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History and Handbook 

of Indiana 

The Story of the State from Its Beginning to the Close of the Civil War, 
and a General Survey of Progress to the Present Time 


Founder Indiana Magazine of History 

■ ■■ 

A Survey of the State by Counties 

Embracing Specific and Local Information with Numerous Illustrations 


Editor Hyman's Handbook of Indianapolis, Etc. 



f 5^ 

Copyright 1915 

By MAX R. HVMAN, Indianapolis 

All riehts reserved 



DEC 22 1915 



This work, first of all, aims to supply a popular 
need. The rescuing of history from documentary 
sources, the seeking of new facts and the discus- 
sion of debatable questions is a held to which the 
writer has here given but secondary attention, 
the plan of the work being purposely different. 
This plan has been to put into easily available 
form and in the compass of one volume a wide 
range of facts, past and present, that will con- 
vey an intelligent and tolerably complete idea of 
the story of Indiana and the thread of its devel- 
opment on which the facts are strung. 

These facts have been accumulating in pub- 
lished historical material until they are quite suf- 
ficient to tell the story in all its essentials, but 
they are in a scattered form, practically inac- 
cessible except to the student who can search 
them out from the shelves of the larger libraries. 
But few existing works aim to cover the history 
of the State. Of these some are fragmentary, 
some present but skeleton outlines too meager to 
impart much information, and none satisfies the 
repeated demand for a comprehensive reference 
work. If this volume falls short of such ideal, 
it can at least be claimed that it is an advance in 
that direction. 

The prime thing in the history of this or any 
other commonwealth or society, is not a mass of 
detached facts, however picturesque they may 
be in the recital. The chief thing of interest is 
the organic growth and the facts in perspective 
as revealing that growth. Any stage or condition 
is but the "balance of preceding forces," and the 
culminating interest of it all is in the Present, 
which we sadly need to understand better. Willi 
-this idea in view the undersigned, in his author- 
ship of the historical portion of the book, has 
endeavored so to group his data as to convey a 
sense of the chronology and development of 
cause and effect. Those developments since the 
Civil War period have not been traced historic- 
ally, as he would wish, but the general survey, 
dealing with the results of the historic processes 
is. it may be held, the vital thing. 

It may be added, in this connection, that in 

filling out his various chapters, the author has 
drawn freely upon such other writers as have 
standing, especially those who have made especial 
studies of the theme in hand. He has taken 
their reasonable accuracy for granted, and, in 
most instances, accepted them as reliable. The 
aim has been to give credit in every case prop- 
erly calling for it. 

The county sketches, compiled by Air. Hyman, 
with whom this work originated, constitute an 
important part of this work, and the more so, 
because there is a great dearth of comparative in- 
formation giving the relative standing of the 
various sections of the State. This treatment of 
the county units will thus subserve something 
broader than mere local history. 

Not the least interesting feature of this work 
is the numerous maps and illustrations. These 
not only depict conditions as they existed at the 
dawn of the State's history, but will help the 
reader to a better understanding of present-day 
developments; revealing to many for the first 
time, more fully than has heretofore been done 
in any other work, much that is historic and 
picturesque within the borders of Indiana. 

Among the authorities drawn upon by Air. 
Hyman in the preparation of the "Survey of 
the State by Counties," and to whom especial 
credit is due for valuable assistance are Jacob 
Piatt Dunn; Ernest V. Shockley, Ph. D. ; De- 
marchus Brown, State Librarian ; Edward Bar- 
rett, State Geologist; John I. Hoffmann. \- 
sistant State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion ; Amos W. Butler, Secretary State Board of 
Charities and Correction; Eugene C. Shireman. 
Commissioner of Fisheries; Elijah A. Gladden, 
Secretary State Board of Forestry ; Charles 
Downing, Secretary State Board of Agriculture ; 
Gilbert Hendren, State Examiner; Edward A. 
Perkins, President Industrial Board of Indiana, 
and William E. Tuite, Deputy State Statistician. 

To John H. Holliday, Rowland Evans, Guil- 
ford A. Deitch, Henry Stevenson, Hon. William 
I I. Bynum, Hon. Charles L. Henry, Dr. Sam- 
uel E Earp and Merica E Hoagland of Indian- 

apolis, and to Mrs. M. C. Garber of Madison, 
Phil McNagny of Columbia City, Ulysses S. 
Lesh of Huntington, Oscar F. Rakestraw, Editor 
Angola Republican; Howard Roosa, Editor Ev- 
ansville Courier, and Lyman D. Heavenridge, 
Editor Owen County Journal, he is indebted for 
valuable contributions and suggestions. 

Interesting and valuable photographs were sup- 
plied by Addison H. Nordyke, Dr. Morris Al- 
brecht, Bert Weedon and Frank M. Hohen- 
berger of Indianapolis, and William M. Her- 
schell, of The Indianapolis News and Orra Hop- 
per, School Superintendent of Washington 
county, also contributed a valuable collection of 
photographs of historical points of interest. 

The book is from the Hollenbeck Press, and 
with few exceptions all of the engravings were 

made by the Stafford Engraving Company of 
Indianapolis, from original photographs, many 
of which were taken by the W. H. Bass Photo 

The work, as a whole, has been made possible 
only through the generous support given to Mr. 
Hyman in this undertaking by the people of the 
State, whose autographs are herein published, 
and to whom he herewith gives public acknowl- 

This edition is now submitted to the public 
with the hope that it will be found to be useful 
as well as interesting, and that its support will 
necessitate many editions. 

George S. Cottman. 

Indianapolis, Ind., 
December, 1915. 

Corrections and suggestions are invited 
for future editions. Address all commu- 
nications to Max R. Hyman, Publisher. 



A History of Indiana by Topics, Chronologically Arranged, from 

the Beginning to the Close of the Civil War. 

chapter page 

I Preliminary — The French Occupancy of the Wabash 

Valley 9 

II Acquisition of Our Territory — Story of Clark's Conquest 17 

III The Northwest Territory — Civil Beginnings .... 35 

IV Indiana Territory — Beginnings 41 

V The Danger Period — Indian History 57 

VI The New State 69 

VII The State's Development to 1836 83 

VIII The Story of New Harmony 93 

IX Internal Improvement Movements Preliminary to Law 

of 1836 99 

\X An Experiment in Paternalism 103 
XI Other Developments Prior to 1840 107 
XII 1840 to 1850— Conditions and Development During Dec- 
ade Ill 

XIII Period from 1850 to 1860 119 

XIV The Civil War Period 135 


A General Survey of Indiana as Developed 
Since the Civil War. 

XV Conditions Since 1870 — General Survey of Period . 153 

XVI Natural Resources 169 

XVII Manufactures 185 

XVIII Agricultural Advancement 187 


A General Survey of Indiana by Counties with Brief Historical 
Sketches Alphabetically Arranged. 

Population of Incorporated Cities and Towns in Indiana, 1910 . . 454 

Addenda 457 

General Index 461 


Who's Who in Indiana — Brief Biographical Sketches of 
Prominent Men and Women. 


A History of Indiana by Topics, Chronologically Arranged, 

From the Beginning to the Close of 

the Civil War. 



Fundamental Factors: Soil, Climate, Stock 
and National Policy. — A study of the influences 
that have given direction, shape and character to 
the history of Indiana carries the inquirer back 
not only to the beginnings of American history 
in the Mississippi valley, but to more remote 
causes. For example, what is the explanation of 
the phenomenal swiftness (as history goes) with 
which this valley, one great primeval wilderness 
but little more than a hundred years ago, has 
progressed to the high tide of twentieth century 
civilization? Obviously, soil, climate, configura- 
tion and natural features of the country, stock 
and national policy are all factors which, col- 
lectively, have wrought results that for expedite- 
ness and inherent energy hardly find an analogy 
in the history of the world. A comparison with 
other continental portions of the globe presents 
some interesting contrasts. The most striking, 
perhaps, as presenting differences imposed by 
the physical basis, is Africa. That vast conti- 
nent, with its more than ten million square miles, 
lying contiguous to the older centers of civiliza- 
tion and itself the seat of the most ancient ones, 
has, until recent times, remained the "dark con- 
tinent," and the invasions of the dominant 
nations have to the present day resulted only in 
a polyglot group of colonies that are practically 

negligible in an estimate of the world's growth. 
Insufficient water supply and vast wastes, tropic 
heat, fell diseases and ineradicable pests have 
been effective deterrents to the successful reign 
of the Caucasian. 

If we consider South America, with its zones 
of climate ranging all the way from the tropics 
of Brazil to the Antarctic sterility of southern 
Argentine, and its fertile soils, capable of sup- 
porting a teeming multitude, we find it, beneath 
the rule of a Latin race, a congeries of minor 
nations that seem forever on the border of an- 
archy. Briefly, the history of South America 
and that of the United States since the settlement 
of the two continents largely illustrates the dif- 
ference in stock. 

Australia, with an area almost equal to that of 
the United States, is little more than one vast 
barren waste, with a fringe of isolated civilization 
strung along part of its coasts. 

Of Asia, we are told by an authority, "owing 
to its great extent from east to west the central 
parts, deprived of moisture, are almost every- 
where deserts, and a belt around the west 
southern and eastern shores comprises nearly all 
that contributes to the support of man." 

This same writer (Charles Maclaren) pointing 
nut the superior natural advantages of the Amer- 



icas as a seat of civilization, maintains that "the 
new continent, though less than half the size of 
the old, contains at least an equal quantity of 
useful soil and much more than an equal amount 
of productive power" ; and he adds that "Amer- 
ica is indebted for this advantage to its compara- 
tively small breadth, which brings nearly all its 
interior within reach of the fertilizing exhalations 
of the ocean." This means that the rain supply, 
which is evaporated from the ocean, reaches 
these interior parts ; the rain supply, in turn, 
means a system of well-supplied streams, and 
they mean, in the first instance, irrigation and 
vegetation, and in the second, natural routes 
of travel and transportation that are a great de- 
termining factor in the distribution of settlers in 
a new country. Apropos to this, if we study a 
hydrographic chart of the Mississippi valley 
showing the numerous streams that ramify far 
and wide from the great "father of waters" and 
its larger affluents, and if our imagination adds 
to these the innumerable creeks that reach out, 
traversing almost every square mile of the coun- 
try, what nature has done for the land in this 
particular becomes apparent. 

Closely correlated with the abundant water 
supply in this favored region is a soil unsur- 
passed in productiveness and a climate which is 
at once adapted to a wide range of vegetation 
and to the stimulation of human energy — a very 
potent factor in the development of civilization. 
For variety of productions useful to man perhaps 
no spot on earth excels the Mississippi valley, 
and this value is enhanced by the adaptability of 
the soil to vegetation that is not indigenous, many 
of our products today being of exotic origin. 
This fertility and adaptability of the soil, says 
Livingston Farrand in his "Basis of American 
History," "must be regarded as among the chief 
contributing causes to the stupendous growth of 
the American nation." 

The stock that peopled our section has, of 
course, been an immeasurable factor in the 
extraordinary development of the country. What 
self-government is in the hands of an untrained 
Latin race is demonstrated by South American 
history. The Anglo-Saxon tide that poured into 
our middle west after the revolutionary war was 
not only the offspring of the most staid and 
substantial race on earth, but it had hack of it 
nearly two centuries of training in self-govern- 

ment. It was a race hardy, independent and 
capable, jealously guarding its institutions and 
the best that it had inherited politically. Above 
all, its individuals were ardent lovers of their 
land and permanent home-makers. Add to this 
a national policy, evolved through the same peo- 
ple, that fostered the settlement and development 
of the public domain along wise line's that had 
been thought out by some of the most patriotic 
and most able statesmen of the age, and we have 
in rough outline the fundamental factors of that 
particular phase of civilization in which our State 
shares. To appreciate well the character and 
meaning of our local history we should consider 
these antecedent causes explaining the larger his- 
tory of which we are a part. A long and interest- 
ing chapter on these preliminaries might well be 
written, but the aim here is to touch upon them 
in a cursory way only, as an introduction to our 
nearer theme. 


Relation of the French to Our History. — The 
French occupancy of the Mississippi valley, last- 
ing nearly a century, or from the time of the 
explorations of La Salle and Joliet till the French 
and Indian war, is for the most part, as a tale 
that is told, with little permanent sequence. This 
is true of the early invasion of the Wabash 
valley, and while French life there, from the 
establishment of the first posts in the first half 
of the eighteenth century till the American in- 
vasion early in the nineteenth, affords a pic- 
turesque and romantic preliminary chapter to our 
history, it can scarcely be called an integral part 
of it, and its influence in modifying our develop- 
ment is scarcely appreciable. The story of 
Indiana as a State is a story of Americanized 
Anglo-Saxon stock pure and simple. The iso- 
lated, straggling French life, little ethnological 
fragments, as it were, left stranded here far from 
their kind, was not strong enough to tincture the 
incoming population with that wonderful French 
race persistence that is notable in Canada, and in 
short time they were incontinently swallowed up. 

It can be said, however, that the previous 
French settlement at Vincennes determined the 
starting point of the American occupancy, and 
the beginning place of Indiana politics. The 
treaty of Greenville, in 1795. secured from the 



Indians, along with certain strategic points on the 
Wabash river and a large tract at the falls of the 
Ohio, for George Rogers Clark and his soldiers, 
the lands adjacent to "the post of St. Vincennes," 
to which the Indian title had already been extin- 
guished. This reservation, which was rather 
indefinite as to boundaries, in turn determined 
the first of the series of Indian purchases that 
ultimately comprised the whole State. By a 
treaty consummated in 1803 William Henry Har- 
rison secured an extension of the 1795 reserva- 
tion, with denned boundaries, that reached some 
fifty miles westward from Vincennes. This tract 
was the first part of the new territory to be sur- 
veyed by the rectangular system adopted by the 
United States government,* and was the first to 
be thrown open for general settlement. This, and 
the existence of Vincennes as the one town in 
the territory that was to be the future Indiana, 
logically determined the location of the territorial 
seat of government and the first center of Ameri- 
can population. 

One great preliminary service that the French 
did for their successors was in the first explora- 
tions of the country. First the professed ex- 
plorers and then the coureurs de bois, em- 
ployed by the fur traders, traversed our streams, 
penetrating to the remoter parts of the virgin 
wilderness, and the maps left us by the old 
French cartographers are not only curious as 
revealing the growth of the geographical knowl- 
edge of our region, but are particularly inform- 
ative as to the location of Indian tribes in those 

French Beginnings. — The exact dates of the 
first French explorations of the Mississippi valley 
are so variable, as given by various historians, 
that it is hardly worth while to give any as really 
authentic. According to the researches of Mr. 
J. P. Dunn, who may be accepted as careful and 
thoroughgoing. La Salle, the first white man in 
this region, probably "traced the entire lower 
boundary of Indiana in 1669-70," by way of the 
Ohio river, and passed through the northwest 
corner of the State in 1671 or 1672. From this 
time until 1679 (still drawing upon Mr. Dunn) 
there was no recorded exploration of Indiana, 
though it is argued that in that interval more or 
less fur trading was carried on in this region. 

See section on Rectangular Survey System. 
- i "Early French Maps," p. 15. 

The portage between the St. Joseph and Kan- 
kakee rivers, where South Bend stands, was first 
used by him in 1679, while in 1682-3 "he was all 
through Indiana and Illinois." Who was the first 
to traverse the Maumee- Wabash route by way 
of the site of Fort Wayne is not recorded, but it 
was probably used by the fur traders at a very 
early date, as the Wabash threaded a rich and 
extensive fur country, besides being one of the 
most direct highways to the Mississippi. The 
first post planted in this valley was Ouiatanon, 
which was a fort as well as a trading post. There 
has been controversy as to the exact location of 
Ouiatanon, but according to Professor Oscar J. 
Craig, formerly of Purdue University, who has 
written a monograph on the subject, it is now 
pretty well established that it stood on "the west 
side of the Wabash river and four miles below 
the present city of Lafayette." The date of its 
establishment is given as 1719 or 1720. Its pur- 
pose was to "counteract the influence of the 
English and to keep ascendency over the In- 
dians." The logic of the location was that at 
this point on the river "the lighter barks and 
canoes that were used in the carrying trade be- 
tween Canada and the southwest . . . were 
changed for larger ones, to be used on the deeper 
waters of the lower Wabash and the Ohio" — the 
same cause, practically, that operated in the lo- 
cating of Lafayette more than a century later. 
The post took its name from the Ouiatanon Li- 
llians, who were located in that vicinity. Ouiata- 
non was garrisoned by the French until 1760, 
when it passed into the hands of the English, but 
there is no mention of any military force there 
twenty-nine years later, when George Rogers 
( lark invaded the northwest territory. Accord- 
ing to Craig, its later history was enveloped in 
mystery. In a way it had been a "settlement" as 
well as a post, and a few French families seem to 
have lingered there until Scott's campaign against 
the Wabash Indians, in 1791, after which they 
betook themselves to other settlements. 

The portage between the Maumee and W'abash 
rivers, where Fort Wayne stands, was an impor- 
tant point commercially and a strategic one from 
the military view. Before the advent of the 
whites it was the site of one of the principal 
Miami towns, called Kekionga, and, according 
to Dillon, the French established a trading post 
there probably as early as 1719. which would 



make it contemporary with Ouiatanon in its be- 
ginning. Subsequently they erected there Fort 
Miamis, which was surrendered to the English 
in 1760. This, in turn, was succeeded by Fort 
Wayne, built by General Anthony Wayne's 
troops in 1794, and the name of which was trans- 
mitted to the present city. 

Vincennes, the largest and most permanent of 
the three French settlements on the Wabash, was 
also long involved in obscurity as to its origin. 
but it is now established by documents unearthed 
in Paris by Consul General Gowdy, that the date 
was 1731. It began as a military and trading post 
and went by various names before it evolved into 
"Vincennes," in honor of Sieur de Vincennes, its 
accredited founder. The life of this isolated' 
Gallic community in the far western wilderness 
for three-quarters of a century, particularly after 
the severance, by the war of 1754-63, of all ties 
with the country whence it sprung, makes a pic- 
turesque and romantic chapter in our history 
which is not without its pathos. For years it left 
its traces up and down the Wabash valley, and 
these are inseparable from the memory of the 
vanished red race, with which it assimilated. 

An old document published by the Indiana His- 
torical Society as "The First Census of Indiana," 
gives the names of the heads of families residing 
at the three French settlements in 1769. By this 
there were sixty-six families at Vincennes, twelve 
at ( Hiiatanon and nine at Fort Miami. 

French Life at Vincennes. — The old French 
life at Vincennes is described at some length bv 
J. P. Dunn in his "Indiana." Like the American 
pioneer life it was rude to primitiveness, in many 
respects, but with many distinctive features. The 
log house or cabin, instead of being laid hori- 
zontally with notch and saddle like the familiar 
American type, was often built by setting the 
logs upright in a trench, like pickets. 

Sometimes grooved posts were set a distance 
apart with horizontal slabs to fill in the interven- 
ing spaces, the ends fitting in the grooves. 
Thatching or strips of bark were often used for 
roofs. There were a few stone houses with 
piazzas. Of the rude furniture usually found the 
conspicuous article was the high corded bedstead 
with its big feather bed and gay patch-work quilt, 
while occasionally in the better families a display 
would be made of a little treasured silverware or 

some ancient heirloom that had come long ago 
from the motherland. They were fond of flowers 
and these usually could be found in profusion in 
their gardens, fenced in by sharpened pickets set 
close together in the ground. Every man, prac- 
tically, was his own artisan, and as there was no 
great skill and perhaps less love of labor the 
home-made articles were few and crude. The 
women, we are told, had neither spinning wheels 
nor looms, and the clothing, half Indian and pic- 
turesque, was a mixture of leather and the 
fabrics brought in by the traders — leggins, moc- 
casins, the capote or cloak, a fancy sash beaded 
by the Indians and a gaudy handkerchief for the 
head being in the sartorial inventory. Their agri- 
culture was primitive and the natural fertility of 
the land was relied upon to obviate the necessity 
for skilful husbandry. Their cumbersome, awk- 
ward plows had a wooden mold-board and, 
drawn by oxen by means of a rope of twisted 
rawhide attached to a horn-yoke, instead of a 
neck-yoke, could turn only a shallow furrow. 
About the only other farm implement was a 
clumsy iron hoe, and their one vehicle was a light 
two-wheeled cart without iron work of any kind 
about it, known as a calache. 

Socially, they were a gay, pleasure-loving peo- 
ple and perpetuated Gallic customs that look pic- 
turesque in the perspective. Marriage was the 
great event and was preceded by the publishing of 
bans and by the betrothal contract witnessed by- 
relatives and friends, while the ceremony was 
celebrated by feasting and dancing that some- 
times lasted for several days. There was the 
charivari and even a so-called Mardi Gras pre- 
ceding Lent, which consisted of dancing and 
feasting and a trial of skill at the cooking of flap- 
jacks. On New Year's day it was the custom 
for the men to go the rounds making calls in 
which it was their privilege to kiss the hostc- 
Sometimes the young men masked on New 
Year's eve and went from house to house singing 
a carol, and a feature of this custom at one time 
was to take with them a cart and receive gifts of 
clothing and provisions, which were afterward 
given to the poor. One of the luxuries we hear 
of. which sounds oddly out of place in the Wa- 
ll ish wilderness, is that of billiards. Hamilton, 
in 1778, wrote that he intended to destroy all the 
billiard tables. 



Music of the French. — '"Father Benedict Jo- 
seph Flaget, the French priest who came to Vin- 
cennes in 1792 and taught the first school in 
Indiana, appears also to have been the first music 
teacher. In Bishop Alerding's chapters on 'Tra- 
dition and History of the Diocese of Vincennes,' 
he says of Father Flaget : 'He also formed a 
class of singing and those of the children who 
had the best voices were exercised in singing 
French canticles. They sang the canticles not 
only in the school and in the church, but also 
while laboring in the fields.' These canticles 
were hymns taken from the Vulgate Bible and 
sung in the services of the churches. They in- 
cluded the Benedictus, the Benedicite, the Mag- 
nificat and the Nunc Dimittis. . . . 

"In the collection of the Charles Lasselle MSS., 
now in the State library, is a copy of a French 
song, entitled "La Guigniolet," sung on New 
Year's eve. The leader sang one or two lines, 
then stopped, and the same was repeated by the 
company. Before retiring a last song was sung." 
— Merica Hoagland. 

The Early Fur Trade. — What may be called 
the first industry of the Mississippi valley, the 
fur trade, was one of such importance commer- 
cially as to be a chief cause of the friction be- 
tween France and England in America prior to 
the French and Indian war. Interest in territory 
for its own sake seems to have been remote and 
secondary, compared with the immediate interest 
in a traffic which contributed to national revenue 
and built up large private fortunes. This applies 
to no locality more than to Indiana, where one 
vast forest teemed with fur-bearing animals. The 
agents of the fur trade were the real explorers, 
and the recorded discoveries of the avowed ex- 
plorers were, doubtless, meager beside the un- 
recorded ones of the men who traversed the 
streams wherever there was a chance of Indian 
trade. At one time during the French regime the 
annual trade at the post of Ouiatanon alone is 
said to have been £8,000, and in the year 1786 
the records of the custom house at Quebec 
showed an exportation amounting to £275,977.* 
One of the early acts of William Henry Harrison 
as governor of Indiana Territory (in 1801-2) 
was to grant trading licenses, the local privileges 
of each trader being defined, and a list of forty 

* Dillon, p. 397. 

of these within the present limits of the State 
has been preserved.* A subsequent list extends 
the trade, as to time, to 1857, before which period 
it had ceased to be "Indian trade." The per- 
sistence with which wild animals continued to 
exist in face of this ruthless war of extermina- 
tion is illustrated by the fact that in the middle 
of the last century, at least a hundred and fifty 
years after the wholesale killing was inaugurated, 
the Ewing brothers, whose trading houses were 
at Fort Wayne and Logansport, are said to have 
amassed about two million dollars at the business. 

The men employed as carriers by the early 
French traders were the famous coureurs des 
bois, a class of half-wild woodsmen which stands 
out picturesquely in history. The business, as 
conducted through the carriers of a little later 
period, is thus described by Dillon : 

"The furs and peltries which were obtained 
from the Indians were generally transported to 
Detroit. The skins were dried, compressed and 
secured in packs. Each pack weighed about one 
hundred pounds. A pirogue, or boat, that was 
sufficiently large to carry forty packs required 
the labor of four men to manage it on its voyage. 
In favorable stages of the Wabash river such a 
vessel, under the management of skilful boatmen, 
was propelled fifteen or twenty miles a day 
against the current. After ascending the river 
Wabash and the Little river to the portage near 
Fort Wayne, the traders carried their packs over 
the portage to the head of the Maumee, where 
they were again placed in pirogues, or in keel- 
boats, to be transported to Detroit. At this 
place the furs and skins were exchanged for 
blankets, guns, knives, powder, bullets, intoxicat- 
ing liquors, etc.. with which the traders returned 
to their several posts.'.' Elsewhere the same 
authority tells us that the articles carried by the 
French traders were, chiefly, "coarse blue and 
red cloths, fine scarlet, guns, powder, balls, 
knives, hatchets, traps, kettles, hoes, blankets, 
coarse cottons, ribbons, beads, vermilion, to- 
bacco, spirituous liquors, etc." How profitable 
the trade was may be gathered from the state- 
ment that the value placed on bullets was four 
dollars per hundred and powder was priced at 
one dollar per pint by American traders. 

" i B, Lasselle, in Indiana Quarterly Magazine of History, 
vol. ii. No. 1. 



Names of the Wabash River. — The name 
Wabash is a relic of the Miami language, which 
has undergone various transformations. In a 
map giving the Indian names of our streams, pre- 
pared by Daniel Hough, and published in the 
Indiana Geological Report for 1882. the name is 
given as Wah-bah-shik-ka. On the later French 
maps it is usually given as Ouabache, with some 
earlier variants. This was the French attempt 
to spell the Indian pronunciation, the ou being 
equivalent to our w. When this, in turn, became 
Anglicized, it still was an attempt at the Indian 
form. At one time the French named the river 
St. Jerome, and it so appears on a few maps, but 
the change was short-lived. Wabi or Wapi, ac- 
cording to Dunn, is an Algonquin stem signifying 
white, and Gabriel God troy, a recent Miami, who 
retained the lore of his race, affirmed that the 
Wah-bah-shik-ka derived its name from the for- 
mation of white stone over which it ran in one 
part of its course. 

White river also retains in part the Indian 
nomenclature, the original name being, as a 
French map gives it, Ouapikaminou, Ouapi sig- 
nifying white. 

Early French Maps. — Among the valued pos- 
sessions of the State library are two large atlases, 
in which are mounted a chronological series of 
old maps of the Americas — Spanish, French, 
English and American, which, covering a period 
of more than two hundred years, reveal interest- 
ingly the growth of geographical knowledge of 
the western hemisphere. Those by French char- 
tographers, of or including the Mississippi valley, 
running from 1616 to the latter part of the eight- 
eenth century, are of special interest as connected 
with the French explorations and occupancv. 
The earliest of these, one by P. Bertius, 1616, 
gives the coasts of the continent in distorted out- 
line, and a very crude knowledge of the great 
lakes is revealed, but all the interior is, of course, 
one vast unexplored blank. Four by Guillaume 
Delisle, dated 1703. 1720, 1722 and 1733 (the 
latter elate doubtful), show the slowly changing 
ideas during that span. In 1703 the Ohio, with- 
out its branches, is given as "Ouabache autrement 
appellee Ohio ou Belle Riviere." It rises in west- 
ern Pennsylvania in what appears to be a good- 
sized lake, called "L. Ouiasont." and. in its upper 
course, flows parallel with Lake Erie through 
what we would now describe as northern Ohio. 

The Illinois and Kankakee rivers (not named) 
have their rise in two small lakes in northern In- 
diana. This and subsequent maps seem to indi- 
cate some knowledge of the lakes of Kosciusko 
county and the belief that the Kankakee was their 
outlet. By 1720 a very fair knowledge of all the 
great lakes, as to relative size, locations and 
shapes, and also of the Mississippi, Ohio and 
Illinois rivers, is revealed. In 1722 the Wabash 
is first given, though very incorrectly, it flowing 
almost parallel with the Ohio, west by south. 
The Ohio is so named in its upper course, but 
farther down is given as "Ouabache." In 1733 
the Wabash (unnamed) is quite different, being 
too far to the west and flowing from the north 
instead of northeast. 

Another chartographer, of 1726, gives the Mau- 
mee and its branches imperfectly, but not the 
Wabash. One of 1742 gives the "Hohio," 
"Oubach" and Maumee (the latter unnamed). 
The former still rises in its lake among the moun- 
tains of western Pennsylvania; the Wabash runs 
almost parallel, rising in a small lake in Ohio. 
As yet there is no indication that the map- 
makers knew of the portage between the Maumee 
and the Wabash. Branches are shown flowing 
into the Wabash from the north and west, but 
not from the south and east. A mountain-like 
elevation is shown in what appears to be about 
the center of Indiana. In 1746 the \\ "abash, given 
with greater accuracy, is first called the "R. de S. 
Jerome," and "F. des Miamis." at the Maumee, 
evidently indicates the old French fort of that 
name. The Kankakee is here given as "Hua- 
kiki." In 1755 White river is first shown, with 
both its branches. M. Seutteri's map of 1720 
(see page 11) is chiefly notable as the best 
one, showing the boundary lines between the 
English colonies and New France and the one 
separating the two great French provinces. Can- 
ada and Louisiana. This latter line, running 
eastward from the Mississippi to the Marvland 
border, cut through Indiana. One rather won- 
ders why the French should continue to make 
maps of the region after its surrender to the 
British, but there are at least three or four after 
that event. J. Leopold Imbert, 1777, first 
shows Fort Ouiatanon, which is marked "Fort 
Francois." and a note at "F. des Miamis" states 
that it was built by the French in 1750. ( "Batit 
par les Francais en 1750." i As this post appears 



on the map of 1746, Imbert's date probably refers 
to the rebuilding of the fort after its destruction 
by fire. It is curious that none of the maps be- 
fore that of 1771, by Bonne, indicate the exist- 
ence of Vincennes. Even as late as 1806 we find 
it absent from that of E. Mentelle, though on this 
map are both "Weauteneau" and "Fort Miami" 
— the latter an anachronism, for before that time 
Fort Wayne had succeeded to Fort Miami. 

Two curiosities among these maps are an Eng- 
lish revision of d'Anville's French map, of about 
the time of the French and Indian war, and a 
German production of 1821. The first has elab- 
orate notes, in which it is claimed that the Eng- 
lish were entitled to the country by early discov- 
ery, they having "thoroughly explored" to and 
beyond the Mississippi as early as 1654-64. In 
the German map the great lakes and the states of 
the northwest territory are strangely distorted. 
Lake Michigan touches Indiana east of its longi- 
tudinal center, and there are mountain ranges 
across northern Indiana and throughout Ohio. 

Geologic Cause in French History. — An in- 
teresting geological story, apropos here, which 
illustrates how remote natural causes may some- 
times enter into human history, is given by Mr. 
Charles R. Dryer, in the Sixteenth Geological 
Report of Indiana (1888). The French in their 
intercourse with the Mississippi valley, as even 
the casual reader of history is supposed to know, 
passed into the interior valley from the basin of 
the great lakes by the rivers of the two systems, 
making the connections over various short port- 
ages at water-sheds where the navigable waters 

of opposite-flowing streams almost met. There 
were six or seven of these trade routes, and one 
of the most direct, with a comparatively short 
and easy portage, was from Lake Erie up the 
Maumee to the point where Fort Wayne stands, 
thence about nine miles by level land to the Aboit, 
or Little Wabash, thence down the Wabash. An 
examination of the map reveals a peculiar nat- 
ural feature at this portage. The St. Joseph and 
St. Mary's rivers, flowing, respectively, from the 
northeast and southeast, unite at the point far- 
thest west, then, as the Maumee, double curiously 
on their previous courses and flow back to Lake 
Erie. The three, presenting a sagittate or arrow- 
head form, reach into the fork formed by the 
branches of the Wabash, thus bringing the waters 
of the two systems almost together at navigable 
points. This odd situation, Mr. Dryer explains 
in terms of glacial deposit, the explanation be- 
ing that vast lobes of ice in the glacial period 
crowding each other from north and east heaped 
up their ridges of morainic matter in such fash- 
ion as to determine the subsequent river valleys. 
In view of this theory it is not fanciful to say 
that the blind forces of nature, long before the 
advent of man, predetermined very definitely the 
little chapter of French history in the Wabash 
valley, and whatever relics of it may have sur- 
vived in our later history. More than that, it 
determined at a later day a very important trade 
route (the Wabash and Erie canal, which fol- 
lowed the Maumee and Wabash valleys) that 
played no little part in peopling and developing 
the Wabash valley. 



From the close of the French and Indian war 
until 1779 the country northwest of the Ohio 
river was under British rule, the occupancy by 
that nation consisting of small military forces 
planted at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia and two 
or three other points along the Mississippi river. 
The invasion of this region and its conquest by 
George Rogers Clark makes one of the heroic 
and romantic chapters of American history. But 
for such a leader in the right place at the right 
time there is little doubt that the vast territory 
in question, now comprising the five great States 
of < >hio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wiscon- 
sin, would not have been ceded at the treaty of 
Paris, following the revolutionary war. England 
wished to retain it as a "buffer" territory to sep- 
arate her Canada possessions from those of the 
United States. In deciding the question it was 
a ca^e where "possession was nine points of the 
law." and we had possession. 

The Situation. — When the American colonies 
were fighting desperately for independence and a 
national future, Kentucky, a province of Vir- 
ginia, was the extreme western frontier. Be- 
tween it and Canada, where the English were 
firmly entrenched, stretched the territory in 
question, a harboring place for savage allies of 
the enemy who repeatedly threatened and terror- 
ized the Kentucky settlements. 

The Need of a Leader; George Rogers Clark. 
— The federal congress was not ignorant of or 
indifferent to this State of affairs in the far west, 
and it probably would, eventually, have moved 
in the matter when less distracted l>v other 
troubles, though how fatal too long delay might 
have been is a matter for guessing. However, it 
is a quite safe historical assumption that tin 
embryo nation was fortunate in having mi the 
endangered territory a man of initiative, states- 
manship, military ability and tremendous resolu- 
tion. This person was George Rogers Clark, a 
Virginian by birth, but a Kentuckian by adoption. 
who, by his strength of character, had become a 
leader in the new settlements, and who knew the 

conditions much more intimately than did the 
government in the east. The elements that come 
into relief when we examine his famous cam- 
paign and its successful outcome are this un- 
erring, fundamental comprehension of conditions 

Reproduction of Portrait of General George Rogers 
Clark. (Property of Vincennes University.) 

and men. a grim will that no obstacle could daunt 
and a sagacity that gave greatness to his leader- 
ship; and for this combination of qualities five 
great commonwealths of subsequent days owe 
him perpetual gratitude. 

Clark's Idea and First Steps. — The idea that 
took possession of Clark was tin- invasion and 
appropriation of the great half-possessed land 
north of the Ohio. I lis purpose was defensive 
as well as acquisitive, for the reasons above given 
— the continual danger of Indian forays ; but the 
difficulty of securing adequate support from the 
authorities made the proposition a hard one, and 




the first step was to create faith in his plans and 
get the support. Like most men who elaborate 
schemes of magnitude he did not wear his heart 
on his sleeve. After the inception of his idea he 
digested it well, but shared it with few, one good 
reason for this being that the undertaking he con- 
templated must, for its success, fall as a surprise 
on the enemy. As revealing at once the slow in- 
cubation of his scheme and his thoroughness in 
preparing the way, as early as the summer of 
1777 he sent two spies into the northern territory 
for the purpose of gathering more explicit infor- 
mation concerning the British in relation to the 
Indians. His plans finally thought out, his next 
move was to bring them before the powers that 
could give the necessary authority and backing, 
and to this end he went to Virginia, where he 
conferred with such men as Patrick Henry, then 
governor of Virginia ; Thomas Jefferson, George 
Mason and George Wythe. The boldness of 
Clark's scheme captivated while it challenged 
doubts. The hazard and chances of disaster were 
great, but the possible benefits to the country in 
the future, aside from the present question of 
annoyance and danger to the Kentucky Country, 
after careful consideration, outweighed the risk, 
and in the end the Council of Virginia advised 
the appropriation of £1,200 for the purpose of an 
"expedition against Kaskaskia," to be undertaken 
"with as little delay and as much secrecy as pos- 
sible." This advice was acted upon by Governor 
Henry, and Clark was authorized to raise a force 
of three hundred and fifty men for the campaign. 
Authority From Virginia; Letters of In- 
struction. — At this point the adventure takes on 
a truly dramatic character. With a view to the 
secrecy necessary to the hopefulness of the enter- 
prise, a set of instructions which was made pub- 
lic, the aim of which was "to divert attention 
from the real object," commanded Colonel Clark 
to enlist seven companies of men to act as militia ; 
the further language of the instructions convey- 
ing the idea that the purpose was for the pro- 
tection of Kentucky. Lender cover of this bogus 
publication Clark received from Governor Henry 
a private letter of instructions which read as 
follows : 

Virginia, Set. 

In Council, Wmsburg, Jany 2d, 1778. 
Lieut. Colonel George Rogers Clark : 

You are to proceed with all convenient speed to raise 
seven companies of soldiers to consist of fifty men each, 

officered in the usual manner and armed most properly 
for the enterprise, and with this force attack the Brit- 
ish post at Kaskasky. 

It is conjectured that there are many pieces of can- 
non and military stores to considerable amount [?] at 
that place, the taking and preservation of which would 
be a valuable acquisition to the State. If you are so 
fortunate, therefore, as to succeed in your expectation 
you will take every possible measure to secure the ar- 
tillery and stores and whatever may advantage the 

For the transportation of the troops, provisions, etc., 
down the Ohio you are to apply to the commanding 
officer at Fort Pitt for boats, etc. During the whole 
transaction you are to take especial care to keep the 
true destination of your force a secret. Its success de- 
pends upon this. Orders are therefore given to Captain 
Smith to secure the two men from Kaskasky. Similar 
conduct will be proper in similar cases. It is earnestly 
desired that you show humanity to such British sub- 
jects and other persons as fall in your hands. If the 
white inhabitants at that post and the neighborhood will 
give undoubted evidence of their attachment to this 
State (for it is certain they live within its limits) by 
taking the test provided by law and by every other way 
and means in their power, let them be treated as fellow 
citizens and their persons and property duly secured. 
Assistance and protection against all enemies whatever 
shall be afforded them and the commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia is pledged to accomplish it. But if these people 
will not accede to these reasonable demands they must 
feel the miseries of war under the direction of that hu- 
manity that has hitherto distinguished Americans, and 
which it is expected you will ever consider as the rule 
of your conduct, and from which you are in no instance 
to depart. 

The corps you are to command are to receive the pay ' 
and allowance of militia, and to act under the laws and 
regulations of this State now in force. The inhabitants 
of this post will be informed by you that in case they 
accede to the offer of becoming citizens of this com- 
monwealth a proper garrison will be maintained among 
them and every attention bestowed to render their com- 
merce beneficial, the fairest prospects being opened to 
the dominions of both France and Spain. 

It is in contemplation to establish a post near the 
mouth of Ohio. Cannon will be wanted to fortify it. 
Part of those at Kaskasky will be easily brought thither 
or otherwise secured as circumstances will make nec- 

You are to apply to General Hand for powder and 
lead necessary for this expedition. If he can't supply 
it the person who has that which Captain Lynn brought 
from Orleans can. Lead was sent to Hampshire by my 
orders, and that may be delivered you. Wishing you 
success, I am, Sir, Your h'ble serv. 

P. Henry. 

One who wishes to enter intimately into the 
romantic story of Clark's campaign should care- 
fully read this letter, as it fixes clearly and 
authoritatively the policy and program of the 
campaign — a program that was carried out with 
little deviation, although Governor Henry in pri- 
vate conversation with Clark implied that his 
written instructions might be construed with a 
certain latitude and discretion. 

Recruiting a Military Force; Difficulties. — 
Thus empowered and provided with money for 
the expenses of the expedition Clark, with char- 



acteristic energy, proceeded to the execution of 
his plans. His first base of operations was a 
western settlement on the Monongahela river 
some distance above Pittsburg, known as Red 
Stone or Red Stone Old Fort. His officers were 
appointed and commissioned to raise recruits in 
western Pennsylvania, Virginia, Carolina and the 
Kentucky country, and in this preliminary busi- 
ness the first serious difficulty developed. It 
must be remembered that the real reason for this 
recruiting was not divulged. Secrecy, be it re- 
peated, was essential to success, and the instruc- 
tions made public by Governor Henry conveyed 
the impression that the force to be raised was for 
the protection of Kentucky. The proposition to 
draw off from other parts of the frontier "for 
the defense of a few detached inhabitants who 
had better be removed" met with an opposition 
that threatened to nip the whole scheme in the 
bud and that probably would have stopped short 
a less determined leader. As Clark himself ex- 
pressed it : "Many leading men in the frontiers 
. . . combined and did everything that lay 
in their power to stop the men that had enlisted, 
and set the whole frontier in an uproar, even 
condescended to harbor and protect those that 
deserted. I found my case desperate — the longer 
I remained the worse it was."* Out of the men 
that Captains Joseph Bowman and Leonard 
Helm had succeeded in recruiting "two-thirds of 
them was stopped," we are told, those that were 
left numbering about one hundred and fifty. 
Clark, however, was not to be thwarted, and 
equipping himself with boats and supplies at 
Pittsburg he put down river with his little force, 
accompanied by several adventurous families 
from the Pennsylvania country, borrowing hope 
from the information sent him that one of his 
recruiting officers, Major William Smith, would 
join him at the falls of the Ohio with nearly two 
hundred men, from the Holston river country, 
in what is now eastern Tennessee. But he was 
doomed to bitter disappointment — a part of one 
company was all that ever appeared of Major 
Smith's two hundred men. 

Military Base at Falls of the Ohio. — At the 
falls of the Ohio, Clark established his second 
base of operations on a long, narrow island after- 
ward known as "Corn Island," that then lay 

above the falls where the Pennsylvania railroad 
bridge now spans the river.* The falls, as be- 
ing the dividing place between the upper and 
lower river, was deemed the logical point for a 
permanent defensive post. Clark's reason for 
settling on the island, at least temporarily, was 
twofold — better protection from hostile bands 
of Indians and the more effective guarding 
against desertion, which danger would probably 
follow the announcement of the commander's 
real plans. The sagacity of the latter surmise 
was not at fault in this, as the sequel showed. 

The settlement on Corn Island consisted of a 
sufficient number of rude cabins built from the 
timber growing on the island, and it took on the 
character of a real "settlement" by virtue of the 
families that had thus far accompanied the expe- 

Early Indiana Types. — From Dillon's History 
of Indiana. 

dition, which were now apportioned ground for 
gardens, and an interesting passage in "Clark's 
Memoir" is to the effect that when word was 
carried back to the people on the Monongahela 
"great numbers moved down," and that this was 
"one of the principal causes of the rapid progress 
of the settlement of Kentucky." 

Clark lingered at Corn Island the better part 
of June, 1778, still hoping to swell his little force, 
but with disheartening results. According to 
William H. English, who is the leading au- 

* Clark's Memoir. 

* The name, which was adopted after Clark's occupancy, seems 
to have been borrowed from a tradition that the first corn in 
that region was raised there. The island is described as a nar- 
row tract about four-fifths of a mile long by five hundred yards 
at its greatest breadth. If it now existed the Pennsylvania rail- 
road bridge from Jeffersonville to Louisville would pass directly 
over it. A heavy timber growth originally protected it from the 
ravages of the river, but with the removal of this protection, it 
gradually disappeared until washed away entirely. Colonel R. T. 
Durrett, of Louisville, did what he could to get that city to pro- 
tect the historic spot, but without avail. 



thority on all relating to this campaign, "it is 
probably a fair conclusion that Clark brought 
with him to the falls about one hundred and fifty 
men ; that thirty-five or forty were added to his 
forces while at the falls ; that he left not exceed- 
ing ten guards on Corn Island and took with him 
on the Kaskaskia campaign about one hundred 
and seventy-five men. It is possible that the 
officers should be added to the number, but it is 
the author's belief that the effective force with 
him in the campaign against Kaskaskia did not at 
any time exceed two hundred, which was cer- 
tainly less than half the number he at one time 

Further Difficulties; Clark's Determination. 
— Clark's own words reveal at once the situation 
and the character of the man. "I was sensible," 
he says, "of the impression it would have on 
many, to be taken near a thousand (miles) from 
the body of their country to attack a people five 
times their number, and merciless tribes of In- 
dians, then allies and determined enemies to us. 
I knew that my case was desperate, but the more 
I reflected on my weakness the more I was 
pleased with the enterprise." 

To quote Mr. English again: "He had en- 
countered unexpected obstacles and disappoint- 
ments from the time his recruiting commenced. 
He had estimated that the complete success of 
his enterprise required a force of five hundred 
men. . . . and here he was with less than 
two hundred. ... It was a turning point, 
not only in his life, but, possibly, in the destiny 
of his country, for if the expedition had broken 
up then who knows what would have been the 
future of the vast territory northwest of the 
Ohio river, or where would have been the present 
boundaries of the United States? . . . He 
realized that inaction was now his greatest dan- 
ger, and that an immediate movement against the 
enemy was the best and only way to hold his 
forces and win success." 

Clark Divulges His Real Object; Attempts 
at Desertion. — It was not until the eve of the day 
set for departure that Clark divulged to his men 
his real object. Fie says: 

"After my making known my instructions 
almost every gentleman espoused the enterprise 
and plainly saw the utility of it, and supposed 

"Conquest of the Northwest." 

they saw the salvation of Kentucky almost in 
their reach ; but some repined that we were not 
strong enough to put it beyond all doubt. The 
soldiery in general debated on the subject, but 
determined to follow their officers. Some were 
alarmed at the thought of being taken at so great 
a distance into the enemy's country, that if they 
should have success in the first instance they 
might be attacked in their posts without a possi- 
bility of getting succor or making their retreat. 
. . . Some dissatisfaction was discovered in 
Captain Dillard's company, consequently the 
boats were well secured and sentinels placed 
where it [was] thought there was a possibility 
of their wading from the island. My design was 
to take those from the island down on our way 
who would not attempt to desert, but got out- 
generaled by their lieutenant, whom I had previ- 
ously conceived a very tolerable opinion of. 
They had, by swimming in the day, discovered 
that the channel opposite their camp might be 
wailed, and a little before day himself and the 
greater part of the company slipped down the 
bank and got to the opposite shore before they 
were discovered by the sentinels. Vexed at the 
idea of their escape in the manner they did, as one 
of my principal motives for taking post on the 
island was to prevent desertion, and intending to 
set out the next day I was undetermined for | a ] 
few minutes what to do, as it might take a party 
several days to overtake [them], and, having no 
distrust of those who remained, the example was 
not immediately dangerous, but might prove so 
hereafter; and recollecting that there was a num- 
ber of horses [belonging] to gentlemen from 
Harrodsburg, I ordered a strong party to pursue 
them, and for the foot and horse to relieve each 
other regularly, and so put to death every man 
in their power who would not surrender. They 
overhauled them in about twenty miles. The de- 
serters, discovering them at a distance, scattered 
in the woods ; only seven or eight were taken. 
The rest made their way to the different posts; 
many who were not woodsmen almost perished. 
The poor lieutenant and the few who remained 
with him, after suffering almost all that could be 
felt from hunger and fatigue, arrived at Har- 
rodstown. Having heard of his conduct [they] 
would not, for some time, suffer him to come into 
their houses nor give him anything to eat. On 



the return of the party the soldiers burnt and 
hung his effigy."* 


The Outlook. — The first objective of Clark's 
general campaign was Kaskaskia and two or 
three minor posts on the Mississippi river within 
the present State of Illinois. The departure of 
the little army of less than two hundred men 
from Corn Island on June 24, 1778. properly 
marks the beginning of a military adventure that 
for reckless courage, heroic performance, good 
luck and great results hardly finds a parallel. 
The force the leader had counted on as necessary 
to success was hardly more than half filled out, 
and the difficulties to be met were an unknown 
quantity, though enough was known to make the 
invasion with the force at hand seem, by every 
probability, a foolhardy adventure. Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia and Vincennes were, or were supposed " 
to be, well fortified points, equipped with troops 
and cannon ; that these English troops would be 
re-enforced by the French inhabitants of those 
settlements was more than likely, and a vet more 
formidable factor to reckon with was the Indians, 
who were numerous about the French towns and 
almost certain to be hostile to the Americans. 
Collectively, English, French and Indians were 
numerous enough to swallow up the little band 
of audacious invaders. Clark's own words, in 
his "Memoir," show that he believed Vincennes 
alone to have contained "near four hundred 
militia, with an Indian town adjoining and great 
numbers continually in the neighborhood." Add 
to all. as an influence on the morale of the sol- 
diers, they were bound for wilderness regions 
"near a thousand miles from the body of their 
country." where in case of reverses, their chances 
for getting back were exceedingly slender. It 
was, indeed, as one historian expresses it. "a 
dangerous and doubtful mission." 

A Spectacular Start. — The appreciation of the 
dangers was doubtless quickened by the very first 
experience of the men as they left Corn Island 
in their boats — that of shooting the falls of the 
Ohio, which was a feat by no means free from 
risk; and as if all things conspired to breed awe, 
an almost total eclipse of the sun cast its weird 

* Memoir. The editorial brackets are in English's work. 

gloom over the visible world while the hazardous 
trip was made down the boiling rapids; which, as 
Clark says, "caused various conjectures among 
the superstitious." 

Whatever the effect on the superstitious, how- 
ever, it nowise deterred the expedition, which 
from the moment of starting proceeded with a 
vigor and celerity that was well symbolized by 
that preliminary rush down the rapids, the jour- 
ney down the river being pushed day and night 
by relays of oarsmen. Fearful of the strength of 
Vincennes and mingling caution with his courage, 
Clark resolved to first attack the settlements on 
the Mississippi river, the reason being that he 
might, in case of reverse, escape into Spanish ter- 
ritory across the river ; or, if successful, he might, 
as he expressed it, "pave our way to the posses- 
sion of Post St. Vincent." The first objective 
point was Kaskaskia, on the Mississippi, in what 
is now Randolph county, Illinois, and in order 
to avoid detection in the approach, the plan was 
to debark before reaching the Mississippi and 
march across country northwestward, a distance 
of one hundred and twenty miles. 

A Wilderness March and the First Success. 
— This plan was carried out. Four days and 
nights of rowing brought them to a point on the 
Ohio below the mouth of the Tennessee river, 
known as Fort Massac, a former French strong- 
hold that had been abandoned. This place had 
formerly been connected with Kaskaskia by an 
old French military road that was now mostly 
obliterated, and this was to be Clark's land route, 
though it seems to have been little better than 
no road. Fortunately, at their debarking place 
they fell in with a party of hunters, and one of 
these was utilized as a guide over the obscure 
trace. As there were no pack horses, the men 
had to carry such impedimenta as was necessary 
to their maintenance on the way. and thus handi- 
capped, suffering sometimes from thirst and hun- 
ger, they marched for six days over a rough 
wilderness country. On the evening of the 
Fourth of July they approached their goal, after 
ten consecutive days of strenuous labor and hard- 
ships, having been without food the latter part 
of the march. They entered the place by night, 
undiscovered, found access to the garrison, which 
"was so fortified that it might have successfully 
fought a thousand men," and without the firing 
of a gun captured town, fort and soldiers. The 



surprise of the garrison was as sudden and com- 
plete as that of Ticonderoga by Ethan Allen, and 
the boldness with which Clark took control of the 
streets of the town cowed the French inhabitants 
utterly. Among the latter the belief had been 
fostered that Americans were little better than 
savages. Nothing short of savage treatment and 
expulsion from their homes was anticipated, and 
the next day a delegation of citizens, headed by 
the priest, waited humbly upon Clark with the 
pathetic request that they be allowed to take 
leave of each other ; that families be not sep- 
arated, and that the women and children be per- 
mitted to keep their clothes and a small quantity 
of provisions. The conqueror diplomatically let 
this fear work for a while, then deftly won them 
over and strengthened his position by the assur- 
ance that they might have all the rights and lib- 
erties of American citizens, further imparting to 
them the news that the king of France had joined 
with the Americans in this war with England. 
As a result of this, Clark tells us, "The scene 
was changed from an almost mortal dejection to 
that of joy in the extreme — the bells ringing, the 
church crowded, returning thanks ; in short, 
every appearance of extravagant joy that could 
fill a place with almost confusion." 

Further Operations on the Mississippi. — 
This was an auspicious beginning for the con- 
quest of the northwest, but it was only a begin- 
ning. Further up the Mississippi were three 
other French settlements — Prairie du Roche, St. 
Philips and Cahokia — that had to be reckoned 
with, and Clark, with characteristic vigor, at 
once despatched one of his officers, Major Jo- 
seph Bowman, with thirty men mounted on 
horses that belonged to the French, to surprise 
those points. Their capture was facilitated by 
a number of the Kaskaskians who had friends 
and relatives at the places named, and who ac- 
companied Bowman, much elated with their 
newly-acquired importance as American citizens. 
The success of this expedition was complete. 
There was no resistance. Possession was taken 
of the fort which had been established at Ca- 
hokia, the principal town, and before Bowman's 
return nearly three hundred additional French- 
men had taken the oath of fidelity to the United 

* Bowman's letter to George Brinker. 

Father Gibault and Vincennes. — These oper- 
ations, which may be regarded as constituting 
the first chapter of Clark's campaign, put him in 
possession of the Illinois country ; but Vincennes 
and the Wabash country were of equal impor- 
tance. From the French priest, Father Gibault, 
he learned that the British commandant there, 
Governor Abbott, had gone with his force on 
some business to Detroit, and this informant, 
who was won over completely to the American 
cause, suggested that with his influence Vin- 
cennes might be secured without even the trouble 
of an expedition against it, his proposition being 
that he go thither as an emissary. The plan 
pleased Clark, and ten days after the taking of 
Kaskaskia, Gibault, a Doctor Lafont and their 
retinue departed for the Wabash post. Arriving 
there, a day or two spent in explaining matters 
sufficed, and the inhabitants repaired in a body 
to the church, there to take the oath of allegiance 
and assume the status of American citizens. To 
further win their confidence, an officer was 
elected from their own number, and the fort was 
garrisoned with the citizen soldiery, under the 
American flag. The report of this success to 
Clark he speaks of in his "Memoir" as "joyful 
news," for he adds, "without the possession of 
this post all our views would have been blasted." 
Subsequently, he sent one of his officers, Captain 
Leonard Helm, to take command of the fort, and 
Captain Bowman was put in charge at Cahokia. 

An Interval of Diplomacy. — The seven 
months intervening between the capture of Kas- 
kaskia and the final march against Vincennes 
seem quiet and uneventful by comparison with 
the more brilliant performances of the cam- 
paign, but during that time Clark was demon- 
strating in another way his eminent capacity for 
the work in hand. The region north of the Ohio 
had to be held as well as captured, and the estab- 
lishing of amicable relations with the French and 
Indian inhabitants were quite as essential as 
spectacular victories when it came to permanent 
possession. The policy observed toward the 
French has already been indicated briefly. It 
was, in the first instance, the cultivation of a 
wholesome fear, by which Clark gained and held 
the ascendency, and, in the second, an exercise 
of justice and friendliness that quite won the 
simple-minded Gallic woodsmen, who had no 
great reason to love English rule. A more diffi- 



cult task was to establish an influence with the 
Indians, who were not only many in number, but 
separated into tribes and distributed over a vast 
territory, and who, in large part, had already 
come under English influence. It was here that 
Clark revealed a sagacity of method that would 
hardly have been possible to one with a less inti- 
mate knowledge of Indian character. In his 
"Memoir" he devotes considerable space to these 
Indian transactions, affording interesting 
glimpses of this sort of diplomacy and of the 
characters of both Clark and the savages. The 
thing that made it possible was the bold inroad, 
the vigor and the decisive successes of the "Big 
Knives," as the Americans were called. The 
French and Indians were closely in touch, and 
the news of the operations at the French settle- 
ments not only speedily traveled far and wide 
through the wilderness, but was made duly im- 
pressive by the French traders, who in this re- 
spect became valuable allies to the conquerors. 
As a consequence, the various tribes, ignorant of 
the invader's real force and apprehensive of his 
power, took the first step toward conciliation, 
and, as we are told, "came in great numbers to 
Cahokia in order to make treaties of peace 
with us."* 

Clark's Mastery of the Indians. — Putting the 
garrison at Kaskaskia in charge of a Captain 
Williams, Clark devoted his time to these treaties, 
which, he says, "were probably conducted in a way 
different from any other known in America at that 
time." The custom had been to conciliate the 
savages with a great display of presents, thus as- 
suming a suing attitude that was often construed 
as fear. Aside from the fact that he had no 
presents to give, that was not Clark's policy. He 
met them with the lordly demeanor of a con- 
queror, and while he observed the elaborate cere- 
monies so dear to the savage heart, he kept his 
ascendency at every turn of the diplomatic game. 
His blunt directness and his fairness had their 
effect, and his perfect fearlessness — a trait that 
is respected above all others by the Indian — made 
him master of the situation. An instance may 
be cited to illustrate this. Cahokia was full of 
Indians from at least a dozen different tribes, 
and Clark privately confesses that he was "un- 
der some apprehension among such a number of 
devils," but if so the "devils" never knew it. 

Soon after his arrival one of the bands laid plans 
to murder his guards and carry him off bodily, 
and the attempt, or its first motion, rather, was 
actually made in the dead of night, but was frus- 
trated by his vigilance. The town was stirred up 
and some of the conspirators caught. Clark, as- 
suming an air of indifference, simply said that, 
as they had disturbed the peace of the place, the 
townsmen could do with them as they saw fit. 


Clark's Memoir. 

Monument Marking the Site of Fort Sackville, Located 
at Vincennes. Captured by Col. George Rogers 
Clark, February 25. 1779. 

but privately he directed that the chiefs of the 
band be arrested and put in irons ; which was 
done by the French inhabitants, thus prov- 
ing their new allegiance. Thus manacled, these 
chiefs were brought to the council day after 
day, but not permitted to speak. Finally, their 
irons were taken off and Clark condescended to 
say to them that, though their conduct deserved 
death, yet he regarded them as "only did women, 
too mean to be killed by the 'Big Knives'." He 



told them that so long as they remained they 
should be treated as squaws, and when they were 
ready to go home, provisions would be given 
them, as women did not know how to hunt ; with 
which he turned from them with contemptuous 
indifference. This drastic humiliation was, per- 
haps, the most scathing punishment that could 
be visited upon an Indian brave, and the agitated 
chiefs tried to approach him with a speech and 
a pipe of peace, but he declined to hear them, 
broke the pipe and told them that "the 'Big 
Knife' never treated with women, and for them 
to sit down . . . and not be afraid." 

The next move astonished even Clark. After 
a "most lamentable speech." two young braves 
of the band were offered to be put to death as 
an atonement for the guilt of all. Of this in- 
cident Clark quaintly says : "It would have sur- 
prised you to have seen how submissively those 
two young men presented themselves for death, 
advancing into the middle of the floor, sitting 
down by each other and covering their heads 
with their blankets to receive the tomahawk. 
. . . This stroke prejudiced me in their favor, 
and for a few moments I was so agitated that I 
don't doubt but that I should, without reflection, 
have killed the first man that would have offered 
to have hurt them."* 

The upshot of this was quite on a par with 
the poetical justice usually observed in fiction. 
Clark ordered the two heroic young warriors 
to rise, greeted them as men, and then and there 
conferred on both of them the degree of chief, 
presented them as such to the French and some 
Spanish gentlemen who were present, and had 
the garrison salute them. 

Following the attempt to kidnap Clark, and 
while the effect upon the other Indians was yet 
uncertain, he simulated the utmost indifference 
to danger, remaining in his lodgings away from 
the fort, apparently without guard, though 
really with fifty armed men concealed in the 
building, and even assembling a number of the 
citizens for a dance the night following the dis- 
turbance, f The result of it all was a vast in- 
crease of prestige, and his reputation as a great 
chief spread far and wide. 

During these treaties at Cahokia, which con- 
tinued through the month of September, 1778, 

* Letter to Mason. 

t Clark's letter to Mason. 

an "amazing number of savages," as Clark ex- 
presses it, attended, some of them coming a dis- 
tance of five hundred miles, and in his letter to 
Mason, as many as ten tribes are specified be- 
sides others included in a general reference. 

Captain Helm at Vincennes. — Meanwhile, 
Captain Helm at Vincennes ably seconded the 
work of Clark by successful treaties with the 
Indians of the Wabash, chief among these being 
the Piankeshaws, whose village was adjacent to 
Vincennes, and whose chief, Tobacco's Son, a 
man of considerable standing in the country, 
proved to be a stanch friend to the Americans un- 
til his death. 


Work Accomplished; Governor Hamilton on 
the Scene. — These and other diplomatic pro- 
ceedings and a few minor events occupied the 
autumn of 1778 and served to very much lessen 
the influence of Governor Hamilton, of Detroit, 
among the Indians. Otherwise it may well be 
doubted whether Clark, with all his capacity and 
resourcefulness, could have held the possessions 
he had gained. But now other troubles were 
brewing. Word had traveled to Governor Ham- 
ilton, of Detroit, of the occupancy of the Wabash 
and Illinois country ; unknown to Clark, he had 
organized a military force for the recapture of 
the lost territory, and now, swooping down by 
way of the Wabash on the feeble garrison at 
Vincennes, he had again planted the British flag 
there. This was about the middle of December. 

An Alarm; Clark's Uncertainty. — The first 
knowledge Clark had of it was in January 
when the alarming report followed him to one 
of the French villages that the British were 
marching on Kaskaskia. The oncoming army 
proved to be a scouting party from Yincennes 
that, on discovery, turned promptly back, but 
it confirmed a suspicion in Clark's mind 
aroused by the fact that for some time he had 
received no word from Captain Helm. It in- 
vested the situation with a new danger. How 
strong a force Hamilton might have he did not 
know, and it was more than probable that a 
march against Kaskaskia would be next in or- 
der. His own position was disheartening. News 
of his success had been sent to the seat of gov- 
ernment in Virginia and he had expected rein- 



forcements, but not even a word in return had 
he received. The term of enlistment of his men 
having expired, and his instructions being silent 
on this and other contingencies that arose he had 
tided over these difficulties by, as he says, "usurp- 
ing all the authority necessary to carry my 
points." But his military force had been de- 
pleted until there were but little more than a 
hundred of the American soldiers, and how far 
the French militia could be depended on when it 
came to a real test was problematical. 

settlements of Kentucky and the whole western 
frontier was contemplated. 

A Critical Situation. — All that Clark had 
done bade fair to be undone, with worse to fol- 
low. To a weaker man it might have looked 
like a lost cause, but Clark's resolution and 
prompt action in the matter is one of the proofs 
of his essential greatness as a military leader. 
His chances of reinforcement from Virginia 
were slight as against the chance of Hamilton's 
army being augmented by Indians to an over- 


1 "- >^^N^ * _ *\ -*<►<>> \ so . ", 

/£ :-\a . 

Hutchins' Map of the Original "Indiana." 1778. This map precedes the organization of Indiana Territory by 
twenty-two years. It covers a considerahle part of what is now West Virginia. (See page 41, for details.) 

A Friend From Vincennes — Francis Vigo. — 
In the midst of this uncertainty as to Hamilton 

and his intentions there hailed fresh from Vin- 
cennes Francis Vigo, a friendly Spaniard, with 
full news of the situation there to the effect 
that Hamilton had an army of six hundred men, 
consisting of British regulars, Canadian French 
and Indians ; that his emissaries were diligently 
at work among the Indians, both north and south 
of the < )hio; that an attack would be made on 
Kaskaskia in the spring (the intervening coun- 
try being considered now too difficult of pas- 
sage), and that a further campaign against the 

whelming force, and to forestall Hamilton and 
surprise him in his stronghold as quickly as pos- 
sible was the coup that presented itself as the 
most hopeful step toward retaining the country, 
lie regarded it as a desperate cause, but, as he 
wrote to Governor 1 tenry, "who knows what for- 
tune will do for us?" The hardships of a march 
at this season, which put it out of the question 
with Hamilton did not daunt Clark and his hardy 

Clark's Swift Action. — Swift on the heels of 
this determination preparations were made for 
the expedition. Clark's own men were with him 



heartily and the French rallied enthusiastically 
to his support and on the fifth of February, just 
one week after the arrival of Vigo with his in- 
formation, one hundred and seventy men left 
Kaskaskia to march, as Clark describes it, 
"eighty leagues through a drowned country in the 
depths of winter," and without even tents to 
protect them from the winter weather. As an 
auxiliary to the campaign a Mississippi bateau, 
or large boat, was laden with army supplies, 
manned with forty-six men and sent by way of 
the Mississippi, Ohio and Wabash to a point be- 
low Yincennes, to connect with the land force 
when it should reach there. 

A Heroic Venture. — This remarkable expe- 
dition of one hundred and seventy men equipped 
with small arms only, against a force at least 
five hundred strong, garrisoned and equipped 
with cannon — this and the culminating assault 
and brilliant victory that forever dethroned the 
British power in the northwest made a fitting 
climax to one of the most romantic chapters of 
American history. The document known as Bow- 
man's Journal, a daily diary kept by Captain Jo- 
seph Bowman, and Clark's Memoir have pre- 
served for us a circumstantial and graphic ac- 
count of the whole enterprise. The march of 
"eighty leagues"* occupied eighteen days. The 
bottomless mud of southern Illinois might, of 
itself, been well considered as impassable by 
Hamilton, but in addition at least thirteen of 
those days, as recorded by Bowman, were spent 
in struggling through water in the form of rain, 
of rivers to be forded, or of vast shallow lakes 
of "drowned" country where the men waded for 
miles, sometimes hip deep. In one or two in- 
stances the water is described as breast deep, and 
one night the ice formed to the thickness of half 
an inch, or more. To find spots dry enough for 
camping places was almost impossible ; as said, 
the troops had no tents to shelter them from the 
rain, and their clothing must have been saturated, 
virtually, during the whole expedition. Clark 
describes their experiences as "incredible hard- 
ships far surpassing anything that any of us had 
ever experienced" — which was certainly saying 
a great deal. That men could have stood such 
fatigue and exposure shows a hardihood that is 

* The distance actually covered by Clark is estimated by the 
late Henry Cauthorne, a local authority of Vincennes, as having 
been from 160 to 1/0 miles. 

almost unbelievable in a more effeminate gen- 

Psychics of the Campaign. — Clark's sagacity 
in keeping his soldiers keyed up psychically, is 
very interesting. "My object now was," he 
says, "to keep the men in spirits. I suffered 
them to shoot game on all occasions and feast 
on it like Indian wardancers, each company by 
turns, inviting the others to their feasts . . . 
myself and principal officers putting on the 
woodsmen, shouting now and then, and running 
as much through the mud and water as any of 
them. Thus insensibly, without a murmur, were 
those men led on ..." A little later, after 
fording and swimming five miles of water near 
the confluence of the "two Little Wabashes," he 
says : "By evening we found ourselves en- 
camped on a pretty height in high spirits, each 
party laughing at the other in consequence of 
something that had happened in the course of 
this ferrying business, as they called it. A little 
antic drummer afforded them great diversion by 
floating on his drum, etc. All this was greatly 
encouraging and they really began to think them- 
selves superior to other men, and that neither 
the rivers nor the seasons could stop their prog- 
ress. Their whole conversation now was con- 
cerning what they would do when they got about 
the enemy. They now began to view the main 
Wabash as a creek and made no doubt but such 
men as they were could find a way across it. 
They wound themselves up to such a pitch that 
they soon took St. Vincent, divided the spoil, 
and before bedtime were far advanced on their 
way to Detroit." 

The Investment of Vincennes; an Audacious 
"Bluff." — The final task of making their way 
through the submerged lands of the Wabash, 
the cumulative effect of the hardships made 
worse by famine, was almost too much for even 
these men of iron, but no leader of a well-condi- 
tioned, overpowering army toward his certain 
prey could have been more cavalier than Clark 
was toward the fortified enemy that, for aught 
he knew, outnumbered him three to one. He 
did not even have the support of the boat with 
its forty-six men, and the little armament of ar- 
tillery that had been sent around by river 
for the boat had failed to make connection. And 
now, with his less than two hundred, tired, half- 
starved riflemen, he boldly invested the post, and 



Historical and Chronological Map of Territory of the United States Northwest of the 
Ohio River. — From Dillon's History of Indiana. 









Falls of St. Mary. 

Head of Green Bay. 


Detroit — permanent settlement founded 


Fori Harrison, built in 1811. 
' I 
< hiiatenot) village, destroyed by Gen. 

Scott in 1791. 
Ponce Passu, or Ponceau Pichou — now 

called Wild Cat Creek. 
Tippecanoe Battle Ground. 
Eel River Indian village, destroyed by 

Wilkinson, 1791. 
Mississinewa villages, destroyed in 1812. 
Little Turtle's Town. 
I. a Balme's party defeated, 1780. 
Fort Wayne, built in October, 1794, 
Defeat of Indians by Wayne, in 1794. 
Fori Defiance, built by Wayne in 1794. 
Mouth of St. Joseph of Lake Michigan 

—Fort built by La Salle in 1679. 
Lake Peoria — -Fort Crevecceur built by 

La Salle, 1680. 
St, Louis, founded in 1763. 
Pittsburgh — site of Fort Du Quesne, 

built in 1754. 
Fort Mcintosh, built in 1777 and 1778. 



24. Fort Harmar, built in 1785. 

25. Massacre of Moravian Indians, 1782. 52. 

26. Battle of Kanawha, 1774. 

27. Fort Washington, built in 1790. 53. 

28. Defeat of Col. Loughrey's party, 1781. 54. 

29. Pigeon Roost Massacre, in 1812. 55. 

30. Falls of the River Ohio. 

31. Site of Frankfort, Kentucky. 56. 

32. Lexington, Kentucky. 57. 

33. Limestone, now Maysville, Kentucky. 

34. Fort Gore, erected by Dunmore, 1774. 58. 

35. Fort Laurens, built in 1778. 59. 

36. Fort Massac. 60. 

37. Old Shawnee Town. 61. 

38. Fort Hamilton, built in 1791. 62. 

39. Fort St. Clair, built in the winter of 63. 

1791-2. 64. 

40. Fort Jefferson, built in 1791. 65. 

41. Fort Greenville, built in 1793. 

42. Fori Recovery, built in 1793. 66. 

43. Falls of St. Anthony. 67. 

44. River Thames. 68. 
River Raisin. 69, 

46. Fort Meigs, built in 1813. 70. 

47. Fort Stephenson, built in 1812. 71. 

48. Capt. John Campbell attacked by Sac 72. 

and Fox Indians. 

49. Battle of Bad Axe, 1832. 73. 

Battle of Blue Licks, Kentucky, 1. 

Site of Booneshorough, Kentucky — fort 
built in 17/ 5. 

Site of Danville, Kentucky — established 
by Virginia Legislature, 1787. 

Wheeling, Virginia, founded in 1770. 

Massacre at Baker's Bottom, in 1774. 

Principal village of Delawares, on White 
River, 1810. 

Mouth of Embarrass River. 

Mission of St. Joseph, visited by Charle- 
voix, in 1721. 

Forks of River Wabash. 

Site of Columbus, Capital of Ohio. 

Site of Indianapolis, Capital of Indiana. 

Site of Springfield, Capital of Illinois. 

Site of Lansing, Capital of Michigan. 

Site of Madison, Capital of Wisconsii 

Site of St. Paul, ( apital of Minnesota. 

Rockfort, or Fori St. Louis, commenced 
by La Salle. 

Site of Fort Chan 1 1 s 


Le Bceuf. 

Y<n mgo. 

Brownsville, or Redstone old Fori 

Site of Cahokia. 

Stockade fort, al mouth of Wabash, 

Site of Loggstou ii. 



by prisoner sent a missive to the French residents 
bidding them choose sides, those who sided with 
the king being further ordered to repair at once 
to the fort and join the "hair-buyer general"* 
(Hamilton), while those friendly to the Ameri- 
can cause were requested to keep out of the 
streets. Subsequently when the chief of the ad- 
jacent Piankeshaw village. Tobacco's Son, of- 
fered the assistance of himself and a hundred 
warriors, it was declined. Yet this was in the 
face of what Clark himself called a "truly criti- 
cal situation, with no possibility of retreating in 
case of defeat." 

In a word, it was a magnificent example of 
what, in modern parlance, is called "bluff," the 
aim being to create an exaggerated idea of his 
force. To strengthen this, as he approached the 
town he took advantage of the topography of 
the country, revealing glimpses of his men at 
certain points and marching and countermarch- 
ing in such a manner as to create the illusion of 
a good-sized army. Time was purposely con- 
sumed this way until dark, when the tactics were 
changed, a circuit made, and the town directly 
approached from another side. 

A Lively Surprise Party; "Fine Sport for 
the Sons of Liberty." — The almost humorous 
part of all this was that while the demonstration 
was going on and the town itself was agog with 
excitement, the garrison gave no sign, much to 
Clark's mystification.. In truth, none of the 
French having conveyed the news to Hamilton, 
he and his soldiers, in blissful ignorance of it, 
were placidly entertaining themselves in various 
ways. Secure in what was virtually an island 
stronghold, moated by leagues of flooded low- 
lands, the idea of an attack like this was as re- 
mote from their minds as a visitation of arch- 
angels from the skies. An unwonted stir among 
the townsmen was noticed, but little attention 
paid to it, and even when the attack on the fort 
was actually begun they thought the shooting 
was by some of the drunken Indians. Clark says 
their first intimation as to the real situation was 
when one of their men was shot through a port- 
hole, while an apocryphal story, worth preserv- 
ing as such, is to the effect that Captain Helm, the 

* This name was applied to Hamilton because of the charge 
and belief that he offered rewards to the Indians for the scalps 
of Americans. 

American officer, now captive, and some of the 
British officers were engaged in a friendly game 
of cards, while a whisky toddy was brewing on 
the hearth, when a rifle ball striking the chimney 
top knocked dirt into the drink. Helm instantly 
guessed at the meaning of the firing and affirmed 
that General Clark had come and was going to 
take the fort. 

This first firing occurred after dark and con- 
tinued throughout the night of February 23. 
The excitement of the occasion keyed up the 
assailants to heroic performance and made the 
assault, as Captain Bowman expressed it, "fine 
sport for the sons of liberty." They had had 
time to dispose themselves about the fort as 
they saw fit, and, protected by houses, fences and 
embankments, where the artillery could not be 
trained on them, they ruthlessly picked off the 
artillerymen through the embrasures till few 
dared stand to their guns. The next morning 
Clark sent to Hamilton a demand to surrender, 
couched in the rather arrogant language of a 
certain conqueror; to which Hamilton retorted 
that he and his garrison were "not disposed to 
be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects." Meanwhile, the Americans had eaten 
breakfast, the first full meal they had enjoyed 
for six days, and now were in fine fettle for 
some more fighting, which was at once granted 
them. After another hot fusillade a flag of 
truce came from Hamilton with a letter propos- 
ing an armistice, which Clark refused, acceding 
to nothing short of the surrender of the garrison 
as "prisoners at discretion." 

Some more fighting and then Hamilton, with 
one-sixth of his dependable men put out of the 
conflict, began to seriously consider that, among 
other things, he was six hundred miles from suc- 
cor and that honorable terms might be the part 
of prudence. The result of this was a confer- 
ence between the two commanders in which 
Clark, with characteristic high-handedness, had 
everything his own way. 

A Beginning Point in Indiana History. — 
That day Hamilton signed the articles of capitula- 
tion and the next. February 25, 1779, at ten 
o'clock in the morning. Governor Hamilton and 
his men marched out of the fort between the lines 
of American troops, in formal token of surren- 
der. Colonel Clark and two of his captains with 



their companions marched in, hoisted the Ameri- 
can flag and took formal possession, and with 
that act the soil of Indiana became a permanent 
American possession. In other words, that cli- 
max to a dramatic and heroic chapter may be 
considered as the starting point of Indiana his- 
tory, for from that planting of American stock 
to the development of the State is a succession 
of steps, one growing out of the other. Hence, 
considering all the preceding matter as prelim- 
inary, we take up the history proper at this 

The First American Occupancy; the Passing 
of the French. — The hoisting of the American 
flag over Fort Sackvillef by George Rogers 
Clark was the beginning of the end of a phase 
of life on Indiana soil that is now only a dim 
ami romantic memory. The fate of the poor 
French who had settled in the Wabash valley 
was, from the viewpoint of race extinction, some- 
thing of a tragedy. Good and loyal sons of their 
motherland, they had come to this far wilderness 
when it was a province of France with no thought 
of its ever being other. Then the unexpected 
fortunes of war left them stranded here, thou- 
sands of miles from their native home, an isolated 
handful, aliens, subject to the rule of the nation 
that they hated most — the rule of England. For 
sixteen years they were under the jurisdiction of 
their foreign masters, and then, with the bold 
and sudden advent of Clark and his little army of 
Americans, they rallied with true Gallic enthusi- 
asm tu bis support, as we have seen, and were 
an instrument of importance to his success. So 
far as their gain was concerned, however, it 
must be said that they only jumped from the 
frying-pan into the fire, the unhappiness of their 
situation, indeed, being the more accentuated 
because the incoming Americans dominated 
the community as the English had not. 
taking possession as they did irua more permanent 
way. The invaders came to stay, not only as sol- 
dier^ l.nt as settlers. 

* l"p to the time of the organization of the Northwest Terri- 
tory the government was so chaotic and the incoming population 
so spar- in. I obscure that there is little record of it. The first 
American occupancy that comes within the purview of history 
centered ahout Vincennes and in Clark's grant, which was sur- 
veyed and settled as early as 1783, or soon thereafter. For some 
years this latter was the largest American center west of Ohio. 

f The fort at Vincennes was called Fort Sackville when held 
by the English. 


Sketch of George Rogers Clark. — "Born in 

Albemarle county, Virginia, November 19, 1752; 
died near Louisville, Ky., February 13, 1818. He 
was a land surveyor, and commanded a company 
in Dunmore's war against the Indians in 1774. 
He went to Kentucky in 1775 and took command 
of the armed settlers there. He captured Kas- 
kaskia and other towns in 1778, which, with the 
surrounding region, were organized into Illinois 
county, under the jurisdiction of Virginia. Com- 
missioned a colonel, he successfully labored for 
the pacification of the Indian tribes. Learning 
that Governor Hamilton, of Detroit, had cap- 
tured Vincennes, Clark led an expedition against 
him (February, 1779) and recaptured it (Feb- 
ruary 25). He also intercepted a convoy of 
goods worth ten thousand dollars, and afterward 
built Fort Jefferson on the west side of the Mis- 
sissippi. The Indians from north of the Ohio, 
with some British, raided Kentucky in June, 
1780, when Clark led a force against the Shaw- 
noese on the Grand Miami, and defeated them 
with heavy loss at Pickaway. He served in Vir- 
ginia during its invasion by Arnold and Corn- 
wallis, and in 1782 he led one thousand mounted 
riflemen from the mouth of the Licking and in- 
vaded the Scioto valley, burning five villages and 
laying waste their plantations. The savages were 
so awed that no formidable war party ever after- 
ward appeared in Kentucky. Clark made an un- 
successful expedition against the Indians on the 
Wabash, with one thousand men, in 1786. His 
great service to his country in making the fron- 
tiers a safe dwelling place was overlooked by his 
countrymen, and he died in poverty and obscur- 
ity." — Lossing's "Cyclopedia of ['. S. History." 
The Documentary Sources of Clark's Cam- 
paign. — "Clark's Memoir" and the "Letter to 
Mason" are, perhaps, the chief documents for a 
history of the conquest of the Northwest, though 
"Bowman's Journal" is much drawn upon and 
various diaries and official letters are tributary. 
A full collection of these, edited by James Alton 
James, of Northwestern University, constitute 
Volume XIII of the Collections of the Illinois 
State Historical Library. There are too main 
i if them to be considered here, lint a few words 
concerning the three important papers above men- 



tioned may be of interest. Clark's "Letter" and 
"Memoir" are both long and circumstantial first- 
hand accounts of his experiences in the western 
country. The former was written to George 
Mason, of Virginia, in the latter part of 1779, 
after the writer had returned to the falls of the 
Ohio. Its special value, as compared with the 
"Memoir," is that the events were then freshly in 
mind, whereas the last-named narrative was 
penned ten or twelve years afterward and is 
supposed to have been drawn largely from mem- 
ory. The first account, being privately addressed 
as a letter, was lost to the world and was not 
brought to light for years, even Clark being un- 
able to locate it when engaged with the "Memoir." 
Eventually it was unearthed and first published 
in 1869. The original is in possession of Judge 
James Pirtle, of Louisville (as stated by Mr. 
James in 1912). 

The "Memoir," or most of it, seems to have 
been written in 1790, and was done at the solicita- 
tion of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 
who saw the importance of securing, before it 
was too late, a first-hand account of great events 
by the chief actor in them. At that time Clark 
was soured against his fellow countrymen and 
seems, from his correspondence, to have been a 
little loath to accept the task, but once in it his in- 
terest carried him through an interesting and 
valuable piece of autobiography. The original 
MS. is in the possession of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society. 

Bowman's Journal was a daily diary of the 
Vincennes campaign from its organization at 
Kaskaskia and continuing to the 20th of March, 
nearly one month after the reduction of Fort 

These documents are printed in full in W. H. 
English's "Conquest of the Northwest," the full- 
est study we have of the life of George Rogers 
Clark. The volume by James Alton Clark, above 
referred to, is the fullest collection of all papers 
relating to Clark. 

Clark's Ill-Fortune. — While George Rogers 
Clark, by his heroic performances, won for him- 
self a conspicuous place on the pages of our 
western history, he fell short of his ardent de- 
sires. Adversities followed his successes, the 
ingratitude that is proverbial as to republics, was 
his meed, and in the end he died an impoverished 

and embittered man. A part of his scheme of 
conquest was the capture of Detroit as well as of 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and his ambition even 
aimed at the stronghold in Canada. Indeed, had 
he received adequate support the map of the 
United States might have been other than what 
it is today. But the support was not forthcoming 
and no expedition ever reached Detroit. His 
position was a peculiar one. He was not in the 
employ and under the authority of the United 
States, as the Continental soldiers of the Revolu- 
tion were, but in the employ of Virginia, and 
that State financed his campaign. But Virginia's 
resources were badly taxed by affairs nearer 
home, and perhaps she was not to blame for fail- 
ing to provide men. money and supplies for the 
remote frontier. Then with the surrender of 
Cornwallis, in 1781, actual war with England 
ceased. There was still plenty of work to do 
among the Indians of the Northwest, and Clark 
was the logical one to do it, but Virginia, on the 
plea of economy, dismissed him from her serv- 
ice, and at a time when, as Mr. English affirms, 
"he was in dire distress for even the common 
decencies and necessaries of life." In 1783 he 
made a journey through the wilderness to Rich- 
mond, Va., "in a condition of poverty," to re- 
quest of the then governor, Benjamin Llarrison, 
a small advance of money on account, as he was 
"exceedingly distressed for the want of neces- 
sary clothing, etc.," and added that the State, 
he believed, would be found considerably in his 
debt. Whether he received any relief then is 
not recorded by our authority, but twenty years 
after, when he was paralyzed and helpless, he 
was granted a pension of four hundred dollars 
a year, and twenty years after he was in his 
grave the State acknowledged her debt by award- 
ing thirty thousand dollars to his heirs.* 

In 1786 the hostilities of the Indians to the 
north again imperiled the Kentucky settlements. 
Ere this Virginia had ceded the northwest to 
the United States, but the nation was so slow to 
take the situation in hand that Kentucky herself 
raised a defensive army, put Clark in command 
and sent an expedition against the tribes of the 
Wabash. It was but the beginning of new mis- 
fortunes for Clark. Through insubordination 
of the men the invasion came to naught. Then 

* English, pp. 784-5. 



the leader, after due conference with his officers, 
established a garrison at Vincennes, the inhab- 
itants having become hostile to the Americans. 
The garrison had to be provisioned, and to meet 
what he considered a military emergency, he for- 
cibly possessed himself of the goods of Vin- 
cennes merchants, chiefly one Laurent Bazadon, 
a Spaniard. The government refused to stand 
good for the debt imposed upon it and censured 
Clark for his act. Subsequently Bazadon brought 
suit against Clark personally for $20,000, and an 
interesting statement of that suit commanding 
the sheriff to attack sundry pieces of land in 
Clark's Grant may be found in the Indiana 
Quarterly Magazine of History for March. 1908. 
While it is stated on the document that this case 
was dismissed it is elsewhere said that he per- 
sonally suffered loss for debts which his coun- 
try should have paid. At any rate it is the opin- 
ion of history that both Virginia and the nation 
poorly requited him for the services that added to 
the country one of the most valuable sections of 
our vast domain. He felt this bitterly, and there 
exists a story to the effect that when Virginia 
sent him a sword as a testimony of appreciation 
of his services he broke it in anger. 

Clark was never married and in his latter 
years, almost to the time of his death, he lived 
alone in his log house at Clarksville, beside the 
falls. Among his misfortunes were paralysis 
and a burn which necessitated the amputation 
of one leg. He died in 1818, at the home of his 
sister, Mrs. Lucy Croghan, near Louisville, Ky. 

Clark's Grant. — When Clark was authorized 
by Virginia to raise soldiers for the Illinois cam- 
paign a letter to him written jointly by Thomas 
Jefferson, George Mason and George W r yeth in- 
timated that "we have no doubt that some fur- 
ther rewards in lands in the country will be given 
to the volunteers who shall engage in this service 
in addition to the usual pay, if they are so for- 
tunate as to succeed." They further intimated 
what they thought this land gift ought to be, as 
to amount, and added : "For this we think you 
may safely confide in the justice and generosity of 
the Virginia assembly." 

This was not authoritative enough to be held 
out as an incentive to the soldiers and so prob- 
ably cut little or no figure in the results, but Vir- 
ginia did not forget the semi-promise. In 1781, 
nearly two years after the taking of Vincennes, 

the general assembly adopted a resolution pro- 
viding "that a quantity of land not exceeding 
one hundred and fifty thousand acres be allowed 
and granted to the . . . officers and soldiers 
... to be laid off in one tract ... in such 
place on the northwest side of the Ohio as the 
majority of the officers shall choose, and to be 
afterward divided among the said officers and 
soldiers in due proportion according to the laws 

Map of Indian Land Cessions. The numbers from 1 to 
53 indicate order of purchase of tracts within the 
original Indiana Territory. There were not fifty- 
three purchases within the present boundaries of 
Indiana. (See page 43.) 

of Virginia." In 1783 another act was passed 
for locating and surveying the amount of land 
above specified, and a board of commissioners 
was appointed to take the business in hand. One 
thousand acres was to be laid out for a town site 
and the other one hundred forty-nine thousand 
to be surveyed for the individual claimants. The 
tract chosen was at and above the falls of the 
Ohio and now lies mostly in Clark county, Ind., 



though lapping over into Floyd and Scott coun- 
ties. It was first called the "Illinois Grant," the 
conquered territory being known as the "Illinois 
country," but later took the name of "Clark's 
Grant." The principal surveyor was William 
Clark, the cousin of George Rogers Clark. The 
thousand acres for the town site was located at 
the falls, between the present Jeffersonville and 
New Albany, and was called Clarksville. The 
rest was apportioned among a total of 300 men, 
ranging in amount from 108 acres for each pri- 
vate to 8,049 acres to General Clark. There has 
been some criticism of this division, the feeling 
being that privates should have received 600 
acres each, that being the amount suggested in 
the letter of Jefferson, Mason and Wyeth, above 
spoken of. Of the men who received lands in 
this tract by no means all settled there, but many- 
sold their portions, preferring the cash benefit. 

The surveys of Clark's Grant, taking the Ohio 
river for a base, do not correspond to the rect- 
angular system as it exists over the State gen- 
erally and thus the original donation can be read- 
ily located on any map that shows the congres- 
sional townships. 

For exhaustive information on this subject see 
English's "Conquest of the Northwest." 

Father Gibault and Francis Vigo. — Two 
names that are imperishably connected with 
Clark's conquest and which as imperishably stand 
as reminders of public ingratitude, are those of 
Father Pierre ( Hbault and Francis Vigo, the for- 
mer a Catholic priest in spiritual charge of the 
French residents of the Illinois country, and the 
latter a Spanish merchant. With the arrival of 
Clark at Kaskaskia Gibault heartily espoused his 
cause, and it was largely through his influence 
that the French generally rallied to the support 
of the invader. He it was who suggested that 
the easiest way to win Yincennes, as the English 
commandant and his garrison were temporarily 
away, would be by a peaceful conquest of the 
French there, and his proposition was that he 
go and, by virtue of his power among them, ac- 
complish that end. This program was carried 
out with fullest success, and after he had paved 
the way Captain Helm was sent to take charge 
of Fort Sackville. which he held until the Eng- 
lish governor, Hamilton, recaptured the place. 
The penalty for Gibault's zeal was excommuni- 
cation by his bishops, besides pecuniary loss for 

which he was never reimbursed. In his old age 
he sent a memorial to General St. Clair, Gov- 
ernor of the Northwest Territory, in which he 
stated that he had risked his life and sacrificed 
his little property to aid the Americans; that his 
loss had amounted to at least fifteen hundred 
dollars, and that he was now dependent. All 
that he asked was a beggarly pittance of five 
acres out of the millions he had worked to se- 
cure, where he might have an orchard and a home 
in which to spend his few remaining years. He 
never received the five acres and eventually he 
betook himself into Spanish territory beyond the 
Mississippi, where he died in 1804.* 

Francis Vigo, a merchant of St. Louis, then a 
Spanish possession, who carried on an extensive 
trade in the Illinois country, espoused the Ameri- 
can cause, as did Gibault, when Clark invaded the 
territory, although he did so at considerable risk, 
being a citizen of a neutral nation. He it was 
that brought to Clark, at Kaskaskia, the news 
that General Hamilton had recaptured Vincennes 
from Captain Helm, and the result of the infor- 
mation he had gained was Clark's swiftly exe- 
cuted winter campaign which forestalled Ham- 
ilton's plans for the spring, and won Vincennes 
permanently. Vigo did most important service 
by the rendering of financial aid. In the midst 
of his operations Clark became seriously handi- 
capped for want of funds to provision his little 
army and to renew enlistments, the expiring of 
which threatened to disband his force. No help 
could be had from Virginia. In this emergency 
his only recourse was private aid, and exercising 
the discretion given him by his letter of instruc- 
tions he issued drafts on the State. Accepting 
these drafts as security, Vigo furnished money 
and supplies to the amount of $12,000 or more. 
Being wealthy at that time and Virginia being 
embarrassed with her debts, he did not push his 
claims for years. When his needs began to press 
him the Virginia agent was unable to meet his 
drafts and he sold some of them at a discount of 
eighty per cent. He still held one for over 
$8,000, and twenty-one years after its date of 
issue this was put in the hands of two collectors. 
Through some seemingly criminal negligence, not 
explained in history, the draft was lost and with 
it all chance of recovering the money until it was 
found again afliid the dust in the attic of the 

Dunn's "Indiana," p. 151. 



capitol at Richmond. The debt was now fifty-five 
years old. Meanwhile Vigo, stricken in years, 
had long suffered poverty. Three years later 
he died, unrelieved. Thirty-nine years more of 
dawdling and red tape passed and finally, ninety- 
seven years after the original transaction, the 
money that made possible the capture of Vin- 
cennes plus accumulated interest was paid to the 
heirs of the man who had been more generous 
than prudent. The expenses of his funeral, even, 
were not paid until forty years after his death.* 

Soon after Clark's conquest Vigo became an 
American citizen and came for permanent resi- 
dence to Vincennes, where he was honored and 
prominent for many years. His sense of grati- 
tude was livelier than that of the nation he had 
served, for in appreciation of the fact that Vigo 
county was named for him, he provided in his 
will that, if his claim on the government were 
allowed. $500 should be given to the county for 
a court-house bell. He died in Vincennes in 1836 
and is buried there. 

