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VOL. J. 


Chicago- Columbus : 

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rnMU* fouhoaTioh*. 

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Explanatory Geographical Note, 

Th-e state of Ohio, in its entirety, lies between latitude 38 degrees 27 min- 
utes and 41 degrees 57 minutes N. and longitude 80 degrees 34 minutes and 
84 degrees 49 minutes W. The maximum length of the state east and west 
being two hundred and ten miles, and the maximum breadth from south to 
north one hundred and fifteen. The center of the originally surveyed square 
on which the capital buildings were erected is latitude 37 degrees 57 minutes, 
longitude 82 degrees 29 minutes, almost equidistant from the eities of Cleveland 
northeast, Toledo northwest, Cincinnati southwest and Marietta southeast, at 
and average maximum distance from the capital of one hundred and fifteen 

A line drawn through Columbus north and south and another east and 
west divides the state into four almost equal parts. The most distant points, 
and somewhat in excess of the one hundred and fifteen mile maximum, are at 
the comer of the state at the intersection of the Pennsylvania line on the north- 
east and the intersection of the Ohio, Indiana and Michigan lines on the 

Aside from these points, however, the one hundred and fifteen mile radius 
is dominant and inclusive, making the average railway and traction distance 
between the capital and the furthest state points within four hours of average 
schedule time, and those within the smaller radii from fifteen minutes to two 
hours and thirty minutes. These lines of travel extend regularly in all direc- 
tions and following with remarkable fidelity the aboriginal and pioneer lines 
of travel, which coincidence will be adverted to hereafter at greater length. 

The Founding of the City of Columbus. 

The selection of the present site of the city of Columbus was purely polit- 
ical, speaking in contradistinction to the commercial idea and using the terms 
"political" and "commerciar^ in their broadest and best significance. There 

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were and could be no commercial reasong for founding the city at the junction 
of the Scioto and the Olentangy rivers in the first decade of the nineteenth, 
however strong those reasons might be in the first decade of the twentieth cen- 
tury. Then it was practically an unbroken forest, marked here and there with 
puny settlements, for scores of miles in all directions from the present State 
House Park. Now it is a modem city standing like the hub of a wheel from 
which radiates lines of steam and electric roads, some of them main lines of 
commerce as well as transportation, in every direction, and so fixed naturally 
by the geographical location of the city as to bring the vast preponderance of 
the five million population within from three hours and thirty minutes, and 
in most cases in from two hours, down to thirty minutes' travel of the capitol 
building; albeit the state is two hundred and ten miles in length east and west 
and two hundred and fifteen miles broad north and south. 

The conditions existing a century ago fully explain why commercial ideas 
did not weigh in the selection of the site, but on the contrary throbbed with 
political reasons in favor of it. The capital of the Northwest Territory, organ- 
ized by the ordinance of 1787, was, in a sense, a peripatetic affair and was 
located at three different points — Marietta, Cincinnati and Chillicothe. Orig- 
inally and nominally at Marietta, tentatively at Cincinnati and with a degree 
of permanence at Chillicothe. The territory was a vast, unpopulated empire 
extending from the Ohio valley north and northwest to Lake Superior and 
along the great chain of lakes eastward to the northwest boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania, westward to the Mississippi and with the Ohio river its eastern and 
southern boundary. 

Subject to Three ReTnovals. 

The state capital was subject to three removals: originally and from 
1803 to February 22, 1810, at Chillicothe ; from February 22, 1810, to Feb- 
ruary 21, 1812, at Zanesville; from February 21, 1812, to February 27, 1816, 
at Chillicothe; and from that date at Columbus, permanently, the necessary 
capital buildings being in process of construction from 1812, under the legis- 
lative acts of the period establishing it as the permanent capital, the legislative 
and administrative business of the state being, meanwhile, transacted at Chilli- 

Asking for Proposals. 

It had obviously been decided as early as 1807-1808, in the minds of 
those who were shaping the destiny of the new state, to fix; its capital at some 
central point equally accessible to the population which they evidently foresaw 
occupying all portions of the state, their central idea being that travel should 
be equalized to and from the capital to all parts of the state. 

There were two methods of travel at that day — by roadway, on foot, horse- 
back or vehicular appliance, or by boat on river and creek. There was but 
one way to equalize travel — to place the capital in the practical geographical 
center of the state, not in the theoretical center of population, thus affording 
equal facilities to all groups of settlers, whether large or small, and, more im- 
portant than all, to encourage settlements in every section of the state. 

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The Moving Considerations, 

They were moved to these considerations by the travel and transportation, 
question as it then presented itself. If the capital should become a great 
metropolis, its proper place, in their lights, was in the center of the state, where- 
it wordd offer equal advantages to all. If it was of but limited growth^ it waa 
still the capital and great political, center, and they were disinclined to afford 
three-fourths of the facilities to reach the capital to one-fourth of the popu* 
lation and but one-fourth of the facilities to the remaining three-fourths. 

This was the irresistible and common sense reasoning and logic of our 
ancestors, in the absence of modern methods of travel, traffic and transporta- 
tion. They may have builded in the dark, but they could not have builded 
their capital more appropriately or laid the foundation of their state more 

The following commissioneTs were selected to locate a suitable site for a 
state capital by the legislative session of 1808-1809 : General James Findlay, 
of Hamilton county; Joseph Darlington, Adams; William MoFarland, Ross; 
and later the names of Wyllys Silliman, of Washington, and General Rezin 
Beall, of Wayne, were added to the commission by joint resolution. 

Rival Propositions Submitted, 
The commission organized and asked real-estate proprietors to submit 
propositions looking to the location of the future city. In 1811-12 the com- 
mission submitted their report, in which was recited the following pecuniary 
or other valuable inducements to locate the capital at one of nine different 
points : 

1. Messrs. John Kerr, Alex. McLaughlin, James Johnston and Lyne 
Starling, of Columbus, then known as the High Bank opposite Franklinton, 
who offered to donate all the grounds necessary for the public buildings and 
erect all the necessary buildings thereon, donate one thousand acres of ground 
and four thousand dollars in money. 

2. Moses Byxbe and Henry Baldwin, of Delaware, offered to donate the 
ground and erect all necessary buildings and lay off four thousand acres in 
town lots, the proceeds of one-half, taken alternately, to inure to the state 

3- John and Peter Sells offered to donate four hundred acres on the 
Scioto, four miles w^ of Worthington, and erect suitable buildings. 

4. James Kilboume, of Worthington, offered to donate all the necessary 
grounds and erect such buildings as might be required. 

5. Walter Dun, for himself, and John Graham offered to donate four 
hundred acres and erect buildings near the Scioto, in Franklin county, north- 
wQst of Franklinton. 

6. Thomas Backus offered to donate one thousand acres between the 
Sells' site and Franklinton. 

7. James Galloway offered to donate two hundred acres on tjie Big Darby 
near the line of Franklin and Madison counties. 

8. Henry Neville offered to donate one hundred and fifty acres of the- 
High Bank on the Pickaway Plains. 

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9. Cireleville offered a subscription of five thousand nine hundred and 
ninety-five dollars. 

The commissioners recommended the Delaware offer and site, but the 
legislature eventually fixed on Columbus as the permanent seat of government 
and removed it temporarily from Zanesville to Chillicothe until the new capitol 
buildings were erected. The following representatives entered a protest on 
the Journal against the act, as unnecessary and uncalled for, and because the 
Delaware proposition ws^ refused, if any were to be accepted, viz: Messrs. 
Thomas G. Jones, Frame, Foulks, Crumbacker, Mitchell, Sharp, Jackson, 
Harman, Huntington, McCune, Bryson and Smith. 

The legislature almost unanimously ignored the recommendation of the 
commission in favor of Delaware and by a similar vote decided to accept 
proposition No. 1 as above, and in due course of time legislation was enacted 
and the permanent capital of the state was fixed and Columbus appeared on 
the map. 

Full Text of Winning Proposition. 

The following i^ a copy of the original proposals of the proprietors of 
Columbus : 

To the Honorable the Legislature of the State of Ohio: We, the sub- 
scribers, do offer the following as our proposals, provided the legislature at 
their present session shall fix and establish the permanent seat of government 
on the bank of the Scioto river, nearly opposite Franklinton, on half sections 
number twenty-five and twenty-six and part of half sections number ten and 
eleven, all in township five, range twenty-two of the Refugee Lands, and com- 
mence their sessions there on the first Monday of December, 1817 : 

1st. To lay out a town on the lands aforesaid, on or before the first of 
July next, agreeably to th-e plan presented by us to the legislature. 

2d. To convey to the state by general warranty deed, in fee simple, such 
square of said town, of the contents of ten acres or near it, for the public 
buildings, and such lot of ten acres, for the penitentiary and dependencies, as 
a director, or such person or persons as the legislature shall appoint, may direct. 

3d. To erect and complete a state house, offices and penitentiary, and 
such other buildings as shall be directed by the legislature to be built, of stone 
and brick, or of either, the work to be done in a workmanlike manner, and 
of such size and dimensions as the legislature shall think fit ; the penitentiary 
and dependencies to be completed on or before first of January, 1815, and the 
state house and offices on or before the first Monday of December, 1817. 

When the buildings shall be completed the legislature and us, reciprocally, 
shall appoint workmen to examine and value the whole buildings, which valua- 
tion shall be binding; and if it does not amount to fifty thousand dollars, we 
shall make up such deficiency in such further buildings as shall be directed by 
law ; but if it exceeds the sum of fifty thousand dollars, the legislature will by 
law remunerate us in such way as they may think just and equitable. 

The legislature may, by themselves or agent, alter the width of the streets 

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Looking East from Roof of Nell House. 

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and alleys of said town, previous to its being laid out by us, if they may think 
proper to do so. 

Lyne Starling (Seal.) 

John Kerr (Seal.) 

Alex. McLaughlin (Seal.) 
James Johnston (Seal.) 


Wilson Elliot, 
Isaac Hazlett. 

The above was accompanied by their bond for the faithful performance of 
their undertaking. 

When Matters Looked Dubious. 

Although it was the avowed object of the legislature to establish a per- 
manent seat of government, yet when the time came to act conclusively on the 
subject, there was a misgiving among them, and it became pretty manifest that 
the bill for the acceptance of the foregoing proposals would not pass without a 
limitation clause in it, and it being now just at the close of the session, rather 
than to have it defeated or to lie over, the proprietors made their second proposi- 
tion, of which the following is a copy : 

To the Honorable the Legislature of Ohio : We, the subscribers, do agree 
to comply with the terms of our bond now in possession* of the senate of the 
state aforesaid, in case they will fix the seat of government of this state on the 
lands designated in our proposals, on the east bank of the Scioto river, nearly 
opposite to Franklinton, and commence their sessions there at or before the first 
Monday of December, 1817, and continue the same in the town to be laid off 
by us until the year 1840. These conditional proposals are offered for the accept- 
ance of the legislature of Ohio, provided they may be considered more eligible 
than those previously put in. 

John Kerr (Seal.) 

James Johnston (Seal.) 
A. McLaughlin (Seal.) 
Lyne Starling (Seal.) 

William Elliott, 

February 11th, 1812. 
This proposition seemed to satisfy the opposition, and the bill was amended 
by adding the latter clause to the end of the second section, and then passed. 

The First Historian a Wise One. 

This last proposition was at some time lost from the file of papers in the 
state treasurer's office, and that fact was possibly the means of saving the seat of 
government at Columbus. From the time of the repeal of the law for the erec- 
tion of a new state house, in 1840, the subject of the removal of the seat of 
government from Columbus became agitated, and at the session of 1842-43, a 
committee of the legislature was appointed on that subject, who being divided 

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in opinion or feeling, made a majority and a minority report. The majority 
assumed as a first ground that it had been permanently established at Columbus 
by the act of February 14, 1812, accepting the proposals of the proprietors of 
the town ; and then referring to the conditions of the first proposals, insisted that 
it could not be removed without a violation of the faith of the state. The argu- 
ments of the two reports are principally confined to that proposition — the sec- 
ond proposal not being known of, apparently, by either party. And the com- 
piler of the "Brief History of Columbus," prefixed to Mr. J. R. Armstrong's 
Columbu.s Directory, published in 1843, while the subject of removal was still 
in agitation, was, as a citizen of Columbus, perhaps excusable in giving the 
proprietor's first proposals, while he suppressed the second, which would have 
upset all the fine arguments in favor of the permanent location. 

The Original Legislative Act, 

The law referred to, accepting the proposals of the proprietors, and estab- 
lishing the seat of government, was passed the 14th day of February, 1812, 
and reads as follows : 

Section 1. That the proposals made to this legislature by Alexander 
McLaughlin, John Kerr, Lyne Starling and James Johnston, to lay out a town 
on their lands, situate on the east bank of the Scioto river, opposite Frank- 
linton, in the county of Franklin, on parts of half sections numbers nine, ten, 
eleven, twenty-five and twenty-six, for the purpose of having the permanent 
seat of government thereon established; also to convey to the state a square 
of ten acres and a lot of ten acres, to erect a state house and offioes, and a peni- 
tentiary, as shall be directed by the legislature, are hereby accepted, and the 
same, and their penal bond annexed thereto, dated the 10th of February, 1812, 
conditioned on the faithful performance of said proposals, shall be valid to 
all intents and purposes, and shall remain in the office of the treasurer of 
state, there to be kept for the use of the state. 

Sec. 2. That the seat of government of this state, be and the same is 
hereby fixed and permanently established on the lands aforesaid ; and the legis- 
lature shall commence their session thereat on the first Monday of December, 
1817, and there continue until the first day of May, 1840, and from thence 
until otherwise provided for by law. 

Sec. 3. That there shall be appointed by joint resolution of this general 
assembly, a director, who shall within thirty days after his appointment, take 
and subscribe an oath faithfully and impartially to discharge the duties 
enjoined on him by law, and shall hold his office to the end of the session of 
the next legislature ; provided, that in case the office of the director aforesaid, 
shall, by death, resignation or in any wise, become vacant during the recess 
of the legislature, the governor shall fill such vacancy. 

Sec. 4. That the aforesaid director shall view and examine the lands 
above mentioned, and superintend the surveying and laying out of the town 
aforesaid, and direct the width of the streets and alleys therein ; also to select 
the square for public buildings, and the lot for the penitentiary and depend- 
encies, according to the proposals aforesaid ; and he shall make a report thereof 

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to the next legislature; he shall, moreover, perform such other duties as will be 
required of him by law. 

See. 5. That said McLaughlin, Kerr, Starling and Johnston, shall, on or 
before the first day of July next ensuing, at their own expense, cause the tow^n 
aforesaid to be laid out, and a plat of the same recorded in the recorder's office 
of Franklin county, distinguishing therein the square and the lot to be by them 
conveyed to this state; and they shall, moreover, transmit a certified copy 
thereof to the next legislature, for their inspection. 

Sec. 6. That from and after the first day of May next, Chillicothe shall 
be the temporary seat of government, until otherwise provided by law\ 

And by an act amendatory to the above act, passed February 17, 1816, it 
was enacted: 

That from and after the second Tuesday of October next, the seat of 
government of this state shall be established at the to\vn of Columbus, and 
thiere continue, agreeably to the provisions of the second section of the act 
entitled ^*An act fixing and establishing the pennanent and temporary seats of 
government," passed February 14, 1812. 

That the auditor, treasurer and secretary of state, shall, in the month of 
October next, remove, or cause to be removed, the books, maps and papers in 
their respective offices, to the offices prepared and designated for them severally, 
in the town of Columbus ; and the treasurer shall also remove any public money 
which may be in his office; and the said public officers shall there attend and 
keep their offices respectively, from and after that time, any law to the contrary 

Then followed various acts of legislation looking to the completion of the 
steps that had been taken looking toward the establishment of a permanent 
seat of government. 

Building Committee and Plans. 

Resolution, for the appointment of a committee to lay down the plan on 
which the state house and penitentiary shall be erected. 

Resol\'i:d, That a committee of three members be appointed by the senate, 
to act jointly with such committee as may be appointed by the house of repre- 
sentatives, to agree upon and lay down the plan on w^hich the state house and 
penitentiary shall be erected, and to point out the materials wherof they shall 
be built, and make a report of their proceedings to the house of representatives. 

Matthias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thos. Kirker, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
Attestr— R. OsBORN, C. H. R. 
Attest — Carlos A. Norton, C. S. 
February 18, 1812. 

Laying Down a Plan. 

Resolution, Laying down and agreeing to a plan on w^hich the state 
house and penitentiary shall be erected. 

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Resolved by the senate and house of representatives, That the director, 
after selecting the squares and sites whereupon the state house and penitentiary 
shall be built, shall proceed to lay down the size and dimensions of the said 
buildings as follows, viz : The state house to be seventy-five feet by fifty, to be 
built of brick, on a stone foundation, the proportions of which shall be regulated 
by said director, according to the most approved models of modem architecture, 
so as to combine, as far as possible, elegance, convenience, strength and 

The penitentiary to be sixty feet by thirty, to be built of brick, on a stone 
foundation with stone walls projecting in a line with the front fifty feet on each 
end so as to form a front of one hundred and sixty feet, and to extend back from 
the front one hundred feet, forming an area of one hundred and sixty by one 
hundred feet. 

The walls to be fifteen feet high. The proportion of the penitentiary shall 
be regulated by the director, according to the beet models which he can obtain 
from those states where theory has best been tested by experience and the said 
director shall make a report of his proceedings in the premises, with a plan of 
said buildings to the next legislature within ten days after the commencement 
of the session. 

Matthias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thos. Kirker, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
Attest— R. OsBORN, C. H. R. 
Attest — Carlos A. Norton, C. S. 

February 20, 1812. 

A Director Appointed. 

Resolution appointing a director agreeably to the act entitled "an act fixing 
and establishing the permanent and temporary seats of government." 

Resolved by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, That Joel Wright, 
of Warren county, be and he is hereby appointed director agreeably to the 
provisions of the act entitled "an act fixing and establishing the permanent and 
temporary seata of government." 

Matthias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thos. Kirker, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
Attest— R. Osborn, C. H. R. 
Attest — Carlos A. Norton, C. S. 
February 20, 1812. 

Looking to Removal. 

Resolution, for the removal of the state papers, etc., to Chillicothe. 
Resolved by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, That the doorkeep- 
ers of the senate and of the house of representatives shall take charge of the staie 

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furniture belonging to their respective houses, and deliver it to the secretary of 
state, who is hereby authorized to expose and sell the same at public auction for 
cash, giving ten days' notice by advertisement in the Muskingum Messenger, 
printed in the town of Zanesville, and pay the proceeds of such sale to the state 
treasurer for th© use of the state, taking his receipt for the same, which he shall 
deposit with the auditor of public accounts. 

Resolved, That immediately after the rising of the legislature the clerk of 
^eaoh house shall make a true inventory of all papers, books, maps and station- 
ery belonging to the state in their possession and immediately deliver th© same 
with the inventory to the secretary of state. 

Resolved, That the secretary, treasurer, and auditor shall deliver to the 
order of Duncan M. Arthur, James Dunlap, Abraham Claypool, William Ster- 
rett, Samuel Monett and Thomas Renick, all the books, papers, etc., in their 
respective offices belonging to the state for the purpose of transporting them to 
the town of Chillicothe in the county of Ross, Ohio, subject to the order of the 
next legislature ; and the secretary, treasurer and auditor are hereby required to 
superintend the delivery and transportation of the state, books, papers, etc., in 
their respective offices agreeably to the provisions of the law fixing the perma- 
nent and temporary seats of government passed this session. 

Matthias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thos. Kirker, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
Attestr-R. OsBORN, C. H. R. 
Attest— €. A. Norton, C. S. 

February 21, 1812. 

The Town Officially Named. 

Resolution giving a name to the permanent seat of government. 
Resolved by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, That the town to 
be laid out, at the Highbank, on the east side of the Scioto river, opposite the 
town of Franklinton, for the permanent seat of government, of this state, shall 
be known, and distinguished, by the name* of Columbus. 

Matthias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thos. Kirker, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
Attestn-R. OsBORN, C. H. R. 
Attest — ^C. A. Norton, C. S. 
February 21, 1812. 

Directors Duties Defined. 

An act ascertaining the duties of the director of the town of Columbus. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, 
That the director appointed by the legislature, shall, within thirty days after 
his appointment, enter into a bond, with sufficient security, payable to the treas- 

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urer of this state, in the penal sum of four thousand dollars, and take and 
subscribe an oath, faithfully to discharge the duties enjoined on him by law; 
and shall hold his office to the end of the session of the next legislature : Pro- 
vided, That in case the office of director aforesaid, shall become vacant by death, 
resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature, the governor shall 
fill the same : Provided also. That nothing in this act shall be so construed as 
to exonerate the proprietors of the town of Columbus, from* any responsibility 
of their original contract. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said direc- 
tor, to superintend the erection of the public buildings, in the town of Colum- 
bus, agreeably to the plans laid down by the late director, except in his opinion, 
alterations are necessary in the internal arrangement of said buildings, in which 
case he is hereby authorized to direct the same, in such manner as he shall 
judge most likely to answer the purpose for which such buildings are erected; 
and in all things to see that the said public buildings are supposed, in all their 
parts, of proper materials, and built in a good and workmanlike manner ; and 
he is hereby authorized and required, to object to any materials, not of proper 
quality, or any work not of the description aforementioned ; and if the director 
shall perform, or cause to be performed, for his own private advantage, any part 
of the above work, he shall, on conviction thereof, forfeit the amount of his 
penal bond. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the director, for 
the time being, to prevent and abate all nuisances, either in the streets or public 
squares of said town, by digging for brickyards, or any other purpose, and to 
preser\'e from- trespass all wood and timber, the property of the state, within 
the said town, and to cut and dispose of such part as he may deem proper for 
the a<e of the state, and annually account for the proceeds of the same. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the director to 
make a report of his proceedings^ and of the progress made in the erection of 
said buildings, whether in his opinion the same is composed of good materials, 
and built in a workmanlike manner, to the next legislature, with twenty days 
after the commencement of its session. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That the director shall be entitled to re- 
ceive for his services, at the rate of six hundred dollars per annum, for all the 
time he may be engaged in discharging the duties of his office, payable quarter 
yearly on the certificate of the governor, that the services have been performed, 
being presented to the auditor, who is hereby authorized to issue bills for the 
same, payable at the office of the treasurer of state. 

John Pollock, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Thomas Kirker, 

January 28, 1813. Speaker of the Senate. 

Taxing Concessions to the Proprietors. 

An act directing how the tax on lots in the town of Columbus shall be 
assessed and dispK)sed of. 

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From the Original Sketches made by G. E. Thrall in 1846 



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-• .K ; 

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Section 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, 
That it shall not be lawful for the commissioners of the county of Franklin, to 
levy any tax upon lots in the town of Columbus, previous to the first day of 
January, Anno Domini, one thousand eight hundred and sixteen. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That the lots in said town of Columbiis, 
shall, hereafter, until the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixteen, stand charged annually, with an amount of tax equal to the amount 
levied and assessed upon said lots by the commissioners of said county of Frank- 
lin for the year one thousand eight hundred and thirteen, to be collected by the 
director of the town of Columbus, in the same manner as other county taxes. 
And said director is hereby authorized and required to proceed to collect said 
taxes, in the same manner, and with the same authority, as other township col- 
lectors : Provided, That if the proprietors or owners of lots of said town, shall, 
on or before the first day of August in each year, pay to the said director, the 
siun of one-half of the full amount assessed as aforesaid, the said lots shall ba 
exonerated from alL charge of tax for each year, for which the sum aforesaid 
shall be paid. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That the said director shall proceed to lay 
out and expend the sum of one hundred and twenty-five dollars, if so much 
shall be needed, of the monies which he shall receive, by virtue of the provi- 
sions of this act, for the purpose of sinking and completing a well at the state 
house; the balance to be applied in improving within the county of Franklin, 
the state road leading from the town of Columbus to Greenville, in the county 
of Licking. And said director shall yearly make report of all his proceedings 

under this act, to the legislature. t t> 

^ John Pollock, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Othniel Looker, 

January 27, 1814. Speaker of the Senate. 

Officers Preparing to Move, 

An act, supplementary to the act, entitled, "An act, fixing and establishing 
the permanent and temporary seat of government." 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, That 
the offices of auditor, treasurer and secretary of state! shall be removed to, and 
established at the permanent seat of government, at the town of Columbus, in 
the .month of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventeen, 
and all the books, papers, and other articles belonging to said offices, shall be 
carefully packed up and removed, under the inspection and direction of the 
persons holding the respective offices of auditor, treasurer and secretary of state. 
And the said officers shall attend at the permanent seat of government afore- 
said, and keep their said oflSces respectively. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That a director for the town of Columbus, 
shall be appointed by joint resolution, who shall continue in office until the ris- 
ing of the next general assembly ; and the director shall give bond, and take the 
oath required by the act, ascertaining the duties of the director of the town of 

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Columbus ; and the said director so to be appointed, shall perform all the duties 
required by the before recited act, and such other dutie*« a.s may be required of 
him by law. 

John Pollock, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Othniel Looker, 
Speaker of the Senat3. 
February 9, 1814. 

First Toll Bridge in Columhm, 

An act to authorize Lucas Sullivmit and his a^-sociates, to erect a toll bridge 
across the Scioto river at the town of Columbus. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Ohio, 
That Lucas SuUivant and his associates, and those who may hereafter associate 
with him, are hereby authorized to build a l)ridgc across the Scioto river in the 
county of Franklin, at the place where Broad street, in said town of Columbus, 
now cnvv^es said river, leading into the Main street in the town of Franklinton ; 
and the said Lucas Sullivant and his ass<K'iates, if any there be, and his and 
their heirs and assigns, are hereby authorized to a<k, demand and receive from 
passengers who may cross said bridge, the following rates of toll to-wit : For each 
foot passenger, three cents ; for every horse, mule or ass, one year old or up- 
wards, four cents ; for each horse and rider, twelve and one-half cents ; for every 
chaise, riding chair, gig, cart or other two wheeled carriage, with two horses or 
two oxen and driver, thirty-seven and one-half cents; for the same with one 
horse and driver, twenty-five cents; for each sleigh or sled, drawn by two horses 
or oxen, twenty-five cents; for the same drawn by one horse and driver, eight- 
een and three-fourths cents; for ever}' c*oach, chariot or other pleasurable car- 
riage, with four wheels and driver, drawn by four horses, seventy-five cents ; for 
the same carriages and driver, drawn by two horses, fifty cents : for ever}' wagon 
with w^ith two horses or oxen and driver, thirty-seven and a half cents ; and for 
each horse or ox in addition, six and a fourth cents: for every head of neat 
cattle six months old or upwards, two cents; for every head of cattle younger 
than six months old, and for every head of sheep or hogs, one-half cent; 
Provided always. That all public mails and expresses, all troops of the 
United States and of this state, with their artillery, baggage and stores, and 
all persons who are exempted by the laws of the state from the payment of 
ferriages, may pass over said bridge free from the toll aforesaid ; and it shall be 
the duty of the said Lucas and others as aforesaid, their or any of their several 
assignees or representatives, to set up and constantly to keep up, expa«ed to pub- 
lic view, in some conspicuous place ne^r the gate which may be constructed 
across said bridge, a board or canvas, on which shall be printed or painted in 
fair and legible characters, the rates of toll herein above established. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That if the said Luciis and others as afore- 
said, his, her or their several assignees or representatives, shall w^ithin four years 
from the passing of this act, have erected and made a good and complete bridge 
at the place aforesaid, made of sufficient width, having a convenient foot way, 

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with hand railing and cart away or cart ways, and in other respects of sufficient 
strength and dimensions, so as to admit of the safe passage of the passengers, 
wxrriages and cattle as aforesaid, then the said Lucas and others as aforesaid, 
imiy ask and receive the toll as above described during the term of sixty years ; 
and if the said Lucas or his associates, if any there be, shall demand and receive 
a greater or higher toll than is allowed by the first section of this act, he and 
they shall be subject to the like fines and forfeitures as are provided in case of 
ferries ; Provided, the navigation of said river shall in no wise be obstructed Vn' 
the erection of said bridge, nor the fording of said river be in any wise injured ; 
Provided also, That after the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, 
it shall be lawful for the general assembly to make such alterations in the rate 
of tolls established by this act as they may judge proper. 

John Pollock, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Tpiomas Kirker, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
February 3, 1815. 

Legislative Officers Preparing for Removal. 

Resolved bj- the general assembly of the state of Ohio, That the door- 
keeper of the senate and doorkeeper of the house of representatives shall take 
charge of and preserve, in good order, the furniture of their respective houses, 
and have the same in proper order and place for the general assembly on the 
first Monday of December next, or at any preceding time should the legisla- 
ture be convened ; and that the doorkeeper of each house forward to the secre- 
tary of state, all books in possession of their respective houses, the property of 
the state; and that immediately after the rising of the legislature, the clerks of 
the respective branches shall make a true inventory of all papers belonging to 
the state in their possession, and deliver the same properly filed, together with 
the inventory, to the secretary of state, whose duty it shall be to receive and 
keep the same, subject to the order of any future legislature. 

Febniary 15, 1815. 

A Busy Time in the Woods. 

As may be surmised, the period between 1812 and 1817 was one of bustl? 
and confusion, and speculation in town lots began even before the lots were 
"laid off," and the new city was full of life and business, though the most of it 
was still in a state of nature. 

The assurance that if the seat of government, if not permanently fixed at 
Columbus would remain there until 1840 at least, was a sufficient guarantee to 
bring prospective buyers and settlers from all parts of the state, and began to 
turn the streams of immigration from the northern, eastern and southern states 
Columbusward, and many of them channed with the fertile soil of Franklin 
county purchased farms and settled down beyond the contemplated limits of 

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the city, and their children's children still occupy many of those fertile farm- 
holds. The proprietors themselves were constantly bestirring themselves over 
against the day of a public sale of city lots. 

Mr. William F. Martin, one of the early chroniclers of men and events. 
wrote entertainingly in 1858 of the doings of some forty years previously and 
instituted some contemporaneous comparisons for which the present chronicler 
takes great pleasure in giving him the credit due to a literary predecessor in 
the morning hours of Columbus history. 

On the 19th of February, 1812, at Zancsville, the proprietors, Starling, 
Johnston, McLaughlin and Kerr, signed and acknowledged their articles of 
association, as partners, under the law for laying out, etc., the town of Colum- 
bus. In this instrument it w^as stipulated that a common stock was to be 
created for the benefit of the firm; that Starling was to put into said stock 
half section number twenty-five, except ten acres previously sold to John 
Brickell ; Johnston was to put in half section number nine and half of section 
number ten; and McLaughlin and Kerr (who had previously been partners 
and were jointly considered as one or a third party to this agreement) were 
to put in half section number twenty-six, on which they were to lay out the 
town, agreeably to their proposals to the legislature, the proceeds of the sales 
to remain in common stock until they should complete their contract with 
the state. 

An Agent Provided For. 

They were to have a common agent, to make sales and superintend their 
whole business. Each party was to pay into the hands of this agent the sum 
of two thousand four hundred dollars annually, on the first ^londay of 
January, for five successive years, and such further sums as might be necessary 
to complete the public buildings. Each party was to warrant the title to the 
land by such party respectively put into the stock, and each to receive a mutual 
benefit in all donations they might obtain on subscription or otherwise. And 
when they should have completed their contract with the state, and be released 
from all obligations on account thereof, a final settlement and adjustment of 
their accounts was to take place and the profits or losses to be equally divided 
between them. 

John Kerr was appointed the first agent for the proprietors, in April, 
1812, and continued as such until June, 1815, when he declined serving any 
longer, and Henry Brown was appointed and continued their agent until the 
close of their business in the spring of 1817. 

The agreement of the proprietors having been faithfully abided by, and 
their undertaking completed, wa-^ finally canceled in April, 1817, when a 
division of the unsold property, and of obligations for lots sold, etc., took 
place, and each party released the other from all the obligations of their 
articles of association, and also released and quit-claimed to each other all the 
remaining parts of their several tracts of land originally put into the common 
fund that remained unsold. 

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Donations Were Generous, 

The amount of the donations obtained on subscriptions is variously 
stated at from fifteen to twenty thousand dollars. And, pursuant to an agree- 
ment with Rev. James Hoge, better known as Dr. Hoge, he deeded to the 
proprietors eighty acres of land off the south end of half section number 
eleven, in order to enable them to complete the plat to the size and form 
desired. Of the lots laid out on this grant the proprietors retained one-half, 
and deeded the balance back to the doctor. And, pursuant to a similar con- 
tract with Thomas Allen, and for the same purpose, he deeded to the pro- 
prietors twenty acres out of the southwest part of half section number ten, 
they deeding back his portion of the lots and retaining the balance as a 
donation. \^, 

Thus the town plat, including out-lots and reserves (which reserves have 
many years since been laid out into additions of in-lots), covered the whole 
of half sections number twenty-five and twenty-six, and parts of half sections 
ten and eleven. 

McLaughlin and Kerr's half section (number twenty-six) was the south- 
em part of the original town plat, bounded on the south by South Public Lane 
(the eastern part of which is sometimes called the Livingston Road), and on 
the north by a parallel (east and west) line, commencing at the river a little 
south of state street and crossing High street at the northeast corner of Dr. 
Goodale's brick block, and crossing Town street at an acute angle between 
Third and Fourth streets, including all between those two lines, from the 
river to the eastern boundary of the out-lots. Starling's half section (number 
twenty-five) , ako extending from the river to the eastern boundary of out-lots, 
and included all between the north line of McLaughlin and Kerr's half section, 
above described, «nd a parallel lino from a short distance in front of the 
penitentiary, due east, crossing High street between Long street and Mulberry 
alley, and intersecting Broad street at the eastern extremity of the out-lots. 
Although half section number nine was put into the common fund by 
Johnston, no part of the town plat was laid out on it. It lies between the 
penitentiary grounds and Olentangy river. The east half of half section ten, 
put into the fund by him, and on the south end of w^hich lots were laid out, 
abuts on the north line of Starling's half section (number twenty-five), from 
Water street to Center alley, bounded «ast and west by due north and south 
lines, cutting the lots obliquely. The part conveyed to the proprietors by 
Allen also abuts on Starling's north line, immediately west of Johnston's, just 
described, and the part conveyed to them by Dr. Hoge also abuts on Starling's 
north line, immediately east of Johnston's land. 

The Contract' Finally Closed. 

The contract being closed between the proprietors and the state,, and all 
the preliminaries now arranged, in the spring of 1812 the town was laid out, 

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under the direction of Joel Wright, Esq., of Warren county, an agent of the 
state, appointed for that purpose, and Joseph Vance, of FrankUn county, as 

The streets all cross at right angles; tho;2e running northward bear twelve 
degrees west of north, and consequently thor^e running eastward, twelve degrees 
north of east. High street is one hundred feet wide; Broad street is one 
hundred and twenty feet, and all the others eighty-two and a half feet wide; 
and the alleys generally thirty-three feet in width. The in-lots are sixty-two 
and a half feet front and one hundred and eighty-:*even and a half feet deep. 
The out-lots on the east contain about three acres each. 

Some time after the laying out of the main town and the eastern out-lots, 
the proprietors laid out some forty or more out-lot?, north of the town, which 
are represented on the record by a separate plat. These contain a trifle over 
two acres each, and from part- of these lot^ they conveyed to the town an acre 
and a half for a graveyard. The time and terms of sale being agreed upon, 
the same was advertised far and near, and in a way calculated to attract 
bidders from a distance. The following is a copy of the advertisement: 

''For Sale'' Advertwemenfi*. 

On the premises, commencing on Thursday, the 18th day of June next, 
and to continue for three days, in and out-lots in the town of Columbus, 
established by an act of the legislature as the permanent seat of government 
for the state of Ohio. 

Terms of Sale. — One-fifth of the purchase money will be required in 
hand; the residue to be paid in four equal annual installments. Interest will 
be required on the deferred paymients from the day of sale, if they are not 
punctually made when due. Eight per cent will be discounted for prompt 
payment on the day of sale. The town of Cohimbus is situated on an elevated 
and beautiful site, on the east side of the Scioto river, immediately below the 
junction of the Whetstone branch, and opposite to Franklinton, the seat of 
justice for Franklin county, in the center of an extensive tract of rich and 
fertile country-, from whence there is an easy navigation to the Ohio river. 
Above the town the west branch of the Scioto affords a good navigation for 
about eighty miles, and the Whetstone branch as far as the town of Worth- 
ington. Sandusky bay, the only harbor on the south shore of Lake Erie 
(except Presque Isle) for vessels of burthen, is situate due north from Colum- 
bus and about one hundred miles from it. An excellent road may be made 
with very little expense from the Lower SandiLsky town to the mouth of the 
Little Scioto, a distance of about sixty miles. This will render the com- 
munication from the lakes to the Ohio river through the Scioto very easy, 
by which route an immense trade must, at a day not very distant, be carried 
on, which will make the country on the Scioto river rich and populous. The 
proprietors of the town of Columbus will, by every means in their power, 

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encourage industrious mechanics who wish to make a residence in the town. 

All such are invited to become purchasers. ^ 

James Johnstox, 

A. McLaughlin, 

Lyne Starling, 

John Kerr, 

Franklinton, April 13, 1812. Proprietors. 

The Day of Sale Arrives. 

Pursuant to this notice, public sale of the lots eonnneneed on the 18th 
of June, 1812, and continued three days. The lots sold were principally on 
High and Broad streets, and were generally struck off at from two hundred 
to a thousand dollars each. The only cleared land then on, or contiguous to, 
the town plat was a small spot on Front, a little north of State street ; another 
small field and a cabin on the bank of the river, at the western terminus of 
Rich street; a cabin and garden spot in front of where the penitentiary now 
stands, occupied by John Brickell ; and a small field south of the mound, on 
the the tract which two years after was laid off by John McGowan, as an 
addition to the original town plat, and called South Columbus. 

Immediately after the sales improvements commenced rapidly, generally 
small frame houses and shops, enclosed with split clapboards instead of sawed 
weatherboards, which were not generally attainable. Both proprietors and 
settlers were too much occupied with their own individual and immediate 
interests to attend much to the clearing off of the streets and alleys ; and for 
several years the streets remained so much impeded by stumps, logs and brush 
that teamsters were compelled to make very crooked tracks in winding their 
way through them. Gradually, however, they were cleared by the inhab- 
itants, for fire wood and building materials, until about the year 1815 or 1816 
a sum of about two hundred dollars was raised by subscription and appro- 
priated to the removal of the remaining obstructions from High street. Soon 
after the town was incorporated and the streets were gradually improved by 
authority of the town council. 

Some of the Original Bidders. 

There are now (in 1858) but two men remaining in Columbus who were 
here at the sale of lots in 1812 and purchased property, and have remained 
citizens of the place ever since, viz: Messrs. Jacob Hare and Peter Putnam, 
and each one still owned the lot he purchased at that time, over forty-five 
years before. Among the first settlers, however, were George McCJormick, 
George B. Harvey, John Shields, Michael Patton, Alexander Patton, William 
Altman, John Collett, William McElvain, Daniel Kooser, Christian Ileyl, 
Jarvis Pik©, Benjamin Pike, George Pike, William Long, Townsend Nichols, 
and Dr. John M. Edmiston. Dr. Edmi.ston was the first physician to locate 
in the new town — Drs. Parsons and Ball practiced in Columbus, but resided 
in Franklinton. About the year 1815 or 1816 Dr. Parsons riemoved over to 
Columbus, where he resided ever after. 

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Aboriginal and Modem Roads. 

A& suggested in the beginning of this chapter, the white man's lines of 
travel, in the beginning of the march of civilization, followed very closely 
along the lines of the aborigines, who in turn unconsciously absorbed the 
engineering knowledge of the elk, the red deer and the buffalo. Certain it U 
that when the white man came to Ohio he found an extensive system of high- 
ways on land, as well as upon the waterways, along which travel and traffic 
ebbed and flowed as seasons changed and pleasure, war or necessity required. 

Rev. John Heckmelder, who made a study of this system in the 
eighteenth century, and not only located but made a complete map of the 
land lines, which in his day were as clearly defined as are the highway.^ of 
today, albeit they, as a rule penetrated dense and almost limitless forests. 
Many of these road beds still exist in Ohio which were known to the pioneers 
of well-nigh a century and a half ago, still so solidly packed as to resist the 
steel plough-shares of the farmer where they fall inside an inclosure devoted 
to agricuture. 

Nearly all these land lines, and probably in a majority of cases, were 
laid along elevations above the bottom lands and always along the line of 
least resistance, quite clearly establishing the fact that the bison, the elk, deer 
and other four-footed animals were the original engineers and the road 
builders for bipeds. Aboriginal man, when he came, preempted the highways 
of hi.s quadruped predecessors. The white man, following the aborigine, 
utilized portions of these highways, but shortened up distances by paralleling 
them, in part, along the bottom lands or lower down the slope, and this general 
plan was followed throughout the state during the first era of road building. 

Better grades and better material have been called into practical operation 
in these days, but nearly every important highway builded during the centurj^ 
and converging upon Columbus either follows or lies parallel to an ancient 
line of travel, for two centuries ago — before that time and since that time — 
the point now Columbus was a center of population, barbarian commerce, and 
travel, from opposite the mouth of the Kanawha to the mouth of the Maumee 
from southeast to northwest; from the mouth of the Miami to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga from southwest to northeast; from Sandusky bay to the mouth 
of the Scioto from north to south, and from the mouth of the Captina to the 
headwaters of the Wabash, where St. Clair was vanquished, from east to west, 
and all these lines crossing at a common center were at the junction of the 
Scioto and the Olentangy. 

Modern Lines of Travel. 

The twentieth century lines of travel and traffic converging here are 
practically the same as to numbers, but incomparable when it comes to the 
solution of modem problems of economics, travel and transportation. Instead 
of seven or eight thoroughfares, including the rivers, radiating to the four 

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Founder of Franklinton, afterward Columbus 

One of the Founders of Columbus 




One of the Founders of Columbus 

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THE NL ^' 


pu^bl:c l; 


AST, -. ' - 


TfL^:- • 

^ 7 'iNS. 

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corners of the state, there are now eighteen steam railways reaching out from 
the center, with direct contact and connections with the trunk lines across the 
continent, and eight operating and other developing electric lines entering 
and radiating therefrom, sufficient in motive power and equipment to have 
removed all the savage population of a century and a half ago, along with 
their personal belongings and lares and penates, within the Ohio valley to the 
foot hills of the Apalachian range in twenty-four hours. Hence it may be 
set down among the verities that while nearly all roads in Ohio led to Colum- 
bus in aboriginal days, all (and of course more) roads lead to Columbus in 
these more progressive days. 



Rome of Ancient Legends; Columh\hs of Modern Dayn. 

A large portion of the subsequent history of Rome would no doubt be 
lacking in interest, at least among the younger readers, were it not for the 
legends of the laying of the foundations of the Eternal City, mythical and 
credulity-testing though they may be. The story of the abandoned Romulus and 
Remus leing suckled and reared to vigorous youthhood by a female wolf may 
have been mercifully invented to soften the memory- of the wife of some guard- 
ian who had the two boys in charge. The narration of the just-before-dawn vigil 
of the two youths on the twa convenient hills, '^looking out for signs,'' and seeing 
diverse numbers of vultura^, leading to the straining of their fraternal rela- 
tions, some seven hundred years before the Christian Era, may have been an 
early form of the snipe hunting expeditions of, say, A. D. 1850, and down to 
the present day, among the youths of Columbus and outlying country. 

The building of the walls of Rome by Romulus, and the contempt shown 
toward the architect and his work by Remus, who leai>ed over them and who 
wa« chased thence and founded the City of Rheims, according to his own 
ideas of municipal architecture, may be readily toned down to a foolish boyish 
quarrel of some minor detail, and the story of the Sabine women L^ an old- 
new-endless one of the selection of the loveliest. Young ladies being scarce 
in Rome, the boys over there no doubt challenged the Sabine youths to play a 
prehistoic game of baseball. Their svveetheart< came out, of course, to cheer 
and encourage them, but when the Roman Senators shut out the Sabine 
Slashers in the ninth inning, with a score of 21 to 0, not only the game was 
lost, but the girls also, and they naturally clung to the Senators ever after. 

This may not be the exact narration of the events in their order, but they 
would naturally and perfectly furnish the historical raw material out of which 
tha classic poets formed the finished story. 

But in any event, and without regard to the accuracy of detail, they told 
about the first people and the first things and the original methods, without 

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which in some form the rest of the story — called in courtesy Historj' — would 
be desperately dry reading and spiritless. One must know of the beginning 
before one can teach the lesson of successive comparisons in the progress of 
events. The great thin^ of the present are the grown-up children and grand- 
children of the comparatively little things of the past. We must know some- 
thing of the parent before we can properly estimate the child, as well as 
soni'ething about the child before w^e can fully analyze the matured individual, 
or, analyzing backward, properly estimate the progenitor. The very mys- 
ticism and glamour of the classic poets which surround the practical begin- 
nings of Rome enhance the interest, to most readers, in the storj' of its subse- 
quent progress. So also as to Columbus. 

Christopher Gist, Agent of the Ohio Company.' 

The first white men to visit the present site of Columbus were Christopher 
Gist, of Maryland, and George Croghan, an English trader, piloted by one 
Andrew Montour, a French-Indian half breed of the Senecas, no doubt, 
some time during the winter of 1750-1751. At, and preceding this period, 
the English colonies of the east and northeast were deeply interested in 
curbing, and eventually eliminating, the Canadian French influences. This 
was especially true with an association of Virginia and Maryland planters and 
English merchants, who realized the vast importance of keeping the French 
traders, and French influence of all kinds, out of that vast territory lying 
south of the present Canadian line. 

These men probably never thought of what the future had in store in 
the shape of trade and commerce, exceeding for a single business day from 
nine to three all the trade then being contended for during an entire year. 
A long line of English trading posts were being stretched across the practically 
unknown continent parallel with the 38th degree, and Mr. Gist was the active 
agent of this association, with well-nigh unlimited discretionary powers. 

One of these English trading posts was established at the point of the 
junction of the Great Miami and Loranaie creek, upon an extensive prairie, 
in 1749, and was named Pickawillany, English improvement on the Pickqua- 
lines, a tribe of Indians. It was to visit this post that Gist and his companions 
made the trip now under discussion. It was, in fact, the first point of English 
occupation within the present boundaries of Ohio, and here the English 
traders throughout the entire trading belt met and conferred between them- 
selves and their Indian friends and allies. 

On October 31, 1750, Gist set out from Old Town, on the Potomac, in 
Maryland, and crossed the Alleghenies, following the usual route of travel 
to the Ohio river that seems to have existed from time immemorial. Crossing 
the upper Ohio, he made his way to the then Indian village at the forks of 
the Muskingum, where the city of Coshocton (Goshocking, the Place of the 
Owls), now stands, much more pacific and inviting than its Indian name 
would portend. 

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From that point Gist and his two companions came westward, holding 
conferences in the Indian villages at Wacatomika, Black Hand (so named for 
the black print of an enormous human hand on a high rock overhanging 
the Pataskala river, through which a tunnel of the Columbus, Newark and 
Zanesville electric road is pierced), where an Indian potentate was located; 
thence to the present Buckeye lake, then little more than a great sedgy 
morass, full of fish, which the naked Indian children waded in and caught 
with their hands, which they skirted, coming on to the High Bank, where 
they crossed by canoe ferry to the Indian town or village that occupied a 
portion of what is now the west side. 

Here a. conference was held in February, 1751. Later the three travelers 
went down the Scioto and the Ohio to the mouth of the Great Miami, up 
which they journeyed to Pickawillany, where a prolonged conference was 
held, under the direction of Gist, between the English traders and the tribal 
representatives of the Weas, Pickqualines, Miamis, Piankeshaws, and other 
sub-nations contiguous thereto, and a treaty, practically of alliance, was agreed 
upon, the French flag, which had for years floated over the chief tepee of 
Pickawillany, was hauled down and British sovereignty was recognized. 

Under the terms of the treaty the town rapidly rose in importance, Gist 
recording in his journal that it was the strongest town in the western countr\', 
as well as the most important one. 

But the French government in Canada was not in the dark as to the 
progress of events on Riviere a la Roche, or Rock River, as the Miami was 
called, but w-as kept constantly informed by their Indian and half-breed spies. 
So it came about, a few years later, that, in an unexpected moment, the com- 
bined French and more northern Indians swooped down upon Pickawillany, 
and the "coming" emporium of the great Ohio wilderness went up in smoke 
and flame, and it was blotted off the map. But this part of the story belongs 
not to a Columbus history, but to the more comprehensive history of the state 
and its parent, the Northwest Territory. 

Enter Mr, James Smith. 

There may have been other white men at that period (between 1751 and 
1760) who threaded the mazes of the then Columbus, but history fails to 
present another than James Smith, who was held a captive among the Indians 
west of the junction of the two rivers and who hunted and trapped along the 
rivers and their principal tributaries in this territory. Mr. Smith's personal 
narration is full of interest and gives one a fine insight into the character of the 
Indian nomads of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A complete 
resume of his graphic narrative appears in an appropriate chapter devoted to 
early reminiscences and later day historical gossip of the Buckeye capital. 

In the meantime, James Smith must rest upon his laurels of being the 
second early comer of the whit^ race into the future capital, illuminated with 
this brief description, written by him, of the then site of the present city: 
^*From the mouth of Olentan^^A' (applied to the Big Darby), on the east side 

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of Scioto, up to the carrying place (in Marion county), there i:= a large body 
of first and second rate land, and tolerably well watered. The timber is a^^h, 
^ugar tree, walnut, locust, oak and beech." Thir^ is no doubt the first written 
description of the point at and neighboring ui)on the lands on which the city 
of Columbus stands. 

The First Permanent Resident. 

The honor of being the first permanent resident withm the present 
boundaries of Columbus seems to belong, without question, to Lucas Sullivant, 
a native of Virginia, born in 1765. He migrated to Kentucky when an 
orf)han lad, where he learned surveying in the field, not in the schools. 

As a deputy under General Richard C. Anderson, surveyor general of 
the Virginia Military District of Ohio, Mr. Lucas led a body of assistants into 
the wilderness of the Scioto valley northward, and in the summer and autumn 
of the year 1797 surveyed and platted and became proprietor of the town of 
Franklinton, long since made an integral part of Columbus. Here he erect ?d 
his hoiL-e, installed his helpmeet, sc»t up his lan\- and penates; here he reared 
his children, and here he lived until he passed into the Great Beyond at the 
age of fifty-eight. 

Some of Sullivan fs Compatriots. 

Among those who came with Sullivant into Franklinton as permanent 
settlers the following names have been handed down by the earlier historians: 
Jaseph Dixon, George Skidmore, William Domigan, James Marshall, three 
families named DearduflF, Mcllvain and Sells respectively, consisting of several 
persons, young and old, but not se{)arately designated ; John Lisle and family, 
William Fleming, Jacob Grubb, Jacob Overdier, Arthur O'Harra, Ja-eph 
Foas, John Blair, and John Dill, the latter of whom seems to have come unac- 
companied from the town of York, Pennsylvania; Jeremiah Armstrong and 
John Brickell, and probably others whose names are forgotten. These, of 
course, were the first citizens, and among them Messrs. Armstrong and Brickell 
were the heroes of adventures which will be i)resented in the chapter of local 
historical events and gossip. 

Sullivant wi\s married in 1801 and led in the settlement of the town, of 
course. A little later than thase aforenamed were Lyne Starling, Robert Rus- 
sell, Colonel Culbertson of Shippensburg, Tennsylvania, with numerous sons, 
sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, immarried sons and unmarried daughters, and 
withal a man of wealth and of distinction. 

The First White Woman. 

The first white woman born east of the Scioto river and in Columbus 
proi)er was Keziah Hamlin, who afterward married David Brooks, proprietor 
of '*The White Horse Tavern," one of the famous early hostelries of the Ohio 
capital. She was born October 16, 1804, in a log cal>in which stood upon what 
is now the site of Hoster's brewerv. 

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At that time there lived in the vicinity a sub-tribe of Wyandots, who 
were on friendly terms with the scattered white settlers. They had a great 
fondness especially for Mother Hamlin's corn bread, and were in the habit of 
paying the family informal calls and helping themselves informally to what- 
ever they might find in the larder. The only explanation they offered was to 
leave with Mrs. Hamlin the finest cuts and quarters of venison, so that if she 
and the lord of the household were left temporarily short on bread they found 
themselves long on meat. While this kind of exchange was one-sided, the 
Hamlin firm never had occasion to complain that they had been cheated* 

When little Keziah came the Wyandots took great interest in the little 
pale face and never lost an opportunity to admire her in a sort of ecstacy of 
silence, punctuated with grunts of satisfaction; and the larger she grew, and 
when she began to toddle about on the dirt floor of the cabin, their admiration 
knew no bounds, and then and there the Trilby inspiration took shape and 

One busy day, when Father Hamlin was on a journey to the mill and 
Mother Hamlin was busy with her household cares and duties and Baby Ham- 
lin .sle[)t like a top in her sugar trough cradle, a delegation of Wyandots in 
gala attire invaded the cabin and, instead of depleting the larder, depleted the 
cradle and marched Indian file, the chief leading, with Keziah in his arms, 
and disappeared in the direction of the Indian village, in the dense forest at 
the bend of the Scioto, where the Harrisburg bridge now spans the river. 

It would be impossible to depict the feelings of the mother. She simply 
endured the terrors of the situation for hours, whieh passed like slow-paced 
centuries, buoyed up only by the faint hope that the children of the forest 
were merely playing some good natured prank on her. Realizing the useless- 
ness of pursuit, nothing was left her but to cling to hope and endure and long 
for the return of her husband. Hours before his return (far past nightfall) 
the Indians returned, with their tiny captive smiling and cooing in the arms 
of the bronzed chieftain, and she too was resplendent in gala attire. In addi- 
tion to the other gay outfitting, her feet were enca.^ in a pair of dainty and 
artistically beaded buckskin moccasins. 

Th(* Wyandot manteau and moccasin makers, for the purpose of giving 
the mother a happy surprise, had unceremoniously carried the child to their 
own town, where she could be fitted out and become a Wyandot Princess, 
and as such they had evidently adopted her before returning her. For many 
years Keziah retained the moccasins and trinkets, and told the story of that 
adventure to her children and her children's children. Finally the younger 
generations a few years ago unconsciously imbibed iconoclastic ideas, and the 
relics disappeared piecemeal. 

Keziah Hamlin married David Brooks, who came from Massachusetts and 
settled in Columbus on the 19th of December, 1822. She died February 4, 
1875, leaving three sons and two daughters. One of the sons, David W. 
Brooks, was prominent in business and banking circles in the city. Herbert 
Brooks, a grandson, is prominent in the same circles in the Columbus of 1909. 

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The First State Senator, 

The first year after his arrival Culbertson was elected to the Ohio legisla- 
ture, being the first member elected from the Franklin county section of Ross 
county in the senate of the first general assembly of the state in 1803. 

The First Mill West of the River. 

The first mill was located in the Franklinton section in 1797 or 1798. 
It was a public utility and the first instance of public ownership, hereabouts 
at least. All the people helped to build it and all the people helped to run it. 
The contemporaneous chronicler describes it as "a kind of a hand mill upon 
which they (the inhabitants) generally ground their com; some pounded it 
or boiled it." The latter were probably opposed to public ownership. "Occa- 
sionally," says the pioneer historian, "a trip was made to the mill at Chilli- 
cothe." One may easily conjecture why this long trip to mill, through the 
wilderness, was made. The housewife was expecting company, no doubt some 
Revolutionary hero or some grand dame, coming from the east perhaps, and 
she wanted fine meal to enable her to furnish her guests with tempting johnny 
cake, and perchance the guests were coming from "Ole Ferginia," and what 
would be more to their liking than the peerless crackling shortened corn 
dodger, heightened to the seventh gastronomic heaven with the pale ambered 
and divinely saccharined maple molasses! It was worth an hundred mile 
round trip to secure the ingredients for such a feast. 

The First Mill East of the River, 

"In 1790 or 1800 Robert Balentine," says the early historian, "erected 
a poor kind of a mill" on the Run, near the present line of Gay street, but 
whether east or west of Gay street it is not stated. The Run, however, is not 
there at the present writing. 

The First Up-River Mill, 

"At about the same period John D. Rush erected," in the frank language 
of the historian, "an inferior mill on the Scioto a short distance above Frank- 
linton." They were, however, both poor concerns and soon fell into ruins, and 
clearly enough the "sound of the grinding" was not only "low%" but the grass- 
hopper had no musical rival to divide the honors with him ; but not for long. 

The First Horse Mill, 

Then, as a last resort, some pioneer, whose name is lost to immortal fame, 
erected a horse mill and managed to eke out sufficient com meal to meet the 
demand of the growing metropolis. 

The First Successful Mill, 

Then it was, in 1805, that at a point near Worthington, Colonel James 
Kilboume erected a mill imbued, as it were, w^ith the spirit of the eighteenth 

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century. It was a mill built on modern lines and principles and turned out 
wheat and buckwheat flour and corn meal in a steady stream and started 
Franklin county on the road to greatness, and after this there were mills and 
mills erected on all the streams in the vicinity of Columbus; men laid by a 
competence for themselves ; became more than honest millers — ^leading citizens 
of county and state, whose names will continue to grace and ornament the 
general local annals for decades, and in many instances for centuries' yet to 
come, as may be well and truly said of the proprietors of Carpenfter's Mill on 
the Whetstone, Dyer's Mill on Darby, Nelson's on Alum creek and others con- 
temporaneous with them in the first decade and the first half of the second 
decade of the century. 

The First Mercantile Venture. 

Nearly all, if not all, beginnings are small, and in accordance wnth that 
recognized law it is to be expected that the first things are small, although 
when we contemplate them in their fully developed form it staggers our credu- 
lity to think of them as merely tiny bubbles on the ocean of mercantile adven- 

Mr. James Scott in 1798 or 1799, the precise date being in doubt, opened 
"the first small store in Franklinton, which added much to the convenience 
of the settlers." It was certainly a great convenience to the Franklinton 
housewife, since she could get breakfast, wash the dishes, tidy up the cabin, 
go to Mr. Scott's store, purchase three yards of brown muslin and a «kein of 
thread, return home and cut out and make a shirt for her husband, get dinner 
and supper meantime, and have the garment finished in time for her husband 
to wear down to "the public square," where the men folks met and told hunt- 
ing stories in the gloaming of the forest twilight and on contemporaneous sub- 
jects, while her ears tingled, a la telepathy, at the praises of the young men 
touching the neat hemming and hemstitching on the shirt aforesaid. 

The next store, and probably a larger one, was started by Robert Russell, 
Esquire, in 1803. So far as can be learned, there are now no direct successors 
to those merchant princes of the then unbuilt city. 

The First Unseen Terror, 

This was what was variously designated "ague, ager, fever'n-nager, chills 
and fever," and now recorded in the books as "malaria" or "malarial fever." 
The original, however, could have gotten in its work on the pioneers even if it 
had been unnamed. 

The First Capital Execution. 

The first execution in the county, and within the suburbs of the present 
city, was that of Shateyaronyah, Anglicized into Leather Lips, a celebrated 
Wyandot chief and philosopher. The account was originally recorded by 
Otway Curry, the poet and magazine writer of the first half of the nineteenth 

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century, and from which his nephew, Colonel William L. Curry, a valiant cav- 
alry officer in the civil war and present pension commissioner of Ohio, fur- 
nishes the following tragically interesting synopsis: 

The Doomed W-yandot. 

"T-he great northern family of Indian tribes which seems to have been 
originally embraced in the generic term Iroquois consisted, according to some 
writers, of two grand divisions — the eastern and western. In the eastern 
division were included the five nations or Maquas (Mingos), as they were 
commonly called by the Algonquin tribes, and in the western the Yendots, or 
Wyandots (nick-named Hurons by the French) and three or four other 
nations, of whom a large proportion are now entirely extinct. The Yendots, 
after a long and deadly warfare, were nearly exterminated by the Five Nations 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. Of the survivors part sought 
refuge in Canada, where their descendants still remain; a few were incorpo- 
rated among the different tribes of the conquerors, and the remainder, consist- 
ing chiefly of the Tionontates, retired to Lake Superior. In consequence of 
the disastrous wars in which they afterwards became involved with other pow- 
erful nations of the northwestern region, they again repaired to the vicinity of 
their old hunting grounds. With this remnant of the original Huron or 
Wyandot nation were united some scattered fragments of other broken-up 
tribes of the same stock, and though comparatively few in number they con- 
tinued for a long period to assert successfully the right of sovereignty over the 
whole extent of country between the Ohio river and the lakes as far west as 
the territory of the Piankishaws, or Miamis, whose eastern boundary was 
probably an irregular line drawn through the valley of the Great Miami 
(Shimeamee) and the Ottawah-se-pee, or Maumee river of Lake Erie. The 
Shawanees and the Delawares, it is believed, were occupants of a part of the 
fore-mentioned country merely by sufferance of the Wyandots, whose right 
of dominion seemed never to have been called in question excepting by the 
Mingoes or Five Nations. The Shawanees were originally powerful and always 
warlike. Kentucky received its name from them in the course of their migra- 
tions between their former place of residence on the Suanee river, adjacent 
to the southern sea-coast, and the territory of the Yendots in the North. The 
name (Kentuckee) is compounded from the Shawanees and signifies a "land 
or place at the head of a river." 

"The chosen residence of the Wyandots was at an early period, as it was 
lat^r, on the waters of the Saun-dus-tee, or Sandusky. Though greatly reduced 
in numbers, they have, perhaps, attained a higher degree of civilization than 
any other tribe in the vicinity of the northwestern lakes. For the following 
specimen of the Wyandot language and for the greater part of the statements 
given above we are indebted to the Archaeologia Americana. 

The Wyandot Vocabulary, 

One, Scat. Three, Shaight. 

Two, Tin-dee. Four, An-daght. 

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Five, Wee-ish. 

Six, Wau-shau. 

Seven, Soo-tare. 

Eight, Aultarai. 

Nine, Ain-tru. 

Ten, Augh-sagh. 

Twenty, Ten-deit-a-waugh-sa. 

Thirty, Shaigh-ka-waugh-sa. 

Forty, An-daugh-ka-waugh-sa. 

Fifty, Wee-ish-a-waugh-sa. 

Sixty, Wau-shau-waugh-sa. 

Seventy, Soo-tare- waugh-sa. 

Eighty, Au-tarai-waugh-sa. 

Ninety, Ain-tru-waugh-sa. 

One Hundred, Scute-main-gar-we. 

God, Ta-main-de-sue. 

Devil, Degh-shu-re-noh. 

Heaven, Ya-roh-nia. 

Good, Ye-waughnste. 

Bad, Waugh-she. 

Hell, Degh-shunt. 

Sun, Ya-an-des-hra. 

Moon, Waugh-sunt-yu-an-des-ra. 

Stars, Tegh-shu. 

Sky, Cagh-ro-niate. 

Clouds, Oght-se-rah. 

Wind, Izu-quas. 

It rains, Ina-un-du-se. 

Thunder, Heno. 

Lightning, Tim-men-di-quas. 
Earth, Umaitsagh. 
Deer, Ough-sean-oto. 
Bear, Anu-e. 
Raccoon, Ha-in-te-roh. 
Fox, The-na-in-ton-to. 
Beaver, Soo-taie. 
Mink, So-hoh-main-dia. 
Turkey, Daigh-ton-tah. 
Squirrel, Ogh-ta-eh. 
Otter, Ta-wen-deh. 
Dog, Yun-ye-noh. 
Cow, Kni-ton-squa-ront. 
Horse, Ugh-shut-te. 
Goose, Yah-hounk. 
Duck, Yu-in-geh. 
Man, Ain-ga-hon. 
Woman, Uteh-ke. 
Girl, Ya-weet-sen-tho. 
Boy, Oma-int-sent-e-hah. 
Child, Che-ah-hah. 
Old Man, Ha-o-tong. 
Old Woman, Ut-sin-dag-sa. 
My Wife, Uzut-tun-oh-oh. 
Corn, Nay-hah. 
Beans, Yah-re-sah. 
Potatoes, Da-ween-dah. 
Melons, Oh-nugh-sa. 
Grass, E-ru-ta. 

"The foregoing sketch of the history and language of the Wyandots, 
though certainly not strictly necessary, will, it is hoped, be deemed not alto- 
gether inappropriate as an introduction to the following narrative of the cir- 
cumstances attending the death of a chief of that nation. The particulars 
have been recently communicated by persons who were eye-witne«ses to the 
execution and may be relied upon as perfectly accurate. 

"In the evening of the first day of June, in the year 1810, there came six 
Wyandot warriors to the house of Mr. Benjamin Sells on the Scioto river, about 
twelve miles above the spot where now stands the city of Columbus. They 
were equipped in the most warlike manner and exhibited during their stay an 
unusual degree of agitation. Having ascertained that an old Wyandot chief, 
for whom they had been making diligent inquiry, was then encamp?d at a 
distance of about two miles farther up on the bank of the river, they expressed 
a determination to put him to death and immediately went off, in the direction 
of the lodge. 

"These facts were communicated early in the ensuing morning, to Mr. 
John Sells, who now resides in the city of Dublin on the Scioto about two mile^ 

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from the place where the doomed Wyandot met his fate. Mr. Selk immediately 
proceeded up the river on horseback in quest of the Indians. He soon arrived 
at the lodge, which he found situated in a grove of sugar trees, close to the 
bend of the river. The six warriors w^ere seated in oonsultation at a distance 
of a few rods from the lodge. The old chief was with them, evidently in the 
character of a prisoner. His arms were confined by a small cord, but he sat 
with them without any manifestation of uneasiness. A few of the neighbor- 
ing white men were also there, and a gloomy looking Indian who had been a 
companion of the chief, but now kept entirely aloof — ^sitting sullenly in the 
camp. Mr. Sells approached the Indians and found them earnestly engaged 
in debate. A charge of 'witch-craft' had been made at a former time against 
the chief by some of his captors, whose friends had been destroyed, as they 
believed, by means of his evil powers. This crime, according to the imme- 
morial usage of the tribe involved a forfeiture of life. The chances of a hunt- 
er's life had brought the old man to his pre-sent location, and his pursuers had 
sought him out in order that they might execute upon him the sentence of 
their law. 

Tlie Fatal Council. 

"The council was of two or three hours duration. The accusing party 
spoke alternately wdth much ceremony, but w^th evident bitterness of feeling. 
The prisoner, in his replies, was eloquent, though dispassionate. Occasionally, 
a smile of scorn would appear, for an instant, on his countenance. At the 
close of the consultation it was ascertained that they had affirmed the sentence 
of death which had before been passed upon the chief. Inquiry having been 
made by some of the white men, with reference to their arrangements, the 
captain of the six warriors pointed to the sun and signified to them that the 
execution would take place at one o'clock in the afternoon. Mr. Sells went to 
the captain and asked him what the chief had done. 'Very bad Indian,' he 
replied, 'make good Indian sick — make horse sick — make die — very bad 
chief.' Mr. Sells then made an effort to persuade his white friends to rescue 
the victim of superstition from his impending fate, but to no purpose. They 
were then in a frontier situation, entirely open to the incursions of the north- 
ern tribes and w^ere, consequently unwilling to subject themselves to the dis- 
pleasure of their savage visitors by any interference with their operations. He 
then proposed to release the chief by purcha.'se — offering to the captain for that 
purpose a fine horse of the value of three hundred dollars. 'Let me see him,' 
said the Indian; the horse was accordingly brought forth,, and closely ex- 
amined; and so much were they staggered by this proposition that they again 
repaired to their place of consultation and remained in council a considerable 
length of time before it was finally rejected. 

"The conference was again terminated, and five of the Indians began to 
amuse themselves with running, jumping and other athletic exercise. The 
captain took no part with them. When again inquired of, as to the time of 
execution, he pointed to the sun, as before, and indicated the hour of four. 
The prisoner then walked slowly to his camp — partook of jerked venison — 

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washed and arrayed himself in his best apparel and afterwards painted his 
face. His dress was very rich — his hair grey, his whole appearance graceful 
and commanding. At his request, the whole company drew round him at the 
lodge. He then observed the exertions of Mr. Sells in his behalf, and presented 
to him a written paper, with a request that it might be read to the company. 
It was a recommendation signed by Governor Hull and in compliance with 
the request of the prisoner, it was fixed and left upon the side of a large treo- 
at a short distance from the wigwam. 

1 Ue Chiefs SubliTne Stoicism. 

"The hour of execution being close at hand, the chief shook hands in 
silence with the surrounding spectators. On coming to Mr. Sells he appeared 
much moved — grasped his hands warmly, spoke for a few minutes in the 
Wyandot language and pointed to the heavens. He then turned from the wig- 
wam, and with a voice of surpassing strength and melody, commenced the 
chant of the death-song. He was followed closely by the Wyandot warriors, 
all timing with the slow and measured march, the music of his wild and mel- 
ancholy dirge. The white men were all, likewise, silent followers in that 
strange procession. At the distance of seventy or eighty yards from the camp 
they came to a shallow grave, which, unknown to the white men, had been 
previously prepared by the Indians. Here the old man knelt down, and in an 
elevated, but solemn voice, addressed his prayer to the Great Spirit. As soon as 
he had finished, the captain of the Indians knelt beside him and prayed in a 
similar manner. Their prayers, of course, w^ere spoken in the Wyandot lan- 
guage. When they arose, the captain was again accosted by Mr. Sells, who 
insisted that if they were inflexible in their determination to shed blood, they 
should at least remove their victim beyond the limit of the white settlement. 
'No!' said he, very sternly, and with evident displeasure. 'No; good Indian 
fraid — ^he no go with this bad man — mouth give fire in the dark night, good 
Indian fraid — he no go!' 'My friend,' he continued, 'me tell you white man, 
bad man, white man kill him, Indian say nothing.' 

The Final Scene: 

"Finding all interference futile, Mr. Sells was at length compelled reluc- 
tantly to abandon the old man to his fate. After a few moments delay, he 
again sank down upon his knees and prayed, as he had done before. When 
he had ceased praying, he still continued in a kneeling position. All the rifles 
belonging to the party had been left at the w^igwam. There was not a weapon 
of any kind to be seen at the place of execution, and the spectators were con- 
sequently unable to form any conjecture as to the mode of procedure, which 
the executioners had determined on for the fulfillment of their purpose. Sud- 
denly one of the warriors drew from beneath the skirts of his capote, a keen, 
bright tomahawk, walked rapidly up behind the chieftain brandishing the 
weapon on high for a single moment and then struck with his full strength. 
The blow descended directly upon the crown of the head and the victim 

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immediately fell prostrate. After he had lain awhile in the agonies of death, 
the Indian directed the attention of the white men to the drops of sweat which 
were gathering upon the neck and face ; remarking with much apparent exul- 
tation that it was conclusive proof of the suflFerer's guilt. Again the execu- 
tioner advanced and with the same weapon inflicted two or three additional 
and heavy blows. 

*^As soon as life was entirely extinct, the body was hastily buried with all 
its apparel and decorations and the assemblage dispersed. The Wyandots 
returned immediately to their hunting ground and the white men to their 
hornet. The murdered chief was known among the whites by the name of 
Leather Lips. Around the spot where the bones repose the towering forest has 
given place to the grain fields and the soil above him has for years been fur- 
rowed and refurrowed by the plow-share." 

First a County. 

The county of Franklin began its political existence, by virtue of a legis- 
lative enactment, passed March 30, 1803, and taking eflFect April 30, 1803. 
The metes and bounds of the county as originally fixed were as follows: "Be- 
ginning on the western boundary of the twentieth range of townships east of 
the Scioto river, at the corner of sections Nos. 24 and 25 in the 9th township 
of the 21st range, surveyed by John Matthews, thence west until it intersects 
the eastern boundary line of Greene county, thence north with said line until 
it intersects the State line, thence eastwardly with the said line to the north- 
west corner of Fairfield county, thence with the western boundary line of Fair- 
field to the point of beginning." That is, bounded on the east by nearly our 
present line, south by a line near the middle of what is now Pickaway county, 
on the west by Greene county, and on the north by Lake Erie. The creation 
of the county of Delaware in 1808, reduced our northern boundary to its 
present line; the creation of the county of Pickaway in 1810, reduced our 
southern boundary to its present limits ; the creation of Madison in 1810, and 
of Union in 1820, reduced our western limits to the boundaries represented by 
Wheeler's County Map, published in 1842 ; but subsequently, by an act of the 
legislature passed the 4th of March, 1845, our western boundary was changed 
by making DarLy creek the line from the northwest corner of Brown to the 
north line of Pleasant township, as represented by Footers Map of 1856; and 
by an act passed the 27th of January, 1857, entitled "An act to annex a part 
of Licking county to the county of Franklin," there were nine half sections 
taken from the southwest corner of Licking, and attached to Franklin. This 
occasions the jog in the eastern line of Truro township, as represented on the 
maps. Then at the session of 1850-51, a range of sections, being a strip one 
mile in width and six miles in length, including the town of Winchester, was 
taken from Fairfield county and attached to the east side of Madison township, 
in FVanklin county, as represented on Footers Map. The county is now in 
nearly a square form, and is twenty-two and a half miles in extent north and 
south, and would probably average a trifle over that from east to west. 

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First Jvdges; First Court House; First Jail; First Court Record. 

On April 6, 1803, the legislature, sitting at Chillicothe, met in joint ses- 
sion of both bodies, house and senate, and elected the following associate 
judges of the court of common pleas for Franklin county: John Dill. David 
Jamison and Joseph Foos. The state was divided into three judicial districts. 
Three presiding judges of common pleas, viz.: Calvin Pease for the first, 
Wyllys Silliman for the second, and Francis Dunlavy for the third were chosen 
as such. On the same day Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., Samuel Huntington 
and William Sprigg were elected supreme judges. Associate judges were 
elected in each of the seventeen counties into which the state was divided, so 
that the state judiciary in all its branches was established at the same legisla- 
tive session. 

The first court of common pleas for the county, therefore, was Hon. 
Wyllys Silliman, of Washington county, presiding judge; Hon. John Dill, 
Hon. David Jamison and Hon. Joseph Foos, associate justices or judges. 

The first session of this court was holden May 10, 1803. The following is 

TJie First Cowrt Record, 

"At a meeting of the associate judges of the court of common pleas, of 
Franklin county, at the temporary seat of justice of said county, in Franklin- 
ton, on Tuesday, the 10th day of May, 1803, — present, the Hon. John Dill, 
chief judge; David Jamison, and Joseph Foos, Esqrs., associate judges of the 
court aforesaid ; Who, having taken their official seats, were attended by Lucas 
Sullivant, clerk of the said court of common pleas, and they then proceeded to 
lay oflF the said county of Franklip into townships, as required by an act of the 
general assembly of the state of Ohio, entitled 'An act to regulate the election 
of justices of the peace, and for other purposes,' in the following manner, to- 

"Ordered, that all that part of Franklin county contained within the fol- 
lowing limits, to-wit: Beginning at the forks of Darby creek, that is, at the 
junction of what is called Treacles creek with Darby creek, running thence 
south to the line between the counties of Boss and Franklin ; thience east with 
said line until it intersects the Scioto river; thence up the semae till it comes to 
a point one mile, on a straight line, above the mouth of Roaring run ; and 
from thence to the point of beginning, do make and constitute the first 
township in Franklin coimty, and be called Franklin township. 

"Ordered, that all that tract or part of Franklin county contained within 
the following limits and boundaries, to-wit: Beginning on the west bank of 
the Scioto river, one mile, on a direct line, above the mouth of Roaring run ; 
from thence, on a direct line, to the junction of Treacles creek with Darby 
creek, which is frequently called the forks of Darby; thence south unto the 
line between the counties of Ross and Franklin; thence west with said line 
until it intersects the county line of Greene; thence with the last mentioned 
line north, and from the point of beginning, up the Scioto to the northern 

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boundaries of Franklin county, do make and constitute the second township 
in said county, and be called Darby township. 

"Ordered, that all that tract or part of Franklin county contained in the 
following meets (sic) and boundaries, to-wit: Beginning on the east bank of 
the Scioto river, at the points where the sectional line between the sections 
number eight and seventeen, in township four, and range twenty-two intersects 
the Scioto river; thence east with the said sectional line until it intersects the 
line between the counties of Fairfield and Franklin; thenoe south with the 
.-anie to the line between the counties of Ross and Franklin ; thence west with 
the same until it intersect.* the Scioto river; thence up the river to the point of 
beginning, to make and con^^titute the third township in Franklin county, 
and be called Harrison township. 

"Ordered, that all that part of Franklin county contained wdthin the fol- 
lowing limits and boundaries, to-wit: Beginning on the east bank of the Scioto 
river, at the intersection of the sectional line between the sections number 
eight and seventeen, in the fourth township and twenty-second range; running 
thence with the said sectional line east, to the line between the counties of Fair- 
field and Franklin ; thence north with said line, and from the point of begin- 
ning, with the Scioto, to the northerly boundary of Franklin county, do con- 
stitute and make the fourth Township in Franklin county and be called Lib- 
erty township. 

"Ordered, that in Franklin township there be elected two justices of the 
peace, and that the electors hold their election for that purpose at the tempo- 
rary place of holding c*ourts for the county of Franklin, in Franklinton, on 
the twenty-first day of June next, as provided by law. 

"Ordered, that in Darby township there be elected one justice of the peace, 
and that the electors in said township hold their election for that purpose at 
the house of David Mitchell, in said township, on the twenty-first day of June 
next, as provided by law. 

"Ordered, that there be elected in Harrison township one justice of the 
peace, and that the electors in said township hold their election for that pur- 
pose at the house of Alexander Laughferty, on one Thomas Renixes' (sic) 
farm, in their said township, on the twenty-first day of June next, as provided 
by law. 

"Ordered, that there be elected in Liberty township two justices of the 
peace, and that the elector- hold their election for that purpose at the house 
of John Beaty, in said township, on the twenty-first day of June next, as pro- 
vided by law. 

"Ordered, that this court be adjourned without delay. 
"Test. "Lucas Sullivant, Clerk." 

The regular courts for several years were held in hired rooms, until the 
Fianklinton court house was erected, in 1807-8 — Lucas Sullivant, contractor. 
A jail was sooner provided, as was shown by the minutes. 

The First Jail was a small log building. It was a temporary concern, and 
remained but a few years. About the same time that the courthouse was 
erected, a new brick jail was also erected, a few rods northeast from the '^ourt- 

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house — Arthur O'Harra, contractor. These buildings remained in use until 
the county seat was removed to Columbus, in 1824. 

First Justices of the Peace. 

On ihe 27th of June, 1803, under the provision of the 26th section of the 
act regulating elections the following justices of the peace were elected: Zach- 
ariah Stephen and James Marshall, in Franklin township; Joshua Ewing, in 
Darby; William Bennett, in Harrison; Joseph Hunter and Ezra Brown. 

First Congressman Voted For, 

On the same day, an election was held for a representative in congress, 
being the first election for a member of congress ever held in the state, the state 
being then entitled to but one member, and his term was to commence from 
the fourth of March preceding his election. Jeremiah Morrow was elected. 

The following are copies of the certificates and abstract of the votes in 
Franklin county, to-wit: 

''On Monday, the 27th of June, 1803, in conformity to the 26th section of 
an act of the general assembly of the state of Ohio, entitled 'An act to regulate 
elections,' I called to my assistance David Jamison and Joseph Foos, Esqrs., 
two of the associate judges of the court of common pleas of Franklin county, 
and proceeded to open and examine the poll-books returned to me as clerk of 
said county, from the different townships therein contained, and for a repre- 
sentative in congress, find the votes as thus stated, to-wit: Michael Baldwin, 
50; William McMillan, 34; Elias Langham, 44; Jeremiah Morrow, 2. 

"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my narne, and affixed 
the seal of th-e county aforesaid, this, the day and year above written. 

Lucas Sullivant, C. F. C. 

"We do hereby certify that the above statement of the ele<?tion held on the 
21st of this instant, in the county of Franklin, is a correct statement, as appears 
from the returns made to the clerk's office, from the several townships in our 
said county. 

"Given under our hands this 27th of June, 1803. 

"David Jamison, 
"Joseph Foos.'' 

First Military Execution. 

In June, 1813, while the Ohio army of the war of 1812-1815 lay at Frank- 
linton, a soldier, William Fish by name, was shot under sentence of court- 
martial on the charge of desertion and threatening the life of his captain. 
Three other soldiers, whase names were not recorded by the original historian, 
were also condemned to death, but were pardoned by Gen. William Henry Har- 
rison. One, however, was placed on a coffin by a newly opened grave, blind- 
folded, and left under the impression that he was to be shot along with Fish. 
Imagining that the firing squad had missed him, he was restored to nervous 

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equilibrium only when the generaUs pardon, with an admonition, was read to 
him by an adjutant. 

The First Wedding. 

The first nuptial ceremony celebrated in Columbus occurred in 1814, the 
high contracting parties being Mr. George B. Harvey and Miss Jane Arm- 
strong. A week or two later, another couple followed suit. They were Mr. 
Joseph Dello and Miss Polly CoUett. Rev. Jame^ Hoge was the officiating 
minister. These weddings took place on the east side of the river. There were 
possibly, previous to this date, weddings on the woi?t side of the river, but there 
are no attainable records thereof. 

The First Bank Established. 

The first bank to be established in Columbus began business in 1816. In 
that year Columbus was first incorporated, fuller mention of which appears 

The First Ohio Gazetteer. 

This valuable publication by John Kilbourne appeared in 1816, being 
duly copyrighted by the author. So great was the demand for the work that it 
went through six editions in three years. He died in Columbus in 1831. 

The First Almanac. 

William Lusk in 1817 published the first almanac at Columbus. To this 
he added a complete roster of the public officers of the state, by counties, mak- 
ing a pamphlet of sixty-four pages and bestowed on the work the title of "Ohio 
Register and Western Calendar,'' which he copyrighted and published for a 
number of years. He died in Dayton in 1855. In his Register of 1821, he 
describes Franklinton as containing a post office, three taverns, a common 
school and an academy "in which are taught English, Grammar, Geography, 
Mensuration, Geometry, Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical Surveying, Navi- 
gation, Algebra, and Astronomy." He was president, faculty and teacher, all 
in one, of the institution. 

He described Worthington as a town containing "a post office, a printing 
office, four taverns, four mercantile stores, a college, a Masonic hall and a num- 
ber of large manufactories for woolen clothes, hats, saddles, shoes, combs, etc." 

A First Presidential Visit. 

In the latter part of August, 1817, President Monroe and suite passed 
through this county, on their return from Detroit after his northern tour of 
inspection of the public fortifications, etc. They were met at Worthington by 
the Franklin Dragoons, commanded by Captain Vance, and escorted to Colum- 
bus, where proper arrangements had been made for the reception; and the 

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President was received in the state house, and welcomed to the capital by a 
neat and appropriate speech from Honorable Hiram M. Curry, then treasurer 
of state. To which the President made a suitable reply, complimenting the 
'^infant city," as he called it, and its inhabitants. 

They traveled on horseback, and were generally escorted from one town 
to another by the military, or some distinguished citizens. They rode fast, 
generally in a canter. Mr. Monroe wore the old-fashioned, three-cornered, 
cocked hat — his dress otherwise was in plain, citizen style. His face was , 
effectually sunburnt from exposure. 

This troop of dragoons was first organized in time of the war of 1812, and 
continued until 1832, or 1833, when they disbanded. They were commanded 
by the following, successive captains: Joseph Vance, Abram J. McDowell, 
Robert Brotherton, P. H. Olmstead, Joseph McElvain and David Taylor. 

Captain Vance was a fine military officer, and was in the service, in dif- 
ferent grades of office, during th« greater part of the war. He was among the 
early settlers of the county ; married in Franklinton in 1805, and remained a 
resident of the county the balance of his life. He was a surveyor and for many 
years the county surveyor; was one of the conspicuous citizens of his day, and 
highly respected. He died in 1824. 

Captain McDowell was a military officer of portly and commanding ap- 
pearance. He was afterward promoted to the rank of colonel, which title he 
bore through life. He was among the early settlers of the county, and held the 
office of clerk of the courts and county recorder many years. He was after- 
ward mayor of the city of Columbus. Was a man of free and jovial disposition, 
and always had warm friends. He died in the fall of 1844, in the fifty-fourth 
year of his age. 

Captain Brotherton was the third commander of this popular troop, and 
was, from that, promoted to the rank of colonel, which title he bore through 
life. He was a native of Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, and came to Frank- 
linton when a youth, and resided in this county ever after. He married a 
daughter of Captain Kooken, a family of high respectability. He was of a mild 
and sociable disposition, and became very popular, apparently without an effort 
on his part. He served two constitutional terms of four years each, as sheriflf, 
and filled that critical and unpleasant office with peculiar ease and kindness, 
and was never charged with oppression. He died in November, 1837, aged 
about forty-five years. 

Captain McElvain, like his predecessors in the command of the troops, 
was promoted to the rank of colonel in the Ohio militia, and bore the title of 
colonel through life. He died suddenly on the 7th of February, 1858, at his 
residence in Worthington, aged about sixty-five years. Colonel McElvain was 
one of the first residents of Franklin county. He came here with his father 
and family, when he was a child, in the spring of 1798, and remained here 
ever since. He was in turn farmer, merchant, hotel-keeper and public officer. 
He was many years an assistant at the Ohio penitentiary. He held the office 
of county treasurer four years, and was superintendent of the county infirmary 
a number of years, and discharged the duties of his office with kindness and 

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First Toll Bridge. 

The first toil bridge in Columbus was erected in 1815-1816 by Lucas Sul- 
livant. It was erected across the Scioto on the road leading from Columbus to 
Franklinton. The bridge was erected under a charter granted by the legisla- 
ture. This charter or franchise printed elsewhere in full, passed to the owner- 
ship of Joseph Sullivant, when the estate of his father, Lucas Sullivant, wa»"< 
divided among his heirs. The National road when located in 1832-1833, 
crossed at practically the same point, and the superintendent in charge agreed 
to erect a free bridge at the expense of the United States government, on con- 
dition that Sullivant's rights under the charter were abdicated. Public-spirited 
citizens on both sides of the river subscribed eight thousand dollars, and Frank- 
lin county, through its board of commissions, added two thousand dollars, and 
the ten thousand dollars thus raised was paid to Mr. Sullivant, for the abdica- 
tion of his charter rights. 

The First Pestilence. 

The summer and fall of 1823 exceeded anything before known for sick- 
ness. The whole country was little else than one vast infirmary — whole fami- 
lies were frequently prostrate without well members enough to take care of the 
sick ones. The diseases were bilious and intermittent fevers, of all types, from 
the common fever and ague to the most malignant. Although the mortality 
was great, still it was not excessively so in proportion to the number of sick. 
Many prominent men were taken off that season, amongst whom were Lucas 
Sullivant, Judgp John A. McDowell, Judge John Kerr, David S. Broderick, 
Barzillai Wright, keeper of the penitentiary, and others. The ensuing year, 
1824, was also very sickly, but not so much so as 1823. Amongst the promi- 
nent old citizens carried off this year were Captain Joseph Vance, Billingsby 
Bull, Esquire, James Culbertson, John Starr, Sr., and others. 

First Court House East of the River. 

In 1824 the county seat was removed from Franklinton to Columbus and 
a commodious brick building and jail was erected at the spot where the great 
stone Temple of Justice on the block bounded by Mound and Fulton and High 
and Pearl streets now stands. 

First Extension of High Street. 

In 1823 a road was opened extending from the then north end of High 
street to Worthington drawn at a tangent. This road obviated the use of the 
former thoroughfare, especially in muddy weather, extending up the Scioto 
and the Olentangy. This stream, formerly called Whetstone is, by a law 
passed in February, 1833, to restore the Indian names to certain streams, called 
Olentangy; and the stream sometimes called Big Walnut and sometimes Big 
Belly is named Gahannah, though it is said that the name Gahannah is only 

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applicable to that stream below the junction of the three creeks, Blacklick, 
Walnut, and Alum — that the Indian word Gahannah signifies three united 
in one. 

The First Silk Factory, 

One often sees in the lawns of the city and along the roadways and boule- 
vards leading out into the suburbs that species of mulberry tree which pro- 
duces a luscious white berry. Along in the '30s, and a little later perhaps, 
its stately Latin name, Mora Multicaulus, was on all lips, and young and old 
prophasied in its name of fortunes so fabulous that AUadin's lamp looked as 
insignificant, as a fortune getter, as an emaciated firefly under a full moon 
in August. During the excitement enterprising people made money selling 
the mulberry trees, or bushes, to other people, who planted and nurtured 
them for a few years, when they would be able to feed vast colonies of silk 
worms, which would spin fortunes in silk for the tree owners. 

The Mora Multicaulus sellers insured the growth of their trees, taking 
one-half in cash when they were "set out'' and the other half the next year, 
when they come into full leaf and demonstrated their health and abilities to 
grow under Ohio's climate. The original purveyors made money, but the 
niull)erry growers, the silk worm herders and silk manufacturers did not suc- 
ceed so satisfactorily. In fact they did not succeed at all, save in having 
delicious fniit for table use during the mulberry season. Joseph Sullivant, 
A. S. Chew and some others formed a company, set out an immense Mora 
Mtdtieanlus field, contracted for the product of the silk worms in all direc- 
tions and erected and equipped a big frame silk factory on the west side, but 
never made a yard or a skein of silk, but abandoned the enterprise, and an 
antiquarian could not locate the site of the factory at this day if he tried. 
This Mora Multicaulus business was then and since then denounced and 
pointed out as a fake and a humbug. But was it? 

Almost immediately following the Mora Multicaulus failure came the 
"sugar beet" craze, and it turned out to be a worse humbug than the silk worm 
busine.-s, and history so records it, interspersed at various points by strong 
implication, with expletives, objurgations and impolite remarks. And yet 
how unreasonable is "history" with respect to the sugar beet? It came too 
early or under adverse circumstances, and was whistled down the wind. May it 
not \)Q that the Mora Multicaulus came ahead of time in this latitude, earn- 
ing only distrust because it came at an inopportune season of the continent's 
evolution? The future historian must answer this question. 

Ths First Political Millennium. 

This condition arrived in 1840 and continued throughout the presidential 
campaign of that year. It was hoe cake, the coon skin and hard cider for 
the present^ — "Two dollars a day and roast beef" for the future. The hoe 
cake, the coon skin and the hard eider came all right. The two dollars a day 
and roast beef did not appear in a well defined form, but the people, without 
much regard to party divisions, did help to send one of Ohio's grandest and 

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most patriotic citizens to the presidential chair — the heroic figure who most 
largely, from his headquarters on the west side of the river, directed the west- 
ern and northern campaigns in the war of 1812, sometimes in personal com- 
mand on the firing line, and whose military genius is not yet fully appre- 
ciated, whose achievements as a statesman were cut short by the untimely hand 
of death. 

The First Paper Mill 

The first paper mill was erected in 1839-40 by Henry Roedter and John 
Siebert, a mile or two above the upper end of Franklinton, where they for 
some lime carried on the paper making business. It did not, however, suc- 
ceed well, and Roedter soon passed out of the concern and removed to Cin- 
cinnati. It was then for a time owned and worked by Siebert and Ernst 
Frankenberg, and succeeded no better. It then passed into the hands of Asahel 
Chittenden, who removed the machinery to a new brick building, erected for 
that purpose, just above the National road bridge in Columbus, where it 
was worked for some time by J. L. Martin and R. H. Hubbell, and then by 
William Murphy until it was destroyed by fire in 1848. It was then rebuilt 
and worked by Mr. A. B. Newburgh until the fall of 1849, when it finally 
closed its business. The same building was afterward converted into a ma- 
chine shop, owned by Messrs. Swan and Davis, and in July, 1854, it was again 
destroyed by fire — building, machinery and all. 

The First Newspaper. 

The first newspaper in Franklin county was established at Worthington 
by Colonel James Kilbourne, grandfather of Colonel James Kilbourne. the 
present Columbus manufacturer, in 1811, and named the Western Intelli- 
gencer. In 1814 the paper was removed to Columbus, and it finally evolved 
into the Ohio State Journal of the present day. A full account of that evolu- 
tion and the evolution of the Press Post, along with the rise and fall of a long 
line of newspapers down to the present time, finds a conspicuous place else- 
where in these volumes. 

The First Turnpike. 

The Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike was the first joint stock company 
road constructed, any part of which was in Franklin county. On the 31st 
day of January, 1826, an act was passed by the legislature incorporating John 
Kilbourne, Abram I. McDowell, Henry Brown, William Neil, Orange John- 
son, Orris Parish and Robert Brotherton, of Franklin coimty, and nineteen 
others, named in the act and residing along the line of the road in and about 
Delaware, Bucyrus and Sandusky, and their associates, by the name of "The 
Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike company," with a capital of one hundred 
thousand dollars, with power to increase the same to two hundred thousand 
dollars; the stock divided into shares of one hundred dollars each; the com- 
pany to be governed by a board of nine directors. 

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At U AtiT>eared Before the ! mm* use C;i|*1tol Trust Building Was Erected Less 
• Than a Decade \^o. 

"ASK THE POLICEMAN," C^ r^r\n]c^ 

Mack P. Murray, Corner Man at Broad and High Streets. Digitized by vjOOyiL 


''• Af>y ! 

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The charter was accepted by the company, and by an act of congre.-s 
I)a^ed March 3, 1827, there was thirty-one thousand eight hundred and forty 
acres of land given to the state of Ohio in trust for the use of the >aid com- 
pany, to aid them in the construction of the road. Without unnecessary delay 
the road wa^ .surveyed and located. Colonel Kilbourne was the sun-eyor and 
Orange Johnson, Esquire, was one of the locating commissioners and the prin- 
cipal agent for the company from first to last. The road was nearly eight 
years in constructing and was finished in the fall of 1834. It is one hundred 
and six miles in length, from Columbus to Sandusky, and cost seventy-four 
thousand three hundred and seventy-six dollars, being an average cost of a 
little over seven hundred and one dollars per mile. The charter required that 
at least eighteen feet in width should be made "an artificial road, composed 
of stone, gravel, wood or other suitable materials, well compacted together, in 
such manner as to secure a firm, substantial and even road, rising In the middle 
with a gradual arch.'' Upon a proper construction of this clause has hung 
all the troubles between the road company and the traveling public. The 
company seem to have supposed that a properly formed clay road would meet 
the requirements of the charter, while the public seem to have expected a stone 
or graveled road. The charter required that the governor should, at the 
proper time, appoint an agent to examine the road and report his opinion in 
writing to the president of the company, whether the same be completed agree- 
ably to the provisions of the charter; and Nathan Merriman was appointed the 
agent for that purpose, and he reported "that he had examined the road and 
that, in his opinion, the same was completed agreeably to the provisions of the 
act incorporating said company." And thereupon the company erecttd their 
gates and exacted toll from those traveling the road. The road was quite an 
important public improvement at that time, but it was only a clay or mud 
pike, and in the spring and wet seasons of the year it was in places almost 
impassable; and to be obliged to pay toll at such times was grievously com- 
plained of and the gates occasionally torn down ; but the agent of the company 
would immediately re-erect them. The subject was finally brought before the 
legislature and on the 28th of February, 1843, the act incorporating the com- 
pany was unconditionally repealed ; and it was further provided that it should 
not be lawful thereafter for said company to erect or keep up any gate or collect 
any tolls on the road. At the same session, in March, 1843, commissioners 
were appointed for that purpose, who surveyed and laid out a state road from 
Columbus to Sandusky upon the bed of the turnpike: and on the 12th of 
^larch, 1845. an act wiis passed establishing the same a public highway. Until 
this time the toll gates had been kept up and toll received, notwithstanding 
the repeal of the charter. But immediately after the passage of thLs act the 
gates on the road were torn down by an excited populace and never more 
erected. There was but one gate on this road within the bounds of Franklin 
county, and that was about two miles north of Columbus. The company 
claim that these acts of the legislature were unconstitutional ; that their road 
had been made according to the provisions of the charter, and relied most par- 
ticularly upon the decision of the state agent, who had formally accepted the 

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road, and they kept applying regujarly to each successive legislature for relief. 
At the session of 1843-4 a committee, of which Dr. S. Parsons was chairman, 
reported in favor of the road company conveying to the state all their rights, 
interests and privileges in the road, and that the state pay the stockholders 
severally the amount of their stock in state bonds, and that the road be de- 
clared one of the public works of the state and placed under the control and 
supervision of the board of public works. 

In 1847, by a resolution of the legislature, the subject was referred to the 
attorney general (Henry Stanberry, Esquire), and in his report he did not 
directly give an opinion on the constitutionality of the repeal, but says: "I 
am of opinion that a wrong has been done the company," etc. At the session 
of 1856-7 a bill passed the senate to authorize the company to bring suit 
against the state for injustice done in the repeal of the charter; but the bill 
was lost in the house and the project was never revived. 

The Columbus and Worthington Plank Road or Turnpike, the Colum- 
bus and Portsmouth Turnpike, the Columbus and Harisburg Turnpike, the 
Columbus and Johnstown Turnpike Road, the Columbus and Sunbury Turn- 
pike and Plank Road, the Columbus and Granville Plank Road or Turnpike, 
The Columbus and Groveport Turnpike, the Cottage Mills and Harrisburg 
Turnpike, the Franklin and Jackson Turnpike, the Columbus and Lock win 
(Lockbourne) Plank Road, the Clinton and Blendon Plank road, and other 
state and county highways which radiated from Columbus in all directions 
between 1826 and 1856, indicated how securely the city was attracting to her- 
self the great possibilities incident not only to her outlying townships, but the 
adjoining counties east, west, north and south, two or three tiers deep with the 
great National Road bisecting the state east and west from Virginia to Indiana 
and the west and the great State Road — the first above named — ^bisecting it 
north and south, from Sandusky to Portsmouth, from Lake Harbor to navi- 
gable riverSj crossing at right angles under the shadow of the dome of the 

Originally all these were toll roads, and one by one were bought by the 
county and the cost of purchase assessed against the abutting farm owners 
within prescribed limits, the last toll road disappearing about 1891-2. Free 
turnpike.-, with the mile limit on either side, has given the country a good high- 
way system, touching almost directly every section of land within its limits. 

The First Canal. 

The first canal in Columbus was a branch of the Ohio canal, and was the 
last one as well. On the 30th of April, 1827, was the commencement of the 
first manual operations upon this part of the Ohio canal. The citizens of 
Columbus and its neighborhood, to the number of eight or nine hundred, 
assembled at the .<^tate house and at two o'clock formed a procession, marshaled 
by Colonels McDowell and McElvain, and preceded by General Warner and 
his suite and parts of Captain Joseph McElvain's company of dragoons, Cap- 
tain Foos's company of riflemen, Columbus Artillery and state officers, and 
marched to the ground, near where Comstock's warehouse stood at that time. 

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Joseph R. Swan, Esquire, delivered a short but pertinent address, and at its 
close General McLene, then secretary of state, and Nathaniel McLean, Esquire, 
then beeper of the penitentiary, proceeded to remove the first earth from the 
lateral canal, which was wheeled from the ground by Messrs. R. Osborn and 
H. Brown, then auditor and treasurer of state, amidst the reiterated shouts of 
the assembly. The company then retired from the ground to partake of a 
cold collation, prepared by Mr. C. Heyl, on the brow of the hill a few rods 
north of the penitentiary square. After the cloth w^as removed the following, 
among other toasts, were drunk : 

"The Ohio Canal — The great artery which will carrj' vitality to the ex- 
tremities of the Union." 

"The Citizens of Columbus — Behold how good and how pleasant it is for 
brethren to dwell together in unity. Who envies this day, let him slink back 
to his cavern and growl." 

This branch of canal was over four years in process of construction. The 
heaviest jobs were the canal dam across the Scioto and the Columbus locks, 
Mes^srs. W. McElvain, A. McElvain, B. Sells and P. Sells, contractors; the four 
mile locks at Lockbourne, the Granville Company, consisting of Messrs. Mon- 
son, Fasset, Taylor and Avery, contractors. The first mile from the Scioto was 
excavated by the penitentiary convicts under guards. Such men were se- 
lected by the keeper as would have least inducements to break away; and they 
generally received a remitment of part of their sentences? for faithful services. 

The farming and producing part of the community were watching with 
grc^t anxiety the progress of this work, pretty correctly anticipating the new 
era that the completion of the canals would introduce in the Ohio market. 
Of the substantial farmers along this short line who were thus watching its 
progress might be named William Merion, Moses Merrill, William Stewart. 
R. C. Henderson, Joseph Fisher, Andrew Dill, Pereival Adam.^, Michael 
Stimmel, Fergus Morehead, Samuel Riley, James German, Thomas Morris, 
William Bennett, Jacob Plum, Luke Decker and Thomas Of whom 
Messrs. Adams, Stimmel and Riley were the only survivors in 1858. 

On the 23d of September, 1831, the first boat arrived at Columbus by way 
of the canal. About eight o'clock in the evening the firing of cannon an- 
nounced the approach of the ^^Governor Brown," a canal boat launched at 
Circleville a few days previous and neatly fitted up for an excursion of pleasure 
to this place, several of the most respectable citizens of Pickaway county being 
on board as passengers. The next morning at an early hour a considerable 
number of ladias and gentlemen of Columbus repaired to the boat in order to 
pay therir respects to the visitors; and after the delivery of a brief but very 
appropriate address by General Flournoy, exchanging those friendly saluta- 
tion? and cordial greetings which the occasion was so well calculated to call 
forth, the party proceeded back to Circleville, accompanied a short distance 
by a respectable number of the citizens of Columbus and the Columbus band 
of music. On the afternoon of the second day after, two canal boats, the 
"Cincinnati" and the ^'Red Rover," from the lake by way of Newark, entered 
the lock at the mouth of the Columbus feeder, where thev were received bv a 

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eoiiimittoe appointed for that purpose, and proceeded, under a national salute 
of twenty-four guns and music from the Columbus band, to a point just belo^s 
the National road bridge, where the commanders were welcomed, in the name 
of the citizens of Columbu^, by Colonel Doherty in a very neat address. A 
procession was then formed, when the company proceeded to Mr. Ridgeway^s 
large warehouse and partook of a collation prepared in handsome style by Mr. 
John Young. A third boat, the "Lady Jane," arrived soon afterward and wa;* 
received in a similar manner. On the day following, these boats having dis- 
posed of their freight, took their departure for Cleveland in the same order and 
with about the ►same ceremonies as on their arrival, a large number of ladies 
and gentlemen, together with the Columbus band, accompanying their wel- 
come visitors as far as the five-mile locks. Here they. met the ^^Chillicothe" 
and "George Baker," which took them on board, and they returned home, 
highly delighted with their ride, at the rate of three or four miles an hour. 

The First Canal Toll Collector. 

Joseph Ridgeway, Jr., was the first collector of canal tolls, and kept the 
office up at the Ridgeway warehouse on Broad street, and nearly all the boats 
passed up there to put out and take in freight. M. S. Hunter was the second 
collector, and the office was removed to the head of the canal, where it con- 
tinued ever after, and the freight business w^as nearly all done there following 
the removal of the office. David S. Doherty was the third collector, Charles 
B. Flood the fourth, Samuel McElvain the fifth and Benjamin Tressenrider 
the sixth. 

The First Poorhouse, 

The first poorhouse or county infirmary was erected on the Olentangy 
within the present general limits of the city in 1832, under the provisions of 
an act of the legislature of the date of March 8, 1831. Captain Robert Cloud 
was ai)pointed superintendent. Further reference to this and subsequent 
buildings more appropriately occupy space in another chapter. 

The First Agricultural Society 

Was organized at a public meeting in the city hall on the 6th of Septem- 
ber, 1851, and the following officers were elected: President, Samuel Medary; 
vice president, Samuel Brush; treasurer, George M. Peters; secretary, William 
Dennison, Jr.; managers, Pliny Curtis, David Taylor, Jaseph O'lTara, William 
L. Miner and William TL Rarey. A committee of three was appointed from 
each ward and township to obtain subscribers to the institution and collect 
dues from the members. 

The First Horticultural Society. 

The Columbus Horticultural Society was organized April 10, 1845. The 
officers elected May 12, 1845, were: President, Bela Latham: vice presidents, 
W. S. Sullivant and Samuel Medary: recording secretary, Joseph Sullivant; 

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correspopdiiig v-ooroiary, M. B, Bateman; treasurer, John W. Andrews; man- 
agers. Dr. I. G. Joiies, John Burr, John A. Lazell, John Fisher, Moses Jewett, 
John Miller and Leander Ransom. The first county agricultural fair was 
held on the state fair grounds near Franklinton in October, 1851. The first 
horticultural fair and exhibition was held September 26, 1845. 

The First Sale of Lots. 

The fir?t sale of lots in the city of Columbus began on June 18, 1812, and 
,continued fi\^ & public vendue for three days, and after that they were dis- 
y>o?ed of at ))rivate sale. 

The First State House. 

»The old state house was built on the southwest corner of the Capitol 
Square in 1814. A fuller description and an account of its destruction by 
fire app>ears elsewhere. 

The First Stores. 

The first stores in Columbus, say from 1812 to 1818, were op?ncd in the 
following order and conducted or ^'kept" by the following persons, respectively : 
Belonging to the Worthington Manufacturing Company, kept by Joel Buttles 
in a small brick building on west end of lot later covered by the Broadway 
Exchange. Belonging to McLene & Green, in a log cabin on Rich street. 
Three connected cabins, kept as a bakery and place of entertainment by 
Christian Heyl. 

The First Taverm. 

The first tavern was kept by Volney Payne in a two-story brick on the • 
lot afterward occupied by the Johnston building, Volney Payne, John Collett, 
John Mcllvain, Robert Russell and James Robinson, respectively, conducted 
this house until 1844. In 1844 Daniel Kooser opened a tavern on Front street, 
south of State, and a Mr. McCoUum opened one on Front, north of Broadway. 
The Franklin, afterward called the Nagle, was kept by Christian Heyl, and 
several smaller hotels, incident to a growing town of that day, were kept, but 
without special designation. 

Later, in 1815, David S. Broderick opened the "Columbus Inn'' in a 
large frame building on the comer of Town and High. In 1810 James B. 
Gardineir opened a tavern on Friend (Main) street, just west of High. Mr. 
Broderick having retired from the hotel business in 1818, Gardiner took 
charge of the stand, comer of Town and High, and called it "The Rose Tree," 
with the Biblical quotation: "The wilderness shall blossom as the rose." The 
stand for a time was known as the "Franklin House" and the "City House," 
and possibly was otherwise designated. When Mr. Gardiner removed from 
Friend (Main) street to take charge of "The Rase Tree," (Judge) Jarvis Pike 

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took charge of the former stand and renamed it "The Yankee Tavern." 
About 1815-16 there was a somewhat famous "place" yclept "The War Office," 
where, between drinking and carousing and quarreling and fighting, Squire 
Shields, who was among the first justices of the peiace, was enabled to run a 
pretty heavy police docket at times. 

The First School and School Teachers. 

The first school taught in Columbus was in a cabin that stood on the pub- 
lic square (teacher^s name not now known) ; then succeeded as teachers, in 
1814-15, and so on, Uriah Case, John Peoples, W. T. Martin, a Mr. Whitehill, 
Joseph Olds (afterward a distinguished lawyer and member of congress), Dr. 
Peleg Sisson (while acquiring his profeission), Samuel Bigger (afterward gov- 
ernor of Indiana), Rudolph Dickinson (for a number of years a member of 
the board of public works and member of congress), Daniel Bigelow, Orange 
Davi^, a ^Ir. Christie, Rev. Mr. Labare, Cyrus Parker, H. N. Hubbell, Andrew 
Williams, and a number of others not now recollected, who were all teachers 
of common subscription schools in Columbus before the introduction of the 
present free school system. 

The First Census. 

In the spring of 1815 the census of the town was taken by James Mar- 
shal, Esquire, and amounted to about seven hundred. By this time there 
were some half dozen or more of stores, among which were those of Alexander 
Morrison, Joel Buttles, Henry Brown, Delano & Cutler and J. & R. W. McCoy ; 
and a printing office issuing a weekly paper. 

The First Lawyers. 

The first lawyers to locate in Columbus were David Smith, Orris ParLsh, 
David Scott and Gustavus Swan, about the year 1815. Shortly after, suc- 
ceeded John R. Parish, T. C. Flournoy, James K. Cory, William Doherty 
and others. 

Mr. Parish died in June, 1829, in the forty-third year of his age. He 
was a man of vigorous mind and an able lawyer and leigislator, and for a time 
quite popular. But he had his frailties. 

Mr. Cory died the first day of January, 1827, in his twenty-ninth year. 
He was a pi'omising young lawyer from Cooperstown, New York, and had 
resided in Columbus some seven or eight years. 

On the same day Dr. Daniel Turney, a popular physician of Columbus, 
died from the effects of poison. 

Colonel Doherty was a native of Charleston, South Carolina, from whence 
he came to Ohio during the war of 1812, and took up his residence in Colum- 
bus in 1816. He subsequently, in 1820, married a daughter of General 
McLene, and made Columbus his residence the balance of his life. He pos- 
sessed a turn of mind for public businCv^s, and, being a man of fine appearance 

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Between Washington and Parsons Avenues, In the Midst of Fine Residences. 

I ^^H 

Broad and Washington Avenue, Built of Green Stone. 

