. arm ad-
vanced ... Very rude." In his introduction p. XXXVIII Walters says of this and
similar statuettes: "In Cyprus and Sardinia again are found rude primitive bronze
figures which owe something primarily to Greek influence, but bear the unmistak-
able impress of local handiwork." Is it not more probable that the same oriental
influence (Hittite?) was at work in both places, Greece and Cyprus, not to speak
of Etruria ?
205. Terracotta statuette. Idalium, Cyprus. Metropolitan Museum, New York,
no. 2728. Cesnola, Coll. of Cypr. Ant. II pi. 27 fig. 218; Ohnefalsch Richter,
Kypros pi. CIV, 9 also in text p. 257 fig. 174; Perrot-Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art
III 600 fig. 411. Found in a tomb. Ionic Greek influence. Traces of color.
This centaur is bearded and wears a cap as on nos. 203, 238, his r. hand is
broken off, on his 1. arm he carries a shield. The hindlegs are formless, but the fore-
legs, though clumsy, indicate human knees. Whether the forefeet ended in hoofs
like the Cypriote lime-stone group in Geneva, see no. 326, is possible, but since
certainty cannot be gained on this point, I have preferred to catalogue it under
Class B rather than Class C. I know of only the following additional examples
of a centaur carrying a shield, a) Graeco-Roman gem in the British Museum,
Cat. p. 146 no. 1235. b) Etruscan scarab of the later style, Furtwangler, Ant.
Gemmen I pi. 18 fig. 73.
It is remarkable that this and the following centaur were found in a tomb.
Were they put there to guard the spirit of the dead ? If so we would have in Cyprus
the same custom common to the Etruscans.
206. Terracotta statuette. Curium, Cyprus. British Museum, Walters, Cat. of
Terracottas p. 39 A 227, Murray, Excavations in Cyprus p. 70 fig. no, Winter,
Typenkat. Nachtrage under 15, 7d. Found in a tomb in 1895, excavated
under the Turner Bequest.
"Centaur, with equine forelegs and human pudenda; he has a snub nose, short,
thick beard, and long hair projecting in a flat mass at the back. In his 1. arm he
carries a doe, the legs drawn in together, very roughly modelled. He has a stiff
flat tail, standing out horizontally; his feet are not indicated. The whole has been
covered with a white slip; the Centaur's breast is red, and on his shoulder and above
the pubes are black stripes, his hair and beard are black, and the doe has black
markings on the legs.".... "End of sixth century B. C., under Archaic Greek in-
Primitive bronzes and terracottas. 8 1
fluence; the Centaur is well modelled, especially the head. Right arm lost." Accor-
ding to the above description of Walters he has equine forelegs, but since his feet are
not indicated and since he has human pudenda, it seems more reasonable to cata-
logue this figurine under Class B. For other centaurs with a doe as prey, see under
no. 174, and for the tail standing out horizontally see no. 313.
207. Terracotta statuettes. Cyprus. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros p. 255 sqq.,
pis. XL VI I nos. 8 10, 12 16 and 18 are from a grove of Apollo at Limniti;
no. 17, now in Berlin, was found in Amathus; No. n, Berlin, from Paphos
or Limniti. See also Reinach, Rev. Arch. 1881 p. 81 for no. 12; and Winter,
Typenkat. I 15, 7, Roscher's Lexikon II i p. 1075, for no. 13.
All of these centaurs are characterized by horns and bovine ears; some seem
to be beardless, others are represented with protruding tongues, Medusa-like. All
are fragmentary, but on nos. 8 and 13 the human pudenda are preserved, conse-
quently they belong to Class B. They date from the sixth century B. C.
For the origin of the horned centaurs, according to a Cypriote legend, see
Richter /. c., who furthermore on p. 258 derives those with protruding tongue
from the Bes type. In the light of recent finds, see under no. 240, they are more
probably derived from the Medusa type. Horned centaurs occur only rarely in
the later periods, i. on the skyphos with white figures on a black ground, now
in St. Petersburg, Stephani, Vasensamml. 916; 2. on the silver vase in Munich,
Arneth, Antike Gold- und Silbermonumente p. 81 SXI; 3. on the marble sarcophagus,
Naples Museum, no. 6776, a pair of centaurs drawing the chariot of Dionysos,
where only the male centaur has horns.
208. Terracotta group. Tanagra? PI. X. Athens. Winter, Typenkat. I p. 36 fig. 2;
Reinach, Chronique d* Orient II p. n = Rev. Arch. 1892 p. 75. Centaur
carrying a Nymph (?).
A youthful beardless centaur, human pudenda, carries a draped female figure,
face upward, in his arms in front of him. The legs and tail are fragmentary; his
head is slightly uplifted and is covered with a fillet or cap. The arms and hands
show no modeling. The whole has been covered with a white slip; on his equine
back are three long brown stripes and five cross-stripes; the tail had been simi-
larly decorated. The face of the female figure in his arms is mutilated. Her body
shows no modeling and looks very primitive, though the group certainly dates from
the end of the seventh century B. C.
On the Athenian vase-paintings which represent Nessos carrying off Deianeira
she is always held differently; on the Chalcidian vase, no. 163 and on no. 163 A
the pose is similar. On the Thraco-Macedonian coins, however, where the centaur
cannot be identified, he carries a nymph in the same position as here; see no. 191,
so too on the Ionic gem no. 325. Nevertheless, I suspect that Nessos and Deianeira
are represented in this group after all, especially since Nessos is represented with
human forelegs on the fragment from the Heraeum at Argos, no. 227, and on
no. 213 A, though there, to be sure, he does not carry the bride of Herakles.
Beardless centaurs are rare in the early periods except in Cyprus, Rhodes and
Etruria (see under no. 226), but since our group was a gift of Stauros Andropulos,
who lived and made his collection in Boeotia, there seems to be little doubt as
to its Boeotian provenance.
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. U
Centaurs with human forelegs.
209. Terracotta statuette. Tanagra. Formerly in Dummler's possession, now in
Museum of Cassel, Inv. I Terrak. no. 420. Diimmler, Ath. Mitt. XIII p. 286 =
Kleine Schriften III p. 165 fig. 129.
A most remarkable figurine and unique in the history of centaurs because
he is ithyphallic. His arms and legs are broken off; he is bearded, has human (?)
ears and wears a pointed cap. His body, both human and equine, is striped like
that of a zebra. For similar cap worn by a centaur, see the bronze group, no. 203.
210. Terracotta statuette, fragmentary. Heraeum, Argos. National Museum,
Athens. Chase, Argive Heraeum II p. 40 no. 242, pi. XLVIII u.
"Fragment of Centaur, top of head, legs and horse's body missing. The break
at buttocks shows plainly that the figure was a centaur. He has a long, pointed
beard, in which a triangular hole marks the mouth. The 1. hand is pressed against
the 1. hip; the r. was apparently raised. White slip. Light yellow clay." Pudenda
not indicated, but enough of the forelegs is preserved to show that they were
It seems that the centaur was a suitable votive offering to Hera, see also
III. VASES OF TRANSITION PERIOD BETWEEN
GEOMETRIC AND LATER STYLES.
211. Bowl. Fig. 16. Thebes. Athens, Nat. Mus. Collignon-Couve, Cat. no. 464;
Boehlau, Jahrb. II p. 39 pi. IV; Brunn, Griech. Kunstgeschichte I p. 133
A bearded centaur walking to r. holds a young doe by the neck in extended
r. and two pine-branches in 1. behind his back and confronts a grazing hind. Then
Fig. 16. After Jahr-
comes a hind walking to r. confronting another centaur to 1., who seizes it by the
neck with his r. hand; in his 1. he holds behind his back a branch decorated with
spirals. The space Bunder each centaur is filled with a large oriental palmette.
In the field, interposed zigzag lines, as on the Melian amphora, Rayet-Collignon
pi. 2, Asiatic rosettes, lozenges and circles surrounded by dots. Under one of the
Vases of transition period between geometric and later styles. g^
hinds is a large conventionalized ivy-leaf. The centaurs are very awkwardly drawn,
the equine bodies, as on the Polledrara vase no. 315, are much too long and thin,
the legs are much too large in proportion to the bodies ; buttocks and human pudenda
are not indicated. The whole effect is non-Greek, even on the primitive stamped
red ware of the islands and of Etruria there is nothing similar enough to make de-
cisive comparisons, although on the Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221, a centaur holds
a doe in similar fashion. There are faint reminiscences of the Mycenaean art of
Melos, cf. especially the fisherman, Phylakopi, pi. 22 Fowler- Wheeler, Handbook
of Greek Archaeology p. 50 fig. 12. When more is known of Asiatic art, especially
that of the Hittites, the influence at work on this peculiar style, which is neither
Mycenaean nor Geometric, will be more apparent. The technique is silhouette
drawing in dark brown varnish except the heads and tails of the centaurs which
are drawn in outline, with of course no incisions, as on the following vase-painting
from Rhodes. Although the centaurs cannot be paralleled, the hinds are in the style
of Phaleron vases. It probably dates from the first half of the seventh century B.C.
212. Fragment from neck of large vase. Kameiros, Rhodes. Salzrnann, Necropole
de Camiros pi. 39; Brunn, Griech. Kunstgesch. I p. 141 fig. no.
A bearded centaur to 1. is about to pluck a branch from a tree. Benind him
is a winged horse with a human head, but no arms, which Brunn also calls a centaur.
For a similar monster see the Cypriote vase Brunn /. c. p. 128 fig. 95, Perrot-Chipiez,
Hist d. I' Art III p. 707 fig. 519; also the late so-called centaurs on the coins of Gaul,
Head, Hist. num. p. 9, Jullian, Histoire de la Gaule II p. 143 and note 9, and the
"Assyrian" cylinder, King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, 2nd ed. pi. II fig. 2.
This vase is probably of local Rhodian manufacture though the type of heau
is closely allied to a "Proto-Melian" fragment, Poulsen, Fondation Piot, Mon.
et Mem. 1909 pi. 3 and p. 25 sqq. on which a centaur was probably depicted, though
Poulsen considers it to be a human being, seated. That fragment was found in
Delos, and dates from the middle of the seventh century B. C.
buch 1887 pi. 4.
213. Oenochoe. Aegina. Thiersch, in Furtwangler, Aegina I p. 437, 32, pi. 127, 12.
A centaur to r., human torso broken away, held two pine-branches behind
him in one hand, and one pine-branch before him, in the other. In the field, geometric
zigzag lines, as on the preceding vases, and a lozenge pattern with projecting
lines, as on the Proto-Attic (Phaleron) jug, Jahrb. II pis. 3 and 4 = Fowler- WTieeler,
g , Centaurs with human forelegs.
Handbook p. 471 fig. 381, and similar to the Proto-Corinthian lekythos no. 225.
The shape of the oenochoe is like the Phaleron pitchers.
213 A. Amphora. New York. Miss Richter, Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum
of Art, April, 1912 pp. 68 sqq. Story of Nessos. Middle of seventh century B. C.
On the body: Herakles to 1., bearded, long hair as on nos. 19, 182, 222,
wearing chiton (see under no. 71), shoes (cf. no. 226) and sheath at his side,
grasps Nessos who is half-kneeling to r. by the hair, as on nos. 19, 21, 22, 28,
308, 322. In his other hand he wields a long sword. Nessos, entirely nude,
extends both arms in a beseeching attitude; he has dropped his branch, cf.
nos. 12, 75, 161, 162, 198, 228. Above Nessos is a flying owl, cf. no. 55 where
other examples of flying birds are cited. Behind Herakles is Deianeira sitting
to 1. in a quadriga, watching the contest; in her 1. hand, drawn back, she holds
the whip and reins. Only once again is the chariot of Herakles depicted, namely
on no. 227, where the centaur also has human forelegs. On the extreme r. there
is a spectator running to 1.
On the neck: A lion to r. devouring a hind. For the peculiar mane cf. the
lion on no. 227.
On the shoulder: Two grazing animals to r.
IV. MELIAN GEM.
214. Intaglio of lentoid shape. Chalcedony. Arndt Collection.
A centaur to L, bearded, uplifted hands, looks back; his hindlegs are drawn in
and are placed close together as if at rest, his forelegs are agitated, as if running
at full speed in the archaic Knielauf -Schema. This is the only Melian gem of Class
B, all the others are of Class A and are older. On our gem, the long back hair is
indicated, the equine body is better drawn than on no. 8, though the hands
are quite as primitive. Another proof that Arndt' s gem is younger than those of
Class A is the material, instead of steatite, chalcedony.
V. STAMPED RED WARE.
215. Fragment of a large vase. Kameiros. Salzmann, Necropole de Camiros pi. 26,
i; Milchhofer, Anf. d. Kunst p. 75 fig. 48; Roscher, Lexikon II I p. 1046, 3.
The cylinder used in stamping this frieze contained a group of two figures,
a youthful, beardless centaur standing to r., holding in one hand before him a
small tree, roots and all, and in the other hand behind him probably a small stone.
Confronting him is a male figure, in one hand, extended, a sword, the point of which
almost touches the face of the centaur; in the other hand behind him a double-ax.
Because of the double-ax Milchhofer /. c. p. 116 identifies the human figure with
Zeus. He erroneously attributes the centaur's small branch to the same figure
and calls it a thunderbolt, entirely overlooking the sword. Sauer, Roscher's Lex.
II i p. 1047 interprets it as the adventure of Herakles, and Stokes, B. S. A. XII
p. 78 as a Lapith and centaur. Stokes furthermore calls attention to fragments
Stamped red ware. 3c
of probably the same pithos, now in the British Museum A 568. If I were convinced
that the cylinder used was the handiwork of a Greek craftsman I should have more
faith in Sauer's interpretation. But nowhere on Greek monuments do we find
this type of centaur with short, thick and bushy tail, with abnormally short equine
body and long legs, repeated. To be sure, there are reminiscences of this style
in stamped golden bands, nos. 5, 199, but there the equine bodies of the centaurs
are in better proportion to their legs. The subject does, however, occur again,
but reversed, on a fragment found in Datcha, Caria, see no. 216; to me this is
significant, for it points the way. The myth, if it is a mythological illustration,
is non-Greek, but oriental. The types and even the lily and scroll pattern above
the frieze are oriental. For the scroll and rope pattern see the Hittite cylinders,
Ward, Cylinders and other ancient oriental seals, in the Library of J . P. Morgan
pi. XXVIII 204, 207, 209, and on the
cylinder fig. 203 there seems to be a
Hittite centaur, although Ward calls
it a man.
216. Fragment of a large vase. Fig. 17.
Datcha on the Carian coast.
Athens. Dummler,^A. M^.XXI
p. 230 fig. i.
The group is identical with that
of the preceding number only here the
beardless centaur faces 1. and the war-
rior r. Below the frieze is a scroll pat-
tern and above are traces of a lily
pattern, cf . Salzmann, Necr. d. Cami-
ros pi. 27, 4. The Berlin Museum has
recently acquired fragments from Dat-
cha stamped with the same design;
on these it is evident that the centaur holds a small branch upright in one hand
behind him, and in the other an uprooted tree.
217. Fragment of a large vase, probably a pithos. PL XI. Datcha. Athens. Dummler,
Ath. Mitt. XXI 1896 pi. 6. A smaller fragment of the same vase is also in
the National Museum, Athens, 5604.
The cylinder from which the frieze was made, consisted of two figures, a
centaur, human pudenda, walking to r.; in 1. uplifted behind him he holds a small
stone in his clenched fist, in r. outstretched a small twig of a pine. Confronting
him is a male figure to 1., sword in his outstretched hand, wielding in the other
hand a double ax. Although in subject the scene is similar to the preceding examples
from Rhodes and Datcha, nevertheless the technique is more advanced. The
hair is indicated; that of the centaur is not as long as that of the warrior. The pro-
portion between equine body and legs of the centaur is better, the tail is more
naturalistic, but the highly arched back is very noteworthy, and occurs again
on the early Proto-Corinthian oenochoe, no. 224, where a similar scene is depicted.
Below the relief band is a lily pattern like that of the older Carian stamped ware,
see no. 215. Above the frieze is a unique decoration of a double row of two concentric
Fig. 17. From a photograph.
gg Centaurs with human forelegs.
circles, separated by a lozenge pattern. Between this and a similar pattern on a
smaller scale, is a frieze of bigae with eight-spoked wheels. Behind the charioteer
is a warrior brandishing a spear. The horses are well drawn, although their backs
too are somewhat arched. There is absolutely no connection between the horses
of this stamped red ware and the Tanagra larnax no. 194, where the horses have
swan-like necks, and the equine backs of the centaurs sag like that of a very old
horse. There must have been another frieze of centaurs, for traces of a third band
with a human forelegged centaur to r. are visible. Although his body is just as
long as on the lower frieze, his legs are considerably shorter.
As has been noted above, the double row of concentric circles is unique, but
a single row occurs on a Hittite cylinder, Ward, Cylinders in Library of J . P.
Morgan pi. XXXIV, 261 where also the oriental wheel with eight spokes is found.
It seems to me that Hittite influence is strong on the stamped ware of Caria and
Rhodes, so too on the stamped red ware of Etruria, whereas the red ware larnax
found in Tanagra shows no direct oriental, but Melian influence. Another center
for the manufacture of stamped pottery is Crete, see nos. 219, 220.
218. Fragments of a large vase. Heraeum. Athens, Nat. Mus. Hoppin, Argive
Heraeum II p. 180 sqq. pi. 63 figs, i 3. Herakles and centaur. Light
The cylinder used in stamping the relief band contained two figures, Herakles
to r. nude, neither lion's skin nor quiver, about to shoot an arrow from a large
bow at a centaur, confronting him, who stretches out his 1. hand in supplication
and holds a long pole over r. shoulder. Herakles stands upright, the centaur walks
leisurely; pudenda not indicated. The arrow of Herakles is of the same shape
as that of the bronze relief from Olympia, no. 222. The relief is very flat, without
details, so that it is impossible to distinguish r. arm or leg from 1. Above and
below the relief /. c. fig. i is a raised rope pattern; fig. 3 has the rope above, but since
the lower part is missing it is impossible to know whether or not the same system
was used; on fragment fig. 2, however, below the rope pattern are three rows of
herring-bone pattern incised. That these borders were not part of the cylinder as
on the Cassite cylinders, is made clear by the fact that the craftsman was often
negligent in rolling his cylinder, so that the head of Herakles occasionally extends
into the rope pattern. From the different system of ornamentation on fragments i
and 2 it is clear that they came from different parts of the vase or, what is even
more probable, from different vases. The shape cannot have been that of a pithos,
for the lower rim on fragment i is still preserved. It may have been a support
for a pithos or deinos, or more likely a vase with a very high foot, like the Melian
amphorae. The resemblance to the known centers of manufacture of stamped
ware is not close enough to assign these fragments to any known style. The color
of the clay is so light that it is misleading to call it red ware; the same is true
of the stamped plaque found in the Heraeum no. 195. Even the terracotta figurine
of a centaur from the same site, no. 210 is of the same clay, if my memory does
not fail me. For the episode of Herakles shooting at a centaur on the Italian
stamped ware see no. 196. There, however, the small type of bow is used as
on the Assos frieze. The only point of similarity is the absolute nudeness of
Cretan stamped relief ware. 87
VI. CRETAN STAMPED RELIEF WARE.
219. Fragment of a large pithos. PL XIII. Eleutherna. Museum at Candia.
Centaur to r., human pudenda, long beard, long hair down his back, but no
tresses, large human ears, arms extended in opposite directions, 1. hand empty,
r. hand missing, but probably empty. Most remarkable is his large head, the herring-
bone pattern in his hair above his forehead, and the stumpy body especially from
hips to shoulders. Indeed, his arms are attached just above the point where human
and equine bodies meet, so that his chest is entirely lacking. For other examples
of centaurs whose human torso is too short see nos. 238, 290, 291, 315. He is walking
with 1. leg forward, bent at the knee. On either side, the centaur is framed in by
two perpendicular relief lines like ropes. Above is the rim of the vase and below,
where the shoulder begins, there is a large tongue-pattern, under which are traces
of another monster with similar hair and beard, but with a very Semitic nose,
in direct contrast to the centaur's which is long and pointed. This monster reminds
one much of the "triton" on the ivory plaque in the Louvre, Pollak, Rom. Mitt.
1906 pi. i6c, which Pollak /. c. p. 328 considers the handiwork of lonians in Cyprus,
but which I consider Cretan under oriental influence. On the vase-paintings the
closest analogy is found on local Etruscan fabric, see no. 180, where the back-
hair projects in the same manner. Compare also the Rhodian gold plaques no. 221
for the same parallel incisions in the hair.
It seems almost incredible that figures as large as those on our pithos -
the centaur is almost one foot long were stamped by means of a stone cylinder.