The Lasselle Documents. — Among the pos- 
sessions of the State Library is a large collection 
of letters and other papers, some of them orig- 
inals, some copies, that relate to Vincennes dur- 
ing the early American occupancy. These docu- 
ments were gathered up by the late Charles B. 
Lasselle, of Logansport, who for many years 
was an industrious collector of everything per- 
taining to French life in the Wabash valley. Mr. 
Lasselle was himself a member of an old French 
family that had been intimately identified with 
the valley since Revolutionary times. In his 
later years he occupied a room in the court-house 
at Logansport which was fairly filled with a mis- 
cellaneous mass of documents, relics and news- 
papers. Among the relics were the mahogany 
liquor chest which was one of Governor Ham- 
ilton's private possessions when he was captured 
by Clark; a Revolutionary drum that had been 
found in old Fort Wayne, and the original parch- 
ment document that was delivered to the Miami 
Indians at the treaty of St. Mary's, in 1819. This 
parchment bears the marks of the various chiefs 
that represented their tribe, and the signatures of 
Jonathan Jennings, Benjamin Parke and Lewis 
Cass, commissioners, and William and John 
Conner, interpreters. It was delivered to the 
Miami head chief. Richardville, and finally came 

' English, p. 18 


into the Lasselle family through marriage rela- 
tions. It is now in the possession of the State- 

The other documents referred to as in the li- 
brary are now being classified and arranged for 
convenient reference. 

The First Civil Organization. — In October 
of 1778 Virginia was electrified by the news that 
Clark had actually accomplished the conquest 
of Kaskaskia and the other Mississippi posts, 
and one of the first acts of the Virginia Assem- 
bly, thereafter, was to organize the newly-ac- 
quired country as the "County of Illinois." On 
December 12. Col. John Todd, of Kentucky, a 
friend of Clark's, was appointed county lieuten- 
ant, or local governor, and he arrived at Kas- 
kaskia in May, 1779, to assume charge of civil 
affairs. This was the first American government 
north of the Ohio river, and the first election of 
officers was held by Todd soon after his arrival. 
In Vincennes about a dozen civil and nearly that 
many militia officers were elected, all of them 
Frenchmen. The law then established was to 
be temporary and agreeable to those "which the 
present settlers are now accustomed to," and the 
instructions from the Virginia governor to Todd 
were "to use every effort to win the friendship 
of the French," and to conciliate the Indians as 
far as possible ; which shows that Patrick Henry, 
at least, contemplated a just and friendly rela- 
tion toward the new citizens of the State. 

Todd did not remain in Illinois very long but 
the government went on undisturbed until the 
judges of the Vincennes court proceeded to gen- 
erously apportion among themselves tracts of 
land from an old Indian grant, when the United 
States interposed an objection. 

Meanwhile Virginia, in 1784, had relinquished 
her claim to the whole Illinois country in favor 
of the United States, and with that act the way 
was cleared for the new political policy which, 
a little later, had its birth in the famous ordi- 
nance of 1787. 

The Wabash Land Company. — The Wabash 
Land Company, which negotiated what was per- 
haps the first land deal in Indiana, dates back 
to 1775. Then, as now. real estate speculators 
were a thrift}' class and their opportunities were 
great. In the year mentioned Louis Vivial, the 
agent of the company mentioned, negotiated with 
the Piankeshaw Indians at Vincennes for two 



tracts of land bordering on the Wabash river, 
that, besides a large tract out of eastern Illinois, 
comprised perhaps one-half of Indiana. The 
first, extending along the Wabash above Vin- 
cennes for one hundred twenty miles, reached 
from the river westward for ninety and eastward 
for one hundred twenty miles. The other, ex- 
tending from the mouth of White river to the 
junction of the Wabash and the Ohio, reached 
the same distance west and east as the first one. 
This eastward stretch carried it almost across 
the present state. This vast possession amount- 
ing, all told, to about thirty-seven million, four 
hundred and ninety-seven thousand six hundred 
acres, was actually transferred, being "signed by 
the grantees, attested by a number of the in- 
habitants of Post Vincennes, and subsequently 
registered in the office of a notary public at Kas- 
kaskia." The contract between the parties, 
printed in full in Dillon's Indiana (pp. 104-9) 
is too long to reproduce here, though the pur- 
chasing price may be given. The items specified 
are : "Five shillings in money, four hundred 
blankets, twenty-two pieces of stroud, two hun- 
dred and fifty shirts, twelve gross of star garter- 
ing, one hundred and twenty pieces of ribbon, 

twenty-four pounds of vermilion, eighteen pairs 
of velvet laced housings, one piece of malton, 
fifty-two fusils, thirty-five dozen large buckhorn- 
handle knives, forty dozen couteau knives, five 
hundred pounds of brass kettles, ten thousand 
gun flints, six hundred pounds of gunpowder, 
two thousand pounds of lead, four hundred 
pounds of tobacco, forty bushels of salt, three 
thousand pounds of flour, three horses ; also the 
following quantities of silverware, viz. : eleven 
very large armbands, forty wristbands, six whole- 
moons, six half moons, nine earwheels, forty-six 
large crosses, twenty-nine hairpipes, sixty pairs 
of earbobs, twenty dozen small crosses, twenty 
dozen nose-crosses, and one hundred and ten 
dozen brooches." 

All these commodities, amounting in value to 
but a very few thousand dollars, even when fig- 
ured at traders' prices, doubtless seemed to the 
simple Indians a bewildering display of wealth. 

As a matter of fact, they got the best of the 
bargain, for Clark's conquest of the country 
threw it all into other hands ; the claim of the 
Wabash Land Company was, of course, not con- 
firmed, and later the land was again purchased 
of the original claimants by the United States. 



Political Antecedents. — Strictly speaking the 
beginnings of our civil history antedate by many 
years the history of Northwest Territory, and a 
very brief consideration of our political ante- 
cedents may not be amiss as an introduction to 
the form of government we live under in the 
present State of Indiana. 

It is, of course, understood and need merely 
be mentioned, that we are the lineal heirs of 
those forces in English history that have made 
for the liberties and enlargement of man. 
"Magna Charta," or the Great Charter, wrung 
from King John by the barons in 1215, is cus- 
tomarily regarded as the logical starting point 
for a study of those liberties and their develop- 
ments. When, four hundred years later, the 
stream of English history divided, sending forth 
its minor current in the new world, those who 
founded the colonies brought with them ideas 
of individual rights and of forms of government 
that all Englishmen had contended for since the 
concessions of King John, and that all English- 
men shared alike. Then came a differentiation 
in the development, due to the introduction of 
new conditions. The isolated life of the colonies, 
remote from the home government, fostered lo- 
cal government; local government fostered self- 
sufficiency, independence and the spirit of democ- 
racy, and a century and a half of development 
along this line could hardly fail of distinctive 

In brief, the elements that emerge as we exam- 
ine the unfolding of the American ideal are, the 
idea of inherent rights, common to all men, the 
right to realize these through self-government, 
and the right to safeguard them at every point. 
How far these ideas had progressed by 1776 is 
revealed by the immortal Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, which startled the world with the bold 
and radical proposition that "all men are created 
equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain inalienable rights ; that among these 
are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." 
When, in addition to this, the age-honored alle- 
giance to kings was cast aside, the instrument 

certainly took rank as marking a new departure 
in the affairs of men. 

The Written Constitution. — The formal 
written political constitution is peculiarly an 
American institution,* and is correspondingly 
dear to the American heart. It is the funda- 
mental law of the land, the ultimate authority, 
which the legislative power must respect, and its 
provisions are set forth in explicit language. In 
its supreme character it was the offspring of the 
old charter, only, as Fiske says, "instead of a 
document expressed in terms of a royal grant 
it was a document expressed in terms of a pop- 
ular edict." The "Fundamental Orders of Con- 
necticut," of 1639, is cited as the first written con- 
stitution known to history. Similar instruments 
were adopted in America before the formation 
of the federal union, and the full flower of the 
process was the work of the Federal Convention 
when, in 1787, it framed the Constitution of the 
United States, which instrument William E. 
Gladstone has designated as "the most wonderful 
work ever struck off at a given tim<» by the brain 
and purpose of man." 

A New Question; The Public Domain. — The 
Constitution of the United States nowise took 
the place of the instruments under which the 
various States were governed. It was a general 
constitution strictly for the control of federal 
functions. But now an entirely new question 
had to be dealt with — that of federal jurisdic- 
tion over lands belonging to no State. Within 
five years after the close of the Revolution four 
States, New York, Virginia) Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, had ceded to the national govern- 
ment lands that they had claimed, lying west of 
the Alleghany ranges. These claims, as referred 
to in history, were somewhat obscure and over- 
lapping ; but at any rate the cessions placed under 
the control of the United States a tract of virgin 
territory, and this comprised the country north- 
west of the Ohio river that George Rogers Clark- 
had won in the name of Virginia. It was the be- 

' For an interesting treatment of this subject, see Fisk's "Civil 
Government," chap. vii. 




ginning of the "public domain," and one duty of 
the new government was to take care of it. 

Thus it was that while the Federal Conven- 
tion in Philadelphia was making the nation's 
constitution, Congress, in New York, was elab- 
orating a policy of government for this domain. 

The Ordinance of 1787. — This policy, as em- 
bodied in a document, was the famous ordinance 
for the government of the territory of the United 
States northwest of the Ohio river, passed by 
Congress on July 13, 1787, and commonly known 
as the "Ordinance of 1787." It may be called 
a special federal constitution for the organization 
and government of the territory belonging to the 
United States preliminary to the creation of 
States with their own constitutions. It is con- 
spicuous among the instruments of the country 
as shaping the character of government in the 
territory it was framed for. Daniel Webster 
said of it: "I doubt whether one single law of 
any law given, ancient or modern, has produced 
effects of more distinct, marked and lasting char- 
acter than the Ordinance of 1787." Its bill of 
rights has led some to speak of it, with a little 
grandiloquence, perhaps, as the Magna Charta of 
the west. Its most famous proviso was one for- 
bidding the existence of slavery in the territory 
at a time when that institution was forbidden no- 
where else. The Ordinance was the culmination 
of previous attempts to cope with a problem that 
was even then recognized as a growing danger, 
and as it constitutes our immediate political foun- 
dation we here examine it in its parts.* 

The Ordinance contemplates the ultimate di- 
vision of the territory into not less than three 
nor more than five States, certain boundaries of 
these being definitely set. It established grades 
of government, based on population, for these 
divisions ; "five thousand free male inhabitants, 
of full age," entitling to the "second grade" of 
territorial government, and sixty thousand en- 
titling to statehood "on an equal footing with 
the original States in all respects whatever." The 
territorial government, in the first grade, is to 
be in the hands of a governor and three judges, 
whose first duty is to "adopt and publish in the 
district such laws of the original States, criminal 
and civil, as may be necessary and best suited 
to the circumstances of the district." The gov- 

* See Dunn's "Indiana" for an elaborate discussion of this 

ernor shall be the commander-in-chief of the 
militia and shall have the appointing of most of 
the officers, both military and civil. 

On entering the second grade the inhabitants 
of a territory shall be entitled to elect repre- 
sentatives from their counties or townships for 
their own general assembly, and this "general 
assembly or legislature shall consist of the gov- 
ernor, legislative council and a house of repre- 
sentatives," the legislative council to consist of 
five members, to continue in office five years, and 
to be appointed and commissioned by Congress 
out of ten that have been nominated by the gov- 
ernor and the representatives. The body thus 
formed is to have the authority to make laws "not 
repugnant to the principles and articles in this 
Ordinance," all bills passed to be "referred to the 
governor for his assent." The Legislature has 
the authority to elect a delegate to Congress, and 
this delegate will have the right to join in the 
Congressional debates, but can not vote. The bill 
of rights feature takes the form of "articles of 
compact between the original States and the peo- 
ple and the States in the said territory," to for- 
ever remain unalterable, unless by common con- 
sent. These articles are, that no person demean- 
ing himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, 
shall ever be molested on account of his mode of 
worship or religious sentiment ; that all shall 
be entitled to the benefits of the writ of 
habeas corpus, to a trial by jury, to judicial 
proceedings according to the course of the com- 
mon law, and to proportionate representation in 
the Legislature. All persons shall be bailable, 
unless for capital offense ; all fines shall be mod- 
erate, and no cruel or unusual punishments shall 
be inflicted ; no man shall be deprived of his lib- 
erty or property but by the judgment of his 
peers or the law of the land. 

It may seem somewhat curious that before 
taking up these fundamentals, in fact, in the 
very first provision, the Ordinance deals with the 
question of the equitable distribution of in- 
testate estates, thus checking at the start any 
system of primogeniture. The last article in 
the document is the one that is cited oftenest in 
history — namely, the slavery clause, which af- 
firms that "there shall be neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude in the said territory, other- 
wise than in the punishment of crimes whereof 
the party shall have been duly convicted." This 



was regarded as the provision of all others that 
was to give a distinctive character to the civiliza- 
tion of the northwest, for it meant free territory 
as opposed to the institution of slavery, which 
was already coming to be regarded as a national 
curse. The promise it held out undoubtedly 
played its part in the character of the population 
that from the beginning gravitated to this region. 

From these salient features of the Ordinance 
it will be seen that its Congressional framers 
aimed not only at a constitution of the territories, 
as such, but as a federal instrument, as well, 
that should impose certain limitations on future 
State constitutions. Thus while the State con- 
stitution is, in a sense, the "fundamental law of 
the land," it must, after all, recognize a higher, 
ultimate authority. 

Virginia's Cession to United States; Forma- 
tion of Northwest Territory. — The last two 
sections have outrun the present one chronolog- 
ically in the attempt to follow the lineal develop- 
ment of our fundamental instruments. Prior to 
the question of public domain and the ( frdinance 
of 1787 came the cession by Virginia of her 
northwestern possessions to the United States, 
alung with other territorial relinquishments by 
other States. As said on a previous page, the 
first civil organization was attempted by the Vir- 
ginia Assembly, which established courts among 
the French and temporarily installed John Todd 
a- governor of Kaskaskia. This organization 
was no doubt cruder than it would have been 
had the future ownership been more certain. As 
early as 1781 Virginia thought favorably of the 
proposition to cede her newly-acquired domain, 
and in 1784 the cession was made and the whole 
territory passed over to a new jurisdiction. For 
the three years following there seems to have 
been little that could be called civil government, 
but with the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787 
Steps were taken to organize the country in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of that instrument. 
The region then took the name of "The Territory 
of the United States Northwest of the Rivet- 
Ohio," but this, in popular usage, became simply 
"The Northwest Territory."* General Arthur St. 

Clair, an officer of the Revolution, was elected 
governor by Congress, and he, on July 27, 1788, 
issued a proclamation organizing Washington 
county, which comprised the eastern half of the 
present State of Ohio. Prior to that a land com- 
pany had purchased of Congress a tract on the 
Ohio, taken thither the first colony, and founded 
the town of Marietta. This settlement and the 
one county above named marked the real starting 
point of civil government in the Northwest Ter- 
ritory. It was two years before any other county 
was formed. With the election of the governor, 
the three judges required by the Ordinance had 
likewise been chosen and with the convening of 

* The Northwest Territory comprised the present States of 
i 'In", Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and a part of Min- 
i" sota. It was the first public domain of the United States and 
the first use made of the lands was in the discharge of the na- 
tion's debts to Revolutionary soldiers. For matter at length on 
this subject, see Burnet's "Notes on the Northwest Territory" 
and chapter on same in Dunn's "Indiana." 

Map of the Territory of Indiana, May 7, 1800. It in- 
cludes all of the Northwest Territory west of a line 
drawn from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort 
Recovery, thence due north to the northern boundary 
of the United States. — From nia[> drawn by E. V. 

the officers at Marietta they proceeded to their 
work of compiling a body of laws, the result be- 
ing a small volume, printed in 1795, known as 
the "Maxwell Code." 

With the history of the Northwest Territory 
prior to the formation of Indiana Territory, in 
1800, however, it is not our purpose to deal be- 
yond noting in a general way the westward 
movement that presently extended to our terri- 
tory. With the opening of the new country the 
influx began, and "it is estimated that within a 
year following the organization of the territory 
full twenty thousand men, women and children 



passed down the Ohio river to become settlers 
upon its banks."* Most of this earlier immigra- 
tion, presumably, did not go beyond Washington 
county. The progress westward was retarded 
by the hostilities of the Indians, whose ill-feeling 
at the encroachments upon their lands was kept 
alive by British influences from the north, Eng- 
land's desire being that this region should still 
remain a wild territory between the frontiers of 
the two nations. According to Judge Burnet, 
"the woods were literally swarming with In- 
dians, scattered in every direction, and, in addi- 
tion to other difficulties, those who ventured into 
the wilderness, from duty or choice, were in con- 
stant danger of meeting some of those parties and 
suffering the consequences. "f Nevertheless, or- 
ganization proceeded and by 1796 there were four 
counties — Washington, Hamilton, St. Clair and 
Knox, with seats of justice, in the order named, 
at Marietta, Cincinnati, Kaskaskia and Vin- 

Character of First Immigrants. — Judge 
Jacob Burnet, in his "Notes on the Northwest 
Territory," tells us that "the early adventurers 
to the Northwest Territory were generally men 
who had spent the prime of their lives in the War 
of Independence. Many of them had exhausted 
their fortunes in maintaining the desperate strug- 
gle, and retired to the wilderness to conceal their 
poverty and avoid companions mortifying to their 
pride while struggling to maintain their families 
and improve their condition. Some of them were 
young men, descended from Revolutionary pa- 
triots, who had fallen in the contest or become 
too feeble to endure the fatigue of settling a 
wilderness. Others were adventurous spirits to 
whom any change might be for the better, and 
who, anticipating a successful result, united in 
the enterprise. Such a colony as this left New 
England in 1787 for the purpose of occupying 
the grant made to Sargent, Cutler & Co., on the 
Muskingum river. "J 

Elsewhere, speaking of the social status at 
Cincinnati and the garrison there, Fort Wash- 
ington, during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, he says : "Idleness, drinking and 
gambling prevailed in the army," owing to the 
fact that thev had "been several vears in the 

• Lossing. 

t Burnet's "Notes on the Northwest Territory." 

t Burnet's "Notes," p. 42. 

wilderness, cut off from all society but their 
own, and no amusements but such as their own 
ingenuity could invent. Libraries were not to 
be found ; men of literary minds or polished 
manners were rarely met with, and they had 
long been deprived of the advantage of modest, 
accomplished female society. Thus situated 
. . . the bottle, the dice box and the card table 
were among the expedients resorted to. Such 
were the habits of the army when they began 
. to associate with the inhabitants of Cincinnati 
and of the western settlements generally."* 


Proposed Division of Northwest Territory. — 

Prior to the framing of the Ordinance of 1787 
a committee, of which Thomas Jefferson was a 
member, elaborated a plan for the government 
of the western lands, and this plan as originally 
presented proposed the division of the north- 
western country into ten States which were to be 
christened with sounding names reflecting the 
stilted taste for the classics that prevailed at that 
day. We quote from J. P. Dunn ("Indiana," 
p. 180) : 

"The region west of Lake Michigan and north 
of parallel 45 was to be a State under the name 
of Sylvania. The lower peninsula of Michigan 
north of parallel 43 was to form Cheronesus. 
That part of Wisconsin between parallels 43 and 
45 was to be Michigan. Below this there were 
to be two States to every two degrees of latitude, 
divided by a meridian line drawn through the 
rapids of the Ohio, except that all the territory 
east of a meridian line drawn through the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha was to be one State named 
Washington. Between parallels 41 and 43 the 
eastern State was Saratoga and the western Illi- 
noia. Between parallel 39 and the Ohio, the 
eastern State was Pelisipia and the western Poly- 
potamia. Indiana, therefore, would have been 
divided up among these six States last named." 

French and American Differences. — In tem- 
perament, customs, habits and general charac- 
ter the two elements had little in common. The 
French are pictured as indolent, shiftless and 
easy-going, given to vivacity, noise and merry- 
making, their very manner of apportioning their 
lands being an index to their social nature, for 

* Ibid., p. 36. 



the long, narrow tracts they farmed were so 
shape 1 as to bring their houses near together. 
The Americans, on the other hand, were business- 
like and thrifty, with an eye to seizing advan- 
tages, and when the two classes came into indus- 
trial competition the incompetent Frenchman 
gradually went to the wall and much of his land 
that had formerly yielded him some sort of a 
living went to his competitor at prices little more 
than nominal. Before this turn of affairs, how- 
ever, they had serious cause of complaint, as is 

flour and corn taken forcibly, and various other 
wrongs perpetrated.* 

These summary proceedings might have been 
accounted for, in part, by the exigencies of war, 
for the capture of Vincennes was by no means 
the end of military operations in the Northwest, 
but they also indicate that the rude frontiers- 
man who performed the rough work of conquest 
that has been described, was not given to gentle- 
ness, nor, perhaps, to strict justice. In short, the 
less robust exiles were not fitted to cope with him 

The Niagara Falls of Washington county are about 30 feet high. The water falls over three or four ledges or 
benches of rocks as shown in the picture, which was taken when the temperature was sixteen degrees below 
zero, in the early morning. The stream is fed by a spring quite a distance from the falls. The water runs 
down a knob about 150 feet high. It is 150 feet up the knob to the falls. The rock, which is shale and lime- 
stone, is ragged and rough, making it difficult to ascend. The falls are six miles northwest of Salem. 
— Orra Hopper. 

shown by a letter, signed by sixteen of the lead- 
ing citizens of Vincennes and addressed to the 
governor of Virginia in 1781. This letter affirms 
"horrible treatment" from the Virginia troops, 
particularly after Colonel Clark left the town, 
the charge living that they were obliged to ac- 
cept for their goods and food supplies depreci- 
ated continental money at coin value ; that their 
cattle and hogs were killed in the fields, their 

and with those who followed him as permanent 
citizens, and thus the story of French life on 
Indiana soil has in it something of tragedy. 

Francis Busseron's Commission as Justice. — 
A curious relic among the documents of the Las- 
selle collection is an early form of commission 
for the office of justice of the peace. Francis 
"Bussero," to whom the commission was issued, 

• i. .urge Rogers Clark Papers, p. 430. 



properly spelled Busseron or Bosseron, was one 
of the most prominent French citizens of Vin- 
cennes at the time of the conquest and for some 
years after. He was a major in the militia and 
his name is to the present day perpetuated in 
Knox county by a creek and a village. 

The commission, issued by the "Honourable 
Winthrop Sargent, Esquire," who is "vested with 
all the powers of the governor and commander- 
in-chief of the Territory of the United States 
Northwest of the River Ohio," and bearing the 
seal of the territory, is curious by reason of a 
legal wording that seems little short of barbarous 
maltreatment of language, and it is interesting as 
showing the functions imposed upon the magis- 
trate. He seems, indeed, to have been a justice, 
a prosecuting attorney and a grand jury all rolled 
into one. The commission follows : 

"To all unto ivhom these Presents shall come, Greet- 

"Know ye that we have assigned and constituted, and 
do by these Presents constitute and appoint Francis 
Bussero, Esquire, to be one of the justices to keep the 
Peace of the Quorum in our county of Knox, and to 
keep and cause to be kept, the Laws and Ordinances 
made for the Good of the Peace, and for the Conserva- 
tion of the same, and for the Quiet, Rule and Govern- 
ment of our Citizens and Subjects in the said county 
in all and every the Articles thereof according to the 
Force, Form and Effect of the same, and to chastise 
and punish all Persons offending against the Form of 
those Laws and Ordinances, or any of them, in the 
county aforesaid, as according to the Form of those 
Laws Ordinances shall be fit to be done; and to cause 
to come before him, the said Francis Bussero, Esquire, 
all those that shall break the Peace, or attempt anything 
against the same, or that shall threaten any of the Citi- 

zens or Subjects in their Persons, or in burning their 
Houses, to find sufficient security for the Peace, and 
for the good Behaviour toward the Citizens and Sub- 
jects of this Government; and if they shall refuse to 
find such security, then to cause them to be kept safe 
in Prison until they shall find the same ; and to do and 
perform in the county aforesaid, all and whatsoever, 
according to our Laws and Ordinances, or any of them, 
a Justice of the Peace & Quorum may and ought to do 
and perform ; And with other Justices of the Peace 
(according to the Tenor of the Commission to them 
granted) to enquire by the oaths of good and lawful 
men of the said county by whom the Truth may be bet- 
ter known, of all and all Manner of Thefts, Trespasses, 
Riots, Routs and unlawful Assemblies whatsoever, and 
all and singular other Misdeeds and Offenses of which 
by Law Justices of the Peace in their General Sessions 
may and ought to enquire, by whomsoever or howsoever 
done or perpetrated, or which shall hereafter happen, 
howsoever to be done or attempted in the county afore- 
said, contrary to the Form of the Laws and Ordinances 
aforesaid, made for the common good of our Citizens 
and Subjects; And with other Justices of the Peace 
(according to the Tenor of the Commission to them 
granted as aforesaid) to hear and determine all and 
singular the said Thefts, Trespasses, Riots, Routs, un- 
lawful Assemblies, and all and singular other Premises, 
and to do therein as to Justice appertaineth, according 
to the Laws, Statutes and Ordinances aforesaid. 

"IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, we have caused our 
Public Seal to be hereunto affixed : Witness Winthrop 
Sargent Esqr. vested with all the Powers of Our Gov- 
ernor and Commander-in-chief. 

Dated at Post Vincennes the third day of July, 
Anno Domini One Thousand, Seven Hundred and 
Ninety, and in the fourteenth year of the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America. 



"Before me, Winthrope Sargent, appeared Francis 
Bussero, Esqre. and took the oath prescribed to all offi- 
cers by an Act of the United States, and also the Oath 
of Office as directed by the Laws of this Territory. 

"In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand 
this fifth dav of July, 1790. 




The Origin of "Indiana." — Who gave the 
name "Indiana" to the western part of the North- 
west Territory when it was set off as a new terri- 
tory in 1800, is not now known, but it was evi- 
dently borrowed from a preceding "Indiana" 
that may be found on maps dating back into the 
eighteenth century. The map best showing the 
exact boundaries of this forgotten tract is one by 
Thomas Hutchins, published in 1778.* Roughly 
described it occupies the approximate triangle 
formed by the Little Kanawha and the Ohio 
rivers and the western ranges of the Alleghany 
mountains. In other words, it covers all of six 
and parts of five other counties now within the 
State of West Virginia, and it contains about 
five thousand square miles, or an area equal to 
the State of Connecticut. 

The little chapter of forgotten history con- 
nected with this original Indiana is interesting 
and runs as follows: After the French and In- 
dian war, when the territory in question had 
passed into the possession of Great Britain, a 
trading company was organized at Philadelphia 
to establish an extensive fur trade with the In- 
dians of the Ohio valley. A large consignment 
of goods sent by this company clown the river 
was forcibly appropriated by some predatory 
bands of savages despite the nominal peace then 
existing between the white and the red men. The 
powerful Iroquois confederation known as the 
"Six Nations," which claimed jurisdiction over 
the marauders, was appealed to for redress; it 
admitted the justice of the claim, and, as its 
wealth consisted chiefly of land, it gave the com- 
pany, by way of indemnity, the Virginia land in 
question. The value of the goods had been 
placed at something like a half-million dollars. 
The vast tract thus acquired was called "Indiana" 
by its new owners. The name may be interpreted 
"tbe land of the Indians," and in it may be de- 
tected the classical bias that is traceable in Loui- 
siana, Virginia, Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia, 
and many other geographical names. 

This was in 1768. Either then or later the 
owners took the name of "the Indiana Land Com- 

pany," under which title it figures in the Con- 
gressional Journals for several years, beginning 
in 1779, with a memorial from the company pray- 
ing for relief. The occasion of this memorial 
was the refusal of Virginia to recognize the com- 
pany's title to the land. The case dragged 
along in Congress as such things do; finally that 
body decided that it could do nothing in the mat- 
ter, and in the end Virginia swallowed it all, 
leaving the Indiana Land Company to drop out 
of history and Indiana as a region to pass from 
the maps. By 1798, "Indiana" had ceased to 

* For map see p. 25. 

Territorial Hall, Vincennes, 1808, the Building in Which 
the First Territorial Legislature Met. 

Two years later, when the "Territory North- 
west of the Ohio" was divided, a name had to 
be found for the western part of the region. The 
name of the now defunct Indiana across the 
river seemed to be equally applicable to this 
country, and so in some way. now lost to his- 
tory, the application was made. In the sub- 
divisions that followed, our State was the first 
to take on permanent boundaries, and it retained 
the name. This time it stuck, and so tbe red men 
have the monument that the old land company 

In western Pennsylvania there is a county 
bearing the name "Indiana," which is probably 
a reminiscence of the old Virginia tract. This 
county was erected in 1802. 

An interesting and little-known monograph on 




this subject is "The Naming of Indiana," by Prof. 
Cyrus W. Hodgin, of Earlham college, published 
by the Wayne County Historical Society some 
years ago. 

The "Gore." — What was once facetiously 
known as the "Gore" in Indiana Territory was 
a long tract in the shape of a wedge or gore ofl 
the east side of the Territory, widening south- 
ward and comprising most of the Whitewater 
valley. This, along with land about Vincennes 
and a few small tracts, represents the first terri- 
tory in Indiana to come into the possession of 
the United States by treaty with the Indians, and 
dates back to 1795. By Wayne's treaty of that 
year, part of the Indian boundary line extended 
from Fort Recovery (in Ohio) to a point on the 
Ohio river, opposite the mouth of the Kentucky. 
When Indiana Territory was created, that line 
was part of its eastern boundary, but when Ohio 
was admitted as a State in 1802, the line was 
shifted eastward to the mouth of the Miami 
river — a boundary that had really been fixed by 
the Ordinance of 1787. Thus the triangle in 
question antedated, as a frontier, the early pur- 
chases along the Ohio river, though the lands 
were not put on sale prior to 1802. Ohio has 
laid claim to this strip of territory, as Michigan 
has to a ten-mile strip that was added to Indiana 
on the north, but no serious attention has ever 
been paid to these claims. 

Creating of Indiana Territory. — By 1800 the 
population of the Northwest Territory had in- 
creased and spread over a territory so vast, in 
centers so widely separated that the administra- 
tion of government and operation of the courts 
became very difficult in many instances, and cor- 
respondingly ineffective. A reduction of the area 
and administration at shorter range became 
desirable, and hence, in the year named, the most 
thickly populated section in the eastern part was 
set off from the remainder. This eastern por- 
tion, bounded by the treaty line established by 
General Wayne's treaty with the Indians of the 
northwest at Greenville, in 1795, comprised the 
present State of Ohio and the eastern part of 
Michigan. Until the creation of the State of 
Ohio, in 1802, this still retained the name of the 
"Northwest Territory." The western portion, 
comprising all the rest of the original territory, 
and extending westward to the Mississippi river 

and northward to Canada, was reorganized un- 
der the name of "Indiana Territory." There were 
at first three counties — St. Clair, Randolph and 
Knox, the latter covering all of the present State 
of Indiana, and the population was given at 6,550 
by a census of 1800.* 

Organization of Government. — The form ot 
government as determined by the Ordinance of 
1787, first established a governor and three 
judges whose duty it was to compile from exist- 
ing statutes a code of laws for the territory. The 
large powers of the governor, and the entire con- 
trol by the federal government were the distinct- 
ive features of what was termed the first terri- 
torial grade. On attaining to a population of 
5,000 free male adults the territory was eligible 
to a second grade, in which a governor and legis- 
lative councils, appointed by Congress, and a 
house of representatives, elected by the people, 
succeeded to the governor and judges. Laws 
created by this legislative body took the place of 
the borrowed code. The territory was entitled to 
a delegate in Congress, with the right of debate 
but not of vote. This form of government was 
imposed until the territory should have 60,000 
free inhabitants, which population entitled it to 
statehood with its own constitution and machin- 
ery for government. 

Beginning of Government. — The govern- 
ment of Indiana Territory began July 4, 1800, as 
recorded in the opening entry of the territorial 
journal, f 

The seat of government was Vincennes. The 
governor was William Henry Harrison, and his 
three coworkers, the judges, were William 
Clarke, Henry Vanderburgh and John Griffin. 
John Gibson was secretary of the territory and 
acting-governor on various occasions. Harrison 
himself did not arrive at Vincennes until January 
of 1801 and prior to that Gibson appointed a 
number of minor officials and attended to the 
necessary administrative matters. 

One of Harrison's first acts was to convene his 
judges and proceed to adopt and publish laws for 
the territory, the result being a code of seven 

* This population is said to have been distributed as follows: 
At Clark's Grant, 929; in and near Vincennes, 2,497; in the Kas- 
kaskia region, 1,103; Cahokia and other Mississippi river settle- 
ments, 1,255. Also there were remote trading settlements at 
Michillimacinac, Prairie du Chien, Green Bay and other points. 

t Executive Journal of Indiana Territory, 1800-1816. — Ind. 
Hist. Soc. publications, vol. iii. 



laws and three resolutions. These, chiefly, dealt 
with the levying of taxes, the practise of attor- 
neys and of courts, the establishment of courts, 
the compensation of officers and the establish- 
ment of ferries.* 

The first session of the general court was be- 
gun by the territorial judges at Vincennes, on 
March 3, 1801, and the first grand jury was em- 
paneled with nineteen members. 

First Public Questions. — "Between the years 
1800 and 1810 the principal subjects which at- 
tracted the attention of the people of the Indiana 
Territory were land speculations, the adjustment 
of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the 
purchase of Indian lands by treaties, the organi- 
zation of territorial Legislatures, the extension 
of the right of suffrage, the division of the Indi- 
ana territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and 
the hostile views and proceedings of the Shawnee 
chief, Tecumseh, and his brother, the Prophet. "f 

The Slavery Question. — In spite of the pro- 
vision in the Ordinance of 1787 that there should 
be "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude" in 
the Northwest Territory, otherwise than for 
the punishment of crimes, there was from the 
first a pronounced attempt to make it legal in In- 
diana. The entering wedge for this attempt was 
the fact that negro slavery had existed among the 
French. This continued to exist and its elimina- 
tion was but laxly followed up. It is estimated 
that in 1800 there were one hundred seventy-five 
slaves in the territory, twenty-eight of which 
were at Vincennes. In some instances the "in- 
voluntary servitude" clause was avoided by the 
slaves agreeing by indentures or contracts to 
remain with their masters for a certain number 
of vears. 

With the incoming American population were 
many southerners who were favorable to slavery, 
and Governor Harrison himself decidedly leaned 
that way. In December of 1802, pursuant to a 
proclamation issued by the governor, an election 
was held in the various counties to choose dele- 
gates for a convention at Vincennes on the twen- 
tieth of that month, the purpose of which was 
to consider the slavery proviso in the ordinance. 
This was a movement of the slavery element, and 
the result of the convention was a memorial to 
Congress petitioning that the proviso be sus- 

pended. The argument made was, in part, that 
such suspension "would be highly advantageous 
to the territory" ; that it would "meet the appro- 
bation of at least nine-tenths of the good citizens 
of the territory" ; that "the abstract question of 
liberty and slavery" was not involved, and that 
the slaves themselves would be benefited as those 
possessed in small numbers by farmers "were 
better fed and better clothed than when they 
were crowded together in quarters by hundreds" 
(Dillon). The committee to which this memorial 
was referred disapproved of the suspension and 
Congress took no action. That, however, by no 
means ended the matter and the attempts to sad- 
dle slavery upon the territory continued through- 
out the territorial period. Meanwhile the anti- 
slavery element was not indifferent or idle and 
the political history of those years is in no small 
degree one of party alignment on that question. 
Generally speaking, the Harrison party of Knox 
county which stood for slavery was opposed by 
Clark county and the Quaker element of the 
Whitewater, with whom Jonathan Jennings be- 
came a conspicuous leader, and whom, in 1816, 
they made the first governor of the State. By 
1816 the anti-slavery element had so gained in 
strength as to elect a large majority of the dele- 
gates to the constitutional convention of that 
year, and by virtue of this the State constitution 
fixed firmly the status of Indiana as one of the 
free commonwealths. This was the beginning of 
the end, but the tenacity of this nefarious cancer 
on the body politic is well illustrated by the fact 
that as late as 1840 a few slaves were reported 
in Indiana in open violation of the constitutional 

Indian Treaties and Land Purchases. — Ar- 
ticle iii of the Ordinance of 1787 defines the pol 
icy of the United States toward the Indians, one 
clause being that "their lands and property shall 
never be taken from them without their consent." 
This means that while the United States nomi- 
nally took possession of the country beyond the 
Ohio river it considered the land as still in the 
possession of the original owners. Hence Gov- 
ernor Harrison was put in authority over a coun- 
try which, except for a few small tracts the In- 
dians had previously parted with, did not belong 

* Dillon, p. 409. 
t Ibid. 

* The subtitle to J. P. Dunn's "Indiana" is "A Redemption 
From Slavery," and the book is primarily an exhaustive study 
of this particular question, which the author holds to be an im- 
portant formative factor in our history. 



to the whites at all. One of his first duties was 
the acquiring of land for the prospective com- 
monwealth to grow upon and his accomplishment 
to this end was one of his conspicuous services. 
The ownership was complicated, a number of 
tribes having overlapping claims to various parts 
of the territory desired, and treaties negotiated 
with these tribes by Harrison extended over a 
period of six years, or from 1803 to 1809. The 
fruit of this was five separate purchases within 
the present Indiana that comprised the whole 
southern portion of the State and lapped over into 
Illinois. Besides these there were other large 
tracts not within the present limits of our State. 
Subsequent purchases by other agents brought 
the number of tracts up to more than fifty before 
the entire State was secured, and the last one was 
made in 1840. These lands were paid for, chiefly, 
by such commodities as the Indians needed or 
fancied and by annual payments of money, and 
were trivial as compared with the value of the 

Land Surveys ; Rectangular System. — The 
first step, preparatory to settlement, was the sur- 
vey of the public lands as they were secured by 
the government. The system adopted was one 
that was elaborated for the public domain of the 
nation and dates back to 1785. It is known as 
the "rectangular system" and consists of series of 
east-and-west and north-and-south lines inter- 
secting each other so as to cover the face of the 
country with squares of an equal size called con- 
gressional townships. These rectangles, six miles 
square, are subdivided into thirty-six square 
miles of "sections." The measurements are made 
from base and meridian lines, each township be- 
ing numbered in its relations to these two lines. 
As numbered north or south from the base line 
they are described as a given number of town- 
ships. East or west from the meridian they oc- 
cupy a certain range. The sections are numbered 
from 1 to 36, beginning in the northeast corner 
of each township, running westward to 6, then 
eastward on the second tier to 12, and so on. Any- 
thing less than a section is described as a fraction 
of a specified section and its exact location given 
within the section. By this admirable system any 
tract in the State can be easily and accurately lo- 
cated and its boundaries defined, thus avoiding 

the confusion and troubles that have arisen in 
some of the States, notably Kentucky, by reason 
of overlapping claims. 

The Indiana base line, which was run in 1804, 
crosses the southern counties about the latitude 
of Vincennes. Our meridian runs a few miles 
west of the longitudinal center of the State, ex- 
tending from the Ohio river to the Michigan line. 
The location of these two principal lines was de- 
termined by the fact that the first tract to be sur- 
veyed by the general system west of Ohio was 
one adjacent to Vincennes, extending eastward 
to the point where the intersection of the lines 
was established. The surveys of the various 
tracts shortly followed the purchases. Vincennes 
and its immediate surroundings and Clark's Grant 
show irregular surveys owing to the work being 
done before the introduction here of the govern- 
ment system. 

The government surveyors not only established 
their measurements, but, incidentally, gathered 
much valuable information about the natural fea- 
tures and resources of the country which was 
carefully recorded in their field notes. 

."In the land office at the statehouse in Indian- 
apolis may still be seen the drawings, together 
with the 'field notes' made by these early survey- 
ors of our State. They are in excellent condition, 
and not only show the surveys as they were 
made, but also the location of lands purchased 
from the Indians from time to time, the locations 
of the roads and canals through the State, and 
many other interesting things connected with the 
history and development of our State."* 

Land Sales and Land Offices. — As the lands 
were surveyed and put on sale land districts were 
established, each with its land office where pur- 
chasers entered their claims and secured the same 
by paying down one-fourth of the government 
price, which at one time was $2 per acre, and at 
another $1.50. The balance was paid in annual 
instalments and subject to forfeiture if the pay- 
ments fell delinquent. In time there was consid- 
erable trouble with delayed payments, and some 
legislation for relief. 

The first land office in Indiana was established 
at Vincennes, March 26. 1804, with John Badol- 
let as register and Nathan Ewing as receiver. 

* For map see p. 31. A full list of the purchases may he found 
in Smith's "History of Indiana." 

* Mrs. Conklin's "Young People's History of Indiana" has a 
very informative chapter on the early surveys and land sales. 
See also map of government surveys in Indiana, by Prof. John 
Collett, in geological report for 1882. 



The second office was opened at Jeffersonville in 
1807. Subsequent ones, as the acquired lands ex- 
tended northward, were at Brookville, Indian- 
apolis. Crawfordsville, Winamac and Fort 

Divisions of Indiana Territory. — Originally 
Indiana Territory extended westward to the Mis- 
sissippi and northward to the Canadian bound- 
ary. In 1805 a division was made by a line run- 
ning eastward from the southern extremity of 

Ohio extended north to Canada till the forma- 
tion of the State of Ohio in 1802, when the coun- 
try cut off by Ohio's northern boundary was 
added to Indiana. The western boundary of Ohio 
as established at that time shifted the line that 
had previously formed the eastern boundary of 
Indiana, thus forming the "Gore."* 

First Party Divisions. — The first party divi- 
sions in Indiana were not along the line of na- 
tional questions, but on local issues that aroused 

Old Mill on Big Raccoon Creek near Armiesburg, in Parke County. The tradition is that William Henry 
Harrison encamped here with his troops on his way to the Battle of Tippecanoe, in 1811. — Courtesy of 
A. H. Nordyke. 

Lake Michigan and north of this line the Terri- 
tory of Michigan was created. Again, by a con- 
gressional act of February 3, 1809, all that coun- 
try lying west of the Wabash river and of a line 
drawn due north from Yincennes to the Cana- 
dian line was constituted a separate territory and 
called Illinois. This gave to Indiana its present 
limits except that subsequently the Michigan line 
was shifted ten miles north of the southern ex- 
tremity of the lake. 

The eastern part of the Michigan peninsula 
was not at first a part of Indiana Territory, as 
the line separating the latter from what is now 

considerable feeling and gave rise to factions as 
well as parties. Conspicuous among these issues 
were the question of permitting slavery and the 
division of the territory, the latter being more or 
less linked with the first. Knox county developed 
a dominating pro-slavery group with Harrison 
as its recognized head, and this was reinforced 
by the pro-slavery element in the Illinois country. 
Clark county and the eastern side of the terri- 
tory was largely anti-slavery, with Jonathan Jen- 
nings as its most conspicuous champion. This di- 
vision existed until the formation of the State 

See section "The Gore," p. 42. 



Constitution fixed the status of the question in 
favor of anti-slavery. In 1805 one hundred and 
five anti-slavery residents of the Whitewater re- 
gion signed a memorial to Congress petitioning 
that their section be annexed to Ohio, the reason 
directly given being that while they were in easy 
communication with that State they were sep- 
arated from the Indiana seat of government by 
a wilderness that for many years would likely be 
unoccupied by any other than Indians. As these 
petitioners were, mainly, anti-slavery Quakers 
and entirely out of harmony with the party in 
power at Vincennes it is likely that the unex- 
pressed reasons were the strongest. 

Again, in the same year, another petition asked 
that a latitudinal division of the territory be made 
and that the lands already purchased from the 
Indians, extending from the Miami to the Missis- 
sippi be made into a state. This would give Vin- 
cennes the central and logical position for the 
permanent capital, and was all to its advantage, 
and it was opposed by the Illinois residents who 
objected vigorously to the Vincennes domination. 
< >ne source of dissension was the question of en- 
tering the second grade of government, the ar- 
gument against which was additional expenses 
and increased taxes without commensurate bene- 
fits ; the Harrison party came to be regarded with 
odium as "aristocrats," and, in short, the terri- 
tory with its internal animosities and factions 
was anything but a harmonious social unit.* 

Extension of Suffrage. — For the first terri- 
torial grade the ordinance of 1787 conferred no 
rights of suffrage on the citizen. The governor 
and judges were installed by the federal govern- 
ment and the laws and courts, and all appoint- 
ments,- both civil and military, were in their 
hands. The appointive power and general au- 
thority of the governor could be autocratic. 

With the second grade, wherein a house of rep- 
resentatives was elected while the legislative 
council was appointed from Washington, the vot- 
ing was "restricted to those inhabitants who, in 
addition to other qualifications, owned, severally, 
at least fifty acres of land" (Dillon, p. 540). 
While the large powers of the governor were not 
abused by Harrison there was more or less chaf- 
ing under the restriction imposed upon the citi- 
zen. A law of 1807 modified the qualifications of 

electors by a liberal construction of the ordi- 
nance, and Congress in 1808 modified them still 
more by extending the franchise to the owner of 
a town lot of the value of $100. Still Congress 
was petitioned, not only to further modity the 
qualifications but to make the legislative council 
and the territorial delegate to the federal body 
elective. The election of the delegate was granted 
in 1809, andjn 1811 the right of voting was given 
to every free white male person who had attained 
the age of twenty-one, who had been a resident 
of the territory for one year, and who had paid 
a county territorial tax. In 1814 the law was 
made to read "every free white male person hav- 
ing a freehold in the territory and being a resi- 
dent in the same," the time of residence being 
eliminated. This year, also, Congress authorized 
the Legislature to lay off the territory into five 
districts of two counties each and extended to the 
voters the privilege of electing the members of 
the legislative council. The next step was the 
complete self-government granted by the act en- 
abling the territory to become a separate State 
with its own constitution.* 

First Original Laws. — The first laws in op- 
eration in Indiana Territory were a code com- 
piled by the governor and judges from the stat- 
utes of other States. In 1807 the Legislature 
which was established with the second grade of 
government (in 1805) passed the first laws orig- 
inal with the territory ; and these, together with 
the borrowed code as revised by. John Rice Jones 
and John Johnson and amended by the Legisla- 
ture, were published the same year. "These old 
statutes relate principally to the organization of 
superior and inferior courts of justice ; to the ap- 
pointments and duties of territorial and county 
offices ; to prisons and prison bounds ; to real es- 

* For a lengthy study of the political conditions during the 
territorial days, see Dunn's "Indiana." 

* Edward E. Moore, in his book, "A Century of Indiana," 
points out that the territorial government really contained very 
little that was democratic. As he says: "The governor, the sec- 
retary, the judges and one branch of the Legislature were ap- 
pointed by the president and congress, and the minor officers, 
including the magistrates and civil officers in the counties and 
townships, were appointive by the governor. The people had the 
bare privilege of electing the members of the lower house of the 
Legislature under the second grade of government. Even then 
they were hedged about with residence, race and property qual- 
ifications until the franchise was enjoyed by a small percentage 
of the population only. Such property qualifications were also 
required of the officers to be appointed or elected as to insure 
their selection from the wealthier and more favored classes. The 
governor was made a part of the Legislature and at the same 
time had the power of absolute veto over its acts. He also had 
authority to convene, prorogue or dissolve the assembly when he 
saw fit. 



tate, interest on money, marriages, divorces, li- 
censes, ferries, grist mills, elections, punishment 
of crimes and misdemeanors, militia, roads and 
highways, estrays, trespassing animals, enclosure 
and cultivation of common fields, relief of the 
poor, taverns, improving the breed of horses, 
taxes and revenues, negroes and mulattoes under 
indenture as servants, fees of officers, sale of in- 
toxicating liquors, relief of persons imprisoned 
for debt, killing wolves, prohibiting the sale of 
arms and ammunition to Indians and certain 
other persons, the standard of weights and meas- 
ures, vagrants, authorizing aliens to purchase and 
hold real estate in the territory, the incorporation 
of a university, the Vincennes library, the bor- 
ough of Vincennes, the town of Jeffersonville, 
the Wabash Baptist Church, etc. 

"By the provisions of the territorial code 
of 1807 the crimes of treason, murder, arson and 
horse-stealing were each punishable by death. 
The crime of manslaughter was punishable ac- 
cording to the common law. The crimes of bur- 
glary and robbery were each punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and, in some cases, by imprisonment 
not exceeding forty years. Riotous persons were 
punishable by fine and imprisonment. The crime 
of larceny was punishable by fine or whipping 
and, in certain cases, by being bound to labor for 
a term not exceeding seven years. Forgery was 
punishable by fine, disfranchisement and stand- 
ing in the pillory. Assault and battery as a crime, 
was punishable by fine not exceeding $100. Hog- 
stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. 
Gambling, profane swearing and Sabbath-break- 
ing were each punishable by fine. Bigamy was 
punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchise- 
ment" (Dillon). Debtors were not only impris- 
oned, but when liberated could be sued by the 
sheriff for maintenance, thus incurring, perforce, 
more debt. Paupers could be "farmed out" for 
their maintenance to the lowest bidders at "pub- 
lic vendue or outcry." For altering brands on do- 
mestic animals one. for the second offense, might 
be branded on the hand with a letter "T" (for 
thief), burned in with a red-hot iron, while for 
manslaughter he might be similarly branded with 
"M. S." Disobedient children or servants could 
be sent to jail or a house of correction till they 
should "humble themselves to the said parent's 
or master's satisfaction." For mayhem one could 
"be sold to service by the court . . . for any 

time not exceeding five years." As an offset to 
the fierceness of these laws it should be said that 
they seemed to be more or less dead letter relics 
of an earlier day, for we hear little of the worst 
of the penalties being inflicted. Very few, if any, 
were hung for horse-stealing, yet horse-stealing 
was practised ; and as to mayhem, in a rude fight- 
ing age, when gouging and biting was the ap- 
proved method, it was one of the commonest of 
crimes, and it is doubtful if any one ever spent 
five years in virtual slavery for so popular a 
sport. Another illustration of the crudeness of 
the laws was the legislation against Sabbath 
breaking, profane swearing, fisticuffs, cock fight- 
ing, horse racing, and various kinds of gambling, 
all of which misdemeanors were practised with 

First Buildings on Indiana University Campus. 

very little interference. The most incongruous 
of all was the direct forbidding of lotteries by a 
statute that was approved and signed the same 
day as another law authorizing a lottery for the 
benefit of \ incennes University.* 

Difficulties of Early Judiciary. — One of the 
problems of the territorial period was that of a 
satisfactory judiciary system, the source of trou- 
ble being an imperfect adjustment between the 
federal and the legislative powers. A memorial 
by the Legislature laid before Congress as late as 
1814 thus sets forth the difficulty: 

"By a law of Congress one of the judges ap- 
pointed by virtue of the ordinance for the gov- 
ernment of this territory, is authorized to hold a 
court. Thus one of the [federal] judges, being 
competent to hold a court, may decide a princi- 
ple or a point of law at one term, if the other two 

See laws of 1807. 



judges are present, they may decide the same 
principle or point of law different. Thus the de- 
cisions of the superior court, organized, we pre- 
sume, by the general government finally to settle 
in uniformity the principles of law and fact 
which may be brought before them by suitor, may 
be, and frequently are, in a state of fluctuation ; 
hence the rights of persons and property become 
insecure. There is another evil growing out of 
the system of one judge being competent to hold 
the superior court, or that court which forms the 
last resort of the suitor in any government, and 
particularly in the territory ; for appeals are 
taken from all the courts of inferior jurisdiction 
in the territory to the court organized by the 
ordinance, which inferior courts are never con- 
stituted of less than two judges. Thus the suitor 
in the territory is frequently driven to the neces- 
sity of appealing from the judgment of two men 
to that of one. But this dilemma only constitutes 
part of the solecism for the next superior court, 
as the other two judges may overturn the prin- 
ciples of the decision of their brother judge at the 
preceding term. Hence the want of uniformity 
in the decisions of the court of the last resort. 
Anger and warmth in the suitors and a confusion 
in our system of jurisprudence is the result." 

Prior to this memorial the Legislature had at- 
tempted to correct the defects, but they lay be- 
yond its power. In response to the appeal a con- 
gressional act of February 24, 1815, provided 
that there should serve at least two judges of the 
superior court. 

First Banks. — In 1814 the territorial legis- 
lature chartered the two first banking institutions 
in the territory — "The Farmers' and Mechanics' 
Bank of Indiana," at Madison, by an act of Sep- 
tember 6, and "The Bank of Vincennes," on Sep- 
tember 10. The property of the former was lim- 
ited to $750,000 and that of the latter to $500,- 
000. Both charters were granted till 1835. On 
January 1, 1817, the Vincennes institution was 
adopted as the State Bank of Indiana and it was 
authorized to increase its capital by a million dol- 
lars, to be divided into ten thousand shares of 
$100. It was also empowered to adopt the Farm- 
ers' and Mechanics' Bank as one of its branches. 
Before 1821 other branches were established at 
Brookville, Condon and Vevay. The State Bank- 
became so dishonest that in 1822 the Legislature 
proceeded against it and deprived it of its fran- 

chises after proving sundry crimes including em- 

Industrial Beginnings. — The remoteness 
from the markets of the world and poor trans- 
portation facilities discouraged manufacturing 
industries throughout the territorial period ; 
hence agriculture was the almost universal indus- 
try. A census of 1810 shows that in a population 
of 24,520, there were 33 grist mills, 14 saw mills, 
3 horse mills, 18 tanneries, 28 distilleries, 3 pow- 
der mills, 1,256 looms and 1,350 spinning wheels. 
The value of the products, as estimated, were : 
"Woollen, cotton, hempen and flaxen cloths and 
mixtures, $159,052; cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150; nails (20,000 pounds), $4,000; 
leather, tanned, $9,300; products of distilleries 
(35,950 gallons), $16,230; gunpowder (3,600 
pounds), $1,800; wine from grapes (96 barrels), 
$6,000; maple sugar, 50,000 pounds manufac- 
tured, value not stated" (Dillon). Even this 
modest showing must be examined if we would 
form a true estimate of the manufacturing indus- 
tries as detached from the ordinary industry of 
the people at large. By far the largest item given, 
that of fabrics for clothing, was almost entirely 
the products of the home loom and spinning 
wheel, the mill products being valued at $150 
only. More or less of the leather was home- 
tanned ; many of the nails, doubtless, were the 
output of the village smithy, and the maple sugar 
was, perhaps, wholly a home article. It may be 
pointed out that the item of liquor seems quite 
disproportionate to the population and the other 
industrial products. In fact, the first separate in- 
dustries to spring up in the beginning of our sys- 
tem were the grist-mill, the saw-mill and the dis- 

Agriculture was in a primitive stage. The fa- 
cilities were crude, the crops raised, few, and the 
rude farms were won slowly from the wilderness 
only by vast labor, but farming was the hope of 
the country, and as early as 1809 we find in exist- 
ence the "Vincennes Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Agriculture and the Useful Arts," with 
Governor Harrison as its presiding officer. One 
writer states that this society was the forerunner 
of the State Board of Agriculture, and that 
within a few months after its organization it dis- 

* For history of banking see Esarey's "History of Indiana," 
"The State Bank of Indiana," by W. F. Harding in Journal of 
Political Economy, Dec. 1895, and chapter in Smith's Hist. Ind. 



tributed $400 in premiums. In the columns of 
the only newspaper, The Western Sun, we also 
find occasional communications urging interest 
in this direction. In one of these hemp is sug- 
gested as a crop so desirable that associations 
ought to be formed to promote its production. 
Its value is given as $110 per ton and its yield 
as a ton to two or three acres. The raising of 
sheep is also urged by this paper. 

Educational Beginnings. — Despite the en- 

isted from a very early date, though records con- 
cerning them are meager and somewhat conflict- 
ing. The very first one of any kind, so far as 
these vague records indicate, seems to have been 
an Indian school located at a Delaware village on 
White river where it crosses the line between 
Marion and Johnson counties, the solitary testi- 
mony to it being a casual allusion found in John 
Tipton's journal of his trip as a commissioner to 
locate a site for the State capital, in 1820. This 

The First Buildings of: 1. Wabash College. 2. Earlham College. 3. Hanover, 1853-4. 4. Northwestern 
University, now Butler College. 5. Franklin College. 6. Notre Dame. 

couraging policy of the United States govern- 
ment from the beginning and donation of school 
lands, the difficulties incident to the pioneer con- 
dition of the country prevented the development 
of any system of popular education during the 
territorial period, though Governor Harrison and 
Other friends of education kept in sight the 
American policy, as voiced in the Ordinance oi 
1787, that "religion, morality and knowledge be- 
ing necessary to good government and the happi 
ness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall forever be encouraged." 

An uncertain number of private schools ex- 

passage, speaking of the spot above mentioned 
says : "I am told there was once an Indian village 
here. Win. Landers, who lives one mile back 
from the river, told me that an Indian said the 
French once lived here and that the Indian went 
to school to a Frenchman in this place but they 
left it about the time of Hardin's campaign which 
| was] about 33 years ago."* Hardin's campaign 
was in 1789, a little later than the time indicated 
by Tipton. 

The first white schools are generally thought 
to have been among the French, and conducted 

Ind. Quar. Mag. Hist., vol. i, p. 13. 



by Catholic priests. The earliest claims made 
for these was one taught at Vincennes by Father 
Flaget, in 1792, and another by Father Rivet, in 
1796. It is possible, however, that the first 
American schools dated back quite that far, as 
the earliest American settlements at Vincennes 
and at Clark's Grant antedated those years. Ac- 
cording to Judge D. D. Banta, who has delved 
industriously in this subject, there is evidence of 
a school in Dearborn county prior to 1802, and 
there is a claim for one in Clark's Grant, one 
and a half miles south of Charlestown, in 1803.* 
It may be added that as Clark's Grant, three 
years before that, had 929 residents, twenty or 
thirty families having come as early as 1784, it 
is not at all likely that this school of 1803 was 
the first. Of course, these rude first schools 
multiplied as the population increased, though, 
as implied above, there is now no way of ascer- 
taining their number. 

The most notable educational step during the 
territorial period was the establishment of Vin- 
cennes University in 1807. This was an ambitious 
institution founded as the incorporating law 
grandiloquently states, "for the instruction of 
youth in the Latin, Greek, French and English 
languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, an- 
cient and modern history, moral philosophy, 
logic, rhetoric, and the law of nature and na- 
tions." Its faculty was to be "a president and not 
exceeding four professors" qualified to teach the 
proposed academic branches, and the trustees 
were authorized to establish a "library of books 
and experimental apparatus," and to elect "when 
the progressed state of education demanded," 
professors of divinity, law and physics. They 
were further authorized to establish, when funds 
permitted, "an institution for the education of 
females," and a grammar school "to be connected 
with and dependent upon the said university for 
the purpose of teaching the rudiments of the lan- 
guages." Still further, the trustees were enjoined 
to use their utmost endeavors to induce Indians 
to send their children, to be maintained, clothed 
and educated at the expense of the institution. 
A rather scandalous feature of the incorporating 
act, from the viewpoint of to-day, was the pro- 
vision that, for the library and apparatus, "there 

shall be raised a sum not exceeding $20,000 by a 
lottery," to be managed by "five discreet per- 
sons." This serves, perhaps, to emphasize a cer- 
tain departure we have made from the moral 
standards of those times, yet, curiously enough. 
in the laws of the same year, we find lotteries 
legislated against along with other forms of gam- 

The source of maintenance for this institution 
was a township of land, comprising 23,040 acres, 
that had been donated by the general government 
for a seat of learning. Despite the optimism and 
the impressive announcement of its founders the 
"University" began, in 1810, as a grammar 
school only and continued to exist precariously. 
In 1823 it virtually ceased to exist, but fifteen 
years later was reorganized. During the terri- 
torial period there were neither resources nor 
patronage to make it succeed as an institution of 
higher learning. 

Religious Beginnings. — The first form of the 
Christian religion to gain a footing in Indiana 
was the Catholic faith, which was introduced 
among the Indians very early in the French 
regime and perpetuated among the French inhab- 
itants. St. Xavier's church was planted in Vin- 
cennes before Clark's conquest and remains there 
to the present day. In the early times it was, as 
described by Henry Cauthorne, the historian of 
Vincennes, a rude structure made of timbers set 
on end, picket fashion, without windows and 
with a dirt floor. 

Protestanism was introduced among the set- 
tlers of Clark's Grant as early as 1798 when a 
Baptist church was founded in the neighborhood 
of Charlestown. As this denomination was the 
very pioneer in the Protestant field, so, for some 
years, did it gain in strength. By 1809 it was or- 
ganized into two associations, covering, respect- 
ively, the Wabash and the Whitewater districts. 
Methodism appeared in 1804, also near Charles- 
town. according to the Rev. F. C. Holliday. with 
the proselyting of Peter Cartwright and Benja- 
min Lakin, although the Rev. George K. Hester 
gives 1803 as the date of the first organization. 
This sect spread rapidly and during the terri- 
torial period circuits were organized pretty well 
over the settled portions of the country. The 
Presbyterians founded the "Church of Indiana" 

* Banta, "Early Schools of Indiana;" series in Ind. Quarterly 
Mag. Hist., vol. ii. 

* Statutes of 1807, p. 199. 



in 1806, "the service being held in the barn of 
Colonel Small, about two miles east of Vin- 

The Quakers, or Friends, built their first meet- 
ing house on the site of Richmond in 1807 
(Young's Wayne County) and soon planted oth- 
ers throughout the upper Whitewater region. 
Two other sects, both peculiar in character, ap- 
peared in Indiana during the period we are cov- 
ering. These were the "Shakers" and the "Rap- 
pites." The first of these settled at "Shaker- 
town" on Busseron creek, a few miles north of 

be added, however, that the degree of their 
growth when introduced interprets to a degree 
the psychology and the status of the people. This 
is more conspicuously true, perhaps, of Quaker- 
ism, Methodism and Presbyterianism. The atti- 
tude of the Friends, then as now, was quite dis- 
tinctive on certain fundamentals of life — on the 
simplicity of life, on the sovereignty and dignity 
of the individual, on justice between man and 
man, and on the doctrine of nonmilitancy. Meth- 
odism made its appeal to the emotional nature, 
and among; those who felt rather than reasoned 

Founding of Notre Dame. On November 16, 1842. at the beginning of winter, seven of the Brothers set out 
with their Superior (Father Sorin) for the St. Joseph. For many days they struggled on over ice and snow 
through the interminable forest, some on horseback and some with the ox team, which hauled their modest 
store of supplies ... at length, on November 26, they had the happiness of standing on the ice-bound 
shore of St. Mary's Lake and looking out upon the scene of their new labors. — Judge Timothy E. Howard, 
in History of Notre Dante. 

Vincennes some time prior to the Tippecanoe 
campaign, as John Tipton in his journal of the 
march mentions the place. The "Rappites," so 
named from their leader, George Rapp, were a 
German colony who held to communism and 
celibacy. They were the founders of the present 
New Harmony in Posey county, where they 
dwelt from 1815 to 1825. 

A mere mention of these religious elements 
and the dates of their introduction is all that 
comes within the scope of this section. It may 

* Edson's "Early Indiana Presbyterianism," p. 41. 

in religious matters it swept the field like a con- 
flagration. Presbyterianism, while it showed no 
lack of zeal, stood for intellectualism. It stood 
for learning and. a little later, was the first 
agency to found a school (Hanover College) 
which aimed to produce an educated clergy. Its 
expounders were among the first educators in the 
new territory and they, more than any other class 
brought private libraries into the country. The 
Baptist church, though at first in the lead, de- 
clined in influence, perhaps because of schism> 
arising from the doctrinal differences that seem 



to have been particularly bitter in that church. 
Of the several denominations mentioned, Meth- 
odism, as measured by its growth, made the 
greatest appeal. 

Cultural Beginnings; First Newspapers. — 
Culture seems a rather strained term for such 
refinements as we can trace in the territorial pe- 
riod. In view of the fact that many of the resi- 
dents of Vincennes were persons of education 
familiar with the culture of the larger centers 
whence they had emigrated, it is possible that 
there was an elegant side to society in the little 
isolated capital, and this was also probably true 
of Jeffersonville, Charlestown, Salem, Corydon, 
Madison, Brookville and other towns, though 
very little actual record of it is to be found. In 
a note by Mr. Webster (Webster's Harrison, p. 
296) on "Intellectual Life at Vincennes," he 
points out that "a large number of able lawyers 
made the Vincennes bar unusually strong." lie 
also speaks of a medical society, organized in 
1807, which continued with vigor until long after 
Statehood ; of the Vincennes Historical and 
Antiquarian Society, dating from 1808, and of 
the Vincennes Library, founded the same year, 
which contained at the start from 3,000 to 4,000 
volumes. As early as 1806 a dramatic organiza- 
tion, "The Thespian Society," made its appear- 
ance and throughout the territorial years contrib- 
uted to the gaiety of Vincennes life. 

The newspaper, even of those days, might be 
considered a cultural agent to a limited degree as 
it not only disseminated light in the form of news 
and of political opinion, but afforded a certain 
outlet for local literary aspirants besides borrow- 
ing more or less from the larger literary field for 
the education of its readers. The first apostle of 
ideas in this direction was Elihu Stout who, as 
early as 1804, brought to Vincennes from Ken- 
tucky a printing outfit and launched The Indiana 
Gazette. Not a copy of this paper is now in ex- 
istence so far as is known, as Stout's office was 
destroyed by fire, but, phenix-like it sprang into 
new life, this time as The Western Sun, under 
which name, after various changes of title, it ex- 
ists to the present day. Prior to and including 
1816 five or six other papers are of record, these 
being The Western Eagle, of Madison, in 1813; 
The Corydon Gazette, 1814; The Plaindealer and 
Gazette, Brookville, about 1815; The Republican 

Banner, afterward the Indiana Republican, Mad- 
ison, 1815, and The Indiana Register, Vevay, 
1816. Copies of any of these are very rare or 
entirely lost, but fortunately files of The West- 
cm Sun from 1807 have been preserved and are 
now among the prized possessions of the State 
Library. Touching many matters of territorial 
times they are the chief source of information 
and are valued accordingly by research students. 
Like all pioneer papers they are provokingly si- 
lent on local affairs of a social and intimate na- 
ture, but in a literary way we find home talent 
fostered, particularly in the poet's corner which 
is maintained under the happy title of "The Poet- 
ical Asylum." 

Political Beginnings. — One thing that these 
files particularly reflect is the active interest of 
the people in political affairs, both local and na- 
tional. A sense of citizenship harking back to 
the spirit of '76 and the principles of the found- 
ers of the government seems to have permeated 
the rank and file as it does not to-day. Another 
conspicuous quality that throws light on the tem- 
per and status of the time, was the truculent ani- 
mosity between those who differed in political 
opinions. Fierceness, contempt and personal 
abuse, out of all keeping with the provocation, 
and served up according to the talents of the bel- 
ligerent, is a common exhibit in the weekly 
columns. The straightforward, simple honesty 
and common sense attributed to the pioneers 
must be taken with a grain of allowance, espe- 
cially in matters political. From the glimpses we 
get, log-rolling and demagogy were quite as pro- 
nounced, in proportion to the forces at work, as 
at the present day, and the successful politician 
was he who could truckle to the prejudices of the 
people. The local contests over such questions as 
slavery in the territory and the division of the 
territory, were rife with bitterness and acrimony ; 
the "people" and the "aristocrats," as they came 
to be classed, were arrayed against each other, 
with little regard to justice, one toward the other, 
and bellicose humanity was continually in evi- 
dence. In short, the vices of popular government, 
as we have them to-day, are not an aftergrowth 
engrafted upon the patriotic purity of earlier 
times, but had their birth along with popular gov- 

First County Divisions and Towns. — During 



the territorial period the one large county of 
Km ix, originally as large as the present State, 
was divided and re-divided until thirteen coun- 
ties covered the various land purchases that the 
United States had secured prior to 1816. By 
the re-dividing process, these counties as origi- 
nally formed, had but little correspondence with 
the subsequent divisions that continued to bear 
the names given. The formations in chronologi- 
cal order were : 

Clark county, detached from Knox by act of 
February 3, 1801. 

Switzerland, out of Dearborn and Jefferson, 
September 7, 1814.* 

The chief towns that had sprung up and the 
dates of their founding were : 

\ incennes, 1732 (long a disputed question, but 
this date now accepted); Jeffersonville, 1802; 
Lawrenceburg, 1802 ; Brookville, 1807 ; Corydon, 
1808; Charlestown, 1808; Salisbury, 1810; Madi- 
son, 1812; New Albany, 1813; Vevay, 1813; 
Salem, 1814; Centerville, 1814; Rising Sun, 
1814; Brownstown. 1815; Richmond, 1816 (Bas- 
kin & Forster Atlas, 1876). Vallonia, Springville, 

Xotre Dame. Second College Building, 1844-65. 

Dearborn, out of Clark, March 7, 1803. 

Harrison, out of Knox and Clark, October 11, 

Jefferson, out of Clark and Dearborn, Novem- 
ber 23, 1810 

Franklin, out of Dearborn and Clark, Novem- 
ber 27. 1810. 

Wayne, out of Dearborn and Clark, November 
27, 1810. 

Warrick, out of Knox, March 9, 1813. 

Gibson, out of Knox, March 9, 1813. 

Washington, out of Harrison and Clark, De- 
cember 21, 1813. 

Posey, out of Warrick, September 7, 1814. 

Perrv. out of ( iibson and Warrick, September 
7, 1814. 

Clarksville and other small places, some of them 
long since extinct, also belong to this period. 


( >f those who were prominent in territorial af- 
fairs, some became identified with the earlier his- 
tory of the State and should be noted chiefly in 
that connection. Others were identified solely 
with the questions that arose prior to statehood, 
particularly the acute issue of the legalizing of 
slavery. Of the first group may be mentioned 
Jonathan Jennings. William Hendricks. James 
Noble, Waller Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Isaac 

• End. Hist. Soc. Col., v. iii, pp. 73-4. 



Blackford and Dennis Pennington. Of the sec- 
ond group many more might be named. The 
major portion of them are unknown to the pres- 
ent generation, but they played their parts in the 
early formative period and were factors in our 

William Henry Harrison. — By far the most 
conspicuous figure from 1800 to 1812 was Will- 
iam Henry Harrison, the first Territorial gov- 
ernor, and afterward President of the United 
States. Several duties and responsibilities that 
were peculiar to the first years of the future 
State devolved upon Harrison. During the first 
grade of government he shared with three judges 
the task of choosing and compiling a code of laws 
for the Territory. He was invested with auto- 
cratic powers that made him a target for the jeal- 
ous and suspicious critics ; and, though history 
acquits him of any unfair exercise of those pow- 
ers, he did not escape his harvest of enemies. 
One of his great services was a series of treaties, 
whereby he secured from the Indians land 
amounting to about one-third of the Territory. 
His knowledge of Indian character and his capa- 
bility as a military leader were of incalculable 
value during the danger period of Indian hostili- 
ties, and his victory over the tribes at the battle 
of Tippecanoe was of vast importance and estab- 
lished a fame that brought him into national 
prominence. In 1812, his official connection with 
Indiana ceased, he taking the field as brigadier- 
general in the second war with England. Harri- 
son county, Indiana, is named in his honor. 

John Gibson. — Secretary of Indiana Terri- 
tory from 1800 and acting governor from Sep- 
tember. 1812, to May, 1813, was a soldier who 
did good service both during and before the Rev- 
olutionary war, on the western frontier. He was 
a brother-in-law of Logan, the Mingo chief, and 
the interpreter who received and transmitted to 
Lord Dunmore, in 1774, the famous speech of 
Logan's, which is a classic in literature Gibson's 
governorship fell at the most trying period — the 
war period of 1812, when the Indian dangers to 
our frontier were at their height, and his prompt 
and vigorous measures stamped him as a man of 
ability. He left the State in 1816. Gibson county 
is named for him. 

Thomas Posey. — Governor from 1813 to 1816. 
had a military reputation scarcely second to that 

of Harrison, being a distinguished Revolutionary 
soldier. President Madison appointed him gov- 
ernor of Indiana Territory and for three years 
he served in that capacity, though part of the 
time his health was so precarious that he was 
obliged to live at Jeffersonville for the sake of 
medical attendance, while the seat of government 
was at Corydon. This somewhat impeded public 
business and aroused some criticism, but, never- 
theless, at the close of his term, the Legislature 
highly commended his administration. "Many 
evils," affirmed that body, in its communication, 
"have been remedied, and we particularly admire 
the calm, dispassionate, impartial conduct which 
has produced the salutary effects of quieting the 
violence of party spirit, harmonizing the interests 
as well as the feelings of the different parties of 
the Territory. Under your auspices, we have be- 
come one people." 

Posey went from Indiana to Illinois, where he 
died in 1818. Posey county bears his name. 

Other individuals, whose specific services are 
mostly lost in oblivion, should be briefly men- 
tioned. Jesse B. Thomas, speaker of the first 
Territorial Legislature, was a Marylander, who 
came to Lawrenceburg in 1803 and was a lawyer 
there. He became a professional politician and is 
ranked in history as one of the kind that are not 
overburdened with scruples. John Rice Jones, a 
Welshman, member of the first Legislative Coun- 
cil and first attorney general, was an early citizen 
of Vincennes. He is credited with being a lawyer 
of unusual ability, a man of fine education, a 
brilliant speaker and a "perfect master of satire 
and invective," which latter talent he was not 
slow to exercise in the political mud-slinging of 
the day. Others prominent in politics were: 
Thomas Randolph, third attorney general, a 
member of the celebrated Randolph family of 
Virginia ; John Johnson, a Virginian, of Vin- 
cennes ; Samuel Gwathmey, a Virginian, who 
held several Territorial offices; General Wash- 
ington Johnston, a Virginian, and also repeatedly 
an officeholder ; James, John and Charles Beggs. 
three brothers, Virginians, and residents of 
Clark's Grant ; Luke Decker, a Virginian, farmer 
and slaveholder; and James Dill, an Irishman, 
and a party leader of Dearborn county. Not 
least in this roll would be the name of Elihu 
Stout, who, as owner and editor of the onlv 



newspaper that flourished during most of the 
Territorial period, wielded a political influence 
that was, perhaps, second to none.* 

This list, by no means, pretends to include all 
those who were active in public matters and who 
could be regarded as contributing to formative 
influences. A political interest that was lively to 
the point of activity, indeed, was characteristic of 
the period, though of the names that crop out in 
connection with public functions, the great ma- 
jority are unattended with any biographical data. 

back was enclosed with a picket fence of locust 
timbers firmly planted in the ground. The square 
in front of the mansion, in laying out Harrison's 
addition, was reserved for a park. The brick used 
in the construction of the mansion were manu- 
factured by Samuel Thompson, who received for 
this work four hundred acres of land about three 
miles above the city on the Terre Haute road." 

This "mansion," the famous one still standing, 
is said by Cauthorne to have been built in 1804. 
According to Hubbard Smith, another local his- 



■ ■ 


"I 111 

11 : »— * 

Ff l :::[Lr 







1 L £ - L -L 1 P : r 

L L y — -i -W 


W'iiii sorrowful sounds do I bear, Hove slowly along in the gale; How solemn they fell on my car. As siiflly they pass through thc'vale. — Swccl 

mi^imis^ m 






■ ■ 




> > > h 


LU^U-E- E 




^Bjjj^ j^j 

Corydon's note? are all o'er, 

Now lonely he sleeps in the clay, 

His checki bloom with roses no more, Since death call-d h'.s spirit awa 

L. * L 1 

k _LLvda: 

■ ■ ■" 

t 1 * ■ ■ • «= 

L L '" L 1 L 




— - 

Sweet woodbines will rise round his feet, 
And willows their sorrowing wave; 
Young hyacinths freshen and Monm, 
While hawthorns encircle his qrave. 
Each morn when the son gilds the east, 
(The green grass bespnni^ed with dew.) 
tie Ml cast his bright beams oi. the west, 
To charm the sad Caroline's view. 

3. O Corydon ! hear the sad cnes 
Of Caroline, plaintive and t'ow; 
O spirit! look down from thesliics. 
And pity thy mourner belo-*. 
'Tis Caroline's voice in the grove. 
Which Philomel hears on the plain. 
Then striving the mourner to soothe, 
Wjth sympathy joins in ber strain. 

4. Ye shepherds so blithesome and young, 5. And when the still night has tin fur I'd 

Retire from your sports on the green, 
Since Corydon's deaf to my song, 
The wolvct tear the lambs on the plain: 
Each swain round the forest will stray. 
And sorrowing hang ''own his head, 
His pipe then in symphony play 
Some dirge to sweet Corydon's shade. 

Her robes o'er the han.let around, 
Gray twilight retires from ftie world. 
And darkness encumbers the ground. 
I'll leave my own gloomy abode, 
To Corydon's urn -.vill I fffp>~ 
There kneeling will bless the iutt GoA 
Who dwells in bright mansions ^o high. 

€ Since Corydon hears me no more, Id gloom let the woodlands appem 
Kil hie me through moadow and lawn. There cull the bright flow'ret* 

Ye ocenns be still of your roar, I*et Autumn extend around the year ; 
of May, Then rite od the wings of the mom, And waft my young iptnt away. 

Selection from "Missouri Harmony." from which Corydon Is Said to Have Derived Its Nami 

Man) of these names are mentioned in the Exec- 
utive Journal of Indiana Territory. t 


"Grouseland." — This name was given by Har- 
rison to his "plantation," near Yincennes. long 
since within the city limits. It is thus described 
by Henry Cauthorne, in his history of Yin- 
cennes : 

"The grounds around the Harrison mansion, 
extending to the river, were artistically laid out 
and rilled with the choicest fruits and flowers. 
. . . It remained in good preservation as late 
as 1855. The river front and for some distance 

* Of Jonathan Jennings, 01 ■ governor, there will 

be found a fuller sketch hereafter. 
f His : . \ h1. Hi. 

torian, it was contracted for in 1805 and com- 
pleted in 1806. 

Corydon Named from Song. — "When Will- 
iam Henry Harrison was governor of the Terri- 
tory, he traveled from Yincennes on horseback 
to and from Harrison county, where he owned 
large tracts of land. On these trips he often vis- 
ited the home of Edward Smith, who is said to 
have left the British army during the Revolu- 
tionary war and made his way to Indiana, where 
he married and lived with his family in a log 
cabin in Harrison county. ( )n the occasion of 
General Harrison's visits, after the evening meal 
was finished, the members of the family and 
their guest would gather around the open cabin 
door and sing the general's favorite songs. On 
one of these visits, as General 1 tarrison was 



making his departure, tradition says he remarked : 
'In a few days I expect to lay out a town near 
here and would like to have you suggest a suita- 
ble name for it.' Whereupon Miss Jennie Smith 
asked : 'Why not name it Corydon, from the 
piece you like so much ?' Her suggestion pleased 
the governor, and thus the town is said to have 
derived its name. Mr. Smith's cabin stood near 
the present Fair Grounds Spring at Corydon." — 
Merica Hoagland. 

Indiana Libraries and Lottery. — "From a 
paper prepared by Doctor Horace Ellis when 
president of Vincennes University, we learn 
something of the first circulating library organ- 
ized in Indiana. In historic old Vincennes, at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, a notable as- 
semblage of men gathered with purpose scarcely 
less exalted than that which animated the found- 
ers of Harvard University. The central figure 
of the group was General William Henry Harri- 
son, whose face, bronzed by his Indian cam- 
paigns, was now aglow with this new patriotism- 
of-peace plan to disseminate good literature 
among the dwellers in this new Indiana country. 
Others, notable for their participation in the 
making of Indiana, were present at the meeting 
held at William Hay's home. July 20, 1806, when 
a number of citizens of Vincennes and vicinity 
met to promote the formation of a circulating li- 
brary. A stock company was organized, called 
'The Vincennes Library Company.' Shares of 
stock were issued. On August 23, 1806, at this 
original 'book shower,' W. Buntin presented a 
number of books, the first probably offered for 
circulating library purposes in Indiana. The first 
librarian was Peter Jones, who was also auditor 
of the territory and keeper of a tavern. The 
meetings of the shareholders were held at 'Jones' 

"In 1815, the Vincennes Library Company, 
emulating the Vincennes University, arranged a 
lottery, when books and clocks were offered as 
prizes. The progress of this affords interesting 
reading, as human nature is the same whether 
concerned with affairs in early Vincennes or 

present-day Indianapolis. When Vincennes Uni- 
versity was incorporated on November 29, 1806, 
the Territorial Legislature vested authority in 
the trustees of the university by means of which 
they might raise funds not to exceed $20,000. 
The trustees claimed this as a vested right as late 
as 1883, when the United States Supreme Court 
rendered a decision that there could be no vested 
right in a lottery. Citizens of Indiana prior to 
this decision, bought tickets and took chances as 
freely as did others in the famous Louisiana lot- 
tery." — Merica Hoagland. 

Louisiana and Indiana. — When the vast tract 
known as the "Louisiana Purchase," secured 
from France in 1803, came to be organized it 
was divided into two districts and the northern 
part called the "District of Louisiana," a large 
part of it lying immediately west of the Illinois 
country, was attached to Indiana for purposes 
of government, though not made a part of our 
territory. Our governor and judges established 
several laws for the District of Louisiana that 
were separate and apart from the laws for Indi- 
ana. This arrangement was not practicable and 
on March 4, 1805, Louisiana became a separate 

Letters of Decius. — Like all public men Gov- 
ernor Harrison was subject to the virulence of 
his enemies, and much of the criticism leveled at 
him is, by the light of history, vicious and unwar- 
ranted beyond excuse. A series of attacks on 
him, which is referred to so often that it is some- 
what famous, is known as "The Letters of De- 
cius." Decius was Isaac Darneille. who in 1805 
published his "Letters" in "The Farmer's Li- 
brary," of Louisville, and afterward issued them 
in a pamphlet. These communications were not 
only criticisms of Harrison's public acts and poli- 
cies, which, of course, might have been quite 
warranted, but they reek with a personal spite 
which was the fashion among critics at that day. 
To such extremes did "Decius" go that even- 
tually the editor of the publishing paper, J. Vail, 
printed an apologetic explanation discrediting the 
author and giving his name. 



Indian Relations. — From the first invasion 
of the whites to the close of the war of 1812, in 
which the power of the red man in this region 
was finally and effectually broken, constituted 
what may be called the danger period of Indiana 
history. During those years the frontier settlers 
were never free from the risk of savage warfare, 
and from time to time the smoldering hostility 
broke forth fiercely. The causes of this were, in 
the first instance, the Indians' resentment at the 
never-ending encroachment of the white race, 
and, in the second, the unscrupulous conduct of 
very many of the whites in their relations with 
the red men. The policy of the government to- 
ward the Indians, in theory, at least, was pro- 
tecting and conciliatory, but its salutary inten- 
tions were continually overriden by an element 
that had small regard for an Indian's rights. Gov- 
ernor Harrison, who manifested a real interest in 
the welfare of the aborigines, has testified to the 
abuses they suffered. "Their people," he affirmed, 
"have been killed, their lands settled on, their 
game wantonly destroyed and their young men 
made drunk and cheated of the peltries which 
formerly procured them necessary articles of 
clothing, arms and ammunition to hunt with. 
The frontiersman," he said, "thought the killing 
of an Indian meritorious," and he cited instances 
of Indian murders that went unpunished. While 
they bear this, as he said, with patience, and at 
that time showed no disposition for war, he 
feared their ready alliance with any enemy the 
United States might have.* The disposition of 
adventurous whites to ignore boundary lines and 
to intrude upon the Indian lands could never be 
prevented by the government, though it pro- 
claimed that such parties intruded at their own 
risk and, in case of Indian vengeance, were be- 
yond the pale of governmental protection. 

Distribution and Territorial Claims of the 
Indians. — When Indiana Territory was cre- 
ated the aboriginal population was estimated at 
one hundred thousand (Webster), though we 
find no statement as to the actual number within 

the limits of the present State. The tribes in 
these latter limits consisted mainly of the Miami 
Confederacy, the Potawatomis and the Dela- 
wares. At the Greenville treaty of 1795, the 
Miamis, through Little Turtle, their spokesman, 
claimed to have held from "time immemorial" 
a large territory that included all of Indiana. 
Such other tribes as occupied any part of that 
region seem to have done so by invitation or 
sufferance of the Miamis. What was known as 
the "Miami federation," as represented here, 
consisted of the Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
the Ouiatanons or Weas, the Eel Rivers and the 
Piankeshaws. Their towns were mostly along 
the Wabash, from the site of Fort Wayne to 
Yincennes, each of the various sub-tribes having 
its own locality. The Potawatomis occupied that 
part of the State lying north and northwest of 
the Miami country, as far eastward as the head 
waters of the Tippecanoe and Eel rivers, and the 
Delawares had the White river valley, their most 
eastern town standing where Muncie now is. 
Other tribes, notably Kickapoos, Shawnees, Win- 
nebagos and W r yandotte or Hurons had towns in 
the Miami country. The south part of the terri- 
tory east of the Wabash is said to have been com- 
mon hunting ground. We hear of aboriginal vil- 
lages here and there throughout that region, but 
whether these were in any sense permanent or 
other than the shifting villages of hunting par- 
ties is not established. 

The vagueness of the Indian claims and their 
loose validity is illustrated by the fact that the 
Potawatomis and Delawares, though said to have 
been occupying Miami territory, yet figured in 
the treaties for land sales and shared in the 
money and goods that were paid.* One thing 

Harrison's letter to secretary of war in 1801. 

* In the American state papers (Public Lands, vol. iii, p. 
373) is a petition to congress under date of February 24, 1820, 
from the "Muhheaknunk or Stockbridge nations of Indians," 
otherwise the Mohicans, in which the petitioners claim that ante- 
cedent to the Revolutionary War the Miamis had granted to 
them and to the Delawares and Munsees a tract of land situated 
on the waters of W'hite river (in Indiana) equal to 100 miles 
square. These Mohicans, under the second article of the Fort 
Wayne treaty of September 30, 1809, claimed to be the "lawful 
proprietors of an equal and undivided share of the Delaware 
territory and asked for a share of the government payments 
made therefor." 




that contributed to this vagueness was the shift- 
ing westward of the Ohio Indians by Wayne's 
treaty of 1795, leaving those tribes without any 
clearly defined lands of their own. General 
Wayne was asked to apportion the territory re- 
maining to the Indians by "fixing the bounds of 
every nation's rights," but declined the delicate 
task.* Naturally, then, all the resident tribes 
came to regard themselves as having a right in 
the lands they occupied, and when these lands 
came to be sold made their claims accordingly. 

Conditions In First Decade. — During the 
first decade of Indiana Territory, the United 
States government was nominally at peace with 
the Indians north of the Ohio. That is, there 
were no campaigns and not much armed demon- 
stration, and the series of land treaties during 
that period bespoke friendly relations. This 
seeming friendliness, however, is belied by the 
straggling chronicles we have of attacks and re- 
prisals between the frontiersmen and marauding 
war parties of savages. A repeated source of 
aggravation was the land question and the fact 
that the chiefs who signed away the various 
tracts, one after the other, did not represent the 
sentiment of all the Indians who conceived that 
they had rights in the land. This, as will be re- 
lated elsewhere, was the prime cause of the trou- 
ble that culminated in the battle of Tippecanoe. 
There was also, doubtless, the deep-seated feel- 
ing that the government, with all its professions 
of fairness, was exercising the merciless power 
of a dominant race. As a matter of fact in the 
policy of the government it was a foregone con- 
clusion that the white man was to possess the 
land — the boundaries of future States were es- 
tablished before any of it had been purchased ; 
and when the time came he bought pretty much 
on his own terms. What kind of terms these 
were may be seen from a letter of Harrison's to 
Jefferson which stated that the purchase of 1805 
amounted to about one cent per acre, but that he 
"hoped to get the next cession enough cheaper 
to bring down the average." In connection with 
this purchase he also said that a knowledge of the 
value of land was fast gaining ground among the 
Indians.f I' 1 brief there existed in connection 
with the land purchases an undercurrent of dis- 

satisfaction that played its part in making the 
early years a "danger period ;" and the further 
fact that hunters, invading the Indian lands in 
search of pelts, had almost exterminated the 
larger game, kept the young men of the tribes 
on the verge of warfare. William M. Cock- 
rum, in his "Pioneer History of Indiana," has 
rescued from this obscure period some accounts 
of Indian adventures that savor of the annals of 
Kentucky's "dark and bloody ground." 

Ranger Service of 1807. — Mr. Cockrum. in 
the work above mentioned, also published certain 
valuable papers of a Captain William Hargrove 
which revealed that in 1807 the troubles were so 
acute that a ranger service was organized to 
patrol the frontier. This body was formed into 
three divisions, one taking the country from the 
Wabash eastward to the neighborhood of the 
French Lick springs ; another from that point to 
the falls of the Ohio, and the third from the 
falls to Lawrenceburg. The commander of one 
of these divisions was Captain Hargrove, and 
the papers mentioned, being letters of instruction 
to him from John Gibson, secretary of the ter- 
ritory, throw considerable light on that particular 
period and its dangers.* 

Tecumtha and the Prophet. — A factor in our 
Indian troubles that became historic was the in- 
fluence of the Shawnee chief, Tecumtha (often 
written Tecumsehf) and his brother, known as 
the "Prophet," and the part that influence played 
in precipitating important issues. These two re- 
markable Indians first appeared in Indiana his- 
tory in 1805, among the Delawares on White 
river, where the Prophet fomented a witchcraft 
craze which resulted in the murder of several 
victims accused by him, and which had somewhat 
the complexion of a crusade of vengeance against 
those who were friendly to the whites and who 
had sanctioned the sales of land. In 1808 the 
two appeared among the Potawatomis and es- 
tablished themselves at the mouth of Tippe- 
canoe river a few miles above the site of Lafay- 
ette. Here they drew about them Indians of 
various tribes and the place became known as 
the Prophet's Town. The Prophet was a re- 
ligious teacher whose propaganda was a strange 
mingling of ethics, wisdom and gross supersti- 

* Dunn's "True Indian Stories," p. 74. 

t See Webster's "William Henry Harrison's Administration of 
Indiana Territory;" an excellent monograph in vol. iv, Ind. 
Hist. Soc. publications 

* Cockrum's "Pioneer History of Indiana," pp. 202-29. 
7 The form "Tecumtha" seems to be adopted by the best In- 
dian authorities. 



tion. He claimed to be a divine spokesman and 
to have supernatural vision, and this seems to 
have been the great source of his power among 
his followers. This power he exercised in the 
furtherance of the plans conceived by his brother, 

Tecumtha was one of the most notable Indians 
of history, being an aboriginal orator, patriot and 
statesman. Foreseeing the ultimate destruction 
of his race, the effort of his life was to stop the 
advancing host of the white invaders, and to this 
end he planned and worked to federate the red 
tribes and thus create a power that could hope 
to stem the oncoming tide. The heterogeneous 
gathering at the Prophet's Town was but a nu- 
cleus of the federation that was hoped for. He 
took a bold and consistent stand against the 
selling of lands to the United States government, 
maintaining that many of the Indians concerned 
did not agree to these sales, and that they were 
not valid without the consent of all the tribes. 
The claim of the Shawnees was based on the 
fact that when, by the treaty of 1795. the whites 
took ( >hio and the Ohio Indians were all pushed 
back into the Miami territory in Indiana, they 
ton became part owners of that territory (Dunn). 
When, in 1809. a new treaty cut off about three 
million acres more from the Indians' holdings 
and carried the boundary line far up the Wabash, 
Tecumtha's opposition became threatening. In 
1810 he visited Vincennes with his retinue for a 
council with Governor Harrison, and expressed 
his views with such plainness that a clash was 
narrowly averted. His final assurance at this 
memorable conference was that if the whites 
crossed the old boundary line with their sur- 
vivors there would be bad consequences. 