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! : ..:■•: Lisr A RY 


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and pleasant address, became popular and filled some highlj^ respectable and 
lucrative offices. He was for seven years in succession clerk of the house of 
representatives in the Ohio legislature^one session at Chillicothe and six at 
Columbus. The clerks then received fiv€i dollars per day, while the members 
received three dollars. He was also for a number of years adjutant general 
of the state of Ohio. He was afterward United States marshal for the district 
of Ohio four years. He had, however, previous to this and since his residence 
in Columbus, prosecuted the study of the law and been admitted to the 

In 1831 he was elected senator for the district of Franklin and Pickaway 
counties, and wtis at his first session chosen speaker of that body — a compli- 
ment rarely bestowed on a new member. But he was competent to fill the 
I^laoe and filled it to the general satisfaction of the senate. He died in Feb 
mar}-. 1840, at the age of fifty years. 

The First Postoffice. 

The Columbus postoffice was established in 1813 and was made a distrib- 
uting office in 1838. From that period it has grown constantly. 

The First Market House. 

The fir,-t market house was erected in 1814 by voluntary contributions of 
property holders in the vicinity of its locatio^n. It was a substantial frame, 
probably fifty feet in length and proportionable in width and height. It was 
situated in the middle of High street, a little south of Rich street. It con- 
tinued there until the town became incorporated. Immediately after the 
ineorpf^ration the subject of a new market house and the proper place for its 
location was agitated. Rich street, Town street, State street and Broad street 
were all proposed as sites. Property holders on Broad street were strenuous 
in favor (rf it, arguing its greater width than any other street and drawing the 
inference therefrom that it must have been designed in the plan of the town 
for the market house. Joseph Miller, who bought and erected the front of the 
building afterward known as the "Buckeye House," as early as 1816, it is said, 
was influenced in his purchase and made large improvements in the confident 
behef that the market house would be established nearly in front of his house. 
But about the year 1817 it was determined by the council in favor of locating 
it on State street, immediately west of High; and pursuant to contract, John 
Shields erected the new market house. It was a two-story building, something 
larger than the old frame, the under story of brick for a market house for the 
town, and the second story was a pretty well finished frame, divided into two 
large and well finished rooms and belonged to Shields. Thus he furnished 
a market house for the town for the privilege of having rooms of his own 
over it. 

These rooms he rented out for various purposes: one was occupied as a 
printing office and the other was for a time used by himself, and occasionally 
others, to hold preaching in. After some years Shields sold out to John 

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Young, and by him the rooms were appropriated to amusement and gaming. 
The first billiard table kept in town was in the upper part of this market house. 
About the year 1829 or 1830 the council bought out Young's interest and the 
building was removed and a larger market house, without any rooms above. 
was erected on the same site — Elijah Ellis, contractor. This building con- 
tinued until the erection of the market house on Fourth street. 

The First Corporation. 

On the 10th of February, 1816, the town was incorporated iis "The 
Borough of Columbus," and on the first Monday in May following, Robert 
W. McCoy, John Cutler, Robert Armstrong, Henry Brown, Caleb Houston. 
Michael Patton, Jeremiah Armstrong, Jarvis Pike and John Kerr were elected 
the first board of councilmen. 

First Town Wit and Poet. 

James B. Gardiner, who was the wit of the day, composed the following 
oflF-hand doggerel verse with reference to their occupations, with which he 
would occasionally amuse himself by repeating to the members: 

I sell buckram and tape McCoy. 

I sell crocks and leather Cutler. 

I am the gentleman's ape R. Armstrong. 

I am all that together Brown. 

T build houses and barns Houston. 

I do the public carving Patton. 

T .^ell cakes and beer J. Armstrong. 

I am almost starving Pike. 

I sell lots and the like 

And dabble in speculation . . . 
We and his Majesty Pike (Mayor Pike) 

Make a splendid corporation. 

Mr. Gardiner was very apt in writing amusing and satirical verse and wa*^ 
in the habit of using the signature "Cokeley" until he was familiarly known by 
that name to all his acquaintances, and he was frequently so addressed by his 
jocular friends. But he also wrote some ver^' fine patriotic and sentimental 
poetry for July celebrations and such occasions. He removed from Columbus to 
Greene county about the year 1828, and while there represented that county in 
the state legislature. He afterward returned to Columbus, and in 1834 was 
elected state printer for three years. He died in April, 1837, aged forty-eight 

The First Incorporated Bank. 

The Franklin Bank of Columbus was incorporated by the act of the legis- 
lature February 3, 1816, and on the first Monday of September, 1816, the first 
election of directors was held, the following being elected: Lucas Sullivant, 

I Kerr. 

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James Kilbourne, John Kerr, Alexander Morrison, Abram I. McDowedl, Joel 
Buttles, Robert Massie, Samuel Barr, Samuel Parsons, John Cutler, Robert \V. 
McCoy, Joseph Miller and Henry Brown. 

Lucas Sullivant was chosen the first president, and his immediate success- 
ors were: Benjamin Gardiner, John Kerr, Gustavus Sevan. The charter of 
the institution expired January 1, 1843. 

First Big Sensation. 

The first big sensation in banking, social and political circles occurred 
shortly after in the sudden disappearance of Benjamin Gardiner, the second presi- 
dent of the Franklin Bank, although it does not appear that he misapplied or 
carried off the money of others. This gentleman, whose true name was Bar- 
zillai Gannett, had left his home and family in one of the eastern states under 
unfavorable circumstances and obtained an appointment by the name of Ben- 
jamin Gardiner as quartermaster in the army, and was stationed at Franklin- 
ton during the war. He was grave and dignified in his appearance and man- 
ners and obtained a high reputation in the church and society generally, and 
married into a respectable connection in this county. But, unfortunately for 
him, his history followed him, and to avoid a prosecution for bigamy he left 
clandestinely and was never heard of, except perhaps by a few confidential 

The First Cotton Yarn Mill 

Colonel Jewett and Judge Hines erected a mill for spinning cotton yarns 
in 1821, run by horse power, on Front street, between Rich and Friend (Main) 
streets. Later it was run by water power, and it continued for some years, but 
was never very successful. 

First Woolen Factory, 

Ebenezer Thomas and others erected a woolen factory for carding, spin- 
ning and weaving at the comer of High and Noble streets. This venture, too, 
was not a great success. 

First Steam Sawmill. 

The first steam sawmill was erected in 1831-1832 by John Mcllvain at the 
head of the Columbus branch of the Ohio canal. It was only comparatively 
successful in a business sense. 

The First Plow Factory, 

The first manufactory which was a success from the start was a plow fac- 
torj' and foundry established by Joseph Ridgeway in 1822. This being the 
heart of a great agricultural district, this establishment possessed signal advan- 

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The First Addition, 

The town was originally laid out in 1812 and the plat regularly made and 
laid down. The first addition was made to the original plat in 1814 by John 
McGown and called by him "South Columbus." The surveyor and platter was 
John Shields. 

The First Insurance Company, 

The Columbus Insurance Company was chartered by the logklature of 
1832-33 and was known as the Columbus Insurance Company. It continued 
in business less than a score of years and went upon the shoals of failure in 

First a City, 

Columbus was incorj>orated as a city by the act of February, 1834, and 
entered upon a vigorous growth and began to expand its boundaries in all 
directions, as well as to take on the air and appearance of solidity. 

The First Theater, 

In the fall of 1835 the first public play house or theater wa< opened. It 
was a large frame building and was erected on the west side of High street, 
between Broad and Gay, and was opened **by a corps of dramatic performers 
under the management of Messrs. Dean & McKinney,'' says the original 

The First Balloon Ascension. 

The first balloon ascension to be witnessed at Columbus was made on the 
4th of July, 1842, from the state house grounds, in the presenc*e of a great con- 
course of people, gathered from a radius of thirty or forty miles, who came on 
horseback, in vehicles and on foot. A Mr. Clayton of Cincinnati was the 

The First State Bank Law, 

In February, 1845, what was known as the state banking law was passed 
by the legislature, and three banks were organized under it in the city during 
that year. 

The First Railway Passenger Train, 

The first railway passenger train entered Columbus, coming in over what 
was then called the Columbus & Xenia Railroad, now a part of the Panhandle 
System of the Pennsylvania Railway Company. It arrived on the 28th of Feb- 
ruary, 1850. 

The First Museum. 

Mr. William T. Martin, writing of this interesting event, says: ^"In July, 
1851, Captain Walcutt first opened his Museum in Columbus. It then consisted 

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of only six or seven wax figures and a few paintings. It for a time attracted as 
much attention and patronage as could be expected from so small a collection. 
He has been since then constantly adding to it, until it now comprises over 
twenty good wax figures, two or three hundred specimens of beasts, birds, fos- 
sils and other curiosities and about one hundred fine oil paintings, present- 
ing quite a respectable collection. But those of our citizens who saw it or 
heard of it in its infancy are not aware of its improvements and do not seem 
to fully appreciate it." 

With 1858-1860 the "firsts" of the ancient era and regime ceased and 
determined, and the present forms are but the outgrowth and improvements 
upon those which have gone before, and in none more conspicuously than 
those forms appertaining to transportation, trade and travel, which appeared in 
its original forms in the Columbus & Xenia, Cleveland, Columbus & Cincin- 
nati and the Ohio Central Railways of over fifty years ago. 

The present great system, more elaborately presented elsewhere, includ- 
ing the electric street railways, evolving from the earlier tramways or horse 
cars, and the great web of traction and interurban lines, is but the advanced 
growth from the earlier forms, some of them remoter than the middle of the 
nineteenth century. 

Instead of one steam railroad alone, as in 1850, bringing anually from 
eight thousand to twelve thousand visitors into the city, it now has eighteen 
steam roads in operation, and others in contemplation for the near future, 
with an average of one hundred and fifty passenger trains entering and leav- 
ing daily, and in touch with all the trunk lines more than three million two 
hundred and fifty thousand visitors enter the city annually. 

Ten electric lines in operation, radiating in every direction, bring in and 
carry out more passengers duily than arrive and depart over the steam roads, 
so that the passengers in and out annually by both systems reach eight mil- 
lion or ten million. 


Village Sidelights — Conterfiporaneous Incidents. 

There is something akin to classic glamour hanging over the near-village 
and village days of Columbus, and during its evolution ; and some of the inci- 
dents in connection with its early and village history had much to do with the 
making of history, not only for the state, but the Ohio and lower Mississippi 

How great their influence it is not easy to estimate, since the things pre- 
vented, as well as the things accomplished, are not readily differentiated and 
estimated. The accomplished things may be readily compared, analyzed and 
weighed, but the things that did not occur, because of these almost primal 

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negotiations between two opposing civilizations carried on here, on the verge 
of the unbroken wilderness itself, may neither be analyzed nor weighed, save 
in the delicate balance of an optimistic philosophy which has faith in man- 
kind regardless of race, tradition, civilization or so-called education. 

One of these belongs to the opening of thi^? chapter. The first and direct 
record is from the pen of James B. Gardiner, the pioneer editor and news- 
paper publisher of Columbus, and w^hich, w^hen the time came, was analyzed 
and e.-timated by the brilliant mind of Colonel Edward L. Taylor. This was 

The Harrison-Tar he Peace Conference. 

On the 28th of June, 1904, the Columbus Chai)ter of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution did themselves and their organization great honor 
by placing in Martin Park, in thq western part of the city of Columbus, a 
large bowlder, of igneoas origin, bearing a very handsomely designed tablet 
in commemoration of the important council or conference which General 
William Henrj^ Harrison had with the chiefs of certain Indian tribas near 
that spot, beginning on June 20th, 1813. By this act the I>imghters rescued 
from the very brink of oblivion and gave a permanent place in the history of 
the war of 1812 to one of the important and controlling incidents of that war. 
But for this action on the part of this organization that event would probably 
have soon passed into entire forgetfulness, as there was but one contemporary 
report of the proceedings ever published of that conference or council, and 
that was in a weekly paper then published at Fninklinton, called The Free- 
man's Chronicle, which was edited and owned by James B. (lardiner. It was 
the first weekly paper, or paper of any kind, ever i)ublished in what is now 
the city of Columbus. The first number of this paper was dated June 24, 
1812, and the publication continued for more than two years, covering the 
entire period of the war of 1812. Mr. Gardiner was present at the council, 
and in the issue of his paper of June 25, 1813, he published ah account of it. 
Mr. William Domigan, at that time a resident of the town of Franklinton. 
had the thoughtfulness to preserve a full file of that paper as it was issued, 
and had the same bound in substantial form, which sole copy has been pre- 
served to this time and presents the best picture of the condition and life of 
the young village that is in existence today. 

Mrs. Orion Presides. 

Mrs. Edward Orton, Jr., regent of the Columbus Chapter of the organ- 
ization before mentioned in her very appropriate address in presenting the 
memorial tablet to the city of Columbus, said: ^'We are assembled here 
today to commemorate an event more than local in character, far-reaching in 
its results and of the greatest importance to the state as well as to the capital 
of Ohio." 

Hon. Robert H. Jeffrey, mayor of Columbus, in his remarks accepting 
the tablet on behalf of the city of Columbus, said: ''The value of this 
bowlder lies in recalling to our memory the high patriotism of our forefathers. 

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From an old print, 1817. 

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In its niggedness, its strength and its power to defy all time it typifies the 
immutable principles of the great union of stars which these ancestors fought, 
bled and died for." 

General Benjamin R. Cowen then delivered an historical address con- 
cerning the events the monument and the tablet were intended to commemo- 
rate. This address as well as all the proceedings of the day have been published 
in booklet form by the regent, Mrs. Orton, for private circulation. 

In order to give further permanency to the record of this important event 
we give in full the account of Mr. Gardiner, as it apears in the i.-sue of The 
Freeman's Chronicle of June 25, 1813 : 

A Pioneer Newspaper Account. 

"On Monday last General Harrison held a council in this place with the 
chiefs of the Delaware, Shawanee, Wyandot and Seneca tribes of Indians, to 
the amount of about fifty. In the GeneraFs talk he observed that he had 
been induced to call them together from certain circumstances having come 
to his knowledge which led him to suspect the fidelity of some of the tribes, 
who had manifested signs of a disposition to join the enemy, in case they had 
succeeded in capturing Fort Mei^. That a crisis had arrived which de- 
manded that all the tribes, who had heretofore remained neutral, should take 
a decided stand, either for us or against us. That the president wished no 
false friends, and that it was only in adversity that real friends could be dis- 
tinguished. That the proposal of General Proctor to exchange the Kentucky 
prisoners for the friendly tribes within our borders indicated that he had 
been given to understand that those tribes were willing to raise the tomahawk 
against us. And that in order to give the United States a guarantee of their 
good dispositions the friendly tribes should either move, with their families, 
into the settlements or their warriors should accompany him in the ensuing 
campaign and fight for the United States. To this proposal the chiefs and 
warriors present unanimously agreed, and observed that they had long been 
anxious for an opportunity to fight for the Americans. 

^^We cannot recall the precise remarks that were made by the chiefs who 
spoke, but Tarhe (The Crane), who is the principal chief of the Wyandots 
and the oldest Indian in the w^estern wilds, appeared to represent the whole 
assembly and professed, in the name of the friendly tribes, the most indissol- 
uble attachment for the American government and a determination to adhere 
to the Treaty of Greenville. 

*'The General promised to let the several tribes know when he should 
want their services, and further cautioned them that all who went with him 
must conform to his mode of warfare; not to kill or injure old men, women, 
children nor prisoners. That by this means we should be able to ascertain 
whether the British tell the truth when they say that they are not able to 
prevent Indians from such acts of horrid cruelty; for if Indians under him 
(Gen. H,) would obey his commands and refrain from acts of barbarism, it 
would be very evident that the hostile Indians could be as easily restrained 
bv their commanders. The General then informed the chiefs of the a^ree- 

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inent made by Proctor to deliver him to Tecumseh in case the British suc- 
ceeded in taking Fort Meigs, and promised them that if he should be success- 
ful he would deliver Proctor into their hands — on condition that they should 
do him no other harm than to put a petticoat on him; *for/ said he, 'none 
but a coward or a squaw would kill a prisoner/ The council broke up in the 
afternoon and the Indians departed next day for their respective towns." 

In order to understand and appreciate the importance and full signifi- 
cance of this conference, it is necessary to recall some of the chief events of 
the times relating to the war. 

The Battle of Fallen Timbers. 

The battle of ^'Fallen Timbers" was fought August 20, 1794, at which 
General Wayne obtained a complete victory over the Indians who had concen- 
trated in the region of the Maumee. This defeat was followed the next sum- 
mer by a general council held by General Anthony Wayne at Greenville, 
Diirke county, Ohio, with the Indian tribes of the northwest, which resulted 
in the celebrated treaty known as the "Treaty of Greenville," which was con- 
cluded August 3, 1795, and was in its results the most important of all the 
peace treaties made between the United States and the Indian tribes northwest 
of the Ohio. The Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pot- 
tawattomies, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Piankeshaws, Kickapoos and Kas- 
kaskias became parties to that treaty. 

This treaty was followed by comparative peace for a period of sixteen 
years and until about the year 1811, although in the meantime turbulent, 
revengeful and evil-disposed Indians frequently broke away from the differ- 
ent tribes and from the control of their principal chiefs and formed maraud- 
ing parties, which from time to time committed all manner of murders, 
thefts and outrages on the frontier settlers of the northwest. 

For a few years prior to the declaration of the war of 1812 between the 
United States and Great Britain the relations between these two governments 
had been very much strained, and it was generally considered that war was 
sure to ensue. In the meantime the British maintained numerous active and 
powerful agents among the Indians of the northwest for the purpose of sup- 
plying them with munitions of war and creating discontent among them and 
incitmg them to make war on the white settlers. Thus encouraged, there was 
fissembled under Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, at their camp at the 
junction of the Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers, in northwestern Indiana, a 
large number of turbulent and desperate Indians drawn from most of the 
various tribes east of the Mississippi. It was tHe purpose and hope of Tecum- 
seh and his brother, and the Indians under their influence, by a united effort 
with the British forces, to drive the w^hite people out of the territory of the 
northwest. These Indians thus assembled on the upper Wabash became very 
threatening and endeavored to deceive and surprise General Harrion, who was 
then governor of the territory of Indiana, with headquarters at Vincennes. 
Their actions and numbers were such as to make it prudent and even neces- 
sary that General Harrison should make a demonstration against them for 

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the purpose of discovering thedr purpose and strength. This resulted in the 
battle of Tippecanoe. November 7, 1811, at which battle the Indians were 
defeated, but not greatly dispirited, as they still relied greatly upon the 
looked for war between the United States and Great Britain, when they would 
have the powerful aid of the British forces. 

Tecumseh was not present at that battle, and the Indians were under the 
command of his brother, the imposter Prophet. By this defeat the power 
which the Prophet had been exercising over his Indian followers was largely 
destroyed, and he was never afterward in much favor. 

The War of 1812. 

The war which had long been threatening between the United States and 
(ireat Britain suddenly flamed into activity, and war wa.s declared on the part 
of the United States against Great Britain on June 18, 1812. This was'the 
opportunity the discontented and turbulent Indians of the northwest had 
long been waiting for. Tecumseh had before that time, and in anticipation 
of it, concluded his alliance with the British forces, and the forces under him 
were already well prepared to join in active warfare. He was at the head of 
all the Indian forces in the northwest and was by far the ablest war chief of 
hl^ times and the ablest Avar chief which the Indian race has produced of 
which we have any accurate knowledge, unless it may be the great Pontiac 
of a half centurj' before. He at once commenced a vigoi*ous onslaught on the 
frontier military pasts and frontier settlers, and with terrible effect 

Affairs went badly against the American forces for the first year after the 
declaration of war. On July 17, 1812, Lieutenant Hanks, in command of 
Mackinac, was compelled to surrender the garrison, consisting of fifty-seven 
effective men, to the forces under the British conunander at St. Joseph's, a 
Briti.*h post near the head of Lake Huron. 

On August 15 following, the massacre of the garrison at Fort Dearborn 
(Chicago) occurred, at which time between fifty and sixty United States sol- 
dier were mercilessly murdered and the fort destroyed. This terrible slaugh- 
ter, in which the treacherous and blood-thirsty Black Hawk was engaged, was 
followed the next day (August 16) by the cowardly and ignominious sur- 
render of General Hull at Detroit of about fifteen or sixteen hundred troof^s 
to a greatly inferior number of British and Indians under General Brock 
of the EnglL-^h army. 

The Northwest Overrun. 

By the time of September, 1812, the entire northwest, with the exception 
of Fort Harrison on the Wabash and Fort Wayne on the Maumee had been 
ovenim and was in possession of the British and Indians, and these two 
forts were both besieged by hordes of savages. Fort Harrison, with but fifty 
or sixty men, under Captain Zachary Taylor (then a young-officer in the 
United States army and afterward president of the United States) , was hero- 
ically defended and the Indian hordes repelled. A like brilliant defense was 
made at Fort Wayne. The garrison was small, the Indians were in great 

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numbers, the captain in command of the garrison vva^ dissipated and incom- 
petent and was summarily deposed from command, which then devolved upon 
one Lieutenant Curtis, a young officer in the United States army, who, by his 
heroic defense of the fort during the two weeks of unremitting siege has 
recorded his name permanently in the annals of his time. 

It was just at this discouraging and perilous time that General Harrison 
was appointed commander of all the forces in the northwest. He at once took 
most heroic measures to raise the siege at Fort Wayne and strengthen that 
garrison, and also to strengthen the garrison at Fort Harrison on the Wabash. 
This he accomplished, and thereafter was able to maintain the lines of the 
Wabash and Maumee as the frontier between the American forces and the 
allied British and Indians. All beyond to the northwest was in possession of 
the enemy. 

But disasters to the American forces were not yet ended. On the 21st 
of January, 1813, General Winchester, who was in command of the forces on 
the Maumee, was defeated at the battle of the River Raisin by the combined 
forces of General Proctor and Tecumseh, and about seven hundred of his 
troops captured or destroyed, many of them being massacred after they had 

General Harrison was at the headquarters of the army at Upper San- 
dusky when he first heard that General Winchester, who was in command of 
the forces on the Maumee, intended to make an important military move- 
ment, the nature of which, however, he could not learn. No important 
offensive movement was contemplated by him at that time. On receiving 
this information he at once ordered forward all the troops then at Upper San- 
dusky, about three hundred strong, and took a horse and rode to Lower 
Sandusky (Fremont) in all haste. Such was the energy with which he 
pushed forward over the terrible winter roads that the horse of his aid-de- 
camp failed and died under the exertion. At Lower Sandusky he learned 
that on the 17th of January Colonel Lewis had been sent forward from the 
Rapids to the River Raisin in command of over six hundred troops, which 
was almost the entire available force on the Maumee. General Harrison's 
mind was filled with forebodings, and, ordering the troops at Lower Sandusky 
forward to the Rapids, he again pushed forward to that place, where he arrived 
early on the 20th. Here he learned that Geneml Winchester had gone for- 
ward to join his command at the River Raisin. There was nothing that could 
be done but wait for the troops which he had ordered forward from the San- 
duskies, which were floundering along as best they could through the swamps 
of the wilderness. He did not have to wait long before he received the 
appalling news of the battle at the River Raisin, which was one of the most 
di.-astrous of all our Indian wtu^. 

Columbus at Mercy of the Foe. 

The battle was fought on January 21, the defeat was complete and over- 
whelming, and Winchester's army was practically destroyed. This left the 
region of the Maumee entirely open to be overnm by the victorious British 

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and Indians, and it was expected that they would ^oon make their appearanet^ 
at the Rapids. A council of war was at once held and it was determined to 
withdraw the remaining troops to Portage river, about twenty miles east from 
the Maumee. Here a camp was established, and the troops, which were strug- 
gling forward, as well as the remnant of General Winchester's command, were 
concentrated. Within a few days such a force had been assembled a& to 
enable General Harrison to move back to the Maumee. He did not, how- 
ever, resume possession of the old camp. Fort- Miami, which h^id been occu- 
pied before by General Winchester's command, but a better place was selected 
some distance up the river from the old camp and on the south side of the 
river, where a strong fort was erected which was named Fort Meigs in honor 
of the then Governor of Ohio. 

It was the intention to concentrate a force at Fort ileigs sufficient to 
maintain it against all attacks which might be made, but on account of the 
terrible roads through the wilderness the expected recruits from Kentucky 
and southern Ohio did not arrive until the fort was besieged by the entire 
forces under Proctor and Teeumseh. 

On the 1st day of April, 1813, the fort was invested on every side and 
an active siege was at once begun. The siege was carried on with great vigor, 
the Indians being incited to bravery by the promise of the monster General 
Proctor to deliver General Harrison into their hands should the siege be suc- 
cessful and the fort taken. However, after nine days of constant bombard- 
ment and conflict, the siege failed and the British and Indian forces with- 
drew. Immediately after the British and Indians had withdrawn from the 
Maumee, General Harrison hastened in person to southern and centi-al Ohio 
to urge forward the troops that were being collected to meet and repel the 
British and Indian forces and drive them beyond the boundaries of the United 

It was under these hnxious and harassing circumstances that General 
Harrison came to Franklinton and held the conference with the chiefs of the 
Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese and Senecas. The principal chiefs of 
these tribes had remained true to their obligations and neutrality under the 
Treaty of Greenville, but so many had been lured away from their tribal 
obligations by British pay and British bribes and promises, and such was 
their striength when commanded and guided by that able and energetic 
Teeumseh, that it became necessary for General Harrison to know as exactly 
as possible what proportion of the military strength of the powerful tribes 
would remain neutral or if necessary join with the American forces. The 
chiefs assembled not only assured him that they would remain true to their 
obligations, but if called upon would join with the American forces against 
the British. 

They were not called upon to take an active part in the war, but as a 
matter of fact several of the chiefs of these four great tribes, with a consid- 
erable number of their warriors, of their own volition accompanied General 
Harrison in his campaign, which ended in the decisive battle of the Thames. 
Chief Tarhe (the Crane) , grand sachem of the Wyandots, whose village was 
then near Upper Sandusky, Wyandot county, and who was spokesman for all 

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the tribe?! at the conference at Franklinton, although seventy-two years of age, 
went with General Harrison on foot, with a number of his warriors, to Can- 
ada and was pre^^ent at the battle of the Thames, although he took no active 
part in that battle. 

This conference or council at Franklinton enabled General Harrison to 
know what he could depend upon as to four neutral tribes and greatly 
relieved him from uncertainty and anxiety, and also greatly relieved the 
frontier settlers from the apprehension and fears with which their minds and 
hearts were filled. 

WJiat the Tarhe- Harrison Conference Secured. 

From the date of that conference the tide turned strongly in favor of the 
American forces. The English and Indians were again in force along the 
Maumee, and in July, 1813, again besieged Fort Meigs, but it had been so 
strengthened and reinforced that they made no assault upon it, but retired 
after a few days — Proctor by water to Sandusky bay and the Indians through 
the forest to Sandusky river. This demonstration was quit^ formidable, both 
by land and water. Fort Stevenson, at the mouth of the Sandusky river, 
where the city of Fremont now stands, was first besieged. On July 31, 1813, 
the British approached Port Stevenson by water and landed about five hun- 
dred British troops, with some light artillery, while Tecumseh, with ^about two 
thousand Indians, besieged the fort on the land side. 

It is not our purpose here to narrate the history of that assault. Suffice 
it to say here that Major Croghan, in conmiand of the fort with but one hun- 
dred and sixty men in the giirrison, successfully repelled the assault of the 
British and Indians and compelled them to retire aft^r heavy losses. This 
brilliant victory was succeeded on August 10 by the celebrated and world 
renowned victory of Commodore Perry, by which the British fleet on Lake 
Erie was destroyed. This enabled General Harrison to move his army across 
Lake Erie to the Detroit river and to invade Canada. 

On the 5th of October he was able to bring the allied forces under Proc- 
tor and Tecumseh to issue -at the battle of the Thames, where a complete vic- 
tory wi)s gained over the allied forces. Tecumseh was killed in that battle and 
Proctor ignominiously fled the field. His army was captured or destroyed. 
The battle of the Thames and the death of Tecumseh practically ended the 
war in the northwest, although the British still held a few small forts like 
Mackinac and St. Joseph's, around the head of Lake Huron ; but these were 
powerless of any offensive operations. 

The war, however, between the United States and Great Britain con- 
tinued in full force and destructiveness for more than a year after the battle 
of the Thames, during which time the commerce of both nations upon the 
high seas was largely ruined. In August, 1814, the British gained possession 
of the city of Washington and burned and destroyed all the public buildings 
and threatened further serious destruction. A year had now^ elapsed since 
the battle of the Thames, during which time quiet had reigned among the 
Indians in the northwest. The neutral tribes of the northwest remained 

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favorable to the cause of the United State©, and many of those who had served 
under Tecumseh a year before had become angered and embittered toward the 
British for want of their fulfillment of their promises so lavishly made before 
the war, and were anxious to assist in the war against their former allies. 

The Greenville Conference, 

In this situation the government authorized and directed General Har- 
rison and General Lewis Cass to meet the Indian tribes in conference at 
Greenville, Ohio, where the Treaty of Greenville had been concluded nine- 
teen years before. Accordingly, the oommifvsioners met at that place with the 
chiefs of the Wyandots, Dc^lawares, Shawanese, Senecas, Miamis, Pottawatto- 
mies and Kickapooe and concluded a treaty of peace as follows : 

Article 2. The tribes and bands above mentioned engage to give their 
aid to the United States in pro^cuting war against Great Britain and such of 
the Indian tribes as still continue hostile, and to make no peace with either 
without the consent of the United States. The assistance herein stipulated 
for is to consist of such number of their warriors from each tribe as the presi- 
dent of the United States, or any officer having his authority therefor, may 

Article 3. The Wyandot tribe and the Senecas of Sandusky and Stony 
creek, the Delaware and Shawanese tribes, who have preserved their fidelity 
to the United States throughout the war, again acknowledge themselves under 
the protection of the said United States, and of no other power whatever, and 
agree to aid the United States in the manner stipulated for in the former arti- 
cle and to make no peace but with the consent of the said states. 

Article 4. In the event of the faithful performance of the conditions of 
this treaty the United States will confirm and establish all the boundaries 
between their lands and those of the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese and 
Miamis as they existed previously to the commencement of the war. Thus 
the PVanklinton conference was embodied in treaty form. 

No call was made for Indian help under this treaty, as on December 24, 
1814, the commissioners of the United States and the commissioners of Great 
Britain concluded the Treaty of Ghent, putting an end to the war. This sec- 
ond Treaty of Greenville was the last peace or war treaty ever entered into 
between the United States and any of the Indian tribes within the boundaries 
of the state of Ohio; and with the exception of an unimportant treaty con- 
cluded at Detroit the following year, the last made east of the Alis^si-^^ippi. 

A Heroic Figure. 

Tarhe, the Crane, knew every foot of Columbus and its vicinity, his cap- 
ital for a long period being at Lancaster, and the sentinel tower of his prophets 
and watchmen was that matchless piece of scener\^, Mount Pleasant, that 
rises abruptly from and overlooks the beautiful Hock-Hocking valley. Mr. 
Emil Schlup, of Upper Sandusky, thus estimates his personal or moral char- 
acter and places him among the great characters of hktory, demon.-^traling 

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that the soil of Ohio, while yet a wilderness, was capable of and did produce 
ment of great souls, as witness Tarhe, Cornstalk, Tecumseh and others. Of 
Tarhe Mr. Schlup says: 

A Man of Noble Traits. 

^Trobably no other Indian chieftain was ever more admired and loved 
by his own race or by the outside world. He was either a true friend or a true 
enemy. Born near Detroit, Michigan, in 1742, he lived to see a wonderful 
change in the great northwest. Being bom of humble parentage, through 
his bravery and perseverance he rose to be the grand sachem of the Wyandot 
nation. This position he held until the time of his death, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Duonquot. Born of the Porcupine clan of the Wyiandots and early 
manifesting a warlike spirit, he was engaged in nearly all the battles againcft 
the Americans until the disastrous battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Tarhe 
saw that there was no use opposing the American arms or trying to prevent 
them planting corn north of the Ohio river. At that disastrous battle thirteen 
chiefs fell, and among the number was Tarhe, who was badly wounded in 
the arm. The Americans generally believed that the dead Indian was the 
best Indian, but Tarhe sadly saw his ranks depleted and at once began to sue 
for peace. General Wayne had severely chastised the Indians and forever 
broke their power in Ohio. Accordingly, on January 24, 1795, the principal 
chiefs of the Wyandots, Delawares, Chippewas, Ottawas, Sacs, Pottowattomies, 
Miamis and Shawnees met. The preliminary treaty with General Wayne at 
Greenville, Ohio, in which there was an armistice, was the forerunner of the 
celebrated treaty which was concluded at the same place August 3, 1795. A 
great deal of opposition was manifested to this treaty by the more warlike and 
turbulent chiefs, as this would cut oflf their favors on the border settlement-^. 

Always Kept Faith, 

**Chief Tarhe always lived true to the treaty obligations which he so 
earnestly labored to bring about. When Tecumseh sought a great Indian 
uprising, Tarhe opposed it, and awakened quite an enmity among the warlike 
of his own tribe, who aften^ard withdrew from the main body of the Wyan- 
dots and moved to Canada. The Rev. James B. Finley had every confidence 
in Tarhe, as evidenced in 1800, when, returning from taking a drove of cattle 
to the Detroit market, he asked Tarhe for a night's lodging at Lower San- 
dusky, where the Wyandot chief then lived, and intnisted him with quite a 
sum of money from the sale of cattle, and the next morning every cent was 

'Trom 1808 until the war of 1812 Tarhe steadily opposed Tecumseh's 
treacherous wiu- policy, which greatly endangered Tarhe's life, and it is 
claimed he <'ame near meeting the same fate that Leather Lips met on June 1, 
1810. He even went so far as to offer his services, with fifty other chiefs and 
warrioR, to General Harrison in prosecuting the war against Tecumseh and 
the English under General Proctor. He was actively engaged in the battle on 
the Thames. So earnest was he in the success of the American cause, so sin- 

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c«re did he keep all treaty obligations, that General Harrison in after years, 
in comparing him with other chiefs, was constrained to call him 'The most 
noble Roman of them all/ 

He Abjured Strong Drink, 

"Tarhe never drank strong drinks of any kind nor used tobacco in any 
form. Fighting at the head of his warriors in Harrison's campaign in Can- 
ada at the age of seventy-two years is something out of the ordinary. Being 
tall and slender, he was nicknamed 'The Crane.' On his retiring from the 
:<econd war for independence, he again took up his abode in his favorite 
town — the spot is still called 'Crane Town,' about four and one-half miles 
northeast from Upper Sandusky, on the east bank of the Crane run, which 
empties into the Sandusky river. Here, surrounded by a dense forest, he 
spent his old age in a log cabin fourteen by eighteen feet. Just south of the 
old cabin site are a number of old apple trees — ^likely of the Johnny Appleseed . 
origin — the fruit being small and hard ; a short distance south of the cabin is 
the old gauntlet ground, oblong and about three hundred yards long; to the 
westward from the village site is a clearing of about ten acres, still known as 
the Indian field and still surrounded by a dense forest. Here Tarhe died in his 
log cabin home in November, 1818. In 1850 John Smith, then owner of the 
land, had most all of the cabin taken down for firewood. At that time a 
small black walnut twig, about the thickness of a man's thumb, was growing 
in the northwest corner of the cabin, and is quite a tree at the present writ- 
ing — a living and growing monument to the memory of the great and good 
Wyandot chief." 

The Chieftain's Widow. 

"Aunt Sally Frost was Tarhe's wife when he died. To them one child 
wa^ born, an idiotic son, who died at the age of twenty-five years. Sally had 
been a captive from one of the border settlements and refused to return to her 
people. After the death and burial of Tarhe, the principal part of Crane 
Town was moved to Upper Sandusky, the center of the Wyandot reservation, 
twelve miles square. Here the government at Washington paid them an 
annuity of ten dollars per capita until the reservation reverted back to the 
government in March, 1842. 

"Cabin sites are plainly discernible in the old historic town, which was 
usually a half-way place between Fort Pitt and Detroit. Here in the early 
days Indian parties found a resting place when on their murderous missions 
to the border settlements. This was one of the 'troublesome' Indian towns 
on the Sandusky river that the ill-fated Colonel William Crawford was 
directed against in the spring of 1782. Traces of the old Indian trail may be 
seen meandering southward through the forest, where the warwhoop was fre- 
quently given and the bloody scalping knife drawn over many defenseless 
prisoners. The springs, just westward from the town site, are cattle tramped, 
but fitill bubble forth a small quantity of water, but likely not nearly so active 

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as when they furnished the necessary water for the nations of tlie forest a 
oenturj' and more ago. 

"On June 11, 1902, Mr. E. O. Randall, the able and efficient secretary 
of the Ohio State Archaeological and Hi.«torical Society, in company with the 
writer, gave the place a visit. Numerous locusts were chirping away at their 
familiar songs quite loud enough to drown out the voices of the intruders. 

Tarhe's Friend, Jonathan Pointer, 

"Jonathan Pointer, who had been a colored captive among the Wyandotfi 
and who was a fellow soldier with Tarhe in the Canadian campaign under 
General Harrison, returned with that celebrated chieftain to his home and 
stayed with him until the time of Tarhe's death, always claiming that he 
assisted in the burial of Tarhe on the John Smith farm, about a half mile 
southeast from his cabin home. Logs were dragged over the grave to keep the 
wild animals from disinterring the body. Jonathan Pointer was engaged as 
interpreter for the early missionaries among the Wyandots; he died in 1857. 
No memorial marks Tarhe's resting place. Red Jacket, Keokuk, Leather 
Lips and other chieftains have received monumental consideration from Amer- 
ican civilization; but Tarhe, the one whose influence and activity helped to 
wrest the great northwest from the Britl-h and the Indians, has apparently 
been forgotten. And how long shall it be so? 

"Colonel John Johnson, who for nearly half a century acted Indian 
agent of the various tribes of Ohio and who made the last Indian treaty that 
removed the Wyandots beyond the Mississippi, was present at the great Indian 
council summoned at the death and for burial of Tarhe. The exact spot 
where the council house stood is not known, but a mile and a half north from 
Crane Town site are a number of springs bubbling forth clear water which 
form Pointer's run, that empties into the Sandusky river. They are still 
called the Council Springs and the bark council house was likely in this 
vicinity. Colonel Johnson, in his ^Recollections,^ gives the following account 
of the proceedings." 

Colonel Johnsons Recollections. 

"On the death of the great chief of the Wyandots, I was invited to attend 
a general council of all the tribes of Ohio, the Delawares of Indiana, the Senecas 
of New York, at Upper Sandusky. I found on arriving at the place a very 
large attendance. Among the chieftains was the noted leader and orator Red 
Jacket from Buflfalo. The first business done was the speaker of the nation 
delivering an oration on the character of the deceased chief. Then followed 
what might be called a monody, or ceremony, of mourning or lamentation. 
Thus seats were arranged from end to end of a large council house, about six 
feet apart, the head men and the aged took their seats facing each other, 
stooping down, their heads almost touching. In that position they remained 
for several hours. Deep and long continued groans would commence at one 
end of the row of mourners and so pass around until all had responded and 
these repeated at intervals of a few minutes. The Indians were all washed 

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and had no paint or decorationts of any kind upon their persons, their 
countenances and general deportment denoting the deepest mourning. I 
had never witnessed anything of the kind before and was told that this cere- 
mony was not performed but on the decea^ of some great man. After the 
period of mourning and lamentation was over the Indian;? proceeded to 
business. There were present the Wyandots, Shawnees, Delawares, Senecas, 
Ottawas and Mohawks. Their business was entirely confined to their own 
affairs, and the main topics related to their lands and the claims of the re- 
spective tribes. It was evident, in the course of the discussion, that the pres- 
ence of myself and people (there were some white men with me) was not 
accej)table to some of the parties and allusions were made so direct to myself 
that I was constrained to notice them, by saying that I came there as a guest 
of the Wyandots, by their special invitation ; that as the agent of the United 
States, I had a right to be there as anywhere else in the Indian country; 
and that if any insult was offered to myself or my people, it would be re- 
.**ented and punished. Red Jacket was the principal speaker and was in- 
temperate and personal in his remarks. Accusations, pro and con, were made 
by the different parties, accusing each other of being foremost in selling land 
to the United States. The Shawnees were particularly marked out as more 
guilty than any other; that they were the last coming into the Ohio coun- 
try and although they had no right but by the permission of the other tribes, 
they were always the foremost in selling lands. This brought the Shawnees 
out, who retorted through head chief, the Black Hoof, on the Senecas and 
Wyandots with pointed severity. The discussion was long continued, calling 
out some of the ablest speakers, and was distinguished for ability, cutting 
sarcasm and research, going far back into the history of the natives, their 
wars, alliances, negotiations, migrations, etc. I had attended many councils, 
treaties and gatherings of the Indians, but never in my life did I witness such 
an outpouring of native oratory and eloquence, of severe rebuke, taunting 
national and personal reproaches. The council broke up later in great con- 
fusion and in the worst possible feeling. A circumstance occurred toward 
the close which more than anything else exhibited the bad feeling prevail- 
ing. In handing round the wampum belt, the emblem of amity, peace and 
good will, when presented to one of the chiefs, he would not touch it with 
his fingers but passed it on a stick to a person next to him. A greater in- 
dignity, agreeable to Indian etiquette could not be offered. 

A Day of Disappointment. 

"The next day appeared to be one of unusual anxiety and despondence 
among the Indians. They could be seen in groups everywhere near the 
council house in deep consultation. They had acted foolishly — were sorry — 
but the difficulty was, who would present the olive branch. The council con- 
vened very late and was very full ; silence prevailed for a long time ; at last 
the aged chieftain of the Shawneee, the Black Hoof, rose — a man of greak 
influence and a celebrated warrior. He told the assembly that they had acted 
like children and not men yesterday ; that he and his people were sorry for 

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the words that had been spoken and which had done so much haiin; that 
he oame into the council by the unanimous desire of his people to recall 
those foolish words and did there take them back — handing round strings of 
wampum, which passed around and were received by all with the greatest 
satisfaction. Several of the princii)al chiefs delivered ^peechas to the same 
effect, hianding round wampum in turn, and in this manner the whole diffi- 
culty of the preceding day was settled and to all appearances forgotten. The 
Indians are ver}' civil and courteous to each other and it is a rare thing to 
see their assemblies disturbed by unwise or ill-timed remarks. I never wit- 
nessed it except upon the occasion here alluded to, and it is more than prob- 
able that the presence of myself and other white men contributed towards 
the unpleasant occurrence. I could not help but admire the genuine 
philosophy and good sense displayed by men whom we call savages, in the 
transaction of their public business, and how much we might profit in the 
halls of our legislature, by occasionally taking for our example the proceed- 
ing!s of the great Indian council at Upper Sandusky.^' 

The Original Charter. 

The joint resolution on February 12, 1812, merely declared that the name 
of the future c^ipital should be Columbus — the town of Colunibas — leaving 
it without municipal form, and to all intents and purpo.-^as, under the direct 
control of the legislature. As already shown, it assumed that direction and 
proceeded to appoint an overseer or supervisor, who took charge of it liter- 
ally, and from his dicta there was no appeal except to the legislature itself. 
The necessity of a municipal government soon manifested itself, and the 
following act of incorporation was passed by the legislature: 
An Act to incorporate the town of Columbus in the CounUj of Franklin. 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Ohio. 
That so much of the towui^hip of Montgomery, in the county of Franklin, 
as is comprised within the following limits, that is to say: commencing at 
the southwest corner of the half section of Refugee land, number twenty- 
five, of township five, in range twenty-two, on the bank of the Scioto river, 
thence with the southern boundary line of said half section, east, to the 
southeast corner thereof; thence north, with the eastern boundary of said 
half section, number twenty-five, and that of number twenty-six, and eighty 
poles on that of half section, number twelve; thence west, across half sec- 
tions numbered twelve and ten, to the western boundary of the latter half 
section; thence north with the western boundary of said half section num- 
ber ten, to the northwest corner thereof; thence west, on the north bound- 
ary lines of half sections numbered ten and nine, to the northwest corner 
of the last named half section ; thence south with its western boundary line, 
to the bank of the Scioto river; thence down said river, to the place of be- 
ginning, shall be, and the same is hereby erected into a town corporate, 
henceforth to be known and distinguished by the name of the borough of 
Columbus, subject however, to such alterations e^ the legislature may from 
time to time think proper to make. 

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See. 2. Be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the qualified 
electors, who shall have been resident in said town of Columbus six months, 
to meet at the Columbus Inn, on the first Monday of May next, and then 
and there elect by ballot nine suitable persons, being citizens, freeholders 
or house keepers, and inhabitants of said town, to serve as mayor, recorder, 
and common councilmen of said town; and the persons thus elected, shall 
within ten days after their election, proceed to choose out of their own 
body by ballot, a mayor, recorder, and treasurer; and the remaining six, 
in conjunction with the mayor, recorder and treasurer, shall act as com- 
mon councilmen; and the mayor, recorder, treasurer, and common council- 
men thus elected, shall at their first meeting determine by lot what term 
they shall severally serve; three of them shall serve until the next annual 
election; three others of them for two years; and the last three for three 
years; and at every annual election, which shall be on the first Monday of 
May, in every year, there shall be elected three new members of said body, 
who shall continue in office three years, and until their successors shall be 
elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted. That the mayor, recorder, treasurer 
and common councilmen so elected, and their successors in office, shall be, 
and they are hereby made a body corporate and politic, by the name and 
style of, the mayor and council of the borough of Columbus; and by the 
name aforesaid, shall have perpetual succession, with power to purchase, 
receive, possess and convey any real or personal estate for the use of the 
said town of Columbus: Provided, The annual income thereof shall not 
exceed four thousand dollars; and shall also be capable in law by the name 
aforesaid, of suing and be sued, pleaded and being impleaded, in any 
action in any court of this state ; and when any action or suit shall be com- 
menced against the corporation, the service shall be by the officer leaving 
an attested copy of the original process with the recorder, or at his usual 
place of abode, at least three days before the return thereof; and the said 
mayor and common council are hereby authorized to have a common seal, 
with power to alter the same at their discretion. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, That the person first elected mayor of 
said borough of Columbus, shall within ten days after his election, take an 
oath of affirmation before some justice of the peace for said county of Frank- 
lin, for the faithful performance of the duties of his office; and every per- 
son who shall thereafter be elected mayor, shall be qualified to office by one 
of the board of said common council; and every recorder, treasurer and 
common councilman, before he enters on the execution of the duties of his 
office, shall take an oath or make affirmation before the mayor for the time 
being, for the faithful performance of his duty. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That the mayor and members of the 
common council shall have power to appoint an assessor, a town marshal, a 
clerk of the market, a town surveyor and such other subordinate officers as 
they may deem necessary; and to give such fees to the recorder and other 
officers of the corporation, and impose such fines for refusing to accept such 
offices, as to them shall appear proper and reasonable. 

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Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, That the mayor and common council 
shall have power in the month of July, annually, to levy a tax within said 
borough, upon all objects of taxation for county purposes; but no tax shall 
be levied exceeding the rates prescribed by law for county purposes; and the 
assessor shall be governed in the discharge of his duty by the rules and reg- 
ulations to be established by the mayor and common council: Provided, 
nothing herein contained shall be considered as prohibiting the said mayor 
and common council from levying a tax on dogs. 

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That the mayor and common council 
shall have power to erect and repair such public buildings as they may deem 
necessary for the benefit of said town ; and make and publish such laws and 
ordinances, and the same from time to time to alter and repeal as to them 
may seem necessary for the safety and convenience of said town of Columbus 
and its inhabitants: Provided, such laws and ordinances are not contrary 
to the constitution and laws of the United States or of this state; and the 
mayor shall have full power and authority to administer oaths, impose 
reasonable fines on such persons as shall offend against the laws and 
ordinances made as aforesaid; to levy and cause to be collected, all such 
fines by warrant under his hand, directed by the town marshal, who is 
hereby empowered to collect the same by distress and sale of the goods and 
chattels of the delinquent, and the same to pay to the treasurer of the cor- 
poration; and when goods and chattels cannot be found whereon to levy, 
to commit the body of the offender to prison, there to remain until such 
fine shall be paid, or until he shall be discharged by order of the corpora- 
tion: Provided always, That no person shall be imprisoned under the provi- 
sions of this section, more than twenty-four hours at any one time. 

Sec. 8. Be it further enacted, That the mayor and his successors in 
office, are hereby vested with powers coequal with justices of the peace 
within the corporation and shall have power to exercise the same jurisdiction 
and authority in civil and criminal cases within the limits of said borough, and 
be entitled to the same fees as justices of the peace in like cases ; all process 
shall be directed to the town marshal who is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to exercise the same powers in serving such process, levying execu- 
tion, and making distress or delinquents in civil and criminal cases, and 
shall be entitled to the same fees as constables are; but it shall not be law- 
ful for the said mayor or town marshal to take cognizance of or hold plea 
in any debt, personal or mixed, except the defendant shall reside wuthin 
the limit.*! of the corporation aforesaid. 

Sec. 9. Be it further enacted, That the town marshal shall collect all 
taxes assessed by the corporation, and he is hereby authorized and required 
to collect and pay over to the treasurer all such sums of money as shall be 
assessed for the use of said corporation, within three months from the time 
of his receiving a duplicate thereof; and the treasurer's receipt shall be his 
voucher, on his settlement with the common council, which shall be when 
thereunto required by them, after the expiration of three months as above; 
the town marshal shall give ten days notice before he makes distress for 
the collection of any tax: and if the tax on any lot on which no personal 

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property can be found, shall remain unpaid two months aft<?r the expira- 
tion of the three months aforesaid, the said town marshal shall give notice 
in one or more of the newspapers printed in said town, of the amount of 
such tax, and the number of the lot on which it is due ; and if said tax shall 
not be paid within two months after the date of such advertisement, the 
town marshal shall in such case proceed to sell so much of such lot or lot«? 
as will discharge the same, taking the part sold in such a manner as will 
include the same distance on the back line of the lot, as on its front line; 
Provided, That the former owner may at any time within one year there- 
after, redeem the lot or part thereof so sold, by paying to the purchaser, 
his or her heirs, executors or administrators, the amount of said tax, and 
and one hundred per centum damages thereon. 

Sec. 10. Be it further enacted. That the town marshal and treasurer 
shall each before he enters on the duties of his office, give bond with secur- 
ity to the recorder, to be approved of by the common council, conditioned 
for the faithful discharge thereof; the treasurer shall pay over all moneys 
by him received, to the order of the mayor and common council, and shall 
when required submit his books and vouchers to their inspection. 

Sec. 11. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the recorder 
to make and keep a just and true record of all and every law^ and ordinance 
made and established by the mayor and common council, and of all their 
proceedings in their corporate capacity; and the record so made, shall at all 
times be open to the inspection of any elector of said town ; and if any per- 
son shall think himself aggrieved by any judgment of the mayor, it shall be 
lawful for such person to appeal to the court of common pleas, within ten 
days after such judgment; and it shall be the duty of said court to hear 
such appeal, and give such relief as shall appear to them reasonable. 

Sec. 12. Be it further enacted, That the annual election shall be 
opened at twelve o'clock, and closed at four o'clock in the afternoon of said 
first Monday in May; at the first election, two judges and a clerk who are 
electors, shall be appointed by the electors present, who shall each take an 
oath faithfully to discharge the duties of his appointment; and at all sub- 
sequent elections the mayor, recorder, treasurer or common council, or any 
three of them, shall be judges of the election, and shall cause a statement 
of the votes to be publicly declared, and a fair record thereof made by the 
clerk on the same day, who shall notify the persons elected to the respective 
offieas, within two days thereafter, by giving pe-rsonal notice, or by leaving 
a written notice at their most usual place of residence; and it shall be the 
duty of the recorder, every year, after the first election, to set up or cause 
to be set up, at least ten days previous to the first Monday in May, notice 
of the election, in five of the most public places in said town. 

Sec. 13. Be it further enacted. That in case of a vacancy in the office 
of mayor, recorder, or treasurer, the vacancy shall be supplied from the 
common council; and in case of a vacancy in the common council, it shall 
be supplied by the mayor, recorder, treasurer and common council men, 
from among the electors of said town ; and in case of misconduct in office of 

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the mayor, recorder, treasurer, common council men or any subordinate 
officer, the others have hereby power to remove him or any of them, by an 
agreement of a majority of two thirds concurring. 

Sec. 14. Be it further enacted, That in case of the absence or inabil- 
ity of the mayor, it shall be the duty of the recorder to act in his stead, who 
shall at all times when the mayor resumes his office, render to him an ac- 
count of his transactions during such absence or inability. 

Sec. 15. Be it further enacted. That the corporation shall use the jail 
of the county of Franklin, for the confinement of all such persons as by the 
laws of the corporation may be liable to imprisonment; and all persons 
thus imprisoned, shall be under the charge of the sheriflF of the county. 

Sec. 16. And be it further enacted. That no law shall ever be made by 
thi- corporation, subjecting cattle, sheep or hogs, not belonging to any of 
the residents of said borough, to be abused or taken up and sold for coming 
within the bounds thereof. 

Matthias Corwin, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Peter Hitchcock, 
Speaker of the Senate. 
February 10, 1816. 

Pregnant With Oreat Results. 

As heretofore suggested, the conference described was pregnant with 
great results, and had much to do in determining the immediate destiny of 
all that portion of the new republic lying west and northwest of the Alle- 
ghenies and south of the great chain of lakes. Having broken the French 
power in the Canadas, to lose in turn her own colonies in the American 
Revolution, the British government still fondly hoped to reconquer the re- 
public, and bring the entire continent, at least north of the Rio Grande, 
under the British flag and sceptre. 

It is pretty well settled that the British aggressions, which led up to 
the war of 1812, had for their purpose the provocation of hostilities between 
the old nation and the infant republic. The English statesmen and 
soldiers apparently imagined that the republic was too poverty-stricken to 
maintain its existence in another war, and it provoked rejoicing rather than 
surprise in government circles in London when the United States declared 
their rc^idiness and their determination to defend their rights against all 
comers and demonstrate that an American was not inferior to a king in 
all proper sovereignty. 

It is also clear that it was part of the program to threaten the republic 
from the sea and from Lower Canada, thus engaging all the military forces 
of the original states in self-defense, and leave all the vast empire lying 
west and northward in a defenseless and undefendable state, thus allowing 
the savage tribes in the northwest the ooportunity to sweep away the white 
settlements which were scattered over the territorv^ now comprising Ohio, 

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A Favorite Place for Both Children and Love Stricken Lads and Lassies. 

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Kentucky, Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, and form, a junction with the 
British armies in Virginia or Pennsylvania, or some other advantageous 
spot that would paralyze the new nation. 

After that the Indian allies would return to their wilderness domain, 
England would resume control of the lost colonies, a modified and a better 
form of government, would follow the once colonial system of the crown, 
and England would in the course of a century or two dominate the whole 
continent and build up the most splendid empire since the days of Persian 
greatness and opulence. 

All this was changed by that conference across the river, and what- 
ever of cohesive alliance of all the Indian tribes, under the tutelage of the 
Canadian repreeentatives of the crown was dissipated, when the wise chief 
Tarhe, who had not only learned to respect Americans but was able to esti- 
mate them as warriors, gave the keynote to his fellows that prevented an 
alliance, which if once consummated, would have made it impossible for 
the United States forces to have invaded Canada and put England herself 
on the defensive. 

To the military and statesmanic genius of General William Henry 
Harrison and the lofty idea of humanity entertained by Tarhe and his fel- 
low chiefs and counselors, powerful enough to move and control all the 
northwestern tribes in the very crisis of an epoch, is due the fact that the 
growing young state of Ohio and its log cabin capital, were not whelmed 
in a century of darkness and disaster, from which but a slow recovery was to 
be expected, even if any semblance of the present political, commercial, 
aocial and educational conditions had been possible by the morning of the 
twentieth century. 

The commemoration of the event and the spot by the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, however, we have every reason to hope and be- 
lieve will in the course of coming years incite the people of a great city, the 
heart of a great state, to build other memorials to the simple minded sons of 
the forest, who seem to have apprehended the true vision of the future. 

The N&iv Political Era. 

It is but just to say, however, that the sentiment of British statesman- 
ship, current in the opening of the eighteenth century, does not exist in the 
beginning of the twentieth, and the two nations interested are mutually 
grateful that the Harrison-Tarhe conference was held, that the then pos- 
sible horrors of savage warfare were averted, and that Anglo-American pol- 
itics and statesmen (probably as one of the outflowing consequences) are 
second to none in the uplifting of manhood and liberal ideas of political 

Following the event thus historically dwelt on to bring out the strik- 
ing lights it throws upon current history and the state of which it is the 
capital went forward with full confidence in the future — a confidence that 
time ha-^ most amply justified. 

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The State Offices Assembled at Columbus. 

In the fall of 1816, the .state offices were removed from Chillicothe to 
Columbus, and on the first Monday of December, in the same year, the 
legislature commenced its first session in the then new state hou^e in Colum- 
bus. The proprietors, having finished the public buildings and deeded the 
tw^o ten acre lots to the state, agreeably to their proposals, at this ses^-ion 
they presented their account for the erection of the public buildings; and 
by an act passed the 29th of January, 1817, the governor was authorized 
to settle and adjust the account, and the auditor required to draw on the 
treasurer for the balance found due after deducting the fifty thousand dol- 
lars which the proprietors were by their propo.^aLs bound to giv?. 

In the settlement, after deducting from the charge for carpenter work 
some six or seven per cent, and the fifty thousand dollars, there was found 
a balance of about thirty-three thousand dollars due the proprietors, which 
was paid by the state, and thus clased this heavy and responsible enterprise. 

A Practical Ilanse Town. 

This "Charter" is to be taken as the type of municipal organization at 
the beginning of the century. It was as Hanseatic in its latitude and free- 
dom, as were the Hanse towns in Europe of the previous century and still 
more remote. It was home rule in its simplicity save as to the eligibility 
to office. While the elector was only required to be a native born or natural- 
ized citizen of the United States and six months a resident, there were two 
important restrictions a.s to eligibility to office. Under this rescript to be 
eligible to an elective office the aspirant nmst either be a freeholder or a 
housekeeper. In other words, he nuist either be the owner of real estate or 
the head of a family and "keeping a house." 

The advantages of the two classes were equalized and adjusted, how- 
ever. The bachelor or widowed landowner was eligible to office. So, also, 
was the landless head of a family, sheltered under the clapboard roofed 
cabin. To the appointive offices, save in occasional exceptions, both classes 
were equally eligible. 

The original body determined the tenure of its numbers, dividing tliem 
into three classes of three years tenure each, after the first two years, three 
holding for one year, three for two and three for three, three being 
elected annually. This did not precisely make the mayor, recorder, treas- 
urer and common council a self-perpetuating body, owing to the fact that 
in those days an occasional public officer knew when he had onouG:li. The 
nine menibers of the borough council, who were the corporation itself, 
elected the mayor, ncorder and treasurer from their own number. Two- 
thirds of them were in office when the remaining third were candidates for 
election to office, and as the whole body had the power to appoint all the 
subordinate officers of the town and control its entire business, expenditures, 
levies, etc., there was an opportunity for self-perpetuation at least. Whether 
it was taken advantage of or other is left to the judgment of the reader. 

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when he looks over the entire list of mayors, recorders, treasurers and 
eouncilmen, as well as the inferior officers on a later page, covering the en- 
tire borough period from 1816 to 1834. 

The duties of the officers were plain and simple, and the borough gov- 
ernment was not an onerous one; the population grew and Columbus in- 
creased in importance; there were no official scandals, and the people were, 
as a rule, satisfied. The final section forbidding the borough council to 
pass any law "subjecting cattle, sheep or hogs not belonging to the resi- 
dents of said borough, to be abused or taken up and sold," is strikingly 
humane. They might abuse, take up and sell their own cattle, sheep and 
ho^, but such chattels belonging to the stranger and the outsider must 
receive respectful and humane treatment — a nineteenth century legislative 
rendition of the Golden Rule in behalf of domestic animals. 

Early Years of Village Life. 

For the first few years the town improved rapidly. Emigrants flowed 
in apparently from all quarters, and the improvements and general business 
of the place kept pace with the increase of population. Columbus at that 
date, however, was a rough spot in the woods, afar from any public road 
of much consequence. The east and west travel passed through Zanesville. 
Lancaster and Chillicothe; and the mails came to Columbus by cross lines 
on horseback The first successful attempt to carry a mail to and from 
Columbus, otherwise than on horseback, was by Philip Zinn about the year 
1816, once a week between Chillicothe and Columbus, via the Scioto river. 

Hmv Real Estate was Sold, 

The proprietors of the town usually made their sales of lot^ by title 
bond. Upon receiving a third, fourth or fifth of the price agreed upon in 
hand, and annual notes for the balance without interest if punctually paid, 
otherwise to bear interest from date, they executed a bond binding them- 
selves to make a deed when the notes were paid; and it frequently happened 
that after one or two payments and a small improvement had been made, 
the whole would fall back to the proprietors. The lots for sale all being in 
the hands of the proprietors, and their giving time on the payments, kept 
up the prices at from two to five hundred dollars on any part of the town 
plat, and prices did not fall much below this until after the year 1820, when 
owing to the failure of two of the proprietors, McLaughlin and Johnson, as 
also of numeroa^ other individuals who had possessed themselves of lots, 
there was such an immense number offered at forced sales by the United 
States marshal and sheriff, and so very little money in the country, that after 
being appraised and offered, and re-appraised and offered again and again, 
they finally had to sell. And lots which had years before been held at two 
and three hundred dollars, were struck off and sold at from ten to twenty 
dollars, and sometimes lower, even down to seven or eight dollars, for a lot 
on the extremities of the plat. 

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More Depression. 

To add to the depression of biisiness and price of property, about the 
year 1822 or 1823, the title of Starling^s half section, on which the town was 
in part located was called in question. It had originally been granted to one 
Allen, a refugee from the British provinces in the time of the American Revo- 
lution. Allen had deeded it to his son, and the son had mortgaged it and it 
was sold at sheriff's sale to satisfy the mortgage, and Starling was the pur- 

The First Disputed Title. 

It was now claimed by the heirs of Allen, who took various exception's 
to Starling's title. Fii-st as to the sale from the old man Allen to his son ; 
also to the authentication of the mortgage by the son, and particularly to 
the sale by the sheriff to Starling, on the ground that there was no evidence 
that an appraisement had been made as required by the statutes of Ohio, 
and suit was brought by ejectment against some of the occupants who 
owned the most valuable improvements, first in the supreme court of Ohio, 
and then in the United States court for the district of Ohio. 

Henry Clay in Ohio Supreme Court. 

Mr. Starling defended the suits and first engaged Henry Clay, who 
then practiced in the United States courts at ColumbiLs, as attorney. But 
owing to his appointment as secretary of state, he was called to Washington 
city and gave up the ca^e, and Henry Baldwin, then of Pittsburg, was next 
engaged, who conducted the defense with great ability, and about the year 
1826 it was finally decided in favor of Starling's title. So the matter wa.< 
put to rast as to that half section. 

The suit against Starling's half section was scarcely decided, when a 
claim was set up against Kerr and McLaughlin's half section. They had 
bought from one Strawbridge, who conveyed by an attorney or agent, and 
the deed ran thus: That the agent conveyed for Strawbridge, instead of 

Strawbridge conveying by agent, and wa^ so signed: *M M 

(the agent), (seal). Attorney in fact for Strawbridge." 

Thus the defect in Kerr and McLaughlins title wa^ merely technical. 
But it was contended that this was not Strawbridge's deed, but the deed of 
the agent who claimed no title. And about the year 1826, a quit-claim 
was obtained from Strawbridge's heirs, by some man purporting to be a 
New Yorker, upon which a suit was brought in ejection, as in other cases, 
against one or more of the occupants of the most valuable lots. But by a 
suit in chancery to. quiet title about the year 1827, this was all set right, and 
the title of Kerr and McLaughlin sustained. In March, 1851, an act was 
passed by the legislature of Ohio to remedy such defects in conveyances, 
by which this technical distinction under the common law has been 

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The years 1819 and 1820 to 1826 were the dullest years in Columbus. 
But soon after this Columbus began to look up again. The location of the 
national road and the Columbus feeder to the Ohio canal gave an impetus 
to improvements, and by the year 1830, the prices of property and the im- 
provements of the town had very considerably advanced. 

The Manufacturing Spirit Appears. 

Although Columbus possessed a reasonable amount of wealth and of 
money-making talent, the attention of its capitalists never was until of 
later years much turned toward manufacturing, but more directed to specu- 
lating upon the productions of others, by buying, selling, etc., than to creat- 
ing new or additional wealth. The early efforts in the way of mills and 
manufactories, further than the common branches of mechanism, generally 
failed, either for want of capital or want of judgment and skill in their 
construction and management. The first partially modern sawmill erected 
within the present city limits was a sawmill on the Scioto, some ten or fif- 
teen rods below where the penitentiary now is, in 1813, by John Shields 
and Richard Courtney. It passed through several hands in a few years; 
was considered a good property; but soon went to ruin; and for the last 
sixty-five years or more not a vestige of its remains has been perceivable. 

About the year 1816 the same John Shields erected a flouring mill on 
the run at the southwest corner of the town, a few rods west of BalPs tan- 
nery. The water was brought from east of High street in a race along the 
side of the bank, near the south end of Hoster^s brewery, and let on to an 
overjfhot wheel. This mill, after standing some twelve or fifteen years and 
being owned by several individuals in succession was sufferel to go to ruin, 
and there have been no remains of it perceivable for fifty years. 

Along this hollow there formerly were, in succession, a number of brew- 
eries, distilleries, tanyards and asheries that have long since disappeared. 
At a later period there were two large breweries, one owned by Messrs. Hos- 
ter & Silbernagle and the other by John Blenker, and some three or four 

The First Circular Saw. 

In 1819, Moses Jewett, Caleb Houston and John E. Baker erected on 
the Scioto, just above Rich street, a sawmill upon a new patent plan. The 
saw was circular and was to cut constantly ahead with no back strokes. It 
was an experiment, and cost them a good deal without ever answering any 
valuable purpose. 

In 1821 Colonel Jewett and Judge Hines commenced the manufactur- 
ing of cotton yarn by horse power in a frame building on Front street, be- 
tween Rich and Friend; and after experimenting with that some time and 
also with the circular saw in the mill, the spinning machinery was removes? 
into the mill, where the spinning was continued by water power a few years. 
But finally the whole concern was abandoned, and for nearly fifty years 

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there has not been a vccstige of the building to show where it stood. The 
frame on Front Street where the^y first commenced the cotton spinning wa^ 
for many years known as the "old factory." 

A Hemp Dremer. 

About this time, Judge Ilines having invented a machine for dre-ssing 
hemp in an unrotted state, in 1822 he and William Bain constructed and 
put in operation one of the machines at the southeast corner of High street 
and South Public lane. It was propelled by horse power on a tread wheel. 
It after some time passed into the hands of Lafayette Tibbits, who worked 
it until the fall of 1824, when he failed and the w^hole concern went down. 

Woolen Manufacturers. 

About the year 1822, a woolen factory for carding, spinning and weav- 
ing was commenced by Ebenezer Thoma^ and others on the we.-t end of 
the lot later owned by Colonel S. W. Andrews, corner of High and Noble 
streets. It was worked by horse power on a tread wheel. It passed through 
the hands of different owners, without profit to any. About the year 1884 
or 1835, the building and machinery were removed and re-erected by 
George Jeffries on the w^est abutment of the canal dam, w^here it was worked 
by water power, some two or three years, when the machinery was sold out 
by piece meal under the hammer; and so ended that manufacturing estab- 

A Steam Saivmill. 

About the year 1831 or 1832, John McElvain erected a steam sawmill 
at the head of the canal, where Hunter's warehouse afterward stood. It was 
worked by different persons (it is believed without much profit) for some 
seven or eight years, when the engine and machinery were disposed of and 
the warehouse erected over it, the mill frame answering as part of the ware- 
house. In 1843, the warehouse was totally consumed by fire, but was sub- 
sequently rebuilt. The first successful manufacturing establishment, other 
than common mechanic shops, was the foundry and plow manufactory of 
Mr. Ridgway, established in 1822. 

The County Seat Removed. 

In 1824 the county seat was removed from Franklinton to Columbus: 
and the courts were held in the United States courthouse imtil 1840. The 
court of common pleas then (1824) was compared of Gastavus Swan, presi- 
dent; Edward Livingston, Samuel G. Flenniken, and Aurora Buttles, associ- 
ates: A. I. McDowell, clerk; and Robert Brotherton, sheriff. 

Begins to Expand. 

As already observed, the original town was laid out in 1812. In the 
summer of 1814, John McOownV addition was laid out and called South 

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Columbus — ^sun-eyed and platted by John Shields. In 1830 the wharf lots 
were laid out by order of the town council. They are, and theoretically 
must remain city property. In 1831, a few lots were laid out by John 
Young and called Young's addition. 

McEl vain's A ddition . 

In 1832 a five acre lot of land near the head of the canal, owned by 
John McElvain and others, was laid out into lots and called McElvain's ad- 

In February, 1833, Oti^ and Samuel Crosby's first addition (between 
Town and South streets) was laid out; and in November of the same year, 
their second addition (between South street and South Public lane) was 
also laid out. 

Bi'otherton and Walcutfs Addition, 

About the years 1831 and 1832, Robert Brotherton and John M. Wal- 
cutt, who owned a few acres of an original reserve, sold out some building 
lots on Town street, which was generally called Brotherton and WaJcutt's 
addition. They did not have their lots platted, but sold by metes and 
bounds as lands conveyed. The lots, however, were subsequently platted, 
agreeably to the sales, and recorded. 

Heyl and Parson's Addition. 

In 1835 Judge Heyl and Dr. Parsons had a small addition of lots laid 
out in the southwest corner of the town, called Heyl and Parson's addition. 
In the same year, 1835, Matthew J. Gilbert's addition was laid out. 

Kelley and Northrnp's Addition. 

In 1838 Alfred Kelley, Moylen Northrup and John Kerr's heirs, laid 
out into lots what thoy called on their recorded plat, ^The allotment of the 
central reservation ;" but which was more commonly called Kelley and 
Northrup's addition. Since which there have been so many small additions 
and sub-divisions of out-lots into building lots, that it would be more tedi- 
ous than interesting to trace thorn any farther. 

Demise and Failure. 

Of the four original proprietors, John Kerr died in 1823, leaving a 
young family and a large estate, which, however, did not long remain with 
his heirs after they arrived at age. 

Alexander McLaughlin failed in business about the year 1820 and 
never again rose from his fallen fortune. He had once been considered 
amongst the wealthiest men of the state. In his latter years he obtained a 

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support by teaching a common country i?chool. lie wa^ a scn^^ible man, 
with a fine business education and qualifications, but he had over-reached 
himself before the depression of bu^^iness and prices of real estate, which 
took place from 1817 or 1818, to 1824 and 1825, and his large landed 
estate was sold under the hammer (figuratively speaking) for a mere song. 
He died about the year 1832 or 1833. 

James Johnston, commonly called Colonel Johnston, failed about the 
same time and in the same way a^ Mr. McLaughlin. He left Columbus and 
went to Pittsburg to live about the year 1820, where he remained the bal- 
ance of his life and died in the summer of 1842 at a very advanced age. 

Lyne Starling, Last of the Four Founders. 

Lyne Starling, the surviving one of the four, after the settlement of 
the proprietors' accounts with the state and among themselves, about the 
year 1818 or 1820, made a pleasure tour through Europe and then returned 
and spent the balance of his life principally in Columbus. He lived a bach- 
elor and died quite w^ealthy in the fall of 1848, aged sixty-five years. He 
had, some half dozen years before his death, donated thirty-five thousand 
dollars to the erection of Starling Medical College and was in return com- 
plimented by having the college named after him. 

John McGown, proprietor of South Columbus, died in the summer of 
1824 in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

A Fourth of July Celebration. 

On the 4th of July, 1825, a celebration of the commencement of the 
Ohio canal took place at Licking Summit, at which Governor Clinton, of 
New York, pursuant to invitation, attended, accompanied by Solomon Van 
Rensselaer, and Messrs. Rathbone and Lord, w^ho made the first loan to the 
state for canal purposes. On the Wednesday following, Governor Clinton 
was escorted into Columbus by General Warner and suite. Colonel P. H. 
Olmsted's squadron of calvary. Captain HazePs light infantry. Captain 
Andrew McElvain's rifle corps, and Captain O'Harra's artillery; together 
with other citizens, to the state house, where he was addressed by Governor 
Morrow with a cordial welcome to Ohio's fertile and productive lands and 
her capital. 

To which Governor Clinton made an appropriate reply, eulogizing our 
state and our canal enterprise, and closing with this sentence: "In five 
years it may, and probably will be completed, and I am clearly of the opin- 
ion that in ten years after the consummation of this work it will produce 
an annual revenue of at least a million of dollar?; and I hope this remark 
may be noted, if anything I say shall be deemed worthy of particular notice, 
in order that its accuracy may be tested by experience." Governor Clinton 
overestimated the revenues, but the canal added hundreds of millions in 
wealth to the state. 

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Dined at the Golden Bell. 

At the conclusion of the ceremonies at the state house, Governor Clin- 
ton was escorted to Mr. Robinson's tavern, sign of the Golden Bell, on the 
lot where the Johnston building was later erected, and partook of a public 

Insurance Company Incorporated. 

At the session of the legislature of 1832-33, the Columbus Insurance 
Company was incorporated. It failed in 1851. 

The Clinton Bank Incorporated. 

At the session of 1833-34, the Clinton Bank of Columbus was char- 
tered, and in October, 1834, the first board of directors was elected and con- 
sisted of William Neil, Christopher Neiswanger, David W. Deshler, Demas 
Adams, John Patterson, Jesse Stone, Noah H. Swayne, Joseph Ridgway, 
Bela Latham, William S. SuUivant, William Miner, O. W. Sherwood and 
Nathaniel Medberry. 

First President and Cashier. 

William Neil was elected president, and John Delafield, Jr., cashier. 
Mr. Neil continued president until January, 1846, when he was succeeded 
by William S. SuUivant, who was continued as president until the charter 
expired, 1st of January, 1854. Mr. Delafield was succeeded as cashier by 
John E. Jeffords, in January, 1838. Mr. Jeffords died in April, 1842, and 
David W. Deshler was then appointed cashier and continued until the 
expiration of the charter. During the last nine or ten years of the bank, 
W. G. Deshler served as teller, and David Overdier as bookkeeper. 

Charter Expired — New Bank. 

After the expiration of the charter, some half dozen of the principal 
stockholders in the old bank formed themselves into a new private bank- 
ing company and continued to do business as such in the same room. They 
styled their institution Clinton Bank, merely dropping from the old name 
the words "of Columbus." They redeemed the notes of the old Clinton 
Bank of Columbus. 

The First Cholera Scourge. 

In the summer of 1833, the cholera made its first appearance in Frank- 
lin county. It first broke out in the early part of the summer in a neigh- 
borhood on the canal, in Madison township, where it proved very fatal, 
but was confined to the space of a few miles only. On the 14th of July, 
it made its first appearance in Columbus and continued until about the first 

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of October. A Mr. Stagg, who rasided at the west end of Rich street, op- 
posite the Jewett block, was the first victim. During its prevalence, there 
were about two hundred deaths in Columbus, notwithstanding the whole 
population of the town was not much, if any, over three thousand and it 
was suppased that one-third had fled to the country. Much sickness from 
fevers also prevailed at the ►same time, .**o that in many cases it was impas- 
sible to determine to what disea.-^e to attribute the death of the patient ; 
though it is believed that about two-thirds of the deaths were attributable to 
cholera. Out of the whole number, the board of health discriminated one 
hundred as being of cholera proper. The number that was more or les- 
attri))ulable to cholera, has been variously estimated at from one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty. The mortality and terror of this season far sur- 
passed any pestilence that ever afflicted Columbus, before or since. Other 
parts of the county, beside the town and the neighborhood above alluded 
to, were not more sickly than ordinary' seasons. 

Among those who fell victims to the epidemic, . were the following 
well known citizens: the Horton Howard family, consisting of the old gen- 
tleman, his wife and daughter, two grandchildren, and son-in-law, ^Ir. 
Little; James Woods and wife; C. C. Beard and wife; Ebenezer Thoma>: 
William John; John B. Compston; Benjamin Sweetzer; Henry Jewett: 
Nimrod Rochester; Mr. White, coachmaker, and his wife; and Mrs. Zach- 
ariah Mills. 

Postoffice and Borough Officers. 

The Columbus postofiice was established in 1818 and in 1838 was mad^* 
a distributing office. 

Matthew Matthews, appointed postmaster in 1818 — retired in 1814. 

Joel Buttles, appointed postma^^ter in 1814 — retired in 1829. 

Bela Latham, appointed postmaster in 1829 — retired in 1841. 

John G. Miller, appointed postma.ster in 1841 — retired in 1845. 

Jacob Medary, appointed postmaster in 1845 — died in 1847. 

Sanuiel Medary, appointed postmaster in 1847 — retired in 1849. 

Aaron F. Perry, appointed postmaster in 1849 — retired in 1858. 

Thomas Sparrow, appoint<^d pastmaster in 1858 — retired in 1857. 

Thomas Miller, appointed pastmaster in 1857 — retired in 1858. 

Samuel ^fedary, appointed postmaster in 1858. 

Beginning and End of the Borough. 

The first act to incorporate the borough of Columbus was pas^^ed the 
10th of February, 181G, and vested the corporate authority in nine coun- 
eilmen, from which body a mayor, who also acted as president of the coun- 
cil, a recorder and treasurer, were elected by the council. They also a])- 
pointed a surveyor, a marshal, and clerk of the market, and a lister and ap- 
l)raisor, to list and value property for borough taxation. The recorder 
made out the tax duplicate, and the marshal was the collector. The first 

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Ready for the Assembling of the General Assembly. 


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•rH£ '■^'^.v, \..^j 

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election for councilmen was held at the Columbus Inn on the 6th of May, 

The elections were by general ticket, and all the town voted at the 
same poll. The first members were to serve one, two and three years, so 
that three new members were elected each year after. The first council- 
men elect met at the same inn on the 13th of the same month and organized. 
In March, 1817, the old market house, that had been erected by contri- 
butions, was declared a nuisance and an ordinance passed for its removal. 

Members of Council. 

During the eighteen years of the borough organization, from 1816 to 
1834, the following gentlemen served at various periods, as members of the 
council, to-wit : Messrs. Robert W. McCqy, Jeremiah Armstrong, Robert 
Armstrong, Henry Brown, John Cutler, Caleb Houston, John Kerr, Michael 
Patton, Jarvis Pike, James B. Gardiner, Christian Heyl, William McElvain, 
James Kooken, Townsend Nichols, Ralph Osbom, P. H. Olmsted, John 
Jeflfords, Eli C. King, L. Goodale, Charles Lofland, W. T. Martin, John 
Greenwood, John Laughry, James Robinson, John W. Smith, William 
Long, Joel Buttles, Nathaniel McLean, Joseph Ridgway, George Jeffries, 
John Warner, Robert Brotherton, Jonathan Neereamer, Robert Riorden, 
Samuel Parsons, John Patterson, Moses R. Spurgion. 

The following were the officers appointed by the town council: 

Mayor— Jarvis Pike, 1816; Jarvis Pike, 1817; John Kerr, 1818; John 
Kerr, 1819; Eli C. King, 1820; Eli C. King, 1821; Eli C. King, 1822; John 
Laughry, 1823; William T. Martin, 1824; William T. Martin, 1825; 
Wilham T. Martin, 1826; James Robinson, 1827; William Long, 1828; 
William Long, 1829; William Long, 1830; William Long, 1831; William 
Long, 1832; P. H. Olmsted, 1833. 

Recorder— R. W. McCoy, 1816; R. W. McCoy, 1817; Jas. B. Gardiner, 
1818; Ralph Osbom, 1819; John Kerr, 1820; John Kerr, 1821; John Kerr, 
1822; William T. Martin, 1823; William Long, 1824; William Long, 
1825; William Long, 1826; William Long, 1827; L. Goodale, 1828; L. 
Goodale, 1829; L. Goodale, 1830; N. McLean, 1831; R. Osborn, 1832; John 
Patterson, 1833. 

Marshal — Samuel King, 1816; Samuel King, 1817; James Fisher, 
1818; William Richardson, 1819; Samuel Shannon, 1820; Samuel Shan- 
non, 1821; Samuel Shannon, 1822; Samuel Shannon, 1823; Benjamin 
Sells, 1824; Samuel Shannon, 1825; Samuel Shannon, 1826; John Kelly, 
1827; Benjamin Sells, 1828; Benjamin Sells, 1829; J. G. Godman, 1830; 
John Kelly, 1831; Benjamin Sells, 1832; George B. Harvey, 1833. 

Treasurer — Robert Armstrong, 1816; Robert Armstrong, 1817; Chris- 
tian Heyl, 1818; Christian Heyl, 1819; Christian Heyl, 1820: Christian 
Heyl, 1821; Christian Heyl, 1822; Christian Heyl, 1823; Christian Heyl, 
1824; Christian Heyl, 1825; Christian Heyl, 1826; Christian Heyl, 1827; 

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R. W. McCoy, 1828; R. W. McCoy, 1829; R. W. McCoy, 1830; R. W. Mc- 
Coy, 1831; R. W. McCoy, 1832; R. W. McCoy, 1833. ^ 

Surveyor — John Kerr, 1816 ; John Kerr, 1817 ; John Kerr, 1818 ; John 
Kerr, 1819; Jeremiah McLene, 1820; John Kerr, 1821; John Kerr, 1822 
Jeremiah McLene, 1823; Jeremiah McLene, 1824; Jeremiah McLene, 1825 
Jeremiah McLene, 1826; Jeremiah McLene, 1827; Jeremiah McLene, 1828 
Jeremiah McLene, 1829; Jeremiah McLene, 1830; Jos. Ridgway, Jr., 1831 
Byron Kilbourne, 1832 ; Byron Kilboume, 1833. 

Clerks of Market— WilHani Long, 1816; William Long, 1817; William 
Richardson, 1818; William Richardson, 1819; Samuel Shannon, 1820 
Samuel Shannon, 1821; Samuel Shannon, 1822; Samuel Shannon, 1823 
Samuel Shannon, 1824; Samuel Shannon, 1825; Samuel Shannon, 1826 
John Kelly, 1827; Benjamin Sells, 1828; Benjamin Sells 1829; Julius G. 
Godman, 1830; John Kelly, 1831; Benjamin Sells, 1832; George B. Har- 
vey, 1833. 

It will be observed that while there were one hundred and sixty-two 
councilmanic terms during the sixteen years of the borough organization, 
there were but thirty-seven different councilmen chosen or nearly five terms 
for each. 

There were eighteen mayorial terms and eight different mayors. 

There vrere eighteen recordership terms and ten different recorders. 

There were eighteen terms of mai'shaLfhip and ten different marshals. 

There were eighteen terms of treasurership and three different person.- 
were trea.<urer. 

There were eigliteen terms of svu'veyorship and four different per.-^ons 

Thei-e were eighteen terms of clerk of the market and six different per- 
sons clerk. 

That is to say that seventy-eight pei*sons constituted the entire official- 
dom of the borough during the eighteen years of its existence, where as there 
were fifteen terms of office beginning and ending annually, after the first 
year, which if divided on the two term basis, would have given one hundred 
and thirty-five officials two terms each. 

Enter the City of Columbus. 

By an act of the legislature, passed March 3d, 1834, Columbus was in- 
corporated a city and divided into three wards. All north of State street 
constituted the first ward, all ))etAveen State and Rich the second, and all 
south of Rich the third ward: each ward to be represented by four council- 
men, to be elected on the second ^londay of April in the same year. The 
term of service of the first board to be determined by lot. and afterward one 
member to be elected annually from each ward. The mayor to be elected 
biennially by the peo]>le. 

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In some respects the legislativ© charter of March 3, 1834, was not unlike 
the borough charter of 1816; while in others it was widely variant. Both 
are worthy of intelligent study, even in this day of advanced ideas of mu- 
nicipal government. The borough charter contained the most advanced 
ideas of the smaller municipal governments of its day, and so, also, the city 
charter contained the best ideas then prevalent for the large municipalities 
or cities. One who reads closely, and studies intelligently, both these charters, 
and especially the last, will discern that they were legislative enactments, 
directly in the interests of the citizens and rate payers, and offered little or 
no encouragement to politicians and job hunters. 

They are a fair, and in one way, a uniform type of the village, borough 
and city governmental system of that age. Plain, straightforward, clear and 
comprehensive statements of the delegation of powers to the citizens from 
the higher sovereign, defining the limits within which they might exercise 
home rule. The widely different forms and qualities of local and municipal 
government which have been the vogue for the past quarter of a century, 
tends to give them great historical value, and make them a most important 
feature in the annals of the city and, therefore, worthy of historical 

If one will read the contemporaneous record of historv in the light of 
these enabling acts, he will bo struck with the almost total absence of official 
scandal and realize that the ofilcial faults which were open to censure were 
pnwtically only venial ones. These charters contain no doubtful grants of 
power, confer no india nibber prerogatives to be stretched at the inclination 
of the official. It was held by the statesman of that day that the opportunity 
to do wrong in official station was seldom, if ever, escai>ed by weak men and 
eagerly improved by dishonest ones. Hence, they barred all opportunity 
and the result fully justifie<l their austerity. That even a weak man might 
l>e strong in the absence of temptation, while strong men were not always 
strengthened, by coming in contact with it. Plainness, directness, .straight- 
forwardness and strict accountability in government are not so constituted 
as to make office holding a gold-mine, whatever they may do in the con- 
-•icrvation of private rights and the promotion of public virtue and civic 

The Charter entire follows: 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, 
that so much of the county of Franklin as is comprised within the following 
limits, to-wit: Beginning at a point where the southwest corner of the new 
penitentiary lot bounds on the Scioto river thence north with the west line 
of said lot, to the north side of Public Lane, thence eiist with Public Lane 
to the east side of Fourth j^treet to Broad street, thence east with the north 
side of Broad street to the east side of Seventh street, thence south with the 
ea-t side of Seventh street to South Public Lane, thence west with the south 

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side of Public Lane, to the alley which is the east boundary of South Colum- 
bus, thence south with the east side of said alley to the south side of the alley 
or lane, which is the south boundary of South Coliunbus, thence with the 
south side of said alley or lane to the west side of the alley or street which 
is the western boundray of South Columbus, thence north with the west side 
of said alley or street to the south side of South Public Lane, thence west 
to the west side of the Columbus Feeder so as to include the tow path, thence 
north with said tow path to the Scioto River, and in the same direction across 
said river, thenoe up the west side of said river, and in the same direction 
across said river, thence up the wTSt side of said river and with the meanders 
until a line draw^n due north will reach the place of beginning, shall be and 
(is) hereby declared to be a City, and the inhabitants thereof are created 
a body corporate and politic, with perpetual succession, by the name and 
style of "the City of Columbus," and, as such by that name, shall be capable 
of contracting and being contracted with, of suing and being sued, pleaded 
and being impleaded, answ^ering and being answered unto, in all courts and 
places, and in all matters w^hatsoever and also of purchasing, using, occupy- 
ing, enjoying, and conveying real and personal estate and may have and use 
a corporate seal, and change, alter and renew the same at pleasure, and shall 
be competent to have, receive, and enjoy all the rights, immunities, powers 
and privileges, and be subject to all duties, and obligations incumbent upon 
and appertaining to a municipal corporation, and for the better ordering and 
governing said City, the exercise of the corporate powers of the same herein 
and hereby granted and the administration of its fiscal, prudential and mu- 
nicipal concerns, with the conduct, direction and government thereof shall 
be vested in the mayor and council, consisting of four members from each 
ward, to be denominated the city council, together with such other officers, 
as are hereinafter mentioned and provided for. 

Sec. 2. That the said City of Columbus shall be, and is hereby invested 
as the lawful owner and proprietor, with all the real and personal estate, 
and all the rights and privileges thereof, together with all the property fundi-, 
and revenues and all money, debts, accounts and demands due and owing, 
or in any wise belonging to the mayor and council of the borough of Colum- 
bus, or which by or under the authority of any former acts, ordinances, grants, 
donations; gifts or purchases, have been acquired, vested in or are or may 
be owing or belonging to the said mayor and council of the borough of Colum- 
bus, and the same are hereby transferred to the corporate body created and 
established by this act, and all suits pending and judgments recovered by, in 
favor of, or against the said mayor and council of the borough of Columbus, 
together with all rights, interests, claims and demands in favor of and against 
the same, may be continued, prosecuted, defended and collected, in the same 
manner as though this act had never been passed, and the said City shall be 
held accountable, and made liable for all debts and liabilities of the said 
mayor and council of the borough of Columbus. 

Sec. 3. That the said city, shall be divided into three wards; the first 
ward shall comprise all the territory north of the centre of State street, the 
second ward all between the centre of State and the centre of Rich streets. 

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and the third ward all south of the centre of Rich street, until such boundaries 
may be altered, or the number of wards may be increased by city council, 
who are hereby authorized and empowered to make alterations in the boun- 
daries of or to establish additional wards as the public convenience may 

Sec. 4. That the mayor of said City shall be elected by the qualified 
voters thereof on the second Monday of April, biennially, and shall hold his 
office for the term of two years, and until his successor shall be chosen and 
qualified; it shall be his duty to be vigilant and active at all times in caus- 
ing the laws and ordinances of said city to be put in force and duly executed, 
to inspect the conduct of all subordinate officersi in the government thereof, 
and as far as in his power to cause all negligence, carelessness, and positive 
violation of duty to be prosecuted and promptly punished ; he shall keep the 
seal of said city, sign all commissions, licenses and permits which may be 
granted by or under the authority of the city council, and shall keep an 
office in some convenient place in said city, to be provided by the city council ; 
he shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as from time to time 
may devolve upon him by the ordinances of said city, not inconsistent with 
the provisions of the act, and the -character and the dignity of his office, 
and generally do and perform all such duties, and exercise such other powers 
as pertain to the office of mayor; he shall in his judicial capacity, have ex- 
clusive original jurisdiction of all cases, for the violation of the ordinances 
of said city, and he is hereby vested with powers coequal with justices of 
the peace within said city, and shall have power to exercise the same juris- 
diction and authority in civil and criminal cases, within the limits of said 
city and shall be entitled to the same fees as justice of the peace in like cases, 
all process shall be directed to the city marshal, who is hereby authorized and 
empowered to exercise the same powers, in serving such process, levying ex- 
ecution and making distress on delinquents in civil and criminal cases, and 
shall be entitled to the same fees as constables are for the like services, and 
in case of misconduct in office of the mayor, recorder, treasurer, marshal, 
councilman, or any subordinate officer the city council have hereby power 
to remove him, or any of them, by an agreement of a majority of two-thirds 
concurring, and the mayor shall have power and it shall (be) lawful for him 
to award all such process and issue all such writs as shall be necessary to en- 
force the due administration of right and justice throughout said city, and for 
the lawful exercise of his jurisdiction agreeably to tlie usages and principles 
of law; Provided that in all cases brought before said mayor, for violations 
of the ordinances of said city, and where said mayor shall adjudge the de- 
fendant or defendants to pay a fine of five dollars and upwards, exclusive of 
costs; the defendant or defendants shall have the right of appealing from 
the said judgment to the court of common pleas of Franklin County, upon 
giving bond in double the amount of said judgment and costs, and with such 
security as shall be approved of by said mayor, within ten days from the 
rendition of said judgment, which bond shall be conditioned to pay and dis- 
charge the judgments and costs, which mw be recovered against him, her 
or them, in the said court of common pleas, which appeal when perfected 

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by giving bond as aforesaid, shall entitle the party appealing to the same 
rights and privilege.*^, subject to the same conditions, restrictions and limita- 
tions, as by the lavv.s of this state, pertain to parties appealing from the judg- 
ments of justices of the peace to the courts of common pleas, and the said 
causes so appealed, shall be prosecuted in the said court of common pleas, 
by indictment and trial by jury in the same manner as offences against the 
laws of the state are prosecuted ; and it shall be sufficient to set forth in the 
indictment, the offence in the words of the ordinance said to be violated; 
and to refer to said ordinance by title only without reciting such ordinance 
and by -concluding the said indictment against the peace and dignity of the 
state of Ohio. And the said court of Common Pleas of Franklin county, is 
hereby authorized, empowered and directed to take cognizance of, and hear 
and determine all such cases as shall be brought before them by appeal as 
aforesaid, and assess such fine, and pass such judgment against such de- 
fendant or defendants, as shall be prescribed by the ordinances of the city. 
The mayor shall monoover, have authority to take and certify the acknowl- 
edgments of all deeds for the conveyance or incumbrance of real estate situate 
in the state of Ohio. And it shall be lawful for him to order any peison 
brought before him charged with the commission of any criminal offence 
in any state or territory of the United States, upon proof by him adjudged 
sufficient, to direct sueh accused person to be delivered to some suitable per- 
son or persons to te conveyed to the proper jurisdiction for trial. 

Sec. 5. That the qualified electors of each ward in said city shall, on 
the second Monday of April next, elect hy ballot, four members of the city 
council in each ward, who shall have resided in said city three years, and 
shall have been freeholders or householders therein one year next preceding 
such election, and shall be residents juid inhabitants of the ward in w^hich 
they shall bo elected, and the meml)ers so elected shall meet in each ward 
within five days, and determine by lot, the time they shall severally sen^e; 
one shall sen^e one year, one two years, one three years, and one four years; 
so that one-fourth of them shall be out every year, and at every annual elec- 
tion, which shall be on the second Monday in April in every year, there shall 
be elected one new member of said council in each ward who shall continue in 
office four years, and until their succes.-ors shall be elected and qualified, and 
the members so elected shall, when assembled together, and duly organized 
continue the city council a majority of the whole number of whom shall be 
necessary to constitute a quonmi for the transaction of business; they shall 
be the judges of elections, and qualifications of their own membei's, and 
shall determine the niles of their piT)ceedings, and kee]) a journal thereof, 
which shall be open to the inspection and examination of every citizen, and 
may compel the attendance of al>sent members in such manner and under such 
penalties as they shall think fit to prescribe; they .<hall meet in the council 
chamber or in some other convenient place in said city, on the third Mon- 
day in April, and after having taken the oath of office before the mayor or 
some other officer qualified to administer oaths, they shall elect, from their 
own body, a president who shall preside in their meetings for one year, and 

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■nV£ NEW YOf-, 






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a recorder and treasurer, who shall hold their offices one year, and until 
their successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 6. That the city council shall provide the places and fix the times 
of holding their (meetings) not herein otherwise provided for, which at all 
times shall be open for the public; they shall -appoint all assessors and col- 
lectors of taxes, city surveyors, clerk of the market, street commissioners, 
health officers, weighers of hay, measurers of wood and coal,, wharf masters, 
and such other city officers, whose appointment or election is not herein 
otherwise provided for, as shall be necessary for the good government of 
.said city, and the due exercise of its corporate powers, and which shall have 
been provided for by ordinance, and all city officers whose term of service 
is not prescribed and whose powers and duties are not defined in and by 
this act, shall perform such duties, exercise such powers, and continue in 
office for such term of time, not exceeding one year, as shall be prescribed by 

Sec. 7. That the said city council shall have the custody, care, superin- 
tendence, management and control of all the real and personal estate, and 
other corporate property belonging to said city, and all the real and per- 
sonal estate, money, funds, and revenues, which from time to time, may be 
owned by, or of right belong to said city, with full power to purchase, hold, 
possess, use, occupy, sell and convey the same for the use and benefit of said 
city and the inhabitants thereof; Provided, that the city council shall not 
have power to sell any public landing, wharf or wharves, dock or docks, 
basin or basins, or any interest therein, or part thereof, which now is, or 
hereafter may be used and kept for the accommodation and convenience of 
the merchants, and others engaged in the trade, commerce and navigation 
of said city ; nor shall the said city council issue any printed notes or tickets 
to be issued under their authority, or under the authority of said city, as a 
circulating medium of trade or exchange, or in any way or manner, either 
directly or indirectly, engage in the business of banking. 

Sec. 8. That the said city council shall have power, and it is hereby 
made their duty to make and publish, from time to time, all such ordinances 
as shall be necessary to secure said city and the inhabitants thereof against 
injuries from fire, thieves, robbers, burglars, and all other persons violating 
the public peace; for the suppression of riots and gambling, and indecent 
and disorderly conduct; for the punishment of all lewd and lascivious be- 
havior in the streeta and other public places of said city, and for the ap- 
prehension and punishment of all vagrants and idle persons; they shall have 
power, from time to time, to make and publish all such laws and ordinances 
as to them shall seem necessary, to provide for the safety, preserve the health, 
promote the prosperity, and improve the morals, order, comfort and con- 
venience of said city and the inhabitants thereof; to impose fines, forfeitures 
and penalties, on all persons offending against the laws and ordinances ot 
said city, and provide for the prosecution, recovery and collection thereof; 
and shall have full power to regulate by ordinances, the keeping and sale of 
^npowder, within the city. 

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See. 9. That the said city council shall have power to e.<tablLsh a board 
of health for said city, invest it with such powers, and impose upon it such 
duties as i*hall be necessary to secure said city and the inhabitant's thereof 
from the evils, distre^ss and calamities of contagious, malignant and infectious 
di^ases, provide for its proper organization and the election or appoint- 
ment of the necessary officers thereof, and make such by-laws, rules and 
regulations for its government and support a*« shall be required for enforc- 
ing the most prompt and efficient performance of its duties, and the lawful 
exercise of it5 powers; they shall have power, whenever the public peace of 
said city ^hall require it, to establk^h a city watch, and organize the same, 
under the general superintendence of the city marshal or other proper of- 
ficer of the police, prescribe its duties and define its powei^ in such manner 
as will most effectually preserve the peace of said city, secure the inhabitants 
thereof from personal violence, and their property fn)m fire and unlawful 
* depredations; they .shall establish and organize all such fire companies, and 
provide them with the proper engines and other instruments as shall be nece?;- 
sarj' to extinguish fires, and preserve the property of the inhabitants of said 
city from conflagration, and provide such by-laws and regulations for the 
government of the same as they shall think fit and expedient ; and each and 
every person who may belong to any such fire company shall, in tinjc of 
peace, be exempted from the performance of military duty, under the laws 
of this state; they shall erect, establish and regulate the markets, market 
places of said city for the sale of provisions, vegetables and other articles 
necessary for the sustenance, comfort and convenience of said city and the 
inhabitants thereof, to assize and regulate the sale of bread; and they shall 
have power to establish and construct landing places, wharves, docks, and 
basins in said city, at or on any of the city property. 

Sec. 10. That for the purpoi^e of more effectually securing said city 
from the destructive ravages of fire, the said city council shall have power 
and authority, and for such purpose, they are hereby empowered and author- 
ized, on the application of three-fourths of the whole number of owners or 
proprietors of any square or fractional square in said city, to prohibit in 
the most effectual manner, the erection of any building or the addition to 
any building before erected, more than ten feet high in any such square 
or fractional square, except the outer walls thereof shall be composed entirely 
of brick or stone and mortar, and to provide for the most prom{)t removal 
of any building or addition to any building which may be erected contrary 
to the true intent and meaning of this section. 

Sec. 11. That the said city council shall have power, and is hereby 
made their duty to regulate, by good and wholesome laws and ordinances for 
that purpose, all taverns, ale and porter shops and houses, and places where 
spirituous liquors are sold by a less quantity than a quart, and all other 
houses of public entertainment within said city, all theatrical exhibitions 
and public shows, and all exhibitions of whatever name or nature, to which 
admission is obtained on the payment of money or any other reward; the 
sale of all horses and other domestic animal at public auction in the said 
city, and impose reasonable fines and penalties for the violation of any ^ucb 

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laws and ordinances: And the ^^aid city council shall have full and exclusive 
powere to grant or refuse license to tavern keepers, innholders, retailers of 
spiritous liquors by a lesg quantity than a quart, keepers of ale and porter 
houses and ^hops, and all other houses of public entertainment, showmen, 
keepers and manager^? of theatrical exhibitions, and all other exhibitions for 
nw)ney or reward; auctioneers for the sale of horses and other domestic 
animals, at public auction in said city; and in granting any such license, it 
shall be lawful for said city council to exact, demand and receive such sum 
or sunis of money as they shall think fit and expedient, to annex thereto 
such reasonable term.^ and conditions in regard to time, place and other cir- 
cumstances, under which such license shall be acted upon, and in their 
opinion the peace, quiet and good order of society in said city may require; 
and for the violation of such reasonable terms and conditions as aforesaid, 
the mayor shall have power to revoke or suspend such license, whenever the 
good order and welfare of said city may require it, in such manner as shall 
be provided for by ordinance. 

Sec. 12. That the said city council shall have power, and they are 
hereby authorized to require and compel the al>t\t<^ment and removal of all 
nuisances within the limits of said city, under such regulations as shall be 
prescribed by ordinance; to cause all grounds therein, where water shall at 
any time become stagnant, to be raised, filled up, or drained; and to cause 
all putrid substances, whether animal or vegetable, to be removed; and to 
effect these objects, the said city council may, from time to time, give order 
to the proprietor or the proprietors, or to his or her agent, and to the non- 
rasident proprietors who have no agents therein, by a publication in one or 
more of the newspjipers printed in said city, for a period of six weeks, of 
all or any grounds, subject at any time to be covered with stagnant water, 
to fill up, raise or drain such grounds at their own expense; and the said city, 
council shall designate how high such grounds shall be filled up and rai.sed, 
or in what manner they shall be drained, and fix some rejisonable time for 
filling up, raising or draining the same; and if such proprietor or proprietors, 
or agent, shall refuse or neglect to fill up, raise or drain such grounds, in 
such manner, and within such time as the said city council shall have da^ig- 
nated and fixed, they shall cause the same to be done at the expense of the 
city, and assess the amount of the (expense) thereof, on the lot or lots of 
ground so filled up, raised or drained as aforesaid, and place the assessment so 
made as aforesaid, in the hands of the city marshal, who shall proceed to 
collect the same, by the sale of such lot or lots, if not otherwise paid, in the 
same manner, with the same powers, and under the same regulations, and 
shall make good and sufficient decils thereof to the purchaser, subject to the 
same right or redemption by the proprietor or prorietors, their heirs or as- 
signs, as the law prescribes, for the time, for the sale of lands for the non- 
payment of state and county taxes; but no penalty for the non-payment 
of any such taxes or asse-sments shall exceed twenty-five per cent. 

Sec. 13. That said city council shall cause the streets, lanes, alleys 
and commons of said city, to be kept open and in rei)air, and free from all 
kinds of nuisances; but it shall be lawful for them to continue any building 

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or erection now standing thereon, if, in their opinion, the interest and gen- 
eral health of said city will not be injured thereby; they shall have the ex- 
clusive power of appointing supervisors and other officers of streets within the 
said city ; they shall have the power, whenever the public convenience or safety 
shall require it, to prohibit hogs, cattle, horses, and other description of ani- 
mals, from running at large in the streets, lanes, alleys, commons and other 
public places in said city; they shall have power to license and regulate 
all carts, wagons, drays, and every description of two and four wheeled car- 
riages, which may be kept in said city for hire, all livery stables, brokers and 
loan officers, and to provide for the inspection and the appointment of in- 
jectors of all articles of domestic growth, produce or manufacture, which 
may be brought to said city, or sold or purchased therein, for exportation, 
and not included in the inspection laws of said city. 

Sec. 14. That to defray the current expenses of said city, the said 
city council shall have power to levy and collect taxes on the real and per- 
sonal property therein, as the same has been or shall be appraised and re- 
turned on the grand levy of the State: Provided, the amount of taxes levied 
as aforesaid shall not in any one year exceed one-fifth of one per centum on 
the aggregate value of taxable property in said city; they shall also have 
power, whenever, in their opinion, the interest of said city shall require it, 
to levy and collect taxes on dogs and other domestic animals, not included 
in the list of taxable property, for state and county purposes, which said 
taxes shall be collected by the city marshal or collector,* and paid into the 
city treasury, in the same manner, with the same powers and restrictions, 
and under the same regulations, and in all things as lo the sale of real or 
personal property therefor, he shall act according to the provisions and reg- 
ulations of the law, for the collection of taxes for state and county purposes; 
and they shall have power to levy and collect a special tax from the real 
estate of any section, square or part of a square, or market place of said 
city, on the petition of the owner or owners, of not less than two-thirds in 
value thereof, for opening, paving, repaving or improving any sreet, lane, 
or alley bounding on or within the same, or for the purpose of lighting any 
section, street, lane or alley bounding on or within the same; Provided, that 
for the purpose of lighting such section, street, lane or alley, the owner (tr 
owners of not less than two-thirds of the real estate bound on or within the 
same, and both sides thereof, shall i>etition therefor, and for no other pur- 
poses whatever, the city council shall moreover have power, when two-thirds 
of the members elected shall deem it necessary to assess a special tax for sup- 
plying said city, or any portion thereof, with a night watch. 

Sec. 15. That the said city council shall have power, whenever the 
public good shall require it, to erect a city prison, and to regulate the police 
or internal government of the same; that said city prison may contain cells 
for solitary confinement, and such apartments as may be necessary for the 
safe keeping, accommodation and employment of all such persons as may 
be confined therein; that the said city council shall have power to pass all 
such ordinances as may be necessary for the apprehension and punishment 
of all common street beggars, common prostitutes and persons disturbing the 

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peace of said city, who, upon conviction thereof before the mayor, in such 
manner as the said city council shall prescribe, may be fined in any sum not 
exceeding one hundred dollars, or be confined in the cells, or kept at hard 
labor in said city prison for any length of time not exceeding fifteen days; 
that any pereon convicted before the mayor, under the provisions of this 
act, of any oflfence which, by the laws of the State of Ohio, is punishable in 
whole or in part, by confinement in the county jail, may be confined in the 
cells of the city prison, for any time not exceeding that specified by the laws 
of this State, for the punishment of such offense^ or such persons so convicted, 
as aforesaid, may be kept at hard labor therein for the said term of confine- 
ment: And, provided also, that until such city prison shall be prepared for 
the reception of prisoners, the said city shall be allowed the use of the county 
jail of Franklin County, for the confinement of all such persons as may be 
convicted before the mayor, and who shall be liable to imprisonment under 
the laws of this state, or the ordinances of said city ; and all persons so im- 
prisoned, shall be under the charge of the sheriff of said county, who shall 
receive and discharge such persons in and from said jail, in such manner as 
shall be prescribed by the ordinances of said city, or otherwise, by due course 
of law; and after the said city prison shall be erected and prepared for the 
reception of prisoners, the marshal of said city, in the control, government 
and management thereof, shall have the same power and authority, and 
be subject to the same liabilities, as by the laws of this State now are or 
hereafter may be conferred and imposed upon the sheriffs of the several 
counties, in the control, government and management of the county jails, 
and all such other powers and duties as the city council may prescribe, to 
enforce any sentence of hard labor pronounced against any person by the 
said mayor. 

Sec. 16. That all moneys raised, recovered, received, or collected, by 
means of any tax, license, penalty, fine, forfeiture or otherwise under the 
authority of this act, or which may belong to said city, shall be paid into 
the city treasury, and shall not be drawn therefrom except by order or under 
the authority of the city council and it shall be the duty of said city council, 
to liquidate and settle all claims and demands against said city to require 
all officers, agents, or other persons entrusted with the disbursement or ex- 
penditure of the public money, to account to them therefor, at such time 
and in such manner as they may direct; and they shall annually publish, 
for the information of the citizens a particular statement of the receipts and 
expenditures of all public money belonging to said city, and also of all the 
debts: due and owing to and from the same ; and the said city council shall 
have power to pass all such laws and ordinances as may be necessary and 
proper to carry into effect the powers herein and by this act granted. 

Sec. 17. That every law or ordinance of said city, before it shall be 
of any force or validity, or in any manner binding on the inhabitants 
thereof, or othera, shall be agreed to and ordered to be engrossed for its 
final passage by a majority of all the members of the city council ; it shall 
then be reconsidered by the city council, and if on its final passage, it shall 
be adopted by a majority of all the members, it shall become a law for said 

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city; and all questions on the final passage of any law or ordinance, or the 
adoption of any resolutiorus, shall be taken and decided by yeas and nays; 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the same shall be entered 
on the journals of said council; and all the laws and ordinances passed and 
adopted as aforesaid, shall be signed by the pre*sident of the council and the 
city recorder and immediately published in one or more of the newspapers 
of said city. 

Sec. 18. That it shall be the duty of the city recorder to make and 
keep a just and true record of all and every law and ordinance, made and 
established by the city council, and all their proceedings in their corporate 
capacity, and the record so made shall at all times be open to the inspection 
of any elector of said city, and he shall perform such duties and exercise 
such powers as may be lawfully required of him, by the ordinances of said 
city; and he shall preside over the meetings of the city council in the ab- 
sence of the president, until otherwise directed by the city council. 

Sec. 19. That the city treasurer shall give bond with se<iurity to the 
recorder, to be approved by the city council before he enters on the duties 
of his office, conditioned for the faithful discharge thereof ; he shall pay over 
all moneys by him received to the order of the president of the city coiuicil, 
countersigned by the city recorder; but no money shall be drawn from the 
treav<5ury but by appropriations made by the city council; and the treasurer 
shall, when required, submit his books and vouchers to their inspection, and 
he shall perform such duties and exercise such powers as may be lawfully 
required of him, by the ordinances of said city. 