And yet they do not give the impression of being modeled entirely by hand, though
details were added later with a sharp stylus. The rope-pattern bordering the
centaur on r. and 1. is interrupted by his extended arm and by his tail, but that
might have been done in the matrix. The regularity of the tongue-pattern makes
it probably that at least there a cylinder was used. When finished the vase did
not have the effect of red ware, for the unclean clay is covered as occasionally
on Etruscan fabric, see no. 281, with a white slip and the centaur was painted
dark blue; traces of the color are still visible. Thus the effect was that of black-
figured ware. Judging from the good modeling of the equine body the pithos
dates from the early decades of the sixth century. We evidently have local Cretan
fabric in this example, for, though in minor points such as the herring-bone design
in the hair we have the same phenomenon on the Theban pithos B.C. H. 1898
p. 467, nevertheless, striking analogies are not found outside of Crete. Compare,
for example, the hair on the terracotta figurine of a female deity from Praesos,
Halbherr A.J. A. V pi. 10 no. 4a and p. 386; also the hair on the terracotta
plaques from Praesos, Halbherr, I. c. pi. 12 nos. I and 3. For the sharply pointed
nose of the centaur and his projecting chin cf. A . J. A V pi. n no. 2 and pi. 12 no. i.
On the fragments of pithoi from Prinia a similar leaf moulding or tongue-pattern
occurs, A. J. A. V pi. 13 no. 6. In Lyttos too stamped red ware of the same period
has been found, see Fabricius, Ath. Mitt. XI 135 sqq. and pi. 4, below. From the
Minoan period down to the middle of the sixth century stamped red ware was
popular in Crete but on the pithoi of Knossos centaurs do not occur. Indeed,
go Centaurs with human forelegs.
I have not been able to find the slightest trace of the centaur in Greece before the
geometric period. This hybrid is therefore not at home in Crete. I have shown else-
where that the centaur on the Pre-Mycenaean prism-seal found in Crete was not
of local manufacture.
220. Two fragments of terracotta plaques. Praesos. Louvre. Demargne, Bull.
Con. Hell. 1902 p. 576 figs. 3 and 3 a.
The two fragments, though from different moulds, supplement each other.
A bearded centaur to 1. is almost down on one knee and dips wine from a large
amphora with a skyphos. According to Demargne it is Pholos dipping wine for
his host Herakles. As a rule, however, it is a pithos in which the wine of the centaurs
is kept, whereas here the shape is similar to the Melian amphorae. Somewhat
different again in shape is the cask of Pholos on the stamped relief found at
Cotrone, no. 196, and on the terracotta frieze from Samsoun, no. 183.
In the Louvre I have seen an unpublished fragment of the same subject, but from
still another mould, for the centaur is crying out with open mouth. All these frag-
ments date from the sixth century B. C.
VII. RHODIAN STAMPED GOLD PLAQUES.
221. Plaques from a necklace. Kameiros. British Museum, Berlin and Boston.
Salzmann, Necrop. de Camiros pi. i; Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1076; Daremberg-
Saglio, Diet. I 2 p. 789 fig. 1285; Arch. Anz. XIX 1904 p. 41 figs. 5 6;
Marshall, Catalogue of Jewellery in Brit. Mus. p. 88 nos. 1115 1117 pi. XL
A youthful, male centaur, wearing Egyptian wig and waistcloth (see also
nos. 227, 290, 297), both of which are found in Cretan art, walks to 1., r. hand
pressed to his chest, in 1. hand stretched back he holds the young of a doe by the
neck, cf. no. 211. For other monuments on which the doe is the prey of cen-
taurs see under no. 174. Unique for this early period end of seventh century
is the almost full-face view. Other plaques from the same necklace represent the
winged oriental Artemis carrying in each hand a wild animal by the tail (cf . also
the following number). The Etruscans (Micali, Storia pi. 20, i) who also have the
winged Artemis side by side with the centaur evidently received her from the same
oriental, probably Hittite, source at work on the island of Rhodes. When Milch-
hofer, Anfdnge d. Kunst p. 96, see also p. 222 note i, compared the Rhodian plaques
with a Cypriote silver vase found in the Regulini-Galassi tomb, he was certainly on the
right track, but he did not go far enough and so did no t trace both to their common Asiatic
source. In this way the analogous phenomena in Cretan, Cypriote, Etruscan and Ionic
art can satisfactorily be explained. They all go back to the same oriental source.
Though only one mould was used for the centaur-type on the plaques in the
Louvre, three different moulds were used for the Artemis- ty pe ; on one which is
smaller than the rest she holds a bird in each hand by the neck. In the Boston
Museum there are six centaur plaques, not of gold but of electron, pressed from
three different moulds. On one there are two rosettes. Boston also has examples
of the winged and bee-Artemis. If, as some believe, our centaur-type is female,
it would be the only example for the archaic period, see under no. 301.
Bronze reliefs from Olympia. So
VIII. BRONZE RELIEFS FROM OLYMPIA.
222. Repousse plaque. Olympia. Athens. Ausgrab. v. Olympia III pi. 23. Furt-
wangler, Ergebnisse, Olympia IV pi. 38 and p. 100 no. 696; Brunn, Kunstgesch.
I p. 121 fig. 84; Roscher, Lex. II I p. 1047; Fowler -Wheeler, Handbook of
Greek Archaeology p. 325; Schmidt, Der Knielauf p. 309 fig. 28. Centauro-
machy on Mt. Pholoe.
Herakles, bearded, long tresses, kneels on r. knee to r., in the archaic Knie-
lauf-Schema, the usual attitude of archers, and shoots an arrow from a small bow
at a bearded centaur, long tresses, shaggy human body, human pudenda, fleeing
to r. He looks back at the hero and extends his r. hand in supplication, though
it is too late, since his body is already pierced by two arrows causing wounds from
which blood flows, and he is in the act of collapsing. In the background, partially
concealed by the body of the centaur is the trunk of a tree with three branches,
indicating the locality, the oak forests of Mt. Pholoe. Herakles wears a short chiton
(as on nos. 19, 21, 43 A, 64, 65, 71, 77, 163, 163 A, 213 A, 226) decorated with dots
in rosette form and with a broad border. From two bands which cross on his chest
(as on nos. 161, 162) hang quiver and sword. His beard is not as long as that of
the centaur, nor is his mustache as heavy. Through lack of space our artist could
not represent the fleeing comrades of this centaur, as, for example, on the Assos
frieze, no. 182, the Samsoun reliefs, no. 183, the amphora in Berlin, no. 162, and
the Proto-Corinthian vase, no. 226. On the last-mentioned vase, Herakles is kneel-
ing in almost the same attitude, but his bow is larger and of a different shape,
he is beardless, and the centaurs have only the shaggy bodies in common,
otherwise their pose is far less graceful. The fact that our artist has not attempted
to represent the human forelegged centaur in rapid motion adds much to the artistic
effect. For the same reason the sedate Chiron never seems ridiculous, as do other
centaurs of Class B where rapidity of action is depicted. Especially noteworthy
is the long hair of Herakles, which is paralleled only three times, i. on an Attic
vase of the same date, seventh century, the famous Nettos amphora, no. 19, where
the hero also wears a chiton, but of somewhat different cut; 2. on no. 213 A; and 3.
on the Assos frieze, no. 182.
Above the band of our plaque representing Herakles and a centaur are two
smaller bands, i. three eagles, 2. two griffins confronted; below the centauro-
machy is the "Persian Artemis" holding in each hand a lion by one of its hind-
legs. As we have just seen this oriental Artemis is found associated with the centaur
on Etruscan and Rhodian monuments (see under no. 221), and since the griffin,
as Boehlau Jahrb. II p. 64 note 26 following Furtwangler has shown, is a Rhodian
invention, it is highly probable that our bronze relief from Olympia was made
under Rhodian, or, what is practically the same, under Argive influence.
According to Furtwangler /. c. p. 100 it is highly probable that the plaque once
adorned the base of a thymiaterion.
223. Fragment of a bronze relief. Olympia. Furtwangler, Ergebnisse IV text
p. 105 inventar 4591.
Equine body of a centaur to r., with one of his human forelegs preserved,
according to Furtwangler's note and sketch of 1879.
, Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs with human forelegs.
IX. PROTO-CORINTHIAN VASES.
224. Oenochoe. Megara Hyblaea, Necropolis. Orsi, Mon. Antichi I p. 810. Height
A bearded centaur, human pudenda, takes long strides to r., he holds a twig
in r. hand behind him and extends his 1. in supplication towards a nude youth
(Herakles?) confronting him with a sword. The twig is like those in the hands
of centaurs on no. 226, and on the bowl from Thebes in the style of Phaleron ware,
no. 211. The composition is similar to that on stamped red ware from Caria and
Rhodes, no. 217. As regards the large size of the vase and the lack of decoration
in the field it differs from the following and somewhat later Proto-Corinthian
lekythoi of the second half of the seventh century B. C.
The recent literature on the still unsolved problem concerning the place
of manufacture of this so-called Proto-Corinthian ware is collected by Prinz, Klio,
Beiheft 7, p. 70 sqq.
225. Lekythos. Fig. 18. Provenance unknown. Boston Museum. Hoppin, A.
J. A. 1900 pi. 6 and p. 443 sq. Harrison, Prolegomena p. 383 fig. 118.
A bearded centaur taking long strides to r. holds a pine-branch in r. hand
extended behind him, and a staff in outstretched 1. He wears a short chiton girdled
at the waist, and his backhair is adorned with a metal comb, as on the Nettos
amphora no. 19 and the "Cyrenaic" deinos no. 161. Confronting him is a bearded
man, his hair dressed in the same manner, wearing a similar chiton, who lays hands
on the staff of the centaur; in his uplifted 1. he brandishes a four-pronged object,
like the roots of a tree, and at his side is a large sword. On the r. is a nude youth-
ful figure, running away to r. in archaic fashion with one knee almost touching the
ground, holding a sword in his r. hand, his 1. uplifted. He too wears a metal comb
in the nape of his neck. In front of him is an unidentified object, a disc on a stand.
On the disc two eagles are perched, and in the field on either side is a flying eagle.
The rest of the field is filled with tendrils, swastikas, rosettes, scrolls and lozenge
patterns ; the latter occurring similarly on the oenochoe of Phaleron style found on
Aegina, no. 213. For birds in field see under no. 55.
Proto-Corinthian vases. gi
So long as the mysterious object remains uninterpreted I fear the meaning
of the whole scene will be hidden. The birds look more like parrots than eagles.
There may be a clue in the fact that the centaur wears a chiton; because draped
centaurs, with the exception of the one on the Rhodian gold plaque (no. 221),
who merely wears a Cretan loin-cloth, and with the exception of those on Etruscan
monuments, nos. 290, 291, 300, 301, represent either Chiron or Pholos. It is pos-
sible that Nessos on no. 227 is draped, but here he would not come into consider-
ation. On the b. f. lekythos, no. 52, a youth runs away from the scene of Herakles
pursuing Nessos, but he is not armed as here. Hoppin /. c. p. 454 sqq. interprets
the scene as Herakles coming to the rescue of lolaos who is pursued by a centaur,
whereas Walters, History of Ancient Pottery II p. 102 note 2 goes one step farther
and interprets it as the "battle which ensues after the pithos was opened." I am
not convinced that either of these interpretations is correct; it is probably the
illustration of a legend unknown to us. The way in which the centauromachy
on Mt. Pholoe was treated on Proto-Corinthian ware is seen in the following
226. Lekythos. Fig. 19. Corinth. Berlin, Furtwangler 336; Furtwiingler, Arch.
Ztg. 1883 pi. 10 and 153 sqq.\ Brunn, Gr. Kunstgesch. I p. 149 figs. 118 122.
Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe.
Fig. 19. After Arch. Ztg. 1883 pi. 10, i.
Centaurs with human forelegs.
On the body, a picture encircling the vase : the central position is occupied by
the youthful Herakles, on r. knee shooting an arrow from a large bow, which has a
unique shape, at a retreating line of four wounded centaurs. Herakles wears boots,
cf. no. 213 A, a short chiton and a quiver on his back, as on the bronze relief from
Olympia no. 222. His bow and especially his arrows are quite unique in that the
feather of the latter is in the middle of the shaft. All the centaurs are wounded, the
first and third, counting from Herakles, are falling in awkward poses, all but the
first have shaggy human bodies, as on nos. 222, 228. In one hand each holds a
branch with voluted stems as on nos. 211, 224, with the other - - and this is a new
motif - - three of them are trying to extract arrows which pierce their bodies. All
the figures have back-combs in their hair, as on nos. 19, 161, 225, and the fourth
centaur wears the krobylos. Two of the centaurs are beardless, a rare occurrence in
the archaic period, except on Etruscan (see under no. 281), on Cypriote (no. 18), on
Rhodian (nos. 215, 216, 221), on Corinthian (no. 22ga) monuments, and on a terra-
cotta figurine probably found at Tanagra, no. 208. With all these analogies we
are still unable to locate the center of manufacture of Proto-Corinthian ware. Per-
haps when analogies are found for the shape of the bow and arrows, for the booted
Herakles, and for the mysterious object on no. 225 the perplexing problem may be
In the field, rosettes made up of radiating lines connecting dots, and peculiar
227. Fragment of a receptacle for a deinos (?). Fig. 20. Heraeum. Hoppin,
Argive Heraeum II pi. 67, 3 and p. 161 sqq. Story of Nessos.
^ The bearded centaur Nessos to r., looking back, is being
pursued by Herakles, of whom only the sword remains. In
the foreground, stands a draped female figure, partially con-
cealing the equine body of the centaur, her r. hand uplifted,
hailing her rescuer; she must, therefore, be Deianeira, as Ed-
ward Robinson correctly noticed. But what has not been
noticed are the traces of a chariot in or behind which Deia-
neira stands; see also no. 213 A. Herakles has evidently drop-
ped his bow, which he had used effectively - - note the arrow
piercing the small of the back of Nessos - - and now fights
with his sword in the hand-to-hand encounter, as on no. 21.
Our fragment, which dates from the seventh century, is the
oldest illustration of this legend on which the bride of the
hero is also depicted; but see also no. 2 13 A. Over the head
of Deianeira flies a bird to the 1. as on nos. 20, 96. Most
remarkable is the waist-band or belt which makes it probable
that the centaur was draped, like no. 225. I have, therefore, catalogued this
fragment under the Proto-Corinthian ware, though it also has some of the charac-
teristics of Proto-Attic ware, see especially no. 211. If it is Argive ware it is
a local copy of Proto-Corinthian. In the band above our picture is a lion to 1.,
cf. no. 213 A.
Fig. 20. After Waldstein, Ar-
give Heraeum II pi. 67, 3.
X. CORINTHIAN WARE.
228. Skyphos. Fig. 21. Louvre, Room L no. 173. Colvin, /. H. S. I pi. i; Rayet-
Collignon, Hist, de la Ceram. p. 55 fig. 31; Harrison, Prolegomena p. 386
fig. 122. Centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe.
In a cave a large pithos is depicted, half buried in the' ground, above which
are suspended the bow, quiver and sheathed sword of Herakles. At the mouth
of the cave stands Pholos to 1., bearded, crowned, wearing a long garment, partially
concealed by an altar on which fire-brands are heaped. For other examples of
Pholos, draped, see nos. 133, 141, 142, 267, 268. In his 1. he holds a wine-cup and
raises his r. hand in astonishment, for Herakles is driving a band of eleven centaurs
from the cave. The hero is bearded and nude; he pursues the frightened centaurs
to the 1. with fire-brands in both hands. Like Pholos the centaurs have very long
beards; all have human ears and human pudenda; they are armed with trees,
roots and all. The first centaur, nearest Herakles, has fallen face downwards
upon the ground with outstretched arms. The second, fifth, seventh and last
centaur, who heads the line, look back, though they are fleeing as rapidly as the
rest of their companions. On the extreme 1. a draped female figure and a bearded
male figure, in tight fitting chiton, holding a scepter, both to r., are interested
For other examples of the nude Herakles and of falling centaurs see under
no. 161. The shagginess of the centaurs is represented in archaic art in three
different ways, on the Attic vase no. 21 the equine body, on the "Cyrenaic" vase
no. 161 and on an incised bronze plaque found at Dodona no. 200 the whole body,
both human and equine, is shaggy, whereas on the Proto-Corinthian lekythos
no. 226 and the bronze repousse relief found at Olympia no. 222 only the human
body is shaggy, as on the Corinthian vase under discussion, though it is probable,
see no. 229 c), that both the second and third types occur at Corinth. It is significant
that in the art of Ionia and of Etruria shaggy centaurs do not occur. On no other
class of monuments are the beards quite as long as here. On the chest of Cyp-
selus Herakles was represented shooting at centaurs, not driving them away with
fire-brands. This vase-painting can, therefore, scarcely be taken as an illustration
of the centauromachy on that chest, if the description and interpretation of Pau-
sanias V 19, 7 9 are accurate. That Chiron, who was also represented on the chest
of Cypselus, does not occur on a single example of Corinthian ware, is very remark-
able, especially when one considers the vast amount of pottery of that style pre-
served to us.
229. Pinakes of terracotta. Fig. 22. Penteskouphia, southwest of Acrocorinth.
Berlin. Dedicatory offerings to Poseidon and Amphitrite.
a) Furtwangler, Vasensammlung 769; Pernice, Antike Denkmdler II pi. 29,
5 and p.6. On a fragmentary pinax or tablet, a youthful centaur, human pudenda,
diadem in hair, a long tress hanging from his ear over his shoulder, walks to 1.
looking back at a peculiar bearded figure, full face, wearing a sleeveless chiton and
evidently seizing the centaur by both wrists. I am completely at a loss as to the
interpretation of this figure; the mask-like face prevents us from interpreting
it as Herakles, though it may be Medusa or perhaps Phobos. The centaur wears
a necklace as well as a diadem, and holds an object in his r. hand which is
probably a branch. In style the drawing seems to me more Chalcidian than
Corinthian. The youthfulness of the centaur is no criterion, for it occurs on a
variety of monuments having no direct connection, for example, on Proto-Corinthian,
Cypriote, Rhodian and Etruscan monuments; see under no. 226.
b)- Furtwangler 910; Ant. Denkm. I pi. 7 fig. 7 a. On a fragmentary pinax,
the shaggy human forelegs and a small
part of the equine body of a centaur
running to r . ; blood gushes from a wound
in his back. His opponent was evidently
c) Furtwangler 774; Ant. Denkm.
II pi. 30, 13. The fragmentary 1. side
of a pinax, with the hindquarters of a
shaggy horse. That it was a centaur
is made highly probable by the pine-
branch depicted horizontally over his
back, as though he were shouldering it.
d) Furtwangler 470 ; Pernice, Jahrb.
1897 p. 1 8 explains this fragment as
Poseidon riding a dolphin. To my mind
it is a bearded centaur to r. down on
his foreknees, looking back. His attri-
bute, which Pernice does not attempt
to explain, seems to be a pine-branch
held in both hands. It may be Nessos
defending himself against Herakles who
has beaten him down . He wears a taenia
like a) but the shape of his long beard Fig . 22 . After Antike De nkmaier n P i. *>, 5 .
is like that of the centaurs on no. 228.
Although many of the pinakes have special bearing on the deities to whom
they are offered, there are nevertheless quite a number which have no religious
significance whatever, as, for example, scenes from the workshops of potters.
The centaur-representations were doubtlessly dedicated to Poseidon, not because
there was any connection between him and the centaurs, but merely because the
donor took a fancy to the subject. Similarly we must explain the offerings of cen-
taurs to Zeus at Dodona (no. 200) and at Olympia (nos. 202, 203), to Hera at Argos
(nos. 195, 210, 227), to Athena on the Akropolis (nos. 236, 237), to Menelaos and
Helen at Therapnai and to Apollo at Amyklai (no. 6).
XI. CLAZOMENIAN SARCOPHAGI.
See Class C nos. 319, 320.
q Centaurs with human forelegs.
XII. PLASTIC MONUMENTS.
230. Frieze from the temple at Assos. Since centaurs of Class A as well as of Class B
occur on this frieze it has already been catalogued under no. 182. Of Class B
there are three centaurs in addition to Pholos; all are nude. The nude type
of Pholos with human forelegs also occurs on nos. 269, 270. All the represen-
tations of Pholos with equine forelegs are nude, except no. 133.
231. Frieze on cornice of old temple at Ephesos. British Museum. Hogarth,
Br. Mus. Excavations at Ephesos, p. 301 fig. 87 (restoration) and Atlas pi.
XVII figs. 33, 8, 20, 23, 13, 32, 7, 4 where the fragments of the group
are illustrated. Murray, /. H. S. X pi. 4 fig. 6, p. 2 fig. i.