After this Tecumtha went on a tour among the 
tribes of the south to spread his doctrine of In- 
dian federation and during his absence the de- 
cisive battle of Tippecanoe was fought, ending 
hi- dreams of a successful resistance. When the 
war of 1812 broke out he joined the British and 
was killed in the battle of the Thames. 

After the battle of Tippecanoe the Prophet, 
who had precipitated that battle and urged his 
followers on, assuring them that the bullets of 
the enemy could not harm them, fell into disre- 
pute among his people, and after living in "a 
sort of disgrace" among various bands, died be- 
yond the Mississippi in 1834. 


The battle of Tippecanoe, the most important 
clash of arms that ever occurred on Indiana soil, 
if we except the storming of Vincennes by George 
Rogers Clark, was directly brought about by the 
land troubles spoken of above. As said, these 
became more acute after the purchase of a large 
tract in 1809, largely by reason of the protests 
of Tecumtha and the influence of the Prophet. 
Besides the danger of incursions by irresponsi- 


/ *'A.« 



Z if 


BATTCt 'iROurvo. 

— ■ 

The Plan of the Battlefield of Tippecanoe and Route of 
Harrison's Army. — Courtesy of State Librarian D. C. 

ble hostile bands, serious hostility was evidently 
brewing among the tribes, with the Prophet's 
Town as source and center, though the fomenters 
of it avowed peaceful intentions. Governor Har- 
rison repeatedly sent messengers not only to the 
Tippecanoe town but to other villages of the 
various tribes to promote amity and to warn 
them against the danger of hostility to the United 
States, but the situation was not mended and 
the predatory raids on the frontier continued 
until, on July 31, 1811, the citizens of Knox 
county, at a public meeting, declared that there 
could be no safety until the Prophet's combina- 



tion was broken up by prompt and decisive 
measures, and such measures were recommended 
to the governor and the president. Harrison and 
those who knew Indian character best shared the 
belief that a vigorous threat, backed by an actual 
show of power to enforce it, was the only de- 
pendable remedy, and the outcome of the situa- 
tion was the mobilizing of a little army of about 
nine hundred men consisting of United States 
troops and Indiana militia with about sixty volun- 
teers from Kentucky (Dillon). The purpose 
of this force was not to actually attack the In- 
dians, unless circumstances made it necessary, 
but to establish a military post within the terri- 
tory that was the immediate source of trouble, 
thence to proceed to the Prophet's Town by way 
of a demonstration and awe the troublesome 
tribesmen there into compliance with demands 
that had been made upon them. 

The expedition left Vincennes September 26, 
1811, and on October 3 reached a favorable spot 
for the proposed post, on the high ground above 
the site of Terre Haute. Here the force re- 
mained until the last of the month, building the 
fort, which was named in honor of the governor, 
then resumed the march, arriving at Tippecanoe 
on November 6. Indian messengers met the 
whites for a parley and, after Harrison's assur- 
ances that the first intention was not an attack 
but a conference, he was directed by them to a 
camping place on high ground, where wood and 
water were procurable. Here the army en- 
camped, expecting the conference on the mor- 
row, but Harrison's familiarity with Indian 
methods forbade reliance on Indian honor, and, 
prudently, the men slept on their arms, prepared 
to meet any contingency at a moment's notice. 
The precaution was fortunate, for before day- 
light the following morning an attack was made 
by a large body of Indians so sudden and fierce 
that the assailants were fairly in the camp before 
many of the soldiers could get out of their tents. 
The conflict lasted from about a quarter past four 
till daylight and only preparedness and desperate 
fighting saved the army from rout and massacre. 
When, after the foiled and beaten Indians were 
driven from the field, the whites took stock of 
their losses they found that thirty-seven of their 
number were slain and a hundred and fifty-one 
of them wounded. How many Indians were en- 
gaged is not accurately known, but they have 

been estimated at from six hundred to eight hun- 
dred. Their loss was also unknown but ex- 
ceeded that of the whites, as thirty-eight were 
found dead and others were carried off. The 
defeated savages abandoned their town and the 
victors burned it to the ground. 

A trial by arms at this time was contrary to 
the plans of Tecumtha, who was then in the 
south. The Prophet was responsible for it. His 
power over his followers was such that he made 
them believe the enemy's bullets could not harm 
them, and during the fight he stood aloof urging 
them on by singing his mysterious incantations 
in a voice so stentorian that from it he took his 
name of La-lu-e-tsee-ka, or the "Loud Voice" 
(Dunn). With his defeat his influence was de- 
stroyed and he became a sort of outcast. 

Harrison's army was composed of nine com- 
panies of regulars, six companies of Indiana mi- 
litia (infantry), five companies of riflemen, two 
companies of dragoons and a company of scouts 
and spies. About one-fourth of the force were 
mounted (Dunn). 

Importance of Tippecanoe. — While the bat- 
tle of Tippecanoe did not put an end to Indian 
hostilities it was, nevertheless, a fight of such 
importance as to merit the term "decisive." 
Probably it decided to no small degree the fu- 
ture of Indiana, for whereas it effectually 
checked the political plans of Tecumtha and de- 
stroyed the dangerous influence of the Prophet, 
Indian victory would doubtless have accelerated 
these, and what the frontier would have suffered 
with its protecting army defeated is beyond 
guessing, especially when we consider the fast- 
following war with England. 

The impress it left on the minds of the peo- 
ple was strong and abiding. No less than half- 
a-dozen counties in the State were afterward 
named for heroes of Tippecanoe. It made for 
Governor Harrison a military reputation which 
opened the way to conspicuous service in the war 
of 1812 and which as late as 1840 carried him 
to the presidential chair of the United States 
after the most enthusiastic political campaign 
the country has ever had. The spot where the 
conflict occurred is to-day the one battlefield 
which Indiana owns and fittingly preserves as 
a memorial of those who fought and fell there. 
The ground was presented to the State in 1835 
by General John Tipton, who was a participant 



in the battle. An obscure account that has never 
found its way into the histories is to the effect 
that on the 21st of November, 1830, the bones 
of those killed on the field nineteen years before 
were collected and interred "by a large concourse ' 
of people with due gravity and respect," the re- 
mains being put in one large coffin on the lid of 
which, formed of brass nails, was the inscription, 
"Rest. Warriors, Rest." General Harrison, who 

THE WAR OF 1812 

One factor in our Indian troubles from the be- 
ginning was the encouragement offered the sav- 
ages by the British in Canada. England had 
never reconciled herself to the occupancy by the 
Americans of the territory wrung from her by 
George Rogers Clark, and it is an established 
charge in our histories that, even during the pe- 

v & Co. Cm. 

Views Xear the State Soldiers' Home, Lafayette. No. 1 — Tippecanoe Battleground. The spot shown here is 
where the battle raged fiercest on November 7, 1811. No. 2 — Prophet's Rock, near the Tippecanoe Battle- 
ground, from which point it is said a prophet directed the Indian warriors and witnessed their defeat. 
Xo. j — Old bark wigwam at "Tecumseh Trail." No. 4 — Old log cabin on "Tecumseh Trail." 

was to have been the leading figure on this occa- 
sion, was kept away by illness and General John 
Tipton took his place. 

Apropos to this interment, it is further stated 
that after Harrison's troops had buried their dead 
and withdrawn from the field after the battle, 
the Indians returned, dug up the bodies and 
scalped them, leaving them unburied.* 

• Ind. Journal, Nov. 3, 1830; Ind. Democrat, Sept. 25, 1830; 
Nile-,' Register, Nov. 27. 1830. 

riod of peace between the nations, the Indians of 
the northwest received their arms and ammuni- 
tion from our old-time foe and were secretly 
backed up in their hostilities. When the brew- 
ing troubles between America and England cul- 
minated in a declaration of war in June, 1812, 
the latter nation found ready allies among the 
red people notwithstanding the fact that as late 
as May of that year, at a grand council on the 
Mississinewa, the majority of the tribes there 



professed a desire for peace with the United 
States. That summer there was little hostile 
demonstration, but during that time English suc- 
cesses emboldened the tribes and in early Sep- 
tember there occurred in two places widely sep- 
arated one of the fiercest assaults and the worst 
massacre in the history of the State. 

Attack on Fort Harrison. — The assault 
mentioned was that on Fort Harrison on the 
fourth of September, 1812. This post, built by 
Harrison in his Tippecanoe campaign the year 
before, guarded the frontier farthest north and 
the river approach to Vincennes, some sixty 
miles below. At this time it was commanded by 
Captain Zachary Taylor (afterward president of 
the United States) and garrisoned by a small 
force so enfeebled by fever and ague that, by 
Taylor's account, there were not more than ten 
or fifteen able-bodied men. On the 4th the com- 
mandant had warning of the proximity of In- 
dians and so, fortunately, was on his guard. Nev- 
ertheless one of about 600 warriors that quietly 
surrounded the fort that night, managed, under 
the cover of darkness, to drag himself to the 
walls of one of the buildings with a bundle 
of combustibles on his shoulders and the first 
intimation the sentinels had of an attack was 
when the walls were ablaze. The barracks 
caught fire and not only the women and children, 
of whom there were nine, but the men themselves 
were thrown into panic and despair. Taylor's 
presence of mind saved the situation. He saw 
that by throwing off the roof of the barracks 
building and saturating the walls with water the 
flames could be combated with promise of suc- 
cess, and when he ordered the men to this task 
they fell to with a will, led by a Doctor Clark, 
the post surgeon, though a galling fire was di- 
rected upon them by the skulking savages from 
the woods. At this hazardous work one man was 
killed and two wounded, but the blaze was sub- 
dued and a barricade of pickets put up across 
the gap in the stockade caused by the fire. Mean- 
while the rest of the garrison, by the glare of 
the flames, were pouring their fire into such of 
the Indians as dared venture into the open, and 
thus managed to hold them off until daylight, 
when the besiegers withdrew, driving with them 
quantities of live stock.* 

Despite the seemingly overwhelming force of 

the assailants Taylor lost only three men, besides 
two or three wounded. At the beginning of the 
attack two men got over the stockade for the 
purpose of escaping but one was killed and the 
other one, wounded, returned to the gate and 
begged to be let in. He was obliged to lie there 
hidden until morning. The Indians who made 
the attack were supposed to have been Pota- 
watomis, Kickapoos, Winnebagos and Miamis. 

When word of the assault traveled to Vin- 
cennes troops were sent and the place reinforced, 
but the Indians never returned. 

Pigeon Roost Massacre. — Almost simulta- 
neous with the Fort Harrison attack occurred 
the most diabolical event in our Indian history — 
the "Pigeon Roost" massacre. What was known 
as the Pigeon Roost Settlement consisted of sev- 
eral families that made a little community in 
what is now Scott county. This settlement, 
founded in 1809, was separated from any other 
by several miles, and was confined to about a 
square mile of territory (Dillon, p. 492 1. On 
the third of September, 1812, this settlement was 
attacked by a band of about a dozen marauders, 
said to have been Shawnees, who, scouring the 
locality and going from cabin to cabin, mur- 
dered within a space of an hour, twenty-two per- 
sons, sixteen of them being children and five of 
them women. Prior to this general killing, two 
men, Jeremiah Payne and Isaac Coffman. were 
shot in the woods. Most of the cabin homes were 
burned down. The victims, besides Payne and 
Coffman, were Mrs. Jeremiah Payne and her 
eight children, Mrs. Richard Collings and seven 
children, Henry Collings and his wife, Mrs. John 
Morris, her only child, and her mother-in-law.* 

A spirited fight at the house of William Col- 
lings, in which three Indians were killed, prob- 
ably prevented a greater slaughter, as the check 
to the savages enabled the rest of the settlement 
to escape to blockhouses that stood within a few 
miles. Some of these escapes were attended with 
risks and horrors equal to any to be found in 
the Indian annals of Kentucky. The wife of 
John Biggs, fortunately for her, had gone into 
the woods to look for their cow, having with her 
their three children, one a babe in arms. ( )n her 
way home she discovered the savages about the 
empty cabin and took flight toward one of the 

1 Taylor's official report. 

* Dillon, p. 492. Dunn's account in "True Indian Stories" 
varies slightly from this. 



blockhouses, but the Indians, believing the miss- 
ing family was in the vicinity, began searching 
the adjacent forest. At one time they passed so 
near Mrs. Biggs that their footsteps were audi- 
ble. At this critical moment the baby began to 
cry and to check it she was obliged to press her 
shawl over its mouth. When the searchers had 
passed she made the dreadful discovery that the 
infant had been smothered to death. With the 
dead child in her arms and the two living ones 
clinging to her she spent the night in the wilder- 
ness, arriving at the blockhouse about daybreak. 
A Dr. John Richie took his sick wife on his 
back, and together they spent the night in the 
woods, as did Mrs. Beal and her two children, 
who hid in a sinkhole until after dark, then made 
their way to one of the protecting strongholds 
which they reached at two o'clock next morning. 

The news of the massacre was carried to 
Charlestown, Clark county, and by two o'clock in 
the afternoon of September 4 a body of two 
hundred armed men reached the scene of the 
tragedy, where only one house remained stand- 
ing, and in and about the ruins of the charred 
cabins lay the mutilated remains of women and 
children. The trail of the savages was taken up 
and followed till dark, but they never were 
overtaken, and to the present day it is a matter 
of considerable doubt as to what Indians were 
guilty of the atrocity. 

Two children were carried away as prisoners 

Fort Harrison, Near Terre Haute. Erected in 1811. 
— From an old view.* 

from this raid. One, a little girl three years of 
age, named Ginsey McCoy, was a niece of the 
Indian missionary, the Rev. Isaac McCoy. Years 

* See "Blockhouses," p. 64. 

after Mr. McCoy himself found her west of the 
Mississippi river as the wife of an Indian chief 
and the mother of several children. She re- 
turned to Indiana for a visit to her relatives but 
soon went back to her Indian home. The other 
captive, a boy named Peter Huffman, was sold 
to some other Indians and carried to Canada. 

McKnight Fort. This is one of fifteen forts that were 
built in Washington county as protection against the 
Indians in 1812. The McKnight Fort was converted 
into a dwelling by William McKnight, who lived 
in it until his death. It was occupied by his son and 
grandson later and was used as a residence until the 
spring of 1898. It was torn down in 1911. — Courtesy 
of Orra Hopper. 

His whereabouts and identity were discovered 
after much pains and trouble, and he was re- 
turned to Indiana in 1824; but he, too, was 
wedded to the Indian life and returned to it.* 

The spot where the victims of the massacre 
were buried was for many years marked by an 
immense sassafras tree. In 1903 an appropria- 
tion of $2,000 for a monument was made by the 
Legislature, and a shaft of Bedford limestone, 
forty-four feet in height, was dedicated October 
1. 1904. "mutely calling to memory the must 
fearful Indian tragedy that was ever known to 
the soil of Indiana." 

Frontier Defense. — The conditions in Indi- 
ana before the declaration of war on June 19. 
1812, were such as to call forth from Governor 
Harrison a military circular which gives us a 
glimpse of the times and of the steps taken to 
meet its dangers. It is dated 16th April. 1812, 
and under the heading of "General Orders for 
the Militia" the circular reads: 

"As the late murders upon the frontiers of this and 
the neighboring Territories leave us little to hope of 
our being able to avoid a war with the neighboring 
tribes of Indians, the commander-in-chief directs that 
the colonels and other commandants of corps should 

Dunn's "True Indian Stories." 



take immediate measures to put their commands in the 
best possible state for active service. The field officers 
who command battalions will visit and critically inspect 
the several companies which compose them and make a 
report in detail of their situation, particularly noting 
the deficiencies in arms, ammunition and accoutrements, 
and such measures as the laws authorize must be im- 
mediately taken to remedy those deficiencies. The 
commander-in-chief informs the officers that the most 
prompt obedience and the most unremitting attention 
to their duty will be required of them — the situation of 
the country calls for exertion on the part of the militia, 
and the officers must set the example to their men. If 
there are amongst them any who have accepted-appoint- 
ments for the mere motive of gratifying their vanity 
by the possession of a commission to which a title is 
annexed, without having the ability or the inclination 
to encounter arduous service, in justice to their country 
and to their own fame they should now retire and not 
stand in the way of those who are more able or more 
willing to encounter the fatigue and dangers incidental 
to actual service in the Indian war. From the specimen 
which the commander-in-chief has had of their conduct 
in the field he has every reason to be proud of them, 
nor does he believe that there are better militia officers 
to be found anywhere than those of Indiana, but in a 
crisis like the present they should be all good. 

"The field officers are to see that proper places are 
appointed for the rendezvous of the companies upon an 
alarm or the appearance of danger, and will give orders 
relatively to the mode of their proceeding in such exi- 
gencies as the situation of the companies respectively 
call for. When mischief is done by the Indians in any 
of the settlements, they must be pursued, and the officer 
nearest to the spot, if the number of men under his 
command is not inferior to the supposed number of the 
enemy, is to commence it as soon as he can collect his 
men. If his force should be too small he is to send for 
aid to the next officer to him, and in the meantime to 
take a position capable of being defended, or watch the 
motions of the enemy, as circumstances require. The 
pursuit must be conducted with vigor, and the officer 
commanding will be held responsible for making every 
exertion in his power to overtake the enemy. Upon his 
return, whether successful or not, a particular account 
of his proceedings must be transmitted to the com- 
mander-in-chief and a copy of it to the colonel of the 

"The commander-in-chief recommends it to the citi- 
zens on the frontiers of Knox county, from the Wabash 
eastwardly across the two branches of the White river, 
those on the northwest of the Wabash and those in the 
Driftwood settlement in Harrison, to erect blocked 
houses or picketed forts. It will depend upon the dis- 
position of the Delawares whether measures of this 
kind will be necessary or not upon the frontiers of 
Clark, Jefferson, Dearborn. Franklin or Wayne. Means 
will be taken to ascertain this as soon as possible and 
the result communicated. The Indians who profess to 
be friendly have been warned to keep clear of the set- 
tlements, and the commander-in-chief is far from wish- 
ing that the citizens should run any risk by admitting 
any Indians to come amongst them whose designs are 
in the least equivocal. He recommends, however, to 
those settlements which the Delawares have frequented 
as much forbearances as possible toward that tribe, be- 
cause they have ever performed with punctuality and 
good faith their engagements with the United States, 
and as yet there is not the least reason to doubt their 
fidelity. It is also certain that if they should be forced 
to join the other tribes in war, from their intimate 
knowledge of the settlements upon the frontiers they 
would be enabled to do more mischief than any other 

"By the commander-in-chief. 

"A Hurst, Aide-de-camp." 

Blockhouses. — As the war came on and the 
dangers became more threatening, a great many 
of the settlers forsook their farms and betook 
themselves to more protected territory. Others 
remained, however, and Dillon tells us that "in 
the course of the spring and summer of the year 
1812 blockhouses or picketed forts were erected 
throughout the Indiana Territory." The follow- 
ing year more were built by the military authori- 
ties. Of many of these no specific record re- 
mains but in various local chronicles a number 
are mentioned and the localities of some of them 
given. The very outpost of them all, if we ex- 
cept Fort Wayne, which was entirely isolated 
from the frontier, was Fort Harrison. In Sul- 
livan county there was one about midway be- 
tween New Lebanon and Carlisle, and one near 
the Wabash river some distance above Merom. 
In Knox county, we are told, forts were erected 
in every neighborhood, and five are specified in 
Widner township. In Daviess county ten are 
mentioned, and in Jackson three, one of them at 
Vallonia. In the north part of Union were two 
and in Wayne three or four, one of these being 
about four miles west of Richmond and another 
a mile north of Washington. We also find tradi- 
tion of several in Jefferson county. 

An anecdote or two will show that amid these 
preparations for grim war the American sense 
of humor was not wanting. One of the stockades 
in Knox county was known as "Fort Petticoat," 
because, the men being absent in the army, its 
defense depended chiefly upon the women. In 
Jackson county when one of the forts was build- 
ing four or five practical jokers, pretending to be 
Indians, tried to scare a green "Dutchman" in 
the woods but he showed fight in such deadly 
earnest that the jokers ignominiously fled. 

The Rev. W. C. Smith, a settler of the White- 
water region, father of the historian W. H. 
Smith, describes in an interesting book of rem- 
iniscences ("Indiana Miscellany") the old log 
forts. The stockade consisted of "two rows of 
split timber, twelve to fourteen feet long, planted 
in the ground two-and-a-half or three feet deep. 
The timbers of the second row were so placed 
as to cover the cracks of the first. Small cabins 
were erected inside of the stockades for the ac- 
commodation of the families. Usually one 
blockhouse was built in each fort. The block- 
houses were two stories high, the upper story 



projecting over the lower, say two feet, with 
portholes in the floor of the projection so that 
the men could see to shoot the Indians if they 
succeeded in getting to the walls of the block- 
house." Sometimes two of these blockhouses 
were built at opposite corners of the stockade in 
such a manner that the projecting story of each 
commanded two of the outer walls. Many of 
the blockhouses, built for temporary refuge in 
emergencies, had no stockade but were simply 
two-story buildings with portholes and the second 
story overhanging. Many of the residence 
cabins, also, were provided with portholes and 
built strongly for defense. 

Rangers of 1813. — In 1813 Acting-Governor 
John Gibson called into service several com- 
panies of mounted rangers each consisting of 
about one hundred men. These were in the em- 
ploy of the United States. The accoutrement 
consisted of a rifle, knife and tomahawk and each 
man carried with him his own supply of pro- 
visions (Dillon). The office of these rangers 
was. seemingly, the same as that of the frontier 
patrol of 1807, described in another place. 


Attack on Ft. Wayne. — After the attack on 
Fort Harrison and the Pigeon Roost Massacre 
there were several offensive campaigns directed 
against the hostile tribes of northern Indiana. Be- 
fore the two events mentioned about five hundred 
warriors surrounded Fort Wayne, which was 
garrisoned with something less than a hundred 
men, under a Captain Rhea. The Indians ar- 
ranged for a conference inside the fort, their 
object being treachery, but they were frustrated. 
Then they laid siege to the place and, aided by 
some ingenious British, made a "bluff" of having 
artillery by constructing two wooden cannon, re- 
inforced by hoopiron, which promptly burst when 
fired. Meanwhile General Harrison, who had 
relinquished his civil duties for military service, 
was advancing northward with an army of more 
than a thousand men (Dunn), and this force 
reached Fort Wayne on September 12, raising 
the siege. Detachments of these troops scoured 
the surrounding country, and destroyed several 
deserted Indian villages besides quantities of food 
supplies growing in the cultivated places. 

Hopkins' Expedition. — Early in November 

General Samuel Hopkins, after a previous at- 
tempt at a campaign in Illinois which resulted in 
mutiny and a premature return, started up the 
Wabash with three regiments of Kentucky mili- 
tia and one company each of regulars, rangers 
and scouts, the objective being the old "Prophet's 
Town" at the mouth of the Tippecanoe and va- 
rious villages in that locality. The town named, 
which was destroyed after the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, had been rebuilt and now consisted of 
about forty huts. This and two other towns of 
the Kickapoos and Winnebagos, were destroyed, 
along with what corn was found, leaving the 
Indians, at the beginning of winter, without 
shelter or provisions. This expedition continued 
its operations throughout November, and the 
chief loss suffered was that of sixteen men killed 
in an ambuscade. 

Mississinewa Expedition. — The most notable 
expedition of this period as estimated by results 
was that of Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell with 
about six hundred mounted men against the Mi- 
ami villages on the Mississinewa river. This 
campaign was conducted, virtually, in the heart 
of winter, the troops moving from Dayton, Ohio, 
on December 14, 1812. After three days of hard 
riding one of the villages was surprised, eight 
warriors killed, forty-two prisoners taken and 
the place burned. Following this three other 
villages were destroyed. Campbell then debated 
the advisability of returning without further of- 
fensive operations, owing to the hardships to 
which the men were subjected, the weather being 
severe, and at four o'clock on the morning of 
the 18th had convened his officers for a con- 
ference, when they were suddenly and furiously 
attacked by a body of Indians. The fight that 
followed, by Campbell's official report, was well- 
nigh as fierce and stubbornly contested as was 
that at Tippecanoe. After an hour's engagement 
the assailants drew off, leaving fifteen of their 
dead on the ground and, probably, carrying others 
off with them. Of the whites, eight were killed 
and forty-two wounded. The exact number of 
the attacking Indians was never known, though 
Campbell in his official report estimates them at 
"not less than three hundred." This eiiL; 
ment, known as the Battle of The Mississinewa, 
occurred within the bounds of the present Grant 
county, on the bank of the Mississinewa river, 
about a mile from the village (if Jalapa. The 



field is privately owned and is unmarked by any 

Bartholomew's White River Expedition. — 
During the earlier part of the war the Delaware 
Indians on White river professed to be friendly 
to the United States, and were so regarded, but 
in the numerous forays made against the settlers 
in 1813 there was evidence that this tribe at 
least harbored hostile bands. In March of 1813 
John Tipton, then in command of militia that was 
guarding the frontier of Harrison . and Clark 
counties, pursued a party of marauders that had 
killed one man and wounded three others near 
Vallonia, Jackson county. At an island on the 
Driftwood river he overhauled the band and after 
a "smart skirmish" killed one and routed the 
rest. In April he pursued another party that 
had killed two men and stolen some horses and 
recovered the horses and "other plunder." Tip- 
ton was convinced that these miscreants made 
directly for the Delaware towns. He expressed 
the opinion that "while the government is sup- 
porting one part of that tribe the other part is 
murdering our citizens," and added that "those 
rascals, of whatever tribe they may be harboring 
about those towns, should be routed.* 

In June of that year a force of about one hun- 
dred and thirty-seven mounted men under Col. 
Joseph Bartholomew rode to the Delaware towns 
to discover and surprise, if possible, hostile In- 
dians who, it was believed, operated from there. 
By Bartholomew's report these towns all seem 
to have been deserted and three of them had been 
already burned, though why or by whom is not 
recorded. Considerable corn was found and some- 
thing like eight hundred or one thousand bushels 
destroyed. f 

Russell's Expedition. — Following hard upon 
Bartholomew's raid a much larger force under 
Col. William Russell circled the Indian country 
with an expedition covering upward of five hun- 
dred miles. Russell started from Vallonia, as did 
Bartholomew the month before, with five hun- 
dred seventy-three men (Dillon), and his route 
took in the Delaware towns on White river, 
the Mississinewa towns, and all those on the Wa- 
bash below the Mississinewa, bringing up at 
Fort Harrison, on the northwestern frontier. No 
encounters are spoken of in Colonel Russell's 

* Tipton's report to Governor Gibson. 

t Bartholomew's report to Governor Posey. 

report of this long march. It was a campaign of 
destruction based on the theory (or knowledge) 
that the surest way to prevent depredations on 
the borders was to break up the nesting places 
nf those who committed the depredations. 

End of Indian Hostilities. — Colonel Russell's 
expedition was the last one against the Indians. 
These drastic visitations of vengeance reduced 
the victims of them to destitution and starvation, 
and when a series of American successes, cul- 
minating in the defeat of the British and Indians 
in the battle of the Thames, still further dis- 
couraged them, they were ready to sue for peace 
on pretty much any terms. In January of 1814 
something like a thousand starving Miamis as- 
sembled at Fort Wayne for food and ammuni- 
tion for hunting, from the government ; these 
were soon followed by the Potawatomies, and the 
United States was in a position to dictate terms, 
so far, at least, as the Indiana tribes were con- 
cerned. For a year after, indeed, the border was 
not entirely safe from depredations from de- 
tached, irresponsible bands, but these were not 
serious and threatening enough to stem the re- 
turning tide of settlers who began to fill up the 
new country. 

Intemperance Among the Indians. — Gover- 
nor Harrison repeatedly deplored the disastrous 
effects of intoxicating liquor among the Indians 
and its continual introduction by unscrupulous 
traders. In a letter to the Secretary of War, un- 
der date of July 15, 1801, he states that "the In- 
dian chiefs complained of the enormous quantity 
of whisky introduced by the traders," there be- 
ing, according to report, upward of six thousand 
gallons brought annually among the Indians of 
the Wabash, who numbered perhaps six hundred 
warriors. The result was that the Piankeshaws, 
Weas and Eel river tribes had almost exter- 
minated their chiefs by murder. Little Beaver, 
a Wea. was killed by his own son, and another 
chief, Little Fox, was slain by his own people in 
the streets of Vincennes. The drunken savages 
so terrorized the citizens of Vincennes that Har- 
rison solicited a garrison at Fort Knox for pro- 
tection. In the letter the Governor says: "I 
can at once tell by looking at an Indian whom I 
chance to meet whether he belongs to a neigh- 
boring or a more distant tribe. The latter is 
generally well-clothed, healthy and vigorous ; the 
former half-naked, filthy and enfeebled with in- 



toxication, and many of them without arms ex- 
cept a knife which they carry for the most vil- 
lainous purposes." The chiefs earnestly desired 
the prevention of the evil. Some of these wished 
the introduction among their people of agricul- 
tural implements and domestic animals. 

In his message to the first general assembly 
( 1805) the governor said : "The interests of your 
constituents, the interests of the miserable In- 
dians, and your own feelings will sufficiently urge 
you to take it into your most serious considera- 
tion and provide the remedy which is to save 
thousands of our fellow creatures. You are 
witnesses to the abuses ; you have seen our towns 
crowded with furious and drunken savages ; our 
streets flowing with their blood; their arms and 
clothing bartered for the liquor that destroys 
them, and their miserable women and children 
enduring all the extremities of cold and hunger. 
So destructive has the progress of intemperance 
been among them that whole villages have been 
swept away. A miserable remnant is all that re- 
mains to mark the names and situations of many 

Map of Indiana at Time of Admission in 1816. 
—By E. V. Shocklcy. 

numerous ami warlike tribes. In the energetic 
language of one of their orators, it is a dreadful 
conflagration which spreads misery and desola- 

tion throughout the country and threatens the 
annihilation of the whole race." 

At one time a law existed forbidding the sale 
of liquor to savages, but no law and no appeal 


The First Published Map of Indiana State, 1817. The 
same territory is occupied as at the time of the ad- 
mission, but by this date seven more counties were 
created by subdivision. 

was sufficient to counteract the cupidity of those 
who flourished by the traffic. 

The Passing of Governor Harrison. — For 
twelve years Governor Harrison sustained a most 
intimate relation to the affairs of Indiana Terri- 
tory, he being by far the most conspicuous figure 
of that period of our history. By virtue of his 
military experience and ability he logically be- 
came a leader in the western country when the 
outbreak of war threatened the frontier. In 
August, 1812, he was asked by Kentucky to take 
chief command of all the troops raised there, and 
this, in view of the military talent and ambition 
existing in Kentucky, Harrison regarded as the 
most flattering appointment he had ever re- 

Autobiographical letter. 



A little later he was made a brigadier-general 
in the Lhiited States army and on September 17, 
1812, he was appointed to the command of the 
whole army of the northwest with large discre- 
tion as to his military plans and movements. This 
ended his civil relation to Indiana, Secretary 
John Gibson succeeding him as acting-gover- 
nor until the appointment of Governor Posey in 
February of 1813. The part he subsequently 
played in the war, culminating in the brilliant 
victory at the Thames which secured safety to 
the northwest, belongs to the larger history of 
the country. He retired from military service in 
1814 and became a citizen of Ohio. 

Militarism. — In this chapter it has been 
shown that during the first twelve or thirteen 
years of the territory's existence the element of 
danger and violence from without was a factor 
in the territorial life. This danger, arising from 
the hostility of the Indians, and which culmi- 
nated in the war of 1812, was a deterrent to set- 
tlement and growth, especially in the war period, 
when many who were already on the ground 
temporarily forsook their homes. This situation, 
following the militarism of the revolutionary 
times, kept alive the question of a militia system 
for self-defense. This was Governor Harri- 
son's most famous hobby. In his advocacy of 
schools for popular education, he pleaded that 
military branches, to be connected with such 
schools, be not forgotten. His theory was that 
even the masters in the lower schools should be 
obliged to qualify themselves to give instructions 
in military evolutions, while the Vincennes Uni- 
versity should have a professor of tactics, "in 
which all the sciences connected with the art of 
war may be taught" (Dillon). He also recom- 
mended, at another time, that camps of discipline 
be established "for instructing those who are al- 
ready capable of bearing arms ;" that there should 
be professors of tactics in all seminaries, and 
that "even the amusements of the children should 
resemble the Gymnasia of the Greeks, that they 
may grow up in the practise of those exercises 
which will enable them to bear with the duties of 
the camp and the labors of the field."* 

* Harrison's letter to Governor Scott, of Kentucky. 

The first statutes passed in the territory (1807) 
include an elaborate militia law covering thirty- 
eight pages. By its provisions, every able-bodied 
white male citizen (with certain exemptions), be- 
tween the ages of eighteen to forty-five years, 
was compelled to be of the militia and to provide 
himself with "a good musket, a sufficient bayonet 
and belt, or a fusee, two spare flints, a knapsack 
and a pouch, with a box therein, to contain not 
less than twenty-four cartridges ... or a 
good rifle, knapsack, pouch and powder-horn, 
with twenty balls suited to the bore of his rifle, 
and a quarter of a pound of powder." A dragoon 
was to furnish his own horse, saddle and bridle, 
and holster with pistol. Officers were to have a 
sword or hanger and "espontoons," and to wear 
"some cheap uniforms at musters." The militia 
equipment was exempt from seizure in cases of 
debt. Company musters were to be held every 
two months ; battalion musters once a year, and 
regimental musters once a year. For failure to 
attend these musters, officers were subject to a 
fine of two to twenty dollars and privates to one 
that might range from one to six dollars, though 
these could be remitted for good cause shown. 
The fines were to be applied to the purchase of 
drums, fifes and colors and to the pay of offi- 
cers. The military training was to be by "the 
rules and instructions" of Baron Steuben, the 
famous drill-master of Revolutionary days. The 
exempts from this militia service were the judges 
and clerk of the Supreme Court, the attorney- 
general, ministers of the gospel, keepers of jails 
and "such other persons as are exempt by the law 
of the United States." By the incorporation act, 
establishing Vincennes University, the faculty 
and students of that institution were exempted. 

Notwithstanding Governor Harrison's views 
as to the importance of military training, and the 
aim at efficiency implied by the long law cited 
and others that were passed, the people did not 
run to military zeal. During the war with Eng- 
land, indeed, the spur of necessity developed the 
military spirit, but prior to that crisis, the status 
of the militia fell far below the governor's ap- 
proval, and after the period of actual danger 
passed the whole system dwindled in effectiveness 
until it became a laughine-stock. 



General Conditions in 1815. — When, on the 
14th of December, 1815, the Territorial Legisla- 
ture laid before Congress a memorial praying 
that the way be opened for its admission into the 
Union of States, it had a population of 63,897, 
distributed over thirteen counties. There were 
arguments for and against statehood, the ques- 
tion of an increased tax upon the citizens being 
an offset to the advantages of independent self- 
government, and the memorial was not a direct 
request for admission but for a convention of 
delegates from the several counties, to be elected 
by order of Congress, such convention to deter- 
mine "whether it will be expedient or inexpedient 
to go into a State government," and be em- 
powered to form "a Constitution and frame of 
government" if deemed expedient. 

The Enabling Act. — The result of this re- 
quest was an act of Congress, known as the "En- 
abling Act." As no existing history of Indiana 
includes, to our knowledge, the text of this im- 
portant and formative instrument, we here pre- 
sent it in full : 

"An act to enable the people of the Indiana Territory 
to form a Constitution and State government, and for 
the admission of such State into the Union on equal 
footing with the original States. (Approved April 19, 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the United States of American 
ress assembled, That the inhabitants of the Terri- 
tory of Indiana be, and they are hereby authorized, to 
form for themselves a Constitution and State govern- 
ment, and to assume such name as they shall deem 
proper; and the said State when formed shall be ad- 
mitted into the Union upon the same footing with the 
original States, in all respects whatsoever. 

"Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the said 
State shall consist of all the territory included within 
the following boundaries, to-wit : Bounded on the ea^t 
by the meridian line which forms the western boundary 
of the State of Ohio; on the south, by the river Ohio, 
from the mouth of the Great Miami river to the mouth 
of the river Wabash ; on the west, by a line drawn along 
the middle of the Wabash, from its mouth to a point 
where a due north line drawn from the town of Vin- 
cennes would last touch the northwestern shore of the 
said river ; and from thence, by a due north line, until 
the same shall intersect an east and west line drawn 
through a point ten miles north of the southern extreme 
of Lake Michigan ; on the north, by the said east and 
west line, until the same shall intersect the first men- 
tioned meridian line, which forms the western boundary 
of the State of Ohio; provided, that the convention 
hereinafter provided for, when formed, shall ratify the 
boundaries aforesaid; otherwise, they shall be and re- 
main as now prescribed by the ordinance for the govern- 

ment of the territory northwest of the river Ohio; pro- 
vided, also, that the said States shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction on the river Wabash, with the State to be 
formed west thereof, so far as the said river shall form 
a common boundary to both. 

"Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That all male 
citizens of the United States, who shall have arrived 
at the age of twenty-one years, and resided within the 
said Territory at least one year previous to the day of 
election, and shall have paid a county or territorial tax ; 
and all persons having in other respects the legal quali- 
fications to vote for representatives in the General As- 
sembly of the said Territory, be, and they are hereby 
authorized to choose representatives to form a conven- 
tion, who shall be apportioned amongst the several 
counties within the said Territory, according to the ap- 
portionment made by the Legislature thereof, at their 
last session, to-wit : From the county of Wayne, four 
representatives; from the county of Franklin, five rep- 
resentatives; from the county of Dearborn, three rep- 
resentatives ; from the county of Switzerland, one 
representative ; from the county of Jefferson, three rep- 
resentatives ; from the county of Clark, five representa- 
tives ; from the county of Harrison, five representatives; 
from the county of Washington, five representatives ; 
from the county of Knox, five representatives ; from 
the county of Gibson, four representatives; from the 
county of Posey, one representative; from the county 
of Warrick, one representative, and from the county 
of Perry, one representative. And the election for 
the representatives aforesaid shall be holden on the 
second Monday of May, one thousand eight hundred 
and sixteen, throughout the several counties in the said 
Territory, and shall be conducted in the same manner 
and under the same penalties, as prescribed by the laws 
of said Territory, regulating elections therein for the 
members of the House of Representatives. 

"Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the mem- 
bers of the convention, thus duly elected, be, and they 
are hereby authorized to meet at the seat of the govern- 
ment of the said Territory, on the second Monday of 
June next; which convention, when met, shall first de- 
termine, by a majority of the whole number elected, 
whether it be or be not expedient at that time to form 
a Constitution and State government for the people 
within the said Territory; and if it be deemed more 
expedient, the said convention shall provide by ordi- 
nance for electing representatives to form a Constitu- 
tion or frame of government, which said representatives 
shall be chosen in such manner, and in such proportion, 
and shall meet at such time and place, as shall be pre- 
scribed by the said ordinance ; and shall then form, for 
the people of said Territory, a Constitution and State 
government : Provided, That the same, whenever 
formed, shall be republican and not repugnant to those 
articles of the ordinance of the thirteenth of July, one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, which are 
declared to be irrevocable between the original States 
and the people of the States of the territory northwest 
of the river Ohio; excepting so much of said articles 
as relates to the boundaries of the States therein to be 

"Sec. 5. And be it further enacted. That until the 
next general census shall be taken, the said State shall 
be entitled to one Representative in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the United States. 

"Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the follow- 
ing propositions be. and the same are hereby offered to 




the convention of the said Territory of Indiana, when 
formed, for their free acceptance or rejection, which, 
if accepted by the convention, shall be obligatory upon 
the United States : 

"First. That the section numbered sixteen, in every 
township, and when such section has been sold, granted, 
or disposed of, other lands, equivalent thereto, and most 
contiguous to the same, shall be granted to the inhabi- 
tants of such township for the use of schools. 

"Second. That all salt springs within the said Ter- 
ritory, and the land reserved for the use of the same, 
together with such other lands as may, by the President 
of the United States, be deemed necessary and proper 
for working the said salt springs, not exceeding in the 
whole the quantity contained in thirty-six entire sec- 
tions, shall be granted to the said State, for the use of 
the people of the said State, the same to be used under 
such terms, conditions and regulations as the Legisla- 
ture of the State shall direct : Provided, The said 
Legislature shall never sell or lease the same, for a 
longer period than ten years at any one time. 

"Third. That five per cent, of the net proceeds of 
the lands lying within the said Territory, and which 
shall be sold by Congress from and after the first day 
of December next, after deducting all expenses incident 
to the same, shall be reserved for making public roads 
and canals, of which three-fifths shall be applied to 
those objects within the said State, under the direction 
of the Legislature thereof, and two-fifths to the making 
of a road or roads leading to the said State under the 
direction of Congress. 

"Fourth. That one entire township, which shall be 
designated by the President of the United States, in 
addition to the one heretofore reserved for that pur- 
pose, shall be reserved for the use of a seminary of 
learning and vested in the Legislature of the said State, 
to be appropriated solely to the use of such seminary by 
the said Legislature. 

"Fifth. That four sections of land be, and the same 
are hereby granted to the said State, for the purpose of 
fixing their seat of government thereon, which four sec- 
tions shall, under the direction of the Legislature of said 
State, be located at any time in such township and 
range as the Legislature aforesaid may select, on such 
lands as may hereafter be acquired by the United States 
from the Indian tribes within said Territory: Pro- 
vided, That such location shall be made prior to the 
public sale of the lands of the United States, surround- 
ing such location : And, provided always, That the five 
foregoing propositions herein offered are on the condi- 
tions, that the convention of the said State shall provide 
by an ordinance irrevocable, without the consent of the 
United States, that every and each tract of land sold by 
the United States, from and after the first day of De- 
cember next, shall be and remain exempt from any tax, 
laid by order or under any authority of the State, 
whether for State, county or township, or any other 
purpose whatever, for the term of five years from and 
after the day of sale." 

Analysis. — A comparison between the En- 
abling Act and the Ordinance of 1787 is not with- 
out interest, as both instruments establish certain 
relations between the State and the Nation. The 
< irdinance determines for all time the general 
form of government, the civil rights of citizens 
and an educational policy, and it defines certain 
boundaries for States that may be carved out of 
the Northwest Territory. The Enabling Act 
fixes the boundaries of the proposed State, mod- 

ifying in two instances the definition as set forth 
in the Ordinance. The latter made the west 
boundary the Wabash river from the Ohio to 
Vincennes and a straight north and south line 
beginning at Vincennes. As by this the mean- 
ders of the river northward from Vincennes were 
west of the line, a long, irregular tract, broadest 
in Sullivan and Vigo counties was thrown into 
Illinois. The modification was that this line, in- 
stead of extending to Vincennes, begins at the 
river at a point in Vigo county where it finally 
leaves the line, thus making the stream the bound- 
ary from that point to the Ohio. 

I hi the north the Ordinance had designated the 
southern extremity of Lake Michigan as the lat- 
itude for the dividing east and west line should 
a State to the north be erected. The later act 
fixed this dividing line ten miles farther north. 
The reason for this, doubtless, was for the pur- 
pose of giving this State the opportunity of lake 

The good will of the ordinance, which stipu- 
lated that "schools and the means of education 
shall forever be encouraged," was substantially 
and generously backed by the act which donated 
outright one-thirty-sixth of all the land in the 
Territory for the general use of schools, besides 
one entire township for a seminary of higher 
learning. It also donated all the salt springs with 
certain adjacent lands, and four sections for a 
site for the capital. Finally, it donated five per 
cent, of the proceeds from the sale of all lands, 
to be applied to the building of roads and canals. 
On the whole, it looks like a pretty liberal dower, 
and the chief return exacted was that the lands 
sold by the government should be tax-free for 
five years. 

Ordinance of Acceptance. — The convention 
authorized by this act decided that the contem- 
plated statehood was "expedient," and under date 
of June 29, 1816, it submitted to Congress the 
following ordinance of acceptance : 

"Be it ordained by the Representatives of the people 
of the Territory of Indiana, in convention met at Cory- 
don, on Monday, the tenth day of June, in the year of 
our Lord eighteen hundred and sixteen, That we do, for 
ourselves and our posterity, agree, determine, declare 
and ordain that we will, and do hereby, accept the prop- 
ositions of the Congress of the L'nited States, as made 
and contained in their act of the nineteenth day of 
April, eighteen hundred and sixteen, entitled, 'An act to 
enable the people of the Indiana Territory to form a 
State government and Constitution, and for the admis- 



sion of such state into the Union, on an equal footing 
with the original States.' 

"And we do, further, for ourselves and our posterity, 
hereby ratify, confirm and establish the boundaries of 
the said State of Indiana, as fixed, prescribed, laid down 
and established in the Act of Congress aforesaid ; and 
we do also, further, for ourselves and our posterity, 
hereby agree, determine, declare and ordain, that each 
and every tract of land sold by the United States, lying 
within the said State, and which shall be sold from and 
after the first day of December next, shall be and re- 
main exempt from any tax laid by order, or under any 
authority of the said State of Indiana, or by or under 
the authority of the general assembly thereof, whether 
for State, county or township, or any other purpose 
whatsoever, for the term of five years from and after 
the day of sale of any such tract of land; and we do, 
moreover, for ourselves and our posterity, hereby de- 
clare and ordain that this ordinance, and every part 
thereof, shall forever be and remain irrevocable and in- 
violate, without the consent of the United States, in 
Congress assembled, first had and obtained for the 
alteration thereof, or any part thereof. 

"Jonathan Jennings. 
President of the Convention. 

"Attest : 

"William Hendricks, Secretary. 

"June 29. 1816." 

The State was formally admitted to the Union 
December 11, 1816, though the State government 
actually began with the qualifying of the State 
officers on November 7. 

Federal Acts Relating to Indiana. — The Fed- 
eral acts relating to the territory now including 
Indiana, up to the Enabling Act, which concerns 
Indiana alone, were, the Ordinance of 1787; two 
supplementary acts respecting the government, 
l>as>ed in 1789 and 1792; an act to divide the 
territory in 1800, and another for further divi- 
sion in 1809 ; and, finally, the Enabling Act. The 
Ordinance of 1787 was the great formative in- 
strument of the whole territory, out of which five 
States were made. The acts of 1789 and 1792 
are of minor historical importance. The acts of 
division have a historical bearing of interest to 
one who wishes to trace the preliminary stages 
through which we have passed. The Enabling 
Act is distinctive as revealing the attitude and 
policy of the nation toward statehood. Th<r full 
text of these and of Virginia's acts relative to 
the cession of the territory to the United States 
may be found in the "Legislative and State Man- 
ual for 1899-1900." For some reason, probably 
oversight, the legislative memorial asking for the 
Enabling Act is not included in this volume, but 
it may be found in large part in Dillon, p. 554. 
These references are given because more acces- 
sible than the Federal and State documents. 


Members of the Convention. — The spectacle 
in history of a group of men entrusted to create 
an instrument that is to give shape and direction 
throughout the future to a sovereign State, is 
an interesting one. For the purpose of framing 
a constitution (if deemed desirable) Indiana 
elected forty-three delegates from the thirteen 
counties that were stretched across the southern 
part of the State from Knox to Wayne. These 
delegates represented a mixed population of 
about 64,000, hailing from a number of States 
east and south. Like the population, the dele- 

Seal of the State. (See page 193.) 

gates were also of mixed character. At least a 
few of them were men of education and notable 
ability ; of the major part of them we know but 
little today, and some, we know, were unedu- 
cated, but men of sturdy intelligence and good 
sense. The most trustworthy characterization of 
them that we have is by John B. Dillon, who. 
when he wrote, was more than a half century 
nearer to that generation. He says : 

"The convention that formed the fust consti- 
tution of the State of Indiana was composed, 
mainly, of clear-minded, unpretending men of 
common sense, whose patriotism was unquestion- 
able and whose morals were fair. Their famil- 
iarity with the theories of the Declaration of 



American Independence, their territorial experi- 
ence under the provisions of the Ordinance of 
1787, and their knowledge of the principles of 
the Constitution of the United States were suffi- 
cient, when combined, to lighten materially their 
labors in the great work of forming a constitu- 
tion for a new State."* 

A list of these men and the representation of 
the various counties may here be given : 

Wayne county, four members — Jeremiah Cox, 
Patrick Baird, Joseph Holman and Hugh Cull. 

Franklin county, five members — William H. 
Eads, James Brownlee, Enoch McCarty, Robert 
Hanna, jr., and James Noble. 

Dearborn county, three members — James Dill, 
Solomon Manwaring and Ezra Ferris. 

Switzerland county, one member — William 

Jefferson county, three members — David H. 
Maxwell, Samuel Smock and Nathaniel Hunt. 

Clark county, five members — Jonathan Jen- 
nings, James Scott, Thomas Carr, John K. Gar- 
ham and James Lemon. 

Harrison county, five members — Dennis Pen- 
nington, Davis Floyd, Daniel C. Lane. John 
Boone and Patrick Shields. 

Washington county, five members — John De- 
Pauw, Samuel Milroy, Robert Mclntire, William 
Lowe and William Graham. 

Knox county, five members — John Johnson, 
John Badollet, William Polke, Benjamin Parke 
and John Benefiel. 

Gibson county, four members — David Robb, 
James Smith, Alexander Devin and Frederick 

Warrick county, one member — Daniel Grass. 

Perry county, one member — Charles Polke. 

Posey county, one member — Dann Lvnn.f 

Jonathan Jennings, delegate from Clark 
county, was chosen president of the convention, 
and William Hendricks, of Jefferson county, not 
a delegate, was made secretary. 

Distribution of Population. — This representa- 
tion indicates the distribution of population in 
the State. In round figures this was as follows : 
Knox, 8,068; Franklin, 7,370; Washington, 
7,317; Clark, 7.150; Harrison. 6,975; Wayne, 
6,407; Gibson, 5,330; Dearborn, 4,424; Jefferson, 
4.270; Switzerland, 1,832; Perry, 1.720; Gibson, 
1,619; Warrick, 1,415; total 63,895 (official 


t lb., p. 556. 

returns in 1815). This brought Corydon, the 
capital, near the center of population, but a little 
to the west, there being, not counting Harrison 
county itself, 25,469 to the westward and 31,451 

Elements of the Constitution. — The e'ements 
that were to enter into the constitution are in- 
dicated by the various questions that were re- 
ferred to a dozen or more special committees, 
these questions being relative to 

1. A bill of rights. 

2. The distribution of the powers of govern- 

3. The legislative department of the govern- 

4. The executive department. 

5. The judicial department. 

6. Impeachments. 

7. General provisions. 

8. Revision of Constitution. 

9. Change of government from territorial to 
State, preservation of laws already existing, 
court questions, etc. 

10. Education. 

11. Militia. 

12. Elective franchise and elections. 

To this list of committees appointed by Pres- 
ident Jennings at the beginning of the convention, 
was added, later, one on prisons and another on 
general revisions. 

Glancing over the completed constitution, cer- 
tain features may be noticed. The bill of rights 
is but a re-statement of principles that are the 
sacred inheritance of all Americans and which 
appear in numerous instruments. The "rights" 
as they are set forth in the Ordinance of 1787 
here reappeared in an amplified form. Liberty 
of conscience and freedom from all religious 
domination ; the right of trial by jury ; the rights 
of the individual to security of person and prop- 
erty against "unreasonable searches and seiz- 
ures" ; freedom of the press and free communi- 
cation of thoughts and opinions ; the right to full 
and fair hearing in the courts ; the right to "as- 
semble together in a peaceable manner" and to 
be heard of the governing powers when griev- 
ances exist are the chief guards against encroach- 
ments on the free status of the citizen. 

The separation of the government into three 
distinct departments, the legislative, the execu- 
tive and the judicial ; the division of the legisla- 



tive authority into two branches, a Senate and 
a House of Representatives ; a Governor, with 
a wide range of powers, a Lieutenant-Governor, 
and a Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State 
as the chief executive officers ; the division of the 
judiciary into Supreme, Circuit and inferior 
courts — in brief the general framework of gov- 
ernment — was in conformity with an established 

A provision that became a dead letter in the 
days of this constitution, although it was also 
inserted in the one of 1851, was compulsory mi- 
litia service by all free, able-bodied white citizens 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, 
barring certain exempts. 

The franchise, which in the territorial period 
had been restricted to freeholders, was extended 
to "every white male citizen of the United States, 
of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who 
has resided in the State one year." 

In the educational provision it was enjoined 
upon the General Assembly "to provide by law 
for the improvement of such lands as are or 
hereafter may be granted by the United States 
to this State for the use of schools, and to apply 
any funds which may be raised from such lands 
or from any other quarter to the accomplishment 
of the grand object for which they are or may 
be intended." Also, "the General Assembly shall, 
from time to time, pass such laws as shall be cal- 
culated to encourage intellectual, scientifical and 
agricultural improvement by allowing rewards 
and immunities for the promotion and improve- 
ment of arts, sciences, commerce, manufactures 
and natural history, and to countenance and en- 
courage the principles of humanity, honesty, in- 
dustry and morality." That the framers of the 
instrument were progressive and far-sighted in 
this direction is especially shown by this section : 
"It shall be the duty of the General Assembly, 
as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide 
by law for a general system of education, as- 
cending in regular gradation from township 
schools to a state university, wherein tuition shall 
be gratis and equally open to all." Provision was 
also made for public county libraries, the funds 
for the same to be derived from the sales of town 
lots in county seats, not less than ten per cent. 
to be reserved from such sales. 

A notable departure from certain drastic crim- 
inal laws that had previously existed was a pro- 

vision for a penal code "founded on the princi- 
ples of reformation and not of vindictive justice," 
and another step in the direction of humaneness 
was the provision for poor farms as asylums 
where the unfortunate might "find employment 
and every reasonable comfort, and lose by their 
usefulness the degrading sense of dependence." 
The question of slavery was set finally at rest by 
the declaration that "there shall be neither slav- 
ery nor involuntary servitude in this State, other- 
wise than for the punishment of crimes, whereof 
the party shall have been duly convicted." Fi- 
nally, the possible inadequacy of this constitution 
to the future needs of the State was clearly rec- 
ognized and it provided that every twelfth year 
thereafter the question of a new constitutional 
convention should be submitted to the people. 

All in all, the constitution of 1816 was an ad- 
mirable starting point for a State that was 
headed in the direction of civil and humanitarian 
progress and much credit is due to the intelli- 
gence and enlightenment of the men who laid 
this foundation, particularly in the moral provi- 


First Election; The Machinery Set in Mo- 
tion. — On the first Monday in August, 1816, 
the time being set by the constitution, a general 
election was held and Jonathan Jennings, per- 
haps the most conspicuous man in the State at 
that time, was chosen governor over Thomas 
Posey, his only competitor. Jennings had been 
the territorial delegate to Congress and Posey 
was the last territorial governor. Christopher 
Harrison was made lieutenant-governor and 
William Hendricks was elected congressman. 
Harrison was one of the picturesque characters 
of our history who, prior to his advent into po- 
litical life, had dwelt in hermit solitude in his 
cabin on the hills of the Ohio, near where Han- 
over stands. William Hendricks, afterward gov- 
ernor, is regarded as one of the ablest men of 
early Indiana. 

The Legislature, consisting of ten senators and 
twenty-nine representatives, convened on No- 
vember 4, 1816, with John Paul, of Madison, 
presiding over the Senate and Isaac Blackford, 
of Vincennes, as Speaker of the House. The 
governor's message was general in character and 
a reflection of the principles set forth in the con- 



stitution, revealing no particular initiative. The 
Legislature elected James Noble and Waller Tay- 
lor United States Senators ; Robert New, Sec- 
retary of State ; William H. Lilley, Auditor, and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer, and with this person- 
nel the ship of State was launched. 

Conditions and Needs as Shown by Jennings' 
Messages. — Jennings, during his tenure as 
Governor, delivered six messages to the Legisla- 
ture. A review of these as an index to the con- 
dition and needs of the State shows that the 
questions uppermost were : Revenue and finances, 
internal improvement, education and the State 

Of the first item he says in his message of 
December 7, 1819: "The system under which the 
revenue is assessed and collected requires a thor- 
ough change to insure an impartial collection, as 
well as prompt payment into the treasury," and 
adds : "The embarrassed situation of our circu- 
lating medium has produced effects distressing 
to the community, especially to the farming in- 
terest and those who are in debt to the United 
States for the purchase of lands"; the particular 
explanation of this being that national bank pa- 
per only was received at par by the government, 
whereas the circulating medium that came to 
hand was a depreciated paper currency, and this, 
when paid for lands, was at a loss of from 5 
to 10 per cent. The explanation given of pre- 
vailing hard times was that the war with England 
had thrown upon the country "a greater quantity 
of circulating medium than we have been accus- 
tomed to witness," with the result that there had 
followed much speculation and debt, while the 
suspension of specie payment had given rise to 
speculation in bank paper, which had been "prac- 
ticed upon the unwary and unadvised to an enor- 
mous extent." In his message of 1820 he speaks 
of the difficulty in collecting taxes and states 
that the average annual revenue from taxation 
since 1816 had been $13,000, whereas the ex- 
penditures had averaged $17,000, and it had been 
necessary to meet the deficit by making loans, 
while for the year past $5,000 remained unpaid. 
In 1821 the Legislature was convened a month 
earlier than the set time on account of financial 
troubles, the bank of Vincennes, from which the 
money had been borrowed, making a demand for 
the payment of $20,000 of the public debt, to- 
gether with interest due on the whole debt for 

that year. This institution had, in 1817, been 
made the State bank, from which the State was 
to secure its loans, but its mismanagement was 
such that the Legislature of this year (1821-2) 
authorized legal proceedings to cancel its charter. 

In the matter of internal improvements, the 
first necessity was for more roads, but as early 
as 1817 the Governor urged the importance of 
a canal at the falls of the Ohio, and the next 
year he indulged the "flattering hope of a speedy 
commencement" of that enterprise, the Ohio 
Canal Company having been incorporated. For 
revenue he advocated the selling of a township 
of land known as "French Lick," which had been 
"reserved and vested in the State for the use of 
a saline," but which had proved of no value for 
salt. In this message we find the first germ of 
the idea for an internal improvement system. It 
was in the power of the Legislature, he argued, 
"to lay the foundation of a system of internal 
improvement co-extensive with the State." The 3 
per cent, fund if judiciously saved and invested 
might, he maintained, come to yield $30,000 an- 
nually for the making of roads and canals, and 
he suggested "substantial leading roads" from 
the permanent capital that was to be established 
to "important points on the limits of the State." 

In the message of 1819 we find the first sug- 
gestion for the institution that afterward became 
Indiana University. The constitution stipulated 
that it should be the duty of the General Assem- 
bly to apply the funds from all school lands to 
school purposes, and the plan contemplated a 
system of ascending from township schools to 
a state university. In accordance with this, the 
governor expressed the view that "the seminary 
township, situated in Monroe county, would af- 
ford a site combining the advantages of fertility 
of soil with a healthy climate, as well as a posi- 
tion sufficiently central to the various sections of 
the State." The enabling act of 1816 had given 
a township for a State seminary. When the Con- 
stitutional Convention was in session a committee 
was appointed to select the township and the 
one in the present Monroe county was chosen. 
The law establishing the seminary was passed 
January 20, 1820. 

Contemporary Legislation. — Reviewing the 
legislation that followed these several messages, 
we find, virtually, the same questions directly 
dealt with. One of the first laws of interest sets 



the schedule of official salaries for that clay. The 
governor was allowed $1,000 per year, to be paid 
quarterly ; the judges of the supreme court and 
the presidents of the circuit courts received $700 
each ; members of the General Assembly were 
given $2 per day for each and every day's attend- 
ance, ami $2 for each twenty-five miles traveled 
bv "the most usual road," the same being allowed 
the president of the Senate and the speaker of 
the House. The secretary of the Senate was to 
have $4 per day, and the clerks of the House 
$3.75. Doorkeepers' pay was $2, and the mem- 
ber- of the Constitutional Convention, important 
as their services would seem to lie, were allowed 
no more than the doorkeepers plus $2 for each 
twenty-five miles traveled. 

In the matter of internal improvements, there 
was legislation on the Ohio Falls canal, the "Ohio 
Canal Company" being incorporated the first leg- 
islative session. An act of January 22, 1820, em- 
bodied an elaborate scheme for permanent roads, 
which are specified as follows: Madison to Ver- 
non ; Lawrenceburg to Brookville, thence to Con- 
nersville, Waterloo, Centerville and Winchester ; 
from the Ohio line to Brookville, thence to seat 
of government (the permanent capital, presum- 
ably, though not yet located) ; Lawrenceburg to 
Napoleon, thence to seat of government; New 
Albany to Salem; McDonald's Ferry to Browns- 
town ; Bethlehem to Brownstown ; Rising Sun to 
Versailles ; Brownstown to Bloomington, Madi- 
son to Brownstown ; Rockport to Vincennes ; 
( i irydon to Salem ; New Albany to Corydon, 
thence to Mount Sterling and Princeton ; Madi- 
son to Versailles ; Vevay to Versailles ; Evans- 
ville to Princeton, thence to White river; Poke 
Patch through Boonville and Springfield to Har- 
mony ; the Ohio line to Richmond, Salisbury and 
Centerville to west boundary of Wayne county ; 
( harlestown to Corvdon ; Brookville to Versailles 
and Vernon ; New Albany to Charlestown. thence 
to seat of justice of Scott county and to Vernon ; 
Xew Albany through Palestine to Bloomington; 
New Albany to Fredericksburg, Paoli and Hin- 
dostan; the Ohio line to Fairfield and Conners- 
ville. thence to seat of government ; New Lon- 
don to seat of Scott county. 

Education was not forgotten, though the con- 
ditions were unfavorable to the development of 
anything like a system, one great obstacle being 
a lack of funds to build schoolhouses and pay 

teachers. As said above, the State Seminary was 
established in 1820. The same year the Madison 
Academy was incorporated, and provisions made 
for sundry county libraries. During the first 
four years several laws, indeed, were passed for 
the incorporation of academies, seminaries and 
library associations. As early as 1816 steps were 
taken to judiciously administer the school sec- 
tions, these being section 16 of each township. 
Superintendents were appointed to lease these 

Map of Indiana in 1820. showing first county organiza- 
tion of the purchase of 1818. 

lands and each lessee was required to increase 
their value by setting out, each year, twenty-five 
apple and twenty-five peach trees, until one hun- 
dred of each had been planted. In 1821 a com- 
mittee was appointed to draft a bill for a general 
system of education, being instructed to guard 
particularly against "any distinction between the 
rich and the poor." This bill did not appear in 
the statutes until 1824. 

The system of land assessment and taxation 
at first adopted was essentially different from 
that adopted later. The assessment was so much 
per acre, and the adjustment to values was made 
bv dividing the lands into first, second ami third 



classes. The rate of assessment was very low, 
running, in different years, from 80 cents to $1.50 
per hundred acres on first-class land, and from 
40 to 62^4 cents on the poorer classes. 

The legislation in a moral direction aimed at 
various evils. There was a law against dueling, 
and one against gambling, directed against cer- 
tain games and gaming appliances, even forbade 
the bringing of playing cards into the State as 
merchandise under penalty of $3 fine and for- 
feiture of the cards. A drastic law against may- 
hem was aimed at the brutal fighting so much in 
vogue with the rougher element. Some of the 
criminal laws retain the severity of the territorial 
statutes. For rape or commerce with a girl un- 
der ten years of age, the penalty was death. For 
sodomy the maximum penalty was $500, impris- 
onment for five years and one hundred stripes on 
the bare back, besides which the culprit was ren- 
dered "infamous and incapable of giving evi- 
dence." Barratry incurred a fine not exceeding 
$500 and imprisonment not exceeding three 
months, a "barrator" being defined as one who 
"frequently excites and stirs up suits and quar- 
rels, between citizens of this State, at law or oth- 
erwise." An act for establishing a State prison 
at Jeft'ersonville, with an appropriation of $3,000 
for a building, was passed January 9, 1821, and 
a poor law of the second session (1817-18) pro- 
vided for overseers of the poor, and for the 
"farming out of the poor" at public vendue or 
outcry! The brutal feature of this is somewhat 
relieved when we reflect that in the absence of 
poorhouses the only other thing was to place pau- 
pers, at public expense, with those who would 
assume their charge. They were handed over to 
the lowest bidders, who were entitled to the la- 
bor of the able-bodied, but provisions were made 
against ill-treatment, and in case of suit the poor 
were to be defended gratis. 

A law of the second session (Special Acts, 
1817-18) also established medical districts and 
a board of medical censors to be appointed "for 
the purpose of examining and licensing physi- 
cians to practise in the State ;" and in 1819 the 
"State Medical Society of Indiana" was author- 
ized, with "power to settle finally all differences 
between the district medical societies and also 
between individuals and the respective societies, 
in cases of appeal, and to assign to each district 
society their geographical limits." 

An act to authorize the choosing of a site for 
the permanent capital was enacted in 1820. One 
of January 9, 1821, authorized the survey, in con- 
nection with Illinois, of the line between the two 

A census of 1820 showed that the population of 
the State had increased within four years from 
about 64,000 to 147,178, and the inhabitants of 
the new State "began to open new farms, to 
found new settlements, to plant new orchards, to 
erect schoolhouses and churches, to build hamlets 
and towns, and to engage, with some degree of 
ardor, in the various peaceful pursuits of civ- 
ilized life. A sense of security pervaded the 
minds of the people. The hostile Indian tribes, 
having been overpowered, humbled and impov- 
erished, no longer excited the fears of the pioneer 
settlers, who dwelt in safety in their plain log 
cabin homes, and cultivated their small fields 
without the protection of armed sentinels. The 
numerous temporary forts and blockhouses, 
which were no longer required as places of ref- 
uge for the pioneers, were either converted into 
dwelling houses or suffered to fall into ruins" 

The New Purchase. — Perhaps the most im- 
portant event that occurred during the Jennings 
administration was the acquisition of territory 
that virtually doubled the area for settlement. 
This was the tract since known as the "New Pur- 
chase," though formerly the Harrison purchase 
of 1809 was called by that name. It was secured 
by several treaties with different tribes held at 
St. Mary's, Ohio, in October, 1818, with Jona- 
than Jennings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin Parke 
as the purchasing commissioners. The Miamis, 
Delawares and Potawatomies were the chief 
tribes treated with and the lands they relinquished 
comprised the central and choicest portion of the 
State, extending from the old frontier to a line 
north and northwest of the fertile Wabash val- 
ley.* The land thus gained has been estimated 
as about eight million acres, out of which has 
since been carved more than a score of coun- 
ties. The amount paid for it was, to the Miamis, 
as chief owners, a perpetual annuity of $15,000, 
the building of a grist and sawmill, the support- 
ing of a blacksmith and a gunsmith, the provid- 
ing of such implements of agriculture "as the 
proper agent may think necessary," and one hun- 

See map of Indian land cessions, p. 31. 



dred sixty bushels of salt annually. Out of the 
tract twenty-one grants, amounting in all to forty- 
nine sections, were granted in fee simple to as 
many Indians, and there were six reservations, 
the largest, afterward known as the "Miami re- 
serve," containing approximately one thousand 
square miles. To the Delawares, who laid claim 
to the White river valley, was allowed other ter- 
ritorv west of the Mississippi river, the "value of 
their improvements," one hundred twenty horses, 
enough pirogues to transport the tribe, together 
with provisions for their journey, and $4,000 
perpetual annuity. To the Potawatomies, for 
a tract of about sixteen hundred square miles 
northeast of the Wabash and the relinquishment 
of all the claims they might have to the rest of 
the total purchase, was given a perpetual annuity 
of $2,500. It may be of interest to note that these 
annuities in the aggregate equaled 3 per cent, in- 
terest on about $717,000. All the other items, 
liberally estimated, would bring the total cost well 
within the $800,000 mark, or about 10 cents per 
acre. As the government subsequently sold the 
land for $1.25 per acre it can be seen that, con- 
sidered as a transaction in real estate, it was by 
no means bad.* 

The statement is made by various local histori- 
ans that the Delaware Indians reserved the right 
to continue in possession of the country until 
1820 or 1821. The authority for this we are un- 
able to trace, there being no such provision in 
any of the treaties above mentioned. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the first surveys were made in 1819. 
As early as January, 1820, the new territory was 
organized, parts of it along the southern and 
eastern edge being attached to the counties of 
Jennings, Jackson, Franklin, Fayette, Wayne and 
Randolph, all the rest being formed into two large 
new counties, Delaware and Wabash. The older 
counties above named were given "concurrent 
jurisdiction" in civil cases in Delaware county, 
and Vigo, Owen and Monroe were given like 
jurisdiction over Wabash county. An interest- 

* i hie of the rare documents in the State library is the parch- 
ment copy of the treaty made with the Miamis. This was the 
duplicate instrument that was given to Chief Richardville for the 
tribe. In course of time it came into the hands of Mr. Charles 
B. Lasselle, of Logansport, who was a zealous collector of relics 
relating to the history of the Wabash valley. Attached to the 
parchment are the signatures of thirteen representatives of the 
I States besides the three commissioners, and sixteen Mi- 
ami chiefs (by mark). Among the former are Joseph Barron, 
\\ illiam Conner and Antoine Bondie, as interpreters. The treaty 
bears the date of October 6, 1818. 

ing item among the laws of 1820-21 is the ap- 
pointment of John Vawter to take the census of 
"all the white male inhabitants above twenty-one 
vears of age within said counties of Wabash and 
Delaware, and return a list of the same to the 
office of Secretary of State, on or before the sec- 
ond Monday in November next." 

Search through the legislative documents fails 
to disclose any further reference to this first 

Map of Indiana in 1824, When the Capital Was Moved 
to Indianapolis. — By E. V. Shockley. 

census of the New Purchase, which was prob- 
ably ordered in anticipation of the influx of immi- 
gration that would follow the locating of the 

The Squatter Population. — The New Pur- 
chase was organized and provision made for 
"civil cases" (as noted above) a year and a half 
before the first land sales were made. Whether 
or not this had any reference to the unauthorized 
"squatter" occupancy of the territory, such occu- 
pancy existed, just as it had existed throughout 
the southern part of the State before the various 
land purchases by the government. The first 
permanent white settler in central Indiana of 
whom we have record was William Cornier, who 
in 1802 established a trading post on White river. 


about four miles below the present site of No- 
blesville. In 1819 a little colony, led by John 
Finch, settled on a small prairie beside the river, 
nearly opposite the Noblesville site. This spot, 
afterward known as the "Horseshoe Prairie," 
from a curve of the river at that point, was, in 
August of the year mentioned, taken possession 
of by seven or eight families, an advance party 
having the previous spring put in crops and built 
houses.* Another group was located at the 
"Bluffs" of White river, where the village of 
Waverly now stands, about eighteen or twenty 
miles below Indianapolis. Jacob Whetzel, a 
brother of Louis Whetzel, the famous Indian 
fighter of Virginia, located here in March, 1819, 
having, the year before, employed his son Cyrus 
and four other axmen in cutting out a rude road- 
way between the Bluffs and Franklin county, 
which was afterward known as the "Whetzel 
Trace." Other families joined the Whetzels, and 
before the opening of the lands there seems to 
have been quite a settlement at that point. f Also, 
about fifteen families, most of whom are said 
to have come from the Whitewater valley, settled 
in the vicinity of the mouth of Fall creek, where 
several Indian trails converged, and where, ac- 
cording to J. H. B. Nowland, a sandbar deposited 
by the waters of the creek formed a much-used 
fording place in the river. The extent of the 
squatter occupancy beyond these settlements is 
probably greater than is generally supposed from 
the records that exist. John Tipton, one of the 
commissioners to locate the capital, speaks of 
people up and down the river, giving the impres- 
sion that there were scattered residents. Judge 
Banta gives the names of men who located within 
the present bounds of Shelby, Bartholomew and 
Johnson counties before the lands were put on 
the market, some of them as early as 1818; and 
if this were true of the localities Banta knew of 
it was doubtless true over a wider area. 

Locating the Capital. — By an act of January 
11, 1820, the General Assembly appointed a com- 
mission of ten men from as many different coun- 
ties to select the four sections of land that had 
been donated in the enabling act for a permanent 
capital of the State. The commissioners were : 
George I hint, of Wayne county; John Conner, 

* For best account of this settlement see "Reminiscences of 
Judge Finch," in Ind. Mag. Hist., December, 1911. 

tD, 1). Banta's "Historical Sketch of Johnson County," p. 9. 

of Fayette; Stephen Ludlow-, of Dearborn ; John 
Gilliland, of Switzerland ; Joseph Bartholomew, 
of Clark ; John Tipton, of Harrison ; Jesse B. 
Durham, of Jackson; Frederick Rapp, of Posey; 
William Prince, of Gibson, and Thomas Emmer- 
son, of Knox. They were to meet on a specified 
day at the house of William Conner (the trad- 
ing post on White river) and, after due oath, to 
"proceed to view, select and locate among the 
lands of the United States which are unsold a 
site which in their opinion shall be most eligible 
and advantageous for the permanent seat of gov- 
ernment of Indiana, embracing four sections, or 
as many fractional sections as will amount to 
four sections." Provision was made for a clerk 
"who shall keep a fair record of their proceed- 
ings herein, which shall be signed by each and 
every of them, and attested by their clerk, a 
copy of which they shall file in the office of 
Secretary of State." If this "record of proceed- 
ings" was ever kept and filed as ordered it has 
gone the way of other valuable documents, due, 
perhaps, to the criminal carelessness, or at least 
culpable stupidity, which led an irate citizen, 
ninety years ago, to denounce certain officials 
who had cleared the old Corydon state house of 
"useless papers," as "no more fit for their busi- 
ness than hogs for a parlor." At any rate, the 
only record we have of the work of the commis- 
.sion, aside from the bare report of results, is 
the private journal of John Tipton, the member 
from Harrison county. This document, which 
may be found in full in the Indiana Magazine of 
History, vol. i, pp. 9 and 74, is here given in brief. 
The writer states that on Wednesday, the 17th 
of May, 1820, he set out from Corydon in com- 
pany with Governor Jennings to meet with the 
other commissioners in the New Purchase. They 
had with them a black servant boy, a tent and 
"plenty of baken and coffy." At Vallonia they 
picked up two other members of the commission, 
Colonel Durham and General Bartholomew, and 
also two unofficial persons who were "going out 
to look at the country." On Monday, the 22d. 
after five days' traveling, they reached William 
Conner's, the prescribed meeting place, which is 
described as a prairie of about two hundred fifty 
acres of the White river bottom, with a number 
of Indian huts near the house. By noon of the 
next day all the commissioners except William 
Prince, of Gibson county, were present, and they 



proceeded with their work. The probabilities are 
that they viewed Conner's prairie as a possible 
site, and also the Finch settlement, three miles 
above. The Journal does not say so, but Fabius 
M. Finch, in the "Reminiscences" cited above, 
States that they visited his father's place. From 


Old Constitutional Elm Tree at Corydon, still standing. 
Under this tree it is said the first constitution of 
Indiana was adopted, on June 29, 1816. 

Conner's they followed the river down to the set- 
tlement at the mouth of Fall creek, and after 
viewing that place, passed on down to the Whet- 
zel settlement. The commissioners and the visit- 
ing members of the party, of whom there were 
several besides Governor Jennings, seem to have 
prospected to and fro between these points in 
separate groups, but finally they all met again on 
Saturday, the 27th, at the cabin of John McCor- 
mick, which stood below Fall creek on the high 
ground just above where Washington street meets 
the river, and agreed upon the Fall creek location. 
As the government survey was not completed, 
however, the tract could not be specifically de- 
scribed. Judge William B. Laughlin, the sur- 
veyor, was sent for to finish his work, and after 
a delay of eleven days the commissioners fin- 
ished theirs. 

The statement that has been made and re- 
peated that only five commissioners voted on the 
question of location and that two of those voted 
for the "Bluffs," and the oft-repeated newspaper 
story that the commissioners visited and consid- 
ered the site of Strawtown, above Noblesville, 
has not the slightest documentary support. The 
reasons for the selection that was made are given, 
in a brief and general way. in the commissioners' 

report to the Legislature on June 7, 1820, which 
reads : 

"The undersigned have endeavored to connect 
with an eligible site the advantages of a navi- 
gable stream and fertility of soil, while they have 
not been unmindful of the geographical situation 
of the various portions of the State ; to its politi- 
cal center as regards both the present and future 
population, as well as the present and future in- 
terest of the citizens."* This is signed by all the 
commissioners except William Prince. 


Sketch of Governor Jennings. — As Indiana's 
first executive, Governor Jonathan Jennings de- 
serves, perhaps, a consideration that we can not 
give to his successors in the gubernatorial office. 
Jennings came from Pennsylvania to Indiana 
Territory in 1806, settling first at Jeffersonville, 

Old State House at Corydon.1 

then at Yincennes, where he was admitted to the 
bar and began the practise of law in L807. The 

"practise," however, seems to have been little 

* House Jour., 1820-21, p. 25. 

t This structure, erected in 1811-12, as !■ as car 

termined, was built by Dennis Pennington for the Hai 
county courthouse. It was never owned by the State, but was 
rented for legislative use. For documentary research into this 
question by Miss Ethel Cleland see Ind. Mag. Hist., vol. ix. 



more than nominal, as he drifted into clerical 
work in connection with the territorial Legis- 
lature, and this employment turned him in the 
direction of politics. His first appearance in the 
political field was as a candidate for the office of 
territorial delegate to Congress in 1809. The 
issue on which the campaign was waged was 
that of admitting slavery into the territory, and 
Jennings, as the anti-slavery candidate, was 
elected after a bitter contest. During the rest of 
the territorial period he remained in Congress, 
as he was returned in 1811 and 1813, and this 
fact, doubtless, contributed greatly to the anti- 
slavery movement which in 1816 succeeded in 
bringing in the State free. It was Jennings who 
laid before Congress the memorial asking for an 
act to enable the Territory to become a State, 
and with the passing of that act and the subse- 
quent Constitutional Convention, he was chosen 
president of that body, being also a delegate from 
Clark county. In the subsequent campaign for 
State officers he ran for governor against Thomas 
Posey, the territorial governor, and won by a 
large majority. 

Of his peculiar task as the first governor one 
of his biographers (Woollen) says: "The mak- 
ing and putting into motion of the machinery of 
a new State requires ability of a high order. Rev- 
enue is to be created, laws for the protection of 
life and property to be drawn and passed, and 
divers other things to be done that the founda- 
tions of the government may be properly laid. 
The governor proved himself equal to the task." 
It must be said that this latter laudation is not 
too strongly put. Jennings was one of the com- 
missioners who, at the treaty of St. Marys, Ohio, 
secured from the Indians the large tract of terri- 
tory, covering the central part of the State, after- 
ward known as the "New Purchase," and in 
1820 he personally accompanied the commission- 
ers who had been appointed to select a site for 
the permanent capital. In 1822 he was elected a 
representative to Congress and resigned the gov- 
ernorship to accept that office, the remainder of 
his term being filled out by Ratlin; Boon. He re- 
mained in Congress eight years, then, being de- 
feated in the race for another term, retired to 
private life. His one other public service was 
as a commissioner, in 1832, to treat with the In- 
dians for lands in northern Indiana and southern 
Michigan. He died July 26, 1834, at his home 

about three miles west of Charlestown, and lies 
buried in the Charlestown cemetery, where, for 
many years, his grave lay neglected and un- 
marked, though it now has a fitting granite mon- 

In an appreciation of Jennings written by John 
H. B. Nowland, who knew him personally, he is 
described as a man of great personal magnetism, 
free-handed, generous of nature and kind of 
heart, with much simplicity of character. During 
his service in Congress, Mr. Nowland says, "No 
letter was ever addressed to him on the most 
trivial, as well as important matter, that was not 
promptly answered and his business attended to ;" 
and the biographer further adds that the honest 
discharge of every official duty entrusted to him 
won for him wide esteem. 

Throughout his political career, Jennings had 
his bitter enemies, who were unescapable then as 
now, but many of the fulminations against him 
are at this day their own condemnation. For 
example, Waller Taylor, a pro-slavery opponent 
of territorial days, tried to provoke him to a quar- 
rel and a duel for no particular reasons except 
political ones, and disgustedly dubbed him a cow- 
ard because he persisted in being amiable and 
friendly. In 1816, Elihu Stout, editor of The 
Western Sun, and a coterie of Harrison sup- 
porters, raged because he was back of a (to them) 
nefarious scheme to introduce a rival news- 
paper, The Centinel, in Vincennes. The humor 
of this did not seem to strike them. 

According to Mr. Nowland, Governor Jen- 
nings' salary of $1,000 per year was paid in treas- 
ury notes worth about $600, and his expenditures 
more than doubling this depreciated salary, left 
him involved in debts which he never got free 

The Jennings-Harrison Incident. — During 
the administration of Governor Jennings occurred 
an incident that is unique, at least in the history 
of this State. In 1818 President Monroe ap- 
pointed Jennings one of three commissioners to 
negotiate a treaty with the Indians for a new 
tract of territory. This placed Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Christopher Harrison in the position of 
acting governor. The constitution contained the 
provision that "no member of Congress, or per- 

* For fuller sketches of Jennings, see Woollen's "Biographical 
and Historical Sketches," Nowland's "Prominent Citizens" and 
Dunn's "Indiana." 



son holding any office under the United States, 
in- this State, shall exercise the office of governor 
or lieutenant-governor." As Harrison rather in- 
geniously construed this. Jennings, by accepting 
a commission from the United States, had abdi- 
cated his office as governor and the lieutenant- 
governor had become governor instead. Wool- 
len ( "Biographical and Historical Sketches") 
thus describes the situation : 

"Governor Jennings refused to accept this in- 
terpretation of the law and demanded possession 
of the executive office. The lieutenant-governor 

committee which may be appointed on the part 
of the House of Representatives to wait on the 
lieutenant-governor, and late acting governor, 
and inform him that the two houses of the Gen- 
eral Assembly have met, formed a quorum, and 
are now ready to receive any communications 
which he may please to make relative to the exec- 
utive department of government, and request a 
similar committee be appointed on the part of 
the House of Representatives, and that on the 
part of the Senate Messrs. Boon and De Pauw 
were appointed that committee.' " 

Indianapolis, "The Capital in the Woods," in 1820. — From an ideal painting by Alois E. Sinks. 

left the room he had been occupying, and, taking 
with him the State seal, opened an office else- 
where. The State officers were in a quandary 
what to do. Two men were claiming to be gov- 
ernor, and they did not know which to recognize. 
Such was the condition of affairs when the Leg- 
islature of 1818 convened. On the 10th of De- 
cember of that year Ratliff Boon, then a senator 
from the count}- of Warrick, appeared upon the 
floor of the House and said : 

' 'Mr. Speaker, I am directed by the Senate to 
inform this House that the Senate has appointed 
a committee on their part to act with a similar 

The requested committee was formed in the 
House, and the joint committee waited on Harri- 
son, but was told that he had no communication to 
make unless it was to be received as coming from 
the governor. Then came a committee to investi- 
gate the troubles in the executive department, and 
this committee reported as their opinion "that His 
Excellency, Gov. Jonathan Jennings, did. in the 
months of September and October last, accept an 
appointment under the government of the Lhiited 
States, by virtue of which he, together with oth- 
ers, did repair to St. Marys, and then and there 
did negotiate and conclude a treaty with various 



tribes of Indians in behalf of the United States; 
and that he did sign said treaty as the agent or 
officer of the United States, and he did thereto 
subscribe his name with others." The next step 
in the solemn red-tape process was Governor Jen- 
nings' notification as to the investigation, and a 
request that he appear before the committee in 
his own defense ; but he declined to do so in per- 
son, appointing, instead, Charles Dewey to rep- 
resent him as counsel. The upshot of it all was 
that after the committee had taken the testimony 
of various persons to prove that Jennings had 
acted as a United States commissioner (which, 
of course, everybody knew beforehand), and 

after this was duly reported to the Legislature, 
that body passed a resolution that it was "inexpe- 
dient to further prosecute the inquiry into the 
existing difficulties in the executive department 
of the government of the State," thereby recog- 
nizing Jennings as the rightful governor. This 
resolution, however, was carried by only two 
votes and our first administration came just that 
near to a sudden and rather ignominious ending. 
Lieutenant-Governor Harrison resigned his of- 
fice in a pique, and in the next gubernatorial cam- 
paign ran for the governorship against Jennings, 
but received less than a fifth of the total vote 

Greasy Creek, Brown County. — Photograph by Frank M. Hohenberger. 



Explanation of This Period. — Any division 
of the State's history into distinct periods is apt 
to be more or less arbitrary. Some division, how- 
ever, facilitates grouping of the elements to be 
dealt with, and helps to an understanding of the 
social development and the chronological order. 
The period between the admission to the Union 
and the year 1836 may for these purposes be con- 
sidered as a distinct chapter in the development, 
because the growth of activities up to that date 
are a continuous and normal unfolding, and be- 
cause the internal improvement law of 1836 in- 
augurated a new departure and introduced an- 
other very distinctive chapter. 

General Character of Period. — The period 
comprised the administrations of Governors 
Jonathan Jennings (1816-1822)*, William Hen- 
dricks (1822-1825), James B. Ray (1825-1831). 
and part of that of Noah Noble, who served 
from 1831 to 1837. This span of our history, 
offering little that is spectacular or conspicuous, 
has not particularly invited the researches of the 
historian, and hence it is rather an obscure pe- 
riod and the source material is limited. Finances, 
a taxing system, internal improvements, educa- 
tion and local politics were the questions that 
engaged public attention, and the dealing with 
these were noticeably in the experimental stage. 

The various messages of the governors and the 
contemporary legislation afford us glimpses of 
conditions and of questions that were uppermost. 
As late as 1825 there was complaint of serious 
financial depression. Governors Hendricks and 
Ray agree in attributing the condition to the re- 
cent war with England. The extensive consump- 
tion of European goods and the want of a market 
for surplus produce, says Hendricks, "has put 
the balance of trade largely against the western 
country and produced general and individual dis- 

Ray On Hard Times. — Governor Ray. at 
the close of 1825, gives a graphic explanation of 
the trying times the young State had been pass- 

* Jennings went to Congress before the expiration of his term, 
which was filled out by Ratliff Boon. 

ing through. "In consequence of the war," he 
affirms, "large disbursements of public money 
were made by the general government in every 
part of the country; a general rage for specula- 
tion was excited ; numerous banks with fictitious 
capital were established ; immense issues of pa- 
per were made and the circulating medium of the 
country was increased fourfold in the course of 
two or three years. A natural consequence of 
this great increase of what was then deemed 
equivalent to money was that a fictitious value 
was placed upon labor and every species of prop- 
erty. . . . Money, as it was then called, was 
easily acquired, and the people too generally and 
too easily indulged in visionary dreams of wealth 
and splendor. Then the extraordinary flow of 
money from our treasury was discontinued ; our 
army was reduced ; the newly created banks be- 
gan to fail ; specie disappeared ; the fictitious cir- 
culating medium of the country became trash in 
the hands of the people ; wages and every species 
of property suffered an unprecedented depres- 
sion in their value, and the industry of the coun- 
try suffered a shock from which, in many places, 
it has not yet recovered." In addition, he says 
that the lack of markets for surplus produce 
"operates as a dead weight upon the industry and 
enterprise of the State." 

The State's Revenue ; Taxing System. — 
Along with this general depression went the dif- 
ficulties of raising the State's revenues. The 
country was poor, taxables few, and the taxing 
system crude. Hendricks speaks of the methods 
of collecting the taxes as "attended with uncer- 
tainty and delay" and practically every message 
refers to the difficulties in this line. The manner 
of collecting was for the sheriff or his deputy to 
advertise, giving ten days' notice of the time 
when he would be present at the place of elec- 
tion in each township for the purpose of receiv- 
ing the taxes. If the taxpayer failed to attend at 
the time set and pay, then he was to discharge his 
debt at the house of the sheriff or deputy on or 
before the 1st of September of that year, under 
penalty of having his property levied on. The 




indications are that very many failed to meet the 
collector, either at the advertised place or at his 
house, for Ray, in his first message, alludes to 
accumulated delinquencies amounting to $12,000, 
out of which, it was thought, the treasurer might 
realize $3,000. In 1825 the law was modified by 
the provision that the collector call at "the most 
usual and best known place of residence" of the 
citizen, but too much was not expected of this, 
evidently, for of the $40,000 income that was due 
that year it was calculated that there would be a 
shrinkage from delinquency and commissions, of 
$8,000. The poll tax of 50 cents per head was 
so unpopular that Ray advised its reduction "be- 
cause a poll tax seems to be most odious to the 
people, being often viewed in no better light than 
as a remaining badge of British vassalage." 

Tax Schedule. — The tax and revenue prob- 
lem was the subject of repeated legislation. The 
law as it stood in 1824 appraised first-class land 
at $1.50 per hundred acres; second-class at $1, 
and third-class at 75 cents ; lands to be rated ac- 
cording to quality, local advantages and contigu- 
ity to towns and navigable rivers, etc. Each $100 
in bank stock was assessed 25 cents, and there 
was a poll tax of 50 cents on each male over 
twenty-one years of age who was sane and not 
a pauper. This was the State tax. For county 
revenue every horse, ass or mule over three years 
old was assessed not to exceed 37*/? cents ; a 
stallion was rated at the price at which he served ; 
work oxen, not over 18^4 cents ; two-wheeled 
pleasure carriages, $1 ; four-wheeled carriage, 
$1.50; brass clock, $1; gold watch, $1; silver 
watch, 25 cents ; license for retailing spirituous 
liquors, not less than $5, nor more than $25 ; 
license to vend foreign merchandise, not less than 
$10 nor more than $50; ferry privileges, not less 
than $2 nor more than $20 ; each original suit or 
complaint commenced and prosecuted in the cir- 
cuit courts, 50 cents. 

Increase of Revenue from Lands. — Lands 
sold by the United States were exempt from tax- 
ation for five years after purchase, and one grow- 
ing source of income was the increase of taxable 
acreage as the five-year limit expired. Accord- 
ing to Ray's estimate in 1825, the following year 
would see 500,000 acres added to the State's tax- 
ables, and elsewhere we find it estimated that the 
annual average increase of taxable land amounted 
to 400,000 acres. By the treasurer's report of 

1822 and 1830, respectively, the State's annual 
income increased in the eight years from $41,- 
085.29 to $65,344.48. 

Banking. — During most of the third decade 
Indiana had no system of banks, though the early 
twenties saw the close of an interesting chapter 
of banking history. During the territorial period 
money affairs were chaotic ; private "wildcat" 
banks prevailed, along with the dangers incident 
to those irresponsible institutions. In 1814 the 
Legislature took steps toward helping the situa- 
tion by chartering the Bank of Vincennes and 
the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, of Madison. 
In 1817 the Legislature made the Bank of Vin- 
cennes a State institution, in which the State was 
a stockholder, and which was to have fourteen 
branches in as many districts. The capital stock 
was increased from $500,000 to $1,500,000. This 
extensive scheme was quite out of proportion to 
the wealth and circulating requirements of the 
State, and only three branches organized. The 
Vincennes bank, under the State's wing, had 
its vicissitudes, was fraudulently managed, and 
finally, in 1822, went out in a blaze of disrepute 
that stirred up the State. The Madison bank, 
which was to have been included in the State's 
branch scheme, but declined the alliance, made 
a reputable record for itself, but it also had its 
difficulties and ceased business some time after 
the collapse of the Vincennes bank. From then 
until the inauguration of a new banking era in 
1834 the circulation of the State was supplied 
chiefly by the Bank of the United States. 