Sec. 20. That there shall be elected annually by the city council, a 
city marshal, who shall hold his office one year, and until his successor be 
elected and qualified, who shall perform such duties and exercise such powers 
not herein specified as may be lawfully required of him by the ordinances 
of said city, and shall receive such fees and compensation as the said city 
council shall direct; the said marshal shall execute and return all writs and 
other process directed to him by the mayor, or when necessary in criminal 
Ciises, or for violations of the city ordinances, may sen^e the same in any 
part of Franklin county, it shall be his duty to suppress all riots, disturbances 
and. breaches of the peace, to apprehend all rioters and disorderly persons 
and disturbers of the public peace in said city, and all persons in the act of 
committing any indictable offence against the laws of this State or ordinances 
of said city, or fleeing from justice after having conmiitted any such ofl^ence, 
and him, her or them forthwith to take into custody and bring before the 
mayor for examination, and in case of resistance, may call to his aid and 
connnand the assistance of all by-standers and others in the vicinity; he 
shall have power to appoint one or more deputies, and at pleasure to dis- 
miss or discharge them from office, and shall in all things be responsible 
for the correct and faithful discharge of their duties, and liable for all neg- 
ligence, carelessness and misconduct in office; and positive violations of duty, 
which they or either of them may be guilty of in the perfonnance of their 
official duties. 

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Bronzes that Graced the Chicago World's Fair in 1892. 


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Sec. 21. That the mayor, councilmen, marshal, treasurer, city recorder, 
and all other officers under the government of said city, shall, before enter- 
ing on the duties of their respective offices, take an oath or affirmation to 
support the constitution of the United States and of this State, and faith- 
fully and impartially to perform the several duties of the office to which 
they may be respectively elected or appointed; and when required shall give 
such bond to said city with good and sufficient security, in such sum or sums, 
and with such conditions thereto, as the city council may from time to time 
direct, and in all cases not hereinbefore provided for, shall respectively be 
allowed and receive such fees and compensation for their services, and be 
liable to such fines, penalties and forfeitures for negligence, carelessness, 
misconduct in office and positive violation of duty, as the said city council 
shall by ordinance order and determine. 

Sec. 22. That whenever the office of mayor, councilmen, marshal, 
treasurer, city recorder, or other officer in and by this act specified or pro- 
vided for, shall become vacant by death, resignation, removal from the city, 
or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the city council, as soon as may be, to 
appoint some suitable person, having the requisite qualifications, to fill such 
vacancy, and the person so appointed shall continue in office during the re- 
mainder of the term for which his predecessor was elected or appointed ; and 
in case of sickness or temporary absence of the mayor, the city council shall 
appoint some suitable person to perform the duties of that office during such 
sickness or temporary absence, who shall be obeyed and respected accordingly ; 
Provided, that no appointment shall be made by the city council under this 
act, of any officer or agent of said city, or to fill any vacancy thereof, without 
the concurrent vote of a majority of all the members. 

Sec. 23. That in all elections for city officers not otherwise provided 
for, it shall be the duty of the mayor to issue a proclamation to the qualified 
voters of said city, or to those of the respective wards, as the case may re- 
quire, setting forth the time of such election, the place or places where the 
same shall be held, the officer or officers to be chosen; and cause such proc- 
lamation to be published in two of the newspapers printed in said city, at 
least ten days previous to said election; and every such election shall be 
opened between the hours of eight and ten o'clock in the forenoon, and con- 
tinue open until four o'clock in the afternoon, and shall in all things be 
conducted agreeably to the laws regulating township elections for. the time 
being, and it shall be the duty of the judges of such elections in the several 
wards, within two days thereafter, to make and direct the return thereof 
to the mayor of the said city, at his office, in the same manner that elec- 
tion returns are required to be made to the clerk of the court of common 
pleas, by the act entitled "an act to regulate elections;" Provided, that in 
all elections of mayor; the returns thereof shall be made and directed to the 
president of the city council; and the said mayor or the president of the 
city council, as the case may be, shall within five days after any such elec- 
tion, open the returns which have been made to him as aforesaid, and shall 
make an abstract of all the votes and file the same with the city recorder, 
who shall make a record thereof in a book to be kept by him for that pur- 

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pose; and the person or persons having the highest number of votes shall 
be declared duly elected, but if from any cause the qualified voters of said 
city, of the respective wards, as the case may be, shall fail to eflfect any 
election at the time and in the manner herein provided, the mayor shall 
forthwith issue his proclamation for a second or other election, which in 
all things shall be notified, conducted, regulated and the returns thereof 
made, as in and by this act is prescribed; and the person or persons who 
shall be chosen at any such second or any other election, shall hold his or 
their office until the next stated period for the choice of a successor or suc- 
cessors, and it shall be the duty of the mayor or president of the city council, 
immediately to notify such person or persons as may be elected as aforesaid, 
of his or their election, by causing a written notice thereof to be ser\Td upon 
him or them, by the city marshal or his deputy; and every person so chosen 
or elected as aforesaid, shall, within ten days after being notified of his elec- 
tion, cause himself to be qualified to enter upon the duties of his office, and 
in default thereof, the office to which he shall have been elected, shall (be) 
deemed and considered in law to be vacant; and it shall be the duty of the 
city council to prescribe the time and manner, and provide the place or 
places of holding all elections in said city for city officers, and of making 
the returns thereof, not herein otherwise directed and prescribed. 

Sec. 24. That each and every white male inhabitant above the age 
of twenty-one years, having the qualification of an elector, for mem- 
bers of the General Assembly of the state of Ohio, and having resided in 
said city one year next preceding any election for city officers, shall be deemed 
a qualified voter of said city, and shall be entitled to vote in the ward in 
which he resides for mayor and members of the city council: Provided, 
that no person shall be capable of holding any office under the government 
of said city who has not resided therein, and been an inhabitant thereof 
at least one year next preceding his election or appointment, and provided 
also, that no person shall be eligible to the office of mayor, marshal, or 
treasurer of said city, who shall not have resided in said city and been an 
inhabitant thereof three years next {)receding his election or appointment. 

Sec. 25. That the city council, two-thirds of all the members con- 
curring therein, shall have power to borrow money for the discharge and 
liquidation of any debt of the city, and to pledge for the payment of the 
interest and the repayment of the principal, the property and resources of 
the city in such maimer and upon such terms and conditions as by an ordi- 
nance, voted for by two-thirds of the members elected as aforesaid may be 

Sec. 26. That the said city council shall have power on the petition 
of the owners of two-thirds in value of any square or section in said city 
to lay out and establish a new street or streets, alley or alleys through or 
across such square or section. Provided notice of the presenting of such 
petition shall be given by publication thereof in at least two of the news- 
papers published in said city for three weeks in succession, the last of which 
shall be at least sixty days before the presenting said petition; and provided 
also that if any person shall claim damages in consequence of the laying 

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out of any such new street or alley, and shall file notice thereof in writing, 
in the office of the mayor within ten days after the order for laying out said 
.street or alley shall have been made; the said city council shall cause the 
damage if any over and above the benefit to the property claimed to have 
been injured to be assessed under oath by three dis-interested judicious free- 
holders of said city to l>e appointed by said council for that purpose which 
shall be paid within three months after the making of the said order by the 
persons petitioning for the laying out of such new street or alley or in de- 
fault thereof, the order laying out the said street or alley shall be null 
and void. 

Sec. 27. That the mayor and council, recorder, treasurer, town mar- 
shal, clerk of the market, and all other officers of the borough of Columbus, 
now in office therein shall remain and continue in their respective offices 
and perform the several duties thereof under the provisions of this act, until 
the second Monday of April next until the mayor and city council are 
elected and qualified, and all laws, ordinances and resolutions heretofore 
lawfully passed, and adopted by the mayor and council of the borough 
of Columbus, shall be, remain and continue in force, until altered or repealed 
by the city council, established by this act; Provided that nothing in this act 
shall be so construed as to restrain or prevent the General Assembly from 
altering or amending the same whenever they shall deem it expedient. 

Sec. 28. That the mayor and council of the borough of Columbus shall 
appoint two suitable persons in each ward to be judges of the first election; 
also two suitable pei-sons to be clerk in each ward, and procure a suitable 
place in each ward for holding the election, and at everv annual election 
thereafter the city council shall appoint two of their members in each ward, 
who are not candidates for re-election, to be judges, and make such other 
arrangements by ordinance res{>ecting said elections as shall be lawful and 
convenient for the citizens of the several w^ards. 

Sec. 29. That this act shall be taken and received in all (councils) and 
l»y all judges, magistrates and other public officers, as a public act, and all 
printed copies of the same which shall be printed by (or) under the author- 
ity of the General Assembly shall be admitted as good evidence thereof with- 
out any other proof whatever; that the act entitled an act to incorporate the 
town of Columbus, in the county of Franklin, passed February tenth, 
eighteen hundred and sixteen, and all acts to amend the same, and all sup- 
}>lement< thereto, and all laws and parts of laws heretofore passed and c(^niing 
within the provisions of this act, be and the same are hereby repealed. 

John II. Keith, 
Si>eaker of the House of Re{)resentatives. 
David T. Disney, 

March 8, 1<S34. Speaker of the Striate. 

First City Election. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the 28th section of the charter, the 
borough council set the election thereunder for the 19th of April. 18.'^>4. at 

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which a mayor and twelve councilmen were elected, four councilmen being 
chosen from each of the three wards into which the city was divided. 

The term of the mayor w^as for two years and the councilmanic tenn 
was of like length, save that one-half of the councilmen first chosen from 
each ward, to be ascertained by lot, were to serve for but one year, the other 
half to serve for two years, and thereafter two councilmen from each ward 
were to be chosen annually, to the end that the term should be for two years 
for all after the first election. The following were chosen: 

Mayor, John Brooks. 

First Ward — Joseph Ridgway, R. W. McCoy, Henry Brown, Otis 

Second Ward — Jonathan Neereamer, Noah H. Swayne, Francis Stewart, 
William Long. 

Third w^ard — John Patterson, Christian Heye, William Miner, William 
T. Martin. 

Officers by Appointment. 

The council proceeded to elect (or "appoint") the following officers: 
President, Robert W. McCoy; recorder, William T. Martin; treasurer, Wil- 
liam Long; surveyor, J. A. Lapham; marshal and clerk of the market, 
Abraham Stotts. 

The subsequently most noted man among the above was Noah H. 
Swayne, who ended his distinguished career on the supreme bench of the 
United States, he having retired in 1881 and died in 1884, fifty years after 
serving as city councilman in the Ohio capital. 

Robert W. McCoy continued in council and whs reelected president of 
the body until he resigned his seat in 1853, having been a councilman con- 
tinuously from 1816 to 1853, a period of thirty-seven years. 

William T. Martin continued as recorder until 1839; William Miner 
succeeded him until 1843, and then the office was filled by Joseph Ridgway, 
Jr., until the office was abolished in 1850. Then the office of city clerk was 
created and was filled by B. F. Martin, not related, how^ever, to William T. 
Martin, until 1857, when he was succeeded by Joseph Dowdall. 

William T. Martin, however, served as councilman, and concurrently 
as mayor, or recorder at times, from 1816 to 1839, and after that for twenty or 
more years in county, township and other offices, making his official tenure 
considerably more than half a century, and counting all the concurrent official 
years and terms, his services were equivalent to one hundred and fifty years, 
and in each and every office, whether one or two or three held concurrently, 
he was the model of official efficiency and promptness, and wound up his 
career by writing the best early history of Columbus that was ever printed, 
and to whom the writer of this desires to formally and most comprehensively 
express his obligations and make his acknowledgments. 

William Miner wtis appointed recorder in 1843, followed by Joseph 
Ridgway, Jr. The office of recorder was abolished in 1850 and its duties 
devolved on the city clerk, a newly created official. Mr. Benjamin F. Mar- 
tin, son of William T. Martin, was chosen the first clerk and continued to 

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Now Being Extended to Street South 

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hold the office until 1857, when he wa5 succeeded by Joseph Dowdall. 
R. W. McCoy continued as treasurer until 1834 and was succeeded in that 
year by William Long. The office of city solicitor was created in 1851. 

By an ordinance passed by the council on the 18th of February 1846, 
the city was divided into five wards. All north of Gay street to constitute 
the fir^t ward; all between Gay and State streets, the second; all between 
Stat^ and Rich streets, the third; all between Rich and Mound streets, the 
fourth ; and all south of Mound street the fifth. Each ward to be represented 
by three members in council. 

But subsequently, by an act of the legislature passed May 3, 1852, for 
the organization of cities, etc., the number of councilmen for each ward is 
reduced to two. The fifty-ninth section of that act provided that on the 
first Monday in April, 1853, there shall be two members elected in each ward, 
nne of whom shall serve two years, the other one year. And the last section 
of the same act provides that the officers in office at the passage of the act 
should hold out their respective terms. 

It now became a question whether to hold an election or not. The 
term of one of the members in each ward expired at this time which would 
reduce the council to the number required without any election ; but it would 
not be in accordance with the letter of the above provision requiring an elec- 
tion at this particular time; and the members not being disposed to resign 
their places the two members in each ward whose term did not expire held on 
and the council ordered an election for two additional members. So that the 
first year, under the new charter, each ward had four members instead of 
two, the second year three members, and the third year (1855) the council 
was reduced to the number required — two in each ward. 

Borough and City Officers, 1816 — 1908-1909, 

Following are the borough and city offices, as they are respectively des- 
ignated herewith, from 1816 to 1908-9, with the dates of incumbency : 


There has been but one office from the beginning of municipal govern- 
ment in Columbus that has not been changed in name or official significance, 
and that is the office of mayor. These mayors and the years of their incum- 
bency, under both the borough and city government, from 1816 to 1909, 
have been : 

Jarvis Pike, 1816-17; John Kerr, 1818-19; Eli C. King, 1820-22; John 
Laughrey, 1823; William T. Martin, 1824-26; James Robinson, 1827; Wil- 
liam Long, 1828-29; Philo H. Olmsted, 1833; John Brooks, 1834-35; War- 
ren Jenkins, 1836-37; Philo H. Olmsted, 1838-39; John G. Miller, 1840-41; 
Thomas Wood, part of 1841 ; Abram I. McDowell, 1842; Smithson E. 
Wright, 1843-44; Alexander Patton, 1845; A. S. Decker, 1846; Alexander 
Patton. 1847-49; Lorenzo English, 1850-60; Wray Thomas, 1861-64; James 
G. Bull, 1865-68; George W. Meeker, 1869-70; James G. Bull, 1871-74; 

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John H. Heitmann, 1875-78; G. G. Collins, 1879-80; George S. Peters, 
1881-82; Charles C. Walcutt, 1883-86; Philip H. Bruek, 1887-90; George J. 
Karb, 1891-94; Cotton H. Allen, 1895-96; Samuel L. Black, 1897-98; Sam- 
uel J. Swartz, 1899-1900; John N. Hinkle, 1901-02; Robert H. Jeffrey, 
1903-05; DeWitt C. Badger, 1906-07; Charles A. Bond, 1908-09. 

Other City Officers, 

In 1834 the other city officers were: Marshal, corresponding with the 
present superintendent of police; surv^eyor, corresponding with the present 
city civil engineer; recorder, eventually changed to city clerk. The office of 
city treasurer came over from the borough government and continued to 
April 29, 1862, when the office was abolished and its duties assigned to the 
county treasurer. In recent years the office of city treasurer was revived, 
which will account for the apparent break in the office. The office of city 
auditor is also of recent date. The office of city solicitor was created in 
1852. The office of chief of the fire department was created in 1860. City 
surveyor was changed to civil engineer in 1857. The office of marshal was 
abolished in 1873 and the office of superintendent of police was substituted 
for it; so that the principal city officers were mayor, city solicitor, city clerk, 
city treasurer, city engineer, police judge, chief of fire department, superintend- 
ent of police and city auditor, and under these titles the incumbents since 
1834, when the city government was organized, and the official cognates prior 
to 1850 will be classified, both for convenience and for the purpose of fur- 
nishing an intelligible idea of the duties performed by each. 

City Solicitor. 

James L. Bates, 1850-52, when he resigned; Emory Butler, part of 1852 
and part of 1853, when he resigned; James A. Wilcox, 1854-60; Francis 
Collins, 1861-62; Hawley J. Wylie, 1863-66; Edward F. Bingham, 1867-70; 
Francis Collins, 1871-72; G. G. Collins, 1873-74; J. W. Quinn, 1875-76; 
E. P. Sharp, 1877-78; Alexander W. Krumm, 1879-81; Charles T. Clark, 
1883-85; James Caren, 1885-89; Paul Jones, 1889-93; Gilbert H. Barger, 
1893-97; Selwin N. Owen, 1897-99; Ira H. Crum, 1899-1901; Luke G. 
Byrne, 1901-03; George D. Jones, part of 1903; James M. Butler, 1903-05; 
George S. Marshall, 1905-08, incumbent. 


The duties of city recorder and city clerk are similar. The "recorders" 
extended from 1816 to 1840. The office has since been titled city clerk. 
The incumbents have been: 

Robert W. McCoy, 1816-17; James B. Gardiner, 1818; Ralph Osborn, 
1819; John Kerr, 1820-22 ; William T. Martin, 1823; William Long, 
1824-27; Lincoln Goodale, 1828-30; Nathaniel McLean, 1831; Ralph 
Osborn, 1832; John Patterson, 1833; William T. Martin, 1834-38; William 

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Miner, 1839-42; Joseph Ridgway, Jr., 1843-49. The office ceased and deter- 
mined at the close of the year 1849 and the duties of the recorder devolved 
upon the city clerk. 

City Clerk, 

Office was created in 1840. The incumbents have been: 
Benjamin F. Martin, 1840-56; Joseph Dowdall, 1857-60; J. J. Funston, 
1861-63 Joseph Dowdall, 1864-65; Levi E. WUson, 1866-73; Frank Wilson, 
1874-78; H. E. Bryan, 1879-90; John M. Doane, 1890-98 (resigned); John 
T. Barr, 1898-1908 (incumbent). 


Robert Armstrong, 1816-17; Christian Heyl, 1818-27; Robert W. 
McCoy, 1828-33; William Long, 1834-35; Jonathan Neereamer, 1836-37 
John Greenwood, 1838-42; William Armstrong, 1843-61; T. P. Martin 
1862. Office abolished April 29, 1862. Doities transferred to county treas- 
urer. Office re-created in May, 1903. William C. Cussins, 1903-05 
Charles H. Smith, 1906-08 (incumbent). 

City Engineer, 

The pioneer name for thi^ office was sun^eyor. The incumbents have 
been: John Kerr, 1816-19; Jeremiah McLene, 1820; John Kerr, 1821-22; 
Jeremiah McLene, 1823-30; Joseph Ridgway, Jr., 1831; Byron Kilboume, 
1832-33; C. R. Prezriminsky, 1834; J. A. Lapham, 1835; Nathaniel Medbery, 
1836; John Field, 1837; Uriah Lathrop, 1838-40; N. B. Kelley, 1841-43; 
Uriah Lathrop, 1844-56. Changed to city engineer in 1857. Phil D. 
Fisher, 1857-65; W. W. Pollard, 1866; H. W. Jaeger, 1867-68; B. F. Bowen, 
1869-71; John Graham, 1872-73; Josiah Kinnear, 1874-77; T. N. Gulick, 
1879; John Graham, 1880-87; R. R. Marble, 1887-89; Josiah Kinnear, 
1889-97; Julian Grig^, 1897-1906; Henry Maetzel, 1906-08 (incumbent). 

Superintendent of Police. 

From 1816 to 1873 the head of the police force was known as marshal. 
Under the act of May 1, 1873, the office of marshal was abolished and the 
office of superintendent of police was substituted therefor, the new official 
assuming duties of marshal, with added duties and responsibilities. The 
incumbents have been: Samuel King, 1816-17; James Fisher, 1818; Dem- 
ming L. Rathbone, to June 26, 1819; William H. Richardson, remainder of 
1819; Samuel Shannon, 1820-23; Benjamin Sells, 1824; Samuel Shannon, 
1825-26; John Kelly, 1827; Benjamin Sells, 1828-29; Julius G. Godman, 
1830; Benjamin Sells, part of 1830 (Godman deceased); John Kelly, 1831 
(removed) ; Benjamin Sells appointed and served to end of 1832; George B. 
Harvey, 1833; Abraham Stotts, 1834-35; George B. Harvey, 1836-42; 
George B. Riordan, 1843; George B. Harvey, 1844-46; John Whitzell, 

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1847-50; John H. l\irney, 1851; James Stephens, 1852-53; Henry M. 
Wakeman, 1854-56; John Coffroth, 1857-60; Samuel Thompson, 1861-64; 
Adam Stephens, 1865; Patrick Murphy, 1866-68; Charles Engleke; 1869-73. 
Marshal's office ceased and superintendent of police created May 1, 1873. 
Alexis Keeler, 1873 ; Samuel Thompson, 1874-75 ; Charles Engleke, 1876-79 ; 
Engleke removed and J. W. Lingo appointed 1879; Lingo removed in 1880 
and S. A. Rhoads appointed; Rhoads removed December 3, 1880 and J. W. 
Lingo appointed; J. W. Lingo removed May 6, 1881, and S. A. Rhoads ap- 
pointed; Rhoads removed October 28, 1881, and Samuel Thompson ap- 
pointed. (These removals were purely partisan and political.) Samuel 
Thompson, 1881-85; John W. Lingo, 1885-87; John E. Murphy, 
1887-93; Edward Pagles, 1893-95; Patrick Kelley, 1895-99; J. Macy Wal- 
cutt, part of 1899; William T. Tyler from August, 1899-03 ; Patrick Kelly, 
1903-04. (John A. Russell was chosen superintendent in 1904, but died a 
few days after his selection.) John F. O'Connor, 1904-08 (incumbent). 

Chief of Fire Department. 

Office created and John Miller appointed chief engineer November 26, 
1860. Without any vital or essential changes, the office and the duties devolv- 
ing on the incumbent are nearly the same as originally framed, further than 
the natural expansion of powers to meet expanding responsibilities have 
been found necessary. The incumbents have been: 

John Miller, 1860-63; I. H. Marrow, 1864-67; William S. Huffman, 
1868; Henrj^ Heinmiller, 1869-80 (removed for political reasons); D. D. 
Tressenrider, 1881-90; Henry Heinmiller, 1890-98; Charles J. Lauer, 
1898-1908 (incumbent). 


The office of auditor -was created by act of May, 1903, elective by the 
people. Sylvester C. Noble w^as elected to the office in 1903; reelected, and 
his present term will expire in 1910. 

Police Judges and Clerks. 

Until 1890 the mayors of cities and villages were ex officio judges of the 
police court, save in cases where other provision was made by special act of 
the legislature. The law was generalized until finally the police courts were 
established in all the cities. In Columbus the police judge became an elective 
office with a three-year term. 

The judges incumbent and their clerks have been: 

Matthias Martin, 1890-93. Clerk, George W. Dun. 

Thomas M. Bigger, 1894-96. Clerk, S. N. Cook. 

Samuel J. Swartz, 1897-98. Resigned to become mayor. 

Moses B. Eamhart appointed to vacancy. Clerk, William S. Tussing. 

N. W. Dick, 1900-02. Clerk, E. C. Frass. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



\5rOR, L6N0X AN'h j 

Digitized by 



Roy WiMermuth, 1903-07. Clerks, E. C. Frass, part of the time; 
Frank \V. Phillips, the remainder. 

Samuel G. Osborn, 1908 (incumbent). Clerk, Frank W. Philips. 

Growth of the Population. 

A local census taken in 1815 indicated a population of approximately 
seven hundred in the then town. In 1820 the federal census gave the 
borough a population of one thousand four hundred and fifty. In 1830, 
while still a borough, two thousand four hundred and eighty-seven. In 
1840, after six years of city organization, six thousand and forty-eight. In 
1850, seventeen thousand eight hundred and seventy-one. In 1860, about 
twenty-seven thousand five hundred. During the same period the popular 
lion of the entire county, including the city, is given in the United States 
Census as follows: 1810, three thousand four hundred and eigmy-six; 1820, 
ten thousand two hundred and ninety-two; 1830, fourteen thousand seven 
hundred and forty-one; 1840, twenty-five thousand and forty-nine; 1850, 
forty-two thousand nine hundred and nine. It will be seen that while in 
1810 the population of Columbus was about one-seventh of the entire popu- 
lation of the county, in 1860 it was more than fifty-one hundredths of it. 

The reason for this growth between 1820 and 1860 was largely depend- 
ent on two causes — facilities for travel and transportation east and west, 
which were lacking in the earlier days of the state capital. The first impor- 
tant through line east and west was the National road. When it was com- 
pleted (having been begun beyond the Alleghenies in 1806 and completed 
thirty years later), it brought a constant stream of travel, traffic and home- 
seekers into the far-famed Upper Scioto valley. This road gave Columbus 
its first great impetus, deriving anticipatory benefits from it before its com- 
pletion to this point. 

This great work was undertaken by congress in 1806. It cost thirty 
thousand dollars per mile and extends from Cumberland Gap, Maryland, to 
the Ohio river, and thence to the Indiana line. But for the advent of steam 
roads, canals and steam boats the government would doubtless have con- 
structed more of these national roads, and no better expenditure of public 
money could have been made for the benefit of the rural mail system of the 
present day, if for nothing else; but what a boon they would have been for 
automobiling? And who knows but that in the ages to come there will 
again be as much- or more travel and traffic over the old National road than 
there was in the palmy days of stage coaching? 

It is not too late yet for the government to build turnpikes all over the 
country, and especially in localities that are almost inaccessible for steam 
roads. John C. Calhoun, the great states righter, was a federalist long 
enough to advocate the National road. And there were grafters in those 
days! It is said that in repairing some of the bridges in Madison county 
it was found that the fine cut stone work was merely veneer, back of which 
was small stones and gravel. However, many of the bridges are yet in a 
good state of repair. Between Columbus and Springfield the road is as 

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straight as an arrow and level enough for a railroad without making a cut 
or a fill. In fact, it is being used in some places east of Columbus for trac- 
tion line purposes, and in other places the road is said to be almost obliterated 
for lack of rei)air-. 

The Indians in their day had a complete network of trails leading in 
evers^ direction throughout the country, and many of the pikes and roads 
of today are over the original old Indian trails that were first traversed by 
the noble Red Man for perhaps centuries before the advent of the w^hites. 

Growth of population and material wealth are not the absolute and 
indubitable proof of public virtue and private honesty, with good govern- 
ment as the concomitant, but they are reliable indices in nine cases out of 
ten. The next great impetus to a forward movement was the advent of the 
railway system, pioneered by the Columbus & Xenia from the west and the 
Ohio Central (now part of the Baltimore & Ohio system from the east), which, 
with the steam lines that came after and electric lines which began to gridiron 
the whole interior of the state a decade ago, are now cobwebbing the whole of 
it, all roads converge upon the still rapidly expanding capital. 

Two Bases for Comparison, 

The year 1843, w^hile not marking the exact point of the half century 
following the "beginnings" of Columbus, is so proximate, and so clearly 
marks, historically speaking, a "breathing spell" in the city's progress that 
it may be taken as the second basis of comparison, in the city's history 
entire, for the companions whereby the steps of progress became visible to 
the mind's eye. 

The first pause for comparison was when the borough of Columbus was 
created by act of the legislature in 1816. The then residents compared their 
then progress with the dawn of a new-born civilization and the retiring hori- 
zon of the primeval night of barbarism. To them and to the occasional 
wayfarers the change and the progress were not only satisfactory, but mar- 
velous. They were able, too, to make a correct estimate . because the then 
doers w^ere the descendants of the original w-orkers in the vineyard or knew of 
them by daily contact, or, better still, by the oft-told story of the verbal his- 
tory of the neighborhood told by those, each of whom was a book and some 
of whom were encyclopedias. 

The second basis of comparison, or temporary inventory taking, was 
in 1843, when the city, as a city, was some ten years old, and the fathers 
began to turn over to the sons the public affairs, and the newcomers from 
far and near set themselves to "learning the ropes" and making themselves 
familiar with the traditions, having almost the force of law. 

If you, Mr. Reader, in the multiple form, had been here at that time 
you would have known personally of the people who then lived and wrought, 
and the comparison with the present would be made brilliant and scintil- 
lant with the star points of that other generation. Some of you were here 
in the peerless morning of youth, and have the advantage over the great 

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But suppose we should give you the name and occupation and abode 
of all the men who did, and most of the women who wrought for future 
generations, with enough side lights to reveal to you in outline all the other 
men and women and the smaller folk, would you not feel yourself able to 
estimate the present coigne of progress at its true value and with emotions 
of a greater human interest, than would accompany mere columns of sta- 

Herewith are given the introductions, written by the pen of history in 
1843 to some twelve hundred of the then residents of Columbus, describing 
who they were, what they were engaged in, where they lived, in other words 
a glimpse at the people of the city among whom a very large proportion 
of you will discern your ancestry, in the direct lines, and a goodly number 
of you are here present today were also there present, rising sixty-five years 
ago. This highly entertaining series of introductions from A to Izzard, 
may be comprehensively described as 

A Pioneer City Directory. 

It is a little duodecimo volume of two hundred and one pages, four 
and a half inches wide by seven and a fourth long, bound in muslin and 
printed in long primer type, and is one of the treasures of the Old North 
West Historical and Genealogical Society. But forty-ono of these little 
pages are devoted to the name»s of residents, the rest being filled with a brief 
and interesting history of the city up to date (1843-44) and the remainder 
illuminated with advertisements of the business houses. 

This sub-chapter of names and business places will set many of the 
older readers agog with memories that have lain latent for years, and will 
furnish their great grandchildren's grandchildren with their potents of no- 
bility and the hatchments of their heraldry : 

American Hotel, N. W. cor. High & State. 

Aston, James, cabinetmaker, res. N. W. cor High & Gay. 

Aston, Wm., (A. & Son) soap & candlemaker, res. W. S. Front, bet. Gay & 

Aston, Thos., (Aston & S.) boards at Wm. Aston's. 
Armstrong, Robert, land agent, res. N. S. Broad near Front. 
Avaider, John, cupola tender, Frank. Foundry, res. near Foundry. 
Ayers, E., tinner, boards at City House. 

Ambos, P., confectioner, res. W. S. High, opposite State Offices. 
Amos, Walter, merchant tailor, res. E. S>-4th, bet. Broad & State. 
Andrews, John W., atty-at-law, res. E. S. Third, bet. State & Broad. 
Armstrong, John, tavern keeper, W. S. High, bet. Town & Rich. 
Acheson, Thos., (Sherwood & Co.) boards at American Hotel. 
Adams, Wm., tailor, res. E. S. High, near Town. 
Armbruster, John G., brushmaker, res. E. S. High, near Friend. 
Andrews, Sam'l C, atty-at-law, res. W. S. High, bet. Mound & Friend. 
Asbery, Thos., res. N. W. cor. High & Mound. 

Digitized by 



Armstrong, Robert, carpenter, res. E. S. Front, near Friend. 

Abbott, J. S., clerk at Post Office, res. S. E. cor. Front & Friend. 

Armstrong, John G., carpenter, res. N. W. cor. Rich & Scioto. 

Altman, John, wagonmaker, res. S. S. S. P. Lane, bet. Scioto & Front. 

Auder, John, laborer, res. S. S. South, near High. 

Antone, N., gardner, res. High, near College. 

Adenton, Simon, carpenter, N. S. South Public Lane, near Third. 

Allspiker, George, laborer, res. 3d bet. 2d and 3d alleys. 

Aumock, C, pumpmaker, res. N. S. Mound, bet. 3d and High. 

Armstrong, Wm., tailor, res. S. S. Town, bet. High and 3d. 

Adams, Jam«s, hatter, res. W. S. 4th, bet Long & Spring. 

Adams, Demas, res. east side 3d, near Broad. 

Altman, Wm., pumpmaker, res. S. E. cor, Town & 3d. 

Allen, G. W., peddler, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Rich & Town. 

Abbe, Daniel, shoemaker, res. E. S. 3d, bet. South & ^oirnd. 

Baptist Church, N. W. cor. 3d & Rich. 

Brickell, John, Sr., farmer, res. near New Penitentiary. 

Brickell, John, Jr., farmer, res. near New Penitentiary. 

Belford, Richard, guard 0. P., res. W. S. Front, bet. Last & North Lane. 

Backus, Temperance, Mrs., res. E. S. Front, bet. Long & Gay. 

Backus, E., atty-at-law, bds. at Mrs. Backus.' 

Burns, John, cook at Neil Ilou^e, res. W. S. Broad near From. 

Bridleman, John R., blacksmith, res. Canal near Broad. 

Brown, B. B., constable, res. W. S. Scioto near Broad. 

Baley, Wiley, guard 0. P., res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Blain, John T., clerk at P. 0., res. W. S. Front, bet. State & Broad. 

Baker, Charles, clerk at Hayden & Co.'s., res. W. S. Front, bet. State & 

Blake, Benjamin, coachmaker, res. W. S. Front, bet. State & Broad. 
Bartol, Abner, office agent at Neil, Moore & Co.'s, bds. at Neil House. 
Booth, Ezra (B. & Minor), coachmaker, res. W. S. High near Broad. 
Barker, C. A., harnessmaker at Hayden & Co.'s res. N. S. Town near 4th. 
Brush, Sam'l (B. & Gilbert), atty-at-law, bds. at S. Crosby^s. 
Burdell, Wm., merchant tailor, bds. at Neil House. 
Buck, S., jeweler, res. op. State Offices. 
Brunson, B. R. (B. & McLene,) res. S. S. State near 3d. 
Ball, Aaron, (B. Hand & Co.) res. W. S. 3d bet. State & Rich. 
Buttles, Joel, (B. & Runyon), res. E. S. 3d, bet. State and Broad. 
Breyfogle, Charles, (William & B.), tailor, res. W. S. Front, bet. Friend & 

Bentz, Fred'k, confectioner, res. W. S. High near Rich. 
Brooks, W. B., grocer, bds. at J. Brooks. 
Brooks, John, res. S. E. cor. Rich & 3d. 
Baylor, J. E., saddler, bds. at City House. 
Barth, N. Buck Tavern, S. S. Friend near High. 
Bates, J. L. (Swayne & B.), attys-at-law, bds. at A. Kelly's. 

Digitized by 



Baker, J. W., dentist, bds at City House. 

Brough, John, And. State, res. E. S. High, bet. State & Town. 

Backus, Andrew, cab'mak'r, res. E. S. High, bet. Town & Rich. 

Brooks, David, Eagle Hotel, E. S. High, bet. Town & Rich. 

Buttler, T. B., clerk, bds. at City House. 

Brown, A. C, boot & shoemaker, res. E. S. High near Friend. 

Brockelhurst, John, res. E. S. High near Friend. 

Brockelhurst, Mrs., milliner, E. S. high near Friend. 

Brown, J. M., (George & B.), grocer, res. N. E. cor. High & Friend. 

Brown, Wm., res. E. S. Front near Broad. 

Butler, Henry, carpenter, res. Front bet. Town & Rich. 

Batterson, Eli B., carpenter, res. N. S. Rich, bet. Front & High. 

Bruck, J. P., cabinetmaker, res. W. S. Front near Friend. 

Beck, L., tailor, res. W. S. Front near Rich. 

Boner, Philander, brickmaker, res. S. S. Rich near Scioto. 

Bradford, Sam'l, boat capt., res. S. S. Scioto near Friend. 

Brickell, John, paver, res. N. S. Friend, bet. Scioto & Canal. 

Bowen, Isaac, laborer, res. S. S. Rich, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Bare, Clemment, laborer, res. W. S. Front near S. P. L. 

Brooks, Reuben, dentist, W. S. Front near South. 

Boos, L., laborer, res. S. E. cor. Front & S. P. Lane. 

Bills, Samuel, pumpmaker, res. N. E. cor. High & 3d alley. 

"^oalinder, Wm., laborer, res. N. E. cor. High & 2d allev- 

Baine, John, confectioner, res. W. S. High near South. 

Breit, John, shoemaker, res. east side High, bet. South & S. P. Lane. 

Blanchard, Davis, teamster, res. E. S. High, bet. N. P. L. & 1st alley. 

Boulus, Peter, laborer, W. S. New, bet. Collesje & 5th alley. 

Boeshams, Wm., carpenter, S. W. oor. New & College. 

Barker, Wm., carpenter, res. S. S. College, near New. 

Barker, Phillip, carpenter, res. S. S. College near New. 

Brown, John, carpenter, res. W. S. 3d. near S. P. Lane. 

Barth, Andrew, weaver, res. N. W. cor. 3d and 2d alley. 

Bower, David, laborer, res. E. S. 3d, bet. 4th & 5th alleys. 

Blanker, Thos., laborer, res. W. S. 3d, bet. 4th & 5th alleys. 

Benner, Henry, stonemason, res. W. S. 3d, bet. South & S. P. Lane. 

Berck, Barnard, brewer, Te,<. N. S. South, bet. 3d & High. 

Beck, Leonard, stonemason, res. N. S. South, bet. 3d & High. 

Buckeye House, north side Broad near High. 

Bown, Mrs. H., dressmaker, bds. at Mr. Jarvois\ 

Bailey, James, carpenter, res. R. S. Rich, bet 3d & High. 

Bryden, James, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 

Boswell, Jacob, carpenter, res. N. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 

Buttles, A., (B., Comstock & Co.) re?. N. S. Rich, bet 3d & High. 

Broderick, John C, chairmaker, res. S. S. Town, bet 3d & High. 

Barnis, E., carpenter, res. N. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 

Bay, Thos., grocer, E. S. High near Broad. 

Brotherlin. Adam, farmer, res. E. S. High near Spring. 

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Biddle, Thos., caxpenter, r<?s. S. S. North, bet. 3d & High. 

Bambrough, Wm., port, painter, res. E. S. Long, bet. 3d & High. 

Bosvvorth, S. B., teacher at Col. Inst., bds. at Mr. Hall's. 

Bills, Mrs. Mary, washerwoman, res. E. S. Gay, bet. 3d & High. 

Brite, Mrs. Mary, wjisherwoman, res. S. W. cor. 3d & Spring. 

Baker, John, weaver, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Spring & North. 

Betz, Christian, res. E. S. 3d, bet. Spring & Gay. 

Betz, Charles, laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Spring & Gay. 

Bonsell, Thos., school teacher, res. E. S. 3d near Town. 

Batterson, Daniel, teamster, res. N. S. Town, near 4th. 

Barnhart, Daniel, mason, res. N. S. Town near 4th. 

Belsford, Saml woolen manufacturer, res. N. S. Town near 4th. 

Burr, T^vi J., re.s. S. E. cor. Town & 4th. 

Bowman, George, clockmaker, res. N. W. cor. Friend & 3d. 

Burkle, Vincen, tailor, res. N. W. cor. Friend & 3d. 

Baylor, Mrs. Charlotte, seamstress, res. N. S. Friend near 3d. 

Buttalph, Thos. S., carpenter, res. E. S. 6th, bet. Rich & Friend. 

Chapman, J. B., carpenter, res. Water, near 0. P. 

Chapman, Seth T., boatman, res. same. 

Cutler, Samuel, clerk postoffice, res. N. E. cor. Front & Gay. 

Cope, John, stone cutter, res. Front, bet. Spring & Long. 

Cool, Isaac, limeburner, res. E. S. Front, bet. Long & Gay. 

Campbell, Mrs. Eleanor, res. S. E. cor. Front & Gay. 

Columbus Foundry, east side Water, near Scioto bridge. 

Catley, R. P., physician, boards at Buckeye. 

Cushman, G. W. (C. & Howell), res. S. S. Long, bet. High & Third. 

Chesley, Alex., res. W. S. High, bet. Broad & Gay. 

Chairs, Henry, res. W. S. High, bet. Broad & Gay. 

Creary, Holderman, clerk Aud. Office, res. W. S. Front, bet. Long & Spring. 

Cadwallader, Thos., Farmer and Mechanics' Tavern, S. E. cor. Broad & 

Camp)>ell, James, laberor, res. E. S. High, bet. Gay & Long. 
Clinton Bank, S. W. cor. High & State. 

Clark, Sunmer, druggist W. S. High, near State, bds. at Russell's. 
Carr, W. K. (Griifith & C.) merchant, bds. at Wm. Flinthams. 
Carpenter, T. B., merchant, res. S. S. Town, eight bldgs. 
Cooper, A., grocer, (Mops & C.) res. S. S> Friend near 3d. 
Cullmann, Geo., confectioner, W. S. High near Rich, bds. at Bruck's. 
Columbus Insurance Co., S. E. cor. High & State., E., merchant, re*s. E. S. High near Mound. 
Cvos^i & Journal office, N. W. cor. High & Town, third story. 
Covert, John, prin. of Col. Ins., bd:^. at City House. 
Clark, B. B., physician, res. W. S. High near Friend. 
City Hall, W. S. High near Gay. 

Crosby, Wm., boarding house, S. S. Town, eight buildings. 
Cherry, James, bootmaker, res. N. E. cor. Front & Friend. 

Digitized by 


One of the Stateliest of the Capital City's Noted Churches. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Tlf£ KfcW YORK ' 



Digitized by 



Crum, T. A., carpenter, res. S. S. Friend near Front. 

Cloud, Robert, res. N. W. cor. Front & Mound. 

Compston, Mrs. Sidney, r^. W. S^ Front, bet. Rich and Friend. 

Caldwell, Thos., blacksmith, res. Friend, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Chase, Reuben, cooper, res. N. E. cor. Friend & Scioto. 

Cain, Wm., laborer, res. S. W. cor Fourth & Spring. 

Crips, E., shoemaker, E. S. Front near Rich. 

Campbell, Conrad, res. W. S. Scioto near Friend. 

Cole, Frederick, Aud. of County, ree. W. S. Front, bet. South & Mound. 

Curtis, Samuel, physician, res. W. S. Front, bet. South & Mound. 

Coulbourn, John H., carpenter, res. W. S. High, bet. 1st alley & S. Public 

Cupp, George, laborer, res. N. E. cor. High & Third alley. 
Chester, Simeon, peddler, res. S. W. cor High & First alley. 
City House, S. E. cor. High & Town. 

Constance, Frederick, laborer, res. W. S. New near 4th alley. 
Collina, Peter, laborer, res. N. W. cor. New & South public lane. 
Cohem, Reuben, laborer, res. N. E. cor. 3d & 3d alley. 
Cigler, Jacob, laborer, N. E. cor. 3d & 4th alley. 
Cass, Peter, laborer, res. W. S. Third, bet. South & Mound. 
Catholic Church, E. S. Fifth, bet. Town & Rich. 
Crum, F., at Post Office, res. W. S. Third, bet. Town & Rich. 
Curtis, — res. S. S. State near Third. 
Chittenden, Asahel, res. north side Broad, bet. 3d & High. 
Champion, J. N., res. S. W. cor. High & Long. 
Cranbarger, Andrew, res. S. W. cor. High & Spring. 
Cole, M. C, Union House, E. S.'High, bet. Spring & North. 
Caine, A. J., tanner, res. S. S. North, bet. 3d & High. 
Cherry, James L., rope maker, res. N. S. Long near 3d. 
Cigler, David, laborer, res. E. S. Third, bet. Spring & North. 
Cochran, John, printer, res. \V. S. 4th, bet. Spring & North. 
Caffroth, John, hatter, res. S. S. 4th, bet. Long & Spring. 
Crosby, Samuel, res. E. S. 3d near State. 
Casey, Wm. L., (C. & Vanvechten,) bds. D. Adams. 
Cook, Mrs. Eliza, washerwoman, res. W. S. 3d. near Town. 
Cole, George, editor, Cross & Journel, res. N. S. Town near 5th. 
Carlisle, Abraham, carpenter, res. W. S Third, bet. Rich & Friend. 
Crum, Christian, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 5th & 4th. 
Collins, Samuel A., butcher, res. S. W. cor. Rich & 5th. 
Cowling, E., butcher, res. S. S. Friend, east of 7th. 
Cavendish, John, coachmaker, res. N. S. Friend, bet. 5th & 6th. 
Charilon, H. H., blacksmith, res. S. S. Spring near 5th. 
Copert, John, laborer, res. S. E. cor. Friend & 4th. 
Crumley, Christian, laborer, res. N. E. cor. 5th & S. P. Lane. 
Cnun, John, tailor, res. N. S. Mound, bet. 6th & 5th. 
Colgate, Chas., starch manufacture, res. S. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 
Cowles, Richard B., res. Neil House. 

Digitized by 



Carter, Francis, physician, boards at Russell's. 

Columbus Herald Office, W. S. High, bet. Rich & Friend. 

Doherty, D. S., grocery, res. Canal, bet. Broad & State. 

Dening, J. C, thrashing machine maker, res. W. S. Front, bet. Gay & Long. 

Dening, G. S., threshing machine maker, res. W. S. Front, bet. Gay & Long. 

Dickerson, B., clerk, res. near Columbus Foundry. 

Dalzell, James., miller, res. \V. S. Broad, bet. High & Front. 

Deshler, D. W., cashier, C. B., res. N. W. cor. High & Broad. 

Daniel, John L., moulder, at F. Foundry, res. Scioto, bet. Broad & State. 

Dixon, David, merchant, S. S. Broad, near Scioto Bridge. 

Dellis, Mrs. Ehza, grocery, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Derth, Asa, pumpmaker, res. E. S. Broad near Front. 

Davis, Mrs. Mary, seamstress, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Derby, H. W., bookseller, res. W. S. High, opposite State House. 

Duffey, John, editor, res. E. S. Front near Friend. 

Dryer, Isban G., cabinetmaker, bds. at City House. 

Dennig, George, res. N. S. Rich, bet. High & 3d. 

Derickson, Edward, cooper, res. S. S. Cherry alley near Front. 

Dewitt, Hiram, wagonmaker, res. W. S. Front, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Denning, L., machinist, res. E. S. Scioto, bet. Mound & South. 

Davis, Richard, paver, res. south, S. S. P. L., bet. Friend & High. 

Dalton, Isaac, carpenter, E. S. High near South. 

Daniels, H., carpenter, res. N. S. Town & 5th. 

Dippel, Lawrence, potter, S. E. cor. High & 3d alley. 

Dill, Greenley, brickmaker, res. S. W. cor. 3d & 3d alley. 

Decker, Jacob, laborer, res. S. W. cor. 3d & S. P. L. 

Durant, John, peddler, res. N. S. Mound, bet. High & 3d. 

Donigan, Wm., sheriff, res. at the jail. 

Decker, M., (A. S. D. & Co.) res. N. S. Friend, bet. 3d & High. 

Decker, Amos, boards at M. Deckers. 

Decker, A. S., res. S. S. Rich, bet. 6th & 7th. 

Dobb, Rev. A. F., res. N. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 

Davis, Benjamin, shoemaker, res. N. P. Lane, bet. 3d & High. 

Dennison, Wm., atty-at-law, res. E. S. High, bet. Gay & Broad. 

Davis, David, mason, res. S. S. North, bet. 3d & High. 

Davis, David, carpenter, res. N. S. North, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Doherty, Mrs. Eliza, res. S. S. State near Third. 

Eagle Hotel, E. S. High, bet. Town & Rich. 

Ebersole, C. patternmaker, F. Foundry, res. S. W. cor. 5th & Rich. 

Ellia, Mrs. Marj-, res. N. W. cor. Front & State. 

Evans, Daniel, coachmaker, res. S. E. cor. Front & Mound. 

Eldridge, Ira, grocer, near Neil House, res. in rear. 

Eldridge, J., tailor, res. Town east of 3d. 

Eldridge, C. F., grocer, bds. at Wm. Eldridge's. 

Eldridge, Wm., res. E. S. Third near Friend. 

Digitized by 



Ellis, R., hardware merchant, bds at Neil House. 

Edminson, Mrs. M., E. S. High, bet. Town & Rich. 

Edgar, Mrs. Eleanor, seamstress, res. W. S. Front, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Elphinstone, George, stonecutter, res. W. S. Scioto, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Ellenbush, G., shoemaker^ res. near City Brewery. 

Emrick, Jacob, res. E. S. High near 5th alley. 

Eswine, Daniel, farmer, res. S. E. cor. New & 5th alley. 

Engler, George, laborer, res. W. S. 3d, bet. South and S. P. Lane. 

Emmick, Mrs., res. N. S. Friend, bet. High & 3d. 

Espy, J. M., res. S. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

Evan.s, David, paver, res. S. S. North, bet 3d & High. 

Evans, Mary, washerwoman, res. W. S. 7th near State. 

Eckerman, Mrs., res. W. S. 6th near Town. 

Eneg, Michael, gardener, res. E. S. Friend E. of 7th. 

First Presbyterian Church, S. W. cor. 3d & State. 

Fritts, John, guard, 0. P., res. Front, bet. North & North Pub. Lane. 

Ford, C. B., stonecutter, bd^ at Buckeye House. 

Faught, Simon, blacksmith, res. W. S. Front, bet. Broad & State. 

Franklin Foundry, N. E. cor. Town & Canal. 

Forman, D. S., cutter at BurdelVs, bds. at Mrs. Grafton's. 

Field, John, exchange broker, res. N. W. cor. 3d & Town. 

Fay. C, (F. Kilbourn & Co.) merchant, res. W. S. High near Town. 

Franklin House, E. S. High, bet. Friend & Rich. 

Fenton, Joseph, cutler and repairer, res. W. S. High near Rich. 

Fisk, B. F., res. N. S. North Pub. Lane near New. 

Flintham, Wm., iron merchant, res. E. S. 3d near Town. 

Flennekin, Mrs. Ann, seamstress, res. E. S. High near Rich. 

Flennekin, Miss. Mary, milliner, bds. at Mrs. Flennekin's. 

Foster, A., school teacher, res. W. S. Front, bet. Rich & Town. 

Fober, Christian, tanner, res. W. S. Front, near City Brewery. 

Funston, John, soap and candlemaker, res. W. S. High near South. 

Frankenburg, A., grocer, res. E. S. High near South. 

Frankenburg, 0., res. S. W. cor. High and 2d alley. 

Fleek, Henry carpenter, res. E. S. New near 5th alley. 

Fishinger, Fred, miller, res. N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Fink. Fred, grocer, res. W. S. 3d, bet. South & Mound. 

Francis, Mrs. hatbinder, res. N. S. Mound near High. 

Fowler, John, mathematical instrumentmaker, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Rich & 

Fiffer, Conr'd, laborer, res. N. S. S. P. Lane near 4th. 
Ferris, Daniel A., N. W. cor. Rich and 5th. 
Fisher, George, drayman, res. N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 5th & 6th. 

Gilbert, M. J., (Brush & G.) atty-at-law, res. S. W. cor. High and Gay. 

Gavins, E., baker, res. S. W. cor. Broad & Front. 

Gill, W. A., (G. & McCune,) res. W. S. Front, bet. Broad & State. 

Digitized by 



Gill, John L., (G. & McCune,) res. W. S. Front, bet. Broad & State. 

Geer, Geo., iron merchant, bds. at American Hotel. 

Gibbs, Jesse, pumpmaker, S. S. Broad near Front. 

German Evangelical Church, near N. W. cor. Mound & 3d. 

Gregory, Mrs., res. N. S. Broad, bet. 3d & High. 

Gabeirl, Charles, grocer, res. S. W. cor. 3d and North. 

Gootsel, Richard, laborer, res. N. E. cor. 3d & North. 

Grove, Wm., res. S. W. cor. 4th & Long. 

Glazier, Joseph N., livery stable keeper, res. N. S. Town near 4th. 

Garner, Thos., chairmaker, res. N. S. Town, bet. 4th & 5th. 

Graham, John, surveyor, res. S. S. Friend, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Getz, George, laborer, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Goodman, Peter, shoemaker, res. E. S. 3d near Moupd. 

Giles, Christian, laborer, res. E. S. 3d near Mound. 

Gillet, Horace S., teacher, D. & E. Asylum, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 5th & 6th. 

Galloway, Orris B., res. S. S. Rich near 7th. 

Getler, Frederick, laborer, res?. W. S. 4th near S. P. Lane. 

Gterman Lutheran Church, E. S. 3d, bet. Rich & Town. 

Griffith, Timothy (G. & Carr), merchant, bds. at American Hotel. 

Gwynne, E. (G. & Lamson) merchant, W. S. High near State. 

Goodale, L., merchant, W. S. High, bet Town & State. 

Gale, E., Union Hotel, W. S. High near Rich. 

Greenwood, John, merchant, W. S. High near Mound. 

Griffin, Mrs., res. E. S. High near Town. 

Greenleaf, John, plasterer, res. W. S. Front near Friend. 

George, Henry, carpenter, res. E. S. Scioto, bet. South & Mound. 

George, Charles, carpenter, res. S. S. S. P. Lane near Scioto. 

Glover, E., printer, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound and South. 

Godecke, Wm., res. N. E. cor. Front and S. Pub. Lane. 

Green, Andrew, teamster, res. S. E. cor. Front and S. Pub. Lane. 

Goodline, Jacob, res. bet. 2d alley and S. Pub. Lane. 

Griffin, James, brushmaker, res. E. S. 3d, bet. 2d & 3d alley. 

Gorehart, John, cooper, res. N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Gratton, Mrs. Rachael, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 

Glenn, A. E., printer, res. N. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 

Grover, Ira, res. W. S. 3d near Rich. 

Godman, Israel, cabinetmaker, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Town & Rich. 

Gaver, Elias, tailor, res. S. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

Garner, John, chainmaker, res. S. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

George, James, (G. & Brown) grocer, res. N. S. Broad near High. 

Gardiner, Mrs., res. S. S. State, bet. Front and High. 

Hillery, Luther, carpenter, res. N. W. cor. Front & Long. 
Hillery, Calvin, carpenter, res. N. W. cor. Front & Long. 
Hoffman, John, assistant W. 0. P., res. E. S. Water near North. 
Huff, A., guard, 0. P., res. S. S. North near Water. 

Digitized by 



Heevey, Daniel, guard, 0. P., res. S. W. cor. Front & North. 

Hicks, John, laborer, res. E. S. Front near Broad. 

Heflfner, S. T., res. N. S. Broad, bet. Front & Water. 

Hartman, John, grocery, N. S. Broad near Front, bds. at G. Whites. 

Heffner, D. F., clerk, res. N. S. Broad near Front. 

Handford, Z., res. N. S. Broad near High. 

Hemtz, Adam, blacksmith, res. W. S. Scioto, bet. Broad & State. 

Harvey, G. B., res. W. S. High near Gay. 

Harvey, John A., (H. & Seibert), bookbinder, bds. at G. B. Harvey's. 

Hunter, R. J., guard, 0. P., res. W. S. Broad, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Herd, Wm., painter, res. W. S. Front, bet. Broad & State. 

Hawe, P. J., printer, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Hubbel, R. H., stage agent, res. W. S. Front, bet. Broad & State. 

Harper, George, stage driver, res. S. S. Town near 5th. 

Hettishammer, Valentine, grocery, res. E. S. Scioto near State. 

Hume, Isaac, coachtrimmer, res. N. S. Gay, bet. High & 3d. 

Hayden, P., (H. & Co.), S. E cor. Broad & 4th. 

Huntington, H. T., (Wliiting & H) bookseller, res. S. S. State near 3d. 

Hand, Thomas B., (Ball, H. & Co.) hatter, bds. at Buckeye. 

Hinkle, Wm., grocer, res. W. S. S. Pub. Lane near New. 

Hawley, J., physician, res. N. W. cor. High & Friend, 2d story. 

Howell, G. W., (Cushman & H.) res. N. S. Rich near 6th. 

Higgins, Clark, (A. Stewart & Co.) res. S. S. High near Mound. 

Hicks, David, baker, res. E. S. High near Friend. 

Heyl, L., atty-at-law, res. E. S. High near Friend. 

Hen.^el, Adam, grocery, res. N. E. cor. High & Mound. 

Hecock, ., carpenter, res. N. E. cor. High & Mound. 

Heyl. Conrad, painter, res. S. E. cor. Front & Rich. 
Himrod, John, painter, res. E. S. Front near Rich. 
Hubbard, Osmer, tailor, res. N. S. Cherry alley near Front. 
Hoffner, George, laborer, N. S. Cherry alley east of Front. 
Hitler, Jacob, prov. store, res. W. S. Front near Friend. 
Harrison, Wm., blacksmith, res. W. S. Front, bet. Friend & Rich. 
Hall, Francis, coffeehouse, res. W. S. Front near State. 
He^er, John S., hatter, res. E. S. Scioto, bet. State & Town. 
Hindle, Mrs., res. N. S. Friend near canal bridge. 
Hunter, Joseph, res. S. S. Rich W. of Scioto. 
Hughes, John, plasterer, res. S. S. Rich, bet. Front & Scioto. 
Heneman, Frederick, res. S. S. South, bet. Front & Scioto. 
Haddock, Samuel, res. N. W. cor. Front & South. 
Harter, Jacob, carpenter, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound & South. 
Hester, L., brewer, res. S. S. S. P. Lane, bet. Front & High. 
Howl, Charles, carpenter, N. S. South , near High. 
Horger, G., shoemaker, S. W. cor. High & S. P. L. 
Holdon, E. A., grocer, W. S. High near 1st alley. 
Hunt, John, blacksmith, E. S. High near 5th alley. 
Harkman, V., cabinetmaker, res. N. W. cor. New & College. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


H«yl, Peter, laborer, res. N. \V. cor. New & College. 

Hewett, Jeremiah, laborer, res. W. S. Sd near S. P. L. 

Heindle, Henry, brickniaker, res. N. E. cor. 3d & 3d alley. 

Huemiller, Conrad, laborer, res. S. W. cor. 3d & 2d alley. 

Harmer, John, shoemaker, E. S. 3d, bet. 2d & 3d alley. 

Hemel, Adam, res. N. S. South, bet. 3d & High. 

Hoyt, L., res. S. S. Mound, bet. 3d & High. 

Harris, John, plasterer, res. N. S. Friend, bet. 3d & High. 

Hitchcock, Rev. H. L., res. N. S. Friend, bet. 3d & High. 

Hubbard, Wm. B., atty-at-law, res. S. S. Rich, bet. High & 3d. 

Howard, Jonathan, stonecutter, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Town & Rich. 

Howard, Horton, constable, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Town & Rich. 

Humphrey, L., (L. H., & Co.) coppersmith, res. S. W. cor. Gay & 3d. 

Humphrey, E., res. S. W. cor. Gay & Third. 

Hurd, H., Buckeye House, N. S. Broad near High. 

Hunter, Wm., drayman, res. E. S. High, bet. Broad & Gay. 

Hall, Edward, mason, res. N. W. cor. North & 3d. 

Hall, J. S., carpenter, res. N. S. Gay near 3d. 

Howard, Hiram, carpenter, res. E. S. Gay near 3d. 

Hutton, Wm., laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. North & Spring. 

Howard, Elias, teamster, res. S. S. Gay, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Harvey, Elias, carpenter, res. 3d, bet. Gay & Broad. 

Hoge, Rev. Dr. James, res. N. W. cor. Broad & 4th. 

Hardy, Arnold, mason, W. S. 4th, bet. Broad & State. 

Hulburt, Rev. Heland, res. N. E. cor. 4th & State. 

Hume, Robert Jr., clerk, bds. at Whitehill's. 

Hodgkins, Mary Jane, res. S. E. cor. 4th & State. 

Hurd, Wm. teamster, res. N. S. Mound near 4th. 

Hibbs, Adin G., miller, res. E. S. 3d near Mound. 

Hide, Warner, laborer, res. E. S. 3d, bet. Mound & South. 

Hare, Jacob, res. N. S. Rich, bet. 5th & 4th. 

Hymrod, Jacob, painter, res. N. W. cor Rich & 7th. 

Henley, Samuel, plasterer, res. N. S. Rich, bet. 5th & 6th. 

Hopcroft, Henry, painter, res. W. S. 5th, bet. Friend & Rich. 

Hosack, Robert, carpenter, res. E. S. Town east of 7th. 

Hanes, Hiram, chairmaker, res. E. S. 5th near Friend. 

Holt, J. S., blacksmith, N. S. Friend near 5th. 

Hines, Oliver P., mason, res. S. S. Friend, bet 5th & 6th. 

Hinkle, John, cartman, res. N. E. cor. Mound & 5th. 

Hitz, Christian, laborer, res. N. S. Mound near 5th. 

Hess, Nicholas, blacksmith, res. N. W. cor. 4th & S. P. L. 

Hinderer, Gotleib, cabinetmaker, res. N. W. cor. 5th & S. P. L. 

Hindershott, Peter, laborer, res. N. S. S. P. L., bet. 4th & 5th. 

Hook, Leonard, tailor, W. S. 5th near S. P. Lane. 

Hanna, Alexander, printer, bds. at Wm. Thomas'. 

Digitized by 



lerman, George, carpenter, res. south end New. 
I??eller, Nicholas, laborer, res. W. S. New near College. 

Jacobs, A., carpenter, res. S. E. cor. Water & North. 

Jones, John 0., paver, res. N. W. cor. Front & North. 

Jennings, David, teanister, res. E. S. Front, bet. North & Long. 

Jones, Edward, stonecutter, bds. at I. Winn's. 

Jones, D. J., locksmith, res. N. S. Rich near River. 

Jarvis, George, carpenter, res. E. S. High near Friend. 

Jarvis, Mrs., milliner, res. E. S. High near Friend. 

Jenkins, Warren, res. W. S. High, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Jenkins, Ebenezer, res. W. S. High, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Jenkins, A., potter, N. E. cor. Front & Rich. 

Jones, Mrs. Elizabeth, seamstress, res. N. S. Rich near Front. 

Jones, Joseph, gunsmith, bds. at Mrs. Jones. 

Jones, David, blacksmith, res. N. S. Friend near River. 

Jones, John, (Kimball & J.) res. N. W. cor High & Front. 

Jones, Thomas J. carpenter, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound & South. 

Jones, John, teamster, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound & South. 

Jones, Thomas J., carpenter, res. N. E. cor. Front and S. P. L. 

Jones, John, laborer, res. E. S. 3d, bet. 2d & 3d alley. 

Jacobs, John, sadler, res. N. S. Friend, bet. High & 3d. 

Jacobs, Cornelius, gunsmith, res. N. S. Friend, bet. High & 3d. 

Jones, I. G., physician, res. N. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

Jones, R., painter, res. E. S. 3d, bet. North & Spring. 

John.son, Lewis, teamster, res. E. S. Gay, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Jago, Job, shoemaker, res. S. E. cor. 3d & Town. 

John, Mrs. Mary, seamstress, res. W. S. Rich, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Jackson, John, shoemaker, res. S. S. Mound, bet. 4th & 5th. 

Jarvis, Wm. B., carpenter, res. N. E. cor. Rich & 6th. 

Jarvis, Rev. Wm., res. N. E. cor. Rich & 6th. 

Johnson, Chester, res. N. W. cor. Friend & 5th. 

Jones, Wm., gardener, res. S. S. Friend E. of 7th. 

Knoderer, Charles,' Sr., gluemaker, res. near 0. P. 

Knoder, Wm., iiousemover, res. S. S. Broad, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Knoderer, Charles, Jr., wagonmaker, E. S. Front, bet. State & High. 

Kidney, ,Tacob, carpenter, res. S. E. cor. Water & North. 

Kime, John, carpenter, res. E. S. Front, bet. Broad & Gay. 

Kidd, Anthony, grocer, res. W. S. High N. of Broad. 

Knight, Catherine Mrs., seamstress, res. W. S. High near City Hall. 

Kees, Wm., carpenter, res. W. S. Front near Broad. 

Kame, Jacob, finisher, F. Foundry, res. N. S. Friend near canal bridge. 

Kelsey, Wm., American Hotel, N. W. cor. High & State. 

Kimball, H. H., (K., & Jones,) bds. at H. Daniels. 

Kilboum, L., (Fay, K. & Co.) res. in rear of store. 

Digitized by 



King, Matthew, clerk at Greenwood's, res. rear of store. 

Krauss, George, baker, res. W. S. High near Friend. 

Kelley, N. B., architect, bds. at City House. 

Kelton, F. C, (Stone, K. & Co.) res. W. S. 3d near Rich. 

Kent, C. W., auctioneer, res. N. \V. cor. High & Mound. 

Kelley, N. J., painter, res. S. S. Rich, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Krag, Peter, grocer, res. N. W. cor. High & South. 

Karshner, Ludwick, res. N. E. cor. High & N. P. L. 

Keintz, Jacob, grocery, res. E. S. High, bet. South & S. P. Lane. 

Knowels, N., carpenter, res. N. S. Friend, bet. Scioto & Canal. 

Kiffer, Mrs. Margaret, east end College. 

Kwiz, George, laborer, res. N. E. cor. New & 5th alley. 

Keller, Christian, baker, res. N. W. cor. New & 4th alley. 

Krayer, C. F., soap and candle maker, res. S. W. cor. New & 2d alley. 

Keffer, Jacob, laborer, res. S. S. 3d, bet. 3d & 4th alley. 

Kolp, Jacob, laborer, res. N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 3d & 4th alley. 

Krell, George, carpenter, res. N. W. cor. 3d & South. 

King, Mrs. Maria, seamstress, res. S. S. South, bet. 3d & High. 

Knup, John, cabinet finisher, res. W. S. 3d, bet. South & Mound. 

Kannamaker, George, mason, res. S. S. South, bet. South & Mound. 

Kinney, Mrs., res. N. S. Mound, bet. High & 3d. 

Kellogg, George, res. S. S. Friend near 3d. 

Knoderer, Augustus, farmer, res. S. S. Spring near 3d. 

Karst, Christian, grocery, res. bet. Gay & I^ng. 

Kelley, Alfred, res. N. S. Broad near 5th. 

Kennedy, Thos., State Librarian, res. E. S. 4th near State. 

King, \Vm., clerk, res. N. W. cor. 4th & Town. 

Kelley, Peter, laborer, res. E. S. 3d, bet. South & Mound. 

Ketshell, David, stonemason, res. N. W. cor. South & 4th. 

Konell, John, wagonmaker, N. S. Mound, bet. 6th & 7th. 

Kendle, John, blacksmith, ras. N. S. Mound, bet. 6th & 5th. 

Ketsell, Peter, laborer, res. in rear of City Hall. 

Kunkein, Frederick, laborer, res. N. E. cor. High & 5th alley. 

Karnes, Mrs. Nancy, seamstress, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Broad & Friend. 

Lion Hotel, W. S. High near Town. 

Lashley, Robert, blacksmith, res. S. W. cor. High & North. 

Lilley, Wni. B., shoemaker, res. S. W. cor. Front & Gay. 

Ladley, Mark, baker & confectioner, res. near City Hall. 

Laugher, Jacob, tailor, res. S. S. State near market house. 

Lenkupt, Adam, wagonmaker, res. E. S. Scioto near Broad. 

Loveland, Hiram, harnessmaker, W. S. High, bet. Broad & State. 

Large, W., merchant, bds at American Hotel. 

Lamson, Nathan, (Gwynne &Jj.) bds. at Russell's. 

Lee, Andre w% (W. R. & Co.) bds. at Neil House. 

Linderman, L., confectioner, re^. W. S. High near Town. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



Digitized by 



Legg, W. F., (Wright & L.) bds. at City House. 

Langdon, Mrs. J. A., seamstress, res. N. S. Rich near Friend. 

Long, Mrs. Margaret, washerwoman, res. Cherry alley E. of Front. 

Lake, Mrs. Mary, seamstress, res. Cherry alley E. of Front. 

Love, James, blacksmith, res. N. E. cor. Front & Cherry alley. 

Long, Wm., res. W. S. Front, bet. State & Town. 

Long, Albert, carpenter, bds. at Wm. Long^s 

Lawson, David, drayman, res. N. S. Friend, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Lennox, John, millwright, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound & South. 

Lantis, Benjamin, res. E. S. High, bet. N. P. Lane & 1st alley. 

Lantz, Conrad, N. E. cor. High & S. P. Lane. 

Lewis, Frederick, peddler, N. W, cor. New & S. P. Lane. 

Lishtennegger, F., clock and watchmaker, res. N. S. Friend near High. 

Leavenworth, Lyman, carpenter, res. W. S. 3d near Friend. 

Lathrop, H., physician, res. S. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

Lathrop, U., surveyor, res. E. S. Front, bet. Long & Gay. * 

Leonard, Lewis, res. E. S. High near Spring. 

Lief, John, carpenter, res. N. E. cor. High & North. 

Lief, Jacob, carpenter, res. N. E. cor. High & S. P. Lane. 

Lief, Leroy, carpenter, res. N. E. cor. High & S. P. Lane. 

Lashapelle, Francis, moulder, at Col. Foundry, res. S. S. North, bet. 8d & 

Latham, Mrs. Kesiah, res. N. W. cor. Gay & Third. 
Longwell, Mrs. Mary A., washerwoman, res. S. S. Gay, bet 3d & High. 
Latham, Bela, res. N. E. cor. 4th & Long. 

Latham, W. H., (Thompson & L.) physician, bds. at B. Latham's. 
Luntz, Andrew, laborer, res. E. S. 4th, bet. State & Town. 
Lower, Jacob, laborer, E. S. 3d, bet. Mound & South. 
Lighter, Solomon, carpenter, N. S. N. P. L., bet. 4th & 3d. 
Leiby, Joseph, brickmaker, res. S. E. cor. Friend & 5th. 
Lloyd, E., mason, bds. at Meneleys. 

Lenox, James Sr., millwright, res. E. S. Front, bet. Friend & Mound. 
Lennox, Jas. Jr., millwright, res. E. S. Front bet. Friend & Rich. 
Lenox, William, machinist, res. Mound, bet. 3d & 5th. 

McDonal, E., blacksmith, res. E. S. Water, bet. North & Long. 

McDowell, A. L, res. N. E. cor. Front & North. 

MeCune, John, (Gills & M.,) bds. at J. L. GilFs. 

McCraner, George, shoemaker, res. W. S. High near City Hall. 

McGuire, John, laborer, res. S. W. cor. Long & Front. 

McCune, James, clerk, bds. at J. L. Gill's. 

McMurdy, Mrs., boarding house, W. S. Front, bet. State & Broad. 

McKee, James M., grocer, bds. at Buckeye. 

McCullough, Mrs. Jane, seamstress, N. S. State near Front. 

McKee, Mrs., seamstress, res. N. S. State near Front. 

McCullough, L., res. E. S. High near State. 

Digitized by 



McCoy, R. W., (W. A. McC. & Co.) merchant, res. S. S. State, bet. 3d & 

McCoy, W. A., (McC. & Co.) merchant, bds. at American Hotel. 
McLene, J., (Brunson & McL.) bdfi. at S. Crosby's. 
McMaster's, Hugh, grocer, re^. W. S. High near Town. 
McCormick, J. E., tailor, res. N. S. Town near 5th. 
McElvain, J. V., clerk 0. P., bds. at A. Backus'. 
McKee, John, cooper, res. W. S. Front, bet. State & Town. 
McGuire, T., res. N. S. Rich, bet. Front & Scioto. 
McDermith, George, mason, S. S. Rich, bet. Front & Scioto. 
McElvain, Wm., mason, res. E. S. Scioto S. of Friend. 
McElvain, John, U. S. Marshal, res. E. S. Scioto S. of Friend. 
McElvain, Joseph, county treasurer, res. S. W. cor. Rich & Scioto. 
McCollum, Garritt, coachmaker, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 3d & High. 
McKneisk, T. J., cabinetmaker, res. S. S. South near High. 
McCormack, John, tailor, res. N. S. Mound, bet. High & 3d. 
McDonnell, James, laborer, res. S. S. N. Pub. Lane. 
McCormack, F. A., res. S. S. Gay, bet. 3d & High. 
McFerson, James, teamster, res. N. E. cor. 3d & Long. 
McDaniel, Wm., mason, res. S. E. cor. 3d & Town. 
McClelland, Sam'l., tailor, res. S. W. cor. Rich & 4th. 
Martin, Wm. T., county recorder, res. X. W. cor. Friend & Front. 
Martin, B. F., clerk, res. W. S. Front, bet. Rich & Friend. 
Morris, Asa, laborer, res. near Penitentiary. 
Merrick, John C, clerk, res. N. W. cor. High & North. 
Morton, Thos., res. W. S. High, bet. Long & Spring. 
Medary, Samuel, editor Ohio Statesman, res. N. E. cor. Front & Gay. 
Medary, Jacob, bds. at American Hotel. 
Middleton, Wm., ropemaker, res. N. W. cor. Front & Broad. 
Mills, L., grocer, res. N. E. cor. Broad & Front. 
Mitchell, David, (D. & A. M.) grocer, N. S. Broad, bet. High & Front. 
Mitchell, A., (D. & A. M.) grocer, bds. at D. Mitchell's. 
Murphey, Wm., grocer, res. S. E. cor. Broad & Front. 
Mosley, T. W. H., clerk, res. E. S. High, Commer'l Row. 
Minor, Daniel, (Booth & M.) coachmaker, res. E. S. 3d near Spring. 
Matthe^vs, F. J., atty-at-law, bds. at A. Buttles. 
Mattoon, C, bookbinder, res. N. S. Town, bet. High & 3d. 
Mechanic's Saving Institute, S. E. cor. High & State. 
Miller, John, grocer, res. E. S. High near Long. 
Mechanic's Hall, S. E. cor. High & Rich. 
Mills, R. L., upholster, bds. at Franklin House. 
Marquart, Daniel, clerk, res. E. S. High near Rich. 
Matthews, Harvey, res. Co., Row E. S. High. 
Murry, N., clerk, W. S. High near Mound. 

Mitchell, Mrs. Margaret, boardinghouse, res. S. S. Town, eight bldgs. 
Martin, Thomas, shoemaker, res. E. S. Front near Town. 
Martin, Matthias, painter, res. E. S. Front near Rich. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Milligan, James W., guard 0. P., res. E. S. Front near Friend. 

Mark, Henry, tailor, res. E. S. Front near Mound. 

Milligan, John W., res. S! W. cor. Front & Friend. 

Moore, H. A., atty-at-law, res. \V. S. Front, bet Town & Rich. 

Mills, Rev. S. T., res. N. W. cor. Front & Town. 

Mason, Albert, boatman, res. Scioto, bet. State & Town. 

Mohl, John, Wagonmafcer, res. N. S. South near Scioto. 

Mees, Rev. Conrad, res. S. E. cor. High & 3d alley. 

Marshall, J., teamster, res. W. S. High near 5th alley. 

Maier, J. G., tailor, N. E. cor. High & College. 

Moore, Peter, res. E. S. High south of city line. 

Miller, Mrs. res. east end College. 

Miers, \Vm., laborer, res. N. E. cor. New and S. P. Lane. 

Miller, Henry, brushmaker, res. W. S. 3d, bet, S. P. Lane & South. 

Montgomery House, N. E. cor. High & South. 

Male, Lewis, laborer, res. N. E. cor. 3d & 5th alley. 

Medberry, N., res. S. W. cor. Friend & 3d. 

Marple, Isaac, wagonmaker, res. S. S. Friend, bet. High & 3d. 

Mattoon, Newton, bookbinder, res. W. S. 3d near Town. 

Metz, John, shoemaker, res. W. S. 3d near State. 

Martin, Samuel, printer, res. S. S. Long, bet. 3d & High. 

Mettles, Abraham, laborer, res. E. S. 4th near North. 

Miller, John G., Post Master, res. N. E. cor. Broad & 3d. 

Morrison, Justin, res. N. S. Broad near 3d. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, N. S. Town, bet. High and 3d. 

Matthews, V., stonecutter, res. S. S. Town, bet. 6th & 7th. 

Mitchell, Thos., shoemaker, res. D. S. Friend, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Miller, John, paver, res. S. S. Friend near 4th. 

Markley, John, res. N. E. cor. 3d & South. 

Mosboh, Jacob, schoolteacher, res. E. S. 3d. near South. 

Miles, Thos. Y., plasterer, res. W. S. 6th, bet. Rich & Friend. 

Murry, F. W., printer, res. N. S. Rich near 6th. 

Moodie, Thomas, cashier, Mechan. Sav. Ins., re?. S. S. Town, bet. 5th & 

Miller, N. M., Ed. 0. S. Rep., bds. at Neil House. 
Moeller, L. J., Ed. 0. S. Rep., bds. at Neil Hou^e. 

Neiswanger, C, farmer, res. W. S. Front, bet. Long & Spring. 

Newfank, Theobald, res. E. S. High & City Line. 

Norris, A. A., boat captain, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Mound & Friend. 

North, A., res. north side Town near 5th. 

Nereaner, Jonathan, carpenter, res. W. S. 3d near Town. 

Neil House, W. S. High near Broad. 

Newman, A. F., carpenter, W. S. 3d, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Nereamer, C, boot and shoemaker, res. E. S. Front near Town. 

Digitized by 



Otstott, George, guard, O. P., res. W. S. Water near North. 

Ohio State Journal, S. W. cor. High & Town, 2d story. 

Ortman, C, boot and shoemaker, res. W. S. High near Rich. 

Ohio Statesman Office, S. S. State near High. 

O. S. Republican Office, S. S. State near High. 

Osborn, James, (F. Stewart & Co.) bds. at City House. 

Olmsted, P. H., City House, S. E. cor. High & Town. 

Oyler, Jacob, Franklin House, E. S. High near Rich. 

Otstott, John, wagonmaker, res. E. S. Front, bet. Friend & Moimd. 

Ortman, B., shoemaker, res. E. S. Front near Rich. 

Ogden, Mrs., seamstress, res. W. S. 3d, bet. N. P. Lane & South. 

Opcroft, Mrs. Alice, seamstress, res. S. S. Gay, bet. 3d & High. 

O^Harrah, John, deputy city marshal, ree. S. E. 3d & Gay. 

Oldridge, Christopher, laborer, res. N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 4th A 5th. 

Osgood, J. W., printer, res. E. S. 3d, bet. Rich & Friend. 

Pinney, A. H., Mfgr of woodenware & farmers tools, res. S. W. cor. High 

& North. 
Patterson, John, warden, 0. P., re;^. at 0. P. 
Prosser, Charles, laborer, res. N. S. Spring near 0. P. 
Pinney, A. P., Supt. for A. H. P., res. N. E. cor. Front & North. 
Piatt, Augustus, (P. & Son) mathematical instrument maker, res. S. W. 

cor. Front & Spring. 
Piatt, Calvin, (Piatt & Son) mathematical instrument maker, res. S. W. 

cor. Front & Spring. 
Piatt, W. A., jeweler, res. N. W. cor. High & Spring. 
Pepper, Isaac, printer, res. E. S. Front near Gay. 
Perry, David, clerk, res. near Columbus Foundry. 
Pike, Mrs. R., res. S. S. Broad near Front. 
Peobles, Jacob, blacksmith, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 
Perry, A. F., (P. & Dennison) atty-at-law, bds. at Mrs. Wilson's. 
Preston, L. P., (P. & Co.) merchant, bds. at S. D. Preston's. 
Preston, S. D., (P. & Co.) merchant, res. S. S. Town, eight buildings. 
Preston, Willard, clerk, bds. at S. D. Preston's. 
Parsons, F. M., atty-at-law, bds. at Dr. Parson's. 
Pugh, G. J., tinner, bds. at J. Reeves'. 
Parker, Mrs., boarding-house, res. N. S. Rich near High. 
Pounds, I. D., gunsmith, res. N. E. cor. 3d & South. 
Parkerd, John, carpenter, res. N. E. cor. High & Mound. 
Parsons, Samuel, physician, res. S. S. Town near High. 
Patton, Alexander, carpenter, res. S. W. Cor Town & Front. 
Patterson, N., livery stable, res. W. S. Front, bet. Town & State. 
Pope, James M., carpenter, res. S. S. Spring, bet. High and 3d. 
Peckham, Wm. H., carpenter, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound & South. 
Patterson, Joseph, boat captain, res. N. E. cor. Mound & Scioto. 
Putman, Peter, res. N. \V. cor. South & Scioto. 

Digitized by 



Powel, Jeffrey, wagonmaker, res. E. S. Scioto, bet. Mound & South. 

Pausch, Valentine, laborer, res. N. S. South near Scioto. 

Pope, Mrs. Jane, seamstress, res. S. W. cor. Front & Mound. 

Pelere, T. farmer, res. S. E. cor. High & 4th alley. 

Parker, Joseph, blacksmith, res. E. S. New near College. 

Pfer, Christopher, laborer, res. E. S. New near College. 

Powlis, John, laborer, res. S. S. South, bet. 3d and High. 

Price, T. J., carpenter, res. W. S. 3d near Town. 

Patterson, Noah, laborer, res. S. S. S. P. Lane. 

Pollard, W. W., carpenter, bds. at J. S. Hall's. 

PhilUps, Jonathan, printer, res. S. W. cor. Town & 6th. 

Phillips, George, port, painter, res. E. S. 7th near Town. . 

Patch, Ira, plasterer, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Payne, Mrs. seamstress, res. N. S. Friend near 3d. 

Phyfer, George C, laborer, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Mound & Rich. 

Parker, Wm., machinist, res. N. S. Friend, bet. 5th & 6th. 

Pearson, Thos., bookkeeper, Neil House. 

Reem, John, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Spring & North. 

Reem-, Wm., teamster, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Spring & North. 

Rhodes, Sylvester, hatter, res. E. S. 3d near Gay. 

Rohenbeck, John, shoemaker, res. N. S. Town near 4th. 

Rig, Francis, laborer, res. N. S. Town near Fourth. 

Richards, Titus, paver, res. N. W. cor. Mound & 4th. 

Rider, Joseph, laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Rickets, Jacob, grocer, res. N. S. N. P. L., bet. 4th & 3d. 

Rase, Arthur, bds. at Neil House. 

Riordan, George, city marshal, res. E. S. Front near Long. 

Riordan, Robert, carpenter, res. S. W. cor. Front & Long. 

Ridgway, Thos., tanner, res. N. S. Broad, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Ridgway, J. Jr., res. N. S. Broad, bet. High & 3d. 

Ridgway, J. Sr., bds. at J. Ridgway's. 

Rees, Richard, hamessmaker, res. E. S. Front near Long. 

Reaver, Adam, teamster, res. W. S. High near City Hall. 

Ruggles, H. B., coach trimmer, res. E. S. Front near State. 

Rosenbaugh, Dr. G. F., res. S. E. cor. 3d & State. 

Russell, R., res. W. S. High near State. 

Richards, Wm., (Wing, R. & Co.) bds. at Neil House. 

Runyon, Clark, (Buttles & R.) res. S. S. Town, bet. High & 3d. 

Reeves, J. R., boarding house, S. W. cor. High & Town. 

Reed, J. C, (R. & Sheldon) tailor, res. E. S. Front near Friend. 

Ramsey, Amos, brickmaker, res. Friend near Blind Asylum. 

Reed, A., (R & Brother) pianoforte f?eller, bds. at Buckeye. 

Rudesill, J. E., hatter, E. S. 3d near Mound. 

Reader, W. A., cabinetmaker, res. N. E. cor. Friend & 5th. 

Rose, C. C, res. S. S. Town, Eight Buildings. 

Digitized by 



Rowe, E. G., (Stone, Kelton & Co.) bds. at Franklin House. 

Rosson, E. F., bookbinder, E. S. High Com. Row, 2d story. 

Reed, Isaac, baker, res. N. S. Rich near Front. 

Roberts, Thomas, blacksmith, res. N. E. cor. Front & Mound. 

Russell, James, res. W. S. Front, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Richards, C. A., watchmaker, res. W. S. Front n«ar Rich. 

Richey, George, physician, res. W. S. Front near Town. 

Riddel, B., res. W. S. Front near Town. 

Robins, Thomas, baker, res. S. S. Rich, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Rockwell, E., Scioto Hotel at canal bridge. 

Rapp, John, shoemaker, res. S. S. South near High. 

Richey, James, tailor, N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. Front & High. 

Riddell, Nicholas, carpenter, res. E. S. High city lane. 

Ritter, B., laborer, W. S. New near College. 

Raigere, Henry, laborer, res. S. W. cor. New & 5th alley. 

Reamensnider, L., cooper, res. E. S. High, bet. 4th. & 5th alley. 

Rudolph, P., carpenter, N. W. cor. New & S. P. Lane. 

Rickets, Mrs., res. E. S. 3d, bet. 2d & 3d alleys. 

Rader, Mrs., res. E. S. 3d and oth alley. 

Riddel, Mre., N. S. Mound, bet. High & 3d. 

Ransom, L., canal com., re?. N. S. Broad, bet. 3d & High. 

Rosenfelt, John H., music teacher, res. N. W. cor. 3d & North. 

Roland, John, wagonmaker, res. S. S. Spring, bet. 3d & High. 

Rees, Mrs. Elizabeth, seamstress, res. E. S. 3d near Long. 

Roach, Henry, teamster, res. W. S. Fourth, bet. Gay & Broad. 

Second Presbyterian Church, W. S. 3d near Friend. 

Sherman, Mrs., seamstress, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 4th & 3d. 

Sager, Wm., shoemaker, bds. at Mrs. John's. 

Starr, Wm., peddler, res. S. S. Friend near 3d. 

Stevens, James, carpenter, res. E. S. 3d, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Smeltz, Philip, plasterer, res. E. S. 3d, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Shoafer, Daniel, laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Mound & Friend. 

Schwartz, Joseph, oil mill, res. E. S. 3d near South. 

Smith, Frederick, carpenter, re*. N. S. South, hot. 4th & 3d. 

Starr, John, mason, res. S. S. Mound, bet. 4th & 3d. 

Sawhill, N., res. N. W. cor. Rich & 4th. 

Stewart, Robert R., printer, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 6th & 5th. 

Schott, Jacob, carpenter, res. S. S. Rich, bet. 6th & 5th. 

Schott, John A., mason, res. E. S. 3d, bet. South & Mound. 

Sellers, Mrs., res. S. E. cor. 7th & Town. 

Shoemaker, Frederick, cabinetmaker, res. S. S. Friend, bet. 5th & 6th. 

Sheyer, John, tailor, res. S. S. Mound, bet. 5th & 6th. 

Sliffell, Conrad, plasterer, res. W. S. South near 4th. 

Smith, George, cabinetmaker, res. E. S. 4th near South. 

Shull, Andrew, laborer, N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 4th & 5th. 

Stenmetz, Joseph, cooper, res. S. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 4th & 5th. 

Sanamer, Michael, cooper, res. S. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 4th & 5th. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Stinmetz, Wm., saddler, res. N. S. S. P. Lane near 5th. 

Sloane, Wm., Rev., res. E. S. 5th near Town. 

St. Paul Church S. E. cor. Third & Mound. 

Siddner, Fred., grocery, res. Wharf, bet. Broad & State. 

Stitt, Thos., bds. at R. Stadden's. 

Sprague, E. H., machinist, res. E. S. Front near Spring. 

Swan, George M., guard, 0. P., res. N. E. cor. Front & N. P. Lane. 

Stump, John, cooper, res. N. S. North, bet. High & Front. 

Stadden, R., res. W. S. Front, bet. Long & Spring. 

Strickler, Jacob, stonecutter and builder, res. E. S. Front, bet. Long & 

Sanderson, W. F., res. S. E. cor Front & Gay. 
Stockel, Edmon, tanner, res. N. W. cor. Front & Gay. 
Sharp, A., tailor, res. N. E. cor. High & Long. 
Smith, J. S., exchange broker, res. W. S. High near Long. 
Sefort, John, res. S. P. Lane, bet. 3d & 4th. 
Sw'an, G., atty-at-law, res. W. S. High near Broad. 

Slocum, E. N., saddle and harnessmaker, re^. E. S. 4th, bet. State & Broad. 
Sparrow, Thos., atty-at-law, bds. at Dr. Sisson's. 
Stewart, A. A., merchant tailor, bds. at American. 
Searls, Joel B., carpenter, bds. at iVmerican Hotel. 
Stone, Dwight, (S. & Townsend) merchant, res. N. S. Rich near 3d. 
Starling, Lyne, land dealer, bds. at Ru&^eH's. 
Schneider, A., confectioner, res. W. S. High near Town. 
Sheldon, T. H., (Reed & S.) bds. at City House. 
Smethurst, James, umbrella maker, res. W. S. High near Rich. 
Saul, John J., grocer, res. W. S. High, bet. Friend & Rich. 
Stotts, Abraham, tobacconist, res. N. S. Friend near High. 
Settler, John, coffee-house, S. E. cor. High & State in basement, res. same. 
Swayne, N. H., (S. & Bates) atty-at-law, res. S. S. Town, eight buildings. 
Savage, Wm. M., jeweler, res. E. S. High Com. Row. 
Sherwood, 0. W., (S. & Co.) res. W. S. 3d near Rich. 
Shields, T. L., coffee-house, res. N. S. Town near High. 
Stewart, F., (S. & Osbom) merchant, res. E. S. High near Town. 
Stewart, Adam, (S. & Higgins) res. S. S. Town, bet. High & 3d. 
Slocum, G. W., saddle and harnessmaker, ras. S. S. Rich near 3d. 
Sisson, P., physician, res. E. S. High near Rich. 
Slusser, J. A., tailor, E. S. High near Rich. 
Snowden, P. T., clerk, res. E. S. High, bet. Friend & Rich. 
Snowden, Mrs., milliner, res. E. S. High, bet. Friend & Rich. 
Stinsuelz, W., saddle and harnessmaker, E. S. High near Friend. 
Stone, A. P., merchant, res. W. S. 3d near Rich. 
Schneck, C. F., physician, res. E. S. High near Mound. 
Seibert, John, bookbinder, res. E. S. High near Mound. 
Stevens^ J., physician, res. E. S. High near Mound. 
Stonnes, S., mason, res. S. S. Cherry alley east of front. 

Digitized by 



Shanf, v., laborer, res. E. S. Front near Mound. 

Smith, George, shoemaker, res. N. S. Mound near Front. 

Spelman, Spencer, carpenter, res. W. S. Front, bet. State & Town. 

Salada, Fred., blacksmith, res. E. S. Scioto, bet. State & Town. 

Studer, George, teamster, res. N. W. cor. Friend & Scioto. 

Sanborn, R. W., blacksmith, res. E. S. Canal near Friend. 

Sheffield, C. G., produce dealer, res. N. S. Broad, bet. High & 3d. 

Shannon, J. W., shoemaker, res. N. S. Friend, bet. Front & Scioto. 

Stine, Elisha, millwright, res. S. E. cor. Scioto & Friend. 

Selsam, George, laborer, res. S. W. cor. Front & S. P. Lane. 

Sharp, Wm., cooper, res. S. E. cor. Mound & Front. 

Smith, George, shoemaker, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound & South. 

Silbernayl, Jacob, brewer, res. S. E. cor. High & 3d alley. 

Smith, Jacob, mason, res. W. S. Front near City Brewery. 

Sherman, L. H., combmaker, res. N. S. South near Front. 

Sherman, W. D., combmaker, res. N. S. South near Front. 

Stotte, U., Montgomery House, N. E. cor. High & South. 

Stauring, Henry, res. E. S. High near South. 

Smith, George, res. N. W. cor. Rich & Scioto. 

Snider, Adam, laborer, res. S. W. cor. High & South. 

Staley, George, laborer, res. S. S. South near High. 

Smith, Thos., res. E. S. High near S. P. Lane. 

Shead, Jared, mason, res. S. W. cor. High & 5th alley. 

Sheaf, George F., carpenter, res. S. W. cor. New & S. P. Lane. 

Swartz, Lewis, stoneman, re<. E. S. 3d, bet. 2d alley & S. P. Lane. 

Snider, David, stoneman, res. W. S. 3d, bet. South & Mound. 

Shoemaker, Adam, tailor, res. W. S. 3d, bet. South & Mound. 

Smith, Nicholas, stoneman, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Mound & South. 

Spade, David, cooper, res. S. S. Mound, bet. 3d & High. 

Sites, Adam, whitesmith, res. S. S. Friend, bet. 3d and High. 

Sites, Andrew, whitesmith, res. S. S. Friend, bet. 3d & High. 

Seltzer, Samuel Z., physician, res. S. S. Friend, bet. 3d & High. 

Shields, Thos. F., carpenter, res. N. S. Friend, bet. 3d & High. 

Stanbery, C, atty-at-law, res. \V. S. 3d, bet. Friend & Rich. 

Spade, Fred., cartman, res. N. S. Rich, bet. High & 3d. 

Sackett, E. hatter, res. S. W. cor. 3d & Town. 

Scott, Charles, pub. 0. S. Journal, res. N. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

Starling, Lyne, Jr., clerk Court Com. Pleas, res. S. S. State, bot. 3d & High. 

Shilling, Wm., ploughmaker, res. S. S. Long, bet. 3d & High. 

Sieferd, C, gardener, res. S. S. N. P. Lane, bet. 3d & High. 

Swartz, G., pumpmaker, res. W. S. 3d near S. P. Lane. 

Shewry, Charles, blacksmith, bds. at Buckeye. 

Slade, Robert, carpenter, res. N. S. Long, bet. 3d & High. 

Scott, Mrs. Sarah, seamstress, res. S. S. Gay, bet. High & 3d. 

Swan, Joseph R., judge Court Com. Pleas, res. N. S. Broad near 4th. 

Scott, Mrs. Ann, boarding-house, E. S. 3d near State. 

Digitized by 



Most Largely Due to the Efforts of Col. William H. Knauss, a Distinguished 
Union Soldier and Officer. 

Digitized by 





Digitized by 



Suinmers, Fred'k., laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. State & Town. 
Slick, Jacob, laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. State & Town. 

Trinity Church, N. S. Broad near High. 

Thompson, Robert, mason, res. W. S. Fourth, bet. Long & Spring. 

Tylor, Asa, carpenter, res. N. S. Long near Front. 

Tipton, Thos., sausagemaker, res. S. W. cor. High & Spring. 

Trevitt, Wm., physician, res. N. S. Broad, bet. High & Front. 

Taft, D. H., merchant, res. W. S. High near Broad. 

Taylor, John, (T., & Son) res. E. S. Water, bet. Gay & Long. 

Taylor, Isaac, (Taylor & S.) res. N. E. cor. Gay & Water. 

Tompson, Thomas, farmer, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Turgeon, Peter, printer, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Thompson, R., physician, (T. & Latham) res. S. S. Town near Third. 

Thomas, J. B., clerk, aud. state office, bds. American Hotel. 

Townsend, G. C, (Stone & T.) bds. American Hotel. 

Thomas, Wray, (W. & K. T.) atty-at-law, bds. at Russell's. 

Thomas, K., (W. & K.) atty-at-law, bds. at RusselPs. 

Thomas, Salmon, produce dealer, bds. American Hotel. 

Thompson, H., dentist, res. W. S. High near Friend. 

Thompson, Samuel, grocer, res. N. S. Friend near Front. 

Todd, H., Dentist, bds. at City House. 

Thrall, Walter, atty-at-law, res. E. S. High near Rich. 

Taylor, J. F., artist, N. E. cor. High & Rich. 

Thomas, Wm., boarding-house, E. S. High near Rich. 

Thomas, Mrs. M. F., res. W. S. High, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Thrall, Mk. M., res. W. S. High, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Trumbull, Adam, res. E. JS. Rich, bet. Front & High. 

Tylor, W. J., peddler, W. S. Front near South. 

Thomas, Geo., plasterer, res. S. E. cor. High and 1st alley. 

Trott, Martin, cartman, res. S. end New. 

Thomas, Tarlton, laborer, res. N. W. cor. New & S. P. Lane. 

Thome, E. B., printer, res. W. S. 3d, bet. Town & Rich. 

Thompson, John B., physician, res. S. E. cor. High & Gay. 

Troxell, Jacob, miller, res. N. W. cor. 4th & Long. 

Turney, Jacob, carpenter, res. N. W. cor. 4th & Town. 

Taylor, Mrs. E., seamstress, res. S. S. Rich bet. Fifth & Sixth. 

Tupper, Patrick, res. N. E. cor. 3d & South. 

Turner, Henry, farmer, res. S. E. cor. Rich & Fifth. 

Taylor, Wm., plasterer, bds. at Menely's. 

Trott, Benedict, mason, res. N. E. cor. South & Fifth. 

Troutman, Andrew, laborer, res. N. S. S. P. Lane, bet. 6th & 7th. 

United Brethren Church, east side 3d near Rich. 
Urey, Philip, cabinetmaker, res. W. S. Scioto, bet. Rich & Friend. 
Unger, G. M., boot and shoemaker, res. W. S. High near College. 
Ury, Peter, boot and shoemaker, re?. N. W. cor. State & 5th. 

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Voris, Mrs., seamstress re^. E. S. Front near Long. 

Vincen, Daniel, blacksmith, res. S. E. cor. Friend & 3d. 

Vinal, R., res. W. S. Front, bet. Friend & Mound. 

Vandwalt^r, H., cabinetmaker, res. E. S. Front near Cherry- Alley. 

Vestil, \Vm., mason, res. N. W. cor. Scioto and Sugar alley. 

Vanyork, John Jr., grocer, res. E. S. High near South. 

Vanhorn, Walter, res. N. W. cor. High & S. Pub. Lane. 

Vanvechten, T. (Casey & V.) lumber merchant, bds. at American Hotel. 

Veth, Peter, wood-sawyer, res. S. S. South, bet 3d & 4th. 

Vandmark, Gideon, carpenter, res. N. S. Friend near 5th. 

Valentine, Phillip, blacksmith, N. S. Mount, bet 5th & 6th. 

Webster, A. W., carpenter, res. W. S. Front, bet. Spring & North. 

White, Martin, guard 0. P., res. W. S. Front, near N. P. Lane. 

Wilcox, G. G., laborer, res. E. S. Front, bet. North & Last. 

Wallace, carpenter, res. E. S. Front, bet. Long & Spring. 

Ware, Mrs., res. W. S. High near North. 

Willard, John, grocer, res. S. E. cor. State & Front. 

Williams, E., moulder, F. Foundry, res. Front, bet. Broad & State. 

Warner, Alex. res. W. S. Front, bet. State & Broad. 

Wheaton, J. B., druggist, res. N. S. Broad near High. 

Williams, Mrs., seamstress, res. S. S. Broad near Front. 

Weherle, Matthias, carpenter, res. N. S. State near Market House. 

Weherle, George, laborer, res. N. S. State near M. H. 

White, George, blacksmith, res. N. S. Gay, bet. High & Third. 

Wheeler, H. F., engraver, N. S. Town, bet. 3d & 4th. 

Westwater, John (W. & Sons) glass merchant, res. N. E. cor. 3d & Long, 

Westwater, Wm. (Westw^ater & S.), merchant, bds. at J. Westwater's. 

Westwater, James, (Westwater & S.) mer., bds. at J. Westwaters. 

White, A. F., clerk, bds. at American Hotel. 

Whiting, I. N., (W. & Huntington), res. E. S. 3d near State. 

Wing, C. H. (W. Richards & Co), bds. S. D. Preston's. 

Williams, W. W. (W. & Breyfogle) res. W. S. Front, bet Friend & Mound. 

Winkle, C, tailor, res. N. S. S. P. Lane near Third. 

Walk, C, physician, bds. at RusselFs. 

Weaver, L. J., merchant, res. W. S. Third, bet. Rich & Town. 

Wright, S. E., (W. & Legg) printer, res. N. S. Friend near Front. 

Walcut, J. M., paint store, res. N. S. Town, bet. High & Third. 

Walcut, Wm., portrait painter, bds. at J. M. Walcut's. 

Walcut, George, portrait painter, res. N. S. Town near High. 

Wood, H., bds. at City House. 

Walton, John, chairmaker, res. S. W. cor. 3d & Rich. 

Watson, James, carpenter, res. W. S. High, bet Friend & Mound. 

Woolful, A., wagonmaker, res. S. S. Cherry alley, east of Front. 

Woodruff, J., shoemaker, res. Friend, bet. High & Front. 

Wagoner, Levi, blacksmith, res. W. S. Front near Rich. 

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Wendell, Daniel, tailor, res. W. S. Front near Friend. 

Wright, John, cabinetmaker, S. S. Rich west of Front. 

Wallis, Norman, carpenter, res. W. S. Scioto near Friend. 

Waas, Henry, Canal Hotel, near canal bridge. 

Woodbury, D. P., (W. & Co.) bds. at N. Medbery's. 

Woodbury, E. K. (W. & Co.) res. at the store. 

Wroe, Joseph, millwright, res. E. S. Front, bet. Mound and South. 

Wingfield, John, cooper, res. N. S. South near Scioto. 

Warford, Reading, wagonmaker, S. W. cor. Mound & Scioto. 

Wetherby, S. P., cooper, res. E. S. Scioto, bet. South & Mound. 

Wesbaker, Adam, laborer, res. N. W. cor. South & Scioto. 

Whitsell, John, carpenter, res. W. S. Friend, bet. Mound & South. 

Wier, Daniel, carpenter, res. W. S. Friend, bet. Mound & South. 

Wells, Wm., teamster, res. W. S. Friend, bet. Mound & South. 

Wilkins, John, broommaker, res. S. S. South near High. 

Walling, Asa, grocer, res. E. S. High, bet. 2d & 3d alleys. 

Watson, Wm., distiller, res. E. S. High, bet. 2d & 3d alleys. 

Wiley, Wm., distiller, res. E. S. High, bet. 2d & 3d alley.s. 

Whiteman, George, res. W. S. High, bet. 2d & 3d alleys. 

Wretz, John, cabinetmaker, res. E. S. High, near College. 

Winkler, John, laborer, res. south end New. 

WTiisker, John, laborer, res. S. E. cor. New and 5th alley. 

Wible, Godfrey, laborer, res. W. S. New, bet. 3d & 4th alley. 

Will, John, tailor, res. S. E. cor. 3d & 3d alley. 

Waggoner, Adam, stonecutter, res. W. S. Third, bet. South & Mound. 

Wingle, John, res. south end New. 

Winn, Charles, tobacconist, res. W. S. Third, bet. 4th & 5th. 

Walton, Gideon, carpenter, res. S. S. Mound, bet. 3d & High. 

Wagley, J. B., pumpmaker, res. S. S. Rich near High 

Wagley, Mrs., Milliner, res. S. S. Rich near High. 

Wood, Thos., res. N. S. Rich, bet. Third & High. 

Whitcomb, Rev. David, res. N. S. Town, bet. 3d & High. 

Wilson, Mrs. Margaret, res. S. S. State, bet. 3d & High. 

Wells, Misses, school teachers, res. near N. E. cor. Gay & High. 

Work, John C, merchant, res. E. S. High, bet. Gay & Long. 

Whip, George P., carpenter, res. E. S. High, bet. North & N. P. Lane. 

Wallis, Wm., laborer, res. S. S. North, bet. 3d & High. 

Wallis, George, laborer, res. N. S. Long, bet. 3d & High. 

Williams, James, laborer, N. W. cor. Gay & Third. 

Winn, Isaac, laborer, res. E. S. 4th, bet. North & Spring. 

White, Rolin, farmer, res. E. S. 4th, bet. North & Spring. 

Wait, Wm. res. E. S. Third, near Gay. 

Wait, James, res. E. S. Third near Gay. 

Wilcox, Mrs. Amanda, res. E. S. Third near Gay. 

Wilcox, P. B. (W. & Pierrepont) atty-at-law, res. E. S. 3d, bet. State & Broad. 

Wise, Wm., hatter, res. W. S. 4th, bet. Broad & State. 

Whitehill, Joseph, state treas., res. N. W. cor. 4th & State. 

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Ward, Mrs., re^. N. W. cor. 4th & Town. 

Weymaii, George, laborer, re^. N. S. Mound near 4th. 

Young, \Vm. H., carpenter, reo. E. 8. 3d near Long. 

Zinn, Adam, teamster, red. E. S. Water, bet. Spring & North. 
Zolinger, Jacob, tavern keeper, res. S. S. Broad, bet. Scioto & Front. 
Zimmer, John, drayman, res. W. S. Front near Mound. 
Zahrenger, Christian, skindre^er, res. S. W. cor. High & 1st alley. 
Zarkman, John, stonemason, res. E. S. High near College. 
Zuberd, Jacob, farmer, res. W. S. New near College. 
Zuberd, John, farmer, res. W. S. New near College. 
Zinn, Daniel, hackman, res. S. S. Long, bet 3d & High. 
Zinn, Elijah P., shoemaker, res. N. W. cor. State & Fourth. 
Zigler, Casper, laborer, res. W. S. 4th, bet. State & Town. 
Zigler, Jonas, papermaker, res N. S. Rich bet. 5th & 6th. 
Zeller, Christian, cigarmaker, res. S. S. Friend, bet. 6th <fe 7th. 
Zettler, Jacob, tanner, res.- N. E. cor. Friend & 4th. 

The Points of Comparison. 

Here are two striking points of comparison, as showing by one line of 
data, the growth of a city during a period of fifty-five years. 

First Point: The city directory for 1843-44 contained twelve hundred 
and thirty-four names. Its pages numbered tw^o hundred and one. Size, 
duodecimo. Type, long primer leaded. 

Second Point: The city directory for 1908 contained seventy-eight 
thousand, eight hundred and eighty-five names. Its pages numbered one 
thousand three hundred and thirty-two. Size, royal octavo. Type, brevier 

The population of the city in 1843 was seven thousand one hundred 
and eighty-four, or practically t^ix and one^half times as great as the number 
of name^ in the directory. The number of names in the directory for 1908-9 
is seventy-eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-five. At the former 
ratio, the population would approximate half a million, but the ascertained 
ratio between the names in the directory and the current population, is and 
has for twenty years been two and three-fourths, which gives the city a 
present population of two hundred and seventeen thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-one. This does not include the recent suburban additions to the 
city, which practically brings the population up to two hundred and twenty- 
five thousand. The average annual growth of the population for the past 
sixty-five years has been three thousand three-hundred, but the most of the 
gain has been during the past twenty years. 

The progress of the city in the political, governmental and personal (in 
the sense of augmenting population) advancement, has been upon the prin- 
ciple of an arithmetical progression, as shown upon the basis of comparison 
herein, and, as the other appropriate chapters disclose, the same principle 

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is applicable to the industrial economic, educational, religious, and other 
co-related lines, and with probably fewer gaps and shocks than are incident 
to the average growing community. 

In the matter of political government, the charter of 1834, with amend- 
ments and expansions of the original idea and various subsidiary enactments 
of like inclination and tendency, answered the public (and the politicians) 
demand until the beginning of the tenth decade. Almost to the last the 
original charter government preserved its severe simplicity and furnished 
a government that was not burdensome, and one that history declares was 
not detrimental to the growth of the city and furnished but few public 

Two decades of structural changes began, and they have not yet as- 
sumed permanent form, thus forbidding the rendering of final judgment as 
to their good or evil tendencies. What was known as a federal plan of city 
government was provided by legislative enactment, in which the mayor ap- 
pointed the heads of the various departments with a director in control of 
each, including public improvements, public safety, public accounts, and 
other departments. Then followed the "Code" with the board plan, with 
boards partly elective by the people, and partly appointive by the mayor 
and partly elective by the council, covering the same and similar govern- 
mental subjects. 

Under the Act of 1908, the provisions of the code relating to this feature 
of government was repealed and the former federal government idea was re- 
stored, so, that after January 1, 1910, the mayor will appoint the heads of 
the departments, and theoretically, at least, become directly responsible to 
the voters for the entire public administration since he will be clothed with 
the power of removal, under reasonable and proper restrictions, of his ap- 
pointees for dereliction in the discharge of their duties. 

The question of the permanency or a progressive evolution, or a retro- 
gression to the simpler forms of municipal government, is only to be deter- 
mined by the lapse of time. Criticism, under existing circumstances would 
hardly be justified ; speculation as to future forms and eventuations is hardly 
called for. 





Organized 1806. 

The First Presbyterian Church had ks origin in Franklinton, and was 
organized on the 8th of February, 1806, as the First Presbyterian Church of 
Franklin county: pastor, Rev. James Hoge; elders, Robert Culbertson, Wil- 

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liam Read; trustees, Joseph Dixon, John Dill, David Nelson, William Domi- 
gan, Joseph Hunter, Lucas Sullivant. 

The formal organization of the church was under the charge of Rev. R. G. 
Wilson of Chillieothe and the following members were accepted: Colonel and 
Mrs. Robert Culbortson, William and Mrs. Read, David and Mrs. Nelson, 
Michael and Mrs. Fisher, Robert and Mrs. Young, Mrs. Margaret Thompson, 
Mrs. Susanna McCoy and Miss Catherine Kessler. 

Among the later members were: Lucas Sullivant, William Shaw, John 
Turner, Joseph Hunter, John Hunter, John Turner, Adam Turner, J. Hamlin, 
S. G. Flenniken, John Dill, Michael Fisher, J. McGowan, George Skidmore, 
Samuel King, William Brown, Sr., Joseph Park, David Jameson, Andrew 
Park, John Overdier, Jacob Overdier, Charles Hunter, John Lisle, J. McEl- 
vaine, M. H^s, M. Thompson, Robert Young, William Domigan, John McCoy, 
Joseph Smart, Isaac Smart, S. Powers, Jos. Dickinson, Joseph Cowghill. 