Acording to Murray's attempted restoration based on eight fragments, an
armed Lapith to 1. in the presence of two female spectators, one on either side,
is attacking a centaur kneeling to 1. On the r. and 1. of the group is a gargoyle
in the shape of a lion's head.
Of another group, Hogarth, Atlas, pi. XVII fig. 9 and text p. 307 no. 56 there
is preserved a grotesque bearded head to r. "thrust forwards, as if that of a centaur
232. Shield device on one of the three shields of a lime-stone statue of Geryon.
Found in temple, Golgoi. Cesnola, Coll. of Cypriote Antiquities I pi. 83 no. 544.
"Triple-bodied warrior (Geryon) with three shields, dressed in a short kilt;
the heads, necks and shoulders broken away. The r. arm is raised and broken off
at the wrist. Upper borders of the shields broken away. The shield on the 1. has
a design, in low relief, representing, on the 1., Athene with shield and spear; in the
centre Perseus, wearing a short jacket, and with sword pointed at the Gorgo
Medusa, whose arms are raised towards the head. On the centre shield a warrior
bearing a shield, with three other figures, indistinct and mutilated. On the r.
shield a centaur, of archaic fashion, with human forelegs; the head and part of
the body broken away. On the kilt of Geryon, two figures, with raised swords,
combating lions. Remains of red color visible on the kilt and on the three shields."
On the vase-paintings where centaurs occur as shield devices they are in violent
motion, and always of Class A; here the centaur is walking leisurely to r. For
the centaur as shield device see E. H. Meyer, Indogerm. Myth. I p. 74 and note
i, and especially Chase, Harvard Stud. XIII p. 100; to whose list must be added
i. our fragment; 2. the Attic b.f. pelike in the British Museum, Walters B 191 where
the device on the shield of Ares "is a centaur to 1. with r. foreleg raised, brandishing
a pine-tree"; 3. the Strangford shield in the British Museum, Conze, Arch. Ztg.
1865 p. 38 and pi. 196 197, Michaelis, Parthenon pi. 15 fig. 34, where one of the
warriors has as device on his shield a centaur, wounded in back, galloping to 1.;
4. the r. f. vase in Berlin, illustrated Paris auction sale n 14 May 1903 pi. Ill 2
and frontispiece. Decorative centaurs also occur on helmets; see for example,
i. the Etrusco-Ionic statuette no. 185; 2. the helmet from Oppeano no. 303; 3. the
r. f . crater in the British Museum, Cat. Ill E 469 where the opponent of Zeus wears
a helmet decorated on the crown with a centaur brandishing a tree in both hands;
4. the bronze helmet from southern Italy, now in the Berlin Antiquarium, Lipper-
Bronze chariot from Monteleone. "Cyrenaic" pottery. g7
heide collection, Friederichs, Bronzen no. ion, on which are incised Herakles and
lolaos attacking a galloping centaur who brandishes a pine-branch in r. Of this
there is a tracing in Gerhard's Apparat Mappe XXIX 58 in the Library of the Berlin
Museum; 5. the bronze helmet on which in repousse work is represented a cupid
riding on the back of a centaur to r., illustrated in Montfaucon, Antiquitates Graecae
et Romanae (1757) pi. CXI, 16; 6. the helmet of the famous Pasquino; 7. the helmet
of Perseus on a cameo decorated with a centaur galloping to 1. and shooting an
arrow at a crouching warrior, Babelon, Cat. d. Camees ant. et. mod. de la Bibl.
Nat. pi. XXII no. 228 and text p. 103, also Daremberg-Saglio, Diet. p. 975 fig.
1261; 8. the Phrygian helmet of Athena on a coin of Velia, Lucania, decorated
with a female centaur with drapery over 1. arm, Cat. Greek Coins in BY. Mus.,
Italy p. 311 no. 73. Only once to my knowledge does a centaur occur on a dagger-
sheath, no. 306. It is noteworthy that in most of these examples the centaur is
purely decorative, only rarely does he serve to ward off evil influence.
XIII. BRONZE CHARIOT FROM MONTELEONE.
233. Fig. 23. Metropolitan Mus. New York. Furtwangler, Brunn-Bruckmann
Denkm. griech. u. rom. Sculptur pis. 586 and 587 and text (Sonderabdruck)
p. 9 fig. 14. Schmidt, Knielauf p. 321 fig. 37.
On the lower band: A bearded centaur with a pine-
branch over 1. shoulder, from which is suspended a hare
tied by its fore- and hindlegs, sits in a most peculiar fashion
on a stool under his human body, whereas his equine body
projects behind the stool. His feet are broken away. The Fig . 23 . Detai i from Brunn-Bmckmann,
figure probably represents either Chiron or Pholos. The Denk ler - Tex fi t g t 4 pls - 586 and 5 * 7 '
man who composed this centaur certainly had a delicious
sense of humor, such as is lacking in Attic but common enough in Ionic art. Very
remarkable is the way the hare is tied to the branch, namely, by all fours instead
of merely by the forelegs; the only other similar instance is on the Etruscan
Bucchero goblet, no. 283.
XIV. "CYRENAIC" POTTERY.
234. Deinos. Both classes of centaurs are represented, see no. 161.
235. Lekythos-shaped amphora. Sakkarah. Cairo Museum no. 38939. 0.38 m high.
A row of eight decorative centaurs in the presence of a lion who shows no
hostility towards them. The centaurs, bearded, human pudenda, human ears, carry
long branches in 1. and almost kneel on the r. leg. One of them has two branches;
that in 1. hand is uplifted, that in his r. is being dragged along. For wild animals
associated with centaurs see under no. 163.
Since the above paragraph was written this vase has been published by
Edgar, Catalogue du Musee du Caire, Greek Vases p. 82 sqq. pis. V and VI. See
also v. Bissing, Arch. Anz. 1901 p. 57 sq. It is apparent from the illustrations
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 1 3
gg Centaurs with human forelegs.
that it is not "Cyrenaic" but belongs to some unknown Ionic center, closely
related to Italo-Ionic ware. v. Bissing believes that it was probably made at
Daphnae. Professor Zahn tells me that there is another vase of the same fabric
in Bonn, found at Naukratis, representing sileni with human forelegs.
XV. GREEK BRONZE STATUETTES. i
236. Akropolis, Athens, Nat. Museum, de Ridder, Bronzes trouves sur I'Acropole
d'Athenes p. 146 no. 430 fig. 98; Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 692, 4.
A bearded centaur, human pudenda, whose hindlegs are close together and
re-st on the fragment of a base, but whose human forelegs are far apart as though
taking long strides, turns his human body somewhat to his r., thus bringing the
head almost full face. Over his 1. shoulder he carries a twigless, gnarled limb of
a tree and rests his empty r. hand on the r. flank. The head shows strong Ionic
influence, his long hair falls in tresses down his back similar to the following example,
which is, however, somewhat later in date. His human feet are broken off, and
with them the front part of the plinth.
237. Akropolis, south of Parthenon. Collection Opperman, Bibliotheque Nationale.
Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue p. 219 no. 514; Babelon, Cab. d. Med. p. 335
no. 514 fig. 160; Ross, Archaeol. Aufsdtze I pi. 6; Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II
p. 692, 6, Miiller-Wieseler, D.A.K. II pi. XLVII fig. 592.
A bearded centaur, heavy mustache, human forelegs, human pudenda, r.
arm resting on r. flank, 1. hand raised and holding a club over 1. shoulder, takes
long strides with his forelegs, but as on the preceding example, his hindlegs are
close together, giving a most unnatural effect, as though the inert equine body
were being dragged along. How much more artistic is the galloping centaur of
Class A, no. 184. His tail, his 1. foot and hindlegs from knees down are broken off.
There are no traces of a plinth.
Votive offering of centaurs to Zeus at Dodona and at Olympia, to Hera at
Argos, to Poseidon and Amphitrite at Corinth, to Menelaos and Helen at Therapnai
and to Apollo at Amyklai have thus far been found, see under no. 229.
238. Statuette. Akropolis, south of Parthenon. Nat. Mus. Athens, de Ridder,
p. 145 fig. 97 no. 429. /. H . 5. 1889 p. 268.
This bronze statuette is somewhat smaller than the preceding example, but
the head is considerably larger, being very much out of proportion. The equine
pudenda are indicated, so too were the human pudenda which are now missing.
His head is modeled not much above the equine body, a peculiarity found again
on the stamped pithos from Crete, no. 219, on the Polledrara hydria no. 315 and on
other Etruscan monuments, nos. 290, 291. He wears a cap shaped somewhat
like a fez, similar to the cap worn by the Cypriote terracotta centaur, no. 205,
and by the bronze group of man and centaur, no. 203. Our statuette is so poorly
cast that the features do not show clearly, and the hands are very clumsy. The
forelegs are broken away, but they were certainly human. In his r. hand he
holds a stick, the end of which touches his cheek; in his 1. he holds a club which
rests on his equine back. His 1. hindleg is advanced; he is walking leisurely in a
much more naturalistic manner than the preceding examples. It is evident that
none of the three bronze statuettes representing centaurs found on the Akropolis
is of local manufacture, because on the Attic vase-paintings of this period only
Pholos and Chiron are of Class B. Nos. 236 and 237 are Ionic, whereas the statuette
under discussion may be either
Cypriote or Cretan.
239. Statuette. Fig. 24. Murcia,
Spain. Archaeological Mu-
seum, Madrid. Hiibner,
Jahrb. 1898 p. 122 figs. 4
and 5; Reinach, Rep. Sta-
tuaire III p. 205, 6; Arndt,
Einzelverkauf 1717. Melida,
Revista de Archives I 1897
p. 513 pis. 17 and i8 4
A bearded centaur, human
pudenda, a long curl hanging
over his 1. shoulder, the curl
over his r. shoulder broken
off, a mass of long hair down
his back, is walking leisurely
to r., but turns his human body
to his r. so that his head is full
face as on nos. 236, 237, where
the pose of the r. hand is also
the same as here. An improve-
ment over the statuettes
found on the Akropolis is the
advanced r. hind-and 1. foreleg,
a correct attitude for a walking centaur. The legs are broken off at the knees.
As to style it seems to be an Ionic product under oriental influence, and dates
from the sixth century B.C. Archaic Greek bronze statuettes are rarely found in
Spain, see my article in A. J. A. XI (1907) p. 182 sqq.
Fig. 24. From a photograph. Arndt, Einzelverkauf 1717.
XVI. GREEK GEMS.
240. Greek Scarab. Carnelian. Private possession, England. Furtwangler, Ant.
Gemmen I pi. VI, 45, II p. 29 no. 45, III p. 101.
A bearded centaur to 1. is wrestling with a lion who, although he turns his
head to 1., buries his claws into the hips of the centaur. The centaur threatens
him with a stone in his uplifted 1. hand. Because of the type of head which reminds
one of Bes, and because of the subject which does not occur elsewhere in archaic
Greek art, Furtwangler /. c. p. 101 considers our gem to be Greek under Phoenician
influence and compares the male winged demon with head of Bes and body of
lion on his pi. VII fig. 41, a replica of which he publishes /. c. Ill p. 444 fig. 220
Centaurs with human forelegs.
where the resemblance is even closer, for the demon has an equine body. Closely
allied to this type, as Furtwangler very correctly observes, are the archaic Greek
gems on which a winged Gorgo struggles with a lion or boar, illustrated Furtwangler
1. c. pi. VII 39 and 40, see also II p. 35, III p. 101 and p. 444 where the literature
is given; on p. 101 note i a replica from the Frohner collection is cited, which is
now in the Boston Museum, no. 01. 7558. On this replica it is clear that the long
wings grow from her human shoulders, that the small wings grow from her human
heels and that she wears a long garment leaving the advanced r. leg bare from the
knee down, furthermore that her tongue protrudes as on the Cypriote terracotta
figurines, no. 207, and that her equine body is male, not female. With the excep-
tion of the wings this type is similar to the stamped relief on a Boeotian pithos
B. C. H. 1898 pi. 5 representing Perseus about to slay Medusa. If, as is usually
thought, the equine body is a mere hint that Pegasos will be born from the de-
capitated body of Medusa, then our gems are without motif. But I do not believe
that the equine body of Medusa has any connection with the birth of Pegasos, since
she is closely related to the centaurs, see no. 312, also Milchhofer, Anfange p. 155,
and Hannig, Roscher's Le%. s. v. Pegasos p. 1749.
XVII. ATTIC VASES.
241. Francois Vase. Also centaurs of Class A: see no. 23. Furtwangler-Reichhold
I pi. i and 2.
Leading the procession of gods to honor the newly wedded pair, Peleus and
Thetis, is the centaur Chiron (inscribed) who grasps the r. hand of his old friend
in hearty greeting. Over his r. shoulder, but for the moment held in the 1. hand,
is a pine-tree from which are suspended by their forelegs the centaur's wedding
presents, two hares and a fox; not a deer as Furtwangler, /. c. text p. 3 states,
because the claws of the animal are distinctly visible. Chiron, with long beard,
mustache, human ears, to be sure, not visible, but if they were equine they could
not be hidden by his hair, and short tight-fitting chiton, is partially hidden by
Iris, his companion. His expression of face is not as wild as that of his brethren
on the centauromachy of the same vase; his long hair is combed back from his
forehead. The chiton covers about one-third of his equine back; his forefeet are
missing. That he is the first to congratulate Peleus is only natural, for through
his friendship and advice Peleus has procured his bride . They shake hands in the most
approved fashion; cf. the greeting between Pholos and Herakles, no. 128.
242. Deep Cylix. PI. X. Collection Feoli, Wiirzburg. Micali, Storia pi. 87, i;
Apparat, Berlin Museum, Mappe XII 40; Mon. d. Inst. I 27, 40 = Reinach,
Rep. Vas. I 75, 40. Peleus brings Achilles to Chiron. I am indebted to Pro-
fessor Bulle for the photograph here reproduced. He assures me that the
clay and technique are Attic.
Outside A: Peleus to 1., short chiton and chlamys in which is wrapped the child
Achilles, carried so that he faces his father; he approaches Chiron, bearded, equine
ears, pine-branch over r. shoulder, from which are suspended, in the usual manner,
two hares. Contrary to all custom Chiron is nude, with human pudenda indicated;
Attic vases. JOI
he is walking with 1. foot advanced, but both forelegs are bent at the knees, whereas
his hindlegs, as on the bronze statuettes nos. 236, 237 and on the "Cyrenaic"
deinos no. 161 are close together. His 1. hand is uplifted, as if in astonishment,
or perhaps in greeting. Behind Peleus is a female figure and behind Chiron three
similar figures; all are draped and have their heads covered with their mantles,
which they draw aside with one hand. According to Micali they represent Thetis
and three female companions; I prefer to call them spectators. On the extreme
1. the scene is bounded by two geese confronted, and on the r. by a single goose
to 1. The rim is bounded by a double row of ivy-leaves.
243. Amphora. PI. II. Vulci. Munich, Jahn 611. Side A: Micali, Storia pi. 76,
2; both sides: Kliigmann, Arch. Ztg. 1876 pi. 17 and p. 1995^. Reinach,
Rep. Vas. I 419, i. I am greatly indebted to Dr. Sieveking for the photograph
of a drawing by Reichhold here reproduced.
A: Hermes (inscribed) bearded, petasos, embroidered chiton, chlamys over
both shoulders, carries in 1. arm the child Herakles (inscribed); in his r. hand
the messenger -god holds the caduceus. He flies with winged boots through the
air to r., but looks back. The hair of the child is plaited in back, and the ends
of the braids are fastened over his forehead but under the cork-screw curls, the
fashionable coiffure of young men, witness the bronze head of a youth from Her-
culaneum > in the Naples Museum, Collignon, Hist. d. I. Sculpt. I p. 303, and the
marble head in the Akropolis Museum, Brunn-Bruckmann, pi. 460, Collignon,
/. c. p. 362. Neither Herakles on this picture nor Achilles on the preceding vase-
painting are very young babes, for they are not swaddled, but wear a chlamys,
and a taenia in their hair. Under the feet of Hermes is inscribed %aiQe ov and
on the r. Kalbt; 6 Jtal^.
B: A bearded centaur, with a peculiar tuft of hair over his forehead, like
that of Chiron on no. 256, equine ears, shoulders a large pine-branch from which
are suspended two hares by the forelegs and two birds by the beak; his r. hand is
outstretched and in the background is his dog. He wears an embroidered mantle
arranged diagonally across his chest, leaving his r. shoulder bare; it falls almost
to the knees of his human forelegs and covers more than half of his equine back,
thus concealing the juncture of equine and human body. The drapery was not
added, as is often supposed, to conceal the awkward and inartistic combination
of horse and man, but to indicate the high rank of the centaur. In this case it is
evidently Chiron, the venerable instructor of heroes, about the receive Herakles,
for it is clear that both sides of the amphora must be connected. Kliigmann /. c.
p. 200 mentions a r. f. amphora from Vulci on which the same scene is represented
on both sides, just as here. Does he refer to the vase catalogued under no. 254?
He also discusses the various tutors of Herakles. Although on vase-paintings
only Achilles and Herakles occur as pupils of Chiron, in literature there is men-
tioned a long list of his pupils, see Escher, in Pauly-Wissowa, Reallex. s. v. Chiron
p. 2304 (5).
244. Amphora. Naples. Coll. Santangelo no. 160. Heydemann, Vasensamml.
p. 672. Peleus bringing Achilles to Chiron.
Peleus, bearded, with chiton and himation, carries on his 1. arm the infant
Achilles, who, draped in mantle, looks at Chiron, standing before them. The centaur
jQ2 Centaurs with human forelegs.
is bearded, has equine ears, and extends his r. hand in welcome; over his 1. shoulder
he carries a branch from which are suspended two hares. At his feet is his faithful
dog. Behind Peleus stands Hermes looking back at the group, winged boots,
himation and petasos; in his r. a caduceus. His presence is remarkable, and may
be due merely to the confusion of the Herakles and Achilles episodes on the part
of the vase-painter. It is, however, noteworthy that on the next example both
Athena and Hermes are spectators.
245. Lekythos with white ground. Eretria. Athens, Collignon-Couve 966. Chiron
giving Achilles a hunting lesson.
On the r. is Chiron to 1., bearded, with long tresses, human ears, wearing a
chiton and himation which reaches to the knees, as on no. 252; he carries a large
branch over his r. shoulder, and rests his 1. hand on the shoulder of a nude boy
to 1., evidently Achilles. The child holds a lance in each hand, and a looped strap
in his r., used in hurling the lance. At his feet is a doe to 1. Confronting Chiron
and the youth is Peleus wearing a pilos and krobylos, and carrying, as usual, two
spears. On the 1. watching the central group are Hermes and Athena, characterized
by their attributes.
Collignon and Couve offer no interpretation of this unique scene, but judging
from the interest Chiron seems to be taking in the youth, it is a lesson in throwing
the lance. The presence of the gods is remarkable; I have no other explanation than
that they are mere spectators, added by the vase-painter to fill the vacant space.
246. Lekythos. Camarina. Collection Canonico Pacetti in Scicli. Benndorf,
Griech. u. Sicil. Vasenb. pi. 41, i and p. 86.
Chiron, bearded, human ears, wearing a short chiton, pine-branch over r.
shoulder, from which is suspended a hare, knotted stick in 1., stands to 1. and dis-
misses Peleus, bearded, petasos, short chiton and chlamys, laced boots, two spears
in r., 1. hand raised, waving farewell as he walks away to 1., looking back. Between
the two stands Achilles, taller than usual, indeed he is almost full-grown. On the
extreme 1. stands a draped female figure to r., 1. hand raised. According to Benn-
dorf /. c. she is certainly not Thetis, but probably Chariklo, the wife of Chiron,
see however no. 251. In the field: xcdog vai%i and a meaningless inscription
probably intended for Peleus.
247. Oenochoe with white background. Fig. 25. Vulci. Blacas Coll. Br. Mus.,
Walters B 620. Colvin, /. H. S. I pi. 2 ; Harrison, Prolegomena p. 384 fig.
121. Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. p. 86 note 433, 5. According to Pettier,
Cat. d. Vases ant. du Louvre III p. 882 it is in the style of Nikosthenes. Peleus
brings the babe Achilles to Chiron.
Chiron bearded, with long tresses, human ears, long himation, reaching to his
ankles, arranged diagonally across his chest leaving his r. shoulder bare; over his
1. shoulder a pine-branch without prey, r. hand extended, stands to r. awaiting
the arrival of Peleus, who on the r. advances to 1., bearded, with long himation,
holding the infant Achilles before him in both arms. The child is comfortably
sitting to 1. on the outstretched hands of his father ; they are being greeted by the
dog of Chiron. Between Chiron and the dog is a tree.