State Bank of 1834. — The Legislature, by an 
act that was signed January 28, 1834, created the 
State Bank of Indiana. It was chartered for 
twenty-five years with a capital stock of $1,600,- 
000, of which the State took one-half, assuming 
supervisory powers and retaining the right to 
select some of the more important officers. The 
institution was, in reality, a system consisting of 
ten branches, to be afterward added to and lo- 
cated at different points in the State. These 
branches were more or less independent, but sub- 
ject to a certain supervisory control by a central 
board consisting of a president and four members 
chosen by the Legislature, besides one member 
chosen by each of the branches. This board and 
the branches were required to make an annual 
report to the Legislature, which retained full 
powers of investigation at any time. The orig 


inal brandies were located at Indianapolis, Law- 
renceburg, Richmond, Madison, New Albany, 
Evansville, Vincennes, Bedford, Terre Haute and 
Lafayette. In 1835 another branch was estab- 
lished at Fort Wayne, and in 1838 two more at 
South Bend and Michigan City, respectively. On 
January 1, 1835, the loans were $520,843.75 ; cir- 
culation, $456,065; deposits, $127,236.30; specie, 
$751,083.29, and capital paid in $800,000. In 
1836 the capital stock was increased to $2,500,000, 
and this was divided equally among the various 
branches. For two or three years this institution 
prospered ; then with the panic of 1837 and in 
the financial distress brought on the State by the 
sorry collapse of the internal improvement 
scheme, it suffered with things generally. Recov- 
ering from this period of adversity it prospered 
again from about the middle forties to the expira- 
tion of its charter in 1859.* 

Population. — The population of the State 
grew from about 63,000 in 1816 to 147.178 in 
1820 and 341,582 in 1830. The tide of immigra- 
tion swelled particularly throughout the latter 
half of the twenties, and in 1829 Ray wrote: 
"For months past we have daily seen from twenty 
to fifty wagons, containing families, moving 
through this single metropolis (Indianapolis), 
most of whom have fixed their abodes in the 
White river country and in that bordering upon 
the Wabash." By the census tables of 1830, 
showing the distribution of population through- 
out the sixty-three counties then existing, Wayne 
was far in advance of all the others with 23,344 
inhabitants. Dearborn followed with 14,573, 
and Washington, Jefferson, Clark, Harrison and 
Franklin came in the order named, this being the 
total number of those running over 10,000. Knox, 
once the must populous, was now but 6,557. By 
this, certain of the older southern and eastern 
counties still held the ascendency and as yet had 
not suffered by the pressure northward in search 
of new lands. Of the central counties located in 
the newer part of the State, Rush led with 9,918, 
followed by Putnam, Fountain, Parke, Mont- 
gomery. Marion and Tippecanoe, all running 
over 7,000. These majorities indicate the direc- 
tions in which the currents of immigration set 
strongest. They bore no relation to priority of 
settlement and the attracting causes are a matter 

for speculation. In the case of Rush county, the 
most populous, it was doubtless the lay and qual- 
ity of the land, and perhaps its contiguity to the 
older settlements of the Whitewater. The capi- 
tal of the State, of course, drew many to Marion 
county. Tippecanoe and Fountain were undoubt- 
edly beholden to the Wabash river, but why Put- 
nam, Parke and Montgomery should have so far 
outstripped some other counties that seemed to 
have equal advantages, is a matter of inquiry for 
the curious student. 

.".:-" ~ ^ f 

• . ■ 

* i - t 




>■ — 


J—K- " j 

* For studies on banking see Esarey's Hist. Ind., Smith's 
Hist. Ind. and Harding's "State Bank of Ind." in Journal of 
Political Economy. December, 1895. 

Map of Indiana, 1827. 

Politics. — During the first years of the State 
partisan interests and partisan virulence were not 
m evidence in Indiana as they were a little later. 
The standard of self-government did not. how- 
ever, seem to be particularly elevated 1>\ that fact. 
The scrambling for public office went on just the 
same, without regard to fitness or honesty of can- 
didates, and the acrimony of opposing individuals 
or their little supporting cliques were only equaled 
l>\ the unctuous truckling to voters. In the be- 
ginning as now public service was sometimes en- 
trusted to incompetency and rascality, proving, 
perhaps, that this shortcoming is inseparable 



from our political system. More than once Ray 
complained of failures from many counties to 
make proper election returns, and ever and anon 
in the House and Senate Journals we find reports 
of proceedings against minor public officials for 
maladministration of their office. 

Beginning of Party Politics. — For more than 
a dozen years after the admission of the State 
political issues in Indiana were local and the for- 
tunes of an aspirant to public life devolved upon 
his personal standing rather than on allegiance to 
a party. The presidential campaign of 1828, 
with its intense partisanship, introduced a new 
political era. This was not felt here at once but 
Governor Ray's last message, delivered on his 
retirement in 1831, is notable for its protest 
against party ascendency and party discipline as 
assailing "the vitals of the first principles of the 
republic." A country's happiness and honor, he 
affirmed, was "about to be periled upon the self- 
ish basis of alternate triumphs and defeats." 
Noah Noble, a Whig, was the first Indiana gov- 
ernor elected along national party lines, but a 
local issue, that of internal improvement, was 
a prominent factor in his ascendency. The three 
successive governors from 1831 to 1843 — Noah 
Noble, David Wallace and Samuel Bigger, were 

Industries and Trade. — Industry throughout 
this period was confined almost entirely to agri- 
culture and home products of manufacture, such 
as fabrics for clothing. Occasionally some mill 
or factory with a sounding name was incorpo- 
rated under the law, but as yet they cut little 
figure in the activities of the commonwealth. 
Trade developed quite as rapidly as could be ex- 
pected considering the serious handicap conse- 
quent upon the wretched transportation facilities. 
There was much surplus produce in the shape 
of horses, cattle, swine, flour, sugar and whisky, 
for export, and as early as 1828, before the days 
of the Wabash canal, it was affirmed that ten 
counties along the Wabash valley, from Knox 
to Tippecanoe, had been receiving annually from 
the east 385 tons of dry goods, while from Terre 
Haute alone went 2,800 barrels of whisky and 
7,000 barrels of pork.* The most of the export 
trade went southward by way of the Mississippi 
river, and the localities most favored were those 
that had easiest outlet by streams that could be 

navigated. The Ohio and Wabash permitted of 
egress at all times of the year, but most of the 
watercourses that threaded the interior afforded 
outlet at high water only, and advantage was 
taken of the freshet season to send down flat- 
boats laden with the produce of the country. 
These rude craft required comparatively little 
skill to build and the Indiana forests supplied 
an abundance of timber for their construction. 
They were from forty to a hundred feet in 
length and from fifteen to twenty feet wide and 
had great carrying capacity, one estimate being 
500 dressed hogs for a sixty-foot boat. 

The Ohio and lower Wabash had the advan- 
tage of steamboat transportation at an early day, 
but what is claimed as the first vessel of this 
kind on White river did not come until 1829 or 
the early part of 1830, when the "Traveler," cap- 
tained by William Sanders, carried a load of salt 
as far as Spencer.* For many parts of the State 
the flatboat traffic continued until the advent of 
the railroads. 


Constitutional Provision. — The ninth article 
of the constitution had taken this stand on behalf 
of the education of the State's future citizens : 

"Knowledge and learning generally diffused 
through a community being essential to the pres- 
ervation of a free government, and spreading 
the opportunities and advantages of education 
through the various parts of the country being 
highly conducive to this end, it shall be the duty 
of the General Assembly to provide by law for 
the improvement of such lands as are, or here- 
after may be granted by the United States to this 
State for the use of schools, and to apply any 
funds which may be raised from such lands, or 
from any other quarter, to the accomplishment 
of the grand object for which they are or may 
be intended ; but no lands granted for the use 
of schools or seminaries of learning shall be sold 
by the authority of the State prior to the year 
eighteen hundred and twenty; and the moneys 
which may be raised out of the sale of any such 
lands, or otherwise obtained for the purpose 
aforesaid, shall be and remain a fund for the 
exclusive purposes of promoting the interest of 
literature and the sciences, and for the support 
of seminaries and public schools. It shall be 

* Ray's message, 1828. 

* Ind. Quar. Mag. Hist.. June, 1906. 



the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as 
circumstances will permit, to provide by law for 
a general system of education, ascending in a 
regular gradation from township schools to a 
State university wherein tuition shall be gratis 
and equally open to all. And for the promotion 
of such salutary end, the money which shall be 
paid as an equivalent by persons exempt from 
military duty, except in times of war, shall be 
exclusively, and in equal proportion, applied to 
the support of county seminaries; and all fines 
assessed for any breach of the penal laws shall 
be applied to said seminaries in the counties 
wherein they shall be assessed." 

This was an admirable foundation on which 
to rear the educational structure, but as a matter 
of fact it was a good while before the citizenry 
could work to the program with any degree of 
efficiency, and during this period the actual edu- 
cational status was very crude. 

County Seminaries. — What is known as the 
"County Seminary Law of 1818" marks the first 
step toward a system. This, conformably to the 
constitutional provision, established a seminary 
in each county, the public funds for which were 
to be derived as specified. How inadequate this 
fund was is shown by the fact that in 1825 Dear- 
born, one of the most populous counties, raised 
but $71 N I, while only seven had in excess of $200 
and eight had less than $50 each.* These pit- 
tance*, in many instances, were eked out by pri- 
vate aid from public-spirited citizens, and as a 
matter of fact some of the seminaries became 
not only educational but social centers of con- 
siderable importance at that day. As schools 
they were, in some places, mixed and ungraded, 
with pupils ranging, as Professor Boone says, 
from "four to thirty years of age," though where 
the township schools existed they were confined 
to the higher grades. A table of these seminaries 
and their location given by Boone shows eighteen 
to have been established up to 1830. 

School Law of 1824; Distinctive Character. 
— In 1824 an act was passed to establish a general 
m of township schools, and this law was no- 
table a* compared with the legislation existing 
elsewhere at that day. In most States the idea 
prevailed that public schools were to be for those 
whd could not otherwise afford them, whereas 

the Indiana law was thoroughly democratic and 
framed "to guard against any distinctions . . . 
between the rich and the poor." By this law 
any three residents of a congressional township 
could call a meeting of the other residents to take 
steps in school organization by the election of 
three school trustees for the township. After 
taking the prescribed steps the inhabitants should 
"be a body corporate politic" in whom the six- 
teenth section of school land should be vested. 
The trustees as the agents of this corporation 
were to divide the township into districts and 
appoint for them sub-trustees who, by calling 
meetings in their respective districts, were to as- 
certain the public sentiment as to the establish- 
ment of public schools. Those districts that fa- 




.1 ' 

"Education in Indiana." the most comprehensive 
study we have on this subject. 

Typical Log Schoolhouse Erected in Indiana 
Under the Law of 1824. 

vored such establishment were called upon to 
build a schoolhouse, so much free labor being 
exacted of each free-holder. The length of term 
and questions of expenditure were also submitted 
to the voters. The moneys accruing to the town- 
ship from the school lands were to be equitably 
divided among the various districts. The town- 
ship trustees were to examine the teachers and 
grant licenses. That the actual operations of the 
system thus established was, in the earlier days 
at least, very crude, is indicated by the fact that 
efficient teachers were scarce, and that their con- 
tracts for teaching specified "what part of their 
wages should be in produce, when and where de- 
livered, what part should he paid in money, and 
in what instalments, and whether the teacher 
should be boarded among his employers" 
(Boone i. 

Public Schools Not "Free." — While tin 



schools were designated as "public," they were 
not free, the returns from the school lands, partly 
through mismanagement, being entirely inade- 
quate, and patrons usually had to pay for tuition, 
as in any private school. The school term was 
usually three months. Boone states that the law 
was ''doomed to failure for lack of funds to main- 
tain the system." It remained in force until 
1833, but as a matter of fact a large proportion 
of the townships in the organized counties made 
no attempt to establish schools. 

Private Schools. — That public sentiment and 
support in matters educational moved too slowly 
for the more advanced element is indicated by 
the establishment of sundry private seminaries 
and academies, of which twenty-two prior to 183G 
are on record. This class of schools is cited by 
Professor Boone as having rendered an invalu- 
able service to education throughout the State.* 

College Beginnings. — Three permanent in- 
stitutions of learning date back to the period we 
are considering — the State Seminary, afterward 
Indiana University; Hanover Academy, after- 
ward Hanover College, and the school that be- 
came Wabash College. 

State School. — The first of these, as the name 
implied, was fostered by the State and was part 
of the State system. Opened in 1825 as the 
"State Seminary" it became "Indiana College" in 
1828 and "Indiana University" in 1838, though 
the year after the conferring of this latter dig- 
nity the faculty consisted of only three members 
and the students were but sixty-four. 

Hanover College. — This institution was the 
first of the private denominational schools, and 
its earlier history is one of the most inspiring 
chapters in our cultural struggles. Founded by 
the Presbyterians for the cardinal purpose of pro- 

* The list of these twenty-two schools, their location and dates 
of opening are as follows: Corydon Seminary, 1816; Vincennes 
Academy, 1817; Martin's Academy (Livonia), 1819; New Albany 
School, 1823; Manual Labor School (location not given), 1824; 
New Harmony Seminary, 1826; Cambridge Academy (Lawrence- 
burg), 1826; Beech Grove Seminary (Liberty), 1827; Hanover 
Academy, 1827; Eel River Seminary (Logansport), 1829; Eugene 
Academy, 1829; Female Seminary (Greencastle), 1830; Teach- 
ers' Seminary (Crawfordsville), 1830; West L/nion School (Mon- 
rovia), 1832; Blue River Academy (Salem), 1832; Christian Col- 
lege (New Albany), 1833; Western Union Seminary (locality 
not given), 1833; Female Seminary (Salem), 1835; Carlisle 
School (Sullivan county), 1835; Olive Branch School (Lafay- 
ette), 1835. — (Boone.) By 1851 these private schools had in- 
creased to seventy-two in total number, though before that some 
had gone out of existence. The list compiled by Mr. Boone is 
not complete, as his text intimates. For reference to William 
Maclure's part in education at New Harmony see "The Story of 
New Harmony." 

ducing an educated ministry it began as "Han- 
over Academy" in 1827 and was chartered as a 
college in 1833. As early as 1829 it was adopted 
as a synodical school by the Presbyterian Synod 
of Indiana, and a theological department was 
established. Its struggle for existence w;is 
heroic, and as a means to its ends it attempted a 
manual labor experiment, whereby moneyless 
students could pay their way by work Coope^ 
cabinet, carpenter and printing shops were in- 
stalled, bricks were made and wood was chopped. 
By 1835 this venture had proved a failure, partly 
by reason of a difficult market for the products. 
Nevertheless it had drawn students from as 
many as eight or nine States and its attendance 
during this manual-school period was the largest 
in its history, being two hundred forty in 1833. 
Soon after, through various misfortunes, it de- 
clined almost to the point of perishing, but recov- 
ered by the determined efforts of its promoters 
and took an honored place among the State's edu- 
cational institutions. The Scotch-Irish stock that 
stood back of this school was notable for 
strength of character and sturdy moral fiber and 
formed an important element in our early popu- 

Wabash College. — As has been said in a pre- 
vious section the Presbyterians of Indiana stood 
pre-eminently for education, and as the Hanover 
school was established for the promoting of an 
educated clergy so was the original of Wabash 
College founded for the training of teachers. 
This school, under the name of "The Wabash 
Manual Labor College and Teachers' Seminary," 
was opened at Wabash on the 3d of December, 
1833, with an attendance of twelve pupils and 
with Prof. Caleb Mills at its head. Like Han- 
over this embryo college languished for want of 
support and struggled under debt, to which was 
added the misfortune of a fire in 1838 that all but 
wiped it out. During this decade it can be re- 
garded as a heroic beginning only (W. H. 

Lyceums. — As an educational factor mention 
should be made of a law of 1831 whereby twenty 
or more citizens of any county could incorporate 
lyceums "for mutual improvement in the arts 
and sciences." 

Libraries. — The constitution contained a 
provision that whenever a new county should be 
created at least ten per cent, should be reserved 



out of the proceeds from the sale of town lots in 
the seat of justice and applied to the establish- 
ment of a library for the county. As early as 
1816 and again in 1818 laws were passed to carry 
this provision into effect, and thus throughout 
the legislation of the twenties we find repeated 
measures for the founding of these libraries. To 
just what extent they were used and what part 
tlu-y played in the education of the people, there 
is perhaps, no way of learning now. An auxili- 
ary to this system was another system, pri- 
vately promoted, of Sunday school libraries, 
which undoubtedly had much influence, especially 
with the younger generation. In 1827 it was esti- 
mated that there was in the State a Sunday school 
membership of two thousand children, and while 
this was but a small percentage of even the juve- 
nile population, it made an excellent seed bed, 
and one writer on the subject affirms that to these 
libraries "may safely be ascribed much of the in- 
telligence and much of the virtue of the people 
of later generations."* 

State Library. — The State Library was es- 
tablished by an act of February 11, 1825. The 
first official word touching such a library is to 
In- found in the Journal of the first constitutional 
convention, where, under date of June 28, 1816, 
it is "Resolved, That it be recommended to the 
General Assembly of the State of Indiana, to ap- 
propriate the money voluntarily given by the 
citizens of Harrison county to the State, to the 
purchase of books for a library for the use of 
the Legislature and other officers of government ; 
and that the said General Assembly will, from 
time to time, make such other appropriations 
for the increase of said library as they may deem 
necessary." After a lapse of nine years the pro- 
posed library materialized, largely through the 
efforts of Judge Benjamin Parke, to wdiom is 
given the credit of being one of our earliest and 
most ardent promoters of all matters pertaining 
to education. Its original purpose, as specified 
in the Journal, was to serve the various officers 
of the State, and it included what afterward be- 
came the Supreme Court Library. The humble- 
ness of its beginning is indicated by the fact that 
for sixteen years it did not even have a separate 
librarian, hut was in the hands of the Secretary of 
State, who received the munificent sum of $15 
per year extra for taking care of it, and the an- 

* J. P. Dunn, "The Libraries of Indiana." 

nual appropriation up to 1831 was but $30. 
For a good many years the State Library was 
something of a joke, and the librarianship one 
of the minor political plums, but its scope grad- 
ually broadened until it has become a large and 
valuable reference library for the use of all citi- 


General Character. — During the earlier pe- 
riod of the State's history it was, in its religious 
phase, largely a missionary field. According to 
a study of this subject by Prof. C. B. Coleman* 
"it is scarcely too much to say that Indiana Prot- 
estant churches were not a natural development 
produced by the settlers who came here, so much 

First State House in Indianapolis, Built in 1832. 
(See page 109.) 

as they were a planting made by ministers and 
missionaries from the older sections of the 
country." These ministers and missionaries, 
in large part, represented prior to 1830 the 
Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian denomi- 
nations. The Baptists, though at first the 
leaders, did not keep pace with the other 
two, and those sects are pre-eminently conspicu- 
ous in our early religious history. Broadly speak- 
ing they represented two types of religionists — 
one the intellectual and educated class, the other, 
the masses who were swayed largely by their 

Presbyterianism. — Of the Presbyterians it 
has been said that they "build schoolhouse and 
church side by side;" and that "of Indiana it is 
almost literally true that there were no schools 
until the Presbyterian minister arrived." These 

* Some Religious Developments in Indiana: Ind. Mag. Hist., 
vol. v, No. 2. 



ministers were among the first school teachers 
and among the first to bring private libraries into 
the territory. The denomination was the first 
by several years to establish a higher school for 
the education of a clergy native to the west, who 
could better meet the requirements of pioneer 
life. This was the Hanover school, sketched on 
a previous page. To illustrate the zeal and devo- 
tion of the ministry Mr. Coleman cites, as typical, 
the Rev. John M. Dickey, whose average salary 
for sixteen years was $80, and who eked out 
a living for his family by farming, teaching sing- 
ing classes, doing clerical work, surveying land, 
teaching school and mending shoes, while his wife 
managed the household, spun and made all the 
woolen and linen garments of the family, ex- 
tended to numberless visitors the hospitality due 
from a preacher's wife, and reared a large family 
of children. This sketch is but a sample of many 
that may be found in the Presbyterian annals. 
The Salem Presbytery, the first in Indiana, was 
formed in 1823 and the first synod in 1826. 

Methodism. — The church that made the 
deepest impress on the pioneer population was the 
Methodist with its zealous proselyting and its 
playing upon the emotions with a drastic the- 
ology and a fervent appeal that ofttimes swept 
through communities as a sort of emotional con- 
tagion. The open-air camp meeting, given over 
to religious demonstrations and attended by large 
numbers drawn thither by the excitement, made 
Methodism "catching," and the extraordinary 
zeal of the clergy, rude men of the rank and file, 
for the most part, who carried the gospel to the 
people far and near in the face of hardship and 
privation, won a membership to the sect that 
soon outranked all others in point of numbers. 
No more interesting biographies can be found 
than those that have been preserved of many of 
the itinerant preachers or circuit riders, and no 
narratives afford more intimate glimpses of the 
lives of the people. 

Catholicism. — The Catholic church is by far 
the oldest religious institution in the State, as it 
dates back to the days of the French occupancy. 
For many years the history of the Vincennes 
church seems to be virtually the history of the 
church within this territory, but the Catholic di- 
rectory of 1837 designates about thirty stations 
in various parts of the State that were visited 
more or less regularly by priests. The diocese 

of Vincennes, comprising Indiana and about 
one-third of Illinois, was created in 1834, with 
the Rev. Simon G. W. Brute as its first bishop. 

Christian or Disciples' Church. — This sect in 
Indiana may be said to have had its beginning 
about 1819. It was a breaking away from the 
superabundance of "man-made" creeds and doc- 
trinal points that were cumbering the Protestant 
faith, and the reaction in favor of a simpler form 
of belief, based on "the Bible as the living creed," 
was crystallized by the influence of a few men, 
into a movement that in time became one of the 
strongest churches in the State. 

Religious and Moral Societies. — The reli- 
gious element in this period did not confine it- 
self to church organization, but promoted vari- 
ous societies in the name of religion and morals. 
The Indiana Sabbath School Union, a branch of 
the American Sabbath School Union, was formed 
at Chariest own, Clark county, in 1826. Bible 
societies, auxiliary to the American Bible Socie- 
ties, were formed in different parts of the State, 
and were instrumental in distributing thousands 
of Bibles either free or at cost price. The or- 
ganized crusade against intemperance began with 
the formation in 1830 of the Indiana Temper- 
ance Society. Another movement that may be 
classed as moral, though it had its economic and 
social side, was that of removing the free negroes 
from America and colonizing them in Liberia, 
Africa. The Indiana Colonization Society, 
formed at Indianapolis in 1829, was a branch of 
a national organization. It continued in active 
existence for years, with many of the leading 
men of the State back of it, and in 1846 it 
launched a monthly publication, "The Coloniza- 
tionist," knowledge of which is so meager that 
no Indianapolis historian makes mention of it. 

The Press. — Prior to 1820 ten or a dozen 
newspapers had sprung up in Indiana, most of 
them after the admission of the State. In a gazet- 
teer of 1833 we find what is perhaps the first pub- 
lished list of papers, which shows twenty-nine 
to be in existence at that time. As some are 
known of before that date that are not included 
in the list it is probable that an uncertain number 
were short-lived. That the newspaper at that 
day and for a good while after commanded a 
precarious living is evidenced by the papers them- 
selves as they occasionally voiced their discour- 
agements and difficulties. To "owe the printer" 





was a common dereliction that seemed to bother 
nobody's conscience, and the editor, in many 
cases, was glad to get his pay in commodities of 
any kind from corn to cordwood. The local news 
that was published was very meager, the con- 
tents of the columns revealing that popular inter- 
est ran largely to national politics and foreign 
news, with an infusion of State matters that grew 
as internal affairs developed. 

An occasional rare book or pamphlet bears the 
date of the twenties and the imprint of some In- 
diana press. The Rappites, at Harmonie, did 
some printing, and their successors, the com- 
munity of Robert Owen, had a well-equipped out- 
fit. In 1825 they launched a periodical, the "New 
Harmony Gazette," which was quite distinct in 
character from any other publication in the State, 
being devoted to social propaganda and the philo- 
sophical discussion of moral principles.* 

Medicine. — February 12, 1825, a law was 
passed to "incorporate medical societies for the 
purpose of regulating the. practice of physics and 
surgery in the State." By it authority was given 
to doctors of the various counties to meet at the 
seat of government and organize into a corporate 
body, to be known as "The Medical Society of 
the State of Indiana." The circuit court circuits 
were to comprise so many medical districts, "to 
be known as first, second or third medical dis- 
tricts, according to the name of the circuit." 
Within these areas district societies were to be 
formed. The State society was to be composed 
of delegates from the district societies, and cen- 
sors from the districts were to examine all can- 
didates for license and grant diplomas. Persons 
of bad moral character could not be licensed. 

Militia. — By the adjutant-general's report 
for 1828 we find that the aggregate number of 
officers and men in the State militia is estimated 
at 40,000. but the real status of this establishment 
is indicated by the fact that only 16,657 had re- 

* For article on "Early Newspapers of Indiana" see Ind. Quar 
Mag. Hist., vol. ii, No. 3. 

ported for muster, which was 12,184 less than 
in 1826. The complaint of trouble in getting re- 
ports is also indicative of the waning interest. 

Benevolence; Paupers and Negroes. — Gov- 
ernor Ray was, in many instances, in advance of 
his times. One of his efforts was for reform in 
the treatment of paupers. In his messages of 
1825 he said : "It is the poor and needy that can 
justly claim more of our deliberations than the 
affluent. . . . These unhappy objects of pub- 
lic charity are sold like merchandise or cattle in 
a public market to persons who are generally 
induced to become their purchasers from motives 
of gain and avarice. . . . To me this practice 
seems degrading to our character as a Christian 
people." His suggestion was that the State be 
divided into districts of counties or larger areas, 
and that in each of these districts an asylum be 
established. A committee report on public 
asylums* does not, however, coincide with the 
governor's opinion. This report reads : "Com- 
paratively speaking we can scarcely be said to 
have any paupers. The proportion is less than 
one to one thousand of our population." The 
existing system, it thought, was wisely adapted 
to the situation of the country, and therefore it 
believed that the establishment of asylums was 
not then expedient. 

It is interesting to note that as early as 1829 
Ray deplores the excessive influx of negroes into 
Indiana. These, he said, added an uneducated 
and "immoralized" element, most of whom were 
paupers on society. As a remedy for this he ad- 
vocated the colonization scheme which tor a num- 
ber of years many regarded as the solution of 
the negro problem. As illustrating a peculiar 
twist of his moral perceptions he advocated the 
exportation of whisky because the wealth of the 
country would be increased and because "the 
moral condition of our society would lie greatly 
improved and ameliorated. " + 

* House Journal, 10th session, p. 135. 
f Ray's message, 1829. 



The Rappites. — Two notable intrusions into 
Indiana's early history were the successive social 
settlements of George Rapp and Robert Owen at 
New Harmony (first called Harmonie), in Posey 
county. As early as L815 the '"Rappites," or 
"Harmonists," a German religious sect under the 
leadership of George Rapp, located on the Wa- 
bash, having purchased there a holding of nearly 
thirty thousand acres. This they owned in com- 
mon.' anil there was not even a separation into 
families, as one of their doctrines was that of 
strict celibacy. They were intensely religious, 
docile to their leader, inoffensive, industrious and 
thrifty with many skilled workmen among them. 
The little town of Harmonie that they built up 
had many brick buildings, some of them the larg- 
est and most imposing to be found in the State 
at that time. They established a cocoonery and 
silk factory, a woolen mill, oil mill, saw mill, 
brick yard, brewery and distillery, and the wil- 
derness in which they settled was, within the 
years of their occupancy, converted into well- 
tilled, productive farms, with orchards and vine- 
yards. The yield of their fertile acres and their 
various industries begat a trade of no mean pro- 
portions which extended down the Mississippi 
to New Orleans, while two or three prosperous 
stores were maintained at Vincennes and else- 
where. As a result they acquired a wealth and 
a comfort of living far in advance of the pioneer 
conditions of their American neighbors, from 
whom they were altogether removed in spirit and 
in sympathies. 

The unfriendly attitude of the native Ameri- 
cans toward these strange people is given as one 
of the reasons why, in the course of time, they 
desired to leave the Wabash region. At any rate 
after ten years spent here they did desire to leave, 
and to that end offered for sale all their estate 
with its improvements, including the village of 
Harmonie with its dwellings, factories and indus- 
trial machinery all ready for use. 

Robert Owen, Philanthropist, Buys Rappite 
Estate. — By one of those happy coincidences 
which sometimes occur in the course of event-. 

there dwelt at Lanark, Scotland, an altogether 
unusual man with aspirations and dreams into 
which the opportunity offered by the Rappites 
fitted as if by a prearranged plan. This man, 
Robert Owen, was a large and successful manu- 
facturer whose desire to benefit humanity 
amounted to a passion. His efforts to ameliorate 
the hard conditions of the ignorant, over- 
worked and underpaid laboring class of Great 
Britain, and the greed and stupidity against 
which he contended make one of the touching 
chapters in the history of philanthropy. As a 
philanthropist of lofty ideals he had established 
lor himself a reputation that extended over Eu- 
rope, but the hindrances to his plans were, none 
the less, insurmountable. When an agent of the 
Rappite society came to him with a proposition 
to purchase their great estate with all its improve- 
ments on the far-away Wabash it opened up a 
new vista that glowed with promise. There, in 
a new country where all things were yet to be 
formed, he could work out the grand idea of a 
social reform that should prove new truths to the 
world.. The opportunity was too fascinating to 
be resisted, and the outcome was that Owen, for 
something like $150,000, secured a tract of land 
considerably larger than an entire congressional 
township, on which labor in excess of that value, 
doubtless, had already been expended, to say 
nothing of a village of substantial buildings ca- 
pable of comfortably housing perhaps a thousand 
people and of the industrial equipments. 

Owen's Scheme. — His first work after the 
purchase was to arouse interest in America by 
promulgating his plans, and to that end he came 
to this country and delivered several public ad- 
dresses, the first two being in the national capital 
before large audiences in which were many of 
the most distinguished people of the country. 
These addresses which, after their oral delivers', 
were published, advertised broadcast the scheme 
of a new social experiment about to be tried, in 
which all who were in sympathy were invited to 
share as members. The arguments of the 
founder were alluring and plausible, and when 




the time came to actually form the community it 
was found that there was no lack of material. 

Rappites Succeeded by the Owen Community. 
— The Rappites left Harmonie in 1824, going to 
Pennsylvania, where they established for them- 
selves a new community home which they called 
Economy. Early in 1825 Owen and his followers 
took possession of the Wabash village, which 
was re-named New Harmony. Even before 
Owen himself arrived on the ground the place 
was filled with people of many kinds. Some were 
philanthropists, entitled to all respect; some were 
cranks full of hobbies and eccentricities who 
never were born to work together with anybody 
to any end. When Owen arrived he set forth 
his views once more to this mixed assemblage ; 
the "Preliminary Society of New Harmony" was 
formed and a constitution establishing a social 
starting point was adopted. 

Owen's Ideals. — The society was called "Pre- 
liminary" because it was regarded as but the first 
step toward a more ideal organization to which 
people were to be educated. The constitution 
adopted announced that the object of the society 
was to secure for its members "the greatest 
amount of happiness," and to "transmit it to 
their children to the latest posterity." All mem- 
bers of it were to be of the same rank, with no 
artificial inequalities, and all were to be "willing 
to render their best services for the good of the 
society, according to their age, experience and 
capacity." The official name of the society was 
to be "The New Harmony Community of Equal- 
ity," and its social program was long and elab- 
orate, covering, or aiming to cover, the many and 
variable relations that must exist in any society. 
One feature of the general plan, which was de- 
scribed in the Owen address above referred to, 
was a series of ideal villages, as the community 
grew, each of which was'to consist of solid rows 
of dwellings or apartments something like a mod- 
ern tenement, but arranged around a hollow 
square one thousand feet long. The village was 
to have, besides these living apartments, a pri- 
mary and high school, public dining hall and 
kitchen, common nursery for the children, and 
rooms for community purposes, such as lectures, 
dances, concerts, etc. 

This "model village," as it was designated, 
along with other plans and ideas, never got be- 
yond the ideal stage, and it may be added here 

that in the character of the people attracted by 
the experiment, and in their diversity of views 
when brought to the test of a definite social 
scheme, was the fatal obstacle to any kind of 

The Scientific and Educational Circle; Will- 
iam Maclure. — The most notable acquisition of 
the Owen colony was the addition of a group of 
men who took high rank among the scientists 
and educators of the day. Conspicuous among 
these as a leader was William Maclure. of Phila- 
delphia, a man of wealth and both scientist and 
educator. As the former he came to be known 
as "The Father of American Geology." by vir- 
tue of his pioneer labor in that field, and he was 
a principal founder and for many years presi- 
dent of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences. As a promoter of education he intro- 
duced into America the Pestalozzian system and 
his ardor in educational matters was second only 
to his interest in science. Like Robert < Kven he 
was by nature, and sincerely, a philanthropist, 
and their essential kinship drew the two men 
together. In some directions Maclure did not 
share Owen's social theories, but the famous ex- 
periment was one to interest him, especially as 
it opened up possibilities for the fulfilment of his 
cherished ideas ; and hence, when Owen solicited 
his co-operation he readily affiliated by putting 
in to the scheme, as a copartner, about the same 
amount as the other had applied to the original 

Maclure's Dream. — The dream that took pos- 
session of Maclure was the establishment of a 
great school which should be the center of learn- 
in" in the west of the future and of a system of 
"free, equal and universal schools for feeding, 
clothing and instructing all the children of the 
State." Several years before he had brought to 
this country, from Switzerland, Joseph Neef, a 
disciple of Pestalozzi, who opened at Philadel- 
phia the first Pestalozzian school in the United 
States. Neef and this school he now plucked up 
bodily, as it were, to transfer them to the Wa- 

Maclure's Co-Workers. — Along with Neef 
Maclure's prestige and influence enlisted a group 
of brilliant and able men, some of them of na- 
tional reputation, who were to contribute their 
talents to the proposed school of higher educa- 
tion. Notable among these were Thomas Say, 



Charles A. Lesueur, Gerard Troost and John 

Say, a pioneer in zoology as Maclure was in 
geology, was perhaps the greatest American zo- 
ologist of his day ; Lesueur was a naturalist of 
high repute and an artist ; Troost was a geologist, 
at a later date State geologist of Tennessee. Chap- 
pelsmith, of lesser fame, was an artist and en- 
graver. Say and Neef are both buried at New 
Harmony, and the former, during his life there, 
was the author of important works on natural 

their scientific and intellectual accomplishments, 
added to the fame of New Harmony through a 
period of many years, and made it a center of 
interest to scientists, philosophers and travelers 
abroad. Conspicuous among them were the four 
sons of Robert Owen, Robert Dale, William, Da- 
vid Dale and Richard Dale, all of whom had been 
highly educated in the schools of Europe. Rob- 
ert Dale Owen, the best known of these brothers in 
the history of Indiana, was widely in touch with 
the affairs of the State and did notable service 

Harmonie, 1816. 

history. That men of this stamp should have left 
iln- great centers and buried themselves in the 
remote wilderness is an evidence of the lofty 
hopes inspired by the social experiment. 

The Boatload of Knowledge. — A literatesque 
feature of this scientific exodus from the east 
was that a good-sized party of men and women, 
with their equipment, traveled from Pittsburg to 
New Harmony in a keelboat, and to this da)- the 
outfit is humorously spoken of as "The Boatload 
of Knowledge." 

Other Characters; the Owen Family. — Aside 
from the Maclure group there was a list of men 
and women, too long to be dealt with here, who by 

as a statesman both at home and as a representa- 
tive at Washington. As a pioneer in the move- 
ment for the extended rights of women that class 
owe him a debt of gratitude, which they acknowl- 
edged a few years since by placing a bronze bust 
on the grounds of the State Capitol. As a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of 1850 he 
was, perhaps, the ablest contributor to that instru- 
ment, and left his strong impress upon it. In 
the cause of science he, more than any other man, 
brought about the establishment of the Smith- 
sonian Institute at Washington. 

William Owen is less known than his trio of 
distinguished brothers, but he figured, until his 



death in 1842, as an able, versatile and helpful 
citizen of New Harmony. 

David Dale Owen, of the first rank as a scien- 
tist, was in 1837 appointed United States geolo- 
gist, and during his services as such the govern- 
ment geological survey was established at New 
Harmony, which gave the place additional impor- 
tance. He was the first State geologist of Indi- 
ana, having previously occupied the same office 
for Kentucky and Arkansas. He died while ge- 
ologist of this State and was succeeded to the 
office by his brother Richard, who throughout a 
long life was identified with scientific and educa- 
tional development in this State. It may be added 
here that E. T. Cox, another product of New 
Harmony, was our State geologist for twelve 
years, and perhaps a half-dozen other men of this 
group were identified with geological surveys 
in other States. Among the able men in other 
lines may be mentioned Josiah Warren, inventor 
and social philosopher whose ideas for the solu- 
tion of certain social problems have not yet been 
exploded, nor has the interest in them ceased. 
Constantine Raffinesque, one of the celebrated 
early naturalists, was a frequent visitor to New 
Harmony, and among other visitors attracted 
thither by the famous resident coterie were John 
James Audubon, Sir Charles Lyell and Prince 
Maximilian, of Prussia, who with a corps of 
scientists, was touring the United States. 
Frances Wright, one of the most intellectual 
women of her day, and conspicuous as an advo- 
cate of the rights of women, was intimately iden- 
tified with the Owens colony. 

Failures of New Harmony. — The monu- 
mental and general failure of the New Harmony 
experiment and the various causes of it make a 
fascinating study in social principles. When com- 
pared with the community success of the Rap- 
pites a perfect contrast is afforded. The latter 
were bound together by a common religious belief 
and subservient to a common leader. There was 
no questioning, no dissent and no intellectual un- 
rest. The Owen colony, on the contrary, was in 
no sense a unit, unless it be in the general dis- 
satisfaction with the established order of things. 
Because they did not agree with the established 
order and had no resting place they segregated 
in hopes of finding one, but only to find, instead, 
that they agreed no better among themselves. 

General Dissension. — Before the end of the 
second year disintegration was well under way. 
Almost in the beginning there set in what might 
be called subsegregations — birds of a feather 
flocking together until instead of one society 
there were several distinct communities. As some 
wit happily intimated, "New Harmony" became 
a misnomer — it was, more properly, New Dis- 
cord. One of the serious discords arose between 
the two heads of the experiment, Owen and 
Maclure. The latter, who was to have had en- 
tire control of the school scheme, was one of the 
first to secede from the original colony, and 
Owen set up a system of his own, and so in lieu 
of the proposed great school there were several 
minor ones, with more or less hostility between 
them. One of these under the auspices of Mac- 
lure, was an industrial school, the second one to 
be established in the United States. 

Maclure and Robert Owen Leave; Estimate 
of the Two Men. — Maclure spent, all told, only 
about two years at New Harmony, though his 
interest in the place continued till his death. 
Robert Owen did not stay there much longer, 
and by 1827 the social experiment was an ac- 
knowledged failure. 

In their moral zeal and in their philosophies 
these two leaders were much alike. Both com- 
bined with worldly wisdom and great ability 
ideas so at variance with common observation as 
to seem puerile. Owen's fundamental mistake 
was in assuming that environment and instruction 
wholly made the man, and that human beings 
could be molded like putty to a theory. The in- 
dividualistic element did not seem to enter into 
his calculations. It was even a part of his plan 
that children should be separated from their par- 
ents and be virtually owned by the community. 
Maclure's educational theory, along with main 
ideas that are to-day regarded as the best, advo- 
cated an extreme utilitarianism. What we call 
cultural acquirements, including literature and 
art, had no place in his scheme. "A plain, simple 
narrative of facts got by evidence of the senses" 
was the only literature needful he held, and the 
thing to be most guarded against was the "exag- 
gerated delusions of the imagination." The play 
of children was to be directed to useful ends, 
and "nothing but positive knowledge ought to be 
taught to children." Utility was "the only scale 

Scenes in Turkey-Run, Parke County. 



by which the value of everything is to be meas- 
ured." As these ideas were also shared by Owen 
it seems very likely that they would have met 
serious obstacles to success even had the leaders 
proceeded in perfect harmony with each other. , 
The Successes of New Harmony. — George 
B. Lockwood, in his very thorough study of this 
whole subject, speaks in happy paradox of "the 
failure of George Rapp's success" and "the suc- 
cess of Robert Owen's failure," and among the 
successes of the Owen regime he particularly 
specifies the educational influences that emanated 
from there. The ideas of Pestalozzi, introduced 
by Maclure and Joseph Neef, made their impress 
in time on the educational history of the State. 
It was a nursing place for "first things," the first 

Home of George Rapp, Harmonie, 1824. 

infant school and kindergarten in the country, 
the first distinctively trade school, the first real 
public-school system and the first school to offer 
equal advantages to boys and girls, all being ac- 
credited to the New Harmony experiment. 

Robert Owen's Successors. — Nor was this 
all by any means. When Robert Owen, discour- 
aged, retired from the field he left able men 
established permanently on the ground, and 
though the "social experiment," as such, ceased 
to be, their activities did not cease. It became 
later, as previously said, a scientific center of 
wide reputation and influence, and the town took 
on a character that is to the present day quite 
distinctive and superior, while through some of 
its citizens, particularly Robert Dale Owen, its 
most distinguished public man, and a direct prod- 

uct of the original New Harmony idea, it exerted 
no small influence in the affairs of the State. 

Status of Women at New Harmony. — One 
development that should not be overlooked is 
that of the status of women. Owen stood for 
equality of the sexes at a day when such an idea 
had little lodgment in the public mind, and the 
arduous devotion to the emancipation of her sex 
by Frances Wright, one of the remarkable women 
of her times, did much to create an enlarged 
sphere for her sisters. These ideas found prac- 
tical issue when Robert Dale Owen, as legislator 
and member of the second constitutional con- 
vention stood as a champion for rights of women, 
securing for them a recognition for which they 
have not been ungrateful in later days. 

The Maclure Libraries. — As before said, 
though William Maclure's scheme for a great 
school at New Harmony failed and he was only 
a temporary resident of that place, his educa- 
tional interest did not cease, and his will created 
a fund for the establishment, under certain condi- 
tions, of libraries over the State for the benefit of 
"the working classes who labor with their hands 
and earn their living in the sweat of their brows." 
It should be added that Maclure's desire to help 
this class amounted to a passion, and his ani- 
mosity to the class "who live by the ignorance 
of the millions," was inveterate. The library be- 
quest met with legal hindrances and it was not 
until 1855, fifteen years after the donor's death, 
that the fund was applied. By it $500 was to be 
given to any club or society of laborers in the 
United States who would establish a reading and 
lecture room with a library of at least one hun- 
dred volumes. The result of this benefaction 
was 144 libraries in Indiana, distributed through 
eighty-nine counties. J. P. Dunn, in his mono- 
graph, "The Libraries of Indiana," does not at- 
tribute a very wide influence to the libraries, for 
various reasons, but they were, to say the least, 
a notable contribution to the culture of the State 
and an interesting forerunner of the extensive 
Carnegie system of the present day.* 

* The fullest and best account of the New Harmony experi- 
ment is the elaborate study by George B. Lockwood, "The New 
Harmony Movement." 



TO LAW OF 1836 


Early Conditions. — The famous internal im- 
provement plan of 1836 by which Indiana inau- 
gurated a huge paternalistic scheme for supply- 
ing an elaborate system of roads and canals can 
not be presented intelligently unless we also con- 
sider the movement antecedent to that culmina- 
tion. The absurdity of the undertaking borrows 
palliation from the desperate necessities that ex- 
isted and is in a measure explained by them. 

From the beginning, and in proportion as the 
settlements pushed northward from the Ohio 
river, the problem of getting in and out increased 
in seriousness, and by the time the central por- 
tion of the State was taken up as far north as 
the upper Wabash the problem became a most 
pressing one. The new capital was eighty-five 
miles from the nearest market outlet and many 
points were considerably farther, with one vast 
forest intervening. The natural outlets, the 
streams, were, with few exceptions, unreliable, 
and at best served only certain communities, and 
intercommunication generally was practically im- 
possible until a system of highways was made 
through the wilderness. 

Early Roads. — Thus it was that in the twen- 
ties the question of internal improvements as a 
live issue was largely confined to roads, and the 
road legislation during that period is so frequent 
and so complicated in its overlappings as to be 
confusing. Every new locality, as it was opened 
up to settlement, had to be accommodated in vari- 
ous directions and the road making was not con- 
fined to local initiative, but an elaborate system 
of State highways was projected and added to 
and altered, one year after another.* The 
scheme generally, in its results, seems to have 
demonstrated the general inefficiency that usu- 
ally, or perhaps always, accompanies paternal- 

istic attempts. Ray, in his first message, speak- 
ing of the roads authorized in 1821-2, with an 
appropriation of $100,000, says : 

"It is well worthy of inquiry whether the large 
expenditures that have already been made have 
answered the expectations of the public ; whether 
large sums have not been paid to numerous com- 
missioners for services that could as well have 
been rendered by one-third of the number em- 
ployed and at little more than one-third of the 
expense; whether a number of the roads opened 
under the provision of the law are not entirely 
useless to the public and even suffered to become 
altogether impassable by a second growth and 
neglect to keep them in repair." 

In a report of 1826 we find thirty-eight State 
roads listed and $78,319.53 was apportioned to 
them from the three per cent, fund, which was 
one of the very important sources of road rev- 
enue.* Other sources of maintenance were, a 
road tax levied upon real estate and compulsory 
road labor on the part of male adults under fifty 
years of age. 

Road Conditions. — The general result of 
this expenditure and labor was crude in the ex- 
treme. The so-called "improvement" was little 
more than the opening of wagonways through 
the wilderness and they were hardly more prac- 
ticable than the drift-choked streams. Of their 
atrocious character much has been said and yet 
the subject, seemingly, has never been done jus- 
tice. From the hills of the southern counties to 
the prairies beyond the Wabash the State was, 
for the most part, a level plain covered with a 
forest that shut out the sun from the rank mold, 
and this, like a sponge, held the accumulated 
waters. Vast areas were nothing but swamps, 
which the streams never fully drained. f Most 

* It should be stated that the funds for these roads was not a 
direct tax upon the people, as under the internal improvement 
law of 1836. They were largely derived from the "3 per cent, 
fund," which was donated by the federal government out of the 
sale of public lands. 

• See report of B. T. Blythe, agent of 3 per cent, fund. House 
Journal, 11th session, p. 21. 

t Mr. William Butler, a pioneer of southern Indiana, has told 
the present writer of a trip he made to Indianapolis in the thir- 
ties. He stopped over night with a settler in Johnson county, 
and, inquiring as to the country east of them, was told that there 
was no other residence in that direction for thirty miles. "And 




of the year a journey over the roads was simply 
a slow, laborious wallowing through mud ; the 
bogs were passable only by the use of "cordu- 
roy," and this corduroy of poles laid side by side 
for miles not infrequently had to be weighted 
down with dirt to prevent floating off when the 
swamp waters rose. In a book called "The New 
Purchase," which purports to depict life in cen- 
tral Indiana in the early twenties, the wagon trip 
to Bloomington is described in the author's pe- 
culiar, half-intelligible style. He speaks of the 
country as "buttermilk land," "mashland," "root) 
and snaggy land," with mudholes and quicksands 
and corduroys, "woven single and double twill," 
and there are fords "with and without bottom." 
In the early spring, he says, the streams were 
brimful, "creeks turned to rivers, rivers to 
lakes, and lakes to bigger ones, and traveling by 
land becomes traveling by mud and water." As 
one proceeded he must tack to right and left, not 
to find the road, but to get out of it and find 
places where the mud was "thick enough to bear." 
The way was a "most ill-looking, dark-colored 
morass, enlivened by streams of purer mud (the 
roads) crossing at right angles," and these 
stream-, were "thick-set with stumps cut just low 
enough for wagons to straddle." Innumerable 
stubs of saplings, sharpened like spears by being 
shorn off obliquely, waited to impale the unlucky 
traveler who might be pitched out upon them, 
and the probability of such accident was consid- 
erable as the lumbering wagon plunged over a 
succession of ruts and roots, describing an "ex- 
hilarating seesaw with the most astonishing alter- 
nation of plunge, creak and splash." Ever and 
anon the brimming streams had to be crossed, 
sometimes by unsafe fording and sometimes bv 
rude ferries. In the latter case the ferrykeeper 
was apt to be off at work somewhere in his clear- 
ing, and the traveler had to "halloo the ferry" 
till he could make himself heard. 

How serious the road question was as affect- 
ing public welfare is evidenced by our legisla- 
tion. From 1820 there was scarcely a session but 
road laws were enacted, adding to or modifying 
the system, and, in many instances repealing stat- 
utes that seem to have been experimental and ill- 

The National and Michigan Roads. — In the 
road history of Indiana these two thoroughfares 
stand distinct from the system of State roads, 
though the one last named was constructed by 
the State. The National road, as the name im- 
plies, was the work of the Federal government, 
designed as a great highway to connect the west 
with the east. It began at Cumberland, Md. 
(from which fact it at first bore the name of the 
"Cumberland road"), and was to reach St. Louis 
after traversing parts of Pennsylvania and West 
Virginia and the central portions of Ohio, Indi- 
ana and Illinois. As originally planned it would 
have passed south of Indianapolis and near Co- 
lumbus, in Bartholomew county, but through the 
efforts of Oliver H. Smith, when a congressman, 
the route was changed. The first Federal legis- 
lation regarding this road dates back to 1806 and 
its extension toward and into the western coun- 
try was a matter of lively interest for many years. 
It reached the Indiana line in 1827, the first work 
in this State being in Wayne county that year, 
In 1831 there was an appropriation of $75,000 
for work that included the bridge over White 
river at Indianapolis. Throughout the thirties, 
as lie fore, its completion and improvement was 
an ever-recurring theme for the newspapers, but 
the improvement in the west was comparatively 
inferior, the expenditure on it here being but 
about $3,000 per mile as against $6,000 on the 
eastern end. The money for this road was de- 
rived from the sale of lands in the public do- 
main, two per cent, being reserved for internal 
improvements under the direction of Congress.* 

The Michigan road, from Madison on the Ohio 
river to the mouth of Trail creek on Lake Michi- 
gan, was a work of the thirties. It traversed the 
central portion of the State from south to north 
as the National road did from east to west, the 
two forming a pair of trunk lines that gave en- 
trance to the different sections of the State. The 
southern terminus was determined, as the south- 
ern terminus of the first railroad was a little later, 
by the political influence then existing at Madi- 
son. The northern terminus was determined by 
the chance of a good lake harbor at the mouth 
of Trail creek, and this also determined the loca- 
tion of Michigan City, It ran from Madison "al- 

vvhat's more, there never will lie," the informant added, his rea- 
son being that the submerged laud was irreclaimable. It may 
lie remarked, incidentally, that the swamp in question has long 
ago been converted into tine farms. 

* For long paper on National road, and additional matter re- 
lating to the road in Indiana, see Ind. Quar. Mag. Hist., vol. 
iii. "The Old Pike," by T. B. Searight, is the fullest work on 
the road as a whole. 



most due north through Jefferson and Ripley 
counties to Greensburg in Decatur. Thence, by 
a direct line, it led across Shelby county to the 
capital. The important sections of the road were 
those. from Indianapolis across Hamilton, Boone. 
Clinton and Carroll counties to Logansport, and 
from that place due north again across Cass, 
Fulton and Marshall to South Bend, and thence 
west to Michigan City. During eight months of 
the year it was an open, passable highway, but 
during the winter it was an endless stream of 

makers, was, of course, largely farcical. The 
value of the lands about balanced the cost of the 
road, which, up to 1840, was something like 


Ohio Falls Canal. — The first canal agitation 
in Indiana was for a waterway around the falls 
of the Ohio river, which were a serious impedi- 
ment to navigation. This concerned Kentucky 
and Ohio quite as much as Indiana, and one of 

I >ld National Road Bridge Over White River, Indianapolis.— Sfeefr/i by Alois E. Sinks. 

black mud and almost useless. Its importance 
may be estimated from the fact that one-half of 
the pioneers of the northwest quarter of Indiana 
reached their homes over it" (Esarey). The 
fund> fur this work were derived from lands that 
were given by the Potawatomie Indians through 
whal is known as the Mississinewa treaty, made 
in < Ictober, 1826. These donated lands con- 
sisted of one section for each mile of the pro- 
posed Highway, granted to the State "as an evi- 
dence of the attachment which the Potawatomie 
tribe feel toward the American people, and par- 
ticularly to the soil of Indiana" — which fine sen- 
timent, evolved and framed by the white treaty- 

the propositions in the twenties was a joint work 
by < »hio and Indiana, but nothing came of it. 

As early as 1805 a company was formed in this 
State, composed largely of Clark county citizens, 
and $120,000 subscribed for the canal in qui 

arey ). Soon after the admission of the State 
the Legislature chartered "The < Ihio Canal Com- 
pany," which aimed to raise a capital of $1,000,- 
000, but failed to do so. A reorganized company 
with a new charter was authorized in 1818 to 
raise money by lottery, the State itself to be a 
stockholder, and the following year work was 
begun. Like much of the subsequent canal w 
however, the capital and labor expended 



a sheer loss. Support was inadequate and prog- 
ress slow. In 1825 Kentucky took up the work 
on its side. The cut could be made much cheaper 
there. The Kentucky enterprise had the back- 
ing of the Federal government, and the Indiana 
effort, that had persisted stubbornly for twenty 
years or more, received its death-blow. That 
Louisville became a metropolis and Jeffersonville 
and New Albany sank into desuetude was no 
doubt largely determined by the canal as a com- 
mercial factor. The Indiana scheme seems to 
have died hard, for as late as 1836 there was a 
flicker of revival when a company obtained an- 
other charter for the renewal of work on our 
side. This, however, never got farther than the 
first movement. 

Whitewater Canals ; East and West Forks. 
— The Whitewater canal that traversed the val- 
ley of the West Fork as far north as Hagers- 
town, Wayne county, connecting it with the Ohio 
river at Lawrenceburg and Cincinnati, was part 
of the State internal improvement scheme of 
1836, but as early as 1822 the question of a 
canal through that important region was agi- 
tated. It need be only mentioned here. For 
"Completion of the Whitewater Canal" see chap- 
ter xii. 

The work up the east fork, known in its day 
as the Richmond and Brookville canal, was never 
finished, but it was begun and from 1834 to the 
close of that decade it was a lively hope, consid- 
erable energy and money being spent on it. 

The Wabash and Erie Canal. — The question 
of a canal to connect the waters of the Wabash 
and Maumee rivers, which ultimately became the 
famous Wabash and Erie, began to be agitated 
in the early twenties. This, Governor Hen- 
dricks urged, would open an inland navigation 
from New York to New Orleans (via the Erie 
canal of New York) and would be the great 
agent in enhancing the value of vast quantities 

of public lands. Indiana alone was too poor to 
attempt the work, and after repeated appeals for 
Federal aid and much debating of the subject, 
Congress, in 1827, made liberal grants of land 
along the proposed route amounting to three 
thousand two hundred acres for each lineal mile. 
Construction was begun in 1832 and in 1836 the 
work was merged in the State's plans for gen- 
eral improvement.* 

Other canal propositions that never got beyond 
talk, claimed public attention during these earlier 
years, and by the early thirties the agitation of 
railroads became pronounced. In a word, the 
fermentation that resulted in the famous internal 
improvement law was for ten years or more gath- 
ering form and becoming a part of public thought. 
It became a factor in politics and the men rode 
into popular favor who mounted the hobby of 
State improvements by the paternalistic plan. 
Governor Ray was an example of this. His ad- 
vocacy of the growing sentiment made his politi- 
cal fortune, and an excerpt from his message of 
1826, couched in his characteristic swelling style, 
indicates that he made the most of it. "The 
whole country," he says, "as if by one impulse, 
is moved by the master spirit that is abroad. 
. . . On the construction of roads and canals 
we must rely as the safest and most certain State 
policy, to relieve our situation, place us among 
the first in the Union, and change the cry of hard 
times into an open acknowledgment of content- 
edness." In 1829 we find him arguing for a gen- 
eral system of State improvements, including a 
railway, canals and turnpikes — a scheme not un- 
like the one that the State adopted in 1836. In 
view of all this it is perhaps safe to say that the 
great paternalistic experiment, however ill-ad- 
vised it may seem in the light of history, was 
inevitable, being but a logical sequence. 

* For "W'abash and Erie Canal and Commercial Development" 
see chap. xii. 



The Problem. — At this point the question 
of progress as determined by the internal im- 
provement movement becomes secondary to an 
interesting and profitable study of influences and 
conditions that made for retrogression, and 
which resulted in the most disastrous financial 
set-back in the State's history. 

To understand the great paternalistic experi- 
ment that distinguished the fourth decade of In- 
diana's history we must consider it as a part of 
a much wider movement. The conditions in the 
interior of America with its vast distances and 
its isolated inland centers made the problem of 
transportation particularly acute and particularly 
difficult because of the enormous cost and the in- 
adequate wealth of a thinly scattered population. 

Federal Aid. — Nothing short of State aid, 
it seemed, could help the people to the facili- 
ties they needed. Federal aid (as in the building 
of the National road) was early invoked, but all 
that could be hoped for from that source was 
trivial as compared with the relief demanded by 
the various sections of many States. The most 
substantial help afforded by the general govern- 
ment was the gift of three per cent, out of the 
sales of public lands. This yielded in Indiana, 
altogether, $575,547.75. which was applied to the 
opening of numerous "State" roads. By the mid- 
dle thirties these roads pretty well covered the 
State, but were the rudest of thoroughfares, and 
owing to the nature of most of the country, were 
virtually untravelable in the bad seasons. 

The Seeming Solution. — The only solution of 
the transportation question was in expensive im- 
proved turnpikes or yet more extensive canals 
or railroads ; the construction of such works by 
private enterprise at that day was out of the 
question, and thus the tide turned to the notion 
of the one agency big enough to accomplish the 
desired results — the State. This idea prevailed 
and bore fruit in a number of states, Indiana be- 
ing but one of these to project and attempt a 
system of public works for the purpose of trans- 
portation. The sentiment in Indiana for such 
a scheme was a growth of several years, as has 
already been shown. It had its opponents, who 

saw the dangers ahead, but the advocates in- 
creased till they took possession of the day. The 
politicians who championed the idea were the 
ones who rode into power ; arguments grew by 
what they fed upon, and these plentifully bol- 
stered up by figures convinced the people that 
roads and canals, at whatever cost, were a colos- 
sal money-making proposition. The increase of 
commerce and the tolls from canals would not 
only pay for the canals but return a surplus that 
would relieve the citizen from tax-paying. 

Difficulties of Fixing on a System. — The 
detriment to final legislation was the difficulty 
of elaborating a system that would benefit every- 
body. Of course no taxpayer wanted to con- 
tribute to improvements that would give his 
neighbors all the benefit and leave him still in 
the woods, and a system that could touch every 
county in the State was manifestly impossible. 
Also, there was a division of opinions as to the 
values and practicability of different kinds of 
improvements — turnpikes, canals and railroads. 

The Internal Improvement Bill. — These dif- 
ferences kept the Legislature jockeying for two 
or three sessions, but finally, in January of 1836, 
the internal improvement bill, famous in our an- 
nals, was passed, to the great joy of the people, 
who made bonfires and jubilated wildly in honor 
of the event. The bill provided for eight differ- 
ent works, including turnpikes, canals, railroads, 
and the improvement of the lower Wabash, the 
scheme as it originally stood, together with the 
separate appropriations, being : 

1. A canal down the valley of the Whitewater 
from the National road to the Ohio, and a canal 
or railroad to connect the upper Whitewater 
with the Central canal at some point in Madison 
or Delaware county, if possible. Appropriation, 

2. A canal, to be known as the '"Central," 
from some point on the upper Wabash to Indian- 
apolis via Muncie, and down White river to the 
forks ; thence to Evansville. Appropriation, 

3. An extension of the Wabash and Erie 
canal from Tippecanoe river to Terre Haute. 




thence by Eel river to the Central, or to the mouth 
of Black creek at the Central, in Knox county. 
Appropriation, $1,300,000. 

4. A railroad from Madison, via Columbus 
and Indianapolis, to Lafayette. Appropriation, 

5. A macadamized turnpike from New Al- 
bany, by way of Greenville, Fredericksburg, 
Paoli, Mt. Pleasant and Washington to Vin- 
cennes. Appropriation, $1,150,000. 

6. A macadamized road or railroad from Jef- 
fersonville to Crawfordsville, by way of New Al- 
bany, Salem, Bedford, Bloomington and Green- 
castle. Appropriation, $1,300,000. 

7. The improvement of the Wabash river 
from Vincennes to its mouth. Appropriation, 

8. A survey of a canal or railroad from the 
Wabash and Erie canal at or near Fort Wayne 
to the lake at Michigan City, by way of Goshen, 
South Bend and Laporte. 

These various works, all of which the State 
pledged itself to build as expeditiously as pos- 
sible, totaled about one thousand two hundred 
miles and the total estimated cost was $20,000,- 
000 ( W. H. Smith), $10,000,000 of which was 
borrowed at once for twenty-five years at six 
per cent., with the works themselves and all 
grounds, rents, tolls and profits given as security. 

First Effect of the Bill; Speculation. — One of 
the first effects of the passage of this bill was a 
universal boom. In the conditions that were to 
follow everybody foresaw a chance to get rich 
quick. To quote one writer, "a period of wild 
speculation ensued. Those who owned farms 
bought others, and those who owned none went 
into debt and purchased them." Old towns be- 
gan to swell and to advertise lots for sale at in- 
flated prices, and new towns began to spring up 
on paper. This craze soon got its setback, but 
ii lasted long enough to ruin many a plunger and 
tn lie followed by a wake of hardship and <lis- 

State Control and How It Worked. — The 
writer who has searched most fully into the de- 
tails of this subject (Logan Esarey) makes some 
interesting statements as to the workings of the 
Stated great enterprise. A "Board of Internal 
Improvements," the members of which, sepa- 
rately, were put in charge of the various works to 
be placed under contract, met in Indianapolis. 

March 7, 1836, and, says Mr. Esarey, "the scram- 
ble for the lion's share of the money began as 
soon as the first meeting was called to order. 
Each commissioner seemed to be interested alone 
in getting his work completed as soon as pos- 
sible." Then came jealousy and chicanery after 
the contracts were let, between the sections to 
be benefited. Some of the works did not pro- 
gress as rapidly as others, and none of them fast 
enough to suit the citizen who was eager for re- 
turns. Labor was scarce, and the contractors 
were pitted against each other, one trying to lure 
away another's workmen. Some of the improve- 
ments that were not definitely settled on by the 
law still remained unsettled. When the State 
borrowed money, it is stated, it made no provi- 
sion for interest, as, according to the "System 
orators," the tolls were to take care of all that, 
so when interest fell due it was paid out of bor- 
rowed money instead of taxes, as the people had 
been assured there would be no increase in tax- 

One corollary is that interest on $10,01)0,000 
at six per cent, amounts up appallingly. More- 
over the $10,000,000 were only part of the sum 
to be borrowed, according 'to the original esti- 
mates of total cost, and in 1838 another estimate 
by the head engineer ran the sum up to $23,- 

The Collapse. — llv the end of 1837 there w a-- 
plenty of reason for grumbling and distrust, and 
the administration at that time was whistling 
optimistically to keep up its courage, but by an- 
other year even the governor (Wallace), who 
had been elected because of his advocacy of the 
internal improvement movement, began to ex- 
press misgivings. The Legislatures tinkered in 
a helpless way with the situation, making experi- 
mental changes here and there. Then in 1839 
came the collapse and all work was stopped after 
an expenditure of vast sums, for much of which 
there was never the least return, to the State, 
while contractors were bankrupted and thou- 
sands of laborers thrown out of employment 
without pay for work they had done. The fin- 
ished work 'to show for the millions of dollars 
expended were a part of the Whitewater canal 
in operation ; an indefinite amount of work on 
the Wabash and Erie (the funds for this canal 
being also derived from the sales of government 
lands that had been granted for it) : about twenty- 



eight miles of the Madison railroad and a neg- 
ligible amount of turnpike improvement — the to- 
tal of the completed work, according to Dillon, 
being two hundred eighty-one miles and the cost 
for same $8,164,528.21. The returns from the 
twenty-eight miles of railroad, the partially fin- 
ished Whitewater canal and the Wabash and Erie 
barely took care of the upkeep, and all the State 
got for the $1,820,026 it had put into the Central 
and crosscut canals was a few miles of completed 
ditch between Indianapolis and Broad Ripple 

far to find the fundamental reasons for this mon- 
umental fiasco, the legislative warrant for which 
was characterized as pre-eminently a "people's 
measure." In the first place the sagacity of the 
orator-fed people in judging the probabilities of 
a colossal piece of business that called for busi- 
ness insight of a high order, was practically nil, 
as the sequel amply proved. The proposition 
that the commerce of a thinly populated back- 
woods State could safely float a twenty-million- 
dollar enterprise was hardly one to commend 

Belle Fountain & Ind. Depot. 

Cine i nnati.Lawrc nceburg & Ind Dcpoc 

First Railroad Depots in Indianapolis 1854 

that for a while was utilized for floating cord- 
wood down to the capital and eventually went 
into the hands of the Indianapolis Water Com 
pany. The Madison railroad and the White- 
water canal were taken over and completed by 
private companies. The Wabash was retained for 
several years, and finally became the State's sal- 
vation, it being transferred, in 1846. to her cred- 
itors in liquidation of the disastrous debt that hail 
brought the commonwealth almost to the point 
of repudiation. 

The Elements in the Case. — Accepting the 
study of this movement made by the authority 
previously mentioned, one does not have to seek 

itself to a shrewd business man. The orators 
who rode on the rising tide of public sentiment 
made a business of hypnotizing the masses, and 
the masses moved by a sort of mob psycho 
in the direction of their desires. 

Again when it came to the actual tesl of 
forming the business it was tin- old governmental 
evil of purely perfunctory administration made 
worse by innumerable temptations to graft, 
Millions of dollars at hand with more to e; 
follow as the demand arose was fatal to all r 
idea> of economy that the business man weighs 
when he realizes that the business must make- 
good or he pay the penalty. The public work be- 



came a great feeding-crib, and as none of the 
"higher-ups" had anything at stake the job- 
hunter, if he had any influence, was apt to fare 
well. We hear of surveying parties that seemed 
to be, largely, hunting and fishing parties, and 
of the "Eating Brigade" which, for services 
largely unrendered, received annually about 
$54,000. Besides resident engineers there was 
an engineer-in-chief for canals and another one 
for railroads, and so on. The broad-gauge ideas 
of the men who had nothing financially to lose 
is illustrated by the work done on the Madison 
railroad. For this the best was none too good ; 
the latest improved T rail was imported from 
England at $80 per ton, and the twenty-eight and 
a fraction miles were built at a cost of $1,624,- 
603, or $58,000 per mile. When a private com- 
pany finished it later the style of construction 
was fitted to the probable returns, and the cost 
was something less than $11,000 per mile. 

Nor was this all nor the worst feature of the 
sorry business. Still drawing upon the above- 
cited study as authority, the finances of the enter- 
prise, though in the hands of reputable men, 
were worse than poorly managed. The State 
government paid little attention to the financial 
board ; the business was attended to in a careless, 
slovenly way, and reflection is cast upon the hon- 
esty of the administration. Transactions were 
had with irresponsible "wildcat" institutions by 
which the State lost outright many thousands of 
dollars, while it is intimated that those who ma- 
nipulated the funds came out of it with nests 
well lined. Of one of them it is said that "he 
received $103,880 from these people on whom 
the State lost several millions." 

The Panic and Script Issues; "Red Dog" 
and "Blue Pup." — One factor in the general 
distress that followed the internal improvement 
boom was a financial panic that swept the coun- 

try in the latter thirties. The enormous running 
expenses had to be met, but it became impossible 
to secure the expected loans from the sales of 
bonds. Contractors could not be paid, and this 
of course involved the thousands of laborers and 
the people at large. As an escape from this 
dilemma the Legislature in January of 1840 au- 
thorized an issue of State scrip to the amount 
of $1,200,000 (Esarey. Other writers say 
$1,500,000). This served the purpose for a 
while, then depreciated to half its value and even 
less. It was printed on red paper, and the sense 
of derisive humor that has always distinguished 
the Hoosier fastened upon it the name of "Red 
Dog." This was carried farther when private 
companies that took over certain of the public 
works were also authorized to issue scrip to help 
out their undertakings, and this scrip from be- 
ing mostly printed on blue paper, became known 
as "Blue Pup" (W. H. Smith). Elbert Jay Ben- 
ton, in his "Wabash Trade Route" (p. 60), says 
"Blue Pup" was a sort of shinplaster currency 
based on "Blue Dog," and that both these and 
"White Dog" were land scrips secured by the 
lands of the Wabash and Erie canal. All the 
scrip suffered depreciation, but eventually the 
State's "Red Dog" arose again to par, plus ac- 
crued interest. During the days of its discredit 
its greatest value was for the payment of State 
taxes, and speculators made a business of buying 
it up cheaply in some sections where it was most 
plentiful and selling it in other parts still below 
par, to taxpayers (Smith). The inference is that 
the State accepted it at face value.* 

* For excellent original studies from documentary sources of 
this subject see "The Wabash Trade Route in the Development 
of the Old Northwest," by Elbert J. Benton, in the Johns Hop- 
kins University studies, and "Internal Improvements in Early 
Indiana," by Logan Esarey, vol. v, No. 2, of Ind. Hist. Soc. 
publications. The latter in a somewhat modified form reappears 
in Esarey's History of Indiana. W. H. Smith's History of In- 
diana also devotes a chapter to this theme. 



Expansion of Territory. — Various treaties 
with the Indians between 1830 and 1840 added to 
the area for settlement upward of 3,000,000 
acres, exclusive of the final cession of the "Mi- 
ami reserve" (now partly comprising Grant. 
Howard and Tipton counties), which was pur- 
chased in 1840. The erection of twenty-two new 
counties brought the total number up to eighty- 
seven, and this meant a multiplication of towns, 
a growing urban population, and a corresponding 
development of activities. 

Business Expansion. — During this period 
we find capital, for the first time, virtually, seek- 
ing investment in business enterprises. That the 
State bank had considerable to do with this is 
evidenced by the fact that after its establishment 
there were numerous incorporations of various 
kinds, the list including railroad, turnpike, bridge, 
steam mill and insurance companies. The busi- 
ness expansion generally is best shown by the 
Federal census of 1840, according to which the 
total capital invested in the manufactures of the 
State at that time amounted to $4,132,040. This 
does not include eleven commercial houses in 
foreign trade ; twenty-six commission houses, 
with a total investment of $1,207,400; 1,801 re- 
tail stores, with a capital of $5,664,687; a pelt 
and fur trade amounting to $220,883 ; the news- 
papers with their allied printing, representing 
$58,505, and other industries not classed as man- 
ufactures. As measured by the capital repre- 
sented, the saw, grist and oil mills, scattered over 
the State, led with a total investment of $2,077,- 
018. Next in importance came the tanneries and 
leather industries with $647,176. The meat- 
packing establishments of fifteen counties, with 
Jefferson leading, represented $582,165. Next 
came the distilleries and breweries, 323 of the 
former and 20 of the latter, with $292,316. The 
production of bricks and lime, lumber, cotton 
and wool manufactures, and the making of 
wagons and machinery had by 1840 assumed con- 
siderable importance, Xew Albany leading in the 
last-named industry, and Indianapolis in wagons. 
The making of furniture in forty-eight counties 
involved an investment of $91,022; that of hats 

and straw bonnets, $69,018, and the manufac- 
tured products of tobacco, $65,659. Soap and 
candles, pottery, salt, the working of iron mined 
within the State, the mining of coal and quarrv- 
ing all figured in the industries of the State. 
There were three paper mills, located at Brook- 
ville, Madison and Richmond, with an output 
valued at $155,196. From eleven counties along 
the rivers water craft to the value of $107,223 
were reported. At Michigan City, our only lake 
port, commerce by water amounted to 272,400 
bushels of grain and 10,368 barrels of flour, pork, 
etc., shipped out, and 1,850 tons of merchandise 
and 9,000 barrels of salt received at the docks. 

The manufacturing and commercial industries 
of the State gave employment to 23.666 men. 

Growth of Agriculture. — That the popula- 
tion of the State in 1840 was still largely rural is 
briefly shown by the fact that the number en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits were 148,806 as 
against 23.666 in the manufactures and commerce 
and a comparative few in miscellaneous busi- 
nesses. New Albany, then the largest town in 
the State, had only 4,220 inhabitants, and Indi- 
anapolis but 2,692. 

With all the activity in the work of internal 
improvements the transportation facilities during 
this decade were not materially improved, and 
the market problem was still a deterrent in de- 
velopment. Agricultural methods were crude, 
though an advance upon those of an earlier pe- 
riod. The wooden mold-board plow and the 
home-made harrow with wooden teeth were still 
in general use. The sickle was still the common 
implement for reaping grain. The threshing was 
done with the flail or by tramping out with horses, 
and the winnowing of the chaff from the grain 
was accomplished by the use of a waving sheet 
and a hand sieve. The hay was cut with a scythe 
and gathered with a hand-rake. 

Notwithstanding these handicaps the agricul- 
tural showing of the State by the census return^ 
of 1840 was no mean one. By reason of trans- 
portation difficulties the raising of live stock thai 
could be taken to market afoot, was the conspicu- 
ous farming industry. Swine led all the rest for 




the reasons that hogs not only could be taken in 
droves to the Madison, Lawrenceburg or Cincin- 
nati slaughter-house, or be slaughtered at home 
and shipped in barrels to the southern market by 
every stream that would float a flatboat, but they 
could be raised at a minimum of cost, as they fed 
largely on the forest mast which then abounded. 
The proportion of different kinds of live stock in 
1839, as shown by the following census figures, 
was: Hogs, 1,623,608; sheep, 675,982; cattle, 
619,980; horses and mules. 241,036. 

It naturally followed that the leading crops 
would be tin ise for stock feeding, and accord- 
ingly we find corn far in the lead with a total of 
28,155,887 bushels.* The oats crop follows, 
with a return of 5,981,605 bushels. Wheat comes 
next with a yield of 4.049,375 bushels, Laporte 
county far in the lead, owing, it may be surmised, 
to shipping facilities from Michigan City. Rye, 
buckwheat and barley figured among the cereals, 
and the potato crop amounted to 1,525,794 bush- 
els, while Imps were cultivated to some extent, 
particularly in Ripley county. The hay tonnage 
amounted to 178,029, with Dearborn county lead- 
ing, but flax, an important crop for fabrics in 
earlier years, seems to have fallen off. as from 
twenty-nine counties there are no returns at all. 
Of wool there were 1,237,919 pounds, and this 
probably supplanted flax in the manufactures of 
the home loom, as these were still largely in ex- 
cess of the factory products, being valued at 
$1,289,802. Products of the dairy were valued at 
$742,269, and those of the orchard at $110,055. 
Sugar, presumably all maple, and which may 
therefore be classed as a product of the forest, 
amounted to 3,727,795 pounds in total output, 
with Rush county far in the lead. The most sur- 
prising crop was tobacco, of which not less than 
sixty counties made returns, the aggregate growth 
being 1,820,306 pounds. 

Agricultural Societies. — One sign of the in- 
creased interest in agricultural matters was the 
passage of a law in 1835 for the encouragement 
of county and township societies, and the crea- 
tion of a State Board of Agriculture. This lat- 
ter institution seems not to have cut much figure, 
and we hear little more about it,f but the local 

* In 1837 David D. Owen, the first State geologist, said of the 
Wabash country: "It is emphatically a corn country; ... so 
soon as the Wabash boats get out with their corn the southern 
States become so fully supplied that it immediately affects the 
whole grain market of the South." 

t The present State Board of Agriculture dates from 1852. 

societies flourished and were stimulating in their 
effect. There had been an act to incorporate such 
societies in 1829, and in 1835 Covenior Noble 
stated that "fairs and exhibitions have been held 
and a spirit of emulation and generous competi- 
tion has been superinduced, the happy effects of 
which are witnessed in the improved culture and 
stock of many of the farms throughout the coun- 
try." The contemporary account of the first fair 
of Marion county, held October 30-31. 1S35. 
bears out the governor's laudatory remarks ( )f 
live stock twenty-four classes were entered for 
premiums. For some reason no premiums were 
offered for agricultural products, though the fol- 
lowing year these figured liberally. Articles of 
home manufacture, such as flannels, jeans, linen 
and carpeting were encouraged, and also essays 
on grasses and on the culture of mulberries and 
the production of silk. The cash premiums 
awarded amounted to $169.* 

< Ine object of this society was to promote 
through its members the cultivation of some ar- 
ticle for export, and the commodity decided on 
was tobacco. By an article of its constitution the 
requirement from each member was "the raising 
of one hogshead, or 1,000 pounds, of tobacco, or 
the cultivation of one acre in said article, or the 
1 laying of one dollar in specie." Nothing note- 
worthy came of this tobacco movement. 

Growth of Schools. — At the end of the thir- 
ties the percentage of illiteracy was still large, it 
being estimated that more than 72.000 of the 
population could not read or write. The illiter- 
ates in 1840 were about one in seven of the adult 
population, and in 1850 the conditions, as to ra- 
tio, were not improved. "More than sixty per 
cent, of the State's children were not in school 
a single day for the year 1846-47." we are told, 
and universal free education, maintained by 
taxes was as yet but a dream of the advanced 
few, although the school fund in 1849 was esti- 
mated at $1,890,215.08. To the list of private 
schools of the academy, seminary and small-col- 
lege class, more than thirty were added during 
the decade. In higher education the Catholics 
established the University of Notre Dame, at 
South Bend, in 1842, and the Baptist school, es- 
tablished at Franklin. Johnson county, in 1837. 
became Franklin College in 1845. The libraries 

Ind. Journal, Oct. 16, 1835. 



of the State other than private numbered 151, 
with a total of 68,403 volumes. 


Newspapers. — By the federal census there 
existed in Indiana in 1840, seventy-three news- 
papers, sixty-nine of which were weeklies and 
four semi- or tri-weeklies. Three "periodicals," 

work and the first geological survey of the State 
was made in 1837 and 1838, Owen submitting a 
report for each of these years. The record of 
these may be found in the Documentary Journal 
for 1838, and both were subsequently published 
in one volume, as the "Report of a Reconnais- 
sance of the State of Indiana." After this the 
office of geologist seems to have been discon- 
tinued and the next we hear of it is in connection 

Becks' Mill. Washington County. The first mill on this site was built of logs in 18U8. The building shown in 
tin picture was erected in 1861 and was used to grind flour as late as 1905. It is now used mainly to crush 
grain for feed. 

presumably literary papers, had also appeared 
upon the field, though what these three publi- 
cations were is now probably lost to human 

Geological Department. — In 1836 the firsl 
Step was taken looking toward a geological sur- 
vey of the State by a joint resolution proposing 
to ( >hio and Kentucky a joint survey. Nothing 
came of this, and a law of February 6. 1837, 
authorized the Governor to appoint a State Ge- 
ologist at a salary not exceeding $1,500 per year, 
with an additional sum not exceeding $250 for 
expenses. David Dale < )\ven. a son of Robert 
Owen, oi New Harmony, was secured for the 

with the State Board of Agriculture in the earl) 

Increase of Official Salaries. — The first in- 
crease of official salaries was made by a law of 
1837, which set the following schedule: Goa 
ernor, $1,500 per year; judges of superior court. 
$1,500 each; presidents of circuit courts, $1,000 
each; members of the General Vssembly, $3 per 
day for each day's attendance and $3 for ever} 
twenty-five miles traveled "by the most usual 

New State House. — from 1825 to 1834 
Legislatures held their session- in the Marion 
county courthouse, but by 1830 these quarters 



began to be too restricted for the State's business. 
The Legislature took the first step toward build- 
ing a new capitol by an act of February 10, 1831. 
Plans were advertised for, to include Senate and 
Representative chambers and quarters for the 
Supreme Court, Secretary of State, Auditor of 
State, State Library, Law Library, six committee 
rooms and six clerk's rooms. The contract was 
given to Ithiel Town and Andrew J. Davis, New 
York architects of high standing, and the work 
of construction was begun in 1832 and finished 
in time for the Legislature of 1835-6. The total 
cost of the building was restricted to $60,000.* 

Change in Taxing System. — In 1835 a change 
was made in the taxing system. Prior to that 
land was classed as first, second and third rate. 

See p. 89. 

The new law provided for an appraisement based 
on actual market value. Buildings were also ap- 
praised ; there was added to the taxables a long 
list of chattels, including household articles, and 
business capital, corporation stock and money at 
interest were included. A poll tax was fixed of 
3/J/2 cents for State and 37y 2 cents for county 
for each male citizen over twenty-one years of 
age (Laws of 1835). 

Improvement in Housing. — The extent to 
which the typical log cabin of pioneer days was 
being supplanted by brick, stone and frame 
houses is indicated by the following statistics. 
The total number of brick and stone houses in 
1840 was 346, and of "wooden," presumably 
frame, 4,270. Of the former kind Marion 
county led with 35. All but sixteen counties re- 
turned frame buildings, Green leading with 344. 

Foot of Waltman Hill, Brown County, between Helmsburg and Nashville. 


1840 TO 1850- 


The State's Financial Dilemma. — While the 
general suspension of the public works in 1839 
did not quite banish the hope that, somehow, the 
system would be completed, it proved to be the 
final collapse of the governmental scheme. For 
a few years the State continued to operate and 
slowly extend the Wabash and Erie canal, but 
the returns from it did not balance the expenses. 

The aftermath of the disastrous business fell 
heaviest upon the next decade, and on Governors 
Bigger and Whitcomb and the Legislature of 
their administrations devolved the perplexing 
task of extricating, as best they could, the com- 
monwealth from financial ruin and discredit. An 
official report made in 1842 shows a disgraceful 
tangle of affairs. Out of a bond issue of $15,- 
000.000, "$4,000,000 was represented by worth- 
less securities," and $2,000,000 had been "em- 
bezzled by various State officers and agents." 
The interest on the public debt was far greater 
than the State could keep up, from 1840 it accu- 
mulated, adding to the principal at an appalling 
rate, and how Indiana was ever going to take 
care of her enormous obligation was not appar- 
ent. In the face of this desperate outlook it is 
hardly surprising, perhaps, that a disposition to 
throw over the most galling part of the burden 
by repudiation should have cropped out. Just 
how widely such a disposition actually prevailed 
among the rank and file is not clearly traceable, 
but it is generally implied by our historians that 
at this crisis the State narrowly escaped that blot 
on her fair name. 

The Butler Bill Compromise. — The way of 
at least partial escape from this dilemma opened 
up by a compromise which in 1846 took form in 
what is known as the "Butler Bill." The holders 
of the State's bonds, whose interest was now far 
in arrears, employed a New York attorney, 
Charles Butler, to visit Indiana and effect some 
settlement with the Legislature. The settlement 
agreed upon was that the bondholders who 

wished could become part owners of the Wabash 
and Erie canal and its unsold lands and acquire 
a lien on its earnings. More specifically, one 
could surrender his bonds and receive for each 
$1,000 two $500 certificates of stock. One of 
these would be canal stock and the other State 
stock. The former had back of it the canal prop- 
erty, and the latter was to be taken care of by a 
tax levy (Benton). A part of the agreement was 
that out of the sales of the remaining lands the 
canal was to be completed to Evansville. The 
State was to still retain a supervisor}- interest, 
and the property was to be put into the hands of 
three trustees, two to be appointed by the cred- 
itors and one by the State. 

This compromise was embodied in a long bill 
of thirty-five sections, covering many complicated 
points, which became a law January 19, 1846, 
after considerable opposition that seems to have 
had no reason other than petty politics.* It did 
not prove satisfactory to the creditors, and after 
another fight Butler secured in 1847 the passage 
of another long bill amending the first. 

The result of this compromise legislation was 
that the State luckily escaped from one-half of 
its internal improvement debt, thus cutting it to 
$6,732,880 (Esarey). This reduction enabled the 
State to save itself, but the rest of the debt re- 
mained a heavy burden for years. The result to 
the creditors was that they got what they could 
out of a bad situation. Eventually they suffered 
loss that brought, in many cases, ruin and dis- 
tress, for the canal, after continuing in operation 

* A letter from Butler to his wife during his legislative cam- 
paign (see History of Union Theological Seminary) gives an in- 
teresting glimpse of his difficulties. "The prospects," he says, 
"are altogether discouraging, and almost everybody says that noth- 
ing can be done. Politicians are afraid to move. It is really 
amazing to see what a paralysis hangs upon this people. . . . 
The governor is a prominent candidate for the United States 
Senate and dare not open his mouth as he should, lest it might 
affect his election to that office. . . . My mission is a hard 
one and no mistake. ... It is certain that if the question 
is not now settled it never will be; the people will go into re- 




for a few years was killed by the incoming rail- 
roads. Finally, in 1877, it was sold by order of 
court for the benefit of the bondholders, who 
"received from the sale about 9y 2 per cent, of 
their investment" (Benton). The work was 
completed to the Ohio river at Evansville in 
1852, after a long series of misfortunes and set- 
backs, but the part from Terre Haute down 
proved worse than profitless, the cost being far 
in excess of returns. 

"Thus closed the story of the old Wabash and 
Erie. The State and bondholders had expended, 
all told, $8,259,244. They had received from 
lands and tolls, $5,477,238. A magnificent land 
grant by the federal government had been squan- 
dered. The total amount of land donated was 
1,457,366 acres, or 2,277 sections; an area equal 
to the five largest counties or the ten smallest. 
["his was twice as much as the whole donation 
for the common schools" (Esarey). 

( )f this canal in its relation to the commerce 
and population of the State we will speak in an- 
other section. ( See next page. ) 

Completion of Whitewater Canal. — As part 
of the State system the Whitewater canal was 
completed from Lawrenceburg to Brookville. the 
hist boat between those points arriving at Brook- 
ville June 8, 1839 (James M. Miller). In 1842 
it was sold to Henry S. Vallette, a capitalist of 
( iiuinnati. It reached Laurel in 1843, Conners- 
ville in 1845 and boats were running to Cam- 
bridge City by 1846. For the Whitewater val- 
ley and for each of its towns as they became, in 
turn, heads of navigation, the canal made an era 
i if prosperity. Cambridge City, we are told, be- 
came a shipping port for Henry, Randolph and 
I lelaware counties as well as for Wayne and 
northern Rush, and Brookville and Laurel drew 
wheat, hogs and other agricultural exports for 
many miles to the west, north and east. In 1847 
a Hagerstown company continued the canal to 
that town, but nut much profit was derived from 
the extension ( Young's Wayne County). 

Ihe beginning of the decadence of the White- 
water canal was the damage clone by two disas- 
trous floods in 1847. which damage, it was esti- 
mated, amounted to not less than $180,000. 
Other disasters followed, and the final one, so 
far as the canal was concerned, was its sale in 
1865 to the Whitewater Valley Railroad Com- 
pany, which paralleled the ditch with a railroad. 


The first benevolent institutions other than 
county asylums for the poor, date from this 
decade. In article nine of the constitution there 
was a provision for asylums "for those persons 
who by reason of age, infirmity or other misfor- 
tunes may have a claim upon the aid and benefi- 
cence of society on such principles that such per- 
sons may therein find employment and every 
reasonable comfort, and lose, by their usefulness, 
the degrading sense of dependence." It was fif- 
teen years until this took shape in county infirm- 
aries for the indigent and twenty-eight years un- 
til it included in its broadened scope unfortunates 
other than paupers. The deaf and dumb, the 
blind and the insane all became the objects of 
State aid at this period. 

School for the Deaf and Dumb. — This insti- 
tution was the first to receive consideration, 
when the Legislature of 1842-3 laid a "tax of 
two mills on each one hundred dollars' worth of 
property in the State for the purpose of support- 
ing a deaf and dumb asylum." The first form of 
this support was an appropriation of $200 to one 
James McLean, who was conducting a small 
school in Parke county. Then William Willard, 
attracted by the tax levy, established a school in 
Indianapolis, in 1844, and at the beginning of its 
second session this school was taken over by the 
State. Between 1844 and 1849 the attendance 
increased from 16 to 99. Tuition and board 
were furnished free to deaf-mutes of the State 
1 iet ween the ages of ten and thirty years, the edu- 
cation including the teaching of a trade. The 
large building for the school east of the city, 
which served for more than fifty years, was first 
occupied October 2, 1850. The original cost was 
$30,000, but it was subsequently added to. 

School for the Blind. — The desirability of 
Mime provision for the education of blind chil- 
dren was first brought to the attention of the 
Legislature and the people in 1844 through the 
zeal of (antes M. Ray, a public-spirited citizen of 
Indianapolis. Mr. Ray had witnessed in Louis- 
ville an exhibition of children from the Ken- 
tucky school for the blind under the charge of 
William II. Churchman, a blind instructor, and 
by invitation of Ray, Mr. Churchman brought 
his pupils to Indianapolis and gave an exhibition 



for the benefit of our Legislature. The result 
was the levying of a tax of two mills on the hun- 
dred for educational aid to the blind. In the be- 
ginning it was proposed to send Indiana children 
to the Kentucky and Ohio schools, pending the 
establishment of our own institution, paying 
their tuition out of the tax levy, but when the 
pupils were advertised for there were only five 
applicants, all told. Then Mr. Churchman, as 
one experienced in the business, was secured to 
take the work in hand. In the fall of 1846 he 
personally canvassed the State, traveling about 
1,520 miles through thirty-six counties, and as a 

of 1843, by Dr. John Evans, an authority on 
mental diseases. That address was part of a leg- 
islative plan for gathering information on the 
subject, and the following session a law was 
passed authorizing a special levy of one cent on 
each hundred dollars for the establishment of 
an asylum. One hundred and sixty acres just 
west of Indianapolis were purchased and a build- 
ing for the accommodation of 200 patients was 
ready for occupancy in 1848. The total original 
cost was estimated at $72,069. 

Enlargement of State Prison. — The State's 
prison at Jeffersonville. which dated from 1822, 


The First "Crazy Asylum." Built in Indianapolis in the early thirties. It was located in the southwest section 
of the block bounded by Alabama, New York, Ohio and New Jersey streets. The buildings had been orig- 
inally occupied by early settlers. — From sketch by C. Schrader. 

result twenty pupils were enlisted and placed in 
the institutions of the above-named States, at a 
cost of $100 each. In 1847 our own school was 
established, with Mr. Churchman at its head, on 
a salary of $800 per year. The term began with 
only nine pupils, but these increased to thirty the 
first year. The entire equipment of books and 
apparatus cost but a little over a hundred dollars 
and the total expense of that year was a little 
more than $6,000. The building which, with 
some additions, still stands, was first occupied in 
1853. Its cost was about $68,000.* 

Hospital for the Insane. — The first legis- 
lative step toward the establishment of an asylum 
for the insane followed an address in December 

* For sketch of William H. Churchman and his work for the 
blind of Indiana see Ind. Mag. Hist., vol. x. p. 77. 

was rebuilt and much enlarged in the early for- 
ties. Its outer wall of brick, thirty inches thick 
and twenty-eight feet high, covered an area of 
about four acres. Within this enclosure were 
guard-house, cell-house, workshops, ware and 
store houses, grist-mill and a hospital. The aver- 
age number of prisoners from 1840 to 1850 was 
133 (Merrill's and Fisher's gazetteers). 