In 1805, the afterward distinguished Dr. Hoge, then a young man, first 
arrived in Franklinton as a missionarj^; and after laboring in that capacity 
for some time, he formed a regular church, of which he remained the head 
until he resigned his charge, in 1857. In 1807 he was regularly employed 
by his church and congregation to minister to their religious wants. The fol- 
lowing is a copy verbatim of the call upon him for that purpose and to which 
he acceded. The old document, in the hand writing of Lucas Sullivant, is 
still preserved as a relic of past times : 

"The congregation of Franklinton, being on sufficient ground well satis- 
fied of the ministerial qualifications of you, James Hoge, and having good 
hopes from our past experience of your labors, that your ministration in the 
Gospel will be profitable to our spiritual interests, do earnestly call and desire 
you to undertake the pastoral office in said congregation; promising you in the 
discharge of your duty, all proper support, encouragement and obedience in 
the Lord: And that you may be free from worldly cares and avocations, we 
hereby promise and oblige ourselves to pay to you the sum of three hundred 
dollars, in half yearly payments, annually, for three-fourths of your time, 
until we find ourselves able to give you a compensation for the whole of your 
time, in like proportion, during the time of your being and continuing the 
regular pastor of this church. In testimony whereof, we have respectively 
subscribed our names, this 25th day of September, Anno Domini 1807. 

"Robert Culbertson, 
"William Read, 

"Joseph Dixon, 
"Joseph Dill, 
"David Nelson, 
"William Domigan, 
"Joseph Hunter, 
"Lucas Sullivant, 
The house in which the congregation first held their religious meetings 
in Franklinton was a two-story frame and was still standing in 1858, when 

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the semi-centennial was celebrated, some two hundred yards northward from 
the old courthouse. The sest«ions of the supreme court of Franklin county were 
first held in the same building. It so happened, that Parson Hoge traveled 
from Springfield to Franklinton in company with Judge Baldwin, who, pleased 
with the young candidate for holy orders, tendered him the use of the room 
occupied by the court; and here the small band of worshipers first assembled 
for religious service. The next church building was a very plain one-story 
brick house, erected on the bank of the river, near the old Franklinton bury- 
ing-ground. The society's next step was their removal to the infant town of 
Columbus. In the spring of the year 1814 they erected a log cabin about 
twenty-five by thirty feet on the ground near the corner of Spring and Third 
streets. Service was held at times in this, but principally at the Franklinton 
brick church, until the .year 1818, when a frame building, or rather three 
frames connected and forming but one inside or large room, was erected on 
the west side of Front street, south of town, where Dr. Hoge administered to 
his congregation until the erection of the First Presbyterian church, in 1830, 
at the corner of State and Third streets, and the first services were held in it 
on the first Sunday in December, 1830. In 1855 this building underwent a 
general remodeling, under the direction of Mr. R. A. Sheldon, architect, and 
here services were continued to be held until preparations were completed to 
remove to Bryden road and Ohio avenue, and the site was disposed of. 

On the 8th of February, 1856, the church held a semi-centennial cele- 
bration in the church building, in hpnor to their venerable and highly re- 
spected pastor — at which Dr. Hoge himself was the interesting and imposing 
character most observed. He delivered the address on the occasion. It was 
an interesting recital of the circumstances, attending his advent into this then 
wildemass, and the progress of th^ ichtirch and society generally since that 
period. The Rev. Mr. Hall and Rev. Mr. Smith, both of the Presbyterian 
church, also spoke on the occasion. Under the direction of Joseph Sullivant, 
Esq., whose familiarity with the church made it an easy and pleasant duty, a 
number of well executed pictures were hung around the room, at once dis- 
closing a striking and graphic history of the church improvements above 
referred to. The pillars were decorated with festoons of evergreens and flowers. 
The tables were admirably arranged, under the direction of Mrs. Kelsey, and 
the .<upper was worthy of the occasion. The whole thing parsed off well and 
was a solemn but pleasant celebration. 

Half Century Organization. 

The church organization at the date of the half-century was: pastor, Rev. 
Edgar Woods; elders, James Cherry, Isaac Dalton, Thomas Moodie, James S. 
Abbott, William M. Awl, Alfred Thomas; trustees, Robert Neil, M. L. Sulli- 
vant, D. W. Deshler, James D. Osborn, George M. Parsons. 

The membership of fthe First church, according to a local authority, was 
one hundred and seventy-five. During the last eight or ten years of Dr. Hoge's 
administration he was assisted by various ministers of the denomination. On 
Sunday, June 28, 1857, he delivered an appropriate address, resigned the 

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charge and was succeeded by Rev. Edgar Woods, formerly of Wheeling, Vir- 
ginia, who was regularly installed on the 30th day of the same month. 

Dr. Hoge is described, by a contemporary, when he was approaching four- 
score, as tall, erect and robust in figure, the embodiment of healthful, con- 
tented and happy age, with hair but little whitened with the frosts of time. 
His long and useful career came to a peaceful and triumphant close in Colum- 
bus, Ohio, on the 22d of September, 1863, at the age of eighty-nine, with but 
little impairment of his physical and mental powers. He was bom in Moore- 
field, Hardy county, Virginia, July 4, 1784. He had lived an active, laborious 
life, and lived it well and becomingly, and thus escaped most of the ills flesh 
is traditionally heir to.. 

That the life of Dr. Hoge and the growth of Presbyterianism in the capital 
of Ohio, in the central regions of the state, is fully shown by a remarkably 
vivid memorial written by Dr. E. D. Morris, of Columbus, who, like Dr. Hoge, 
was, or rather is, a man of great mental and physical powers and still lives in 
flesh and in vigorous age, to cheer and edify his many admiring friends. This 
memorial was written by Dr. Morris in 1870, and printed in the June number 
of "Our Monthly," a religious and literary magazine for the family, pub- 
lished in Cincinnati. Dr. Morris describes the primitive conditions in central 
Ohio at the beginning of the nineteeth century, and the obstacles of all kinds 
that met James Hoge, a young beginner in the vineyard, in 1803. 

Dr. Hoge, then a young man, visited Highland county, Ohio, to transact 
some secular business and strive for a betterment of health. He resolved to 
become a permanent citizen of the newly erected state. He was twenty years 
old. Preliminary thereto he returned to Virginia to earn the means to begin 
his labors in the wilderness. 

His father, Moses D. Hoge, was a famous Presbyterian divine in the Old 
Dominion, and for the fifteen closing years of his life had been president of 
Hampton Sidney College. James taught school and studied theology under 
private tutors. On April 17, 1805, he was licensed to preach in the Presbytery 
of Lexington, Virginia. In the same year he received a commission from the 
general assembly to preach the gospel as a missionary in Ohio. As already 
stated, he was "called'' to the ministry in Franklinton (now Columbus) , which 
he accepted, was regularly ordained and began his ministry in the courthouse 
of Franklin county. 

He reached out to the surrounding towns and planted the seeds for other 
churches. Log and clapboarded houses served for his first church edifices, 
even the locations of which are being rapidly effaced. The first church num- 
bered about fifty members, and they were scattered over not less than five hun- 
dred square miles from Walnut creek on the east, to Darby on the west, and 
from Dublin on the north to near Circleville on the south. 

A second congregation grew up in 1808, in what is now Truro township. 
When Columbus was surveyed in 1812 and the east bank of the river began to 
become populated, and in 1814 an edifice twenty-five by thirty feet, made 
wholly of hickory saplings and christened by common consent "The Hickory 
Church," was erected on Spring run, near the corner of Spring and Third 
streets. Here he conducted services as well as in the Truro church. Then in 

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1821 a more pretentious house was erected at Front and Town streets. It was 
capable of seating four hundred people. He was extended a second call and 
received six hundred dollars and later eight hundred dollars for his services. 
Efforts were made by other towns to engage the Doctor, but he clung to his 
first love. 

In 1833 a new house of worship was erected at State and Third streets. 
Later it was remodeled and beautified and it was here that Dr. Hoge preached 
his greatest sermons and did his greatest works. That sanctuary has now been 
abandoned as a house of worship and looms against the background of sky 
and brick walls, a melancholy wreck of a past generation. In 1850 Dr. Hoge 
a^cept^d the chair of pastoral theology and church history in a theological 
seminary in Cincinnati. This detained him away from his charge in Colum- 
bus half of each year, and at his urgent request Rev. Josiah D. Smith was 
chosen as his colleague. In 1854 the seminary was removed from Cincinnati 
and Dr. Hoge resigned. 

A Century of Presbyterianism, 

The one hundredth anniversary of Presbyterianism in Columbus was cele- 
brated November 12 to 19, 1905, opening in the great Auditorium on Broad 
street, Sunday evening, November 12, at 7:30 p. m., at which an address, 
"A Century of Missions,'' was delivered by Rev. Charles L. Thompson, D. D., 
LL.D., New York; the Mesdames MacDonald sang a memorial offering; Rev. 
William 0. Thompson, D.D., presided; an anthem was sung by Mrs. Henry C. 
Lord, soprano; Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson, alto; Mr. James S. Webb, tenor; Mr. 
A. R. Barrington, baritone. 

The last general meeting was held at the Broad Street church Friday 
evening, November 17, and was presided over by William H. Hiiston. Re- 
marks were made by Professor Josiah R. Smith, Dr. Gladden and Dr. Morris, 
and a general reception followed. At the meeting Monday evening, November 
13, Mr. P. W. Huntington presided, and Dr. Peyton H. Hoge, of Louisville, 
Kentucky, delivered the address: 'The Making of the Man.'' 

Rev. S. S. Palmer presided on the afternoon of the 14th ; Rev. James A. 
Patterson on the evening of the same day; Rev. George Allen Brewer, evening 
of the loth; Rev. George H. Fullerton, Lancaster, evening of the 16th; Rev. 
R. G. Ramsey on the afternoon of the 16th ; Rev. W. H. Huston on the evening 
of the 17th. Sunday the 19th was observed with memorial meetings in all the 
churches, separattely. 

Among the other prominent persons who spoke during the week's afervices 
were Mr. P. W. Huntington; Rev. D. J. Moffat, D. D., LL. D., pres/dent of 
Washington and Jefferson College; President Henry M. McCracken( D. D., 
LL. D., New York; Rev. Henry A. Nelson, D. D., professor in Lane Seminary; 
Rev. Alexander Riggs, D. D., LL.D., professor in Lane Seminary; Rev. Francis 
L. Patton, D. D., LL.D., Princeton, New York; Dr. Noreross; Foster Copeland; 
Profft"^.«or Josiah R. Smith; and Dr. Morris. 

The following churches and pastors participated : First, Rev. George Allen 
Brewer; Central, Rev. James Albert Patterson ; Broad Street, Rev. S. S. Palmer; 

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Olivet, Rev. R. G. Ramsey; West Broad, Rev. W. H. Hiiston; St. Clair Avenue, 
Rev. F. M. Kumler; Nelson Memorial, Rev. W. L. Staub. 

Alsio the following resident ministers: Rev. W. 0. Thompson, D. D., 
LL. D. ; Rev. W. S. Eagleson, Rev. Robert H. Cunningham, Rev. N. C. Hel- 
frich, Rev. Thomas B. Atkins, Rev. Robert A. Watson, Rev. H. P. Barnes, 
Rev. J. M. Anderson and Rev. A. R. Tarr. 

The Hoge Centenary. 

On Sunday and Monday, February 11 and 12, 1906, was celebrated the 
centenary of the First Presb\ierian church of Columbus. The celebration 
was no Ic^s solemn than it was beautiful and in perfect taste and accord with 
the occasion and the event it celebrated and memorialized. 

The services were held in the new (present) First Presbyterian church at 
Bryden road and Ohio avenue. After music and appropriate readings from 
the scriptures, prayer by Rev. S. F. Scovel, D.D., LL.D., announcements, etc., 
etc., an historical address, "A Sketch of James Hoge and the First Presbyte- 
rian Church," was delivered by Mr. Robert S. Neil, president of the board of 
triLstees. The address was not only replete with historical incident and de- 
scription, but scholarly and well delivered to the deeply interested congre- 
gation. This reading was followed by the singing of the hymn (tune AVard, 
hymnal 531) sung at the semi-centennial, preserved in the comer-stone of the 
old church and exhumed to be sung at the centennial. 

On Sunday evening following the music, prayer and offertory, Rev. Wil- 
liam McKibbin, D. D., LL. D., delivered a most impressive address, the subject 
being "The Obligations Which the Past Imposes on the Present and Future." 

On Monday evening Rev. Samuel S. Palmer, D. D., presided. There were 
*^Grectings'^ by the pastor, Rev. Geo. A. Brewer; .soprano solo, "Angels of 
Glory," by Mrs. Edith Sage McDonald; remarks by Rev. James Albert Pat- 
terson, D.D. ; duet, "My Faith Looks up to Thee," Mrs. Edith Sage MacDonald 
and Mrs. Maude Wentz MacDonald ; remarks by Rev. W. K. Fulton ; remarks 
by Robert G. Ramsey; and contralto solo, "Set of Sun," Mrs. Maude Wentz 

The present organization consists of J. D. Harlor, clerk; H. E. Brook^ 
Alfred McClure, G. W. Shepherd, U. B. Strickler, G. W. Miller, F. B. Milligan, 
A. M. McPeak; trustees, Robert S. Neil, president; F. G. Houser, Charles Mc- 
Kee, E. M. Baldridge, treasurer; deacons, William Endslow, chairman, Mason 
M. Gill, W. 0. Copeland, Paul Hedges, Robert H. Dunn, Robert S. Miller, 
Carl Frankenberg; Missionary Society, Mrs. Florence Strickler, president; 
Ladies' Aid Society, Mrs. Alfred McClure, president. 

The Second Presbyterian Church wa^ organized on the first Sabbath in 
March, 1839. The organization at the beginning comprised thirty-one persons^ 
the most of whom were from the first old Presbyterian church. For a short 
time prior to the regular formation of the church, those connected with it had 
held their meetings for worship in a room on High street. The church was in- 
corporated by an act of the legislature, April, 1839, and measures were taken to 
secure a site for a church edifice. 

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Frame church erected in 1S06. Hera Rev. Dr. James Hoge began his ministry. 

The buihling was designed for a dwelling, but was first used 

as a church. Later it was used for a dwelling. 

This was the first regular church in Franklinton (now Columbue) in 1811. 
Here Dr. Hoge continued his ministry. 

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After the church was organized and until the ensuing October, the congre- 
gation had the services of Rev. Topliff ; thereafter until 1840 fthe services of 
Rev. George L. Boardman. A call had been tendered Rev. Henry L. Hitch- 
cock, D.D., which he accepted, and on November 24, 1841, he was regularly 
installed as pastor, and continued to sustain that relation until August 1, 1855, 
when he was transferred to the presidency of the Western Reserve College. 

Early in September a unanimous call was tendered ito the Rev. Edward D. 
Morris, then at Auburn, New York. This call he accepted and on the first Sab- 
bath of the ensuing December, he began his ministerial labors, and was duly 
installed as pastor on the 2d of January, 1856. The church grew and prospered 
and in 1857-8, it was evident that a more commodious church building was 
necessary, and the erection of the present church on Third street, directly south 
of the government building, was begun. 

In 1858, the organization was: Pastor, Rev. E. D. Morris; elders, H. B. 
Carrington, Asa D. Lord, Chauncey N. Olds, John J. Ferson, Ebenezer McDon- 
ald, John H. Stage; trustees, D. T. Woodbury, A. P. Stone, Ermine Case, 
Jonas McCune, Collins Stone; treasurer, John M. Person. The number of 
members for that year is given at two hundred and forty-five. 

Westminster Church — This church was organized on the Ist of June, 1854, 
and consisted at that time of thirty members, who had been dismissed from the 
First Presbyterian church. For three years and a half the congregation wor- 
shiped in the lecture room of Starling Medical College. In 1856 and 1857 
they erected their church edifice at the comer of Sixth and State streets, at a 
cost of about fifteen thousand dollars. It was dedicated on the 23d of August, 
1857. The number of members in 1858 was one hundred and sixteen. Rev. J. 
D. Smith had been pastor from the first, having been called to the charge of it 
from the First church, where he had been for several years collegiate pastor with 
Rev. Dr. Hoge. 

This organization disposed of the church on State street many years since. 
The following were the last to have pastoral charge of Westminster church be- 
fore the merging of the congregation with the Second or Central : Rev. Nathan 
Smith, 1881 to 1892; Rev. Dr. A. E. E. Taylor, 1892 to 1897; Rev. Dr. Rogers, 
from 1897 until the merging of the congregations. 

Wehh Presbyterian Church was organized in 1837. Their house of worship 
is a small frame building on Town street, east of Fifth. For the first ten or 
twelve years they had no regular pastor. The Rev. Mr. Price, Rev. John Harris, 
and occasionally some others, preached for the congregation until about the 
year 1849, when the Rev. Mr. Powell, of Delaware, became the regular installed 
pastor. He continued until 1857, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. 
Jones. The number of members in 1858 was thirty-five 

The Associate Reformed Presbyterian — This church was organized Decem- 
ber 10, 1850, with thirteen members. Thomas Kennedy and Hugh Price were 
elders; Dr. John Morrison, Neil McLaughlin and John Stothart were trustees. 
The society in 1852 erected a frame church at the corner of Sixth and Town 
streets. In 1858 there were sixty-three members and while services were regu- 
larly held, there was no regular minister, but Rev. G. W. Gowdy acted as regu- 
lar supply. 

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The growth and expansion of the Presbyterian church since 1858 is shown 
by the following brief statement of the present places of w^orship, benefices and 
church and benevolent missions: 

Presbyterian Churches 1808-9 With Street Locations and Pastors, 

Broad Street: N. E. Cor. Broad and Garfield. Rev. S. S. Palmer. 

Central: Cor. Third and Chapel. Rev. Jas. A. Patterson. 

Fair Ave. Reformed: Fair Ave. W. of Champion. Rev. R. B. Patton. 

Fifth Ave. : W. Fifth Ave. near High. Rev. Alex. R. Tarr. 

First: Cor. Bryden Road and Ohio Ave. Rev. Geo. A. Brewster. 

First Cumberland: Cor. Second Ave. and Highland. Rev. Chas. G. Watson. 

First United: Long near Washington. Rev. AVm. K. Fulton. 

Neil Ave. United: Neil and Herman. Rev. John G. King. 

Nelson Memorial Chapel: Taylor Ave. bet. Mt. Vernon and Harvard Ave. 

Rev. William Staub. 
North Minister: Cor. King and Hunter. Rev. R. G. Ramsey. 
St. Clair Ave. : St. Clair and Felton. Rev. M. W. Simpson. 
Welsh : East Avenue and Long. Rev. Jenkin Williams. 
West Broad: Cor Broad and Dakota. Rev. W. O. Wozencraft. 


Eighth Ave. : Eighth Ave. and Hunter. Rev. B. E. Reemsnyder. 

St. John's: 14121/2 North High. 

Wilson Ave.: Cor. Far and Wilson. Rev. W. H. Tussing. 


Organized 1814. 

The first Methodist church or class in Columbus was organized near the 
beginning of the year 1814, under the auspices of the Rev. Samuel West, the 
preacher in charge of the circuit which included this section of central Ohio. 
There were but four members of the class when it was organized, George Mc- 
Cormick and his wife; George B. Harvey and Miss Jane Armstrong, who soon 
after became the wife of Mr. Harvey, the third member above. The fifth mem- 
ber admitted was Moses Freeman, a manumitted negro slave. Nearly len years 
later Freeman and his family migrated to Liberia, Africa, there to do mission- 
ary work in the land of his nativity, he having been carried into slavery in his 
early youth. From what can be learned from his subsequent history he died 
soon after reaching Africa, and there exists no modern irajce of his family. 

In the same year of 1814 the proprietors of the town, in line with their 
poliey of encouraging religion and education, donated and conveyed to the lit- 
tle Methodist congregation the lot on which the old Town. Street church, now a 
part of the handsome Columbus Public School Library building, -was erected, 
covering the lot thus originally donated and conveyed to Messrs. George Mc- 

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Cormick, Peter Grubb, Jacob Grubb, John Brickell and George B. Harvey, 
trustees, by the proprietors. Near the close of the year 1814, a hewed log church 
with a shingled roof was erected on the lot and becomingly dedicated to the 
Master's cause. It was for some years used as a public school house and in this 
way a small revenue was derived for the further promotion of the gospel. In 
1817, it became necessary to enlarge the church to accommodate the growing 
congregation. By adding a frame structure of equal size to the log house its 
capacity was slightly more than doubled. 

About the year 1825 both the frame and the hewed log structures were elimi- 
nated and a somewhat commodious brick church was erected. This building 
continued to accommodate the flock until 1853, when it was torn down and a 
much larger edifice was erected, which some years ago, ceased to be a house of 
worship, was transferred to the Columbus city school board and incorporated 
into the school library, as above stated. 

The lineal descendant of this, the original Methodist church of Columbus is 
the Town Street church at the intersection of Bryden road and Eighteenth 
street, Bryden road being the beautiful residential extension of Town street east- 
ward from Parson's avenue. 

Wesley Chapel — In 1846, William Neil, noted for his public spirit, donated 
a corner lot at Broad and Fourth streets, and on this was erected Wesley Chapel. 
The fust building erected was deemed commodious, but it long since gave way to 
the present beautiful specimen of church architecture. In 1858, Rev. William 
Porter was pastor of Wesley Chapel; M. Gooding, E. Booth, Richard 
Jones, Thomas Walker, Daniel Miner and J. E. Rudisill, trustees, and the num- 
ber of members was given in the local chronicles as one hundred and fifty. 

Bigelow Chapel was erected on Friend (now Main) street in 1854. In 1858 
Rev. Lovet Taft was pastor; A. Cooper, E. Glover, M. Holm, W. F. Knoderer, 
E. H. Link, John Whitsel, J. C. Kenyon and Newton Gibbon were trustees ; and 
the number of members given at sixty. 

Oerman Methodist Church — In 1844 the German Methodist church was 
erected at the corner of Third street and south Public lane and the German 
Methodists, as a rule attended worship there. The Rev. Paul Brodbeck was pas- 
tor in 1858 and sixty-three members were reported. 

Colored Methodist Church — In 1823 the colored Methodists separated from 
the whites and formed a society, class or church by themselves. From 1823 to 
1839 they held services in rented rooms at various points and then erected a 
church on Long street. In 1857 Rev. J. H. Shorter was pastor in charge. The 
number of members reported was one hundred and thirteen. 

Whitfield Methodists (Welsh) was organized in 1848. In the same year 
the congregation erected a brick church at the comer of Long and Sixth streets. 
The different pastons from 1848 to 1858 were: Rev. Mr. Parry, 1848-1855; 
Rev. David Williams, 1855-1857 ; Rev. Parry, 1857-1858. The number of mem- 
bers was seventy-three. 

These comprise the organized and separate branches of the Methodist 
church in Columbus in 1858, coming the first half century period. On a later 
page is to be found the new branches added during the second half century 

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Ministers from 1814 to 1858. 

One of the most interesting studies of the history of the Methodist church 
of Columbus is the names of the Methodist ministers, presiding elders and cir- 
cuit riders, from the date of the organization of the church in 1814 to 1858, the 
close of the half century era of the state and city's history. Herewith, bearing 
the dates, in years of their ministrations, first of the presiding elders, second of 
the circuit riders is given the complete list. 

Presiding Elders. 

1814-15-16, James Quinn; 1817, David Young; 1818-19-20, John Collins; 
1821, Samuel West; 1822-23, Greenburg Jone.s 1824-25-26, Jacob Young; 
1827, Russell Bigelow; 1828-29-30, David Young; 1831, John Collins; 1832-33- 
34-35, Augustus Eddy; 1836-7-8-9, Jacob Young; 1840-41, John Ferree: 1842, 
Joseph M. Trimble; 1843-44, David Whitcomb; 184546, Robert 0. Spencer; 
1847-48-49-50, John W. Clark; 1851, Cyrus Brooks; 1852-53-54, Uriah Heath; 
1855-56-57, Zachariah Cornell. 

Circnit Riders at Lar(7^— 1814-1830. 

1814, Samuel West; 1815, Isaac Pavey; 1816, Jacob Hooper; 1817, Wil- 
liam Swayze, Simon Peters; 1>818, William Swayze, Lemuel Lane; 1819, John 
Tevis, Leroy Swormsted; 1820, John Tevis, Peter Stevens; 1821, Russell Bige- 
low, Horace Brown; 1822, Russell Bigelow, Thomas McCleary; 1823, Charles 
Waddell, H. S. Fernandes; 1824, Charles Waddell, Alfred Lorane; 1825, Le- 
roy Swormsted, Joseph Carper; 1826, Jaseph Carper, John H. Power; 1827, 
Samuel Hamilton, Jacob Young; 1828, Samuel Hamilton, Jesse F. Wixom; 
1829, Leroy Swormsted, G. Blue; 1830, John W. Clark, Adam Poe. 

Circuit Preachers, Columhns Station — 1831-1858. 

1831, Thomas A. Morris; 1832, Robert O. Si>eneer; 1833, Russell Bigelow; 
1834, Russell Bigelow, Leonard Gurley; 1835-36, E. W. Sehon; 1837, Jo.«^eph 
Carper; 1838, Joseph A. Waterman; 1839, William Herr; 1840-41, Joseph A. 
Trimble; 1842, David Whitcomb; 1843, John Miley, Abraham Wambaugh; 
1844, John Miley; 1845-6, Granville Moody; 1847. Cyrus Brooks, Town street: 
George C. Crum, Wesley Chapel; 1848, same incumbents; 1849, David War- 
nock, Town street; William H. T-iOwder, Wesley Chapel; 1850, David Warnock . 
Town street; John W. Weakley, Wesley Chapel; 1851, Clinton W. Sears, Town 
street; John M. Leavitt, Wesley Chapel; 1852, Asbury Bruner, Town street; 
John M. Leavitt Wesley Chapel; 1853, Asbury Bruner, .Town street; James L. 
Grover, Wesley Chapel; Edward Mabee, mission; 1854, John W. W^hite, Town 
street; Jamas L. Grover, Wesley Chapel ; Joseph H. Creighton, Bigelow Chapel : 
1855, John W. White, Town street; John Frazer, Wesley Chapel; Thomas Lee, 
Bigelow Chapel; 1856, J. M. Jamison, Town street; John Frazer, Wesley 
Chapel; Thomas Lee, Bigelow Chapel; 1857, J. M. Jamison, Town street; Wil- 
liam Porter, Wesley Chapel ; Lovet Taft, Bigelow Chapel. 

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This is the first church building erected on the east side of the river in Columbus 
proper, 1821. Here Dr. Hoge continued to officiate. 

This is the second church erected east of the river and in its turn was 
occupied by Dr. Hoge in 1830, and was known as *'01d Trinity 
in Unity." 

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In this li^t may be found the names of several of the greatest Methodist 
divines on the American continent during the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury — names inseparably connected with the growth of Methodism throughout 
the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. 

The following church organizations of the Methodist faith at the close of 
the second centennial period stated as briefly as may be, show the surprising 
growth of the organization since 1858. 

Church Edifices and Locations 1808-1909. 

Broad Street: Cor. Broad and Washington. Rev. A. E. Craig. 

Eleventh Street: Cor. Donaldson and Eleventh. Rev. E. L. Gilliam. 

Fifth Avenue: Corner Fifth and Oakland. Rev. R. D. Morgan 

First: Cor. Bryden Road and Eighteenth. Rev. E. S. Lewis. 

First (Geraqan) : Cor. Third and Livingston. Rev. Oscar Rogotzky. 

Free Methodist: 1046 Harrison avenue. 

Gift Street: West Side. Rev. Peter Fry. 

Glenwood: Cor. Highland and Olive. Rev. Daniel C. Canfield. 

Grace : Fifth Ave. and E. Ninth St. Rev. P. H. Fry. 

Indianola: J. C. Arbuckle. 

King Avenue: Cor. Neil and King avenues. Rev. Lucien Clark. 

Madison Avenue : Madison avenue west of Miller. Rev. C. B. Pyle. 

Milo: Gibbard avenue east of Cleveland. 

Mt. Vernon Avenue, A. M. E. : Mt. Vernon near 20th. Rev. J. W. Mougey. 

Mt. Vernon Avenue : Cor. Mt. Vernon and Denmead. Rev. L. L. Magee. 

Neil Avenue : Cor. Neil and Goodale. Rev. L. I. Hart. 

North : Cor. Tompkins and East avenue. Rev. N. D. Creamer. 

Oakwood Avenue: Cor. Oakwood and Newton. Rev. J. E. Walters. 

Pine Street : Northeast corner Pine and Fourth streets. 

St. PauFs A. M. E. : Long street east of Jefferson. 

Second A. M. E. : Mt. Vernon near Twentieth. 

Second German: Cor. Mozart and Gates. Rev. William A. Schruff. 

Shepards : Shepards Station Rev. Charles H. Borror. 

Shoemaker's Chapel: Cleveland avenue near Leona avenue. 

Sixth Avenue: Cor. Sixth avenue and Sixth street. 

South High Street: 1621 S. High. Rev. C. F. Prior. 

Third Avenue : Cor. Third avenue and High. Rev. N. W. Good. 

Third Street: Cor. Third street and Cherry alley. Rev. L. B. Sparks. 

Town Street: Cor. Bryden road and Eighteenth. Rev. C. S. Lewis. 

Wesley Chapel: Cor. Broad and Fourth streets. Rev. Benjamin F. Dimmick. 

West Park Avenue: 87 W. Park. Rev. George A. Marshall. 


Organized 1817. 

Trinity Church — The first Protestant Episcopal church in Columbus was 
organized by Bishop Philander Chase, of Worthington, in the spring of 1817. 

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The fiT^t religious services of the denomination w^re held in the Buckeye 
House, on Broad street, by Bishop Chase on Sunday, May 3, 1817. On the 
7th o/that month a second service was held by Dr. Chase, and at this meet- 
ing the formal organization was entered upon and articles of association were 
drawn up and signed, under the style of ^The Parish of Trinity Church, 
Columbus, State of Ohio, in connection with the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States of America." 

These articles were then duly signed by the following persons: Orris 
Parish, Joel Buttles, Benjamin Gardiner, Alfred Upson, Philo H. Olmsted, 
John Kilbourne, John Warner, Thomas Johnson, John Webster, George W. 
Williams, Cyrus Fay, Charles V. Kickox, John Callitt, Amasa Delano, Silas 
Williams, Christopher Ripley, Austin Goodrich, Daniel Smith, Josiah Sabin, 
Cyrus Allen, Abner Lord, James K. Carey, John C. Broderick, James Pearce, 
M. Matthews, William K. Lampson, Cyrus Parker, William Rockwell A. J. 
McDowell, Jr., and Lyne Starling. 

On the 11th day of the same month Dr. Chase held another service, at 
the conclusion of which the constitution of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States was read and adopted by the parishioners, and Trinity 
was thus formally organized. Church officers were chosen as follows and 
entered upon their duties: Wardens, Orris Parish and Benjamin Gardiner; 
vestrymen, John Kilbourne and Joel Buttles; secretar>% Joel Buttles. Messrs. 
Gardiner and Buttles were appointed delegates to the diocesan convention to 
be held in Columbus on the first Monday of January, 1818. 

The services were held at various places pending the erection of a 
church building. Bishop Chase and other clerg>% when opportunity offered, 
ministered to the church, but not until 1829 was there a regular pastor. 
Beginning with that year. Rev. William Preston took charge of Trinity, in 
connection with St. John's of Worthington. Pending this event the church 
depended mainly on lay readers, among whom were Benjamin Gardiner. 
Cyrus Fay and Matthew Matthews. Since 1829, however, the church has 
been supplied with rectors, many of whom rank high in the Episcopal clergy 
of the nation. 

The first confirmation taking place in the church was on September 15, 
1880, Bishop Chase officiating. The second confirmation took place in 
1833. For many years prior to 1833 the meetings of the congregation were 
held in a frame edifice on Third street. During the pastorate of Dr. Preston 
the original Trinity church was built on East Broad, where the Clinton- 
Hayden Bank building now stands. The lot cost one thousand dollars and 
the building ten thousand dollars. At that date it was the costliest church 
edifice in Ohio. 

In 1855 an effort- was made to erect a new church, and the present high 
sch<^ol lot was purchased for eight thousand dollars and a foundation partly 
laid. In 1862 work ceased and the property wa«=? sold and used for other pur- 
poses. In 1862 the present site, corner of Third and Broad streets, was pur- 
chased from Governor William Dennison, Jr., for seven thousand five hun- 
dred dollars, and here the foundations of the present stately Trinity were laid 
in 1866, under the directions and supervision of William A. Piatt, Francis 

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Collins and William G. Deshler. William Lloyd, of Detroit, was architect 
and Mr. Fish the superintendent of construction. The style of architecture 
is Gothic-English. The stone for the walls of the church was brought from 
Licking county. The total cost of the structure approximated seventy thou- 
sand dollars. The chapel was available for regular services in 1868. The 
main auditorium was finished in 1869. Trinity Guild, to promote the inter- 
ests of Trinity Church, was organized November 6, 1872. The Trinity 
Chapter, No. 115, of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, was organized in 

The property on the north side of East Broad street, nearly opposite 
Trinity church, originally known as the Esther Institute, later as the Irving 
House, Ls now the Trinity House, having been a<*quired for the use of the 
church in 1890, the price paid for the lot and building being forty-five thou- 
sand dollars. One of the notable events at Trinity was the consecration of 
Bishop Kendrick, January 18, 1889, in the presence of a vast audience. 

iSL Paul's — In 1841-42 St. Paul's church was erected at the comer of 
Mound and Third streets. At a meeting of the signatories of the articles of 
association, December 7, 1842, Rev. H. L. Richards, the firet rector of the 
church, presided and F. J. Matthews acted as .secretary. A. Buttles was 
chosen senior warden; I. N. Whiting, junior warden; and Henry Matthews, 
Moses Altman, John Burr and Herman H. Hubbard, vestrymen. Growth 
of membership and desirability of environment led to the change of location 
of the church edifice at or near the turn of the century, and St. PauPs church 
is now located on the south side of Ea^t Broad, between Garfield and Monroe 

Church of the Good Shepherd, located on the southeast comer of Buttles 
and Park avenue, was originally built as and intended for a mission of Trin- 
ity Episcopal congregation. The comer stone of the church edifice was laid 
June 13, 1871, with the usual ceremonias, conducted by Bishop Bedell of 
Gambier. On that occasion a notable address was delivered by Rev. Wyllys 
Hall. The first rector of the church was Rev. Frederick GrannL*. 

Church Edifices and Locations. 

Trinity: Southeast corner Broad and Third streets. Rev. Theodore 
Ining Reese. 

St. Paul's : East Broad street, between Garfield and Monroe avenue. 
Good Shepherd: Southeast comer Buttles and Park. 

Missions of Trinity. 

All Saints' (for deaf and dumb) : 136 East Broad street. 

St. John's Chapel: Southwest corner Avondale and Town. Rev. Rob- 
ert Johnston. 

St. Philip's (colored) : Lexington, between McKinnon and Spring. 
Rev. R. D. Brown. Branch at 961-2 Mt. Vernon. 

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Organized 1821. 

Among the earliest pioneer settlers in Columbus and Franklin county 
were the Heyls, consisting of Lorentz Ileyl, hi^ wife, their two sons, Christian 
and Conrad; Mrs. Regina Pilgrim, a widowed daughter, and her family, and 
a grandson. They arrived in a single party in 1813. The name is inter- 
woven with the future history of Columbus. Being German Lutherans and 
devout believers in the faith, they misled their hitherto regular church serv- 
ices. The German Lutherans in the township, too, felt lonely without a 
temporal fold and shepherd, and so they all united and set about the work 
of procuring the shepherd and the upbuilding of the sheepfold. 

In the year 1818 a meeting, headed by a missionary. Rev. Michael J. 
Steck, was held at the Franklin Tavern on High street, of which Christian 
Heyl, subsequently a leading citizen, was the proprietor, and set about the 
organization of the church. In 1819 this primitive flock was taken in charge 
by Rev. Charles Ilenkel, who had come into the Ohio wilderness to do the 
Fathers work. The hitherto shepherdless sheep were called to meet this 
time at the residence of the other brother, Conrad Heyl, at the corner of Rich 
and Front streets. Here the church was fully and befittingly organized. 

Among those present at this assemblage were Gottlieb Lichtenecker, 
William Altman, John Athan Knieriemer, Henry and Philip Borman, 
Simon Stahl, John and Peter Putnam and Rudolph Loeliger, and their 
respective families, resident of the town, and the following from the town- 
ships of Madison, Hamilton, Jefferson and Miffln: John, George and David 
Ridenour, Michael Meuschwender, Jesse Baughman, John Saul, Father 
Ileltzel and his sons, Jacob, Nicholas and Philip, and Frederick Stambaugh. 
Several of these were accompanied by their families. Many came long dis- 
tances to attend this and other meetings, some on foot, some on horseback or 
in primitive vehicles and sleds along the forest paths and roads centering in 
the town. 

A lot was purchased in 1820 at the corner of Third and the alley north 
between Rich and Town, for two hundred dollars. On this a church build- 
ing wiis erected and occupied in 1821-22. At first the services were in Ger- 
man. For the benefit of the English-speaking members they were given in 
German at one service and in English at the next. In 1831 Rev. AV. Schmidt 
became pastor. At Canton, Ohio, he had projected a theological seminary, 
and this, with his consent, was removed by the Ohio synod to Columbus, 
where it still flourishes as the Capital University, which annually graduates 
young men into the clergy and is thus united by a strong bond with the 
church at the capital, as well as with the pastorates of the graduates by sym- 
pathetic and fraternal chords. 

St. Paul's Church — In 1842 a lot was purchased by the congregation 
of St. Paul's at the corner of High and Mound streets, and on. this a substan- 
tial and imposing church was erected, ana is still St. PauFs, although once 
burned and rebuilt and again remodeled. Rev. Konrad Mees was installed 

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This Is the fifth church in which Dr. Hoge ministered, and in 
which he preached on the fiftieth anniversary of his pastorate in 
May. 1856, when not quite finished by remodeling. 

This building at State and Third has been abandoned to busi- 
ness uses, and is partially dismantled. A new First church is 
nearing completion still farther east on Bryden Road. 

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as pastor of the church in 1843, and his pastorate extended slightly beyond 
a half century. 

In 1844 the brick building was erected. In October, 1856, fire in a 
frame building adjacent in the rear communicated with the church and it 
was destroyed, save as to the more substantial walls. Immediate steps were 
taken to restore the edifice, and on the first anniversary of the fire the newly 
restored church was consecrated, Rev. Mees officiating. The cost of restoring 
the building, refurnishing and installing a new organ was approximately 
eighteen thousand dollars. In 1890 the interior was reconstructed, decorated 
and lightened into a new auditorium, at a cost of about three thousand five 
hundred dollars. 

Trinity German Evangelical Lutheran Congregation — Forty - eight 
adult persons were the original founders of this congregation. They were 
members of St. Paul's United Lutheran Reformed church of Columbus. On 
January 28, 1847, they withdrew from the church and held divine services 
under the ministration of Rev. C. Spielman from time to time in the sem- 
inary building of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint synod. When Rev. W. F. 
Lehmann was called as a professor to this seminary the congregation extended 
him an invitation to become their pastor, which he accepted. 

On January 28, 1848, these Lutherans organized as the Trinity German 
Evangelical Lutheran congregation of Columbus, Ohio. In February, 1849, 
ihe new society rented the building of the German Independent Protestant 
church on Mound street, where services Were regularly held for eight years. 
Meantime the congregation grew steadily in numbers. On April 6, 1856, a com- 
mittee, which had been appointed to look up a suitable building lot, reported 
that they had purchased the lot at the comer of Third and Fulton streets. 
The erection of a church building thereon was begun in June of that year, 
its dimensions being fifty-six by one hundred and six feet. The corner-stone 
was laid July 28. 1856. The church was dedicated December 20, 1857, and 
a steeple was built on the church in 1876. The church moved forward 
despite inevitable doctrinal controversies. 

Grace Lutheran Church-r-ln 1872 a majority of the members of the 
First English Lutheran church, so called, withdrew from the joint synod 
and joined the general council. Those who did not withdraw met at the 
German Trinity Lutheran church and in 1872 organized the Grace Evan- 
gelical church. Among the first members Were Rev. M. Lay. In 1873 a 
lot was purchased on Mound street and a frame chapel was built and dedi- 
cated in the same year. Professor William F. Lehmann officiating. In 1889, 
thei congregation having grown rapidly, the church was remodeled and 
enlarged, and the pulpit was frequently filled by the professors of the Capital 
University, especially w^hen there was a pastoral vacancy for any reason. 

St, Mark's English Lutheran Church — This church wiis organized in 
1885 at the residence of Mr. James Broucher. The organizers were mostly 
members of Grace Evangelical Lutheran congregation residing in the north- 
em part of the city. For a year or two services were held at the houses of 
the members. A church was erected at Dennison and Fifth avenues and was 

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dedicated on the first Sunday in June, 1886, Professor A. Pfluger officiating. 
The church has reported steady progress from the beginning to the present. 

Christ Lutheran Church— On the removal of the Capital University in 
1876 from the pr&sent site of the Park or Northern Hotel to its present loca- 
tion in the eastern environs of the city, a neat brick church was erected in 
connection with it on the university grounds east of Alum creek. This 
church began with approximately one hundred communicants, and has con- 
siderably more than doubled. The students of the university attend during 
the school year. 

Location of the Churches. 

Christ Evangelical : Northwest corner Main and Drexel. 
Emanuel : 434 East Main street. 
Emanuel Evangelical: 56 Reeb avenue. 
First English : 314 Parsons avenue. 

German Evangelical (Trinity) : Third and Fulton streets. 
Grace (English) : East Fourth, between Mound and Fulton. 
Immanuel: Monroe avenue, between Spring and Mt. Vernon. 
Memorial English: 1243 Highland avenue. 
St. John's Evangelical Protestant: South Mound, near Third. 
St. Luke's Evangelical: 59 West Lane avenue. 
St. Mark's (English) : Southeast corner Fifth and Dennison. 
St. Matthew's: Comer Broad and Martin. 
St. Paul's (German) : Corner High and Mound. 
St. Peter's: Denmead avenue, near Leonard. 
Trinity Evangelical: Fulton and Third streets. 
United Evangelical: Miller avenue, between Rich and Bryden. 
Wesley Avenue United Evangelical: Corner Wesley and East Eighth 

Zion : Corner Mound and Third. 


Organized 1825. 

In 1823 Elder George Jeffries came to Columbus from Marlboro, Dela- 
ware county, Ohio. He was ordained as an evangelist at Marlboro. After 
locating at Columbus he began preaching at his own house. Following as 
the result of his ministrations Sarah Garrison and Alpheus ToUe professed 
conversion and were baptized. Eight other Baptist professors of religion had 
removed to Columbus. On May 15, 1824, Elder Jeffries and the following 
Baptists met in conference at Columbus: Elder Jacob Drake, Deacon Leon- 
ard Monroe and Brethren Daniel Nettleton and Charles Watters, of Liberty 
church; Elder James Peters, Deacon Swisher and Brother William D. Hen- 
dren, of Bethel church ; Deacon John McLeod, of Harlem church, and Elder 
Pleasant Leman. 

The council or conference organized by electing Jacob Drake moderator 
and William D. Hendren clerk. Elder Jeffries explained the reasons for 

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organizing a church in Columbus, and a resolution was unanimously adopted 
authorizing it. The following became members of the proposed church on 
presentation of letters: George Jeffries, from church at Marlboro, Ohio; 
William Whittimore and wife, Leah, Daughty Fork church, Coshocton 
county, Ohio; Elijah Tolle, Maysville, Kentucky; Patty Booker (colored), 
Petersburg, Virginia ^ Mary Broderick, Washington, Kentucky; George 
Butcher (colored), Petersburg, Virginia; Rosanna Bolin, Virginia; Sarah 
Garrison and Alpheus Tolle, converts under Elder Jeffries. After due delib- 
eration the above were admitted to fellowship in the Baptist church with all 
the formalities required for the important step. 

The formal organization of the church took place December 7, 1825, 
but it was not chartered by the legislature until 1831. Nine additional 
members had been admitted. The church services were held at the houses 
of members for some time. The first officers elected were. Deacon, Daniel 
Huddleson; clerk and treasurer, Elijah Tolle. The name be.^owed was the 
First Baptist church of Colimibus. 

The church edifice was erected on Front street, just north of Mound, 
during the year 1831, and was occupied May 6, 1882. It was a plain, one- 
story brick, and when abandoned as a church in 1837 was used by Dr. Curtis 
as a medical college and later was turned into a private residence. The cap- 
stone was preserved as a relic in the second ''First" church, at Third and 
Rich streets. The present beautiful ten)ple on Broad street is the home of 
the ''First." 

For several decades there were dissensions on doctrinal points in the 
Baptist church; dismissals and withdrawals and division of counsels followed, 
but despite all these the general body of the church continued to grow and 
branch churches were evolved from the parent stem, so that before the close 
of the nineteenth century they comprised: The First Baptist church, the 
Russell Street Baptist church; the Hildreth Baptist church; the Memorial 
Baptist church and the Tenth Avenue Baptist church. 

The Colored Baptist Churches covering the same period of the past cen- 
tur}^ were: the Second Baptist church; Shiloh Baptist church. Union Grove 
Baptist church and Bethany Baptist church. 

Th^ Russell Street Baptist Church w^a^ organized January 24, 1881, by 
members fraternally dismissed from the First church. The first officers of 
the church were deacons, John J. Evans, William Downey, Thomas Hum- 
phries; trustees, Nathan Wright, John S. Roberts, William D. Maddox, 
William Downey, Thomas Humphries; clerk, A. T. Stevens; treasurer, C. F. 
Hecker. The first i>astor of the church was Rev. A. L. Jornan. 

The Hildreth Baptist Church edifice was built at Twentieth and Atcheson 
streets in advance of the regular orgjunzation of the church, but with the 
view of consummating that event. The church was organized, the building 
was dedicated and the first pastor, Rev. J. S. Cleveland, was ordained on the 
same day — August 25, 1885. 

The Memorial Baptist Chvrch, corner of Sandusky and Shepherd 
streets, W. S., was the outgrowth of a mission of the First Baptist church, 
and the meeting to organize the church was held on the fourth anniversary 

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of the organization of the mission, October 18, 1889. Rev. C. C. Haskell 
presided at the meeting and Z. P. Gilmore officiated as clerk. The congrega- 
tion came with letters of fraternal dismissal from several of the local churches 
and some from distant states and localities. Officers: deacons, William J. 
Dawson, Z. P. Gilmore and Thomas Brown; treasurer, Wellsworth Dawson; 
trustees, Thomas Brown, Z. P. Gilmore, L. S. Upton and George H. Moores; 
auditor, Mrs. H. Moores. 

The Russell Street Baptist Church was also the outgrowth of the mis- 
sionary movement entered upon, in the immediate vicinity of the present 
church edifice in 1890. The church was duly organized in 1891, in regular 
council of the church, representing the churches of Columbus, Delaware, 
Central College and Sunbury. The first officers of the church were: trustees, 
Theophilus Reese, S. B. Nichols, C. M. Jaynes, D. J. Burnett, D. G. Snyder, 
J. D. Warner and F. W. Sperr; treasurer, F. W, Sperr; clerk, C. M. Jaynes; 
deacons, J. D. Warner, E. C. Green and D. G. Snyder. Rev. E. F. Roberts 
was the first pastor. 

The Tenth Avenue Church was organized in 1892 on Tenth avenue, a 
short distance west of High street, of which Rev. E. E. Williams was the 
first pastor. 

Church Locations. 

First: South side of Broad east of Washington. 

Hildreth: S. E. cor. 20th and Atcheson streets. 

Memorial: Shepherd and Sandusky streets. 

Parsons Avenue: S. W. cor. Parson's and Forest. 

Russell Street : S. E. cor. Russell and Miami. 

Tenth Avenue: Highland and Tenth avenues. 

The Second Baptist (Colored) was set oflf from the First church in 1836, 
but was not organized until 1839. The original members of this church were 
Ezekiel Fields, Letha Fields, Miles Fields, Patsy Booker, George and Mary 
Butcher, Pleasant and Catherine Litchfield, William Gardner, Sarah Wood- 
son, Priscilla Flood, Phoebe Randall, Shubal Fields, David and Susan Sulli- 
vant and Susan Watson. The distinguished negro divine. Rev. James 
Poindexter was for a long period of years pastor of this church. 

Other Negro Baptist Churches, 

Antioch, located on Flannigan road. 

Arlington , located on Oakley avenue. 

Bethany, Fourth avenue, cor. of Sixth street. 

Corinthian , S. E. cor. Mink and Mann streets. 

Ironton ; cor. of Oakley avenue and Logan. 

Macedonia, located at 573 Henry street. 

Second, N. W. cor. Rich and Third streets. 

Shiloh, west side Cleveland avenue between Spring and Naghten. 

Solid Rock, Wc-^t Fifth and Dublin avenue. 

Union Grove, Champion avenue north of Long street. 

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Organized 1838. 

To the Dominican Fathers comprising an "Order of Preachers/' founded 
in the thirteenth century, by St. Dominic, is attributable the foundation of 
the Catholic church in the city of Columbus. This order had previously 
established a nursery of the faith near the See of Dr. Flaget, in Kentucky. 

They were noted for their active and self-sacrificing missionary life in 
Kentucky and this led the bishop to place the Ohio missions under their 
charge. With a view to pushing the work vigorously, the Very Rev. Edward 
Fenwick, provincial of the Dominican order, resigned his office that he might 
comply with the bishop's request to proceed to the new field of labor. He 
repaired at once to a point in Perry county, near the town of Somerset, where 
he founded the first permanent mission in Ohio, the cradle of Catholicity 
in the state and where, in 1818, Father Fenwick had the great happiness of 
dedicating in honor of St. Joseph, the first Catholic church in the state, and 
in founding a convent, whence went forth year after year active missionaries 
throughout not only the state but into adjacent states and territories. 

Father Fenwick relates that in the years 1817-1818, during his missionary 
work in Ohio, he baptized into the church one hundred and sixty-two per- 
sons, both old and young, also, the statement of Father Dominic Young, 
while on a trip in 1818 to Maryland and return who baptized some thirty 
persons who came to him during the journey through the wilderness. This 
interesting bit of missionary history is recorded in Father Fenwick's hand- 
writing in the introduction to the baptismal register of St. Joseph's convent 
and is among the most rare and valuable specimens of religious history and 
church literature placed in original records, religious or otherwise, in the 
state, and which are a part of the state's history. 

It was but natural, therefore, that Father Fenwick and his co-laborers 
and associates should visit Columbus and not only prepare the way, but lay 
deeply and securely the foundations for the subsequent growth of the church 
in the state capital in the borough period of its history. 

The Columhu8 Mission — The Dominican Fathers, who had early founded 
the mission in Columbus, had come into possession of a lot by donation, the 
conditions being that a church be erected thereon within five years from 
date of the deed, which was May 15, 1833. This lot is the present site of 
Holy Cross church, on the northeast corner of Rich and Fifth streets, the 
donors being Otis and Samuel Crosby and Nathaniel Medbery. Religious 
services continued to be held, as in the past, by the Dominican Fathers from 
time to time, in different houses of Catholics, among them being the resi- 
dence of John McCarthy, on Main street, between High and Third. Mr. 
McCarthy was, at the time, an engineer on the Ohio canal and Columbus 
feeder. Previous to this time Catholic services were held in Franklinton, 
now the west side, where a number of Catholic families had settled. At 
such times the old courthouse — present location of the Franklinton public 
school building — the homes of Vincent Grate and Henry Nadenbusch, the 

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latter situated near the state stone quarries, were honored by having the 
sacrifice of the mass offered up under their roofs. Laborers engaged in the 
construction of the national road composed for a time the major portion 
of the congregation. 

Among the permanent settlers, however, who constituted the pioneer 
Catholic congregation that was the nucleus of the future churches of the 
city, we find record of the following: the families of Mrs. Russell, Cornelius 
Jacobs, John Jacobs, Michael Reinhard, Anthony Clarke and Owen Turney. 
Later on the following Catholics settled in the city and added to the member- 
ship of the congregation: John Ender, Clemens Baehr, J. Scherringer, P. 
Kehle, Jacob Zettler, Peter Schwartz, Henry Lutz, Lawrence Beck, Joseph 
Wolfel, Sr., Joseph Miller, Isidore Frey, Bernard McNally, John F. Zimmer, 
C. Kuhn, John Ury and several others whose names are not on record. 

Bishop Purcell came to Columbus in June, 1836, with a view of pro- 
moting the erection of a church for the use Of thf^ Catholics of the city. He 
stopped at the National Hotel, the site of which is now occupied by the Neil 
House. He celebrated his first mass June 5, in what w^as known as the Paul 
Pry House, on Canal street between ilain and Cherry alley, then occupied 
by the family of George Studer. Mas.^ had formerly been celebrated there 
by the missionary fathers. Here he submitted to the men who were in at- 
tendance the proposition for the erection of a church. It was eagerly in- 
dorsed and carried into subsequent execution. The next ma^s was cele- 
brated December 23, by Rev. Father Hoffman, who paid a visit to the ]>eo- 
pie. Not until August 4, 1837, was another mass celebrated. The number 
of Catholics were increasing and their spiritual wants must needs be looked 

On the date last mentioned Rev. Henry Damien Juncker came to Co' 
lumbus, authorized by Bishop Purcell as pastor of the Catholic churches at 
Columbus and Chillicothe. This stimulated the efforts toward the comple- 
tion of the church originally planned by the bishop. 

St. Remigitis's Church — The process of construction went on as rapidly 
as possible. The middle of December, 1837, found the building under roof, 
and by the 20th of April, 1838, it was in condition to be occupied, though 
not plastered, painted nor seated. On the 29th of the same month Rev. 
Father Juncker held services in the unfinished church, singing high mass — 
the first ever celebrated in Columbus — and placed the edifice under the 
patronage of St. Remigius. Remigius, or Remi, was archbishop of Rheims, 
France, and died a holy death in the year 533, after a reign of seventy-four 
years, in the espicopacy — the longest on record. Rev. Stephen Badin, the 
venerable missionary of our western states, happened en route through Co- 
lumbu- on the Sunday of the opening of the new church, and, learning of 
the joyous occasion, stopped over, preaching a learned discourse in English 
at the vesper service in the afternoon. 

On December 8, 1839, Rt. Rev. Bishop Purcell administered the sacra- 
ment of confirmation for the first time in Columbus, and on the evening 
of that day preached a s?rmon on the Holy Trinity in the senate chamber 
of the old statehouse, the only available hall at that time. In November, 

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Rt. Rev. James J. Hartley, Bishop of Columbus. 


Rev. Father D. A. Clarke; the Leading Church Edifice in That Section of the 

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1840, the bishop again visited Columbus, and on Sunday, the 21st of that 
month, celebrated mass, gave an instruction at the vesper service in the 
afternoon and lectured in the hall of representatives in the evening. Dur- 
ing the week he lectured each evening in the courthouse, which had been 
completed only a short time. On the following Sunday the bishop and Father 
Henni, afterward archbishop of Milwaukee, officiated at the church, and in 
the evening the father preached in German at the courthouse. Father Young,^ 
the pastor, having expressed a desire to reside in Columbus if a house were 
built for him adjoining the church, the congregation took prompt measures 
to comply with his wishes and within one year — that is by April 1, 1843 — 
had a residence ready for occupancy. 

Rev. Joshua M. Young was the first priest in charge after Father 
Juncker, but neither of them could be classed as resident priest. That dis- 
tinction fell to Rev. William Schonat, whom Bishop Purcell assigned to the 
mission in 1843, on the petition of his Columbus parishioners. 

Already the little church was found inadequate to the needs of the rap- 
idly growing congregation, and Father Schonat was obliged to say two 
masses on Sundays and holy days of obligation to accommodate all who 
attended. The pastor was also solicitous for the spiritual condition of the 
children of his flock and was anxious to gather them under the shadow of 
the church, where worldly science could be taught in union with the science 
of God. One of his first undertakings, therefore, was the building of a 
school. His eflForts were heartily seconded by the congregation, and in a 
short time he had a frame building erected on the church lot. It was the 
first parochial school in Columbus and was taught by secular teachers. The 
present Catholic churches of Columbus are: 

Holy Cross — The necessity of a larger and an additional church was 
apparent in the early '40s, and the plan of building the Holy Cross church 
was evolved and taken up with great enthusiasm. There were occasional 
discouragements and delays, but they were met and overcome. 

The church lot on Rich street was purchased and transferred Novem- 
ber 10, 1845, by M. J. and L. T. Gilbert to the bishop of the diocese in 
trust, etc. Shortly after the work was commenced, under the direction of a 
building committee consisting of Maurice McGuire, John Duffy, Jacob 
Schoeringer, Fredolin Mutter, Anton Rolling, Cornelius Jacobs, Joseph 
Sattler, Peter Ury, John F. Zimmer and George Entered. The work was 
completed by and the edifice was dedicated January 16, 1848. Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Purcell was officiant at the ceremonies, assisted by Father Schonat 
and Fathers Young and Juncker, and Fathers Wood and Hammer. Father 
Wood became archbishop of Philadelphia and Father Young died bishop 
of Pennsylvania. 

The name "Holy Cross" was conferred upon the church at the earnest 
desire of Father Juncker, in honor of the sacred instrument of redemption. 
He was the first pastor of the church but was soon after promoted to a more 
important plaee at Cincinnati by Bishop Purcell. 

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On Sunday, June 3, 1877, after the .services comnieniorating the Golden 
Jubilee of Pope Pias IX, a fire originated at the high altar, destroying it 
and the three thou??and dollar organ and doing half that amount of other 
damage. The congregation set to work and gathered the means necei!«ary 
to repair the damages sustained. The church wafi enlarged and improved 
and again dedicated September 28, 1877, Rt. Rev. Bishop Toebbe, of Cov- 
ington, Kentucky, officiating. Vespers were sung by Rt. Rev. Bishop 

When the ColumbuiS diocese was fonned Bishop H. S. Rosecrans, the 
first bishop, appointed Father Ilemsteger, a native of Westphalia, bom Sep- 
tember 24, 1827,. as his vicar general. Very Rev. Father Hemsteger, during 
his pastorate of Holy Cross, was assisted by Rev. Francis Karrell, 1859-60; 
Rev. Casper Wiese, 1860-1861 ; Rev. Jacob Ro:^wog, 1861; Rev. Joseph 
Seling, 1861-1862; Rev. F. X. Specht, 1864-1868; Rev. G. H. Ahrens, 1868- 
1872; Rev. J. B. Eis, 1873-1876; Rev. A. Weber, 1876-1877; Rev. C. R. 
Rhode, 1877-1878. Very Rev. J. B. Ilemsteger passed away from the scene 
of his labors, Friday, October 18, 1878. 

St. Patrick's — Holy Cra-^s church is called the mother church among 
the Catholic churches of Columbus, being the first that was fully and sym- 
metrically organized, with a resident pastor when services were being held 
in the original St. Remigius church. 

From Holy Cross came later tlie leading congregations in other parts 
of the city. Its congregation was divided into German and English speak- 
ing people, the Irish predominating among the latter. More room was 
needed to properly accommodate the Holy Cross congregation. The English- 
speaking formed the basis of the movement for St. Patrick's church, not 
upon lines of prejudice, however. 

Through the enthusitistic labors of Father Meagher, who followed Rev. 
John Furlong, assigned to the mission by the Right Rev. Bishop a tract of 
land one hundred and eighty-seven feet square on the northeast corner of 
7th (now Grant avenue) and Naghten streets was secured, and on this St. 
Patrick's, named for the good Irish saint was erected. The cornerstone was 
laid Sunday, Septeml>er 5, 1852, by Rt. Rev. Bishop Purcell, and the same 
venerable prelate officiated at its dedication September 25, 1853. Later school 
buildings w^ere erected adjoining on Mt. Vernon avenue and the Sisters of 
Notre Dame, Cincinnati, were put in charge of them. These sisters were 
the first religious community to have a home in Columbus. 

In 1877, St. Patrick's w^as repaired and largely remodeled and was duly 
dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Ra^ecrans, assisted by Rev. M. M. Meara, Rev. 
R. J. Fitzgerald and Rev. T. J. Lane, seminarians. 

St. Mary's Church, on South Third street, became a necessity because 
of the renewed crowded condition of Holy Cross, and the second overflow 
peopled St. Mary's as the first had peopled St. Patrick's. In 1863 a com- 
mittee, selected for the purpa=^e by Rev. Father Hemsteger, consisting of 
Louis Zettler, Peter Hinderschitt, John Ranft, Frederick Weber, Frank 
Wagner, Peter Boehm and Cornelius Lang to supervise the erection of a 
church and schoolhouse on the present site of St. Mary's. The school was 

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first erected and was ready for occupancy in 1865. Work was begun on the 
church in 1863 and was dedicated by Rt. Rev, Bishop Rosecrans, November 
30, 1868. This church is located at 694 South Third street. 

Sacred Heart — In 1852-3 William Phelan of Lancaster transferred to 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Purcell, (then having spiritual jurisdiction of Columbus) 
by win, four acres of land in North Columbus forming the square bounded 
by Sunnnit street, First avenue, Second avenue and College street for such 
dLS])osal i\s his discretion might direct. In due course of time and disposal 
it became the site of Sacred Heart church, and its allied educatorv institu- 
tions. When it came within the corporate limits of the city, Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Rosecrans, trustee, in 1875, commissioned Rev. John B. Eis to erect a suit- 
able building to accommodate a new congregation that awaited such an 
edifice in that part of the city. Father Eis, after full consideration, decided 
to build a school with a large hall to b? used as a church, with room to ac- 
connnodate the Sisters who were to teach. The corner stone was laid Sep- 
tember 5, 1875, by Rt. Rev. Dr. Rosecrans, and on Eiuster Sunday, April 
16, 1876, mass was celebrated for the first time, Rt. Rev. BLshop Rasecrans 
performing the dedication. In later years a pastoral residence was added 
and many extensive additions have been made to tho orit^inal buildings. 

Holy Family — This church is situated in the oldest portion of the city, 
originally known arf Franklinton. The present popular designation is the 
west side. Long. before the organization of the city, when the canal and 
national road were being constructed, the missionaries occasionally visited 
the spot and said mass at the house of some resident Catholic. In 1865 the 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd founded a convent at the corner of Sandusky 
and Broad, and here Catholic services were regularly held, intended, how- 
ever, only for the members of the comnmnity. Inmiediate Catholic fam- 
ilies were privileged to assist at mtiss in the private chapel. In 1871, a 
diocesan seminary was opened adjacent to the convent, for the fitting of 
young men for the priesthood. 

In the meantime a local congregation wa^ spontaneously growing up. 
A temporary church was provided. On September 17, 1882, the cornerstone 
of the present edifice was laid. The building grew slowly, but none the less 
surely, so that on Sunday, June 2, 1889, it was dedicated by Rt. Rev. John 
A. Watterson, bishop of Columbus, although the side altars and pews were 
not in place. These and all the other accessories, in handsome red oak and 
side altars to harmonize with the general design, were later emplaced. The 
Right Rev. Bishop was assisted in the dedicatory mass by Rev. William F. 
Hayes, Rev. C. Rhode being deacon ; Rev. B. Ilorney sub-deacon ; and Rev. 
A. A. Cush, master of ceremonies. 

Sf, Vincent de Paul — Originally at Rose avenue and East Man street 
the orphan asylum of St. Vincent de Paul was erected. A chapel was at- 
tached and here Catholics of the vicinity, who found it inconvenient or im- 
possible to do so elsewhere, could participate in the celebration of mass. The 
demand for greater opportunities grew so that on Sunday, July 27, 1884, the 
cornerstone for the present church was laid by Right Rev. Bishop. 

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Rev. Father John C. Goldschmidt, chaplain of the asylum' and rector 
of the new church made wonderful efforts toward bringing the work to a 
happy issue, which eventuated August 9, 1885. When Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Watterson solemnly dedicated the edifice,, mass was sung by Father Gold- 
schmidt and the address delivered by Rev. J. Larkin^ Ph. D. 

St, Dominic — In April, 1889, Rt. Rev. Bishop ^Vatter;^on, in anticipa- 
tion of a new congregation as well as for purposes of education, purchased 
61X lots on the comer of Twentieth and Devoise streets. Rev. Thomas J. 
O'Reilly was commissioned by the Right Rev. Bishop to take supervision of 
the whole plan and purpose of providing for the new congregation of which 
he would be rector. Benninghoff Hall, on the third story of a large block 
at Twentieth street and Hildreth avenue, was selected for temporary occu- 
pation and Father O'Reilly sang high mass in it for the first time on Sun- 
day, September 1, 1889. The cornerstone for the new school building to 
be used also for church purposes was laid by the Right Rev. Bishop, as- 
sisted by nearly all the clergy of the city. The building was completed and 
ready for occupancy within a year. Father O'Reilly purchased several other 
adjoining lots to meet the wants of the future. 

St Francis Assissi — To Rev. A. M. Leyden was committed the prelim- 
inary work of organizing this congregation and providing for all suitable ac- 
commodations and shelter. To this end the Rev. Father leased the Neil 
Chapel, hitherto used by the Methodists at the comer of Neil avenue and 
Goodale street and reconst meted to meet the reverend father's ideas. On 
Sunday, June 19, 1892, the church was ready for Catholic services and 
Father Leyden celebrated high mass therein. The Right Rev. Bishop was 
present and delivered a suitable and inspiring address. The growth and 
prosperity of the church has been continuous. 

Churches and Rectors, 

St. Joseph's Cathedral, Broad and Fifth streets. Rev. M. M. Meara, rec- 
tor; Revs. C. J. Norris and James Nevin, assistants. 

St. Aloysius', W. Broad street and Clarendon avenue. (Hill Top). Rev. 
J. J. Cahalen, rector. 

St. Dominic's, Twentieth and Devoise streets. Rev. T. J. O'Reilly, rector. 

St. Francis of Assisi, Buttles and Harrison avenues Rev. A. M. Leyden, 
rector; Rev. Francis J. Clarke, assistant. 

Holy Cross, Fifth and Rich streets. Rev. C. R. Rhode, rector; Rev. W. 
Robben, assistant. 

Holy Family, \V Broad and Skidmore streets. Rev, D. A. Clarke, rector; 
Rev. W. M. Sullivan, a«?sistant. 

Holy Name, Pattei-son and Adams avenues. Rev. W. McDermott, rector. 

Holy Rosary, Main and Seymour streets. Rev. F. W. Howard, rector. 

St. Leo's, Hanford and Leo Place. Rev. C. F. Kessler, rector. 

St. Mary's, S. Third street near Sycamore street. Rt. Rev. Mgr. Specht, 
V. G., rector; Rev. A. Domm and Edmund Burkley, assistants. 

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St. Patrick's, Seventh and Naghten streets. Eev. M. Hagen, O. P., rector; 
Revs. W. J. O'Leary, 0. P., F. L. Kelly, O. P., R. L. Rumaggi, 0. P., assistants. 

St. John the Baptist, Lincoln and Hamlet streets. Rev. V Scovilla, rector 
pro tempore. 

St. John the Evangelist Ohio avenue and Newton street. Rev. S. Weis- 
inger, rector. 

St. Peter's, York avenue. (Milo). Rev. H. Ewing, rector. 

Sacred Heart, First avenue and Summit street. Rev. J. B. Eis, rector; 
Rev. W. Schaefer, assistant. 

St. Ladislaus (Magyar), S. Columbus. Rev. R. Paulovits, rector. 

St. Thomas', 5th and Cassaday avenues (E. Columbus). Rev. A. J. 
Johnson, rector. 

Chapels and Chaplains, 

St. Anthony's Hospital, Taylor avenue and Hawthorne street. Rev. 
P. C. Schneider, chaplain. 

St. Francis of Assisi Hospital, 6th and State streets. Rev. J. Murphy, 

Deaf and Dumb Institute, E. Tow^n street, attended from St. Mary's 

Good Shepherd Convent, W. Broad and Sandusky streets. Rev. B. 
Hanna, chaplain. 

Mt. Carmel Hospital, W. State street and Davis avenue, attended from 
St. Patrick's high school, Mt. Vernon avenue. 

St. Patrick's High School, Washington and Mt. Vernon avenues. Rev. 
R. J. Meaney, 0. P., chaplain; J. Healy, O. P., D. Wynn, 0. P., E. Spence, 
0. P., and W. Lawler, 0. P., assistants. 

St. Turribius', E. Main street, attended from the Josephinum College. 

St. Rose's, E. Main street, attended from the Josephinum College. 

St. Mary's of the Springs, E. Columbus. Rev. J. D. Pendergast, 0. P. 

St. Vincent de Paul, E. Main street and Rose avenue. Rev. J. Gold- 
schmidt, chaplain; Rev. J. O'Neill, assistant. 

Josephinum Pontifical College, E. Main street. V. Rev. Mgr. Soent- 
gerath, chaplain. 

Notable Educational Institutions, 

St. Patrick's College and High School, Mt. Vernon avenue. Rev. R. J. 
Meany, O. P., president; Rev. J. H. Healy, vice-president. Revs. D* Wynn, 
E. Spence and W. Lawler, professors. 

The Pontifical College Josephinum of the Sacred Congregation for the 
Propagation of the Faith, E. Main street. Rt. Rev. Mgr. Joseph Soent- 
gerath, president. Sixteen other professors. 

St. Mary's of the Springs. 

Notre Dame Academy. 

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Diocese of Colwvibus, 

In July, 18(38, the apo.^tolic letters creating the diocese of Columbus 
were received by the archbi.-^hop of Cincinnati. They prescribed the boun- 
daries and extent of the new diocese as follows: The territory of the arch- 
diocese of Cincinnati is divided in such wise that the part of the state of 
Ohio which lies between the Ohio river on the east and the Scioto river on 
the west, with the addition of the counties of Franklin, Delaware and Mor- 
row as far up as the southern limits of Cleveland diocese, shall belong to 
the new division ; and the rest of the state south of Cleveland diocese, includ- 
ing L^nion, Marion and Hardin counties, remain in the archdiocese of Cin- 
cinnati. We will, also, that the see of the new cathedral be fixed in the city of 
Columbus and its diocese be called Columbensis, and possess all the honors, 
rit^hts and privileges which other Episcopal sees possess and enjoy. These 
letters were dated at Rome, March 3, 1868, and named Rt. Rev. S. H. Rose- 
crans as first bishop of the new^ diocese. 

BLshop Rasecrans remained at St. Patrick's as pastor, and with that church 
as the pro-cathedral, while St. Joseph's church, now determined upon as the 
cathedral, was in process of construction. He was assisted in 1867-8 by Rev. 
(icorge II. Ahrens, chancellor, and upon the latter's removal to Holy Crass, 
Rev. P. J. Daily and Rev. F. Gouesse became assistants in 1868-9. During 
1869 Rev. N. A. Gallagher, Rev. J. McPhillips and Rev J. A. Rotchford, 0. 
P., were also stationed at St. Patrick's attending parochial duties. Father 
Gallagher remained until the fall of 1871, when he became president of St. 
Aloysius Seminary, just established on the west side, as a diocesan institution 
for the preparation of young men for the priesthood. Father Rotchford con- 
tinued to assist until 1872. Father Gallagher was; succeeded as assistant by 
Rev. Jeremiah A. Murray and later by Rev. William T. Hawe. 

A7. Joseph's CathedraL 

The present imposing cathedral on East Broad street was the outgrowth 
of the plans originally devised and expanded by Rev. Edward M. Fitzgerald, 
one of the most beloved of the Columbus priesthood, who was later consecrated 
bishop of Little Rock, and who at the time was pastor of St. Patrick's. These 
plans, with but few modifications, were reproduced in the architectural im- 
pressivena«s of the present pile. 

The building is Gothic in architecture and the outside finish is known 
as the boasted ashlar, the chiseling of the stone relieving the dead appearance 
of a yellow stone wall. The stone, which possesses the property of hardening 
by exposure to the air, was obtained principally from quarries in Licking and 
Fairfield counties. The dimensions of the building are ninety-two feet front- 
ing on Broad street and one hundred and eighty-five feet on Fifth street. 
The outside walls are forty-two feet in height from the ground level and 
thirty-four feet from the floor line. The inside or clearstory walls have an 
altitude of seventy feet from the ground and sixty-two from the floor. The 

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Built of Beautiful Material, in the Heart of a Fashionable Residence Section. 

On Third Street, Immediately South of the Custom House. 

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main walls are three feet thick. The clearstory walk, supported by arches, 
rest on clusters of Gothic columns, standing on dressed linnestone pedestals. 
Some crosses surmount the outside walls at intervals and give a decided relief 
to their otherwise dullness. The windows are cased in freestone obtained in 
Pickaway County. The brackets are cut from Columbus limestone and are 
about the only stone articles in the structure procured at home. The seating 
capacity of the cathedral is over two thousand. On Broad street there are 
three main entrances and on Fifth street one. Entrance is gained to the sac- 
risties by a door at the rear on Fifth street and from the pastoral residence. 
The arching of the windows and the supports of the clearstory carry out the 
directions of General W. S. Rosecrans, who, in the summer of 1870, spent 
some time with his brother, the Right Rev. Bishop, assisting in the details of 
the con.struction. The windo^^'s, all donated, are of stained glass in beautiful 

Pending the completion of the cathedral edifice the cathedral congrega- 
tion was organized, and for a short time occupied Naughton Hall on the east 
side of High, between State and Town streets. On Christmas day, 1872, the 
cathedral was ready for divine services, and Rt. Rev. Bishop Rosecrans cele- 
brated pontifical mass. 

The 20th of October, 1870, was an ideal autumn day. The coolness of 
the advancing season was just sufficiently moderated by the genial warmth 
of the bright sun to render the day all that could be desired for the occasion 
so an.xiously anticipated by thousands who came from far and near to par- 
ticipate in it. The faultless arrangement of the committees having the various 
portions of the celebration in charge insured perfect success. The consecra- 
tion ceremonies began at five o'clock in the morning and occupied nearly 
four hours. The consecrator was Rt. Rev. Joseph Dwenger, of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana; assistant priest. Rev. J. B. Schmitt, Lancaster; first deacon, Rev. G. 
H. Ahrens; second deacon. Rev. H. B. Dues; subdeacon, Rev. M. M. A. 
Hartnedy; chanters. Rev. J. B. Eis, Rev. P. Kenmert, Rev. F. Moitrier, Rev. 
P. Thurheimer. Other offices were filled by seminarians and sanctuary boys. 
The beautiful and interesting ceremony was carried out in its entirety under 
the direction of Very Rev. N. A. Gallagher as master of ceremonies, assisted 
by Mr. L. W. Mulhane, now the rector of St. Vincent de Paul's Church, 
Mount Vernon. The decorations of the auditorium and the sanctuary were 
in keeping with the grand and festive occasion and elicited the admiration 
of all. 

There have been four bishops (biographical sketches of whom appear 
elsewhere), of the Columbus diocese in the following order: First, Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Sylvester Horton Rosecrans, born in Homer, Licking county, Febru- 
ary 5. 1827, became the first bishop of the diocese in July, 1868, having re- 
ceived the papal letters, etc., March 3, 1868; second, Rt. Rev. Bishop John 
Ambra«e Watterson, born in Pennsylvania in 1844, was consecrated as the 
successor of Rt. Rev. Bishop Rosecrans in 1880; third, Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Henry Moeller was consecrated bishop and duly installed in 1900; and fourth, 
Rt. Rev. James J. Hartley, born in Columbus in 1858, was consecrated bishop 
m his own parish church in Steubenville, Ohio, Febniary 25, 1904. 

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Organized 1845. 

PrevioiL-^ to 1844 there had been itinerant Universalist mini^^ters in 
Columbus and they held serviee.^, but not until 1844 was a congregation 
brought together. In that year the following persons signed a declaration 
to unite and support a hurch of that faith: Denias Adams, John ,Feld 
John Greenwood, N. Merion, N. Wallace, Philip Reed, William Bambrough, 
James W. Osgood, Hiram Loveland, Smithson E. Wright, J. C. Armstrong, 
W. A. Standish, E. R. Hill, II. II. Kimball, Allen Hogan, Frederick Cole, H. 
McMaster, William C. Preston, Leonard Humphrey, William Richards, Enos 
Doolittle, William F. Wheeler, S. A. Preston, Susan Adams, Adeline Kim- 
ball, Mary Bambrough, Sarah J. Reed, Amelia Richard-^, Elizabeth Cadawol- 
lader, Catherine G. Dalsell, Elsey Preston, Catherine P. Preston, JLatilda 
Wright, Catherine Bancroft, Elizabeth M. Field, Amanda Martin, Sophia P. 
Kelton, Ellen Ix>veland, Catharine D. Doolittle, Harriet Bancroft, Mar\^ Eb- 
erly, Catharine N. Humphrey and Harriet Osgood. 

In 1845 the church was incorporated by act of the general assembly 
of Ohio. John Greenwood, John Field, James W. Osgood, Demas Adams 
and William Bambrough constituted the first board of trustees, and Rev. 
N. Doolittle was the first pastor, beginning his pastorate in 1845. Among his 
successors have been Rev. Thomas Gorman, Rev. J. S. Cantwell, Rev. A. W. 
Bruce, Rev. W. S. Ralph, Rev. T. P. Abel, Rev. Mr. Gifford, Rev. N. M. 
Gaylord, Rev. Mr. Upson, Rev. Mr. Harris, Rev. William M. Jones and Rev. 
Dv, E. L. Rexford. 

The German St. Paul church on Third street was purchased by the 
society and occupied until 1884, when it was so-ld and the present edifice on 
State street was erected, which was dedicated in 1891. About the same time 
Mrs. Lucy M. Stedman presented the society with a beautiful pastor's home 
on Twentieth street. 


Organized 1852. 

The First Congregational Church of the city of Columbus was organized 
on the 29th of September, 1852, under the name of the Third Pre.-byt:^rian 
church. It was composed of forty-two members, dismissed at their own request 
from the Second Presbyterian church. It adoj)ted rules of government substan- 
tially Congregational, and its membership, with perhaps two or three exceptions, 
were all such. The legal organization of the society was effected the day 
previous. A neat frame building had been erected on Third street, a short 
distance north of Broad, and was dedicated July 11, of the same year. Rev. 
W. IL Marble was cho.sen pastor early in the following winter and resigned 
his office in January, 1856. Rev. Anson Smythe, with great acceptance, 
acted as pastor during the eight months preceding November 1, 1856. 

On the 8d of November, 1856, the name of the church, by unanimous 
consent and wish, was changed to that of First Congregational church of 

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Columbus. Rev. John M. Steele, having been unaniniously called to become 
its pastor was installed on the 7th of November, 1856. Mr. Steele died in 
New York city in April following, much regretted by the church and all 
who had made his acquaintance. In the summer and fall of 1857, the 
society erected their present brick church on Broad street, and it was dedi- 
cated on "Forefather's Day," December 22, 1857. 

Rev. N. A. Hyde accepted a call from the church and was officiating in 
1858, and the number of members accredited to the church a half century 
ago, in its sixth year, was one hundred and forty-two. As already suggested 
it was of Presbyterian lineage, and, as Mrs. Abram Brown, the bright and 
versatile historian of the church, aptly says, "bore the family name for 
four years." Dr. Lyman Beecher, a Congregationalist, and Rev. James 
Hoge, Presbyterian, sought to keep up the bars confining it within the 
Presbyterian pasturage, but to no avail. The metamorphosis of 1856 — the 
putting aside the name of Presbyterian and assuming that of Congregational 
— was a mere formality and in no way interfered with the personnel of the 

Rev. William H. Marble ministered to the flock in the little Third 
street sheepfold, and all things spiritual, financial and material prospered 
under his earnest and simple ministrations. Almost one hundred members 
were added to the roll in a single year. Dr. Marble resigned in 1856, with 
one hundred and fifty-eight enlistments to the credit of his pastorate. 

Rev. Anson Smythe, siate commissioner of common schools, acted as 
supply until the installation of Rev. J. M. Steele, of Strathon, New Hamp- 
shire, was installed, November 7, 1856, the Rev. Dr. Storrs, of Brooklyn, 
preaching the sermon. Dr. Steele, while on a visit to New York, died of 
smallpox April 5, 1857. The new church on its present site was dedicated 
in December following — sixty-three feet front on Broad and one hundred 
and twenty feet deep. Rev. Anson G. Smythe again supplied the pulpit, 
during the interregnum, for several months, while Rev. Nathaniel W. 
Hyde acted as a stated supply. In November, 1858, Rev. Henry B. Elliott, 
of New Haven, was installed as pastor, in which relation he continued until 
1860, when he resigned. Rev. E. P. Goodwin, engaged in missionary work, 
was called in June, 1860, and came and was installed in February, 1861. 
He resigned to accept the call of the First Congregational church, Chicago, 
in 1867. 

A short and successful pastorate by Rev. George W. Phillip followed. He 
was called, accepted and was installed May 10, 1868, and resigned in Septem- 
ber, 1871, to accept a call from the Plymouth Congregational church, Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. One of his admonitions, later carried out in spirit, if 
not in letter, was to rebuild and adorn the church edifice. 

In 1872 Rev. Robert G. Hutchins was installed as pastor and during 
his pastorate additional ground was bought west of the church, and the 
building extended and remodeled. Dr. Hutchins continued his ministry till 
1882, when to the regret of his flock, he resigned to accept a call to the 
Plymouth church, Minneapolis. The resolutions adopted by the churca 
breathed the highest esteem for the retiring pastor. The vacancy caused by 

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the retirement of Dr. Ilutchins was filled for some months by Dr. Walter 
Q. Scott, of the Ohio University. 

In 1882, Dr. Washington Gladden, of Springfield, Massachusetts, was 
called to the vacant pulpit, and in March, 1883, he was installed. From 
that day to this he has spoken for himself, no less, in wider idea, to the whole 
community as to his own flock. Under him the church has broadened and 
expanded, and the influence of the society has extended far and wide in many 
channels. The membership was from four hundred and eighty-four in 1884, 
after thirty years of existence, to nine hundred and sixty-nine in 1897. 

There were three other English-speaking Congregational churches in 
Columbus, when Dr. Gladden came into the field. Two were alive but the 
third was apparently moribund. All are now living and flourishing. 

In 1886 the remodeling of the First church building became neces- 
sary for lack of available space. A new front was added, and a modest, but 
none the less striking tower was builded. All the essentials and accessories 
to church work were called into existence and the response thereto is eloquent 
in their visible testimonials. The parish of the Fii-st Congregational church 
is coextensive with the city, the Sunday school work systematic and success- 
ful. Woman's work in every department of the field is also entitled to special 
mention and commendation, and the church as a whole is most favorably 
situated and environed. 

The branches now number seven, and, with the parent church, are 
located as follows: Broad, between High and Third, Dr. Washington Glad- 
den, D.D. ; Eastwood, Twenty-first street, near Broad : Mayflower, northwest 
corner Main and Ohio, Rev. Harvey C. Colburn; North, corner East and 
Blake avenues, Rev. T. G. Nichols; Plymouth, Fourth avenue west of High, 
Rev. E. Lee Howard; South, northwest comer Stewart and High, Rev. J. L. 
Davies; Washington Avenue (Welsh), corner Washington avenue and Gay, 
Rev. J. Morgan Thomas; West Goodale, 445 West Goodale. 


Organized 1852. 

B'Nai Israel congregation is the reformed Jewish church of Columbus, 
in the sense that it teaches both the letter and the spirit of the law, rather 
than the letter alone as is the case with the orthodox Jews, throughout the 
world wherever found and not inconsiderably represented in Columbus. 

The organization of the orthodox church, if organization in the modern 
sense exists, is not characterized by efficient cohesion, as Ls the case with 
the reformed. In the one case it is the commonwealth ; in the other scattered 
tabernacles. Both are democratic with the practical democratic idea with 
the reformers. 

Between the two branches of the tree there is but little antagonism — 
dififerences of opinions and forms, seldom gravitating to religious bitterness 
and vindictiveness. The spirit that has endured the persecutions of centuries 
in almost every land, except America, is not apt to flame into resentment 

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and violence because of variance of teneta. The orthodox branch or branches 
of the church in America comprise the more recent emigrants of the faith, 
while the reformed are more thoroughly Americanized by long residence 
and education. This dividing line between the two, however, is not hard and 
fa^, but obtains as a generalization. 

Mr. I. M. Schlesinger gives the following account, in Colonel Alfred 
E. Lee's History of Columbus, 1892, of the origin of Congregation B'Nai Israel: 

Judah Nusbaum, a native of Bavaria, Germany, arrived here in the year 
1838; Nathan and Joseph Gundersheimer in 1840. All three were traveling 
traders and made their headquarters in Columbus until a few years later, 
when they commenced a general store in the Walcutt building, at the corner 
of High and Town streets. Simon Mack, S. Lazarus and three brothers, 
Samuel, Hess and Abraham Amburg, came here to reside in the year 1844. 
In 1847 came Breidenstuhl, of Rochester; S. Schwaibe, S. Morrison and a 
half-brother of S. Lazarus named Aaronson. In 1849 all of the gentlemen 
above named united in starting a congregation under the title of B'Nui 
Jeshuren, this being an orthodox society, and S. Lazarus, a merchant 
clothier, officiating without remuneration, as their rabbi. Their first meeting 
place was an upstairs room in the building now known as the Twin Brothers 
clothing store, and the president of the congregation was Nathan Gunder- 
sheimer. Two brothers named Schrier, who resided here about the year 1848, 
were joined by a third brother from California in 1849. All three died with 
the cholera, these being the only Hebrews who perished with that dread dis- 
ease in Columbus. The first Jewish wedding which took place in this city was 
that of Joseph Gundersheimer on July 9, 1849. The next rabbi was Joseph 
Goodman, who officiated until 1855, when Rev. Samuel Weil, of Cincinnati, 
was called here. At that time the congregation met in a hall above the 
pr^ent Siebert gun store, on South High street. Other rabbis succeeded in 
the following order: Rev. S. Goodman, Rev. Mr. Wetterhahn and Rev. Mr. 
Rosenthal. During the terms of the last two the congregation met at Wal- 
cutt^s Hall. The members not harmonizing well, nineteen of them withdrew 
during the spring of 1870 from the Congregation B'Nai Jeshuren and started 
the congregation of B'Nai Israel, which was organized at the meeting held 
April 24, 1870. At that meeting Nathan Gundersheimer was chosen chair- 
man and S. Amburg, Louis Kahn and Judah Nusbaum were elected trustees 
for one year. At a meeting of the trustees Jacob Gopdman was chosen secre- 
tary, Joseph Gundersheimer treasurer and Nathan Gundersheimer president. 
The old congregation was dissolved. 

Following the dissolution of the old and the organization of the new 
congregation, steps were taken to erect a permanent house in which to 
worship. A lot on the corner of Main (formerly Friend) street and Third 
was purchased and a handsome brick temple was erected, under supervision 
of Nathan and Joseph Gundersheimer and Jacob Goodman building com- 
mittee. The comer stone was laid with imposing ceremonies May 15, 1870. 
On September 16, 1870, the completed temple was ceremoniously dedicated, 
and the congregation continued to worship there during the closing years of 

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the nineteenth century, at the turn of which the property was disposed of 
and ground was broken for the beautiful temple of the congregation B'Nai 
Israel an Bryden Road, between Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets, which 
was dedicated and occupied in 1904-5. Rabbi David Klein officiated at the 
corner-stone laying and the dedication, and was, for a long period, rabbi of 
the congregation. That office is now filled by Rev. Joseph S. Komfeld. 

Aguedas Achim, 464 South Fifth street, and The Tree of Life, same 
number, both under the supervision of Rabbi N. Silverman, are orthodox 
branches and the House of Jacob, organized but not permanently located, 
is a third orthodox branch. The I. 0. 0. B. lodge is a Jewish secret society, 
there being several lodges in the city, the ceremonies being partly religious. 


Organized 1872. 

The first church of this people in Columbus was organized in 1871-2, 
with about twenty-five charter members and at first a small frame church 
built at the comer of Third and Gay streets, which soon gave way to a modern 
brick building, where the church met until 1905, when it was sold and the 
present handsome structure at the comer of Broad and Twenty-first streets 
erected. The present membership of the Broad street church is almost one 

During his incumbency of the office of govemor of Ohio, Hon. Richard 
M. Bishop attended and was a communicant of this church. President James 
A. Garfield, when a visitor in Columbus, attended its services and sometimes 
spoke. Each church of these people is a imit — all are independent of each 
as units but are a whole in brotherhood. There are at this time six churches 
in the city, namely: Broad Street, corner Broad and Twenty-first streets 
(formerly Central), Walter Scott Priest, pastor. 

West Fourth avenue, near Neil, Walter Mansell, pastor. 

Chicago avenue, near West Broad street, C. M. Arthur, pastor. 

Wilson avenue, near Mound street, 0. P. McMahon, pastor. 

South Side, Wood avenue and Sixth street, W. F. Nuzum, pastor. 

Soine Independent Organizations. 

The following separate church organizations were formed at different 
periods, but nearly, if not quite all of them, are now merged with some one 
of the modem church organizations, incidentally if not directly : 

1821, German Lutheran Reformed. 1846, the German Reformed. 1848, 
Trinity German Evangelical Lutheran. 1842-3, German Evangelical Protes- 
tants. 1858, German Evangelical Church. 1840, Colored Baptists. 1847, 
Anti-Slavery Baptists (colored). 

Some Minor Church Organizations. 

United Brethren, First Avenue church, southwest corner First and 
Pennsylvania avenues. 

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Olive Branch Church, southwest corner Long and Fifth streets. 
Canip Chase Friends Church, corner West Broad and Wilson Pike. 
Quakers and Friends, southeast corner Ffth avenue and Fourth street. 
Hungarian, First, East Livingston street; Hungarian, German, 70 East 
Mound street. 

Church of Chri;st, corner Neil and Fourth avenues. 
Seventh Day Adventists, 84 South Ohio avenue. 
Spiritualist Church, State and Sixth streets. 
West Side Spiritualist^, 77 McDowell street. 
All Souls' Church, State and Sixth streets. 

M'lHsionH and Religious Benefices. 

All Saints for I). D. pupils and others, 136 East Broad. 

Antioch Home, 844 East Spring. 

Bethany House^ 663 Delaware avenue. 

Christian — Missionary-alliance Mission, 694 Mount Vernon. Rev. I. 
Patterson, pastor. 

City Mission, 258 East Livingston. 

City Park Avenue ^lission, 846 City Park avenue. 

Cold Water Band Mission, 328 Spruce street. 

Disciple's Church Mission, Broad, west of Princeton. 

Donaldson Street Miasion, Donaldson and Sixth. 

p]ast Fifth Avenue Mission, corner Fifth avenue and Parker. 

Fourfold Gospel Mission, 878 Mount Vernon avenue. 

Goodale Street Congregational Mission, 455 West Goodale. 

Goodale Street Union Mission, 399 West Goodale. 

Gaspel Meetings, 599 Mount Vernon avenue. 

Grace Lutheran Mission, Broad and Martin. 

Haigs Mission, 404 Canal. 

Holiness Mission, South Sixth, north of Innis avenue. 

Nelson Meonorial Mission, Mount Vernon and Taylor avenue. 

Hannah Neil Mission, 727 East Main, Belle Patterson, matron. 

Hope Mission, 385 Park. 

Non-Sectarian Mission, 900 North High street. 

Salvation Army Corps, 116 1-2 South High street. 

Seventh Street Union, 468 South Seventh. 

Soul Winning Mission, 370 Reeb avenue. 

Third Street Union, 276-278-280 North Third. Rev. James Haig, 

Union Mission Association, 778 East Mound, with branches, 276 North 
Third, 645 South Seventh, 385 and 488 West Goodale, 846 City Park avenue, 
404 Canal ; with lodging department at 272 North Third. 

Volunteers of America, 108 1-2 East Long. 

Welcome Mission, 373 West Rich. Rev. W. N. Leach in charge. 

West Side (U. B.) Mission, 965 West Broad. 

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Organized 189G. 

This is the most recent distinctive church organization in Columbui?, 
and dates from the 19th day of November, 189(3, when the legal certificate 
of incorporation was issued by and from the office of Hon. Sanmel M. Taylor, 
secretary of state. The first public meeting of the seven persons who, later, 
became the founders and incorporatoi-s of the Fir.-t Church of Christ, Scientist, 
Columbus, Ohio, was held at No. 40(> Oak street on the fii-st Sunday of De- 
cember, 1895. Those present at and participating in that meeting were, 
in the order of the record, Mrs. Mary S. Moler, Mrs. Mary Tyler, ilisr^ Emma 
L. Jones, Mrs. Jane Metters, Mrs. Alice S. B. Taylor, Mrs. Elvira W. Spauld- 
ing and Mr. Melville C. Spaulding. Regular Sunday meetings at 10:30 A. M. 
were held at the same street number in the piu-lors of Mrs. Jane Metters, until 
April 5, 1896, the attendance regularly increasing. 

The permanent organization W4is completed and the certificate of in- 
corporation taken out, as stated, and the preceding named became the in- 
corporators. Immediately plans were made and steps taken to raise a building 
fund and the erection of a church edifice. So large had become the attend- 
ance that it became necessary to secure a hall for the meetings. A' suitable 
room was leased in the Board of Trade building on East Broad street, and 
here, from April 12, 1896, regular services were held until December, 1897. 

To meet the still growing demand for sittings. Wells Post Hall, G. A. R., 
on High street opposite the state house, was secured, and here Sunday fore- 
noon and evening services were conducted regularly until November 25, 1903, 
when the first meeting of the congregation was held at the present Fin-sf 
church edifice on East Broad street, near the intersection of Grant avenue. 
On May 7, 1896, the following trustees were elected in pursuance with the re- 
quirements of the articles of incorporation : Mrs. Mary T. Moler, Mrs. Jane 
Metters, Mrs. Mary Tyler, Mrs. G. E. Work, MLs.< Emma L. Jones, Mrs. Car- 
oline M. Barcus and Melville C. Spaulding. Officers: Melville C. Spaulding, 
president; Mrs. Caroline M. Barcus, secretary: Miss Emma L. Jones, treasurer. 
First reader, Melville C. Spaulding; second reader, Mi's. Elvira W. Spaulding. 

A Sunday school which had been organized at the Board of Trade 
rooms, continued without intermission and is now held in the church audi- 
torium immediately preceding the forenoon services. In 1900 reading rooms 
were established in the Schultz building on North High street. These 
rooms for the accommodation of inquiries and to distribute literature are 
now located in the Broad street church building and are open to the public 
every weekday from 9 A. M. to 4 P. M. 

A building committee was appointed by the tnistees October 12, 1899, to 
take up the general subject of securing the mean? and site for the erection 
of a church edifice. On November 27. 1001. the committee purchased the 
valuable lot on East Broad on which the church now stands. Ground was 
broke on the morning of Good Friday, 1903, and the building was com- 
pleted in November of the same year. All bills in connection with the erection 

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Bryden Road and Ohio Avenue. In Process of completion when this view was taken. 

The Sixth in Sliccesslon, Former Views of Church Edifice Found 

on Preceding Pages. 

East Broad Near Grant Avenue. The Most Recent Church Organization Founded in 

the City. 

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of the church were called for by the treasurer and paid on Saturday of each 
week. It is noted that not a single accident of any kind occurred during the 
erection of the building. 

The firet service was held in the church on Wednesday evening, Novem- 
ber 25, 1903, and the first Sunday service on the 29th of that month. In 
compliance with the inflexible rule of the church, the edifice was not dedi- 
cated imtil it was free from debt and liabilities. All these were discharged May 
22, 1907, and the church was dedicated with simple and informal services 
June 9, 1907. The total cost for real estate, erection of edifice, etc., was ap- 
proximately twenty-seven thousand dollars, and the present value of the 
property is probably above that figure. 

Lender the by-law of the Central or Mother church at Boston, the number 
of members may not be given out. The average attendance at the services 
morning and evening is from three hundred and fifty to four hundred, and 
the seating capacity is frequently taxed to accommodate the entire audience. 
From September to July Sunday evening services are held for the further 
accommodation of attendants. 

In 1908, the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, Columbus, was in- 
corporated in the office of the secretary of state. In due time funds will be 
raised and a church edifice erected as quietly as was the erection and occupa- 
tion of the First church accomplished. A Christian Scientist society is 
organized and holds regular. Sunday and Wednesday evening services at 
"The Parsons," on Parsons avenue near Bryden Road. This society, how- 
ever, is not in connection with -the incorporation of the Second Church of 
Christ, Scientist. But in the fullness of time it will probably grow into a 
church organization with its own name. 

The present trustees and officers of the First church are: Mrs. Effie J. 
Harris, Mr. Robert A. Magley, Miss Elizabeth Flack, Mr. J. F. Angell, Miss 
Elizabeth H. Monsarrat, Mr. E. A. Reeder, Mr. C. W. Brandon, Mr. W. J. 
Hawk, Mr. Delbert Alonzo Crowner. Officers : president, Robert A. Magley ; 
clerk, E. A. Reeder; treasurer, W. B. Wood; librarian, Mrs. Arabella Stover. 
First Church of Christ, Scientist : E. Broad street, near Grant avenue. First 
Reader: Delbert Alonzo Crowner. Second Reader: Elizabeth H. Mon- 

The main reading room of the church was removed in July, 1908, from 
the Broad Street church to suite 900, Columbus Savings & Trust building, 
High and Long, for the accommodation of the public and for commercial 


Organized 1906. 

A Christian Science society was organized at the residence of Mr. H. Howard 
Butler and wife, September 5, 1906, by the following persons: H. Howard 
Butler, Mrs. Grace Butler, Miss Bertha Butler, Mrs. Mary E. Reid, Harry J. 

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BraAshaw, Mrs. Florence Jones Badshaw and H. E. Walter. They were, at 
a isub^Kfquent meeting, chosen a^ a board of trustees, the officers of the board 
being: president, Mns. Grace Butler; secretary and treasurer, Mr. H. E. 
Walter. Christian Science society, **The Parsons," Parson's avenue, near 
Bryden Road. Fir.^t Reader: H. Howard Butler; Second Reader: Mrs. 
(irace l^utler. 

Services 10:.*{0 a. ni. Sunday; testimonial meetings, Wednesday evening 




The growth of the common school system of the istate of Ohio is one of 
the marvek of the nineteenth century, not only in the cities but the towns, 
villages and country di/itricts as well. What may be called the principle on 
which this system was founded was enunciated in opening of the third 
article of the ordinance of 1787, a prophetic declaration of coming things, 
in these far-ringing words: ''Religion, morality and knowledge being neces- 
sary to good government, and the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged.^' How wonderfully has 
thid prophetic declaration been amplified by the history of the splendid 
galaxy of states, extending from the Ohio river to the great northern lakes 
and to the Father of Waters, carved out of the Northwestern Territory. We 
may well remember that his ordinance antedates the National Constitution: 
''Done by the United States congress, the 13th day of July, 1787," since the 
constitution was not adopted until the 13th day of November, 1787. and did 
not be(*ome effective until the first Wednesday in March, 1789. 

The Four Great PillarH. 

The descendants of the pioneers who settled the states of Ohio, Indiana, 
Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin, comprising the original Northwest Terri- 
tory, are entitled to be proud of the fact that they are descended from the 
founders of the first government buildod upon the four great pillars: Re- 
ligion, Morality, Knowledge, Liberty. The first commonwealth in history 
with a rescript as its unalienable birth-right, only to become more poten- 
tial as it automatically divided into four great soverign states of the five and 
forty sisters. 

From the beginning the state sought to apply the principle of the or- 
dinance and did apply it according to environment — always going forward, 
never retrograding, accomplishing the many small things which within the 
century have made the great accomplishments of today. 

Very slowly, but with intelligent determination, the successive legis- 
latures moved fonvard in the work of providing, by an equitable system of 
taxation, the means whereby the youth without regard to sex or financial 

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conditions should receive a common education, by a common system and for 
a common end — the sure upbuilding of a commonwealth for the safety and 
enjoyment of alL It is only after careful study and scrutiny of the past 
that we can appreciate the greatness of the work accompli."*hed by our pred- 
ecessors during the first half of the nineteenth centun'. 

We think perhaps that our grandsires took their time in carrying out 
the injunction of the ordinance, when in 1824, here in Columbus, acting 
under the laws of the state at large> and presumably a special enactment, that 
in the whole of Montgomery township, now extinguished by the corporation 
lines of the city of Columbus, the entire revenues for public school and tui- 
tion purposes were one hundred and thirty-five dollars and fifty-five cents. 
Especially does it look small when we reflect that at that time there were 
eight hundred and eighty-six youths of the school age, or fifteen cents and 
three mills to be used for each child in the way of employing teachers and 
buying books. And yet the parents were generally encouraged by the show- 
ing as it was almost twice as great as it had been for some years, thanks to 
the sale of a section of "school lands," on the proceeds of which interest was 
being drawn. 

The Growth of the System. 

At that time, moreover, the law provided for school districts in each 
township, the directors of which were authorized to levy a small tax to build 
schoolhoiuses, the cost of which, with volunteer labor thrown in was from 
fifteen to thirty dollars, depending on whether shingles or clapboards were 
used for roofing and whether glass or greased paper was used as window 
[)anes. The directors were also authorized in those days to levy a single mill 
of taxes to pay for the tuition of children whose parents were absolutely un- 
able to pay for the same. All who were able to pay did so, and many a 
parent "worked out" with a wealthier neighbor to earn the tuition money for 
his or her children. 

As time passed the growth of the school fund kept pace with the growth 
of the counties were authorized to levy a local school tax up to two mills on 
gether. An act of 1825 aided materialy in this regard. It authorized, and 
by implication required, county commissioners to levy a tax of half a mill 
on the dollar for school purposes. This put the Ohio common school system 
fairly on a solid road and thereafter it grew and flourished until it reached 
its present proportions. Another notable milestone was set up in 1837, when 
the office of state school superintendent, corresponding with the present com- 
mis^'ioner of common schools, was created and Professor Samuel Lewis, one 
of the noted educators of his day, was placed in charge. 

PeriYianent Fund Established. 

The state school fund was permanently established in 1838, the initial 
sum for annual distribution among the counties according to "school popu- 
lation" being two hundred thousand dollars. In addition the commissioners 
of the counties were authorized to levy a local school tax up to two mills on 

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the one hundred dollars. At approximately the same period the United 
Slates government distributed the surplus in the national treasury amon^ 
the several states, two million one hundred thousand dollars being the por- 
tion coming to Ohio, and this was later distributed among the counties and 
became a portion of the school funds. From that period forward the legis- 
lation of the state strengthened and reinforced the provisions already made 
so that the annual fixed revenues from the state treasury now amounts to 
million.^:, .systematically distributed through the counties to the various 
schools, while under the existing and carefully matured system, local taxa- 
tion makes it po.s?5ible to educate every youth and furnish all the opportunity 
to .^^ecure a practical education at the expense of the whole body of citizens 
and tax payers. 

The School Directors, 

The *^directore'^ provided for in the act of 1821 were the predecessors of 
the existing board of education although, to an extent differently distributed, 
with powers enlarged along the original lines. In 1821 the city of Columbus 
constituted but a single district and the directors (or board of education) 
were William T. Martin, Peleg Sisson and Charles Hinkle. 

The present board (1908-1909) coasists of Wm. O. Thompson, Charles 
J. Palmer, John J. Stoddart, for the city at large and the following from the 
twelve sub-districts: 1, John L. Trauger; 2, Edward Ilerbst; 3, Charlas E. 
Morris; 4, William N. Keller; 5, Andrew Timberman; 6, Cassius M. Shep- 
ard; 7, Pinckney D. Shriner; 8, Osman E. Pumphrey; 9, M. E. Swanson; 
10, Charles. S. Means; 11, Abraham Dunlap; 12, E. F. Wood. 

A Striking Contrast. 

It will be recalled that in 1832, the total amount of public revenues 
available for school purposes was one hundred and thirty-five dollars and 
fifty-five cents and the number of school youth was one thousand and fifteen, 
the school age being then from five to fifteen instead of from six to twenty- 
one as at present. For 1907-1908, the latest complete year given, there were 
registered in all grades twenty-one thousand six hundred and seventy-five 
pupils of whom ten thousand sLx hundred and fifty were male and eleven 
thousand and twenty-five female. The average daily attendance in all the 
schools, normal, high and elementary, was eighteen thousand and thirty-five 
and five-tenths, of whom eight thousand eight hundred and ninety-one and 
seven-tenths were male and nine thousand one hundred and forty-three and 
eight-tenths female. 

To instruct these five principals in charge of classes; ninety-four high 
school teachers, four hundred and forty-six elementary teachers and eighteen 
special German teachers, a total of six hundred and two, approximately two- 
thirds as many teachers as there were children of the school age in 1832. 

In the latter year it will be remembered the total amount of public funds 
available for school purposes w^as one hundred and thirty-five dollars and 
fifty-five cents. In 1907-1908 the sum of four hundred and fiftv-nine thou- 

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sand four hundred and sixty-five dollars and one cent was paid out for the 
^supervision and teaching. 

The city school revenues from all sources, including balance coming 
o\^r, for the year were one million two hundred and eighty thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-four dollars and thirteen cents, an increase of about twelve 
hundred and fifty per cent, which is approximately the collective ration of 
the city's advance along all the lines and avenues when consolidated, and 
the comparison carried to the conclusion will demonstrate that the four 
great factors set up in the confederate congress in 1787,« Religion, Morality, 
Knowledge, Liberty are strikingly recognizable in the progress of Ohio and 
its capital — an advance, too, in both instances which has been proportionial 
and symmetrical, of even and uniform development of historical monuments, 
in which, rathfer than in the tedious descriptive detail of words, the achiev- 
ments of a people are to be read. 

In the boards of education following that of 1826 occurs many noted 
names previous to 1875 among which may be mentioned General P. B. 
Wilcox, Judge J. L. Bates, Judge J. W. Baldwin, Colonel Thomas Sparrow, 
John J. Janney, LTnited States Senator Allen G. Thurman, Secretary of State 
William Trevitt, John Greiner, J. H. Smith, Otto Dressel, Judge E. F. Bing- 
ham, Konrad Mees, Isaac Aston, Frederick Fieser, C. P. L. Butler, S. W. 
Andrews, L. D. Myers, L. J. Critchfield, Horace Wilson and General Charles 
C. Walcutt. 

Roll Call of Principals. 

To make this brief sketch almost complete and comprehensive, as show- 
ing the progress of the common school system about all that is necessary is 
to enumerate and locate the temples of learning, naming the contemporane- 
ous principals as follows, with Professor J. A. Shawan, superintendent, in- 
troducing them in their order: 

Normal, Sullivant building, Margaret W. Sutherland. 

Central High, E. Broad and Sixth, W. M. Townsend. 

East High, Franklin and Loefler avenue, F. B. Pearson. 

North High, Fourth and Dennison avenues, Charles D. Everett. 

South High, Deshler avenue and Bruck street, C. S. Barrett. 

South High Elementary, same location, C. S. Barrett. 

West High, Central avenue and State. 

Avondale, Avondale avenue and Town, Katherine C. Palmer. 

Beck Street, Beck and Grant avenues, Katherine Ritson. 

Bellows Avenue, Bellows avenue near Sandusky, Nellie J. Roberts. 

Chicago Avenue, Chicago avenue north of Broad, Ada Stephens. 

Douglas, South 17th street near Oak, Eleanor H. Wilmot. 

East Main, Main street and Miller avenue, Louise Reither. 

Eastwood, Eastwood and Winner avenues, J'cnnie E. Phillips. 

Eighth Avenue, Eighth and Wesley avenues, Elizabeth R. Fassig. 

Fair Avenue, Fair near Latta avenue, Harriet E. Bancroft. 

Felton Avenue, Felton at head of Monroe, Cora B. Runyon. 

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Fieser, comer West State and Starling, Anna E. Sims. 

Fifth Avenue, Fifth avenne and Highland, Annie E. Hull. 

First Avenue, First and Harrison avenues, Ernestine Schreyer. 

Fourth Street, Fourth and Fulton, Anna Pfeiflfer. 

Franklinton, West Broad and Sandusky, Margaret Koerner. 

Front, Front and Long streets, Helen Bortle. 

Fulton, Fulton and Ninth E., Millie Ilowald. 

Garfield, Garfield and Mt. Vernon avenues, Augu??ta Becker. 

Highland, Highland avenue near Broad street, Dai^y I. Charters. 

Hubbard Avenue, Hubbard avenue near Front, Carrie 0. Shoemaker. 

Livingston Avenue, Livingston avenue and School street, Margaret H. 

Medary Avenue, Tompkins and Medary avenues, Sarah A. Smith. 

Michigan Avenue, Michigan and Fourth avenues, Alice Fassig. 

Mount Street, Mount and Third, Harriet Brocklehurst. 

Ninth Avenue, Ninth avenue and Worthington," Mary Gordon. 

North wood, High and North wood avenue, Jessie A. Neate. 

Ohio Avenue, Ohio avenue and Fulton, Mattie Simon ton. 

Park Street, Park and Vine, Helen Millay. 

Reeb Avenue, Reeb near Parsons, Marj' L. Miller. 

Second Avenue, Second avenue east of High, Harriet Thompson. 

Siebert Street, Reinhard avenue betnveen Bruck and Pine, Louise Bauer. 

Southwood, Fourth street and Southward avenue, Mary Esper. 

Spring Street, E. Spring and Sixth, Cora Neereamer. 

Stewart Avenue, Stewart between High and City Park avenue, Caro- 
line Windt. 

Sullivant, E. State near Sixth, Effie G. Millar. 

Third Street, Third and Sycamore, Fannie S. Glenn. 

Twenty-third, Mt. Vernon and Twenty-third street, Jane M. Hammond. 