The amphora of the Coll. Dzialynski, Rev. Arch. 1868 p. 351, 13 illustrates the
same subject in a similar manner, but I have no personal knowledge of this vase.
Centaurs with human forelegs.
248. Hydria. Overbeck, Gall, heroischer Bildw. pi. XIV 2; Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb.
Ill pi. 183 == Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 91, 6.
In a panel on the body: Chiron to 1. bearded, human ears, short mantle, the
equine body cut off at the middle by the border of the panel, holds a branch up-
right in his r. hand, the but end touching the ground; it has suspended from its
twigs two hares and a fox. Confronting him stands the youthful Achilles, nude,
holding a taenia in r. hand; the 1. is outstretched in greeting. Behind him stands his
father Peleus, petasos, high boots, chiton, two spears in 1., his r. extended over his
son's head. On the extreme 1. are the four horses of a quadriga to r., a dog to r. as
on no. 133 and a draped female figure (Thetis ?) with branches in her hair. They have
evidently made the long journey in a chariot. In the field, meaningless inscription.
249. Hydria. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1900.
In a panel on the body: Chiron to 1., short mantle, bearded, equine ears, long
hair, crowned with projecting twigs, like the female figure on the preceding vase,
and like all the other figures of this vase ; he holds in his r. two long branches over
his shoulder, and extends his 1. in greeting. Only his human body and part of
his equine body are represented, the rest is cut off by the panel. He is smelling
a flower which a man to r., in a costume like that of Hermes, who may, however,
be Peleus, holds to his nose. Behind him is a female figure, draped, walking to r.
and holding in each hand a torch, called Thetis or Artemis (?) by Furtwangler.
On the extreme 1., part of the four horses of a quadriga to r. and a bearded male
figure (Dionysos? according to Furtwangler) to r., in a long robe, perhaps the
charioteer. In the field, meaningless inscriptions.
250. Hydria. Vulci. Berlin, Furtwangler 1901.
In a panel on the body: Chiron to 1., bearded, ivy-wreath, mantle, equine body
cut off by edge of panel; in his r. he holds a long branch upright, the but end
resting on the ground, as on no. 248, but without prey. Confronting him stands
Peleus in his usual garb, armed with two spears in his 1., and a sword at his side.
Again as on no. 248 he holds his r. hand outstretched over the head of the boy
Achilles, nude, long hair, taenia, who extends both hands to Chiron. On the 1.
is a chariot to 1. and the hindlegs of four horses; in the chariot stands a beardless
youthful charioteer, long chiton, sword, shield on back, holding the reins and a
goad. In the foreground on the 1. is a draped female figure to 1., crowned with long
twigs as on the two preceding vases, 1. hand uplifted, Thetis (?) according to Furt-
wangler. If Thetis accompanied her husband on the journey we have here an illus-
tration of a lost literary tradition. Behind the chariot stands a tree, from the
branches of which hang a hare and a fox.
251. r. f. Cylix. Italy. Berlin, Furtwangler 4220. Severe style. Thetis leaves
her son Achilles with Chiron.
Outside A: Chiron (inscribed) to r., bearded, equine ears, wears himation
which reaches to his human knees and leaves his r. shoulder bare; his face is broken
away. Over 1. shoulder he carries a branch, and extends his r. hand to a boy in-
scribed 'A%d(h)e[v<;] , who stretches out both arms to Chiron, as though in greeting.
Achilles is nude and has his long hair done up in a krobylos. On the r. is a draped
female figure, inscribed Bens running away to r., looking back. Her attitude
makes it impossible to interpret the scene as the carrying away of Achilles from
Chiron by his mother ; it is certainly a tradition in which Thetis, not Peleus, brings
the child to Chiron. This makes Furtwangler's tentative interpretation of the late
b. f. vase, no. 250, more probable, and Benndorf s interpretation of no. 246 less
probable ; though in our illustration, to be sure, Peleus is missing.
252. r. f. vase. Louvre. Colvin, /. H. S. I p. 138 fig. 4. Severe style. Peleus
bringing the boy Achilles to Chiron.
On the r. is Chiron to 1., bearded with long tresses, crowned, human ears,
chiton and himation over 1. shoulder, reaching to his knees; he holds a leafless
branch over 1. shoulder, from which are suspended a fox and a hare. In front of
him is a tree. On the 1. is Peleus advancing to r. in traveler's costume, urging
his son Achilles, who walks before him, to approach Chiron. The boy is nude
and has long hair, and is receiving a hearty welcome from the centaur, who not
only looks encouragingly at the child but also extends his r. hand.
Chiron in both chiton and himation occurs again on a b. f. vase no. 245 and on
no. 255 in the style of Douris, but there is no similarity of style between the two
r. f. vases, though they are of the same period.
253. r. f. Amphora. Caere. Louvre, Pettier, Album pi. 88 G 3 p. 136 and Catalogue
III p. 881 sq. Severe style, signed by the potter Pamphaios. Klein, Meistersign.
p. 96 no. 26. Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. p. 131, 113 for Chiron, never spelled
Cheiron on Attic vases.
Chiron (inscribed) to r., bearded, human ears, taenia in hair, tresses over
shoulder, long himation leaving r. breast bare, in 1. hand over shoulder a branch
from which is suspended a hare, holds on his extended r. hand the infant Achilles
(inscribed). The child has his arms wrapped in his mantle and sits facing the cen-
taur. On a late b. f. vase, no. 247 the child sits on the hands of his father, but in
the opposite direction; on the same vase the centaur is almost identical in pose
The potter signs himself <l>ai(palo<; for Ha^alot;. His ware must have been
very popular, for several styles of decoration can be made out on his pottery.
See the able discussion of Pamphaios by Pettier, I. c. p. 882 and p. 762 sq. who is
of opinion that this potter continued the traditions of his master Nikosthenes.
254. r. f. Amphora painted by Praxias. Vulci. Collection Principe di Canino.
Present owner unknown. Benndorf, Gr. u. Sic. Vasenb. p. 86 note 433 b);
Kretschmer, Vaseninschr. p. 226 no. 211.
A: Peleus (inscribed) holding Achilles in his arms.
B: Chiron (inscribed) holding the infant Achilles (inscribed) in his arms.
Kretschmer /. c. agrees with de Witte in dating this vase in the period of
decadence, and presumes that Praxias lived in one of the colonies of southern
Italy. The similarity of subject, however, to the preceding vase signed by the potter
Pamphaios, makes it seem more probable to me that Praxias belongs to the early
r. f . period. I make this statement with all reserve, realizing the rashness of attempt-
ing to date a vase which I have never seen.
255. r. f. Skyphos. Gela. Orsi, Mon. Ant. 1906 p. 83 fig. 54, no. 3. Style of Douris.
A centaur, standing sedately to r. pours a libation of wine from an omphalos
phiale, and holds a staff in 1. hand. The wine flows in two streams from the saucer.
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 14
Centaurs with human forelegs.
His human body is draped in a long chiton over which he wears a mantle leaving
his r. shoulder bare. He wears a heavy beard, long tresses, has human ears and a
taenia in his hair. His head is too large for his body, which gives his human body
a heavy-set appearance, like no. 253. His expression of face is more like that of
Dionysos than of a centaur. In the English translation of Pettier, Douris p. 84
fig 24, the figure of Zeus shows such close similarity of style, note especially the
long lock of hair behind the ear, also the drawing of the hands and ear, that I do
not hesitate to assign our skyphos to the same school. The subject is unique;
the centaur is evidently Chiron, not Pholos. On a r. f . hydria of a more advanced
period, now in the Nat. Mus. Athens, Collignon - Couve no. 1246, a centaur is
represented with a cantharus in 1., and a pine-branch in r., on which are tied two
hares. Although this centaur, in the catalogue, is called without doubt Chiron, the
wine-cup seems to point rather to Pholos. Our skyphos can scarcely be taken as
evidence in favor of the interpretation of Collignon and Couve because the wine
in the libation-bowl is used for a sacrifice, whereas that in the cantharus for
quenching the thirst. The branch with the prey does not help to solve the problem,
because it is carried by Pholos as well as by Chiron, see nos. 128, 129, 137, 141, 158.
256. Amphora. Gela. Orsi, Mon. Ant. vol. 17 p. 468 fig. 333 and pi. 34. Chiron
watching Peleus and Thetis wrestle.
The central group represents Peleus, bearded, wrestling with Thetis. On the
1., facing them is Chiron, human ears, bearded, a peculiar tuft of hair standing
upright over his forehead, over his 1. shoulder a branch from which are suspended
two hares and a bird. He wears a long himation leaving his r. shoulder bare. At
his feet, between his fore- and hindlegs is his dog to r., as on no. 243. His r. hand
is extended towards Thetis, whose r. arm crosses his, as if in supplication, but his
sympathies are evidently with Peleus. This is the only example of the wrestling-
match, in the presence of Chiron, in which Peleus appears as an old man, as on the
Fran9ois vase no. 241. The type of face of Chiron resembles that on nos. 243,
246, 247, the tuft of hair, but somewhat differently arranged, occurs on nos. 24,
257. Hydria. PI. IV. Vulci. Leyden, Roulez, Choix de vases peints pi. 12, 2
= Reinach, Rep. Vas. II 272. 7. Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (51). Chiron watching
Peleus and Thetis wrestle. For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted
to Dr. Holwerda.
In a panel on the body: The central group represents Peleus, beardless, gar-
ment tied round his waist, wrestling with Thetis, who transforms herself into a
lion. On the r. is a draped female figure, a Nereid, rushing away to r., looking
back. On the 1., watching the central group, stands Chiron, bearded, long tresses,
human ears, in a short mantle, leaving his human legs and r. shoulder bare, but
which covers about half of his equine back, as on no. 243; he carries a branch
over 1. shoulder, from which are suspended a hare and a fox, and raises his 1. hand
encouragingly. Only on the Frangois vase, no. 241, and on no. 256 is Peleus bearded.
258. Lekythos. Athens. Berlin, Furtwangler 2003; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (52).
Chiron watching Peleus and Thetis wrestle.
Peleus, beardless, nude, sword at side, wrestles with Thetis who transforms
herself into fire and a lion. On the r. a draped Nereid escapes to r., but looks
back; in each hand she holds a dolphin. On the 1. is Chiron to r., in short mantle,
bearded, long hair bound with a taenia; he swings in each hand a short burning
torch. In the field, meaningless inscriptions. The torches held by Chiron here
and on nos. 259, 264 seem to have no special meaning, unless the vase-painter
supposed that the scene took place at night. I do not believe that they are wedding
torches. For another centaur with torch see Reinach, Rep. Vas. II p. 289, 2.
259. Lekythos. Louvre, inedited. Chiron watching Peleus wrestle with Thetis.
On the extreme r. is a cliff, or mouth of a cave, from which Chiron emerges
to 1., as on no. 266. He is draped and holds a torch in each hand; at his feet is a
white dog to 1., partly concealed by the centaur's forelegs. The central group
consists of Peleus to r. wrestling with Thetis. This is the only example of this
episode before the cave of Chiron, and reminds one of the later episode where
Peleus has conquered Thetis and leads her, a willing bride, to the cave of Chiron
where they are married (no. 266).
260. Pelike. Munich, Jahn 380; Gerhard, Auserl. Vasenb. Ill pi. 227; Overbeck,
Gall. her. Bildw. pi. 7 no. 5; Forrer, Reallex. p. 399 pi. 103; Luckenbach,
Abbildungen zur alt. Gesch. 7 p. 82; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (53). Chiron watch-
ing Peleus and Thetis wrestle.
A: The central group represents Peleus (inscribed), youthful and beardless,
long tresses and taenia in hair, garment round his waist, sword in sheath at his side,
wrestling with Thetis (inscribed), who transforms herself into fire (flames rise
from her shoulders), into water (waves trickle down her breast), and into two panthers
attacking the hero. She appeals with outstretched r. hand to Chiron for help,
but in vain, for the centaur gives his undivided attention to Peleus. Chiron (in-
scribed) is as usual on the 1. side facing the wrestlers; he has human ears, long
tresses, taenia in hair, and a branch over 1. shoulder from which hang two hares.
He wears a short mantle, leaving his r. shoulder bare, as on no. 257. Under his
body is inscribed Patrokyia for Patrokleia ( ?), the meaning of which is not clear,
although it seems to refer to Chiron. On the r. a draped Nereid, inscribed Pont-
meda for Pontomeda flees to r., looking back.
261. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon 328; Michaelis, Arch. Anz. 1861 p. 200 no. 14;
Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (54). Heydemann, Gr. Vasenb. p. 6 pi. VI fig. I note 3 (g).
I have neither been able to find this vase in the National Museum, Athens,
nor in the catalogue of Collignon and Couve. According to the description Thetis
transforms herself into a snake or dragon, Chiron has human forelegs, and Nereus
is sitting on a camp-stool.
262. Lekythos. Athens, Collignon-Couve 885. Very crude.
Chiron to r. bearded, draped, human forelegs, watches Peleus wrestle with
Thetis, who turns herself into a lion. On the r. is an altar on which a fire burns.
A similar altar occurs on a r. f. vase depicting the same subject, no. 265.
263. Krater with volute handles. Munich, Jahn 538; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 202 (59).
Peleus wrestles with Thetis, in presence of Chiron.
On neck: Peleus with a garment round his waist wrestles with Thetis, at
whose side stands Chiron in a chlamys, extending his r. arm. On each side two
Nereids escape, and on the 1. is Hermes, added merely to fill the vacant space. On
the extreme r. and 1. is a large eye.
Centaurs with human forelegs.
264. Amphora. Vienna, Masner, p. 26 no. 226; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 201 no. 13.
Chiron watching Peleus and Thetis wrestle, distributed on both sides of the
A: Peleus wrestles with Thetis.
B : Chiron, bearded, in mantle arranged so as to leave r. shoulder bare, stands
to r. and holds in each hand a torch as on nos. 258, 259. In front of him is Nereus to r.
265. r. f. Pelike. Vulci. Overbeck, Gall, heroisch. Bildw. p. 186, 34; De Witte,
Cat. d. 1. coll. Magnoncourt p. 46 no. 58; Graef, Jahrb. I p. 203 (73). Chiron
watching Peleus wrestle with Thetis.
A : Peleus, youthful and beardless, crowned, nude except chlamys over shoulders,
sword at side, wrestles with Thetis who transforms herself into a snake and a panther.
On either side of the group, a Nereid, the one on the r. with a dolphin in her r.
hand, near her a dragon partially concealed in a grotto. - On a b. f. lekythos found
in Athens, no. 258, a
Nereid is depicted with
a dolphin in each hand.
On the 1. of the central
group is Chiron, beard-
ed, crowned, in a long
mantle which leaves
his r. shoulder bare;
he holds a branch in 1.
B: Without inter-
ruption, two Nereids,
Doris, Nereus and an
altar on which burns a
fire, as on no. 262.
Fig. 26. From Overbeck, Gallerie heroischer Bildwerke pi. VIII 6. nTSt half Of the fifth
century B. C. Chiron
is represented on Attic vases with human forelegs, the latest examples being the
famous Amazon vase from Ruvo, Naples, Heydemann 2421 == Reinach, Rep. Vas.
II 278; and the lid of a lekane, Naples 2638 = Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 78; but in the
second half of the fifth and in the fourth century the change has already taken
place and he has equine forelegs, witness Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw. VII 8 and
VIII 5, also Passeri, Picturae Etruscorum I pi. 8. Miss Harrison, Prolegomena p. 384
has overlooked these examples. The wrestling-match often occurs without Chiron
as a witness, as on the Louvre vases F 301 ; G 42, 53, 65, etc.
266. r. f . Stamnos. Fig. 26. Chiusi. Palermo Museum 1503; Overbeck, Gall,
her. Bildw. pi. VIII 6 and p. 197 no. 46; Inghirami, Mus. Chiusino I 46 47
and Vasi fittili I 77 78. According to Hartwig, Meistersch. 578 sq. it belongs
to the late severe r. f. style, resembling the later style of Douris. Graef,
Jahrb. I p. 204 (104) erroneously calls it b. f. Marriage of Peleus and Thetis at
home of Chiron.
On the r. is a cave as on no. 259, from which Chiron, bearded, long tresses,
crowned, human ears, in chiton and himation (cf. nos. 252, 255), is emerging. He
supports himself with a staff in 1. hand and extends his r. in greeting and welcome
to the youthful Peleus and his bride Thetis. Peleus's body is seen from the front;
his head, however, is in profile to r. He carries two spears in his 1., is crowned,
his petasos hangs between his shoulders; he wears high boots as on no. 252, a chiton,
over which is a skin of a wild animal, and a sword on his side. He is leading
Thetis by the wrist; she wears a chiton and himation. All the figures are inscribed,
and between the bride and groom is inscribed NixoorQaros Kaloc. (Klein, Vasen mit
Lieblingsinschr. p. 126, 3.
Although strictly speaking this vase does not belong to the archaic period
I have included it in my catalogue, because it is the only example of the wedding
in the cave of Chiron. On the Francois vase the wedding feast takes place in or
in front of the palace of Thetis.
267. Lekythos with white background. Eretria. Boston, Robinson 336. Herakles
and Pholos at the pithos.
Pholos to 1., bearded, human ears, wreath of grape-leaves in his hair, pine-
branch in his 1. hand, but resting on r. shoulder (as Chiron on Francois vase
no. 241), is draped to ankles in a long himation. He rests his r. hand on the rim of
the wine-pithos buried in the earth up to its shoulder. Confronting him on the other
side of the pithos is Herakles eagerly grasping its rim with both hands; he wears
the lion's skin, his bow hangs in the background, his club rests against the rim of
the pithos, and his 1. foot is placed against its shoulder, as on nos. 139, 143, 147,
150. In the background partially concealed by the pithos is a palm-tree, as on
no. 142, which Robinson I. c. erroneously takes to be the wine spurting upwards.
On the extreme r. and 1. are cliffs representing the mouth of the cave, as on
nos. 135, 156, 160. For Pholos draped, but with equine forelegs see no. 133, and for
other examples of the draped type of Pholos with human forelegs see nos. 141,
142, 228, 268. Pholos of Class B occasionally occurs entirely nude, as on nos. 230,
268. Amphora. PI. IV. Corneto. Zurich, Sammlung des eidgenossischen Poly-
technikums. Blumner, Archaeol. Samml. zu Zurich p. 173 no. 10; Benndorf,
Mitt. d. Antiquarischen Gesellsch. in Zurich XVII Heft 7 p. 169 no. 411.
Herakles and Pholos at the pithos.
Herakles to r., in chiton and lion's skin, stoops with bent knees under the
weight of the stone lid which he is removing from the buried pithos. Behind him
also to r. is Pholos, bearded, equine ears, in tight-fitting chiton leaving his human
forelegs bare. He lifts his 1. hand in astonishment or admonition. Usually the
pithos is between Herakles confronting Pholos. Here, however, as on no. 135 the
centaur is behind the hero. For other examples of Pholos draped see under no. 267.
269. Kyathos. British Museum, Walters B 464. Herakles and Pholos at the
"In the centre is Heracles to r., bearded, with lion's skin, over a short em-
broidered chiton, and sword; he has just lifted off the lid of the pithos, which is
partly buried in the earth. Facing him is Pholos, with long tresses and pointed
beard and a horse's body attached to his human body at the hips, holding out a
Centaurs with human forelegs.
pine-branch in both hands. Behind Heracles is Athene to r., . . . 1. hand extended
to Heracles. On either side, eyes, black with purple pupils and white rings. In the
field, vine-branches with grapes. On either side of the handle, a Satyr to r., one
looking back at the other; they have long hair, and ivy- wreaths round their bodies."
For other examples of Pholos of Class B nude, see nos. 230, 270.
270. Lekythos PL II. Metropolitan Museum, New York, 08. 258, 29. Height
0.17 m. Herakles and Pholos at the pithos. For the photograph here re-
produced, I am indebted to Dr. Edward Robinson.
Herakles to r., in chiton and lion's skin, rests his 1. hand on a huge rock
which serves as the lid of the pithos and extends his r. hand in conversation with
Pholos who faces him on the other side of the wine- jar. The centaur, bearded,
human ears, long tresses, extends both hands, evidently objecting to the plan
of the hero. He is unique in that his human legs are attached to his equine body,
in other words instead of the usual human abdomen lie has the chest of a horse.
Like the preceding example and Pholos on the Assos frieze, no. 230, he is without
drapery. In the field, vine-branches with grapes.
271. Lekythos. Herakles received by draped Pholos, Class B, in the presence
of another centaur, Class A. See no. 141.