The greatest developing factor in the State 
during this period was the Wabash and Erie 
canal. It not only gave access to the fertile 
Wabash valley, the choicest portion of the State, 
but by opening up a new and direct water route 



to the East by way of Lake Erie and the Erie 
canal of New York, but it brought into the State 
a new and distinct tide of immigration that gave 
its character to the population of the northern 
counties. These counties that bordered on the 
canal increased in population much more rapidly 
than counties off the line that, in some cases, of- 
fered far better natural advantages (Benton), 
and land values, of course, were enhanced ac- 
cordingly. It gave a vast impetus to agriculture, 
which heretofore had virtually no market. Large 
farms, we are told, began to take the place of 
small clearings ; improved farm machinery began 
to be introduced, and the crops to pay for it all 
found their way eastward in large quantities. 
In 1844, says Benton, 5,262 bushels of corn 
passed through Toledo, increasing in 1846 to 
555,250 bushels and in 1851 to 2,775,149 bushels. 
This is but a conspicuous example of various 
agricultural exports, the shipments of wheat and 
flour being also very heavy. A broad belt of 
country extending up and down the river and 
extending over "thirty-eight counties in Indiana 
and nearly nine counties in Illinois" was tribu- 
tary to the canal, and not only farm stuffs but 
stone from the quarry, lumber from the forest 
and other bulky raw material in large quantities 
sought cheap transportation to the market that 
was now made possible. Of the magnitude of 
the trade we get some idea from the statement 
that in a single day in 1844 four hundred wagons 
unloaded at Lafayette and that "it was a com- 
mon occurrence to see as many as four or 
five hundred teams in that place . . . un- 
loading grain to the canal." This export business 
begat a trade in imports and the returning boats 
bore westward, besides the immigrants and their 
possessions, merchandise of all kinds, the ship- 
ments of salt alone amounting in 1851 to 88.191 

The increase of population and wealth gave 
rise to new towns all along the route, and created 
new industries. The renting of water power 
from the canal was one of the sources of reve- 
nue, and numerous mills of various kinds sprang 
up, as did also grain elevators, shops, ware- 
houses and other establishments resulting from 
increasing trade and seeking shipping facilities. 
This business prosperity in turn developed social 
features that would furnish peculiarly quaint and 
literatesque material for the story-writer. Peo- 

ple began to travel, not only because there was a 
growing class who could afford to, but because 
the new passenger transportation by boat was a 
luxury compared with travel by coach over rough 
wilderness roads. Passenger packets, less bulky 
and more speedy than the freight boats, ap- 
peared, and these, hauled at a sharp trot, could 
make, under favorable conditions, about eight 
miles an hour. Of pleasant summer weather the 
travelers, lolling about the roomy decks of the 
smoothly gliding packet, played games, con- 
versed, sang in chorus or otherwise cultivated the 
social amenities as it fitted their holiday mood. 
At the locks where the boats were delayed ro- 
mantic couples could stroll on ahead, if they 
wanted to, gathering wild flowers as they went. 
The approach to a town was heralded by a 
great blowing of the boat's horn that brought 
out the townsmen, and at dock the two crowds, 
mingling, fraternized genially and exchanged in- 
formation till the boat's horn again gave warn- 
ing of departure. 

This, however, was not the only side of the 
picture, for we have other accounts of stuffy 
cabins, wretched food, millions of mosquitoes 
that had to be fought all night, and pestilential, 
miasmatic vapors. Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, however, people in the Wabash valley 
moved about as they never had since their resi- 
dence there. This brought the isolated rural life 
that much nearer to the social life of the town, 
and that it had its educative effects is a safe sur- 

This canal era, while it was most conspicuous 
in the forties by reason of its having no competi- 
tor north of the Ohio river, as a great highway, 
continued to increase in its freight transportation 
till 1856, when it reached its maximum with 308,- 
667 tons. After that it waned year by year, un- 
able to hold its own against the competing rail- 
roads, especially the Toledo & Wabash, which 
paralleled it as far down as Lafayette. Of this 
the State's creditors, who had taken over the 
canal, bitterly complained, the granting of fran- 
chises to competitive utilities, they maintained, 
being a breach of honor, since they, the creditors, 
had accepted the canal in good faith as a prop- 
erty of value and as an earnest of the State's de- 
sire to make good its debt. 

With all the seeming prosperity of the Wabash 
and Erie during the score or so years in which 



it flourished, its great value was as an incidental 
developing factor. As a paying investment it 
was a failure, because during the winter season 
its traffic was suspended and because of the heavy 
expenses for repairs. In many places through 
the lowlands the canal was built up instead of 
being excavated. That is, it ran between stretches 
of levees or dikes and the springing of a leak 
through these not infrequently resulted in a 
washout which would empty the ditch, leaving 

40,000 less than the increase of the last pre- 
ceding decade, and the falling off was largely 
due, doubtless, to the State's heavy debt. In 
1841 that debt in its totality amounted to $15,- 
088,146; there was no prospect of any equiva- 
lent returns, and the affairs of the commonwealth 
generally were not such as to invite citizenship. 
Hence of the great tide of immigration pouring 
westward by way of the National road much 
that might have stopped here passed on to re- 

Neals' Mill on Eel River, near Clay City. This was one of the stations of the "Underground Railroad," used 
for the purpose of hiding fugitive slaves during the early '50s. — Photograph by Bert Weedon. 

boats, freight and passengers stranded in the 
mud until the breach was repaired and the canal 
re-filled. Floods had their dangers, and in 1844 
the liberated contents of a mill-dam broke 
through adjacent levees so swiftly that a packet 
boat, the Kentucky, was carried bodily through 
the gap into the river bottom and broken to 
pieces among the trees, three passengers being 


Population. — The population during this dec- 
ade grew from 685.866 in 1840 to 988,416 in 
1850. This increase of 302,550 was more than 

gions farther west. Of the aberrant classes there 
were estimated, in 1850, to be 81 convicts. 861 
paupers, 278 blind, 517 deaf and dumb and 1,059 
insane persons and idiots. 

Agriculture. — During the decade about one- 
fourth of the total area of the State, or 5,019,- 
822 acres, was farmed, and the assessed value 
of farm lands was $128,325,552. There was a 
general and pronounced increase of agricultural 
wealth, in both produce and live stock. The 
staple crop of corn, for example, advanced from 
28,155,887 bushels in 1840, to 52,877.564 bushels 
in 1850, and swine increased by nearly a million 
head. The farmers' long-standing problem of 



getting to the larger markets was vastly helped 
out by three transportation outlets of great 
value — the Madison & Indianapolis railroad, the 
Whitewater canal and the Wabash and Erie 
canal. The railroad was a crude affair, by the 
modern standard, with its strap rails, and its di- 
minutive locomotives and cars, but in capacity 
and speed it was a marvelous advance over the 
old, laborious teaming. As the road slowly crept 
northward its business increased, and by the 
time it reached Indianapolis, in 1847, it was en- 
tering upon a fat prosperity. 

What the Madison & Indianapolis railroad 
was to the south-central part of the State the 
Whitewater canal was to the Whitewater valley 
and the Wabash and Erie canal was to the Wa- 
bash region, as set forth in a previous section. 

Church Statistics. — In 1850 the religious de- 
nominations in the State had multiplied to six- 
teen, besides sundry minor sects, with a total 
membership of 709,655, and with 2,032 churches. 
The church property was valued at $1,529,585. 
The Methodists were far in the lead with 778 
churches and 266,372 members. The Baptists 
came second with 138,783 members and the 
Presbyterians third with 105,582, followed in 
order of strength by the Christian, with 65,341 ; 
Friends, 60,355; Roman Catholic, 25,115; Lu- 
theran, 19,050; Moravian, 18,250; Episcopal, 7,- 
300; Universalist, 5,050; Tunker, 3,000; Free, 
2,750; Congregational, 1,400; Dutch Reform, 
1,275; Union, 1,250; German Reform, 1,150; 
Unitarian, 250 ; minor sects, 2,822. As compared 
with previous periods, Catholicism had spread 
rapidly during this decade, there being in 1849 
upward of 63 churches distributed over 35 coun- 
ties, Franklin county leading in membership. 
They also supported a theological seminary at 

Increase of Professions. — While agriculture 
was still far in the ascendency as compared with 
other industries, there was by 1850 a large in- 
crease in the number of professions and trades, 
the census list showing nearly 200 of these. 


From the spring of 1846 to the middle of 1848 
Indiana, along with the rest of the country, suf- 
fered the distraction incident to war. Eight days 
after the declaration of hostilities with Mexico 

(May 13 J Governor Whitcomb received a 
requisition for three regiments of volunteers and 
on May 22 he issued a proclamation calling for 
this quota. The military conditions of the day 
and the response to the call are thus set forth in 
"Indiana in the Mexican War," a collection of 
documents compiled in 1908 by Adjutant-General 
Oran Perry : 

Military Conditions. — "At the outbreak of 
the Mexican war the martial spirit of the people 
of the State was at the lowest ebb. There was 
no State organization of militia, no arms, no 
equipment, and apparently not a soldier in sight. 
The probability of war and the necessity of pre- 
paring for it had occurred to the minds of but 
few. The position of adjutant-general was 
looked upon as a compliment, a peg on which to 
hang a title. He was paid a salary of $100 per 
annum, provided his own office, fuel and sta- 
tionery, and was blissfully ignorant of every de- 
tail of the position. Fortunately for the reputa- 
tion of the State the incumbent, General David 
Reynolds, was a man of superior executive abil- 
ity, dauntless in all emergencies, a tireless 
worker and blessed with an abundance of com- 
mon sense, which largely offset his lack of ex- 
perience. His success in rapidly organizing the 
State's quota for the war had no parallel at that 
time, and in 1847 a grateful Legislature recog- 
nized the fact by adding $150 to his salary for 
that year. 

"At that time there was but one railroad in the 
State, running between Madison and Edinburg. 
There were but few improved highways and no 
telegraphs. All communication was by mail, 
mostly carried by men on horseback and over 
bad roads. There were no daily papers, the press 
services being rendered by small weekly sheets, 
one or two to the county." 

Governor's Proclamation; Response of the 
People. — "In spite of these handicaps the war 
news traveled fast. The governor issued his 
proclamation on the 22d of May and the ad- 
jutant-general his General Order No. 1 of the 
Fourth of July, directing the companies to as- 
semble at the rendezvous (old Fort Clark, be- 
tween Jeffersonville and New Albany) as soon 
as possible by the shortest route, and at their 
own expense for transportation and subsistence. 



"As if by magic the roads were filled with 
marching men, helped on by patriotic farmers, 
who furnished teams for transportation and 
whose kind-hearted wives fed the hungry volun- 
teers. Notwithstanding these drawbacks the con- 
centration was quickly made, and by the 10th of 
June, nineteen days after the call, thirty com- 
panies had reported at camp and been mustered 
into service, while an overflow of twenty-two 
companies reported from their home stations, 
clamoring for acceptance. 

"No less remarkable than the uprising of vol- 
unteers was the patriotic action of the banks in 
volunteering to supply the governor with the 
needful funds and take the chance of reimburse- 
ment by the State or general government, and 
this at a time when the State was almost hope- 
lessly in debt." 

Indiana Regiments ; Battle of Buena Vista. — 
Indiana sent, all told, about 5,000 men into the 
field, the three regiments in response to the first 
requisition being followed in 1847 by the fourth 
and fifth. This number included also 326 who 
joined the United States regiment of mounted 

At the battle of Buena Vista the disorderly 
retreat from the field of the second regiment 
fixed a stigma on the name of Indiana that long 
remained. This disrepute was but one illustra- 
tion of the truth that the judgments of the world 
are not based on either charity or reason. The 

facts seem to be that comparatively a handful of 
raw recruits were fronted by an overwhelming 
force of the enemy ; that there was a confusion 
of orders ; that those who started the retreat 
thought they were doing so under order. Some 
were rallied and led anew to the fight under the 
colors of another regiment, and that some, under 
the circumstances, were panic-stricken beyond 
rallying was no earthly reason why the charge of 
dishonor should be visited upon a State. 

The Part of Politics. — A feature of the Mexi- 
can service not to be overlooked is the fact that 
here, as elsewhere, according to one writer 
(Esarey) petty politics played their part at the 
expense of efficiency. "Indiana," we are told, 
"had competent men trained for war, but through 
political juggling not one of them was called into 
service. Of the three colonels and one brigadier- 
general, not one could have led a company 
through the manual of arms." This is the sin- 
ister evil that crops out all along the line of our 
political history, and one wonders if the common 
sense of the people will ever take home the les- 
son that it teaches. 

The published roster of Indiana troops with 
accompanying brief data (see "Indiana in the 
Mexican War") shows a loss by death of 542. 
The mortality from disease and exposure was 
heavy, though statistics do not give the propor- 
tion. Another detriment to the State was a de- 
lay in the federal improvement of rivers, har- 
bors and the National road, on account of a de- 
pleted treasury. 


PERIOD FROM 1850 TO 1860 

Developments of Decade. — The conspicuous 
developments of this decade were the adoption 
of a new State constitution ; the beginning of a 
transportation system that was to revolutionize 
the economics of the State, and the marked ad- 
vancement by agitation and legislation of a gen- 
eral system of public schools. A change in the 
banking system, the establishment of a State fair 
and a permanent agricultural society are also 
notable features of the period. 


Constitutional Provisions for Change. — 
The framers of the constitution of 1816, recog- 
nizing the uncertainties of it as an instrument for 
future years and future conditions, provided that 
"every twelfth year after this constitution shall 
have taken effect . . . there shall be a poll 
opened in which the qualified voters of the State 
shall express by vote whether they are in favor 
of calling a convention or not." If a majority fa- 
vored it, then provision was to be made by law 
for an election of delegates who, when met, 
should have the power to revise, amend or change 
the constitution, with the one restriction that no 
alteration should ever sanction slavery in the 

This twelfth-year proviso gave rise to consid- 
erable argument before the adoption of another 
constitution, some maintaining that it should be 
followed strictly, as the fundamental law, while 
others held that the Legislature had the right to 
submit the question to the people whenever de- 
sired. As a matter of fact the proviso was not 
followed strictly. Esarey calls attention to the 
fact that as early as 1822 a law directed that at 
the next election the voter should indicate on the 
bottom of his ballot whether or not he favored 
calling a convention. In 1828, the end of the 
first twelve years, the vote was taken on the 
question, but evidently there was little interest 
in it for only ten out of fifty-eight counties were 
heard from, and these voted almost two to one 
against it. When the referendum was again ex- 
ercised, in 1840, fourteen counties out of sixtv- 

nine made no returns, and the fifty-five that did 
vote stood overwhelmingly against the proposi- 
tion. Nevertheless the minority sentiment for 
a change was growing more urgent, for six years 
later another vote was taken which gave a ma- 
jority of those cast on the question in favor of 
the convention. It was not, however, a majority 
of the total vote and the election of delegates was 
not held. Three years later it was tried again. 
Hitherto a large percentage of the voters had 
refrained from voting at all on the convention 
question and the attempt was now made to catch 
these non-voters by a provision in the law direct- 
ing the inspector of election to verbally put to 
each one, as he presented his ballot, the query: 
"Are you in favor of a convention to amend the 
constitution?" The answer was recorded by the 
clerk of election in a special poll book. Even 
by this unusual method the special vote fell short 
of the total by more than 10,000, but the required 
majority for the convention was gained and a 
law for the election of delegates was passed on 
January 3, 1850.* It may be noted that this ref- 
erendum was three years before the twelfth year 
as specified in the constitution. 

Reasons for Change. — The argument for sup- 
planting the old constitution was that under it 
certain conditions had sprung up that in time be- 
came evils. Chief of these was legislation of a 
purely local or even personal character. Divorces, 
special privileges to individuals, the incorpora- 
tion of towns and the improvements of local roads 
were some of the matters that absorbed the 
legislative energy to the exclusion of general and 
important business. The General Assembly, we 
are told, "was constantly being beset to pass hun- 
dreds of such personal and local acts," until "the 
local laws became six or seven times more 
voluminous than the general laws" (Woodburn). 
Under the old regime the Legislature met each 
year and it was thought that every other year 
would do as well and be much less expensive. The 
old constitution did not impose restrictions on 
the creation of public debt, and the evil of that 

1 J. A. Woodburn, Ind. Magazine of History, vol. x, p. 237. 




was apparent after the colossal plunging of the 
State in 1836. Also, the appropriating of public 
funds needed a stricter safeguard. These were 
among the reasons specified by Governor Whit- 
comb in his message of 1848. Other reasons that 
existed were that there should be opportunity for 
a more general banking law ; that judges and the 
State officers should be elected by the people in- 
stead of being appointed by the governor, as the 
judges were, or elected by the General Assembly 
as were the secretary, auditor and treasurer ; that 
the appointive power of the governor should be 
curtailed. Also, the court system was unsatis- 
factory and court practice costly. 

The Convention. — The second constitutional 
convention met in Indianapolis October 7, 1850, 
with 150 delegates,* among whom were a num- 
ber of men whose names were, or afterward be- 
came, well known in our political history. Ex- 
Governor David Wallace, Schuyler Colfax, 
Thomas A. Hendricks, Robert Dale Owen, W. 
S. Holman, Alvin P. Hovey, William McKee 
Dunn and William H. English are, perhaps, the 
ones best remembered to-day. The convention 
spent eighteen weeks at its work and was the 
great event of the day. One writer speaks of it 
as "an eighteen weeks' course in political science 
for the citizens of the State," and both press and 
people showed a lively interest in the work as it 
progressed. When the new constitution was 
completed it was not only published abroad by 
the newspapers but 50,000 copies in English and 
5,000 in German were printed for distribution. 
At the next election, which was in August of 
1851, it was submitted to the people for ratifica- 
tion and it was approved by a majority of 85,- 
592. It went into operation November 1, 1851. 
and in the transition there was no noticeable dis- 
arrangement in the machinery of government. 
The cost of the convention was $85,043.82 (Es- 

Changes Effected. — The principal changes 
brought about by the new constitution were those 
indicated above. The nuisance of special legisla- 
tion was corrected by the following section oi 
article four : 

"Section 22. The General Assembly shall not pass 
local or special laws in any of the following enumerated 
cases, that is to say : 

"Regulating the jurisdiction and duties of justices of 
the peace and of constables ; 

' There were 42 delegates in the convention of 1816. 

"For the punishment of crimes and misdemeanors; 

"Regulating the practice in courts of justice; 

"Providing for changing the venue in civil and crim- 
inal cases ; 

"Granting divorces ; 

"Changing the names of persons; 

"For laying out, opening and working on highways, 
and for the election or appointment of supervisors; 

"Vacating roads, town plats, streets, alleys and public 
squares ; 

"Summoning and impaneling grand and petit juries 
and providing for their compensation ; 

"Regulating county and township business ; 

"Regulating the election of county and township 
officers and their compensation ; 

"For the assessment and collection of taxes for State, 
county, township or road purposes ; 

"Providing for supporting common schools, and for 
the preservation of school funds ; 

"In relation to fees or salaries ; except that the laws 
may be so made as to grade the compensation of officers 
in proportion to the population and the necessary serv- 
ices required ; 

"In relation to interest on money; 

"Providing for opening and conducting elections of 
State, county or township officers, and designating the 
places of voting; 

"Providing for the sale of real estate belonging to 
minors or other persons laboring under legal disa- 
bilities, by executors, administrators, guardians or 

This rather lengthy list of negative provisions 
indicates the variety of special legislation that 
had sprung up under the old constitution, and to 
further guard against such misuse of the legis- 
lative power another section specifies that "all 
laws shall be general and of uniform operation 
throughout the State." 

By the old constitution the number of legis- 
lators was fixed by the General Assembly and 
was to vary with the voting population. In the 
House there were to be not less than twenty-five 
nor more than thirty-six so long as the number 
of voters was less than 22,000. The number in 
the Senate was to be not less than one-third nor 
more than one-half of that in the House. In the 
new instrument the Senate was not to exceed fifty 
nor the House one hundred members. 

The secretary, auditor and treasurer of State 
were to be elected by the voters of the State for 
a uniform term of two years, whereas they had 
been elected by joint ballot of the General As- 
sembly, the secretary for four years and the 
other two for three years. 

Among the changes in the judiciary was the 
popular election of judges instead of appointment 
by the governor. Under the old system the State 
was divided into three circuits, and the circuit 
courts were under the jurisdiction of a president 
and two associate judges. These latter were 
local officials elected bv the voters of their sev- 



eral counties, and they sat with the president 
judge as he traveled the rounds of the circuit. 
In the change they were done away with. There 
was no constitutional limit to the number of ju- 
dicial circuits, and one judge was elected by the 
voters of each circuit. The new instrument pro- 
vided for the appointment of three commission- 
ers to "revise, simplify and abridge the rules, 
practice, pleadings and forms of the courts of 
justice," and "for abolishing the distinct forms 
of action at law now in use." A duty of these 
commissioners was "to reduce into a systematic 
code the general statute law of the State." 

The safeguard against excessive State debt was 
thus embodied (section 5, article x) : "No law 
shall authorize any debt to be contracted on be- 
half of the State, except in the following cases : 
To meet casual deficits in the revenue ; to pay the 
interest on the State debt ; to repel invasion, sup- 
press insurrection, or, if hostilities be threat- 
ened, provide for public defense." Section 1 of 
article xiii also places a restriction upon the in- 
debtedness of "political or municipal corpora- 
tions," limiting such indebtedness to two per cent, 
on the value of taxable property within the cor- 

A drastic provision that was ratified in 1851 
but stricken out in 1881 was one that "no negro 
or mulatto shall come into, or settle in the State 
after the adoption of this constitution." All con- 
tracts made with any negro coming into the State 
was to be void and any one who employed or 
otherwise encouraged such negro to remain here 
was subject to a fine of from $10 to $500 and 
fines so collected were to be set apart and ap- 
propriated to the colonization of negroes already 
in the State who might be willing to emigrate. 
The negro was explicitly forbidden all right of 

Comment on the Constitution. — Logan Es- 
arey, in his "History of Indiana," has this com- 
ment on the new constitution : 

"Taken as a whole, it is not a great constitu- 
tion. It suffers by comparison with the one it 
displaced. Its departure from that instrument in 
most cases are of very doubtful value. Its jus- 
tification rests on the substitution of biennial for 
annual assemblies and abolishment of private and 
local legislation. On the other hand its critics 
rightly insist that the judiciary was weakened 

and a vast field opened for sinister party 

Whether or not one agrees with this estimate, 
the fact remains that there seems to have been 
considerable dissatisfaction with the new consti- 
tution. Soon after its adoption there was agita- 
tion for amendments, and in 1859 there was an 
effort to bring about another convention or at 
least secure a series of amendments. The ques- 
tion of calling a convention was submitted to the 
people at the regular election in October of the 
year mentioned, but was voted down. In subse- 
quent years there was further agitation and in 
1881 sundry amendments went through, among 
them the elimination of the provision forbidding 
negroes coming into the State. 


Passing of the Old State Bank; "Wildcat" 
Banks. — The charter of the State Bank of In- 
diana, which dated from 1834, ran till January 
1, 1859. The State was a part owner in that 
bank, but though the institution ranks well in our 
history as a reputable one, objections to it had 
sprung up. In the new constitution was inserted 
a section forbidding the State to be a stockholder 
in any bank after the expiration of the charter 
then existing. There was also the provision that 
no bank should be established otherwise than 
under a general banking law, except that there 
might also be chartered a bank with branches 
without collateral security, the branches to be 
mutually responsible for each other's liabilities 
upon all paper credit issued as money. If the 
General Assembly should enact a general law it 
was to "provide for the registry and countersign- 
ing, by an officer of State, of all paper credit de- 
signed to be circulated as money ; and ample col- 
lateral security, readily convertible into specie, 
for the redemption of the same in gold or silver," 
was to be required, such collateral security to be 
under the control of the proper officers of the 

The immediate result of this was a general law 
authorizing "free banks." passed by the firsl 
Legislature after the convention, and the "free 
bank era" that followed would seem to be one 
of the lessons of history. Within six months 
after the passage of the law fifteen banks had 



been organized and seventy-four others followed 
(Esarey). In spite of the constitutional safe- 
guards as to "ample collateral security" under the 
control of State officers many of the bankers 
were irresponsible adventurers and a goodly per- 
centage of these seem to have been deliberate 
rascals and grafters. According to one writer, 
"a thousand or two of cash only was needed to 
start a bank in those halcyon days of paper cur- 
rency. All that was needed was enough to pay 
for engraving the bills. An embryo banker 
would go to New York with a thousand or two 
dollars, order an engraver to make a plate and 
print him $50,000 in bills. He would then visit 
a broker and negotiate for $50,000 worth of the 
bonds of some State. The next step was to send 
the printed bills to the State auditor of Indiana 
and instruct the broker to forward to the same 
place the bonds negotiated for, to be paid for on 
receipt at the auditor's office. The auditor would 
countersign the new money, pay for the bonds, 
and a new bank would be set going, and the en- 
terprising banker would receive the interest on 
the $50,000 worth of bonds. Thus one man, with 
$10,000 in money, bought bonds and established 
banks until he had in circulation $600,000 of 
paper, and was drawing interest on that amount 
of bonds" (W. H. Smith). 

This may be drawing it a little strong so far 
as the general conditions were concerned, but at 
any rate the "wildcat" banks and the speculators 
who made the most of them brought about a gen- 
eral derangement of money affairs and the dis- 
tress that goes with an inflated, depreciated cur- 

Bank of the State of Indiana; Changes In- 
volved. — This was the situation in 1855 when a 
bill was passed chartering a new bank to be known 
as the Bank of the State of Indiana. The State sus- 
tained no relation to it, though its name conveys 
the idea that it was a State bank. Conformably 
with article xi, section 2, of the constitution, it 
was a bank with branches that were mutually 
responsible, but otherwise it was unrestricted. 
There was considerable opposition to it by rea- 
son of the possibilities for abuse that the charter 
offered, and from the first there were charges 
of chicanery and corrupt politics. Governor 
Wright was bitterly opposed to it, and vetoed the 
bill, but it was passed over his veto. In his mes- 

sage of 1857 he attacked it anew in drastic lan- 
guage. "The means and appliances brought to 
bear to secure the passage of this charter," he 
said, "would, if exposed to the public gaze, ex- 
hibit the darkest page of fraud and corruption 
that ever disgraced the Legislature of any 
State." This severe arraignment, amplified by 
further detailed charges, resulted in an investi- 
gation by a select committee of the Senate. The 
report of the examination of numerous witnesses 
in the case make a good-sized book.* The con- 
clusions of the committee were that there had 
been chicanery and that the investigation 
"clearly uncovers to the public gaze a fraudulent 
and successful encroachment upon the rights of 
the people. ... A great franchise of the 
State," the report says, "which the constitution 
intended to be granted only for the public good 
and to be equally open to all, has been scrambled 
for, won, and sold to the highest bidder." In 
short, the committee thoroughly discredited the 
bank as a colossal instrument of graft ("Bank 
Frauds" report, pp. 432-436) and advanced ar- 
guments for the revocation of the charter, but 
no such step was taken. Its management, after 
the stirring up, passed into good and competent 
hands, with the noted financier Hugh McCul- 
loch, as its president, and James M. Ray, one of 
the best citizens of Indianapolis, as cashier. It 
ran successfully until 1865, when it was sup- 
planted by the national banking system, most of 
its branches becoming national banks (W. H. 
Smith). Its branches were at Lima, Laporte, 
Plymouth, South Bend, Fort Wayne, Lafayette, 
Logansport, Indianapolis, Richmond, Conners- 
ville, Rushville, Madison, Jeffersonville, New Al- 
bany, Bedford, Vincennes, Terre Haute, Muncie 
and Lawrenceburg (Esarey). 


Educational Status in Latter Forties. — In 

spite of the constitutional provisions, the various 
school laws and the private seminaries, acad- 
emies and other schools that sprang up over the 
State the educational status in Indiana through- 
out the period of the first constitution was very 
low. To quote Professor Boone ("Education in 

# "Bank Frauds: Journal, Testimony and Reports." Pub- 
lished by Joseph J. Bingham, 1857. 



Indiana") : "As yet [prior to 1849] there was no 
system. . . . Elementary education was chiefly 
conspicuous through neglect of it, while all other 
was more or less antagonized. Free schooling 
of any grade was thought by many to be danger- 
ous to the State and subversive of the highest 
individual good." Nor was this condition on 
the mend, for whereas in 1840 the State stood 
sixteenth in the scale of literacy "in less than 
ten years it fell to the twenty-third place," and 
among the free northern States it stood lowest. 
About one in every seven was unable to read or 
write, taking the State over, while some counties 
reported one-third of their adults as illiterates. 

Caleb Mills. — The most notable pioneer edu- 
cator to wage a crusade against this benighted 
condition was Caleb Mills, a New Hampshire man 
and a graduate of Dartmouth college and An- 
dover Theological Seminary, who came to Craw- 
fordsville in 1833 to take charge of the school 
that was to become Wabash college. It was not 
until thirteen years later that he began his fa- 
mous systematic campaign that entitles him to 
an honored place among those who have truly 
served Indiana. 

Mills' "Messages." — The feature of this 
"campaign" was a series of appeals to the Legis- 
latures and to the constitutional convention which 
extended over a period of six years. They be- 
came known as "messages" to the Legislature by 
"One of the People," the identity of Mills being 
concealed under that signature. Presented as 
the gratuitous or volunteer messages of a lay- 
man on the one subject of education they ap- 
peared in the Indiana State Journal in 1846, 1847. 
1848, 1849, at the beginning of the legislative ses- 
sions of those years. Four letters to the members 
of the convention appeared in the Indiana States- 
man in 1850. and the sixth and last "message" 
was laid on the desks of the legislators of 1852 — 
the first to convene under the new constitution. 

In these various addresses Professor Mills 
dealt with the problem of illiteracy and what it 
meant to the State, dwelling analytically and ex- 
haustively upon facts that previous Legislatures 
had ignored. "Shall we," he asked, "dig canals 
and build railroads to transport the products of 
our rich soil to market, and leave the intellect of 
the rising generation undeveloped and undis- 
ciplined ? Is matter more valuable than mind ? 
W e have borrowed," he said, "millions for the 

physical improvement of our State, but we have 
not raised a dollar by ad valorem taxation to 
cultivate the minds of our children." He cited 
statistics to show the increased industrial effi- 
ciency that resulted from education, and pointed 
out the benefits from the viewpoint of material 
prosperity alone. He also discussed the question 
of ways and means — of resources and taxation 
and methods, and made clear the inadequacies 
of the existing system with its low standards, its 
poor teachers and its lack of equipment. In 
brief, he threshed out the question from every 
side with the masterful power of an expert in a 
field where experts were few, and his unwearying 
persistence made an impression that was the be- 
ginning of a new educational order. The effect 
on Governor Whitcomb, indeed, was immediate, 
and following Mills' first address he spoke for the 
first time in his own message of the educational 
needs. "One of the People" was widely read 
and discussed, and by the time the last of the six 
appeals was laid before the Legislature that body 
thought enough of it to order 5,000 copies printed 
for distribution. 

Effect of the Addresses. — Mr. Charles W. 
Moores* says that "the six messages have long 
been considered the basis of the Indiana system 
of common schools. Their influence, although 
they were published anonymously, was felt at 
once, and that influence is still a controlling one 
in the educational growth of the State." 

Contemporary with these addresses and largely 
inspired by them, seemingly, there sprang up a 
general agitation of the educational question. On 
May 26, 1847, there was a school convention 
held at Indianapolis which was in session for 
three days and in connection with which we find 
the names of a number of well-known citizens of 
the State. This was the first of a series of such 
meetings which worked on public sentiment, and 
helped clear the way against ignorance and the 
opposition of false notions for a better law, 
which finally, in 1849, found its way into the stat- 
ute book. The distinctive feature of this law 
was that it authorized, for the first time, a direct 
and general tax levy for the support of public 
schools, whereas previously the reliance had been 
on the inadequate returns from the permanent 

* "Caleb Mills and the Indiana School System," by Charles 
W. Moores; Ind. Hist. Soc. publications, vol. iii. The fullest 
and best study we have of this chapter in our educational his- 



school fund. It also changed the machinery of 
school administration, as organized, and intro- 
duced more of a system.* 

The free school principle which, under the old 
constitution, was subject to the shifting notions 
of public opinion and of successive Legislatures, 
was fixed in the new constitution by a mandatory 
provision that there should be "a general and 
uniform system of common schools, wherein tui- 
tion shall be without charge, and equally open 
to all." This was an immense advance gained 
by the advocates of free and universal education, 
and one step toward the "general and uniform 
system" was the further provision for election 
by the voters of the State of a State superintend- 
ent of public instruction as head of the whole 
educational plan. 

Law of 1852; Beginning of New Regime. — 
The first Legislature under the new constitution, 
that of 1852, passed a law that went a step 
farther in the direction of a uniform and efficient 
system, though in the general re-arrangement 
under new conditions it had many problems to 
contend with. It has been said that "the dawn 
of our present common school system began in 
1852. . . . The law embodied the principle 
that the property of the State should educate the 
children of the State and that all the common 
schools should be open to pupils without charge. 
. . . It provided for the consolidation and gen- 
eral management by the State of all the per- 
manent school funds . . . and for the better 
investment of the school funds" (W. H. Smith). 
It also provided for the election of a State super- 
intendent of public instruction and for the estab- 
lishment of a State Board of Education. 

A distinctive feature of the law that proved to 
be, virtually, its undoing was the authorization 
of school corporations in cities and towns inde- 
pendent of the township corporations that had 
previously comprehended the whole system, and 
the further authorization of local taxation at the 
option of the people supplemental to the general 
fund. This opened the way in the centers of 
population for graded, superior schools, and un- 
der the stimulus of it many cities levied the extra 

* Prior to the Legislature of 1849 a popular vote was taken on 
the free school question and it carried by more than 16,000, but 
the forty-three counties constituting the south half of the State 
returned a majority of 1,634 against free schools while the forty- 
seven counties north of an east and west line drawn along the 
south boundary of Marion county gave a favorable majority of 
18,270. (Boone.) 

tax and proceeded to develop something larger 
and better than the country schools of the town- 
ship system. 

The Perkins Decision. — In 1855 this new prog- 
ress received a serious check. Many still opposed 
taxation for educational purposes as a coercive 
policy. The constitutionality of the law was 
questioned, and in a suit brought in the city of 
Lafayette by one William M. Jenners, which 
found its way to the Supreme Court, the conten- 
tion of the plaintiff was sustained by Judge Sam- 
uel Perkins, and the law overthrown. The result 
of this court decision was a discouraging set- 
back to the cause of education. Professor Boone 
says that "most city schools were classed as pub- 
lic schools, the houses rented to private parties 
and superintendents and teachers dismissed, not 
a few of the best of both classes leaving the 
State ;" and again : "This condition gave Indiana 
through a decade of years, a reputation that re- 
quired another decade to wipe out." In other 
words, the restricting of the educational work 
to the returns from the permanent fund and the 
general State tax of ten cents on each hundred 
dollars' worth of property, threw the schools 
back on a revenue so insufficient that the school 
term was reduced to two or three months, or less, 
and in 1859, for example, "the entire school rev- 
enue of every kind, distributed to the schools, 
averaged but 94 cents per child — only $68 to each 
of the 6,500 schools" (Boone). 

The detrimental effects of this adverse decision 
of Judge Perkins was felt for a dozen years, dur- 
ing which time a revival of private schools of va- 
rious kinds was the educational salvation of the 
State. In 1867 another local tax law was passed 
and public sentiment, by this time, was so favora- 
ble to it that its constitutionality was not ques- 
tioned until eighteen years later. In 1885 a test 
case was made in the Switzerland county circuit 
court, similar to the one in Lafayette thirty years 
before. It went to the Supreme Court and this 
time Judge Byron K. Elliott laid the ghost by de- 
claring constitutional the controverted section of 
the law. 


A New Impulse. — During this decade there 
was a very decided movement toward agricul- 
tural advancement. From the beginning, indeed, 



farming had been considered as the mainstay of 
the country, but attempts to improve its status 
by organized effort had been, at the best, spo- 
radic. As early as 1835 a State Board of Agri- 
culture had been created, but for years it had 
only a nominal existence ; and the same seems to 
have been true of various county societies. The 
first step toward a more efficient order may be 
found in the message of Governor Wright, de- 
livered December 31, 1850. Wright, although 
fun has been poked at him, and his political op- 
ponents facetiously accused him of advising the 
farmers to buy hydraulic rams for the purpose 
of improving the breeds of sheep, is nevertheless 
justly honored among the governors as a patron 
saint, of husbandry. 

State Board of Agriculture. — In his message 
referred to he advised the re-establishment of a 
State Board of Agriculture and suggested feat- 
ures of a plan that were incorporated in a law 
which followed. This law, "An Act for the En- 
couragement of Agriculture," approved February 
14, 1851, and re-enacted with some modifications 
on February 17. 1852, provided, in the first place, 
for the formation of county societies, for the en- 
couragement of which, under certain conditions, 
there was granted all moneys collected as licenses 
for the exhibitions of menageries, circuses, the- 
atrical performances or other shows. It also 
"created a body corporate, with perpetual suc- 
cession . . . under the name and style of the 
'Indiana State Board of Agriculture,' " which 
was to receive reports from the various country 
societies, deliberate with delegates from such 
societies "as to the wants, prospects and condi- 
tions of the agricultural interests throughout the 
State." and to make an annual report to the Gen- 
eral Assembly. This board was given "power to 
hold State fairs at such times and places as they 
may deem expedient" and, having entire con- 
trol of the same, could fix the amount of the va- 
rious premiums offered. 

The Board of Agriculture organized and held 
its first meeting May 28, 1851, with Governor 
Wright as president ; John B. Dillon, secretary, 
and Royal Mayhew, treasurer. The question of 
a State agricultural fair was discussed, some 
members urging such an exhibition, and others 
holding that the conditions, both as to transporta- 
tion facilities and public sentiment were not yel 
quite ripe. In deference to the latter argument. 

it seems, the fair project was postponed for a 
year and a half. 

County Societies. — The formation of county 
societies progressed from the first, and by 1852 
there were forty-five of them in existence, and 
the reports of these organizations incorporated, 
along with other matter, in the annual report of 
the State board, present, from 1852, an excellent 
record of the agricultural progress of the State. 

First State Fair. — There doubtless was a re- 
lation between the establishment of a State fair 
and the existence of the railroads which made 
practicable the transportation of live stock and 
exhibits from various parts of the State. The 
first of these fairs was held in Indianapolis, Oc- 
tober 20, 21 and 22, 1852, on the grounds now 
known as Military park, west of West street. It 
was an event of great popular interest. The 
newspapers devoted a quite unusual amount of 
space to it and the people, both exhibitors and 
visitors, rallied to make it a success. It was re- 
garded as an important forward step in the 
State's progress. To quote from a paper of the 
day : "A just pride in the utility and greatness 
of their pursuits will be generally infused among 
our farmers, mechanics and manufacturers. 
Standards of excellence in stock, of utility in 
machines, and of true taste in the elegant articles 
of comfort and luxury will be fixed in the minds 
of all. Progress in their respective pursuits will 
take the place of indifference in their minds. A 
laudable ambition to have the mantel decorated 
with a silver cup will actuate all, and thus feel- 
ing and acting, who can calculate the ultimate re- 

There were 1,365 entries, with quite a showing 
of improved agricultural machinery, and a large 
exhibit of live stock, chiefly hogs, sheep and cat- 
tle. Of the latter the Durham were most in evi- 
dence, though Devons, Herefords and Ayreshires 
were also represented. As shown by the treas- 
urer's report, premiums to the amount of $1,026 
were distributed among about 160 entries. The 
out-of-town attendance taxed the capacity of 
both the fair grounds and the city's facilities for 
accommodations,* and the total gate receipts at 
20 cents a head amounted to something over 
$4,600, which, according to the local papers, de- 

* The estimated attendance the first day was 15,000; on the 
second, 25.000, while on the third there were "more people in 
town than the grounds could hold." 



frayed expenses and allowed the return of $2,000 
that had been borrowed from the State. 

Fair Week in Indianapolis. — Incidentally, 
this was undoubtedly the liveliest week that In- 
dianapolis had ever known. The place was filled 
with side-shows and catch-pennies. A vaudeville 
troupe, under the management of the once-fa- 
mous "Yankee" Robinson, gave three perform- 
ances daily in a tent near the fair grounds. 
Wells' minstrels were another attraction. A man 
named Diehl put up what he advertised as an 
"enormous pavilion" near the State House, where 
he gave pyrotechnic displays, and there was a 
"grand exhibition of the world's fair," being 
illuminated views of the London Crystal Palace 
exposition ; also "Beard's Hoosier Panorama of 
Paradise Lost," showed at one of the churches. 
Then P. T. Barnum came along with his museum 
and menagerie, and, added to all, the Democrats 
had a big torchlight procession which was to close 
with speaking at the Wright House, where the 
New York store now stands, but the whigs gath- 
ered to howl down the speakers, thus contribut- 
ing to the pandemonium which the good citi- 
zens of Indianapolis had to endure for that week. 

Original Policy a Shifting Fair. — The orig- 
inal intention, out of deference to the other 
leading towns of the State, was to shift the fair 
from place to place, giving Indianapolis every 
third year. In accordance with this idea 
Lafayette had it in 1853 and Madison in 1854. 
At both these places it was a financial failure. 
Then it was kept at Indianapolis for four years. 
In 1859 New Albany tried it, but again it was a 
financial failure, and after that it remained per- 
manently at the capital, the grounds being 
changed from Military park to a thirty-six-acre 
purchase at the north edge of the city, now built 
over and known as Morton Place. 


The Plank Road Era. — An innovation in road- 
making during the fifties constituted what is 
sometimes called the "plank road era." 

The plank road appears to have originated 
in Russia, to have found its way thence into 
Canada, and from there into parts of the United 
States lying contiguous to Canada. In a country 
where timber was not merely abundant, but an 
actual encumbrance, the conversion of this tim- 

ber into a solid road as smooth as a floor was 
a captivating proposition, and the fever caught 
and spread. In no place was there better reason 
for its spreading than in Indiana, and accord- 
ingly for nearly ten years (through the fifties) 
we had the plank road era. The promise of im- 
mediate returns was, presumably, sufficient to 
attract capital, and the State very wisely handed 
over the new movement to the capitalists. From 
1848 we find laws authorizing corporations to 
take possession of the existing roads, to con- 
vert them into plank roads, and to erect and 
maintain toll-houses for revenue along the same. 
In 1850 one of these companies, organized to 
build a plank road from New Harmony to Mount 
Vernon, in Posey county, sent Robert Dale Owen 
to western New York to investigate the roads 
already in operation there, and the result was the 
publication of a small book containing a mass of 
information upon the subject.* There were va- 
rious widths and methods of laying in the con- 
struction of these roads, but that recommended 
by Owen was eight feet wide, formed of planks 
two and one-half to four inches thick laid cross- 
wise on long mud sills, and well spiked down. 
The cost of this material he estimated at $938.08 
to $1,689.60 per mile, according to thickness of 
planks. The labor involved a party of twelve or 
fourteen hands with teams for ploughing, scrap- 
ing, rolling, etc., and these could lay from thirty 
to forty rods per day, at an expense of perhaps 
$200 per mile. The approximate total cost of a 
road built of three-inch white oak planks was 
given as $2,000 per mile. 

While Owen, with the bias of an advocate, per- 
haps, figures that a white oak road would do good 
service for at least twelve years, as a matter of 
fact those constructed in this State would seem 
to be much shorter of life. Within ten years the 
decadence had plainly set in, for a law of 1859 
prohibits the collection of tolls on roads that are 
not kept up, and about this time plank road legis- 
lation disappears from the statutes. The diffi- 
culty was not only decay, but the warping and 
working loose of the planks. 

Introduction of Gravel Roads. — In 1858 we 
find the first statutory mention of gravel roads, 
and the introduction of this material, presum- 
ably about that time, was the beginning of 
a possible permanent excellence. Why it was 

* Owen on "Plank Roads," New Albany, 1850. 





not earlier used is not easy to learn, but it 
is probable that prior to the clearing up of 
the country, when the drift-choked, forest-en- 
vironed streams flowed with a fuller volume, 
gravel bars were at once much less in evidence, 
and much less accessible than at a later day. Con- 
struction with this new material went on under 
private enterprise, the State became well 
traversed with toll-roads, and the ubiquitous little 
toll-house, with its long sweep pole, is still fresh 
in the memories of most of us. 

The next turn in legislation was a provision 
(as early as 1879) for the county control of free 
turnpikes and the authorization of tax levies for 
that purpose. Under these laws the improved 
roads have, one by one, been bought up by the 
several counties, and the abolishment of the toll- 
gate is becoming general.* 


Strictly speaking the railroad era of Indiana 
began when the Madison & Indianapolis road 
went into operation in 1839, but the sudden de- 
velopment of first roads that grew into the sys- 
tem of later years is a distinguishing feature in 
the history of the early fifties. The Madison 
road was completed to Indianapolis in 1847, and 
its prosperity following that completion was a 
tremendous stimulus to railroad construction.! 
Capital, hitherto timid and distrustful of invest- 
ment in this direction, now flowed freely and by 
the latter part of 1850 six new roads were under 
way with a total of 142 miles built in addition to 
the eighty-six miles of the M. & I.J 

On the maps of 1852 and 1853 we find the 
State traversed in all directions by something 
like a score of roads, some of them then in opera- 
tion, and seven of these centered at Indianapolis, 
while an eighth, the Jeffersonville, was directly 
tributary to it. 

Sketches of First Roads. — Brief sketches of 
these pioneer roads in the order of their begin- 
ning are here given : 

The Indianapolis & Lawrenceburg. — This 

* It has been stated that there are now but two toll-gates in 
the State. 

t As the Madison road was extended into the interior its re- 
ceipts increased from $22,110 in 1843 to $235,000 in 1849, and 
the daily travel from 25 to 200 passengers. Its stock rose until, 
in 1852, it sold for $1.60. (Chamberlain's Gazetteer.) 

% By 1860 this mileage had increased to 2,125.75 (census re- 

road, afterward known as the "I., C. & L.," se- 
cured its first charter as early as 1832 and in its 
first steps toward actual construction antedated 
the M. & I. by four years. It encountered much 
opposition from the-M. & I., and was not com- 
pleted until 1853. By connecting central Indi- 
ana with Cincinnati and the east this line became 
a formidable competitor of the M. & I. The first 
year after its completion the receipts were $299,- 
433.66; the second year this was nearly doubled, 
and much of this, presumably, drew directly 
from the receipts of the M. & I. Afterward it 
took the name of the Indianapolis, Cincinnati & 
Lafayette, and is now one of the "Big Four" 

The Jeffersonville Road. — This line, under the 
original name of the Ohio & Indiana Railroad 
Company, was first chartered in 1832, then in 
1837, and again in 1846. Finally, in 1848, its 
promoters secured still another charter more lib- 
eral than the preceding ones, and got to work. 
In 1849 the name was changed to the Jefferson- 
ville Railroad Company. In 1852 it was finished 
to Columbus, where it met the M. & I. Here 
trouble began. The monopolistic M. &. I., then 
under the control of John Brough, afterward 
governor of Ohio, was not disposed to brook any 
rival, and it refused to co-ordinate its running 
schedule with that of the new road. The latter, 
in retaliation, extended its scheme and started 
for Indianapolis, side by side with the M. & I., 
which then capitulated and the two formed a 
junction. Like the camel which, having got its 
nose into the tent, gradually wedged in its whole 
body, the Jeffersonville road soon dominated its 
rival, and in 1866 the two were consolidated as 
the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis, which 
name it retained for many years. It is now a 
branch of the Pennsylvania system. Like the 
Cincinnati road to the east, this one, by opening 
the way to Louisville and the south was a great 
contributory factor to the decadence of the 
State's first road, which, when it reached Madi- 
son, was effectually barred from getting farther. 

The Belief ontaine & Indianapolis. — This road, 
afterward known as the C, C, C. & I., and now 
a part of the "Big Four" system, was the first 
line that opened up a way directly with the east 
and northeast. It was begun in 1848, being the 
second road running out of Indianapolis, and in 
1852 reached Union Citv, at the State line, where 



it connected with an Ohio line and with eastern 
points. Before making that connection its traf- 
fic, draining toward Indianapolis, contributed to 
the prosperity of the Madison road, but after- 
ward it was a formidable competitor, diverting, 
as it did, the commerce of the interior toward the 
east. Its chief promoter and first president was 
( >liver H. Smith, well known as lawyer, politi- 
cian and United States senator. 

The Peru & Indianapolis. — The next road out 
of the capital was the Peru & Indianapolis. It 
was running to Noblesville by the spring of 1851 
and reached Peru in 1854. It is said that "in its 
earlier days, it brought into Indianapolis immense 
quantities of lumber, and, at a later day. much 
grain and produce." For a while the Peru and 
the Madison roads were consolidated, the aim 
being to establish a through route from the Ohio 
river to the Wabash & Erie canal and thence, by 
water, to the east. This, it was thought would 
put the M. & I. on a footing with its rivals that 
were affording outlets eastward, but for some 
reason the merger did not last long. The Peru 
& Indianapolis subsequently became the Indian- 
apolis, Peru & Chicago, and is now the Lake 
Erie & Western. 

The Terre Haute & Indianapolis. — This road 
was to have bisected the State east and west, with 
Terre Haute and Richmond as its two termini. 
The idea originally agitated was that it should 
be one link in a larger railroad scheme that would 
extend without break from St. Louis to Cincin- 
nati. This plan, however, was evidently too am- 
bitious for that day and generation and it settled 
down to a line connecting Terre Haute with Indi- 
anapolis. It was finished in 1852, and, like the 
other roads centering at Indianapolis, was, in the 
beginning, a feeder for the M. & I. It is now 
called the "Vandalia." 

The Indiana Central. — This road, for many 
years known as the "Panhandle," and now as a 
link in the Pennsylvania lines, connected Indian- 
apolis with Richmond, Ind., and was the fulfil- 
ment of the preceding plan for a Terre Haute 
and Richmond road. It was begun in 1851 and 
completed in 1853, being the first line to estab- 
lish (by way of Cincinnati) a connection with 
the east. It paralleled the National road and was 
a large factor in reducing the travel over that 

The Indianapolis & Lafayette. — As the Indi- 



ana Central carried out the scheme of connecting 
Terre Haute with Richmond, so the Indianapolis 
& Lafayette road completed the original idea of 
a Madison, Indianapolis and Lafayette line, as 
contemplated in the internal improvement law of 
1836. It was finished in 1852, and was especially 
important as forming a link in a connection be- 
tween the Ohio river and Chicago. In 1866 it 
was consolidated with the Cincinnati road and 
the two took the name of the Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati & Lafayette. The line, now known as 
the C, C, C. & St. L. (Big Four), connects Cin- 
cinnati with Chicago. 

Ohio & Mississippi. — This road, crossing the 
southern part of the State, was the first to form 
a link in a continuous route that connected the 
Mississippi river with the seaboard. The com- 
bination consisted of the Ohio & Mississippi, the 
Marietta & Cincinnati, and the Baltimore & Ohio, 
which, together, reached from St. Louis to Bal- 
timore. When completed it was the longest con- 
tinuous route in the world, and the opening in 
1857 was signalized by a great railroad celebra- 
tion. The first train over the road was a "Cele- 
bration Train," filled with railroad dignitaries 
and government officials, which was greeted with 
display and popular enthusiasm all along the 

Other Roads. — Other roads of this pioneer 
era, beside those centering at the capital, were 
the New Albany & Salem, traversing the length 
of the State from New Albany to Michigan City ; 
the Northern Indiana (Michigan Southern) ; the 
Toledo, Wabash & Western, completed in 1857, 
which, traversing the Wabash valley, supplanted 
the Wabash and Erie canal, and the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne & Chicago, finished in 1856, which 
became an important factor in the development 
of northern Indiana. The "Junction" (C, H. & 
D.) was built from the eastern State line to Rush- 
ville, but did not reach Indianapolis until the lat- 
ter sixties, and the Vincennes road was finished 
about the same time, though promoted much 
earlier. Besides these there were various short 
lines of the kind facetiously known as "jerk- 
water," though they have all long since been 
merged in the great system and taken other 

Beginnings of a System. — Before the end of 

* A good-sized illustrative book descriptive of this occasion 
may be found in the State Library. 

the fifties the various Indiana roads with their 
interstate connections had begun to take the form 
of a system much more extensive than the one 
that had been contemplated by the internal im- 
provement law of 1836. Not only were the vari- 
ous sections and principal cities of the State put 
into communication with each other, but a num- 
ber of the lines reached much farther by the inter- 
state connections. The Terre Haute, Cincinnati, 
Indiana Central, Bellefontaine, the Ohio& Missis- 
sippi, the Toledo, Wabash & Western and the 
Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago roads became 
links in roads leading to the east ; the New Al- 
bany & Salem connected the Ohio river and the 
great lakes, and this knitting and extending proc- 
ess carried on continuously from that time has 
created the vast and complex railroad system of 
the present day. 

Influences of the Railroad. — Much interest- 
ing matter pertaining to the railroads belong to 
this period. Within the decade Indiana was 
fairly transformed, not only by the vast stimulus 
given to commerce and by the multiplication of 
industries, but by the sharp turn — the new trend 
given to the State's development. For example, 
the radical change in transportation methods de- 
termined a new arrangement of population cen- 
ters. Before that the streams were a great fac- 
tor in the locating of settlements but with the 
advent of the new order these were left to dwin- 
dle in isolation, and many a one that started out 
with glowing hopes and good reasons for them 
are now but a memory. On the other hand, the 
railroads straight across country supplied a new 
reason for the location of towns, and the local 
histories will show that a vast percentage of 
these date their origins from the coming of the 
railroads. Navigable streams and water power 
for mill seats no longer cut a figure. It is said 
that old James B. Ray, who is credited with be- 
ing our most erratic governor, as far back as the 
twenties had a vision, and preached it, to the 
effect that one day, along a system of railroads 
radiating from Indianapolis as from a hub, there 
would be villages or towns every five miles, 
while every twenty there would be a city. He 
was, of course, laughed to scorn, but that was 
exactly what came to pass. In a word, but for 
the introduction of railroads the distribution of 
population throughout the State would have been 
vastly different from what it is, not only as re- 



gards the location of centers, but also in the 
growth of centers as determined by industries 
and commercial wealth. 

The effect of the railroad upon manufactures 
is illustrated by the fact that from the output 
value of $19,199,681 as given by the Indiana Ga- 
zetteer of 1850, there was a sudden increase that 
for the next ten years averaged $41,840,434 per 
year, with 20,755 persons employed in manufac- 
turing industries and also heavy investments in 
the places with railroad facilities. 

The "Erie War." — The important relation of 
the railroad to commercial prosperity is shown 
by what is known in history as the "Erie War," 
which occurred in 1853. At that time the rail- 
roads had not established a uniform gauge, or 
width between the rails, so that rolling stock 
could not, as now, travel over any and every 
road. At Erie, Pa., one gauge from the east 
met another gauge from the west, in consequence 
of which all through passengers and freight traf- 
fic had to be transferred from one road to the 
other. This meant great inconvenience and ex- 
pense to travelers and shippers, and great profit 
to Erie. The latter came to regard her transfer- 
ring industry as a vested right — so much so. in- 
deed, that when an attempt was made to unify 
the gauges her citizens forcibly interfered with 
the laying of rails in the streets. The wrath in 
the west at Erie's hoggishness, and the execra- 
tions heaped upon the town by/ the press and in 
indignation meetings were loud and universal. 
The Indianapolis Journal for December 17, 24, 
25 and 28, 1853, gives glimpses of the public 

The Railroads and Madison. — The influence 
of the railroad as a factor in the making and un- 
making of localities is well illustrated by the rise 
and decline of Madison. Throughout the forties, 
when the one railroad in the State brought the 
business of the interior to the favored city on 
the Ohio, she became, as one of her citizens ex- 
pressed it, "the first city of Indiana — first in com- 
merce, population, wealth, literature, law. reli- 
gion, politics and social enjoyment." The Ohio 
river traffic here made connection with the rail- 
road traffic, and we hear stories of the big river 
steamboats lying in lines beside the wharves, 
where the bags of wheat were piled high and the 
warehouses were filled to their roofs with mis- 
cellaneous freight, while countless barrels of mess 

pork packed for shipment to the south as far as 
the gulf, and to the east as far as Europe, occu- 
pied all the river front and reached up into the 
by-streets. As a pork market it was second only 
to Cincinnati, and there is record of 200,000 
hogs being slaughtered and packed there in a sin- 
gle month. Because of its importance as an 
entrepot it became known as the "Gateway to the 
State." The wealth that accumulated there has 
left its traces in the quaint old mansions that 
stand to the present day, and the long list of able 
men who formed a galaxy there have left their 
impress on Indiana history — such men as Joseph 
G. Marshall, Jeremiah Sullivan, Jesse D. and 
Michael G. Bright, J. F. D. Lanier, and others. 

This prosperity of Madison continued to in- 
crease so long as the M. & I. road had no corn- 

Old Union Depot at Indianapolis, built in 1853. 
(See next page.) 

petitors. The first roads to reach out from Indian- 
apolis, into near territory, such as the Bellefon- 
taine, the Peru and the Terre Haute lines, were 
feeders rather than rivals to the M. & I., but 
when the Bellefontaine and the Indiana Central 
made connections with the east the tide began 
to turn, while the connections with Cincinnati and 
the falls cities by the Indianapolis & Lawrence- 
burg and the Jeffersonville roads was the begin- 
ning of a swift decline for the M. & I. It fought 
desperately against its fate, and one of the curi- 
osities of railroad literature is a report of 1854 
in which it complained that the State was instru- 
mental in inflicting serious damage on it by pass- 
ing a law which "opened the door for the con- 
struction of other railroads." Its most damaging 
competitor was the Jeffersonville road, which 
finally swallowed it, and after the consolidation 
the part from Columbus southward was simply 
the Madison branch. The city of Madison suf- 
fered proportionately, and, from being the first 
city in the State it has long since taken rank far 
down the scale as an Indiana center — its chief 



fame now being that of a quaint and charming 
place, speaking of a picturesque past. 

The Railroads and Indianapolis. — The capi- 
tal, from the beginning of the new era was re- 
garded as a logical railroad center and in the 
construction of the early fifties the city was made 
the focusing point of not less than eight lines, 
connecting it with other points in all directions. 
Prior to that it was but a small country town, 
with few industries. Of the change wrought in 
the place by the new order we have this account 
in "Holloway's Indianapolis :" 

"Manufacturers appeared ; stores that had for- 
merly mixed up dry goods, groceries, grain, hard- 
ware, earthenware and even books on their stock, 
began to select and confine themselves to one or 
two classes of their former assortment. . . . 
Business showed its growth in its divisions ; the 
prices of property advanced ; a city form of gov- 
ernment was adopted ; a school system was inau- 
gurated. Everybody felt the impulse of pros- 
perity. . . . New hotels, manufactories and 
business houses also appeared. The Bates house 
and Sherman house were built ; Osgood & 
Smith's peg and last factory; Geisendorff's 
woolen mill, Drew's carriage establishment, Shel- 
lenbarger's planing mill and Macy's pork house 
swelled our industries, and various blocks, school- 
houses, railroad shops and other buildings were 
added to our improvements." A glance at the 
local press of the fifties confirms this description 
of prosperity and hustle. Three-fourths of the 
space, at a guess, are taken up by advertisements ; 
the columns are dotted with little cuts of engines 
and cars, with accompanying time-tables ; pictures 
of trains are incorporated in the newspaper heads, 
and a semi-literary weekly, the first of its kind 
in the city, saw fit to take the name of "The Lo- 

The Union Depot.* — The early creation of a 
railroad center at Indianapolis resulted in the 
first "Union Depot" in the country. The orig- 
inating of this structure, and the particulars of 
it by one who knew at first hand, is worth giving. 
It was written by Mr. William N. Jackson, of 
Indianapolis, and was first published in the "In- 
dianapolis Journal" for July 29, 1900. Mr. Jack- 
son savs :f 

* See preceding page. 

f William N. Jackson, whose memory is revered in Indianap- 
olis, was identified with the railroad business from pioneer days. 
"Jackson Place," adjacent to the Union S a'.ion, is named for him. 

"Chauncey Rose, of the Terre Haute & Rich- 
mond ; John Brough, of the Madison & Indian- 
apolis, and Oliver H. Smith, of the Bellefontaine 
line, met in their office in the middle of the Cir- 
cle in 1850, and planned and carried into execu- 
tion soon after a union station at Indianapolis, 
and erected the first one that was ever built. 
For this a union track was needed from the mid- 
dle of Tennessee street northeasterly to the mid- 
dle of Washington street at Noble street, and the 
right of way for which was taken by the Terre 
Haute & Richmond (now Vandalia) to Pennsyl- 
vania street, and from there onward and north- 
easterly to the center of Washington street by the 
Bellefontaine and Peru roads. A few miles of 
each road had been made previous to this. The 
right of way from the Madison & Indianapolis 
depot on South street to Meridian street was 
given by Austin W. Morris. The right of way 
from Pennsylvania to New Jersey streets was 
purchased from Mrs. McCarty. The Union 
Station was opened September 20, 1853, the 
building being finished at that period. Mr. 
Chauncey Rose was president of the company and 
Mr. W. N. Jackson secretary, treasurer and 
ticket agent. 

"The Lawrenceburgh & Upper Mississippi 
railroad entered this station in the spring of 1854 
as the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Railroad Com- 
pany ; the Indiana Central at the same time, and 
the Lafayette a little later, followed by the Indian- 
apolis & Vincennes ; the Indiana, Bloomington & 
Western ; the Indianapolis, Decatur & Spring- 
field ; the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Indianapolis, 
and the Monon branch of the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago road." 

The Union Company owned all the tracks in 
the city and the Union Depot independently of 
the various roads. The building, which was 
planned by Gen. T. A. Morris, was 420 feet long 
by 120 wide, but in 1866 it was widened to 200 
feet. It was replaced by the present building in 
1888 (Dunn). 

Equipment of the Pioneer Roads. — When 
the Madison & Indianapolis road was begun by 
the State in 1836 the T rail had been invented. 
It then ran, we are told, about forty-five pounds 
to the yard, or less than half the weight of the 
best rails to-day. In a previous section mention 
has been made of the extravagant construction 
plunged into by the State, one feature of which 

Scenes in "Shades of Death," Parke County. 



was the importation from England at a high cost, 
of these improved rails. When the road went 
into the hands of a private company the cost of 
construction was reduced from $58,000 per mile 
to about $11,000, and the primitive style of it was 
the same as was adopted by the other roads of 
the fifties. This may be briefly described. The 
foundation of the road was long, heavy hewn 
timbers, known as "mudsills," laid end to end 
and bedded in the earth. On these were laid 
crossties three or four feet apart, and on the 
ties, in turn, were laid parallel lines of oak string- 
ers, about 6x6, which were secured in place by 
stout wooden pins driven through auger-holes 
that ran through the ends of the stringers and 
into the ties. The inner edges of the stringers 
were chamfered off, or sloped so as to allow for 
the flanges of the wheels, and along the cham- 
fered edge were spiked the rails, which con- 
sisted simply of bars of iron about two and a half 
inches wide by five-eighths of an inch thick. 

This crude equipment was anything but safe 
beneath the wear and tear even of engines and 
cars that now seem diminutive. The yielding 
flat bar would crush into the wooden stringer, 
the spikes would work loose, and the loosened 
rails curling up at the ends formed what the local 
humorists dubbed "snake-heads," doubtless from 
the appearance, which suggested a snake with its 
head raised. These up-raised ends, threatening 
the moving train with puncture and derailment, 
increased the dangers of traveling by rail. 

The rolling stock was correspondingly primi- 
tive. The development of the locomotive was 
retarded, doubtless, by the frail character of the 
rail and roadbed. At first it weighed but ten to 
fifteen tons as against the hundred-ton engine of 
to-day, and had neither cow-catcher nor cab, the 
latter, indeed, being objected to by the engine- 
man as a dangerous trap in case of accident. It 
would haul twelve or fifteen freight cars capable 
of carrying about three tons each, and twenty 
miles an hour for passenger service was good 
speed. A not uncommon occurrence was the 
stopping of the train till a trainman went ahead 
with a sledge-hammer to spike down "snake- 

heads." The water supply was replenished by 
stopping at some wayside stream and dipping up 
with leathern buckets, a number of which were 
carried on hooks at the side of the tender. The 
term "jerkwater," as humorously applied to 
cheap, out-of-date roads no doubt had its origin 
in this custom. 

Statistical Survey. — An agricultural survey 
by the census of 1860 shows that at that period 
about one-half of the available land of the State 
was improved, its cash value being estimated at 
$344,902,776, as against $136,385,173 for 1850.* 
That there had been a great advance in the 
methods of farming is indicated by the appraised 
value of farm machinery in use, which was given 
at $10,457,897. The value of live stock within 
the ten years had almost doubled, with a great 
many working oxen (117,687) still in use, but 
far outnumbered by horses and mules for draft 
purposes. Swine were still the leading animal 
product, as corn was still the principal crop prod- 
uct, amounting in 1860 to 71,588,919 bushels, 
which was far in advance of any previous yield. 
Crops generally showed a corresponding in- 
crease, and sorghum had been introduced as a 
new crop in this section of the country, the out- 
put of syrup in 1860 being 881,049 gallons. 

Manufactories had greatly increased, there be- 
ing 5,110 establishments of various kinds with a 
total investment of $17,881,586 and an output 
valued at $41,840,434. The leading manufactur- 
ing counties were Wayne, Jefferson, Tippecanoe, 
Vigo, Marion, Vanderburg, Fayette, Montgom- 
ery, Floyd, Dearborn, Tipton and Putnam, all of 
which had railroads. 

In the census of 1850 no satisfactory figures 
as to manufactures are given, but the invested 
capital in 1860 is about ten times more than the 
amount given for 1840. 

The population of the State had grown to 
1,350,428 as against 988,416 in 1850, and 685,866 
in 1840, showing a tolerably uniform rate of in- 
crease over the twenty years. 

* According to a statement in the census report, it was "not 
too much to say that one-half this increase has been caused by 



Antecedent Conditions. — The overshadow- 
ing fact of the sixties was the great Civil War, 
which during its continuance, dominated public 
thought and action and put a corresponding 
"check upon the State's development. Preceding 
the final outbreak, and part and parcel of our 
war history, was a period of turmoil and fierce 
conflict of opinion which, while it prevailed over 
the country, playing about the ever-agitated ques- 
tion of slavery, was particularly acrid here. Our 
mixed population with its large element from 
the south that was southern in its sympathies, im- 
periled our standing as a union and anti-slavery 
State. As an evidence of the anti-negro sen- 
timent that existed the constitution of 1850 had 
in it a clause prohibiting all negroes or mulattoes 
from coming into or settling in the State.* The 
democratic party of the State was for years in 
the ascendency, and its endorsement and support 
of federal legislation that made for the exten- 
sion of slave territory was so pronounced, and, 
from the northern viewpoint, so flagrant, that 
many, after fruitless protests seceded from its 
ranks. Conspicuous among these seceders was 
Oliver P. Morton, who. at a democratic State 
convention, held in Indianapolis in 1854, walked 
out amid taunts and hisses, after taking a stand 
against the Kansas-Nebraska bill, which gave 
those two great States over to the slave power. 

Throughout the early fifties, owing to this 
vexed slavery ghost that would not down, the 
elements of a new party, not yet crystallized, 
were segregated under such names as "Free 
Soilers." "Abolitionists," "Free Democracy," 
"Barnburners," and the "People's Party," which 
latter "was the preliminary organization of the 
republican party" in this State.f Other parties, 
such as the prohibition and "Know-nothing" or- 
ganizations were in the field, but the political 
movement at the times of greatest historical im- 
port was the one that was feeling its way toward 

* This provision stood until 1881, when it was stricken out and 
an amendment substituted. 

t William Dudley Foulke's "Life of Morton," one of the best 
books on the war period in Indiana. 

alignment on the nation's greatest problem, that 
of slave versus free labor — a problem that in- 
volved both economics and morals. 

These various currents finally merged in the 
organization that was destined to work out the 
country's salvation — the republican party, which 
took definite form at a convention held in Pitts- 
burgh on the 22d of February, 1856. That year 
O. P. Morton, as candidate of the "people's 
party" for governor of Indiana, canvassed the 
State, and during the campaign, according to his 
biographer (Foulke, p. 58), he "organized the 
republican party in Indiana." 

The new party rapidly became a power in the 
land and in the State. This first campaign Mor- 
ton was beaten by Ashbel P. Willard, a democrat, 
but four years later, as running mate with Henry 
S. Lane, he was elected, along with a republican 
majority in the General Assembly. 

The wrangling between the parties during the 
latter fifties was a discredit to the State. Through 
their refusal to act together they failed, in the 
Legislature of 1857,' to make an appropriation 
for the expenses of the State government, and 
Governor Willard borrowed enough to pay the 
interest on the public debt, while the State insti- 
tutions had to be temporarily closed. Also the 
democrats, by an irregular proceeding, elected 
Jesse D. Bright and Graham N. Fitch to the 
United States Senate. The next Legislature, the 
republicans being then in the ascendency, de- 
clared the previous irregular proceedings ille- 
gal and elected Henry S. Lane and William M. 
McCarty, but the United States Senate, which 
was democratic, did not recognize these repub- 
lican contestants. 

In a word the irreconcilable antagonism be- 
tween the free and the slave States which grew 
more and more bitter as the great issue was re- 
peatedly forced upon the people, found in Indi- 
ana full expression. 

The Secession Issue and Morton's Stand. — 
When the brewing storm between the north and 
-until threatened the division of the nation by 
the secession of the southern States, men found 




themselves fronted by an issue not to be shunted 
off for future solution — an issue sharp and im- 
mediate, and so far-reaching in its consequences 
that the vast majority were at sea as to what 
policy ought to be pursued. Ought the rebellious 
States, resting on the sacred doctrine of State's 
rights, be allowed to withdraw in peace ; or 
should the preservation of the Union and the 
nation's future be the paramount consideration? 
Leaders were timid, temporizing and uncertain, 
and there was need of strong men to take the 
positive and unequivocal stand. Such a man in 
Indiana was Oliver P. Morton. At a meeting 
held in the Marion county courthouse on Novem- 
ber 22, 1860, he delivered a speech which stamped 
him as the man of the hour and revealed the 
qualities that were to make him famous as Indi- 
ana's great "war governor." He was then the 
newly-elected lieutenant-governor. Henry S. 
Lane, the governor-elect, who was noted as an 
orator, also spoke and was, presumably, regarded 
as the headliner of the- occasion, but what he 
said was, in view of the temper of the times, in- 
consequential as compared with Morton's ad- 
dress. There was no shilly-shally in the latter. 
The speaker stood, first of all, for the right of 
the nation to preserve its existence and integ- 
rity, and he analyzed the situation point by point. 
To grant one State the right to secede at this 
crisis was to grant the same right to any State at 
any time, and that meant the dissolution of the 
nation whenever such States might see fit. To 
quote : 

"The right to secede being conceded, and the 
way to do it having been shown to be safe and 
easy, the prestige of the republic gone, the na- 
tional pride extinguished with the national idea, 
secession would become the remedy for every 
State or sectional grievance, real or imaginary, 
and in a few short years we should witness the 
total dissolution of that mighty republic which 
has been the hope and the glory of the world. 
. . . We must, then, cling to the idea that we 
are a nation, one and indivisible, and that, al- 
though subdivided by State lines for local and 
domestic purposes, we are one people, the citi- 
zens of a common country, having like institu- 
tions and manners, and possessing a common 
interest in that inheritance of glory so richly pro- 
vided by our fathers. We must, therefore, do 

no act, we must tolerate no act, we must concede 
no idea or theory that looks to or involves the dis- 
memberment of the nation."* 

This speech, the effect of which, according to 
Foulke, "was of incalculable effect, not only in 
the State but over the entire country, was deliv- 
ered shortly before South Carolina took the first 
step in actual secession. Exactly in line with 
the firm stand of Lincoln it foreshadowed the un- 
wavering support which, as governor of the 
State, he was to extend to the nation's chief ex- 
ecutive in the trying years to follow, and it re- 
vealed the strong hand which was to deal with 
internal difficulties during those times of danger. 
Fortunately the office of lieutenant-governor was 
the stepping-stone to the governorship. On the 
15th of January Governor Lane was made 
United States senator, and Morton succeeded to 
the gubernatorial chair. 

Condition at Beginning of the War; Mor- 
ton's Activity. — When, with the assault on 
Fort Sumter, April 12, 1861, the smoldering fires 
of hostility burst into living flames and the war 
was on us, Indiana's state of unpreparedness was 
about as bad as it could be. She had neither 
money nor munitions, the latter, according to 
Adjutant-General Terrell's statement, consisting 
of "perhaps less than five hundred stands of ef- 
fective first-class small arms, besides eight pieces 
of weather-worn and dismantled cannon and an 
unknown number of old flint-lock and altered-to- 
percussion muskets, the most of which were scat- 
tered throughout various counties in the hands 
of private individuals and members of disbanded 
companies of militia. "f Also, such militia sys- 
tem as the State once maintained, had virtually 
gone to pieces ; the military reputation we had 
carried over from the Mexican war on account 
of injurious reports as to the conduct of our sol- 
diers at Buena Vista, was not good : our credit 
was not good, and "there was a certain evil re- 
pute which everywhere hung over the name of 
'Hoosier' " (Foulke). Added to all was the 
strong hostile element within our borders ready 
to throw every obstacle in the way of an aggres- 
sive loyal policy. Notwithstanding this discour- 
aging situation Morton, on the 15th of April, 

* For full text see Foulke's "Morton," pp. 87-96. 
f Adjutant-General Terrell's reports, vol. i — a valuable history 
of the war period in Indiana. 



and on the heels of the news that Sumter had 
fallen, telegraphed to the president this message : 

"To Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States: 
"On behalf of the State of Indiana I tender to you, 
for the defense of the nation, and to uphold the author- 
ity of the government, ten thousand men. 

(Signed) "Oliver P. Morton, 
"Governor of Indiana." 

The thing that made possible such an offer was 
the temper of a majority of the people. The 
Union sentiment was at a white heat and over- 

discharged. Indianapolis had been designated as 
a place of rendezvous, and the State fair grounds, 
a recently-acquired tract of thirty-six acres, then 
at the north edge of the city but now far within 
it and known as "Morton Place," was christened 
"Camp Morton" and put at the service of the 
troops. The problem sometimes presented of 
insufficient volunteers was reversed, the question 
being to choose out of the many that presented 
themselves. To quote the adjutant-general's ac- 

Old State House. From Photograph taken April 30, 1865, the day Lincoln's body lay in state. 

whelmingly dominated the adverse minority. The 
firing on Fort Sumter banished all uncertainty 
from the minds of those who had hitherto wa- 
vered, and those who had differed before were 
now one for the preservation of the nation. The 
forming of companies proceeded at once. The 
daj after the first call for troops there were 500 
in camp at Indianapolis, and within three days 
2,400, with new arrivals coming by every train. 
By the seventh day there were 12,000, which was 
far more than were required. The Indiana 
quota was fixed at six regiments of infantry or 
riflemen, making 4,683 officers and men, who 
were to serve for three months unless sooner 

count, the response was as gratifying as it was 
universal, and left no doubt as to the entire and 
lasting devotion of Indiana to the fortunes of 
the Union. . . . The 'old flag' at once became 
sacred and was proudly displayed in every breeze 
from the highest peaks of churches, school- 
houses and private dwellings. The presentation 
of a stand of national colors by patriotic ladies 
to each company was rarely omitted, and. when- 
ever practicable, brass bands were provided to 
escort them to the general cam])" (Terrell). The 
people generally, among the Unionist element, 
rallied to the occasion. Volunteers were freely 
furnished with such supplies as the authorities 



could not at once provide, and in many instances 
the men were carried free by the railroads ; pri- 
vate citizens and local authorities contributed 
money to aid the cause, while banks and capital- 
ists offered to advance whatever money might be 

Extra Session of the Legislature. — Governor 
Morton, to meet the exigencies, called a special 
session of the Legislature, which convened on 
the 24th of April. By his recommendation it 
authorized a war loan of $2,000,000, to be ap- 
plied as follows : For general military purposes, 
$1,000,000; for the purchase of arms, $500,000; 
for contingent military expenses, $100,000; for 
organizing and supporting the militia for two 
years, $140,000. Laws were also passed to or- 
ganize the Indiana militia ; to provide for six regi- 
ments of State troops ; to provide for a State 
paymaster; to authorize counties to appropriate 
moneys for the protection and maintenance of 
the families of volunteers, for the purchase of 
arms and equipments, and for raising and main- 
taining military companies ; to provide for the 
punishment of persons guilty of giving material 
aid and comfort to the enemies of this State or 
of the United States in time of war (Terrell). 

Six First Regiments. — The consecutive num- 
bering of our regiments dates from the Mexican 
war. The first five were in that war, and conse- 
quently the Sixth was the first Indiana regiment 
to go into the civil war. The six regiments above 
mentioned, constituting the first Indiana quota, 
were commanded as follows : 

Sixth, Col. Thomas T. Crittenden ; Seventh, 
Col. Ebenezer Dumont ; Eighth, Col. William P. 
Benton; Ninth, Col. Robert H. Milroy ; Tenth, 
Col. Joseph J. Reynolds; Eleventh, Col. Lewis 

These regiments made up the First Brigade of 
Indiana Volunteers, with Thomas A. Morris as 
brigadier-general. By the 27th of April they 
were fully organized and after being well armed 
and equipped they went under General McClel- 
lan's command in western Virginia. That they 
acquitted themselves well is testified by a com- 
munication from General McClellan to Governor 
Morton when they returned from their three- 
months' service. "I have," he wrote, "directed 
the three-months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered 
out and reorganized for three years' service. I 

can not permit them to return to you without 
again expressing my high appreciation of the dis- 
tinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana 
troops, and my hope that but a short time will 
elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field." 

The First Brigade was at once reorganized for 
the three-years' service. 

Organization of State Troops; Subsequent 
Regiments. — The next six Indiana regiments, 
from the Twelfth to the Seventeenth, inclusive, 
may be specifically mentioned because their or- 
ganization serves to illustrate the initiative and 
forehandedness of Governor Morton. As said 
above, the response to the first call for troops 
was far in excess of the quota requested by the 
federal government, which was less than 5,000 
men. Considerably more than that, after the five 
regiments were formed, were still anxious for the 
opportunity to enlist, and out of this material 
Morton, on his own responsibility, and under the 
power vested in him as commander-in-chief of 
the militia of the State, formed five other regi- 
ments, ostensibly for the State's defense, but 
really in anticipation of a further call when, as 
bodies already organized and in process of train- 
ing, they would be acceptable to the United 
States. To further insure their probable future 
usefulness the men were enlisted for a year and 
the governor retained the authority to transfer 
them to the government service, or to tempo- 
rarily retire them, if advisable, after they had 
been sufficiently drilled and disciplined, with the 
power to recall them to active service when 
needed. Of these regiments, the Twelfth, Thir- 
teenth and Seventeenth rendezvoused at Indian- 
apolis, the Fourteenth at Terre Haute, the Fif- 
teenth at Lafayette and the Sixteenth at Rich- 
mond. As a matter of fact these regiments were 
hardly organized until there was a demand for 
four of them at the front and they entered serv- 
ice for three years, while the other two (the 
Twelfth and Sixteenth) were transferred by the 
middle of the summer and served out their year 
in the Army of the Potomac. 

A detailed account of the origin and services 
of Indiana regiments does not come within our 
scope. Suffice it to say, in this connection, that 
during the first year at least, the patriotic fervor 
of the people made recruiting easy, and though 
the calls came repeatedly as the conflict grew in 



magnitude, the volunteers were in excess of the 
demand. In 1861 more than fifty infantry regi- 
ments, besides three of cavalry and twelve of ar- 
tillery batteries were put in the field and most of 
these prolonged their services by re-enlistments. 
As the war progressed with fluctuating for- 
tunes, alternate reverses and successes, combined 
with other influences, affected volunteering here 
as elsewhere. Here as elsewhere, there was some 
drafting when, in emergencies of the conflict, 
large quotas were demanded, but the figures of 
Adjutant-General Terrell show that while cer- 
tain of the townships in the State fell short in 

fought in every seceding State, except Florida, 
and in every other State that was invaded. 
"Three Indiana regiments took part in the first 
battle of the war, and an Indianian was the first 
to yield up his life, on the battlefield, for the 
Union. . . . The last battle of the war was 
fought by Indiana troops ; the last gun fired at 
the enemy was by an Indianian, and the last 
Union soldier killed in battle was John J. Will- 
iams, of Company B, Thirty-fourth Indiana Reg- 
iment" (W. H. Smith). 

The Hundred-Days' Troops. — Eight regi- 
ments of Indiana infantry (132d to 139th, in- 

Morton Monument on State House Grounds. 

their quota of volunteers, the others were in ex- 
cess, and the State as a whole, at the close of the 
war had offered an excess. 

Altogether Indiana contributed to the war a 
larger proportion of her population of the mili- 
tary age than any other State, except Delaware 
(J. P. Dunn), the grand total, after deducting 
11,718 re-enlistments, being 197,649. Of these 
24,416 were killed or died of diseases, and 13,779 
were "unaccounted for" (Terrell). There were 
151 infantry regiments,* fourteen cavalry regi- 
ments, twenty-seven artillery companies, and va- 
rious miscellaneous organizations (adjutant-gen- 
eral's statistics). During the service they were, 
as one writer affirms, more widely distributed 
than the soldiers of any other State and they 

* The first infantry regiment formed was the 6th and the last 
the 156th. 

elusive) organized in 1864, and known as the 
"Hundred-Day" men, because their enlistment 
was for that period, were somewhat distinctive 
in their origin. Campaigns on a huge scale 
against Atlanta and Richmond were intended, 
and the demand for men exceeded the response. 
Both Grant and Sherman were urging more sup- 
port, but the country had been drained by re- 
peated calls. In this contingency the governors 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin, 
led, it is claimed, by Morton, met in conference 
and devised a plan for raising volunteers on short 
enlistment who might aid the proposed campaigns 
by guarding railroads, depots, and fortifications 
in the rear of the armies, or doing similar serv- 
ice, thus relieving disciplined troops who could 
be used at the front. By arduous effort Morton 
succeeded in raising 7.415 men, and these served 



in Tennessee and Alabama by releasing veterans 
for duty on the firing line, thus materially 
strengthening the army in the Atlanta campaign. 

The Indiana Legion. — What was known as 
the "Indiana Legion" was the active militia or- 
ganized within the State for internal defense. 
Our proximity to Kentucky which, even if not a 
seceding State, promised to be troublesome terri- 
tory, warranted a fear of invasion — which fear, 
as we shall see, was justified. Moreover, the 
dangers within from the disaffected element, that 
made its presence known before the war was very 
far advanced, rendered imperative a home mili- 
tary force under the command of the governor. 

The State militia, though an institution of long 
standing, had become decadent, but an act of May 
11, 1861, re-established it, dividing it into two 
classes — the sedentary and the active. The first 
consisted of "all white male persons subject to 
bear arms under the constitution of Indiana, and 
who do not belong to the active militia." The 
latter was made up of volunteers between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five years, and was 
organized into nine brigades, though this repre- 
sented an uncertain number of men, as the or- 
ganization of companies in many localities was 
incomplete and impermanent. The southern 
counties, particularly those along the Ohio river, 
had greatest need for efficient defensive or- 
ganization, while those in the north, having less 
need, ^vere correspondingly slack. As this im- 
plies, the brigades as units represented different 
groups of contiguous counties. The history of 
the Legion seems to be largely a history of the 
southern regiments, which protected the interior 
from the guerrillas of Kentucky much as the old 
frontier farther north had, in an earlier day, 
guarded the river counties from Indian forays. 
Many companies that were organized in the 
northern sections were not even supplied with 
arms and paid little attention to military drilling. 
The "sedentary" militia was never called upon. 
Indeed, the Legion as a whole in its inequalities, 
corresponding to the degree of stress, illustrate 
strikingly what had been illustrated before — 
namely, that our people have so little taste and 
aptitude for militarism that only dire emergency 
can arouse them to it. But the times also proved 
that when once thoroughly roused the military 
zeal burned fiercely. One service of the Legion 
where best organized was as a training school 

and a feeder to the quotas that went to the front 
as Indiana responded to the numerous calls from 
the government. 

Invasions of the State ; Johnson and Hines. 
— In the course of the war there were three 
raids into Indiana that might be called invasions 
of the State, though the first two were little more 
than forays. 

On the 18th of July, 1862, Adam R. John- 
son, a citizen of Kentucky, who had been terror- 
izing Union sympathizers in this State, crossed 
the Ohio river with about thirty men to the town 
of Newburg in Warrick county, some fifteen 
miles above Evansville. The citizens were taken 
by surprise, the place was pillaged, considerable 
plunder was sent across the river, and after re- 
maining a few hours the marauders returned to 
the Kentucky shore. They were aided in this 
exploit by rebel sympathizers living in Newburg, 
and two of these were afterward killed by their 
outraged fellow townsmen. As a result of this 
freebooting expedition a good-sized militia force 
from Indiana, by the initiative of Governor Mor- 
ton, invaded Kentucky to clear the country of 
guerrilla bands that were harassing Kentucky 
Unionists and threatening our borders. 

On the 17th of June, 1863, Capt. Thomas 
H. Hines, with sixty-two men, crossed the river 
at a point eighteen miles above Cannelton. This 
"invasion" might be called a horse-stealing raid, 
and it was not lacking in humorous features. 
With a monumental audacity he represented to 
the Hoosiers that his little force was a detach- 
ment from the army of General Boyle, the Union 
commander of the District of Kentucky, and that 
he was in search of deserters. Incidentally he 
needed better horses, and he took his pick from 
the countryside at liberal prices, giving vouchers 
for the same upon the federal quartermaster at 
Indianapolis. This, presumably, was better than 
the risk of having to fight for them, but the ruse 
did not work long, and by the second day the 
alarm spread through the adjacent counties and 
the local companies of the Indiana Legion were 
soon on the trail. Hines marched northward 
through three counties to a point about seven 
miles northwest of Paoli, in Orange county ; 
thence he turned east into Washington county 
and made southward again toward the Ohio 
river, deeming it high time to be getting home. 
Meanwhile one body of militia was following the 



marauders ; another, apprised of their move- 
ments, cut across from the west to intercept them 
at the Ohio ford, and an armed steamboat pushed 
up the river to prevent the escape across. As a 
result they were closed in on at the fording place 
at Blue River Island, about three miles above 
Leavenworth, and the entire force captured with 
the exception of four or five who were killed and 
drowned and three who escaped, one of the latter 
being Captain Hines himself. 

The Morgan Raid. — The raid of John Mor- 
gan was the one invasion of the war which is 
famous in our annals. It was on a much larger 
scale than the visitation of Hines. The size of 
the invading force is not agreed upon, but it 
probably was not less than 2,500 men. The 
object of the leader was to create a diversion 
that should be of aid to the southern army in 
Tennessee, and he counted on the rallying of the 
disaffected population to his support. Had the 
plan carried the whole State would have been in 
imminent peril. It was a bold dash that threat- 
ened disaster or promised brilliant success to the 
executor, but. as the sequel showed, the risk was 
far greater than he had counted on. 

Morgan was a dashing, reckless leader, whose 
mounted command, composed of men after his 
own heart, had already cut a romantic figure in 
other campaigns. His spectacular invasion of 
Indiana was contrary to the orders of his su- 
perior officer, General Bragg. On the 7th of 
July, 1863, he appeared at Brandenberg, Ky., a 
town on the Ohio, opposite Harrison county, and 
two miles above Maukport, Ind. Here he cap- 
tured two steamboats, and in the face of opposi- 
tion from the Indiana shore and from river craft 
he transferred his troop. The opposition melted 
away and Morgan struck northward, heading 
first for Corydon, where a showing of raw mili- 
tia, hastily got together, put up a brisk fight in 
which twelve men lost their lives and thirty-five 
were wounded, most of these being the invaders. 
The odds, however, were overwhelmingly against 
the defenders, and after acquitting themselves 
thus gallantly they surrendered to the number of 
345. Then followed an orgy of looting. Stores 
were raided ; levies of money were laid on the 
three flouring mills of the town under penalty of 
burning if refused; the county treasury was 
robbed of its money; private houses were pil- 
laged and the women compelled to prepare meals 

for the unwelcome visitors. Also, not less than 
five hundred fresh horses were gathered up in 
the vicinity and appropriated as the spoils of war. 

From Corydon, Morgan, leaving his wounded 
men behind him, proceeded still northward to- 
ward Salem, Washington county, dividing his 
force so as to better sweep the country and strike 
the railroads and telegraph lines. The entire 
troop reached Salem on the morning of July 10. 
and after a skirmish with "minute men" took 
possession of the town. Here the depredations 
were worse than at Corydon. The railroad 
tracks were torn up, the depot and bridges 
burned and pillage ran riot. Basil W. Duke, one 
of the raiders, thus writes of it : 

"This disposition to wholesale plunder ex- 
ceeded anything that any of us had ever seen be- 
fore. The great cause for apprehension which 
our situation might have inspired seemed only to 
make the men reckless. Calico was the staple 
article of appropriation. Each man who could 
get one tied a bolt of it to his saddle, only to 
throw it away and get a fresh one at the first 
opportunity. They did not pillage with any sort 
of method or reason. It seemed to be a mania, 
senseless and purposeless. One man carried a 
bird-cage with three canaries in it, two days. 
Another rode with a chafing dish, which looked 
like a small metallic coffin, on the pommel of his 
saddle until an officer forced him to throw it 
away. Although the weather was intensely 
warm another, still, slung seven pairs of skates 
around his neck and chuckled over his acquisi- 
tion. They pillaged like boys robbing an orchard. 
I would not have believed that such a passion 
could have been developed so ludicrously among 
any body of civilized men."* 

Meanwhile, even before Morgan had crossed 
the Ohio Governor Morton was apprised of the 
danger, and, with characteristic vigilance took 
steps to forestall it. Indiana was practically 
stripped of experienced troops, those that she 
ought to have had being sent, by his request. 
to General Boyle, commander >>i the District of 
Kentucky. With the first intimation of Mor- 
gan's intentions, Morton telegraphed three times 
to Boyle for official information of the situation, 
requesting that defensive steps be taken by 
Boyle, as he had all our regular troops. The first 
two messages were not answered, but the third 

* "History of Morgan's Cavalry." by Basil W. Duke. 



elicited the cheering information that the enemy 
was on Indiana soil and that "your cities and 
towns will be sacked and pillaged if you do not 
bring out your State forces." Morton proceeded 
to bring them out. Under date of July 9 he is- 
sued the following "General Military Order:" 

"Satisfactory evidence having been received that the 
rebels have invaded Indiana in considerable force, it is 
hereby ordered and required that all able-bodied white 
male citizens in the several counties south of the Na- 
tional road forthwith form themselves into companies 
of at least sixty persons, elect officers and arm them- 
selves with such arms as they may be able to procure. 
Said companies will perfect themselves in military drill 
as rapidly as possible, and hold themselves subject to 
further orders from this department. It is desired that 
they should be mounted in all cases where it is possible. 
The people in all other parts of the State are earnestly 
requested to form military companies and hold them- 
selves subject to orders. Prompt reports of the forma- 
tion of companies should be forwarded by telegraph. 

"All officers of the Indiana Legion are charged with 
the execution of this order, and all United States of- 
ficers are requested to render such assistance as may be 
in their power." 