There are three terms of school beginning approximately with the first 
week of January, April and September. There are four grades in the High 
school and eight in the elementary, numbered one to four in the high and 
from eight to one in the elementary schools. The organization of thje school 
board comprises, Charles J. Palmer, president; H. P. Judd, clerk; Edward 
B. McFadden first and Ellen Comstock second assistant clerk. Officers of 
the public school library: Martin Hensel, librarian, Hattie Toler, Mrs. Mary 
W. Taft, Mrs. J. L. Eastman, Emma Irene De Muth, Elmer W. Boeshans, 
assistants; Emma Schaub, cataloguer. Location of library, No. 4 East Town 
street, north side. 

Departinent of Instruction. 

Professor J. A. Shawan, superintendent; Mamie E. Ilartnett, clerk; Ida 
M. Shick, assistant; W. D. Campbell, supervisor of drawing; Lillian Bick- 
nell, supervisor of industrial art; Mrs. Tillie Lord, supervisor of music, etc.; 
Anton Liebold, supervisor of physical culture; Christine M. Wood, assistant 
drawing and industrial art; John E. Jones, tniant officer. 

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A Fair Type of the School Architecture of Columbus. 


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J -;•-!- ^ h A York] 
• 'vr.'JC l.'PRARY 

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List of School Superintendents, 1847-1909. 

Asa D. Lord, the first superintendent of the schools of Columbus was 
also the first man to occupy that position in the state. He was chosen to 
and entered upon the office on the 15th of May, 1847, and continued to dis- 
charge the duties of the position until February, 1854. His first year's sal- 
ary' was six hundred dollars. He established the high school during his first 

David P. Mahew succeeded Mr. Lord as superintendent in 1854, and 
acted as such until July 10, 1855. Mr. Lord was reelected but resigned to 
take charge of the Institution for the Blind and Erasmus D. Kingsley be- 
came superintendent July 11, 1856, and filled the position until 1865. 

William Mitchell succeeded him in that year, and held the position 
until 1871. In that year Robert W. Stevenson succeeded to the position 
and filled it, as had all his precedessors, with credit and efficiency until 
1889, when he was succeeded by Jacob A. Shawan, the present incumbent, 
and the sixth superintendent in their numerical order. 

The oldest retired principal and teacher in the City Schools is Miss 
Sue McLaughlin, residing on Franklin avenue near Parsons. She began 
teaching at the Mound Street School in 1864. In 1870 she became principal 
of the Spring Street School and in 1876 principal of the Sullivant School, 
from which she retired in 1906, after forty-four years of continuous service. 
Mis? Mattie Simonton, principal of the Ohio Avenue School has served 
nearly as long. 

Another Striking Contrast. 

The contrast between the educational strivings of the past and the 
achievements of the present is only heightened when one rescues from forget- 
fulness the short and simple annals of the ancient endeavor. As for instance, 
the building of the first schoolhouse across the river in 1805, by Lucas Sul- 
livant. It stood north of the original site of the old courthouse. It was a log 
cabin sixteen by sixteen feet, chinked and daubed, clapboard roof weighted 
down with poles, puncheon floor, fireplace for log fire, slab seats and writing 
desks and greased paper windows. Here the first school was taught, the 
Mist^es Mary Wait and Sarah Reed, being the respective first teachers. Log 
cabin homes were here and there, the profound wooded wilderness elsewhere, 
with blazed trails leading into it, not through it. 

Up on the hither side of the Worthington suburb, Joel Buttles turned 
teacher in the same year and organized a "subscription school." He agreed 
to teach a three months' term of five days one week and six days the next, 
and receive in payment thereof one dollar and sixty-two and one-half cents 
per pupil and "board around" according to the number of pupils in each 
family. He had seven patrons: William Hamilton, Philip Hare, Philip 
Woollet, Charles Ward, Alexander Dennixon, Robert Molean and Michael 
Reardon. Hamilton Hare and Woollet subscribed (agreed to pay tuition) 
for one pupil each; Ward one and one-half; Dennixon and Molean two 
each: and Reardon three. Thus seven paters subscribed eleven and one-half 
children, worth to the subscribee, one dollar attd sixtv-two and one-half 

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cents each, or eighteen dollars and sixty-eight and three-fourth cents plus 
three months' board, and they were duly instructed in the three R's — Read- 
ing 'R'ting and 'Rithmetic according to the antediluvian short system of 
spelling then in vogue, as the written contract required. This munificent 
sum, as it was not to be sneered at in those days, was paid by the seven 

Dr. Peleg Sisson, afterward a member of the first school board, taught 
a subscription school on the west side of the river in 1816. A few yeai-s later 
he came to the east side and taught a classical school, and then a school for 
boys only. 

William Lusk, the almanac maker, astronomer, civil engineer and 
mathematician taught an advanced school on the west side in 1817, and 
afterward w^as a successful teacher in the advanced schools on the east side. 
He was the author of the first Columbus Almanac. 

The first school on the east side was opened in the hewed log church, 
which w^as erected in 1814-1815 on the site of the present school library 
building on east Town street — a prophetic and fitting monument to the 
pioneer church and school. William T. Martin was the first teacher, begin- 
ning with the spring of 1815. 

A classical school was opened by a Mr. Butler. Dr. Sisson succeeded to 
it and consolidated it with his school on the Franklinton side. For a time 
it was a school for girls and boys. Then the Doctor taught boys only. 

A Womanly Woman. 

In 1818 the wife of David Smith, editor of the Monitor, opened a school 
for girls, not only teaching them the usual branches of learning, but in sew- 
ing, embroidery and like womanly accomplishments. 

Rudolphus Dickinson, later a congressman from northern Ohio, taught 
languages in 1820 or thereabout. One of his pupils, David Bigger, became 
a famous lawyer and governor of Indiana. 

The first school book, The Explanatory Monitor, published in Colum- 
bus, appeared in 1818, under the supervision of John Kilbourne. Private 
and select schools kept pace with the growth of population, active in which 
were Squire John Shields, Miss Reed and Miss Wait hitherto mentioned. 
Rev. James Labaree, J. B. Masterson, Horace Wilcox, Abiel Foster and Mias 
Catharine Foster, his sister, Mr. and Mrs. Schenck and others whose names 
have disappeared from the mildewed and mouldered records of the past. 

The Columbus Academy, erected in 1821 by Lucas Sullivant and a score 
of associates, with Aaron G. Brown, Anna Treat and other workers, built 
out in the wooded district where the second Presbyterian church now stands, 
performed its mission and passed on, as did the Esther Institute, to shelter 
which, what is now known as the Trinity House on East Broad, opposite 
Trinity, with the well-trained educators. Professors Charles Jucksch and T. 
G. Wormley and Miss Hermine A. P. Tetu — all, schools and teachers alike 
valuable contributors to and ingredients in the great educational triumph 
of the twentieth century flashing greetings to the centuries to come. 

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Capital University is a child of the church and its purpose is to serve 
the church. It is distinctively a Christian institution of learning. It was 
establshed in 1850 aa an academic department mainly for the theological 
seminary which was founded by the Evangelical Luthern Joint Synod of 
Ohio and other states in the city of Columbus, Ohio, in 1830. This organi- 
zation, an Evangelical Lutheran body with a communicant membership of 
more than a hundred thousand and a clerical roll of over five hundred pas- 
tors serving eight hundred congregations, has now for a half a century con- 
trolled Capital University. While the chief purpose has been and still is 
to serve as a feeder to the theological seminary, the institution seeks also to 
prepare men for other professions by offering them a truly liberal education 
on the basis of the principles of God's Word. Instruction in this word 
accordingly constitutes a regular part of the curriculum, but is not obliga- 
tor}- for those whose parents or guardians desire to have them excused. While 
the institution is a Lutheran school, young men not of this denomination 
are also welcomed. 

There are two courses in the college, the classical and the scientific — the 
former leading to the degree of A. B., the latter to the degree of B. S. In 
the classical course the ancient languages are given the prominence in ac- 
cordance with the traditional pedagogical methods of the Lutheran church 
of Germany, as these are best exemplified by the German gymnasium work, 
the conviction being entertained by the authorities that the thorough study 
of the classical languages constitutes the best basis to achieve that mental 
drill and development which it is the chief object of a college to furnish. 
But side by side with the work in the classical languages, the other depart- 
ments, those of mental and moral sciences, of the English language and 
literature, of mathematics, of history, etc., all receive their proper attention. 
Chiefly for practical reasons special attention is paid to the German, as the 
great majority of the congregations of the synod of Ohio, for whom the insti- 
tution aims to prepare thoroughly equipped pastors, are either entirely or 
partly German. The scientific course was opened in the year 1895 in re- 
sponse to a request of the alumni. It purposes to teach the natural sciences 
thoroughly and from the point of view that in this department too the fear 
of God is the beginning of wisdom. 

In connection with the college there is also a preparatory department, 
the purpose of which is to give a solid English education, to lay the founda- 
tion for a thorough study of the classics, mathematics, German and the 
sciences, and especially to lead up to the regular collegiate course. The 
course extends over two years. 

The college was formerly situated in the old Capital University build- 
ing, now Northern Hotel, north of the depot in Columbus, but in 1876 moved 
to a new locality east of Columbus, just beyond the city limits, but connected 
with it by two street car lines. The college grounds are about three miles 
from the center of the city. The large building erected when the change 

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took place is used solely as a dormitory, society hall, etc., while a new build- 
ing erected in 1891 contains the recitation rooms, library, chapel, labora- 
tory, etc. The college campus includes eighteen acres. Opposite the campus 
is the college church with a regularly organized congregation and regular 
services in German and English. A combined auditorium and gymnasium 
was erected in 1905-06. 

The original incorporators were: James Manning, C. G. Schweizerbarth, 
Christian Spielmann, Christopher Albrecht, John Leist, Jacob Beck, 
Gustavus Machold and Lewis Heyl. Trustees of said seminary, Samuel 
Galloway, Henry Stanbery, Lincoln Goodale, Samuel M. Smith, George M. 
Parsons, Thomas Sparrow, John P. Bruck, Thomas Roberts, Matthew Good- 
ing and Fernando C. Kelton, of Franklin county; George W. Boerstler, of 
Fairfield county; Andrew Henkel and Emanuel Gebhart, of Montgomery 
county; Henry Lang, of Sandusky county; Emanuel Greenwald and John 
Minnich, of Tuscarawas county; Dewalt Rothacker, Augustus B. Bierde- 
mann and Jacob Stemple, of Carroll couny; Henry Everhard, of Stark 
county, in this state; and Jonas Mechling and John Zimmermann, of West- 
moreland county, in the state of Pennsylvania. 

The Course of Instruction consists of a Department of Latin, Prepar- 
atory' Department, College Department, Department of Greek, Department 
of English Language and Literature, Department of German, Philosophy, 
Mathematics, Department of Natural Sciences, Department of History, De- 
partment of Religious Instruction, Department of Music, Drawing and 
Department of Public Speaking. The Rev. W. Schmidt, of Canton, Ohio, 
who had projected the Theological Seminary there brought with him the 
idea and eventually established the university in the eastern suburb of the 
city. The Rev. Louis H. Schuh is the president and head of the faculty of 
the university. 


The Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, Columbus, was founded 
on a grant made under an act of congress approved July 2, 1882, donating 
lands to the several states and territories which might provide colleges for 
the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Lender the provisions of 
this act any state in order to receive and retain the grant of land or scrip 
must within five years provide "at least one college where the leading object 
shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts" 
in such a manner as the legislature of the state may prescribe ''in order to 
promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the 
several pursuits and professions of life." 

The above designation of the institution continued until 1878, when, 
after various changes in boards, and slow progress toward its destined ends, 
it took its present title "The Ohio University," and the shackles of school 
restrictions and limitations. In January, 1871, another long discussion 
arose in the board, and after many opinions and shades of opinion had de- 
veloped, the report of a special committee on the subject was adopted, which, 

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as it is the basis of the educational organization of the institution, is here 
given in full: 

The committee to which have been referred the various propositions re- 
lating to the <x)urse of study in our institution beg leave to report, as indi- 
cating the general scope to be ultimately embraced, without going into de- 
tails, and principally with a view of guiding us in the construction of our 
buildings, the following schedule of the departments, to serve as a basis in 
the organization of the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College: Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; Department of Mechanic Arts; Mathematics and 
Physics; Greneral and Applied Chemistry; Geology, Mining and Metallurgy; 
Zoology and Veterinary Science ; Botany, Horticulture, Vegetable Physi- 
ology, etc; English Language and Literature; Modern and Ancient Lan- 
guages; Department of Political Economy and Civil Polity. 

This plan or schedule was substantially that of Joseph SuUivant, of 
Columbus, one of the trustees, who had brought it before the board at a pre- 
vious meeting and had labored long and earnestly to establish the projected 
institution on the broadest basis consistent with the terms of the congres- 
sional grant. The action of the trustees shows that at the outset a middle 
course was adopted and that, while on the one hand the institution was not 
made merely an agricultural college, neither were agriculture and the 
mechanic arts relegated to the background, as in some of the colleges founded 
on the grant of 1862. The aim was **to teach the farmer and the mechanic 
their trades and also to educate them." 

After the scope of the college had thus been determined and while the 
main building was in process of erection the trustees undertook the selec- 
tion of a president and faculty. After careful consideration of many names, 
Edward Orton, Ph. D., then president of Antioch College, was elected presi- 
dent and professor of geology. By September, 1873, when the college threw 
open its doors for the reception of students, a faculty of seven members in 
addition to the president had been elected to fill the following chairs: 
Geology, physics and mechanics, general and applied chemistry, English 
and modem languages, agriculture, mathematics, zoology, ancient languages. 

The institution grew steadily, however, and all apparent as well as real 
difficulties were adjusted, the educational scope of the institution was broad- 
ened and expanded until it ranks favorably with the kindred institutions of 
the continent. In 1874 a reorganization of the board of trustees was made 
by the legislature by which the number of members was reduced to five, 
appointable by the governor, and holding office for five years each. Again, 
in 1877, organization was changed so that as in the first board there should 
be one member from each congressional district in the state, and each mem- 
ber should hold his office for six years. Finally, in 1878, the general as- 
sembly again reorganized the institution and provided for a board of seven 
trustees, to be appointed by the governor and to hold office for seven years 
each, after the first appointments, which later were to be so made that the 
term of one member should expire each year. 

By this same act of the legislature the name of the institution was 
changed from the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College to Ohio State 

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University. The reasons for this change of name were set forth Ly Presi- 
dent Orton in an earlier report in which he advised and asked the change 
as follows: 'Those who take their estimate of the institution from its title 
alone are sure that it has nothing in its courses which they desire, while 
some who judge the college from its its generous range and scope of its 
course:? of study are sure that it is proving false to a narrow purpose which 
they deduce from its title." The labors of President Orton, after the^e reor- 
ganizations, or rather adjustments, bore fruits worthy the laborer, and the 
great institution, with its splendid buildings and well poised faculty; its 
museum and archaelogical trophies; its rare library treasures in art and 
literature bespoke the higher destiny that awaits. 

The presidents of the institution have been: Edward Orton LL. D. ; 
W. 0. Scott, D. I).; William H. Scott, LL. I).; James IL Canfield, D. D.; 
William O. Thompson, D.D., LL. D. 

The faculty of 1873 wa^ thiLs constituted: Edward Orton, LL. D., 
President and Professor of Geology; T. C. Mendenhall, LL. D., Professor of 
Physics and ilechanics; Sidney A. Norton, LL. 1)., Professor of Chemistry; 
Joseph Milliken, A. M., Professor of Modern Languages; N. S. Townshend, 
M. D., Professor of Agriculture; R. W. McFarland, A. M., Profes-or of 
Mathematics and Civil Engineering; J. H. Wright, A. iL, Assistant Pro- 
fe*ssor of Ancient Languages; A. IL Tuttle, M. SC, Professor of Zoology and 
Comparative Anatomy. 

The present faculty cK)nsists of: William Oxley Thompson, President; 
Thoma- Corwin Mendenhall, Emeritus Professor of Physics; Sidney 
Augustus Norton, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry; Ilobert White McFax- 
land^ Emeritus Professor of Civil p]iiginei^ring; Stillman W. Robinson, 
Emeritus Profesvsor of Mechanical Engin?erng; William Henry Scott, Pro- 
fessor of Philosophy; Nathaniel Wright Lord, Professor of Metallurgy and 
Mineralogy, Director of the School of Mines; Samuel Carroll Derby, Pro- 
fessor of Latin; William Rane Lazenby, Professor of Ilorticullur:' an«l 
Forestry; Josiah Renick Smith, Professor of the (^reek Language and Liter- 
ature; Henry Adam W^eber, Professor of Agricultural Chemistry; Benjamin 
Franklin Thomas, Professor of Physics, and State Sealer of Weights and 
Measures; George Wells Knight, Professor of American History and Politi- 
cal Science and of Law; Rasser Daniel Bohannan, Professor of Mathe- 
matics; Albert Martin Bleile, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology; Wil- 
liam Ashbrook Kellerman, Professor of Botany (died March 8, 1908) ; 
George Beecher Kauffman, Professor of Pharmacy and Dean of the College 
of Pharmacy; Benjamin Lester Bowen, Professor of Romance Languages 
and Literatures; Joseph Villiers Denney, Professor of English and Dean of 
the College of Arts, Philosophy and Science; Allen Campbell Barrows, Pro- 
fessor of English (died January 19, 1908) ; Edward Orton, Jr., Professor 
of Clay- Working and Ceramics; Emilius Oviatt Randall, Professor of Law; 
William Thomas Magruder, Professor of Mechanical Engineering; Edgar 
Benton Kinkead, Professor of Law; William Herbert Page, Professor of 
Law; William McPherson, Professor of Chemistry; Joseph Nelson Bradford, 
Professor of Architecture; David Stuart White, Professor of Veterinary Med- 

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icine, and Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine; Herbert Osborn, 
Professor of Zoology and Entomology, and Director of the Lake Laboratory ; 
Olive Jones, Librarian; Henry Curwen Lord, Professor of Astronomy and 
Director of the Emerson McMillin Observatory; Frank Edwin Sanborn, Pro- 
fessor of Industrial Arts and Director of the Department; Frank Arnold 
Ray, Professor of Mine Engineering; John Allen Shauck, Professor of Law, 
Captain George L. Converse, U. S. A. (Retired), Professor of Military 
Science and Tactics; John Wright Decker, Professor of Dairy-ing (died 
June 20, 1907) ; Embury Asbury Hitchcock, Professor of Dairying (died 
Engineering; Francis Cary Caldwell, Professor of Electrical Engineering; 
Charles Smith Prosser, Professor of Geology; John Adams Bownocker, 
Professor of Inorganic Geology and Curator of the Museum; Wilbur Henry 
Siebert, Professor of European History; Christopher Elias Sherman, Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering; Charles Sumner Plumb, Professor of Animal 
Husbandry-; William W. Boyd, Professor of School Administration and 
Dean of the College of Education; Septimus Sisson, Professor of Compar- 
ative Anatomy; Homer Charlas Price, Professor of Rural Economics and 
Dean of the College of Agriculture and Domestic Science; Lew^is Addison 
Rhoades, Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures; Edmund Both- 
well Dillon, Professor of Law; James M. Butler, Professor of Law; AVade H. 
Ellis (resigned January 1, 1908), Professor of Law; James E. Ilagerty, 
Professor of Economics and Sociology; David R. Major, Professor of 
Psychology; Charles Bradfield Morrey, Professor of BacttTiolooy ; Gilbert 
Holland Stewart, Professor of Law; Joseph H. Outhwaite (died January 1, 
1908), Professor of Law and Dean of the College of Law; Frank Harvey 
Eno. Professor of Municipal Engineering; Alfred Vivian, Professor of Agri- 
cultural Chemistry; Emily Eaton Bracken, Profa<sor of Art; James Ells- 
worth Boyd, Professor of Mechanics; Thomas Ewing French. Professor of 
Engineering Drawing; Arthur Gillett ^IcCall, Professor of Agronomy; 
George AVashington Rightmire, Professor of Law; II. Shindle Wingert, Di- 
rector of Physical Education for Men; Oscar Erf, Professor in Dairying; 
Frank Pierrepont Graves, Professor of the History and Philosophy of Edu- 
cation; Frederick Rupert Marshall, Professor of Animal Hu>«bandry; Henry 
Russell Spencer, Professor of American History and Political Science; 
Alonzo Hubert Tuttle, Profes.^or of Law; Ruth Aimee AVardall, Professor of 
Domestic Sciences; Lewis C. Laylin, Professor of Law; Carmi A. Thompson,. 
Professor of Law; George Washington McCoard, Associate Professor of 
Mathematics; Arthur Winfred Ilodgman, Associate Professor of the Clrxfi^^- 
ical Languages; William Edward^ Henderson, Associate Professor of Chem- 
istry; Joseph Russell Taylor, Aa-^ociate Profes.^or of English; Charles A. 
Bruce, Associate Professor of the Romance Lancjuages; Charles William 
Foulk, Associate Professor of Chemistry; John H. Schaffner, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Botany; James Stewart Hine, Associate Professor of Zoology and 
Entomology; Francis Leroy Landacre, Associate Professor in Zoology and 
Entomology; Wallace S. Elden, Associate Professor of the Clas,«ical Lui- 
guages; Denny Hammond Udall, As.sociate Professor of Veterinary Medi- 
cine; Oscar V. Brumley, Associate Professor of Veterinary Medicine; Mat- 

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thew Brown Hamiiiond, Aissociate Professor of Ekjonomics and Sociology; 
James Mcllvaine Phillips, Associate Professor of Veterinary M-edicine; 
Gustavus Adolphus Anderegg, iV^sociate Professor of Electrical Engineer- 
ing; Virginia Babb, ^Vssociate Professor of Domestic Art; Clair Albert Dye, 
Associate Professor of Pharmacy; Karl Dale Svvartzel, Associate Professor 
of Mathematics; George Burridge Viles, Associate Profecjsor of Germanic 
Languages and Literatures; Edward Elsworth Sonnnermeier, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Metallurgy and Mineralogy; Harry Waldo Iluhn, Associate 
Professor of Mathematics; Frederick Edward Kester, Associate Professor of 
Physics ; J. Warren Smith, Lecturer on Meteorology ; William Lucius Graves, 
Assistant Professor of English; Charles Lincoln Arnold, Assistant Professor 
of Mathematics; George H. McKnight, Assdstant Professor of English; 
Vernon Morelle Shoesmith, Associate Professor of Agronomy; William Ab- 
ner Knight, Assistant Professor of Machine-Shop Practice ; Thomas Harvey 
Haines, Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Psychological 
Laboratory; Vernon H. Davis, ^\^istant Professor of Horticulture and 
Forestry; Horace Judd, Assistant Professor of Experimental Engineering; 
Edwin F. Coddington, Assistant Professor of Mechanics; Edgar Shugert 
Ingraham, Assistant Professor of Romance Languages; Robert F. Earhart, 
Assistant Professor of Physics; Thomas Kenyon Lewis, Assistant Professor 
of Engineering Drawing; P^dgar Holmes McNeal, Assistant Professor of 
European History; William Lloyd Evans, Assistant Professor of Chemistry; 
Fayette Avery McKenzie, Assistant Professor of Economics and Sociology; 
Carson Samuel Duncan, Assistant Professor of English; George David Hub- 
bard, Assistant Professor of Geology'; Roy K. Schlafly, Assistant Professor of 
Civil Engineering; Arthur Ernest Davies, Assistant Professor of Philosophy; 
John Christie Duncan, Assistant Professor of Economics and Sociology; 
Berthold August Eisenlohr, Assistant Professor of the Germanic Languages 
and Literatures; Albert D. Fitzherald, Assistant Professor of Comparative Anat- 
omy and Pathology; Robert Fiske Griggs, Assistant Professor of Botany; 
Walter Thompson Peirce, Assistant Professor of Romance Languages; John 
Bowker Preston, Assistant Professor of Mathematics; Samuel Eugene Rasor, 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics; James Renwick Withrow, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry; Frederic Columbus Blake, Assistant Professor of 
Physics; Charles St. John Chubb, Assistant Professor of Architecture; John 
Herman Hunt, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering; Ross C. Purdy, 
Assistant Professor of Clayworking and Ceramics; May Rebecca Laver, As- 
sistant Professor of Art; Carl Ridgon, Assistant Professor of Experimental 
Engineering; Bertha M. Hopkins. Director of Physical Education for 
Women; William C. Mills, Curator of Archaeology. 

First Degrees — The following baccalaureate degrees are conferred at 
graduation upon those who have successfully completed the regular courses 
leading to such degrees and who have fulfilled all other requirements of the 
university : Bachelor of Arts ; Bachelor of Science in Agriculture ; Bachelor • 
of Science in Horticulture and Forestry; Bachelor of Science in Domestic 
Science; Bachelor of Science in Education; Bachelor of Science in Chemi- 
cal Engineering; Bachelor of Science in Industrial Arts; Bachelor of Science 

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in Pharmacy; Ceramic Engineer; Civil Engineer; Civil Engineer in Arch- 
itecture; Engineer of Mines; Mechancal Engineer; Mechanical Engineer in 
Electrical Engineering; Bachelor of Law^; Doctor of Veterinarj^ Medicine; 
Higher Degrees — In the College of Arts, Philosophy and Science: 
Master of Arts; Doctor of Philosophy. Advanced degrees are ako given 
for graduate work in the technical colleges. The comparison of these 
different faculties indicates wonderful growth of the institutions. 


By Whom Established. 

The Ohio Stat^ Library was established by Grovemor Thomas AVorthing- 
ton in the year 1817. For several years previous to that time the need of 
such a library had been discussed. There was no proviirion for the preserva- 
tion of regular sets of the law^s and journals, nor any authorized place of 
deposit for maps, laws, documents or journals, which might be sent from 
other states. The general assembly which met December 2, 1816, appro- 
priated three thousand five hundred dollars as a contingent fund for the 
governor in 1817. In the summer of that year Governor Worthington made 
a visit to cities in the oaetem states for the purpose of investigating the plans 
of management in practice for penitentiaries and other state institutions. 
W^hile in Philadelphia, he determined to purchase a collection of books for 
the establishment of a state library in Ohio. On his return to Columbus he 
authorized the fitting up of a room over the auditor's office in the south end 
of the state office building, then on High street, just south of the avenue to 
the west entrance of the state house. He had deposited therein the books he 
had selected and had them arranged on shelves. 

When the sixteenth general assembly met in December, 1817, the gov- 
ernor reported in^ detail the steps he had taken for the founding of a state 
library. In his message, which was read to the general assembly, December 
2, 1817, Governor Worthington said: "The fund made subject to my control 
by the last general assembly, besides paying the ordinary demands upon it 
and for articles mentioned in the resolution of the legislature of January 28, 
1817, has enabled me to purchase a small but valuable collection of books, 
which are intended as a commencement of a library for the state. In the 
performance of this act I was guided by what I conceived the best interest of 
the state, by placing within the reach of the representatives of the people 
such information as will aid them in the discharge of the important duties 
they are delegated to perform.'' 

On the 9th of December the governor sent a comnuuiication to the leg- 
islature, in which he reported the titles of the books he had purchased and 
the rules he had authorized for the management of the library. On motion 
of Gustavus Swan, a member of the house from Franklin county, a resolution 
was adopted on the 17th of January, 1818, accepting the library which Gov- 
ernor Worthington had purchased and appointing a joint committee, con- 

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si^fting of three menil>ers of the houi^e and two members of the senate, to 
report rule^ and regulationi* for the game. 

First Librarian. 

Agreeably to the rulers esstablirfhed, Governor Worthington entrusted the 
care of the library to John L. Harper, during the session of the general as- 
sembly for 1817-18. He was, consequently, Ohio's first state librarian. He 
was paid for his services two dollars a day during the session of the legis- 

First Donation. 

The fii-st gift to the library on record was by Jeremy Bentham and 
Robert Owen, through John Quincy Adams, minister to England. Subse- 
quently many other persons cK)ntributed volmnes, pamphlets, letters, etc., 
while others were regularly acquired by purchase and exchange, until at the 
close of the year 1890 there were sixty thousand six hundred and thirty-three 
volumes registered. In 1850, the library was removed from its original loca- 
tion on High street to rooms opposite the state treasury, and in 1858 to its 
present quarters opposite the senate chamber. In the meantime, the legal 
works originally in the State Library were placed in the Law Library, and 
they became separate institutions. 

William T. Coggeshall, who was librarian from 1856 to 1862, wrote a 
detailed histor}^ of the library up to and including the year 1858, which 
appears in the report of that year. In 1890 John C. Tuthill, the librarian, 
brought the history down to that date. To these able writers persons are 
referred who desire the details in all their particularity. 

During the first eighteen years of its history the library was under the 
general direction of the governor. In 1845 a library commission w^ created 
by law, of which the governor, the secretary of state and the librarian were 
ex officio members. The following gentlemen constituted the personnel of 
the first board: Mordecai Hartley, Samuel Galloway and John Greiner. 

In 1898 the composition of the board of trustees was made appointive by 
the governor, the terms of the members being three years each. The follow- 
ing was the first board under the change: Charles A. Reynolds, president; 
Rutherford B. Hayes; J. F. McGrew. The present board is: J. F. McGrew, 
president, Charles Orr and John McSweney. 

The present number of books is rising, one hundred and twenty-six 
thousand, and the annual accessions are between seven thousand and eight 
thousand. The librarian's salary, in view of the great labor and responsibility 
of the position, is three thousand dollars, and he is fairly well supplied with 
expert assistants. The original librarian received two dollars per day during 
the seasons of the legislature. The first annual salary was three hundred 
dollars. Under the present libnu-ian, the great educational feature of the 
library was inaugurated by putting into successful operation the circulating 
department which extends into practically every neighborhood of the state, 
affording library facilities to the entire five and a half millions of popula- 

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In the Northeastern Suburb of the City, the Center of a Landscape of Almost 

Matchless Beauty. 

821 Main Street, One of the Leading Catholic Educational Institutions in the 


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The following person.^ have filled the office of librarian since iis founding, 
the figures prefixed indicating the d«te of their appointment and incumbency. 


John L. Harper. 


H. H. Robinson. 


John McQvain. 


R. M. Stimson. 


David S. Brodrick. 


H. V. Kerr. 


Zachariah Mills. 


Joseph H. G«iger. 


Thomas Kennedy. 


Howard L. Conard. 


John Greiner. 


H. W. Pierson. 


Elijah Hayward. 


F. B. Loomis. 


James W. Taylor. 


John M. Doane. 


William T. Coggeshall. 


William G. Sibley. 


S. G. Harbaugh. 


Joseph P. Smith. 


Walter C. Hood. 

1898-1908. J. H. Galbreath. (Inc.) 


The "beginnings" of thi^ now great institution dates back to the 17th 
of May, 1821, when "The Apprentices of Columbus formed themselves into a 
Soiety, for the purpose of establishing a library solely for benefit of Ap- 
prentices. They have formed a constitution, elected their officers and have 
collected what books their scant libraries afforded, which are but few." 

-4 Cooperative Library, 

In other words they set about establishing a common or cooperative 
library. Here the record ends. But the spirit which inspired it lived. An 
enterprising citizen, Thomas Johnson, in 1825, conceived the idea of starting 
a librar\' on a somewhat practical basis and yet within the reach of all. 

A Circulating Library. 

His idea was to start a circulating library and depend on public patron- 
age for its maintenance. It was to be open to the public on payment of a 
small fee. It circulated for awhile and then the fees and the circulation 
ceased, whether mutually or automatically the earlier recorder of library 
events saith not. 

The Colu.rtvbtis Reading Room, 

About 1835 the Columbus Reading Room and Institute was established 
and operated on a more elaborate scale than formerly had been attempted. 
Suitable rooms were rented and furnished, and newspapers and periodicals 
w^ere extensively subscribed for, and provision was made for a lecture course — 
the funds for its maintenance probably being largely derived from patronage 
of the lectures. As announced in the Journal of that time, "the Reading 
Room is regarded as a pleasant resort and an agreeable place to introduce 
one's friends and also respectable strangers who visit the city." A final appeal 
for more liberal patronage appeared in the Journal of April 30, 1839, which 
evidently was unsucce-.«ful as the rooms were shortly closed. 

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The Western Lyceum, 

Still the Spirit was not extinct. On the 14th of December, 1846, the 
"famous Franklin Lyceum was organized to ev«tablish a system of public lec- 
tures and a library. For six years t flouri-^hed and then it joined its prede- 

The Columbiui Afheneum. 

In 1853 this institution was founded and housed in the courthouse. A 
contemporaneous writer says of the event: 

'^A large, neat and convenient reading room is provided in the east wing 
of the courthouse. Attached are two rooms, one for a library and the other 
for specimens of minerals and metals and curiosities — the nucleus of a 
museum. The reading room is well supplied with newspapers and magazines; 
easy chairs and plenty of reading make this an attractive point for visitors 
.... Columbus needs and must have something of the kind. The wants of 
our young men demand it. We should offer them some better, more manly 
place of resort than the saloon and the gambling hell." 

Among the distinguished lecturers before the Atheneum, for the pur- 
pose of raising library funds, were, with their subjects: S. S. Cox, '^The 
Satanic Element in Literature"; John G. Saxe, ^*Poets and Poetr\'"; Bayard 
Taylor, "The Avales" and "Japan"; P. T. Bam um, "The Philosophy of 
Humling." This was the only lecture of the course of 1853-4 that paid any- 
thing and it paid handsomely. 

In the next course lectures were delivered by Samuel Galloway, Allen G. 
Thurman, Rev. I). A. Randall United States Senator Thomas Ewing, Wen- 
dell Phillips, Donald Mitchell (Ike Mar\Tl), George Sumner, Ralph Waldo 
Emerson and Charles Mackey. The financial success was greater than on the 
previous occasions, and it but only served in .stimulate public sentiment and 
incite action on the part of leading citizens. 

A Public Mi'eiing. 

A great public meeting was held June 15, 1871, over which Hon. John 
W. Andrews presided. An appeal was made to the city council to take action. 
Judge J. R. Swan, S. S. Rickley, Charles Breyfogle, James Westwater and Dr. 
William E. Ide were made a committee to push the matter in that direction. 

At a second public meeting another conmiittee consisting of J. Sullivant, 
John G. Mitchell, L. J. Critchfield, A. S. Glenn and Henry C. Noble. This 
committee reported a method of procedure on which the present public 
library and reading room w^as subsequently organized. It noted the fact that 
council had full power by ordinance to establish and maintain a free pub- 
lic library and reading rooms, and manage and control the same, and 
suggested that the management of the library be vested by council in a board 
of trustees consisting of four citizens elected by the council and that, ex offi- 
cio, the mayor, president of the city council and president of the board of 
education also ser\'e with the trustees. This report was unaniniously adopted 

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and sent to the council with a request for early and favorable action. The 
desired ordinance was introduced into council by John J. Janney, of the 
second ward, and was passed by the city council, January 15, 1872, and im- 
mediately thereafter at this same session, the council elected as trustees for 
one year Messrs. William B. Hayden and Otto Dresel, and as trustees for two 
years, Messrs. John W. Andrews and A. S. Glenn. A further meeting of 
citizens was held January 18, and the following committee was selected to 
cooperate with the trustees in the establishment of enterprise: Luther 
Donaldson, P. W. Huntington, Charles Breyfogle, John G. Thompson, 
Henry C. Noble, F. A. Marble, James Patterson, Isaac Eberly and L. G. 
Critchfield. The board of trustees held their first meeting February 19, 1872, 
with all the members present, viz: Hon. James G. Bull, mayor; Luther Don- 
aldson, president city council; Frederick Fieser, president board of educa- 
tion; William B. Hayden, A. S. Glenn, John W. Andrews, Otto Dresel. The 
organization was elected as follows: President, John W. Andrews; secretary, 
Otto Dresel; treasurer, A. S. Glenn. The Atheneum library of twelve hun- 
dred were transferred to the new librarj^ which was later housed in the 
dty hall. 

Library SiLccessjully Established, 

Rev. J. L. Grover was employed to catalogue the books thus secured, and 
in 1872 was made librarian. The library was formally opened Tuesday, 
March 4, 1873, at 8 P. M. The address was delivered by Hon. J. W. An- 

The Deshler Alcove, 

AVithin one week after the opening the Deshler Alcove was established 
in the library and has constantly been added to. In addition to a permanent 
cash endowment of two thousand dollars, some three thousand six hundred 
volumes have been accessioned and shelved. 

The Noble Alcove, 

In 1876 Henry C. Noble established the Noble Alcove in the library. 
Mr. and Mrs. Noble jointly creating a trust for the purpose of maintaining 
and promoting the alcove. The alcove is of four thousand volumes capacity, 
and the accessions are now approximately two thousand six hundred volumes. 

The Hubbard Alcove. 

The Hubbard Alcove was presented to the library in 1874 by Mrs. Mary 
N. Bliss, in memory of her father, William B. Hubbard. The case to contain 
the books is built of walnut cut from trees on the old Hubbard property on 
North High street. This alcove had no permanent endowment until 1891, 
when action was taken and the alcove was established. The alcove contains 
rising seven thousand five hundred volumes. 

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The Andrews Alcove. 

John W. Andrews and Mrs. Andrews founded the Andrews Alcove as a 
memorial to their deceased son, John W. Andrews, Jr., and made provisions 
for its maintenance. The alcove now contains about one thousand volumes. 

The Brickell Alcove, 

In 1899 William D. Brickell donated two hundred and thirty books and 
stated that from* time to time he would add thereto. The alco\^ now contains 
approximately one thousand two hundred volumes. 

The Kilbourne Alcove, 

In June, 1900, Colonel James Kilbourne delivered to the library seven 
hundred and fifty volumes for the purpose of establishing an alcove to be 
known as the Kilbourne Alcove, and stating that from time other books 
would be added and also creating a permanent fund for maintenance and 
accessions in the sum of one thousand dollars. 

Columbus Author's Alcove. 

In 1892, Osman C. Hooper submitted the proposition to establish a 
Columbus Author's Alcove, to contain the works of Columbus authors. It 
now contains four hundred volumes, the most of them containing the au- 
thor's autograph. 

John J, Pugh Made an Assistant. 

From 1872 the library streadily grew. In 1881, John J. Pugh, who 
had for years been a clerk in the library, was made assistant to Librarian 
Grover. In 1897, when Mr. Grover celebrated his ninety-first birthday, he 
laid down the burdens of the position and Mr. Pugh was unanimously chosen 
to the place, which he still holds. 

The present history, if the term is allowable, is too new to be more than 
made a few notes of. It is probably the real starting place of its greater ca- 

There were several people in the city who were instrumental in securing 
the two hundred thousand dollar donation from Andrew Carnegie to build 
the unique and beautiful marble structure, but none more entitled to men- 
tion than the board of trustees at and after the inception of the idea, Messrs. 
Fred J. Keer, president; James M. Butler, vice president; J. Nick Koemer, 
treasurer; Professor E. 0. Randall, Hon. James R. Kilbourne, Osman C. 
Hooper, of Columbus, and Colonel S. H. Church, of New York, formerly of 

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The Majestic Mwrble Structure, 

After the donations had been received, R. Ewing Miller remitting ten 
thousand dollars on the site for the building, the structure rose, and in due 
time was ready for occupancy. 

Laying the Comer Stone. 

The placing of the corner stone took place at 4 o'clock P. M., September 
10, 1904. Professor E. 0. Randall was officiant, Dr. Washingon Gladden, 
who pronounced the invocation, Hon. George D. Janes, president of the 
council, who appeared for Mayor JeflFrey, unavoidably absent, spoke in ber 
half of the city. James J. Thomas, ex-president of council, spoke appro- 
priately of the work that had been accomplished by steady persistence. Wil- 
liam A. Taylor read a specially prepared poem: "The Columbus-Carnegie 
Elm." Dr. S. O. Giffin spoke of the work toward the present end that had 
been done by council, of which he had been a member. Judge John E. 
Sater, a former trustee, congratulated the people on the prospect just ahead 
for a fitting educational monument. 

At the close of the exercises, Rev. E. D. Morris, D.D., pronounced the 

The Dedication of the Library, 

The edifice, which had already been occupied, was dedicated Thursday, 
April 4, 1907, the afternoon services continuing from 2 to 5 and again from 
7 to 10 in the evening. The following was the order of the exercises : Invo- 
cation, Rev. John Hewitt, D.D. ; introductory remarks. Professor E. 0. Ran- 
dall; remarks by Fred J. Keer, presiding; address by Burton E. Stevenson; re- 
marks by Mayor D. C. Badger; address by Rev. Dr. Gladden; remarks by 
Judge John E. Sater; remarks by Charles B. Galbreath; remarks by Colonel 
James Kilbourne; dedication poem by William A. Taylor; benediction by 
Rev. William E. Morris, D.D. 

On Historic Ground, 

The site of the library at the head of State street, with its background of 
trees and lofty towers and gables eastward, stands on historic ground, with 
only three generations of conveyance standing between the genius of the li- 
brary and the giant of the primeval forests. It was patented to Noah H. 
Swayne in the early part of the nineteenth century. Here he cleared away 
the forest, builded for his young wife and family a stately mansion, then far 
out in the country, which was reached by corduroy roads across swamps. In 
this house he lived and entertained as become the prince of men that he was 
until he ascended to the supreme bench of the United States, when he parted 
with the property to Hon. T. Ewing Miller, who finally transferred it to the 
library trustees, generously remitting ten thousand dollars of the purchase 

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The Home of Five Governors. 

Thi^ stately mansion in the absence of one belonging to the state, wa;? 
successively, or nearly so, the home of five of the very distinguished govern- 
ors since the Civil war, namely, General Jacob Dolson Cox, General Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes, Charles Foster, George Hoadly and Captain Joseph B. Foraker. 

A Touch of Romunce. 

It was at the Swayne mansion in the early days that T. Ewing Miller met 
his future bride, the daughter of a distinguished citizen of New York, who 
was visiting the family. Having met the woman of his choice there he longed 
to possess the premises for their associations. When Judge Swayne was ready 
to part with them, he found a quick and ready buyer in Mr. Miller. When 
the changes came and Mr. Miller retired from the activities of life, his ambi- 
tion and hope was that the home of his vigorous manhood might pass to some 
noble public institution, designed for the bettennent and advancement of 
mankind. It was with enthusiastic happiness that he saw the opportunity to 
reaize his hope and his ambition. 


During the year 1875, an Archaeological Society was formed at General 
Brinkerhoff's home in Mansfield, Ohio. The society, through the efforts of 
General Brinkerhoff, received an approi)riation from the legislature of two 
thousand five hundred dollars, to be expended in making ani exhibit at the 
Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. Professor John T. Short, of the Ohio 
State University, was secretary of the society, and it flourished under his sec- 
retaryship until his death, November 11, 1883, when the society became prac- 
tically inoperative. Governor Iloadley suggested a revival of the society. A 
meeting for this purpose was called to convene at the secretarj^ of staters office, 
February 12, 1885. A number of prominent gentlemen, including leading 
citizens, scholars and professors from various parts of the state, responded to 
this call, and decided to extend to all persons in the state interested in the 
formation of such a society an invitation to meet March 12, 1885, at Colum- 
bus. In response to the circulars sent out, some sixty gentlemen from all parts 
of Ohio, representing the various departments of scholarship, convened on the 
day specified in the library room of the slate capitol. This convention contin- 
ued in session tw^ days, perfected an organization known as The Ohio State 
Archaeological and Historical Society, which was incorporated March 13, 
1885. Hon. Allen G. Thurman was made president and Mr. A. A. Graham 
elected secretary. Mr. Graham occupied the office of secretary until Decem- 
ber, 1893, when ill health compelled him to remove west. He died in Albu- 
querque, New Mexico, in February, 1896. 

Mr. Randall was elected assistant secretary in December, 1893, to act as 
secretary in the absence of Mr. Graham. At the annual meeting of the tras- 

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.* 'T'"'^. L"';OX AND 
' 'ILD^.^J --p'jNDATIOf'V 

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tees, February 20, 1894, Mr. Randall was elected associate secretary, and Feb- 
ruary 19, 1895, was elected secretary, which office he has since held. 

The following have served as presidents of the society since it^ organiza- 
tion: Allen G. Thurman, Francis C. Sessions, Rutherford B. Hayes and 
Roeliff Brinkerhoff. General Brinkerhoff is incumbent 1908-9. 

For twenty-four years the society has faithfully pursued the lines of 
study and investigation for which it was organized, and has held regular 
annual meetings at Columbus. In that time it has accumulated a valuable 
collection of relics and antiquities, consisting of over one hundred thousand 
specimens, mostly archaeological in character, but embracing also many 
papers and articles of historical value. The collection has been catalogued 
and arranged in cases, and now occupies suitable quarters in the museum 
room of the society. Page Hall, Ohio State University. The library of the 
society, which numbers three thousand volumes of great value, occupies a 
library room in Page Ilall. Both the library and museum are accessible to 
visitors on each weekday between the hours of 9:00 a. m. and 5:00 p. m. 
The students of the Ohio State Univereity have free use of the museum and 

Archseoloffical Departrnent, 

Particularly is the society strong in archaeological research. No state 
in the Union is so rich in archaeological resources, consisting of mounds, 
forts, graves and monuments of prehistoric periods. The society is the 
custodian of Fort Ancient, Warren county, the largest, best preserved and 
most interesting remains of its character now extant. Models of this fort 
are in some of the leading museums of, Europe, and it is often visited by dis- 
tinguished scholars, not only of other states, but of foreign countries. The 
society is also the possessor of the famous Serpent Mound, in Adams county, 
one of the most curious religious monuments left by the Mound Builders in 
the United JStates. The site of the Big Bottom Massacre (1790) in Morgan 
county on the banks of the Muskingum, is now the property of the society. 

The society, through a corps of explorers, is doing splendid and valuable 
work, each year, in examining and making permanent record of the in- 
numerable points of archaeological interest in the state. An archaeological 
map is being prepared, which will designate the location of all important 
mounds, monuments, graves, etc., within Ohio. It is estimated that the*e 
places of interest number not less than ten thousand. 

Publications of the Society. 

The society is now issuing annually a bound volume (which first appears 
as a quarterly magazine) of material concerning the history, archaeology and 
biography of the state. It has published sixteen such volumes, averaging 
four hundred pages to the volume. These volumes are of the utmost value 
and interest, containing articles, essays and papers by the leading author- 
ities, historical and archaeological — most of which material is prepared 

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solely for the rsociety, and which does not exLst and eanuot be obtained out- 
side the works of the society. The demand for these publications ha< beeu 
so great that the society has issued nine editions of volumes four, five, and 
six; six editions of seven, eight, nine and ten; and three editions of eleven 
and twelve. These books are in constant demand, not only by similar soci 
eties and by leading libraries throughout the United States, but by the 
governments and great society libraries of the old world. Each member of 
the society is entitled, without cost, to these publications as they are issued 
by the society. 

The following articles of incorporation were taken out at the office of 
the secretarj' of state, March 13, 1885, and the organization was completed: 

The undersigned citizens of Ohio, having associated themselves together, 
and desiring to form a corporation not for profit, under the laws of the saul 
state of Ohio, do hereby subscribe and acknowledge the following articles of 
incorporation : 

1. The name of such corporation shall be The Ohio State Archaeological 
and Historical Society- 

2. Said corporation shall be located and its principal business trau.-- 
acted at the city of Columbus, county of Franklin, and state of Ohio. 

3. Said society is formed for the purpose of promoting a knowledge 
of archaeology- and history, especially of Ohio, by establishing and main- 
taining a library of books, manuscripts, maps, charts, etc., properly pertain- 
ing thereto; a museum of prehistoric relics and natural or other curiosities 
or specimens of art or nature promotive of the objects of the association — 
said library and museum to be open to the public on reasonable terms — and 
by courses of lectures and publication of books, papers, and documents touch- 
ing the subjects so specified, with power to receive and hold gifts and devices 
of real and personal estate for the benefit of such society, and generally to 
exercise all of the powers legally and properly pertaining tlion^to. 

4. Said society has no capital stock. 
The constitution provides in Section 1: 

'The membership of this society shall be divided into four classes, 
designated as follows: life members, active members, corresponding mem- 
bers and honorary members. Application for membership shall be made to 
the secretary of the society and by him referred to the executive committee. 
Upon the approval of the executive committee and the payment of the an- 
nual fee, such applicants shall be declared members." 

The life membership fee is twenty-five dollars; active three dollars and 
thereafter three dollars annual dues. President, General RoelifT Brinkerhoff. 
Mansfield: secretary, Professor E. O. Randall, Columbus; curator, Professor 
William C. Mills, Columbus. 

1897 — THE "'old northwest'' genealogical society — 1908-9. 

Through the efforts of Dr. Lucius C Herrick, M. D., seconded by the 
influence of Dr. Edward Ortin, LL. D., ex-president of the Ohio State Uni- 
versity, eleven ladies and gentlemen met April 10, 1897, and discussed the 

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formation of a genealogical society. The draft of a constitution presented 
by Dr. Herrick was referred to a committee consisting of Professor T. C. 
Derby, Mr. T. T. Cole and Dr. Herrick, and two weeks later, April 24, a 
society was organized to be known as the "Old Northwest" Genealogical Soci- 
ety, a constitution and by-laws adopted; Dr. Orton elected as president; Pro- 
fessor Derby as vice president; Dr. Herrick as secretary and librarian; and 
W. G. Pengelly as treasurer. Dr. Orton has been succeeded by Dr. A. A. 
E. Taylor, James Buckingham, James H. Anderson, Colonel James Kil- 
bourne and W. S. Poller successively. Dr. Herrick remained as secretary 
until his death and was succeeded by Frank T. Cole. The treasurers succeed- 
ing Mr. Pengelly have been A. W. Mackenzie, Roston Medbery. 

In May the society was incorporated and a seal adopted and at the 
October Ohio meeting it was voted to publish a quarterly magazine to be 
called The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Quarterly. The first number ap- 
peared in January, 1898, and the constitution of the society printed. A 
revised constitution was printed in January, 1901. And a third revision is 
now under consideration. At the October, 1898, meeting Major H. P. Ward 
offered the use of a book case in his office for the beginning of a library, 
and soon after donations of books by Messrs. Cole and Pengelly formed the 
nucleus of the present library of over twenty-seven hundred volumes. 

After various temporary homes the society was settled at 106 East 
Broad street and later at 187 East Broad street till the completion of the 
Memorial Hall, when quarters were assigned in there by the county com- 
missioners. The society meets quarterly on the second Thursday of January, 
April, June and October. The membership Ls of five honoray, life, 
resident, associate and corresponding. 

The society's library fills the library room of the Memorial building, 
which, however, is too limited to shelve fifty per cent of its book property. It is 
altogether probable that in the near future its rare and valuable genealogical 
works will be housed and shelved in a suitable room in the great marble 
building that stands at the head of State street, where they will be accesssible 
to the public for strictly reference purposes. While the quarterly meetings 
of the members of the society will be held in the same room. The disposal 
of this question has been referred to a committee consisting of Winfield S. 
Potter, chairman, William A. Taylor, George L. Ruggles, Roston Medbery 
and Professor F. T. Cole, secretary. 



The bench and bar of Columbus, to an extent, includes the state, sincc^ 
the court of last resort sits at the Capital, in term or in chambers, contin- 
uously, ^lany brilliant men have graced the bench and dignified the bar. 

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No attempt is made to write a detailed history of the bench and bar of the 
city, afi that belongs to the domain of the legal profession itself. The salient 
and vital points set out in these pages are rather for the general reader than 
for the profession, albeit the latter will no doubt find it interesting and val- 
uable along lines which the members themselves have not as yet blazed the 

For reasons that are obvious all the state-wide courts, as well as the 
territorial court, and the local common pleas, are grouped in this chapter. 
For approximately a century, and under two constitutions, the supreme 
court has sat in Columbus, and grown into one of the great legal tribunals of 
the republic. 

The Territorial Cowr^— 1787-1803. 

The members of the territorial court were appointed by the president 
for the Northwest Territory and were as follows: 

James M. Varnum, 1787-98; Samuel Holden Parsons, 1787-89; John 
Cleves Lymmes, 1788-1803; George Turner, 1789-96; Rufus Putnam, 1790- 
98 ; Joseph Oilman, 1790-1803 ; Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., 1798-1803. 

Judge Meigs was the last appointed territorial judge, and the first judge 
naniod for the state supreme court. On the 1st day of April, 1803, the 
two houses met in joint sessio nand organized the state judiciary by "appoint- 
ing" Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., Samuel Huntington and William Sprigg, 
supreme judges; Calvin Pease, president judge of the first circuit, Wyllys 
Silliman, of the second and Francis Dunlavy of the third. The joint body 
recessed and met again on the 6th day of April, 1803, and elected (appointed) 
three associate judges for each of the then existing counties, viz: 

Adams, Joseph Darlington, David Eddey, Hosea Moore. 
Belmont, David Vance, David Lockwood, James Alexander. 
Butler, John Greer, James Dunn, John Kitchel. 
Clermont, John Wood, Ambrose Ransom, Philip Gatch. 
Columbiana, William Smith, Henry Baekman, Robert Simmison. 
Fairfield, William W. Irwin, Samuel Carpenter, Daniel Vanmeter. 
Franklin, John Dill, David Jamison, Joseph Foos. 
Gallia, Robert Safford, Brewster Higby, G. W. Putnam. 
(Jreene, Benjamin Whiteman, James Barrett, William Maxwell. 
Hamilton, Michael Jones, Luke Foster, James Silvers. 
Jefferson, James Pritchard, Philip Cabell, Jacob Martin. 
Montgomery, Benjamin Archer, Isaac Spinning, John Ewing. 
Ross, Reuben Abrams, William Patton, Felix Rennick. 
Scioto, John Collins, Joseph Lucas, Thomas Leviney. 
Trumbull, John Walworth, Calvin Austin, Aaron Wheeler. 
Warren, Jacob DeLowe, William James, Ignatius Brown. 
Washington, Griffin Green, Dudley Woodbridge, Joseph Bell. 

Thus the judiciary of Ohio was constituted with three supreme, three 
president and fifty-one associate judges. It was, so far as may be gathered 
the nicst symmetrical judicial system of its age. There has been no radical 

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departures from these lines to this day, further than to strengthen and ex- 
pand them consonant with the growth of the population and the advance 
of the times. 

The terms of all these judges under the first constitution was seven 
years and they were, as stated, elected by the legislature, and when a vacancy 
occurred during the recess of that body, the governor filled the vacancy 
until the assembling of the legislature. 

The president judges presided over the court of common pleas of each 
county; the associate judges of that county sitting with him more in an ad- 
visory than in a judicial capacity. During recess they constituted a county 
court and discharged such duties as the legislatures prescribed from time to 

The Supreme Judges— 180^-1851, 

Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., 1803-04 and 1807-08; William Sprigg, 
1803-09; Samuel Huntington, 1803-08; Daniel Symmes, 1804-06; George 
Tod, 1806-10; Thomas Scott, 1809-16; Thomas Morris, 1809-10; William 
W. Irwin, 1810-15; Ethan Allen Brown, 1810-18; Calvin Pease, 1815-22; 
John McLean, 1816-23; Jessup Nash Couch, 1816-21; Peter Hitchcock, 1819- 
33; 1834-41; 1846-51; Jacob Burnet, 1821-26; Charles R. Sherman, 1823- 
29; Joshua Collett, 1829-36; Elijah Hay ward, 1830-31; John M. Goodenow, 
1830-32; Gustavus Swan, part of 1830; Henry Brush, 1830-31; John C. 
Wright, 1831-35; Ebenezer Lane, 1831-45; Reuben Wood, 1832-46; Fred- 
erick Grimke, 1836-41 ; Matthew Birchard,, 1842-49; Edward Avery, 1847-50; 
Rufus P. Spalding, 1849-51; Rufus P. Ranney, part of 1851. 

Previous to the adoption of the constitution of 1851, there were three 
and for some years four judges on the supreme bench. Under the latter 
instalment the number was fixed at five and the tenure at not less than five 
years, as the legislature should determine. In 1892, the number was raised 
to six and the tenure extended to six years. In adjusting the tenure to Ihe 
constitutioiial amendments confining state elections to the even numbered 
years, the tenures in individual cases were temporarily extended so that 
two judges are now chosen every two years. 

Under the second constitution as amended, there were created a su- 
preme, circuit, common pleas and probate courts, s^uperior courts, police 
courts and juvenile courts, also exist under its general provisions, with the 
courts of the justices of the peace, nearest the great body of the people. A? 
in the first constitution vacancies in the judgeship are filled by the governor 
until the next general electioi). 

Supreme Judges Under Second ConsttxUiom — 1851-1909. 

1852-54, William B. Caldwell; 1852-56, Rufus P. Ranney, and again 
from 1862-65; 1852-54, John A. Cornnn; 1852-56, Allen G. Thurman; 
1852-59, Thomas W. Bartley; 1854-55, Robert B. Warden; 1854-56, Wil- 
liam Kennon, Sr.; 1854-59, Ja^ph R. Swan; 1856-71, Jacob Brinkerhoff; 

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during 1856, Charles C. Convert; 1856-58, Ozias Bowen; 1856-72, Josiah 
Scott; 1858-63, Milton Sutliff; 1859^64, William V. Peck; 1859-63, William 
Y. Gholson; 1859-63, Hora<*e Wilder; 1864-83, William White; 1865-75, 
Luther Day; 1865-78, John Welch; 1871-86, George Mcllvaine; 1872-73, 
William H. We.^t; 1873-74, Walter F. Stone; 1874-77, George Rex; 1875-80, 
William J. Gilmore; 1877-81, W. W. Boynton; 1878-85, John W. Okey; 
1880-86, William W. Johnson; 1881-83, Nicholas Longworth; during 1883, 
John H. Doyle; during 1883, William H. Up?on; 1883-87, Martin D. Fol- 
lett; during 1885, Gibson Atherton; 1885-1913 (inc.), William T. Spear; 
1886-1902, Thaddeus A. Minshall; 1886-95, Franklin J. Dickman: 1887- 
1902, Marshall J. Williams; 1889-1900, Joseph P. Bradbury; 1892-1904, 
Jacob F. Burket; 1894-1909, John A. Shauck (inc.); 1900-13. William Z. 
Davis (inc.); 1901-09, J. L. Price (inc).; 1902-11, William B. Crew (inc.); 
1903-11, A. N. Summers (inc.). 

Judges Spear, Shauck, Davis, Price, Crew and Sununers arc uicumbent 
January 1, 1909. Shauck and Price reelected in 1908, term of six years each 
beginning in 1909. 

Supreme Court Commimons. 

In 1876-79 and in 1883-85 there were two supreme court commissions 
created by the legislature to aid the court in the dispatch of business. They 
were, in other words temporary branches of the supreme tribunal. Includ- 
ing the filling of vacancies there were the following judges in the first com- 
mission: Josiah Scott, D. Thew Wright, Henry C. Whitman, Thomas Q. 
Ashburn, William W. Johnson and Luther Day in the first, and Moses M. 
Granger, Franklin J. Dickman, John A. McCauley, George K. Nash and 
Charles D. Martin in the second commission. 

Attorneys General— UiO-WQd. 

The oflice of attorney general was created by the act of February 6, 
1846. Until 1851, the attorney general was chosen by the legislature; since 
that date elected by the people. 

The following persons have filled the office from and to the year^ 

Henry Stanberry, 1846-51; Joseph McCormick, 1851-52; George E. 
Pugh, 1852-54; George W. McCook, 1854-56; Francis D. Kimball, 1856-57; 
C. P. Wolcutt, 1857-61; James Murray, 1861-63; Lyman R. Critchfield, 
1863-65; W. P. Richardson, 1865 (part) ; Chauncey K Olds, 1865-66; Wil- 
liam H. West, 1866-70; Francis B. Pond, 1870-74; John Little, 1874-78; 
Isaiah Pillars, 1878-80; George K. Nash, 1880-83; D. A. Hollingsworth, 
1883-84; James Lawrence, 1884-86; Jacob A. Kohler, 1886-88; David 
K. Watson, 1888-92; John K. Richards, 1892-96; Frank S. Monnett, 1896- 
1900; J. M. Sheets, 1900-04; Wade H. Ellis, 1904-09 (incumbent); Ulysses 
G. Dennian, term beginning 1909. 

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Sixth and State Streets. 


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Clerkfi of the Supreme Court. (Elected.) 

Previous to 1866 the clerk of the eoiirt< of Franklin county as 
clerk of the supreme court. 

1866-75, Rodney Foos; 1875-78, Arnold Green; 187S-S1. Richard J. 
Fanning; 1881-84, Dwight Crowell; 1884-87, J. W. Cruik.«hank; 1887-93, 
Urban H. Hester; 1894-01, Jasiah B. Allen; 1901-08, Lawson E. Emerson, 
resigned, and 1908-09, J. W. Oberni eyre filled vacancy ; 1909, John S. McNutt. 

The President Judges. 

Under the constitution of 1802, the president judgo,', corresponding sub- 
stantially with the present common pleas judges, were elected or "appointed," 
by the legislature, for terms of seven years each. The state was originally 
divided into three circuits composed of several counties, with one presiding 
judge for each. Year after year, as population increased, new setlements 
formed and new counties were erected, the number of circuits increased until 
they reached twenty-one. 

The following were the president judges, who presided over the court 
of common pleas of Franklin county, many, in fact most of them, being 
residents of other counties, between the years 1803 and 1851 : 

Wyllys Silliman, 1803; Levin Belt, 1804-07; Robert Slaughter, 1805; 
William Wilson, 1810; John Thompson, 1812; Orris Parish, 1816; Frederick 
Grimke, 1817-30; John A. McDowell, 1820; Gustavus Swan, 1823; Joseph 
R. Swan, 1834-41 ; J. L. Torbert, 1848-51. 

The Common Pleas Judges. 

Under the present constitution the judges of the court of common pleas 
are elected by the people for terms of six, formerly five years each. The 
following have .sat on the bench, the figures showing the year or years of 
their election. 

James L. Bates,' 1852-57-61 ; Joseph Olds, 1868-73; Edward F. Bing- 
ham, 1873-83; Eli P. Evans, 1878-93-98-1903; George Lincoln, 1880-85; 
Hawley J. Wylie, 1881-86; Thomas J. Duncan, 1887-92-97; David F. Pugh, 
1888-93-98; Isaac N. Abernathy, 1890-95; DeWitt C. Badger, 1893-98-1903; 
Thomas M. Bigger, 1897-1902-09 (incumbent); Curtis C. Williams, 1898- 
1903. The present incumbents, in addition to Thomas M. Bigger, who fills 
the constitutional judgeship, are E. B. Dillon, Frank Rathmell and Marcus 
G. Evans. Dillon, Rathmell and Evans re-elected 1908 and E. B. Kinkead 
elected additional judge, their terms beginning in 1909. 

Associate Judges. 

Under the constitution of 1802, there were three resident judges elected 
by the legislature in each county, who, with the president judge, constituted 
the court. The associate or lay judges were not necessarily trained lawyers, 
and, in fact, but few of them were lawyers when cha-en to tho judiciary. 

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Following are the associate judges for Franklin county, the date of their 
election or appointment following the name: 

John Dill, 1803; David Jamison, 1803; Joseph Foos, 1803; William 
Thompson, 1808; Isaac Miner, 1809; Robert Shannon, 1810; William Reed, 
1810-1815; Alexander Morrison, Jr., 1810; Arthur O'Harra, 1814; Samuel 
G. Flenniken, 1817-24-31-38; David Smith, 1817; Recompence Stansberry, 
1819; Abner Lord, 1820; Edward Livmgston, 1822; John Kerr, 1822; 
Thomas Johnston, 1823 ; Aurora Buttles, 1824-31 ; William Mcllvain, 1829- 
37; Adam Reed, 1836; Christian Heyl, 1838-45; James Dalzell, 1843; John 

A. Lazell, 1844; John Landis, 1845; William T. Martin, 1851. 

Clerks of the Court. 

1803-10, Lucas SuUivant; 1810-15, Lyne Starling; 1815-36, Abram I. 
McDowell; 1836-38, Elijah Backus; 1838-46, Lyne Starling, Jr.; 1846-52, 
Lewis Heyl, 1852-54, Kendall Thomas; 1852-54, Albert Buttles; 1854-57, 
John L. Bryan; 1857-59, James H. Smith, died 1860; D. W. Brooks ap- 
point^, 1862; 1862-68, Thomas S. Shepherd; 1868-71, Casper Lowerstein; 
1871-77, James S. Abbott; 1877-80-83, Harvey Cashatt, died 1883, John Joyce 
appointed to vacancy; 1883-89, John Joyce; 1890, Theodore Beck, died Feb- 
ruary 4, , William H. Simonton appointed to vacancy; William H. 

Simonton elected clerk 1890-94. 1894-1900, Charles Galloway; 1900-04, 
J. W. McCafferty; 1904, Howard C. Park, reelected in 1908; term beginning 
in 1909. 

Probate Judges. 

This office was created under the second constitution, the incumbents 
made elective and the term fixed at three years. Under present statutes it 
was extended one year. The incumbents have been: 

1852, William R. Rankin; 1855, William Jamison; 1858-61, Herman 

B. Alberry; 1863-79, John M. Pugh; 1879-85, John T. Gale; 1885-91, 
Charles G. Saffin; 1891-97, Lorenzo D. Hagerty; 1897-1903, Tod B. Gallo- 
way; 1903-08, Samuel L. Black, elected a third time in 1908. 

Prosecuting Attorneys. 

Prior to 1838, the prosecuting attorneys w^ere appointed for indeter- 
minate periods by the court. The following were appointed at the dates 
indicated : 

1805, Reuben Bonaui; 1810, John S. Wills; 1812, David Scott; 1819, 
John A. McDowell; 1820, Thomas Backus; 1821, John R. Parish; 1830, 
Joseph R. Swan. 

Elected, Two-Year Terms. 

1833, Joseph R. Swan; 1834, P. B. Wilcox; 1836, Moses H. Kirby; 
1838-42, William W. Backus; 1842-44, Lewis Heyl, resigned near close of 

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his second term; 1846, L. H. Webster; 1848, Thomas Sparrow; 1850-54, 
Benjamin F. Martin; 1854, George L. Converse; 1856-62, J. O. Reamy; 
1862-68, Milton H. Mann; 1868-70, Edward T. DeLaney; 1870-74, George 
K. Nash; 1874-78, Joseph H. Outhwaite; 1878-82, William J. Clarke; term 
extended to three years at this period. 1882, Robert B. Montgomery; 1885- 
91, Cyrus Ruling; 1891-94, Curtis C. Williams; 1894-97, J. H. Dyer; 1897- 
98, Charles W. Vorhees (deceased), 1898, Albert Lee Thurman appointed to 
vacancy; 1898-1901, Edward L. Taylor, Jr., resigned 1901 and Augustus 
Seymour served out vacancy; 1903-09, Carl Webber. Reelected in 1908, 
term begins 1909. 


The sheriffs were "constitutional" officers, from the first, and were, like 
the governors and legislators, elected by the people for a term of two years. 
The incumbents have been: 

1803, Benjamin White appointed until the election could be held, and 
then : 

Elected, 1803-05, Adam Hosack; 1807-09, E. N. Delashmutt; 1811-13, 
Samuel Shannon; 1815-17, Francis Stewart; 1819-21, John Mcllvain; 1823- 
25, Robert Brotherton; 1827-29, John Mcllvain; 1829-31, Robert Brotherton; 
1833-35, Andrew Mcllvain; 1837-39, John Graham; 1841-43, William 
Domigan; 1845-47, John Graham; 1849-51, John Greenleaf; 1853, Thomas 
Miller; 1854, William Miner; 1855-56, Silas W. Park; 1857-61, William 
Domigan; 1867-69, George H. Earnhart; 1869-73, Samuel Thompson; 
1873-77, William E. Horn; 1877-79, Josiah Kinnear; 1879-81, John/U. 
Richenbacher; 1881-85, Louis Heinmiller; 1885^7, William H. Barbae; 
1887-91, Brice W. Custer; 1891-95, James Ross; 1895-97, Wheeler J. Young; 
1899-1903, Charles A. Pearce; 1903-09, George J. Karb; 19W-11, Albert E. 
Sartain. /'I 

The Franklin County Bw Association 

The Franklin County Bar Association was organized on the 20th day 
of April 1869, by the adoption of, a constitution, which had been prepared 
by Messrs. Otto Dressel, H^jnry C. Noble, George L. Converse, L. J. Critch- 
field, C. N. Olds, Llewellyn Baber, William R. Rankin and Thomas Spar- 
row, comprising a committee appointed for that purpose. ... 

The following named attorneys were present and. signed the .constitu-: 
tion upon whiehJhey had unanimously agreed: 

Alberry, Herman H. English, Lorenzo. Sparrow, Thomas. 

Andrews, S. W. - Galloway, Samuel. Shields, R. 

Atkinson, G. J. Geiger, Joseph H. Stage, B. F. 

Baber, Llewellyn. Graham, A. W. Taylor, Edward L. 

Baldwin, J. W. Groom, John C. Taylor, Henry C. 

Bates, James L. Holmes, J. T. Taylor, Stacey. 

Bingham, E. F. Hutcheson, R. Thurman, Allen G. 

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Brasee, Morton E. 
Briggrf, E. Clay. 
Bull, James G. 
Burnett, John. 
Castle, G. F. 
Chittenden, 11. C. 
Collin.^ G. G. 
Con vers?, (leorge L 
Critchfield, L. J. 
DeWitt, E. L. 
Drcssel, Otto. 

MeGuffey, John G. 
MeCraeken, George W, 
Mann, Col. T. 
Martin, B. F. 
Meeker, (leorge W. 
Mitehell, John G. 
Nash, (leorge K. 
XohLs Henry C. 
Old-^, Chauneey N. 
Uankin, W. R. 
Riehards, J. C. 

Thunnan, Thomas C. 
Wasson, G. W. 
Wat.<on, Jame^:. 
Wilcox, James. 
Wilson, Horace. 
Wilson, H. B. 
WoodruflF, R. P. 
V\'right, James E. 
Wright, Lucius C. 
Wykoff, A. T. 

\/\iie, Ilawley J. 

The following constitute the list of honorary members to date: Hon. 
Associate Justice Supreme Court of the United States, Noah H. Swayne; Ex- 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ohio, J. R. Swan; Hon. Judge John 
L. Green, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas; Hon. William Dennison, 
Jr.^ Governor of Ohio and Pastmaster General; Hon. George M. Parson, a 
Pioneer Practitioner at the Franklin County Bar; Hon. FAi P. Evans. Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas; Hon. E. F. Bingham, Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas, later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the District of 
Columbia; and Hon. George Lincoln, Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. 

W^ithout affecting a permanent organization the temporary organization 
with James E. Wright, chairman, and George K. Nash, secretary, adjourned 
from June 3, 1869, to July 1, 1869, for the purpose of effecting a permanent 
organization. On that day Judge J. W. Baldwin was elected president. 
Judge H. B. Alberry was elected vice president, (ileorge K. Nash, secretary 
and James Watson, treasurer. Executive committee, Henry C. Noble, Otto 
Dressel, C. N. Olds. Trustees, John D. Burnett, Llewellyn Baber, Morton C. 
Brasee, J. T. Holmes, John G. Mitchell. 

The object of the association, as set forth in the first article of the con- 
stitution was: 

"The Association shall be called The Franklin County Bar Association. 
Itsi object shall be to promote harmony, good feeling and closer union among 
the members of the bar; to maintain professional honor and dignity; to en- 
courage the highest attainments in legal knowledge, and to promote generally 
the professional interests of \i< members." 

The following is, in the order of their enrollment a complete list of the 
members of the asvsociation, from the 1st day of July, 1839, to date, under 
the second article of the constitution, and in addition to the original mem- 
bers as above as furnished by the secretary : 

John D. Sullivan 

Edward E. Cole 

Henry C. Kronenbitter 

T. P. Linn 

Bryan Collins 

John G. Dun^ Jr. 

Percy A. Wilson 

G. J. Marriott 

Alexander W. Krumm 

Walter B. Page , 

Gilbert H. Stewart 

James Caren 

J. T. Rogers 

W. T. Wallace 

E. E. Corwin 

S. P. Mulford 

R. H. Piatt 

Jamas M. I^ren 

A. L. Ralston 

Charles Tappan 

Charles G. SafRn 

F. W. Wood 

J. H. Heitmann 

Paul Jones 

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The Pioneer of the Modern Great Hostelries, Which Has Entertained Ohio's 
Great Men for Half a Century. 

The Rendezvous of Political Managers During the State Convention Season. 

Digitized by 


TH"£ ivi:^ YORK 



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H. M. Butler 
M, A. Daugherty 
Luke G. Byrne 
F. F. D. Alberry 
William J. Clarke 
Joseph M. Lowe 
Luke Clarke 
Charles H. Lander 
Charles E. Burr, Jr. 
S. Hambleton 
Thomas J. Duncan 
Joseph H. Outhwaite 
George D. Jones 
George S. Peters 
John M. Pagh 
W. E. Guerin 
Jason W. Firestone 
Joseph Olds 
Frank T. Cole 
H. J. Booth 
DeWitt C. Jones 
C. O. Hunter 
T. J. Keating 
R. B. Smith 
Richard T. Clarke 
P. S. Lowry 
Ralph E. Westfall 
W. L. VanSickle 
J. L. Davies 
E. M. Helwagen 
Charles W. Voorhees 
Cambell M. Vorhees 
James H. Anderson 
Frank M. Raymund 
James Marion Butler 
J. L. Bachman 
Edward B. Thomas 
C. D. Saviers 
Charles Aubert 
Henry A. Williams 
John H. Arnold 
Daniel H. Sowers 
Theodore Leonard 
Jesse W. Snider 
Edward B. McCarter 
W. M. Thompson 
E. B. Dillon 

C. M. Rogers 
II. L. Jones 
M. D. Phillips 
J. H. Vercoe 
R. K. Cotton 

C. T. Clark 

John F. McFadden 
Chas. A. Miller 
James A. Miles 
W. 0. Henderson 
George C. Evans 
Thomas H. Ricketts 
George L. Artz 
J. V. Lee 

D. C. Welling 
S. F. Maish 
David K. Watson 
R. A. Harrison 
W. N. TuUer 
Robert B. Montgomery 
Frank F. Rankin 

Ira H. Crum 
William H. Stewart 
Edward J. Dowdall 
H. B. Arnold 
Edgar W. Weinland 
Ivor Hughes 
Florizel Smith 
George E. Bibber 
M. L. Boyd 
W. A. Garst 
Nathan Gumble 
Henry Gumble 
Lewis G. Addison 
Oscar E. Halterman 
L. F. Sater 
Charles S. Cherrington 
Hiram S. Bronson 
R. S. Swepston 
Frank A. Davis 
James T. Holnie.«, Jr. 
John W. Mooney 
Lyman H. Innis 
Dora Sandoe Muchman 
H. J. Ossing 
J. C. Nicholson 
N. W. Dick 

A. E. Creighton 
Charles G. Lord 
George B. Okey 
J. H. Bayes 
Henry N. Galloway 
A. B. Norton 
L. L. Rankin 
Frank C. Hubbard 
G. A. Fairbanks 
Cyrus Ruling 
Michael O'Neill, Jr. 
Frank Rathmell 
Thomas E. Steele 
C. C. Williams 
E. W. Brinker 
Edmund Smith 
Edward N. Huggins 
Theo. M. Lindsay 
Joseph H. Dyer 
M. M. Hackett 
M. E. ThrailkiU 

E. 0. Ricketts 
Edmund E. Tanner 
John F. Fergus 

J. E. Charles 
Charles Wardlow 
G. E. Trump 
Fred C. Rector 
Elmer E. Murphy 
George W. Carpenter 
Perry A. Roach 
Frank F. Hoffman 
Charles F. Pryor 
0. C. Macy 
Theo. Weyant 
Charles S. M. Krumm 
G. H. Bargar 

F. H. Schoedinger 
Lincoln Fritter 

T. H. Hennessey 
John F. Carlisle 
Claude L. Brewer 
J. A. Godowm 
Fred S. Hatch 
C. T. Warner 
Eugene Morgan 
Edward T. Powell 

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R. C. Joiie^ 
J. S. Walker 
E. M. Baldridge 
(ieorge S. Marshall 
J. (luy Atkinson 
O. w! Aldrieh 
Marcas G. Evans 
John MorrL^ev 
John J. Lentz 
J. M. Sheets 
B. L. Bargar 
L. Benton Tnssing 
Charles E. Carter 
Sanniel L. Black 
Herbert E. Bradley 
William II. Innis 
William V. Baker 
Bert F. Mull 
David Clotts 
William 0. Mahoney 
E. II. Archer 

(ieorge W. Rhodes 
E. C. Irvine 
Jerr\^ Dennis 
William T. McClure 
Harry H. McMahon 
(\ E.' Blue 
Franklin Rubrecht 
(ieorge O. Canaga 
riric Sloane 
Edward C. Turner 
Stephen A. Shaq> 
H. C. Moore 
Byron Stillwell 
Samuel G. Osbom 

A. L. Thurman 
Armor W. Sharp 
Clayton A. McCleary 
David Ramsey 

T. H. Smith ^ 

B. G. Watson 
Era^tu5 G. Llovd 

J. E. Todd 
James A. Alien 
Edwiird L. Pease 
(iill)ert II. Stewart, Jr. 
J. F. Bertsch 
Frank S. Walker 
Carl G. Jahn 
John W. Chapin 
J. E. Sater 
David T. Keating 
Ennnett Tomi)kins 
Joseph F. Hays 
O. II. Mosier 
John T. Ward 
Fred N. Sinks 
Dwight Harrison 
Charles J. Pretzman 
Reed W. Game 
D. N. Postlewaite 
John R. Horst 
William Harvev Jones 


For many years, in fact throughout its entire history, Columbus has 
been noted for the ability of it^ physicians and the high standing of the 
great majority of its practitioners in an ethical point of view as well as in 
all others. 

The Columbus Academy of Medicine. 

Previous to the organization of this academy there was in existence a 
Central Ohio Medical Society, largely but not absolutely local to Columbus; 
and preceding that there had been two or three short-lived associations of 
physicians. On the 4th of April, 1892, in the office of Dr. H. P. Allen, 
78 East State street, the Columbus Academy of Medicine was organized. On 
motion of Dr. T. W. Rankin, Dr. C. F. Clark was elected temporary chair- 
man and Dr. J. C. Graham, secretary'. Dr. Kinsman stated the purpose of 
the organization to be medical advancement and fraternal good will among 
the members. 

An adjournment was taken to April 8th and at that meeting the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: 

President, Dr. D. N. Kinsman; vice president, Dr. T. W. Rankin; sec- 
retary. Dr. J. C. Graham; treasurer, Dr. F. W. Blake; board of censors, Drs. 
T. C. Hoover, H. W. Whitaker, H. P. Allen, Frank Warner and J. B. 
Schueller. At this meeting scientific discussion ensued, participated in by 
Drs. J. F. Baldwin, J. M. Dunham, R. Wirth, D. Tod Gilliam, T. W. Rankin, 
T. C. Hoover and others. 

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From the first meeting and organization the academy has grown in num- 
bers, importance and good results. The membership is now approximately 
two hundred and fifty and regularly receiving accessions. There are about 
one hundred and fifty physicians in the city who are not members of the 

The following distinguLshed members of the profession have been pres- 

1892, Dr. D. N. Kinsman; 1893, Dr. T. W. Rankin; 1894, Dr. IT. P. 
Allen; 1895, Dr. A. B. Richardson; 1896, Dr. J. E. Brown; 1897, Dr. D. L. 
Moore; 1898, Dr. Frank Warner; 1899, Dr. C. S. Ilamihon; 1900, Dr. An- 
drew Timberman; 1901-2, Dr. J. C. Lawrence; 1903, Dr. F. W. Blake; 1904, 
Dr. J. M. Waters; 1905, Dr. F. F. Lawrence; 1906, Dr. J. U. Barnhill; 1907, 
Dr. W. D. Deuschle. Dr. Wells R^achnor is the present president and Dr. 
Charles J. Shepard, the efficient secretary. 

Starling-Ohio Medical College. 

There were formerly two medical colleges, both high cla^s institutions, 
in Columbus, but they are now^ united as the Starling-Ohio. In 1846, Wil- 
loughby Medical College, located at Willoughby, Lake county, Ohio, was re- 
moved to Columbus, with a reorganization of its board of trustees. Under 
that organization one course of lecturas was delivered in this city, and then 
the institution abandoned. During this term, Lyne Starling, one of the orig- 
inal proprietors of the site of Columbus, executed a deed of trust, December 
18, 1847, to trustees, of thirty thousand dollars, to be paid in installments 
for the purchase of a lot and the erection of suitable buildings thereon for a 
medical college, and the establishment of a hospital in connection there- 
with. The trustees named in this bequest were William S. Sullivant, John 
W. Andrew^s, Robert W. McCoy, Joseph R. Swan, Francis Carter, Samuel 
M. Smith and John Butterfield. 

The trustees, on the 2d of January, 1848, met and accepted the trust. 
Mr. Starling then increased his generous donation five thousand dollars more, 
making it thirty-five thousand dollars. Upon application to the legislature, 
Starling Medical College, to be located at the state capital, was chartered by 
a special act, passed January 28, 1848. The board of trustees organized 
under the charter electing William S. Sullivant, president, R. W. McCoy, 
treasurer, and Francis Carter, secretary. The following gentlemen w^ere 
chosen, January 29, 1848, members of the faculty: Henry S. Childs, M. 
D. ; John Butterfield, M. D. ; Richard L. Howard, M. D. ; Jesse P. Judkins, 
M. D. ; Samuel M. Smith M. D. ; Frederick Merrick, A. M. ; and Francis 
Carter, M. D. During the first year the number of students was one hundred 
and sixty, and the degree of M. D. w^as conferred on thirty-two persons, and 
honorary degrees on six. 

The Mergeraent. 

The Stirling-Ohio Medical College is the result of a mergement of 
the Starling Medical College, well known for sixty years to the profession 

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of this country, and the Ohio Medical University, a school of fewer years 
but widely recognized as a prosperous college. Both institutions have a record 
of keeping pace with advancement along the line of a higher standard in 
medical education. Such union had been contemplated for sometime and 
is now accomplished. By combining the teaching forces and clinical facil- 
ities of the two schools a stronger institution has been made than either could 
hope to become as an independent organization. What one lacks the other 
supplies, and the union makes possible a college of which the alumni of both 
schools may be proud and in which the profession will have confidence. 

Columbus A Medical Center, 

Columbus has long been known as a medical center of no mean rating, 
and it is proposed by the united efforts of many of her best medical men to 
not only maintain such reputation but make her name even greater. That 
this can be done is not questioned, since no city in the middle west has men 
more experienced or better known for their capabilities as teachers of 

The capital city offers many advantages to the medical student other 
than those purely technical. Here is located Ohio's largest educational in- 
stitution, the State University, with its two thousand students, its numerous 
departments, laboratories, museums, and libraries, furnishing an atmosphere 
of study and investigation valuable to the student in any line. We find in 
the city also the state schools for the education of its unfortunates — the 
School for the Blind, for the Deaf and Dumb, and for Feeble Minded Youth. 
In addition there are the Columbus State Hospital for the Insane and the 
Ohio Penitentiary. These five latter institutions give many opportunities 
for observation and study in lines cla^ely related to, if not identical with, 
thase of the medical profession. 

Facilities for Instruction, 

Facilities for clinical, didactic and laboratory work, as provided for by 
the Starling-Ohio Medical College, are of the first order and in many ways 
superior to those more pretentious institutions. The teaching force is 
ample to carry out section work to a point of satisfaction never before at- 
tained in either college. The advantages of small classes can not be here 
enumerated, but one alone, the intimate acquaintance of the teacher with the 
special needs of individuals of his class, is sufficient to commend the plan to 
those who desire thorough work. 

Government of the College, 

The Starling-Ohio Medical College is governed by a board of twelve 
trustees, and its officers. Of this board W. 0. Thompson is president. Dr. 
Thompson is known far and wide as an educator, and as president of Ohio 
State ITniversity. C. S. Hamilton, M. D., is chancellor. Dr. Hamilton was 

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formerly dean of Starling Medical College and professor of surgery. W. R. 
Lazenby, secretary of the board, is professor of horticulture in the State Uni- 
versity. W. J. Means, M. D., is treasurer. Dr. Means was treasurer of the 
Ohio Medical University and professor of surgery. W. M. Mutchmore, 
registrar. Mr. Mutchmore has for years been registrar of the Ohio Medical 

Other members of the board are as follows: Frank Winders, M. D., 
formerly professor of therapeutics in Starling College; Thomas C. Hoover, 
M. D., formerly professor of surgery in Starling Medical College; J. E. 
Brown, M.D., formerly professor of otology and rhino-laryngology in the Ohio 
Medical University; C. F. Clark, M. D., formerly professor of ophthalmology 
in Starling Medical College; Andrew Timberman, M. D., formerly professor 
of ophthalmology in Ohio Medical University; Hon. H. J. Booth, attorney; 

E. B. Kinkead, attorney and professor of law^ in Ohio State University; Hon. 

F. J. Heer, formerly president of the board of trustees of the Ohio Medical 

The Central Ohio Medical Society, 

In August, 1868, a preliminary meeting, looking to the formation of a 
medical society in central Ohio, was held in the office of Dr. John McClurg, 
of Westerville, by Drs. Landon, Page, Neil, Beverly, Durant, Andrus, Garen, 
McClurg and that permanent organization was affected at Westerville, June 
14, 1869, at which time the following officers were elected: President, Dr. 
C. P. Landon; vice president. Dr. W. F. Page; secretary. Dr. P. F. Beverly; 
treasurer. Dr. John McClurg; censors, Drs. A. Andrus, Alex. Neil and 0. 
Johnson. Drs. Page, Beverly and FoUett drafted the constitution and by-laws. 

More than two hundred physicians have enjoyed membership in the so- 
ciety. The following served as presidents: Drs. C. P. Landon, W. F. Page, 
N. Gay, John Little, P. F. Beverly, J. D. Nourse, M. T. Wagenhals, A. FoUett, 
H. Hendrixson, Z. F. Guerin, J. N. Beach, L. Woodruff, J. T. Mills, E. B. 
Pratt, W. S. Pinkerton, O. Johnson, Toland Jones, T. W. Jones, G. S. Stein, 
J. F. Baldwin, R. Wirth, F. F. Lawrence, Alice Johnson, and R. H. Henry. 
The following have served as secretaries: Drs. P. F. Beverly, O. Johnson, 
J. U. Barnhill, J. F. M. Heeter, G. M. Clouse, and E. M. Hatton. 

The meetings which were first quarterly were soon changed to monthly, 
and held at different towns throughout central Ohio. The society enjoyed 
an active life for twenty-seven years, the last meeting being held November 
5, 1896. 


In dealing with the newspaper profession in Columbus, no attempt will 
be made, first because it is impracticable, and second because it would be un- 
profitable, to deal, even cyclopedically, save with those varied publications 
which were printed for the dissemination of general news, and of that class, 
only those which have survived the most of the century, or are now in active 

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There are but two Columbus newspaper;^ of the present day which can 
lay any gc'ncalo^ical claim upon the antiquity of the morning of the nine- 
teenth century, namely the Ohio State Journal and the Columbus Pre.-s Past, 
and both their chiim.s are valid and provable. The State Journal dates from 
1811; the Pre.^s Post from 1812, although the latter doas not claim to go 
back further than the Monitor, the third newspaper to be launched in 
Franklin county, in 1816, whereas, it goe»s back through the inheritance of 
good will, to the I^V'eman's Chronicle of 1812. The Freeman^s Chronicle 
was founder in 1812 by James B. Gardner at the request of Governor 
Meigs, to encourage the people of Ohio to .support the state and national ad- 
ministration, in the war of 1812, the whole line of federal papers in the state 
endeavoring to discourage them with bitter and often scurrilous flings at 
the administrative policy of Presidents Monroe and Madison and Governor 
Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr. 

After the war closed, the Freeman^s Chronicle, which had led a bril- 
liant and precarious life, gave up the ghost and its spirit and good will were 
inherited by the Monitor, and from that point the descent to the Press Post 
is clear, though somewhat varied. The State Journal goes back to the 
Western Intelligencer, the publication of which was begun in 1811 by that 
grand old pioneer. Col. and Rev. James Kilbourne, at Worthington, which 
was then the emporium of the upper Scioto valley. 

The Ohio State Journal. 

The Journal dat^s back to the first paper issued in the county in 1811 
and the Pret^s Post to the first paper published in Columbus in 1812. There 
being only a twelve-month difference between their ages, they will no doubt 
be able in 2011 to reconcile the difference and claim' that they are twin. 

Columbus was celebrated for almost three quarters of a century as the 
newspaper graveyard, and the solemn work of the undertaker does not seem 
to be entirely closed out. The State Journal was, after its first change, 'The 
Western Intelligencer and Columbus Gazette.'^ Then the Ohio State Journal 
and Register in 1838, having ab.sorbed its rival, the Register, and finally in 
1839 assuming the name "The Ohio State Journal,'' which, with an oc- 
casional suffix, when a rival was absorbed, has been maintained since. 

The Columbus Press Post. 

The Freeman's Chronicle became, in 1812, the progenitor of the Press- 
Post, its subscription list passing to the Ohio Monitor, in 1816, after its sus- 
pension in 1814-15. 

The Monitor merged with the Hemisphere in 1836, and after two or 
three further absorptions, it became the Ohio Statesman and the democratic 
exponent, under the management of Government Samuel Medary and his 
brother Jacob Medary, and continued as such until 1872, when it w^as sold 
to Dodd & Linton, and the Daily Statesman was merged with the new Daily 
Dispatch, and the weekly and Sunday Ohio Statesman were continued and 

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In the Residence Section of the North Side. 

Looking East From a Point Near the Intersection of Third Street. 

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carried the Ark of the Covenant of Democracy over and delivered it to the 
Columbus Times-Democrat, under John G. Thompson, S. K. Donivan and 
Captain J. H. Putnam, along in the e^trly '80s, and then the Times was ab- 
sorbed by the Press, and the Press-Times by the Post, the final transmuta- 
tion being the Press-Post of today, "which like good wine needs no bush." 
Thus two of the four daily English papers of today, in Columbus are 
trac'td back to the era of the old Washington hand press, or mayhap it^ 
progenitor, and the hand roller and its ancestor. 

The Columbus Evening Dispatch, 

The Dispatch was the outcome of a venture by a number of printers 
and newspaper men, viz. : Samuel Bradford Willoughby, W. Webb, William 
Trevitt, Jr., T. McMahon, James O'Donnell, John M. Webb, Joseph S. B. 
Given. P. C. Johnson, L. P. Stephens and C. M. Morris, who incorporated a 
ten thousand dollar company. 

In May, 1872, the Dispatch began a weekly issue. In July following 
the Daily Statesman was merged with the Dispatch and it became a daily. 
Later on William D. Brickell and L. D. Myers acquired the Dispatch, and 
the work of pushing it to the front was begun, and has not yet ceased. Event- 
ually Mr. Wlliam D. Brickell acquired the entire property and made great 
improvements, establishing the Sunday issue, Mr. Brickell disposed, at a 
later date, of an interest to Honorable Joseph J. Gill and probably a further 
interest to Harry Alexander, and then at a still later date, the whole passed 
to the present owners of the property, who show no lack of enterprise and 
push in the newspaper field. 

The Columbus Citizen, 

The Columbus Citizen was founded by Mr. George W. Dun in 1898. 
The venture w^as backed by a small amount of capital and a big section of 
that faith which removes mountains. It is said to have made its way from 
the start, and this is probably the fact. After conducting the Citizen success- 
fully for a number of years, Mr. Dun parted with a large amount of his in- 
terest in it and finally the entire establishment was taken over by the Scripps- 
McCrea League of Newspapers. 

Among the other general news bearing papers in the city are the follow- 

German Weeklies and Dailies, 

Der Columbus Daily Courier, No. 346 S. High street; The Weekly 
Columbus Express, 246 S. High street; The Daily Express and Westbote, 
246 S. High street; Der Semi- Weekly Westbote, 246 S. High street. 

There are in addition to these, between thirty and forty newspapers and 
periodicals, in addition in the city and suburbs, devoted to special lines and 
special interest*?, as well as literary cultivation and moral teachings. 

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Among the Crypts. 

Among the newr?j>apei*s that were, but are not, may be mentioned m 
ehronologieal order thus: Franklin Chronicle, 1819; Ohio State Bulletin, 
1829; Columba^ Sentinel, 1885; Ohio Register and Anti-Mavsonie Review, 
1832; \\\>;tern Ilemi.sidiere, 1882; The People's Pre^,s, 1836; The Ohio Con- 
federate, 1H:^X; Old School Republican, 1841; The Cra<< and Journal, 1838; 
The Capital City Fact, 1850; The Ohio Treses 1847; The Ohio Cultivator, 
1845; The Ohio Standard, 1845, and revived in 1850; The Ohio Columbian, 
1855; The Ohio Tribune, 1840; The Columbus Elevator, 1855; The Colum- 
bus (Jazette, 185(). Among the short-lived publications between 1845 and 
1855 were the National Enquirer, The Elei'tric, The Thompsonian Re- 
corder, The Independent Pre.-s, Budget of Futi, Straight-out Ilarri^onian, 
The Tornado, The Auger, The Ohio Freeman, Columbus Herald, Ohio In- 
telligencer, Ohio Democrat, The \Ve.«tbote, (German) still in existence, 
established in 1843. 

Between 1800 and the present date there were many brief and brilliant 
newspaper careers among which may be named the Columba^ Gazette, Sun- 
day Morning News, which lived a score of yeai-s, however, the Columbus 
Bulletin, Columbu^s Sentinel, Capital Events, Columbus Review, Sunday Cap- 
ital, Daily Courier, Sunday Globe, Saturday Critic, Democratic Call and last 
and ma-t notable of all, the Ohio Sun, supplied with all modern equipments 
and which issued a creditable daily and Sunday issue for nearly two years, 
suspending in 1908. 

The chronology of the three learned professions, treated in this chapter. 
1:5 in strict accord with Luke 13 :30. 


1812 — A MILITARY (CENTER — 1815. 

In the war of 1812 Columbus was the center of military operations 
against the British and Indians, and was, for a portion of the time, the head- 
quarters of General William Henry Harrison. Its location at that date, 
in th? absence of modern method^: of transportation, made it the natural 
rendezvous for troops operating against Upper Canadian points, as well a? 
defensive and offensive operations against the northwestern Indian tribes. 

At the time of the Civil war in 1881-05, with the railway facilities then 
existing, it became the great point of r.^cruiting and concentrating point, 
with Camp Chase the center for equij)ping and training the battalions for 
for the field. It was, indeed, a militarv capital for four years, during which 
there was little else heard or sj)oken except military operations, triumplis or 
defeats, at some point in almost every prolonged conversation between two or 
more persons. 

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Columbus and Franklin county contributed a high percentage of soldiers 
to the grand army of three hundred and twenty-five thousand that Ohio sent 
to the field, largely because it was an active military center, and daily con- 
tact with enthusiastic recruits going into training or moving to the front in- 
fected the great majority of the men of military age of the city and county, 
and carried them into the score or more of regiments that were recruited in 
the vicinity. 


In November, 1847, a meeting w^as held in Columbus for the purpose 
of raising by subscription the necessary sum of money ($500) to purchase 
and properly inscribe a sword to present to Colonel Greorge W. Morgan, of 
the Second Ohio Volunteer Regiment in the Mexican war. Byram Leonard 
presided and D. A. Robertj^on acted as secretary, and the following members 
of the committee to receive the contributions were selected: Samuel Medary, 
William Kelsey, Isaac Davies, F. Gale, Jacob Reinhard. 

On the 7th of December, 1847, Colonel Morgan en route from Mexico, 
arrived in the state capital, and on the 10th of the month was tendered a 
complimentary dinner at the American House, the invitations bearing the 
names of forty prominent citizens and members of the general assembly. 
MessK. R. P. Spalding and J. F. Williams escorted Colonel Morgan to the 
table. Many toasts were proposed and responded to. Colonel Morgan speak- 
ing felicitously. The sword ordered finished for Colonel Morgan was dis- 
played in the window of Savage's jewelry store on High street in February, 
and elicited many words of praise, taken in connection with the compli- 
ine^itary inscription and hand«*ome finish. 

During the summer of 1848 the second regiment returned to Ohio and 
Captain William A. Lathams Columbus company, after having lost eighteen 
killed and thirty-nine wounded, reached Columbus in July and were ten- 
dered a reception by the citizens. Colonel Morgan marching at the head of 
the parade, which moved from (Seneral Gale^^ Union Hotel. The streets 
were strewn with flowers by a bevy of young ladies and the little Misses Sil- 
bemagel and Wendall alternately recited the stanzas of an appropriate Ger- 
man poem in that language. 

Colonel Samuel Medary made the address of welcome, and Captain 
Latham responded in behalf of the returning veterans. On the evening of 
the same day the sword was presented to Colonel Morgan at Democratic 
Hall, Mr. D. E. Robertson making the presentation speech on behalf of the 
city and the individual donors. Colonel Morgan was greatly affected, but 
spoke with fervid eloquence, giving the praise for the victorious outcome of 
war to the soldiers in the ranks, rather than the officers in command. This 
historic sword is now preserved among the nations patriotic relics in the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, where Ohioans pause and ga7.e 
on it as they pa^s through. 

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The following is the roll call of the "Columbus Cadets," Captain William 
A. Latham's company of the Second Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantn' in 
the Mexican war, the returning volunteers already referred to whose pathway, 
within the city, was literally strewn with flowers by the girls and young 
women of that day. While the men and boys cheered them to the echo: 


Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry Mexican War, 

Eighteen killed in battle; thirty 
Captain, William Latham, 
First Lieutenant, James Markland, 
Second Lieutenant, John Arnold, 
First Sergeant, John A. Harvey, 
Second Sergeant, Wm. H. Sanford, 
Third Sergeant, William Cloud, 

-nine wounded. Rank and File. 
Fourth Sergeant, Victor Trevitt, 
First Corporal, Charles Johnson, 
Second Corporal, Lewis Hadley, 
Third Corporal, H. W. Johnes, 
Fourth Corporal, John Righter. 


George Atwater, 

W^illiam Greenley, 

Fred Schilling, 

Grcorge Altin, 

John Leonard, 

John Scott, 

James Bennet, 

B. F. Lincoln, 

Samuel J. Scott, 

Robert Benns, 

Robert Lucas, 

Ralph J. Scott, 

Moses Bedell, 

Augustus Marcy, 


Joseph Bidwell, 

John W. Marcy, 

William Simcox, 

I. R. Brake, 

Abed Moore, 

R. J. Shannon, 

Jacob Brown, 

Franklin Moyer, 

James Sheperd, 

A. Clarke, 

Samuel Mutchler, 

Seth Shoemaker, 

C. Coffman, 

T. Nadenbouseh, 

James Thomas, 

Thomas Davies, 

Samuel Pierce, 

Samuel Taylor, 

Louis Evans, 

Samuel Reaver, 

Daniel Townsend 

Elias Finck, 

Ja^eph Righter, 

Henry Tuttle. 

J. S. Foley, 

Samuel Sabines, 

William Forrester, 

D. K. Seltz, 


1861-5 THE OLD GUARD— 1908-9. 

From the beginning the military spirit was indigenous to the soil, 
and there were from the cla«e of the war of 1812 to the close of the Spanish- 
American war and since, notable military organizations in the city, which, 
as in the case of the Mexican and Civil war, furnished recruits who were so 
aptly trained and thoroughly imbued with the military >pirit. as to success- 
fully lead battalions and brigades to victory and real battlefields within 
from thirty to sixty days after having laid down civil pursuits and being 
mustered in. 

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The full military history of the city and county belongs to the domain 
of those who are chosen to devote one or more volumes to a single class of 
subjects, and it would take a long chapter to record the names of their 
soldiers and officers, without their titles or "mention in orders" of their gal- 
lantry and achievements. 

One of the surviving military organizations is worthy of more than 
passing notice and can be made without even the faintest suggestion of in- 
vidious distinction, and that is the Old Guard, composed of the veteran 
soldiers of the Civil war and some of whom were, at the beginning of the 
organization, veterans of the Mexican wax. On every fitting civic military 
occasion for a score and a half years, the Old Guard and its drum corps 
has evoked the applause and greetings of the city as they marched by with 
the verve and aplomb of Caesar's legions coming back from the conquest of 

Here is the present company roll of the Old Guard of Columbus 1908- 


Rank and File. 

Captain, William Miller, 
First Lieut., B. F. OUom, 
Second Lieut., L. D. Ross, 
Adjutant, David McCandlish, 
Chaplain, H. Bailey, 
Quartermaster, J. Conway, 

J. S. Kessie, 
J. L. Hale, 
J. Peters, 
W. K. Stichter,, 
H. T. Scott, 
W. W. Walmsley, 
J. H. Lloyd, 

B. F. Manier, 

C. R. Rhoads. 

J. H. Allen, 
Z. E. Amlin, 
L. Bauman, 
G. W. Bigelow, 
J. H. BlUer, 
S. Chapman, 
P. D. Clark, 
T. Clifton, 


G. Dorbert, 
W. F. Doty, 
J. D. Fisher. 
W. Haggerty, 
J. A. Pettit. 
C. L. Barlow, 
Q. C. Cook, 
J. F. Daley, 
E. S. Hawkins, 
J. D. Kennedy, 
J. D. Newton, 
W. U. O^Hara, 
Wm. Parks, 
G. Sain, 
S. H. Timmons. 

D. U. Hall, 
A. R. Innis, 
Wm. Kauffman, 
L. F. Keller, 
J. D. Kenney, 
D. S. Latham, 
G. Lawrence, 
T. W. Leach, 

D. H. Smith, 
J. H. Smith, 
T. T. Smith, 
H. Schaffer, 
O. E. Sells, 
A. Stone, 
George Stover, 
Wm. Thaeker. 

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M. N. Cook, 
J. Dice, 
L. T. Ebright, 
James Fagans, 
F. Fisher, 
C. Fishpaugh, 
J. Foark, 
A. P. Frame, 
C. Graham, 
H. R. Guthrie, 

Gor. A. L. Harris, 
Col. James Kilboume, 
Col. Geo. D. Freeman, 
Hon. R. M. Rownd, 
Hon. E. L. Taylor, Jr., 

J. H. Long, 
E. G. Maloney, 
W. W. McMain, 

D. McMullen, 
J. W. Messick, 
R. B. Oren, 
W. C. Powell, 
George Rie, 

E. E. Rickets, 
C. Roberts, 


Gen. H. A. Axline, 
Judge D. F. Pugh, 
Capt. Geo. W. Ware, 
Col. W. H. Knaus, 

A Notable Review, 

J. A. Thompson, 
J. H. Toy, 
D. Wigands, 
W. W. Young, 
G. F. Geary, 
H. S. GUvert, 
W. H. Pence, 
W. Y. Postle, 
D. Zook. 

Col. T. E. Knaus, 
Charles Dunphy, 
J. W. Gardner, 
J. W. Lindsay. 

One of the most notable of the more recent reviews of the Old Guard 
was held in the Franklin County Fair grounds on G. A. R. and Home 
Coming Day, September 6, 1907. 

There were present the governor and state officers, the two United 
States senators and most of the congressmen of the state. United States 
senators, congressmen and distinguished citizens of other states, and a 
vast concourse of prominent people, when the Guard marched by, counter- 
marched and wheeled into line in front of the reviewing stand and 
saluted the governor, his staff and the distinguished visitors. 

Comrade William A. Taylor, J. C. McCoy Post, No. 1, Department 
of Ohio, G. A. R., presented the Guard to Governor Andrew L. Harris in 
these words: "It is my pleasant duty. Governor Harris, to present to you 
the Old Guard of Columbus, the only organization of the kind on the 
American continent, if not in the world. The thrilling story of their 
early lives is deep graven in the nation's history. In the great war to pre- 
serve the Union, 1861-1865, they individually and as a whole, participated 
in more and greater battles than were fought by Alexander in his con- 
quest of the ancient world, or in the wars of Caesar and Napoleon com- 

"From Bull Run to Appomattox; across the fire-wTapped fields of 
Gettysburg, Shiloh, Kenesaw% Atlanta, ML«sion Ridge, Chickamauga, 
Nashville, Vicksburg, the Wilderness, Petersburg and others like them, they 
answered the bugle\s call and the drum beat of battle, ^as joyously as the 
bridegroom hastens to meet his bride.' Their story of today is V envoi of 
an immortal epic; an unvoiced poem that enflowers their march to the 
grand encampment of the beyond. 

"The Old Guard was organized Augast 13, 1884. Its object to pay a 
soldier's respect and reverence at the bier and above the turf of the mustered 

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out. Also to act as an escort on all fitting civic occasions; to participate in 
the inaugural ceremonies of Ohio^s governors and sometimes, as in 1905, in 
the inauguration of a president. The members of the Old Guard are life 
recruits from Ohio's veteran regiments, representing more, many more, or- 
ganizations than they uncover files in this review. Thej^ helped to make 
history. Soon they will be a part of history itself." 

Governor Harris spoke at some length to the old boys, just like one 
soldier would talk to another, for the governor is one of the old Guardsmen 
himself, both on account of age and service. He told stories, eulogized 
their services and was most enthusiastically received. 

Honors to Louis Kossuth, 

In the early part of the year 1852, the legislature of the state and the 
people of Columbus paid high honors and testified their admiration of the 
patriotism and heroism of Louis Kossuth the distinguished Hungarian 
patriot. The civil, social and military receptions tendered him continued 
from February 4 to February 9, 1852. Resolutions by the legislature, ask- 
ing the national government to mediate in behalf of peace and Hungarian 
liberty were passed; while the people of public meetings adopted resolutions 
of sympathy and encouragement in behalf of the Hungarian people in their 
struggle for liberty. During the memorable patriotic week addresses were 
delivered by Samuel S. Cox, Rufus P. Spaulding, Rufus P. Ranney, Samuel 
Galloway, George E. Pugh, Judge Jacob Brinkerhoff and other distinguished 
Ohio statesmen of the day. 

The First State Funeral 

General Thomas L. Hamer, of Brown county; former member of the 
legislature and of congress, who died of wounds received in the battle of 
Monterey, Mexico, December 2, 1846, was accorded a state funeral by the 
legislature of the state, and his remains were escorted from the Rio Grande 
to Ohio and to his home by a joint committee of the two houses. Eulogies 
were pronounced by the leading members of the two bodies, preceding the 
adoption of their resolutions, as well as at the distinguished statesmen and 
soldier's home in Brown county, where he was laid to rest among the 
familiar scenes of his early struggles and maturer successes. 

A Solemn National Pageant, 

The most solemn pageant ever beheld in the city was that commemor- 
ative and in honor of the remains of President Abraham Lincoln, in the 
spring of 1865, when the entire nation was plunged into grief because of the 
assassination of that great patriot and statesman. In solemn pomp and cir- 
cumstance of woe, the funeral pageant in Columbus was not equaled by any 
capital among the states through which it passed, the statehouse being 

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draped from turret to foundation stone with the solemn symbols and habil- 
imenta of grief. 

Public Grief for Two Ohioans. 

On two occasions isince the great edific*e which looms up in the Capital 
Park, has been similarly draped in 1880 because of the assassination of 
President Garfield and in 1901 and of the assiissination of President Mc- 
Kinley, both of whom were the beloved and honored sons of Ohio. 

Honor to a Jowm<iUst. 

A splendid state tribute was paid to Januariu.^ A. MacGahan, born in 
Perry county, Ohio, during the year 1884. Mr. MacGahan was an eminent 
newspaper writer, who going to London in 1877-8, was sent by the London 
Daily News to Bulgaria to investigate the conditions there under Turkish 
rule. The revelations made in his correspondence caused all Europe and 
the Chancellories to act in unison and they compelled the Sultan to cede 
Bulgarian independence. The grateful people oflfered to make him their 
king, but he declined to consider the proposition. 

He died suddenly of typhus fever in Constantinople in June, 1878. In 
1884 the Ohio legislature by joint resolution provided for the removal of 
his remains to Ohio, the navy department cooi>erating with the state legis- 
lature. His remains were brought to New York on a war vessel and from 
thence transported to Columbus, where they lay in state in the rotunda of 
the capitol. They were buried at New Lexinoton nc^ar the place of his birth. 
September 11, 1884. 

The State Treasury Robbed. 

On the 6th of May, 1827, the state treasury was entered and robbed of 
twelve thousand six hundred and fifty-seven dollars and ninety-eight cents, 
of which eleven thousand six hundred and twenty-seven dollars and sixty- 
six cents was subsequently recovered, leaving the actual loss, one thousand 
and thirty dollars and thirty-three cents. Treasurer Brown asked the legis- 
lature to investigate the robbery, and the committee found him blameless, 
and attributed the robbery to the unsafe condition of the treasury vault, and 
insufficient safeguards, and recommended that the treasurer be acquit of the 
loss and allowed forty-six dollars and fifty cents by him expended in appre- 
hending the thief and recovering the money. The name of the thief is not 
of record. 

A Governor Constructively Imprisoned. 

To Governor Thomas Worthington belongs the unique distinction of 
being the only Ohio governor ever arrested and started to jail for debt. In 
1815 or 1816, Governor Worthington contracted with .Tndore .Tar\^is Pike to 
grub and chop the timber ott' the present statelioii>e square. The governor 
w^as a non-resident of Franklin county, residing at Chillicothe. Some mis- 

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understanding arose as to the payment of Judge Pike for his labors, where- 
upon he sued out a capias from the court of Squire King, and had -the gov- 
ernor arrested and marched oflF to jail. He was not locked up, however, 
the matter having been amicably adjusted. 