272. Lekythos. Pholos draped, Class B, and another centaur, Class A, at the
pithos. See no. 142.
XVIII, ETRUSCAN RED WARE.
A) STAMPED RELIEFS.
273. Small pithos. Caere. Louvre, Pettier, Album I p. 42 D 254, pi. 36.
The body is covered with a series of stamped metopes which form six zones
repeating two motives, the one, a winged sphinx to r., the other, a beardless centaur
to r. carrying a branch with leaves on his 1. shoulder, as on D 264 and 265. Oc-
casionally an irregularity occurs in that a centaur is stamped on the sphinx band.
Same technique as the following vases.
274. Pithos. Caere. Louvre, Pottier, Album I pi. 36 0264 and p. 43; Catalogue
II p. 387, 389; identical with Hermitage, Stephani, Vasensamml. no. 527.
Below a band of interlaced semicircles is a zone of stamped metopes repeating
three subjects, a bearded gorgo-mask full face, a winged griffin to 1., and between
them a centaur, beardless, with human forelegs running to r., holding a branch
over his 1. shoulder. Three separate flat matrixes were used, not a cylinder. Pottier
/. c. p. 387 considers this method the earlier in date. The same method was employed
in stamping the gold centaur-plaques from Rhodes, no. 221. Although these pithoi
were evidently made in Etruria, the designs are of oriental perhaps Hittite origin,
at any rate the source is the same as that for Ionia. It seems to me more probable
that Ionia and Etruria have the same common source than that Etruria is completely
under direct Ionic influence, especially since the centaur on Etruscan stamped,
incised and painted ware is not closely enough allied to the centaur of Ionia to
warrant direct influence.
Etruscan red ware. Ill
275. Pithos. Caere. Louvre, Pettier, Album I pi. 36 D 265.
Same technique as the preceding pithos, but there are seven zones of stamped
panel pictures, the third and fifth representing a centaur stamped from the same
mould as that used on the two preceding vases. The other zones represent a sphinx
to r. as on D 254.
276. Pithos. Caere. Louvre, inedited.
On. a zone of stamped metopes are two motives, a rider to r. and a centaur
to r., not alternating, but each occurring in consecutive order a number of times.
Here the centaur is from a mould which differs from that of D 254, 264 and 265,
in that he has a long pointed beard and a longer branch with five instead of three
stems. A warrior on horseback to r., a winged sphinx to 1. and a centaur of Class
A occur on the frieze of a larnax stamped with a cylinder, found at Tanagra,
no. 194, where, however, the types are totally different.
277. Pithos. Caere. Vienna, Masner, Samml. ant. Vasen p. 19 fig. 12 no. 207;
identical with decoration of pithos in St. Petersburg, Hermitage, Stephani,
Vasensamml. no. 1065.
Five flat quadrangular moulds were used for the metope-like decoration on the
shoulder below a guilloche, whereas near the base is an animal frieze of five figures
rolled from a cylinder. The stamped designs occur in the following order : a chimaera
to r., six times; a centaur to r., beardless, nude, twig with leaves (as on Polledrara
hydria, no. 315) in uplifted r., held horizontally behind his back, seven times;
nude (?) man, bearded, long hair, shooting an arrow from a large bow to 1., behind,
in the field, hangs his quiver, occurs only once; warrior on horseback to r., like
Louvre, Pettier, Album pi. 38, D 354, seven times; the archer to 1. already men-
tioned as facing the centaurs, twice; and finally a hoplite to 1., four times. The
archer is probably Herakles shooting at the centaurs.
278. Pithos. Caere. St. Petersburg, Hermitage, Stephani, Vasensamml. no. 909.
Cf. Loeschcke, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 42.
In addition to the five subjects stamped on no. 277 there is a sixth, a centaur
armed with a double ax, occurring seven times in succession. Both groups of
centaurs are confronted by the archer, presumably Herakles. It is only on the
Etruscan stamped red ware that the double ax is found as a weapon of centaurs;
on the stamped red ware from Rhodes and the Carian coast, nos. 215 217, it
is the weapon of the opponent of a centaur.
279. Pithos. Caere. Vienna, Masner, Samml. ant. Vasen no. 208.
Four different subjects occur in the metope-like spaces: i. a centaur to r.,
over r. shoulder a twig with seven leaves, in 1. hand a spear the but end of which
rests on the ground; as on the Bucchero ware no. 282, only there the centaur
walks to L; 2. a lion; 3. a rider; 4. a deer; all to r.
280. Handle of a vase. PI. XII. Heidelberg. Height 0.12, breadth 0.049 m -
Here published for the first time by kind permission of Professor von Duhn.
For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted to Dr. H. Hofmann.
The style differs considerably from that of the stamped pithoi from Caere.
In the first place it is earlier, in the second place, although the designs are in panels
they are bordered by zigzag lines and a plaited pattern. Visible in our illustration
are i. a mountain goat (?) to r. nibbling at the leaves of a tree; 2. a centaur to r.,
j j 2 Centaurs with human forelegs.
holding in uplifted hand a long flexible stem terminating in a bud; at his feet
hooked stems spring from the ground. 3. a lion to r. devouring a human leg. The
zigzag border occurs on the stamped gold diadems of the geometric period, no. 5;
the ornaments in the field are common on Italiot ivory carvings, nos. 301, 302,
and on bronze repousse work.
Exactly the same plaited pattern occurs on a Hittite cylinder of perhaps
1500 to 1200 B. C., Ward, Cylinders and other oriental seals, in Library of J. P.
Morgan pi. XXXI, 234. This similarity is significant, and is another point in
favor of my theory that the Etruscans were directly influenced by Hittite art.
281. Tripod. PI. XV. Corneto, Museo Municipale. Furtwangler, Arch. Ztg.
1884 p. 107; Cecil Smith, /. H. S. 1894 p. 210. Date: early decades of sixth
century. Dr. A. M. Harmon has kindly given me the photograph here
A large basin with two handles and three legs ending in lion's claws. On the
upper part of each leg is a quadrangular panel; one contains a moulded relief
of Theseus and the Minotaur, the other two a centaur to L, with branch over 1.
shoulder from which is suspended the forepart of a fawn, whose limp legs seen
in the background reach the ground. The head and long ears of the animal hang
over the centaur's hindquarters. The reliefs are covered with a yellowish white
slip, as on Cretan stamped ware, no. 219, and still show traces of color, note the
spots on the fawn and the rosettes of pellets in the field. The centaur seems to be
beardless, as is usual in Etruscan art, witness the Polledrara hydria, no. 315,
the bronze bowl, no. 305, the stamped reliefs nos. 273 275, 277, the Etruscan
stamnos, no. 176, the amphorae, nos. 315 A, 170, the statuettes, nos. 294 296,
298 300, occasionally Etrusco-Ionic ware, nos. 313, 176 A, Bucchero ware,
nos. 282 287, 291, incised red ware, no. 281 A, and the helmet from Oppeano,
no - 33; otherwise youthful centaurs in the archaic period are found on a Proto-
Corinthian lekythos, no. 226, on a Corinthian pinax, no. 229 a), on Rhodian gold
plaques, no. 221, on Rhodian stamped red ware, nos. 215, 216, on some of the
terracottas of Cyprus, no. 18 and probably on a Tanagra group, no. 208. The
shape of the branch with voluted stems occurs similarly on Proto-Corinthian,
nos. 224, 226, and on Proto- Attic fabrics, no. 211. The dismembered fawn does
not occur elsewhere, though the living deer or doe is found on quite a number
of fabrics, Rhodian, Cypriote and Attic-Ionic, see under no. 174. For two winged
centaurs fighting for the possession of a dead fawn, see no. 285.
B) INCISED FIGURES.
281 A. Oenochoe. Chiusi. Museo Preistorico del Collegio Romano. Karo, Bullettino
di Paletnologia italiana XXVI 1900 pi. Ill 8 and p. 35 fig. A; Montelius,
Civilisation II pi. 216, 8 and p. 962 fig. 8.
Under the handle on the body is an incised palmette, below which is a lion
to r. looking back. On either side of a highly conventionalized tree a group of
three figures, strictly symmetrical, are incised : a winged horse, a youthful centaur
with human ears, pudenda not indicated, and a griffin. The centaur to r. holds
Etruscan bucchero ware.
a bunch of tendrils in his extended 1. hand, and is walking with 1. foot forward.
The corresponding centaur walks with r. foot forward to 1. and holds a branch
in his extended r. hand. On no. 312 a centaur again occurs behind a winged
XIX. ETRUSCAN BUCCHERO WARE.
A) STAMPED RELIEFS.
282. Amphora. Chiusi. Berlin, Furtwangler 1545. Perhaps identical with Micali,
Storia XIX, i; XX, ii; Milchhofer, Anfdnge p. 76 fig. 49 = Roscher, Lex. II I
p. 1057. "Centaur in Orcus".
The relief which encircles the shoulder of the vase consists of a group of four
figures impressed from a cylinder and repeated twelve times as follows: On the 1.
an enthroned beardless figure to r., wearing a long garment, holds a scepter crowned
with a lotus flower; from the r. there advance towards him two nude beardless
youths each holding a spear, and a centaur, beardless, elongated body, a long branch
with five pronged stems in r. hand over his shoulder. If Micali' s illustration is
accurate the centaur holds a spear in one hand but the branch extending from his
shoulder is without support. According to Milchhofer /. c. p. 229 the seated personage
is the king of the nether world, and E. H. Meyer, Indog. Myth. I p. 60 interprets the
two warriors as Theseus and Peirithoos, who forced their way into Hades. To
me it seems more probable that the youths are spirits being led by a centaur to
the king of the dead. r
283. Holkion or Goblet. Chiusi. Berlin, Furtwangler 1550. Gerhard, Apparat,
in Library of Berlin Museum, Mappe XXX 37 ; Micali, Storia XX, I ; Martha,
L'Art Etr. p. 466, fig. 304 A.
The relief which encircles the cup near the rim consists of a group of six figures,
stamped with a cylinder four times as follows: The "Persian Artemis", front view
except the head which is turned to L, curved wings on her back, holds a swan by
the neck in her r. hand; her 1. uplifted is empty. On the r. is a beardless centaur
to L, human pudenda, a branch with four forked stems over his shoulder; what
Furtwangler considers a dead hare in his hands, is nothing more than the pronged
end of his branch. Between the centaur and Artemis is a kid or a doe standing on
its hindlegs, and behind the centaur is a panther standing upright and supporting
himself against his back. On the r. of the panther is a second centaur to r., shoulder-
ing a branch on which is tied a dead fawn by its fore- and hindlegs. Facing him is
a chimaera and finally a youth to 1. with sword held upright in his extended hand.
I have followed Gerhard's tracing in my description, which differs slightly from
that of Furtwangler and Micali. If Micali's illustration is accurate it was made
from a different cylinder, note especially the plants springing from the ground.
Without tectonic division the figures are grouped, but there is apparently no inner
connection. The so-called Persian Artemis, however, occurs again on the gold
necklaces from Rhodes, alternating with a centaur, no. 221, a harmless panther
confronts Nessos on the Chalcidian vase, no. 163, see also no. 291, and a peaceful
lion is depicted among a band of centaurs on the Ionic vase, no. 235. The
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 1 5
jj> Centaurs with human forelegs.
chimaera also occurs on Etruscan stamped red ware, but there facing the oppo-
site direction, no. 277, and along with a lion and centaur with equine forelegs
on a Bucchero vase in Boston, see no. 193, the only example of a centaur of
Class A on Etruscan stamped ware. Very rare is the method of tying the prey
to the branch; in Attic art the fox and hare are tied by the forelegs, though in
Etrusco-Ionic art, witness the centaur on the Monteleone chariot, no. 233, the prey
is sometimes tied by all fours.
284. Vase. Micali, Storia XX 8; Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 240.
The cylinder contained a group of five figures as follows: A nude youth to r.,
a stone in each hand pursues a beardless centaur to r. looking back, who is about
to hurl a stone with his 1. hand at the youth. This group occurs similarly, but
with different weapons, on a Corinthian skyphos no. 228, where Herakles is chasing
the centaurs from the pithos, but the resemblance is not close enough to give a
similar interpretation to our group. On the r. comes a youth with a spear, then
a kneeling youth facing a warrior with spear, sitting to 1. on a camp-stool. All
the figures seem to wear crested helmets, as on no. 3 15 A, though it may be a
conventional way of representing long hair down the back.
285. Cup with two handles. Berlin, Furtwangler 1556.
Below a border of intertwined lotus flowers is a cylinder stamped frieze en-
circling the cup. On the 1. is a group of three figures, one seated on a throne,
the other two approaching with wine-pitchers. On the r. are two youths attacking
each other. In the center are two beardless winged centaurs, confronted, struggling
for the possession of a dead fawn which they hold by the fore- and hindlegs verti-
cally between them. On a tripod from Corneto, no. 281, the outcome of a similar
struggle is probably depicted, where a centaur carries off the front half of a fawn;
and on an Italian repousse bowl made under Etruscan influence, no. 305, a centaur
carries a dead fawn. Outside of Etruria winged centaurs only occur in Babylonia
during the Cassite period, nos. 2 and 3, and in one example of Greek art under
oriental influence, no. 4; this is a strong argument in favor of the direct influence
of the Orient on Etruria. The winged centaur on the helmet from Oppeano, no. 303,
shows Etruscan influence.
286. Bowl on high stem. Berlin, Furtwangler 1560; cf. Pellegrini, Museo Civico
di Bologna, Catalogo dei Vasi Antichi Dipinti nos. 146 and 147.
The relief, stamped by means of a cylinder, is made up of the following figures,
repeated four times: A female (?) and a nude male figure confronted, between
them a doll-like human figure, front view; then on the r. a centaur with uplifted
tail, r. arm raised; then two youths confronted, probably boxers; and finally
a man confronting a woman. Similar, if not identical, is the relief on a cylix from
Chiusi in the Museo Civico di Bologna, no. 146, and on a plate, also from Chiusi
in the same museum, no. 147. Centaurs with uplifted tails are rare in archaic
art, the only other examples known to me are the Greek scarab no. 186, the
bronze statuette no. 300, and the Dipylon vase under oriental influence no. 4,
though a centaur lashing his tail occurs as decoration of a helmet, no. 185.
287. Boat-shaped vase. Chiusi. Berlin, Furtwangler 1563; Micali, Storia XX 13.
Cylinder-impression: A female (?) figure, draped, seated on a throne to r.
(under the throne is a bird to 1.) is receiving a taenia from a female votary followed
Etruscan bucchero ware.
by another with an oenochoe. Behind her but without any apparent connection is a
centaur, beardless, to L, shouldering a long branch, the but end of which with roots
attached curves downwards before him, and finally three nude youths marching to 1.
288. Pithos. Chiusi. Bologna, Pellegrini 143.
Like the red ware pithoi from Caere in that the decoration is not rolled from
a cylinder, but stamped with a flat square seal. In a series of recessed metopes :
A rough figure of a headless centaur, evidently due to the fact that the curved
surface on the shoulder of the pithos was not well adapted to the use of a flat mould.
This is an interesting example of the use of a red ware mould on Bucchero ware.
289. Goblet or Holkion. Fig. 27. Chiusi. Florence. Helbig, Annali, 1877. Tav.
d'agg. UV, 7 and p. 407; Forrer, Reallexikon p. 127 fig. 112. Montelius,
La Civilisation primitive en Italie II p. 987, pi. 224, 7.
The frieze below
the rim contains a repe-
tition of three figures:
A winged centaur beard-
ed ( ?), in his 1. he holds
a fluttering bird by its
legs, in his r. a twig;
in front of him are a
unicorn and a deer, all
to r. Winged centaurs
are rare ; they occur on
a Babylonian boundary
stone of the Cassite period, no. 2, on a Cassite seal impression no. 3, on an Attic
geometric vase under oriental influence, no. 4, occasionally on Etruscan Bucchero
ware no. 285 and on a helmet from Oppeano, no. 303. In the field above the
animals are stars.
B) INCISED FIGURES.
290. Goblet or Holkion. Fig. 28. Micali, Monumenti inediti pi. 27, 4 and text
Between two wild animals to r. is a beard-
ed centaur, shouldering a small branch and
running at full speed to r. ; his human forelegs
are entirely out of drawing. He wears a waist-
cloth like that of the centaur on the Rhodian
gold plaques, no. 221, cf. also no. 227; the guil-
loche below the incised band finds an analogy
on Rhodian stamped red ware, no. 215. This
does not mean that Rhodes influenced Etruscan
art, it merely means that both Rhodes and
Etruria borrowed from a common source. As
we have so often had occasion to note the
hindlegs do not take part in the vigorous motion
of the forelegs. The Cretan waist-cloth occurs Fig . 38 . Aftet
Fig. 27. After Annali 1877 pi. UV, 7.
Monument! inedra P i. 27,4.
Centaurs with human forelegs.
elsewhere in Etruscan art, for example, on a bronze statuette, no. 297, and on an
Etrusco-Ionic lekythos, no. 323, where, however, it is worn by a young man, prob-
ably Herakles. Somewhat similar in technique is the draped centaur brandishing
a sword in r., on an oenochoe from Falerii, Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 323, 9.
291. Cantharus. Fig. 29. Corneto. Berlin, Furtwangler 1541; Karo, De arte
vascularia antiquissima quaestiones p. 13 and pi. i.
A : A youthful centaur holding in each hand conventionalized elaborate tendrils
and wearing a sleeveless chiton, as on the Proto-Corinthian lekythos no. 225,
runs with rapid strides to L, his hindlegs as well as his forelegs taking part in the
action. He has long hair, human ears, and the customary Etruscan elongated
Fig. 29. After Karo, De arte vasculana antiquissima quaestiones pi. i.
equine body. Behind him are a ram and a panther, both to 1. For other wild animals
in the company of centaurs see under no. 163. In the field are rosettes and from
the ground spring exotic plants.
B: The foremost figure of the procession, which moves to L, is a bridled
horse with a wild-cat on his back, then comes a sphinx and finally a fawn on
whose back a puma has sprung. The wild cat is not attacking the horse, but the
puma is biting the fawn in the neck. Remains of red color once rubbed into the
incisions are still visible. This side is also illustrated in Montelius, Civilisation II
pi. 300, i.
292. Cantharus. Louvre, inedited.
A bearded centaur, hairy chest as on no. 82, tendril in extended r. hand,
human pudenda, takes long strides to 1. As on no. 291 his equine body is not only
far too long but it joins his human body at a higher point than usual. Then
Etruscan gold jewelry. Etruscan bronze statuettes. \\j
comes a griffin to r. devouring a hare ( ?), and behind the griffin as well as behind
the centaur the protome of a stag. A tree springs up in the background behind
the centaur, whose back is covered with a row of incisions shaped like fish-hooks.
' XX. ETRUSCAN GOLD JEWELRY.
293. Pendant. Vetulonia. Munich. Karo in Milani, Studi e Materiali II p. 136
On a gold plaque in granulated work is represented a centaur rearing to 1.,
with a branch in each hand, confronting a fawn in heraldic fashion. For the as-
sociation of centaur and fawn or doe see no. 174.
XXI. ETRUSCAN BRONZE STATUETTES.
294. Berlin, Friederichs, Bronzen 2297. Collection Roller.
On a flat plinth stands a beardless centaur with human pudenda, 1. foreleg
slightly advanced, 1. hindleg considerably advanced; his upper arms are close
to his body, but his lower arms are extended horizontally, and his hands are empty.
His hair which looks like a wig compare the Rhodian gold plaque no. 221 - - is
merely blocked out. His equine back is pierced by a nail which once extended
through the plinth which may have been fastened to some other object, perhaps
the lid of a cist a. Other examples of beardless centaurs in the archaic period are
cited under no. 281.
295. Berlin, Friederichs, Bronzen 2296.
This centaur differs from the preceding in that it is somewhat larger, circa
3V 4 inches high, and the hindlegs are close together, not worked out plastically.
His outstretched arms are slightly raised and his hair is marked with incisions.
The end of his tail is fasten-
ed to the plinth.
296. Boston Museum no.
Gift of Harold W. Par-
sons. Height 0.083,
Length of plinth
0.067 m - Mentioned
A. /. A. XIV p. 390.
I am indebted to L. D.
Caskey for the photo-
graphs here repro-
Similar to the Berlin
examples just cited, but
here even the forelegs are
not separated, and large Fi g . 30 . From photographs.
jjg Centaurs with human forelegs.
ears are crudely indicated. The hands too are very crude; only the thumbs are
modeled. Furthermore the support between body and plinth is again broken off,
and does not pierce the plinth. This is probably identical with the statuette for-
merly in the Collection Tyszkiewicz, Helbig, Bull. d. Inst. 1871 p. 68.