The news of the invasion had spread like wild- 
fire, the whole State was in excitement, and 
within two days after the governor's call 20,000 
men were mustered at Indianapolis and 45,000 
more were reported as ready for service. "The 
farmers left their grain to rot in the field, me- 
chanics dropped their tools, merchants aban- 
doned their stores and professional men their 
desks ; clerks forgot their ledgers, and students 
their textbooks, and young and old alike all 
swarmed in constantly thickening throngs to the 
capital or the nearest place of rendezvous, as if 
there were no duty or interest of that hour but 
the safety of the State" (Terrell). Beside the 
mustering at Indianapolis there was rapid organ- 
ization at various points in the south part of the 
State, and, in addition, General Hobson, from 
Kentucky, with a force of United States troops, 
was giving a stern chase, having crossed the Ohio 
at Brandenberg about eighteen hours after the 

By the time Morgan reached Salem he began 
to realize, apparently, the hornets' nest he was 
running into, and turning abruptly eastward the 
invasion became a flight and a forced march to- 
ward some crossing point on the Ohio, though he 
took time to destroy more or less railroad prop- 
erty and telegraph lines, and to forage on the 
country as he went along. His route lay by way 
of Vienna, in Scott county, where a depot and 
bridge were burned ; thence to Lexington ; thence 

northward to Vernon in Jennings county, with a 
view to destroying important railroad property, 
but which was prevented by armed resistance ; 
thence southward to Dupont on the Madison rail- 
road, where tracks were torn up, two bridges and 
a warehouse burned and a pork house and sun- 
dry barns robbed ; thence to Versailles, in Ripley 
county, where he captured about three hundred 
"minute men" and $5,000 of public funds ; 
thence, by way of Osgood and Sunman in two 
divisions to Harrison, on the State line, where 
they arrived on July 13 after being on Indiana 
soil for five days. 

Morgan's erratic course during these five days 
was in large part determined by the uprising 
local militia that sprang up at numerous turns, 
and which, particularly at Vernon, presented an 
opposition that thwarted his purpose. His object, 
apparently, was to avoid fighting as much as pos- 
sible. On the other hand the uncertainty and 
rapidity of his movements by the aid of fresh 
horses constantly supplied from the countryside, 
confused and thwarted the pursuers, mostly un- 
mounted infantry, who sought to close in on 
him, else he probably would never have got out 
of the State. His men rode night and day to the 
point of exhaustion, and finally most of them 
were captured in southern Ohio at a point where 
they had hoped to recross the river into Ken- 
tucky. Morgan himself with part of his men es- 
caped this time, but was followed up and caught 
a few days later. 

The loss to the citizens occasioned by this raid, 
as measured by claims presented and allowed, 
was $413,599.48 (Terrell).* 

The Disloyal Element. — As has been stated 
there was in Indiana a strong element who did not 
sympathize with the North in its effort to coerce 
the seceding States. During the patriotic fervor of 
the first year or so of the war this disaffected mi- 
nority was not much in evidence, but with the 
dragging out of the conflict and with its reverses, 
making the ultimate success of the North more 
and more doubtful, the opposition began to be 
expressed both in the anti-administration news- 
papers and among the people. Public utterances 
that were not only critical but hostile to the point 
of treason became common and active opposition 

* A careful study of Morgan's raid by Margrette Boyer may 
be found in vol. iv, No. 4, of the Ind. Quar. Mag. of Hist. 
See also Terrell's report, vol. i, and Basil W. Duke's account. 



was manifested by the encouragement of deser- 
tion from the ranks and by armed resistance 
when the authorities sought to arrest runaways. 
So common did this abandonment of the stand- 
ard become by reason of this encouragement that 
it is said "no less than 2,300 desertions were re- 
ported in the single month of December, 1862." 
Acts of violence in defense of these deserters, in 
resistance to the draft, and against loyal neigh- 
bors were by no means uncommon in some locali- 
ties, where, indeed, the conditions came little 
short of internal warfare on a small and disor- 
ganized scale. The governor's life was threat- 
ened and once an attempt was made to assassi- 
nate him as he was leaving the State House. By 
the fall of 1962 Morton's vigorous war policy 
was so out of favor that at the election in No- 
vember the democrats got a majority of the Leg- 
islature, and the session that ensued was one of 
opposition and obstruction. The governor's an- 
nual message, which, this year, was of unusual 
importance, was denied the courtesy of a hear- 
ing, and he was otherwise treated with con- 
tumely. An attempt was made to take from him 
his authority as commander-in-chief of the State 
militia, which would have fatally crippled him in 
his efforts to support the national administration. 
His policy was fought inveterately at every turn, 
and the crowning embarrassment was to leave 
him without any appropriations for State or mili- 
tary expenses. In short, a weaker and less deter- 
mined man than Morton would have been smoth- 
ered completely by his political enemies during 
these darker war days. He triumphed over all 
such opposition, however. He borrowed all the 
money he needed on the credit of the State, and 
with a strong hand took autocratic control of the 
situation generally. The next Legislature was in 
harmony with him. and took over the obligations 
to which their predecessors had been false. 

Treasonable Organizations ; the "Sons of 
Liberty." — The opposition element in Indiana 
may, in fairness, be divided into two classes — 
those who simply were not in sympathy with the 
war and with the policy of the North in prevent- 
ing secession by force of arms ; and those who 
were distinctly pro-southern in their sentiments. 
These latter, to whom the opprobrious names of 
"copperhead" and "butternut" were given, made 
a treasonable and dangerous element in the popu- 
lation. They were regarded as a useful leaven 

by the South, and it is affirmed that John Mor- 
gan, when he invaded the State, confidently 
counted upon the active support of such citizens. 
Prior to the war there existed in the South a 
secret order known as the "Knights of the 
Golden Circle" which had for its object the exten- 
sion of slavery. With the outbreak of the war 
chapters of this society were organized among 
southern sympathizers, first in the border States, 
then spreading northward into Ohio, Indiana. 
Illinois and Missouri. Here they took the name, 
"Sons of Liberty," and the order secretly grew 
till in 1862, according to the report of an investi- 
gating grand jury, it had something like fifteen 
thousand members in Indiana, with local "cas- 
tles" or lodges, and an elaborate system of signs, 
grips, words and signals for mutual identifica- 
tion and communication. The investigation 
above referred to made by the Grand Jury of the 
LJnited States Circuit Court, was the result of 
repeated interference with enlistments, the en- 
couragement of desertion and protection of the 
deserters, resistance to the draft of 1862, and 
other manifestations of violence that awakened 
alarm. The report of the jury gave new cause 
for alarm as to what might be expected in the 
way of outbreak, but no active steps against the 
order were then taken. One good effect of Mor- 
gan's raid the following summer was to stir up 
anew all the patriotism of the State, and this, in 
connection with important successes to the north- 
ern arms and Governor Morton's vigilant sur- 
veillance of the society discouraged the "Sons of 

Their secret signs and passwords were di- 
vulged and the name of the order became so 
odious that it assumed, or tried to assume a new 
name, the "Order of American Knights," though 

* Morton's remarkable talent for taking a situation in hand 
and getting in touch with its details is illustrated by an inci- 
dental event that is usually spoken of as "the battle of Pogue's 
Run." On May 20, 1863, "Sons of Liberty" and their sympa- 
thizers came to Indianapolis ostensibly to attend a Democratic 
rally, but really with the intention of making an armed demon- 
stration, the weapons being concealed on their persons. Morton, 
fully apprised of their purpose, overawed them with a few armed 
soldiers on the streets. As a train full of them were leaving 
the depot, homeward bound, some one in a spirit of bravado 
made the first "demonstration" by firing a pistol from the car 
window. In response a company of soldiers, on their own in- 
itiative, held up and boarded the train. The panic-stricken vis- 
itors threw revolvers and knives into the waters of Pogue's Run 
that flowed beside the tracks, anil many more 1 I v 

the soldiers. The contempt and ridicule brought upon the "Sons" 
by this fiasco went far toward banishing the fear of them as 
actual revolutionists. 



this name has found no lodgment in the public 
mind or in history. 

The snake, though scotched, was by no means 
killed, however. Treasonable sentiment and ef- 
fort continued to work beneath the surface, 
though to this day it is a matter of surmise just 
how treasonable the secret order was and what 
the scope of its intent. One writer (J. P. Dunn) 
affirms that the majority of those connected with 
these secret organizations "never had any idea 
that anything treasonable was intended." It is 
generally believed, however, that the order was 
sinister and dangerous and that it aimed at noth- 
ing less than an organized insurrection through- 
out several States, including Indiana, and the es- 
tablishment of a "Northwestern Confederacy" 
that was to separate from the Union. At any 
rate a quantity of arms and ammunition con- 
cealed in packages or boxes and marked "Sun- 
day-school books" were found in the establish- 
ment of Harrison H. Dodd r Grand Commander 
of the Sons of Liberty of Indiana. He was ar- 
rested on the charge of conspiracy against the 
United States, and then followed the famous 
"treason trials" by a military tribunal at Indian- 
apolis. This trial began on the 22d day of Sep- 
tember, 1864, and the commission that conducted 
it was composed of General Silas Colgrove, Col. 
William E. McLean, Col. John T. Wilder, Col. 
Thomas J. Lucas, Col. Charles D. Murray, Col. 
Benjamin Spooner, Col. Richard P. De Hart and 
Col. Ambrose A. Stevens. A number of men be- 
sides Dodd were implicated, and the examinations 
of witnesses brought out much sensational evi- 
dence bearing on an intended uprising, the re- 
leasing and arming of rebel prisoners, the as- 
sassination of Governor Morton and other revo- 
lutionary plans. In the course of the trial Dodd 
himself escaped and made his way to Canada. 
The court found him, William A. Bowles, Lamb- 
din P. Milligan, Stephen Horsey and Andrew 
Humphreys guilty' of treason. Bowles, Milligan 
and Horsey were sentenced to death and Hum- 
phreys to imprisonment, but all were subse- 
quently pardoned. 

Senator Bright's Disloyalty. — In connection 
with this phase of our history may be mentioned 
the expulsion from the United States Senate of 
Jesse D. Bright. Bright was a Madison man, a 
leading Democrat, and what in this day would be 
called a political "boss." In 1862 he commended 

a friend who had an improvement in firearms to 
Jefferson Davis, whom he addressed as "His Ex- 
cellency, Jefferson Davis, President of the Con- 
federation of States." This was regarded as 
treasonable and Bright was unseated, ex-Gov- 
ernor Joseph A. Wright taking his place. 

The Draft. — Despite the overwhelming ap- 
plications for enlistment in the earlier days of 
the war and the free response of Indiana 
throughout, as compared with other States, some 
counties failed to contribute their proportion to 
the State's quota in the course of the seven dif- 
ferent calls that were issued before the war was 
over. Consequently these localities fell subject 
to the conscription system that the government 
was obliged to adopt. The drafts that operated 
in Indiana were those of 1862, 1864 and 1865, in 
which, altogether, nearly 18,000 men were drawn. 

The draft included in its plan an enrolment in 
each county of every able-bodied white male citi- 
zen between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. 
When a new call was made for troops if a State 
did not fill out its quota the draft was resorted to, 
the names of the enrolled citizens being written 
on ballots and placed in a wheel or box. From 
these a person who was blindfolded drew enough 
ballots to complete the deficient local quota. The 
persons whose names were drawn were then 
served with a notice by the marshal and required 
to report at the county seat within five days. 
Those who did not report were classed as desert- 
ers (Terrell). One effect of a draft was to 
stimulate volunteering, many regarding conscrip- 
tion as a disgrace. One provision of the drafting 
system that caused much dissatisfaction was that 
by the payment of $300 the conscript was re- 
lieved from serving. By this, it was complained, 
the rich man was virtually exempt, whereas for 
the poor man there was no escape. At one time 
there was a provision, also, that those who were 
conscientiously opposed to bearing arms should, 
if drafted, be considered non-combatants and be 
assigned to hospital or some similar service, un- 
less they preferred to pay the $300 commutation. 

Bounties. — Local bounties paid by the vari- 
ous townships of the State, to stimulate enlist- 
ment and also for the purpose of benefiting the 
families of those who volunteered for the serv- 
ice, should be noted. These local bounties ranged 
at different periods from $10 to $500, and in the 
aggregate amounted to $15,492,876. 

State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Lafayette. 1. Gateway and Entrance. 2. Commandant's Residence and 
Executive Building. 3. Adjutant's Residence and Offices. 4. Main Dining Room. 5. Old People's Home. 
6. Old Men's Home. 7. Hospital. 8. Assembly Hall. 




A large proportion of the townships paid these 
bounties when it became difficult to fill out the 
local quotas, and one of the causes of the system 
was the desire to avoid the drafts. Abuses grew 
out of the plan, one of which was the practise by 
unprincipled floaters of recruiting and securing 
the bounty money, then deserting and, under as- 
sumed names repeating the process over and 
over, perhaps, in different localities. This was 
the nefarious business known as "bounty jump- 
ing," and it proved so profitable that it developed 
into an art or system with the collusion, it is said, 
of a class of "brokers" who took contracts to fill 
out quotas, and even with corrupt recruiting offi- 
cers who thus found a short and easy cut to un- 
earned gains. 

Steps were taken to abate this evil, and several 
culprits, after trial by court martial, were pub- 
licly shot at Indianapolis, which had a salutary 

Indiana's Care for Her Soldiers. — The dan- 
gers of battle were not the only and, perhaps, not 
the most trying of the evils our soldiers had to 
suffer. The hardships of the field were particu- 
larly taxing to a citizen soldiery uninured to 
rigor and exposure. Add to that the government, 
an unmilitary nation, was not prepared to care 
adequately for the comfort and health of its rap- 
idly augmenting armies. In consequence there 
was much suffering and a vast amount of disease. 
This was relieved, in part, personally by such 
comforts and helps as friends at home could 
send, but the need of some more systematic and 
more dependable help soon became apparent. 
Governor Morton, with a solicitude for his sol- 
diers that was almost paternal, early gave this 
need attention. In 1861, as the winter ap- 
proached, he issued an appeal to "The Patriotic 
Women of Indiana" calling for contributions of 
articles in addition to those furnished in the reg- 
ular army supplies — extra blankets, warm, strong 
socks, woollen gloves or mittens, woollen shirts 
and underwear. 

The "Military Agency." — With the generous 
response that followed this appeal arose the ne- 
cessity of an adequate plan for distribution, and 
out of this grew the "General Military Agency 
of Indiana," which is said to have been the first 
organized effort of any State to supplement the 
government's provisions for its soldiers. This 

agency, created in 1862, with Dr. William Han- 
naman, of Indianapolis, as its head, had in charge 
the supervision of all matters relating to the re- 
lief of soldiers, and the organizing of ways and 
means. Local agents in field and hospital re- 
ported to the head of the General Agent who 
was thus kept apprised of existing needs, and 
who saw that they were relieved. Field agents 
were expected to interest themselves in the men. 
individually, to write letters for them when nec- 
essary, to take charge of commissions to rela- 
tives and friends, or of relics consigned to them 
by the dying, to see that the dead were decently 
buried, and to keep record of all facts that might 
be of interest to the families of the dead. Books, 
newspapers and other reading matter for both 
hospital and field were secured, and soldiers both 
sick and well, both in and out of the ranks, were 
helped in numerous ways, not least of the services 
being the looking after bounty claims and back 
pay, whereby many thousands of dollars were 
saved to the beneficiaries. In short, the Military 
Agency seems to have been the forerunner of the 
modern Red Cross, only its functions were wider 
than those of the latter famous organization. 

The "Sanitary Commission." — The organiza- 
tion for the relief of the State's soldiers soon 
created the need for supplies to relieve them 
with, and the raising of these supplies in a de- 
pendable way also called for an organized plan. 
Out of this came the "Indiana Sanitary Commis- 
sion," which was created by Governor Morton in 
February, 1862, with Dr. Hannaman as presi- 
dent and Alfred Harrison, of Indianapolis, as 
treasurer. The commission was organized to 
thoroughly ca'nvass the State for needed clothing, 
kinds of food not included in the government ra- 
tions, delicacies for sick soldiers, bedding, books, 
and whatever would contribute to the comfort of 
the men at the front. The organization, as a 
whole, consisted of a central office or clearing 
house at the capital, and a large number of auxil- 
iary societies, located, usually, at the various 
county seats. These were the central local socie- 
ties, and, in addition to them, smaller contrib- 
uting societies were established in neighborhoods. 
These reached the public far and wide, and the 
contributions thus gathered in were forwarded to 
the Indianapolis office. To stimulate the gen- 
erosity of donors, particularly in the matter of 



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cash contributions, soliciting agents were em- 
ployed, who traveled over the State urging the 
support of the movement and setting forth the 
existing needs. 

By way of still further aid numerous local 
"sanitary fairs" were held over the State, and 
with the co-operation of the State agricultural 
fair of 1863, a "State sanitary fair," held at In- 
dianapolis, raised about $40,000. Altogether the 
commission secured in contributions, including 
cash and the estimated value of goods, $606,- 
570.78 (Terrell). Including contributions by 
counties, townships, cities and towns in their cor- 
porate capacity, the sum given for the relief of 
soldiers and their families amounted to over 
$5,000,000, besides gifts of which no definite 
record was kept. 

Relief of Soldiers' Families. — The relief of 
soldiers individually and directly was not the 
only expression of appreciation and generosity 
on the part of the citizens of Indiana. As was 
previously said the large sums paid locally 
for bounties were in part for the benefit of sol- 
diers' families — not altogether for the purpose of 
inducing, but to enable men to enlist. The relin- 
quishing of one's business and the leaving home 
for the pay of a private in the ranks in very 
many cases worked positive hardship on the fam- 
ilies thus left to thus shift for themselves on a 
meager income. The bounties helped out, but, 
particularly when the enlistment was for the 
three-years' service, it by no means sufficed. On 
November 14, 1862, the ever-watchful Morton 
issued "An Appeal to the People of the State of 
Indiana" calling attention to the fact that the 
wages of a common soldier, $156 a year, even if 
it could all come home to the family (which in 
most instances it could not) was a very scanty 
support, and with the oncoming winter with its 
high prices for the necessities of life, there would 
be much actual need. The helping of these fam- 
ilies while their natural providers were braving 
the perils of the battlefield was the solemn duty 
of the patriotic and liberal civilians. In anticipa- 
tion of the argument that these civilians had al- 
ready given largely and sacrificed heavily in re- 
sponse to other appeals, the governor asked : 
"What is the sacrifice of the man living comfort- 
ably at home, even though he give half his in- 
come, to that of the man who has left his family 
and home and gone to the field ?" He urged the 

organization of a State-wide system of aid soci- 
eties and solicited the co-operation of all minis- 
ters of the gospel, township trustees and others. 

The response to this was immediate and liberal, 
the movement rivaling that for the Sanitary 
Commission in aid of the soldiers at the front. 
"Soldiers' Aid Societies" were formed, fairs 
were held, and the contributions poured in. 
Frequently inspired by the local newspaper 
or some energetic citizen of standing, the resi- 
dents of a neighborhood would bring their gifts 
on a fixed day to some central place and give 
what in modern parlance would be called a 
"shower" of donated provisions and clothing. 
Or, the farmers of different neighborhoods 
would "collect together early in the morning and 
at the appointed time drive into the country 
town with wagons loaded with wood, and with 
barrels of flour, or apples, or potatoes heaped 
high on the wood, with their horses decorated 
with flags, sometimes carrying banners ; and as 
the long procession of gratitude and liberality 
marched along the streets the crowded pave- 
ments welcomed it with cheers as for the return 
of a victorious army. Emulation ran wild in ef- 
forts to show the biggest loads and make the 
most striking display" (Terrell, p. 357). 

Another source of help was the "State Bakery" 
established at Indianapolis for the purpose of 
supplying the camps there. In 1864 and 1865 it 
distributed free to soldiers' families 63,540 
loaves, worth 10 cents each. 

All of these aids, however, were hardly ade- 
quate to the increasing needs as the war dragged 
on, and as late as March 4, 1865, an act for the 
"relief of the families of soldiers, seamen and 
marines"* was passed by the Legislature. 

This law, in brief, authorized the collection of 
three mills on each dollar's valuation of prop- 
erty and one dollar on each taxable poll, to be ap- 
plied as specified. The fund thus raised was ap- 
portioned to the various counties in sums ranging 
from $2,278.56 for Benton to $42,605.84 for 
Marion. The total number of beneficiaries (in 
"families" only) were 203,724. The township 
trustee was the disbursing officer and was em- 
powered to determine who came under the pro- 
visions of the act. The law did not operate long, 
as the war ended soon after its passage. 

Temporary and Permanent "Homes." — The 

* This act also included relief for sick and wounded soldiers. 



first thing in the way of a soldiers' "home," 
within the State, was one provided and equipped 
by the general government and the State at Indi- 
anapolis, in 1862. The capital was the central 
and chief rendezvous for the State, and of the 
large numbers of soldiers who came and went 
many, from sickness or other causes, could not 
be cared for at the military camps. The building, 
erected in a grove near White river, was fur- 
nished and managed by the Sanitary Commission, 
and it aimed to be a place where the soldiers in 
transit could get a taste of "home" comforts, free 
of cost. In 1863 a "Ladies' Home" was also estab- 
lished for the benefit of soldiers' wives and fami- 
lies who came to Indianapolis to meet and visit 
with them. 

At the close of the war there were many men 
disabled beyond self-help, to whom aid was justly 
due, and the question arose of a permanent home 
for those who might take advantage of it. Again 
an appeal was made to the people and with the 
funds thus raised by voluntary subscriptions a 
property containing fifty-four acres at Knights- 
town, Henry county, was purchased. It had been 
a resort on account of medicinal springs there, 
and a large hotel building and several cottages 
were on the land. In the spring of 1866 these 
were occupied as a home for soldiers and also 
for soldiers' orphans. On the 4th of July, 1867, 
the corner-stone of a large brick building was 
laid under the auspices of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. Previous to that the State had adopted 
it as one of the public benevolent institutions. 
Subsequently the veterans were removed from 
this place and it became a home and school for 
the orphans of soldiers and sailors. 

By an act of 1890 the United States established 
a branch of the National Soldiers' Home at Ma- 
rion, and another by the State was established 
near Lafayette by a legislative act of 1895. Sev- 
enty-five thousand dollars were appropriated for 
the erection of the main buildings at the La- 
fayette home, and, in addition to these, various 
counties have put up cottages. 


The "Underground Railroad." — The "Under- 
ground Railroad," a famous feature of the anti- 
slavery crusade for twenty years or more preced- 
ing the Civil war, was a system of transportation 

routes over which fugitive slaves were secretly 
conveyed from the Ohio river into Canada, where 
they were safe from the slavery laws of the 
United States. These routes, as they were estab- 
lished in Indiana, have been traced by Mr. Lewis 
Falley of Lafayette, whose map is here produced. 
Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg, Madison, New Al- 
bany, Leavenworth and Evansville were the 
points where the fleeing slaves could cross the 
Ohio with some hope of finding friends, who 




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Map of the "Underground Railroad" in Indiana. 
—By Lewis Falley, of Lafayette. 

would help them northward, and these friends 
would convey them from one "station" to an- 
other, usually by night, or sometimes concealed 
beneath what seemed to be a wagonload of pro- 
duce on its way to market. The "stations" were 
friendly houses where the fugitives were con- 
cealed until they could be safely forwarded. The 
people most zealous in this risky humanitarian 
work were the Quakers, and the most famous 
of the various routes was the one that traversed 
the chief Quaker settlements in the eastern part 
of the State. Wayne county was the most con- 
spicuous anti-slavery center, and Newport, now 



Fountain City, about nine miles north of Rich- 
mond, was its hub. 

Levi Coffin, the most active and persistent of 
the crusaders against slavery, lived there. As 
early as 1840, Arnold Buffum, an abolitionist 
Friend from Massachusetts, visited Newport and 
started the movement for the organizing of anti- 
slavery societies, and these were formed and 
openly attended, there being no attempt at se- 
crecy. In the Indiana Quarterly Magazine of His- 
tory for September, 1907, an article by Dr. O. N. 
Huff, on "The Unnamed Anti-Slavery Heroes of 

Old Newport," revives the memory of many who 
courageously and actively entered the fight 
against slavery and who helped many a black 
man to liberty. 

An autobiography of Levi Coffin gives much 
information as to the operation of the "railroad" 
in that part of the State, but data as to the other 
routes are but fragmentary.* 

* As late as 1857, it is known that a man by the name of Pur- 
dum, in Hamilton county, bequeathed one thousand dollars, as 
stated in his will, "to be used to assist fugitive slaves to freedom 
in the North." 

View in Brown County, northeast of Nashville. 


A Genera] Survey of Indiana as Developed 
Since the Civil War 




Immediate Influence of the War. — In a study 
of "Indianapolis and the Civil War,"* the author, 
Mr. John H. Holliday, speaks of the influence of 
the war upon the capital city. "The grim era," 
he says, "closed upon a new Indianapolis. The 
quiet town with its simple life was gone forever 
and in its place was the hustling city with new 
ideas, new aspirations, new ways. Much more 
than half the population were newcomers. As 
it had changed materially, it had changed in other 
respects. Its life was different. . . . There 
was more luxurious living and ostentation. The 
inevitable demoralization of war had to be reck- 
oned with and both morality and religion were 
affected. Hundreds of young men had become 
addicted to intemperance and the general moral 
tone had been lowered. Extravagance had in- 
creased in many things and was driving out the 
former simplicity. . . . Without the war In- 
dianapolis would have changed at some time, but 
it would have taken a generation for it instead 
of being hammered out in the white heat of the 
four years' conflict." 

This, with little modification, might be applied 
to the State at large, and the complex results 
make an interesting phase of our history. On 
the one hand, approximately 25,000 men, the 
flower of the land, physically, had been lost to the 
State, and more than that many millions of dol- 
lars had been expended that, if applied to the arts 
of peace, would, it seems, have vastly advanced 
our progress ; and in addition the moral set-back, 
though it can not be calculated, was by no means 
negligible. On the other hand, the stress and 
excitement of those four years appears to have 
been a tremendous awakener — a stimulus that 
engendered new energy and created new condi- 
tions. One writer (Dunn) states that "to many 
men the war experience had been a liberal educa- 
tion. The soldiers had much to do besides fight- 
ing. There were roads to make, bridges to build, 
railroad and telegraph lines to replace during the 
great contest, and there were few soldiers who 

did not return with increased ability to do any- 
thing that came to hand."* During and immedi- 
ately after the war period prices were high, prop- 
erty values rose, there was much paper currency 
afloat, and this begat business activity. In July 
of 1865, we are told, there were in Indianapolis 
"thirty-four wholesale houses running, with five 
more to open up as soon as buildings could be fin- 
ished." Rents rose to unheard-of figures ; "more 
banks and insurance companies were organized, 
railroads were projected, a steamboat built on the 
river, real estate boomed, and expansion was 
everywhere" (Holliday). Not only an expanded 
currency but an increased protective tariff en- 
couraged the growth and multiplication of manu- 
facturing industries, and this not only wrought 
a great change in the industrial character of the 
State, which had previously been largely agricul- 
tural, but by inducing considerable foreign immi- 
gration the character of the population was much 
modified. In 1870 the population exceeded that 
of 1860 by 330,209, and the next four decades 
added something over a million more — a growth 
that could hardly have been approached in that 
period under the old agricultural regime, since 
by 1860 the lands of the State were pretty well 
taken up. 

Politics of the Period. — If Indiana's political 
history following the war had any bearing upon 
the State's real development, the fact is not 
very obvious and hence we give but little space 
to it. The aftermath of the conflict was, of 
course, bitterness and hate between the opposing 
factions that had existed here, and the State cam- 
paigns of 1866 and 1868 were particularly acri- 
monious. The Republicans remained in the sad- 
dle until 1873, and the Republican party in In- 
diana, like that party at large, was not above 
abusing the power and prestige it had gained by 
the successful prosecution of the war. The Dem- 
ocratic minority, being made of the same sort of 
stuff, the resultant "legislation" was a game of 
petty chicanery. For example, when the fifteenth 

Indiana Historical Society Publications, vol. iv. 

' History of Indianapolis. 






k5 a 

O ° 




amendment to the Federal constitution, giving 
the negroes the right of suffrage and overriding 
all State laws on this question came up for ratifi- 
cation the Democratic senators and representa- 
tives resigned in a body blocking not only this, 
but all other legislation. Lieutenant-Governor 
Baker, then acting governor in Morton's absence, 
took proper steps to fill the vacancies. Again the 
amendment came up and again the Democrats 
attempted to bolt but were cunningly overreached 
by locking the senate doors while the recalcitrant 
members were within, thus securing an enforced 
quorum for the business in hand. Tactics of 
pretty much the same complexion were exercised 
in the house, and the votes of the Republicans 
passed the resolution of ratification. The fol- 
lowing session, the Democrats being in the ma- 
jority, an attempt was made to rescind the reso- 
lution. The same irregular methods were 
employed, with the parties reversed, but without 
the same success. Meanwhile the interests of 
the public were a secondary consideration.* 

In the fall of 1872 the Democrats secured their 
first Governor since the election of 1856, Thomas 
A. Hendricks. After that the political forces 
were so evenly divided as to the two controlling 
parties that the years of their respective ascend- 
ency was almost alternate. This frequent shift- 
ing of power continues to the present, and it may 
be said that the uncertainty of tenure of any one- 
party is increased in later years by the weaken- 
ing of the old rigid party loyalty and the growth 
of political independence. 

During this period the State has figured con- 
spicuously several times in national politics. 
In 1876 Thomas A. Hendricks was the unsuc- 
cessful candidate for Vice-President, running on 
the ticket with Samuel J. Tilden. In 1880 Will- 
iam H. English, running with Winfield S. Han- 

* One of the most notable instances of this sort of flagrant 
party strife occurred in 1887. Senator Alonzo Greene Smith 
was president pro tern, of the upper house, Lieutenant-Governor 
Mahlon D. Manson having resigned. As Governor Gray was a 
candidate for the United States Senate the question arose whether 
in the case of his election a pro tern, president of the Senate 
could legally succeed to the governorship, or whether a duly 
elected lieutenant-governor only was eligible to the office. There 
was no provision for such a contingency as existed, and to avoid 
irregularity candidates for the office of lieutenant-governor were 
put on the ticket at the regular election of 1886. R. S. Robert- 
son, a Republican, was elected, but the Democratic Senate re- 
fused to recognize him. The House supported him and admin- 
istered the oath of office. Between the House and Senate arose 
a strife amounting to physical conflict. The House refused to 
act with the Senate, the time of the session was wasted, and the 
public paid for it all. 

cock, was the unsuccessful candidate for Vice- 
President. In 1884 Hendricks again ran, coupled 
with Grover Cleveland, and this time was elected. 
Benjamin Harrison was elected President of the 
United States in 1888, being the only Indiana 
citizen who has ever attained to that high office, 
unless his grandfather, William Henry Harrison, 
be considered an Indianian. In 1902 Charles W. 
Fairbanks, on the ticket with Theodore Roose- 
velt, was chosen Vice-President, and in 1912 
Thomas R. Marshall succeeded to this office as 
running mate with Woodrow Wilson. 


Increase, Distribution and Character of Pop- 
ulation. — As a sort of basis or starting point for 
a study of the State's growth during this devel- 
opmental period we may appropriately consider 
that fundamental factor, the population in its 
various statistical aspects. 

Increase by Decades and Analysis. — When 
Indiana became a State in 1816 the population 
was estimated at about 70,000, having increased 
to this number from 5,641 in 1800. Since that 
it has increased to approximately 3,000,000, the 
last official enumeration, that of 1910, being 
2,700,876. The ratio of increase by decades can 
best be shown by the following table, which 
starts with the census of 1820: 

Census of 



Increase by Decades 











1820 to 1830 95,853 

1830 to 1840 342,835 

1840 to 1850 302,550 

1850 to 1860 362,012 

1860 to 1870 330,209 

1870 to 1880 297,664 

1880 to 1890 214,103 

1890 to 1900 324,058 

1900 to 1910 184,414 

From the table it will be seen that the increase 
ran heaviest from 1830 to 1870. Various causes 
may be assigned as factors. Up to the latter 
forties new lands were being acquired from time 
to time from the Indians and thrown open to 
settlement; hence the rapid increase of the agri- 
cultural population. During the thirties the in- 
ternal improvement movement brought in a for- 
eign element, largely Irish, as laborers upon the 
public works. From 1850 to 1860, the decade 



of heaviest increase, the railroad labor, like the 
canal work of nearly twenty years before, doubt- 
less played its part. The influx of the forties, 
which fell below that of the preceding and the 
next following decades, evidently suffered some 
check, and this may be accounted for by the fact 
that during that period the State's enormous 
debt following the internal improvement col- 
lapse discouraged immigration. 

Growth of Urban Population.* — In 1860 
only five per cent, of the total population of the 
State lived in cities and towns. By 1870 the 
percentage of urban population had doubled, and 
the increase continued till in 1910 it was 42.4 per 
cent. (U. S. Census reports). At the latter 
time the urban population was contained in 
eighty-one cities and seven incorporated towns. 
Indianapolis, by far the largest of these, had 
233,650 inhabitants ; four — Evansville, Fort 
Wayne, South Bend and Terre Haute — each ex- 
ceeded 50,000; twenty had from 10,000 to 
25,000; twenty-six from 5,000 to 10,000, and 
thirty from 2,500 to 5,000. As a contrast to this 
urban growth the rural population has actually 
decreased. In 1900 it was 1,653,773 and in 1910 
it had fallen to 1,557,041, a loss of 96,732. 

Population as Affected by Manufactures. — 

The reasons for this great change in the char- 
acter of the population must, of course, have 
been industrial ; or, more specifically, an increase 
and multiplication of urban industries. The fig- 
ures show that in 1850 the total manufactured 
products of Indiana were valued at $18,725,000. 
In 1870 they had grown to $100,000,000, and in 
1910 to $579,075,000, the State at the latter date 
ranking ninth in this respect. The manufactur- 
ing industries, as computed in 1910, employed 
218,263 persons, and these, with their families, 
swelled the urban population, particularly in the 
larger cities, where by reason of superior trans- 
portation facilities and various conditions indus- 
tries best thrived. During the era of natural 
gas that resource as a cheap fuel was a great 
factor in swelling the population of the gas belt. 
Today the area of greatest density is a block of 
counties stretching from Marion northeast to 
Allen and eastward to Wayne ; the northern tier 
of counties from Lake to Elkhart ; Vigo on the 
west, and Vanderburg on the Ohio river. The 

* See population charts, pp. 154, 155. 157. 

rank of these counties is largely due to urban 
growth, the only ones that have gained at all in 
rural population for the last ten or fifteen years 
numbering less than twenty, scattered irregularly 
over the State, though mostly south of the Na- 
tional road. 

Elements of Population. — With growth by 
immigration the population of the State has be- 
come more diversified, though the native whites 
of American parentage have always been far in 
excess of any other element and in excess of the 
ratio in many other States. The negroes in 1910 
were 60,320, or 2.2 per cent, of the total. Of 
foreign-born whites there were 159,322, and of 
this total more than fifty per cent, were Ger- 
man, the Irish coming next with 10.4 per cent. 
Altogether upward of a score of foreign nations 
have contributed to our residents, ranging in 
numbers from a few hundreds to as many thou- 
sands. This foreign element is largely segre- 
gated in the manufacturing centers, the ratio be- 
ing largest in Lake county, owing to Gary and 
contiguous industrial towns. 

Inter-State Migration. — A factor that has 
figured in the fluctuations of our population is 
the inter-state migrations. The restless Ameri- 
can with illimitable new fields of promise forever 
opening up before him has been much of a mi- 
grant, and a series of charts of 1890 (Statistical 
Atlas of Eleventh Census) shows some interest- 
ing facts in our population history. By an esti- 
mate based on the places of birth of those then 
residing in the different States it was computed 
that the emigration of native Indianians to other 
States had been more than 550,000, while the 
immigration from other States to ours was under 
450,000. The various Eldorados of our native 
Hoosiers were, first, Illinois, Missouri and Kan- 
sas. In lesser numbers they were scattered to 
Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, 
Oklahoma, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa. Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin and far-away Washington, while 
some were traced to Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia. Flor- 
ida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Texas, the Dakotas, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, 
Idaho. Oregon and California, making in all 
not less than thirty-eight States with an infusion 
of Hoosier citizenship. This scatters our na- 
tive Indianian from ocean to ocean and from 



Canada to Mexico and the gulf. On the other 
hand, we have received citizens from no less 
than thirty-one States, the chief contributors be- 
ing Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina and Pennsylvania. It is a 
rather curious fact that several States that con- 
tributed to Illinois and Ohio and other contigu- 
ous localities sent no emigrants to Indiana. 

The tables of the last census show no change 
in the tendencies of two decades ago. The net 
loss of Indiana by inter-state migration is shown 
to be about 275,000. and the foreign immigration 
has not equaled that number.* 

Centers of Population. — The center of popu- 
lation of the United States, as it moved steadily 
westward since 1790, was located in Indiana in 
1890, or was, at least, then first published, and it 
still rests there. In 1890 it was twenty miles 
east of Columbus, Bartholomew county. In 1900 
it was six miles southeast of Columbus, and by 
the last census (1910) it was in Bloomington, 
Monroe county. 

The center of population of the State of Indi- 
ana was in 1880 at New Augusta, in Marion 
county. After that it moved slowly northward, 
and in 1910 rested at Zionsville, Boone county. 


From the war period until the close of the 
century, when the electric railway was intro- 
duced, transportation improvement was directed 
to roads and steam railroads, and an account of 
the development of these logically precedes that 
of the industrial development, since the latter, to 
a great degree, followed as a result of trans- 
portation facilities. 

Wagon Roads. — The o 1 d question of wagon 
roads, with which the State and various counties 
have wrestled from the beginning, still engages 
the citizens of the State as an unsettled problem. 
There are still many miles of bad roads that 
operate as a handicap to the rural population and 
affect the market profits of agriculture, but the 
situation is vastly improved. As has been set 
forth elsewhere in this volume the first system of 
roads that opened up the country consisted of so 
many mere openings through the forests that 
were fairly untravelable for parts of the year. 

From these, road-making progressed to the 
macadam, the plank and the gravel roads. Up 

* The State's gain must be referred to the birth-rate. 

to the time of plank roads all the highways were 
publicly owned and maintained. With the intro- 
duction of the comparatively expensive plank im- 
provement private capital was invested and many 
roads were surrendered to corporations that did 
the improving and got their returns from the 
travel, the mileage being charged and collected 
at toll-gates located at intervals along the way. 
This private ownership of roads continued much 
more extensively after improvement by grave! 
set in. In time, however, the tide of sentiment 
turned once more to free roads maintained at 
public expense, and in 1889 a law was passed 
providing that the toll roads of any township 
could be purchased upon a vote of a majority of 

The Ox-team was a primitive but sure way of 
transportation in the pioneer days. 

the citizens in the township. A petition of fifty 
freeholders to the county commissioners could 
bring the question to vote, and if it carried and 
the purchase was made county bonds were to be 
issued and a special tax levied in the township. 
Since then the roads have been bought up until 
very few remain. Indeed, as far back as 1899 
(the last available statistics on this point) there 
remained but 141 miles of toll roads, this total 
existing in seven southern counties. There were 
at that time 11,027 miles of free gravel road. 

The statistics for 1911 (Fourteenth Biennial 
Report, Department of Statistics) show that the 
total mileage of free gravel roads was 25,289.76 
in addition to 37,235 miles not graveled. The 
total expenses for gravel road repairs, exclusive 
of bridges, that year was $1,555,300.57, and 
for bridges $1,269,644.21. Other costs, such 
as "viewing," surveying, etc., amounted to 



$21,114.04, making a grand total of $2,846,058.82 
that Indiana spent in one year on her free gravel 
roads, exclusive of the road work exacted from 
the rural citizens for the upkeep of the 37,235 
miles of "unimproved" or common dirt roads. 
The gravel road bonds that were outstanding 
amounted in all to $23,441,332.37. 

An inquiry as to the distribution of this im- 
provement reveals that the expenditures ran all 
the way from $15 in Floyd county to $91,406.72 
in Marion, and the mileage all the way from one 
mile in Steuben to 1,000 in Parke. The counties 
that had progressed farthest in the good-roads 
movement, as measured by the improved mileage 
at that date, were Parke, 1,000; Wayne, 913.75; 
Clinton, 790; Putnam, 741.50; Madison, 732.48; 
Wells, 700; Hamilton, 650; Boone, 626; Grant, 
623 ; Randolph, 600 ; Henry, 525 ; Jackson, 
551.25; Tipton, 550. All other counties have 
a mileage under 500. 

It is worthy of note that there is a lack of 
correspondence between the road expenditures 
in the various counties and their mileage. For 
example, Parke with its 1,000 miles, expended 
for repairs in 1911 $23,125.06, and Wayne's 
913.75 miles cost $8,866.55. On the other hand, 
Marion spent $91,406.72 on 383.02 miles, besides 
$112,257.83 for bridges, and Vanderburg put 
$30,150.64 on 130 miles. Many similar discrep- 
ancies are revealed by the tables and the deduc- 
tion is twofold. The cost of road building varies 
in the various counties owing to the presence or 
absence of road material ; also efficiency and hon- 
esty in the expenditure of road funds varies with 
various county authorities, which proposition 
may be pretty well established by an analysis of 
the tell-tale statistics. 

It is undoubtedly true that one great detriment 
to general and uniform road improvement is the 
lack of State supervision, and at the present 
writing there is a movement afoot looking to leg- 
islation that shall establish such supervision. 

State Geologist Blatchley's report for 1905 
is devoted almost entirely to road-making and 
the distribution of road materials. In it may be 
found much valuable information on this subject. 

It may be added that interest is now turning 
to the comparatively recent proposition of con- 
crete roads, which are being tried in some lo- 

Expansion of the Railroad System. — In a 

previous chapter we have dealt with the begin- 
nings of the railroad era and the conspicuous 
impetus this new system gave to the State's de- 
velopment during the fifties. As to that begin- 
ning we need only say here that its phenomenal 
activity was but a promise of the tremendous 
growth to follow. By 1860 there were 2,126 
miles of track laid in the State. The mileage by 
1870 was 3,177; by 1880, 4,963; by 1890, 7,431; 
by 1897, 8,606 (Bureau of Statistics report for 
1897). This meant not only the main but all 
auxiliary tracks. In 1914, by the figures of the 
State Board of Tax Commissioners, the total 
tracks laid amounted to 20,277.90 miles, and the 
mileage covered by main tracks, representing the 
actual distance traversed by the various roads, 
was 7,224.50.* This mileage compassed within 
an area less than 150 miles wide by 250 miles 
long means a network of roads, the entangled 
character of which can best be appreciated by 
reference to a present-day railway map. There 
are only two counties in the State, Switzerland 
and Ohio, on the Ohio river, that are untouched 
by this great modern innovation. In the other 
ninety counties there are few spots that are 
not within wagon-hauling distance of some rail- 
way station, and the great majority of these 
counties are traversed by more than one line. 
More than a score of county seats and other 
towns may be called railroad centers, being the 
meeting points of three or more lines, while four- 
teen lines radiating like spokes from Indianapolis 
make it the railroad hub of the commonwealth. 
As many may be found streaming from various 
directions to the northwest corner of the State to 
focus at Chicago, the great mart of the lakes, and 
this fairly gridirons the counties in that locality, 
particularly Lake and Porter. The multiplication 
of lines has been by far the greatest throughout 
the central and northern parts of the State, and 
this is an index to the localities of greatest devel- 
opment in all directions. 

This alone reveals a growth of the transporta- 
tion system that far outstrips the dreams of the 
most sanguine promoters of fifty years ago, but 
what the map does not show is the tremendous 

* The trunk lines, branches and local roads as severally named 
for appraisement by the State Board of Tax Commissioners num- 
ber something like a hundred and fifty, and the separate mileage 
runs from .30 of a mile for the "Central Railroad Company," 
of Indianapolis, to 391.20 miles for the Chicago, Indianapolis 
& Louisville Railway Co. This road, which traverses the length 
of the State, has also two or three collateral branches. 



advancement in equipment as well as in increased 
mileage. The changes in roadbeds, rails and 
rolling stock are a vast factor in the results ef- 
fected by the railroads. Where a locomotive of 
the fifties hauled perhaps fifty tons over a frail 
rail of strap iron, one of to-day will pull more 
than a thousand tons, exclusive of the weight of 
the cars, over a ponderous T rail laid on an im- 
proved roadbed, and increased speed and greater 
frequency in running are part of the story when 

reached the vast sum of $208,941,570 — certainly 
a very respectable contribution to the taxables of 
the State. As an industrial factor they have been 
of no less importance. With the innovation of 
the locomotive an adverse argument raised was 
that the handling of traffic on a large scale with 
a minimum of manual labor would throw out of 
employment a great many men who teamed for a 
living, and thus ruin an industry. It did not 
take long to demonstrate that the immense stim- 

Washington Street. Indianapolis, 1902. looking east from the corner of Illinois Street. It is interesting to note 
that no automobiles are seen upon the street at that date. 

we consider the shifting to and fro of the State's 
traffic. So rapid are the improvements in this 
respect that the descriptions of a few years ago 
are now obsolete. 

Railroad Valuation. — As a factor in the 
wealth of the State the railroads have figured 
immensely since their introduction. The story 
of the increase in this respect is, of course, the 
story of railway development, and we need only 
note the present status. The property of the 
various roads, including tracks, rolling stock and 
improvements on rights of way, as valued by the 
State Board of Tax Commissioners for 1914, 

ulus to traffic created a labor-employing industry 
beside which the old teaming industry was triv- 
ial. As against the comparatively small class of 
wagoners, office employes, trainmen, yard men, 
station agents, railroad laborers, shop men and 
others came newly into existence as so many 
distinct classes of wage-earners, and these work- 
men have increased steadily in numbers as the 
roads increased until to-day there is an army of 
70,000 in Indiana alone with a total monthly 
payroll running into the millions.* 

• Report Public Service Commission, 1914. In the tables of 
this report 34 "operating roads" are listed. 





Rapid Development of the Interurban. — 
The great and growing rival of the steam rail- 
road is the electrical railway which has had a 
development in Indiana second to that in no other 
State. If the growth of the former has been 
phenomenal that of the latter has been amazing, 
and electricity as well as steam has inaugurated 
its own era of change and progress. As a sys- 
tem of transportation it is, virtually, coeval with 
the century, as the first interurban line entered 
Indianapolis in 1900. That city now has fourteen 
lines, radiating to all points of the compass, and 
is said to be the greatest interurban center in the 
world. At that center one may take a car any 
hour in the day that will take him directly to, or 
reach by connection almost any part of the State. 
Without change of cars he may go as far in the 
four cardinal directions as Dayton, South Bend, 
Terre Haute or Louisville. The total interurban 
mileage in operation April 30, 1914, was 2,168.43 
(Report of Public Service Commission) ; and 
the total assessed valuation amounted to $27,- 
173,747. More than 9,000 persons are employed 
in the system and the aggregate salaries and 
wages of the employes for a year are about five 
and a half millions of dollars. 

The following figures furnished by Mr. Joseph 
A. McGowan, of the T. H., I. & E. Traction 
Company, give some idea of the growth of traffic 
during the first fourteen years of interurban ac- 
tivity : In 1900 the passengers to and from In- 
dianapolis amounted to 378,000, and by 1903 the 
travel had increased to 2,348,000 for the year. 
Other figures were: 3,275,000 for 1904; 4,000,- 
000 for 1905 ; 4,500,000 for 1906, and about 5,- 
000,000 for 1907. In 1913 there were 6,640,433, 
or a daily average of 18,192. The average daily 
number of cars that arrived and departed in 1914 
was 676, and for the accommodation of this huge 
and growing traffic a "terminal" union station, 
the first of its kind in the country, was built at 
a cost of a million and a half of dollars. 

The peculiar advantages of the electrical sys- 
tem of transportation are derived from the abil- 
ity to transmit power over long distances from 
a central plant. This means a greater economy 
in a system of train service, and thus we find 
that the cost of traveling has been reduced at 
least a cent per mile as compared with that 

which formerly prevailed on steam railroads. 
Another important feature is the frequency of 
train service, the schedule being hourly instead 
of bi- or tri-daily, and still another, the greater 
accommodation afforded the traveler, the electric 
car making stops with a frequency that would 
be altogether impracticable in steam train service. 

Social Effects of the Interurban. — The gen- 
eral result of these conveniences has been a no- 
table social modification in various ways. The 
wonderful changes wrought by the locomotive 
have been carried further and multiplied with 
unparalleled swiftness and impetus by the trolley 
car. In the first place the vast increase of travel 
among people who formerly traveled little, means 
a more mobile population, educated as the gen- 
eration before was not to cosmopolitan ideas. 
This means an increase of enlightenment, and 
enlightenment is a stimulus to progress. The 
rural population is brought nearer to the city 
and is the gainer thereby. It has also brought 
the urban population nearer to the country, 
within limits, by opening the way to country resi- 
dence, and the larger element, perhaps, in the 
"back-to-the-land" movement consists of those 
who never would have moved beyond city limits 
but for cheap and convenient transportation to 
and fro. As a consequence of this land along 
the interurban lines is being divided into small 
holdings at greatly enhanced prices. Both the 
steam and the electric railroads have added 
greatly to the revenues of the State by the en- 
hancement of property values, and it has been 
affirmed that between 1900 and 1909 there was 
an increase of more than a million dollars in the 
valuation of farm property, due to the develop- 
ment of the interurban. 

The commercial effects of the new transporta- 
tion system are also notable. Small local ship- 
ments can be sent and received with much 
greater facility where there are points of deliv- 
ery and acceptance all along the nearest line. A 
farmer can, with ease, ship direct to a customer 
in the city, and merchants can receive directly 
and with dispatch commodities from distant 
points. As an illustration of the convenience and 
commercial value of this: New Castle, in the 
eastern part of the State, is in the market for 
roses of superior quality, but the fact that roses 
are fragile and perishable adds to the risk of 
production in proportion, as the market is diffi- 



cult of access. By virtue of the interurban a 
florist in Indianapolis on receiving an order for 
roses can telephone to New Castle, have them 
put on a certain car, meet the car on its arrival 
and thus within two or three hours receive his 
flowers fresh from the soil where they grew. 
That this must be a great aid to the flower in- 
dustrv is obvious, and other industries are sim- 
ilarly stimulated. 

Urban Effects of Electric Transportation. — 

moved outward, old residence sections have 
changed in character, and in the readjustment 
real estate values have fluctuated in a way that 
the shrewdest speculator could not have foreseen 
twenty-five or thirty years ago, while as a social 
factor it has relieved vastly the old-time enforced 
congestion of large centers. In brief, nowhere 
has the new departure in transportation worked 
out a greater revolution than in city life and city 

Indianapolis Traction and Terminal Station. The first and largest union terminal station in the country. 
Opened to the public State Fair week, September, 1904. Building was planned by and built under the di- 
rection of Hugh J. McGowan. 

The interurban electric system dates from the 
discovery or development of what is called the 
"alternating current." whereby the electrical 
force could be transmitted over long distances. 
For ten years or more prior to that this motive 
power was employed in urban transportation, 
and the changes wrought since its introduction 
arc quite an important part of the history of 
cities. In the first instance it has made easily 
accessible the outlying contiguous territory ; this 
has made practicable suburban living, and the 
result has been unprecedented shiftings of urban 
population. A large class of residents have 

One more effect should be noted, and that is 
the shifting of trade as a result of interurban 
conveniences, and to the advantage of tin- larger 
centers. People from the country and the 
smaller towns now go to the cities for their shop- 
ping in large numbers, and it is said that the 
"trading population" of Indianapolis is about 
twice that of its actual residents. On the other 
band, tins is having a retroactive effect, for the 
country tradesman, under the spur of necessity 
and in order to exist, has adopted new methods 
and put new energy into his business. In nu- 
merous cases the country store has vastly im- 



proved ; their trade is not only coming back to 
them but increasing, and many who once thought 
the interurban spelled ruin for them are finding 
instead that it means prosperity. 

First Electric Lines in Indiana.* — The first 
successful operation of an electric railway in this 
country was in the city of Richmond, Virginia, 
in January of the year 1889. Not long after this 
the railway in the city of Lafayette, Indiana, the 
first in the State, was equipped electrically. Soon 
afterward the Fairview Park line in Indianapolis 
was operated with electric cars, and other elec- 
tric railway plants followed in quick succession. 

The first person to take up the building of in- 
terurban electric lines in Indiana was the Hon. 
Charles L. Henry, former member of Congress. 
He first became interested in electric railways in 
the fall of 1891, in the city of Anderson, and soon 
thereafter began to contemplate the possibilities 
of interurban electric railways. In 1893, he con- 
ceived the idea of building an interurban serv- 
ice between what was then known as the "Gas 
Belt" cities. However, the panic of 1893 brought 
everything to a standstill, and for many months 
nothing was done. In the winter of 1893-94, he 
made the first estimates of cost and prospective 
earnings, together with a blue-print map covering 
the lines from Anderson to Marion, Anderson 
to Elwood, and Muncie via Anderson to Indian- 
apolis, exactly as they were afterward built, ex- 
cept that the line to Elwood was first planned to 
run through Frankton instead of west from 
Alexandria, as it was finally built. Soon after, 
he commenced securing options on land for a 
private right of way for a line from Anderson 
to Alexandria, and from Anderson to Elwood. 
The possibilities of the enterprise constantly grew 
on him, but he could not convince any one able 
to furnish the necessary capital that it would be 
a profitable venture, so that no substantial prog- 
ress had been made when the financial depres- 
sion, incident to the great political campaign of 
1896, spread over the country, paralyzing all 
business enterprises. 

In the meantime the desirability of interurban 
electric railway service had attracted the at- 
tention of many other people. Among these was 
Noah J. Clodfelter, who took up the project of 

* Mr. Henry invented the word "interurban" for this class of 
railroads. Edited by M. R. Hyman from information supplied 
by Hon. Charles L. Henry. 

building a line from Indianapolis, via Anderson, 
to Marion, and was much heard of in the pub- 
lic prints during the next few years, and finally, 
in the year 1898, he did some work toward build- 
ing a line from Marion south to Fairmount. He 
laid rail in the city of Fairmount, which after- 
ward passed, by receiver's sale, to the Marion 
Street Railway Company, and was used as a part 
of the line built by that company from Marion, 
via Fairmount, to Summitville. 

In September, 1897, Mr. Henry organized the 
original "Union Traction Company" and com- 
menced the construction of an interurban line 
from Anderson to Alexandria, and on January 1, 
1898, the first interurban car in Indiana ran 
from Anderson to Alexandria, a distance of 
eleven miles. Early the next year this road was 
extended to Summitville, making a total distance 
of seventeen miles, at which point connection 
was afterward made by the line built from Ma- 
rion, south by the Marion Street Railway Com- 
pany, a like distance of seventeen miles, giving 
a continuous line of thirty-four miles from An- 
derson to Marion, but owned by two different 

The successful operation of the cars on this 
first section of the interurban system induced 
him to take up with George F. McCullough, of 
Muncie, who then owned the electric railway in 
that city, the proposition of joining their interests 
and building a line from Muncie, via Anderson, 
to Indianapolis. 

Fortunate, indeed, for the future of electric 
railways in Indiana, there came to Indiana on 
New Year's Day, 1899, Mr. Hugh J. McGowan. 
Coming as the representative of the Dolan-Mor- 
gan Syndicate, which had recently purchased the 
Indianapolis street railways, he at once com- 
menced the development of that system, and 
soon made it the best city railway system in the 
country. To Mr. McGowan, Mr. Henry presented 
the interurban project then under consideration, 
and later, through his introduction, Messrs. 
Henry and McCullough took up the matter with 
Mr. Randal Morgan of Philadelphia, who agreed 
to join with them in the organization of the 
"Union Traction Company of Indiana," a con- 
solidated company, which would embrace the 
electric lines in the cities of Muncie, Marion, 
Anderson and Elwood, and interurban lines con- 
necting, and including the proposed line from 

Map of the Interurban Electric Lines in Operation in Indiana in 1915. 



Muncie, via Anderson, to Indianapolis. The final 
organization of this consolidated company was 
completed in June, 1899, and work was at once 
commenced on the construction of the Muncie- 
Indianapolis line. On January 4, 1901, the line 
was completed and its first car ran into the city 
of Indianapolis. 

In the meantime the line from Alexandria to 
Elwood had been completed and the system as 
planned in 1893, was at last a reality, just three 
years and three days from the time the first car 
ran from Anderson to Alexandria. 

Looking forward to the completion of the line 
into Indianapolis, as early as 1894, Mr. Henry 
took up the subject of a contract with the local 
company for running cars into this city, and in 
February, 1895, secured a contract with the Citi- 
zens' Street Railway Company, then controlled 
by what was known as the McKee & Verner 
Syndicate of Pittsburg. 

The first corporation formed for the building 
of an interurban electric railway was the "In- 
dianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin Railroad 
Company," organized November 9, 1894, under 
the steam railroad law, and being promoted by 
Henry L. Smith of Indianapolis. The road from 
Indianapolis to Greenwood was afterward built 
by this same organization under the ownership 
of Toseph I. and Wm. G. Irwin, of Columbus, 
Indiana, who took charge of the company in 
June, 1899, and it was this road that ran the first 
interurban car into Indianapolis on the first day 
of January, 1900. This company was succeeded 
by the "Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern 
Traction Company," owned and controlled by 
the Messrs. Irwin. 

The Automobile Era. — Any account of mod- 
ern economic development would be incomplete 
without a consideration of the automobile and 
the part it is coming to play as a method of 
transportation that for convenience and as an 
agent of mobility is as far ahead of the trolley 
car as the latter is ahead of the steam cars. 
Mother Shipton's famous prophecy that car- 
riages would go without horses has, like some 
other predictions, been fulfilled far beyond the 
most extravagant dream of the prophet. 

Twenty-five years ago the fact of a "horseless 
carriage" had, indeed, been realized, but it was 
little other than a freakish curiosity, of no prac- 
tical interest to the mass of people. As late as 

1899 it was negligible to the statisticians. At 
that time only 3,897 automobiles were reported 
in the United States, and their manufacture was 
not included as a separate industry in the census 
of 1900. By 1909 the number had increased to 
127,287, with a total value of $249,202,075, and 
the increase since that date has been advancing 
by leaps and bounds. A very large percentage 
of these vehicles are private family conveyances, 
which means that they are, in perhaps a majority 
of cases, merely an added pleasure or luxury, 
but economic effects are various. The inter- 
communication between all parts of the country 
is vastly facilitated, and while this is an advan- 
tage to business generally, it is especially bene- 
ficial to the rural population, which is equipping 
itself more and more with motor cars. As an 
illustration of the gain to agriculture we may cite 
the growing custom of county tours under the 
leadership of "county agents" in which numbers 
of farmers visit the best farms in the county for 
the purpose of practically studying crops, under 
the guidance of a scientific specialist. As an 
educative scheme this promises to be of great 
benefit to the business of farming. 

One of the important results to be looked for 
from the general use of automobiles is that of 
road improvement. Indiana now has a law 
whereby from two to twenty dollars must be 
paid as a State license for every motor vehicle, 
and this money, less the cost of registration, 
numbering plates, etc., is to be distributed as a 
road fund among the counties. Under the first 
year of this law the rather handsome sum of 
$462,609.28 was apportioned out among the coun- 
ties. It is safe to say that this income will an- 
nually increase and when added to the road fund 
from other sources it gives promise of a material 
advance in road improvement. 


Express and Transportation Companies. — 
Logically connected with transportation facilities 
are the public utilities that come under the head- 
ing of express and transportation companies. 
The former as public carriers of all kinds of 
smaller commodities have been of incalculable 
service in promoting business by facilitating in- 
terchange. The first of these companies in Indi- 
ana of which we find record was the Adams 



Express, which opened in Indianapolis in 1847, 
with M. M. Landis as the first agent (Hollo- 
way's "Indianapolis").* 

In other words, their origin was, virtually, 
contemporary with that of the railroad, and their 
development, in extension of service, has kept 
pace with the latter. There are to-day six ex- 
press companies operating in Indiana. These in 
the order of their importance, as measured by 
their assessed valuation, are the Adams Express 
Company, the American Express Company, the 
United States Express Company, the Wells 
Fargo Express Company, the National Express 
Company and the Southern Express Company. 
These, altogether, operate over 8,510.80 miles of 
railway within this State, and their assessment 
on this mileage (not including real estate, office 
furniture, etc.) amounts to $824,044 (Tax Com. 

Of "transportation companies," or carriers of 
special lines of merchandise, there are no less 
than one hundred and twenty-one listed in the 
tax commissioner's report for 1914, and they are 
assessed, collectively, at $1,618,075. 


The Telegraph. — Another important commer- 
cial factor that was coeval with the railroad, and 
a wonder that was unique until the advent of the 
telephone, was the magnetic telegraph. The 
Legislature first authorized the incorporation of 
telegraph companies on February 14, 1848 ; a 
line was soon after established between Indian- 
apolis and Dayton, Ohio, and on May 12 of that 
year the first message was transmitted. In June 
a merchants' exchange was formed for the trans- 
action of telegraph business, but there was 
not enough to justify the enterprise (Dunn's 
"Indianapolis"). For several years telegraphy 
seems to have cut very little figure in the business 
of the State, but other attempts were made to 
introduce the service, and by 1856 several lines 
were in existence, among them the since familiar 
Western Union, which in that year made an ar- 
rangement with the Associated Press of Indian- 
apolis whereby the papers were supplied with 
telegraphic news. This was a great innovation, 

* Elsewhere Holloway says 1851, with Blythe & Holland as 
the first agents. The American company, he further says, was 
established in 1852 and the United States in 1854. 

putting, as it did, the reading public in daily 
touch with the affairs of the world. Prior to 
that foreign news was pretty stale by the time 
it reached the editorial sanctum of the west. 

Of the various companies that sprang up in 
the earlier day the Western Union alone re- 
mains. Its present competitors are the Postal 
Telegraph and Cable Company and the Fort 
Wayne Telegraph Company, the latter operating 
locally over but forty-four miles of line. The 
total mileage of telegraph lines within the State 
is 63,684.86, and the assessed valuation amounts 
to $3,336,178. By virtue of this utility, space is 
practically annihilated. The newspaper that is 





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In 1893 Elwood Haynes commenced work on a gaso- 
line motor-driven vehicle which he had originated 
and designed, and which he termed, for want of a 
better name, the "horseless carriage." On July 4, 
1894, he made a successful trial trip on the streets 
of Kokomo in this vehicle, running at a speed of 
seven or eight miles per hour. 

brought to our door before breakfast gives us 
the important happenings of the day before, or, 
indeed, of a few hours before, from the four 
quarters of the globe, and business, particularly 
of a large character, is vastly facilitated by quick- 
communication regardless of distance, to say 
nothing of the countless instances of conve- 
nience, public and private. 

The Telephone. — But the telegraph as an in- 
strument of intercommunication sinks into a 
quite secondary place as compared with the tele- 
phone. Like the automobile in transportation, 
only to a far greater degree, it has become a 
popular luxury and convenience as well as a 
business necessity, and by reason of its intimate 



and universal uses it has become a great factor in 
social development. By its help the business 
world has acquired a quicker pace ; time and 
countless steps are saved at every turn ; town 
and country are alike served and knit together ; 
the transactions of daily life generally, from the 
private messages between friend and friend to 
the busy messages of the mart are vastly facili- 
tated, and if the telephone were suddenly abol- 
ished the world would find it difficult to adapt 
itself to former conditions. 

The telephone was introduced into Indianap- 
olis in 1877 when three business firms, almost 
simultaneously, ran wires from their offices 
across town to their yards and factories. About 
a year later the "Indiana District Telephone 
Company, of Indianapolis," was organized and 
the council solicited for permission to erect wires 
and poles on the streets. This was at first re- 
fused, but in February of 1879 the right was 
given to hang wires on the fire alarm telegraph 
poles if the company would keep them in repair 
and furnish the city with twenty-two telephones 
for the fire houses, free of charge, with addi- 
tional ones if other houses were put in the serv- 
ice. The conditions were accepted and the new 
company started with something less than a hun- 
dred patrons. It was succeeded in 1880 by the 
Telephone Excliangc Companv, and this, in 

turn, was supplanted by the Central Union Tele- 
phone Company. In those days "the service was 
poor ; the patronage not large ; the charges high." 
When the Legislature of 1885 set the maximum 
charge for telephone service at $3 per month 
the company contested the law in court, and on 
losing its case announced its determination to 
quit. After four years of complications the re- 
strictive law was repealed and the Central Union 
has remained in operation to the present day, 
being by far the most valuable telephone prop- 
erty in the State.* 

The telephone service has expanded until In- 
diana is to-day fairly netted with wires. In the 
tax commissioner's latest report (1914) there 
are listed 429 telephone companies, mostly inde- 
pendent of each other, but co-operative so that 
long-distance service can be had from any point 
in the State to any other point. The distances 
covered by these separate lines range all the way 
from two miles for the Farmers' Mutual Tele- 
phone Company, of Vevay, to 152,296 miles for 
the Central Union, of Indianapolis, and the as- 
sessed values of the properties vary accordingly. 
The Central Union, which runs highest, being 
$5,482,656. The total mileage is 375,471.28, and 
the total value $15,840,115. 

* For fuller sketch of telephone beginnings in Indianapolis, 
see Dunn's History of Indianapolis. 




Early Forests. — The forests of the State 
must be considered as a passing resource, as the 
native woods used in the manufactures are grow- 
ing more and more scarce. Originally no region 
in the world, perhaps, surpassed ours for the 
variety of woods that are valuable in the manu- 
factures. The State was virtually covered by 
one vast forest. The late John P. Brown, of 
Connersville, a student of this subject, estimated 
that out of the 35,910 square miles comprising 
the total area of the State, 28,000 square miles 
were forested,! and Professor Stanley Coulter, 
of Purdue University, says that "many of the 
most valuable hardwood timbers reached their 
maximum development, both as to size and num- 
bers, within the limits of the State." In 1836 
Calvin Fletcher, Jr., of Indianapolis, traveled 
northward over the Michigan road, then newly 
cut out, and he speaks of the "enormous con- 
tinuous log heap of white oak" that had been 
cleared off the right of way and piled along the 
sides of the road. 

Variety and Sizes of Trees. — Our trees rep- 
resented a wide botanical range. Charles C. 
Dean, former secretary of the State Board of 
Forestry, in an article descriptive of the "Trees 
of Indiana" (official report for 1911) includes 
139 species that have been reported as native to 
the State. J These are classified in thirty-seven 
families and range from the white pine of the 
north to the pecan of the south. Most of these 
have some and many of them a great economic 
value, the oaks, hickories, ashes, tulip-poplar 
and black walnut being conspicuous among the 
more valuable. Many of these, also, before the 
monarchs of the forest fell victim to the ax, 
were of colossal size, if tradition is to be ac- 

* The most important and most permanent natural resource 
is the soil, but as consideration of the soil becomes primarily :l 
study of the products of the soil this will come under the head 
of "Agriculture." 

t Address before the State Board of Commerce, Feb. 8, 1900. 

% Mr. Dean surmises that the primitive forests contained many 
species of trees that have now disappeared. 

cepted. The late Doctor Arnold, author of a 
history of Rush county, affirmed that there once 
stood in that county a yellow poplar that was 
twelve feet in diameter, a black walnut that was 
ten feet and an oak that was eight. In the same 
county grew a mammoth buckeye which tradition 
made nine feet in diameter, but which, on more 
careful inquiry, seems to have been about four 
and a half feet. At any rate its bole was large 
enough to be made into a "dugout" canoe forty- 
five feet long, which was mounted on wheels and 
drawn by six or eight horses in the parades of 
the famous campaign of 1840, being filled with 
gaily-appareled damsels as an attractive cargo. 
Reliable records from accurate measurements 
made in recent years show that specimens up to 
twenty-two feet in circumference with clear 
boles running up to seventy-five feet or over, and 
total heights exceeding 150 feet, are not uncom- 
mon. A yellow poplar twenty-five feet in circum- 
ference and 190 feet high is reported from the 
lower Wabash valley, and a sycamore tree in 
Daviess county (described in 1880) measured 
forty-eight feet in circumference (State Board of 
Forestry Report, 1911). One nearly the same size 
now standing in Greene county about a mile and 
a half southeast of Worthington is described by 
Dr. W. B. Clarke in the Indianapolis News of 
June 28, 1915. For picture of this tree see 
sketch of Greene county. 

Forest Destruction. — To the pioneers of the 
State the forests were a serious obstacle and of 
value only as they contributed material to the 
cabin, the rail fence and the fireplace. The 
frequent comment on the wholesale destruction 
of valuable timber must be shorn of its criticism 
when we remember that the timber was not valu- 
able then, and that the prime need of the settlers 
was tillable soil. Hence the era of the ax and 
the indiscriminate warfare against trees. They 
were "girdled" and killed as the quickest way of 
getting at the ground ; when down they were cut 
into logs, rolled into heaps and burned, all kinds 
together; preparations for such holocausts by 




"log rolling" was a social pastime, and "niggerin' 
off," or burning the logs into chunks more han- 
dleable, was an art of the day. As late as the 
sixties the finest white oak trees were made into 
fence rails, and at an earlier day many a choice 
walnut shared the same fate. 

Early Uses of Wood. — With the introduction 
of the sawmill and the substitution of frame 
houses for log ones timber began to be manu- 
factured into lumber, and the output increased 
as the population grew. The pioneer cabinet- 
maker, too, began to draw on the finer woods for 
his uses, particularly the wild cherry and walnut, 
and not a few modern homes retain as their 
prized possessions the elegant and substantial 
furniture made by those early artisans. One of 
the latter, Caleb Scudder, came with the first 
immigrants to Indianapolis and, according to a 
chronicler of that period, the very first sign 
painted in the village advertised "Kalop Skodder, 
Kabbinet Maker" (Nowland's "Prominent Citi- 
zens"). In the flat-boating days when large 
numbers of those craft carried the produce of 
the interior down the streams, much lumber went 
into their construction, particularly yellow pop- 
lar, which was fashioned into broad slabs for the 
sides or "gunnels." The incoming of the rail- 
road created a demand for much timber, the 
early style of construction calling for "mudsills," 
ties and stringers, and the plank roads took heavy 
toll of the finest oak for their miles of solid 

Manufactures and Forest Resources. — With 
the development of manufactures there came an 
increasing demand for woods of various kinds 
and for many purposes, and this grew until the 
forest products became an important element in 
the State's wealth. This reached its high tide 
about 1900. At that time J. P. Brown, above 
cited, wrote : 

"Fifty thousand citizens of Indiana are em- 
ployed in wood industries and each year receive 
$15,000,000 in wages, while a quarter of a million 
of women and children are dependent upon these 
employes for their support. The finished prod- 
uct of this labor brings annually $50,000,000 to 
Indiana manufacturers. Indiana's railway com- 
merce is borne upon 30,000,000 wooden cross- 
ties which must be renewed at the rate of 4,500,- 
000 ties annually, the cost of which is fifteen per 

cent, of the entire operative expenses of the rail- 
ways. Twelve thousand five hundred miles of 
electric wires are strung upon 250,000 poles, 
which require frequent renewals."* 

The foregoing was written in 1900. After that 
time the wood industries began to decline and 
within five years the value of manufactured 
products fell from $20,000,000 to $14,500,000, 
while Indiana retrograded from the seventh to 
the sixteenth place in the production of lumber. 
Even at that, however, wood-working ranked 
fourth among the industries of the State. f 

Since then the depletion of the native timber 
supply has been going on, and the forests to 
that extent have ceased to be one of our great 
natural resources. The industries have not de- 
clined in proportion, as the transportation ad- 
vantages for products more than balance the 
disadvantages of importing raw material. Out 
of 232 concerns from which reports were se- 
cured by Mr. Breeze, the investigator above 
cited, thirty-three used no lumber at all from 
Indiana, while fifty-six used from one to twenty- 
five per cent. only. All of them depended more 
or less upon outside supplies. 

It should be noted that owing to the growing 
scarcity of woods many kinds that were once 
considered as fit for nothing, except, perhaps, 
firewood, are now utilized in the industries. A 
list of those used, as compiled by Mr. Breeze, in- 
cludes twenty-four different kinds, and among 
these are cottonwood, gum, elm, basswood, 
beech and sycamore, none of which were re- 
garded as valuable for saw logs twenty-five years 
ago. Oak, basswood, cottonwood, elm, gum, 
maple, walnut and yellow poplar all are used for 
veneers. Indianapolis is one of the great veneer- 
ing centers of the United States. 

Twofold Effect of Forest Destruction. — The 
destruction of our forests have had this harmful 
twofold result : 

1. The continued drain upon them with no 
attempt to replace the valuable raw material they 
yield has depleted them as a natural resource 
until our manufacturers who depend upon woods 
have to seek their material elsewhere. This is 

* "The Forests of Indiana the Reliance of Her Manufac- 
turers," by J. P. Brown. An address printed by the Courier, 
Connersville, Ind. 

t F. J. Breeze: A Preliminary Report of the Wood-Using In- 
dustries of Indiana. St. Bd. Forestry rept. for 1911. 



an economic evil which the forest conservation- 
ists have in mind in their propaganda for re- 

2. The removal of the forests, it is now be- 
ing discovered, has disturbed the balance of 
nature and affected the climate, the conservation 
of the water supply, the conservation of the soil, 
and the agricultural status as it depends upon 
these. Some of the results discussed are at pres- 
ent hypothetical, but the detrimental changes. 

C. Gobel illustrates the first surface effect by the 
simple idea of an inclined plane covered with 
loose soil. When well sprinkled with water the 
downward wash of this soil by the force of the 
descending water follows as a matter of course ; 
but if it is covered with a layer of cotton batting 
and the batting is sprinkled the force of the fall- 
ing water is taken up by this covering and the 
moisture gently permeates the earth. If in addi- 
tion to this we think of the soil as reinforced by 

{forestry ! 


: * % hVpI 

Forestry Building, State Fair Grounds, Indianapolis. This building was erected in the summer of 1915 for the 
purpose of maintaining a permanent exhibit of everything pertaining to forestry and forest products of 
Indiana. The building was dedicated September 7, 1915, Ex-Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks and 
Governor Ralston participating. The names of persons seated reading from left to right are E. A. Glad- 
den, State Forester: Warren T. McCrea, President Indiana State Board of Agriculture: Prof. \V. C. Gobel, 
Nashville ; Charles W. Fairbanks : Curtis D. Meeker. Monticello ; W. A. Guthrie. President Board of For- 
estry. Standing is Governor Ralston. 

whatever their exact relations, are sufficiently 
pronounced to have brought about the conserva- 
tion movement, which is nation-wide. 

Physical Effects of Forest Destruction. — 
In the State Board of Forestry report for 1913 
Professor Glenn Culbertson, of Hanover Col- 
lege, sets forth in an interesting and informative 
article some physical effects of forest destruction, 
which effects are more far-reaching than we 
generally suppose. In the same report Mr. W. 

many interlacing roots the wash will be still fur- 
ther minimized. Moreover, the batting takes up 
a part of the water, retaining it as moisture, 
which affects the underlying soil for some time 
after. This fairly represents the leaf-mulched 
surface of forested areas as contrasted with bare, 
denuded areas which shed the rains before they 
have time to saturate the earth. 

Our local histories repeatedly state that 
marked changes have taken place in the normal 



flow of our streams since pioneer times. The 
explanation is that the waters instead of being 
feil gradually from the mulched soil, go off with 
a rush, damaging freshets alternating with a 
normal flow that is proportionately small. Pro- 
fessor Culbertson, from a special study of a half- 
dozen hill counties along the Ohio river, cites 
instances of the freshet damages along the 
streams and of landslides and washings on the 
hillsides that have left the lands ruined for agri- 
cultural purposes. 

The estimate has been made that of the total 
annual rainfall over the earth some 6,000 cubic 
miles of water finds its way to the sea by the 
streams, and the further estimate is that the 
"average annual immediate run-off from these 
streams to-day is at least 50 per cent, greater 
than that from the same regions under the for- 
ested conditions of the past." 

One effect of this rapid disposition of the rains 
is the lowering of the water level in the ground. 
The earth does not become thoroughly saturated 
and hence springs fail and wells have to be sunk 
deeper and deeper to find strong, reliable veins, 
while in cases of drought the effects are felt 
much quicker and more severely. 

In a word, under forest conditions the rains, 
which otherwise rush away and in large degree 
are wasted, are conserved and by various natural 
processes made to serve the fullest purpose. The 
extent to which the State has been deforested 
has seriously disturbed the balance of nature, 
and the question of remedy is now being forced 
upon us. 

Supposed Climatic Effects. — The physical 
effects of deforestation as above cited are too 
well established to be speculative. There are 
other more remote effects, not so certain of 
proof, but widely accepted nevertheless, particu- 
larly as they regard the modifying of climate. 
Professor Culbertson's argument, perhaps, fairly 
covers the ground. This is that the evaporation 
in the hot season from a soil and leaf -mulch that 
are saturated is very considerable, and where 
such area is extensive the moisture contributed 
to the atmosphere must be a factor in the pre- 

Again, the amount of moisture taken up by 
trees in the form of sap and evaporated from 
the leaves is, in the case of a whole forest, some- 
thing enormous, experiment having demon- 

strated that one large tree, under certain condi- 
tions, may give off as much as several tons within 
twenty- four hours. That this must have some- 
thing to do with increased precipitation seems 
altogether plausible. Moreover, this evapora- 
tion, it is said, modifies the temperature of the 
air and creates atmospheric conditions that favor 

Still another effect to which the forest contrib- 
utes is the gentle "secondary showers," following 
thunderstorms, due to the vast amount of evap- 
oration from wet leaves ; which showers saturate 
the soil much better than the beating storm. 

Forestry Movement in Indiana. — Experience 
and observation have taught in Indiana as else- 
where that the deforestation of the country 
brings about detrimental conditions that affect 
economic welfare so seriously as to demand at- 
tention and attempt at prevention. It stands to 
reason that we can not restore the original for- 
ests with their leaf-mulch as a water conserver, 
and just how and to what extent reforestation 
can be promoted is still a debatable question. 
The theory on which the State is proceeding to- 
day contemplates both conservation, or the pres- 
ervation of remaining forests, and rehabilitation, 
or the re-establishment of woodlands. The the- 
ory is that certain rough areas in the hilly por- 
tions of the State, of little value for agriculture, 
might profitably yield timber for commercial pur- 
poses, and do this continuously by a process of 
scientific forestry. It also holds that through- 
out all parts of the State are scattered small 
areas, practically waste, that should be given to 
trees ; it is figured that wood crops, such as catal- 
pas for fence posts, make a good return, and the 
maintenance of a wood-lot as a feature of every 
farm is encouraged. 

Back of this theory is a practical movement 
for the promotion of reforestation which will be 
briefly described in this connection, though it 
might appropriately come under the head of 
"governmental activities." Some time prior to 
1901 a society, under the name of the "Indiana 
Forestry Association," was formed, with Albert 
Lieber, of Indianapolis, as its president, and 
John P. Brown, of Connersville as secretary. Its 
aim was to create interest in agriculture and pro- 
mote the passage of a forestry law, and in 1901 it 
succeeded in securing such a law. This statute 
established a "State Board of Forestry," consist- 



ing of five members, one to be from the member- 
ship of the Forestry Association, just mentioned ; 
one from the Retail Lumber Dealers' Associa- 
tion of Indiana; one from the faculty of Purdue 
University; one from the woodworkers of the 
State, who is to be a mechanic actively employed 
at his trade, and one who was to have special 
knowledge of the theory and art of forest pres- 
ervation and timber culture and a technical 
knowledge of the topography of the State. This 
last member was to be secretary of the board 

part of Clark county, near the town of Henry- 
ville. The larger part of this was in the wild 
state, but some of it had been cleared and farmed, 
and one use of the reserve was as an experi- 
mental nursery, the cleared portions being 
planted to various kinds of native forest trees. 
The rates of growth and the success of the plant- 
ings under different conditions have been re- 
corded from year to year and the results have 
been put before landowners over the State. 
The work of the forestry office is largely edu- 

Twin Beeches. These twin beeches are on the Purlee 
farm, in Pierce township, Washington county. It is 
said that they were there when the land was entered 
about 1821-22. 

and ex officio State Forester, at a salary of 
$1,200 and an expense allowance not to exceed 
$600.* The duty of the board was "to collect, 
digest and classify information respecting for- 
ests, timber lands, forest preservation and timber 
culture, and for the establishment of State forest 
reserves," while the secretary's office was to be a 
bureau of information on such subjects. 

State Forest Reserve. — In 1903 the State 
purchased, through the forestry board, 2,000 
acres of cheap, broken land in the northwestern 

* The salary was afterward increased to $1,800. 

This poplar tree in Washington county is 18 feet in cir- 
cumference. The first limb is 75 feet from the 
ground. The owner, Mr. Carry Morris, refused $500 
for this monarch of the forest in 1912. 

cational. To quote from one of its reports : 
"The question has been presented to the public 
through the press, public schools, farmers' insti- 
tutes, civic federations, women's clubs, etc., un- 
til now almost every one knows something about 
the forestry movement and many wood-lot own- 
ers are practising scientific forestry." One fea- 
ture of the propaganda is "Arbor Day," estab- 
lished by law "for the purpose of encouraging 
the planting of shade trees, shrubs and vines." 
The third Friday of April in each year is desig- 
nated as a day for general observance, and the 



governor is to make proclamation of said day 
in each year, at least thirty days prior thereto. 
The observance chiefly holds in the schools, it 
being made the duty of county and city superin- 
tendents to prepare programs of exercise for the 
pupils. In this law Charles Warren Fairbanks 
is especially recognized as "the leading spirit of 
Indiana forestry conservation." 

Conservation of Bird Life. — Closely con- 
nected with arboriculture and of such economic 
importance that it may fairly be considered a nat- 
ural resource, is the bird population. The indis- 
criminate destruction of bird life has been yet 
more wasteful and wanton than that of the trees. 
The result has been an increase of the insect pop- 
ulation that is a standing threat to vegetation. 
Pomology in particular has suffered and fruits 
that once thrived with little protection can now 
be secured only by a continual and systematic 
fight against insect enemies. If unchecked these 
enemies with their amazing reproductive powers 
would doubtless overrun the globe in time and by 
their destruction of plant life indirectly destroy 
animal life. The spread of the San Jose scale, 
the curculio, the codlin moth and other fruit 
devastators is a familiar story. Among the for- 
est trees each has its peculiar enemies and the 
same is true of each plant in the garden ; the 
wheat has its chinch bug and Hessian fly : the 
young corn its cut worm, and so on, ad infinitum. 

In the nice balance of nature birds are the nat- 
ural regulators of the insect population. In the 
ground, beneath the bark of trees, on the foliage 
and in the air they find grubs, eggs and adult in- 
sects to sate their voracious appetites, and ob- 
servation has shown that the amount of con- 
sumption is astonishing. In a word, the wanton 
destruction of birds has seriously disarranged 
nature's scheme of regulation and we are now 
beginning to realize the consequences. 

The first movement looking to the preservation 
of birds was, perhaps, a sentimental rather than 
an economic one. The wholesale slaughter of 
birds for the barbarous decoration of women's 
hats created a revulsion among those of finer 
feelings who loved birds and who saw the heart- 
lessness of the custom prevailing in the name of 
fashion. This sentiment, reinforced, of course, 
by the economic argument, crystallized in the Au- 
dubon Society movement, which has been the 

great educator for the last fifteen or twenty 
years.* The Indiana Audubon Society within that 
time has faithfully pushed its propaganda for 
bird protection with a wisdom that looked to the 
future for results, and with a patience that be- 
spoke permanence it carried into the schoolroom 
its gospel of good-will to birds, and its annual 
meetings held successively in various cities over 
the State have given it State-wide prestige. The 
effects have been beneficent and marked. This 
society, of course, was but a unit in a country- 
wide movement. As a general result there has 
been a notable change in the wearing of bird 
plumage by women, which was the greatest cause 
of bird destruction. Stimulated, doubtless, by 
the growing interest that was based on sentiment, 
the economists have come to the fore and the 
public is being educated to the necessity of bird 
protection as a part of the great conservation 
movement which affects material welfare ; while 
Indiana, along with many other States, now has 
an excellent law protecting insectivorous as well 
as game birds. The State laws, in turn, are rein- 
forced by a Federal law that affords protection 
to migratory birds as they pass beyond the juris- 
diction of protecting States. 


Early History. — Knowledge of coal in In- 
diana long antedated its utilization as an impor- 
tant natural resource in this part of the country. 
As early as 1763 George Croghan, an English of- 
ficer who was captured by the Indians and taken 
up the Wabash, makes mention of the mineral. 
The first surveyors of Indiana (1804) also dis- 
covered and made note of it, and in 1812 Robert 
Fulton, who brought his steamboat, the "Or- 
leans" down the Ohio river, found and dug coal 
at a point near Cannelton. The first charter for 
the mining of coal was granted to the American 
Cannel Coal Company, of Cannelton. in 1837. 
The abundance of wood for fuel and the ab- 
sence of manufacturing industries retarded the 
development of the coal industry, but by 1840 it 
was pursued on a small scale in various places, 
partly for export. The chief domestic use was 
for blacksmithing. The earlier mining was 
where the coal outcropped, the first shaft being 

* The Indiana Audubon Society was organized at Indianapolis 
April 26, 1896, with Judge R. W. McBride as president and 
George S. Cottman as secretary. 



sunk in 1850 by John Hutchinson one mile east 
of Newburg, on the bank of the Ohio river. In 
digging a well in Clay county, in 1851, the block 
coal of that region was discovered, and in the fol- 
lowing year this coal was mined and shipped out 
of the county. With the incoming of the manu- 
factories the coal industry rapidly increased and 
in 1879 laws were passed for the regulation of 
mines and a mine inspector was appointed.* 

The Indiana Area. — The Indiana coal area is 
part of a great field of about 47,000 square miles 
that covers a large portion of Illinois and laps 
over into our State and northwestern Kentucky. 
The total Indiana area is estimated at about 
7,500 square miles. It comprises the west and 
southwest part of the State, and a line drawn 
from Benton southeastward to Owen, thence to 
Crawford at Leavenworth on the Ohio, would, 
roughly speaking, enclose our coal field. This 
includes fourteen counties that are wholly and 
twelve that are partly underlain. It has been 
estimated from drillings that reveal the approxi- 
mate extent and thickness of the beds, that be- 
neath the surface of these counties lies something 
like 40,000,000,000 tons of coal. A great deal 
of this is regarded as "unworkable" with our 
present facilities, but by 1898 100,000,000 tons 
had been actually mined out, and by a further 
computation, based on the rate of increasing con- 
sumption for eighteen years, and on area re- 
garded as workable, it is thought "safe to assume 
that the life of the Indiana coal field is at least 
300 years,f and probably more" (Ashley). 

Growth of Coal Industry. — By 1879 the coal 
industry had expanded to an output, that year, 
of about 1,000,000 tons, and by 1898 this had in- 
creased to 5,000,000 tons, in spite of the discov- 
ery and extensive use of natural gas. After the 
collapse of the gas era mining developed yet 
more rapidly. About 11,000,000 tons were taken 
out in 1903 and 13,250,000 tons in 1907. Ac- 
cording to the annual report of the Inspector 
of Mines, James Epperson, for the year 19101 
(35th Geol. Rept.), the "total general average 
for all mines in the State" was 18,125,244 tons 

* See "Coal Deposits of Indiana," by George Hall Ashley. 
Indiana Geological Report for 1898. 

t This, of course, is largely speculative. Elsewhere we are 
told our fields ought to last a thousand years. 

J The last statistics we find on mining, the suhject not being 
included in the later reports of the Department of Statistics. 

and the total number of miners 14,810. The 
total number of mine employes were 21,171 and 
their wages for a year amounted to $15,527,- 
390.72, being an average of $733.42 for each 
employe. Of the output 54.56 per cent, was 
shipped to other States, and the remainder, 
amounting to 8,235,655 tons, was used in In- 
diana. The total number of mines employing 
more than ten men were 182, and these were dis- 
tributed irregularly over fourteen counties, with 
Clay, Greene, Sullivan and Vigo in the lead as 
to numbers. 

Kinds of Indiana Coal. — All the coals of this 
State are bituminous in character, but fall into 
three distinct kinds, known as "bituminous," 
"block" and "cannel." Our cannel, which is lim- 
ited in amount, cuts little figure in the coal mar- 
ket, though it has its peculiar merits, being 
cleanly to handle and remarkably easy to ignite. 
A difference between the bituminous and the 
block is that the former in burning runs together 
or "cokes," which gives it especial value for forge 
work, while the block burns to a clean white ash 
without coking. The especial merit of the latter 
is as a steaming coal. The quantity of bitumi- 
nous mined is far in excess of the block and on 
the market takes various specific names. 


First Wells. — Conspicuous among the natural 
resources of the State during the period of its 
usefulness, was natural gas. The natural gas era, 
which was in the ascendency here from 1886 to 
1900, may be spoken of as spectacular, so sud- 
denly did it develop as an economic factor and 
so great were the changes it wrought. 

What is frequently spoken of as the "discov- 
ery" of gas in the eighties is an inaccurate use 
of terms, since there is record of it in Pulaski 
county, Indiana, as early as 1865 ; elsewhere, 
long before that, it had been used for lights and 
fuel, and it was so used extensively in Pennsyl- 
vania before it was utilized in Indiana. In 1884 
a well sunk at Findlay, Ohio, yielded a strong 
flow of gas, and the interest in this part of the 
country was stimulated by that find. In 1886 it 
was discovered at Portland, Jay county, that 
Indiana had rock capable of a high-pressure flow. 
The same vear a Kokomo company drilled ami 



secured a "gusher," and the utilizing of this well 
for factory and domestic fuel seems to have been 
the beginning of the "gas era" in this State.* 

The commercial opportunities that opened up 
with the application of this new resource created 
an excitement akin to the oil craze of earlier 
days. A cleanly, convenient and labor-saving 
fuel of greater heating value than either wood or 
coal, that could be brought cheaply to one's fur- 
nace or stove, set both manufacturers and pri- 
vate consumers agog, and the capitalists hastened 
to supply them.f Land speculation ran rife 
wherever it was suspected there was gas-bearing 
rock, and in and out of the belt wells were sunk 
till, in the words of a humorist of the day, Indi- 
ana, in spots, was suggestive of a porous plaster, 
and the only way to utilize the wells that never 
found gas was to "saw them into post-holes." 

Natural Gas Area. — The gas area, as finally 
developed, comprised, wholly or in part twenty- 
six counties (Geol. Rept. 1907). The chief field 
may be described as approximately pear-shaped, 
the small end resting in Decatur county, thence 
swelling eastward with the eastern limit at Ran- 
dolph and Jay counties and westward to the east- 
ern part of Clinton. From these east and west 
extremes it rounded northward almost to the 
Wabash river. J Another field in the southwest- 
ern part of the State extends from Vigo to Gib- 
son and Pike, and reaches eastward to Greene. 
These fields combined are said to be much larger 
than those in any other State, and they were 
practically enlarged miles beyond the productive 
limits by the construction of pipe-lines that con- 
veyed the gas to outlying territory. Indianapolis, 
Richmond, Lafayette and many other outside cit- 
ies were thus supplied. 

Industrial Effects of Gas. — The gas area va- 
ried in its yield or strength of flow. The center 
of our greatest supply was Madison and Dela- 
ware counties and the adjacent region, and it was 
here that natural gas, combined with excellent 
transportation facilities, wrought the greatest ef- 
fect. This was industrial. Cheap fuel was a 
tempting bait to the manufacturers that required 
much of it, and the gas belt suddenly found itself 

* Before this, however, gas from weaker wells that had been 
drilled for oil, had been utilized in a small way. 

t In the geological report of 1895 a list of incorporated natural 
gas companies is given, numbering 324. 