Burning of the First State House, 

The first statehouse built as elsewhere stated, stood on the southwest 
comer of the park, and finally became an eye-sore. The new building was 
progressing so slowly that the idea no doubt obtained that old was delay- 
ing the completion of the new. This building was destroyed early on the 
morning of Sunday, February 1, 1852. The origin of the fire was never 
seriously inquired into, and no one regretted its destruction. The following 
description of the conflagration appeared in the Ohio State Journal at that 
time. They did not print a Sunday edition : 

"Yesterday (Sunday) morning, about four o'clock, the cry of fire rang 
through our streets. It was soon ascertaned that the old State House was 
on fire. The watch first discovered it in the center of the Senate Chamber, 
and on the floor. This w^as nearly extinguished, when it was discovered 
that the timbers over head were on fire. Soon it burned out through the 
roof, and the entire belfry was quickly in flames. The engines could not 
reach the fire, and it was evident that the venerable old edifice, in which 
the legislature of Ohio had met for the last thirty-five years, was doomed to 
destruction. The belfry, after burning brilliantly for a few minutes, came 
down with a crash upon the floor of the Senate Chamber. The roof then 
gradually fell in, and the upper story of the building was a mass of flames. 
An effort was now made to confine the fire to the Senate Chamber and upper 
rooms, but there was too heavy a mass of burning matter on the floor to be 
extinguished, and soon the flames reached the Hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. The origin of the fire has not yet been ascertained. The desks, 
chairs and furniture had been removed, and the entire building was then 
resigned to its fate. In the Senate Chamber very little was saved. We learn 
that the clerk's papers w^ere all secured, but that a large mass of documents, 
journals, constitutional debates, etc., were consumed." 

The cause of the fire was never satisfactorily ascei-tained. In the ensuing 
spring the remains of the building were removed, and the ungainly high 
board fence that had so long enclosed the public square was extended round 
the site of the old building. The remainder of the session the house of rep- 
resentatives sat in Mr. Neil's Odeon Hall, and the senate in the United States 
courthouse, on the oppasite side of the street. The next winter, 1852-3, the 
house of representatives again sat in the Odeon Hall, and the senate in Mr. 
Ambo's Hall. In the winter of 1853-4, the regular session, both branches 
occupied the same halls as the preceding winter. In 1854-5, no legislative 
session. In 1855-6, they again occupied the Odeon and Ambas's Halls, and 
in the winter of 1856-7, they for the first time held their session in the new 

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A Striking Difference. 

The difference between the old time and the present day escapes from 
the penitentiary is exemplified by the following account of a sort of a whole- 
sale escape of prisoners from the Ohio penitentiary in 1830 and their re- 
capture by means of public advertisements. 

A Daring Rtish. 

^^There were every year more or less escapes of prisoners by stealth, 
though but one daring rush. About the year 1830, some dozen or more 
prisoners, having banded themselves together to force an escape, were 
secreted in a vacant cell, just inside of the outer door of the prison, and 
when the turnkey, Mr. O'Harra (later Squire O'Harra, of Franklinton), 
had occasion to unlock the door, the daring Smith Maythe, who headed the 
gang, sprang forward and caught O^Harra round the body, and held him 
fast, while his comrades rushed out. He then, letting go of Mr. O'Harra, 
bounded forward and placed himself at the head of the gang, and they 
marched up past the mound (there then being but few improvements to ob- 
struct their way), and on to the woods in a southwest direction. They were 
advertised and finally all picked up, one or two at a time, and returned to 
the prison. Poor Maythe, some years after his release from the Ohio peni- 
tentiary, was, for a case of robbery and attempted murder in Kentucky, 
hung by a mob, without judge or jury." 

Under the law and regulations of the old penitentiary, the institution 
was charged with and paid the costs of prosecution and transportation of con- 
victs — always a heavy item of expense. But under the law and regulations 
for the government of the present penitentiary, the costs of prosecution and 
transportation are paid out of the state treasury, and are not, in the warden's 
annual exhibits, charged to the institution, which should not be overlooked 
in making a comparison between the exhibits of the old and the present in- 

The old buildings and the ten-acre lot upon which they stood, and 
which had been donated by the proprietors of the town to the state for the 
erection of a penitentiary thereon, w^re no longer needed nor used in con- 
nection with the penitentiary; and the succeeding year the walls of the yard 
were sold by the state officers and were torn down, and the stones used, part 
for building purposes, and part burned into lime at a kiln erected on the 
lot for that purpose, by Jacob Strickler. The main prison building, which 
had been erected in 1818, remained some two or three years longer, when 
it was also removed, leaving the original building, erected in 1813, and the 
brick storehouse, erected by Wright in 1822, still standing; and they were 
taken possession of by the quartermaster general — the one as a place of 
depasit for the public arms, and the other as a work shop for cleaning and 
repairing the arms, thus converting the two into a kind of state armory, 
and they so remained until 1855, when they wTre both razed to the ground. 

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and the bricks used in filling in some part of the new statehouse; and the 
old lumber sold and removed. So that now there remains not a vestige of 
the old penitentiary and its appendages ; and the grading down of the streets 
and the digging down and hauling away of a great part of the hill itself, for 
gravel and sand, has so changed the surface of the location where the prison 
and yard once were, that a person familiar with that place seventy years 
ago, could not now recognize it. 

Patriotic Societies, 

Columbus is the headquarters of numerous patriotic societies. That 
is to say, societies that were organized to commemorate great patriotic events 
in the foundation and preservation of the republic. Most prominent among 
these is the Ohio society of the Sons of the American Revolution vehicle, 
was organized April 22, 1889, in the senate chamber by about fifty charter 
members. The first officers chosen were William A. Taylor, president, April 
to November, 1889; A. A. Graham, secretary; Henry A. Williams, treasurer; 
Daniel H. Gard, registrar. Their successors were elected and took office the 
first week in November 1889. The terms of the officials since 1890 has been 
from April 19 to April 18 of each year. 

Sons of the American Revolution. 

The following have been the presidents of the society during the twenty 
years of its existence: 

1889. William Alexander Taylor, Columbus. 

1889. Wilson Riley Parsons, Worthington. 

1890. Henry A. Axline, Zanesville. 

1891. John Luther Vance, Gallipolis. 

1892. Henry M. Ci^t, Cincinnati. 

1893. Edwin Michael Putnam Brister, Newark. 

1894. Orlando W. Aldrich, Columbus. 

1895. Lucius Bliss Wing, Newark. 

1896. John Fassett Follett, Cincinnati. 

1897. James McElroy Richardson, Cleveland. 

1898. James McElroy Richardson, Cleveland. 

1899. John W. Harper, Cincinnati. 

1900. Moulton Houk, Toledo. 

1901. Emilius Oviatt Randall, Columbus. 

1902. Millard Fillmore Anderson, Akron. 

1903. James Kilbourne, Columbus. 

1904. Isaac F. Mack, Sandusky. 

1905. Isaac F. Mack, Sandusky. 

1906. Edward D. Gardiner, Toledo. 

1907. William L. Curry, Columbus. 

1908. Harry P. Ward. Worthington. 

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The officers for 1098-1909 with the addres!?es are as follows: 

President, Harry P. Ward, Columbus. 
Registrar, Hugh Huntington, Columbus. 
Treasurer, Stimpson G. Harvey, Toledo. 
Historian, William L. Curry, Columbus. 
Chaplain, Wm. H. Cole, Sabina. 
Secretary, William A. Taylor, Columbus. 

Board of Management, Benj. F. Wirt, Youngstown; Theo. M. Bates, 
Cleveland; William L. Curry, Columbus. 

Many Accessions, 

There have been nearly two thousand accessions to the society. To be 
eligible to membership the candidate must be able to establish from historical 
records that he is descended from a Revolutionary soldier. The object of the 
society is to perpetuate the memory and the spirit of the men who achieved 
American Independence, by the encouragement of historical research in re- 
lation to the Revolution and the publication of its results, the preservation 
of documents and relics, and of the records of the individual services of Rev- 
olutionary soldiers and patriots, and the promotion of celebration of all 
patriotic anniversaries. 

To carrj- out the injunction of Washington in his farewell address to 
the American people "To promote, as an object of primary importance, in- 
stitutions for the general diffusion of knowledge," thus developing an en- 
lightened public opinion and affording to young and old such advantages as 
shall develop in them the largest capacity for performing the duties of 
American citizens. To cherish, maintain and extend the institutions of 
American freedom, to foster true patriotism and love of country, and to aid 
in securing for mankind all the blessings of liberty. 

The society has quarters in the Franklin County Memorial Hall; its 
annual meetings are held April 17, the anniversary of the battle of Concord 
and Lexington. The Benjamin Franklin Chapter is a subordinate post of 
the state society at Columbus. Other chapters are: Anthony Wayne, Toledo; 
Nathan Hale, Youngstown; Western Reserve, Cleveland; Simon Kenton, 
Kenton; Cincinnati, Cincinnati; Nathaniel- Greene, Xenia; George Wash- 
ington, Newark. 

Grand Army of the Republic, 

Tliere are numerous posts of the Grand Army of the Republic in the 
county. In the city is J. C. McCoy Post, No. 1, which at one time had a 
membership of over two thousand five hundred. The formation of other 
posts and demises have reduced the membership to between two hundred and 
fifty and three hundred. Other posts in the city are Wells Post and Beers 
Post. The Sons of Veterans, descendant of the Civil war veterans, have 
societies or camps as have the soldiers of the Spanish-American war, and all 
of them have Women's Relief or Auxiliary Corps. 

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The Local Legion (officers of the Civil war) , the Union Veterans Union 
and the Society of the Ex-Prisonera of War maintain organizations. 

Daughters of the ATnerican Revolution, 

The Daughters of the American Revolution is a large and enthusiastic 
body, who have rescued from oblivion the graves of Revolutionary soldiers 
who lie buried in Ohio, until thousands have been identified with bronze 
markers and the work is still being carried enthusiastically forward as it has 
been for years. Among the local daughters, Mrs. Professor Orton, Mrs. 
Colonel James Kilbourne and Mis. Frank Tallmadge have been especially 
prominent in the work, while hundreds of other willing hands have helped 
it forward. 

Graphic Story of Jonathan Alder, 

Colonel William L. Curry writes entertainingly of Jonathan Alder, an 
Indian prisoner from Virginia, who was brought into this part of Ohio and 
was a frequent visitor in the limits of the city, both before and after the organ- 
ization of the municipality. 

Mr. Alder was born near Philadelphia, but over the New Jersey line, 
September 17, 1773, and was about forty years of age when the war of 1812 
commenced. When he was about seven years of age his parents emigrated 
to Virginia. About a year after this event, and after the death of his father, 
he was in the woods hunting for horses with a brother and was taken pris- 
oner by the Indians. His brother attempted to escape and was killed by the 
Indians and his scalp taken in the presence of Jonathan. Mr. Alder often 
related to the old settlers incidents of his trials and hardships during his 
years of captivity, in very graphic language. 

The village to which Alder was taken belonged to the Mingo tribe and 
was on the north side of the Mad river, we should judge somewhere within 
or near the limits of what is now Logan county. As he entered he was ob- 
bliged to run the gauntlet, formed by young children armed with switches. 
He passed through the ordeal with little or no injury and was adopted into 
an Indian family. His Indian mother thoroughly washed him with soap 
and water with herbs in it, previous to dressing him in the Indian costume, 
consisting of a calico shirt, breechclout, leggings and moccasins. The fam- 
ily having thus converted him into an Indian, were much pleased with their 
new member. His Indian father was a chief of the Mingo tribe, named 
Succohanos; his Indian mother was named Whinechech, and their daughters 
respectively answered to the good old English names Mary, Hannah and 
Sally. Succohanos and Whinechech were old people and had lost a son, in 
whose place they had adopted Jonathan. They took pity on the little fel- 
low and did their best to comfort him, telling him that he would be restored 
to his mother and brothers. 

Life Among Indians. 

When Alder had learned to speak the Indian language, he became more 
contented. He says: "I would have lived very happy, if I could have had 

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health, but for three or four years I was subject to very severe attacks of 
fever and ague. Their diet went very hard with me for a long time. Their 
chief living was meat and hominy; but we rarely had bread and very little 
salt, which was exeremely scarce and dear, as well as milk and butter." 

When he was old enough he was given an old English musket and told 
that he must go out and learn to hunt. So he used to follow along the river 
courses, where mud turtles were plenty and commenced his first aims upon 
them. He genereally aimed under them as they lay basking on the rock, 
and when he struck the stone they flew sometimes several feet in the air, 
which afforded great sport for the young marksman. Occasionally he killed 
a turkey or a raccoon, and when he returned to the village with his game, 
generally received high praise for his skill. The Indians told him he would 
make ^'a great hunter one of these days." 

He had a varied experience during the years he remained with the 
Indians and witnessed the shedding of blood in more than one engagement 
between the whites and the savages. He also went on one expedition with 
others in Kentucky to steal horses from the settlers. He remained with the 
Indian.s until after Wayne's treaty, 1795. He was urged by them to be 
present on the occasion and obtain a reservation of land which was given 
to each of he prisoners, but ignorant of the importance, he neglected and 
lost his land. Peace having been restored, Alder says, "I could now lie down 
without fear and rise up and shako hands both with the Indians and the 
white man." 

Met Lucas Sullivant, 

The summer after the treaty, while living on Big Darby, Lucas Sulli- 
vant made his appearance in that region, surveying lands, and became on. 
terms of intimacy with Alder, who related to him a history of his life and 
generously gave him a piece of land on which he dwelt; but there being some 
little difficulties about the title Alder did not contest and lost it. When the 
settlers first made their appearance on Darby, Alder could scarcely speak a 
word of English. He was then about twenty-four years of age, fifteen of 
which was passed with the Indians. 

When talking one day with John Moore, a companion of his, the latter 
questioned him where he was from. Alder replied that he was taken prisoner 
somewhere near a place called Greenbrier, Virginia, and that his people lived 
by a lead mine, to which he used frequently to go to see the hands dig ore. 
Alder then made up his mind that he would make every effort to find his 
family, and he advertised for them in various places. Some time afterward 
he and Moore were at Franklinton, when he was informed there was a letter 
for him at the postoffice. It was from hLs brother Paul, stating that one 
of the advertisements was put up within six miles of him and that he got 
it the next day. It contained the joyful news that his mother and brothers 
were still alive. He had married a squaw, from whom he separated after 
dividing his property with her. He went back to Wythe county, Virginia, 
and found his family and mother still living. "The first words she spoke," 

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he said, after she grasped me in her arms, were "How you have grown," and 
then she told him of a dream she had. 

A Mother's Dream. 

Said she: "I dreamed that you had come to see me and that you were a 
little, mean-looking fellow, and I could not own you for my son; but now 
I find I was mistaken — that it is entirely the reverse, and I am proud to own 
you for my son." "I told her I could remind her of a few circumstances 
that she would recollect, that took place before I was made captive. I then 
related various things, among them was that the negroes, on passing our 
house on Saturday evening to spend Sunday with their wives, would beg 
of her to roast pumpkins for them against their return on Monday morning. 
She recollected these circumstances and said now she had no doubt of my 
being her son. 

"We passed the balance of the day in agreeable conversation, and I re- 
lated to them the history of my captivity, my fears and doubts, of my grief 
and misery the first year after I was taken. My brothers at this time were all 
married, and Mark and John moved from there. They were sent for and 
came to see me, but my half-brother, John, had moved so far away that I 
never got to see him at all." 

The Last Shot in the Civil Wiar. 

D. N. Osyor, a well-known resident .of Columbus, manufacturer of and 
agent for fine cutlery, a mechanical engineer and among the first to introduce 
electricity into the coal mining business, for cutting and hauling, and who 
is present commander of J. C. McCoy Post, No. 1, Department of Ohio, Grand 
Army of the Republic, claims to have fired the last shot on either side, in 
the military sense of the term, and backs up his statement by historical cita- 
tions including those of the commanding officer General W. D. Hamilton, 
in his interesting brochure descriptive of the engagement, entitled: "In at 
the Death or the Last Shot at the Confederacy." 

The narrative of the incident, along with the subsequent encounter with 
the Confederate victim of that last shot, is given in Commander Osyor's 
own words, to which may be added the statement that all historical refer- 
ences given by him substantiate his claim. He says: 

"The last shot at the Confederacy was on the morning of the 17th day 
of April, 1865. The Ninth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry were about twelve miles 
from Durham Station, North Carolina. We were keeping a close watch on 
General Joe Wheeler's Cavalry. Our command was on the opposite side of 
a swamp from Wheeler's position. Early in the morning, we were ordered 
to dismount and No. 1, 2 and 3 to wade across (which was about waist deep) 
and open fire on them to enable the balance of the command to cross the 
swamp on a corduroy bridge. We were using our Spencer carbines so lively 
that they thought we were a whole brigade, and we succeeded in our inten- 
tion to take their attention from the bridge. Just as we were emerging from 

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the water, a bullet came pretty clofte to the blood line on my arm and took 
away part of the sergeant'^ »<tripe worn on my old blouse. I saw a long 
barrel of a gun between two branehet* of a {?mall tree a short di^ftanee in front 
of me and a leg of gray pair of trousers sticking out on the side. I took a 
shot at it and saw it slide down and crawl away. Just at this time a flag 
of truce came in sight and we were ordered to cease firing. This occurrence 
at the time did not impre.-v? me as being of much importance, but that flag 
of truce was the end of the Rebellion. Buford and Johnson soon surrendered 
and we came home. 

'^V few years ago I wiis sent to Birmingham, Alabama, to do some work, 
and w*hile there met a man by the name of Amos Thompson, who was a 
soldier in the Confederate army and was shot in his left knee, which made 
him a cripple; he had to walk with a crutch; he said he got that wound 
with the last shot fired that morning by a Yankee sergeant whom he had 
tried to get but missed. After comparing notes we became friends, and slept 
together for about two months and between us we established the fact (and 
I believe justly so) that we fired the last shot? and put an end to the Civil 
war. He has gone to the other shore, but I am still spared and am proud 
to know that I am thought worthy to wear the little bronze buttoa — and to 
be made the commander of the grandest post in the Grand Army of the 
Republic, J. C. McCoy, No. 1, Department of Ohio. 

"David N. Osyor, 

''Co. F., 9th O. V. C." 



Columbus, like all other centers of population, has had its u|)s and 
downs in the financial field, but its failures have been few and trivial com- 
pared with other cities both in the east and in the west. 

A Pioneer Bank. 

The Franklin Bank of Columbus was incoi7)orated by an act of tlu^ 
legislature on the 23d of February, 1816, and on the first Monday of Sep- 
tember in the same year, the first election for directors was held, when the 
following gentlemen were elected, to-wit: Lucas Sullivant, James Kilbourne. 
John Kerr, Alexander Morrison, Abram T. McDowell, Joel Buttles, Robert 
Massie, Samuel Barr, Samuel Parsons, John Cutler, Robert W. McCoy, Joseph 
Miller and Henry Brown. The following are the names of the successive 
presidents and cashiers, with their times of appointment: Presidents — 1810. 
Lucas Sullivant; 1818, Benjamin Gardiner; 1810, .John Kerr; 1823, Gus- 
tavus Swan. Cashiers— 1810, A. J. Williams; 1818, William Neil; 1820, 
Jonah M. E«py. The charter of this institution expired on the ^i^t of Jan- 
uary, 1848. 

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Bank vs. The Legislature, 

The establi;shnient of branche^s of the bank of the L^iiited States of Ohio, 
near the close of the .-eeond decade of the last century and the attempt of 
the legislature to subject them to tajcation, on a par with the other banks 
and financial institutions of tlie state, led to a bitter conflict. The legislature 
by law subjected the United States banks to the same rate of taxation as was 
imposed upon the banks organized under the state laws. The officers of the 
United States Bank refused to recognize the authority of the legislature to 
levy and collect taxes from them, setting up that they were foreign corpora- 
tions and were chartered under the laws of the United States, and therefore 
not subject to state excise or control. 

Trouble Anticipated. 

In 1819-20 at the oi)ening of the legislative session, Governor Ethan 
Allen Brown, in his message to the legislative body, dealt largely with the 
existing financial conditions, and he charged the financial depression prev- 
alent, both to the United States bank and to the reckless and injudicious 
use of credit by the incorporated banks of the state, then twenty-two in num- 
ber. He recommended the whole subject to the careful consideration of the 
legislature. As was probably anticipated, the United States bank resisted 
the collection of the one hundred thousand dollars animal tax assessed against 
it by the act of the previous year. The bank, by its attorneys, Creighton 
& Bond, went into the United Slates court and enjoined the state authorities, 
(iovernor Brown, in his state papers,* stood by the enactment and there was 
intense excitement, both in the legislature and the courts, over the subject, 
pending the final determination of the rights of the state in the premises. 
As was expected, the United States bank refused to pay the taxes assessed 
against it, and Trea-urer Saimiel Sullivan and Auditor Ralph Osborn, pro- 
ceeding under the i)rovisi()ns of the law, entered the bank and forcibly levied 
upon one hundred thousand dollars and carried it off to satisfy the taxes and 
penalties demanded by the state, under the statute. 

State Officers Imprij^oned. 

For this the stati^ oHic^M's were arrested upon a writ taken out of the 
United States district court, which sustained the condition of the bank, that 
it was independent of the state and ihv legislation, and ordered Sullivan and 
Osborn to return the money with a penalty to the l)ank. They refused to 
obey the order and were im|)ris()ned for contempt. Subsequently they re- 
turned the money and were released. The legislature assembled in 1820-21 
ready and anxious to deal with the bank of the United States. 

A Bank Onthwed. 

The question was referred to a special joint committee, at the head of 
which was William Henry Harrison, aftenvard elected president, who drew 

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the report. The two houses carried out the recommendations of a joint 
committee of the two houses, the legislature placed the bank of the United 
States outside the pale of Ohio's laws, and enacted: 

1. No sheriff or jailer was permitted to receive into his custody any 
person arrested on mesne process, or taken or charged in execution at the 
suit of the bank or its officers, or any person committed for or on account 
of any offense charged to have been committed upon the property, rights, 
interests or corporate franchises of the bank. 

2. It was declared unlawful for any judge or justice of the peace to 
take legal cognizance of the bank, by entertaining suits against debtors, tak- 
ing acknowledgments or proof thereof, of deeds, mortagages and conveyances, 
and the county recorders were forbidden to enter them of record. 

3. Notaries public were forbidden to protest any promissory notes due 
and payable to the bank, or give notice thereof. 

4. Any sheriff violating the act was held responsible on his bond for 
two hundred dollars for each offense, to be recovered in an action at law 
by the party aggrieved. Any judge or justice of the peace violating the law 
was deemed guilty of a misdemeanor in office and liable to a fine not ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars at the discretion of the Court for each offense. 
Notaries violating the law were removable from office. 

5. If the bank should withdraw its suits against the State of Ohio and 
its officers and notify the governor and agree to pay a tax of four per cent 
upon its dividends, or would agree to withdraw from doing business in the 
state, leaving only its agents to wind up its affairs, the governor, by proc- 
lamation, was authorized to suspend the operation of the law. 

As the statute put the bank beyond the pale of the law, its managers 
availed themselves of the fifth section and withdrew from the state. An at- 
tempt was mooted to carry this law into the United States courts to have a 
judicial ruling made, defining the sovereign powers of the states and de- 
claring the act an usurpation. But the federalist lawyers themselves saw the 
fallacy of raising the question and the idea was abandoned. 

In February, 1845, the banking law to incorporate the state bank of 
Ohio and other banking companies was passed. Books were immediately 
opened and the requisite amount of stock soon subscribed for three new 
banks — the Exchange branch and the Franklin branch of the state bank: 
and the city bank, based upon state stocks. The Exchange Bank went into 
operation the 24th of May, 1845, with a capital of one hundred and twenty- 
five thousand dollars. The Franklin Bank went into operation July 1, 1845, 
with a capital of one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. 

City Bank of Columbus. 

This institution went into operation near the same time as the Ex- 
change and Franklin branch banks under the same law, but a different pro- 
vision of it, which authorized independent banks, secured by the deposit 
of state stocks with the treasurer of state. ThL- bank was located in the same 
building as the Columba? Insurance Company, and to a great extent, the 

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stockholders in one of these institutions were also in the other; and so also 
with the directory of both institutions, which became in their business much 
mixed up together. Joel Buttles was the president of the bank until the time 
of his death, in the summer of 1850. Then Robert W. McCoy was president 
until the time of his death, January, 1856. Thomas Moodie was cashier 
during the whole existence of the institution. 

Finally the bank and insurance company both failed; the insurance 
company in 1851, and it was in the month of November, 1854, that the bank 
suspended and closed its doors. The public lost nothing by the notes, they 
being secured, as above stated. But it was ruinous to the holders of stock, 
which was nearly all sunk. The charter of the bank, however, was for a 
time kept alive by the annual election of officers — probably with the view of 
sometime commencing business again. 

At the legislative session of 1837-8, the Mechanics' Savings Institute, a 
bank of deposit, etc., was incorporated and soon after went into operation 
in Columbus. William B. Hubbard, Esq., president, and for a time Warren 
Jenkins, then Thomas Moodie, cashier. It was continued till about the time 
the City Bank commenced business, when the former was discontinued, or 
merged in the latter. 

The moneyed institutions in Columbus in 1858 were the Exchange 
branch and Franklin branch of the State Bank of Ohio, above named, and 
three pretty extensive private banks or brokers' offices, viz.: The association 
doing business under the name of "Clinton Bank," "Miller Donaldson & 
Co., Bankers," and "Bartlitt & Smith, Bankers." But a few years later 
there were four regular chartered banks in the city. One had failed, as before 
stated; the charter of another expired by limitation and it became hard to 
obtain a new bank charter under the then Constitution. 

Columbus Gas Light & Coke Company. 

By an act passed the 21st of February, 1846, Joel Buttles, Samuel 
Medary, Charles Scott, James S. Abbott, Dwight Stone, John Miller, James 
D. Osborn, James Westwater, S. D. Preston and William Armstrong and 
their associates were incorporated by the name of the Columbus Gas Light & 
Coke Company, for the purpose of lighting the streets and buildings of the 
city of Columbus. The company to be governed by a board of not less than 
five nor more than nine directors. 

On the 6th of December, 1848, the company held their first meeting for 
the election of five directors, when John Miller, D. W. Deshler, J. Ridgway, 
Jr., John Lockwood and William A. Gill were elected. Mr. Miller was chosen 
president, Mr. Ridgway secretary, and Mr. Deshler treasurer. Subsequently 
Mr. Gill was president of the board. The buildings and necessary prepara- 
tions being made on the 14th of May, 1850, the city council passed an ord- 
inance granting the privilege to the company of using the streets and alleys 
for the purpose of laying their gas pipes and conveying the gas through the 
city. As a consideration for this privilege the gas company are to furnish 
such quantity of gas as may be required by the city council for public lamps 
at two-thirds the price paid by private consumers. 

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A Thousand Per Cent Increase. 

In 1858, the banks then in existence in Cohnnbus .stood for and rei)i*e- 
sented approximately one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. In 
1908. the banks of the city with their cognate financial institutions, stand 
for and represent at least, if not more than one million dollars for each one 
thousand dollars at the beginning of the past fifty years. In other words, 
the increase has been one thousand per cent in the half century, an average 
increase of twenty per cent annually, and this has also been the approximate 
annual expansion of business, population and all the essentials for the up- 
building of the municipality. 

The banking institutions prior to 1858 scarcely reached a half score. 
Now they are numbered by scores. Among the principal ones may be men- 
tioned. The Deshler National; The Commercial National; The City National; 
The Ohio National; The Huntington National; The Ilayden-Clinton Na- 
tional; The New^ First National; The Union National; The National Bank 
of Commerce; The Capital City Bank; The Capital City Trust Co.; The 
Citizens Savings Bank; The Colonial Banking Co.; The Columbus Savings 
Bank; The Columbus Savings & Trust Co.; The Lincoln Savings Bank; 
The Market P:xchange Bank; The North Side Savings Bank Co.: The 
Northern Savings Bank; The Ohio Trust Company; The Peoples Bank; The 
Produce Exchange Banking Company; The Security Savings Bank; The 
State Savings & Trust Co. ; The West Side Dime Savings Bank ; The Foreign 
Exchange Bank ; The Market Exchange Bank ; The American Savings Bank ; 
The Beggs Bank; The Home Store Bank; Caleb L. McKee & Co., Bankers; 
F. G. Thompson & Co., Bankers. AUemania Building & Loan; Buckeye 
State Building & Loan ; Central Loan & Savings Co. ; The Columbian Build- 
ing & Loan; The Fidelity Building & Loan; The Fifth Avenue Building & 
Loan: The Globe Building & Loan; The Home Building ct Loan: The Lilley 
Building & Loan; The Park Building & Loan: The Peoples Building & 
Loan ; The Railway Employes Building & Loan ; The Union Building & Loan : 
The West Side Building & Loan. 

This, in a form, no less suggestive than it is condensed, conveys a clear 
idea of the half (as well as the whole) century progress of the city along 
financial lines, since the most important points in the history of national 
and municipal progress is embraced in comparisons between original condi- 
tions and subsequent achievements. 

Steps of Railway Progress. 

The close alliance between the banks and the railway interest was more 
marked no doubt fifty years ago than today in many respects — at least con- 
temporaneous histor}' shows such to have becTi the case, and in this, as in 
other instances pointed out the growth of the two interests, for reasons en- 
tirely obvious, also have been proportional. A condensed account of the 
contemporaneous history of railway progress in, and tending to Columbus, 
and as showing the keen interest taken therein by the people .in various 

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The Oldest High Class Club in the City, With a Thorough Representative Membership. 

Where Many Unique and Enjoyable Entertainments are Tended to the Wanderers of 

Other and Distant Herds. 

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forms, exhibits these facts, expressed in the then present tense by the then 
recorders of passing events: 

Railroads Add to the Impetus, 

The location and construction of the railroads also gave a new impetus 
to improvements, particularly in the north end of the city. The Columbus 
& Xenia road was constructed in the years 1848 and 1849, and the first pas- 
senger train passed over it on the 26th of February, 1850. Soon after, an 
invitation was extended to the legislature, then in session, and they took a 
pleasure excursion over the road to Cincinnati and back. 

The depot grounds, amounting to some thirty-six or thirty-seven acres, 
and the building, generally, belong to the Columbus & Xenia, and the Cleve- 
land, Columbus & Cincinnati roads, jointly. The Central road, however, by 
lease and contract, has certain rights and privileges in the same. The lot 
where the office is and the office itself belong to the Columbus & Xenia Com- 
pany, exclusively. 

By the month of February, 1851, the C, C. & C. road (i. e., the road 
from Columbus to Cleveland) was so far finished as to be in running con- 
dition and pursuant to an arrangement between the railroad company and 
the Cleveland authorities, a grand celebration of the opening of a direct rail- 
road communication from Cincinnati to Cleveland, was to take place at Cleve- 
land, on the 22d of February, and invitations w^ere extended to the legislature 
and to the city authorities of Columbus and Cincinnati and numerous other 
citizens to attend the celebration; and on the 21st, the excursion party first 
passed over the road. The 22d was g)ent at Cleveland and on the 28d the 
party returned highly gratified. 

In the spring of 1852, the Central road being finished as far as Zanes- 
ville, on an invitation of the Zanesville authorities to the legislature, the city 
council of Columbus and certain others, a free pleasure excursion was had 
over the road to Zanesville, where the party was received and hospitably en- 
tert^ained by the citizens of Zanesville, and they returned the same night. 

On the Columbus, Piqua & Indiana road, the first train passed over the 
road from Columbus to Urbana on the 4th of July, 1853, and in the fall 
of the same year the trains ran as far as Piqua. 

A Century Epitotnized. 

In 1808-9 Columbus was an unbroken forest save as to a small number 
of scattered log cabins and five or six more pretentious houses on the west 
side. In 1908-9 it is not only the capital of the fourth state but a most thor- 
oughly modern city in all regards. 

Its growth and importance are due: 1st. Primarily to the pioneers, 
their intelligence and their patriotism. 2nd. To the wisdom and states- 
manship of the public officials and state legislators of the first half of the 
nineteenth century. 3rd. To the faith and courage of its early moneyed 
men and financiers. 4th. To its manufacturers, merchants and business 

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men of all lines, including the learned professions. 5th. To its religious 
and educational institutions. 6th. To the wi.^ foresight of its financiers and 
public-spirited citizens. 7th. To judicious railway enterprises which were 
directly and indirectly fostered by the foregoing. 

In 1808-9, transportation lines and lines of trade, traiel and traffic were 
primitive. Today they are equal to any on the continent, all environments 
taken into consideration, and the result of all may be and is 

E pi grammatically Summed Up. 

Columbus is situated in the geographical center of the state of Ohio, and 
practically in the center of population of the United States. 

Columbus was made the capital city of Ohio in 1808. 

Columbus was incoq)orated as a borough in 1816. 

Columbus had a population in 1815 of 700. In 1820 of 1,500. In 1830 
of 2,435. In 1840 of 6,251. In 1848 of 12,804. In 1850 of 17,811. In 
1870 of 31,551. In 1880 of 52,194. In 1890 of 88,150. In 1900 of 125,560. 
In 1907 (estimated on basis of registered voters, school enumeration, and 
City Directory), about 200,000 and rapidly increasing. 

Columbus was made a port of entry in 1889. 

Columbus has, within her coriK)rate limits, an area of sixteen and twenty- 
five hundredtlis square miles. 

Columbus might make increa^^e of her population fully 25,000 by ex- 
tending her present square miles (sixteen and twenty-five hundredths) of area 
to thirty." It is proposed to do this in the near future. 

Columbus is free from malaria; is situated on plateau; and has an alti- 
tude of seven hundred and fifty feet above sea-level. 

Columbus has forty-seven hotels in all, a number of which are spacious 
and splendid structures, absolutely fireproof and conducted on up-to-date 
lines of elegance and refinement. 

Columbus has halls and theatres with a combined seating capacity of 
over forty thousand. Of these the Board of Trade Auditorium seats two 
thousand; and the Memorial Hall seats five thoiusand. 

Columbus has entertained, all in comfortable and successful way, many 
of the largest conventions held in the United States. 

Columbus is now recognized broadly as a great convention city — an 
average of one convention a day — national or state — for every day in the 
year, is about her record. 

Columbus hotels treat the "convention" proposition fairly — rates are 
frequently lowered to "delegates," they are never increased. 

Columbus Board of Trade has a membership of one thousand two 

Columbus as an amusement city stands in the front rank. Her theatres 
are many, fine, and spacious; and all the best attractions are to be seen here. 
Her amusement parks, zoological gardens, natatoriums, skating rinks, etc., 
are open in season and are all conveniently and pleasantly located. 

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Columbus street railway service — if cheapness of fare (seven tickets for 
25 cents, with universal transfer), comfort and elegance of cars, promptness, 
reliability, and general efficiency, are to be considered — is without a rival. 

Columbus' transportation facilities — for receiving and distributing — are 
without superior. Industrial and commercial enterprises located in Chios 
capital city have, in this, "all the best of the game." 

Columbus is within less than six hours' ride of the most remote county 
seat in the great state of which she is the capital city. 

Columbus has more than one million five hundred thousand people mak- 
ing their homes in such adjacence as will enable them to traverse the most 
extreme distance therefrom in a ride of less than two hours. 

Columbus is so geographically located in the country as a whole, that 
at least one-fourth of the entire population thereof, live within a radius of 
three hundred miles of her corporate limits. 

Columbus had her first railroad in 1850. ' 

Columbus now has eighteen steam railroads and is reached by all the 
trunk lines. 

Columbus has eight electric or interurban lines entering and radiating 

Columbus has, entering and leaving daily, one hundred and forty-eight 
passenger trains. 

Columbus has more than three million visitors brought into her con- 
fines annually, through the medium of "Excursions" — run from various 
parts of the state of Ohio. 

Columbus' Union Station — one of the finest in the country — is centrally 
located and reached by all the street railway lines within the city. 

Columbus has one hundred and ninety-five miles of paved streets. 

Columbus has one hundred and fifteen miles of street railway within 
city limits. 

Columbus has two public service companies — supplying current for 
power and light at very low rates and water heat as well. 

Columbus has many transfer companies and cold storage plants — some 
conducted on absolutely model lines. 

Columbus can boast the possession of eight manufacturing establish- 
ments — each the largest of its kind in America. 

Columbus has an abundant supply of natural gas, sold at a cheap rate 
to householders and factories. 

Columbus consumes two million five hundred thousand tons of coal an- 

Columbus' manufactured product finds a market in every country on 

Columbus has the largest crushed-stone plant in the world. 

Columbus produces a greater number of high-grade vehicles than any 
other city in the world. 

Columbus' manufacturers of le^ither goods use one-seventh of the entire 
leather stock consumed in the United States. 

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Columbus breweries have an annual output of beer amounting to seven 
hundred and fifty thousand barrels. 

Columbus has more than twenty million dollars invested in her steel and 
iron industries. 

Columbus has many ^^sky-scrapers"; and attractive office buildings are 
to be seen on every hand. 

Columbus has twenty-eight banks, including nine national banks. 

Columbus banks clearings for the past ten years is as follows: 1896, 
$87,606,600; 1897, $92,904,200; 1898, $104,640,400; 1899, $130,688,900; 
1900, $134,634,500; 1901, $167,303,000; 1902, $207,655,700; 1903, $240,- 
466,600; 1904, $236,937,000; 1905, $257,430,900; 1906, $274,131,600; 
1907, $289,479,401; 1908, $294,500,000. 

Columbus for twenty-five years has shown a greater per capita w^ealth 
than any city in the United States of approximately her population. 

Columbus has twenty-tw^o building and loan associations. 

Columbus has twenty-nine educational institutions, inclusive of public 

Columbus has seven public libraries, containing over three hundred 
thousand volumes. 

Columbus has many public institutions — state and national — enjoying 
distinctive reputation as such — of interest to visitors. 

Columbus has, in public grounds, an area of nine hundred and twelve 

Columbus has, in parks, an area of one hundred and ninety-six acres. 

Columbus has, in other parks, an area of one hundred acres. 

Columbus has recently made purchase of an additional park site, at the 
junction of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, where a bathing place, free to 
the general public, is to be established. 

Columbus is planning a system of parks and boulevards; and ha^ land- 
scape artists and engineers, of world-wide reputation, already engaged upon 
the work. 

Columbus has recently unveiled a ^^McKinley Memorial" — accepted as a 
splendid work of art, located at the main entrance to statehouse grounds. 

Columbus has fifty-six newspapers and magazines printed within her 

Columbus uses more than forty thousand tons of paper annually in her 
printing offices. 

Columbus contains the agencies of six different express companies. 

Columbus has three telegraph companies. 

Columbus has two telephone companies, with thirty thousand 'phones 
now in use — ^service excellent and cost to users reasonable. 

Columbus has never had a disastrous fire. Her fire department, "one 
of the finest," sees to that. 

Columbus has never experienced earthquake shock or cyclone blow- 
knowing no extremes of cold or heat. 

Columbus is not handicapped by the periodic devastation of floods and 

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Erected in Commemoration of the Soldiers of Franklin County. 


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n-u-.- NtW ^OR*^ 

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Columbus has the "shops" of three of the great railroads entering the 
city, and the thousands of men, to whom they give employment, spend their 
earnings here. 

Columbus has one steel car manufacturing plant, with an annual out- 
put of product valued at nearly five million dollars. 

Columbus barracks is the largest military recruiting station in the 
United States. 

Columbus federal building, by enactment of last congress, had appro- 
priated for its enlargement four hundred and eighty thousand dollars — work 
on this is now progressing. 

Columbus postoffice business: — Total amount of business transacted (ex- 
clusive of the money order business done at the nine postal stations in the 
city) for the year 1906, was $4,179,282.24. Increase over the year 1906, 
$510,276.40. Later reports showing greatly increased per cent. Postoffice 
receipts, $610,486.04. Mail dispatched, 81,000,000 pieces. Mail received, 
45,000,000 pieces. Special delivery letters delivered, 61,630. Special de- 
livery letters dispatched, 49,270. 

Columbus contains the largest government pension office in the United 
States, and makes the largest distribution of money in payment of pension 
claims, amounting annually to more than sixteen million dollars. 

Columbus has two splendidly appointed ''country clubs," beautiful 
grounds, of large areage surrounding, with golf links, tennis courts, bowling 
alleys, etc. 

Columbus has gun club grounds equal, in tl^ieir appointments to the best 
in the land, contemplating club houses, . clay pigeon traps and rifle ranges. 
The club's membership numbers nearly six hundred. 

Columbus Riding Club, with a membership of one hundred and tw^enty- 
five, owns its own kennel of hounds, chases the living fox, and has its "horse 
show" annually. 

Columbus has base-ball grounds without superior in the country, a 
grand stand and bleachers with seating capacity of fourteen thousand. In 
season, her citizens and visitors enjoy base ball of a very choice quality and 
under the most pleasing auspices. The Columbus Base Ball Club constitutes 
as integral part of the "American Association"; and her "team" has been 
a "pennant winner." 

Columbus' race track is famous throughout the country. The world's 
best horses are to be seen here from year to year; and the world's "harness 
records" are being made thereon, from time to time. 

Columbus has forty-two public school buildings. 

Columbus has five hundred and sixty-seven public school teachers. 

Columbus has two universities of national and international reputation. 

Columbus has two medical colleges combined in one whose degrees of 
graduation are recognized the world over. 

Columbus has a number of business colleges — one of them, especially, 
taking high rank among institutions of a kindred character no matter where 

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Columbus has an estimated church membership among her citizens of 
over forty thousand. 

Columbus has one hundred and twenty-eight churches, eight chapel.'^, and 
twenty-six missions. 

Columbus is essentially a city of homes — thousands of her wage earners 
owning their own. 

Columbus, in the past, htis experienced a little of "labor troubles"; and 
there is no reason to believe that conditions will change in this regard in the 
future. Labor finds here a constant market for its wares, on a basis of fair 
wages; and employers are disponed to accord it considerate treatment. The 
natural sequence of this is good understanding and a general content. 

Columbus' State Hospital grounds comprise three hundred and twenty- 
five acres. 

Columbus has twelve general ha^pitals, l>esides a numlxT of private 

Columbus is the center of traffic for the w^hite-pine lumber producers of 
the south. 

Columbus' death rate per 1,000 of population in 1907, all deaths in- 
cluded, was 13.65 local death rate, excluding non-residents, 11.29, excluding 
premature births, 10.94. 

Columbus has one hundred and sixty-seven forty hundredths miles of 
sewers and is now engaged in building, at a cost of one million two hundred 
thousand dollars, a "sewage disposal plant," assuring the best sanitary con- 
ditions in this connection. 

Columbus is cx)mpleting a "garbage disposal plant," at a cost of five 
hundred thousand dollars. This plant will be built on lines, accepted by 
experts, as being in harmony with the most advanced thought on this subject. 

Columbus, with her immense concrete storage dam — built across the 
Olentangy river — establishing a great reser\^oir or lake of over seven miles 
in length — is now assured of a water supply, in quantity, meeting any and 
all possible contingencies for generations to come, w^hile her "purification 
and softening plant," in association therewith, at a cost of one million two 
hundred thousand dollars guarantees that the water, so supplied, will, in its 
purity, be healthful to drink; and, in its softness, "a thing of joy forever" 
to the bath, the laundry and the tubes of the boilers. 

Cohimbus stands at the very threshold of Ohio's great coal fields — know- 
ing nothing of the troubles associating themselves with coal famine and its 
attending high prices. Fuel is cheap in Columbus. 

Columbus is the greatest distributing center for tropical fruits, and hot- 
house vegetables in the state of Ohio. 

Columbus' freight deix)ts are centrally located and grouped in such way 
as to be conveniently accessible to shippers. The level surface of the streets 
is a constant source of saving to the manufacturer or merchant in the item 
of dray age alone. 

Columbus has come to be preeminently the ma«?t important importing 
and breeding center for high-class French and German horses in America. 

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Columbus is accepted as a most strategic point for the wholesaler in all 
lines ; and the business is growing enormously from year to year. 

Columbus has been called the "Retailer's Paradise." This, doubtless, 
may be attributed to the wonderful volume of business done here in retail 
way, owing its source, in great measure, to the very populous and rich sur- 
rounding country, together with the extraordinary facilities the many rail- 
roads, steam and electric, extend to '^shippers." 

Columbus' main business thoroughfares are lighed by a system of elec- 
tric arches, spanning the streets. The effect at night is beautiful in the ex- 
treme, and must be seen to be appreciated. 

Columbus offers four things to all those who may locate within her 
limit*: — Great opportunities for a business success; a healthful climate; a 
law-abiding and kindly community; and rate privileges for those seeking 
educational advantages. 

It is obvious that there were one or more great impelling forces that 
performed a major part in so shaping events and eventuations that it made 
it possible to reduce to epigrammatic statements the facts of history recorded 
in the foregoing pages. They were the public spirit of our former genera- 
tion of business men, and the courage and foresight of their contemporaneous 
bankers and financiers, and the wonderful transportation facilities they 
wrought, cooperating one with another for the common prosperity and prog- 
ress of a great state and its capital. Without them there would have been 
but little with which to have constructed the epitomization. 

In 1858 and 1908. 

In 1858 there were four railroads in a semi-completed state centering 
in Columbus, with as many more existing on paper, with a strongly em- 
phasized sentiment to eventually imbed them on terra firma. Columbus in 
1908 has eighteen steam railway systems radiating from the common center, 
reinforced by eight electric suburban lines, radiating also to all points in 
the state, with new and important lines in progress of projection. 

The history of the railway progress, between the beginning and fruition 
above outlines would constitute a long series of volumes. The achievement of 
one of these modern traffic and transportation enterprises is a replica of all 
the others, modified only by environment and the recession of the wave of 
progress at intervals. There is one of these railway systems that may stand 
as the type of all the others, as to the processes of evolution and vicissitude 
or triumph, especially because its center is Columbus and its field the. great 
mineral district of the state and its mileage confined entirely to Ohio, al- 
though it connects with every other system touching or crossing the state. 
Thl« is the great Hocking Valley system, extending northwesterly to the 
lake and southeasterly to the Ohio river, including the larger portion of the 
Muskingum valley. 

Mr. F. B. Sheldon, assistant to President Nicholas Monsarrat, kindly 
volunteered to give the Genesis and Revelation of the Hocking Valley sys- 
tem as a contribution to the railway and business literature of the closing 

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decades of the nineteenth century and the opening years of the twentieth, 
and this contribution, the author of the Centennial History of Columbus 
esteems of inestimable historical value in future years, and therefore gives 
it place in this connection, as infinitely more entitled to permanent record 
in history than aught he would be able to write on the subject. Mr. Shel- 
don says: 

The Hocking Valley Railway Company. 

April 14, 1864, The Mineral Railroad Company was incorporated to 
build a railroad from Columbus to Athens, Ohio, but beyond making pre- 
liminary surveys and securing some rights of way, nothing was done towards 
the construction of the line. Mr. M. M. Greene, who was operating salt 
works at Salina (now Beaumont), Ohio, in the Hocking valley, seven miles 
north of Athens, in 1867 took up the project, and on June 26 of that year, 
by decree of the Franklin county common pleas court, the name was changed 
from Mineral Railroad Company to Columbus & Hocking Valley Railroad 
Company. Peter Hayden was elected president of the company and M. M. 
Greene vice president; the road was finally located and construction wa« 1k?- 
gun. In 1868 the line was opened for traffic from Columbus to Lancaster, 
and in 1869 was completed as far as Nelsonville, where it reached the coal 

Construction Finished, 

July 25, 1870, construction was finished to Athens with a branch from 
Logan to Straitsville, in the coal district. The annual report of the president 
for the year 1870 stated; that the company owned twelve locomotives, eight 
passenger cars, three baggage cars, two hundred and seventy-nine coal, sixty 
box and twenty-six flat cars, in addition to which, private parties furnished 
four hundred and three coal cars, and that with all this equipment, together 
with one hundred and fifty other cars furnished by connecting lines, the 
company was unable to supply the demand for coal and would have to pro- 
vide more coal cars. The gross earnings of the line for 1870 amounted to 
three hundred and seventy-two thousand two hundred and twenty-nine dol- 
lars. In 1870 the population of the city of Columbus was thirty-three thou- 
sand and its subsequent substantial growth began w4th the building of manu- 
facturing concerns immediately upon the introduction of coal by the Hock- 
ing Valley line. 

Increase of Earnings. 

In the year 1871, the gross earnings increased to five hundred and forty- 
eight thousand nine hundred and forty-two dollars and the president's report 
for that year stated that a valuable trade for coal had been commenced 
through Cleveland to points on the lakes. The report further stated that the 
heavy traffic made it necessary to renew some of the rails, and that, in order 
to have a test between iron and steel, fifty tons of steel rails were purchased 
as an experiment and laid in sidings in Columbus yard under the heaviest 
wear of any part of the road. 

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A New President 

In January, 1871, Benjamin E. Smith succeeded Peter Hayden as pres- 
ident of the company, M. M. Greene remained vice president, and J. J. 
Janney was elected secretary and treasurer. The directors chosen were: W. 
B. Brooks, C. P. L. Butler, Theodore Comstock, Isaac Eberly, John L. Gill, 
M. M. Greene, John Greenleaf and B. E. Smith, all of Columbus, John D. 
Martin of Lancaster, C. H. Rippey of Logan, and S. W. Pickering of Athens. 
The coal business of the line developed rapidly, the gross earnings for the 
year 1872 being eight hundred and fifty-four thousand eight and ninety-two- 
dollars. The company trebled its number of coal cars and began to feel the 
need of proper outlets for traflBc to points beyond Columbus, connecting lines 
being either unable or unwilling to furnish cars for the business offered their 
lines. It was thereupon determined to undertake the construction of a line 
to supply the great demand of the lakes and the northwest for Hocking Val- 
ley coal, and Toledo was selected as the most appropriate port. Accordingly 
on May 28, 1872, the Columbus & Toledo Railroad Company was incor- 
porated by M. M. Greene, P. W. Huntington, B. E. Smith, W. G. Deshler, 
James A. Wilcox and John L. Gill, and a preliminary survey was at once 

The Toledo Extension. 

October 15, 1873, the line was permanently located from Columbus to 
Toledo. The financial panic of 1874, however, made it necessary to defer 
for nearly a year the construction, which was commenced August 17, 1875; 
on October 15, 1876, the line from Columbus to Marion was opened for traffic, 
and on January 10, 1877, the first regular train ran through to Toledo, where 
the company had acquired valuable frontage on the Maumee river for the 
construction of docks. 

February 22, 1877,' The Columbus & Hocking Valley and Columbus & 
Toledo Railroad Companies entered into a contract providing for the joint 
management of the two lines and for the joint use of terminal'property and 
facilities in Columbus. 

During the year 1877, extensive docks were constructed at Toledo, and 
connecting lines at Toledo furnished an outlet to points in Michigan and 
Canada. In the meantime, The Columbus & Hocking Valley Railroad had 
continued to prosper. In December, 1874, M. M. Greene succeeded B. E. 
Smith as president, and in 1877, the Monday Creek and Snow Fork branches 
in the coal field were partially constructed and opened and seven iron fur- 
naces were in blast in the coal region. 

Ohio & West Virginia Branch, 

May 21, 1878, the Ohio & West Virginia Railway was incorporated to 
build from Logan, in the Hocking Valley, to Gallipolis, on the Ohio river, 
and some little grading was done upon this line, but no further progress was 

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made until one year later, May 21, 1879, when Hocking Valley intera^t^ took 
up the project, amended the charter to extend from Gallipolis to Pomeroy, 
and commenced construction. October 15, 1880, the line was opened for 
traffic from Logan to Gallipolis, and January 1, 1881, to Pomeroy. 

A Consolidation. 

August 20, 1881, The Columbus & Hocking Valley and Columbus & 
Toledo Railroad Companies, and The Ohio & West Virginia Railway Com- 
pany were consolidated under the name of The Columbus, Hocking Valley 
& Toledo Railway Company, M. M. Greene continuing as president of the 
new company until July 1, 1886, when he was succeeded by Stevenson Burke, 
of Cleveland, who occupied the presidency for a few months ending January 
11, 1887, the next annual meeting, at which John \V. Shaw was elected 
president, continuing in office until August 80, 1889, when he resigned and 
was succeeded by C. C. Waite. 

Mr. Waite came to the property with large railway experience and im- 
mediately set about the work of reducing grades, rebuilding bridges, and 
introducing heavier equipment upon the line, increasing the capacity of coal 
trains from thirty cars of seventeen tons each, to forty-five cars of thirty 
tons each, a gain of one hundred and fifty per cent, which brought the prop- 
erty up to the best standards of that day and assumed its position as the prin- 
cipal coal-carrying road of the state. 

The Wellston & Jackson Belt. 

In 1895, the Wellston & Jackson Belt Railway was built by The Hock- 
ing Valley Company from Mc Arthur Junction to Jackson, through the Jack- 
son county coal field, affording a valuable feeder to the line, and was opened 
for traffic to Wellston December 1, 1895, and to Jackson February 10, 1896. 
While attending a banquet given to the officials of the Hocking Valley Rail- 
way Company by the citizens of Jackson, on the occasion of the opening of 
the line. President Waite took cold resulting in pneumonia, from which he 
died on February 21, 1896. Samuel D. Davis, vice president, became the 
executive head of the company until June 18, 1896, when he was succeeded 
by Nicholas Monsarrat as vice pre^^^ident, who has continued in charge of the 
property to date, becoming president of the reorganized Hocking Valley 
Railway Company March 1, 1899. 

President Monsarrafs Administration to Date. 

During Mr. Monsarrat's term of office radical improvements have been 
made in the capacity of the line for handling traffic; forty-ton and fifty-ton 
coal cars to the number of eight thousand have been added to the equipment, 
mogul freight engines have been superseded by consolidation engines of 
greater capacity, making a large increase in the loading of freight trains; 
improved machinery for handling coal and iron ore ha< been placed on the 

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company's docks at Toledo, and the yards, sidings and station facilities of 
the line have been increased to take care of the growing traffic, the freight 
business of the company having doubled (in the past ten years) and its pas- 
senger traffic having made almost as great a gain as the freight during the 
same period. 

Of the five seams of bituminous coal mined in the state of Ohio, four 
are to be found on the line of the Hocking Valley Railway, and through its 
connection wih the Kanawha & Michigan Railw^ay at Athens it also receives 
shipments of coal and coke from the Kanawha and New river districts of 
West Virginia, and transports coaJ for shipment by lake to the amount of 
about two million tons yearly. 

Although the carrying of bituminous coal and coke still form the prin- 
cipal business of the company, there has been a steady development along 
its line in manufacturing and particularly in steel and iron, stone, lime and 
clay products. 

The Hocking Valley is the longest line of railway entirely within the 
limits of the state of Ohio, and occupying as it does a central position from 
the Ohio river to Lake Erie, passing through the capital, with branches in 
the populous regions of the coal fields, it is probably of more value to the 
state generally than any other local line of railway. 



January 26, 1838, the legislature passed an act providing for the erec- 
tion of a new state house on the public square in Columbus, which was the 
occasion of a grand illumination of the city. Colonel Noble, who kept the 
National Hotel, where the Neil House now stands, had the candles in his 
front windows so arranged as to form letters and spell NEW STATE HOUSE. 
In pursuance of said act, Joseph Ridgway, Jr., of Columbus, William A. 
Adams, of Zanesville, and William B. Van Hook, of Butler county, were, 
by joint resolution, appointed commissioners for carrying the law into effect. 
They were required to give notice to certain newspapers, and offer a premium 
of five hundred dollars for the best plan, to be approved by the legislature, 
upon which said house should be erected. A number of plans wore fur- 
nished by various competitors for the premium, and Henry Walters of Cin- 
cinnati received the premium, though his plan was not adopted; but from 
the various plans furnished, the commissioners formed and adopted one 
somewhat different from any of the plans presented. 

The Legislature Balks. 

In the spring of 1839 the commissioners appointed William B. Van 
Hook, one of their own body, superintendent of the work. The high board 
fence was put up, and a good work shop erected on the square, and other 

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preparations made for working the convicts within the enclosure, in the 
cutting of stone, etc., a va^t quantity of which, obtained at Sullivant^s lime- 
stone quarry, had been delivered on the ground during the preceding year. 
And on the Fourth of July, 1889, at a suitable celebration, the cornerstone 
of the new edifice wa.s laid, and the foundation subsequently raided to a 
level with the earth, when the inclemency of the weather stopped the work, 
a- Wius supposed, until the succeeding spring. But during the session of 
1889-40, after the legislature's investigation of certain charges against Wil- 
liam B. Lloyd, a member from Cuyahoga county, for forgery in altering 
certain accounts and papers, a friend of Mr. Lloyd^s drew up the following 
statement of confidence, etc., in said Lloyd: 

.-IT- T^ T 1 J T- ^'Columbus, Feb. 13, 1840. 

'•A\m. B. Lloyd, Esq.: 

"Dear Sir: — The undersigned, convinced beyond doubt, that the charge 
lately circuhited against yourtself is totally unsustained by the testimony re- 
lating to the matter; and the act charged, one of which it is impossible you 
should be guilty, iK^g leave, respectfully, to assure you of our undiminished 
confidence in the integrity of your character, and to express to you our sin- 
cerest wishes for your future happiness and prasperity." 

Which was signed by sixty-three citizens, principally y^ung men of 
Columbus, as papers of the kind are generally signed, more through com- 
pliance to the wishes of the individual who presents the paper, than any- 
thing else. And this note, unexpe(*Udly, to many, at least, of the signers, 
appeared in the Ohio State Journal of the 17th of February, with the sign- 
ers names appended. This publication gave offense to many membere of 
the legislature, who had voted to censure Lloyd, and under this excited feel- 
ing, on the 18th of Febniary, Mr. Flood, member from Licking, introduced 
a bill into the lower house, to repeal the act providing for the erection of the 
new state house, which was finally passed, and became a law on the 10th of 
March, 1840. The whole cost, as far as the preparations and work had pro- 
gressed, appears to have l)een forty-one thousand five hundred and eighty-five 
dollars and twenty-two cent*;. This amount of the public money, a majority of 
the siivants were willing to throw to the wind, in order to gratify a spirit of per- 
sonal resentment towards a few citizens of Columbus. 

Capital lie moral Mooted. 

Immediately after the passage of this ref)ealing act, the removal of the 
seat of government from Columbus w<as mooted, and the committee of the 
l^gishiture appointed on the subject, made a majority and a minority report — 
both elaborate productions. The minority report concluded with the follow- 
ing resolutions: 

'^Resolved by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That the Gov- 
ernor be requested to issue his proclamation, setting forth that the time has 
arrived for the permanent establishment of the seat of government, that all 
portions of the State may have an opportunity of offering such inducements 

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as they may deem proper for it^ permanent location at !^\\vh point as may be 

'^Resolved, That all propositions for the permanent establishment of the 
seat of government from Columbus was mooted, and the committee of the 
persons making the same, to the Governor, by the first day of August next, 
who shall open and communicate the same to tlie next General iVssembly." 

These resolutions were, on the 6th of March, 1848. agreed to in the 
senate, by a vote of eighteen to sixteen, but were, on the next day, rejected 
in the lower house, by a vote of thirty-six to twenty-nine. 

At the session of 1847-8, a law was again passed providing for the erec- 
tion of a new state house. The present constitution established the seat of 
government at Columbus, until otherwise directed by law. 

In the spring of 1848, W. A. Adams, of Zanesville, Joseph Ridgway, 
Jr., and Samuel Medary, of Columbus, were appointed commi.*=;sioners to di- 
rect and control the work, and Russell West was by them appointed arch- 
itect. In 1852, Edwin Smith, S. H. Webb, and E. P. Stickney, were ap- 
pointed commissioners, West continued as architect. In 1854 the board of 
commissioners were Stickney, Smith and James J. Faran, in place of AVebb. 
N. B. Kelly appointed architect in place of R. West, resigned. In the spring 
of 1856, a new board of commissioners was appointed, consisting of William A. 
Piatt, of Columbus, James T. Worthing, of Ror-^ county, and L. G. Ilarkness. 
of Huron county. 

The commissioners, it appears, did not employ a regular clerk prior to 
1850; but Mr. Ridgway, one of the board, had acted as secretary and clerk, 
until the appointment of Mr. James K. Linnel, in the spring of 1850; and 
Mr. Linnel continued as clerk of the board until he spring of 1856, when 
Robert Ilume, Esq., was appointed. 

The first session of the legislature in the new state house (which was, 
however, but an adjourned session), nominally, commenced on Monday, the 
5th of January, 1857. But the evening of the 7th of the same month having 
been determined upon for the great state house festival the halls could not 
be used for legislative purposes until that was over. 

The State Houses, Old and Neiv. 

The state house, at Columbus, stands in the center of a square park, con- 
taining ten acres, bounded on the north by Broad street, on the east by Third, 
on the south by State, and on the west by High. It is a massive structure, 
built entirely of dressed limestone, quarried from Sullivant\s Hill, near the 
city. It is three stories in height above the basement, with a central dome, 
and is surrounded on all sides by wide stone terraces, to which access is had 
on the four fronts by wide flights of stone steps. 

In width, it is one hundred and eighty-four feet, and in length, three 
hundred and four feet. All the fronts are similar, and are ornamented with 
colonnades of native limestone. In the center of the building is a vast 
rotunda, flanked by four interior open court«, and lighted by the dome, four 
wide transepts leading to it from the four entrances, while broad granite 

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stairways lead to the upper stories. The first story is occupied by the offices 
of the governor and state officers ; the second, by the two chambers of the gen- 
eral assembly, the state library and legislative offices, and committee rooms, 
while the third is divided into departmental offices. 

Its erection began in 1838, and it was not finally completed until 1861, 
owing to repeated interruptions of work from 1839 to 1848. The labor of 
the penitentiary convicts was utilized, at a nominal cost, in the quarrying 
of the stone and constructing and finishing the building. Although not 
wholly completed until 1861, the state house was occupied many years pre- 
viously by various departments of the state government. The total cost of 
the structure was one million six hundred and forty-four thousand six hun- 
dred and seventy-seven dollars originally. 

An Addition that Deforms. 

The original design of the state house was the purest specimen of classic 
architecture, standing in the center of the park, with four equal and like 
fronts facing the four points of the compass, w4th foliage and lawns to the 
feet of the four great esplanades. The massive grandeur of the building, 
at once modest and imposing, when it was finished and first occupied, made 
it not only distinguished but preeminent among the capitols of the states of 
the unon. 

To make additional room, to accommodate the growth of the official de- 
partments it was proposed to erect smaller buildings of cognate architectures 
at each of the four corners of the park, but this was hooted down the winds, 
and some of the statesmen who aided in this summary disposed of the idea, 
later joined the plan of erecting the building on the east front, looking for 
all the world like a laundry in the rear of a great mansion. The result was 
the destruction of the ensemble of the classic pile and to utterly cancel its 
eastern aspect. 

The present policy of the state government is to acquire the block east 
of Third street, between State and Broad, and, extending to Lazell street, 
if indeed, not to Fourth and erect thereon the necessary buildings to meet all 
requirements for centuries, and making in effect, an oblong capital park, 
covering twenty acres. The projected addition, with buildings to correspond 
with the great quadrangular pile would involve the expenditure of fifteen 
millions. This, the state can readily afford to invest, and the city itself 
would profit by making the change and presenting it to the state. 

The first state house was of brick, and was located at the southwest cor- 
ner of the present grounds. Other brick buildings along High street fur- 
nished accommodations for the state officers and courts. The old building 
burned completely out, early on Sunday morning, February 1, 1852, evi- 
dently the work of an incendiary. It had become an eye-sore, was delaying 
the completion of the new edifice, and no inquiry w^as made to fix the identity 
of the incendiary. 

Shafe Institutions at Columbus. 

The Columbus Asylum for the Insane lies two miles west of the state 
house, and is surrounded by three hundred acres of ground. The Institution 

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for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb is at the corner of Town street and 
Washington avenue. The Institution for the Education of the Blind is at 
the corner of Main street and Parsons avenue. The Institution for the Edu- 
cation of the Feeble-Minded Youth is located on a large tract of land one 
mile and a half west of the state house. The Ohio Penitentiary^ with a 
capacity of two thousand or more prisoners, is located in the city, on th^ 
east bank of the Scioto. All capital sentences in the state are executed at 
the penitentiary. The Ohio State University, a distinctive state institution, 
is located in the northwestern portion of the city, with several hundred 
acres of farm lands, surroundings it. The cost of construction of these build- 
ings is placed at six million five hundred thousand dollars. 

Governors of Ohio, 

All the governors of Ohio, save Edward Tiffin, Thomajs Kirker, Sam- 
uel Huntington, Othneil Looker and Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., officially 
resided in Columbus. 

To give in brief and lucid form the names, dates of election, political 
affiliations, the vote received, the names, politics and vote received by their 
leading opponents, and such other data, in chronological order, as may go 
to constitute a biographical and historical epitome of each of Ohio's gover- 
nors, would not be amiss in this, connection. Such notes follow: 

1. Edaward Tiffin, Ross c(xun.ty, democrat, elected 1803. Vote re- 
ceived 4,564. No votes cast in opposition. Re-elected without opposition, 
1805. Served nearly four years; resigned to enter the United States senate, 
1807. Born in Carlisle, England, t768; died at ChilUcothe, 1829. 

2. Thomas Kirker, Adams democrat; was speaker of the senate and ex 
officio succeeded as governor until Tiffin's successor should be elected. A 
failure to elect in 1807 was declared by the legislature on the pretext that 
Return J. Meigs, Jr., who had a majority of the votes cast, was constitu- 
tionally ineligible by reason of absence from the state during the preceding 
four years. As a consequence Mr. Kirker continued in office until the result 
of the election in 1808 was announced. Born in Tyrone county, Ireland, 
1760; died in Ohio, 1837. 

3. Samuel Huntington, Trumbull, democrat, was elected 1808. Vote 
cast; for Huntington, 7,293; Thomas Worthington, democrat, 5,601; 
Thomas Kirker, democrat, 3,397. Served two years. Born in Connecticut, 
1765; died at Painesville, Ohio, 1817. 

4. Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., Wa.-hington, deinoerat; elected 1810. 
Vote cast: For Meigs, 9,924; Thomas Worthington, democrat, 7,731.. Re- 
elected 1812. Vote cast: For Meigs, 11,859; Thomas Scott, democrat, 
7,903. Resigned in 1814 to become postmaster general. Served less than 
four years. Born in Connecticut, 1765; died at Marietta, 1825. 

5. Othniel Looker, Hamilton, democrat, by virtue of his office as 
speaker of the senate succeeded Meigs as governor. Served less than one 
year. Born New York, 1757; died Palestine, Illinois, 1845. 

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6. Thoiiia.s Worthington, democrat, Ro^s, elected 1814. Vote cast: 
For Worthington, 15,879; Looker, democrat, Hamilton, 6,171. Re-elect€d 
1816. Vote cast: For Worthington, 22,931; for Jame:s Dunlap, federalist, 
6,295. Served four years. Born in Virginia, 1773; died Chillicothe, 1827. 

7. Ethan Allen Rrown, Hamilton, democrat, elected 1818. Vote cast: 
Brown 30.194; James Dunlap, federalist, 8,075. Re-elected in 1820. Vote 
cast: For Brown, 34,836; Jeremiah Morrow, democrat, 9,426; William 
Henry HarrL-on, democrat, 4,348. Served until January, 1822, when he re- 
signed to accept the United States senatorship. Bom in Connecticut, 1766; 
died, Indianapolis, 1852. 

8. Allen Trimble, federalist, Highland, speaker of the senate, succeeded 
to the office of governor, which he held until December of 1822. Born in 
Augusta county, Virginia, 1786; died, Washington, D. C, 1821. 

9. Jeremiah Morrow, democrat, Warren, elected 1822. Vote cast: Mor- 
row, 26,059; Allen Trimble, federalist, 22,899; William W. Irwin, democrat, 
11,050. Re-elected in 1824. Vote cast: For Morrow, 39,526; Allen Trim- 
ble, federalist, 37,108. Served four years. Born in Pennsylvania, 1771 ; 
died Lebanon, 1852. 

Allen Trimble, Highland, federalist, elected 1826. Vote cast: For 
Trimble, 71,475; John Bigger, democrat, 4,114; Alexander Campbell, dem- 
ocrat, 4,675; Benjamin Tappan, democrat, 4,192. Re-elected in 1828. Vote 
cast: For Trimble 53,970; John W. Campbell, democrat, 51,195. This was 
the first time that the total number of votes in the state exceeded 100,000. 
Served four years. Born in Virginia, 1786; died, Washington, D. C, 1821. 

10. Duncan McArthur, Ross, federalist, elected 1830. Vote cast: For 
McArthur, 49,668; Robert Lucas, 49,186. Served two years. Born in 
Dutchess county. New York, 1772; died, Chillicothe, 1840. 

11. Robert Lucas, democrat. Pike, elected 1832. Votes cast: For Lucas, 
71,251; for Darius Lyman, federalist whig, 63,185. Re-elected 1834. Vote 
cast: For Lucas, 7,738; for James Findlay, democrat whig, 67,444. The 
so-called "Toledo war" occurred during his last term. Served four years. 
Born in Virginia, 1781 ; died at Iowa City, Iowa, 1858. 

12. Joseph Vance, whig. Campaign, elected 1836. Vote cast: For 
Vance, 92,204; Eli Baldwin, democrat, 86,159. Served two years. Bom in 
Pennsylvania, 1789; died in Urbana, 1852. 

13. Wilson Shannon, democrat, Belmont, elected 1838. Vote cast: 
For Wilson Shannon, 107,884; Joseph Vance, whig. 102,146. This was 
the first time that any candidate received more than 100,000 votas or the 
total vote of the state passed 200,000. Born in Belmont county, Ohio, 
1802; died in Kansas, 1865. 

14. Thomas Corwin, whig, AVarren county, elected in 1840. Vote cast: 
For Corwin, 145,442; for Shannon, 129,112. Served two years. Born in 
Kentucky, 1794; died in Wfishington, D. C, 1865. 

(W^ilson Shannon w\ns elected over Corwin in 1842 by a vote of 119,774 
to 117,902. Resigned before the end of his second term.) 

15. Thomas AV. Bartley, democrat, Richland county, by virtue of his 
office as speaker of the senate, succeeding Wilson Shannon as governor upon 

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his resignation to accept the position as minister to Mexico. Served until 
December 3, 1814. Born in Jefferson county, Ohio, 1812; died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1889. 

16. Mordecai Bartley, whig, Richland county, father of Thomas W. 
Bartley, elected in 1844. Vote cast: For Bartley, 146,333; for David Tod, 
democrat, 145,062; Leicester King, free-soiler, 8,898. This year the total 
vote passed 300,000. Served two years. Born in Pennsylvania, 1783; died 
at Mansfield, 1870. 

17. William Bebb, whig, Butler, elected 1846. Vote cast: For Bebb, 
118,869; for David Tod, democrat, 116,489; for Samuel Lewis, free-soiler, 
10,797. Served two years. Born in Butler county, 1802;- died in Rock- 
ford, Illinois, 1873. 

18. Seabury Ford, whig, Geauga. His competitor was John B. Weller, 
democrat of Butler. There was a long and bitter dispute as to the result of 
the election. Two committees appointed by the legislative body disagreed 
as to the vote cast for the respective candidates. The first reported the vote 
as 145,816 for Ford and 146,105 for Weller. The two houses,. by a single 
vote, refused to accept the report. A second committee was raised and finally 
reported the vote as being. Ford, 148,756, Weller, 148,445, a majority of 
311 for Ford. The report was accepted by a majority of one of the body. 
The fii-st commttee excluded all irregular, defective and clearly illegal votes; 
the second included all such votes in making their computations. Ford 
served two years. Born in Connecticut, 1801; died in Burton, Ohio, 1850. 

19. Reuben Wood, democrat, Cuyahoga, elected 1850. Vote cast: For 
Wood, 133,093; for William Johnston, whig, Miami county, 121,105; for 
Edward Smith, independent, 13,447. Judge Wood was elected a second 
time in 1851, under the second constitution, which also provided for the 
election of a lieutenant governor to succeed the governor in case of a vacancy. 
He assumed office on the second Monday of January, 1852. The vote cast at 
the preceding October election was : For Governor Wood, democrat, 145,654 ; 
for Samuel F. Vinton, Gallia, whig, 119,548; Samuel Lewis, free-soiler and 
independent, 16,918. William Medill of Fairfield county was elected lieu- 
tenant governor on the ticket with Wood, who resigned July 15, 1853, to 
enter the diplomatic service. He served from December, 1850, to July, 
1853. Bom in Vermont, 1792; died Rockport, Ohio, 1864. 

20. William Medill, democrat, Fairfield, succeeded to the vacancy. 
Under the new constitution the election fell on the odd year, as had been 
the from 1803 to 1808, and the governor took office in January of the 
even year. Medill was re-elected in 1853 and entered on a second term in 
January, 1854. The vote stood: For Medill, 147,663; Nelson Barrere, whig. 
Highland, 85,857; Samuel Lewis, free-oiler and independent, 50,346. His 
.service extended from July, 1853, to January 1856. Born in state of Del- 
aware. 1800; died, Lancaster, Ohio, 1865. 

21. Salmon P. Cha.^e, fre^-soiler and whig, Hamilton, elected October, 
1855. took office January, 1856. Vote cast: For Chase, 146,770; for Wil- 
liam Medill, democrat, 131,019; Allen Trimble, abolitionist, 24,276. Re- 
elected October, 1857, took office January, 1858. Vote cast: Chase, 130,- 

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575; Henry B. Payne, democrat, Cuyahoga, 159,294; Philadelph Trump, 
Fairfield, Native American, 10,272. The total vote this year passed 300,000. 
Governor Chase served from January, 1856, to January, 1860. Born in 
Cornish, New Hampshire, 1808; died New York city, 1873. 

22. William Dennison, Jr., republican, Franklin, elected 1861. Vote 
cast: For Dennison, 184,557; Rufus P. Ranney, democrat, Cuyahoga, 
171,266; scattering, 117. Served two years. Born in Cincinnati, 1815; 
died, Columbus, 1882. 

23. David Tod, republican (former democrat), Mahoning county, 
Vote cast: For Tod, 206,997; for Hugh J. Jewett, democrat, Muskingum, 
151,978; scattering 109. Governor Tod served two years. Born in Youngs- 
town, Ohio, 1811; died Youngstown, 1868. 

24. John Brough, republican, Cuyahoga, elected 1863. Vote cast: For 
Brough, 288,826; for Clement L. Vallindigham, 187,278; scattering 23. The 
total vote of the state reached 476,000 or 120,000 greater than the total vote 
at the previous election, and the increase was nearly the same as the repub- 
lican majority. Charles Anderson, republican, of Montgomery county, was 
chosen lieutenant governor with Governor Brough, and succeeded to the 
office upon the latter's decease. Born in Marietta, 1811, died Columbus, 

25. Charles Anderson, republican, Montgomery county, succeeded by 
virtue of his office of lieutenant governor, to the vacancy caased by the 
death of Governor Brough, and served until the end of the term. Born in 
Louisville, Kentucky, 1814; died, Ohio, 1890. 

26. Jacob Dolson Cox, republican, Hamilton county, elected 1865, as- 
sumed office January, 1866. Vote cast: For Cox, 223,663; for General 
George W. Morgan, democrat, 193,677; Alexander Long, radical democrat, 
360. Served two years. Born in Canada, 1828; died, Cincinnati, 1900. 

27. Rutherford B. Hayes, republican, Hamilton county, elected in 
1867, assumed office January, 1868. Vote cast: For Hayes, 243,605; for 
Allen G. Thurman, democrat, Franklin 240,622. Re-elocted 1869. Vote 
cast: For Hayes, 236,082; for George H. Pendleton, democrat, Hamilton 
county, 228,567; for Samuel Scott, independent, 629. (In 1875 Governor 
Hayes was again elected over William Allen by a vote of 297,817 to 292,273. 
At the same election Thomas L. Young, republican, of Hamilton county, 
was elected lieutenant governor on the ticket with Hayes. Including his 
third term, partially ser\Td out, his services as governor approximated five 
years, he having resigned in March, 1877, to accept the presidency.) Born 
in Delaware, Ohio, 1822; died in Fremont, Ohio, 1893. 

28. Edward F. Noyes, republican, Hamilton county, elected in 1871, 
assumed office January, 1872. Vote cast: Noye.^, 238,273; George W. Mc- 
Cook, democrat, Jefferson county, 218,105; Gideon T. Stewart, Huron 
county, temperance, 4,068. Served two years. Born in Massachusetts, 1833; 
died, Cincinnati, 1890. 

29. William Allen, democrat, Ros.s, elected 1873. Vote cast: For Allen, 
214,654; Edward F. Noyes, 213,837; Gideon T. Stewart, temperance, 10,278. 
Served two years. Born in North Carolina, 1797; died Chillicothe, 1879. 

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30. Thomas L. Young, republican, Hamilton county, elected lieuten- 
ant governor with Rutherford B. Hayes in 1875, as previously mentioned, 
and succeeded to the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hayes in March, 
1876, to become president. Governor Young served from March, 1876, t6 
January, 1878. Born in Ireland, 1834; died in Cincinnati, 1888. 

31. Richard M. Bishop, democrat, Hamilton county, elected 1877, as- 
sumed office January, 1878. Vote cast: For Bishop, 271,625; William H. 
West, republican, Logan county, 249,105; Lewis H. Bond, labor, 12,489; 
Stephen Jamison, greenback, 16,912; H. A. Thompson, temperance, 4,836. 
Governor Bishop served two years. Born in Kentucky, 1812; died, Cincin- 
nati, 1890. 

32. Charles Foster, republican, Seneca county, was elected in 1879 and 
assumed office Jaxiuary, 1880. Vote cast: For Foster, 336,261; for General 
Thomas Ewing, democrat, Lancaster, 319,132; for Gideon T. Stewart, 
temperance, 4,145; for A. Sanders Piatt, greenback, 9,072. The total vote 
of the state this year exceeded 600,000. Foster was re-elected over John W. 
Bookwalter of Clark county, democrat, by a vote of 312,735 to 288,426. 
Abram R. Ludlow, temperance, received 16,597; John Seitz, greenback, 
6,330. Foster served four years. Born in Tiffin, Ohio, 1828; died, Ohio, 

33. George Hoadly, democrat, Hamilton county, elected in 1833. Vote 
cast: Hoadly, 359,693; Foraker, 347,164; Fred Schumacher, temperance, 
8,362; Charles Jenkins, greenback, 2,937. The total vote exceeded 700,000 
this year. Hoadly served a single term of two years. Born in New Haven, 
Connecticut, 1826. 

34. Joseph B. Foraker, republican, Hamilton county, elected 1885. 
Vote: Hoadly, 341,830; A. B. Leanard, temperance, 28,081; J. W. Northrop, 
labor, 2,001. Re-elected in 1887 by a vote of 356,534 to 333,205 for Thomas 
E. Powell, democrat, Franklin county, Morris Sharp, temperance, received 
29,700 votes. The total vote exceeded 700,000 this year. Governor For- 
aker served four years. Bom in Highland county, Ohio, 1846. 

35. James E. Campbell, democrat, Butler county, elected in 1889. 
Vote cast: For Campbell, 379,420; Joseph B. Foraker, 368,539; J. B. Hel- 
wig, temperance, 26,504; J. H. Rhodes, labor, 1,048. Governor Campbell 
served two years. Bom in Butler county in 1843. 

36. William McKinley, republican, Clark county, elected in 1901. 
Vote cast: William McKinley, 386,793; James E. Campbell, 365,228; John 
J. Ashenhurst, temperance, 20,190; John Seitz, greenback, 23,472. Re- 
elected in 1895 by a vote of 433,342 to 352,342 for Lawrence T. Neal, dem- 
ocrat, of Ross county, Gideon P. Macklin, temperance, received 22,406 votes 
and E. J. Bracken, greenback-labor, 15,583. The total vote of the state 
exceeded 800,000. Governor McKinley served four years. Born in Trum- 
bull county, Ohio, 1844 ; died Buffalo,' New York, 1901. 

37. Asa S. Bushnell, republican, Clark county, elected in 1895. Vote 
cast: For Bushnell, 427,141; James E. Campbell, democrat, 334,419; Jacob 
S. Coxey, greenback-labor, 52,675,; Seth S. Ellis, prohibition; 21,264; Wil- 
liam Watkins, socialist, 1,867. Re-olectcd in 1897 by a vote of 429,915 to 

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401,750 for Horace L. Chapman, democrat, Franklin county; 6,276 for J. S. 
Coxey, greenback-labor; and 18,000 scattering. Born in Rome, New York, 
1834; died, Springfield, 1904. 

38. George Kilbun Nash, republican, Franklin county, elected in 1899. 
Vote cast: For Nash, 417;199; for John R. McLean, democrat, Hamilton 
county, 368,176; for Samuel M. Jones, independent, Lucas county, 103,721, 
and 16,063 votes for several ^'third party" candidates, making a total of 
over 920,000, the greatest number ever cast at an election for governor. The 
total vote in the presidential years 1896, 1900 and 1904 passed the million 
mark. Governor Nash was re-elected in 1901, receiving 436,092 vote? to 
316,525 for James Kilbourne, democrat, Franklin county; 9,878 for J. J. 
Pinney, prohibition candidate and 15,000 divided between the union reform, 
social 'labor and socialist so-caJled parties. Governor Nash served four years 
from January, 1900, to January, 1904. He died shortly after the close of 
his second term. 

39. Myron T. Herrick, republican, Cuyahoga county, elected in 1903. 
Assumed office January, 1904. Vote cast: For Herrick, 475,560; for Tom 
L. Johnson, democrat, Cuyahoga county, 361,748; for N. D. Creamer, pro- 
hibition and 15,000 divided between smaller parties. Born in Huntington, 
Ohio, 1854. 

40. John M. Pattison, democrat, Clermont county, elected in 1905. 
Vote cast: For Pattison, 473,264; for Myron T. Herrick, 430,617; Isaac 
Cowan, socialist, 18,432; A. S. Watkins, prohibitionist, 11,970. Governor 
Pattison served less than six months, and died in 1906, at Milford, Cler- 
mont county. He was born in the same county in 1847. 

41. At the election in 1905, Andrew L. Harris, was elected as a repub- 
lican on the ticket with Governor Herrick, lieutenant governor, it being the 
third time he was chosen to that office. He succeeded Governor Pattison. 
He was born in Butler county, Ohio, in 1834. 

42. Judson Harmon, born in Hamilton county, Ohio, Februar}- 2, 
1846, was judge of the court of common pleas, Hamilton county, 1876-78, 
judge of the superior court of Cincinnati, 1878-87, attorney general of the 
United States under President Cleveland, 1895-97, graduated from Deni- 
son University and the Cincinnati Law School, elected governor of Ohio in 
1908, on the democratic ticket, receiving 552,569 votes, to 553,197 for 
Andrew L. Harris, republican; 28,573 for Robert Bandlow, socialist and 
7,665 for John B. Martin, prohibitionist. There were 1,194 scattering votes 
cast. The total vote cast 1,122,198. Inaugurated January 11, 1909. 

In 1906 a change in terms of office and dates of election resulted from 
a constitutional amendment and the laws passed thereunder. Instead of a 
state election annually in November and a local election annually in April, 
the state election is held biennially in November of the even numbered 
years and local elections biennially in the same month of the odd numbered 
years. The various official terms requiring it, w^ere extended to meet the 
changed condition. As a consequence the next elected governor was 
chosen in 1908 and assumed office on the second Monday of January, 1909 — 

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Former Home of Governor, Secretary of the United States Treasury and Chief 
Justice of the United States, Salmon P. Chase. 

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on the off numbered instead of the even numbered year, as had been the 
rule since 1852. 

Up to and including 1907, there have been fifty-one gubernatorial terms 
and forty-one incumbents. Two men served parts of three terms each — 
Allen Trimble and Rutherford B. Hayes. Edward Tiffin was elected to two 
terms, as were Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., Thomas Worthington, Ethan 
Allen Brown, Allen Trimble (who had previously been acting governor by 
virtue of his position as speaker of the senate), Robert Lucas, Wilson Shan- 
non (with one term intervening), Reuben Wood, Salmon P. Chase, Charles 
Foster, Joseph B. Foraker, William McKinley, Asa S. Bushnell and George 
K. Nash. Rutherford B. Hayes was elected three times, but not in succes- 
sion. Joseph B. Foraker was a candidate for a third term and was defeated. 
Governors Tiffin, Meigs, Brown, Shannon, Wood, Brough, Hayes and Patti- 
son by reason of resignation or death, did not serve in full the terms to which 
they were elected, which accounts for the disproportion between incumbents 
and the gubernatorial terms. 

During the one hundred and five years of the state's organized exist- 
ence it has been fortunate in the choice of its chief magistrates. Some of 
them were men of unusual endowments and statesmanship; some were men 
of plain practical common sense, and some were men of great and versatile 
ability and genius, but the breath of suspicion never soiled their personal 
honor, nor did the tongue of scandal nor of accusation impugn the official 
honesty of either of them. They were not. all great men, but they were all 
honest men. 

The Pioneer Balloon Ascensions. 

On the 4th of July, 1842, was the first balloon ascension from Columbus. 
Mr. Clayton, a celebrated aeronaut, then of Cincinnati, Ohio, made a beauti- 
ful ascent from the state house yard, where a vast concourse of people had 
assembled to witness the spectacle. He arose, it was supposed, to the height 
of from one to two miles. The balloon at first bore southward, then about 
due east, and landed safely about five miles east of Newark ; and he returned 
to Columbus about two o'clock on the second day. 

The second balloon ascension, was also by a celebrated aeronaut, Mr. 
Wise, of Pennsylvania. On the 4th of July, 1851, pursuant to an engage- 
ment with Mr. Kinney, he made his ascent from an enclosure prepared for 
the occasion, and other amusements of the day, at the corner of Broad 
and Seventh streets. There was a very large concourse of spectators, and the 
ascension as fine as could have been wished. He landed safe and sound 
about six miles from his starting point, and returned to the city the same 
evening. The State Journal of the next day says: "Too much praise can- 
not be given Mr. Kinney and Mr. Wise for their services in catering to the 
public taste in this most interesting and beautiful exhibition." 

Proposed Horseback Balloon Ascension. 

The third balloon ascension from Columbus, was by a Monsieur Godard, 
on the 29th of October, 1857, from the enclosure of the Capital City Fair 

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Grounds, a short distance southeasterly from the lunatic asylum. This as- 
cension was also made pursuant to an engagement by Mr. John M. Kinney. 
Monsieur Godard was a Frenchman, and was engaged to come from the city 
of Philadelphia, to make an ascension, on horseback. The ascension was 
only intended as a preliminary one to the great horseback ascension, which 
was to come off two days after; but which, owing to a disappointment in 
obtaining gas, did not come off at all. But this ascension was a grand one. 
Monsieur Godard, his brother, Mr. P. W. Huntington of the Exchange Bank 
and Robert H. Thompson, of the post office department, all ascended — three 
of them in the car, and one of the Godards suspended by his feet to a rope 
some fifteen or twenty feet long, hanging below the car with his head down- 
ward, and in that position, Avaving a flag as he was carried through the air. 
They all landed safely, near Taylor's Station, some eight or nine miles east 
of Columbus. Mr. P. \V. Huntington, in 1908, is one of the active bankers 
and business men in Columbus. 

Escaped Slave Kidnapped. 

The following narrative of kidnapping a negro slave from Columbus, 
by a disgraceful ruse, and the arrest and trial of some of the persons con- 
nected with it, has the merit of a happy ending of 

Jerry Finney's Case. 

"In the spring of 1846, a case of kidnapping occurred at Columbus. 
On the 27th of March, after dark, Jerry Finney, a black man, who had re- 
sided in Columbus some fourteen or fifteen years, was decoyed over to the 
town of Franklinton, to the office of William Henderson, Esq., who was, at 
the time, an acting justice of the peace of Franklin Township. The neces- 
sary certificate, etc., having been previously prepared, Jerry w^as forthwith 
delivered over by the justice, in his official capacity, to the decoying party; 
one of whom was Alexander C. Forbes, of Kentucky, who held a power of 
attorney from Mrs. Bathsheba D. Long, of Frankfort, Kentucky, to whom 
it was claimed that Jerry belonged, and owed service, as an escaped slave. 
Jerry begged for a fair trial, but in vain. He was immediately hand-cuffed 
and put into a carriage standing at the- door for that purpose, and driven to 
Cincinnati, from thence to Kentucky, and delivered over to his former mis- 

"As Jerry was generally known by our citizens (having been cook and 
general waiter or servant at most of our public houses), his sudden disap- 
pearance from our midst, and the time and manner of his capture, created 
some excitement. And the following persons were arrested and held to bail 
to answer the charge of kidnapping: William Henderson, Esq., Jacob Arm- 
itage, Henry Henderson, Daniel A. Potter and Daniel Zinn. 

"At the July term, 1846, of the Court of Common Pleas of Franklin 
County, a true bill of indictment was found against all of the above named 

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peKoiis, together with Alexander C. Forbes (the agent), for the unlawful 
seizure, etc., of Jerry. 

"At the following September term of said court, all of the defendant- 
(except Forbes, who had not been arrested), were put upon trial. A. F. 
Perry, Esq., Prosecuting Attorney, and Wm. Dennison, Jr., conducting the 
prosecution and F. J. Matthews, Esq., and Col. N. H. Swayne, counsel for 
the defendants. 

"The case occupied several days, and much interest was manifested by 
thoee who were acquainted with the defandants and with Jerry. During 
the progress of the trial, one of the jurors, Dr. George Richey, was taken 
sick, and unable to attend further at the court. At this juncture of the case, 
all of the defendants, as w^U as the state (by her counsel), agreed to proceed 
with the eleven remaining jurors. The case was ably conducted on both 
sides, and quite a large number of bills of exceptions were taken by the de- 
fendants' counsel as to the rulings of the court. The jury retired, deliber- 
ated, and returned a verdict of guilty as to Esq. William Henderson, and 
not guilty as to the remaining defendants. Esq. Henderson was then re- 
manded in jail, and the other defendants discharged from custody. The 
court suspended passing sentence upon Henderson, and the case was then, 
by his attorneys, taken up to the Supreme Court upon error, and among the 
many errors assigned, was, in substance, this: that it was not within the 
province of the defendant to waive his objection as to the absence of one of 
the jurors, and the proceeding in the trial with the eleven jurors, was error. 
This objection the court sustained, and decided the case upon that point; 
and Esq. Henderson was discharged." 

Typography a Profession, 

On the 25th of February, 1834, the legislature passed an act incorpor- 
ating the "Columbus Typographical Society," and in the same act recog- 
nized typography as a "profession." 

The incorporators were Patrick Howe, Jason Case, William C. Morrow, 
James Mead, Thomas R. Raymond, Peter J. Bartholomew, Charles L. Mur- 
ray, David B. Kspy, James H. Patterson, Benjamin J. Gray, T. T. Sarchet, 
J. B. HaJsey, Alexander E. Glenn, Theodore Laughre, Jonathan Phillips, 
Isaac Watson, Matthias Birck and Samuel Martin. The name and style of 
the corporation was "The Columbus Typographical Society," and it was de- 
clared to be competent to sue and be sued, to contract and be contracted with, 
acquire and dispose of property, etc., but "the annual income of said corpora- 
tKjns ehall not exceed the sum of $500.00." 

The object of the society was declared to be "to afford relief to deserving 
indigent members, their widows and orphans, and to preserve the honor of 
the profession by the adoption of such measures as shall to them appear to 
be necessary for the encouragement of industry, sobriety, good order and 
morality, among its members." The officers consisted of a president, vice 
president, secretary, treasurer and standing committee of three. No record 
is a** (.liable which gives the names of any officials, or history of the society 
further than it continued to exist during a number of years. 

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By a brief review of the manufacturing and mercantile interests as they 
pre.-onted themselves in 1858, and then by an even briefer comparison of 
the present number and extent of like enterprises, the correct idea of the 
extent of the growth of the two during the half century is seen, freed from 
the confusing details of their annual progress. Herewith is the condensa- 
tion presenting to the present reader and citizen the manufacturing and mer- 
cantile enterprises of 1858; and in word and thought as they presented 
themseh-es in 1858 and as the subject would naturally have been written 
about at that date. 

The Ridgway Foundry, 

This was the first successful manufacturing establishment in Columbus. 
It was commenced in the spring of 1822, by Joseph Ridgway, then from the 
state of New York. For some years he used horse-power instead of steam, and 
the principal article of the manufacture was Jethro Wood's patent plow, of 
which he had made and sold an immense number. It was then considered 
the best plow in use. About the first of January, 1830, he having associated 
with him his nephew Joseph Ridgway, Jr., they introduced into their fac- 
tory steam instead of horse-power and extended their business to the manu- 
facturing of machinery, steam engines, stoves, etc. For many years, they did 
an extensve business, giving employment to about fifty or sixty hands, gen- 
erally. Joseph Ridgway, Jr., having died in 1850, the business was continued 
successfully by the surviving partner and administrator until the spring of 
1854, when he sold out and transferred the whole establishment to Peter Hay- 
den, Esq., since which it has been owned and conducted by Mr. Hayden. 

The Franklin Foundry, 

Generally known by the name of "GilFs Foundry," was commenced 
in 1838, by John L. Gill, William A. Gill and Henry Glover. In 1839, 
John McCune took the place of Mr. Glover, and the firm of Gills & McCune 
continued till May, 1848. From that time the business was continued 
by J. L. & W. A. Gill till July, 1852, since which time it was conducted 
solely by John L. Gill until July, 1857, when he associated with him his 
son, J. L. Gill, Jr. This establishment commenced business with about 
twenty-five hands and was principally engaged in the manufacture of stoves, 
plows and mill irons, arid did a successful business. For the last few years, 
the establishment gave employment generally to from sixty to seventy-five 
persons. In 1855, Mr. Gill commenced the manufacture of his celebrated 
combination steel plow^ and is now manufacturing nearly four thousand per 
year. The amount of capital invested in the establishment is estimated at 
about fiftv thousand dollars. 

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Columbus Machine Manufacturing Company. 

This manufacturing establishment was commenced by Charles Ambos 
and James Lennox in 1849, with a capital of some eight or ten thousand 
dollars. It was designated by the name of ^'Eagle Foundry'' and the firm 
by that of Ambos & Lennox. After continuing the business until the spring 
of 1854, they sold out for upwards of sixty-eight thousand dollars j and it 
was converted into a joint stock company, by its present name. 

The present company commenced with about thirty stockholders, and 
a capital of eighty thousand dollars. They subsequently increased their cap- 
ital to one hundred thousand dollars. The company employ about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five men on an average the year round and pay to their 
officers and hands about four thousand dollars on the first day of each 
month; and turn out in machinery and castings, from one hundred and 
forty thousand to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars a year. This 
company put up the iron frame work for the roofing of the state house, all 
the iron ceilings, galleries and railings in the same. The ground occupied 
by the company is three hundred and twenty by one hundred and eighty- 
five feet. 

Charles Ambos is, and has been, the superintendent from the commence- 
ment. Samuel Galloway was the first president, but being elected to congress 
in 1854, he was succeeded by that experienced manufacturer, John S. Hall, 
Esq. H. Crary was treasurer and secretary until January, 1857, when he 
was succeeded by P. Ambos as treasurer, and F. G. Jones as secretary. Joseph 
Coffin has been chief foreman ever since the commencement. The present 
directors are John S. Hall, P. Ambos, W. E. Ide, E. J. Matthews, Amos 
McNary, B. S. Brown, J. P. Bruck. 

Peter Hayden's Extensive Works. 

Commenced some twenty years since, consist principally in the manu- 
facturing of iron into various useful forms, partly from pig metal and partly 
from scrap iron^ of which they procure immense quantities, and manufactift^ 
it into bar iron and all sizes of wires. The establishment is very extensive 
and gives employment generally to over a hundred hands. The manufacture of 
saddlery, stirrups, buckles, etc., by Mr. .Hayden, is principally done in the 
prison by convict labor. The writer regrets that he is not able to give a 
fuller history and dascription of this large e$tabli.>«hnient, but it seems the 
proprietor did not desire it, and it is therefore thus briefly noticed. 

Ohio Tool Company. 

This is an extensive manufacturing company, incorporated in ISol, 
under a general law authorizing the formation and organization of such 
companies. Capital stock one hundred and ninety thousand dollars. The 
chief article of manufacture is carpenter's plane?, hence it is frequently 
called the "Plane Factory." The average number of hands employed in 

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the various departments of the business is about two hundred. The con- 
cerns of the company are said to be in a prosperous condition and the stock 
in good demand. It is controlled by a board of seven directors. Present 
Officers: George Gere, president; A. Thomas, secretary and treasurer; C. 
H. Clark, superintendent. Directors: 0. Allen, W. A. Piatt, A. McNairy, 
J. R. Swan, George (lere, P. Hayden, J. M. McCune. 

Ridgivay Car Factory, 

In 1849, Joseph Ridgway, Sr., and Joseph Ridgway, Jr., who had for 
many years been doing a heavy business in their own foundry, associated 
with them in their new enterprise of car manufacturing, Mr. Pearl Kimball, 
from Massachusetts, a gentleman of experience in that line of business. 
They made extensive and costly buildings and preparations west of the river, 
by the side of the railroad, and went very extensively into the business under 
the firm name of Ridgu^ays & Kimball. Their cars were of the first quality 
and in extensive demand. In 1850, Mr. Ridgway, Jr., died, but the 
business was continued by the other two partners successfully until the 
spring of 1856, when their main buildings and its contents were entirely de- 
stroyed by fire. They never rebuilt it but continued business on a 
smaller scale until about the first of January, 1857, when Mr. Ridgway sold 
out his interest to Mr. Kimball, who has since continued the business alone. 
Before the destruction by fire, they generally gave employment to about 
eighty men. 

The Columbus Woolen Factory. 

This company organized in 1851, under the general act authorizing 
such corporations. In 1851 and 1852, they erected their buildnigs, procured 
their machinery and commenced manufacturing in the summer or fall of 
1852. The first board of directors were A. P. Stone, F. C. Kelton, Theodore 
Comstock, John Butler and James Lennox. The principal business officer 
of the company is the superintendent, who, subject to the order of the di- 
rectors, manages and controls the business of the establishment. The suc- 
cessive superintendents have been J. L. Haughton, John H. Stage, A. P. 

The dividends to stockholders have generally been made in certificates 
of additional stock or manufactured goods, and in this way the capital stock 
has been increased until it now amounts to about fifty-six thousand dollars. 
The prasent officers and agents of the company are, A. P. Stone, president; 
J. F. Bartlott, Peter Ambos, J. P. Bruck, L. Hoster, directors; A. P. Mason, 
superintendent; C. E. Batterson, bookkeeper. 

Brotherlin & Halm's Chmr and Cabinet Ware Factory. 

This is owned by a private firm, composed of the two gentlemen whose 
names it bears, who associated together for the purpose of manufacturing all 
kinds of chairs and cabinet furniture by steam power and machinery. In 

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the spring of 1853, they commenced their building in the southwest corner 
of the city near the canal, and in July of the same year commenced manu- 
facturing. In February, 1856, their building was totally destroyed by fire, 
but with the energy of real business men, they without delay commenced re- 
building and by the first of July following, their manufacturing again com- 
menced. The number of hands they employ is generally about forty. Their 
furniture store, for the sale of their manufactured articles, is kept on High 

Tub & Pail Manufactory, 

This establishment is the property of an incorporated joint stock com- 
pany, formed for *the purpose of manufacturing hollow wooden ware by 
steam power and machinery. They organized and erected their buildings 
on the west bank of the Scioto in 1855, and in July, 1856, commenced man- 
ufacturing. The capital stock subscribed and paid in is nearly twenty-eight 
thousand dollars, which was not a sufficient amount to pay for the improve- 
ments and start the business to advantage, but the company persevered and 
they w^ere said to be mastering their difficulties and doing a pretty fair busi- 
ness with the prospect of a bright future. But on the 10th of May, 1858, 
their factory was struck by lightning, and the building and all its contents 
consumed by fire. It is said that they will rebuild. The affairs of the com- 
pany are controlled by a board of five directors. Present officers — George 
Kanemacher, president; W. L. Hughes, secretary; H. Crary, treasurer; J. 
H. Beebe, superintendent. 

City Mills. 

The City Mills are owned by a private firm composed of Messrs. Com- 
stock, Harrison and Decker, doing business tinder the firm name of A. S. 
Decker & Company. The mill was originally erected by Mr. Comstock west 
of the canal, and there known by the name of Novelty Mills. In 1856 the 
present firm was formed and the steam-pow^r and mill machinery were re- 
moved into the new building on Fourth street in the early part of 1857 and 
was then named City Mills, Mr. Decker is the acting agent. 

Beside the foregoing manufactories, there are various others in success- 
ful operation in the city, among which are the saw factory at the corner of 
Water and Spring streets, propelled by steam, proprietors, Messrs. Ohlen and 
Drake; several planing machines, propelled by steam, at which are also man- 
ufactured doors, sash, blinds, etc.; Messrs. Swan and Davie's foundry and 
machine shop, on the west side of the river, established a few years since, 
and giving employment to from twenty-five to thirty men; the new steam 
paper mill of Messrs. Hines and Miller, erected in the fall of 1857, and 
which commenced manufacturing paper in January, 1858; the coffee and 
spice grinding mill, established by the Messrs. Rose and now owned by C. P. 
L. Butler, Esq., worked by steam power; Messrs. Schoedinger and Brown's 
furniture manufactory; and two extensive breweries at the south end of the 
city, one owned by Messrs. Hoster and Silbernagle and the other by Mr. 
John Blenkner. 

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Some Comparative Figures. 

In 1858 there were, all told, thirty-eight manufacturing establishments, 
great and small, in Columbus, and as nearly as may now be ascertained rep- 
resented approximately an invested capital of four hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars, with an annual output of manufactured goods and articles 
of all kinds not exceeding one million two hundred and twenty-five thousand 
dollars in value. In 1908 there are, including the establishments in all lines 
of manufacturing, many of them singly representing a greater investment, 
ten times over, than all of the manufacturing establishments in 1858 (and 
the output increasing proportionally), no le?s than three hundred and eighty- 
one establishments. Here, as in other matters of growth and progress, the 
increase during the half centurj- has been approximately one thousand per 

Me rca n tile . 1 d van cem en t. 

There were in 1858 what may be termed mercantile establishments and 
stores. The first consisted of those establishments that carried single lines 
of goods, dry goods, jewelry, hardware and one or two other lines, and were, 
perhaps, of controlling importance in the mercantile sense, and in addition 
mixed or general stores, carrying several lines and of less importance, includ- 
ing restaurants (or eating houses), saloons and taverns. All told, they num^ 
bered a little short of three hundred. 

There is no authentic data upon which to estimate the annual amount of 
business done by these esablishments, but the best information available puts 
it at one million five hundred thousand dollars a year. If we include the 
same lines of business today along with new ones that have grown up, we 
find the number to be two thousand one hundred and ninety-three the aver- 
age per cent of increase. 

Another suggestive comparison is the investment of three leading whole- 
sale houses today, which is one million five hundred thousand dollars, equal 
to the whole volume of mercantile business, wholesale and retail, in 1858. 
Their sales, also, when considered apart, confirm the fixed percentage of the 
city's growth along all channels; while one of the great establishments in the 
manufacturing line has an annual output of five million dollars, or approxi- 
mately twice as great as all business investments and sales of half a cen- 
tury' ago. 

A Mortwary Record. 

Mr. F. C. Maxwell, a prominent real-estate dealer, has compiled, or 
rather constructed, a remarkable mortuary record from the daily and weekly 
press of the city, covering something like a third of a century, coming up to 
the present. To his friends and immediate acquaintances, it already possesses 
much interest. To some gatherer-up of personal history and reminiscence 
a generation hence, it will prove a bonanza of information. 

In a large and substantial scrap book, he has collected nearly all 
the local newspaper clipping:^, relating to the demise of citizens of local 

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prominence and accompanying comment ; proceedings of public and fraternal 
meetings, commemorating the deceased, and in many cases quite complete 
biographical accounts of the deceased which go with the announcement of 
the passing off the stage of well known citizens. To future writers, it will 
be especially valuable, because the personality of the actors in notable public 
events are so fully depicted concurrently with the transpiring of the same. 

The Directory as an Indicator, 

Some interesting historical facts are disclosed by summarizing the his- 
tory of directory making in Columbus, for which credit is due Mr. Joseph 
Wiggins, of R. L. Polk & Company. ^ The summary is self-explanatory, save 
as to the fact that in several of the earlier directories, there was an apparent 
falling oflf in population, which is apparent but not real, owing to the 
changes as to ages and classes of persons to be named in the work, before that 
question was finally disposed of. 

There lies convenient to the writer a file of Columbus directories, em- 
bracing all the publications from the year 1843 till the present time for which 
we are indebted to the state library. This, perhaps, is the only complete list 
of Columbus directories in the city. The first volume was published by John 
R. Armstrong, in the year 1843, and printed by Samuel Medary and con- 
tains two hundred and one pages. One hundred and seven of these pages 
are devoted to historical matter, relating to the rise and progress of the city 
and descriptive of the state institutions. The Business Directory as it is 
styled, or that portion containing the 'names of the citizens, and appears else- 
where in this work was embraced in forty-three pages of the original. 

The number of names contained therein,) by actual count, is 1,005. The 
remaining pages, about fifty, are devoted to advertisements. In this depart- 
ment almost every branch of business conducted in the town is represented. 
The book is printed in small pica type and the workmanship would be con- 
sidered at that date as very well executed. Many of the representative men 
in our commercial, manufacturing, professional and public enterprises were 
registered in this quaint volume as clerks, students, etc., and those who 
have survived the ravages of time and were then men in middle age, are 
now retired from active life. 

Our next volume is for the year 1848, compiled by John Siebert and 
printed by S. Medary. The book contains two hundred and sixty-four octavo 
pages, the greater portion of which is devoted to advertising and historical 
matter. The printing is neat and artistically executed. H. Glover and Wil- 
liam Henderson are the publishers of a directory for 1850-51 and S. Glover 
is the printer. Like their predecessor, these publishers furnish an elaborate 
history of the rise and progress of the city. The directory contains 2,151 
names and a large number of business cards. A neat and attractive little 
volume, for 1855, was published and printed by the Ohio State Journal Com- 
pany, containing 2,810 names and no historical matter, but a goodly number 
of advertisements. Messrs. Williams & Company, of Cincinnati, published 
the directory for two years — 1856-7 and 1858-9. The first volume contains 

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4,530 nameg aiid the ^second volume G,550 names. These directories were 
printed in Cincinnati. In 1859 M. D. Lathrop compiled a directory, which 
was printed by Richard Nevini?, of Columbus. The number of names in this 
book is 5,884. The directory for 18G2 was published and printed by Wil- 
liams, of Cincinnati, and contains 7,088 names. C. A. Poland compiled a 
volume for 1864, and Richard Nevins is the printer. There are but 5,984 
names in this book, a loss of over two thousand names from the directors of 
1862. The next two directories are published by Williams, the first volume 
of which (1866-7) contains 7,748 names, and the second volume (1867-8) 
8,222. The directory for the years 1869-70 was published by Greer & Com- 
pany, printed by Nevins & Myers of Columbus, and contains 7,215 names. 
Columbus is now a city of over 20,000 population and the publication of a 
directory becomes an annual affair. A. Bailey is the publisher of an annual 
directory for three years 1871-2-3. There are 9,267 names in the first volume, 
10,503 in the second, and 13,000 in the third. Hellrigle & Talcott are the 
publishers for 1873. This firm, in their preface, modestly claim that the 
directory contains over 16,000 names, while an actual count shows less than 
13,000. The directory for 1874 is published by R. C. Hellrigle & Company, 
who claim, in their preface, 15,075 names. The names of females that do 
not properly require to be registered in a directory account for the increase 
for this year. 

For the year 1875 two firms published directories — Wiggins & McKillop 
and R. C. Hellrigle & Company. The volume published by Wiggins & Mc- 
Killop contains 13,997 names. ThLs directory was compiled under many 
difficulties. There being two sets of canvassers in the field, the citizens were 
at a loss to know to whom their information should be given, and when given 
to one party were loth to furnish it to the other. 

The publishers endeavored to make their new directory for the centennial 
year, 1876, superior as a book of reference to any of the former publica- 
tions. This volume contains 15,192 names. Estimating the population of 
Columbus as three and one-half to each naxne in the directory, we now have a 
population of 50,632. 

In 1877 both Hellrigle & Company and Wiggins & Company published 
directories, the population as shown by the directory of the latter firm was 
55,000; in 1878 the number of names was 16,297. In 1879 Mr. McKillop died 
and G. J. Brand & Company issued the directory names 15,809; population 
55,000. In 1880, the same firm issued the directory showing 18,706 names 
and 60,000 population. The same firm reported 21,700 names and 65,000 
population in 1881 ; and 22,219 names and 68,000 population in 1882. Wil- 
liams & Company succeeding in 1883 and reported 30,651 names. Same firm 
reported 33,675 names in 1884, and Wiggins 35,375 in the same year. No 
estimates in 1885. Wiggins & Company in 1888 reported 34,810 namos and 
80,000 population; in 1887—38,887 and 88,000; in 1888—42,450 and 106,- 
125 population. 