297. Mon. d. Inst. 1836 pi. 29; Miiller-Wieseler D. a. K. II pi. 47 fig. 591; Darem-
berg-Saglio, Diet. I p. ion fig. 1283; Roscher, Lex. II i p. 1078 fig. n;
Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 692, I.
This statuette differs essentially from the preceding examples in that the
centaur is bearded and wears a tight fitting waist-cloth of Cretan shape like that
on the Rhodian plaque, no. 221, and the Etruscan goblet, no. 290. His tail is broken
off and the plinth curves upwards at its ends. I cannot identify the object in his
298. Louvre. Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II p. 692 no. 2.
Beardless centaur with human pudenda and human ears, hands broken off,
stands on a plinth. Later in date than the preceding examples, but still archaic.
299. Florence. Reinach, Rep. Statuaire II 692 no. 3; Gerhard, Annali 1837 P- 1 4 2
Same attitude as the preceding examples but long tresses and more advanced
style; he too has human pudenda indicated, and is beardless.
300. Citta di Castello, Umbria. Florence. Pellegrini, Notizie degli Scavi 1902
p. 481 fig. i; Reinach, Rep. Statuaire III p. 285, 4.
This is a most remarkable statuette, unique in the history of centaurs, for
not only his forelegs but also his hindlegs are human, ending in human feet. His
r. forearm is extended and his fingers are closed as if he once held some object;
his 1. arm is broken off at the elbow. Like the Berlin and Boston examples his
equine body is pierced with a nail, which evidently had served to fasten it to a
plinth. The whole anterior part of the centaur is clothed in a tight-fitting chiton,
which leads Pellegrini to at least raise the question as to the sex, but he rejects
the hypothesis that it may be a female centaur on account of the short hair and
flat chest. In this I agree with him, especially since draped centaurs do occur,
not only as Chiron and Pholos, but also as nameless ones, witness i. the draped
centaur on the Proto-Corinthian vase, no. 225, who, however, is bearded, 2. the
youthful centaur incised on a Bucchero vase no. 291 and 3. the so-called "Centauressa"
on the Chiusi ivory situla, no. 301, not to mention those who wear the waist-cloth.
A further peculiarity of our bronze statuette is the uplifted tail like that of a lion,
which occurs again on the Dipylon vase under oriental influence, no. 4, on the
Greek scarab, no. 186, and on the Bucchero stamped ware, no. 286. Strictly speak-
ing, this centaur does not belong to Class B, but since it is the only example
of a centaur with human hindlegs, it does not seem worth while to catalogue it
separately under a fourth Class D. It was evidently a mere whim of the artist,
without any mythological significance. I feel inclined to explain in a similar
manner the b. f. vase-fragment in the possession of Masner, Arcfa Epigr. Mitt. 1892
p. 128, where a horse with uplifted lion's tail and human arms instead of forelegs
Etruscan ivory monuments. j 1 g
XXII. ETRUSCAN IVORY MONUMENTS.
301. Situla. Chiusi. Mon. d. Inst. X pi. 39 a. Boehlau, Aus. Ion. u. Ital. Nekro-
polen p. 119 fig. 64, and Jahrb. II p. 42; Helbig, Bull. d. Inst. 1874 p. 210;
Kliigmann, Bull. d. Inst. 1876 p. 143. Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 225, 7.
On the third band from the top are a row of animals and a rider, types which
appear on other Etruscan monuments, and among them, but with no inner con-
nection, two centaurs, one to r. fully preserved, and one to 1. of which only the equine
body and horizontal branch ending in a lotus flower over its back are preserved.
The former is of especial interest, because its human body is draped to the ankles
in a tight-fitting garment girdled at the waist. In his uplifted r. he holds a tendril
of lily pattern. Beneath his feet a conventionalized plant ending in volutes springs
from the ground. The elongated body of the centaur finds its closest analogy
in Etruscan art, especially on the Polledrara vase no. 315, so too the lotus flower
and the other animals, especially the unicorn, see no. 289, and stag, no. 292. Next
to Etruria, where we have another example of a draped centaur of non-mytholo-
gical character, see no. 291, the closest analogy to our monument is found on Proto-
Corinthian vases, where not only the draped centaur again occurs, see no. 225,
but also the stem with lily flowers in the hand of the centaurs, see nos. 224, 226.
Here too the arched back of the centaur is found. Note, furthermore, similar branches
in the hand of the centaur on the Proto- Attic vase found in Thebes, no. 211, where
again the elongated bodies of the centaurs are very marked. On monuments from
Praeneste, see nos. 302, 306, the plants which spring from the ground are analogous.
To my mind these monuments from Praeneste show Etruscan influence. But how
about the Proto-Corinthian and Proto- Attic parallel cases ? It seems to me un-
warranted to trace all these monuments back to Aeolis or to Aeolic influence,
as Boehlau is inclined to do, or to find with Helbig Phoenician influence, or even,
as some would have it, Chalcidian influence here. Does it not seem far more prob-
able to suppose that Etruria did not get these peculiar types by way of the Greeks
of Asia Minor, but that the same common source is to be found in oriental art,
presumably in that of the Hittites, both for the Greeks of Asia Minor and for the
I have taken for granted above that the draped centaur is male, though
Boehlau considers it female. If the artist meant to represent a "centauressa"
he would probably have given the figure long hair, like that of the female figures
in the second band of our situla. Not until the fifth century are female centaurs
represented in Greek art, the earliest examples being a most beautiful terracotta
figurine, a recent acquisition of the Berlin Museum, and a gem published by Furt-
wangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 12, 41, both of Class B.
302. Ivory arm. Praeneste, Barberini Collection. Villa Giulia. Delbriick, Arch.
Anz. 1910, pp. 183-186 and 181 fig. i. Pinza, Bullettino d. Commissione Arch.
Comunale di Roma 1910 pp. 60 sq. } fig. 2.
Among the ivories of this collection are three human arms from the elbow
down, decorated with carved relief zones on the sleeves from wrist to elbow. For
the most part these zones contain animals, lions, stags, sphinxes, chimaeras
J2Q Centaurs with human forelegs.
and centaurs, all of them belonging to the repertoire of Etruscan artists. From
the ground lilies and similar plants spring as on the ivory situla from Chiusi,
no. 301, which was evidently made under the same influence at work on the ivory
arms. How wide-spread this influence was in Italy and Greece we are just beginning
to realize. In addition to the animal friezes there are others of intersecting curved
lines with small flowers and palmettes, as on nos. 301, 305 etc., made under the
spell of Hittite art. Pinza, /. c. considers the ivory arms from Praeneste parts
of musical instruments.
XXIII. ITALIAN METAL WORK.
303. Bronze Helmet. Oppeano, in province of Verona. Florence. Montelius,
La Civilisation Primitive en Italic Septentrionale I pi. 49, 2 and text p. 268
where the literature is given; Daremberg-Saglio, Did. II s. v. galea p. 1446 fig.
3460; Forrer, Reallex. p. 343 pi. 88 fig. 3.
The helmet is cone-shaped and is made of two pieces, riveted together. Between
bands of chequer pattern is one in repousse work of animals ; among these, between
two horses, is a winged centaur to 1., beardless, with highly arched back and very
short tail more like that of a stag than a horse. Much has been written about the
origin and date of this art. Montelius is usually several centuries too early in his
system of dating, it is certainly not earlier than 500 B. C. Hoernes, Urgeschichte
der Menschen p. 655 discusses our helmet in connection with similar finds at Este;
he is, however, mistaken when he calls our centaur a sphinx. To be sure, on the bronze
situla Benvenuti, Montelius /. c. pi. 54, i, there is a winged sphinx with arms,
wearing a waist-cloth; a monster which at first glance looks like a centaur. Perhaps
it is incorrect to call this combination of man and lion a sphinx, at any rate we
have no right to include it in our catalogue of centaurs, no more than the man-
lion on oriental seals. We have already seen, nos. 2 and 3 that winged centaurs
occur in Babylonia, in Athens under oriental influence, no. 4, and as late as the
sixth century in Etruria, nos. 285, 289; furthermore that the youthful type of
centaur is common in Etruria, though occasionally found in Greece, see under
no. 281 where the other examples are cited. It seems to me that the centaur came to
northern Italy not by way of Illyria, see Kretschmer, Gesch. d. Gr. Sprache p. 254,
but by way of Etruria. The Etruscan type of winged centaur occurs even later on
an Italian scarab in sardonyx, Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 20 fig. 73. For
other examples of a centaur used as a helmet-decoration, see under no. 232.
304. Bronze vase. Repousse work. Praeneste. Helbig, Bull. d. Inst. 1866 p. 144
no. 16.; Kliigmann, Bull d. Inst. 1876 p. 143.
One of the friezes is made up of a centaur with a branch in r. hand, a sphinx,
a lion, a ram, a lion and a horse, a haphazard combination of animals commonly
found on Etruscan monuments.
305. Bronze bowl. Repousse work. Fig. 31. Collection Lipperheide. Ley den,
inv. 10/3, I. Auction Catalogue, Munich 22 Feb. 1910, p. i no. 6 and pi. VI 6.
Mentioned by Reisch, Arch. Anz. 1894 p. 127. The drawing here reproduced-
I owe to the kindness of Drs. J. H. Holwerda and M. A. Evelein.
Italian metal work.
The decoration on the inside of the bowl is as follows: Below the rim is a
row of lotus flowers connected by a looped pattern, then comes a plaited pattern,
between which and the disc-shaped bottom of the bowl is a frieze of animals,
consisting of a boar, a sphinx (?), a panther (see under no. 163 for other examples
of the association of centaur with panther), a chimaera, a winged panther ( ?), and
a beardless centaur to 1. holding a dead fawn by the hindlegs. Within the circle
is a series of foreparts of animals alternating with conventionalized plants. Here
again the haphazard combination of animals, the youthfulness of the centaur,
see under no. 281, and the protome of animals, no. 292, point to Etruscan influence,
* r~\ ;r^9
Fig. 31. From a tracing.
which in its turn goes back to what I consider to be Hittite influence. The same
plaited pattern is found, as has been noted above, no. 280, on a Hittite cylinder
not later than 1200 B. C. According to Reisch /. c. the bowl was probably made in
Italy after Ionic models; it seems to me, however, more reasonable to suppose
that the primary source of this fabric is the Orient, from which Etruria drew her
inspiration at first hand, and not indirectly by way of Ionia. Nobody, of course,
would deny that there was direct Ionic influence in Etruria, the vase-paintings
make that sufficiently apparent, but that does not exclude direct oriental influence
in other branches of art.
306. Silver dagger-sheath. Fig. 32. Praeneste. Rome, Prehistorical Museum.
Mon. d. Inst. 1876 pi. 31, 5 a; Bull. d. Inst. 1876 p. 123; Helbig, Ftihrer
II 2 p. 444 no. 1521.
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs with human forelegs.
The sheath is decorated on both sides with repousse reliefs; on one side only
four figures remain, on the other is represented the following scene in two bands:
Above are grazing animals, horses (?) and oxen, on the 1. a man, fallen on his back,
defending himself with a dagger against a lion who is biting him in the 1. foot.
From the other side, beyond the division line of the two bands, he seems to be
Fig. 32. After Mon. d. Inst. 1876 pi. 31, 5 a.
attacked by a centaur accompanied by a dog. The centaur seizes the fallen warrior
or hunter by the hair, and brandishes a pine-branch in his uplifted r. behind
him. Below the division line are depicted grazing stags and fawns and a kneeling
hunter about to shoot an arrow at them. The whole scene gives a non-Hellenic
but oriental impression, as does also the arched back of the centaur. For a similar
arrangement of reliefs in two bands see nos. 5, 199, and frequently on stamped
Etruscan Bucchero ware. I am therefore inclined to consider this a local Italian
imitation of oriental art, though Milchhofer, Anfdnge p. 222 note I, is convinced
that it is an importation.
XXIV. ITALO-IONIC AND ETRUSCAN PAINTED
307. Amphora. Fig. 33. Italy. Munich, Jahn 151; Micali, Storia pi. 95; Schmidt,
Der Knielauf p. 313 fig. 32. Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 33, 838, p. 102 fig. 106.
Mentioned by Helbig, Annali 1863 p. 228 note 2; Robert, Annali 1874
p. 101; Puchstein, Arch. Ztg. 1881 p. 241 note 73. A: Story of Amphiaraos.
B: Herakles attacking two centaurs.
Herakles, bearded, in chiton and lion's skin, swings a club behind him in
uplifted r. and with extended 1. arm hastens to the attack against two centaurs who
confront him. Like the hero they run in archaic fashion, one knee almost touching
the ground. They have human pudenda, long hair, long beards, one has equine the
other human ears, and each carries a branch in his uplifted 1. hand behind him. The
composition is full of vigor. In the field, trees and conventionalized flowers spring from
the ground, similar to those on other Italian and Etruscan monuments. In the art
of continental Greece there is no attempt in the archaic period to depict a landscape
background as elaborate as this. Not often do we find the centaurs making a stand
against the hero, usualy they turn tail and are pursued. The composition of two
centaurs to 1. attacking Herakles to r. occurs only once again in archaic art, also
on a vase of Italo-Ionic fabric, no. 172, but there one of the centaurs is on the other
Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases.
side of the vase. It is interesting to note that on no. 172 the centaurs have equine
forelegs; it is therefore evident that both types were used promiscuously in Italy
and Ionia without any attempt to distinguish between those of superior wit and
character, such as Chiron and Pholos, and the common herd of bestial centaurs.
On the Melian stamped reliefs, nos. 13, 14, we find a similar composition, but re-
versed; a hero to 1. confronted by two centaurs to r., and on two Proto-Corinthian
vases, nos. 224, 225, a hero to 1. confronts one centaur to r. Furthermore on the
"Cyrenaic" deinos, no. 161, Herakles is again to r. and is confronted by one centaur,
the others are fleeing. Similarly Herakles to r. confronts a centaur on stamped
relief fragments found in the Argive Heraeum, no. 218, and the composition rever-
sed occurs on stamped fragments from Cotrone, no. 196. The very earliest compo-
Fig. 33. After Munchener Archaologische Studien p. 313 fig. 32.
sition of a centaur taking stand against a hero is found on the Rhodian fragments,
nos. 216, 217.
But to come back to our amphora and the question of fabric. Robert, I. c.
considers it Corinthian, Helbig and Micali, Etruscan, Loeschcke, an Etruscan copy
of a Greek original, Puchstein /. c. agrees with Loeschcke, and Schmidt, /. c. calls
it Ionic. The exact center of manufacture is not yet fixed, though in a general
way we may say Italy, and, as is seen by the style, technique and love of landscape,
it is strongly influenced by Ionia. The fact that one of the centaurs has equine
the other human ears proves that there was no fixed rule in this matter. This
holds true even for Chiron and Pholos ; on Attic vases the former occurs five times
with equine ears to twelve times with human ears. Frazer, in his Commentary
on Pausanias, vol. Ill p. 620 considers it probable that our centauromachy was
copied from the chest of Cypselus, but Pausanias V 19, 9 says distinctly that the
man is shooting at the centaurs, whereas here he attacks them with a club. Further-
more the phraseology of Pausanias and the usual Corinthian type of Herakles
12 A Centaurs with human forelegs.
make it probable that on the Cypselus chest the hero was not represented in the
lion's skin, but nude, as, for example, on the Assos frieze.
308. Amphora. PL IV. Corneto. Zurich, Sammlung des eidgenossischen Poly-
technikums. Benndorf, Antiken von Zurich p. 170 no. 415; Bliimner, Archaeol.
Samml. zu Zurich p. 174 no. 14. A: Bacchic procession. B: Herakles pursuing
a centaur who carries off a woman.
In a panel: A bearded centaur to r., looking back, carries in both arms a female
figure wearing an Ionic chiton with sleeves. In the background immediately
behind the human body of the centaur, and partially concealed by the middle
of his equine back, is Herakles to r., in chiton and lion's skin, beardless (?), seizing
the centaur by the forelock with his 1. hand, and brandishing his club in his r.
On the extreme 1. stands a female figure to r., with long hair and a chiton over
which she wears a short jacket with sleeves, according to Bliimner. She stretches
out her hand in astonishment.
It is instructive to note the very small size of the female figure and the manner
in which she is carried, namely, on her back as an infant would be held. Deianeira
in the arms of Nessos has a similar pose on no. 163 A, and identically the same
pose on a Chalcidian lekythos, no. 163, where the same discrepancy in size between
centaur and female figure is also found. I do not believe that this close resem-
blance is accidental, but feel convinced that, though our amphora was made in
Italy, it shows Chalcidian influence. Nevertheless, the silenus-like expression of
the centaur and his human forelegs show Ionic influence. It is probably not an
illustration of the Nessos episode, but of some local myth, perhaps that of Mnesi-
mache rescued by Herakles from the centaur Eurytion, as Furtwangler, in Roscher's
Lexikon I 2 p. 2195 suggests. The motif of a centaur seized by a lock of his front
hair is rare, it does however occur on a Proto- Attic vase, no. 213 A, on a Caeretan
hydria, no. 322, and on an Attic hydria under Ionic influence, no. 22.
309. Fragments of a large vase. Fig. 34. Museo Kircheriano. Paribeni, Mon.
Antichi XIV p. 294 fig. 7. Mentioned A.J.A.X p. 192.
According to Paribeni the fragments show a frieze of silenus-like centaurs,
but in the illustration the figure on the r. seems to be a silenus. Both have long
beards, equine ears and human pudenda; they swing their arms violently as they
gallop to 1. with uplifted r. leg; the one on the 1. looks back. Since they are empty-
handed, and since no trace of Herakles has been found, it is rather rash to con-
sider them fleeing centaurs on Mt. Pholoe, routed by Herakles. It was more probably
a purely decorative frieze of curvetting centaurs in the presence of a silenus, as
on no. 311. Paribeni calls the fabric Ionic or Rhodian of the second half of the
sixth century, but I consider it a copy of an Ionic vase made in Italy.
310. Aryballos. Fig. 35. Greece. New York, Metropolitan Museum. Sambon,
Collection Canessa p. 55 no. 210 = Le Musee III p. 5 fig. 4.
Herakles, bearded, curly hair, almost nude, runs to r. in archaic fashion, his r.
knee touching the ground, and is just overtaking a centaur to r., who looks back
and holds a branch by its tip in his extended 1. hand; his r. hand, however, is
outstretched towards the hero's chin in supplication. Herakles brandishes a sword
in r. and seems to be seizing the wrist of the centaur; at his r. side is his sheath. The
centaur is bearded, wears a taenia, and has long hair hanging down his back; his
Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases.
ears are human. Behind Herakles is a peculiar object which looks like a Koppa,
on the extreme 1. is a star of six rays round three concentric circles, and above
the r. hand of the centaur is a rosette.
Fig. 34. After Monumenti Antichi XIV p. 294 fig. 7.
According to the label in the Metropolitan Museum it is Corinthian and was
found in Greece. I would be much surprised if the reported provenance were cor-
rect, for it is certainly not Corinthian. The incorrect position of the sheath, the
peculiar shape of the sword and of the branch, not to mention the star, are not
found on Corinthian ware. It seems to me a rather careful local Italian imitation
Centaurs with human forelegs.
of two different styles, Chalcidian and eastern Ionic. For Herakles with curly
hair see no. 163 A. A similar bearded nude Herakles is found on an Attic pitcher
under strong Chalcidian in-
Fig. 35. After Le Musee III p. 5 fig. 4.
illustrated. Whether or no
the same story is depicted
on our aryballos cannot be
determined; it might just as
well be an abbreviated form
of the centauromachy on Mt.
Pholoe. W T e now have suffi-
cient proof that Nessos was
sometimes represented with
human forelegs in the seventh century B. C., see nos. 213 A, 227. For the nude
Herakles, see under no. 49.
311. Bowl. PI. I. Munich, Jahn 957. Sieveking-Hackl pi. 41 no. 985 p. 150 fig. 195.
For the photograph of a drawing made by Reichhold, here reproduced, 1 am
greatly indebted to Dr. Sieveking.
Between tendrils ending in a palmette are two centaurs running to r., bearded,
equine ears, long hair; each holds a branch in r. hand, and the foremost, who has
a white tail, looks back. They are followed by an ithyphallic bearded silenus with
long hair, white tail, human legs ending in hoofs; he too looks back. Judging from
Reichhold' s very careful drawing the second centaur's human forelegs end in one
human foot and one equine hoof ; he is thus a combination of Class B and of Class C,
whereas the foremost centaur, who also has human pudenda, is purely of Class B.