+ For chart showing location of wells and pipelines see Geol. 
Rept. 1897. 

in possession of a valuable asset. Its fuel was so 
cheap that it could be given away and many com- 
petitive towns, making a bid for industrial pros- 
perity, offered free gas to establishments that 
would settle in their midst. The general result 
is thus stated by one writer on the subject : 

"In 1886, when gas was discovered, the gas 
belt was an agricultural district. Besides the cus- 
tomary flouring- and saw-mills the factories were 
few and confined almost exclusively to the mak- 
ing of wooden wares. . . . Soon, however, 
all classes of industries were represented. . . . 
About the time the gas was beginning to fail in 
Ohio and Pennsylvania it was discovered in In- 
diana. The field was vast in extent, the supply 
strong. Capitalists were glad to move their in- 
terests to the new field. By 1893 over $300,- 
000,000 had been invested in factories in Indiana, 
and more were constantly being erected. It was 
estimated that at that time not less than three 
hundred factories had been located and put in 
operation as a direct result of the development 
of natural gas. Many of them were very large, 
as the De Pauw Plate-Glass Works at Alexan- 
dria, the largest of its kind in the world. In 1880 
there were seven States manufacturing more 
glass than Indiana. In 1890 only three States 
stood above ours in this product. The value of 
glass products in 1880 was $790,781. In 1892 it 
had risen to $2,995,409. ... In 1890 there 
were twenty-one glass factories valued at $3,556,- 
563, and employing 3,089 men. ... In the 
iron and steel industry there were in 1880 nine 
factories with a value of $1,820,000, employing 
1,740 men. In 1890 the number of factories had 
increased to thirteen, the value to $3,888,254. Two 
thousand six hundred and forty-four men re- 
ceived annual wages of $1,215,702. From 1890 
to 1895 the growth was still more rapid. Janu- 
ary 1, 1895, the number of glass factories was 50 
instead of 21. They were valued at $5,000,000 
and employed 7,000 men, with an annual wage 
of $3,000,000."* 

Decline of the Gas Era; Culpable Waste. — 
It is rarely that nature has given to man a bless- 
ing so freely bestowed as natural gas, and if it 
had been properly appreciated and used with dis- 
cretion it would doubtless have continued its 
service for many years. As it was, never was a 

•"Natural Gas in Indiana," by Margaret Wynn; Ind. Mag. 
Hist., March, 1908. 



natural resource wasted with such senseless 
prodigality and with so little excuse. There was 
hardly a limit to the absurd uses to which it was 
put. The writer recalls one man who kept a big 
flambeau burning over his swill barrel to keep it 
from freezing and had arches of lights over his 
gates from curved perforated pipes ; nor was this 
eccentricity exceptional. In small towns the 
streets were illuminated, torch-like, by the lighted 
gas flowing without check from the mouths of 
two-inch pipes and it was no rare spectacle to see 
the flow from gas wells burning an immense 
flame, day and night. It is said that "in 1889 the 
average daily waste from uncapped wells alone 
was estimated to be 10,000,000 cubic feet" (Mar- 
garet Wynn). 

As there was no replenishing of this fuel this 
waste must before very long have its effect. By 
reason of multiplying wells and the tapping of 
new areas the flow steadily increased from 1886 
to 1900. Since this time it has been declining. 
As expressed in terms of money value, it in- 
creased from $300,000 worth in 1886 to $7,254,- 
539 in 1900, and declined to $1,702,243 in 1910 
(Geol. Rept. 1911). The State geologist pro- 
tested against the waste long before steps were 
taken to check it. By the early nineties the Leg- 
islature adopted restrictive measures, and the 
office of natural gas supervisor was created, but 
it was too late to save the illimitable wastage 
which has been a dead loss to the community 
and which can never be regained. 

Natural Gas.* — The gas of the Indiana part 
of the field known as the Lima-Indiana has been 
failing for the last few years until it has gotten 
so weak in places that it is being replaced by 
gas piped into the State by the Logan Natural 
Gas and Fuel Company, of West Virginia. The 
gas is pumped into the State and reaches it with 
a pressure of about 125 pounds, but is reduced 
to a few ounces before being turned into the city 
lines. The following towns are using West Vir- 
ginia gas : Muncie, Anderson, Elwood, Alexan- 
dria, Fairmount, Hartford City, Marion, New 
Castle. Richmond, Noblesville, Tipton, Lynn and 
Middletown. The gas is now used mostly for 
domestic purposes, very little being used for 
manufacturing, and is sold to the consumer at 
from thirty cents to forty cents per thousand. 

While much gas is being piped into Indiana, 

* Thirty-ninth Annual Report Dept. of Geol. 

there still remain 2,295 gas wells that are produc- 
ing some gas and are supplying a great many of 
the smaller towns and the farmers on whose farms 
they are located. In Tipton and Howard coun- 
ties the Indiana Natural Gas and Oil Company 
has a great many wells, the gas from which is 
being piped to Chicago. There were sixty-four 
new wells drilled in the year of 1914, and 147 
old wells abandoned. 

The Sullivan county oil field produces enough 
gas, in addition to that used in the field for 
power, to supply about eighty consumers in Sul- 

The Oakland City oil field produces enough 
gas to supply Oakland City and Winslow with 

The remaining gas wells in Indiana have an 
average pressure of 74.4 pounds, and the av- 
erage price per thousand, and for which it is 
sold, is $0,327. The remaining gas wells and 
mains, not including the plants supplied with 
West Virginia gas, represent an original invest- 
ment of about $20,000,000, but in their present 
condition would be worth about $1,000,000. 


First Oil Wells; Development of the Field. 
— While the petroleum industry in the United 
States dates back to 1859 it was not begun in In- 
diana until 1889, when a well was sunk on the 
farm of D. A. Bryson, near the village of Key- 
stone in Wells county. This was done by a cor- 
poration styling itself the "Northern Indiana Oil 
Company" and it was the beginning of an indus- 
try that became one of the great ones of the 
State. Two years later the above-named com- 
pany had fifteen wells and these were multiplied 
by other fortune seekers, who rapidly explored 
and developed the paying oil area. This area. 
which lay northeast of the State's center and 
south of the Wabash was developed to 400 
square miles by 1896. By 1900 it had grown to 
900 square miles, and to 1,350 by 1903. The 
Lima-Indiana oil field for the year of 1914, pro- 
duced 508,987 barrels of oil from 3,796 wells: 
the Princeton and Oakland City field produced 
151.441 barrels from 285 wells, and the Sullivan 
county field produced 859.500 barrels from 415 
wells, making a total production for the State of 
1,519.928 barrels from 4,496 wells, showing an 




increase over the production of 1913 of 549,848 

The price of oil for the last year has been 
such that it has not offered a very great induce- 
ment to oil operators to try to open any new 
fields, or to properly develop the old ones. 

There are a great many counties in Indiana 
which oil men think arc underlaid with oil, but 
they are waiting for the price to advance a little 
so that the chances for gain will be greater. 
Among other places looked upon with favor is 
the territory around Birdseye, Jasper county ; 
Gentryville, Spencer county ; Foltz, Jefferson 
county, and Wilkinson, Hancock county. Near 
Birdseye and Gentryville there were a few wells 
drilled a few years ago, in which there was a 
good showing of oil, but for the want of capital 
at that time there was no more drilling done. In 
Hancock county, the oil for several years has 
b:en showing up in the old gas wells, and there 
have been several thousand acres leased recently 
with the expectation of drilling deeper for oil. 

In Jefferson county there was a strong gas 
well drilled, considering its depth, near Foltz. 
The rock producing the gas is thought to be the 
Niagara limestone, which in itself may not be 
of much importance but may be an indication of 
something deeper at that point. 

There were a few fair oil wells drilled in 
Shelby county, on the west edge of the old gas 
field in that county. 

Illinois geologists claim to have traced an anti- 
cline southeast through eastern Illinois to the In- 
diana line, and Kentucky geologists claim to have 
traced one northwest through Kentucky to the 
southern Indiana line, and that being the case 
it is very evident that it will cross the southwest- 
ern corner of Indiana, covering some points al- 
ready mentioned as being productive of oil. 

In the territory mentioned, near Bruceville, in 
Knox county, there have been some light gas 
wells producing for several years. The Prince- 
ton field in Gibson county has been a very pro- 
ductive oil field ; the Oakland City and Peters- 
burg fields in Pike county have been producing 
oil for several years, and in Spencer county, near 
Gentryville, several years ago, one oil and one 
gas well were drilled which showed a fair 
flow of oil and a good volume of gas, but were 
not developed further for the want of capital at 
that time. While Warrick county is in line of the 

same anticline, no drilling has ever been done. 
The above counties will doubtless be developed 
as soon as the price of oil is sufficient to offer the 
proper inducement to operators. 


Quarrying Area. — By far the greater part of 
Indiana is covered by a sheet of glacial drift 
brought from the north and spread over the bed- 
rocks at varying depths. In the counties south 
of the glacial boundary and along the Wabash 
and some other streams, where erosion has cut 
through the drift, the bedrock out-cropping or 
approaching the surface is available for quarry- 
ing. The State has no granite, except in the 
form of boulders that have been transported in 
the glacial drift, but among the various lime- 
stones and sandstones certain kinds have an eco- 
nomic value for building, flagging, lime, whet- 
stones, grindstones and other uses. 

Building Stone; the Oolitic Limestone. — 
It has been said that no State in the Union pos- 
sesses better stone for building purposes than 
Indiana, and the quarry product of particular 
excellence for such purpose is the Oolitic lime- 
stone from Lawrence, Monroe and adjacent 
counties. It is often called "Bedford" stone, 
from the extensive quarries near that city. This, 
again, is said to have "a wider sale and more 
extended use than any other building stone in 
North America, its wide reputation being due to 
its general usefulness in masonry, ornamenta- 
tion and monuments, its abundance, the ease with 
which it can be quarried and dressed, its pleasing 
color and its durability."* 

The Oolitic stone in Indiana extends from 
Montgomery county to the Ohio river, though 
north of White river it largely loses its value as 
a building stone. In the geological report of 1874 
is mention of a quarry in the southwestern part 
of Jackson county, and again, in 1878, we find 
a description of "the well-known Stockslager 
Oolitic quarry" of Harrison county. As an indus- 
try of real commercial value, which gives the 
stone rank as one of the important resources of 
the State, it is, however, chiefly identified with 
Lawrence, Monroe and Owen counties. This area 

* "The Indiana Oolitic Limestone Industry," by Raymond S. 
Blatchley and others; Geol. Rept. 1907. See also long treatise 
on the Bedford Oolitic Limestone of Indiana, by T. C. Hopkins 
and C. E. Siebenthal, Geol. Rept. 1896. 



has been worked for many years and since the 
close of the civil war vast quantities of stone have 
been taken out. At Bedford, Lawrence county, 
are the largest quarries in the State and among 
the largest in the United States. At the northern 
limit of the worked field is Romona, in Owen 
county, and between it and Bedford are at least 
a dozen districts, each with its group of quarries. 

The output of building stone for 1912, accord- 
ing to the U. S. Geological Survey of Mineral 
Resources, was 10,442,304 cubic feet. There 
was a waste of fifty per cent., of which 18,000 
cubic feet were turned out as crushed limestone 
and 8,500 cubic feet was made into lime. 

Quality of Oolitic Limestone. — The Oolitic 
stone has various merits that give it highest rank 
as a quarry product. Being comparatively soft 
when taken out of the beds it is easily sawed and 
dressed. It is especially adapted for ornamental 
work and is used extensively for monuments, 
rustic gateways, lawn settees and other objects 
calling for the exercise of the stone carver's art, 
its value for these purposes being enhanced by 
the resistance of the stone to weather. 

It is especially famous, however, as a building 
stone by reason of its workableness, appearance, 
weather resistance and crushing strength, its re- 
sistance to pressure equaling 4,500 to 7,000 
pounds per square inch, as tested in experiments 
(Blatchley). For architectural uses it is in de- 
mand all over the country, notably in the con- 
struction of Government, State and county build- 
ings, libraries, churches, etc. 

Other Quarry Stone. — Beside the Oolitic 
output other stone is quarried extensively. A 
hard limestone known as the "Niagara," which 
is worked in Decatur county, is used more or 
less for building and bridge purposes. This 
same stone, where thinly bedded, is especially 
adapted for flagging and curbs and is quarried 
for that purpose in several localities, notably 
near Laurel, in Franklin county. Sandstone of 
excellent quality for building purposes exists in 
a number of the western and southwestern coun- 
ties from Warren to the Ohio river.* 

What is known as the "Mansfield" sandstone 
is a fine dark-brown stone adapted for house 
fronts and for cornices and lintels for brick 
buildings. Gray and buff sandstones are also 

* For treatise and map see Geol. Rept. 1896. 

quarried for building purposes, but the sandstone 
field, about 175 miles in length, considered as a 
commercial resource, is but imperfectly devel- 

Lime Industry. — A very important product 
from certain limestones of the State is the lime 
of commerce, the chief use of which is for mortar 
and plaster for building. It is also used in the 
tanning, glass-making, paper-making and cement 
industries, and for various other purposes. 

Good stone for lime-making is quarried and 
so utilized in various parts of the State from 
Clark and Crawford counties on the Ohio to 
Huntington on the upper Wabash. 


A natural resource closely allied to the rocks 
is clay in its various forms, and few, if any, out- 
rank this one in usefulness. To quote Geologist 
Blatchley : "No mineral resource of the earth 
has been longer used or has been made into such 
various products for the benefit of the human 
race," and it has figured in the manufactures of 
the world from the rude utensils of prehistoric 
races to the multiplied uses of the present day. A 
list of these uses would include domestic wares, 
architectural material, draining tile, sewer tile, 
flue linings, fire brick, ornamental tile and pot- 
tery, and other articles too numerous to mention. 

The clays used in the industries vary in value 
according to purity, fineness, plasticity and other 
qualities, and those in Indiana are adapted to a 
variety of manufactures, from common brick 
and draining tile to pottery and ornamental terra- 

The common yellow clay, used for the cheaper 
building bricks and draining tiles, is found and 
utilized all over the State, but the finer kinds 
are in the western counties and run the length 
of the State. The geological report of 1906 (the 
last one to consider this subject) states that "the 
clays of Indiana rank in value next to coal and 
petroleum among the natural resources of the 
State," but adds that "even yet but few of the 
main deposits are being worked, and there is 
room for five times as many factories as are now 
in operation. According to the census report of 
1910, there were then thirty-one Indiana estab- 
lishments engaged in the manufacture of pot- 



tery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products, and these 
gave employment to 2,373 persons. The value 
of the products amounted to $2,965,768." 


Sand for the manufacture of glass is a natural 
resource of considerable importance in Indiana, 
as there were, in 1910, forty-four glass factories 
in the State representing an investment of more 
than thirteen million dollars and an output in 
one year valued at $11,593,094. In glass-making 
sand of a certain quality is used in large quan- 
tities, and as transportation is an expensive item 
the proximity of the material to the factories is 
a factor in locating the industry. This sand may 
be loose or in the form of sandstone, in which 
latter case it is crushed and prepared for use. Our 
best loose sand is on the shore of Lake Michigan, 
at Michigan City, in a huge dune, or sand hill, 
which is practically unlimited in quantity. The 
best in the rock form is in the formation known 
as Mansfield sandstone, which extends down the 
west side of the State, and is available inexhaust- 
ibly from Fountain county to the Ohio river. 
There are several plants established for crushing, 
screening and otherwise converting this rock into 
the sand of commerce, but we find no statistics 
of the industry.* 


Cement Material; "Natural" Cement. — In 
1906 State Geologist Blatchley said : "No min- 
eral industry in the United States has grown 
more rapidly during the last fifteen years than 
that of the manufacture of Portland cement." 
Indiana has shared in that industry, her output 
rapidly increasing in recent years until in 1910 
it was valued at $7,022,000 (U. S. Census), 
while the material for the manufacture of cement 
exists in the State in practically unlimited quan- 

The constituents of cement are carbonate of 
lime and clay — about 78 per cent, of the former 
and 22 per cent, of the latter being the propor- 
tions when artificially mixed in the product 
known as "Portland" cement. In some rocks 
both these elements exist and in such proportion 

that a very fair cement may be made by the sim- 
ple process of burning in a kiln and grinding to 
a dust. Great beds of such rock are to be found 
in Clark, Floyd and other counties along the 
Ohio river, and the "natural rock" or "hydraulic" 
cement, as it is called, has been manufactured in 
Clark county for many years. The product 
known to the trade as the "Louisville" cement 
was put out in the year 1890 to the extent of 
more than a million and a half barrels, and by 
1899 this had increased to nearly three million 
barrels. With the development of the "Port- 
land" industry, however, the demand for the 
natural rock production fell off and it now has, 
at best, a very minor place on the market. 

Portland Cement. — In the Portland cement 
as distinguished from the natural rock the clay 
and the lime element are mixed artificially, thus 
securing a more perfect proportion with a su- 
perior cement as a result. The process was in- 
troduced by one Joseph Aspdin, Leeds, England, 
in 1824, and he bestowed the name "Portland" 
because of the resemblance of the cement to the 
Portland oolitic building stone. It was first 
made in Indiana at South Bend, in 1877-8, and 
this is said to have been the first successful manu- 
facture of artificial cement in the United States 
(Geol. Rept. 1900, p. 24). 

The lime for Portland cement may be had 
from two sources — limestone and marl, in both 
of which Indiana is rich. The abundance of 
limestone has been already touched upon in the 
sections on "Quarry Stone." The marl deposits 
are found in the lake region of the State in the 
beds of existing or extinct lakes, the supply being 
practically inexhaustible. An extensive survey 
of the lakes and study of their marls, made in 
1899 and 1900, revealed not less than thirty-two 
deposits extensive enough to justify the erection 
of cement plants, and these would probably be 
multiplied with the improvement of facilities for 
getting at the deeper beds. The lime in marl, ac- 
cording to one theory, has been a long, slow de- 
posit from the waters of springs that well up in 
the lakes.* 

One advantage of marl over limestone in the 
manufacturing process is that the labor of crush- 
ing is obviated. On the other hand there is a 

* For chapter on the "Glass Sands of Indiana," by State 
Geologist Barrett, see report of 1913. 

* For a long treatise on "The Lakes of Northern Indiana and 
Their Associated Marl Deposits," hy W. S. Blatchley and Geo. 
H. Ashley, see Geol. Rept. 1900. 



vast amount of wastage in the quarrying and 
dressing of limestones for building purposes, and 
this wastage makes a cheap and convenient by- 
product for cement manufacture. In a list of 
eight factories that were operating in 19C6, three 
used marl and five used various kinds of lime- 
stone. The largest factory, located at Mitchell, 
Lawrence county, with a capacity of 5,000 bar- 
rels per day, used "Mitchell" limestone with 
knobstone shale as clay. The largest marl fac- 
tor)-, equal to 1,800 barrels per day, was at Syra- 
cuse, Kosciusko county. 

Uses of Cement. — The uses to which Port- 
land cement is put, continually multiplying, are 
almost beyond enumeration. One of the con- 
spicuous uses is for concrete sidewalks, the 
mileage of which is becoming immense. Con- 
crete highways for country travel are likewise 
coming into service. For building purposes it is 
becoming a formidable rival of wood, stone and 
brick. For massive work, such as bridges, abut- 
ments, piers, etc., it is, to no small degree, super- 
seding stone, and it is taking the place of wood 
in scores, if not hundreds, of articles. The limit 
is by no means yet reached and, in brief, the 
cement resources of the State are destined to 
be productive of great wealth, as there is op- 
portunity for a vast expansion of the industry 
as the demand for this useful article increases. 


Iron. — Indiana does not rank high as an 
iron producing State, though that is not because 
she is lacking in this resource. On the contrary, 
the Department of Geology and Natural Re- 
sources lists no less than thirty-two counties as 
having iron ore in sufficient quantity to be of 
economic importance.* Eighteen of these are in 
the region of the lakes and the Kankakee river, 
where bog iron is found, and the others lie west 
and southwest, with Martin and Greene counties 
leading. In former years the iron industry for 
home needs was rather extensively developed, 
but in time other localities with better facilities 
and, perhaps, better grades of ore closed the 
business in Indiana. 

The first plant for smelting and working iron 
in this State was built by A. M. Hurd in St. 

Joseph county, where Mishawaka now stands, in 
1834. Here a variety of articles for pioneer 
use were manufactured and the establishment 
had a wide patronage and a prosperous career. 
Other plants in other localities followed. Four- 
teen blast furnaces are mentioned by Geologist 
Blatchley, of which he says: "Most of them 
have long since gone to ruin, and of those still 
standing the last one went out of blast in 1893." 
The cause he assigns is that the ore in general 
"is too silicious to compete with the richer hema- 
tites of the Lake Superior, Missouri, Tennessee 
and Georgia regions." Nevertheless it is main- 
tained that there is a promising future for the 
abandoned Indiana ores, interest in which must 
be revived by the establishment at Gary of a 
system of blast furnaces and iron mills that rank 
among the greatest in the United States. 

Peat. — While peat has thus far played but 
little part in the economic development of this 
State, it has no small value as a fuel and will 
undoubtedly be utilized in time. It has long 
been used in Europe and is now used in many 
places in the United States. 

Peat is a product of vegetation growing in 
water, and is defined as "a moist, spongy and par- 
tially carbonized vegetable matter." When dug 
out and dried it is inflammable, burning easily 
as a fuel, and, when used in a specially con- 
structed stove, is very desirable for domestic 
purposes. A peat factory molds the material into 
compact "briquettes." It has less heating value 
than coal, but in many regions where peat exists 
lack of transportation facilities makes coal ex- 
pensive, and with the depletion of the wood sup- 
ply there is every reason why peat should take 
its place, as it has done in other countries. 

The lake region of northern Indiana is rich 
in peat beds and a study of the peat area takes 
in about 7,500 square miles. It has been esti- 
mated that peat "briquettes" can be manufac- 
tured at a cost of about eighty-six cents per 

Mineral Paint Rocks and Clays. — These are 
certain shales and clays used for making the 
"mineral paints," such as umber, sienna, ochre, 
etc. Abundant deposits exist in the State and 
have been worked somewhat in Vigo, Owen, 
Greene, Martin and Dubois counties, and per- 

* See "The Iron Ore Deposits of Indiana," 
Shannon. Geol. Rept. 1906. 

hy Chas. W. 

* See "Peat Deposits of Northern Indiana," hy Arthur E. 
Taylor. Geol. Rept. 1906. 



haps elsewhere, but the industry seems thus far 
to have developed but feebly. 

Medicinal Waters. — The medicinal waters of 
Indiana are a more important asset than is gen- 
erally supposed. A study of this resource by the 
Department of Geology, published in 1901, dis- 
closed that there were eighty springs and eighty- 
six wells yielding medicinal waters, distributed 
throughout fifty-two counties of the State. A 
few of these are much better known than others, 
not because of the superiority of their waters, 
but because they have been made resorts and 
have been widely advertised. Medicinal water 
has been discovered in many localities by deep 
borings for natural gas or oil, and for that reason 
the number of wells now exceed the known 

The waters vary in their chemical constituents, 
but are classified under the four heads of Alka- 
line, Saline, Chalybeate and Neutral or Indiffer- 
ent. Of these, chalybeate springs, or iron springs, 
are the most common and the saline waters are 
most used for medicinal purposes. Dyspepsia, 
gout, rheumatism, obesity, skin diseases, and 
stomach, kidney and bowel troubles are among 
the ailments that are supposed to be helped by 
these waters. There is a large trade in bottled 
waters shipped for home consumption, but the 
curative fame of mineral waters has been built 
up li\ -anatoriums and resorts at the springs or 
wells where the patients combine plentiful con- 
sumption with a system of bathing. 

A number of these sanatoriums exist in differ- 
ent parts of the State. 

Precious Metals and Stones. — Gold and dia- 
monds in Indiana can hardly be considered as a 
"natural resource," but it is interesting to know 
that both are found here, and, the gold especially, 
over a much wider area than is generally sup- 
posed. In fact, more than once, the Hoosiers 
have experienced a gold excitement, and to the 
present day local gold hunters have the abiding 
fever and expect some time to discover rich 

To one who puts faith in the science of geol- 
ogy, however, such hope is dispelled. No rocks 
in Indiana are either gold- or gem-bearing and 
our limited supply has come with the glacial 
drift from the far north. The rocks containing 
them, deposited here and there, have in the 



course of long weathering, set free their precious 
but scant burdens. These deposits have been re- 
ported from Brown, Cass, Dearborn, Franklin, 
Greene, Jackson, Jefferson, Jennings, Montgom- 
ery, Morgan, Ohio, Putnam, Vanderburg and 
Warren counties, and in at least two of these — ■ 
Brown and Morgan — it has been sought with 
zeal. Only a few years since a company was 
organized for sluicing in Morgan county, and 
the promoters carried about with them specimens 
of their finds ; but, like preceding companies, this 
one went glimmering. As early as 1850, gold 
was "discovered" in the State, and in the sixties 
there was quite a little flurry over finds in Brown 
county,* and ever since then, perhaps, men have 

* The late John Richards, a pioneer of Brown county who 
lived on Bear creek, some years ago told the writer of leasing 
part of the creek bed to a syndicate from Indianapolis, who pro- 
ceeded to put up "the biggest and best flume ever built in Brown 

made their living washing out dust from the 
sand in the creek beds. One old gold washer, 
"Uncle" John Merriman, claimed that he could 
average $1.25 per day during the panning season. 
The largest nugget he ever found weighed 132 
grains, and was worth $5.50. As he was old 
at the business and correspondingly adept his 
findings may be accepted as about the maximum 
return for gold-hunting in this State. 

In the search for gold occasional diamonds 
have been found, but usually too small to be cut. 
There is record, or tradition, rather, of two 
found years ago that sold respectively for $50 
and $75. Other precious stones have been found, 
but few, if any, of commercial value.* 

county." Just as they finished this flume a heavy storm and 
freshet tore it out and swept it away in pieces — to the utter dis- 
couragement of the builders. This was probably in the sixties. 
* See Geol. Repts. 1888 and 1901. 



Growth of Manufactures. — As stated in a 
previous chapter the manufacturing industries 
of Indiana were almost negligible during the 
earlier decades, the general conditions being a 
fatal handicap. By 1850, these conditions began 
to change, and with that change the manufactur- 

made possible the development of natural re- 
sources. Practically the impetus begins with the 
incoming of the railroad,* and the growth of the 
railroad system and the general industrial move- 
ment have gone abreast. 

Industrial Statistics. — By the census returns 

Convent of Sisters of St. Francis, Oldenburg, Franklin County. 

ing era set in. In 1849, the total value of the 
manufacturing output was $18,725,000. By 1869 
it had increased to $100,000,000, and by 1909 to 
$579,075,000. Within those years the State ad- 
vanced from fourteenth to ninth place in the 
Union, and from the employment of 14,440 wage- 
earners, representing 1.5 per cent, of the total 
population, as estimated in 1850, we have for 
the 1910 estimate 186,984 employes, amounting 
to 6.9 per cent, of the population. This growth 
it attributed by a census writer to the variotis 
natural resources of the State, but, as a matter 
of fact, the greatest of all factors, perhaps, has 
been improved transportation service which has 

of 1910, $508,717,000 were invested in manufac- 
turing industries in Indiana. There were 7,187 
establishments, classified under fifty-five sepa- 
rate industries, besides 772 that were unclassi- 

The most important of these, as estimated 
by the capital invested were, in the order named. 
the iron industries, foundry and machine shop 
products, carriages and wagons, artificial gas, ag- 
ricultural implements, lumber and timber prod- 
ucts, automobiles, furniture, and flour and grist 

* It must be remembered, however, that prior to the railroad 
era the Wabash and Erie and Whitewater canals played their 
parts in developing their respective sections. 




mill products. These leading industries repre- 
sent investments ranging from $47,781,000 for 
iron industries, to $15,857,000 for the output of 
flour and grist mills. Of the total capital in- 
volved about one-third is invested in the five lead- 
ing cities — Indianapolis, South Bend, Ft. Wayne, 
Evansville and Terre Haute, these decreasing in 
the order named. Indianapolis is far in the lead 
with $76,497,000. Its largest industry is that of 
foundry and machine products. South Bend 
leads in the manufacture of carriages and wagons 
with a capital of $17,442,000, which is far in 
excess of any other one local industrial invest- 
ment. Evansville leads in furniture. 

The ten leading manufacturing cities, other 
than the five already named, are in the order 
of their investments : Hammond, Mishawaka, 
Richmond, Anderson, Michigan City, Muncie, 
Laporte, Elkhart, East Chicago and Elwood. 

Out of the State's total population of 2,700,- 
873 in 1910, the manufactures gave employment 
to 208,263 persons, including wage-earners and 
employers. Compared with agriculture, as an 
industrial factor, the latter still leads. The num- 
ber of persons employed on farms as owners, 
tenants or managers in 1909 was 215,485. This 
does not include many others who follow agri- 
cultural occupations. 



Comparative Agricultural Values. — It is safe 
to say that whatever the manufacturing and 
commercial future of Indiana may be, it will 
always take high rank as an agricultural State. 
The quality and amount of its cultivable soil in- 
sures that. Among all the States of the Union 
Indiana. Ohio. Illinois and Iowa rank highest in 
the percentage of land area in farms and in the 
average price per acre. In the first — the amount 
of farm land compared with total area — Iowa 
ranks first with 95.4 per cent. Indiana and Ohio, 
coming next, are almost a tie. the former having 
92.3 and latter 92.5 per cent. In the average 
value of farm lands Illinois comes first with 
$95.02 per acre, Iowa follows with $82.58 and 
Indiana comes third with $62.36. This valuation 
includes land, buildings, implements and live 
stock, and the land value alone of Indiana ex- 
ceeds that of Ohio, being $1,328,196,545. 

Statistics of the State. — The approximate 
total area of Indiana is 23,068.800 acres. Of 
this 21,299,823 acres are in farm lands and 
16,931,252 acres are classed as "improved." The 
average size of farms is 98.8 acres.* The im- 
proved acreage has about doubled since the Civil 
war, and the total number of farms now is 
215,485. During the period named the greatest 
land increase was prior to 1880, it dropping 
thereafter to a small per cent., but the increase 
in values has been phenomenal since 1900. As 
against the present average acreage value of 
$62.36 the value in 1900 was $31.81, the increase 
being 96 per cent. 

Distribution of Values. — Land values in In- 
diana range from ten or fifteen dollars per acre 
to a hundred and twenty-five or more. The best 
land, as measured by selling value, is represented 
by a block of counties stretching across the cen- 
tral and north-central parts of the State, reach- 
ing as far south as Johnson. Shelby and Rush, 
and as far north as Newton, Miami and Wabash. 
Of this block Marion and Benton counties rank 

* The average size of farms steadily decreased from 1850 to 
1900, it being in the first-named year 136.2 acres, and in the lat- 
ter 97.4 acres. In 1910, for the first time, there is shown a tend- 
ency to increase. 

highest, the latter, presumably, because of its 
superior soil, and the former because of Indi- 
anapolis and its influence on values. The north- 
ern tiers of counties run uniformly from fifty to 
seventy-five dollars per acre, with the exception 
of Starke, Pulaski and Steuben, which rank 
lower. The Wabash valley, from Parke to 
Posey, runs from fifty to seventy-five dollars; a 
stretch a little farther east, extending from Put- 
nam to Warrick and Spencer on the Ohio river 
are twenty-five to fifty dollars, and most of the 
southeast corner of the State are valued at the 
same figure. The cheapest land reaches from 
Monroe and Brown to Perry and Harrison, on 
the Ohio, and Jefferson and Switzerland are also 
included in this class. The value is placed at ten 
to twenty-five dollars per acre, though it is prob- 
able that but little land in the State is sold at the 
ten-dollar figure.* 

Crops and Their Distribution. — Among the 
crops raised in Indiana we find twenty-one dif- 
ferent kinds that are important enough to be 
considered by the State Department of Statistics 
in its last biennial report (1913-14). These are: 
Corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, water- 
melons, cantaloupes, apples, berries, potatoes, 
onions, tobacco, tomatoes, timothy, clover, al- 
falfa, prairie hay, millet, cow peas and soy beans. 

Com. — Of these, as measured by acreage and 
yield, corn is far in the lead ; the acreage, as com- 
pared with wheat, which ranks next, running 
from about one to three millions more. 

The total yield of the corn crop for 1913 was 
161.276,315 bushels. The ten leading counties 
as to total yield were Tippecanoe, Benton, Rush, 
White, Clinton, Allen, Boone, Shelby, Madison 
and Montgomery; though for the average yield 
per acre Tipton leads the State with an average 
in 1913 of 57.69 bushels per acre. Some of the 
river counties, like Knox, have spots that yield 
phenomenally, but do not hold up when it comes 
to a total estimate. Statistics show that corn is 
grown on nearly nine-tenths of the farms oi the 
State, but what may be called the "corn belt" 

* From charts and tables of Thirteenth Census. 




occupies the central part of the State from 
Wayne to Vigo, and from Shelby and Johnson 
to the upper Wabash region. 

Wheat. — In wheat the State seems to be fall- 
ing off, the acreage being less in 1912 than any 
time in eight years. It was nearly two millions 
less than it was in 1899. The leading wheat sec- 
tions run up the Wabash from Posey to Sulli- 
van ; Dubois and Floyd, in the south, are good 
counties, as are Shelby, Johnson, Rush, Bartholo- 
mew, Hendricks and Marion in the central belt. 
Among the northern counties Noble, Kosciusko, 
Pulaski, Whitley, Grant, Wabash, Miami, De- 
kalb, Carroll, Cass, Howard, Benton, Boone and 
Clinton all take rank. In 1913 Miami led with 
an average yield of 22.71 bushels and Posey with 
a total yield of 1,143,264 bushels. In the average 
per acre we find the ten leading counties are all 
in the northern group just specified, from which 
it may be concluded that our true wheat belt ex- 
tends across the State from Clinton on the south 
to Kosciusko and Dekalb on the north. 

Oats and Rye. — Next to corn and wheat, as 
considered by acreage, comes oats, of which there 
has been a slow but steady increase for the last 
thirty-five years. The best oats region coincides 
with our best wheat country, being the north- 
central counties. 

Rye has long been a minor crop, but is on the 
increase, the average in 1913 amounting to 
207,680 acres. The northern counties produce 
the most, as they do of barley, which is also a 
crop of minor importance. 

Hay. — The farmers of the State devote con- 
siderable acreage to forage crops other than corn 
fodder, such as timothy, clover, alfalfa, cow peas 
and soy beans. Timothy leads in acreage and 
yield, the production being tolerably uniform 
for the last twelve or fifteen years, with an an- 
nual yield somewhat exceeding a million tons. 
Clover comes next in tonnage, and both these 
hays thrive best in the northern counties. Al- 
falfa is at present regarded as a coming crop and 
has been steadily increasing since 1909, the acre- 
age in 1913 being 36,624, scattered over counties 
both north and south. Cow peas and soy beans 
seem to thrive best in the southern section, Knox 
being the leading county in these productions. 
The total yield for 1913 was 79,317 tons. Be- 
sides the above crops considerable wild or prairie 
hay is harvested and seems to be increasing year 

by year, 90,143 tons for 1913 being in excess of 
any previous year given in the statistics. The 
wild hay counties lie both north and south, but 
the leading section is in the northwest part of 
the state. 

Potatoes, Onions and Tomatoes. — The potato 
crop is on the decrease, as shown by the returns 
for the last thirteen years, the production within 
that period diminishing almost one-half. The 
yield for 1913 was 3,137,228 bushels. This crop 
does best in the northern counties, as does the 
onion crop, which in Indiana runs considerably 
over a million bushels a year. 

The tomato crop is increasing, a yield of 
125,224 tons in 1913 being larger than ever be- 
fore. Tipton county takes the lead. The crop 
is raised chiefly for the canning factories. 

Melons. — A crop of growing importance, par- 
ticularly in the lower Wabash counties, is that of 
melons. In 1913 there were, altogether, 8,057 
acres devoted to this product, the average value 
per acre of which was $62.83. For both water- 
melons and cantaloupes, Knox, Gibson and Posey 
counties stand at the head, and their cantaloupes 
are said to be famed as far east as New York 
and as far west as Colorado. 

Apples. — In orchard fruit, particularly apples, 
Indiana, which once produced a superior quality, 
suffered decadence because of the inroads of 
orchard enemies and the neglect to wage an intel- 
ligent warfare against such enemies. Of recent 
years there has been a revival of interest ; apple- 
growing by scientific orcharding has been pro- 
moted, especially in the southern hill counties, 
where land is at once cheap and adapted to fruit, 
and the results have been shown at apple exhibits 
held annually at Indianapolis the last three or 
four years. These exhibits compare well with 
those of the famous fruit districts of Washington 
and Oregon. If our fruit is somewhat inferior 
in size and showiness, it is superior in flavor, and 
the verdict of those who have investigated is that 
Indiana land costing twenty-five dollars or less 
per acre will make as good return to the investor 
as will Hood River or Yakima land at five hun- 
dred dollars an acre — providing, of course, the 
same care is expended as is necessary there. 

Tobacco. — We hardly think of Indiana as be- 
ing a tobacco State, yet it produced in 1913 no 
less than 10,049,280 pounds. The tobacco "belt" 
is, of course, chiefly in the southern part of the 

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State, but counties as far north as Tippecanoe 
and Grant figure in statistics, and Randolph is 
one of the ten best. 

Live Stock. — Indiana as a live stock State 
takes high rank. Horses, mules, cattle, hogs, 
sheep and poultry represent the animal industries 
important enough to be considered by the State 
Department of Statistics. 

From the beginning of the State's history hogs 
have been far in excess of every other animal 
product. Ever since the statistics have been kept 
the number on hand each year has been a million 
and a half to two millions, the statistics for 1914 
giving 1,992,819. The loss from disease is a 
heavy tax on the industry, running into the hun- 
dreds of thousands each year. In 1911, 1912 and 
1913 it averaged about a half million a year. The 
greatest number of hogs are raised in a belt cut- 
ting east and west through the central part of 
the State, with Rush in the lead, with 56,016 head 
on hand January 1, 1914. 

Cattle, in number of head, rank next to hogs, 
the returns for 1913 showing 1,076,033 on hand 
.March 1. Of these 40,954,419 were dairy cattle, 
the figures showing beef cattle to be considerably 
in excess. The leading counties for milk cows 
and dairy products are those running across the 
north part of the State, though Hamilton and 
Marion rank high, and Ripley in the south is in- 
cluded among the "ten best." Allen leads. 

The production of horses and mules has in- 
creased year by year, that of 1914 exceeding any 
previous year, being 646,846 horses and 82,575 
mules. The best horse counties lie in the north, 
but the best mule counties are in the southern 
part of the State, with Posey decidedly in the 

The cheaper hill lands of the southern coun- 
ties would seem to be the logical section for sheep 
grazing, but all the leading counties lie north, 
with Lagrange and Steuben leading. The statis- 
tics for fourteen years show that the sheep in- 
dustry has been steadily declining. In 1900 there 
were 932,856, with a wool clip of 4,537,975 
pounds. By 1914 the number had fallen to 
481,075. Perhaps the mortality from disease 
among sheep has had something to do with the 
decline. The yearly loss between the years speci- 
fied has ranged from 27,610 in 1913 to 83,754 in 
1901. The sheer loss in 1913 equaled $116,874. 

\\ hen we consider poultry and eggs the figures 

loom up large. In 1910 there were reported a 
total of 13,789,109 fowls, valued at $7,762,015. 
Of these 13,216,024 were chickens. There were 
202,977 turkeys, 121,306 ducks, 139,087 geese and 
57,433 guinea fowls. The increase during the 
ten preceding years was 15.4 per cent, and the 
increase of value 83.8 per cent., these increases 
being in chickens. The egg production is given 
as 80,755,437 dozens, valued at $15,287,205. 

The best poultry counties lie in the north, 
tin mgh Ripley is classed among the ten that 
stand highest. Allen and Kosciusko lead. 


The "Grange." — In 1867 a movement to or- 
ganize the farmers of the United States for the 
purpose of protecting themselves commercially 
was initiated by Oliver Hudson Keller, of Wash- 
ington. The organization effected, known as the 
"National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry," 
became, within a few years, the greatest that had 
ever been promoted in this country in behalf of 
the agricultural classes. Subordinate associa- 
tions, called State Granges, sprang up, and by 
1874 there were upward of 21,000 of these, with 
a total membership of about 700.003. 

Tbe central idea of the order was co-operation 
in selling and buying, with a view to eliminating 
the profits of the middleman, and. especially, the 
unrighteous gains of the speculator and mon- 
opolist who preyed off the labor of the producer. 
The Grange established co-operative elevators, 
warehouses, flour mills and purchasing agencies, 
and through these it effected a material saving to 
its members. After 1874 the popularity of the 
order, for some reason or other, declined as rap- 
idly as it had risen.* By 1880 it had dropped 
entirely out of public notice, and for ten years 
little was heard of it. Then it began to recover 
on a sounder basis that was better thought out. 
At present it exists in thirty-one States, one of 
which is Indiana. 

The movement in Indiana was part of the 
wider movement as above sketched, and was or- 
ganized at Terre Haute, February 28, 1872, un- 
der the direction of O. H. Kelley.t The exact 
present status of the order we are unable to 

* It has been said that this decline was "but the inevitable re- 
action from too sudden popularity." 

f Terre Haute Daily Gazette, March 1, 1872. 



gather from the reports that are issued, but in 
1912 we find it stated that since 1911 there had 
been an increase of 1,500 members and an addi- 
tion of twelve new local granges within the State. 
The year preceding September 20, 1914, there 
were added eight new granges and something like 
600 members. 

Farmers' Institutes. — March 9, 1889, an act 
was passed by the Legislature providing for 
county institutes. By this law it was made the 
duty of "the Committee of Experimental Agri- 
culture and Horticulture of the Board of Trus- 
tees, together with the faculty of the School of 
Agriculture of Purdue University, to appoint be- 
fore November first of each year suitable per- 
sons to hold in the several counties of this State, 
between the first day of November and the first 
day of April of each year, county institutes for 
the purpose of giving to farmers and others in- 
terested therein instructions in agriculture, horti- 
culture, agricultural chemistry and economic en- 

This law continues in operation and has been 
a great educative and organizing influence among 
the farmers of the State. In each county is ap- 
pointed a local head or county chairman, who 
assumes responsibility for the meetings of that 
county, and to supply these meetings, held over 
the various counties, something like a hundred 
institute speakers are secured. These include 
practical farmers, horticulturists, stockmen and 
specialists of the Purdue Agricultural Experi- 
ment station. Of late years, in addition to the 
subjects of the original programs, attention is 
given to domestic science for the women and 
girls, to young people's contests in farm produc- 
tions, and to boys' and girls' clubs. 

Throughout the United States these farmers' 
institutes are increasing and broadening their 
scope of work. In the season of 1909-10 (the 
latest figures we have) there were held in Indiana 
354 meetings, or 1.218 sessions, at a cost of about 
ten thousand dollars. All counties of the State 
were included in the system. 


' >f recent years agricultural conditions in In- 
diana have been undergoing changes. From a 
largely preponderating rural population that has 
formerly prevailed that population has decreased 

not only in its ratio to the urban population but 
actually. Between 1900 and 1910 there was a 
sheer loss of 96,732.* 

This must be accounted for, in large part, by 
the drifting from the country to the cities, but 
another factor undoubtedly is the seeking of 
cheaper lands in the newer States, f As a coun- 
ter-balance to this reduction of the farming pop- 
ulation the wider introduction of labor-saving 
machinery and other facilities has reduced the 
necessity for manual labor. The shifting of the 
population city-ward seems not to have affected 
production, and it may be accounted for in part 
by decreased need for farm labor. 

"Back to the Soil" Movement. — On the other 
hand there is a certain "back to the soil" move- 
ment of which we see frequent mention, but a 
study of this movement over the country at large 
by George K. Holmes, of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, shows that in character 
it is by no means an equivalent for the exodus 
from the farms, and would not be even if the 
interchanging elements were equal in number. 
Those who are turning country-ward are not as a 
rule experienced farmers, and Mr. Holmes, after 
collecting data from forty-five thousand crop cor- 
respondents, classifies them as follows : Those 
\\ ho move to the country but hold to their occu- 
pations in town ; those who occupy their farms 
when the season suits and go back to the town in 
winter; those who take to the soil as an escape 
from city conditions and the hard struggle for 
existence there ; merchants and many others who, 
having failed in the city, fancy they can succeed 
in the country ; those who, having forsaken the 
country in their youth, fondly return to it as a 
matter of sentiment after they have spent their 
lives making money elsewhere ; and, finally, the 
moneyed man indulging in a fad or luxury, who 
spends lavishly on his country place, upsets the 
wage scale of the neighborhood and operates as 
a disturbing influence generally. 

This study of Mr. Holmes applies to Indiana 
as elsewhere, and it is obvious that none of the 
classes he specifies contributes very largely to 
agriculture as a serious pursuit. It should be 
added that a factor in the situation is the inter- 

* This is not all an agricultural loss, however, as "rural" | 
lation includes those in town? of less than 2.500. 

t Interstate migration works both ways, but in tl><' shifting 
process Indiana has lost 100,000 more than she has gain 
shown by the census charts. 



urban electric railway, which has brought city 
and country into far closer touch than formerly 
and has, to a large degree, shorn the country of 
its old-time unattractive isolation. 

Tenantry. — The tables show that farm ten- 
antry in Indiana is increasing. In 1880 twenty- 
four out of every hundred farms were operated 
by tenants. In 1910 it stood at thirty per cent., 
with a marked increase in favor of cash tenantry. 
The heaviest percentage of tenantry is in the 
northwest part of the State. 

The Scientific Impulse; State Aid. — As a 
general proposition tenantry means agricultural 
deterioration, and Mr. Holmes' list of amateur 
farmers as cited above would also seem to imply 
deterioration in this pursuit ; but as opposed to 
this we find that to-day, as never before, there is 
a tendency toward improved methods of farm- 
ing, based on scientific instruction. There is a 
distinctive movement in this direction ; new edu- 
cational influences are at work, and an increas- 
ing number of the younger farmers are equipped 
for the business by courses in the agricultural 
colleges. The State agricultural school, Purdue 
University, is an important factor in this im- 
pulse. Not only does it offer the regular four- 
years' course in the science of agriculture, but it 
also conducts various special short courses of 
which the farmers and their families can take 
advantage in the more leisurely seasons at small 
expense. This covers two features which the 
university bulletin designates as a Winter School 
and a Farmers' Short Course. The work of the 
first "consists of lectures and laboratory exer- 
cises arranged to meet the needs of farmers and 
home-makers," and its object is to "help young 
men and women to produce better corn and live 
stock, better milk and butter and better fruit, and 
to make better homes and at the same time to 
secure a greater profit from the time, money and 
energy expended. The Farmers' Short Course is 
"designed to meet the needs of busy farmers" by 
a definite plan of study outlined to cover a period 
of one week in January of each year. This is an 
extension course and, in the form of lectures, is 
carried into the counties that wish to take advan- 
tage of it. 

Under a "vocational education" act approved 
February 22, 1913, provision was made for a 
"County Agent," to be appointed by Purdue Uni- 
versity upon petition of twenty or more residents 

of a county who are actively interested in agri- 
culture. The duties of this agent are, under the 
supervision of Purdue, "to co-operate with farm- 
ers' institutes, farmers' clubs and other organiza- 
tions, conduct practical farm demonstrations, 
boys' and girls' clubs and contest work, and other 
movements for the advancement of agriculture 
and country life, and to give advice to farmers 
on practical farm problems, and aid the county 
superintendent of schools and the teachers in 
giving practical education in agriculture and do- 
mestic science." By the statistician's report of 
1914 there were twenty agents appointed in as 
many counties, and they are a pronounced stimu- 
lus to the farming communities. One feature of 
the work is the organization of "county tours" in 
which all who wish to join drive over the county, 
visiting selected farms for a field study of crops 
or the inspection of live stock or farm improve- 
ments. These prearranged trips are usually made 
by auto, and are led by the agent, accompanied, 
perhaps, by a Purdue specialist who lectures 
upon the particular subject in hand. An idea of 
the interest aroused by these trips is conveyed 
by the report of 1914, which, summing up the 
results of the "alfalfa campaign" alone, over 
twenty counties, states that "a total of 613 auto- 
mobiles participated in the tour, carrying 3,184 
people. Two hundred and eighty-seven farms 
were visited, inspecting 2,080 acres of alfalfa. 
One hundred fourteen meetings were held, with 
a total attendance of 12,951. A grand total of 
16,135 people were reached." 

Social Status of Farmers. — Within the easy 
memory of middle-aged men there has been a 
marked change in the status of the average, rep- 
resentative farmer. Not only is the uncouth 
backwoodsman of whom Eggleston wrote ex- 
tinct, but the rustic Hoosier whom Riley pictured 
in his earlier days is, to say the least, vastly modi- 
fied. Various educational influences — a universal 
free school system, the ubiquitous newspaper and 
farm paper, and other cheap periodicals, farm- 
ers' institutes, granges, clubs and other organiza- 
tions — in fact, influences too numerous to easily 
trace, have done their work to a degree that is 
very noticeable to any first-hand observer. The 
literary copyist who to-day goes nosing in ob- 
scure places in search of the time-honored 
"Hoosier characters" is somewhat amusing as a 



man behind the times who does not yet realize 
that the present type, while retaining all the old- 
time shrewdness, humor, raciness and fellowship, 
has developed new qualities that present a new 
field for the character delineator. The typical 
farmer of to-day is well informed and in intelli- 
gent touch with the wider affairs of the world. 
He is coming to be a conscious part of the great 
social movements. Financially he thrives better 

than he once did, and he lives better. The "mod- 
ern" house in the country is not uncommon ; the 
rural telephone service is all but universal ; more 
automobiles are sold to farmers, it is said, than 
to any other class. The spread of the interurban 
service has also been a great modifying factor in 
rural life in promoting a freer touch with urban 
life, and the social differences between city and 
country people are becoming obliterated. 


The State Seal. — The origin of the State seal 
of Indiana is involved in obscurity and has, from 
time to time, been a subject for discussion. 

In the first constitution we find it provided 
that "there shall be a seal of this State, which 
shall be kept by the Governor, and shall be used 
by him officially, and shall be called the seal of 
the State of Indiana." On the 13th of December, 
1816, the first Legislature enacted that "the Gov- 
ernor of this State be and he is hereby authorized 
to provide a seal and also a press for this State, 
and that a sum not exceeding one hundred dol- 
lars be and is hereby appropriated for that pur- 
pose, to be paid out of any money in the treas- 
ury not otherwise appropriated." In the House 
Journal of 1816 the proposed seal is discussed 
and the design of it is thus defined : "A for- 
est and a woodman felling a tree, a buffalo 
leaving the forest and fleeing through the plain 
to a distant forest, and the sun setting in the west, 
with the word Indiana." It will be noted that 
while most of the features existing in the seal 
are specifically described in the above, no men- 
tion whatever is made of mountains, which are 
manifestly incongruous in an Indiana seal. These 
mountains have been variously explained as the 
Alleghanies, the Rockies and as "the hills lying 
east of Vincennes," while the orb beyond them 
has been both the rising and the setting sun — the 
emblem of a rising prosperity and of empire 
taking its way westward. The House Journal 
"specifications" say "the sun setting in the west." 

There are reasons for suspecting that the de- 
sign did not originate with the Legislature of 
1816, but was borrowed, and this turns out to be 
true, for on a slavery petition in the archives at 

Washington, dated 1802, is an imprint of the seal 
of Indiana Territory, which has the same general 
features as the present emblem — the woodman 
cutting a tree and the buffalo, sun and moun- 
tains, with the word "Indiana" on a scroll in the 
branches of the tree. A reprint of the document, 
with a description of the seal, may be found in 
the publications of the Indiana Historical So- 
ciety, Volume II, pp. 461-469. Discussing the 
subject there Mr. J. P. Dunn argues that the de- 
vice was ordered in the east and brought to the 
new territory by either Governor Harrison or 
John Gibson, the territorial secretary. 

Nearly twenty years ago the Legislature under- 
took to ascertain the origin of the seal and the 
authority of the device, because of the various 
and different forms in use, whereas it was de- 
sirable that the public business of the State 
should have a well-defined and legally author- 
ized seal. R. S. Hutcher, the leading clerk of 
the Senate in 1895, an expert in such studies, was 
appointed a special commissioner to investigate 
the matter and learn whether the State "has any 
legalized, authorized great seal." The result of 
Mr. Hutcher's investigation was but to prove that 
little or nothing could be known. There was 
even no record to show that the design agreed 
upon by the two houses in 1816 had ever been 
formally adopted. Hutcher recommended that a 
more definite seal be established by legislative 
action, but no such action was taken.* — G. S. C. 

* The humoristic editor of the Rushville Republican some 
years ago thus described the seal: 

"It exhibits a woodman, in short pants and G. A. R. hat, hack- 
ing at a tree, one of his hands grasping the end of the ax-handle 
while the other clutches it close up to the butt, in the way weak 
woman splits kindling. A hornless Poland-China buffalo is fly- 
ing from the awful sight with a despairing gesture from a tail 




The Word "Hoosier." — The origin of the 
word "Hoosier" as a nickname for the Indiana 
resident has long been a matter of discussion. 
John Finley, of Richmond, has been credited with 
introducing the term into print by his poem, "The 
Hoosier's Nest," first published as a "carrier's 
address" in the Indianapolis Journal for the New 
Year's issue, January 1, 1833.* Recently, how- 
ever, I have found an earlier usage. The Indiana 
Palladium, of Lawrenceburg, in its issue of July 
30, 1831, in a farcical skit describing Noah Noble 
as horse in the political race, uses the expression : 
"He . . . may be called a 'Hoosher'." 

A number of stories about the origin of the 
word have been current for many years, some of 
them being absurd and none of them tenable. 
The best study of the question, and the only one 
making any pretense to thoroughness, is a mono- 
graph by J. P. Dunn, published in volume iv of 
the Indiana Historical Collections. Mr. Dunn's 
study practically proves that it is not a chance 
word at all. but one with antecedents that, prob- 
ably, reach far back in the English language ; 
which was long used in the south to denote cer- 
tain uncouth characteristics, and which was im- 
ported hither as descriptive of an element of our 
early population. This would seem to be borne 
out by early newspaper references ; as, for ex- 
ample, a correspondent in the Madison Republi- 
can and Banner, of October 3, 1833, speaks of 
"the almost proverbial roughness of Hooshier- 
ism," and the same paper, issue of September 12, 
1833, referring sarcastically to James B. Ray's 
new publication, The Hoosier, alludes to the 
"singular title of The Hoosier," and adds: "All 
things considered, we regard the title in this case 
as not inappropriate." — G. S. C. 

The United States Courts for the District of 
Indiana. — The courts of the United States for 
the District of Indiana were established by an 
Act of Congress on March 3, 1817. Three days 
later Benjamin Parke was appointed the first 
district judge. He was a native of New Jersey, 
who, in 1801, removed to Vincennes and after- 
ward to Salem, Indiana. He was a captain under 

nearly as long as its body, having previously shed one of its 
horns beside a stump, upon which leans a small but graceful 
black-handled mop. In the background old Sol, with his hair 
on end, sinks down behind a sway-back hill to rest." 

* In the history of Porter county (page 18) it is claimed that 
the cabin described by Finley as the "Hoosier's Nest" was a 
house on the old Sac trail built by Thomas Snow. 

William Henry Harrison in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe. He was prominent in the territorial gov- 
ernment and a member of the constitutional con- 
vention that framed our first constitution. He 
served until his death, July 13, 1835. 

From 1817 until 1825 the court was held at the 
old capital at Corydon, Indiana. The record 
books, which are still well preserved and in the 
custody of Noble C. Butler, clerk, exhibit inter- 
esting and varied, though comparatively unim- 
portant litigation during Judge Parke's adminis- 
tration. The common law and chancery plead- 
ings, with technical verbosity as recorded in 
the plain, old-fashioned handwriting of Henry 
Hurst, the first clerk of the courts, are curious 
mementos of obsolete and cumbersome judicial 
procedure. The first case recorded was that of 
United States vs. Andrew Hilton, on May 4, 
1819, an indictment prosecuted by Thomas H. 
Blake, district attorney, charging that the de- 
fendant did "deal in and sell to a certain Charles 
Dewey" domestic distilled spirituous liquors 
without having paid the tax, at the town of 
Liverpool, Daviess county. There was a trial 
by jury and a verdict of not guilty. It does not 
appear whether the Dewey mentioned in the in- 
dictment was the same Charles Dewey who in 
1825 was appointed United States district attor- 
ney and afterward for many years was a judge 
of the Supreme Court of Indiana. The last 
case at Corydon was Cuthbert Bullitt vs. Rich- 
ard M. Heth's Administrators, a scire facias on 
a judgment in debt amounting to $1,031.23, 
which, on November 6, 1824, was dismissed at 
plaintiff's costs. 

In January, 1825, the federal courts were re- 
moved to Indianapolis. The first case tried in 
this city was on January 5, 1825, and is entitled 
United States vs. Sundry Goods, Wares and 
Merchandizes. It was a libel of information 
filed by Charles Dewey, the then district attor- 
ney, for the confiscation of a varied assortment 
of goods, including liquor, seized from William 
H. Wallace, for illegal trading with the Indian 
tribes on the northwest side of the river Tippe- 
canoe. There was a judgment forfeiting the 
goods and awarding one-half to the United 
States and one-half to Edward McCartney, the 
informer. An appeal was prayed to the Supreme 
Court, but does not appear to have been per- 



Jesse Lynch Holman, the second district 
judge, was commissioned September 16, 1835, 
and held office until his death, March 28, 1842. 
He was born in Danville, Kentucky, in 1784, and 
studied law in the office of Henry Clay, coming 
to Indiana in 1808. He was a territorial circuit 
judge and afterward, from 1816 to 1830, judge 
of the Indiana Supreme Court. It is said that 
Judge Holman, in addition to his judicial labors, 
served as a Baptist clergyman in Aurora, from 
1834 until his death. 

The third district judge for Indiana, Elisha 
Mills Huntington, was commissioned May 2, 
1842, and served until his death, October 26, 
1862. He was born in Otsego county, New 
York, in 1806, and removed to Indiana, where - 
he was admitted to the bar. He was prosecuting 
attorney in 1829, circuit judge in 1831, and com- 
missioner of the General Land Office at Wash- 
ington in 1841. 

During Judge Huntington's administration an 
interesting case was tried under the fugitive 
slave law. In the year 1845 Vaughan, a citizen 
of Missouri, sued Williams for rescuing slaves 
of the plaintiff after the plaintiff had found and 
arrested them in a cabin near Noblesville. The 
defendant demurred to the complaint on the 
ground that the Ordinance of 1787, which pro- 
hibited slavery in the territory northwest of the 
river Ohio, required fugitive slaves to be re- 
turned only when claimed in one of the thirteen 
original States. The circuit justice ruled, how- 
ever, that the Constitution of the United States 
operated to repeal any provisions of the Ordi- 
nance repugnant to its terms, when Indiana was 
admitted into the Union, and, the provision of 
the federal Constitution requiring the return of 
fugitive slaves escaping from one State into an- 
other being paramount, the obligation to return 
them was binding if the plaintiff successfully 
established his title. The evidence in the case 
developed that the slaves, Sam, Mariah and child, 
were purchased by the plaintiff from a man 
named Tipton, in Missouri, and that Tipton, 
having prior to the sale of the slaves moved with 
them into Illinois, remained in that State the 
statutory time required to gain a residence, and 
having also voted and exercised the rights of a 
citizen of that State prior to the sale to Vaughan, 
the slaves became free under the laws of Illinois 
and therefore Vaughan had no title. The jury, 

so instructed, returned a verdict for the de- 
fendant. — Vaughan v. IVMiams, 3 McLean 530. 
Judge Huntington was succeeded by Caleb 
Blood Smith, a native of Boston, who studied 
law at Cincinnati, Ohio, and at Connersville, 
Indiana, whence he removed to Indianapolis. 
Judge Smith was influential in procuring Lin- 
coln's nomination and was Secretary of the Inte- 
rior in Lincoln's cabinet, which position he re- 
signed to accept the district judgeship on Decem- 
ber 22, 1862. He was a man of remarkable ora- 
torical powers. After serving a little over one 
year he died, and Albert Smith White, of La- 
fayette, was his successor, but White held the 

Old United States Court-House and Postoffice Building 
at Indianapolis, occupied until 1904. 

office only a few months, dying at Stockwell, 
Indiana, September 4, 1864. 

President Lincoln then appointed David Mc- 
Donald, who took the oath of office December 
13, 1864. Judge McDonald was a professor of 
law in the Indiana University, which institution 
conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. He 
was also author of McDonald's Treatise, a work 
on practice, which for many years was relied 
upon, and is to this day esteemed by many as a 
most useful textbook to guide the logic of the 
practitioner and the judgment of the justices to 
"turn upon the poles of truth." 

It was during Judge McDonald's administra- 
tion that the military commission composed of 
Brevet-Major General Alvin P. Hovey and 
others convened in the United States court room 
and tried Harrison H. Dodd, William A. Bowks, 
Andrew Humphreys, Horace Heffren, Lambdin 



P. Milligan and Stephen Horsey, leaders of the 
Indiana branch of the Knights of the Golden 
Circle. The conspiracy embraced an alleged 
scheme for an armed uprising of rebel sym- 
pathizers, the liberation of prisoners of war at 
Camp Morton and other military prisons in Ohio 
and Illinois, the assassination of Governor Mor- 
ton, and the establishment of a Northwestern 
Confederacy, to be composed of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky. The prisoners 
were confined in cells in the Postoffice building, 
except Dodd, who, upon his parol, was allowed, 
while his trial was in progress, to occupy a room 
on the third floor, from which, about four o'clock 
in the morning of October 7, 1864, he escaped 
through a window by means of a rope fastened 
to his bed. Friends who visited him had fur- 
nished him with a ball of twine, which he utilized 
to draw up a rope from the outside. The street 
lamps near the federal building had been dark- 
ened to conceal his exit. He went to Canada and 
remained there until the Supreme Court of the 
United States released his co-conspirator, Milli- 
gan, on habeas corpus proceedings. Dodd after- 
ward became a prominent Republican politician 
in Wisconsin. After Milligan had been found 
guilty and sentenced to death, application was 
made by his counsel, Major J. W. Gordon, to 
the United States Circuit Court for a writ of 
habeas corpus. Judge McDonald and Circuit 
Justice Swayne, who heard the application, being 
unable to agree, certified the questions involved 
to the Supreme Court of the United States, 
where the jurisdiction of the military tribunal 
was denied. The case is a leading one on the 
subject of the jurisdiction of military tribunals 
and the power of civil courts to review their 
judgments upon writs of habeas corpus. — In re 
Milligan. 4 Wallace 2. 

Until May 10, 1869, there were no circuit 
judges, the work of the circuit court being di- 
vided between the justice of the Supreme Court 
assigned to the circuit, and the district judge. 
John McLean was the first Supreme Court jus- 
tice assigned to duty in this circuit, followed by 
Justices Noah H. Swayne, David Davis, John M. 
Harlan, Mellville W. Fuller, John M. Harlan and 
Henry S. Brown. In 1869 the act providing for 
circuit judges was passed and Thomas H. Drum- 
mond, of Illinois, was appointed to that office by 
President Grant. 

Walter Q. Gresham was appointed district 
judge to succeed Judge McDonald, and commis- 
sioned September 1, 1869. In 1882 he resigned 
and became postmaster general in the cabinet of 
President Arthur, and was succeeded by William 
Allen Woods, of Goshen. Judge Gresham was 
appointed circuit judge on October 28, 1884, 
after the resignation of Judge Drummond. 
Judge Woods continued as district judge until 
the creation of the circuit court of appeals, when, 
on March 17, 1892, he was commissioned circuit 
judge by President Harrison, and subsequently 
became, and was at the time of his death, on 
June 29, 1901, the presiding judge of the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh 
. Judicial Circuit. 

To fill the vacancy caused by the promotion of 
Judge Woods to the bench of the circuit court 
of appeals, John H. Baker, of Goshen, was ap- 
pointed district judge and served until December 
18, 1902, when his resignation took effect. Judge 
Baker tendered his resignation to the president 
on May 1, 1902, to take effect upon the appoint- 
ment of his successor, shortly after his son, 
Francis E. Baker, was appointed by President 
Roosevelt circuit judge in place of Judge Woods. 
Francis E. Baker, who, at the time of his ap- 
pointment by President Roosevelt, was one of 
the justices of the Supreme Court of Indiana, 
was commissioned January 21, 1902, as judge of 
the circuit court of appeals for the seventh ju- 
dicial circuit, and is now in office.* 

After the resignation of Judge John H. Baker, 
Albert B. Anderson of Crawfordsville, was ap- 
pointed district judge on December 8, 1902, and 
qualified on December 18, 1902, and is now in 

While Gresham was on the district bench the 
Whisky Ring conspirators were prosecuted by 
Charles L. Holstein, as assistant and afterward 
United States attorney. The Whisky Ring was 
a conspiracy between distillers and government 
officials whereby distillers who were not in the 
ring were trapped into technical violations of the 
law and members of the ring were made exempt 
from the payment of certain taxes. In less than 
one year the government had been defrauded 
out of nearly two millions of dollars. The prose- 
cutions were ordered by President Grant under 

* Judge Baker died at his home in Goshen on October 21, 1915, 
at the age of eighty-four years. 



the injunction, "Let no guilty man escape." A 
number of persons were indicted in this district 
and convicted and a large amount of property 

About the year 1877 the prosecutions against 
James Slaughter and Carey Miller for defalca- 
tions in the First National Bank were conducted. 
It is said that while the grand jury was engaged 
in the investigation of these cases preparatory to 
returning the indictments one of the grand jurors 
came to Judge Gresham and asked him whether 
the government of the United States, or the ad- 
ministration (at that time President Hayes) had 
any right to control the deliberations of the 
grand jury. Judge Gresham replied that it cer- 
tainly had not. The juror stated that the dis- 
trict attorney had said that the government did 
not wish to prosecute a particular case and 
wanted to withdraw proceedings against a certain 
man. As soon as Judge Gresham took his seat 
on the bench that day he had the grand jury 
brought in and charged that they should not be 
influenced by the wishes of the administration 
or the desire of the district attorney in any way 
whatever in their deliberations ; that where a 
matter had been submitted to them it could not 
be withdrawn, and that the president of the 
United States had no more control over their 
deliberations than the czar of Russia. 

About this time also the first cases under the 
federal election law were brought, resulting in 
the indictment of Henry Wrappe from Jennings 
county. In this cage General Benjamin Harrison 
was pitted against Thomas A. Hendricks. Hen- 
dricks challenged the array on account of their 
political opinions, and Judge Gresham ordered 
the jury to be made up of half and half, Repub- 
licans and Democrats. 

During Judge Gresham's administration and 
immediately following the panic of 1873, there 
was an epidemic of railroad foreclosure suits. 
In the Hush times prior to 1873 eastern capital 
had sought investment in the development of the 
railroads of the west and many railroad com- 
panies were thrown into the hands of receivers 
because of their embarrassed financial condition. 
It was in the receivership of the Indianapolis, 
Bloomington and Western Railway that Hon. 
John M. Butler contended before Judge Drum- 
mond for a modification of the doctrine of real 
estate mortgages when applied to railroads so 

that claims for labor performed and supplies fur- 
nished shortly before the appointment of a re- 
ceiver should be paid in preference to the mort- 
gage debt. Judge Drummond in this case an- 
nounced the famous "six-months' rule," which he 
adhered to in subsequent cases, that claims for 
labor, supplies and materials accrued in the op- 
eration and maintenance of a railroad during a 
period of six months prior to the appointment of 
a receiver should be paid out of the proceeds of 
sale in preference to the payment of the mort- 
gage bonds. In the Chicago, Danville and Vin- 
cennes receivership the rule was applied to the 
case of some equipment purchased by the road. 
Henry Crawford, who appeared for the bond- 
holders, vigorously assailed before Judges Drum- 
mond and Gresham the application of the six- 
months' rule as an attempt at confiscation of 
property and denounced the rule as a figment of 
"sentimental equity." Crawford took the case to 
the Supreme Court of the United States (Fos- 
dick v. Schall, 99 U. S. 235), where the six- 
months' rule was fully approved, but the case 
reversed on another point. It is related that 
after the decision of the Fosdick case. Judge 
Drummond met Mr. Crawford and said to him: 
"What do you think now of my sentimental 
equity?" Crawford replied: "Yes, Judge, you 
had the ingenuity to invent, but not the common 
sense to apply the doctrine." The principle of 
the Fosdick case wrought a revolution in the law 
of railroad receiverships. It became firmly em- 
bedded in federal jurisprudence and has proved 
a blessing to railroad employes all over the 

While Judge Woods was on the district bench 
the celebrated tally sheet forgery cases were 
tried, resulting in the conviction and imprison- 
ment of Simeon Coy and William F. A. Bern- 
hamer. To General John Coburn. more than am 
other man, is due the credit for the prompt or- 
ganization of the Committee of One Hundred 
and the manifestation of a determined sentiment, 
non-partisan in character, to purify the political 
atmosphere of Marion county by punishment of 
a most brazen crime against the ballot. After 
conviction, and with the inevitable consequences 
of his crime before him. C03 announced his 
unique aphorism "When I'm done I'm did." 

W. W. Dudley, who during the Garfield ad- 
ministration was Linked States marshal for In- 



diana, and who, during the Harrison campaign 
of 1888 was chairman of the National Republi- 
can Committee, during that campaign mailed let- 
ters to Indiana chairmen containing this lan- 
guage : "Divide the floaters into blocks of five 
and put a trusted man with necessary funds in 
charge of these five, and make him responsible 
that none get away, and that all vote our ticket." 
Hon. Solomon Claypool was district attorney at 
the time, and very promptly after the election an 
attempt was made to indict Dudley under Sec. 
5511 (the federal election law, since repealed) 
making one who "aids, counsels, procures or ad- 
vises" another "to commit or attempt to commit 
any offense" named in the section (including the 
bribery of a voter) punishable by fine or impris- 
onment. The grand jury was impaneled and 
instructed November 14, 1888, and continued 
their deliberations until December 24, when they 
requested a construction of the language of the 
act. An adjournment was had until January 15, 
1889, when the court further instructed the jury 
essentially as follows : "But in any case, beyond 
the mere fact of the advice or counsel, it must 
be shown that the crime contemplated was com- 
mitted or an attempt was made to commit it." 
It was immediately charged by the Democratic- 
press that Judge Woods had "changed his in- 
structions" so as to shield Dudley ; that after pro- 
ceedings were commenced, "Republican leaders 
were frightened ; Quay and Wanamaker, one or 
both, hastened to Indianapolis ; high and close 
counsels of the party were held, and the supple- 
mental charge devised, carefully weighed and 
adopted." A sharp issue of fact arose out of 
what constituted the first charge. There being 
at that time no official court reporter, the news- 
paper reports of the first charge were said to be 
inaccurate and untrue. On the other hand Judge 
Woods insisted that his first charge, which was 
oral, did not put any construction on the statute, 
but kept close to its very words ; and even his 
loudest and most persistent accusers commended 
the first of the charges in question as being "in 
the plain, simple language of Section 5511." 
Whether the counseling or advising of another 
to do an act made criminal, by Section 5511, was 
a punishable offense under that section, unless 
the act so counseled or advised was done or at- 
tempted to be done, was a legal question about 
which at first blush great lawyers differed. 

Judge Woods' conclusion, in the negative, was 
supported by very able decisions ; Republic v. 
Roberts, 1 Dall. 39; Regina v. Gregory, 10 Cox 
C. C. 459 ; and by the language of Section 5323 
R. S., relating to piracies. Hon. Joseph E. Mc- 
Donald took the opposite view, and even Justice 
John M. Harlan at first was so inclined, but on 
examination of the authorities cited the latter 
very frankly acknowledged the correctness of 
Judge Woods' conclusion. But the defamers of 
Judge Woods continued their efforts to smirch 
his judicial character. The following Democratic 
State convention adopted a resolution solemnly 
declaring "that the brazen prostitution of the 
machinery of the federal court of the United 
States for the District of Indiana, by its judge 
and attorney, to the protection of these conspira- 
tors (Dudley and others) against the suffrage, 
constitutes the most infamous chapter in the ju- 
dicial annals of the Republic." The fight was 
continued in the Senate by Senators Turpie and 
Voorhees in an unsuccessful attempt to defeat 
the confirmation of Woods as circuit judge. 
Senator McDonald's letter of November 9, 1888, 
and Mr. Claypool's testimony before the Senate 
Committee, show beyond question that the last 
charge was in exact accord with the view of the 
statute which Judge Woods had declared to Mc- 
Donald, to Claypool, and to others before the 
first charge was given. There was, therefore, no 
change of front. After newspaper discussion 
of the subject had died out, Hon. W. H. H. 
Miller, then attorney-general, called Judge 
Woods' attention to the decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States in United States v. 
Mills, 7 Peters 138, where the precise point was 
decided as long ago as 1833. The Supreme Court 
held in that case "that an indictment for advising, 
etc., a mail carrier to rob the mail, ought to set 
forth or aver that the said carrier did in fact 
commit the offense of robbing the mail." This 
decision was entirely overlooked at the time of 
the Dudley controversy, and sustains emphat- 
ically the correctness of the judge's instructions. 

The most notable judicial action of Judge 
Woods was the injunction against the American 
Railway Union in the strike of 1894, and the 
trial and punishment of Debs and others for vio- 
lation of the injunction. 

During Judge Baker's administration as dis- 
trict judge the cases growing out of the embez- 



zlement of funds of the Indianapolis National 
Bank were tried. The sensational events accom- 
panying the trial, which are yet well remembered, 
include the trial and conviction for contempt of 
court of a juror who solicited a bribe, and the 
accidental shooting of Addison C. Harris by a 
client in another case. 

In the summer and fall of 1894 the attention 
of the court was directed to the trial of the strike 
cases, resulting from the so-called "omnibus in- 
junction" against Debs and other officers and 
members of the American Railway Union. The 
fearless and prompt prosecutions conducted by 
Frank B. Burke, district attorney, before Judge 
Baker, for the first violations of the injunction 
in this district resulted in early breaking the 
backbone of the strike in this State and a prompt 
restoration of law and order in the railroad 

In the Scott county lynching case, tried in 
1899 and resulting in a small verdict for the 
plaintiff. Judge Baker announced the doctrine 
that a sheriff is liable on his official bond for 
damages resulting from his failure to exercise 
reasonable care in protecting the life and health 
of prisoners in his custody. Tyler v. Cobin, 94 
Fed. 48. This decision attracted wide attention, 
and has resulted in legislation in this and other 
States designed to hold sheriffs to a stricter ac- 
countability for the safety of prisoners. 

Notable cases have been tried and determined 
during Judge Anderson's occupancy of the federal 
bench for the Indiana district. In 1909 the Pan- 
ama libel suit was commenced in Washington, 
D. C. and an effort made to extradite the editors 
of the Indianapolis News from Indianapolis to 
Washington for trial. It was contended that the 
publication of an editorial in the Indianapolis 
Nezvs reflecting upon Theodore Roosevelt and 
others was libelous, and as the paper circulated 
in Washington, as well as elsewhere, the editors 
could be extradited from Indianapolis to Wash- 
ington for trial. In denying the application for 
a warrant of extradition, Judge Anderson, in an 
able oral opinion, said : "To my mind that man 
has read the history of our institutions to little 
purpose who does not look with grave apprehen- 
sion upon the possibility of the success of a pro- 
ceeding such as this. If the history of liberty 
means anything, if constitutional guaranties are 
worth anything, this proceeding must fail. If 

the prosecuting authorities have the authority to 
select the tribunal, if there be more than one 
tribunal to select from; if the government has 
that power and can drag citizens from distant 
States to the capital of the nation, there to be 
tried, then, as Judge Cooley says, this is a strange 
result of a revolution where one of the grievances 
complained of was the assertion of the right to 
send parties abroad for trial." A similar result 
was reached in the New York district, where the 
case was appealed to the Supreme Court and the 
decision denying the application for extradition 
of editors of the New York World was affirmed. 

In 1912 an indictment was returned in Judge 
Anderson's court against a large number of offi- 
cers and members of the International Association 
of Structural Steel and Iron Workers for conspir- 
acy to unlawfully transport dynamite on passen- 
ger trains from State to State. The purpose was 
to further the interests of the iron workers in 
strikes in various parts of the country. Mys- 
terious explosions, resulting in great destruction 
of property and loss of life, occurred in various 
parts of the country. Witnesses from Boston 
and San Francisco, in all parts of the country, 
and some from foreign countries, told details of 
a most amazing plot that resulted in great loss of 
life and of property. The case was prosecuted 
by Charles W. Miller, then United States attor- 
ney, and resulted in the conviction and sentence 
of thirty-eight officers and members of the union. 

In 1914 Judge Anderson tried the Election 
Conspiracy Case, growing out of an election in 
Terre Haute. It was popularly believed that 
since the repeal of the so-called Force Bill, under 
which the case In re Coy was tried during Judge 
Woods' administration, there was no federal stat- 
ute which could be invoked for the protection of 
the purity of the ballot in federal elections. 
Nevertheless a large number of Terre Haute 
politicians were indicted and brought to trial, 
found guilty and sentenced to prison for con- 
spiracy to violate various sections of the federal 
statutes relating to elections. This case was vig- 
orously prosecuted by United States Attorney 
Frank C. Daily, under a Democratic administra- 
tion, against a large number of Democrats, Re- 
publicans and Progressives, resulting in convic- 
tion and punishment of the offenders, and the 
example set by the Indiana court has resulted in 
election conspiracy cases in other States. 



The legislation of Congress has shown a con- 
sistent design to enlarge the jurisdiction of State 
courts over controversies between citizens of dif- 
ferent States by limiting the jurisdiction of fed- 
eral courts over the subject-matter involved. 
The decisions of the Supreme Court on jurisdic- 
tional questions have imposed still further limita- 
tions, as, for example, the decision in Bardes v. 
Hawarden Bank, 178 U. S. 524, construing the 
bankruptcy law in such a way as to throw into 
the State courts practically all litigation involving 
the marshaling of assets of a bankrupt fraudu- 
lently or preferentially transferred. Notwith- 
standing these jurisdictional contractions, the fed- 
eral courts of Indiana are very busy, and although 
Indiana is one of the largest districts in the 
Union, the nisi prius work was practically all 
performed by Judge Anderson during his term, 
while other States having less work are subdi- 
vided into two or more districts or divisions with 
a district judge for each. — Rowland Evans. 

Insurance in Indiana. — Prior to the year 1852 
all the insurance companies in the State of In- 
diana were organized by special act of the Leg- 
islature. The acts incorporating these com- 
panies were very broad, giving power to do all 
kinds of insurance, and most of them also includ- 
ing banking powers. The, first insurance com- 
pany to be chartered in Indiana, in 1832, was the 
Lawrenceburg Insurance Company of Lawrence- 
burg. The stock of this company was trans- 
ferred to Drew & Bennett, of Evansville, Ind., 
in 1884, who changed the name of the company 
to the Citizens' Insurance Company of Evans- 
ville, Ind., under which name it was operated 
until 1903, when it went out of business. Nota- 
ble among the insurance companies that were 
granted special charters prior to the adoption of 
the Constitution of 1852, are the Firemen's and 
Mechanics' Insurance Company and the Madison 
Insurance Company. These companies were or- 
ganized by prominent citizens of Madison and 
have been successfully operated up to the present 

When the Constitution of 1852 was adopted 
there was put into it the following provision : "In 
all cases enumerated in the preceding section and 
in all other cases where a general law can be 
made applicable, all laws shall be general and 
of uniform operation throughout the State" ( Art. 

4, Sec. 23, Ind. Const. 1852). This section re- 
voked the power to create corporations by spe- 
cial enactment. 

At the first session of the Legislature under 
the new constitution a law was passed for the 
organization of both stock and mutual insurance 
companies. (Ind. R. S. 1852, p. 351.) This law 
of 1852, with some few amendments, is still the 
only law in the State of Indiana providing for 
the organization of fire insurance companies. 
When this law was enacted there was contained 
therein Section 22, which read as follows : 
"Whenever such company shall be notified of any 
loss sustained on a policy of insurance issued by 
them, the company shall pay the amount so lost 
within sixty days after such notice, under a pen- 
alty of ten per centum damages for every thirty 
days such loss remains unpaid thereafter." This 
section virtually prohibited the organization of 
insurance companies in the State of Indiana. 

Beginning with the year 1881 and at nearly 
every session of the Legislature thereafter, up 
to the session of 1897, a bill was prepared by the 
writer and introduced in the Legislature to re- 
peal this Section 22, but the bill was defeated at 
every session until the session of 1897, when it 
was passed. 

No stock insurance company worthy of the 
name had ever organized under the law of 1852 
from the time of its passage until the repeal of 
this Section 22. The reason therefor is readily 
apparent. Since the repeal of this section sev- 
eral strong stock fire insurance companies have 
organized under the law of 1852 and are reflect- 
ing credit upon the State by their successful man- 

A number of mutual fire insurance companies 
were organized under the amendments to the 
Act of 1852, passed in 1865, and attained very 
large success. Few of these companies are, how- 
ever, in existence, and those that are in existence 
confine their business to a limited territory. 

A few life insurance companies were organ- 
ized under the mutual law of 1865, but none 
of them are now in existence. They have either 
retired from business or reincorporated under 
later enacted laws. 

In 1881 the Legislature passed an act provid- 
ing for the organization of farmers' mutual fire 
insurance companies. The business of these 



companies was confined to three contiguous coun- 
ties. Under this law a great many farmers' 
mutual fire insurance companies are existing 

A number of assessment life and accident in- 
surance companies were organized in Indiana 
prior to 1883. under the provisions of the Volun- 
tary Association Act. A number of these com- 
panies did a very large business, but none of 
them are in existence to-day. 

In 1883 the Legislature passed an act provid- 
ing for the organization of life and accident in- 
surance companies on the assessment plan, and 
thereafter, at the session of 1897, passed the Stip- 
ulated Premium Assessment Law. The life in- 
surance business in Indiana may be said to date 
from the enactment of the law of 1897. Several 
of the strong life insurance companies in the 
State were organized thereunder and continued 
to operate under these laws until the year 1899, 
when the law relating to stock and mutual life 
insurance companies was passed. After the pas- 
sage of this last-mentioned law all the companies 
that had previously organized under the Assess- 
ment and the Stipulated Premium Laws reorgan- 
ized under the Stock and Mutual Life Insurance 
Company Law and have continued to since op- 
erate under the provisions thereof. The life in- 
surance business in Indiana really dates from 
the year 1899. 

Previous to 1901 life insurance companies on 
the stock plan, in order to do business outside 
of the State, were required to have not less than 
$200,000 of capital stock, and mutual life insur- 
ance companies were required to have not less 
than $200,000 of net surplus funds. This was 
liv reason of what is known as the Retaliatory 
Section in the laws of the different States. The 
law of Indiana would not admit a foreign in- 
surance company with less than $200,000 of cap- 
ital stock paid up, or, in case of a mutual com- 
pany, with less than $200,000 of net surplus, and, 
therefore, other States virtually said to Indiana 
companies : "We will exact a like requirement of 
you and will not permit you to do business un- 
less you have a like capital stock, or a like sur- 
plus." As none of the Indiana companies, prior 
to 1901, had such an amount of capital stock or 
net surplus, they were thereby confined to the 
limits of the State of Indiana for business. In 







1901, however, the Legislature amended the law 
of Indiana as related to life insurance companies 
and permitted life insurance companies of other 
states to do business in Indiana with $100,000 
capital stock or net surplus. This let the Indiana 
companies into other States, and their material 
growth may be dated from that year. 

In 1907 the Indiana life insurance companies 
passed through their most crucial period. At 
the session of the Legislature of that year there 
was a bill introduced, which, if it had passed, 
would have wiped out all Indiana life insurance 
companies and would have rendered it impossible 
ever thereafter to have organized a life insur- 
ance company within the State so long as the 
bill would have remained as a law on the statute 
books. Fortunately for the State of Indiana the 
life insurance companies and an aroused public 
sentiment were enabled to defeat this vicious leg- 
islation, and saved the life insurance business to 
the State. 

Prior to 1899 the fraternal orders existing in 
the State of Indiana were organized under the 
Voluntary Association Act heretofore mentioned. 
In 1899 the Legislature passed a law for the 
organization of fraternal beneficiary associations 
and established rates for insurance therein. 
There are a number of very strong fraternal 

beneficiary associations in the State doing busi- 
ness under the provisions of this act. 

In 1893 the Legislature enacted a law for the 
organization of live-stock insurance companies. 
A number of companies have been organized 
under this law and one of these companies is 
recognized to-day as the leading live-stock in- 
surance company in the United States. 

Prior to 1909 the only laws under which an 
accident insurance company could be organized 
were the old laws of 1852 and amendments 
thereto, the assessment laws of 1883 and 1897, 
and the Voluntary Association Act, neither of 
which laws were satisfactory. 

In 1903 a casualty law was passed in Indiana, 
but it did not provide, however, for insurance 
against personal accidents until amended by the 
Act of 1909. There are several companies doing 
business in the State at this time that are organ- 
ized under the law of 1903 and the amendments 
of 1909, and are doing business throughout the 
United States. 

In 1907 and again in 1909 and 1911 unsuccess- 
ful attempts were made to pass the Fire Marshal 
Law. The bill was again introduced at the ses- 
sion of the Legislature in 1913 and passed. The 
law is now in successful operation. — Guilford A. 
Deitch, author of Insurance Digest. 


A General Survey of Indiana by Counties 
with Brief Historical Sketches 

Edited and Compiled by Max R. Hyman 


An Outline of the State's Development 

The Mound Builders. — That the territory now 
occupied by Indiana was inhabited by prehistoric 
people is evidenced by their work, silent, yet 
indisputable evidence of their former occupancy, 
which still remains. These works, notable in the 
southern part of the State, are in the form of 
mounds, memorial pillars, fortifications, weapons 
and domestic utensils that furnish "abundant 
evidence to show that at one time, long anterior 
to the coming of the red man, Indiana was quite 
densely populated by a race that lived, nourished 
and passed away,"* leaving no other traces of 
their existence. They have been classed as the 
Mound Builders. 

Under Three Flags. — The territory which is 
now included within the present boundaries of 
Indiana was formerly owned by the Miami Con- 
federacy of Indians. It was first explored by 
La Salle in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, about 1670, when he is said to have 
descended the Ohio river as far as the Louisville 
rapids. It is well established that he traversed 
the region of the Kankakee and St. Joseph rivers 
in the northwestern part of the State in 1679. 
Father Allouez, the French missionary, accom- 
panied by Dablon, visited this vicinity in 1675- 
80, f and French trappers appeared at the end 
of the seventeenth century. 

It was under the domination of France! from 
the time of the discovery of the mouth of the 
Mississippi by La Salle, in 1682, until 1763, when 
it was ceded to Great Britain after the French 
and Indian war. From 1763 to 1779, it was held 
nominally by Great Britain as a part of her colo- 

* Smith's History of Indiana, p. 42. 

"i" History of Notre Dame, p. 30. 

t Jacob Piatt Dunn, in his History of Indiana, says "Indiana 
had no capital within her boundaries for one hundred and thirty 
years after white men had been upon her soil. She was but part 
of a province of a province. For ninety years her provincial 
seat of government vacillated between Quebec, New Orleans and 
Montreal, with intermediate authority at Fort Chartres and De- 
troit and the ultimate power at Paris. Then her capital was 
whisked away to London, without the slightest regard to the 
wishes of her scattered inhabitants, by the treaty of Paris. Six- 
teen years later, it came over the Atlantic to Richmond, on the 
James, by conquest; and after a tarry of five years at that point, 
it shifted to New York City, then the national seat of govern- 
ment, by cession. In 1788 it reached Marietta, Ohio, on its 
progress toward its final location. In 1800 it came within the 
limits of the State." 

nial possessions in North America and the juris- 
diction of the State of Virginia was formally ex- 
tended over it from 1779 to 1784. 

In 1778, during the Revolution, Vincennes and 
Kaskaskia were captured from the British by a 
force of Virginians under George Rogers Clark 
and later in the same year the region northwest 
of the Ohio was made the county of Illinois by 
the Virginia Legislature. 

In 1783, the British claims to all territory east 
of the Mississippi and north of Florida were re- 
linquished in favor of the United States. The 
States which claimed title to lands northwest 
of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi ceded 
their rights to the United States before 1787, and 
in that year this region was organized as the 
Northwest Territory. 

Indiana Territory. — In 1800, that part of the 
Northwest Territory lying between the Missis- 
sippi river and a line extending from a point on 
the Ohio river opposite the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky to Fort Recovery and thence to the Cana- 
dian line was organized as the Territory of Indi- 
ana, together with the area now constituting Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin, northeastern Minnesota and 
western Michigan. Two years later, by a clause 
in the enabling act for Ohio, the boundary be- 
tween Indiana and Ohio was fixed in its present 
location and by the same act the region north of 
Ohio was added to Indiana. In 1804, the form 
of territorial government was changed from the 
first to the second grade, thus giving Indiana a 
Legislature and a Delegate in Congress. The 
organization of Michigan Territory in 1805, and 
Illinois Territory in 1809, left Indiana with its 
present boundaries, and in December, 1816, the 
State of Indiana was admitted to the Union. 


1. Highest elevation in the State — 1,285 feet 
above sea level, Summit, Randolph county, eight 
miles south of Winchester. 

2. Lowest elevation in the State — 313 feet 
above sea level, at the confluence of the Wabash 
and Ohio rivers, Posey county. 




3. Average elevation above sea level — esti- 
mated to be 700 feet. 

A topographic map of an area is an expression 
of the surface features of that area. Such a 
map could be absolutely true in detail only when 
based upon a system of contour lines having the 
smallest possible intervals. 

The map herewith is not offered as a piece of 
perfect workmanship. The elevations were de- 
rived from the data published in the State Geolo- 
gist's Thirty-sixth Annual Report, and in the ab- 
sence of complete topographic contours the 
boundaries of areas of different elevations could 
not be established with exactness, but the bound- 
aries are generally true. 

Could one but stand at some point in southeast- 
ern Indiana, say between the southeastern corner 
of Switzerland county and the southeastern cor- 
ner of Union county, and look westward or 
southwestward and see the outcropping features 
of the geological formations of the State, they 
would present an ascending series, geologically 
speaking, from the Lower Silurian, in the extreme 
southeastern part of the State, up to the highest 
formation, the Merom sandstone, along the Wa- 
bash river on the western side of the State. 
Above this of course is the glacial drift. Or, to 
put the matter in another way, the formations 
are successively younger as we ascend geologic- 
ally from the eastern and southeastern parts of 
the State to the western part, the sediments and 
drift of the western part having been laid last. 

The picture is more difficult to draw from any 
viewpoint along the eastern margin of the State, 
from Union county northward, for the reason 
(1) that the northern two-thirds of the State are 
covered with a thick mantle of glacial drift; and, 
for the further reason, (2) that erosion has not 
played such a prominent part in the northern 
part of the State as in the southern part, where 
it has profoundly influenced the topography of 
the State. 