In 1889 the firm of R. L. Polk & Co. was formed and has since published 
the directory. The figures showing the names and estimates of pub- 
lication are as follows: In 1889, names 41,698, population, 125,094; in 1890, 

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names 43,612, population 130,836; in 1895, the names had increased to 
53,540, and the population to 133,350; in 1900, names 58,639, population 
146,625; in 1905, names 71,786, population 179,207; in 1908, names 79,696, 
population 199,250. The estimates based on the ratio of 3^^ has been al- 
most exactly the population given by the Federal census in the years 1850- 
60-70-80-90 and 1900, the discrepancies being that the official census showed 
a somewhat greater population, than was claimed in the directory estimates. 

Captain Samuel Davis. 

In one of his brilliant addresses before the Benjamin Franklin Chapter, 
Ohio Society Sons of the American Revolution, Colonel William L. Curry 
gave a deeply interesting sketch of Captain Samuel Davis, a prominent figure 
of the streets of Columbus in its early years, from which the following is ex- 
tracted. In point of local historical interest, it is scarcely excelled in our 
local annals of the early part of the last century. 

Not Hero Worshipers Merely. 

It is sometimes charged that the members of our society are hero wor- 
shipers, and I presume it is proper for us to plead guilty to the indictment. 
We believe that a prophet or hero is entitled to some honor in his own coun- 
try, and we have some heroes of our own "kith and kin" worthy of our wor- 
ship. It is not necessary to delve in the pages of ancient history, as many 
people are wont to do, to find a hero worthy of admiration and adoration, as 
the founders of our great republic were not only men of chivalric deeds but 
as "true of heart and as prompt of arm as any men who have been on earth." 
To lay a slight chaplet of praise to one of those heroes of two wars and an 
honored citizen of Franklin county, is the object of this sketch. 

As introductory and explanatory to the source of my information on 
which the facts related in this sketch are based, it is proper to state that my 
grandfather. Colonel James Curry, settled in the southern part of Union 
county, twenty miles distant from Columbus, in the year 1811, where he laid 
a warrant for one thousand acres of land, which had been ceded by the state 
of Virginia to the United States, with the stipulation that these lands should 
be given to the soldiers who enlisted from that state, a^ part payment for their 
services during the war of the Revolution. 

At that date nearly the entire territory now embraced within the limits 
of Union county was an unbroken wilderness, teeming with all kinds of wild 
animals and many friendly Indians. Even as late as Jane 1, 1810, the 
Indians held their councils in that vicinity and executed the noted Indian 
Chief Leatherlips just across the southern border of Union county and in 
the county of Franklin. 

"Shrill through the forest aisles the savage war cry rung; 
Swift to the work of .strife the border huntj^man ^^pning, . 
Red ran the blood of foeman on countless fields of woe 
From Scioto's shimmering stream to Ohio, broad and slow.'' 

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Among the earliest of my recollections were the thrilling stories related 
by my father and other old pioneers of adventures in hunting bear, wolves, 
panthers, deer and other wild game. I was raised up in that kind of atmos- 
phere and many a winter evening as we sat around the blazing fires in the 
old cabins, listening to the thrilling tales of Indian warfare, of massacre and 
scalping, I could feel my hair rising and imagine I could see the Indians 
bedecked with war paint and feathers peering through the windows. While 
6ome of those stories were related of Boone, Kenton and other famous Indian 
fighters, the exploits of Captain Samuel Davis, whose body is buried near 
the banks of the Scioto river, only ten miles distant from Oolumbus, are more 
clearly remembered. 

From Manuscripts of Otway Curry, 

The facts set forth in this sketch of that noted pioneer are from my 
recollections of the incidents which I heard related in my boyhood days and 
from manuscripts left by my uncle, Otway Curry. As my grandfather lived 
only ten miles from the farm of Captain Davis, they were considered neigh- 
bors in those early days and were frequent neighborly visitors, and talked 
much of their exploits and adventures, as my grandfather had also been an 
Indian fighter and was severely wounded during Lord Dunmore's campaign 
in the battle of Point Pleasant, Virginia, October 10, 1774. 

Samuel Davis was born at Litchfield, Connecticut, January 1, 1762. Al- 
though only twelve years of age at the breaking out of the war of the Revolu- 
tion, he served two years in the Continental army before the close of the 
war. The first engagement in which he participated and received his "bap- 
tism of fire" was in a night skirmish with the British army at the time of 
their attack on West Haven, when they attempted a landing from an armed 
vessel in their boats. He was in a number of other engagements, and at the 
close of the war was a boy twenty years of age, strong of body, lithe of limb, 
well inured to the hardships and trials of a soldier in the Continental Army. 
He learned the goldsmith's trade, and at the age of twenty-one he decided 
to seek his fortune in the west, and crossed the mountains with the inten- 
tion of seeking a location where he could manufacture and sell cheap jewelry 
to the Indians. He stopped at Fort Pitt, but for some reason gave up the 
enterprise and started on a hunting expedition. On the Guyandotte river, 
this being about the year 1785, he fell in with two other hunters, whose names 
were Freehart and McCuUough. He had some thrilling adventures in thi^ 
region in hunting bear. Arriving at the mouth of the Guyandotte, he joined 
two hunters named Kendall and Whitsel. They purchased a flat boat and 
decided to make a trip down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans 
with a cargo of buff do meat and veni?on, which they intended to kill on the 
passage. They had a rough trip down the Ohio and had several encounter? 
with the Indians. Just below the falls of Ohio, one of the party was taken 
captive and a fight was only prevented by paying a large ransom in powder 
and lead for his release. The next day the Indians followed them up. in six 
large canoes crowded with savages. On the boat Davis and his companions 

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A Favorite Place for Private Dinners. 

Where Many Private Parties are Entertained. 

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had a large blunderbuss mounted like a cannon and loaded with thirty-six 
rifle balls. They fired one volley from the gun, which completely demoralized 
their pursuers, and they pulled for the shore in great haste. Davis was wont 
to relate this incident with much gusto, as he said the old gun was of no ac- 
count, excepting to make a loud noise, which seemed to frighten the savages. 

A Disastrous Buffalo Hunt, 

At another time Davis and another companion left the boat for the pur- 
pose of hunting buflFalo, and having killed several, returned to the river to 
find that the boat had left them, as an alarm had come to the men manning 
the boat from one of the hunters that a large body of Indians was approach- 
ing. Davis and his companion constructed a raft and started to float down 
the river, but as the river was at high flood the raft was unmanageable and 
floated oflf over the country. As they passed a high bluff Davis' companion 
becoming frightened sprang from the raft and climbed up the bluff, shouting 
to Davis to follow him, but Davis stuck to the raft and was finally wrecked 
on an island, where he remained three days without food or shelter. His 
companion never was heard of again, and he was, no doubt, either drowned 
or killed by the Indians. Davis finally overtook the flatboat, in an Indian 
canoe which he confiscated, in a very exhausted condition, but during all 
this time had retained his gun. 

After enduring many hardships on the voyage down the river, Davis with 
about twenty companions made a trip up the Cumberland in boats and up 
Green river to Limestone, Kentucky, now Maysville. This was about the 
year 1786, and for several years thereafter Davis made his headquarters at 
Limestone, going out on trapping and hunting expeditions up the Big Sandy 
and along the Wabash in Indiana. 

After St. Claires Defeat, 

Soon after St. Clair's defeat, Davis and a man by the name of William 
Campbell embarked on a hunting and trapping expedition in a canoe and 
proceeded up the Big Sandy river. On this trip Davis related that they found 
a boiling spring on a fork of that river which emitted gas, and by applying 
a torch it burned with a strong flame. It therefore seems that they may have 
been the discoverers of natural gas, so we will just credit that discovery to 
one of our patriotic sires. 

They were now near Harmar's Station, on which the Indians had just 
made an unsuccessful attack, but had captured one prisoner by the name 
of Donald with a number of horses. A party of these Indians with their 
prisoner and some of their wounded were floating down the river and seeing 
the camp fire of Davis and Campbell, who were fast asleep, the Indians sur- 
rounded them; they were then awakened to find themselves prisoners of the 
Indians, who stood with uplifted tomahawks. Campbell was severely cut on 
one hand with a tomahawk, but Davis was not injured. The Indians then 
tied them with thongs of dried buffalo hides and compelled them to push the 
canoes down stream with poles, the Indians frequently beating them with 

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sticks. They went down the Ohio river to Hanging Rock, where they went 
into camp, and Davis made an attempt to escape but was recaptured. When 
at this point one of the Indian scouts reported that several flatboats were com- 
ing down the river and Davis was ordered to decoy them to the shore on pain 
of instant death. But the boats failed to come within hailing distance to his 
great joy. They then traveled some distance up the Little Scioto and one 
day went into camp, where the Indians held a council and then proceeded 
to gather up a large quantity of brush and dry wood, which they set on fire, 
around which they performed a war dance with murderous gestures and 
fiendish yells. The Indians were composed of Delawares, Pottawattames, 
Piankshaws and Shawnees. Davis was then informed by his guide that he 
and Donald were to be turned over to the Pottawattamies to be burned. The 
next day they moved on, the prisoners heavily loaded with packs, were driven 
along with kicks and blows; compelled to wade all the streams, while the 
Indians rode through on horses. 

How He Wm Guarded, 

The next night Davis was placed on the bare ground between two Indians 
to whom he was tied by thongs as usual. His limbs and arms were tied so 
tight that they became much sw'ollen and very painful, and every time he 
would move by reason of his great suffering he was beaten severely. The 
Indians were sleeping in one rank, with their guns standing immediately in 
the rear, supported by poles near their heads. Davis determined to make an- 
other effort to escape at all hazards, as he decided that he would take the 
chances of being shot rather than burned at the stake. About daybreak 
the Indians unloosed the thongs and Davis immediately sprang forward, ran 
across a little creek, on the banks of which the camp was located, and into 
a thicket of brush and briars, with the Indians in pursuit yelling like demons, 
and strange to say was not hit by any of their shots. He escaped and made 
his way toward the Ohio, which was reached in two days, and succeeded in 
pushing over a decayed buckeye tree, out of which he constructed a raft and 
finally reached the Kentucky shore. From there he proceeded to a place 
where he had secreted a bark canoe on a hunting trip and in this he floated 
down the river to Massies Station. When he made his escape he had no 
clothing on but his shirt and trousers and when he arrived at the Station, 
after five days without food excepting roots and raw fish, he was entirely 
naked, as his clothing had been literally torn oflf by the briars and brush 
in his rapid flight. A half breed of French and Indian blood, who gave 
his name as Montour, was with the band of Indians, and informed Davis 
that the Indian Chief in command was a Shawnee named "Charley Wilkie." 
Of the other two prisoners, Campbell escaped after being sold by the Dela- 
wares, and Donald was burned at the stake by the Pottawattamies. Montour 
boasted to Davis that he had taken sixteen scalps at St. Clair's defeat, and 
showed him the handle of his tomahawk on which sixteen notches were cut. 
Davis inquired of Montour what the British did with the cannon captured 
from St. Clair, and Montour informed him that four of the pieces were sunk 

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in a deep stream near the battleground. Davis, after his escape, went to 
Cincinnati and gave the information to the commandant at Fort Washington 
and the cannon were rescued. 

Davis went on many hunting and scouting expeditions in eastern Ken- 
tucky and often trailed marauding bands of Indians who had stolen horses 
from the whites, and at one time recaptured ten horses and returned them 
safely to the white settlers. Simon Kenton lived near Washington, Ken- 
tucky, and Davis was in his employ as a spy for three years. His principal 
duties were to patrol the Ohio river and to report to Kenton when Indians 
crossed from Ohio into Kentucky for the purpose of pillage and murder. In 
this service he had many encounters with the Indians. During a part of 
the time when a spy he was accompanied by Colonel Duncan McArthur. At 
one time he related that he shot and killed an Indian belonging to a pillag- 
ing band and made a miraculous escape, as he was chased for many miles 
through the forest by the Indians, but finally reached the river, where he 
had a canoe secreted and pulled out into the stream just ahead of his pursuers. 

Campbell, who was captured by the Indians with Davis and was his com- 
panion on many of his hunting expeditions, was afterward killed by the 
Indians on the Ohio side of the river. Soon after Wayne's treaty, 1795, Davis 
moved to Ohio and settled on the Scioto below Chillicothe. He afterwards 
lived in Chillicothe and for some years west of the town. Davis related that 
when living in that vicinity a party of Indians came to his house and among 
their number were some of the Indians who had taken him a prisoner, and 
on seeing him, exclaimed, "waugh Shinneh wanneh," i. e., "Captain." 

Comes to Columbus. 

In the year 1814 he removed to Franklin county when he was about 
fifty-one years of age. During the war of 1812 he served on two expeditions 
in the northwest, and on one of them as a captain of volunteers. Captain 
Davis had a most remarkable career as a backwoodsman, hunter, Indian 
filter and soldier, including his service in the war of the Revolution untit 
the close of the war of 1812, a period of a third of a century of almost con- 
tinuous warfare with the British and Indians. The history of the service of 
this brave frontiersman is scarcely second to that of Daniel Boone and Simon 
Kenton. He was an intelligent, highly respected citizen, and lived quietly 
on his farm in Franklin county until his death, which occurred in Norwich 
township in 1849, at the age of eighty-six. Many of the descendants of Cap- 
tain Davis, the Davis and Sells, reside in Dublin and vicinity; others in the 
city of Columbus at this time. 

A Columbus Squirrel Hunt. 

In view of the present restrictive game laws, the following quotations 
from the early history of Columbus look strange, indeed, even with the sub- 
joined explanation. For the first twenty years or more after the settlement 
of this country, fishing and hunting were favorite amusements ; and the fish 

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and game being plenty, a person did not tire in the pursuit. Fishing was 
sometimes with a net seine but more frequently with a brush drag, which 
required from a dozen to twenty men, and was a kind of frolic. Hunting 
was for the double or treble purpose of amusement, the obtaining of fresh 
game for the table, and the [)rotection of the crops against devouring aniraals. 

The subjoined account of a general squirrel hunt, from the Columbus 
Gazette of August 29, 1822, is illustrative of the above fact, and at the same 
time it brings to view the names and the memory of a number of respectable 
citizens of that day, most of them have now passed away : 

"Grand Squirrel Hunt. — The squirrels are becoming so numberous in 
the county as to threaten serious injury, if not destruction, to the crops of 
the farmer during the ensuing fall. Much good might be done by a general 
turn out of all citizens whose convenience will permit, for two or three days, 
in order to prevent the alarming ravages of those mischievous neighbors. It 
is, therefore, respectfully submitted to the different townships each, to meet 
and choose two or three of their citizens to meet in a hunting caucus, at the 
house of Christian Heyl, on Saturday, the 31st inst., at 2 o'clock P. M. Should 
the time above stated prove too short for the townships to hold meetings, as 
above recommended, the following persons are respectfully nominated and 
invited to attend the meeting at Columbus: Montgomery, Jeremiah McLene 
and Edward Livingston; Hamilton, George W. Williams and Andrew Dill; 
Madison, Nicholas Goetschius and W. H. Richardson; Truro, Abiather V. 
Taylor and John Hanson; Jefferson, John Edgar and Elias Ogden; Plain, 
Thomas B. Patterson and Jonathan Whitehead; Harrison, F. C. Olmsted and 
Captain Bishop; Sharon, Matthew Matthews and Buckley Comstock; Perry, 
Griffith Thomas and William Mickey; Washington, Peter Sells and Uriah 
Clark; Norwich, Robert Elliott and Alanson Perry; Clinton, Colonel Cook 
and Samuel Henderson; Franklin, John McElvain and Lewis Williams; 
Prairie, John Hunter and Jacob Neff ; Pleasant, James Gardiner and Reuben 
GoUiday; Jackson, WooUery Conrad and Nicholas Hoover; Mifflin, Adam 
Reid and William Dalzell. 

"In case any township should be unrepresented in the meeting, those 
present will take the liberty of nominating suitable persons for said absent 

^^^^'^^'- Ralph Osborn, 

Gustavus Swan, 
Christian Heyl, 
Lucas Sullivant, 
Samuel G. Flenniken, 
John A. McDowell." 

A subsequent paper says: "The hunt was conducted agreeable to the 
instructions in our last paper. On counting the scalps, it appeared that nine- 
teen thousand six hundred and sixty scalps were produced. It is impossible 
to say what number in all were killed, as a great many of the hunters did 
not come in." 

The hunting or killing of deer was successfully practiced by candle or 
torch light, at night, on the river. The deer in warm weather would come 

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into the river after night to eat a kind of water-grass that grew in the stream, 
and the hunters, by taking a canoe, and a bright light in it, could let it 
float down stream, and the light appeared to blind the deer until they could 
float near to them and shoot them with ease. 

An Honored Pioneer, 

A writer in the Ohio Statesman of Tuesday morning, February 22, 1870, 
apropos to the death of a prominent Columbus pioneer referring to the fam- 
ilies of 1805-7-8; the Miners, the Whites, the Stewarts, the Johnsons, the 
Worthingtons, the Shannons, the Stambaughs, the Ramseys, the Moohreys, the 
Sharps, the Deckers, the Rareys and the Olmsteds, recalls old memories. 
The occasion of the publication was the demise, on the Sunday preceding, 
of Colonel Philo H. Olmsted, the then oldest, as well as the pioneer repre- 
sentative of the Olmsted family. 

Colonel Olmsted had long been one of the leading figures in early Colum- 
bus, both in civic and military affairs. He was a non-com. of the celebrated 
Franklin Dragoons, which escorted President James Monroe from Worthing- 
ton to Columbus in 1817 and later was its commander. The Dragoons were 
organized during the war of 1812 and continued as an organized body until 

The paper referring to a then noteworthy event says: "On Saturday, 
August 31, 1822, Colonel Olmsted participated in the grand squirrel hunt, 
which resulted in the capture of nineteen thousand six hundred and sixty 
scalps," a fuller account of which event is given elsewhere in this work. 
Colonel Olmsted had filled the office of mayor and many other public offices, 
had been identified with the Columbus newspaper press, was in all 
public affairs, and his death naturally effected the entire community with 
sorrow and sincere regret. 

On the evening of February 21, the editors and printers of the city as- 
sembled in the office of Governor Edward F. Noyes, and organized by electing 
Colonel Charles B. Flood, president, and Hon. John Greiner, secretary. On 
motion of Grafton Pearce, the following persons were chosen to report resolu- 
tions expressive of both public and private sentiment: Judge W. B. Thrall, 
Colonel C. B. Flood, Grafton Pearce, A. B. Laurens and William H. Bushey. 
In their report the committee referred to Colonel Olmsted's long and valuable 
services in pushing forward the city of Columbus and eulogized his many 
good qualities. 



Mention is made elsewhere of the action of Hon. Alfred Kelly, in pre- 
venting the repudiation, by the legislature of Ohio, of its canal bonds in the 
year 1841. The mansion below, which is still standing in a perfect state of 

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preservation, was the first building, public or private in the state capital, 
which could lay claim to architectural pretensions. 

Mr. Kelly, who probably had never studied architecture, was the architect 
of the building, and superintended, as well, the laying of every stone, the 
designing of every column, and the finishing of every cornice and chimney. 
It was this house and its once beautiful grounds that he pledged for the pay- 
ment of his note for some thirty thousand dollars for money, borrowed in 
New York, to pay the overdue interest on the bonds of the state issued to 
build the Ohio canal system, the banking house preferring the private cit- 
izen's note to the special bond issue of the state to meet the interest charges. 
The legislature had passed through one house, a bill to repudiate the canal 
debt, and was awaiting Mr. Kelly's return to pass it through the other, in 
the event the emergency interest bonds had not been negotiated. 

Then it was that this old berea stone mansion saved the escutcheon of 
Ohio stainless, for had not the interest charges been paid, repudiation would 
have been inevitable under the dreadful stress of the financial depression that 
hung like a pall over the entire Ohio Valley. When it become known what 
Kelly had done — how he had jeopardized his entire fortune (and it was a 
large fortune in Columbus for that day) with absolute faith in the resources 
and integrity of the state and its government, it inspired men in every sec- 
tion with confidence, optimism and the determination to go to work and create 
prosperity by their united efforts. 

And that determination was carried out, the six per cent bonds, which 
were so nearly repudiated, went to a premium, and holders, for half a cen- 
tury, asked to have them refunded, the last refunding being at a shade above 
three per cent, and still they commanded a premium, and when no further 
extensions would be made at even three per cent, the holders reluctantly came 
to the state treasury and accepted the principal — some not calling for their 
money for years after the bonds matured. 

It seems singular to us of the present day, that the state did not acquire 
this historic estate, lying north of Broad and extending east and west from 
Fifth street to Grant avenue, after its owner had passed away, and maintain 
it for all time in some appropriate form as a memorial to the unselfish patriotic 
citizen who saved the honor of his adopted state unsullied, by putting all his 
earthly possessions in peril sooner than permitting the shame and disgrace 
of repudiation to befall it. 

Once this beautiful property might have been preserved intact. Now it 
is impracticable. But if we cannot understand the lack of commonwealth's 
appreciation of one of its real benefactors, what will our children and our 
children's children think of it and of us? 

Brief Sketches of ProTninent Men of the City, vn Congress and on the Bench. 

Columbus and Franklin county can boast of many distinguished states- 
men, who served their people well during the century. The work of some 
of them would merit a volume; of some of the others almost as much, but a 

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brief summing up of each will suffice to excite the reader's interest in the 
wider histories of their achievements. Beginning with those who being resi- 
dents served the city, county and district in the congress of the United 
States are: 

James Kilbourne, 

James Kilbourne was born in New Britain, Connecticut, October 19, 1770, 
and died in Worthington, Franklin county, Ohio, December 9, 1850. He 
was a man of great force of character and did much toward the upbuilding 
of the commonwealth of Ohio during the first three decades of the century. 
lie was reared on his father's farm and in early life was apprenticed to a 
cloth manufacturer and afterward became the manager of the business. Sub- 
sequently he was instrumental in introducing different kinds of manufactur- 
ing enterprises into the new state, which eventually made it largely inde- 
pendent of the east. 

When the Northwest Territory was erected by the ordinance of 1787 
and the institution of slavery prohibited therein, young Kilbourne set about 
organizing an emigration society in Connecticut to form a settlement in the 
society in the Scioto valley. The Scioto Emigration Company was organized 
and conducted by him to Ohio in 1803 and located in the Scioto valley in the 
northern portion of Franklin cmnity, where a large tract of land was pur- 
chased and divided among the stockholders and the town of Worthington 
founded. Later he brought out other colonies and assisted in locating them to 

The promotion of education, religioil and agricultural and manufactur- 
ing industries occupied his mind to the exclusion of ambitious political 
project-^. He accepted public office under protest and only to oblige his 
friends. He was elected to the thirteenth congress in 1812, from the fifth 
district, embracing almost one-half of the superficial area of the state, com- 
pared of Licking, Delaware, Knox, Franklin, Madison, Fairfield, Champaign, 
Montgomery, Miama and Darke, which have since been subdivided into almost 
twice as many additional counties. In 1814 he was reelected to the fourteenth 
congress and wa« renominated for the fifteenth but absolutely refused to take 
a third election. He was one of the commissioners to settle the disputed 
boundary line between Virginia and the Northwest Territory. He was also 
the conmiissioner to select for the state of Ohio the public lands allotted for 
canal purposes and afterward ki^own as the canal lands. He was an active 
and energetic advocate of road«, canals, railways and all forms of internal 

In 1820 he was chosen a presidential elector and cast his vote for James 
Monroe. He acted with the democratic party up to 1824, when he began to 
diverge from it, supporting Henry Clay. With the organization of the whig 
party, he wholly severed his political relations with the democracy and be- 
came an ardent whig, taking an active part in the campaigns of 1836, 1840 
and 1844. He was, however, always tolerant in his party views. 

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Jeremiah McLene, 

Of Ross, and later of Franklin county, was not only one of the leading 
democrats but one of the leading public men of the state during the first 
thirty years of its histor\\ He entered public life in 1807 as a member of 
the house of the sixth general assembly, representing Ross, Franklin and 
Highland. He ser\^ed a single term. He was active in the militia organiza- 
tion and became a major general. 

He served as secretary" of state for twenty-three years consecutively, hav- 
ing been elected by the legislature in 1808, and reelected seven times in suc- 
cession, to terms of three years each. In 1832 he was elected to the twenty- 
third congress from the eighth district comprising Franklin, Madison, Pick- 
away, Delaware and Marion counties, and was reelected from the same dis- 
trict to the twenty-fourth congress in 1834. He was an elector on the Jack- 
son ticket in 1832. 

General McLene was born in Pennsylvania in 1767. In early life he 
emigrated to the territory of Tennessee, where, as a boy, he became acquainted 
with and warmly attached to General Andrew Jackson. From Tennessee he 
came to Ohio. He died at Washington, D. C, March 19, 1837, from a cold 
contracted while attending the inauguration of President Martin Van Buren. 

Heman A, Moore, 

Of Franklin county, was elected to the twenty-eighth congress in 1842 
from the tenth district, Franklin, Licking and Knox counties, and died in 
1844 before the expiration of his term and was succeeded by Alfred P. 
Stone. He was born in Plainfield, Vermont, in 1810, and came to Ohio when 
a young man and served as adjutant general of the state for a brief period. 
He died in Columbus, April 3, 1844. 

Alfred P. Stone 

Was chosen to the vacancy caused by the death of Heman A. Moore in 
the tw^enty-eighth congre^, 1844, from the tenth district, as above. On the 
15th of June, 1856, William H. Gibson resigned the office of treasurer of 
state and Mr. Stone w^as immediately appointed to the vacancy by Governor 
Salmon P. Chase. At the October election, 1857, he was elected as a repub- 
lican to the same office over James R. Morris, democrat, by a vote of 160,618 
to 158,942. At the October election, 1859, he was reelected over William 
Bushnell, democrat, by a vote of 184,567 to 170.413. He serv^ed for a period 
of five years in the office. Mr. Stone was born in Hampshire county, Massa- 
chusetts, on the 28th of June, 1813, and came to Ohio when a young man. 
He died in Columbus, Ohio, August 2, 1865. 

Samuel Galloway. 

Samuel Galloway was born in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, March 20, 1811, 
and located in Columbus in early life, where he rose to distinction as a lawyer 

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and an orator. He was a whig and afterward a republican, and while a recog- 
nized leader in these parties, never sought for the distinction of office, pre- 
ferring the practice of his profession. He was notfed for his incisive ability 
on the stump during the political campaigns for nearly a third of a century. 
He served a single term in congress, being nominated by his party without 
solicitation and was elected to the thirty-fourth congress in 1854 from the 
twelfth or capital district, composed of Franklin, Licking and Pickaway, which 
had elected Edson B. Olds, democrat, at the preceding congressional election. 

Samuel Sullivan Cox. 

Samuel Sullivan Cox was one of the imposing features in democratic 
politics in Ohio from 1852 to 1867 and afterward in the city of New York. 
He was born in Zanesville, Ohio, September 30, 1824, and died in the city 
of New York, September 10, 1889. He graduated from Brown University 
in 1846, studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice at Zanes- 
ville in 1849. In 1853 he removed to Columbus and became editor of the 
Ohio Statesman, in which position he displayed unusual literary ability. In 

1855 he became secretary of legation at Lima, Peru, but returned to Ohio in 

1856 and was elected to the thirty-fifth congress from the twelfth district, 
Franklin, Licking and Pickaway counties. He was elected from the same 
district in the thirtj-sixth congress in 1858, and to the thirty-seventh in 1860. 

In 1862, at the decennial apportionment of the state, he was placed in 
the seventh district, made up of the counties of Franklin, Madison, Clark 
and Greene, which was regarded as safely republican, but in 1862 it elected 
him to the thirty-eighth. He was again a candidate for the thirty-ninth in 
1864, but was defeated by a few votes. 

He removed from Ohio to New York in 1866 and formed a law partner- 
ship with Algernon Sidney Sullivan, this soon becoming one of the leading 
law firms of the metropolis. In 1868 the democracy of his new district sent 
him to congress, where he remained almost continually the rest of his life. 
His only unsatisfied ambition was his failure to be elected speaker of the house 
of representatives, which he nearly attained on two or three different occasions. 

He was a man of rare wit and humor, a brilliant lecturer and orator of 
great force and originality. For a long period he was one of the regents of 
the Smithsonian Institute. He was a man of practical ideas and applied 
them in legislation. To him was most largely due the organization of the life- 
saying service, and increased compensation for letter carriers, and vacations 
without loss of pay. Mr. Cox traveled extensively in Europe and northern 
Africa, between 1880 and 1885. In 1885 he was appointed minister to Turkey 
by President Grover Cleveland. He enjoyed a wide reputation as an author. 
Among his best known books were "The Buckeye Abroad," "Eight Years in 
Congress," "Free Land and Free Trade," "Three Decades of Legislation" and 
"Why We Laugh." 

Hugh J. Jewett. 

Hugh J. Jewett was bom in Hartford county, Maryland, in 1812, and 
died in he same state when past the age of seventy-five. The most of his 

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life, however, was passed in Ohio, at Zanesville and Columbus, where he wag 
a leading lawyer, banker, railway president and promoter and democrat 
leader. He came to Ohio when a young man and was admitted to the bar 
at St. Clairsville in 1840, where he began the practice of his profession. In 
1848 he located at Zanesville and entered the banking business, and was 
made president of the Muskingum branch of the State Bank of Ohio in 1852. 
He was a presidential elector in 1852 and supported Franklin Pierce foi 

He was a member of the senate of the fifty-first general assembly and a 
member of the house in the fifty-eighth, and in 1853 was appointed United 
States district attorney for the district of Ohio. In 1855 he entered upon his 
railway career and became manager and afterward president of the Central 
Ohio road. He was subsequently connected officially with several of the lead- 
ing Ohio railroads, in 1872 became receiver of the Erie road of New YorK, 
and managed its affairs for ten years. He was a candidate for congress in 
1860 but w^s defeated. In 1861 he was a candidate for governor and was 
defeated by David Tod, republican, by a vote of 206,997 to 151,774. He 
was an unsuccessful candidate for United States senator in 1863. 

He was elected to the forty-third congress in 1872 from the twelfth dis- 
trict, Franklin, Pickaway, Fairfield, and Perry counties, and resigned in 1874 
to assume charge of the Erie railway. He retained his residence in Ohio until 
^ 1887 and then returned to his ancestral home in Maryland. 

George L. Converse, 

George L. Converse, of Columbus, was born in Georgesville, Franklin 
county, Ohio, June 4, 1827, and died in Columbus in 1898. He was a lawyer 
of much ability and a prominent democrat leader for a quarter of a century. 
He attended the public schools and graduated from the Denison University, 
Granville, Ohio, in 1849. In 1851 he was admitted to the bar and became 
a leading attorney, both in civil and criminal law. 

He represented Franklin county in the house of the fifty-fourth, fifty- 
fifth, sixty-first and sixty-second general assemblies, and was speaker of the 
body during the sixty-second general assembly. He was elected to the forty- 
sixth congress in 1878 from the ninth district, Franklin, Pickaway, Madison, 
Fayette and Delaware counties, and was reelected to the forty-seventh in 1880 
from the same district. 

In 1882 he was elected from the thirteenth district, Franklin, Fairfield, 
Hocking and Perry counties, to the forty-eighth congress, and joined with 
Samuel J. Randall and other tariff democrats in defeating the democratic 
tariflF reform measures of that session. His democratic constituents refused 
him a fourth nomination, and he retired to private life. During the last ten 
years of his life he was not in active sympathy because of the tariff issue. 

Joseph H. Outhwaite, 

Joseph H. Outhwaite, of Columbus, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, De- 
cember 5, 1841, and was educated in the public schools of Zanesville and 

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taught for two years in the high school of that city and for three years sub- 
sequently was principal of the grammar school in Columbus. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1866 and practiced law at Osceola, Missouri, from 1867 
to 1871, when he returned to Columbus and became a leading attorney. He 
was elected prosecuting attorney of Franklin county in 1874 and reelected 
in 1876, and held many local offices of trust in later years. 

In 1884 he was elected as a democrat on the tariflf reform issue to the 
forty-ninth congress from the thirteenth district, Franklin, Fairfield, Hock- 
ing and Pickaway counties, and was reelected in 1886 from the thirteenth 
district, then composed of Franklin, Fairfield, Hocking and Perry; elected 
from the same district in 1888 to the fifty-first; and was elected to the fifty- 
second in 1890 from the ninth district, Franklin, Madison and Pickaway; 
and was elected a fifth time in 1892 from the twelfth district, Franklin and 
Fairfield. He played a conspicuous part in congress during the ten years of 
his service. He was appointed on the board of ordnance and fortifications 
by President Cleveland and still retains that position. In 1896 he disagreed 
with the leaders of his party on the money question and supported John M. 
Palmer for the presidency on the single gold standard platform. 

David K. Watson, 

David Kemper Watson, of Columbus, was born on a farm near London, 
Madison county, Ohio, June 18, 1849, and was graduated from Dickinson 
College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1871. Two years later he was graduated 
from the law department of the University of Boston and admitted to the bar. 
He was assistant United States attorney for the southern district of Ohio 
under the administration of President Chester A. Arthur, and in 1887 was 
unanimously nominated by the republican state convention for attorney gen- 
eral of the state; was elected and reelected in 1889. In 1892 Attorney 
General Miller appointed him special counsel for the United States in the 
suit brought by the government against the Pacific railroads. 

In 1894 he was nominated and elected to the fifty-fourth congress, as 
a republican, from the twelfth district, Franklin and Fairfield counties. The 
district was largely democratic, but he carried it over Joseph H. Outhwaite, 
democrat, by a plurality of 1,591, and was defeated in 1896 by John J. Lentz, 
democrat, in the same district by less than 50 votes. In 1898 he was ap- 
pointed by President McKinley as a member of the commission to codify 
the laws of the United States. 

John J. Lentz. 

John Jacob Lentz, of Columbus, was born near St. Clairsville, Belmont 
county, Ohio, January 27, 1856; attended district school and the St. Clairs- 
ville high school; taught school four years; graduated from the National 
Normal University, Lebanon, Ohio, in 1877; attended University of Wooster 
one year; graduated from Univen-ity of Michigan with degree of A. B. in 

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1882 ; took both law courses at Columbia College, New York city, receiviug the 
degree of LL. B. in 1883; admitted to the bar at Columbus in October, 1883, 
and since 1887 has been a member of the law firm of Na«h & Lentz; for five 
years was one of the examiners of the city teachers; and was appointed a 
trustee of Ohio University by Governor McKinley; in the democratic state 
convention, at Cincinnati, in 1893. Although refusing to permit his name 
to be presented to the convention he was voted for as a candidate for gov- 
ernor. He was elected national president of the American Insurance Union 
in September, 1896, and reelected in 1897, 1898 and 1899. He was voted 
for as a candidate for the gubernatorial nomination in 1897 and again in 1899, 
although again refusing to permit his name to be presented to the conven- 
tion. In 1896 he was elected to the fifty-fifth congress, as a democrat from 
the twelfth district, composed of Franklin and Fairfield counties, and was 
reelected from the same district in 1898 to the fifty-sixth. In the famous 
contest which resulted in the election of, Marcus A. Hanna by the Ohio legis- 
lature, in January, 1898, Mr. Lentz was the only democrat who received a 
vote for United States senator. He was permanent chairman of the democrat 
state convention held at Dayton, August 23 and 24. 

In the first session of the fifty-sixth congress, no resolution attracted wider 
attention than that introduced by Mr. Lentz to investigate the use of the 
United States army in Idaho in connection with the labor troubles in the 
Coeur d'Alene mining district. The investigation was vigorously prosecuted 
by Mr. Lentz and closely followed by organized labor throughout the coun- 
try, and attracted universal attention among all who watch the use of the 
military arm of the government. Mr. T^entz, although he has been in public 
life but a short time, has attained that eminence as an orator that he has 
been called upon to speak in almost all the principal cities from Milwaukee 
to New Orleans, and from Portland, Maine, to Portland, Oregon. 

Emmett Tompkins, 

an eminent attorney and son of former Congressman Cydnor B. Tomp- 
kins, was born in McConnelsville, Ohio, September 1, 1853. In 1865 he 
removed to Athens, both his parents being deceased. At Athens he entered 
the law offices of General Charles H. Gra<venor and Judge Joem Welch, with 
whom he studied law^ and was admitted to the bar in 1875, entered at once 
upon the practice and ra«e to great prominence in the profession. He served 
two terms as a city solicitor of Athens: two terms as mayor, and two terms 
as a representative in the general assembly of Ohio. He removed to Co- 
lumbus to enter the broader field of his profession and in 1900 was chosen to 
congress and served one term. Since then he has been in the practice of 
his profession. 

Judge DeWitf C. Badger. 

Judge Badger was elected to congress in 1902, and served one term. He 
is now in the law practice in Ohio. 

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Columbus Savings and Trust Company, High and Long. 


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Edward L, Taylor, Jr. 
Edward L. Taylor, Jr., was elected to the congress in 1904; reelected in 
1906, ia still incumbent, and is the republican nominee for reelection. Longer 
sketches of the two gentlemen immediately preceding appear elsewhere in 
this work. 

United States Senator A, G, Thurmau. 

Had it fallen to the lot of Plutarch to have written the lives of Allen 
Granberry Thurman and John Sherman he would have drawn the inevitable 
parallel between them. Politically they were antipodal. Personally they were 
on the friendliest footing. Mentally they were giants of equal stature. 

Thurman was so intensely democratic and so firm in his political con- 
victions that a compatriot spoke of his as the type of Roman firmness. A 
witty newspaper writer aptly interjected the phrase. ^^Why, he is the noblest 
Roman of them all.'' Thurman was democratic in all things, affable, com- 
panionable and easily approached. He had thousands of what the classic 
writers called *4over3,'' men who loved him as brothers love one another and 
who took as personal insults every slight put upon him. 

Sherman was austere, reserved and dignified and was not approached 
easily. Early in his public career he was dubbed "The Iceberg." His friends 
were friends under all circumstances but far from enthusiastic. And yet 
Sherman was not an iceberg to them who knew him but a genial warm- 
hearted man, and Thurman was a fierce and relentless hat^r of those who be- 
trayed him. The worst enemies of each were in his own party — men of nar- 
row ambitions and powerful leverage in the manipulation of party affairs. 
But for these enemies both would have reached the presidency, on which they 
had fixed their ambitions at different periods. 

These two m^en were contemporaneous during that period of our national 
history when Ohio was the nerve center of the mentality, conscience and mil- 
itary prowess of the Union. They did more for their respective parties than 
is yet appreciated. Sherman was the real pilot in the senate, who steered the 
republican party between the Scylla of centralization and the Charybdis of 
reconstruction excesses in a most critical period. His strong conservatism, 
joined to his party rectitude, kept his party within the line of discretion and 

Thurman in the senate saved the democratic party from final dissolu- 
tion after it had begun to recover from the awful cataclysm of 1860. He 
entered the senate in 1869, when the party lacked an efficient leader and a 
definite policy. There were barely enough democratic senators to demand a 
roll call when he entered the body, but before he left it, twelve years later, 
he had been chosen its president pro tempore. Strongly combating the re- 
publican party on all political issues, Judge Thurman evolved a modern dem- 
ocratic policy, which gave the party coherence in every section of the Union, 
and exercised a most beneficial influence upon the national legislation at a 
time when prejudice and partisan ambition threatened the direct injury to 
the highest public intercuts, emphasizing the fact that an intelligently con- 

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trolled iiiiiiority is the great and necessary conserving factor in a popular 

Hence, it may be said, without reflecting upon their compeers, that these 
two men rendered the highest possible service to their respective parties, and 
to the country at the same time, in a most critical period, by so guiding and 
molding them that neither fell into irretrievable error. 

Allen G. Thurman was born in Lynchburg, Mrginia, November 13, 
1813. He died in Columbus, Ohio, December 12, 1896. A few years after 
his birth, his parents moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, bringing with them not 
only a future United States senator in the person of their son, but a future 
United States senator and governor in the person of William Allen, Mrs. 
Thurman s nephew. Upon her devolved mostly the education of the two 
youths. Mrs. Thurman educated her son in both English and French, and 
superintended his further education in the Chillicothe Academy, a private 
educational institution. While it was intended to send him to college, that 
he might enjoy a more thorough educational course, the circumstances of his 
parents were such that this wa^ an impossibility. 

He was naturally inclined to the legal profession and fitted himself for it 
while earning a subsistence by any honorable occupation which offered. 
Teaching and civil engineering were the principal means of supporting him- 
self and his parents, while pursuing his legal studias. He was admitted to 
the practice in 1835 and rapidly rose to the head of his profession. 

In 1844 he was elected a representative in the Twenty-ninth congress 
and served but a single term in that body. When the supreme court of Ohio 
was reorganized under the constitution of 1851 he became one of the mem- 
bers of that tribunal, his associates being Thomas W. Bartly, John A. Corwin, 
Rufus P. Ranney and William B. Caldwell. He .^er\ed on the supreme bench 
until 1855, and his decisions were noted for their clearness and comprehensive- 
ness. In 1868 he was elected United States senator over Benjamin F. Wade, 
the election being held on the 14th of January, and formally declared on the 
succeeding day at the joint session of the two houses. At the preceding elec- 
tion in October, 1867, he was the democratic candidate for governor, being 
defeated by Rutherford B. Hayes, who received 243,605 votes to 240,622 for 
Thurman. He lost the governorship, but the legislature being democratic in 
both houses he won the senatorship. He was re-elected to the senate on the 
13th of January, 1874, over Edward F. Noyes. He was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the senatorship in January, 1880; December, 1880; and Jan- 
uary, 1886. 

He was a candidate for the presidential nomination in 1876, when Sam- 
uel J. Tilden was nominated; in 1880, when the nomination went to General 
Winfield S. Hancock; in 1884, when Grover Cleveland was made the demo- 
cratic standard bearer; and in 1888 was imanimously nominated for vice 
president on the ticket with President Cleveland. He ser\^ed with distinc- 
tion on the Paris monetary commission, being one of the leading champions 
of the equal coinage of both gold and silver as the primary money of the 
commercial nations of the world and continued to advocate that policy dur- 
ing the remainder of his life. 

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Early in 1868 a conference of the leading democrats of Ohio was called 
to consider party affairs, and Judge Thurman was invited to be present. At 
the conference it was proposed to dissolve the party and organize a new one. 
Several of the conferees spoke in favor of the proposition and the Judge, who 
sat as a silent spectator, was called on for his views. Taking an etra pinch of 
snuff and stretching to his full attitude, he said: ^^Gentlemen, this is a very 
small room in which to decree the death of the great democratic party. More- 
over, I doubt the jurisdiction of this tribunal in the premises. With your 
permission, I will withdraw from your deliberations." Flourishing his 
famous red bandana handkerchief and blowing his nose with a bugle blast, 
he left the hall, and the conference broke up without the formality of a mo- 
tion to adjourn. 

Attorney General Henry Stanbery. 

One of the most elegantly, courtly men known to the legal profession in 
Ohio was Henry Stanbery. He was in stature about six feet, erect, with dig- 
nified bearing and a very pleasant face. His features were large and strongly 
marked, and when suffused with the light of his genial spirit nothing could 
be more captivating. Indeed he was grace itself and seemed as a prince 
among men. The memory of his fine presence is to many living a valued 
lifetime possession. And he was deserving of the regard which his presence 
inspired, for he was the soul of honor and integrity; scorned to mislead a 
court or jury, or to deceive an opponent by any misstatement of law or fact. 

He was kindness itself, never lost his control nor indulged in petulance 
nor passion. He was one of the first lawyers in the United States and entitled 
to the highest veneration and regard. He was a member of the Episcopal 
communion and in all his deportment and career showed his love for justice, 
truth and beauty. 

Henry Stanbery was born in New York city, and in 1814, when a lad of 
eleven years, came with his father, a physician, to Zanesville. He was edu- 
cated at Washington College, Pennsylvania, studied law at Zanesville, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1821, when he was invited by Hon. Thomas Ewing 
to begin the practice at Lancaster and ride the circuit with him, which offer 
he accepted and for many years resided there. 

When, in 1846, the office of attorney-general of Ohio was created, he 
was elected by the general assembly to be its first occupant. He then re- 
moved to Columbus, where he resided during his entire term of five years. 
In 1850 he was a member of the constitutional convention from Franklin 
county and was conspicuous in its debates. 

On leaving Columbus he for several years practiced law in Cincinnati. 
In 1866 he wa^ appointed attorney-general of the United States by President 
Johnson, which ofhce he accepted from a dasire to assist in carrying the gov- 
ernment safely through the perilous times following the war. He resigned 
this office to become one of the counsel of the president upon his impeach- 
ment. His health at that time was so delicate that most of hLs arguments on 
that trial were submitted on paper. He died in New York in 1883, aged 
eighty years. 

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Governor WilUam Dennison, Jr, 

William Dennison, the first of Ohio's trio of war governors, was born 
at Cincinnati, November 23, 1815. His father was the proprietor of the 
highly popular and widely known "Dennison House" in that city, and a 
grand specimen of the old style of western landlords. He graduated from 
Miami university, and entered upon the study of law in Cincinnati in the 
office of Nathaniel G. Pendleton and Stephen Fales. In 1840 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. Shortly afterward he married a daughter of William 
Neil, of Columbus, the famous stage proprietor in the days of stages, and 
removed to that city. 

He practiced law until 1848, when he was elected to the Ohio senate 
by the whig party. About this time he became interested in banking and 
railroads and was made president of the Exchange bank and also of the 
Columbus & Xenia Railroad Company. In 1856 he was a delegate to the 
convention which inaugurated the republican party, and the same year took 
a prominent part in the convention which nominated John C. Fremont for 
the presidency. In 1860 he was elected governor of Ohio by the repub- 
licans. He was elected chairman of the republican convention at Baltimore, 
which in 1864 renominated President Lincoln and was by him appointed 
postmaster general, holding that position until 1866, when President John- 
son began to sail the union party and he resigned his portfolio. In 1880 
he was a leader of the friends of Senator John Sherman in the effort to 
secure his nomination in the national republican convention of that year. 
Governor Dennison accumulated a handsome fortune in his private business 
and contributed largely to the Dennison College at Granville, Ohio. He 
died at his home in Columbus, June 15, 1882. 

Governor Dennison was a man of fine social connections, tall, courtly 
and elegant in manner, with a foresight and ability unsuspected by those 
not intimately associated with him, but which was fully demonstrated during 
his administration as governor of Ohio, during which the true, pure metal 
of the man rang out with a resonance that should have left no doubt as 
to its composition. Notwithstanding that in his political debates he had 
given evidence of ability and unexpected reserve power, the general public 
with singular pertinacity held to the opinion that he was superficial and of 
mediocre ability, and even after he had clearly shown by the valuable re- 
sults of his measures that he had been misunderstood and his ability under- 
estimated, the Ohio public were slow to acknowledge his merits and give 
him due credit for his valuable services to the state and nation. 

In the confusion and excitement at the outbreak of the war almost 
every citizen felt that he knew just what ought to be done. Troops should 
be raised and sent to the front at once. Such matters as equipment, organ- 
ization, etc., did not enter into their calculations and because this was not 
done by the saying of it, the governor must be inefficient. The critics, hav- 
ing prejudiced Governor Dennison, said so and it seemed as though each 
citizen had received a special commission to join the critics and malign him. 

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Every step he took brought down genseless abuse from every quarter. 
Dennison bore it nobly, not a word of reproach escaped him, and when for 
some months the newspapers of the state were abusing him for misman- 
agement at Camp Dennison he uttered no complaint, but generously kept 
4ilence, when in truth he had at that time no more to do with the manage- 
ment of Camp Dennison than any private citizen of the state, it being under 
the eontxol of the national government. A word from the officer in com- 
mand at Camp Dennison would have shown the injustice of this abuse. 
Whitelaw Reid, in his comprehensive and valuable work on "Ohio in the 
War," says in reference to this unjust criticism : "To a man of his sensitive 
temper and desire for the good opinion of others, the unjust and measureless 
abuse to which his earnest efforts had subjected him was agonizing. But he 
suffered no sign to escape him, and with a single-hearted devotion and an 
ability for which the state had not credited him, he proceeded to the 
measures most necessary in the crisis." 

He succeeded in favorably placing the loan authorized by the million 
war bill. Having secured money, the "sinews of war," he then looked 
around for arms, of which Ohio had a very meagre supply, and learning 
that Illinois had a considerable number, he secured five thousand muskets 
from that state and proposed a measure uniting all the troops of the Missis- 
sippi valley under one major general. 

It was through governor Dennison that West Virginia was saved to 
the Union. He assured the unionists of that state that if they would break 
off from old Virginia and adhere to the Union, Ohio would send the neces- 
sary military force to protect him. And when afterward it became neces- 
sary to redeem this pledge Governor Dennison sent Ohio militiamen (Not 
mustered into the service at all) who, uniting with the loyal citizens, drov? 
the rebels out of West Virginia. 

Chief Justice Joseph /?. Swan. 

Joseph R. Swan, jurist, was born in Westerv'ille, Oneida county, New 
York, in 1802, and in 1824, after studying law with his uncle, Gustavu^^ 
Swan, in Columbus, he w^as admitted to the bar. In 1854 the opponent*? 
of the repeal of the Missouri compromise elected him supreme judge by 
over 77,000 majority, and he eventually became chief justice. His prom- 
inent characteristic on the bench was great conscientiousness, so that neither 
personal interest or sympathy could in any manner influence his judgment 
of right or law. He prepared a number of elementary law books which 
stand very high wtih the profession and have been of wide-spread utility. 
as "Swan's Treatise," an indispensable companion for every justice of the 
peace; "Guide for Executors and Administrators," "SwanV Revised Statue," 
'Tleading and Practice," etc. He died December 18, 1884. 

Associate Justice Noah H. Swayne. 

The late Noah H. Swayne, judge of the supreme court of the United 
States, was born in Culpeper county, Virginia, in 1804, of Quaker parent- 

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age. When nineteen years of age, he was admitted to the bar and, dislik- 
ing slavery came to Ohio. At the age of twenty-one he was apjMjinted by 
General Jackson United States attorney for Ohio, when he removed from 
Coshocton, where he was located, to Columbus. In 1839 President A an 
Buren appointed him United States district attorney. He soon acquired high 
reputation as a jury lawyer, his peculiar forte being the examination of 
witnesses and in skillful analysis of testimoney. On retiring from this 
office, he took no part in politics until 1856, when in the Fremont campaign 
he made speeches against the extension of slavery. 

In Febnuiry, 1862, after the decease of Justice McLean, of the? supreme 
court, he was appointed by President Lincoln his successor. This was by 
the unanimous recommendation of the Ohio delegation in congress and in 
accordance with the oft-repeated expressed desire of Justice McLean, in 
his lifetime, that in the event of his decease he would be the^best person for 
his successor. This opinion of Judge McLean was coincided in by the 
leading members of the bar in Washington City, who had witnessed his dis- 
play of eminent ability in some cases which he had argued before the su- 
preme court and which also had a like eflFect upon the judges before whom 
he had appeared. He left several sons, the oldest of whom is the eminent 
General Wager Swayne, now of New York city, whose first name was the 
family name of his mother, a Virginia lady. Wager Swayne was at one 
time a partner with his father in the practice of the law. Another son, 
F. B. Swayne, is now a law partner with a son of ex-President Hayes in 

Alfred Kelly, 

Of all the men of his times in Ohio, from 1810 to 1850, Alfred Kelly 
was the best all-around man of the many virile and versatile men who 
made their indelible impress on the state's pioneer and subsequent history. 
He was born in Connecticut, November 7, 1789, attending the schools 
at Middletown, until his ninth year, when his father, Daniel Kelly, re- 
moved with his family to Lowville, New York. Here Alfred received a 
thorough training and later an academic education in the Fairfield (N. Y.) 
Academy, and being, boy and man, possessed of wonderful perceptive and 
receptive, as well as retentive, faculties, was no doubt the best educated 
young man as well as the most versatile and widely informed and instructed 
one in all this section of the Empire state, as well as in northern Ohio. 

This presumption is strongly sui)ported by his subsequent wonderful 
practical achievements in whatever sphere of activity he appeared. In 
whatever field of effort he entered he achieved a clear-cut victory, and each 
of which find a fittingly conspicuous place in the history of his adopted 
state. After completing his academic course, he entered the office of Jonas 
Piatt, one of the supreme judges of the state of New York, where he took 
a thorough course in the reading and study of the priciples of law. 

He removed from New York to Cleveland, Ohio, when nearing twenty- 
one years of age, in 1810. On his twenty-first birthday, w^hen he was eli- 

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A Most Delightful Resort for Young People. 


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TH5" NE A yi-'RK 


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gible, he was admitted to the practice of the law, and on the same day was 
appointed by the court as prosecuting attorney, which office he held for many 
years. His abilities as a lawyer were quickly recognized, and yet his sub- 
sequent fame does not rest on his great legal achievements. He was learned 
in many things and was master of all of them. Wherever he moved, he was at 
the head of the procession; in whatever council hall he was seated, he was 
at the head of the table; whenever an obstacle was to be removed, his was 
the first blow, and he did not look back to see whether his workmates were 
loitering, or where the debris was falling. He wrought by his own design, 
and to him, of absolute verity, there was no such word as "failure"; no 
such condition as weariness; no such bugbears as defeat and discourage- 

Notwithstanding his connection with the vast work of initiating and 
pushing to speedy completion the canal system of the state, he performed 
long and arduous and valuable services as a legislator, serving in the house 
of representatives of the general assembly in 1814-15-16-17-18-19-20-36-37- 
38-39 and in the senate in 1821-22-23-4445-46-47. His first work in the 
legislature was to introduce a measure abolishing law cumbersome system 
of common law^ pleadings, in suits at law^, as well as in chancery proceed- 
ings, modifying where not wholly supersedii^g, -«id substituting therefore sub- 
stantially the present forms of pleadings at law under the co"de. 

The 'present generation of lawyers, to say nothing of Jhe laymen, can 
hardly realize the immense amount of legal rubbish thus cast into limbo, 
simplifying the practice and making more speedy and more certain the 
operation of law, as well as conducting to the administration of justice, 
intelligence as well as rapidity. 

The bill originally oflfered by Mr. Kelly was the prophet and fore-runner 
of our present state code and the procedure thereunder. Justice betweeen 
man and man no longer travels at the snaiFs pace because of legal rubbish, 
but both truth and candor compels the statement that the system of retard- 
ation and unjust and unjustifiable delay, practiced by the attorneys of 
wealthy corporations and individuals until the weak are wearied out and 
emaciated by the strong, imposes unjust and unnecessary burdens upon 
litigants, as did the system that the young lawyer annihilated and which 
appeals as loudly and as insistently to the courts themselves as did the cry 
of similar litigants appeal to the legislature almost a century ago, and is 
no less entitled to consideration. 

Connected with the reform, which led to the eventual foundation of 
the civil and criminal codes, was the equally significant one of abolishing 
imprisonment for debt. This relic of barbarism was adopted into the laws 
of Ohio from a Pennsylvania statute during the .territorial period, and 
which, while not as rigidly enforced as in the older states, was none the less 
a disgrace to nineteenth century civilization. 

Even legislators were not immune from arrest for debts no matter 
how honestly contracted nor their inability to pay on demand. Reprasentative 
Joseph Kerr, of Ross, who had previously been a United States senator and 
a general officer in the war of 1812, was arrested for debt in 1820, when on 

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the eve of setting out to Columbus to attend to his legislative duties. So 
also, Senator Andrew F. Mack, of Hamilton, was imprisoned by the United 
States bank for a debt, at the date of the assembling of the legislators in 
December, 1828. In both instances the two houses overrode the allied 
right of imprisonment and compelled the release of the prisoners. These 
and similar cases hastened the repeal of the odious law. The attack upon 
the principle of it by Mr. Kelly in the Ohio l^slature was the first step taken 
in any law-making body in the world to stamp it out. i5ut unfortunately 
for the full glory of Ohio, while her annual legislatures dallied with the 
question. New York took up the measure and passed it, thus honoring her 
own son while he was trying to confer the crown of honor on his adopted 
state — Ohio. 

But Mr. Kelly's greater work was the prominent part he took in the 
construction of the canal system from the beginning to the end. He was 
a greater engineer than all the experts hired by the state to do that work. 
He had a perfect comprehension of the work at every stage. He was not 
graduated as an engineer. In fact, he had but studied the science casually, 
as a very young man. Yet he was able to point out the errors of judgment 
of the state's engineers in the solution of the telegraphical problems they 
encountered and was able to do it in such a way that they put professional 
pride aside and by following his advice hastened the work, saved vast suras 
of money to the state, and gave the people all they paid for. 

Of course, an estimate of the cost of the work had been made in ad- 
vance and the financial demands met. Many able individuals, engineers, 
financiers and business men took part in making the estimates. Mr. Kelly 
was the smallest of all, but so firmly did he maintain that the work could 
be done within that estimate, running at that time into a terrifying number 
of millions, that the others resented it. The work was done within the esti- 
mate — the only instance of the kind in the world's history, in so great a 
relative undertaking up to that time or since. His detailed and sectional 
estimates were as accurate as the general one — hence it did not "happen" 
to come out on the right side of the ledger. 

He was a powerful factor also in negotiating loans that were deemed 
impossible to negotiate by even a majority of the friends of the canal. He 
had a way of making others see a thing as he saw it, and when he did, 
he had won his battle. Firm as adamant, he was yet gentle, so firmly gentle 
that he inspired ninety-nine per cent of the day laborers on the hundreds 
of miles of work with his own invincible spirit of optimism, that he cut 
the time calculations between the Alpha and Omega of the work in half. 

He was a devoted son of his step-mother state. Her interests were his 
first and greatest concern. There was no blare of trumpets about him in 
the days of his activity. All who knew him, spoke of him with respect, 
admiration and enthusiasm. And yet there was no ostentation about him. 
He was the idealization of common sense in all that he said or did. A vol- 
ume, rather than a sketch could be written of him, without exhausting the 
subject. All the stories about him are entertaining to generations who knew 

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him not. Each carried with it a moral which was always elevating. One 
will serve to show such m€tnner of man he was. 

During the panic of 1837-41, about the time when he came to Colum- 
bus and occupied the great stone mansion on East Broad street, when state 
after state had repudiated its debts, and money was practically unattainable ; 
and when the Ohio treasury was empty, the question was even mooted in 
Ohio's legislature to repudiate her debts, Alfred Kelly was in New York 
trying to borrow money by pledging bonds or selling them to secure money 
with which to pay the interest on the canal bonds which he had helped to 

The New York capitalists refused to take the bonds as pledges of secur- 
ity. But Kelly was not to be balked. He offered his own notes as security 
for the state. He frankly admitted that his estate was far less in value than 
the sum he sought to borrow, and that to fail in the payment of his notes 
meant bankruptcy and poverty to him and his, at three score and ten, but 
that he had no fear of such a catastrophe. 

The money was advanced. Ohio's interest was paid. He come back and 
helped to rebuild the state's finances, and Ohio neither repudiated her bonds 
nor kept her creditors waiting from that time to this. The last of the bonds 
were paid off at the beginning of the twentieth century, and the holdfiib 
parted with them with a sigh, for they were regarded as better than gold 
or government bonds. Alfred Kelly was the right man at the right time in 
several periods of Ohio's history. 



The Iliad and Odessey of Homer, detailing the adventures, perils and 
achievements of Agamemnon and Menelaus in their war against Priam! or 
those of Odysseus, preceding his return to Ithica from the Trojan expedi- 
tion, were founded, it is reasonable to suppose, upon adventures no more real 
and startling than those of John Brickell and Jeremiah Armstrong, two of 
the pioneer founders of Ohio and Ohio's capital. The Greek poet put the 
mythical traditions of the dangers and the deeds of his heroes, coming 
down from preceding agas, into his immortal poems, clothing them in the 
raiment of brilliant imagery, and supplying from his fertile and versatile 
imagination, all the breaks and gaps in the mythical web of tradition. 

Thus the actors were all painted in heroics, and their deeds were made 
to appear as the achievements of demi-gods, rather than men. And yet it 
is doubtful whether on the plains of Troy, and in the streets of the city itself; 
or the weird or sinister isle of Colypso and its demoniac, impalpable (at 
times) inhabitants there was presented anything more humanly realistic than 
the dangers and trials which beset Brickell and Armstrong who, by reason 
of circumstance, were heroes almost from the cradle, and grew into splendid 

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Anglo-Saxon manhood despite their long barbarian captivity in what was 
practically a pathless wilderness far beyond the outposts of a then infant 

Thmne for Some Future Homer. 

What may not some future western Homer weave from their narrations? 
These narrations, written with their own hands, in simple, and yet the 
purest literary style of the last century by men who were deeply read in 
nature, but unlettered as to books until they approached manhood. The 
recital of their captivity reads like a story out of the middle ages, and yet 
there are men living who met them face to face and whose descendants of the 
third and later generations may be met almost any day on the streets. 
These men so far from being mythical heroes, were living flesh and blood, 
and by virtue of their captivity itself became pioneers of Franklin coimty 
and Columbus, when they were unbroken woodlands, and grew into citizen- 
ship and became joint founders with those who came as willing migrants 
into the upper valley of the Scioto. 

Helped to Found a City, 

They were not only among the founders of the county and city but 
accumulated property and left behind them descendants who in turn 
achieved the most splendid results and gathered around themselves the fruits 
of good citizenship. Their deeply interesting stories follow, as given in their 
own simple but comprehensive style of narration. 

The Story of John Brickell. 

Mr. Brickell was one of the three or four first white men that ever 
took up their permanent residence in what is now Franklin county. He 
came here in 1797, and he ever after made it his place of residence; living 
most of the time oa a ten-acre lot of land just in front of the penitentiary, 
which he purchased of Lyne Starling, before the town of Columbus was 
laid out. His narrative from which the following extracts are taken, was 
written and published in 1842, in the American Pioneer, a monthly period- 
ical. But as it is wholly out of print, it seems highly proper to give it a 
.place in this work. Mr. Brickell was an intelligent man, a hatter by trade, 
and for many years a member of the Methodist church. He says: 

"I was bom on the 24th of May, 1781, in Pennsylvania, near a place 
then known as Stewart's Crossings, on the Youghiogheny River, and, as I 
suppose from what I learned in after life, about four miles from Beeson- 
town, now Uniontown, in Fayette County. On my father's side, I was of 
Irish, and on my mother's of German parentage. My father died when I 
was quite young, and I went to live with an elder brother, on a preemption 
settlement, on the northeast side of the Allegheny River, about two 
miles from Pittsburg. On the breaking out of the Indian war, a body of 
Indians collected to the amount of about one hundred and fiftv warriors, 

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and spread up and down the Allegheny River about forty miles, and by a 
preconcerted movement, made an attack on all the settlements along the 
river, for that distance, in one day. 

Kidnapped by Savages, 

''This was on the 9th of February, 1791. I was alone clearing out a 
fence row, about a quarter of a mile from the house, when an Indian came to 
me, and took my axe from me and laid it upon his shoulder with his rifle, 
and then let down the cock of his gun, which it appears, he had cocked in 
approaching me. I had been on terms of intimacy with the Indians, and 
did not feel alarmed at this movement. They had been about our house 
almost every day. He took me by the hand and pointed the direction he 
wanted me to go; and although I did not know him, I concluded he only 
wanted me to chop something for him, and went without reluctance. We 
came to where he had lain all night, between two logs, without fire. I then 
suspected something was wrong, and attempted to run; but he threw me 
down ou my face, in which position I every moment expected to feel the 
stroke of the tomahawk on my head. But he had prepared a rope, with 
which he tied my hands together behind me, and thus marched me off. 
After going a little distance we fell in with George Girty, son of old George 
Girty. He spoke English, and told me what they had done. He said: 
'White people have killed Indians, and that the Indians had retaliated, and 
now there is war, and you are a prisoner; and we will take you to our 
town and make an Indian of you, and you will not be killed if you go 
peaceably: but if you try- to run away, we won't be troubled with you, but 
we will kill you, and take your scalp to our town.' I told him I would go 
peaceably, and give them no trouble. From thence we traveled to the cross- 
ings of Big Beaver with scarce any food. We made a raft, and crossed late 
in the evening, and lay in a holo in a rock without fire or food. They would 
not make fire for fear we had attracted the attention of hunters in chopping 
for a raft. In the morning, the Indian who took me, delivered me to Girty, 
and took another direction. Girty and I continued our course towards the 
Tuscarawas. We traveled all that day through hunger and cold, camped all 
night, and continued until about three in the afternoon of the third day 
since I had tasted a mouthful. I felt very indignant at Girty, and thought 
if ever I got a good chance I would kill him. 

A Talk With Simon Girty. 

''We then made a fire, and Girty told me that if he thought I would 
not run away he would leave me by the fire, and go and kill something to eat. 
I told him I would not. 'But,' said he, 'to make you safe I will tie you.' 
He tied my hands behind my ba^k, and tied me to a sapling, some distance 
from the fire. After he was gone, I untied myself and laid down by the 
fire. In about an hour, he came running back without any game. He asked 
me what T untied myself for? T told him I wa.=; cold. He said: 'Then vou 

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no run away? I said *no/ He then told nie there were Indiana clo^e by, 
and he was afraid they would find nie. We then went to their camp, where 
there were Indians with whom I had been a< intimate as with any 
per^son, and they had been frequently at our hou^H?. They were glad to see 
me, and gave me food, the first I had eaten affer eros:?ing Beaver. They 
treated me verj' kindly. We staid all night with them, and next morning 
we all took up our march toward the Tuscarawas, which we reached on the 
second days, in the evening. 

Met the Hunters and Warriors. 

'*IIere we met the main body of hunting families, and the warriors of 
the Allegheny, this being their place of rendezvous. I supposed these In- 
dians all to be Delawares; but at that time I could not distinguish between 
the different tribes. Here I met with two white prisoners, Thomas Dick, 
and his wife, Jane. They had been our nearest neighbors. I was immed- 
iately led to the lower end of the encampment, and allowed to talk freely 
with them for about an hour. They informed me of the death of two of 
our neighbors, Samuel Chapman and. William Powers, who were killed by 
the Indians — one in their house, and the other near it. The Indians showed 
me their scalps. I knew that of Chapman, having red hair on it. 

'*Next day al>out ten Indians started back to Pittsburgh. Girty told 
me they went to pass themselves as friendly Indians and to trade. Among 
these wa.^ the Indian who took me. In about two weeks they returned well 
loaded with store goods, whisky, etc. 

Tries to Escape. 

*' After the traders came back, the company divided; and those who 
came with us to Tuscarawas, and the Indian who took me, marched on 
tow^ards Sandusky. When we arrived within a day's journey of the Indian 
town, where Fort Seneca since stood, we met two warriors going to the frontier 
war. The Indian I was with had whisky. He and the two warriors got drunk, 
when one of the warriors fell on me and beat me. I thought he would kill me. 
The night w^as very dark, and I ran out into the woods, and lay under the 
side of a log. They presently missed me, and got light*^ to search for me. 
The Indian to whom I belonged called aloud: 'White man, white man.' 
I made no answer; but in the morning, after I saw the w^arriors start on 
their journey, I went into camp, where I was much pitied on account of 
my bruises. Next day we arrived within a mile of the Seneca town, and 
encamped for the night, agreeably to their manner, to give room for their 
parade, or grand entrance the next day. That took place about eight o'clock 
in the morning. The ceremony commenced with a great w^hoop or yell. 
We were then met by all sorts of Indians from the town, old and young, men 
and women. We then called a halt, and they formed two lines about twelve 
feet apart, in the direction of the river. 

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Runs the Gauntlet, 

They made .^igns for me to run between the lines toward the river. I 
knew nothing of what they wanted, and started; but I had no chance for 
they fell to beating me until I was bruised from head to foot. At this 
juncture a very big Indian came up and threw the company off me, and took 
me by the arm, and led me along through the line with such rapidity that 
I :;earcely touched the ground, and was not once struck after he took me 
till I got to the river. Then the very ones who beat me the worst were now 
the kind and officious in washing me off, feeding me, etc., and did 
their utmost to cure me. I was nearly killed, and did not get over it for two 
months. My impression is, that the big Indian, who rescued me, was Cai> 
tain Pipe, who assisted in burning Crawford. The Indian who owned me 
did not interfere in any way. 

Hi^ Owner Takes a Wife. 

•*\Ve staid about two weeks in the Seneca towns. My owner there took 
himself a wife, and then started with me and his wife through the Black 
Swamp toward the Maumee towns. At Seneca I left the Indians I had been 
acquainted with, near Pittsburtrh, and never saw or heard of them after- 
wards. When we arrived at the Auglaize River, we met an Indian my owner 
called brother, to whom he gave me; and I was adopted into his family. 
His name was Whingwy Pooshies, or Big Cat. I lived in his family from 
about the first week in May, 1791, till my release in June, 1795. 

"The scjuaws do nearly all the labor except hunting. They take care 
of the meat when brought in, and stretch the skins. They plant and tend 
the corn; they gather and house it, assisted by young boys, not yet able 
to hunt. After the boys are at the hunting age, they are no more considered 
as squaws, and are kept at hunting. The men are faithful at hunting, but 
when at home lie lazily about, and are of little account for anything else, 
seldom or never assisting in domestic duties. Besides the common modes, 
they often practice candle hunting; and for this they sometimes make 
candles or tapers, when they cannot buy them. Deer came to the rivers 
to eat a kind of water grass, to get which they frequently immense their 
whole head and horns. They seem to be blinded by light at night, and will 
suffer a canoe to float to them. I have practiced that kind of hunting much 
since I came to live where Columlnis now is, and on one occasion killed 
twelve fine deer in one night. 

Approach of the Pale Face Armt/. 

**The fall after my adoption, there was a great stir in the town a}>out 
an army of white men coming to fight the Indians. The squaws and bovs 
were moved with the goods down the Maumee, and there waited the result 
of the battle, while the men went to war. They met St. Clair, and came off 

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victorious*^ loaded with the spoils of the amiy. Whingwy Pooshies left the 
spoik at the town and came down to move us up. We then found our- 
selves a rich people. Whingwy Pooshies' share of the spoils of the anny 
was two fine horses, four tents, one of which was a noble marquee, which 
made us a fine house in which we lived the remainder of my captivity. He 
had also clothing in abundance, and of all descriptions. I wore a soldier's 
coat. lie had also axa^, guns, and every thing necessary to make an Indian 
rich. There was much joy among them. 

They Took No Primnen, 

"I saw no prisoners that were taken in that battle, and believe there 
were none taken by the Delawares. Soon after this battle another Indian 
and I went hunting, and we came to a place where there lay a human skele- 
ton stripped of the flesh, which the Indian said had been eaten by the Chii>- 
pewa Indians who were in the battle; and he called them brutes thus to 
u^e their prisoners. Doiring the time of my captivity I conversed with 
seven or eight prisoners, taken from different parts, none of which were 
taken from that battle, agreeably to my best impressions. One of the pris- 
oners I conversed with, was Isaac Patton, by name, who was taken with 
Isaac Choat, Stacy and others from a blockhouse at the Big Bottom, on the 
Muskingum. I lived two years in the same house with Patton. I think I 
saw Sj)encer once. I saw a large lad, who, if I recollect right, said his name 
wiis 8i)encer. He wa< with McKee and Elliot as a waiter, or kind of .servant : 
and, if I remember right, he was at the rapids. 

Sold Because He Was Worfhlef<s. 

'•On one of our annual visits to the rapids to receive our presents from 
the British, I saw Jane Dick. Her husband had been sold, I understood, 
for forty dollars, and lived at Montreal. He wius sold because he was rather 
worthless and disagreeable to the Indians. When I saw her she lived at 
large with the Indians. She became suddenly nii.-^sing, and a great search 
was made for her; but the Indians could not find her. After my release 
from captivity, I saw her and her husband at Chillicothe, where they lived. 

Mrs. Dick\^ Escape. 

'^She told me how she was liberated. Her husband had concerted a 
plan with the Captain of the vessel who brought the presents, to steal her 
from the Indians. The Captain concerted a plan with a /black man, who 
cooked for McKee and Elliot, to steal Mrs. Dick. The black man arranged it 
with Mrs. Dick to meet him at midnight, in a copse of underwood, which 
she did, and he took her on board in a small canoe and headed her up in an 
empty hogshead, where she remained until the day after the vessel sailed 
about thirty-six hours. I remember well that everv camp, and the wood-i 
were searched for her, and that the ves.<el was searched; for the Indian- 

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immediately suspected that she was on board. But not thinking of unhead- 
ing a hogshead, they could not find her. I saw the black man at Fort 
Hamilton as I returned from captivity, who told me how he stole Mrs. Dick 
oflF, which was in every particular confirmed by Mrs. Dick's own statement 
aft-erward. He also told me that there was a plan concerted between him and 
the Captain, to steal me oflF at the same time. 'But,' said he 'they watched 
you so close I could not venture it.' This I knew nothing of until I was 
told by the black man, except that I observed the vigilance with which they 
watched me. 

A Candle-Light Hunting Expedition. 

"In the month of June, 1794, three Indians; two men and a boy, and 
myself, started on a candle-light hunting expedition on Blanchard's Fork of 
the Auglaize. We had been out about two months. We returned to the 
towns in August, and found them entirely evacuated, but gave ourselves 
little uneasiness about it, as we supposed the Indians had gone to the foot of 
the Maumee rapids to receive their presents, as they were annually in the 
habit of doing. We encamped on the lower island in the middle of a corn- 
field. Next morning an Indian runner came down the river and gave the 
alarm whoop, which is a kind of yell they use for no other purpose. The 
Indians answered and one went over to the runner, and immediately return- 
ing told us the white men were upon us, and we nmst run for our lives. 
We scattered like a flock of partridges, leaving our breakfast cooking on the 
fire. The Kentucky Riflemen saw our smoke and came to it, and just missed 
me as I passed them in my flight through the corn. They took the whole 
of our two months' work, breakfast, jerked skins and ^11. One of the Ken- 
tuckians told me afterwards that they got a fine chance of meat that was 

"Wayne was then only aVwut four miles from us, and the vanguard 
was right among us. The boy that was with us in the hunting expedition, 
and I, kept together on the trail of the Indians till we overtook them, but 
the two Indians did not get with us until we got to the rapids. 

General Wayne's Daring Spies. 

''Two or three days after we arrived at the rapids, Wayne's spies came 
right into the camp among us. I afterwards saw the survivors. Their 
names were Miller, McClelland, May, Wells, Mahaffy, and one other whose 
name I forgot. They came into the camp bodly and fired on the Indians. 
Miller got wounded in the shoulder. May was chased by the Indians to the 
smooth rock in the bed of the river, where his horse fell. He wiis taken 
prisoner and the rest escaped. They then took May to camp. They knew 
him; he had formerly been a prisoner among them, and ran away from 
them. They told him: 'We know you; you speak Indian language: you 
not content to live with us. To-morrow we take you to that tree; (pointing 
to a very large burr-oak at the edge of the clearing, which was near the Brit- 
ish Fort), we will tie you up and make a mark on your breast and we will 

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try what Indian can shoot ncarot it.' It <o turned out. The next day, the 
verj' day before the battle, they tied him up, made a mark on his breast 
and riddled his body with bulUts. .-^hootin^ at least fifty into him. Thu. 
ended poor May. 

The Iitflian (lUnxtiiith KUhd. 

•*On the next day, bein^ niysolf al>out six miles below with the squaws, 
I went out hunting. The day beinji: windy, I heard nothing of the firing of 
the battle, but .«aw some Indians on the retreat. One Indian, whom I knew, 
told nie I had better go to eanip, for the Indians were beaten, and they are 
preparing at camp to make their cK-ape. The runners, towards, came 
in, and >aid the army had halted and encamped. We then rested that 
night, but in great fear. Next morning, the runnens told us the army had 
started u{) the river towards the month of the Auglaize. We were then 
i^atisfied. Many of the Delawares were killi^d and wounded. The Indian 
who took May was killed, and he wa- nmch missed; for he was the only 
gunsmith among the Delaware.-. Our crops and every means of support 
being cut oft\ we had to winter at the mouth of Swan Creek, perhaps where 
Toledo now >tands. Wc were entirely dependiMit on the British, and they 
did not half supply us. 

Por^rf}/ Sfrickf u Sardf/cs, 

*The starving condition of the Indians, together with the prospect of 
losing all their cows and dogs made* the Indians very impatient, and they 
became exasperatinl at the British. They said they had been deceived by 
tliein, for they had not fulfilled one promise. It wa.s concluded among 
them to send a flag to Fort Detiaiice in order to make a treaty with the 
Americans. This was succ(\N-fnl. Our men found the Americans ready to 
make a treaty, and they agreed (»n «ni exchange of prisoners. I had the 
[Measure to see nine white prisoners exchtuiged for nine Indian.s, and the 
mortification of finding myself left: there being no Indian to give for me. 
Patt(»n. Johnston, Sloan and Mrs. ]'>ak(M-. of Kentucky, were four of the nine: 
the nanje.s of the others I do not rec(.]leet. Patton, Johnston and Mrs. Baker 
had all lived with me in the same house* among the Tndian.<5, and we were 
as intimate as ])rothers and sisters. 

Salfifinf/ Fort Dffuincf. 

'•On the breaking up of .-pring we all went up to Fort Defiance, and 
on arriving on the shore opposite, we saluted the fort with a round of 
rifle.^. and they shot a cannon thirteen times. We then encamped on the 
spot. On the same day, Wliingwy Poo."^hies told me I nuist go over to the 
fort. The children hung round \\w crying, and asked me if I was going to 
leave them? I told them T did jiot know. When we got over to the fort 
and seated with the oflicei-s, Whingwy Pooshies told me to stand up, which I 
did: he then rose and addressed me in about the>e words: 'Mv son. these 

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Containing Mural Entablatures of Military, Patriotic and Pioneer Organiza- 
tions Housed in the Building. 


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are men the same color as yourself; there may be some of your kin here, 
or your kin may be a great way off from you; you have lived a long time 
with us; I call on you to say if I have not been a father to you? If I have 
not used you as a father would a son?' I said: 'You have used me as well 
as a father could use a son.' He said: *I am glad you say so. You have 
lived long with me; you have hunted for me; but our treaty says you must 
be free. If you choose to go with the people of your color, I have no right 
to say a word ; but, if you choose to stay with me, your people have no right 
to speak. Now, reflect on it, and take your choice; and tell us as soon as 
you make up your mind. 

A Sad Parting. 

"I was silent for a few moments, in which time it seemed as if I thought 
of almost every thing. I thought of the children I had just left crying; 
I thought of the Indians I was attached to; I thought of my people, whom 
I remembered; and this latter thought predominated, and I said: *I will 
go with my kin.' The old man then said: *I have raised you; I have 
learned you to hunt; you are a good hunter; you have been better to me 
than my own sons; I am now getting old and cannot hunt; I thought you 
would be a support to my age; I leaned on you as on a staff. Now it is 
broken — you are going to leave me, and I have no right to say a word — but 
I am ruined.' He then sank back in tears in his seat. I heartily joined him 
in his tears — parted with him, and have never seen or heard of him since. 

Was a Delaware Linguist, 

"I learned the Delaware language well, and can speak it now about as 
well as English. I will give the Delaware names of a few streams : Sepung, 
is properly what we call a stream, there being no distinction between runs, 
creeks and rivers, as with us. The called the Ohio Whingwy Sepung, or 
Big Stream. Paint Creek, in Ross County, I never heard called Yoctongee; 
but we called it Olomon Sepung, or Paint Creek. Seckle Sepung, or Salt- 
lick Creek, what is now called Alum Creek. Whingwy Mahoni Sepung, or Big 
Lick Creek, is what we call Big Walnut Creek. The Scioto was so called, 
but it is not a Delaware name, and I do not know its meaning. 

Visits Historic Greenville. 

"It was about the 1st of June, 1795, that I parted with Whingwy 
Pooshies. The next day I started for Fort Greenville. I rode on a horse 
furnished by the Americans. I was under the charge and protection of 
Lieutenant Blue, who treated me with every kindness; and at Fort Green- 
ville had a good suit of clothes made for me by a tailor. We had been there 
about a week, when a company of men arrived from Cincinnati, among 
whom was a brother of my brother's wife, with whom I had lived, and from 
whom I was taken. He told me of a sister I had who was married, and 

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lived about nine miles from Cincinnati, up Licking, on the Kentucky side. 
I then left Mr. Blue at Fort Greenville, and went up to my sister's. She and 
all the neighbors seemed to be overjoyed, and a great crowd collected to 
see me, and hear about my living among the Indians. I then went to 
Grant's Salt Works, up Licking, to hunt for them. I made money there by 
killing deer at one dollar a piece, and turkeys at twelve and a half cents. 
I bought me a house, and had money left to take me to Pennsylvania. I 
went with a man named Andrew Lewis. There wa^ great joy again, at my 
brother's at my return to his house, from whence I was taken. My sister-in- 
law in particular seemed much gratified with my return, as did the gr^^at 
crowd which here again collected to see me, and hear the narrative of my 

Locates in Columbus. 

"In 1797, I came to this place, that is, now Columbus, Ohio, and have 
resided here ever since; generally enjoying good health, it never having 
cost me a dollar in my life for medical aid; and without even wearing any- 
thing like a stocking inside my moccasin, shoes or boots, from the time I 
went among the Indians to this day; and, I can cay what perhaps few can 
at this day, that my feet are never cold. 

"At another time, the Lord granting the opportunity, I will give more 
of the incidents of my life, as connected with the settlement and improve- 
ment of the country. ,,j^^^^ Brickell. 

"Columbus, Ohio, Jan. 29, 1842." 

Mr. Brickell died the 20th of July, 1844, in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age. 

The Captivity of Jeremiah Armstrong. 

Mr. Armstrong, when but a youth, became one of the first residents 
of Franklin county. He grew up to manhood in Franklinton, and con- 
tinued to reside there until after the town of Columbus was laid out. He 
then became one of the first settlers of the new town, of which he has con- 
tinued a resident nearly all the time since. In the spring of 1813 he pur- 
chased from the proprietors his lot on High street which he owned in 1858 
and on which he for many years kept a respectable hotel. His first sign 
was that of Christopher Columbus at full size, then the Red Lion. In 1850 
he retired from business with a competency, and spent the evening of life 
in peace and quietness. 

The following is a brief narrative of his captivity with the Indians. 
He says: "I was bom in Washington County, Maryland, March, 1785. I 
had a sister, (Elizabeth) and three brothers, William, Robert and John, 
older than myself. We moved to the Mingo Bottom and from there to Virginia, 
opposite the upper end of Blannerhasset's Island. The Indians made frequent 
excursions into our neighborhood, and my mother was in constant dread of 
being killed by them; she seemed to have a presentiment that she would 

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have the fate of her parentis, who were both killed by them in MifHin County, 
Pennsylvania. Some time in April, 1794 (I perfectly remember all the 
circumstances of the eventful night), my brothers William and Robert had 
gone to a floating mill which my father owned on the Ohio, near the house; 
the younger children were in bed. Father went down to the river to ex- 
amine a trot line; my mother stood in the door, holding a candle for him. 
I shall never forget her appearance. It was the last time I ever beheld her; 
she stood trembling like a leaf, so that the candle shook in her hand. I sup- 
pose that she was afraid of the Indians, for I then thought there was nothing 
else to fear. Father returned safe; barred both of the doors, as was his cus- 
tom, and then retired. Elizabeth, John and I slept in the loft of our log 

The Wyandot Foray. 

"About three oVlock we were awakened by the bark of our dog. Father 
sprang up, and without waiting to put on any clothing, unbarred one of the 
doors, and ran out and hissed the dog; but in a moment he saw several In- 
dians start from behind the trees, and halloed ^Indians,^ and ran into the 
house, barred the door, and caught up a gun. By this time the house was 
surrounded by twenty Wyandots. The poor, faithful dog had kept them off 
till he was disabled; they had cut him so badly in the mouth that his under 
jaw hung loose. As the savages approached the house, father fired the gun; 
then caught a bullet pouch, and sprang to the loft, put his bullet and powder 
into his hand, but in attempting to put it into the gun found (too late) that 
he had taken the wrong pouch, and the bullet was too large ; so he threw down 
the gun, tore open the roof, and sprang to the ground, fully expecting to be 
tomahawked the instant he reached it ; but fortunately he was not discovered, 
for the most of the Indians were already in the house. They commenced their 
bloody work by killing the three little ones. Mother attempted to escape 
through the chimney, but it is supposed that her clothes caught, for she fell, 
and (as the Indians afterward told me) in attempting to raise her they found 
she could not stand ; her hip was broken. Had she been able to travel, they 
would not have killed her; but as she could not, they must have her scalp as 
a trophy. They also scalped the two oldest of the children, but from my 
mother took two. 

Preparing Trophies. 

'They dry these scalps on little hoops, about the size of a dollar, paint 
them, and fix them on poles, to raise as trophies of victory when entering their 
villages. When seeing these so raised, I inquired why they took two from 
mother? They said because the babe's hair was not long enough to scalp, 
they took one from its mother for it. After killing my sisters and brother 
below, they came up to us, and took us down. Oh! who can dascribe our feel- 
ings on entering that room of blood ! I was led over the slippery, bloody floor, 
and placed between the knees of one of the savages, whose hands were still 
reeking with the blood of my dearest relatives. 

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Compelled to Stand Mute. 

"Mr. Misner, who lived about a hundred yards above us, hearing the 
noise, took a canoe and started for Belpre, to raise an alarm. When half way 
across the river, I suppose, he saw the Indians and my sister; she was stand- 
ing in the door, and the house was lighted. Mr. Misner called, *What is the 
matter?' One of the Indians told her to say nothing, which she did, being 
afraid to disobey. After plundering the house, they, with their three prison- 
ers, started south-west; they went rapidly for a mile or two, then halted, 
formed a ring around us, and lighted their pipes, and made several speeches, 
apparently in great haste. We watched their gestures, and hastened anxiously. 
I was afterward told that I was the subject of their debate. They expected 
to be pursued by the people of Belpre, and thought me too young to travel as 
fast as necessary for their safety; so they proposed killing me; but a young 
Indian who had led me, and observed my activity in jumping the logs, said 
he thought I would make a pretty good Indian, and they might go as fast 
as they pleased, and if I could not keep up, he would carry me. So my life 
was spared, and we continued our journey at a rapid rate; he sometimes car- 
rying me, and I sometimes begging my sister to carrj' me. She, poor girl, 
<;ould scarcely carry herself. I was quite small of my age. 

The Whoop of Safety, 

**When we arrived opposite the mouth of Little Hocking, they found 
their canoes, which they had secreted in the bushes, got into them, and hast- 
ened across the river. When they had gained the opposite bank, they gave 
a never-to-be-forgotten whoop, for they felt themselves safe. The next day 
they dined on a bear, which they had killed the day before. The oil of the 
bear was hung up in a deer skin ; they gave us some of it to drink ; we would 
not drink it. So they gave us of the bread and sugar which they had taken 
from my father's house — bread which our mother had so lately made. And 
where w^as she? Oh ! my heart ached at the thought. They treated us kindly, 
and while our bread and sugar lasted, we fared very well. 

A Father's Despair. 

"But to return to my father. When he jumped to the ground from the 
roof, he ran to the river, took a canoe and crossed over to the island, went to 
Mr. James', then to the mill for my brothers, wakened them, and with them 
returned to the house. What a horrible scene presented itself! There lay 
my mother and the babe on the ground. In the house the other two children 
were lying in their gore. The boy was still alive, and he asked my father 
why he pulled his hair. 

"I saw Mr. John James (a resident of Jackson County) in Columbus 
4ome years ago. He said that he w^as one of the twenty that followed the 
Indians down the river, saw their canoes, and where they landed, and also 
discovered by the tracks that we w^ere still alive. They were afraid, if pursued 

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farther, the Indians would kill us to expedite their flight. They were not 
far behind — the water was still muddy — so they returned. 

The Captive Reaches Lancaster, 

"After eating our dinner, we started again, and our next halt was near 
where Lancaster now stands. There we saw young Cox, a man they *had 
taken from our neighborhood a few days previous. We spent the night there. 
In the morning two of the most savage of our party took John and myself 
and started for Upper Sandusky. I missed not only my sister, but the young 
Indian that carried me. I had already begun to consider him my friend, 
although I did not then know that he had saved my life. 

"Our two conductors seemed to delight in tormenting us. They made us 
wade streams where the water came up to my chin. Brother John being two 
years older than myself, and taller, would lead me. They would laugh at 
our fears. We had nothing but roots and herbs to eat. When we neared 
their village in Upper Sandusky, they stripped us of our clothes, and tied a 
small part around our bodies in Indian style. When I cried at the loss of 
my clothes, one of them whipped me severely with his pipe stem. The Indian 
squaws and children came running from all directions to see, and we were no 
sooner in the house than the door was completely blocked up with them, 
which frightened me very much. 

Finds a Friend Among Savages — The Scalp Pole, 

"A few days after our arrival, the party we had left behind came up, and 
I, when I saw them coming, ran to meet my friend, and was as glad to see 
him as if he had been my brother. My fondness for him no doubt increased 
his for me. 

"The next morning we started for Lower Sandusky. In passing through 
the Seneca nation, the pole of scalps was hoisted. A little Seneca Indian ran 
to us, took the pole from the bearer, and carried it to an old squaw, who was 
sitting in the door of her hut. She examined it, handed it back to the boy, 
and he returned it to the Indian, then knocked both John and myself down. 
It was a privilege they had, as they belonged to another nation. After leav- 
ing the Senecas, we came to some of our own nation, that is Wyandots. 

Saying Indian Grace, 

"There they formed a ring before we ate, and a prisoner who spoke both 
languages gave me a gourd with shot in it, telling me that I must say grace. 
So he put some Indian words in my mouth, and bid me go around the ring, 
knocking the gourd with my hand, and repeating the words, which I did as 
well as I could. But my awkwardness made them laugh; so I got angry and 
threw down the gourd. I thought to myself, it was very different from the 
way my father said grace. 

"On arriving at Lower Sandusky, before entering the town, they halted 
and formed a procession for Cox, my sister, my brother and myself to run 

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the gauntlet. They pf)inted to the house of their chief, Old Crane, about a 
hundred yards distant, signifying that we should run into it. We did so, 
and were received very kindly by the old chief; he was a very raild man, be- 
loved by all. 

Adopted by the Chief. 
"I was then adopted into his family, the Deer tribe, my brother John 
into another, the Turtle tribe, and my sister into another; so we were sep- 
arated. I was painted all over, and a broad belt of wampum put around my 
body. I was quite* an important personage; and if my dear sister and 
brother had remained with me, I should have been happy ; yes, happy, for I 
thought, now the Indians were my friends, I had nothing on earth to fear. 
But my brother and sister were gone, and I was alone. I cried very much. 
An old prisoner tried to comfort me. He said I must not eat with the paint 
on me; if I did, it would kill me. It was the paint of my adoption, and 1 
suppose that while it was on me, I was considered neither white nor red, and, 
according to their superstition, if I remained in that state, I should die. The 
prisoner took me to the river and washed it off, then led me back to the hoase. 

Parted from Each Other. 

"John was taken to Brownstown, and Elizabeth to Maumee. I did not 
see either of them again for about four years, when my brother and myself 
regained our liberty. My sister remained with them but a few months. She 
was stolen from them by a gentleman in search of his sister, and taken to 
Detroit. As she had no means of returning to her friends, she went with a 
family by the name of Dolson to Canada, and married one of the sons. When 
I saw her next she had a family of her own. 

Encamped at Columbus. 

*'After our adoption, the family to which I belonged came back to Colum- 
bus and camped near where the penitentiary now stands. Then we raised 
com in what is now called Sullivant's Prairie. My home while with them 
was back and forth from there to Lower Sandusky. The first night I spent 
in Franklin, the Indians all got drunk. The squaws put me on a scaffold 
to kee]) them from killing me. The squaws had sense enough to not taste 
the rum till the Indians were too drunk to harm them; then they, too, got 
drunk. And, oh I what a time for me for a few days, while the rum lasted; 
but when it was gone, they were ver^' kind to me. 

Forgot the English Language. 

** After parting from my brother and sister, I heard so little of my own 
language that I forgot it entirely, and became attached to them and their 
ways. In fact, I became a very good Indian. They called me Hoos-coatah- 
jah (Little Head). A short time afterward they changed my name to Duh- 
guah. They often change their names. 

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Situated on a Beautiful Cliampaign East of the City. 

From Which Beautiful Landscapes May be Seen Far as the Eye Can Reach. 

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"In the month of August, 1794, when I had been a prisoner about four 
months, George Wayne conquered the Indians in that decisive battle on the 
Maumee. Before the battle, the squaws and children were sent to Lower San- 
dusky. Runners were sent from the scene of action to inform us of their 
defeat, and to order us to Sandusky Bay. They supposed that Wayne would 
come with his forces and massacre the whole of us. Great was the constemar 
tion and confusion; and I (strange infatuation), thinking their enemies 
mine, ran and got into a canoe, fearing they would go and leave me at the 
mercy of the pale faces. We all arrived safe at the Bay; and then the In- 
dians conveyed their wounded — Old Crane among the number. He was 
wounded in the arm ; and my friend, the one that saved my life, was killed. 

"Wayne, instead of molesting us, withdrew his forces to Greenville; and 
we returned to Franklin (that now is) and encamped below the dam, where 
there is a deep hole, called Billy's Hole, from Billy Wyandot. 

Sees a War Dance. 

"The only war dance I witnessed was near where the penitentiary now 
stands, where a party of them were preparing to leave for Kentucky in quest 
of prisoners and scalps. They returned with three prisoners and five scalps, 
Billy Wyandot and others were then preparing to leave for Greenville to form 
a treaty (August, '95). By that treaty a great part of the whites and the In- 
dians were to give up all the prisoners in their possession, which was done 
where found and recognized. 

"My brother and myself were still held in bondage, our friends supposing 
us to be dead. When the lands acquired by the treaty were being surveyed 
by Generals Massie and McArthur, Mr. Thomas, a former neighbor of my 
father's, being with them, saw me and knew me. He sent word to my brother 
William, who was then residing in Kentucky. As soon as he heard that I 
was alive, he left Kentucky in search of me with only six dollars in his 
pocket. He expected to find me in Franklin. Not finding me there, he went 
on to Upper Sandusky. The Indians were on a hunting tour and I was with 
them. The corn was then in the silk ; he was told that we would not be back 
until roasting ear time. So he went back as far as Chillicothe, where he re- 
mained until the time appointed. Then he started again and came to Lower 
Sandusky, where he found me quite happy, and so much of an Indian that 
I would much rather have seen him tomahawked than to go with him. Old 
Crane would not consent to give me up. He said according to the treaty they 
were not obliged to release any that were willing to stay. They agreed to gO' 
to Brownstown and examine the treaty. 

Finally Rescued and Restored to Friends, 

"Brother William, knowing the uncertainty of the Indians, went to De- 
troit for assistance. He applied to Gen. Hamtramack, who gave him an officer 
and twelve men. With this force he came to Brownstown, sixteen miles. We 
were all there, and I had found my brother John, who was as unwilling to- 

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leave as in\>jelf. We were ;*trutting hack and forth on the porch. I had a 
large bunch of feathei-s tied in my hair at the crown of my head and rings in 
my ears and nose. I wa;^ feeling ver\' large and defiant. When I saw William 
coming, I said to John, **Then» comes our white brother.'^ He came towards 
us and put out hL< hand to shake hands, but we drew ourselves up scornfully, 
and would not allow him t^) touch us. Oh, how little we knew or thought of 
the toil and suffering he had endured for our sake. 

Loth to Return to Civilization. 

**We were both determined not to go with him ; so they took us by force. 
William took one of as by the hand and the oflicer the other; they dragged 
us along to the lK)at. I well remember our setting one foot back to brace 
ourselves, and pulling with our might to get from them. But they succeeded 
in getting as into the boat and pushing off, leaving the old squaw^ who had 
the care of me standing on the bank crying. There she stood, and I could 
hear her cries until lost in the distance. I cried, too, till quite exhausted, 
and I fell asleep. 

"John, being with a tribe that traded with the whites, did not forget his 
native tongue. Some days after we started, William related the story of our 
capture, the nmrder of our mother, sisters and brother. John repeated it to 
me. Oh, what a sudden change it wrought in me. It brought back the whole 
scene so forcibly to my recollection that I clung to my brother with affection 
and gratitude, and never more had a wish to return to the red men. 

"At Detroit we left our boat, and were kept in garrison four or five days, 
waiting for a vessel to take us to Erie, Pennsylvania. We went from Erie to 
Pittsburg, from there to our old home at Mr. Gillespie's, one of our old neigh- 
bors. W^e then changed our savage clothes, and after remaining several days 
we left for Chillicothe, thence to Franklin, my pre*^ent home. 

"Jeremiah Armstrong. 

"Columbus, April, 1858." 



Necessarily the men who have to do with the management of the public 
affairs of a state, a county or a nmnicipality, become, by virtue of their official 
positions, a part and parcel of its history. The character and official acts of 
these men show themselves in the progress of the political unit within which 
they act, and the progress of the unit or its lack of progress demonstrate 
clearly the degree of fitness and efficiency of its public officials. Given the 
names of Franklin county's officials for a centurv' and, more, in one chapter, 
and the progress of the city and county covering the same period in two other 
chapters in their subjective order, and the reader may determine for himself 

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the general fitness and honesty of the several hundred men who have been 
managing the affairs of Franklin county from its organization in 1803. 

A very large proportion of these officials appear by reason of public acts 
from time to time in these pages so that the reader of today will be able to 
form a tolerably familiar acquaintance with them. The incumbents of the 
various county offices taken in connection with the offices of sheriff, clerk of 
the courts, prosecuting attorney, conmion pleas and probate judges, given in 
the chapter relating to the bench and bar. of the county, as being co-related 
therewith, cannot but add to the interest of the reader of the history of city 
and county even at the close of a century. 

The figures following the names of officials indicate the beginning and 
end of their terms of service. Where but a single year appears after a name it 
indicates a vacancy has been filled until an election. Where a hiatus occurs 
in the tenure of an officer, his name appears twice or more, showing an elec- 
tion at different periods. In the case of the county commissioners and in- 
firmary directors, the figures following the name indicates the date when they 
entered upon the duties of the office. 

County Treasurers. 

Originally the county treasurer was appointed by the associate judges, 
and then by the county commissioners until 1827. By the act of January 
24, 1827, this office was made elective and the term was for two years. The 
treasurers have been: 

Jacob Gault, 1803-27. 
Christian Heyl, 1827-33. 
George McCormick, 1833- 

William Long, 1835-41. 
Joseph McUvaine, 1841-45. 
Joseph Leiby, 1845-51. 
O. P. Hines. 1851-55. 
Joseph H. Stauring, 1855- 


John G. Thompson, 1859- 

Joseph Falkenbach, 1864- 

A. C. Headly, 1868-69. 
J. H. Stauring, 1869. 
James E. Wright, 1870. 
Lorenzo English, 1871-73. 
J. E. Wrfght, 1873-77. 
W. P. Corzilius, 1877-81. 
George Beck, 1881-85. 

A. D. Heffner, 1885-89. 
Henry Pausch, 1889-93. 
S. A. Kinnear, 1893-95. 
E. O. D. Barron, 1895-99. 
Nelson A. Sims, 1899-03. 
Willis G. Bowland, 1903-07. 
Isaac D. Pugh, 1907. 
James T. Lindsay, 1907-9- 

County Auditors. 

The auditor's office was created by the act of the legislature of 1820-21. 
The incumbents from that date up to 1908-9 have been : 

Zachariah MiUs, 1821-22. 
Joseph Grate, 1822-24, 
J. C. Broderlck, 1824-39. 
Frederick Cole, 1839-43. 
S. E. Wright, 1843-47. 
H. Crary, 1847-51. 
John M. Pugh, 1851-57. 

John PhiUips, 1857-61. 
Mathias Martin, 1861-65. 
Thomas Arnold, 1865-67. 
Samuel Kile, 1867-74. 
Levi T. Strader, 1874-78. 
EmU Kiessewetter, 1878-84. 
P. J. Reinhard, 1884-90. 

Henry J. Caren, 1890-93. 
W. H. Halliday, 1894-1900. 
Ewing Jones, 1900-06. 
Wm. C. Cassins, 1906-07. 
Fred. Sayre, 1907-10-13. 

County Recorders. 

The county recorder was appointed by the associate judges and later the 
county commissioners, from 1804 to 1831 and thereafter was elected. Lucas 

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SuUivant was the first recorder serving from 1804 to 1807. His successors 
have been: 

Adam Hosack, 1807-13. 
Lincoln Goodale, 1813-17. 
A. J. McDowell, 1817-31. 
William T. Martin, 1831-46. 
Nathan Cole, 1846-79. 

F. M. Senter, 1879-85. 
M. A. Lilley, 1885-88. 
Robert Thompson. 1888-94. 
J. W. Peters, 1894-97. 

County Coroners, 

Neville Williams, 1897- 

Joseph W. Wickham, 1901- 

W. T. Peirson, 1907-10-13. 

The county coroner, who takes the place of the sheriflF in case of "dis- 
ability," is elected for the term of two years, and the office has been in ex- 
istence since the state was organized. The coroners have been : 

Joseph Dixon, 1805-07. 
William Donnigan, 1807-13. 
Townsed Nichols, 1813-17. 
Robert Brotherton, 1818. 
William Richardson, 1819. 
Adam Brotherton, 1819-26. 
Jacob Eley, 1826-30. 
Jona. Neeramer, 1830-36. 

George Jeffries, 1836-39. 
James Walcutt, 1839-43. 
A. W. Reeder, 1844. 
Horton Howard, 1844-48. 
A. W. Reeder. 1848-51 
J. W. Barbee, 1851-53. 
Elias Gaver. 1853-69. 

Patrick Egan. 1869-91. 
John Egan. 1891-93. 
Ed. Herbest, 1894-96. 
J. W. Birmingham, 1896- 

O. W. Lindsay. 1901-05. 
Joseph A. Murphy. 1905^9. 
John H. Hanes, 1909-lL 

County Surveyors, 

The office of county surveyor, or engineer, was appointive from 1803 to 
1831, the judges of the court of common pleas making the appointment. In 
1831, the office was made an elective one, and the incumbents have been : 

Joseph Vance, 1803-24. 
Richard Howe. 1824-29. 
Jere. McLene, 1829-32. 
Lyne Starling. Jr., 1832-33. 
Mease Smith, 1833. 
Fredrick Cole, 1833-36. 
Wniiam Johnston, 1836-39. 
Uriah Lathrop, 1839-42. 

Jno. Graham, 1842-45. 
WlHiam Johnston, 1845-48. 
Jesse Courtwright, 1848-54. 
W. W. Pollard, 1854-57. 
Daniel Hess, 1857-60. 
C. C. Walcott, 1860-62. 
Uriah Lathrop, 1862-66. 

Winiam P. Brown, 1866-68. 
Josiah Kinnear. 1868-71. 
B. F. Bowen. 1877-83. 
Josiah Kinnear, 1883-89. 
John J. Dun, 1889-95. 
Henry Maetzel, 1895-1903. 
Walter Braun, 1903-09. 
Hugh K. Lindsay. 

County Corwmissioners, 

The office of county commissioner is coeval with the political organization 
of the state, the first commissioners for Franklin county being elected in the 
month of June, 1804. In their order of succession they have been : 

John Blair 1804 

Benjamin Sens 1804 

Arthur O'Harra 1804 

Michael Fisher 1805 

Ezekial Brown 1805 

Arthur O'Harra 1806 

M. Fisher 1807 

James MarshaU 1808 

Arthur O'Harra 1809 

Robert Armstrong ...1810 

James Marshall 1811 

William Shaw 1812 

Robert Armstrong . . .1813 

James Marshall 1814 

William McUvaine ..1815 
Robert Armstrong ...1816 

James Marshall 1817 

David Jamison 1818 

George Williams 1819 

Joseph Grate 1820 

Robert Armstrong ...1821 

James Marshall 1822 

Andrew DiU 1823 

Robert Armstrong ...1824 
William Stewart ....1825 

J. M. Walcutt 1826 

wniiam McUvalne ..1827 
William Stewart ....1828 

Horace Walcutt 1829 

William Miller 1829 

Matthew Matthews ..1830 

William Stewart 1831 

Horace Walcutt 1832 

John M. White 1833 

Matthew Matthews . . 1833 
Timothy Lee 1833 

Hiram Andress 1834 

Robert Lisle 1835 

James Bryden 1836 

R. W. Coles 1837 

John Tipton 1838 

James Bryden 1839 

William Kyle 1840 

Samuel S. Davis 1841 

John Greenwood 1842 

W. W. Kyle 1843 

S. S, I>avls 1844 

John Clark 1845 

Adam Stewart 1846 

T. J. Moorman 1847 

O. P. Clark 1848 

Jacob Slyh 1849 

Eli F. Jennings 1850 

Jesse Baughman 1861 

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C. W. Speaks 1852 

Edw. Livingston 1853 

Willis Mattoon 1854 

Theo. Comstock 1865 

Edw. Livingston 1856 

Willis Mattoon 1857 

O. P. Hines 1857 

Isaac White 1857 

D. L. Holton 1858 

John Snyder 1859 

Thomas Sparrow 1860 

Jacob Slyh 1861 

J. W. Barbee 1862 

D. B. Strait 1863 

J. M. Koemer 1864 

J. W. Barbee 1865 

John G. Edwards 1866 

William Gulick 1867 

E. M. Lisle 1868 

J. O. B. Renick 1869 

William Cooper 1870 

Frederick Beck 1870 

J. P. Bruck 1871 

Adin G. Hibbs 1872 

Francis Riley 1873 

Isaac S. Beckley 1874 

D. Matheney 1875 

D. B. Strait 1876 

I. S. Beekey 1877 

D. Matheney 1878 

Thomas Robinson ...1879 

Joseph M. Briggs 1880 

Josiah C. Lunn 1881 

William Wall 1882 

J. M. Briggs 1883 

R. Z. Dawson 1884 

William Wall 1885 

Louis Moorhead 1886 

R. Z. Dawson , 1887 

Thomas D. Cassady. .1888 

L. Moorhead 1889 

J. B. McDonald 1890 

T. D. Cassady 1891 

J. B. McDonald 1893 

George Bellows 1894 

J. R. Brown 1895 

William Pinney 1896 

J. N. Ackerman 1897 

Z. E. Amlin 1898 

William Pinney 1899 

W. S. Carlisle 1900 

Henry A. Mason 1901 

Peter Swickard 1902 

W. S. Carlisle 1903 

H. A. Mason 1904 

Morton Hayes 1905 

A. M. Gibson 1906 

Richard Sinclair 1908 

The three last named held office until 1909, their successors all being 
chosen in 1908. 

Infirmary Directors, 

The office of infirmary director was created in 1842, and the following 
persons have filled the office since. The first incumbents were chosen for one, 
two and three years respectively, and their successors were chosen in the years 
following the names of the incumbents in their order: 

George Prankenberg .1842 

Augustus Becker 1842 

Robert Riordan 1842 

George Prankenberg .1843 

August Becker 1844 

Robert Riordan 1845 

John Walton 1846 

August Becker 1847 

T. D. Preston 1848 

Arthur O'Harra 1849 

August Becker 1850 

Arthur O'Harra 1849 

Amos S. Ramsey 1852 

Rufus Main 1853 

Orin Backus 1854 

L. J. Moeller 1855 

John Lisle 1856 

William Aston 1857 

L. J. Moeller 1858 

James Legg 1859 

Philemon Hess 1860 

Newton Gibbons 1860 

Philemon Hess 1861 

Frederick Beck 1862 

Newton Gibbons 1863 

Philemon Hess 1864 

Frederick Beck 1865 

N. Gibson 1866 

John Grau 1867 

Frederick Fornof 1868 

H. L. Seibert 1869 

William H. Gaver. . . .1870 

John Schneider 1871 

J. H. Earhart 1872 

William H. Gaver ...1873 

John Schneider 1874 

J. H. Earhart 1875 

William H. Gaver ...1876 

James Burns 1877 

J. H. Earhart 1878 

Chris Engroff 1879 

James Burns 1880 

Jacob Reed 1881 

Chris Engroff 1882 

James C. Cleary 1883 

Henry Lisle 1884 

Emery McDermith ..1885 
J. C. Cleary 1886 

Henry Lisle 1887 

Stephen Kelley 1888 

John Kelly 1889 

Adam Fredrick 1890 

J. N. Ackerman 1891 

J. F. Medbery 1893 

Henry Becker 1894 

Charles Frank 1895 

J. F. Medbury 1897 

Wash. Johnson 1898 

Morton Hayes 1899 

J. B. McKinley 1900 

M. C. Lakin 1901 

Wash. Johnson 1902 

J. B. McKinley 1903 

M. C. Lakin 1904 

S. W. Henry 1905 

William L. Long 1906 

Fay May 1907 

S. W. Henry 1908 

William L. Long 1908 

Fay N. May 190^ 

Percy J. Briggs 1908 

The terms of the last named three, as in the case of the commissioners, 
are so extended, by a recent statute under a constitutional amendment, as to 
expire simultaneously in 1911. Their successors to be elected in 1910. 


Montgomery township has been wholly absorbed by the city of Columbus, 
while Marion in its greater part is an unorganized portion of the city and 
destined to be absorbed at an early day almost as a whole. 