In the field, between the centaurs, springs from the ground a conventionalized
plant ending in volutes, so commonly found in Etruscan art. The vase was evidently
made in Italy and probably under the influence of that particular Ionic school
which invented the type of centaur with human forelegs ending in hoofs, but of
Clazomenian influence, see nos. 318 320, there is not a trace. That these centaurs
belong to the train of Dionysos is seen by their association with the silenus. The
Bacchic element in ^centaurs is much rarer in the archaic period than later. In
Attic archaic art there is only one example, no. 40, where the connection between
centaurs and silenus is as apparent as here. On an inedited fragment of a r. f. Attic
vase in the National Museum, Athens, no. 10461, probably from the Cabirion,
Thebes, dating from the middle of the fifth century, a bearded centaur with equine
forelegs, a panther's skin as shield over 1. arm, attacks with a tree- trunk a satyr,
who begs for mercy. On another r. f. Attic vase, Reinach, Rep. Vas, II p. 289,
2, we find satyr and centaur on friendly terms; the former carries a thyrsos and
fruit, the latter a torch and a branch decorated with ribbons, a pinax and a dead
bird. The Campanian black relief vase in Ley den, Roulez, Rev. Arch. 1852 pi.
199, 2 does not represent a satyr, as is usually supposed, but a youth in the pre-
sence of a female centaur. That the illustration given by Roulez is inaccurate
I was able to convince myself by examining a cast of this vase which Dr. M. A.
Evelein has kindly sent me.
Italo-Ionic and Etruscan painted vases.
312. Hydria. Vulci. British Mu-
seum, Walters 663. Micali,
Mon. Ined. pi. 39; Dumm-
ler, Kleine Schriften III
p. 281 no. 8 = Rom. Mitt. Ill
p. 177; Colvin, /. H. S. I
p.i6i note 2. Dancing cen-
taur and Pegasos.
On the body: Pegasos to 1.
followed by a centaur with r.
arm advanced, 1. arm drawn
back, r. leg raised above the tail
of Pegasos in a most abandoned
dance. He has human ears, long
hair in wavy lines down his back,
and is bearded. On his tail is
perched a large bird to 1. ; in the
field, branches. Walters cor-
rectly catalogues it as an Etrus-
can imitation. That these same
Etruscan imitators were familiar
with centaurs of my Class A is
made apparent by such examples
as nos. 178 1 80. For the asso-
ciation of Pegasos with centaurs
it is interesting to note that they
were considered closely related
by the ancient Greeks, the mo-
ther of Pegasos appearing on a
Theban stamped pithos, Bull.
Corr. Hell. 1898 pi. 4 in centaur
form. See also my remarks un-
der no. 240.
313. Kyathos on high stem.
Fig. 36. Collection Fon-
tana. Breslau University
no. 8079, 6. Hoernes, Arch.
Epigr. Mitt. II p. 32 no. 52.
Diimmler Kleine Schriften
III p. 283 no. 14 and Bei-
lage to p. 280 = Rom. Mitt.
Ill p. 178 no. 14 and Bei-
lage fig. 10.
A combat between two cen-
taurs confronted; to the assist-
ance of one a third centaur
1 2 Centaurs with human forelegs.
hastens. On the 1. a centaur runs to r. holding in both hands drawn back behind
his head a branch with which he is about to strike his opponent, who holds a simi-
larly shaped branch in his 1. hand drawn back, and extends his r. Behind him is
a large ivy-leaf, and on the extreme r. a third centaur in exactly the same pose and
with the same kind of weapon runs to 1. The branches in the hands of these cen-
taurs are of a most peculiar shape, resembling the antlers of a stag, see also
no. 176 A. The two centaurs facing 1. have equine ears and a long mass of wavy back-
hair projecting horizontally as on the preceding vase. The centaur facing r. has
human ears and short hair; all have human pudenda, are beardless, see under
no. 281, and have long tails projecting horizontally, as on the Cypriote terracotta
figurine no. 206. The composition is bounded by a lily like that on the ivory situla
from Chiusi, no. 301, and on the Proto-Attic bowl from Thebes, no. 211, which
shows strong oriental influence.
313 A. Amphora, fragmentary. Munich. Sieveking-Hackl no. 840 p. 105 fig. in.
A: Three sileni and Dionysos. B: Two centaurs confronted.
On either side of a conventionalized growing plant two bearded centaurs
with equine ears are threatening each other with uplifted fists; the one on the
r. brandishes a branch, the one on the 1. is very fragmentary.
314. Amphora. Arezzo. Gamurrini, Annali 1872 p. 279; Henzen, Bull. d. Inst.
1869 p. 73 and Kliigmann, Bull. d. Inst. 1876 p. 143. Centauromachy.
The technique of this vase is most peculiar, the figures being stamped in relief
and painted. A centaur, looking back, kicks at the 1. leg of his enemy and is about
to hurl a rock at him. His opponent is armed with helmet, cuirass, shield and lance
which he is about to thrust at the centaur. In the field, branches and ivy. On the
other side there is only a human leg preserved. For other kicking centaurs see
nos. 31, 198. Probably not archaic.
315. Polledrara Hydria. Vulci. British Museum, Cecil Smith, /. H. S. 1894
pi. 7 fig. 5; Hugo Prinz, Klio, Beiheft VII p. 62.
On the neck: From r. to 1., a chariot drawn by two horses, a dog seated to r.,
a bird flying downwards (as on the Clazomenian fragment, Ant. Denkm. II pi.
56, 3), then the Minotaur, Theseus and Ariadne. "The scene on the left of this
is not separated from it by any tectonic division of the field, and therefore might
be taken as a continuation of the Minotaur group : it consists however of a series
of figures which as a composition may well stand as a separate group, and this
is the more probable from the fact that the figure in it next to Ariadne moves in
a direction contrary to her own. First on the right come two Centaurs, moving to
the left in single file : they are of the transitional Ionic type, with human forelegs,
and apparently are beardless: each carries over his shoulder, not the usual pine-
tree, but a tree of which the trunk hanging downwards ends in a broad splay,
tapering off to a point, and the stem, tapering horizontally over the back, has
pairs of leaves and terminates at the top in a bunch of leaves grouped like the
petals of a lotus flower. Close behind the shoulders of the Centaur a dead fawn
hangs by its forelegs from the stem of the tree: the left arm of the centaur seems
to pass round it." Confronting them are three spectators, two female, the other
male. In the field, lotus flowers spring from the ground, one under the foremost
centaur, between whose hindlegs is a rosette. On the extreme 1. are two bigae
Etruscan gems. Etruscan stone relief. 12Q
confronted and a female figure to 1. between them. It is evident that on this frieze
the centaurs are purely decorative and bear no relationship to the Minotaur myth,
though it is noteworthy that on the Corneto tripod, no. 281, one leg is stamped
with the Minotaur myth and the other two with a centaur carrying the forepart
of a dead fawn suspended from a branch.
Prinz, /. c. catalogues our hydria under Lesbian ware, but Cecil Smith /. c.
p. 218 $q. after careful analysis and due consideration thinks that "the best solution
which presents itself for the Polledrara fabric is that it was a local Italian ware,
made possibly at Caere under the combined influences of Ionian and Naukratian im-
ports acting on an artistic basis principally derived from Corinth"; he dates it
about 600 B. C. His arguments seems to me convincing, for we here find all the
characteristics of Etruscan types of centaurs, their youthfulness, their elongated
bodies, their attributes, and especially characteristic are the decorations which
fill the field.
315 A. Amphora. British Museum. Montelius, Civilisation II pi. 380, 4.
On shoulder: Between a row of warriors to r. and to 1. is a youthful centaur
to r. shouldering a branch and holding a doe by its hindlegs; its forelegs touch
the ground. He seems to wear a helmet. Cf. no. 284.
XXV. ETRUSCAN GEMS.
316. Scarab. Carnelian. British Museum, Catalogue no. 380 pi. E; J. H. S. I
p. 130 fig 2; Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen I pi. 17, 69, II p. 86.
A centaur running to 1. in archaic fashion with 1. knee touching the ground,
holds a stone in each uplifted hand ; over his shoulders he wears the skin of a wild
animal, cf. nos. 104 106. His head is full face, his beard disheveled, he has a
silenus-like expression and equine ears. The similar examples in Paris, Cabinet des
Medailles, Bibliotheque Nationale, Chabouillet, Pierres gravees nos. 1863 and 1864,
see under no. 189, though archaic in type, are later in execution. The heads of
centaurs in the archaic period are usually seen in profile, the full face type only
occurring on a Melian gem, no. 9, and on Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221.
XXVI. ETRUSCAN STONE RELIEF.
317. Stele. PL XII. Corneto. Florence. Pal. Peruzzi(?). Montelius, Civilisation
II pi. 302, 2.
The original edge of the relief slab is preserved above and on the r. side, and
has a raised border decorated with diagonal incisions. Within this border is re-
presented a centaur to 1., carrying a branch with a double set of voluted twigs at
its point, similar to the proto- Attic vase-painting no. 211. His long hair down
his back is only blocked out as on the Etruscan bronze statuettes, nos. 294, 296,
and the hair on his head is also without modeling, so that it has the appearance
of a cap. His hindlegs are broken off just above the hoofs and the forelegs just
above the ankles ; it is evident however that this centaur belongs to Class B because
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. * 17
Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs.
the contour of the human buttocks is clearly indicated. His tail is represented
only where it joins the body, the rest is cut off by the border of the panel. The equine
body is thin and lacking in modeling, as on no. 211; indeed, the art of Continental
Greece during the transition between the Geometric Period and the sixth century,
a period of strong oriental influence, possesses much in common with local Etruscan
art of the archaic period. As noted above, the 1. end is not the original border,
but how far the slab extended towards the 1. is impossible to say. If, as I believe,
it is a tomb-stone, we have additional evidence for the connection between centaurs
and the lower world, in this case the guardian of the spirit of the dead; see also
I. CLAZOMENIAN SARCOPHAGI.
318. Berlin, Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 169 sqq. and Antike Denkmdler II pi. 58.
On the long sides of the rim, near the top of the sarcophagus are two centaurs,
the one of the 1. side faces r., the one on the r. side faces 1. They have silenus-like
faces, beards, equine ears, human pudenda, and their human forelegs end in hoofs.
In their hands they hold diagonally a long pole, but end downwards, and their
half-kneeling attitude seems to indicate that they are vaulting. They certainly
are not meant to be attacking each other, nor have they any mythological or re-
ligious significance; they are purely ornamental.
319. Athens, National Museum. K. Romaics, 'Ecpy/ueQis 'AQxaiohoyixtf 1907
p. 199 sqq. and pi. 9; A. J. A. XII p. 360 fig. I.
Two decorative centaurs facing inwards on the long sides of the rim, holding
the same position as the centaurs on no. 318, are represented, not in a kneeling
position but as running, and armed with branches; they are badly worn. The
one on the r. side facing 1. is of Class B, i. e. his human forelegs end in human feet.
Of this I am convinced, though Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176 note 13, is of the impression
that Gillieron's illustration in the 'EqrqpeQis is faulty. I carefully scrutinized the
original on several occasions when the light was favorable, and am satisfied that
both Romaios and Gillieron observed correctly. The centaur on the 1. side, however,
has human forelegs ending in hoofs, as on the Berlin sarcophagus. Again their
expression of face is like that of a silenus, and they are bearded . One cannot overestimate
the importance of these centaurs, for in the Clazomenian sarcophagi we have the
most convincing examples of Ionic or perhaps Aeolic ceramic painting. It certainly
was not the school which strongly influenced Etruria, although on no. 311 we have
a centaur with at least one foreleg ending in a hoof, and on no. 324 two centaurs
of Class C, but with entirely different expression of face. Nor does it seem probable
that the type of centaur which I catalogue as Class C was invented in Clazomenae,
especially since both types, B as well as C, occur on the sarcophagus, under
discussion, and since on the London sarcophagus, no. 320, it is possible that
only Class B is represented. At any rate the centaurs with human forelegs
ending in hoofs are short-lived; they had no future. They must be considered
a mere whim like the bronze statuette of a centaur, no. 300, whose hindlegs are
Clazomenian vases. 1 3 1
human, and yet it is surprising that the type spread over so large a territory,
occurring not only in Asia Minor and Cyprus but also in Italy. Dummler, Kleine
Schriften III p. 274, has correctly noticed the similarity between our Class C
and a Class of Ionic sileni, originally closely allied hybrids, and objects to the
theory that we have in Class C a mixture of A and B. Our third type, it is
true, is not an outgrowth of such a combination, but is a side issue, so to speak,
of Class B, or as Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176 puts it, it is "typologisch nur eine Abart
jener alten Gestalten in der die vollkommen menschliche Figur mit dem Pferde-
hinterteil verbunden ist."
320. London. Murray, Terracotta Sarcophagi p. 12 fig. 5. Centaurs on the hunt.
On the lid of a sarcophagus we see in one gable an Ionic column of the style
found in Neandria and elsewhere in Aeolis, dividing the field into two halves, and a
meander dividing each half into an upper and lower part, the upper probably con-
taining sphinxes, now badly worn, the lower centaurs confronted, also very much
destroyed. The one in the 1. compartment runs to r. and brandishes a branch of
a tree, at his side is a dog to r. ; the centaur in the r. compartment runs to 1. and is
also accompanied by a dog. Whether they are attacking each other as Murray suggests
is not certain because the shaft of the column effectively separates them. To be sure,
centaurs fighting amongst themselves do occur, though rarely, witness nos. 4,
84, 85, 178, 285, 313, 313 A, 324; all these cases are genre scenes. Noteworthy is the
dog accompanying one of the centaurs, elsewhere only Chiron owns a dog, except
on the amphora no. 174 which Zahn considers the latest development of the Clazo-
menian style, and on the dagger-sheath, no. 306. Because of the dogs I consider
I have catalogued the centaurs on this lid under Class C because I am not at
all sure, see also Zahn, Jahrb. 1908 p. 176, that the illustration is correct. Where,
as in this case, the figures are badly worn, hoofs might easily be mistaken for
human feet. Of course it is possible that they belong to Class B, especially since
on the sarcophagus in Athens, no. 319, one of the centaurs is certainly of Class B.
The Aeolic form of capital on this sarcophagus is to my mind significant, and in-
dicates the influence at work in Clazomenae.
II. CLAZOMENIAN VASES.
321. Fragments, probably of an amphora. Clazomenae. Berlin. Inv. no. 4531
Ac and d. Kjellberg, Antike Denkmdler II pi. 56 figs. 4 and 5.
On one fragment (fig. 4) is depicted the hindquarters and tail of a centaur
to 1., identified by Kjellberg, because of the pine-branch over the horse's back.
On the 1. of the centaur there remains the torso of a female figure, also to 1. On
the other fragment, probably belonging to the same vase, is a bearded centaur
to r., head and feet missing, his extended r. arm is bent at the elbow and the fingers
of a human hand clutching his wrist are visible; in his 1. arm he holds a pine-branch.
The hands are very poorly drawn, if the painter intended them for hands; they
look more like hoofs. It is exceedingly unfortunate that this vase is so fragmentary,
for it evidently represented a mythological subject. The presence of the female
Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs.
figure seems to point to an illus-
tration of the Thessalian cen-
tauromachy, so too the hand of
a youth or maiden seizing one
of the centaurs' wrists. The
same motif occurs on the follow-
322. Caere. Fig. 37. LouvreEyoo.
Pettier, Catalogued p. 537$^.
and Album p. 66 where the
literature is given. Helbig,
Annali d. Inst. 1863 pi. E.
= Reinach, Rep. Vas. I 309
There are two monomachies,
symmetrically arranged, back to
back. On the 1. a centaur paint-
ed red, with the exception of
hair, beard, mustache, tail and
hoofs which are black, rears to
1. with an uprooted tree in both
hands behind his head. He is
overtaken by a warrior seen from
behind; cf. the Samsoun relief,
no. 183, where, however, it is a
centaur who turns his human
back on the spectator; both
man and centaur show the
same back view on the Etrusco-
lonic stamnos, no. 176, on the
Italiot hydria, no. 176 A; and on
the Attic b. f. amphora, no. 125,
in Wiirzburg, a centaur and
Kaineus are seen from behind;
whereas on the b. f. amphora,
no. 121, in Ley den, Kaineus
fights with his back to the spec-
tator. But to come back to our
Lapith, he seizes the centaur's
1. wrist, so as to drive the thrust of his sword home. The centaur, who has equine
ears and a snub nose, looks back in a helpless way. On the r. the centaur is painted
black, except hair, tail and hoofs which are white ; his position tallies with that of
the other centaur. On both, the hands are incorrectly drawn. The Lapith to r. has
in addition to the helmet, cuirass, greaves and sword a long lance with which he
attacks his opponent whom he grasps by the long forelocks. On no. 308, an Italo-
lonic amphora under Chalcidian influence Herakles seizes the centaur Eurytion by
a lock of hair in the same manner; see also nos. 22, 213 A.
It is still an unsolved question where the Caeretan hydriae were made, but
whether in Italy, Aeolis or Ionia makes little difference, since they were doubtlessly
made under Ionian influence, as is evinced by the short bodies, large heads, oval
shaped eye and clumsy proportions, and by their showing much vigor of action
and strong facial expression. When Kjellberg and Boehlau publish their terracotta
frieze found in the Aeolic Larissa perhaps the place of manufacture of the Caeretan
hydriae will be fixed. When compared with the type of centaur on the Clazomenian
sarcophagi it is evident that the similarity is not close enough to warrant any
connection except in a most general way.
IV. ETRUSCO-IONIC VASES.
323. Lekythos. Depoletti. Gerhard' s A pparat in the Library of the Berlin Museum,
Mappe XII 12, i Herakles (?) and centaur.
A beardless man (Herakles?) to r., in loin-cloth like that of the centaur on
no. 290, brandishes a club in r. hand and holds with 1. hand the branch of a growing
bush, another branch of which is held by a centaur to 1., who holds in his uplifted
1. a pomegranate flower or perhaps an ivy leaf. He is bearded, has equine ears,
a snub nose, large round eyes, long wavy hair hanging in a mass down his back
and human pudenda. A similar bush springs from the ground behind the youth.
The fabric is evidently Etruscan based on an Ionic original. The conventionalized
bushes resemble those in the hands of centaurs on no. 179.
324. Hydria. PI. III. Munich, Jahn 1039. Sieveking-Hackl pi. 39 no. 895. Combat
between two centaurs. For the photograph here reproduced I am indebted
to Dr. J. Sieveking.
On the body, two sphinxes with large teats like those of the lionesses on the
wall of the "Tomba delle Leonesse", Corneto (Moscioni 8626, Durm, Handb. d.
Architektur II 2 p. 138 fig. 157 = Ant. Denkm. II pi. 42), and with palmettes
growing from their heads, as on the Clazomenian sarcophagus, no. 319, are seated
in opposite directions, back to back; between them hangs the skin of a panther,
head down. On the shoulder, two sphinxes. In the field, ivy leaves.
On the neck, two centaurs confronted, are attacking each other. The one on
the 1. facing r. has one hand extended, the other drawn back; he is lashing his tail,
and his hindlegs are slightly above the ground, as though he were prancing. 'The
one on the r. facing 1. jumps or kicks in a similar manner; both arms are drawn back
in an impossible position. Both are bearded, have equine ears, long wavy hair in a
mass and human pudenda. As in the preceding vase we have here too an example of
Etrusco-Ionic fabric. For the subject of the combat between centaurs see under no. 85.
Centaurs with human forelegs ending in hoofs.
V. IONIC GEM.
325. Scarab of Ionic or perhaps Aeolic style. Striped agate. Sicily. British Museum,
Catalogue no. 295; King, Handbook of engraved gems pi. 65, 6, and Ancient
gems and rings II pi. 33, 8; Furtwangler, Gemmen I pi. 8, 5 and II p. 37 no. 5;
/. H. S. I p. 130 fig. 3; Harrison, Prolegomena p. 383 fig. 120; Keller, Tier-
und Pflanzenbilder auf Munzen und Gemmen pi. 25, 34. Centaur and Nymph.
A centaur to 1., crowned and bearded, human pudenda, holds a nymph, in
a half reclining position, in both arms, one arm supporting her shoulders, the other
her knees, as the terracotta group no. 208, the Chalcidian vase no. 163, the Italo-
Chalcidian vase no. 163 A, and the Thraco-Macedonian coins, no. 191. Especially
interesting is the comparison between our gem and the coin from Thasos, Babelon,
Traite pi. 55 fig. 24, where a silenus with human legs ending in hoofs carries a
nymph in the same position, another proof of the similarity of character between
centaur and silenus. On a coin of Phocaic standard, no. 190, the same subject
is depicted; perhaps both the coin and our gem were made under Aeolic influence.
VI. CYPRIOTE MONUMENTS.
326. Lime-stone group. Fig. 38. Cyprus. Geneva. Nicole, Meidias, in Mem. de
rinst. Nat. Gen. XX p. 59 fig. 3; Deonna, Rev. Arch. XII 1908 p. 168 fig. 15
and p. 169 fig. 16. Centaur and Nymph.
A bearded centaur with equine ears and head turned to his r. side is embracing
a nymph who stands with her back towards him in front of his human body. Both
stand on a plinth, from which rises a thick
support between the centaur's legs. His
1. arm is slipped under her arm and his
hand rests on her 1. breast; his r. hand
rests against her r. arm. She coquetishly
lifts her chiton. Traces of black and red
paint are still visible. According to Ni-
cole this unique group dates from the fifth
century B. C., but Deonna is probably
right in assigning it to the sixth century.
If, as I surmise, the centaurs of Class C
are an Aeolic invention, it would not be
surprising to find them in Cyprus, where
the Aeolic form of capital is also known.
It may be that some of the Cypri-
ote terracottas catalogued under Class B
had hoofs attached to their human fore-
legs, but since the feet are either broken
off, as on nos. 205, 207, or are not indi-
cated, see no. 206, certainty cannot be
Fig. 38. After Revue Arch. XII, 1908 p. 168 fig. 15. gained On tillS
The earliest representations of centaurs are found in Babylonia, where they
are either purely decorative or have power to ward off evil. In the Minoan and
Mycenaean periods I did not find a single monument with the representation of
a centaur, though almost every other fantastic combination of animal and man
occurs. Not before the geometric period is the centaur introduced into Greece,
derived probably from the Hittites to whom the horse was known as early as 2000
B. C. It is a fair inference that the idea of the centaur could only arise among
people to whom the horse was well-known. It is noteworthy that in the early
geometric period, i.e. the ninth and first half of the eighth centuries B.C., the cen-
taur is not yet illustrative of legend or myth ; he has either purely decorative or per-
haps sepulchral significance. Not until the end of the eighth century, see no. 203,
? do we have the first mythological subject depicted. I am of opinion, therefore,
that the art type was known to the Greeks before there were any myths or legends
concerning the centaurs, and that the stories arose in connection with and in
illustration of the art type. The etymology of the word centaur is not known.
The earliest centaur type is not that of my Class B with human forelegs, but
of Class A with equine forelegs, though we have literary evidence to the effect
that hippocentaurs with human forelegs were also known in Babylonia, see under
no. 2. The Greeks, however, from the very beginning were aquainted with both
types of centaurs, those with equine and those with human forelegs, as is evinced
by the occurrence of both types on one and the same monument of the geometric
period, no. 5. A third type, my Class C, with human forelegs ending in hoofs,
seems to have been an Aeolic invention of the sixth century B. C., which never
became popular. Up to the present it has been almost universally held that cen-
taurs were first represented with human forelegs, out of which type the equine legged
centaurs developed, but a glance at my catalogue makes such a theory untenable.
Let us now review the legends illustrated on archaic monuments. We have
already seen that in the beginning centaurs have decorative and probably sepulchral
significance, also power to avert evil. In Etruria, nos. 282, 317, and probably
in Cyprus, nos. 205, 206, the oriental sepulchral significance still prevails in the
sixth century, and it may here be not out of place to add that the Christian idea
of the centaur as described by Dante can be traced by way of Rome back to Etruria.
In the seventh century B. C.the_ legends associating the centaurs with Herakles
and perhaps with the Lapiths aroseTDiirthe Melian gems of that period is found
a centaur trying to escape the arrows of Herakles; the hero, however, is not
represented. On vases of the transition period, see nos. 213 A and 227, Nessos
occurs with human forelegs. On Attic vase-paintings of the archaic period the
following myths and legends are illustrated: i. the Nessos adventure, 2. Pholos
welcoming Herakles, 3. the opening of the pithos, 4. Pholos entertaining Herakles,
5. the centauromachy on Mt. Pholoe, 6. the Thessalian centauromachy, especially
the Kaineus episode, 7. Peleus wrestling with Thetis in the presence of Chiron,
8. the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, where Chiron is the first to congratuTaTe
the newly wedded couple; on a r. f. stamnos of the fifth century, no. 266,
we find the only representation of Chiron inviting Peleus and Thetis to enter
his cave, where they are married, 9. Peleus bringing the child Achilles to Chi-
ron; on a severe r. f. cylix, no. 251, Thetis takes the place of Peleus, 10. Her-
mes bringing the child Herakles to Chiron, n. Chiron teaching Achilles to throw
the lance, no. 245. Of genre scenes there are: 12. Chiron sacrificing, no. 255,
13. centaurs on the hunt, nos. 81, 82; 14. combat between two centaurs, nos. 84, 85,
and 15. purely decorative centaurs, as on no. 95. Of all these subjects illustrated
I in archaic Attic art the NeSQS___stpry is the most popular, though in the later r.
f. period it is extremely rare. Of myths not mentioned in extant ancient literature
there are on Attic vase-paintings two: i. centaurs coming to the aid of Nessos,
nos. 32, 33, 36, 38, and 2. a woman supplicating a centaur, no. 48, whereas on an
Etrusco-Ionic vase, no. 176, a centaur is on his knees before a woman, and on the
same vase a centaur protects one warrior against another. It is noteworthy that
the Thessalian centauromachy in archaic art never takes place in the presence
of Lapith women, nor in the banqueting hall of Peirithoos, as in later art ; it seems,
therefore, as if the expedition of the Lapiths against the centaurs was planned
a considerable time after the wedding feast. The prey of centaurs in the archaic
period is the fox, the hare, the deer and the bird, see also my remarks under
The centauromachy of Herakles is found not only in Attic art, but also on a
"Cyrenaic" deinos, no. 161, on an Ionic amphora, no. 162, on Italo-Ionic amphorae,
nos. 172, 173 A, 307, on the architectural reliefs from Assos and Samsoun,
nos. 182, 183, on stamped red ware from Cotrone, no. 196, from Sicily, no. 197,
and from the Argive Heraeum, no. 218, on a bronze plaque from Olympia, no, 222,
on the Proto-Corinthian vases, nos. 224, 226, and on a Corinthian skyphos,
no. 228. The story of Nessos also occurs on Chalcidian pottery, nos. 163 165, on the
Proto-Attic vase, no. 213 A, and on the fragment, no. 227. Pholos entertaining
Herakles may also occur on the Cretan stamped relief plaques, no. 220, otherwise
this subject is limited to Attic art. The story of Eurytion seems to occur only once
in archaic art, on an amphora made in Italy under Chalcidian influence, no. 308.
Remarkable is the paucity of centaur representations on Corinthian monuments,
even though the subject was well known from the famous chest of Cypselus.
Outside of Attica the Thessalian centauromachy occurs in Chalkis, no. 166,
on Italiot pottery, nos. 171/181, on Etrusco-Ionic pottery, nos. 176, 176 A (Kaineus
episode), furthermore an a painted relief vase from Arezzo, no. 314, on stamped
red ware from Sicily, no. 198, perhaps on the sima of the old temple of Artemis
at Ephesos, no. 231, and on a Caeretan hydria, no. 322.
Centaurs characterized as hunters occur, as we have seen, on Attic monuments,
furthermore on a Proto-Attic bowl, no. 211, on an Ionic amphora, no. 174, and
Clazomenian sarcophagus, no. 320, on Etrusco-Ionic amphorae, nos. 179, 315 A, on
a terracotta statuette from Cyprus, no. 206, on Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221,
on a terracotta tripod from Corneto, no. 281, on an Etruscan Bucchero cup,
no. 285, on an Etruscan gold plaque, no. 293, and on a bronze bowl in repousse
work, no. 305.
Centaurs attacking each other are found not only in Attic art, but also in
Ionic and Italo-Ionic, nos. 313, 324, and in Etrusco-Ionic art, no. 178.
Centaurs sporting with nymphs are represented on Thraco-Macedonian coins
of Babylonian standard, no. 191, on gold and electron coins of Phocaic standard,
no. 190, on a scarab of northern Ionic or perhaps Aeolic style, no. 325, and on a
Cypriote lime-stone group, no. 326, probably under Aeolic influence, and perhaps
on a terracotta group from Tanagra, no. 208. In this connection must be mentioned
the only extant ithyphallic centaur, no. 209, and the centaur sporting with Pegasos,
no. 312., an Etruscan imitation of Ionic style.
In addition to the subjects which defy all attempts of interpretation on Attic'
and Etrusco-Ionic vase-paintings already mentioned, nos. 48 and 176, must be
added the bronze group of the geometric period, no. 203, the Proto-Corinthian
lekythos, no. 225, and the Etruscan stamped ware, nos. 282, 284, the Rhodian
stamped ware, nos. 215 217, and the Corinthian pinax, no. 22ga).
Chiron in the archaic period always has human forelegs and is draped, with
one exception, no. 242, where he is nude. It was left entirely to the whim of the
artist whether Chiron should have human or equine ears; on Attic vase-paintings
he occurs five times with equine to twelve times with human ears.
As a rule Pholos has equine forelegs and is nude, on the Attic amphora,
no. 133, however, an equine forelegged Pholos is draped. When Pholos is represented
with human forelegs he is sometimes nude, as on nos. 230, 269, 270, and sometimes
draped, as on nos. 141, 142, 228, 267, 268.
In addition to Chiron and Pholos, other centaurs, who cannot be identified,
are sometimes draped, e. g. on a Proto-Corinthian vase, no. 225, on a Bucchero
incised vase, no. 291, a bronze statuette from Umbria, no. 300, and on an ivory
situla from Chiusi, no. 301.
Centaurs wearing merely a loin-cloth are nameless with one exception, where
Nessos is represented, on a fragment of the transition period found in the Argive
Heraeum, no. 227. They occur on Rhodian gold plaques, no. 221, on an Etruscan
Bucchero goblet with incised figures, no. 290, and on a bronze statuette, no. 297.
Winged centaurs are rare, they are found, however, on a Babylonian boundary
stone of the Cassite period, no. 2, on a Cassite seal impression, no. 3, on an Attic
geometric vase under oriental influence, no. 4, occasionally on Etruscan Bucchero
ware, nos. 285, 289, and on a bronze helmet from Oppeano, no. 303.
In Greece beardless centaurs are rare in the archaic period, but in Italy under
the influence of Asia Minor they are quite common, witness the Polledrara hydria,
no. 315, the stamped red ware reliefs nos. 273 275, 277, 281, the Etruscan stamnos,
no. 176, the Italiot hydria, no. 176 A, the amphorae nos. 170, 315 A, the Etruscan
bronze statuettes, nos. 294 296, the Etrusco-Ionic vase, no. 313, the Etruscan
red and Bucchero ware, nos. 281 A, 282 287, 291, the bronze helmet from Op-
peano, in the province of Verona, no. 303, and the bronze bowl, no. 305. Of
youthful beardless centaurs in Greece I have found only a few, and they too show
oriental influence, either direct or indirect, for instance, the Rhodian gold plaques,
no. 221, the Rhodian stamped red ware, nos. 215, 216, the Cypriote terracotta,
no. 18, the Proto-Corinthian lekythos, no. 226, and the Corinthian pinax, no. 229a).
Centaurs with short hair are probably of Ionic origin, see under no. 173. Shaggy
centaurs do not occur in Ionic and Etruscan art; they are characteristic of Con-
tinental Greece. Their absence in Ionia is probably mere chance. Shagginess is
Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art. 1
represented in archaic art in three different ways, I. on the Attic vase-fragment
by Sophilos, no. 21, the equine body alone is shaggy, 2. on the "Cyrenaic" vase,
no. 161, and on an incised bronze plaque from Dodona, no. 200, the whole body,
both human and equine, is shaggy, whereas 3. on the Proto-Corinthian lekythos,
no. 226, the Corinthian vase, no. 228, and on the bronze repousse relief from Olympia,
no. 222, only the human body is shaggy.
Just before going to press I have received a dissertation by Hermann Oelschig,
De centaur omachiae in arte graeca figuris, Halle, 1911. For convenience's sake I
shall adopt his system of grouping, giving first his examples and then those he has
1. Routing centaurs: nos. 182, 226, 222, 228 (not Proto-Corinthian but Co-
rinthian), 154, 155, 154 A, 108, 152, 21, 173 A (Wiirzburg 105 not 102), 173. In
addition to these Oelschig might have added: nos. 31, 57, 153, 162, 183, 197, 310.
2. Some of the centaurs oppose Herakles: nos. 307, 172, 161, 43, 278, 277, 77,
76, 80. Of these I prefer to catalogue nos. 76, 77 as Herakles and Nessos. In ad-
dition to Oelschig's examples I have found the following: nos. 13, 14, 107, 195 (?),
196, 218, 323 (?).
3. Herakles pursuing one centaur (Nessos or Eurytion), a) still pursuing,
not yet overtaken: nos. 49, 45, 47, 53. To these I can add: nos. 48, 50, 52 (incor-
rectly catalogued by Oelschig under III 5 d), 56, 57. b) where the centaur is already
captured: 164, 19, 26, 27, 51. In addition I have found: nos. 43 A, 22, 28, 29.
4. Herakles rescuing a woman from a centaur (Nessos), a) Deianeira standing
still: nos. 44, 74, 71, 61, 24. My additional examples are: nos. 20, 30, 32, 46, 63
(incorrectly catalogued by Oelschig under I 40), 227. On no. 213 A she is sitting
in the chariot.
b) Deianeira tries to escape: nos. 54, 73, 72. I have found one more example:
c) Deianeira sitting on the back of Nessos: nos. 70, 66, 34, 67, 63 (belongs under
I 4 a), 69, 65, 25, 63 A, 68, 36, 35, 78, 75, 79. To these may be added: nos. 64,
165, probably 69 A.
d) Nessos carrying Deianeira in his arms : nos. 163, 308 (probably not Nessos)
69 A (see under c), 33, 38, 62. See also nos. 37, 163 A, 208 (?), 325 (Centaur and
Nymph), and cf. 326.
e) Deianeira escapes from his arms: No archaic examples.
II. THESSALIAN CENTAUROMACHY IN PRESENCE OF WOMEN.
No archaic examples, unless perhaps no. 321.
III. THESSALIAN CENTAUROMACHY, NO WOMEN PRESENT.
i. Centaur and Lapith confronted: nos. 215, 216, 217 (Lapith?), 23, 60, 59,
176 A, 109, 118, 99, 225 (?). My additional examples are: nos. 39, 42, 58, no,
i66A, 224, cf. also nos. in, 203.
2. One seizes the other: nos. 102, 116. To these may be added: nos. 113,
175 A, 176, 231.
3. One puts the other to flight: nos. 198, 50 (to my mind Herakles and Nessos),
101, 177 (belongs under III 5 f), 311 (here, however, Silenus does not pursue the
centaurs), 181, 115, 102, 322. Furthermore I have found: nos. 40, 58, 114, 284, 314.
4. One or the other is wounded and falls to the ground, a) confronted: no. 23.
A better example is no. 116, see also no. 117.
b) One pursues the other: nos. 36, 116 (does not belong here, because they are
confronted), 101 (see III 3), 118 (confronted), 98, 176 A, 97, 96. See also no. 3o6(?).
5. Where a group of three are depicted, a) a Lapith surrounded by two cen-
taurs : nos. 123 (Kaineus), 124 (Kaineus), 125 (belongs under III 5 b), 59, 100,
103, 123 A (Kaineus). To these may be added: nos. 58, 40 (Kaineus), 122 (Kaineus).
b) Kaineus partially buried: nos. 23, 121, 120. My additional examples are:
nos. 119, 125, 126, 127, 176, 176 A, see also no. 41 where Kaineus is attacked by
c) One centaur between two Lapiths : nos. 36, 112. See also nos. 175 A, 171, 113,59.
d) A centaur pursuing a Lapith to whose aid another Lapith comes: no. 52.
I interpret this example as Herakles and Nessos and an agitated spectator on the
r., because on the 1. there is another spectator. Oelschig might have added:
e) Two Lapiths to r. attacking a centaur to 1. : nos. 104, 105, 106, 166 and
f) Two Lapiths to r. pursuing a centaur to r. : no. 177.
To no. 16. The statuette referred to in Wiirzburg is of Class B, inv. no. 1604,
Collection Margaritis, from Greece. It is far more advanced in
technique than the Munich statuette no. 210 A (addenda).
16 A. Four terracotta statuettes. Athens (Boeotian ?). The Hague, Scheurleer,
Catalogue eenev Verzameling Egyptische, Grieksche, Romeinsche en andere
Oudheden, The Hague 1909, pi. 17, 2, p. 114 no. 194.
Two of these centaurs wear a chlamys over 1. arm; all are galloping to r.
They have big mouths, broad noses and long beards; their tails project hori-
zontally. The 1. arm is extended, the r. drawn back but bent at the elbow.
All have metal rings on their heads for suspension, so too the statuette of a
youth on horse-back which belongs to this set. Probably a child's toy.
78 A. Plate. Tubingen. Story of Nessos. Diameter o. 16 m.
Within a border of rays, as on nos. 24, 78, is Nessos to r., bearded, equine
ears; he looks round at Deianeira, draped, who sits to r. on his back, but turns
her head away from him. Above her r. arm, which rests on his flank, is a
bird flying to r. Herakles, as on nos. 75, 78, 79, is not represented.
83 A. Cup. Karditsa, Boeotia. The Hague, Scheurleer, Catalogus, pi. 36, 2, p. 189
no. 388. Boeotian fabric.
Outside, encircling the vase without interruption : Two centaurs to r. pursue
a nude youth with chlamys over 1. shoulder; in front of him are two centaurs
running to r., the foremost looking back. Then comes another nude youth to
, . o Addenda.
r., looking back and brandishing a club in 1. ; in front of him is a centaur to r.,
looking back; and finally a third nude youth to r., who, although confronted
by a centaur, looks back. There is no inner connection between the groups,
no real battle, although the centaurs are armed with stones. The youths seem
to wear leather caps; the centaurs have equine ears and long beards, in com-
position identical with the centaur on a cup of exactly the same shape, no. 83.
83 B. Cylix. Italy. Wurzburg, Urlichs, Verzeichniss III 155.
Inside: A bearded centaur with a stone in each hand, the r. drawn back,
the 1. extended, gallops to r. and looks back. He has equine ears and white
marks on his body.
90 A. Cylix. Italy. Wurzburg. Urlichs, Verzeichniss i 85.
Exterior, A : A centaur galloping to 1. with a stone in each hand pursues a doe.
To no. 173 A. Certainly Attic. Herakles is nude, the first centaur grasps him
by the shoulder. The fallen warrior under the other centaur
half reclines to 1. but looks to r.
201 A. Six-sided Intaglio. Steatite. Collection Arndt.
A centaur walking to 1. holds a bird (?) in front of him, and with the
other hand drawn back holds the r. hand of a draped figure who fills the upper
right hand corner; her feet are on a level with the centaur's equine back, but
behind him. Under the centaur is a bird to r., behind him a triangular-shaped
object. Both figures have extremely small heads. The centaur seems to be
bearded; human pudenda are not indicated.
210 A. Terracotta Statuette. Greece. Collection Margaritis, Auction Catalogue,
no. 180. Munich Antiquarium, no. 771 a. Height 0.155 m.
Chest and equine back are painted red, human forelegs with feet roughly
indicated are striped like a zebra, the tail projects, the r. arm is curved upward.
The eyes are not worked out plastically, but are merely painted on the primi-
tively modeled face; he has human pudenda.
Dr. Arndt possesses a similar figurine, height 0.12 m, also of the geometric
period. It is painted red.
To no. 240. "Phoenician" Scarab. Carnelian. Babelon, Coll. Pauvert de la Chapelle,
Intailles et Camees pi. V 41 and p. 20 : A winged bearded centaur to 1.,
human pudenda not indicated, holds a boar in both hands before him.
295 A. Bronze Statuette. Munich Antiquarium, no. IV 1155. Acquired in Baden-
Baden. Hallstadt period. Height 0.065, length of plinth 0.04 m.
As on the Etruscan similar examples the equine body is pierced, also the
plinth. The face is merely a round ball, with only the nose indicated; his hands
are at his hips. His human forelegs are close together; he has human pudenda.
To no. 302. In Bollettino d'Arte, 1909 p. 168 fig. 3, a centaur is visible on
the lowest band of one of these ivory arms. He is stumbling to r.,
looks back and extends his r. arm.
To no. 311. Judging from the original it seems impossible to say whether these
centaurs have hoofs or human feet.
Examples of Campanian black ware in Berlin and Munich, Collection Arndt,
Glyptothek, stamped from the same mould used on the Leyden vase, make
it evident that Roulez's drawing is accurate after all.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
entaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art.
Centaurs in Ancient Art,
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