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A portion of the city, on the woA i^ide of the river, is made up from ter- 
ritory detached from Franklin township, the autonomy of which, however, 
is to an extent preserved. 

In briefly sketching the townships and their villages, no attempt at 
elaborate history or description will be made. 

The most interesting portion of the city and county history alike is 
largely personal. Hence the sketches will deal largely with the pioneers who 
founded both the county and the city. It is to be regretted also that there 
is not in existence a complete record of the pioneers both men and women. 
In hundreds of houses exist fragments of the valuable record, but the assem- 
bling of it by any one person for a single object would require an ordinary 
life time, even if the task could be accomplished at all, save by a community 
of effort. 

Who Were the Pioneers? 

Who were the pioneers? It Ls a mooted question, perhaps, but it will be 
within the limits to designate the heads and active members of families coming 
into and residing within the county from 1798 to 1858 ; and with this guide 
for determining them, it is hoped that the appended township sketches will 
repay perusal. 


Of the four original townships in the county, Franklin is the only one 
that retains its name. Its organization is coeval with the erection of the 
county in 1803. When organized Franklin township alone embraced twice 
as much territory as the whole of Franklin county of today. In this town- 
ship the first settlement of the county and city began in 1797, in the present 
west side of Columbus then designated Franklinton, the county seat. The 
trend of settlement was south along the west bank of the Scioto, and the first 
settlers in that direction were the families of Samuel White, John Huffman, 
William Harrison, Sr., and one or two others w^hose names have not been pre- 

The limits of the township, however, were gradually contracted and 
after Jackson township was organized in 1815 and Prairie in 1819, its pro- 
portions were more in keeping with the idea of a township, and so continued 
until Franklinton itself was attached to and became a part of Columbus. The 
population was largely agricultural, the great prairies stretching west as well 
as north and south, inviting an agricultural people; corn, wheat, broom com, 
oats, potatoes and the like w^ere produced in great abundance — especially 
broom corn, and was shipped to the down-river markets. 

People Fo-nd of Sports. 

The people of that day were as fond of sports, especially horse racing, 
as those of today, and primitive race tracks wxre maintained on the prairies 
bordering upon the town, especially in the vicinity of the Four-Mile House, 
and candor compels the statement that there was more or less betting on the 

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TItOCN rouNDATiowa^ 

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nags, according to the volume of the currency at the track and the enthusi- 
asm of the bettors. Along in the '40s, Lucas Sullivant established the Ohio 
Manufacturing Company, worked a milling establishment and operated stone 
quarries, while further down the river were Moler^s Mills and Carding 
Machine, erected originally by John Ransburgh. 

Present Population, 

In 1858 Franklin township, including Franklinton, had a population of 
a little more than two thousand, of whom six hundred seventy-six were be- 
tween the ages of five and twenty-one years. In 1900, with Franklinton 
absorbed into the city of Columbus, the township had a population of two 
thousand six hundred eighty-nine and it is estimated that in 1908-9, it 
contained approximately three thousand inhabitants. 

Franklin Pioneers. 

Among the pioneers prior to 1858 were the families of Adam Hosack, 
Henry Brown, James B. Gardiner, Joseph Grate, Jacob Kellar, Joseph Mc- 
Dowell, William Lusk, William Risley, Zachariah Stephen, James Marshall, 
Arthur O'Harra, Samuel White, Nicholas Goeches, James Gorton, Robert W. 
Riley, Joseph Badger, Jacob Gniber, Reuben GoUiday, William Lusk, Stew- 
art White, James Graham, Samuel Deardurf, Jacob Fisher, William Cald- 
well, Adam Alkire, William Henderson, Lemuel Frizzell, Bartley Boyd, 
Benjamin Overmire, Robert King, Ba^il Riddell, Jesse Alkire, John A. 
Kellar and William B. Preston. The descendants of many of these pioneers 
still reside in this county and central Ohio, while the greater number have 
followed the star of empire westward, and the same is true of the descendants 
of the pioneers in all the townships. 

Franklinton Postoffice, 

Franklinton postoffice was established in 1805 and continued until 1835. 
The respective pioneer postmasters were: Adam Hosack, 1805; Henry 
Brown, 1811; Joseph Grate, 1812; Jam^s B. Gardiner, 1813; Jacob Kellar, 
1815; Joseph McDowell, 1819; William Lusk, 1820; William Risley, 1831, 
to discontinuance of the office. 

The Old Union Church. 

The following article touching the history of one of the most famous 
and historic churches of Franklin county, outside the city, located in 
Franklin township, appeared a year or two since in the leading Columbus 
newspapers. Some of the pioneers mentioned therein have passed away since 
its publication. The new church referred to has since been completed, and 
the congregation meet in it regularly for Divine services. 

About one-half mile northeast of Briggsdale, which is located on the 
Harrisburg pike, and about three miles southwest of the city, stands a little 

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one-story brick church with a history of intense interast. It bears the name 
of "Union Church,'^ which title it hns possessed many years, and which was 
given it in day^ when this st»ction of the country was inhabited by Indians. 
In thLs mode.'it appearing little edifice, hundreds of souls have found the 
Saviour, hundred.* of dear friendf* of the members have lain before the pulpit 
cold in death. 

A yew Church, 

A beautiful new church Ls to take the place of the little chaped that 
ha.s huch a record. The membershii) ha^ grown to such an enormous size in 
the past few years that the present building will not accommodate the in- 
creasing numbers, and at a meeting held a few days ago it was decided that 
the new church would have to supplant the little edifice to which the older 
members look back upon with many happy, and at other times many sor- 
rowful recollections. The new church will not be located on the present site, 
but wull be nearer the Briggsdale school building. Mr. Joseph Briggs, who 
is one of the prominent members, was also instrumental in agitating the idea 
of the new church. Mr. Briggs headed the sul)scription paper, which was 
started at a biL^iness meeting of the members a few days ago, and the amount 
placed opposite his name was one thousand dollars, and from this amount a 
reasonable sum is to be taken to invest in a church lot, w^hich Ls to be selected 
from any part of his property which nms a half mile on either side of the 
Harrisburg pike through Briggsdale. 

Raising Church Building Funds, 

Since the petitions, three in number, have been in circulation, they 
raised over one-half the amount necessary, and according to the church laws, 
when three-fourths of the amount is secured they will be allowed to proceed 
with the construction. This Mr. Briggs thinks will be commenced about 
March, as the prospects are bright for raising the necessary funds. The 
new building is to be modern in every way, and will be built from brick. 
The building committee is comprised of the following members: Joseph 
Briggs, A. K. Whims, J. J. Eakin and John E. Chambers. The church com- 
mittees are: J. E. Chambers, Thomas Hart, A. K.Whims, E. C. Armstrong, 
William House, Jesse Walton, D. Sibley, John Eakin and Joseph Briggs. 

The new church will, as it has been for a long time, be known as the 
Union Methodist Episcopal church. The present pastor is Rev. George 
Creamer, of Grove City, who, assisted by his brother, has during the past few 
weeks been conducting a most successful serias of protracted meetings, and has 
increased the membership immensely. 

The Press Post has endeavored to secure a few reminiscences of the 
old church and after many interviews with those well acquainted, the follow- 
ing story has been compiled, w^hich will prove very interesting to those having 
any acquaintance: 

A Famous Church Edifice. 

Among the early religious gatherings in Franklin township outside 
of Franklinton w^ere a series of meetings held at the house of Henry Goets- 

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chiu.s, by the Rev. Messrs. Austen and Sims, of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. The date cannot be given ; but it was prior to 1828. The result was 
the formation of a pioneer class in Methodism, consisting of John and Nancy 
Goetschius, Richard and Sarah House, Elisha and Elizabeth Chambers, Gil- 
iom and Leah Demorest, Jacob and Eliza Whit« and a few others, whose 
names are forgotten. Soon after this class was formed a log meeting house 
was built on Scioto big run. This was a small affair and rude in its appoint- 
ments, yet for as many as ten years this devoted band of Christians held 
frequent meetings within its bush-covered w^alls. Its successor was the brick 
edifice known as Union church, occupying the site of the first church. 
This charge was formerly attached to Darby circuit, and subsequently to 

Immediately after the formation of Franklin county in 1803 it was 
divided into four nearly equal parts or townships, the southwest quartei 
was called Franklin. It was then nearly double the size of the present 
county. It was reduced to its present limits in 1819. 

Franklin County Indians, 

The red men of the forest were quite numerous in the early settlement 
of this township. They were principally of the Wyandot tribe, though there 
w^ere scattering members of the Delawares and Mingoes. 

First Settler, Joseph Foos. 

The first settler of the township was Joseph Foos, who, in the fall of 
1798 came from Kentucky and built a log cabin on what is now Hamilton 
Place addition. 

Scalped at Stony Point, 

Samuel White w^as prominent in the pioneer settlement of Franklin 
township. He was a soldier in the Revolution and served nearly seven years 
during that determined struggle. It is said by descendants of the family 
that Mr. White, at the battle of Stony Point, was scalped by the Indians and 
left on the field of battle. After the war he returned to his home in Virgina, 
married Jane Stewart, and emigrated to Ohio, and settled on Scioto big run. 
The old log church was located on his land and when the present church was 
built his son, Samuel M., made the trustees a deed for the land. Both arc 
buried in the graveyard of the church. 

Samuel White came from Virginia; he was born in New Jersey, March 
16, 1758, and died from injuries received in a runaway in 1841. His son, 
Samuel M., came in possession of the part of his farm on which the church 
stands, and the late Hon. Clark White, his son, then came into possession of 
the farm. His wufe and son and one of his daughters still live on the same 
place. His son, Jacob, mentioned elsewhere, w^as one of the founder- of 
the church. Samuel White's descendants are numbered by the hundred^ in 
this county. 

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The Union Camp Grounds. 

As a camp-meeting grounds and place for summer religious services, 
those about the Union church were known far and wide and there is not an 
old resident in the entire county or the surrounding ones but know^ about the 
Union church camp-met*tings. All who have talked relative to the matter 
bring up the most interesting stories. Mr. A. G. Grant, in speaking of the 
camp-meetings held there, stated that he well remembered that one Sunday 
morning during the camp-meeting when nine large Indians bedecked with 
their feathers and war paint, walked up to front seats. Their presence nat- 
urally caused a commotion, but their was no disturbance. This, Mr. Grant 
states, was about fifty-five years ago. The camp grounds were located in the 
grove which then surrounded the little church. The places for sleeping and 
living during the camp-meetings, which would last from three to four weeks, 
were erected from small trees on the log-cabin plan and covered with brush 
and the like. The huts were erected side by side and occupied the amount 
of space about the size of a solid square. In the center the sen^ices were 
held and were attended by mammoth crowds. 

The Union Preachers. 

Among some of the older preachers better known to many of the resi- 
dents of the city and county were Rev. Young, who was blind. He was 
grandfather of Ex-Sheriff Young. Rev. Peter Cartright was also one of their 
pastors. Another who still survives, is Michael Ilalni, residing in this city on 
East Mound street. 

The Union Cemetery. 

The cemetery adjoining the church also affords a history which in all 
probability is equaled by few in the county. It contains the remains of vet- 
terans from four wars. Among those remembered are the follovA-ing: 

Revolutionary war — Samuel White. War of 1812 — Thomas Goldsmith, 
Henry Goetschius, Richard House. Mexican war — Elijah Harris. War, 
1861 to 1865— Captain E. 0. House, William Goldsmith, Thomas Goldsmith, 
G. W. Alkire, Richard White, Alfred Goetschius. 

The aged father of Mr. Jaseph M. Briggs, who is the promoter of the 
new church, was buried also in this cemetery fifty-seven 3'ears ago, but later 
the remains were removed to their family lot at Green Lawn cemetery. He 
was the founder of the Sabbath school of Union church. 

Memorial Services. 

The first memorial services ever held over the graves of the dead soldiers 
who lie in this little cemeterj' were held last summer, the last Sunday in June. 
The services were arranged at the instigation of William Miller, of this city, 
who is also officer of the day of the Wells Post, G. A. R. He was assisted 
by Martin Benjamin, of Briggsdale, and the services were so successful and 

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appreciated by all that it was then decided to hold the same annually, the 
second Sunday in June. 


Sharon township consists of a five-mile-square block, which constituted 
a very small fragment of what was once Liberty township. It is geographi- 
cally known as township 2, in range 18. It was erected March 4, 1806, and 
christened Sharon from the Biblical Sharon. The settlement of the township 
began in the spring of the year 1803 under the auspices of the Scioto Com- 
pany composed of migrants from the state of Connecticut under the lead of 
Colonel and Rev. James Kilbourne who had come west a few years pre- 
viously and "spied out the land" of the New Canaan. 

A Famous Dwarf, 

The town of Worthington was duly 'laid out" in 1804, and in 1805 it 
was made a government postoffice, and William Robe was installed as the 
first postmaster. Mr. Robe was a dwarf and an undersized one at that, and 
was, in stature at least, the prototype of P. T. Barnum's celebrated Tom Thumb 
of the middle of the nineteenth century. 

His maximum weight w^as fifty pounds, and his stature did not 
exceed a yardstick. And withal, he was highly educated, cultured and was 
neat in appearance, perfectly proportioned, dressed in the highest style of 
his day and was '^a perfect gentleman" in every respect. 

He became a teacher in the Worthington Seminary, the foremost educa- 
tional institution west of Pittsburg in that day. Later he was made chief 
clerk or deputy in the office of the state auditor. He died January, 1823, 
at the age of forty-five. 

The Pioneer Postmasters. 

Mr. Robe continued as postmaster until 1815, when he was succeeded 
by Aurora Buttles, and he was followed by Recompense Stansberry who held 
from 1821 to 1841 in w^hich year he was succeeded by R. W. Cowles, who 
died within less than a year. Recompense Stansberry was again appointed 
postmaster and held the office until 1843, during which year he passed 
away and George Taylor was in charge from 1843 to 1849; George H. Gris- 
wold from 1849 to 1853 ; and Charles Martin, Jr., from 1858 and past. 

Manufacturing Company Incorporated. 

In 1811 the Worthington Manufacturing Company was incorporated 
by act of the legislature, and Colonel James Kilbourne became president 
and general agent of the company. With the erection of the necessary build- 
ings completed, the company went actively into business in 1813. The com- 
pany manufactured a high grade (for that period) of woolen goods, but 
carried on numerous mechanical branches in other lines. The company also 
engaged in banking, its charter being so comprehensive that it could engage 

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in any and all kinds of business. In both banking and mercantile business, 
it became the most important concern in Ohio or the west for a number of 
years, and it maintained stores in Columbus and Franklin ton as well as in 

The company met with reverses, however, in 1819-20, and went into 
liquidation. It paid out all of its liabilities, but when its affairs were settled, 
the stockholders had sacrificed proportional shares of their private fortunes, 
while the community as a whole had profited by the energy and enterprise 
of the concern and its projectors. Co-incidental with the incorporation of 
the above company. Colonel Kilbourne launched the first newspaper in 
Franklin county and among the early papers west of the Alleghenies. This 
was the Western Intelligencer, the progenitor of the Ohio State Journal of 
the present day. 

Worthington Incorporated. 

The town of AVorthington was incorporated by act of the legislature in 
1835, and in the spring of 1836 the first town officers were elected as follows: 
Mayor, James Kilbourne; recorder, G. H. Griswold; trustees, Samuel Abbott, 
William Bishop, Ira Metoalf, A. H. Pinney, William S. Spencer and R. W. 
Cowles; treasurer, Levi Pinney; marshal, Chauncey Barker; street commis- 
sioner, Abner P. Pinney ; fire wardens, Dayton Topping and D. W. Harrington. 

The Pioneer Mayors. 

The pioneer mayors of Worthington in their order and date of election 
were: 1836, James Kilbourne; 1837, G. H. Griswold; 1838, Peter Wright; 
1839, John Snow; 1840-41, James Kilbourne; 1842, Levi Pinney; 1843, 
Sylvester Hayes; 1844, William Bishop; 1845, George Taylor; 1846, Jam^ 
Kilbourne; 1847, G. H. Griswold; 1848-54, Stephen Hoyt; 1855-58, Stephen 
L. Peck. 

Other Pioneer Citizens. 

Among the heads of the pioneer families of Sharon township in addi- 
tion to the foregoing named prominent citizens and public officials were 
Ezekial Brown, Alexander Morrison, Jr., Ezra Griswold, Isaac Case, Azariah 
Pinney, Glass Cochran, Rueben Carpenter, Crager Wright, Stephen Maynard, 
Samuel Maynard, Nathaniel Little, John Goodrich, Jr., John W. Ladd, 
Stephen Maynard, Jr., Asaph Allen, Ira Metcalf, Philo Burr, Luther Case, 
Charles E. Burr and I. N. Case. 

Almost Stationary Population. 

For more than forty years there has been but little change in the popula- 
tion of Sharon township and Worthington, town. In 1840 the town and town- 
ship had a population of one thousand one hundred sixty-eight ; in 1850, one 
thousand five hundred nine; in 1858, one thousand six hundred twenty-one; 
m 1900, one thousand seven hundred ninety-nine, of which four hundred 

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fifty were residents of Worthington. The estimate for 1908-9 is one thousand 
eight hundred thirty-six. It will be observed that the actual population 
of Sharon township, as indicated by the census of 1900, was but two 
hundred ninety more than it was by the official census of 1850, an increase 
of less than six persons per year. This may be accounted for, however, on the 
theory that outside the town of Worthington, the real-estate owners hold ex- 
tensive tracts, and lease only to those who assist in agricultural pursuits, 
thus reducing tenants to the minimum; while in the town itself, the large 
majority own their own houses and lots and tenants are the exception. 


First Settlers and Later Pioneers. 

The settlement of this township began about 1803-4 on Darby creek near 
Georgesville, even before the township organization. 

Among the earliest settlers were the families of Thomas Roberts, John 
Bigger, James Gardiner, Samuel Dyer, Samuel Kerr and John Turner. 
In 1805, Samuel Dyer erected a mill, which eventually passed to William 
Dyer, and was for half a century the only flouring-mill in the township. 

Some of the Later Pioneers. 

John Smith, Alexander Blair, Michael Dickey, Rueben Golliday, Jacob 
Gundy, John Topton, William Walker, Richard Heath, Henry Shenefelt, 
George W. Helmick, Zelotes G. Weddle, J. B. Mitchel, Rueben Chaffin, J. 
R. Sheeders, Titus England, S. Swisgood, S. H. Cobert, J. Fuller and John. 
Snyder with their families. The township was organized by its present name 
in 1807, and then embraced a much greater area than at present. When Jack- 
son and Prairie were formed in 1819, its boundaries shrunk to their present 
limits. Pleasant township was so named because of the pleasant prospect it 
presented to the pioneer farmers when they came into this portion of the Scioto 

Pleasant Postoffice. 

The first postoffice in the township was established in 1815, and named 
as above. The first postmaster was Thomas Roberts, and the postoffice was 
in his hoase. But ere long the beautiful and pleasant name of the postoffice 
was changed. 

Georgesville Postoffice. 

In 1816 Postmaster Roberts laid out the town of Georgesville, and in 
1818 the name was changed from Pleasant to Georgesville, and Mr. Roberts 
continued on as postmaster until the month of September, 1828, when he 
was succeeded by Thomas Reynolds, who held the office until July, 1851, 
when he deceased, and his widow was retained in the office until November, 
1851, when William Scott was appointed postmaster, who held until past 1858, 
being the last of the strictly pioneer postmasters. 

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The Town of Ilarrhhiirg. 

In 183G, Joseph Chenowith founded the town of Ilarrisburg, Frederick 
Cole, being the "tiurveyor'' who laid it out. Originally Darby Cross Road-, 
a po.<tofrice had been e^tabli.**hed at the .<anie point, but when Ilarrisburg was 
established, the name of the pa^oftiee was changed to eorn^spond. The firet 
postmaster was John Haines, appointed 1828, succeeded in 1833 by George 
Geiger and Abram Buckles, 1836; then followed Dr. T. Thompson, 1838; 
Henry Miller, 1841; J. W. Goet^chius, 1841; and Henry Miller again who 
held the office to 1860, constituting the pioneer postnuisters. 

The Pioneer Majjot'ti. 

The legislature of 1850-51 parsed an act, and the following were elected 
trustees: Henry Miller, J. Chenowith, (). T. Curry, L. \V. Seifert and George 
\V. Helmick. The pioneer mayors were J. Helmick, 1851-54; J. Seeders, 
1855; J. Helmick, again, 1850; (leorge W. Helmick, lvS57-58, 

As far back as 1836, Harrisburg was described as "a lively village,'' 
containing about thirty families, two taverns, four stores, two physicians, a 
church belonging to the Methodist denomination, and a postoftiee. It is a 
somewhat larger village now and not at all sleei)y at that. The popultion 
of Pleasant township in 1840 was eight hundred seven, estimated in 1908 
at two thousand three hundred fifty-five. The population of Harrisburg in 
1858 was one hundred fifteen ; in 1900, two hundred fifty, and estimated in 
1908 at three hundred. 


In 1799, John Matthews, surveyor and civil engineer, on behalf of the 
United States government surveyed the lands comprising Hamilton township 
and the early records speak of it as "Matthews^ Survey," a tenn still used in 
conveyance descriptions. These lands came into market in the year 1800, 
and in that year and the year following they were taken up in the usual form 
of "entries" in vogue in that date, and .-icttlements began. 

The Early Settle rx. 

Among the very earliest settlers were John Dill and Michael Fisher. 
Only a little later came Percival Adams, Thoma-^ Morris, the Worthingtons, 
the Stewarts, the Johnstons, James Culbertson, the Stombaughs, George W. 
Williams, and Robert Shannon with his six sons named respectively, Samuel, 
Hugh, John, James, Josei)h and William. 

Hamilton townshij) was formally organized in 1807, and at that time 
embraced within its boundaries the territory from which Madison township 
was subsequently erected. The township is about eight miles in length, north 
and south, and four miles wide, ea.«t and west, the width varying with the 
curving and meandering of the Scioto river. When the original division of 

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the county was nuide in 1803, this territory was part in Liberty and part 
in Harrison township. It was also generally regarded as containing a greater 
proportion of first class land than any like quantity of territory anywhere in 
the county. Later, when the canal was located through it greatly enhanced 
its natural advantages, especially in water powers. 

Milling Interests, 

Shortly after the completion of the canal, the Hartwell Mills, at the 
Four Mile Lock was erected, and subsequently the Cottage Mills were erected 
in 1841 by Messrs. Ilibbs and Dalzell. 

Lock bourne and Shadesville, 

In 1831, Colonel James Kilbourne, acting as agent for Joel Buttles, 
Demas Adams and others laid out the town of Lockbourne, which soon grew 
into a considerable village with good church building, school house, stores, 
warehouses with a population comprising about seventy families, two or three 
physicians and a like number of taverns, saw^ and grist mills, etc. 

The Lockbourne postoffice was established in 1837 and Nathan G. Smith, 
1837; Zebulon Marcy, 1838; John H. Stage, 1839; C. M. Porter, 1849; Dr. A. 
N. Boales, 1851; Dr. J. R. Marshall, 1853; John A Sarber, 1854; and J. H. 
Haire, 1856-58, were the pioneer postmasters. Lockbourne w^as incorporated 
by an act of the legislature in 1839-40, but the citizens never availed them- 
selves of its provisions. 

Hon. Adin G. Hibbs laid out the village of Shadesville in 1853 and was 
made the first postmaster of Shadesville ; the other pioneer postmaster, Joshua 
Hartzel, holding the position till past the half century. 

Population Stationary, 

The poi)ulation has remained almost stationary since 1840. In that 
year the population, including the villages of Lockbourne and Shadesville 
wa«^ one thousand two hundred fifty-eight; in 1850, one thousand four hun- 
dred eighty-five; in 1858, one thousand four hundred ninety-eight; in 1900, 
one thousand five hundred ; in 1908, one thousand four hundred ninety-three, 
estimated. The soil of the township is i)roductive, the highways, as through- 
out the most of the county, are well kept and the farms bespeak care and 

Among the Later Pioneers. 

Among the prominent heads of families of the second growths, so to 
speak, of the pioneers may be mentioned, William Dunning, William Irwin, 
David Spangler, Thomas Morris, John B. Johnson, Percival Adams, John 
Stipp, George Hays, Joseph Murray, William Champ, M. Fisher, John 
Landes, William Jacobs, William Shannon, Z. P. Thompson, George Earhart, 
Patterson Harrison, Robert E. Shannon, Adin G. Hibbs, Rev. N. S. Ransom, 
Rev. J. D. Smith, Rev. Thomas AVoodrow and Rev. W. Mavnard. 

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In 1809 this town erected and organized, being its present name and at 
that time comprised all the territory now embraced in the townships of 
Washington, Norwich and Perry and a part of Brown, and was made up of 
portions of the original townships of Franklin, Darby and Liberty. 

In 1801 or 1802 (the date is not precisely fixed), a settlement was made 
at the place where the town of Dublin was subsequently located. 

The Sells Family, 

Among the first settlers was the patriarchal Ludwick Sells, a migrant 
from Huntington county, Pennsylvania, and his family of sons, Samuel, 
Pet^r, Benjamin and WilHam. In 1808 another son, John Sells, joined his 
father and brothers, and subsequently in 1818 he laid out the town of Dublin, 
which grew^ and prospered rapidly, had a population of some four hundred, 
half a century ago and did much business in its stores, taverns, mills and 
shops of all kinds of mechanics, who produced cloth from the sheep's back, 
with tailors to make clothes, hatters to make hats, wagonmakers to make 
vehicles, shoemakers and the like, every growing community of that day 
attracting artisans from far and wide. In 1818-20 Dublin ranked Columbus, 
and was a strong rival of Worthington, and a few years previously came near 
being the state capital. 

Borough of Dublin. 

Dublin was incorporated in 1855 as a borough and organized by the 
election of officers, including Z. Hutchinson, as mayor, and Wm. Graham, as 
recorder. At the end of the first year the citizens threw off the burdensome 
machinery of borough government and declined to hold further elections 
thus, as a Hibernian politican of the day and place remarked, "putting a sud- 
den end to a number of promising political careers before they had begun.'' In 
1850 the population of the township was one thousand two hundred eighty- 
two of which two hundred fifty were residents of Dublin. In 1858 the pop- 
ulation of the town and township was approximately one thousand three 
hundred. In 1900 the township and village had a population of one thous- 
and two hundred ninety-nine, the village population numbering two hundred 
seventy-five, showing that both held their own during the half century. 

Dublin's Pioneer Postmasters, 

Dublin was made a post-town in 1820, the first postmaster being David 
Wright who served from 1820 to 1826; Moses Davis, 1826-28: Isaac N. 
Walters, 1828-31 ; John Eberly, 1831-58 and beyond. 

Early and Later Pioneers. 

Among the pioneers, w^hose names have been handed down, and all of 
whom were the heads of families, and generally large ones, w^ere Daniel 

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M. Brown, Daniel Bruck, Robert Justice, Justice Miller, Simeon Wilcox, 
George Robert, Tracy Wilcox, Patrick Connor, David Smith, Chandler 
Rodgers, Alexander Bassett, William Kilbourne, Charles Sells, Brice Hays, 
David Bailey, Henry CofFman, Jacob Poppaw, John Eberly, John Uffner, 
James Howard, William Harris, Zenas Hutchinson, George Churchman, 
George W. Evans, Eri Douglass. 


Madison township is the premier in size compared with any other town- 
ship in the county, being eight miles in extent north and south and seven 
miles east and west, save for a small jog in the southeast comer. It was 
organized as a township in 1809, having previous to that time been a part 
of Hamilton township. 

Early Settlers. 

The settlement of the territory had begun in 1802, one year before the 
admission of the state to the Union. In 1805 John Swisher, of New Jersey, 
settled here, but later located in Perry township. When Mr. Swisher came 
into Madison he found himself preceded by Isaac Decker; Elias Decker; 
Charles Rarey and his five sons, Adam, Benjamin, William, Charles and 
George, growing and promising boys; and a few others inhabiting the rich 

More Recruits Came, 

It was only a little later when more additions were made to the com- 
munity, including John Kill and his large family, Matthew Taylor, Jacob 
Gander, George Rohr and six sons and as many other members of the family 
as well as an equally large family of the Ramseys, three of the Ramsey boys 
being Samuel, James and Robert M. Mooberry and family, Mr. Ball and 
family, Daniel Kramer, Matthias Wolf, Thomas Rathmell, Emmor Cox, 
James McClish, Philip Pontius, William D. Hendron, Philemon Medles and 

The school se<»tions (section 16) appropriated by the government for 
the aid and support of public schools for Madison, Hamilton, Montgomery, 
and Truro townships, were all located adjoining in Madison township, making 
a body of two thousand five hundred acres in the garden spot of Franklin 
county, all the other townships received a similar land grant. 

Providmg Daily Broad. 

The first mill erected in the township was by Matthew Taylor on Alum 
creek near its mouth in 1808. It gave great impetus to the settlement. No 
vestige of this agent of civilization now remains, and the site is conjectural. 
In 1810-11 George Sharp erected mills on a Gahanna. They afterward 
passed into the ownership of John Sharp. They did a prosperous business in 
the mid-pioneer days, but they are gone leaving no monument behind them. 

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A Solitary Grist Mill. 

At the half century of history, 1858, there was but a single millmg 
establishment in the townshij), and that was the Chaney grist-mill on the 
canal near Canal Winchester, and near by was a wool carding and fulling 
mill, also owned by the Chaneys. But Madison township has more than 
held her own in this and other respects between 1858 and 1908. 

A Forgotten Town, 

Middlotown wtis the original name for a town laid out in 1817 in the 
township. The legislature of Ohio changed its name in 1830-31 and incor- 
porated it as Middleton. In 1829 the government established a postoftice 
there, and Dr. Thomas Ilersey was appointed the first postmaster in the 
same year. In 1833, Isaac I). Decker, who had been appointed as Dr. Her- 
sey s successor, resigned, for the very excellent retuson that the postoffice was 

Rival Port and Grove. 

in 1S43 the western portion of what is now the pretty village of Grove- 
[)ort was laid out as a town by Mr. Jacob B. Wert, and was modestly named by 
him Wert's Grove; he being naturally and patriotically one of the first 
settlers of the future emi)orium. In February, 1844, Mr. William H. Rarey 
laid out the eastern half of the prc^sent town, and being modest and likewise 
patriotic, named it ''Rarey's Port." Thus it was that the Hocking branch 
of the Ohio canal played the role of the Rubicon wnth Rarey^s Port on the 
east and Wert's Grove on the west bank thereof. 

Both villages improved becomingly and satisfactorily to the respective 
j)roprietors. The proximity of the two rival municipalities at first confused 
strangers and later perplexed citizens, who happened to be out of evenings, 
and finally public opinion ro<e up and demanded a consolidation of the 
town and names. After divers and sundry conferences between the citizens 
and the proprietors it was de<-ided to reduce the name of the west side town 
to "Grove'' by striking out Wert's and reduce the east side metropolis to 
"Port" by striking out Rarey's and then joining them together make it 
Groveport, which it is even unto this day. The compact was ratified and 
sealed by the legislature in the session of 1846-47 in the form of a charter of 
incorporation. The first bonrd of councilmen consisted of Samuel Sharp, E. 
M. Dutton, J. P. By waters, C. J. Stevenson and AVilliam Mitchell. 

The Pioneer Mayors. 

A. Shoemaker wa< elected the first mayor in 1847 and was followed by 
Henry Long, 1848-9; Z. P. Thompson, 18504; E. W. Edwards, 1852: Jere- 
miah White, 1853-4; T. P. Thompson, 1855-6; N. Steel, 1857; L. Sarber, 
1858. With this the pioneer mayors ceased and determined, and the modern 
type became the vogue. Grovef)ort was a business center for that period, 

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Margret Livingston Taylor, Wife of David Taylor, 1809-1895. 

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1848-58 ; there being several stores, groceries, shops and the like, four or five 
churches and three physicians. The population in 1850 was four hundred 

The Pioneer Postmasters, 

In 1844 the postoffice of Groveport was established. Mr. Jacob B. Wert 
one of the rival founders of the town was honored by being made the first 
postmaster, and held the office to 1848. He was succeeded by Edward Garee 
who held until 1854. In that year Samuel Sharp was appointed to the 
office and held it until 1858. 

Canal Winchester. 

When the six sections of land were annexed to the east of Madison 
township in 1851; it threw Canal Winchester, then of Fairfield, into Frank- 
lin county. Canal Winchester like Groveport lies on the canal; was in 1858 
and previous thereto a place of considerable business especially nn grain and 
produce. The town was laid out in 1826, by John Coleman and Rueben 
Dove, Fairfield county citizens. It resembled Groveport in most particulars 
and in 1856 had about the same population, each being approximately four 
hundred and nearly five hundred each in 1858. The total population of 
Madison township in 1850 was two thousand four hundred eighty; in 1900 
three thousand two hundred seventeen. The estimated population for 1908 
is three thousand three hundred fifty. Of late years Canal Winchester has 
increased most rapidly in population. Both towns are alike wide awake, 
however, and are situate in rich and well lying lands. 

Some of the Later Pioneers. 

Among the heads of families following the original migrants in Madison, 
were Ebenezer Richards, W. D. Hendren, Elijah Austin, James McLisle, 
Nicholas Goeches, William Godman, J. Gander, John Swisher, William Pat- 
terson, Alexander Cameron, W. W. Kile, James Pearcy, John Cox, William 
Mason, Joshua Glanville, M. Seymour, M. K. Earhart and John Helpman. 

The first postmaster of Canal Winchester was Peter T. Krag, who was 
appointed in 1853 and held office for ten years, bringing him within the 
pioneer limit of office holding. 


This township was erected and organized in 1810. In the first division 
of the county into townships, it was embraced in and formed a small part of 
Liberty. The first settlement was made in 1805-6. 

The Early Settlers. 

In 1806 Robert Taylor with his family, a part of which consisted of 
five stalwart sons, Abiather, Vinton, Matthew, James and David, removed — 

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or rather were driven out of Nova Scotia and their property confiscated be- 
cause they took the side of the Colonists in the war of the Revolution, and 
Isuided at Chillicothe. In 1808 they came to Truro township, locating on 
Walnut creek. 

- * Preceding Pioneers, 

They found ten families, who had preceded them into the wilderness, 
three years previously, namely: Thomas Palmer, from the state of Maine; 
John Medford, Charles Medford, George Powell and Charles Chancy from 
Pennsylvania. In 1806 had come John Edgar and John Lynch from Penn- 
sylvania; and William and Benjain Connell from Virginia. John Long, a 
Nova Scotian, came in 1807, and in 1808 Robert Wilson from Pennsylvania, 
8uid Daniel Ross and a large family of sons from Nova Scotia; Zachariah 
Paul, of Virginia, and William Thompson of Pennsylvania, came in 1811; 
John Cambridge, of Pennsylvania, and Captain John Hanson, of Virginia, 
in 1812, and Elias Chester and Jeremiah Nay, of New York state, in 1814. 
When the township was organized in 1810, the head of the Taylor family 
had the pleasure and honor to name the township Truro after his native 
township in Nova Scotia, whence he was driven because of his love for politi- 
cal liberty arid real manhood. 

Reynoldsburg Laid Out 

In 1831 John French concluded to found a town, and so laid out his 
farm into lots, streets and alleys. A young man from Zanesville, named John 
C. Reynolds, had temporarily located at the spot with a small stock of goods, 
and the proprietor of the town unselfishly honored him and his enterprise 
by naming the town Reynoldsburg, whereas a more selfish man would have 
christened it French town. 

In return Mr. Reynolds (afterward Gen. John C. Reynolds) married a 
young lady of the village and became the leading merchant and business man 
of that section of the county. He not only continued his store, but erected a 
steam mill in the town, and later removed to Carroll, Fairfield county, where 
he died in the fifties, a highly respected man. 

At the time that Reynoldsburg was laid out the National Road was being 
pushed westward through Franklin county, and business naturally grew up 
in all directions and of various kinds contiguous thereto. In 1850 the town 
had a population of nearly six hundred. The callous-hearted editor of the Na- 
tional Census for 1900 figured it at three hundred thirty-nine, but in 1908 
there are marks of a revival and it is estimated that the population has again 
reached four hundred. 

Reynoldsburg Incorporated, 

The town was incorporated by act of the general assembly of the state in 
1839-40. The first borough election was held in the fall of that year and 
Abraham Johnston, D. K. Wood, Samnel Gares, John W. Thompson, Mark 
Evans, James O'Kane and Archibald Cooper were elected the first board of 

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Pioneer Mayors, 

The pioneer mayors, elected at the date preceding their names were: 
1840, Abraham Johnston; 1841, Daniel Taft; 1844, Robert Shield; 1845, 
Archibald Cooper; 1846, James O'Kane; 1847-53, R. Shield; 1854-55, J. B. 
West; 1856, Richard Rhoads; 1857-58, J. B. West. 

Among the Later Pioneers 

may be mentioned George D. Graham, John Miller, R. S. Looker, Silas 
Howard, Hiram Sibel, H. M. Morton, William Boyd, C. S. West, J. C. Abbot, 
Jackson Clark, Orin Harris, Ebenezer Richards, Richard Suddick, John Stev- 
enson, James Taylor, John Long, Richard Cartright, Matthew Crawford, 
David Whetzel, Jonathan McComb, Joseph A. Reynolds, Sylvanus Baldwin, 
James Fancher, John Miller, S. Schultz and E. C. Green. 

Pioneer Postmasters. 

Reynoldsburg became a postoffice in 1833 and John C. Reynolds was 
the first postmaster, being g^pointed in 1833, serving for seven years. His 
successors were: 1840, Hiram Sibel; 1842, John C. Reynolds; 1843, E. G. 
Hardesty; 1846, John Miller; 1847, Lewis Sells; 1849, L. P. Rhoads; 1853, 
R. R. Johnston; 1855, John Cookes; 1855, H. E. Miller; 1856-58, John 

Shortly after Reynoldsburg was established, Thomas sold some building 
lots on the National Road near the crossings of the Walnut creek and tlax> 
place took, by common consent, the name Hibemia. No town was laid out, 
however. A postoffice was established in the burg in 1849, and Wm. F. 
Armstrong was appointed postmaster. He held the office until 1857, when 
he resigned and it was discontinued. In 1840 the population of Truro town- 
ship, including Reynoldsburg, was one thousand four hundred thirty-nine; 
in 1850, two thousand one hundred fifty-six; in 1858, two thousand three 
hundred fourteen; in 1900, one thousand eight hundred sixty-four; in 1908 
estimated at two thousand. 


When Plain township was organized in 1810, it embraced fully twice 
and a half as much territory as at present. It was reduced to its present 
limits, five miles square, in 1815 and 1816 when the townships of Jefferson 
and Blendon were erected out of it and organized. It is township 2 of range 
16, on the old time maps of the county, being a part and parcel of the United 
States military lands. 

Revolutionary Soldier Lands, 

The fourth quarter of the township, being the southeast quarter of the 
same was surveyed into lots of one hundred acres each for the benefit of 

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revolutionary soldiers, holding one hundred acre land warrants, which they 
had taken in part as payment for their military services during the war for 
national independence. Upon the presentation of these warrants a patent 
was issued thereon. They were all taken up by the holders of such warrants. 
Quarters one and two of the township, being the north half thereof, were laid 
out in squares or sections of six hundred and forty acres each, and these 
were sub-divided into four quarters of one hundred sixty each and these 
quarters being divided into half quarters or eighths of a section, so that the 
government surveys gave: Section, six hundred forty acres; quarter sections 
one hundred sixty acres; eighths or half quarters eighty acres each. Under 
the land entry laws, they were disposed of to purchasers at $1.25 per acre in 
one or more of these units beginning with the lowest or next above. 

The Woodbridge Patent 

The third quarter of the township being the southwest quarter of the 
township, containing four thousand acres, was patented by the United States 
government to Dudley Woodbridge in 1800. It would appear that Mr. 
Woodbridge had taken out his patent not so much for agricultural purposes. 
The grounds or consideration upon which the patent was issued is not avail- 
able, but presumably was upon a warrant or warrants issued in payment of 
military claims to citizens of Virginia most largely, during or after the close 
of the war of the Revolution. 

One Gallon of Whisky per Acre. 

According to the historical records of the period, Mr. Woodbridge, in 
1802, sold his four thousand acres of land, taking in payment therefor four 
thousand gallons of Monongahela whisky — a gallon of whisky for each acre. 
Nor was this considered as anything but a fair and legitimate business trans- 
action in that day. The deed of conveyance however gave the consideration 
as ''one dollar per acre," th^ price per gallon of whisky on board the flat 
boat at Marietta, Ohio, being one dollar per gallon. More than half the 
business transactions in that day being barter or exchange of goods. The 
scarcity of money in those days made the exchange of commodities, especially 
in large quantities, a necessity. The whiskey was delivered at Marietta be- 
cause that was the western shipping point to the southern and Mississippi 
markets, where it eventually went to the consumers, who paid in cash for 
the smaller quantities, which in turn, going back up stream in cash or money 
exchange reached the pockets of the original barterers. 

Woodbridge, the seller, was later Judge Dudley Woodbridge of Marietta 
noted for his probity and good citizenship and left behind him a name of 
which his descendants were justly proud. The purchaser of the four thous- 
and acre farm was John Huffman of Washington county, Pennsylvania, but 
not even tradition accounts for his possession of the liquor, but the chances 
are that he, as in the case of Woodbridge, took it in trade. He came from 
Washington county to Franklin soon after acquiring the lands and became a 

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prominent citizen. In 1822 he divided the four thousand acres of land among 
his numerous children. 

The First Settler. 

It appears to be a well-settled fact that the first actual settler of Plain town- 
ship was Joseph Scott, who took a lease on a part of the Huffman tract early 
in 1802. It was but a few months later when Adam and Samuel Baughman 
and one or two others came on from Pennsylvania, cutting their way as they 
went, through the thick forests, which they frequently encountered, with only 
a compass for a guide to their destination. Henry Huffman, a brother of John^ 
Thomas B. Patterson and others came within the next few months. Samuel 
Baughman continued to reside in Plain township until he passed oflF the stage 
of mundane existence, which occurred at the beginning of the period of the 
Civil war. He accumulated a competence and made for himself a good name. 

Some Other Early Pioneers. 

Among the other early settlers in Plain, whose names have been ascer- 
tainable after the lapse of more than a century, were Lorin Hills, Jesse By- 
ington, Gilbert Waters, William Yantis, Abraham Williams and Joseph 
Moore, all of whom were the heads of families and the most of them of 
large ones. 

The land was not regarded as first class by the settlers when placed in 
comparison with the rich bottom lands, but this was compensated for by an 
abundance of the best water and the freedom of the locality from the original 
malaria from which the locality was immune. The result was that the pop- 
ulation increased rapidly and by the turn of the half century (1858) it waa 
one of the densely settled portions of the country. 

Plenty of Saav Mills. 

In 1858 there were seven saw mills in the township, but not a single 
flouring mill. Evidently the sale of Plain township lumber was so ready 
and profitable that the people considered sawmills as more valuable commun- 
ity assets than flouring-mills, and so went to the mills in other neighbor- 
hoods for their bread stuflfs. Daniel Kramer erected the first sawmill in 1827, 
and later additional ones were erected by Archibald Smith, Christian Bevel- 
heimer and David Swickard. These sawmills are now, however, but the 
merest reminiscence. Churches of various denominations sprang up in each 
community or quarter of the township, and the people being of a religious 
turn of mind they were well attended, especially the camp-meetings of that 

Early Town Building Attempts. 

In 1826 Lorin Hills and Lester Humphrey laid out a town on the Gran- 
ville road, not far from the present site of New Albany, and named it La- 

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fay^tteville in honor of the Marquise de LaFayette; the plat was recorded, 
but the town was never built, and so far as can be ascertained no building 
lots were sold, and the proprietors continued to farm the town site. ilr. 
Francis Clymer likewise sought to transform his farm into the town of Mt. 
Pleasant, and laid it out into lots, streets and alleys but that was the end 
of the undertaking. 

New Albany Founded. 

In May, 1837, Messrs. Noble Landon and William Yantis laid out the 
present town of New Albany. They were not partners, however. They were 
owners of adjoining farms which lay on either side of what was to constitute 
Main street. They had two tracts laid out and platted as one, but each 
owned, held and controlled the sale of lots on his side of the street. It grew 
into a thriving village; was a good country business point, and still continues 
to be a pleasant and hospitable village. 

Was Duly Incorporated, 

In 1856 the legislature incorporated the town. At the April election 
of that year; the following officers were elected: mayor, S. Ogden; recorder, 
C. S. Ogden; marshal, R. Phelps; councilmen, F. Johnson, J. McCurdy, C. 
Baughman, A. B. Beem and S. Stinson. In 1850 the population of the town- 
ship was one thousand five hundred and sixty-one; in 1858, one thousand 
five hundred and ninety-seven, and the population of New Albany was fifty. 
In 1900 the population of the township according to the United States cen- 
sus was one thousand one hundred and sixty-three, and of the village two 
hundred and twenty- four. In 1908 the township population is estimated at 
one thousand two hundred and of the village at three hundred. The post- 
office at New Albany was established in 1838 and was named Hope, but sub- 
sequently changed to the name of the town. 

Pioneer Postmasters and Other Pioneers. 

Noble Landon was the first postmaster and held the office from 1838 
to 1853. Daniel Horlocker served from 1853 to 1855 and Jacob Ullerj' served 
from 1855 to 1860. Among the other pioneer heads of families who came 
into the township were: John Scott, Simeon Moore, Jacob Thorp, Jacob 
Smith, Thomas B. Patterson, George Wells, Asa Whitehead, John Davis. 
Abraham Williams, Daniel Swickard, Paul Farber, Daniel Hamaker, James 
Carpenter and George Wagner. 


Migrants coming from Pennsylvania in 1799-1800, began the first settle- 
ment in Mifflin township. The first settlers comprised William Read, after- 
ward widely and favorably known as Judge William Read, Wil- 

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liam Simmons, Frederick Agler, George Baughman, Daniel Turney, Mat- 
thias Ridenour and Ebenezer Butler. In the division of the county into 
townships in 1803, this territory was included in Liberty township; when, 
in 1811, MiflSin township was organized, the Pennsylvania settlers selected 
the name for it in honor of Governor MiflBin, of Pennsylvania, with whom 
many of them were personally acquainted. 

The township as organized consisted of one of the originally surveyed 
townships, of five miles square, and was noted on the map as township 1, 
range 17, United States military lands. There were no striking incidents 
connected with the settlement of the township, the inhabitants being of the 
study, industrious Pennsylvania type, who minding their own business and 
not interfering with others, prospered and reared their families, and added 
in all other ways to the steady progress of the entire county. 

An Early Drawback. 

A writer in the '50s, speaking of this township, said that no flouring-mills 
had as yet been erected in the township, although quite a number of saw- 
mills had been put into operation, some of them doing a good business, while 
others met with only indifferent success. Among the very early sawmills 
spoken of, was the Dean Mill, erected prior to 1820, and which passed into 
the possession of Judge Heyl, and also the Old Park's Mill, which was 
erected about the same time. ■ Jp' l'8S5r6„ si sawmill was erected on Walnut 
creek by J. J. Janney, and which later passed to the ownership of J. M. Wal- 
cutt, and another erected by A. Mcllvaine in 1838-39. 

Oahanna — Bridgeport, 

In 1848-9 Messrs. John Clark, Esquire, and Jesse Baughman, Esquire, 
living in close proximity, were mutually inspired to found a town, which, 
mayhap, might sometime grow into a city. Squire Clark, on one side of the 
dividing line, laid out and had platted a town bearing the name of Grahanna. 
Squire Baughman proceeded to lay out and have platted a town which he 
christened Bridgeport, and it became a race as to which name should sur- 
vive — it is Gahanna now. In 1849 Gahanna postoffice was established and 
it still retains a place on the map. Thomas Young was the first postmaster 
serving from 1849 to 1853, to be succeeded by John T. Baughman who held 
the position in 1859. Another postoffice was established at Park's Mill, on 
Alum creek, in 1851. Jeremiah Lasure was postmaster until 1853, and James 
Parks for some eight or nine years. 

A Steady Growth, 

There was a population in 1850 of one thousand and ninety-five in the 
township and one thousand one hundred and forty-three in 1858. In 1900 
the United States census gave the township a population of two thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-three, of which two hundred and seventy-six were resi- 

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dents of Gahsuina. The estimated population of the township in 1908 is three 
thousand one hundred, of which three hundred reside in the village. MiflSin 
thus shows a marked and continuous growth in population greater propor- 
tionally than either of the preceding townships. 

Some Later Pioneers. 

Among the later pioneer heads of families in MiflBin township, were John 
Scott, Stephen Harris, Stephen R. Price, Henry Hawken, Samuel Gillet, 
John Hawken, James Smith, Hugh Ijams, David Beers, James Price, John 
Starret, A. W. Jeffries, Philip Klein. 

Champion Office Holder. 

The champion officeholder in the township in the pioneer days was 
David Beers, who was elected justice of the peace ten times in succession in 
thirty years, his terms of office being three years each. 


There is another of the townships under the original survey of five miles 
square, and which was designated on the original plats as township 1, range 
18, United States military lands. 

Some First Settlers. 

Among the first settlers taking up lands in Clinton were the families of 
Hugh and Robert Fulton, John Hunter, Samuel Elvaire, John Lisle, the 
Hendersons, the Hesses and the Beers. The township was organized as such 
in the year 1811. Roswell Wilcox came into the township in 1814 and 
erected what for a period of many years were known as the Wilcox Mills; 
later they passed into the possession of the father of John James Piatt, the 
poet, and still later passed into the possession of the Messrs. Hess. 

Olentangy Mills. 

These mills were located on Olentangy river or creek, as some preferred 
at that date to denominate it. Further up the creek were the mills of George 
Whips, which also did a large business in producing flour not only for the 
home trade, but for shipm^ent to New Orleans and other southern points by 
way of the Scioto to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 

In 1858 and prior thereto there were three very considerable distilleries 
engaged in the production of whisky, fattening lo^, cattle and the like. 
All these things have disappeared almose wholly. 

The Rhe of Clintonvilh. 

Clintonville rose rather as an acconiinodation than as a town. Mr. Alan- 
flon Bull, a land owner, desiring to accommodate several mechanics in that 

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part of the township,, who were not only poj^sessed of industry, but growing 
families, sold in 1846-7, a number of building lots on the side of the road 
leading from Columbus to Worthington to these industrious mechanics, who 
erected modest but substantial dwellings upon them, and so Clintonville rose 
as a way station between the old town of Worthington and the newly enfran- 
chised city of Columbus. 

A Postoffice Established. 

In 1847 a postoffice was established at Clintonville, and James Ferguson 
was appointed postmaster and was later succeeded by his son, James M. 
Ferguson. The postoffice has been maintained ever since. The favorable 
growth of Clintonville, seems to have moved Messrs. Solomon and George 
Beers to start another town further down the plank road toward the state- 
house, so they laid out and platted lots and the town plat, bearing the name 
of "North Columbus" was duly recorded, lots were sold, houses erected, and 
in the lapse of time North Columbus became a part of Columbus; the plank 
road passed on, the turnpike continued to be and the interurban electric 
cars brought the public square of Worthington and the Statehouse Park in 
Columbus within fifteen minutes of each other, when business was urgent. 

Churches and Cemeteries. 

Mr. William T. Martin writing of Clinton at the turn of the first half 
century of Columbus, says that "there are in this township three churches 
and three cemeteries — a Methodist church and burying place on the Worthing- 
ton Plank Road near the residence of Rev. Jason Bull; another about five 
miles from Columbus on the Lockwin pike near the residence of G. S. Innis, 
Esq., and a church at Clintonville, belonging to the Christian denomination, 
and a burying place three or four miles north of Columbus on the west side 
of the Olentangy." 

There w^re in the township in 1840 a population of nine hundred and 
sixty-nine. In 1850 the population reached one thousand one hundred and 
eighty-six, and in 1858 one thousand two hundred and ninety. The census 
of 1900 gave the population of four thousand three hundred and eighty-five, 
and the present population is conservatively placed at four thousand seven 
hundred and fifty. This is the first township in the order of their organiza- 
tion to maintain a steady and uninterrupted growth. 

Among the Later Pioneers. 

Between 1818 and 1858 the following heads of families were active fac- 
tors in the upbuilding of Clinton township: 

Me«srs. William McElvain, William Drody, John Smith, John Hunter, 
Elam Jew^ett, Aristarchus Walker, Jacob Slyth, Samuel Kinnear, Washing- 
ton Lakins, Truman Skeels, Joseph Pegg, Edward A. Stanley, Eli M. Lisle, 
G. S. Innis and Mos&s Beers. Manv of these names are as familiar in the 

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city and throughout the townships today as they were fifty or sixty years 
ago and in both periods they were the synonyms of good citizenship. 


Blendon township was first named Harrison but later changed to Blen- 
don, as explained further along. The original Harrison township hitherto 
described having most largely been stricken off Franklin coimty in the form- 
ation of Pickaway, in 1810, the remaining part of it was included in the- 
townships of Hamilton and Madison. In 1825, however, the county com- 
missioner changed the name of Harrison to Blendon responsive to the gen- 
erally expressed desire of the inhabitants to have the change made. The 
township, as set off consisted of one originally surveyed five mile square town- 
ship and designated as township number 2, range 17, United States military 
lands. The section of the county embracing this township, for some reason, 
which at this instance is not exsujtly clear, was not opened to settlement as 
early as most of the other townships and localities. 

Two First Settlers, 

The two first settlers in Blendon were Edward Phelps and Isaac Gris- 
wold, natives of Windsor, Connecticut, who came into Franklin county in 
1806, to make preparations for the coming of their families. It is related 
that Mr. Phelps was the first white man to chop down a tree in the townshipr 
He was well advanced in years when he came to the new country, having 
been bom in 1759, and participated in the war of the Revolution when a 
young man. He died in 1840 in his eighty-first year. His comrade, Isaac 
Griswold, lived until about the beginning of the Civil war. 

Some Later Comers, 

In 1808 several other Connecticut emigrants with their families came to 
Blendon and joined the two original pioneers. These included Goerge Os- 
born and Ethan Palmer from Windsor, and Francis Olmsted of Simsbury, 
Connecticut and his family of sons, of whom was the later General Philo H. 
Olmsted, one of the most prominent among the earlier mayors of Columbus. 

Connecticut Emigrants, 

Almost simultaneously with these Connecticut emigrants, there arrived 
Cruger Wright, John Mattoon and Reuben Carpenter from faraway Ver- 
mont; Henry Hane from Pennsylvania; and Isaac Harrison and John and 
William Cooper from the state of Virginia. A year or two later came Captain 
John Bishop, Timothy Lee, Gideon W. Hart, the Westervelts and others whose 
names cannot be recalled. 

Two Towns Founded, 

Two towns were laid out in the township, one in 1839 and the other 
in 1849. The present flourishing town of Westerville, the seat of Otterbien 

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College, was laid out by Matthew Westervelt, and the popular pronuncia- 
tion of the name seems to have been bestowed on it. The second town to be 
laid out was Amalthea, a name almost forgotten even in Blendon township. 
It is better known, and has been for half a century or more, as Central Col- 
lege, once a far-famed seat of learning now a quaint and picturesque village, 
such as one sees in dim outline in reading many of the classic narrations. 
It was laid out under the direction of the board of trustees of Central College 
on the lands of Mr. Timothy Lee in 1949. 

Three Postoffices Established, 

In 1858 there were three postoffices in the township. They were Blen- 
don Four Corners, first called Harrison, established in 1824, the name of 
the township then being Harrison as already stated. In 1825 the name of 
the township was changed from Harrison to Blendon, and the postoffice was 
renamed Blendon Cross Roads or Four Corners. The second postoffice was 
established in 1841, and named Blendon Institute. A year later it was 
changed to Central College. The third was Westerville, established in 1846, 
the name remaining unchanged. The town has kept fully abreast the minor 
municipalties at all times, and for a quarter of a century or more has led 
the procession. 

The Pioneer Postmasters. 

The first postmaster at Blendon Four Corners was Isaac Griswold, ap- 
pointed in 1825, and continued by continued re-appointments until 1853, 
when he was succeeded by his son, Cicero Griswold, whose official tenure was 
equally extended. There was but one pioneer postmaster at Central College, 
namely Austin Stibbins, appointed in 1842 and continuing for more than 
a score of years. The first postmaster of Westerville was Jacob B. Connelly, 
appointed in 1846; W. W. Whitehead 1850, followed by William Brush; 
W. W. Whitehead, again, Henry Dyxon, N. M. Hawthorn, James Wester- 
velt and Milton H. Mann who held the office from 1857 to 1860-1. 

Religious Denominations, 

The most prominent religious denominations in Blendon township in 
its pioneer days were old school and new school presbyterians, United Brethem 
and Methodist, all of them possessing their own church edifices and having 
large congregations. 

A Number of Later Pioneers. 

The following were among the pioneers and heads of families between 
1818 and 1858. Gideon W. Hart, Robert Jameson, Abram Phelps, Welch 
Rickey, Jared W. Copeland, Easton Sherman, Randall R. Arnold, Alex- 
ander Arrison, Homer W. Phelps, Thomas J. Alexander, William H. Grin- 
nell, Ezra Munson, Theson Lee, Asa Bills, John Knox and J. L. Westervelt. 

In 1840 the population of Blendon was nine hundred and seventy-two; 
in 1850 it rose to one thousand three hundred and three; in 1858, one thou- 

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sand five hundred and seventy-five; in 1900, it had a population, exclusive 
of Westerville, of two thousand three hundred and sixty; the estimate for 
1908, exclusive of Westerville, is two thousand five hundred and eighty-nine. 
The population of Westerville in 1858 was two hundred and seventy-five; in 
1900, one thousand four hundred and sixty-two, estimated in 1908, one 
thousand six hundred and twenty-one. 


JeflFerson township was established on the 6th of September, 1816. 
It is a regulation township five miles square, township 1, in range 16, Uni- 
ted States military lands. Originally it had been a part of Liberty township, 
and subsequently became a part of Plain until it was detached as stated. 

General Jonathan Dayton's Patent. 

The first settlements were made in 1802-3, the impetus being given by 
General Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, the patron saint of Dayton, Ohio, 
whither he journeyed later. In 1800 General Dayton patented the first or 
northeast quarter of the township and had it platted in lots of one hundred 
acres each, and sold the most of these lots "sight unseen" to a number of 
citizens of New Jersey, who knew nothing of the lands beyond the General's 

Divided the Lots by Lot, 

All the lots, it is said sold at a uniform price supposed to be one dollar 
an acre or one hundred dollars a lot. At all events it is related that after all 
the lots had been disposed of at a uniform price they were drawn by cards 
numbered from one to one hundred. The purchaser of a single lot drew 
one card the purchasers of two or more lots drew a corresponding number 
of cards — sometimes the drawer of two or more cards got two or possibly 
three tracts adjoining or possibly on opposite sides of the quarter township. 
As a rule the lands were of uniform value, and the drawing was quite sat- 

The Pioneers from New Jersey. 

The early settlers of the township in so far as they may now be ascer- 
tained were Daniel Dague, Mosefi Ogden, Peter Francisco, William Headley, 
Michael Stagg, Abraham/ Stagg, Jacob Tharp, Jacob Smith, John H. Smith, 
Jonathan Whitehead, Joseph Edgar, John Kelso, Michael Neiswander and 
Shuah Mann and their families and some of these families reached half a 

Mills, Villages and Postoffices. 

Jefferson township has not yet builded an emporium. In 1853 David 
Taylor surveyed and platted Grahamsville. It became known to local history 
as Taylor's Station. The year previous William A. Smith laid out a town 

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and called it Smithville, but when the locator of postofRces had come and 
gone, it was transformed into Black Lick postoffice. 

Some Pioneer Postrmasters. 

The first postmaster at Black Lick, which became a postoffice in 1852, 
was Thomas McCoUum. In 1856 he was succeeded by C. S. Morris, in 1857 
and Morris, in turn was succeeded in 1857 by Ezekiel Campton, who con- 
tinued beyond the line of pioneer demarcation, and until some time in the 
early '60s. The first postoffice in the township was established at Headley's 
Corners and named Ovid postoffice in 1832, and Dr. Ezekiel Whitehead was 
appointed first postmaster. He held the office four years and was succeeded 
by William Headly, who looked after its afi^airs for something like a score of 

The First Grist Mill. 

Bread was an insistent problem in pioneer days and the man who erected 
a gristmill in a neighborhood was brevetted a benefactor, and put in the 
line of regular promotion. In 1811-12 Jacob Tharp erected and put in oper- 
ation the first gristmill on Black Lick creek. Later on it was more generally 
known as the Somersville Mill and eventually passed into the ownership of 
Thomas R«es. The third or southwest quarter of Jefferson township was 
held intact by the heirs of L. Brien until 1850, when they sold and con- 
veyed it to David Taylor in consideration of ten dollars per acre. It was 
on this purchase that Mr. Taylor laid out the town of Grahamsville now 
known and designated as Black Lick postoffice. 

Midway and Later Pioneers. 

Among the heads of families who came into and settled in Jefferson 
township between 1816 and 1858 were Henderson Crabb, William Dean, 
John Inks, Isaac Painter, Andrew Allison, Gteorge Beals, Michael Nieswender, 
Peter Mills, Jacob Smith, Jr., Charles L. Morris and William S. Armsted. 
The population of the township in 1840 was one thousand and forty; in 
1850, one thousand two hundred and thirty-six; in 1900, nine hundred and 
sixty-four and in 1908 is estimated at one thousand. 


In 1813 when Norwich township was surveyed and established, it ex- 
tended across the river, including what is now the south end of Perry town- 
ship. It should be remembered in this connection that where the county was 
originally divided into townships in 1803, what is now Norwich township 
was a part of Franklin ; and when Washington was surveyed and organized in 
1809, it then constituted a part of that township until the year 1813. 

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The First Village in Norwich, 

No village existed in the township until toward the end of the year 
1853, when the village of Hilliard was laid out by John R. Hilliard. The 
Columbus, Piqua and Indiana railroad now a part of the great Pennsyl- 
vania system was then built and Hilliards station thereon was established in 
the village. Five years after its establishment, Hilliards was described as 
^'quite a small village of probably a dozen families, two grocery stores and a 
postoffice." In 1908, after a lapse of half a century it is a more pretentious 
And business like place — a pretty rural village in a beautiful section of the 
county and in close touch with the state capital. 

Hilliards Postoffice. 

Prior to the establishment of Hilliards, and in 1852, a postoffice had 
been established at Smiley's Comers in the township with David Smiley as 
postmaster. In 1854, the postoffice at Smiley's Comers was discontinued 
by the United States government and a postoffice established at Hilliards of 
which Thomas W. Dobyns was postmaster for a long series of years. 

Gristmills and Swwmills, 

Norwich township did not lack these adjuncts to civilization and prog- 
ress, the Scioto furnishing ample water power. A grist mill was erected on 
the Scioto, about 1843, by Joseph Corban at a point where Samuel Wilcox 
had previously erected a sawmill. These mills were subsequently known as 
Howard's Mills and for a long time did a large business. As early as 1857 
there was a steam sawmill at Hilliards, and two or three others at other 
points of the township. This innovation soon revolutionized the earlier 
lumber business. 

Old Families, 

Among the oldest families at the period of 1850-58 in Norwich and of 
the first comers were those of Benjamin Britton, William Armisted, .Vsa 
Davis, Asa Wilcox, John Hart, Moses Hart, David Thomas, Daniel Buck, 
Ezekial Lattimer, David Smiley, Daniel D. Lattimner and Daniel Bmnk. 
Half a century ago the leading religious denominations in the township were 
Methodists and United Brethern. The Methodists possessed a church of 
their own near the residence of David Smiley, and also held services in two 
or three of the district schoolhouses. The United Brethern held their services 
at the time, at what was then known as Carter's schoolhouse. 

Some Additional Pioneers, 

Among the other prominent early settlers and their families in the town- 
ship were those of Thomas Backus, Ebenezer Richards, Robert Eliott, 
Amaziah Hutchinson, John McCan, L. L. Lattimer, John Weeden, George 

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Black, Miner Pickle, Miskell Saunders, Henry McCracken, Benjamin Sco- 
field, John T. Britton, John Caldwell, James H. Ralston and John Caldwell. 

How He Lived and Died. 

In this township resided a good citizen, Squire Miskell Saunders, above 
named, an intense democrat and the devoted friend of President Andrew 
Jackson. Some Whig neighbors, either in jest or seriously, said that he 
would not want it known after he was dead that he was a Democrat, and 
that it was incompatible for a good Christian to be a member of the demo- 
cratic party. He passed away October 16, 1848, aged fifty-eight, and by his 
direction this inscription was placed on his tombstone which may be still 
seen in the country graveyard. "He died a Christian and a Democrat." 

The population of Norwich township in 1840 was seven hundred and 
thirty-one; in 1850, one thousand and fifty-three; in 1858, one thousand 
one hundred and fifteen; in 1900, one thousand four hundred and eighty- 
one. Of this three hundred and seventy-six resided in the village of Hill- 
iards. The population of the village in 1908, is roundly estimated at four 
hundred, and the township, one thousand five hundred. 


As singular as it may appear at this time, Jackson township for a num- 
ber of yeare enjoyed the distinction of being the backwoods township in the 
county, and the farthest away from any place and all places of any of its 
sister townships. But with the construction many years ago of the Harria- 
burg pike, the Franklin pike, and the Cottage Mill pike, all the inconveni- 
ences were removed, and modern roadmaking has added to its nearness to 
all desirable points and it has grown in population and productions as rap- 
idly as any of the rest of the sisterhood, except in the now extinct Mont- 
gomery township, of course. 

Some of the Original Settlers, 

The township was detached from Franklin, and organized as Jackson 
township in the year 1815, and was so named in honor of General Andrew 
Jackson, who had just covered himself and his country with military glory 
in the battle of New Orleans, or rather on the Plains of Chalamette, below 
the city. Among the early settlers of the town were William Brown, Nicho- 
las Haun, Jonas Orders, William Badger, Woolry Conrad, William Sinnet, 
and the large Branckeridge, Boror, Strader and Goldsmith families. 

Orove City Laid Out. 

There was neither village nor postofRce in Jackson township until 1852. 
In that year William F. Breck laid out the present pretty suburban town, 
the postoflSce of Grove City was established, and Mr. Breck was made post- 
master. In 1857 he was succeeded by Randolph Higgy. 

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Grove City Fifty Years Ago, 

The founder was an optimist, as one must conclude when he scans the 
following description of the city by William T. Martin, for one of the 
Gazetteers of 1858 : 

''Grove City now contains about thirty families, two stores, one tavern, 
one physician, a large school and three churches — a Lutheran, a German 
Reformed and a Presbyterian. The Methodists also hold their meetings in 
the same house with the Presbyterians. Besides these churches there are in 
the township three others of the Methodist denomination; the Hopewell on 
the Jackson turnpike, a wooden building erected some years before, near the 
Shadesville pike, and Hickory Seminary, erected since both the above for the 
double purpose of church and schoolhouse. Rev. Benjamin Britton of Nor- 
wich township used to preach occasionally for the New Lights in Jackson 
and Rev. Chandler Rogers of Perry for the Universalists." 

Jackson township is a fine agricultural section of the county, and its 
rural and village population is of the substantial kind. While it was a lit- 
tle slow in the building of grist and saw mills in the earlier years, as well 
as the smaller workshops which characterize the growth of progressive sec- 
tions and communities, it is now well to the front in all these. 

Growth of Population. 

In 1840, Jackson township had a population of seven hundred and 
eighty-four; in 1850 it had risen to one thousand five hundred and fifty; in 
1858, one thousand six hundred and seventy-five ; in 1900, two thousand two 
hundred and eighty-nine, including the six hundred and fifty-six popula- 
tion of Grove City. The estimated population of the township in 1908 is, 
in round numbers, two thousand five hundred, of which seven hundred is in 
the town of Grove City. 

Some of the Pioneer People. 

Among the heads of families settling in the township prior to 1850 were 
William C. Duff, William Seeds, Jacob Deimer, John Gantz, Joshua Glan- 
ville, Robert Seeds, John Dunn, Isaac Miller, H. D. Mitchell, Isaac White 
and E. C. Brett. 


Prairie was originally set off and organized in the year 1819. Then, 
however, its bounds extended farther north and took in a very considerable 
territor\' which is now an integral part, of Brown township. The whole 
originally was embraced in Franklin township. 

The Three Original Families. 

The three original families in Prairie were the Samuel Higgins, the 
Shadrack Postle and the William Mannon, but these families were in one re- 

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spect, if not in others, put into penumbra, if not wholly eclipsed by the arrival 
of a Virginia family in 1813, these emigrants coming to Franklin county 
via Chillicothe, Ross county, where they tarried a brief season and then came 
up to the higher latitude of the Scioto country. 

Clover Blossoms and Buds. 

In the year last named "The Clover Settlement" was made by Father 
and Mother Clover, sons Peter, Joshua, Jacob, Solomon, Henry, Samuel, 
Philip, John, William and Aaron Clover, and daughters Mary and Jane 
Clover fourteen in all. However, this was not the largest family, perhaps, 
that there was in Franklin county during the first half century of its exist- 
ence, the thing most noted at that period was the great disparity of the SQxea 
—eleven to three. 

Two Pioneer Nimrods, 

Two of these boys, Solomon and Samuel (how suggestive their names 
of other pursuits) like Nimrod, were mighty hunters, or to give it In thb 
more expressive and less Biblical form of expression current in that day, 
they were "Brag Hun-ters," beyond which there are no degrees of compari- 
son. They were extremely fond of hunting, made many excursions into the 
surrounding woods, filled with panthers, wolves, bears, wild turkeys, deer and 
many other kinds of beasts and birds, and they never failed to bring home 
the trophies of their prowess. They never came home empty-handed. Sol- 
omon was especially successful in the chase. He led every competitor in 
the taking of bear, deer and wolves, and that at a time when wolf scalps 
were worth three dollars — equal to about twenty-four dollars today, relatively 
speaking — as a stimulus. 

A Hunter to the Last. 

He lived up to the era of the great Civil war, fond of his gun and the 
excitement of the chase, and when nearing four score, after this section of 
the state was cleared up, he went annually in the hunting season, into north- 
western Ohio where big game still abounded. 

The first justice of the peace elected in Prairie township was Peter Clover, 
and he was noted as the "Just Squire," and there is a Squire Clover in 
Prairie township who traces his lineage back to that model judge of the peo- 
ple's court.. 

Town and Mere Attempts, 

In so far as the building of towns is concerned, there was one success 
and there were two failures in Prairie township. When the National Road 
was constructed in 1836, Thomas Graham laid out the town of Alton, and a 
postoffice was established therein. Shortly after Alton had been founded, 
Messrs. James Bryden and Adam Brotherlin laid out Rome, about two miles 
east of Alton, so that the latter had a very distinguished rival. Competition 

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was lively for a few years, but Alton continued and Rome discontinued. 
Fifty was the high-water mark of its population. 

In 1832, Job Postle laid out and plotted the town of Lafayetteville. 
This town never progressed further than its delineation on paper. However, 
it has produced fine crops of corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, etc., for more than 
sixty years. 

Postmaster and Pioneers, 

The postofiice of Alton is still doing business, and the village itself is 
not a sleepy one. John Graham was the first postmaster, followed by Mervin 
Stiarwalt, David P. Cole, Solomon Putnam, Goodhue McGill and A. W. 
Shearer, who held the office up to the early '60s. 

Among the other pioneers were Francis Downing, Israel P. Brown, Wil- 
liam Stiarwalt, George Richey, Russell N. Grinnold, John G. Neflf, Reuben 
Golliday, Thomas O'Hara, David Howard, Thomas J. Moorman, John Gantz, 
Samuel Kell, Andrew W. Shearer and Smith Postle. 

A local writer in 1855 says "There are three Methodist churches in this 
township; one at Clovers' settlement, and one in the south part of the town- 
ship known as the Henderson church. There is a German Lutheran church 
about two miles north of Rome, a hewed, log building which serves both for 
church and schoolhouse. In this a well conducted German school is taught." 

In 1840 the township had a population of six hundred and six ; in 1850, 
one thousand and forty three; in 1858, one thousand one hundred and 
seventy-two; in 1900, one thousand five hundred and eighty-two; in 1908, 
estimated one thousand six hundred and fifty. 


Two half townships, in acreage, were welded together in 1820, forming 
Perry township, these fractions, bounding on the Scioto are in range 19, 
United States Military lands. Perry township has an extreme length of ten 
miles, north and south, along the meanderings of the Scioto river, and is 
from one to three miles wide according to these meanderings. Originally 
it was a part of Liberty township ; then a part of Washington ; next attached 
to Norwich and in 1820 organized as at present. 

Without a Postoffice, 

Owing to the fact that there were no postoflBces in the township at the 
middle of the century and still later, the residents received their msdl, some 
at Dublin, others at Worthington and still others at Columbus, according to 
proximity. The nearest approach to a town was Shattucksburg, so called 
because of the selling of some building lots by Simon Shattuck which event- 
ually brought several families close together. 

Early Mills, 

In 1813-14 Thomas Backus erected mills on the Scioto, which for a 
time bore his name ; later they were known as McCoy's Mills, then as Matere's 

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Mills and finally Marble Cliff Mills. In 1858 these mills had been success- 
fully operated for forty-five years and continued to do a profitable business 
long afterward. 

Near these mills in early days in, a rocky cliff was a famous den of rattle 
snakes, or rather a series of such dens, which was terror to young and old. 
The snakes disappeared long ago, but no explanation as to the cause of their 
disappearance is vouchsafed by the ancient chroniclers; so also, the records 
are silent as to the number of fatal snake bites. 

Gen, Kosciusko's Perry Toivnship Land. 

There was a body of five hundred acres of land of great historical interest. 
It was patented to General Thaddeus Kosciusko, by the United States govern- 
ment as part payment for his services in the war of the Revolution. Shortly 
after the Revolutionary war this Polish patriot returned to his native land, 
which soon became involved in a defensive war with Russia. Kosciusko was 
appointed to the command of the army of defense and fell defeated and 
severely wounded on the battlefield and was taken prisoner, the poet describ- 
ing the effect of the action in the couplet : 

"Hope for a season bade the world farewell, 
And freedom shrieked when Kosciusko fell." 

Kosciusko was carried to St. Petersburg as a prisoner of war where he 
was detained for a time, then going to France, where he died in October, 
1817. When his death was announced in congress, the gifted General Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, who was a member from Ohio, moved an adjournment 
in honor of the great patriot, and delivered the most brilliant and touching 
eulogy that had ever been listened to in the stately chamber. General Kos- 
ciusko transferred his Perry township lands to others before going back to 
Europe and some defect in the indorsement subsequently led to litigation 
between his heirs and the assignee. 

Leading Perry Township Pioneers. 

Among the leading pioneers of the township were Asaph Allen, Chand- 
ler Rogers, Uriah Clark, Robert Boyd, Amaziah Hutchinson, Samuel S. 
Davis, Jacob Leaf, Richardson Gale, Jr., John Hutchinson, Daniel Beard, 
William Mitchel, John Swisher, Jacob Poppaw, Barzilla Billingsly and 
Isaac Davidson. 

The population of the township in 1850 was one thousand one hundred 
and nineteen ; in 1858 one thousand two hundred and forty-five ; in 1900 one 
thousand six hundred and seventy-six; 1908, estimated, one thousand seven 
hundred and twenty-five. 


The eighteenth and penultimate township organized in Franklin county 
(Marion being the last) was Brown, was organized in 1830; Norwich, Prairie 

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and Washington townships contributed nearly equal amounts of territory in 
its formation. Originally it was embraced in Franklin township. 

The Darby Creek Settlers, 

Along Darby creek, as far back as 1810, or twenty years before the town- 
ship was set off and organized, there were some improvements and a small 
settlement formed. 

These, the original founders of the township, were James Boyd, John 
Hayden, John Patterson, and W. Renier and their families. Other settlers 
came in at intervals until 1825, but they located along the Darby banks, 
until a number of Welsh families came in 1825, and up to 1835 and began 
numerous interior settlements and the township began to show as much 
progress as many of the older ones. 

In 1837 Isaac Hayden erected a saw mill on Darby, and later, when the 
Urbana and Western Railway was in process of building, a steam sawmill 
was erected which furnished the cumbersome railway timbers on which the 
strap iron was laid in that day in lieu of the present steel rails. 

Postoffice Established, 

Darby postoffice was established in 1848 and Joseph O'Harra was ap- 
pointed as the first postmaster and he held the office for ten or twelve years. 
An association of negroes bought a tract of land in the township in 1847, and 
erected a seminary, w^hich, for a time, had a precarious existence. At the 
middle of the century there was a single church in the township and it be- 
longed to the Methodists. The sehoolhouses, however, were open for church 
services to all denominations. 

Pioneer Families. 

Among the other pioneer families in the township were those of Jacob 
Rogers, James Langton, John D. Acton, Paul Alder, William Walker, Henry 
Francis, James Huggett, Chauncey Beach, N. E. Fares, George M. Clover 
and John Kilgore. 

The Population. 

In 1840 the population of the township was four hundred and twenty- 
five; in 1850, six hundred and eighty-one; in 1858, seven hundred and thirty-, 
nine; in 1900, eight hundred and in 1908, estimated eight hundred and 


Marion township was organized February 24, 1873. It lies in a nar- 
row strip in the form of a half bracket, along the eastern line of the city 
(orip^nally Montgomery' townvship) and partially across the northern and 

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southern boundaries almost half encircling the city proper. The township 
was named after William Marion, Sr., who came to Ohio from Boston, Mass- 
achusetts, in 1807, accompanied by William Palmer. In 1807 he married 
Sally Waite, who came from Johnstown, New York, with her father, Jenks 
Waite, in the previous year. He died in 1837 at the age of fifty. William 
Marion in connection with his brother, Nathaniel Marion, owned between 
eighteen hundred and two thousand acres of refugees lands in Truro and 
Marion townships, which they had purchased shortly after their arrival on 
favorable terms. 

First Settlement and Settlers, 

The first settlement was made in Marion along Alum in 1799. Among 
the first settlers were John White and wife. Colonel E. C. Livingston and 
wife of New York, David Nelson, Colonel Frankenburg, an officer of the 
Hanoverian army, George Turner, William Show, William Reed, John Starr, 
Nathaniel Hamlin, John McGown, Andrew Culbertson, William Moobrey, 
Thomas Hamilton, Alfred E. Stuart, David Aultman, Jacob Hare, John 
Wallace and Herman Ochs. 


The population of Marion township in 1900 numbered five thousand 
five hundred and thirteen, and in 1908 it is estimated at something over 
eight thousand, while almost the whole of it is within the assimilating influ- 
ence of the constantly expanding city. 


Montgomery township was organized in 1807 (originally it was a part 
of Liberty township). When organized it was limited to four and a half 
miles square, being half a mile smaller or two sides than the standard mil- 
itary land township. It was the western township in the refugee lands and 
its western boundary was the Scioto river. As has been stated the city of 
Columbus is coextensive with Montgomery township, with recent additions 
on all sides of the township, and covers more than double the area of the 
originally surveyed township. The first settlements within its borders were 
along the banks of Alum creek and to all intents and purposes may be re- 
garded as synonymous with the early settlements of what was later organ- 
ized into Marion township on the east, south and west, and were made in 
1799 and 1800. In 1801 a settlement was made in the northwestern corner 
of the township by John Hunter on the banks of the "Whetstone," the early 
name for the Olentangy river. Soon after Hunter came into that section, 
he was joined by William Shaw, John Starr, Sr., Nathaniel Hamlin and 
John McGown and their families. 

At that time the whole of the present site of Columbus was a dense 
forest and in places a tangled wilderness, inhabited by bears, wolves, panthers 
and other wild animals, and where the statehouse now stands, was the 

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habitant of wild animals. This wilderness was slowly reclaimed, so that in 
a quarter of a century it was the site of a thriving village and the capital of 
a great state. In 1812, it was beginning to show promise of becoming an 
important township, and proudly boasted of the Nelson and Eberly Mills 
on Alum creek that gave the township great prestige, in connection with the 
shops and factories in the town itself. In the district lying south of the state- 
house, and "out in the woods" in the parlance of the day, was N. Gregory^s 
very considerable distillery. In 1843 Messrs. C. Colgate and Julius J. Wood 
purchased it and changed it into a starch factory, which for more than a quar- 
ter of a century was the leading manufactory of the kind in the Ohio and 
Mississippi valleys, and equal to any in the east. The business was con- 
ducted by the firm of C. Colgate & Company for some years and was then 
changed to Clark & Wood, Sumner Clark having purchased the interest of 
Mr. Colgate. The large establishment was destroyed by fire in 1852, but 
was rebuilt on a more extensive scale and continued to do a profitable busi- 
ness after the Civil war. 

Among the earlier settlers in various parts of the township were the 
families of Michael Fisher, John Shields, Michael Patton, James Marshall, 
William Long, Eli C. King, Townsend Nichols, William Richardson, David 
W. Deshler, Thomas Wood, Davies Francis, John Kelly, Warren Jenkins, 
James Cherry, Alexander Patton, J. P. Bruck, Daniel Evans, William Had- 
dock, Nathan Brooks, William Field and John G. Miller. 

Three Offices Abolished, 

Public officers seldom resign and remunerative public offices are seldom 
abolished. But in both cases there are exceptions. The Franklin county 
exception was in the matter of the offices of county collector, county as- 
sessor and judge of the superior court. The two offices first named were not 
only important, but remunerative, taking into consideration the necessary 
qualifications of the incumbent. 

The County Collector. 

This office was created by act of the legislature in 1803. From 1803 
to 1806, the chattel or personalty tax was collected by the township assessors 
and turned over to the county treasurer, while the land tax, both local or 
resident, and foreign was collected by the assessor for the county and by him 
deposited with the treasurer. 

The following persons were chosen to this office during its continuance, 
the date of their selection preceding their names respectively. 1803, Benja- 
min White; 1804, Adam Hosack; 1808, Elias N. Delashmut; 1811, John 
M. White; 1812, Samuel Shannon; 1815, Francis Stewart; 1818, Jacob 
Kellar; 1822, Andrew Dill; 1823, Aurora Buttles; 1824, Peter Sells; 1826, 
Robert Brotherton. In 1837 the office was abolished and the collection of 
taxes devolved on the county treasurer. 

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■ : i-i ^ ^ t v\ Yf >T-i b ; 
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The County Assessor, 

This official fixed the basis of taxation by assessing all forms of values 
upon real, personal and mixed property. Tax values had been ascertained 
by various methods previously, and largely by local or township assessors, 
and special boards provided from time to time, as exigency required. The 
act creating the office of county assessor was passed February 3, 1825. The 
first assessor was appointed by the commissioners and thereafter they were 
chosen at the regular October election. 

The following persons served in that capacity beginning their official 
duties and serving as indicated. 1825-27, James Kilbourne; 1827-35, John 
Swisher; 1835-37 James Graham; 1837-41, William Donigan. The office 
was abolished in 1841 and substantially the former system was revived, 
which, in some respyects, is preserved in the present more elaborate system of 
fixing assessments. 

The Superior Court. 

By an act of the legislature at its session in 1856-7, the superior court 
of the city of Columbus was created having practically common pleas juris- 
diction, and, presumably, for the purpose of hearing and determining cases 
arising within the municipality. The term was for five years, but the court 
was, after a brief period, abolished. 

Two judges of this court were men of distinguished legal abilities. They 
were Fitch J. Matthews and William J. Baldwin. 

Franklin County in the Legislature. 

During the whole period of the state's existence, and the county's organ- 
ization, 1803, Franklin has been represented in the senate and the house of 
representatives, either as an independent constituency, or as a part of a legis- 
lative district. Herewith are given, the names of those legislators, in their 
order of election, grouped in decades for the sake of convenience, and as a 
compendious reference to the more elaborate legislative histories that are 
accessible in the libraries. While the name of each senator and represent- 
ative is given, with the decade in which he served, it by no means follows 
that the terms of his service is given, some served but a single term; others 
numerous terms and some served throughout an entire decade, and into a 
second or even in a third — their names occur only once in each decade when 
it is due to appear. 

From 1803 to 1851 members of the house were elected annually and 
the members of the senate biennially and the original terms being so allotted 
that one half of the senators would be elected at the annual election. But 
under the constitution adopted in 1851, both branches of the general as- 
sembly were made elective biennially, concurrent with the election of the 
governor. Theoretically, there were to be biennial sessions of the legislature, 
but in practice this was not the case, there having been adjourned sessions 
during one-half the period between 1851 and the present. 

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The State Senators, 

The following were the senators during the several decades: 

Between 1803 and 1810. 
Abraham Claypool, Joseph Kerr, Joseph Foos, Duncan McArthup. 

Between 1810 and 1820. 
Joseph Foos, John Barr, Thomas Johnson, Richard Hooker. 

Between 1820 and 1830. 
Joseph Foos, Henry Brown, James Kooken, Joseph Olds. 

Between 1830 and 1840. 
Joseph Olds, William Doherty, Ralph Osbom, Elias Florence, John L. 

^^^- Between 1840 and 1850. 

John L. Green, Alexander Waddell, Joseph Ridgway, Jr., John Chaney, 
Alfred Kelly, Jennet Stutson, William Dennison, Jr., Abraham Thompson. 

The Representatives. 

The following were the representatives during the same period of time: 

Between 1803 and 1810. 
William Chreighton, Sr., Michael Baldwin, Elias Laugham, Nathaniel 
Massie, James Dunlap, John Blair. 

Between 1810 and 1820. 
John Barr, Gustavus Swan, Thomas Johnson, William Ludlow, Thomas 
Moore, John A. McDowell. 

Between 1820 and 1830. 
John R. Parish, David Smith, James Kilboume, George W. Williams, 
Thomas C. Flournoy, Joseph Ridgway, William Doherty. 

Between 1830 and 1840. 
Joseph Ridgway, Philo H. Olmsted, Francis Stewart, M. B. Wright, 
Adam Read, Alfred Kelly, Robert Neil, James Kilboume, John W. Andrews, 
Bulkly Comstock. g^^^^^^ ^g^^ ^^^ jg^^ 

James C. Reynolds, Nathaniel Medberry, Joseph Chenowith, Cornelius 
Crum, Samuel Parsons, Charles McCloud, Joseph Ridgway, Jr., Jeremiah 
Clark, John Noble, Aaron F. Perry, George Taylor, David Gr^ory, James 
M. Dalzell, Elizah Carney, Charles L. Eaton, Wray Thomas. 

Between 1850 and 1860. 

Edward Courtright, Edward A. Stanley, Hiram Henderson, Alexander 
Thompson, George M. Parsons, James H. Smith, Hugh L. Chaney, William 
R. Rankm. Between 1860 and 1870. 

George L. Converse, Benjamin L. Reese, Otto Dressel, John G. Edwards, 
Adin G. Hibbs, J. R. Marshall Col. T. Mann, William L. Ross. 

Between 1870 and 1880. 
Llewellyn Baber, Clark White, William L. Ross, John R. Rickley, 
George L. Converse, John H. Heitmann, John C. Groom, Henry J. Booth. 

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Between 1880 and 1890. 
John C. Groom, Benjamin L. Reese, William T. Wallace, John B. Hall, 
William Bell, Jr., Casper Loewenstein, Allen 0. Myers, Edward W. Young, 
Hugh L. Chaney, William Shepard, Henry C. Taylor, John B. Lawlor, Lot 

^' ^^^^' Between 1890 and 1900. 

John B. Lawlor, Lot L. Smith, Albert D. Heffner, David P. Boyer, 
Philip. H. Bruck, Benjamin F. Gayman, William Felton, Eugene Lane, 
Charles Merion, Jr., Charles Q. Davis, James R. Kilbourne, William Merry- 
man, William M. Payne, E. J. Brackem. 

Between 1900 and 1910. 
Charles Merion, Jr., E. W. TuUer, Ferd H. Heywood, Thomas H. aark, 
E. J. Bracken, John F. McNamee, James A. Cannon, John B. Denune, 
Hiram S. Bronson, Richard R. Reynolds, Carl L. Braun, William Curtis 
Whitney, Hanley R. Jones, George M. Ertley. 

Between 1850 and 1860. 
John Cradlebaugh, Samuel Bartlitt, Alfred Kelly, Augustus L. Perrill. 

Between 1860 and 1870. 
Augustus L. Perrill, George L. Converse, Ansel T. Walling, Robert 
Hutcheson. ^^^^^ ^g^^ ^^ ^gg^ 

Adin G. Hibbs, John G. Thompson, William Miller, Charles Krimmell. 

Between 1880 and 1900. 
Aaron R. Van Cleaf, William T. Wallace, Moses B. Eamhart, Thaddeus 
E. Cromley, Nial R. Hysell, John C. L. Pugh. 

Between 1900 and 1910. 
Edward D. Howard, William M. Thompson, Ballard Yates, Thomas 
Hugh Ricketts, Renick W. Dunlap, U. S. Brandt, Benjamin F. Gayman, 
Alonzo H. Tuttle. 

The Postffice Index. 

The growth of Columbus during the century (1808-1908) is clearly 
exhibited by the annexed comparisons, the terms of the second and third 
period indicating the growth of postal facilities proportioned to the increase 
of population. In 1808 no postoffice existed east of the river. It was located 
west of the river in what is now the west side of Columbus: then designated 
Franklinton. These comparisons are self-explanatory. 
1808, Adam Hosack, postmaster; one clerk. 
1858, Samuel Medary, postmaster; one chief clerk; five additional 

clerks; one messenger and porter. 
1908, H. W. Krumm, postmaster; Francis M. Leonard, deputy post- 
master; seven departments (stamp, mailing box, money order, 
registry, general delivery, special delivery) ; clerks and general em- 
ployes, two hundred and fifty-nine: Carriers, one hundred and fif- 
teen; substitute carriers, eight^n. Number of sub-stations, twenty- 
three. Number of rural free delivery routes, seven. 

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Postoffices in Franklin County, 1908-9. 

Alton, Amlin, Black Lick, Brice, Briggsdale, Camp Chase, Canal Win- 
chester, Clintonville, Columbus Barracks, Dublin, East Columbus, Elmwood, 
Flint, Gahanna, Galloway, Georgesville, Grogan, Grove City, Grovep>ort, Har- 
risburg, Hayden, Hilliards, Leonard, Linden Heights, Lockboume, Marble 
Cliflf, Milo, New Albany, North Columbus, Reynoldsburg, Shadesville, Shep- 
ard. South Columbus, Valley Crossing, Westerville, Worthington. 

Postmasters of Columbus. 

The following persons have been the postmasters of Columbus since the 
establishment of the office on the east side of Scioto. Previously the mails 
had been received at the Franklinton postoffice on the west side of the river, 
which office was discontinued soon after. The figures preceding the names 
indicate the accession of each postmaster to the office successively in their 
order. They were: 

1816, Joel Buttles; 1829, Bela Latham; 1829, William Moody; 1833, Bela 
Latham; 1841, John G. Miller; 1845, Jacob Medary; 1849, Samuel Medary; 
1849, Aaron F. Perrj-; 1853, Thomas Sparrow; 1857, Thomas Miller; 1859, 
Joseph Dowdall; 1860, John Graham; 1867, Julius J. Wood; 1871, James 
M. Comly; 1877, A. D. Rogeis; 1881, L. D. Myers; 1885, DeWitt C. Jones; 
1889, Andrew Gardiner; 1893, F. M. Senter; 1897, Robert M. Rownd; 1906, 
Harry W. Krumm. 

Bela Latham filled a vacancy of less than a year in 1829, and later served 
from 1833 to 1841. In 1849 Samuel Medary filled a brief vacancy covering 
less than a year. The tenure of the office of postmaster partly by law and 
partly by custom, is four years, and the changes mostly follow the election 
and inauguration of a president, all the leading offices, with but few excep- 
tions are filled by the political adherents of the president, who are in sym- 
pathy with his policies whatever they may be. 

The County's Progress in Population. 

The population of Franklin county, beginning with the opening year 
of each decade since 1800, is a striking illustration of the county^s uniform 
progress since its organization or more precisely speaking, pending its organ- 
ization in 1803, while it was yet a part of the northwest territory as wa? the 
rest of Ohio up to the meeting of the first general assembly March 1, 1803. 
The beginning, the growth and the ultimate of the population in one hun- 
dred and six years may be thus stated by decades. 

1800—250. 1810—3,486. 1820—10,172. 1830—14,741. 1840—25,- 
049. 1850—42,909. 1860—50,361. 1870—63,019. 1880—89,797. 1890- 
124,087. 1900—164,460. 1909—250,000. 

An Almost Uniform Growth. 

For the latter year, the population is estimated with the directory of the 
city of Columbus, and the school enumeration of both the city and the county, 

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as the basis for the estimate. It will be observed that while the per cent of 
increase for each decade varies, sometimes going above ten per cent annually 
and sometimes falling below it, the average is ten, and thus conforms to the 
same uniform progress of the city and county along all the other lines of 
activity and progress as has been heretofore pointed out and commented on. 

The County's Progress in Wealth. 

In discussing the progress of the county and the city in wealth there is 
a reliable basis on which to erect the money values of the realty within its 
limits. The county, as now described by metes and bounds, contained orig- 
inally, and still retains, very nearly 327,700 acres. The United States gov- 
ernment itself fixed an original value upon it, to-wit: One dollar per acre, 
so that at the beginning the entire acreage was valued at $327,700. 

A little later when the government advanced the value to $1.25 per 
acre it was worth $415,700 and shortly after that, when the government price 
was fixed a $2.00 per acre for what remained unentered, it may be said to 
have been worth $655,400, or something less than one-fourth of the present 
selling price of one of the ordinary squares in the business district of the 
city of Columbus. 

Nearest the Correct Values. 

In 1830 the agricultural lands were rated at a valuation of $2,065,195; 
the village property at $208,950 and personalty (or as then designated, 
chattels) at $375,155, a total of $2,649,300, which was probably nearer the 
true value of the property of the county than has ever been made since at 
any assessment. 

City and Village Values Increase. 

In 1840 city and village real estate advanced in values more rapidly than 
did the farm lands, and personalty began to mak^ a more important snowing. 
They were at that time, in fact, separated; some 27,000 acres of city and vil- 
lage lands were taken from the purely agricultural lands, leaving to the 
latter 300,000 acres. 

The Half Century Figures. ' 

In 1850, the close of a half century, agricultural lands, were accorded 
a valuation of approximately $5,000,000; city and village realty $6,000,000; 
personalty $4,000,000, a total of $15,000,000. 

In 1890 the valuations were: Farm lands $16,525,370; city and village 
real estate $32,839,610; chattels $18,492,050; a total of $67,857,040. 

In 1900 the valuation of farm lands was fixed at $13,338,400; the city 
and village at $54,385,160; the personalty or chattels at $20,649,560; making 
the total "assessed" values $88,372,720.^ 

At a proportionate increase the totals of these three items in 1908-9 
would be $97,209,992, or in round numbers $100,000,000. 

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But these "assessed" values are fictitious values, made under the shrewd 
idea, or erroneous impression, it is hard to say which, that under valuation 
will reduce fixed charges, which are fixed independent of valuation, to meet 
public expenditures. 

The selling price of lands in the agricultural districts for five years past 
indicate that the real value of the 300,000 acres exceeds $30,000,000, instead 
of falling below $14,000,000. 

The Actual Present Values, 

The actual values of city and village realty as shown by the average 
selling prices for five years, is $190,338,060, instead of $54,385,160. 

The value of personal (chattel) property, including moneys, credits, in- 
vestments in securities, etc., is very much more than the sum of $20,649,560 
placed on the duplicate and is at least $103,000,000, instead of the sum re- 
turned, and the total of the three items properly assessed at their real value 
would stand at $325,000,000 for 1900, and $350,000,000 in 1908-9. 

These are the true values of all the property in the county, and are gen- 
erally so recognized by men of affairs and financial knowledge and experience. 

The mistaken idea that low valuations on property at say 25 or 33 per 
cent of the real value, can effect the fixed charge of annual taxes is responsible 
for the whole system of undervaluation, as though it makes any diflference 
whether the duplicate was $100,000 or $500,000 or any sum above or below 
these when the sum total to be collected was $7,500; $75,000 or other fixed 
sum for specified uses. 

Bad Result of Undervaluation, 

The only effect of the undervaluation is to make the man with $1,000 
assessed against him pay the greatest amount of taxes proportionally. One 
may be generous enough to say, and say truthfully, that neither selfishness 
nor dishonesty has led to his pernicious system of undervaluation and its 
consequent inequalities, and that it is the result of mistaken ideas. But it 
does injustice to municipalities, counties and states, as well as to a large pro- 
portion of their citizens. 

Effects of the System, 

As an instance of the effects of the system, we may point out that if 
the tax rate of the county is three per cent and the sum of taxes to be realized 
is $3,250,000, would it not be wiser to assess all property at its actual value, 
say $325,000,000 and collect one per cent, than to collect three per cent upon 
say $97,000,000. In the ridiculously low valuation the millions are placed 
beyond the ken of the tax collector but the thousands and ten thousand can- 
not escape the inverted optic of the collector. The state or the county possess- 
ing the ordinary advantages, and which can place all real values on the 
duplicate, and thus bring the tax rate to one per cent, the normal under our 

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The house built by Robert Taylor (a refugee from Truro 
Township. Nova Scotia, because he sympathized with the colo- 
nists in the American War of the Revolution) In Truro Town- 
ship. Franklin County. Ohio, in 1807. 

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. re4= NEW YORK 


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governmental system, fairly well administered, will draw men of business 
and enterprise and desirability from all dire<^tions. The reasons are obvious. 

Not Exceptional Cases, 

This county and state are not exceptional in this respect, although it 
is somewhat sharply marked when considered in connection with the ad- 
vance in dl other lines. Taking the duplicate as the test of the growth in 
wealth for the century, it has scarcely been four hundred per cent. In all 
other lines of activity and progress, as well as in all the graces of modem 
civilization, the percentage of advance has in no instance fallen below one 

Discredits the County. 

Men of ordinary powers of observation are fully aware that the pro- 
gressive increase of the county's wealth and property values has not fallen 
behind, but has fully come up to the standard. The undervaluations on the 
duplicate stand to the discredit of one of the wealthiest and most prosperous 
counties in the Ohdo valley, from which only a better and truer system of 
assessment can redeem it. 

The Remedy in Sight. 

Nor is it too much to believe that the remedy will be applied in the near 
future. With no direct tax by the state, and no state board of equalizar 
tion, to make the industrious and well managed counties help bear the tax 
burdens of others less industrious, or less wisely managed, each county can 
afford to put every dollar's actual value, reducing its ordinary tax burden 
to one per cent or less, annually, and then all values will readily come upon 
the duplicate and the tax dodger will be a thing of the past. 



That business activity is not the foe of longevity, is a fact readily demon- 
strable in every mart and business center. That it is the case in Columbus, 
is shown in what follows later. 

Business Men From the 35th to 66th Degree. 

Appended are the names of a number of business men nearly all of 
whom are still active in business, who have been so engaged in Columbus 

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for from thirty-five to sixty-six years. Nor are they bent and decrepit men, 
feeble and slow with lack-luster eyes, looking askance for the Oalerian exe- 
cutioners to smite them ; but men strong of body and mind full of optimism, 
and proper human ambitions and aspirations ; clear of eye and voice and not 
uncertain of step ; abreast the times and interested in all that makes for the 
advancement of the race. 

A Striking Monograph, 

This list by no means comprises all the eligibles in the city, scores of 
others, evidently too bashful to concede the facts and join the procession, 
when the mastering officer of history called them into line. Too modest and 
shrinking, in fact, to have their names and ages enrolled in the state capital's 
centennial annals. The following named gentlemen, however, were young 
enough to remember back to their beginnings, and their names are set down 
in the reverse order: That is to say, the highest degrees appear at the top 
and go down from the highest to the lowest, with the privilege remaining 
over to the reader to follow the Sanskrit and read from the bottom of the 
page upward. 

The Sixty-sixth Degree. 

William Greene Deshler, banker, has attained his distinction. He en- 
tered the banking business as teller of the Clinton Bank at the comer of 
Broad and High, where now stands the Deshler National Bank, founded by 
him and in which he is .still the important factor. He resides at 68 East 
Broad. He has always been a banker at the "old stand." 

The Sixty-second Degree, 

Charles Hardy, banker, became collection clerk of the City Bank of 
Columbus, January 2, 1846; was elected cashier of the Exchange Branch 
of the State Bank of Ohio, January 7, 1856 ; has filled) the position as cashier 
since that date; is cashier at this writing of the Deshler National Bank. 
Residence 46i South Sixth street. 

The Fifty-ninth Degree, 

John W. Brown, manufacturer, began as drug clerk in 1849. Three 
years later he became a railway conductor out of Columbus. Later he en- 
tered manufacturing and is now the head of a manufacturing company for 
the production of vehicle lamp and mill and mine supplies, etc. 

The Fifty -ninth Degree, 

Dr. William F. Schwartz, druggist, is one of the two fifty-niners. He 
entered Denig's drug store in Columbus in 1849. His health failing, he 
took the newspaper cure in 1855, becoming pressman and circulator of the 
Ohio Statesman, under Governor Samuel Medary. After running a hand 

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press for a few years, he was satisfied, if not entirely cured, and again entered 
the drug business in the Ohio drug store. South High; the ScheuUer drug 
store, Rich and High; and the Diess drug store, East Main; and in 1887^ 
founded the well known Schwartz drug store, Fifth and Main streets. He 
retired in 1892. Resides at 492 South Third. If he re-enters business, it 
will be as a fruit grower in Florida. 

The Fifty-fifth Degree, 

Pelatiah Webster Huntington, banker, became clerk in the Exchange 
Branch of the State Bank of Ohio, August 3, 1853, and was elected cashier in 
1856. He is stockholder and officer in various other Columbus banks; 
founded the Huntington National Bank, southwest corner Broad and High, 
of which he is president. He has devoted himself almost exclusively to bank- 
ing since he entered upon the business. Residence East Broad. 

' The Fifty-third Degree, 

Henry Laufersweiler, harnessmaking and grocer, began in the harness 
trade with Burdell in 1855 and followed that line of business until 1864. 
He then engaged in the grocery business on East Main street, continuing 
until his retirement early in 1908. Residence 471 East Main. 

The Fifty-third Degree. 

Henry C. McClellan, books and stationery, entered the business Novem- 
ber 10, 1856, and in 1859 was located at 113 South High. He became a 
member of the firm of Randall, Aston & Company, in 1874. He founded 
the present house of H. C. McClellan & Company, corner of Gay and Highf 
with Frederick W. Flowers as his partner. Residence 321 East Broad. 

The Fifty-second Degree, 

Robert E. Sheldon, wholesale dry goods, entered the grocery store of 
John Mclntire & Company, High and Rich streets, in 1857. He was with 
Dwight Stone & Company, dry goods, from 1859 to 1863 ; with Kelton, Ban- 
croft & Company in 1864; with Miller, Green & Joyce; admitted to the 
firm in 1874. He established the wholesale dry goods house of Miles, Ban- 
croft & Sheldon in 1885 ; founded the present The Sheldon Dry Goods Com- 
pany in 1900; and located its extensive buildings at Chestnut and Third 
streets in 1905. Residence 683 East Broad. 

The Fifty-first Degree, 

Gustavus Patton, bookbinder, stationer and blank book manufacturer, 
entered the business in 1857; has been engaged in the business with short. 

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vacations since. He is president of the Miller Patton Company, binders, etc. 
Residence 569 Franklin avenue. 

Th-e Forty-eighth Degree. 

John Duflfy, of Ireland, came to the United States in 1853, and in 1860 
established an extensive grocery house, where he continued to do a thriving 
business until 1882, when he disposed of the establishment and retired with a 
handsome competence. He resides at 319 East Gay street. 

; The Forty-sixth Degree, 

Louis Link, livery and sales stables, engaged in the business in 1862. 
He has occupied the same site, 21 West Rich street for more than a third 
of a century, and many of his present customers were his clients during the 
period of the great Civil war. Residence 97 West Rich. 

The Forty-sixth Degree, 

Andrew Dobbie, retail dry goods, entered the business (when a young 
Scotchman) as a clerk in the store of Bain & Son, December 1, 1862. He 
entered into partnership with Gilchrist, Gray & Company in September, 1867. 
He became sole proprietor of the business in 1881. Since 1902 he has occu- 
pied the large Osbom building South High, midway between State and Town. 
Residence 691 East Broad. 

The Forty-fifth Degree. 

Walter A. Mahoney, real estate and mortgage loans, from 1863 to 1876 
was engaged in the sale of confections and fruits and other like delicacies. 
In the latter part of 1876 he entered the real-estate and loan business and has 
been very successful. He is one of the prominent business men of Colum- 
bus who takes a deep and active interest in the world-wide peace movement. 
He was a prominent delegate in the recent World's Peace Conference at 
London, England. 

The Forty-fourth Degree, 

Fred Lazarus, clothing and furnishing, entered the store of his father, 
Simon Lazarus, April 1, 1864; has been with the house ever since and has 
been its head since it changed to F. & R. Lazarus & Company in 1878. It 
is now the F. & R. Lazarus Company, located at southwest comer Town and 
High, opposite the site of the firm's great steel building, now in process of 
completion. Residence 1080 Bryden Road. 

The Forty-fourth Degree. 

David E. Putnam, fire insurance and real estate, was bookkeeper for J. 
D. Osborn & Company, from May, 1864, to April, 1875 ; engaged in fire in- 

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surance 1875-6; was cashier of state treasury 1876-8; was with Kershaw, 
Krauss & Putnam, carpets, 1878-80; from 1880 in the insurance business; 
stockholder, former vice president and president of the Commercial National 
Bank; was a soldier in the Civil war; and wounded at battle of Chickamauga. 

The Forty-fov/rth Degree, 

Frederick W. Schueller, druggist, began business at Rich and High, as 
clerk and pharmacist, November 20, 1864, at Schueller's Eagle drug store; 
still in business at the same place. The firm has been: 1856-63, Ernest 
Schueller; 1878-83, F. W. & A. M. Schueller; 1883 to present date, F. W. 
Schueller. Residence 814 Bryden Road. 

Tfie Forty-second Degree, 

Charles Huston, druggist, entered business as proprieor of Huston's drug 
store at 47 South High street, January, 1866; conducted the business at the 
same stand for thirty-six years; and retired in 1902. Residence 46 South 
Monroe avenue. 

TJie Fortieth Degree. 

John G. Drayer, building, cement and stone, entered the business in 
1868 and has been so engaged from that time to the present date. He is vice 
president of the Fish Stone Company. Residence 267 Hamilton avenue. 
t^ • 

The Thirty-ninth Degree, 

Herbert Brooks, banker, entered the banks of Brooks, Butler & Company 
as collection clerk 1869 ; was with the bank until it went into liquidation, and 
later was connected with other financial institutions. Residence 99 North 
Monroe avenue. 

The Thirty-eighth Degree, 

William M. Fisher, commission merchant, entered business April, 1870, 
on South Fourth street; change the present site 122-124 East Town street 
in 1882. Residence 695 Bryden Road. 

The Thirty-sixth Degree, 

Frederick John Williams, tea and coffee merchant, began this business 
in 1872 at the comer of High and Town streets; removed to 19 East Town, 
where the business is still carried on. Residence 1224 Bryden Road. 

The Thirty-sixth Degree, 

James tl. Sells, hardware, harness and saddlery. Began business with 
McCune, Lonnis & Company, April 1, 1872. Changed to 172 South High 
street in 1880. Present business location 32 East Chestnut street. Is pros- 

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ident of the J. H. & F. A. Sells Company, wholesale harness and saddl^. 
Residence 91 Winner avenue. 

The Thirty-sixth Degree. 

Arthur Harris Smythe, bookseller, etc., began business in hardware house 
of P. Hayden & Company, 1872. Later, in the same year, entered the book 
store of Randall & Aston. At present proprietor of the book store in the 
Neil House Block. Residence 242 East Gay. 

The Thirty-fifth Degree. 

Moses M. McDaniel, wholesale groceries, retired in 1907. Entered the 
wholesale grocery business in 1873. Later in the manufacturing business. 
Previous to coming to Columbus, from which date his degree is reckoned, he 
had 30 years' experience in the wholesale and retail mercantile business in 
Roseville, McConnelsville and ZanesviHe, so that his actual degree, uniting 
the two, is sixty-five. 

The Thirty-fifth Degree. 

Fred J. Gottschall, entered the dry goods business in 1873, and was with 
Gustavus Maier for twelve years. For twenty years he was proprietor of a 
dry goods store on South High street. He has, at present, the charge of 
a department in the Dunn-Taft Company, dry goods store. North High street. 

Survivor of Lincoln Electoral College. 

At the November election in 1860, the following persons were elected 
and constituted the electoral college of Ohio, and cast th^ electoral vote of 
the state for Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for president and Hannibal Hamlin 
of Maine for vice president: Frederick Hausaurek, Joseph M. Root, BenjV 
min Eggleston, William M. Dickinson, Frank McWhiney, John Riley Knox, 
D. W. H. Howard, John Kellum, Nelson Rush, Abraham Thompson, John 
F. Hinkle, Hezekiah H. Bundy, Daniel B. Stewart, Richard P. L. Baber, 
John Beatty, Willard Slocum, Joseph Ankeney, Edward Ball