While the above is true from a geologic stand- 
point, the reverse is true from a topographic 
standpoint. Topographically speaking the east- 
ern parts of the State are the highest, the slope 
or dip being to the south and southwest. The 
only exception to this southwestern slope worthy 
of notice is a small area in the extreme north- 
ern end of the State, which area is drained by 
the Pigeon, Elkhart and St. Joseph rivers. The 

lower courses of these rivers have been largely 
influenced, if not entirely changed, by the depo- 
sition of drift materials during the later glacial 

The elevation along the eastern margin of the 
State, from Franklin county to Steuben county, 
is from 800 to about 1,200 feet above the mean 
sea level. Along the western margin of the State, 
from Posey county to Lake county, the elevation 
varies from 313 feet in the extreme southeastern 
part of Posey county to about 750 feet in Lake 

Indiana is not a mountainous State. It has 
never been such. There is no geological evidence 
within the State of violent agitation or upheaval 
in the formative period of the portion of the 
earth's crust now known as Indiana. All of the 
valleys and hills and undulations in the State 
were formed by the erosive power of water, 
either glacial or stream. The differences in ele- 
vation above sea level in the State are not suf- 
ficient to cause any marked difference either in 
climate or in vegetation, either native or culti- 
vated. The oak, the maple and the ash grow as 
vigorously in Randolph county, where the alti- 
tude is greatest, as in Posey county, where it is 
the least. The same thing is true of corn and 
wheat. The slight difference in seeding time in 
the southern part of the State, and seeding time 
in the northern part is due to latitude and not to 
altitude. Perhaps spring is incidentally encour- 
aged in the southern part of the State by the pre- 
vailing south to southwestern slopes, and re- 
tarded somewhat by the flat and slopeless areas in 
the northern part of the State. The same thing 
would be true of harvest time. While differences 
in life and crop zones of the State have not been 
profoundly influenced by altitude, nevertheless 
an intimate knowledge of the topography of the 
State is of inestimable value to the people in the 
several ways enumerated under the head of Hyp- 
sometry of Indiana in the Thirty-sixth Annual 
Report of Department of Geology, as follows : 

1. As preliminary maps for planning extensive 
irrigation and drainage projects, showing areas 
of catchment for water supply, sites for reser- 
voirs, routes of canals, etc. 

2. For laying out of highways, electric roads, 
railroads, aqueducts, and sewage systems, thus 
saving the cost of preliminary surveys. 

3. In improving rivers and smaller waterways. 

KV>"* r 


300-400 ft. 

400-500 ft. 

500-600 ft. !£ |W«S«E 

600-700 ft. &^ 

700-800 1 

IPlp. \ l 

800-900 ft. 
900-1000 ft. 

1100-1200 1.. I 

Above 1200 ft. \~_ ^S 

Topographical Map of Indiana. The highest points in Indiana are located in the south central and southeast 
corner of Randolph County.— Map by Edward Barrett, State Geologist. 



4. As bases for the compilation of maps show- 
ing the extent and character of forest and graz- 
ing lands. 

5. In classifying lands and in plotting the dis- 
tribution and nature of soils. 

6. In locating and mapping the boundaries of 
the life and crop zones, and in mapping the geo- 
graphic distribution of plants and animals. 

7. As base maps for the plotting of informa- 
tion relating to the geology and mineral resources 
of the country. 

8. In connection with questions relating to 
State, county and town boundaries. 

9. As a means of promoting an exact knowl- 
edge of the country and serving teachers and 
pupils in geographic studies. 

10. In connection with legislation involving 
the granting of charters, rights, etc., when a 
physical knowledge of the country may be desir- 
able or necessary. — Edward Barrett, State Geolo- 
gist, j/th Annual Report Department of Geology 
and Natural Resources. 

Scene on White River at Broad Ripple, Marion County. 



ADAMS COUNTY is located in the north- 
eastern part of Indiana. It is bounded on 
the north by Allen county, on the west by Wells, 
on the south by Jay county and on the east by 
the State of Ohio. It contains 336 square miles 
of practically level surface admirably suited to 

Organization. — The county was organized in 
1836 with Decatur as the seat of justice. The 
site' was offered to the locating commissioners by 
Samuel Johnson, who offered as an inducement 
to have the county seat located on his land, the 
sum of $3,100, four church lots, half an acre for 

Limberlost." This district, since it has been 
dredged, has proved to be the most fertile and 
valuable soil in Adams county, and many very 
productive oil wells have been sunk in and near 
this district. 

Population of Adams county in 1890 was 
20,181 ; in 1900 it was 22,232, and according to 
United States Census in 1910 it was 21,840, of 
which 958 were of foreign birth. There were 
4,810 families in the county and 4,774 dwellings. 

Township, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Adams county : Blue Creek, 
French, Hartford, Jefferson, Kirkland, Monroe, 

Court-House and Soldiers' Monument, Decatur, 

a public square, one acre for a seminary and two 
acres for a cemetery. He further agreed to pay 
the expenses of the locating commissioners, and 
furnish a house to hold court in until suitable 
buildings could be erected. This offer was ac- 
cepted and the commissioners promptly accepted 
the offer "and proceeded to the aforesaid town 
site, and marked a white oak tree with blazes on 
four sides, on each of which they individually in- 
scribed their names." A large tract of land lying 
between Allen and Randolph counties had been 
previously called Adams county, after the distin- 
guished statesman who bore that name ; yet no 
organization had been effected. 

Notable Features. — The southern part of the 
county embraces the famous "Limberlost" dis- 
trict, immortalized by Mrs. Gene Stratton-Porter 
in her books, "Freckles" and "A Girl From the 

Public Library, Decatur, Adams County. 

Preble, Root, St. Marys, Union, Wabash and 
Washington. The incorporated towns are De- 
catur, Berne, Geneva and Monroe. Decatur is 
the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State, from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913 the 
total value of lands and lots in Adams county 
was $7,447,405 ; value of improvements was 
$2,508,870, and the total net value of taxables 
was $16,251,740. There were 3,598 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 500 miles of 
improved roads in Adams county built and un- 
der jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Gravel road bonds outstanding, 
$6 12,259.46. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 





55.74 miles of steam railroad operated in Adams 
county by the Chicago & Erie ; Cincinnati, Rich- 
mond & Fort Wayne ; G. R. & I. ; and the Toledo, 
St. Louis & Western railroads. The Bluffton, 
Geneva & Celina Traction Company, and the 
Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway Company, 
operate 18.70 miles of electric lines in the county. 
Educational. — According to the report of E. 
S. Christen, county superintendent of Adams 
county, there were ninety-five schoolhouses, in- 
cluding six high schools, in Adams county in 
1914 employing 149 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 4,170. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $72,003.50. 

The estimated value of school property in the 
county was $410,600, and the total amount of 
indebtedness, including bonds, was $120,378. 

Agriculture. — There were in Adams county 
in 1910 over 2,300 farms embraced in 208,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 88.7 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $23,000,000, 
showing a per cent, of increase in value over 1900 
of 107.3. The average value of land per acre 
was $76.70. The total value of domestic animals 
was over $2,000,000: Number of cattle 17,000, 
valued at $450,000; horses 10,000, valued at 
$1,300,000; hogs 55.000, valued at $320,000; 
sheep 25,000, valued at $106,000. The total 
value of poultry was $100,000. 



ALLEN COUNTY is located in the north- 
eastern part of Indiana, bordering on the 
State of Ohio. It is bounded on the north by 
Noble and Dekalb counties, on the west by Whit- 
ley and Huntington counties and on the south by 

Portrait of John Allen, in Allen County Court-House. 
—Painted by Jouctt. 

Wells and Adams counties. It is the largest 
county in the State with an area of over 650 
square miles. Its geographical location has been 
a pronounced factor in determining its pros- 
perity, particularly in its earlier history. Fort 
Wayne, its predecessor of the old French period, 
Fort Miami, and the Indian town antedating 
that, were all located at the fork of the Maumee 
river, because it was a controlling point in an im- 
portant line of travel between the Great Lakes 
and the Mississippi valley. When, in course of 
time, that travel was augmented by the Wabash 
and Erie canal, and the tides of migration set in 
from the east, Fort Wayne became a gateway to 
the State and Allen county received the first 
fruits of the invasion. 

Organization. — The organization of Allen 
county became effective April 1, 1824, with Fort 
Wayne as the seat of justice, and the first elec- 
tion for county officers was held in the last week 
of May. The county at that time embraced also 
the territory afterward given to Wells, Adams, 
Huntington and Whitley counties. The first cir- 
cuit court was held August 9, 1824, with Samuel 
Hanna and Benjamin Cushman on the bench and 
C. W. Ewing as prosecuting attorney. Allen 
county is named for Colonel John Allen, a dis- 
tinguished Kentucky lawyer. During the period 
preceding the siege of Fort Wayne by the Indian 



tribes in 1812, the governors of Kentucky and 
Ohio took military precautions against invasion 
by the red men. In May of that year, Governor 
Scott of Kentucky organized ten regiments. 
Among the patriots who enlisted was Colonel 
Allen, who was placed in command of the rifle 
regiment. He lost his life at the battle of River 
Raisin. An oil painting of him hangs on the wall 
of the "relic room" in the court-house. 

Population of Allen county in 1890 was 
66,689; in 1900 was 77,270, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 93,386, of 
which 9,251 were of foreign birth. There were 
21,128 in the county and 20,282 dwellings. 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twenty townships in Allen county: Aboite, 
Adams, Cedar Creek, Eel River, Jackson, Jef- 
ferson, Lafayette, Lake, Madison, Marion, Mau- 
mee, Milan, Monroe, Perry, Pleasant, Scipio, 
Springfield, St. Joseph, Washington and Wayne. 
The incorporated cities and towns are Fort 
Wayne, Monroeville, New Haven, Shirley City. 
The county seat is Fort Wayne. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Allen county was 
$34,064,690; value of improvements was $18,- 
426,060, and the total net value of taxables was 
$63,420,840. There were 17,555 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 325 miles of 
improved roads in Allen county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners January 
1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds outstand- 
ing, $700,847. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
173.21 miles of steam railroad operated in Allen 
county by the Cincinnati, Findlay & Fort Wayne ; 
Cincinnati, Richmond & Fort Wayne; Fort 
Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville ; Fort Wayne 
iS: Jackson; Grand Rapids & Indiana; Lake Erie 
& Fort Wayne ; New York, Chicago & St. Louis ; 
Yandalia ; Wabash ; and the Fort Wayne & De- 
troit branch of the Wabash railroad. There are 
91.6 miles of electric railway operated by the 
Fort Wayne & Springfield; Fort Wayne & 
Northern Indiana Traction Company ; Fort 
Wayne & Northwestern Railway Company, and 
the Ohio Electric Railway Company. 








S Bilk 

6 •' " B* 

1 "^"9 

2 " 

BJ '■•_. ?-V_> 



School for Feeble-Minded Youth, Fort Wayne. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
D. O. McComb, county superintendent of Allen 
county, there were 191 schoolhouses, including 
six high schools, in Allen county in 1914 employ- 
ing 467 teachers. The average daily attendance 
by pupils was 10,866. The aggregate amount paid 
in salaries to superintendents, supervisors, princi- 
pals and teachers was $332,206.86. The estimated 
value of school property in the county was 

vSi. 184,000, and the total amount of indebtedness, 
including bonds, was $726,668. 

Agriculture. — There were in Allen county in 
1910 over 4,300 farms embraced in 395,000 acres. 
Average acres per farm, 91.3 acres. The value of 
all farm property was $43,000,000, showing 93.2 
per cent, increase in value over 1900. The aver- 
age value of land per acre was $74.97. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $3,500,000: 
Number of cattle 30,000, valued at over $800,- 
000; horses 17,000, valued at $2,000,000; hogs 
56,000, valued at $380.000 ; sheep 37,000, valued 
at $166,000. The total value of poultry was 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
< 'ensus of 1910, there were 230 industries in 
Fort Wayne, furnishing employment to 12,184 
persons. Total amount of capital employed, $20,- 
346,176. Value of products, $23,686,809, value 
added by manufacture, $12,271,618. 

Fort Wayne, the seat of justice of Allen 
county, was located on a high bank opposite 
which, on the north, the St. Marys and the St. 
Joseph unite and form the Maumee river. On 
the site of this town was the old "Twightwee 

Fort Wayne, 1794. 



Village" or principal seat of the Miamis, in their 
language called Ke-ki-on-ga, a place of impor- 
tance over 150 years ago. Here, too, was old Fort 
Wayne, erected by order of General Wayne in 
September, 1794, and just below this fort, on the 
opposite side of the Maumee, was fought the 
disastrous battle of General Harmar with the 
Miamis under Chief Little Turtle, on October 
20. 1790. This place at one time was called "The 
French Stores," as it was for a long time a place 
of resort for many of the French traders, and 
near it was the carrying place from the naviga- 
ble waters of Lake Erie to those of the Wabash. 
Fort Wayne continued to be a military post until 
1819. Until the removal of the Miamis and the 
Pottawatomies, west of the Mississippi in 1841. 
it was used as a trading point by the Indians for 
the disposal of their furs. 

According to the United States Census for 
1910, Fort Wayne has a population of 74,352, 
and is now the second largest city in the State. 

Fort Wayne has seven railroads : The Penn- 
sylvania Lines ; Wabash system ; New York, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis (Nickel Plate) railway and 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railway — 
four great east and west trunk lines ; Grand Rap- 
ids & Indiana railway with its direct line from 
the Straights of Mackinaw to Cincinnati, and 
the Lake Erie & Western, and the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton railroads, which run 
to the territory south and southwest. It is the di- 
visional point of six of its seven railroads. The 


Building, Fort Wayne. 

v^B.« |'T tff&M 


f ■ i * 1 




Sacred Heart Academy. Fort Wayne 

large car building and repair shops of the Penn- 
sylvania lines are located here, and the Wabash, 
Nickel Plate, and the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern railroads maintain modern plants for 
light car and locomotive repair. Fort Wayne is 
the terminal point of five important electric inter- 
urban railways, reaching in all directions. 

The public schools of Fort 
Wayne rank among the best 
of the cities of America : be- 
sides it has numerous private 
and parochial schools and 
colleges of high standard. 
It is the seat of Concordia 
College, founded in 1839, in 
Perry county. Missouri, by 
Lutheran refugees from 
Saxony, which was removed 
to Fort Wayne in 1861. The 
college is SU] purled mainly 
by the Missouri Synod of 
the German L u t h e r a n 

Sacred Heart Academy. 
— In 1866. when the road 
to Fort Wayne was still un- 



made, when as yet for many miles the wood- 
man's ax had not been heard, the ground for 
the foundation of Sacred Heart Academy was 
broken. It is conducted by the Sisters of the 
Holy Cross. 

Built upon an eminence, the academy com- 
mands a charming view of the surrounding coun- 
try, beautiful in its rolling stretches of cultivated 
fields and native woodland. The timber used in 
the building was cut from the neighboring 
woods ; the bricks, of which the house is con- 
structed, made upon the spot. 

The academy curriculum embraces all studies 
from the minim department through the four 
years of academic work as well as the commer- 
cial course. Special attention has always been 
paid to music in its varied branches. Art, too, 
claims a prominent place, its disciples being 
taught not only the rudiments of drawing, but 
advanced work in still life and from the cast. 

While every effort is made for their bodily 
comfort and mental training, paramount atten- 
tion is bestowed upon the moral development 
and heart culture of the students of Sacred 
Heart Academy. 

School for Feeble-Minded Youth. — By an 
act of the Legislature, approved March 7, 1887, 

the School for Feeble-Minded Youth, at Fort 
Wayne, was established, and the trustees were 
authorized to take immediate charge of the 
feeble-minded children then at "The Asylum for 
Feeble-Minded Children" at the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Orphans Home at Knightstown. The 
present site at Fort Wayne was purchased May 
19, 1887. Certain buildings of the Eastern Hos- 
pital for the Insane at Richmond were utilized 
as temporary quarters for the children from 
May 1, 1887, to July 8, 1890, when the new in- 
stitution was opened. The privileges of the 
school are extended to feeble-minded, idiotic, 
epileptic, and paralytic children under sixteen 
years of age. Since 1901 the school has also 
maintained a custodial department for feeble- 
minded women between the ages of sixteen and 
forty-five years, such women to be received by 
commitment from the courts. An interesting and 
valuable adjunct to this institution is called 
"Colony Farm," a tract of land containing 509^4 
acres, on which the older and stronger male in- 
mates are employed in all kinds of farm work. 
This farm has been in operation since 1893. For 
such of the children as are capable of receiving 
it, the school affords literary, manual and indus- 
trial training. 



south of the center of the State. It is 
bounded on the north by Johnson and Shelby, on 
the east by Decatur and Jennings, on the south 
by Jackson and Jennings and on the west by 
Brown county. The county contains 405 square 
miles and is noted for its splendid soil. 

Organization. — The county was organized 
by legislative act January 8, 1821, which became 
effective February 12, 1821. The county was 
named for General Joseph Bartholomew, a dis- 
tinguished citizen of Clark county and a senator 
in the State Legislature from 1821 to 1824. Gen- 
eral Bartholomew was lieutenant-colonel com- 
manding a battalion of infantry at the battle of 
Tippecanoe, where he was severely wounded. He 
died twenty-nine years later on the day of the 

presidential election in 1840. John Tipton, later 
United States senator from Indiana, was con- 
nected in an interesting way with the founding 
of the county seat at Columbus. He donated 
thirty acres for the site, and the commissioners, 
grateful for the donation, named the county seat 
Tiptona, in honor of General Tipton. This was 
done February 15, 1821. However, on March 20, 
the commissioners rescinded their action, on ac- 
count of Tipton's political views, it is supposed, 
and changed the name of the county seat to Co- 

Population of Bartholomew county in 1890 
was 23,867 ; in 1900 was 24,594, and according to 
United States Census in 1910 was 24,813, of 
which 561 were of foreign birth. There were 
6,281 families in the county and 6,112 dwellings. 



Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
fourteen townships in Bartholomew county : 
Clay, Clifty, Columbus, Flat Rock, German, Har- 
rison, Haw Creek, Jackson, Nineveh, Ohio, Rock 
Creek, Sand Creek, Union and Wayne. The in- 
corporated cities and towns are Columbus, Clif- 
ford, Elizabetbtown, Hartsville, Hope and Jones- 
ville. Columbus is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Bartholomew 
county was $11,944,026; value of improvements 
was $3,777,950, and the total net value of tax- 
ables was $20,203,861. There were 4,226 polls in 
the county. 

Improved Roads. — There were 424 miles of 
improved roads in Bartholomew county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $282,165.25. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
70.5 miles of steam railroad operated in Bar- 
tholomew county by the Chicago, Terre Haute & 
Southeastern : Columbus, Hope & Greensburg, 

Swinging Bridge, Hartsville, Bartholomew County. 

Clifty Falls. Clifty rises in the southeast corner of Rush county, flows through Decatur and empties into White 
River three miles below Columbus. The Indian name of this stream was Es-the-nou-o-ne-ho-neque, or Cliff 
of Rocks River. — Photograph by Wm. M. Herschell. 



and the P., C, C. & St. L. railway. There are 
26.43 miles of electric railway operated by the 
Central Indiana Lighting Company and the In- 
terstate Public Service Company. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Samuel Sharp, county superintendent of Bar- 
tholomew county, there were eighty-two school- 
houses, including two high schools, in Bartholo- 
mew county in 1914, employing T86 teachers. 
The average daily attendance by pupils was 4.371. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries', to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $98,111.69. Estimated value of school prop- 
erty in the county was $373,400, and the total 
amount of indebtedness, including bonds, was 

Agriculture. — There were in Bartholomew- 
county in 1910 over 2,100 farms embraced in 
244,000 acres. Average acres per farm 115.1 

acres. The value of all farm property was $21,- 
000,000, showing 70.2 per cent, increase in value 
over 1900. The average value of land per acre was 
$67.73. The total value of domestic animals was 
over $1,400,000: Number of cattle 11,000, valued 
at $280,000; horses, 7,500, valued at $670,000; 
hogs, 30,000, valued at $197,000; sheep, 8,000, 
valued at $33,000. The total value of poultry was 

Industrial. — According to the report of the 
State Bureau of Inspection for 1912, there were 
twenty-four industries in Columbus, furnishing 
employment to more than 1,500 persons. Among 
the more important industries are the W. W. 
Mooney & Sons Tannery, one of the largest in 
the United States ; Reeves & Co., manufacturers 
of thrashing machinery ; the Reeves Pulley Com- 
pany, manufacturers of wood pulleys, and Cald- 
well & Drake Iron Works. 



BENTON COUNTY is located in the north- 
western part of the State. It is bounded on 
the north by Newton and Jasper, on the east by 
White and Tippecanoe, on the south by Warren 
county and on the west by the State of Illinois. 
The county contains 414 square miles. 

Organization. — The year 1840 witnessed the 
organization of Benton county, named for the 
celebrated Thomas H. Benton. The act of Feb- 
ruary, 1840, however, did not name commission- 
ers and it was not until January 31, 1843, that 
the Legislature named commissioners to locate a 
county seat. The commissioners met on the third 
Monday of May, 1843, at the home of Basil Jus- 
tus and chose a site on section 18, township 34 
north, range 7 west, on land donated by Henry 
W. Ellsworth and David Watkinson. In Septem- 
ber, 1843, the commissioners ordered that a 
court-house be erected in the county seat "in the 
town of Milroy," which was named in honor of 
Samuel Milroy, one of the locating commission- 
ers. Learning that there was another town of 
that name in the State, the commissioners, at the 
October session, changed the name to "Oxford." 
The county seat remained here until July 10, 

1874, when it was transferred to Fowler, which 
had been laid out in 1871, for the ostensible pur- 
pose of making a bid for the county seat. This 
change gave rise to a bitter fight between the 
towns of Oxford and Fowler. The immediate 
cause for the hostilities was the condemnation of 
the old court-house at Oxford on March 20, 1873, 
which was followed by injunctions and other 
legal proceedings which culminated in the court- 
house being ordered erected at Fowler. The 
court-house was largely the gift of the late Moses 
Fowler of Lafayette. Its corner-stone was laid 
August, 1874, and the first court was held Febru- 
ary, 1875. 

Benton county has no large towns or large 
manufacturing enterprises, but is noted for its 
agricultural enterprises and live stock interests. 
It is also noted as the home of the "Hickory 
Grove Herd" of Hereford cattle, the substantial 
basis of the Hereford cattle industry of America. 
The county has the special distinction of being 
the birthplace and training ground of two of the 
most remarkable horses in the history of the 
world — the world-famed "Dan Patch" was bred, 
trained and campaigned as an unbeaten race 



horse by Daniel A. Messner of Oxford, Ind., and 
"Honest George" was raised and trained at Bos- 
well by Mat Cooper. 

Population of Benton county in 1890 was 
11.903; in 1900 was 13,123, and according to 
I'nited States Census in 1910 was 12,688, of 
which 695 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 3,029 families in the county and 3,017 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
eleven townships in Benton county : Bolivar, 
Center, Gilboa, Grant, Hickory Grove, Oak 
Grove, Parish Grove, Pine, Richland, Union and 
York. The incorporated cities and towns are 
Anibia, Boswell, Earl Park, Fowler, Otterbein, 
and Oxford. Fowler is the county seat of Ben- 
ton county. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Benton county 
was $13,777,275 ; value of improvements was 
$2,009,385, and the total net value of taxables 
was $20,745,375. There were 1,837 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 440 miles of 

improved roads in Benton county, built and un- 
der jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $710,354. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
84.22 miles of steam railroad operated in Benton 
county by the Chicago & Eastern Illinois ; Chi- 
cago, Indiana & Southern ; Cincinnati, Lafayette 
& Chicago ; C, C, C. & St. L., and Lake Eric & 
Western railways. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Charles H. Dodson, county superintendent of 
Benton county, there were seventy-three school- 
houses, including eleven high schools, in Benton 
county in 1914, employing 138 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was 1,811. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $81,500.97. The estimated value of school 
property in the county was $230,600. 

Agriculture. — There were in Benton count) 
in 1910 over 1,200 farms embraced in 252,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 198.4 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $37,000,000, 
showing 111.6 per cent, increase in value over 
1900. The average value of land per acre was 

Views in Fowler, Benton County. 



$128.94. The total value of domestic animals was $1,400,000; hogs, 25,000, valued at $194,000; 
over $2,000,000: Number of cattle, 11,000, sheep 5,600, valued at $29,000. The total value 
valued at $401,000; horses, 11,000, valued at of poultry was $51,000. 



BLACKFORD COUNTY is located in the 
second tier of counties northeast of Indi- 
anapolis. It is bounded on the north by Wells, on 
the east by Jay, on the south by Delaware and on 
the west by Grant counties, and contains an area 
of 169 square miles. 

Organization. — The county, which was orig- 
inally a part of Jay county, was organized Feb- 
ruary 18, 1839, and named in honor of Judge 
Blackford. The first settlement in the county 
was made by John Blount in 1835 and in the 
winter of 1836 Abel Baldwin, of Vermont, made 
an exploration of the forests and entered land for 
a party of emigrants from that State. In the 
autumn following, they removed to the Sala- 
monie and laid off the town of Montpelier. 
named after the capital of Vermont. Hartford 
was founded in 1839 and for several years the 
rival towns were competitors for the county seat. 
It took two separate acts of the Legislature be- 
fore the organization of the county became ef- 
fective, and it was not until after the fourth set 
of commissioners were appointed, February 24, 
1840, that the county seat was finally located at 
Hartford, the site probably selected by the second 
set of commissioners. Later the town name was 
changed to Hartford City at the suggestion of 
F. L. Shelton. What is known as the "Godfroy 
Reserve," where the one-time noted war chief 
Godfroy of the Miamis long resided, is located 
in the eastern part of the county. Godfroy was a 
noble-looking, kind-hearted man, and was held 
in great esteem by the Indians and white men. 

Population of Blackford county in 1890 was 
10,461 ; in 1900 was 17,213, and' according to 
United States Census in 1910 was 15,820, of 
which 629 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 3,837 families in the county and 3.775 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
four townships in Blackford county: Harrison, 

Jackson, Licking and Washington. The incor- 
porated cities and towns are Hartford City and 
Montpelier. Hartford City is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the to- 
tal value of lands and lots in Blackford county 
was $3,829,610; value of improvements was 
.$2,116,745, and the total net value of taxables 
was $10,317,690. There were 2,246 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 250 miles of 
improved roads in Blackford county, built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $366,648.46. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
27.92 miles of steam railroad operated in Black- 
ford county by the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & 
Louisville and the P., C, C. & St. L. railways. 
The Union Traction Company of Indiana oper- 
ates 15.25 miles of electric lines. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Edgar M. Servies, county superintendent of 
Boone county, there were 112 schoolhouses, in- 
cluding six high schools, in Boone county in 1914. 
employing 150 grade and forty high-school teach- 
ers. The average daily attendance by pupils was 
3,997.99 grade ; 585.73 high school. The aggre- 
gate amount paid in salaries to superintendents, 
supervisors, principals and teachers was $100.- 
775.50. The estimated value of school property in 
the county was $430,335, and the total amount of 
indebtedness, including bonds, was $150,830. 
One orphanage school, two miles south of Zions- 
ville, is maintained by the Baptist church, but the 
teacher is furnished by the township trustee. 

Agriculture. — There were in Blackford county 
in 1910 over 1,100 farms embraced in 98,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 85.4 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $9,000,000, show- 



ing 73 per cent, increase over 1900. The average 
value of land per acre was $65.22. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $995,000: 
Number of cattle 7.600, valued at $227,000; 

horses, 4,900, valued at $518,000; hogs, 28,000, 
valued at $167,000; sheep, 14,000, valued at 
$68,000. The total value of poultry was about 



BOONE COUNTY, named after the famous 
Indian hunter and trapper, Daniel Boone, 
is bounded on the north by Clinton, on the east 
by Hamilton, on the south by Marion and Hen- 
dricks and on the west by Montgomery counties. 
It is situated on the ridge of what were in the 
early days called the dividing swamps between 
White river and the Wabash. The area of the 
county is 418 square miles. 

Organization. — The county was organized 
in 1830 and the first courts were held in James- 
town, which remained the seat of justice until the 
removal to Lebanon, made effective by an act of 
the Legislature January 26, 1832, providing for 
commissioners to relocate the county seat. The 
first court-house was completed in 1833 and it is 
presumed that the formal transfer of the county 
seat to Lebanon occurred that year. 

This county was once the abode and hunting 
ground of the Eel river tribe of the Miami In- 
dians. In 1819 Thorntown had a population of 
400 Indians and a few French traders. The 
large reserve at this place was not purchased un- 
til 1828, nor did the Indians remove until 1835. 

The present court-house, which was completed 
and dedicated July 4, 1912, is built of Bedford 
limestone and one of the features is the dome, 
which is the second in size in the State, being 
fifty feet in diameter. The north and south en- 
trances are each adorned by four columns 35 feet 
3 inches in length, 52 inches in diameter at the 
base and 48 inches at the top. These columns are 
said to be the largest mie-piece columns in the 
United States. 

Population of Boone county in 1890 was 
26,572; in 1900 was 26,321, and according to 
United States Census in 1910 was 24,673, of 
which 131 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 6,414 families in the county and 6,33 1 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Boone county : Center, Clin- 
ton, Eagle, Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion, 
Perry, Sugar Creek, Union, Washington and 
Worth. The incorporated cities and towns are 
Lebanon, Advance, Jamestown, Thorntown and 
Zionsville. Lebanon is the county seat of Boone 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 

Boone County Court-House, Lebanon. 

the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Boone county 
was $12,867,745 ; value of improvements was 
$3,720,295, and the total net value of taxables 
was $24,893,350. There were 4,200 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 563 miles ol 
improved roads in Boone county, built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners January 
1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds outstand- 
ing, $232,024. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
63.74 miles of steam railroad operated in Boone 
county by the Central Indiana ; Chicago, Indian- 
apolis & Louisville ; C, C, C. & St. L. ; Peoria & 
Eastern, and Vandalia railways. The Lebanon & 



Thorntown Traction Company and the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany operate 50.14 miles of electric lines in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Edgar M. Servies, county superintendent of 
Boone county, there were 112 schoolhouses, in- 
cluding six high schools, in the county in 1914, 
employing 190 teachers. The average daily at- 
tendance by pupils was 4,584. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $100,775. 
Estimated value of school property in the county 

was $430,335, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $160,650. 

Agriculture. — There were in Boone county in 
1910 over 3,300 farms embraced in 264.000 acres. 
Average acres per farm, 79.7 acres. The value of 
all farm property was $35,000,000, showing 116.6 
per cent, increase over 1900. The average value 
of land per acre was $103.12. The total value of 
domestic animals was over $3,000,000 : Number 
of cattle. 21.000, valued at $720,000; horses, 14,- 
0C0, valued at $1,500,000; hogs, 92,000. valued at 
$624,000; sheep, 22,000, valued at $105,000. The 
total value of poultry was $146,000. 



BROWN COUNTY is located in the second 
tier of counties south of Indianapolis. It 
is bounded on the north by Morgan and Johnson, 
on the east by Bartholomew, on the south by 
Monroe and Jackson and on the west by Monroe 
counties. It contains 320 square miles. 

Organization. — It was organized February 
4, 1836, which was made effective April 1, 1836. 
The county was named in honor of General Jacob 
Brown, one of the heroes of the war of 1812. 
The first name of the county seat was Jack- 
sonburg, but during the first year of its ca- 

Hohenpoint, near Weed Patch, Brown County. — Photo By Frank M. Hohenbcrger. 

















reer was changed to Nashville. The original jail, 
built in 1837, is still in use and is the last remain- 
ing relic of the log jails doing service in the 

Brown county lies in the northern angle of the 
unglaciated region of Indiana, which condition 
brings the rugged portion of the State farther 
north and nearer Indianapolis at this point, than 
at any other. Here the mighty grinding, planing 
force of the ice sheet has not cut down the ridges 
and filled up the hollows. It has not worn the 
underlying rocks into soil enriched by silt from 
far-off regions. The ridges stand out boldly as 
chiseled by the cutting force of the streams. The 
soil is home-made out of the underlying rocks, 
which are mostly shale and sand-stone. The ease 
with which the finer soil can be removed from 
the slopes by water causes the soil to be coarse 
and loose. This accounts for the wonderful 
growth of timber with which nature has covered 
it, also making this region an ideal one for adap- 
tation to fruit growing. 

The rugged nature of the county had a deter- 
rent effect upon railroa'd building and it was not 
until 1906 that the Illinois Central railroad, which 
runs twelve miles through the county, was built 
from Indianapolis to Effingham, 111., where it 
joins the main line from Chicago to New Orleans. 
With the entrance of the railroad this region of 
exceptional natural beauty, which before lay all 
but unknown almost in the shadow of the State 
Capital, has become the mecca for artists and the 
admirers of the beautiful in nature. Many sum- 
mer homes have been built here since and large 
sums of money have been invested in the fruit- 
raising industry. 

Population of Brown county in 1890 was 
10,308; in 1900 was 9,727, and according to 
United States Census in 1910 was 7,975, of which 
45 were of white foreign birth. There were 1,745 
families in the county and 1,724 dwellings. 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 

five townships in Brown county : Hamblen, Jack- 
son, Johnson, Van Buren and Washington. Nash- 
ville is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Brown county 
was $1,049,665; value of improvements was 
$310,595, and the total net value of taxables was 
$2,143,380. There were 1,035 polls in the county. 

Improved Roads. — There were thirty-three 
miles of improved roads in Brown county built 
and under jurisdiction of the county commission- 
ers January 1, 1915. There were no gravel road 
bonds outstanding January 1, 1915. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
11.36 miles of steam railroad operated in Brown 
county by the Indianapolis branch of the Illinois 
Central railroad. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Sylvester Barnes, county superintendent of 
Brown county, there were seventy-six school- 
houses, including three high schools, in Brown 
county in 1914, employing eighty-seven teachers. 
The average daily attendance by pupils was 
1,437. The aggregate amount paid in salaries 
to superintendents, supervisors, principals and 
teachers was $34,184.33. The estimated value of 
school property in the county was $49,900, and 
the total amount of indebtedness, including 
bonds, was $3,030. 

Agriculture. — There were in Brown county 
in 1910 over 1,500 farms embraced in 160,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 107.1 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $3,400,000, show- 
ing 40.8 per cent, increase over 1900. The aver- 
age value of land per acre was $12.75. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $530,000- 
Number of cattle, 5,000, valued at $123,000:' 
horses, 3,000, valued at $305,000; hogs, 5,300, 
valued at $41,000; sheep, 5,600, valued at $21,- 
000. The total value of poultry was $38,000. 





CARROLL COUNTY, located in the third 
tier northwest of Indianapolis, is bounded 
on the north by White and Cass, on the east by 
Howard and Cass, on the south by Clinton and 
on the west by White and Tippecanoe counties, 
and contains 376 square miles. The county is 
traversed by the Wabash and Tippecanoe rivers, 
by Deer creek and Wild creek, which are its prin- 
cipal streams. The western side of the county 
borders on what is known as the "Grand Prairie." 
The surface is generally level and clay and black 
soil predominate about equally. 

Organization. — It was organized January 7, 
1828, which became effective May 1, 1828. The 
first county seat was christened Carrollton, but 
on May 24, 1828, was changed to Delphi. The 
county was named in honor of the venerable 
Charles Carroll, then the sole survivor of those 
who had signed the Declaration of Independence. 
In its earlier history, the Wabash and Erie canal 
furnished it with great facilities for trade and 
exportation of produce. 

Population of Carroll county in 1890 was 
20,021 ; in 1900 was 19,953, and according to 
United States Census in 1910 was 17,970, of 
which 263 were of white foreign birth. There 

crat, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Rock 
Creek, Tippecanoe and Washington. The incor- 
porated cities and towns are Delphi, Camden and 
Flora. Delphi is the county seat. 

Carroll County Court-House, Delphi. 

were 4,579 families in the county and 4,536 dwell- 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
thirteen townships in Carroll county : Adams, 
Burlington, Carrollton, Clay, Deer Creek. Demo- 

Delphi Library, Carroll County. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Carroll county 
was $7,567,840 ; value of improvements was 
$2,181,410, and the total net value of taxables 
was $14,489,540. There were 2,967 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 385 miles of 
improved roads in Carroll county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners January 
1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds outstand- 
ing, $450,283. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
59.01 miles of steam railroad operated in Carroll 
county by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville : 
Yandalia ; and the Wabash railroads. The Fort 
Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company 
operates 15.62 miles of electric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Philip B. Hemmig, county superintendent of Car- 
roll county, there were eighty-seven schoolhoiw-, 
including seven high schools, in the county in 
1914 employing 160 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 3,243. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $76,567.80. 



Estimated value of school property in the county 
was $267,000, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $47,646.03. 

Agriculture. — There were in Carroll county 
in 1910 over 2,200 farms embraced in 227,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 101.7 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $27,000,000, show- 

ing 105 per cent, increase over 1900. The aver- 
age value of land per acre was $93.69. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $2,200,000: 
Number of cattle, 16,000, valued at $485,000; 
horses, 10,000, valued at $1,200,000; hogs, 57,000, 
valued at $365,000; sheep, 11,000, valued at 
$55,000. The total value of poultry was $87,000. 



CASS COUNTY is bounded on the north 
by Pulaski and Fulton, on the east by 
Miami, on the south by Howard and Carroll 
and on the west by White and Carroll counties. 
It contains 420 square miles. 

plant and factories of the city of Logansport, 
which is built on both sides of the two rivers. 
Along these streams there is an inexhaustible 
supply of limestone, gravel and sand of superior 
quality for building purposes and road-making 

High School. Logansport. 

Organization. — The organization of Cass 
county became effective April 13, 1829, and the 
county seat was fixed at Logansport by three of 
the five commissioners named by the legislative 
Act of December 18, 1828. The county was 
named after the Honorable Lewis Cass. Here 
was located the town of Kenapacomequa or 
l'Anguille, the French name, or Old Town, 
which was destroyed by General Wilkinson 
August 8, 1791. The village stood on the north 
bank of Eel river, six miles northeast of Logans- 
port and extended for two miles and a half along 
the stream. It was then called a village of the 

The Eel and Wabash rivers unite near the 
center of the county, furnishing an abundance of 
water power for the water works, electric light 

Public Library, Logansport. 

and a good quality of clay for making brick is 
found in abundance in different parts of the 

Population of Cass county in 1890 was 
31,153; in 1900 was 34,545, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 36,368, of 
which 2,031 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 9,080 families in the county and 8,758 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
fourteen townships in Cass county : Adams, 
Bethlehem, Boone, Clay, Clinton, Deer Creek, 
Eel, Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson, Miami, Noble, 
Tipton and Washington. The incorporated cities 
and towns are Logansport, Galveston, Royal 
Center and Walton. Logansport is the county 



Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Cass county was 
$12,264,550, value of improvements was $4,950,- 
780 and the total net value of taxables was 
$26,858,345. There were 6,178 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 402 miles of 
improved roads in Cass county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1. 1914. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing. $675,194.75. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
107.99 miles of steam railroad operated in Cass 
count\- by the Chesapeake & Ohio; Logansport 
division P., C, C. & St. L. ; Richmond division 
P., C, C. & St. L. ; Effner branch P., C, C. & St. 
L. : Michigan division of Vandalia ; Butler branch 
of the Vandalia, and the Wabash Railways. The 
Fort Wayne & Northern Traction Company and 
the Union Traction Company of Indiana operate 
40.48 miles of electric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
A. L. Frantz, Logansport, Ind., county superin- 
tendent of Cass county, there were 108 school- 
houses, including ten high schools in Cass county 
in 1914, employing 241 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 5,595. The ag- 
gregate amount paid in salaries to superintend- 
ent, supervisors, principals and teachers was 
$139,317.09. The estimated value of school 
property in the county was $643,500, and the 
total amount of indebtedness, including bonds, 
was $142,898. 

There are three Catholic and one German 
Lutheran schools in Cass county. 

Consolidation is coming fast ; almost every 
township has one consolidated school building of 
from five to nine teachers. 

Agriculture. — There were in Cass county in 
1910 over 2,400 farms, embraced in 240,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 102.3 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $27,000,000, 
showing 92.5 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $80.57. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $2,300,- 
000: Number of cattle 20,000, valued at $590,000; 
horses 10,000, valued at $1,200,000; hogs 52,000, 
valued at $360,000 ; sheep 20,000, valued at $95,- 
000. The total value of poultry was $105,000. 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910 there were sixty-eight industries 
in Logansport, furnishing employment to 2,412 
persons. Total amount of capital employed, 
$2,003,965. Value of products, $4,201,369; 
value added by manufacture, $2,219,816. 

Northern Hospital for Insane. — The General 
Assembly of 1883, by an act approved March 7, 
made provision for the erection of three addi- 
tional hospitals for the insane (Laws 1883, p. 
164). The first of these to be opened was the 
Northern Hospital, located a mile west of 
Logansport and popularly known as Longcliff. 
The site was purchased October 4, 1883. The 
work of construction, which was on the "block 
plan," began in the following summer, but was 
discontinued in 1886 because of the exhaustion 
of funds. It was not until July 1, 1888, that 
the first patients were received. These came at 
first from all parts of the State, but the hospital 
is now limited to the care of patients from 
twenty-two counties designated the northern 
district for the insane ( Laws, 1889, p. 391). 



CLARK COUNTY is located in the south- 
east section of the State and its entire 
southeastern section is bounded by the Ohio 
river. To the north are Jefferson and Scott 
counties, while Washington bounds it on the 
west and Floyd county on the south. 

Organization. — Clark county was set apart 


February 1, 1801, by William Henry Harrison, 
Governor of the Territory of Indiana, and was 
named in honor of the celebrated General George 
Rogers Clark, at one time a citizen of the county. 
At that time the boundaries, as defined by the 
Governor, were "Beginning on the Ohio river at 
the mouth of the Blue river, thence up that river 





^™ss t |jyr i MHP , T^3 


Administration Building, Indiana State Forest Reserva- 
tion, Clark County. 

to the crossing of the Vincennes road, thence in 
a direct line to the nearest point on White river, 
thence up that river to its source and to Fort 
Recovery, thence on the line of the northwest 
territory to the Ohio at the mouth of the Ken- 
tucky, thence to the place of beginning." The 
original county was very large and included in 
whole or in part twenty-one of the present coun- 
ties of the State, which constituted about one- 
fifth of the area. Clark county now contains 
about 400 square miles. Most of the land within 
the present limits of the county is embraced in 
what is called "Illinois Grant," or "Clark's Grant," 
made by the Legislature of Virginia in 1786, 
which conveyed to certain commissioners 149,000 
acres of land in trust, to be apportioned accord- 
ing to rank, to General Clark and the officers and 
men of the regiment which he commanded in the 
expedition to Vincennes and Kaskaskia. It was 
divided into 500-acre tracts and apportioned ac- 
cordingly. One thousand acres more, lying along 
the Falls of the Ohio, was also granted at the 
same time for the location of a town to be called 
Clarksville, which flourished for a time, but has 
since gone to decay. The first settlements of any 
consequence were made from 1790 up to 1800 
in the towns along the river, so that the inhabi- 
tants on the first notice of the approach of In- 
dians might escape into Kentucky. 

Clark county was the gateway to the great 
northwest and constituted the highway over which 
the stream of civilization made its way from 
the east and south to the new country north of 
the Ohio river. The Falls of the Ohio furnished 

the means of crossing the river and determined 
the earlier settlement of this part of the State. 
The first county seat was Springville, a little 
village which stood near where Charlestown now 
stands. It was on the old Indian trail from the 
falls of the Ohio to the Indian nations of the 
north, west and east. A short distance west of 
this little town lived Jonathan Jennings, first 
Governor of Indiana. Springville, at one time, 
was a great trading center for the French and 
Indians, but not a vestige now remains to tell 
where the village stood. On June 9, 1802, 
Governor Harrison issued a proclamation "fixing 
the seat of justice at the town of Jeffersonville 
. . . after the first day of August next." 
The territorial Legislature changed it to Charles- 
town by the Act of December 14, 1810, and it 
remained there until September 23, 1873, when 
it was permanently located at Jeffersonville. The 
old court-house at Charlestown is still standing 
and in a good state of preservation. 

Indiana State Forest Reservation. — By an 
act of the Legislature, March 3, 1903, the State 
purchased 2,000 acres of land for a forest reser- 
vation, laboratory of forestry, demonstration 
and State nurseries. The reservation is lo- 
cated one mile north of Henry ville, which may 
be reached by going to Henryville via the Penn- 
sylvania or the Indianapolis & Louisville electric 
line which touches the east side of the reserva- 

The "Knobs." — Five miles below the Falls 
of the Ohio commences a range of hills called the 
"Knobs." They rise about 500 feet high, are from 
a mile to a half a mile in width and are about 
equal in elevation. Each hill, separately, is small, 
often covering less than half an acre; they unite, 

Postoffice Building, Jeffersonville. 



generally, one hundred or two hundred feet be- 
low their summits. They extend about fifty 
miles into the interior and the country behind 
them falls off very little from a level. A similar 
ridge of hills extends intoTCentucky, from the 
south side of the river opposite. It is not un- 
likely that they were once united and formed an 
obstruction, the only remains of which at this 
time are the Falls of the Ohio. A few miles 
above Jeffersonville is an elevated pear-shaped 
ridge overlooking the Ohio river, which is sup- 
posed to be the remains of a fort built by the 
Mound Builders. About eight miles north of 
this stone fort is a circular inclosure. This is an 
earthwork of about 2,000 feet in circumference 
and the embankment was originally about twelve 
feet high. In form it is almost a perfect circle. 
Pottery, fresh water shells and fragments of 
bones have been found here in great abundance. 
From this place to the stone fort is a line of 
mounds. On the bank of Big creek, about eight 
feet above the creek bed, is another stone in- 
closure, embracing about ten acres. A short dis- 
tance south of the inclosure are three curious 
stone mounds or pillars. The object for which 
these mounds were erected can only be conjec- 
tured, but were evidently intended as memorials 
of some event in the history of the Mound 

Indiana Reformatory. — The first State insti- 
tution established in Indiana was the State 
Prison at Jeffersonville. It was authorized by 
an act of the Legislature, approved January 9, 
1821 (Laws 1821, p. 24), and the first prisoner 
was received November 1, 1822. Provision was 
made by the Legislature of 1859 for another 
prison north of the National road (Laws 1859, 
p. 135). It was opened at Michigan City in 
1860. From that date until 1897 the institution 

Carnegie Public Library. Jeffersonville 

Statue of General George Rogers Clark in Monument 
Place, Indianapolis. 

at Jeffersonville was known as the Southern In- 
diana State Prison and its prisoners were com- 
mitted from the counties south of the National 
road. In accordance with an act approved Feb- 
ruary 26, 1897 (Laws 1897, p. 69), the State 
Prison, South, on April 1 of that year became 
the Indiana Reformatory for the incarceration of 
men between the ages of sixteen and thirty years 
unless convicted of treason or murder in the first 
or second degree, sentenced from any county in 
the State. 

Population of Clark county in 1890 was 
30,259; in 1900 was 31,835. and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 30,260, of 
which 833 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 6,901 families in the county and 6.704 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Clark county : Bethlehem, 
Carr, Charlestown, Jefferson, Monroe, Oregon, 
Owen, Silver Creek, Union, Utica. Washington 
and Wood. The incorporated cities and towns 
are Jeffersonville, Clarkstown. Clarksville, Clays- 



burg, New Providence, Port Fulton and Sellers- 
burg. Jeffersonville is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Clark county was 
$5,454,350, value of improvements was $3,082,- 
130 and the total net value of taxables was 
$14,470,840. There were 4,725 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 219 miles of 
improved roads in Clark county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing, $329,730. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
73.56 miles of steam railroad operated in Clark 
county by the Louisville division Baltimore & 
Ohio Southwestern ; C, I. & L. ; Louisville Bridge 
Company ; C, C, C. & St. L. ; Louisville & Jef- 
ferson Bridge Company, and the Louisville di- 
vision, the Jeffersonville branch and the New 
Albany branch of the P., C, C. & St. L. Rail- 
ways. The Indianapolis & Louisville Traction 
Company, the Louisville & Northern Railway & 
Lighting Company and the Louisville & Southern 
Indiana Traction Company operate 40.25 miles 
of electric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Samuel L. Scott, county superintendent of Clark 
county, there were 104 schoolhouses, including 
four high schools, in the county in 1914, employ- 
ing 191 teachers. The average daily attendance 
by pupils was 4,863. The aggregate amount 
paid in salaries to superintendents, supervisors, 
principals and teachers was $97,518.31. Esti- 
mated value of school property in the county in 
1914 was $385,000, and the total amount of in- 
debtedness, including bonds, was $57,500. 

Agriculture. — There were in Clark county in 
1910 over 2,100 farms, embraced in 216,000 
acres. Average acres per farm 99.2 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $9,500,000, show- 
ing 39.8 per cent, increase over 1900. The aver- 
age value of land per acre was $28.61. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,000,000: 
Number of cattle 10,000, valued at $267,000; 
horses 5,500, valued at $520,000; hogs 15,000, 
valued at $100,000; sheep 9,000, valued at 
$35,000. The total value of poultry was $56,000. 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910 there were thirty-six industries 
in Jeffersonville, furnishing employment to 919 
persons. Total amount of capital employed, 
$2,681,753. Value of products, $1,915,682 ; value 
ridded by manufacture, $832,957. 



CLAY COUNTY lies south of Parke, west 
of Putnam and Owen, north of Greene 
and east of Sullivan and Vigo counties and con- 
tains 360 square miles. 

Organization. — The organization of the 
county was made effective April 1, 1825. Bow- 
ling Green was selected as the first county seat 
and held that distinction for fifty years. When 
on November 30, 1851, the court-house and all 
the records were burned a fight was precipitated 
to select a new location for the county seat, the 
town of Bellaire was the chief contender. On 
February 23, 1853, the advocates of relocation 
got an act through the Legislature providing 
commissioners to select and locate a new seat of 
justice, and for the second time Bowling Green 

was selected. In 1872 the county seat was or- 
dered removed to Brazil, as a result of a petition 
on the part of those favoring that place, and the 
formal transfer was made January 26, 1877. The 
county was named in honor of the famous states- 
man Henry Clay. 

In past years Clay county was noted as the 
largest producer of coal in the State, but later 
developments in Indiana coal fields have out- 
ranked Clay county by reason of the fact that the 
mines, where the famous Brazil Block coal is 
mined, have been in operation over forty years 
and much of the coal has been taken out. Ac- 
cording to the mine inspector's report for the 
fiscal year ending September 30, 1914, there are 
seventeen mines in operation in Clay county, 



under the jurisdiction of the State Mine In- 
spector, which produced 464,948 tons of block- 
coal. During the past two decades the county 
has become the leading clay manufacturing cen- 
ter in the State. 

Population of Clay county in 1890 was 30,536 ; 
in 1900 was 34,285, and according to United 
States Census of 1910 was 32,535, of which 1,869 
were of white foreign birth. There were 7,626 
families in the county and 7.480 dwellings. 

Improved Roads. — There were 346 miles of 
improved roads in Clay county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing, $415,604.37. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
94.69 miles of steam railroad operated in Clay 
county by the Central Indiana ; Chicago & East- 
ern Illinois; C, C. C. & St. L. ; Chicago, Terre 
Haute & Southeastern ; Evansville & Indianap- 

Big Four Railroad Bridge Over Walnut Creek in Putnam County. — Photograph by Bert IVeedoH. 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
eleven townships in Clay county : Brazil, Cass, 
Dick Johnson, Harrison, Jackson, Lewis, Perry, 
Posey, Sugar Ridge, Van Buren and Washing- 
ton. The incorporated cities and towns are 
Brazil, Bowling Green, Carbon, Center Point, 
Clay City, Knightsville and Staunton. Brazil is 
the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Clay county was 
$6,299,480, value of improvements was $3,384,- 
670 and the total net value of taxables was $15,- 
262,530. There were 5,048 polls in the county. 

olis ; Indianapolis & Louisville, and the Vandalia 
Railways. The Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Eastern Traction Company operates 12.36 miles 
of electric line in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Willis E. Akre. county superintendent of Clay 
county, there were 115 schoolhouses, including 
six high schools, in the county in 1914, employ- 
ing 226 teachers. The average daily attendance 
by pupils was 5,926. The aggregate amount paid 
in salaries to superintendents, supervisors, prin- 
cipals and teachers was $111,653.37. Estimated 
value of school property in the county in 1914 
was $2,494,504, and the total amount of indebt- 
edness, including bonds, was $110,310. 



Agriculture. — There were in Clay county in 
1910 over 2,500 farms, embraced in 212,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 82.2 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $13,000,000, 
showing 48.5 per cent, increase over 1900. The 

total value of domestic animals was over $1,300,- 
000 : Number of cattle 14,000, valued at $350,- 
000; horses 7,600, valued at $730,000; hogs 
23,000, valued at $150,000; sheep 5,900, valued 
at $23,000. The total value of poultry was 

average value of land per acre was $43.72. The $58,000. 



CLINTON COUNTY is bounded on the 
north by Carroll and Howard, on the east 
by Tipton and Hamilton, on the south by Boone 
and on the west by Tippecanoe and Montgomery 
counties. It has an area of 408 square miles, 
and is located in the second tier of counties 
northwest of Indianapolis. 

Organization. — The organization of the 
county became effective March 1, 1830. The 
town of Jefferson, four miles west of the then 
future town of Frankfort, was the temporary 
county seat of Clinton from the day of its organi- 

Clinton County Court-House, Frankfort. 

zation, May 3, 1830, until the proper buildings 
were erected at Frankfort. The site of Frank- 
fort was selected by the State commissioners 
and the county agent was ordered on May 19, 
1830, to have the land surveyed and laid off in 
lots. The first term of court in Frankfort con- 
vened April, 1831, in the new log court-house. 
Clinton county was named after DeWitt Clinton, 
at one time Governor of New York. 

The principal streams in the county are the 
south fork of Wild Cat, Kilmore and Sugar 
Creek. The soil surface is sufficiently undulating 
to afford good drainage and the farms of the 
county are well drained and under a high state 
of cultivation. In a small portion of the south- 
eastern part of the county natural gas was found. 
In many places in the county there is a large 
deposit of excellent clay for the manufacture 
of brick, tile and pottery. 

Population of Clinton county in 1890 was 
27,370; in 1900 was 28,202, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 26,674, of 
which 186 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 6,905 families in the county and 6,732 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
fourteen townships in Clinton county: Center, 
Forest, Jackson, Johnson, Kirkland, Madison, 
Michigan, Owen, Perry, Ross, Sugar Creek, 
Union, Warren and Washington. The incorpo- 
rated cities and towns are Frankfort, Colfax, 
Kirkland, Michigantown and Rossville. Frank- 
fort is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Clinton county 
was $12,717,685, value of improvements was 



$4,248,290 and the total net value of taxables was 
$25,172,520. There were 4,721 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 789 miles of 
improved roads in Clinton county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing, $708,203.05. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
99.05 miles of steam railroad operated in Clinton 
county by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville ; 
Chicago division of the C, C, C. & St. L. ; Lake 
Erie & Western; Toledo, St. Louis & Western, 
and the Michigan division of the Vandalia Rail- 
ways. The Indiana Railways & Light Company 
and the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company operate 32.13 miles of elec- 
tric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Marion W. Salmon, county superintendent of 
Clinton county, there were seventy schoolhouses, 
including eight high schools, in Clinton county 
in 1914, employing 195 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 5,071. The ag- 
gregate amount paid in salaries to superintend- 
ents, supervisors, principals and teachers was 
$115,109.82. Estimated value of school property 
in the county was $548,000, and the total amount 
of indebtedness, including bonds, was $152,400. 

Agriculture. — There were in Clinton county 

Public Library, Frankfort. 

in 1910 over 2,700 farms, embraced in 253,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 93.2 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $36,000,000, 
showing 123.1 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre is $113.20. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $3,000,- 
000: Number of cattle 19,000, valued at $703,- 
000; horses 13,000, valued at $1,600,000; hogs 
78,000, valued at $500,000 ; sheep 12,000, valued 
at $61,000. The value of poultry was $108,000. 
Industrial. — According to the report of the 
State Bureau of Inspection for 1912 there were 
nineteen industries in Frankfort, employing 
about 850 persons, of which about 450 were em- 
ployed in the repair shops of the Toledo, St. 
Louis & Western railroad. 



CRAWFORD COUNTY is situated in the 
southern tier of counties bordering on the 
Ohio river and lies between Harrison and Perry 
counties on the river, Orange and Washington 
counties on the north and Dubois on the west. 
It contains about 320 square miles, much of 
the surface of which is rough and hilly. 

There is an inexhaustible supply of stone and 
large plants are operated at Marengo and Mill- 
town. The county is particularly distinguished 
on account of the location of two of the greatest 
underground caverns in the world, the Marengo 
and Wyandotte caves. 

Organization. — The county was organized by 

legislative act January 29, 1818, which became 
effective March 1, 1818. It was named after the 
unfortunate Colonel William Crawford, the land 
agent of General Washington in the west, who 
was taken prisoner by the Indians and burned at 
the stake at Sandusky in 1782. The county seat 
history of Crawford county has never been sat- 
isfactorily recorded owing to inability to gather 
all of the records. According to the best avail- 
able data Mt. Sterling became the county seat in 
1818 and remained so at least until 1822. The 
Legislature passed an act on December 21, 1821, 
providing for a change of the county seat from 
"Mountsterling." It was probably removed to 



Fredonia, a town on the Ohio river, where it 
was in 1843. In that year the Legislature passed 
an act on January 4 providing for its removal 
from that place to Leavenworth, which became 
the next county seat, where it remained until 
1894, when it was removed to English after a 
most notable and picturesque struggle. The 
court-house at English is the only one in the State 
which was erected outside the limits of the 
county seat town. The town of English was 

13,941 ; in 1900 was 13,476, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 12.057, of 
which sixty-nine were of white foreign birth. 
There were 2,759 families in the county and 2.728 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
nine townships in Crawford county: Boone, Jen- 
nings, Johnson, Liberty, Ohio, Patoka, Sterling, 
Union and Whiskey Run. The incorporated 
cities and towns are Alton, English, Marengo, 

Monumental Mountain, Wyandotte Cave, Crawford County. Height 135 feet — highest underground 

mountain in the world. 

named in honor of Honorable William H. Eng- 
lish, whose death occurred February 7, 1896, 
and who was one of Indiana's most distinguished 
sons. In 1851 he was elected to represent his 
native county (Scott) in the State Legislature 
and in 1852 as a member of Congress, to which 
he was re-elected. At the national convention 
at Cincinnati in June, 1880, he was unanimously 
nominated for Vice-President of the United 
States on the Democratic ticket with General 
Winfield Scott Hancock for President. The last 
years of his life were devoted to the writing of 
his "History of the Conquest of the Northwest." 
Population of Crawford county in 1890 was 

Leavenworth and Milltown. English is the 
county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Crawford county 
was $938,050, value of improvements was $505,- 
515 and the total net value of taxables was 
$2,725,632. There were 1,781 polls in the county. 

Improved Roads. — There were fifty-four 
miles of improved roads in Crawford county 
built and under jurisdiction of the county com- 
missioners January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel 
road bonds outstanding, $68,759.20. 



Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
25.62 miles of steam railroad operated in Craw- 
ford county by the Southern Railway Company 
of Indiana. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Stuart A. Beals, county superintendent of Craw- 
ford county, there were eighty-five schoolhouses, 
including five high schools in Crawford county 
in 1914, employing 113 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 2.236. The aggre- 
gate amount paid in salaries to superintendents, 
supervisors, principals and teachers was $40,- 
972.20. The estimated value of school property 
in the county was $55,750. and the total amount 
of indebtedness, including bonds, was $19,000. 

Agriculture. — There were in Crawford count v 
in 1910 over 1.800 farms, embraced in 181,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 97.5 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $3,800,000, show- 
ing 70.9 per cent, increase over 1900. The aver- 
age value of land per acre was $11.73. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $600,000 : 
Number of cattle 5,700, valued at $130,000; 

horses 3,500, valued at $344,000; hogs 7,400, 
valued at $50,000 ; sheep 7,300, valued at $28,000. 
The total value of poultry was $47,000. 

Entrance to Pil 

Palace, Wyandotte Cave. 



DAVIESS COUNTY is located in the south 
western part of the State, between the 
east and west forks of White river, which stream 
with its tributaries, Sugar, Mud. Aikman, Veal, 
Prairie, Smithers, Pond, Purse and other creeks, 
drain the county. The county lies wholly within 
the area of the coal measures and has an abun- 
dant supply of coal. It is bounded on the north 
by Greene, on the east by Martin, on the south 
by Dubois and Pike and on the west by Knox 
and a very small portion of Sullivan counties. It 
contains about 420 square miles, which is marked 
by a variety of soil. The White river bottoms 
are rich, sandy and black loam soil, while clay 
predominates in the other portions. Farming is 
the principal occupation of the people. Corn and 
wheat are the leading products, and other farm 
products are grown in abundance. Melons are 
raised extensively for shipment and tomatoes are 
grown in a number of places for canning pur- 
poses. Many hogs are raised and fattened here 

for shipment. The principal natural resource is 
coal. According to the State Mine Inspector's 
report for September 30, 1914, there were three 
coal mines in operation in the county under his 
jurisdiction, which produced 89,506 tons of coal. 

The first settler came into the territory now 
occupied by Daviess county some time in 1801 
or 1806. The first deed for land within the 
present limits of the county was given to John 
Baptiste Cardinal by Congress, and - the first deed 
of record was made in 1792. This tract consisted 
of 400 acres. In 1783 the Congress of the United 
States made numerous donations of land to the 
early French settlers about Vincennes, and in 
1807 the Congress made what has since been 
called "French 1. ocat inns," which lie mostly in 
what is now Knox county. 

The making of early history in Daviess county 
was marked with Indian depredations, and after 
the killing of William McGowen by the Indians 
in the spring of 1812, the settlers, in order to 



protect themselves, erected ten block houses or 
forts. Five of these were built in 1812 and were 
known as "Hawkins' Fort," "Comer's Fort" and 
"Purcell's Fort," the others being built at a 
later period. 

Organization. — Daviess county was organized 
by an act of the Legislature December 24, 1816, 
which became effective February 15, 1817. The 
county was named in honor of the distinguished 
lawyer, Joseph Hamilton Daviess, who was killed 

Population of Daviess county in 1890 was 
26,227; 1900, 29,914, and according to United 
States Census of 1910 was 27,747, of which 
389 were of white foreign birth. There were 
6,231 families in the county and 6,144 dwelling- 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
ten townships in Daviess county : Barr, Bogard, 
Elmore, Harrison, Madison, Reeve, Steele, Van 
Buren, Veale and Washington. The incorporated 

. > ""^ 

*%», . 

Views in Washington, Daviess County. 1. Public Library. 

4. Soldiers' Monument. 

High School. 3. Court-House. 

in the battle of Tippecanoe November 7, 1811. 
Daviess county was originally part of Knox and 
contained nearly all of the territory now com- 
prising Martin, all of Greene, east of the west 
fork of White river, and all of Owen county, east 
of the west fork of White river. The first county 
seat of Daviess county was located in the town 
of Liverpool on March 15, 1817. The name was 
changed to Washington August 18, 1817, and it 
has remained the county seat since the organiza- 
tion of the county. It is located on the B. & O. 
Southwestern and C. & E. I. railroads. The 
shops of the B. & O. Southwestern railroad are 
located here. 

cities and towns are Washington, Cannelburg, 
Elnora, Montgomery and Odon. Washington 
is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Daviess county 
was $7,438,535, value of improvements was 
$2,869,965 and the total net value of taxables was 
$14,558,915. There were 4,428 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 326 miles of 
improved roads in Daviess county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 



January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $427,389.24. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
65.21 miles of steam railroad operated in Daviess 
county by the B. & O. Southwestern; Chicago, 
Terre Haute & Southeastern, and the E. & I. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Alva O. Fulkerson, county superintendent of 
Daviess county, there were 112 schoolhouses, in- 
cluding nine high schools in Daviess county in 
1914, employing 204 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 5,278. There are six 
consolidated school buildings in the county. 
They have proved such a success that opposition 
against consolidation has almost disappeared. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 

intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $98,229.54. The estimated value of school 
property in the county was $385,800, and the 
total amount of indebtedness, including bonds, 
was $109,825. 

Agriculture. — There were in Daviess county 
in 1910 over 2,700 farms embraced in 253,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 91.8 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $18,000,000, 
showing 103.6 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre $54.98. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,900,000: 
Number of cattle, 14,000, valued at $375,000; 
horses 9,000, valued at $950,000; hogs 40,000, 
valued at $280,000; sheep 11,000, valued at 
$46,000. The total value of poultry was 



DEARBORN COUNTY is located in the 
southeast part of the State, bordering on 
the Ohio river. It is bounded on the north by 
Franklin county, on the east by the State of 
Ohio, on the south by the Ohio river and Ohio 
county and on the west by Ripley county. It 
contains 207 square miles and the general char- 
acter of the land is rolling and in some parts 
broken by ranges of hills, which, however, are 
not so high nor so steep as to prevent cultiva- 
tion. Archeological remains are found through- 
out the county, some of which are believed to be 
not less than 2,000 years old and which required 
much labor and engineering skill. 

Moore's Hill College, one of the oldest edu- 
cational institutions in the State, is located at 
Moore's Hill in this county. 

Organization. — Dearborn county was organ- 
ized on March 7, 1803, with the seat of justice 
at Lawrenceburg, the court-house being one-half 
of a double log cabin belonging to Doctor Jabez 
Percival, one of the associate judges. Rising 
Sun was ambitious to be the county seat and 
wanted to have a new county formed, of which 
it could be the county seat if it could not wrest 
the honor from Lawrenceburg. Through this 

struggle Lawrenceburg lost the county seat for a 
few years. On September 26, 1836, Wilmington 
became the seat of justice, where it remained 
until April 4, 1844, when Lawrenceburg again 
became the county seat, through an act of the 
Legislature of January 3, 1844. 

Population of Dearborn county in 1890 was 
23,364; in 1900 was 22,194, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 21,396, of 
which 1,163 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 5,274 families in the county and 5,058 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
fourteen townships in Dearborn county : Caesar 
Creek, Center, Clay, Harrison, Hogan, Jackson, 
Kelso, Lawrenceburg, Logan, Manchester, Mil- 
ler, Sparta, Washington and York. The incor- 
porated cities and towns are Aurora, Lawrence- 
burg, Dillsboro, Greendale, Moore's Hill, St. 
Leon and West Harrison. Lawrenceburg is the 
county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Dearborn county 
was $3,084,170, value of improvements was 



$2,582,125 and the total net value of taxables was 
$10,170,790. There were 3,143 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were eighty miles 
of improved roads in Dearborn county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $264,365.12. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
52.79 miles of steam railroad operated in Dear- 
born county by the B. & O. Southwestern ; Cin- 
cinnati & Southern Ohio River ; the Chicago divi- 
sion, Lawrenceburg branch and Harrison branch, 
of the Big Four, and the White Water railroads. 
The Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Elec- 
tric Street Railway Company operates 9.38 miles 
of electric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
George C. Cole, county superintendent of Dear- 
born county, there were ninety-four school- 

houses, including two high schools, in the county 
in 1914, employing 150 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 2,992. The ag- 
gregate amount paid in salaries to superintend- 
ents, supervisors, principals and teachers was 
$71,559.64. Estimated value of school property 
in the county was $192,450, and the total amount 
of indebtedness, including bonds, was $11,600. 

Agriculture. — There were in Dearborn county 
in 1910 over 2,200 farms, embraced in 185,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 82.5 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $9,800,000, show- 
ing 51.0 per cent, increase over 1900. The aver- 
age value of land per acre was $30.43. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,100,000: 
Number of cattle 13,000, valued at $360,000; 
horses 6,000, valued at $604,000; hogs 10,000, 
valued at $76,000; sheep 6,000, valued at $25,000. 
The total value of poultry in the county was 



DECATUR COUNTY is located in the sec- 
ond tier of counties southeast of Indian- 
apolis. It is bounded on the north by Rush, on 
the east by Franklin, on the south by Ripley and 
Jennings and on the west by Bartholomew and 
Shelby counties. It contains 400 square miles 
and is especially adapted to agriculture. Some of 
the finest limestone quarries of the State are 
located in the county. 

Organization. — Decatur county was organ- 

Carnegie Library, Greensburg. 

ized December 31, 1821, and became effective 
March 4, 1822. It was named after the gallant 
Commodore Stephen Decatur. Greensburg was 
selected as the county seat, which, tradition says, 
was so named by Mrs. Thomas A. Hendricks in 
honor of her old home town in Pennsylvania. 

Population of Decatur county in 1890 was 
19,277; in 1900 was 19,518, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 18,793, of 
which 370 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 4,935 families in the county and 4,844 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
nine townships in Decatur county : Adams, Clay, 
Clinton, Fugit, Jackson, Marion, Salt Creek, 
Sand Creek and Washington. The incorporated 
cities and towns are Greensburg, Milford, Mill- 
housen, New Point and Westport. Greensburg 
is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913 the total 
value of lands and lots in Decatur county was 
$9,832,000, value of improvements was $3,020,- 



510 and the total net value of taxables was 
$16,655,615. There were 3,183 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 345 miles of 
improved roads in Decatur county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $538,847.60. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
60.97 miles of steam railroad operated in Decatur 
county by the Chicago division of the Big Four : 
Westport branch of the Chicago, Terre Haute & 
Southeastern ; Columbus. Hope & Greensburg, 
and the Vernon, Greensburg & Rushville rail- 
roads. Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Com- 
pany operates 10.40 miles of electric line in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Frank C. Fields, county superintendent of Deca- 
tur county, there were sixty-eight schoolhouses. 
including ten high schools in Decatur county in 
1914, employing 138 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 3,235. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $84,041.21. 
The estimated value of school property in the 
county was $487,000, and the total amount of 
indebtedness, including bonds, was $129,888. 

Clinton township, this county, was the first 
township in the State to consolidate entirely all 
its schools into one. This was accomplished at 
Sandusky in 1903. Six hacks carry the children 
to this centralized school. Since that day the 
other townships have all followed the lead of 
Clinton and more or less consolidation has been 
accomplished in each. 

Agriculture. — There were in Decatur county 

Decatur County Court-House, Greensburg. 

in 1910 over 1,900 farms embraced in 223,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 116.1 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $19,000,000, 
showing 79.1 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre, $60.77. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,800,000: 
Number of cattle, 14,000. valued at $450,000; 
horses, 7,800, valued at $780,000; hogs, 57,000, 
valued at $370,000; sheep, 13,000, valued at $57,- 
000. The total value of poultry was $86,000. 



DEKALB COUNTY is located in the north- 
east corner of the State, bordering on the 
State of Ohio, and is separated from the State 
of Michigan on the north by Steuben county. It 
is bounded on the west by Noble and on the south 
by Allen counties. The St. Joseph river runs 

of the county, and other parts of it are well 
watered by Cedar creek and its numerous 

Organization. — Dekalb county was organized 
February 2, 1837, and was named in honor of 
Baron Dekalb, a German nobleman, who joined 

about twelve miles through the southeast corner the American army during the revolution. He 



was made a general and was killed at the battle 
of Camden. The county began its career with 
Auburn as the county seat May 1, 1837. Pend- 
ing the building of a new court-house, a disastrous 
fire occurred February 8, 1913, which destroyed 
part of the county records, among which were 
all of the records of the county clerk. 

Population of Dekalb county in 1890 was 
24,307; in 1900 was 25,711, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 25,054, of 

$7,432,060, value of improvements was $3,367,- 
170 and the total net value of taxables was 
$18,124,560. There were 4,018 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were fourteen miles 
of improved roads in Dekalb county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. There were no gravel road 
bonds outstanding January 1, 1915. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 

Views in Auburn, Dekalb County. 

which 1,060 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 6,581 families in the county and 6,427 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
fifteen townships in Dekalb county : Butler, Con- 
cord, Fairfield, Franklin, Grant, Jackson, Key- 
ser. Newville. Richland, Smithfield, Spencer, 
Stafford, Troy, Union and Wilmington. The in- 
corporated cities and towns are Auburn, Butler, 
Garrett, Altona, Ashley, Corunna, St. Joe and 
Waterloo. Auburn is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Dekalb county was 

97.75 miles of steam railroad operated in Dekalb 
county by the B. & O. & Chicago ; G. R. & I. ; Fort 
Wayne & Jackson ; Fort Wayne & Detroit ; L. S. 
& M. S., and the Butler branch of the Vandalia 
railroad. The Fort Wayne & Northwestern Rail- 
way Company operates 20.48 miles of electric 
lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Lida Leasure, county superintendent of Dekalb 
county, there were ninety-eight schoolhouses, 
including seven high schools, in Dekalb county 
in 1914, employing 177 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 4,285. The ag- 
gregate amount paid in salaries to superintend- 
ents, supervisors, principals and teachers was 



$90,061.95. The estimated value of school prop- 
erty in the county was $340,575, and the total 
amount of indebtedness, including bonds was 

Agriculture. — There were in Dekalb county in 
1910 over 2,500 farms, embraced in 220,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 88.1 acres. The 
total value of all farm property was $19,000,000, 

showing 76.9 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $56.92. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $1,900,- 
000: Number of cattle 16,000, valued at $460,- 
000; horses 8,500, valued at $1,000,000; hogs 
36,000, valued at $250,000 ; sheep 42,000, valued 
at $180,000. The total value of poultry was 



DELAWARE COUNTY is located in the 
first tier of counties northeast of Indian- 
apolis and is bounded on the north by Grant and 
Blackford, on the east by Jay and Randolph, on 
the south by Henry and on the west by Madison 
counties. It contains 399 square miles. The 
face of the county is mostly level or gently un- 
dulating. There is but very little land in the 
county which is not well adapted to farming. 
White river in the center, the Mississinewa in 
the north and Buck creek are the principal 
streams in the county. 

Organization. — Delaware county was organ- 
ized January 18, 1827, and becoming effective 
April 21 of that year. It was so named from 
its having been long the home of the largest di- 
vision of the Delaware tribe of Indians who had 
migrated here from their eastern home. The 
county seat of Delaware county was first called 
"Munseytown" and was named after the old 
Indian chief who lived in Delaware county. This 
was the home of the Prophet, brother of the 
Indian Chief Tecumseh, and until it fell by decay 
here stood the post at which he caused his ene- 
mies, whites and Indians, to be tortured. It was 
through the influence of David Conner, an In- 
dian trader, who was the first white man to set- 
tle in Delaware county, that the tribe ceased to 
use the post. 

Population of Delaware county in 1890 was 
30,131 ; in 1900 was 49,624, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 51,414. of 
which 1.199 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 12,913 families in the county and 12,530 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 

twelve townships in Delaware county: Center, 
Delaware, Hamilton, Harrison, Liberty, Monroe, 
Mt. Pleasant, Niles, Perry, Salem, Union and 
Washington. The incorporated cities and towns 
are Muncie, Albany, Eaton, Gaston, Normal 
City, Riverside and Selma. Muncie is the county 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Delaware county 
was $12,858,475, value of improvements was 
$8,036,675 and the total net value of taxables was 
$32,750,000. There were 9,516 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 430 miles of 
improved roads in Delaware county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $743,435. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
124.70 miles of steam railroad operated in Dela- 
ware county by the Central Indiana : C. & O. ; 
Chicago, Indiana & Eastern ; Indianapolis divi- 
sion and the Muncie belt of the Big Four ; Fort 
Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville ; Lake Erie & 
Western and Muncie & Western railroads. The 
Indianapolis, New Castle & Eastern Traction 
Company, Muncie & Portland Traction Company 
and the Union Traction Company of Indiana 
operate 67.90 miles of electric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Ernest J. P.lack, county superintendent of Dela- 
ware county, there were ninety-five schoolhouses, 
including ten high schools, in the count}' in 1914, 
employing 330 teachers. The average daily at- 



tendance by pupils was 8.851. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $215,688.90. 
Estimated value of school property in the county 
was $1,278,600, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $210,815. 

Agriculture. — There were in Delaware county 
in 1910 over 2,900 farms, embraced in 240,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 82.4 acres. The 
total value of all farm property was $26,000,000, 
showing 77.9 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $83.19. The 

total value of domestic animals was over $2,400,- 
000: Number of cattle 21,000, valued at $619,- 
000; horses 12,000, valued at $1,200,000; hogs 
84,000, valued at $470,000; sheep 22,000, valued 
at $92,000. The total value of poultry was 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910 there were 102 industries in 
Muncie, furnishing employment to 4,444 persons. 
Total amount of capital employed, $6,626,626; 
value of products, $9,686,234; value added by 
manufacture, $4,210,467. 

1. Public Library, Muncie. 2. Delaware County Court-House. 3. High School, Muncie. 

4. Post-Office, Muncie. 





DUBOIS COUNTY is located in the south- 
ern part of the State. It is bounded on 
the north by Martin and Daviess, on the east by 
Orange and Crawford, on the south by Spencer, 
Perry and Warrick and on the west by Pike and 
Warrick counties. It contains 420 square miles, 
and coal, sandstone, limestone and fire clay are 
mined in parts of the county. The Patoka river 
flows through the county and White river forms 
a part of its northern boundary. 

Organization. — It was organized by legisla- 
tive act December 20, 1817, which became ef- 
fective February 1, 1818. This section was set- 
tled about 1801, and the county was named in 
honor of Toussaint Dubois, a French soldier 
under General William Henry Harrison, who 
lived in Yincennes and who had charge of the 
guards and spies in the Tippecanoe campaign. 
The first county seat of Dubois county was Por- 
tersville. Owing to its location on White river, 
the northern boundary of the county, efforts 
were made at various times in the Legislature 
to have the county seat removed to a more de- 
sirable location. By a supplementary act of the 
Legislature of January 30, 1830, commissioners 
were ordered to meet at Portersville in August, 
1830, and select a new county seat "as near the 
center of the county as possible." The town of 
Jasper was selected as the county seat. The 
record of the commissioners, who selected the 
site of Jasper, was lost in the fire of August, 
1839, which completely destroyed the court-house 
and all records. 

Population of Dubois county in 1890 was 
20,253 ; in 1900 was 20,357, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 19,843, of 
which 699 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 4,150 families in the county and 4,074 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Dubois county: Bainbridge, 
Boone, Cass, Columbia, Ferdinand, Hall, Harbi- 
son, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Marion and 
Patoka. The incorporated cities and towns are 
Huntingburg, Birds Eye, Ferdinand and Jasper. 
Jasper is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Dubois county 
was $3,560,725, value of improvements was 
$1,965,720 and the total net value of taxables was 
$8,847,125. There were 3,291 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were eighty-five 
miles of improved roads in Dubois county built 
and under jurisdiction of the county commis- 
sioners January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road 
bonds outstanding, $183,934.95. 

Academy of the Immaculate Conception, Ferdinand, 
Dubois County. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
62.17 miles of steam railroad operated in Dubois 
county by the Ferdinand Railway Company : 
Southern Railway Company of Indiana, and the 
Evansville branch and French Lick line of the 
Southern Railway Company. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
William Melchier, county superintendent of Du- 
bois county, there were one hundred school- 
houses, including five high schools, in Dubois 
county in 1914, employing 161 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was 3,193. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $66,137.49. Estimated value of school 
property in the county was $171,250, and the 
total amount of indebtedness, including bonds, 
was $21,823. 




Agriculture. — There were in Dubois county 
in 1910 over 2,200 farms, embraced in 262,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 117.1 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $10,000,000, 
showing 47.5 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $25.23. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $1,100,- 
000: Number of cattle 12,000, valued at $230,- 
000; horses 6,700, valued at $614,000; hogs 
23,000, valued at $125,000; sheep 5,800, valued 
at $21,000. The total value of poultry was 

Convent and Academy of the Immaculate 
Conception at Ferdinand, Ind., is conducted by 
the Sisters of St. Benedict. 

The constantly increasing demand for teachers, 
competent in religious and moral training as well 
as in the profane sciences, urged the Benedictine 
Fathers of St. Meinrad's Abbey, to procure Nuns 
of the same order and erect, for them, a convent. 
The town of Ferdinand was selected as a site, 
while the erection and charge thereof was en- 
trusted, by the Rt. Rev. Martin Marty, to the 
zealous young priest and pastor, the Rev. P. 
Chrysostom Foffa, O. S. B., of the St. Ferdinand 
congregation. He obtained four Nuns from St. 
Walburgis Convent, Covington, Ky., as pioneers 
in the undertaking. They arrived at Ferdinand 
August 20, 1867, and took up the work of teach- 
ing the parish school. 

The convent was completed and the little 
chapel within its walls was dedicated December 
8, 1867. 

After a number of postulants had petitioned 
for admission into the new community, the Rt. 
Rev. Martin Marty drew up the Constitutions for 
the government of the sisterhood and appointed 
Rev. P. Chrysostom, O. S. B., spiritual director. 
At the first election held in June, 1872, accord- 
ing to the new Constitution, Sister M. Benedicta 
Berns was elected Prioress. The young commu- 
nity flourished and the parish school of St. Mein- 
rad marked its first mission. In 1872 the Nuns 
purchased sixty-four acres of land, by which 
means they began to provide for themselves the 

necessaries of subsistence. The farm lands be- 
longing to the Convent were gradually increased, 
so that, at present, about 300 acres are in its pos- 

The growth of the Community and the open- 
ing of a boarding school for girls and young 
ladies rendered the erection of a more spacious 
building necessary. Under the direction of the 
Rev. P. Eberhard Stadler, O. S. B., the successor 
of the Rev. P. Chrysostom, O. S. B., since 1871, 
a new convent began to build in 1883 ; it was com- 
pleted in 1887 at a cost of $80,000. In 1903 a 
large and handsome addition was made to accom- 
modate the ever growing membership, making the 
cost of the convent as it stands to-day more than 

The chief occupation of the sisters is teaching, 
more extensively, in the parochial schools, which 
number fifty-five. Besides these, they conduct 
twenty-four public schools ; also an academy at 
this place (Ferdinand, Ind.). The last named 
was commissioned as a public high school in 1912, 
and accredited as a teachers' training school in 
1914 by the State Board of Public Instruction. 
The arts of music and painting occupy a promi- 
nent place in the curriculum. At present the num- 
ber of pupils receiving instruction in the various 
branches of learning is 3,500. 

The present number of members in the com- 
munity (175) necessitated the erection of the ad- 
dition now building, the principal parts of which 
are : a chapel, promising to be a monument of art ; 
a conservatory and a library. This, having been 
contemplated for some time, ripened into reality 
under the directorship of the Rev. P. Fintan 
Wiederkehr, O. S. B., and during the administra- 
tion of the Rev. Mother M. Seraphine Kordes, 
O. S. B. 

Jasper College, a department of St. Mein- 
rad's College, for secular students, was estab- 
lished and opened for the reception of students 
on September 12, 1889. It is incorporated under 
the laws of the State of Indiana in conjunction 
with St. Meinrad's College and is empowered to 
confer the usual academic degrees. 





ELKHART COUNTY is located in the 
northern part of the State. It is bounded 
on the north by the State of Michigan, on the 
east by Lagrange and Noble, on the south by 
Kosciusko, and on the west by Marshall and St. 
loseph counties. It contains about 470 square 
miles. Practically all of the county is tillable. 
The Elkhart and St. Joseph rivers run through 
the county and there are several lakes located in 
the northern part of the county, which afford 
splendid fishing. 

Organization. — Elkhart county was organ- 
ized by an act of the Legislature January 29, 
1830, becoming effective April 1, 1830. Elkhart 
county experienced some difficulty in getting its 
county seat permanently located. The commis- 
sioners, named in the organizing act, fixed the 
new county seat at a town known as Dunlap, 
about five miles northwest of the present city of 
Goshen. The ceding of half a tier of townships 
on the west side of the county to St. Joseph 
county made it necessary to choose a more cen- 
tral location. By an act of the Legislature of 
February 10, 1831, the present site of Goshen 
was selected ; the site was at once surveyed and 
platted and the first sale of lots took place June 
20, 1831. 

Goshen College was founded at Elkhart in 
1895, by the members of the Mennonite church, 
who continue to control it. The institution be- 
gan its career in 1895 in the city of Elkhart, 
where it was known as the Elkhart Institute. 
The school was moved to Goshen in 1903. The 
enrolment in 1914 was 425, which was more than 

double that when the first college class was 
graduated ten years ago. The college has a cam- 
pus of ten acres with four buildings and a forty- 
acre farm adjoining the campus. Nearly 5,000 
volumes are in the library. The Mennonite His- 
torical library has been donated by individuals 
and alumni. The normal school has been placed 
upon the accredited list of schools doing Class 
"A" and Class "B" work for the State Board of 
Education. In addition to the regular four-year 
college work, the institution has an academy 
work, which is equivalent to a four years' high 
school course. It has a well organized three 
years' music teachers' course in vocal and in- 
strumental music, and a commercial course. The 
Bible department offers two courses of two years 
each. John E. Hartzler is president of Goshen 

Population of Elkhart county in 1890 was 
39,201; in 1900 was 45,052, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 49,008, of 
which 2,521 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 12,750 families in the county and 12,419 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
sixteen townships in Elkhart county : Bango, 
Benton, Cleveland, Clinton, Concord, Elkhart, 
Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson, Locke, Middle- 
bury, Olive, Osolo, Union, Washington and 
York. The incorporated cities and towns are 
Elkhart, Goshen, Bristol, Millersburg, Middle- 
bury, Nappanee and Wakarusa. Goshen is the 
county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 

Goshen College, Goshen, Elkhart County. 



the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Elkhart county 
was $11,905,335; value of improvements was 
$6,825,060, and the total net value of taxables 
was $30,496,930. There were 8,864 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were twenty-six 
miles of improved roads in Elkhart county built 
and under jurisdiction of the county commission- 
ers January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road 
bonds outstanding, $268,000. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
112.93 miles of steam railroad operated in Elk- 
hart county by the B. & O. & Chicago ; C, W. & 
M. ; Elkhart & Western ; L. S. & M. S. ; Sturgis, 
Goshen & St. Louis ; St. Joseph Valley and Wa- 
bash railroads. The Chicago, South Bend & 
Northern Indiana Railway Company, St. Joseph 
Valley Traction Company, Winona Interurban 
Railway Company and the W. I. Railway Com- 
pany operate 50.81 miles of electric lines in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
A. E. Weaver, county superintendent of Elkhart 
county, there were 125 schoolhouses, including 
seven high schools, in the county in 1914, em- 

ploying 309 teachers. The average daily attend- 
ance by pupils was 8,426. The aggregate amount 
paid in salaries to superintendents, supervisors, 
principals and teachers was $197,171.92. Esti- 
mated value of school property in the county 
was $1,070,000, and the total amount of indebt- 
edness, including bonds, was $210,530. 

Agriculture. — There were in Elkhart county 
in 1910 over 3,100 farms embraced in 270,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 84.9 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $26,000,000, 
showing 56.7 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $66.58. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $2,500,- 
000: Number of cattle 22,000, valued at $650,- 
000; horses 12,000, valued at $1,500,000; hogs 
29,000, valued at $228,000 ; sheep 23,000, valued 
at $100,000. The total value of poultry was 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910, there were sixty-nine industries 
in Elkhart, furnishing employment to 3,508 per- 
sons. Total amount of capital employed, $5,478,- 
046. Value of products, $6,932,065, value added 
by manufacture, $3,911,492. 

There were over fifty industries in Goshen 
employing more than 1,500 men and women. 



FAYETTE COUNTY is located in the sec- 
ond tier of counties southeast of Indianapo- 
lis. It is bounded on the north by Henry and 
Wayne, on the east by Union and Wayne, on the 
south by Franklin and on the west by Rush coun- 
ties. The county is divided nearly in the center 
from north to south by the west fork of the 
White Water, which feeds the canal. The sur- 
face of the country is rolling in the east and 
south and level or gently undulating in the north 
and west, with a large proportion of bottom 
lands and all susceptible of profitable cultivation. 
The county contains 211 square miles. 

Organization. — Fayette county was organ- 
ized December 28, 1818, by an act of the Legis- 
lature which became effective January 1, 1819. 
From its organization, Connersville has been the 

county seat, which was laid out by John Conner 
in 1817, from whom it took its name. Fayette 
county was named in honor of General Lafay- 

Population of Fayette county in 1890 was 
12,630; in 1900 was 13,495, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 14,415, of 
which 363 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 3,761 families in the county and 3,647 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
nine townships in Fayette county : Columbia, 
Connersville, Fairview, Harrison, Jackson, Jen- 
nings, Orange, Posey and Waterloo. The incor- 
porated cities and towns are Connersville, East 
Connersville and Glenwood. Connersville is the 
county seat. 



Fayette County Court-House, Connersville. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Fayette county- 
was $5,500,100; value of improvements was 
$2,566,675, and the total net value of taxables 
was $12,429,080. There were 2,888 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were sixty-two 
miles of improved roads in Fayette county built 
and under jurisdiction of the county commission- 
ers January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road 
bonds outstanding, $81,060.67. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
42.05 miles of steam railroad operated in Fayette 
county by the Cincinnati division of C, I. & W. ; 
Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville ; Cambridge 
City branch P., C, C. & St. L., and the White 
Water railroads. Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company operates 9.28 miles of electric line 
in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Claude L. Trusler, county superintendent, there 
were thirty-three schoolhouses, including two 
high schools, in Fayette county in 1914, employ- 

Public Library, Connersville. 

ing ninety-four teachers. The average daily at- 
tendance by pupils was 2,348. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $63,974.40. 
Estimated value of school property in the county 
was $313,200, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $99,079. 

Agriculture. — There were in Fayette county 
in 1910 over 1.100 farms embraced in 134,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 119.2 acres. The 
value of all farm property was $11,000,000, 
showing 83.4 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre, $61.55. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,100,000: 
Number of cattle 8.100, valued at $237,000; 
horses 4,700. valued at $470,000; hogs 52,000, 
valued at $333,000; sheep 9,400, valued at $43,- 
000. The total value of poultry was $42,000. 

Industrial. — According to the report of the 
State Bureau of Inspection for 1912, there were 
thirty-five industries in Connersville, employing 
over 1,500 persons. The manufacture of automo- 
biles, springs and axles, rotary blowers and 
pumps, pianos and buggies are the principal in- 





FLOYD COUNTY is located in the southern 
tier of counties on the Ohio river. It is 
bounded on the north by Clark and Washington, 
on the east by Clark and the Ohio river, and on 
the south and west by Harrison counties. It is 
one of the smallest counties in the State contain- 
ing about 150 square miles. A range of hills 
called "The Knobs," from one to three miles in 
width, runs through the county from north to 
south, coming to the Ohio river a short distance 
below New Albany. Although the country is 
much broken, yet north of the hills, the country 
is comparatively level and affords a fine oppor- 
tunity for the raising of crops. South of the hills 
occur the alluvial river terraces, which are very 
fertile because of numerous overflows of the 
Ohio river. Large orchards are found upon the 
slopes of the hills and in the upper strata of the 
Silver Hills limestone of excellent quality has 
been quarried for many years. 

Organization. — Floyd county, which was or- 

ganized by an act of the Legislature January 2, 
1819, and which became effective a month later 
was named after Colonel John Floyd, of the dis- 
tinguished Virginia family of that name, who 
had been killed by the Indians on the opposite 
side of the river. New Albany has been the 
county seat ever since the organization of the 
county, although one effort was made to relocate 
the county seat by an act of the Legislature Jan- 
uary 10, 1823. 

Population of Floyd county in 1890 was 
29,458; in 1900 was 30,118, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 30,293. of 
which 1,233 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 7,433 families in the county and 7,049 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Floyd county was 
$4,541,515; value of improvements was $4,301,- 

Falls of the Ohio Between New Albany and Jeffersonville. 



305, and the total net value of taxables was $12,- 
693,190. There were 3,304 polls in the count}-. 

Improved Roads. — There were thirty-eight 
miles of improved roads in Floyd county built 
and under jurisdiction of the county commission- 
ers January 1. 1915. Amount of gravel road 
bonds outstanding, $160,440. 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
five townships in Floyd county : Franklin, 
Georgetown, Greenville, Lafayette and New Al- 
bany. The incorporated cities and towns are New 
Albany. Georgetown, Greenville and Silver 
Grove. New Albany is the county seat of Floyd 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
23.26 miles of steam railroad operated in Floyd 
county by the Louisville division B. & O. South- 
western ; Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville ; K. 
& I. Terminal ; New Albany branch P., C, C. & 
St. L., and the Southern Railway Company of 
Indiana. The Louisville & Northern Railway and 
Lighting Company, Louisville & Southern Indi- 
ana Traction Company, and the New Albany 
Street Railway Company operate 11.24 miles of 
electric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Glenn Y. Scott, county superintendent of Floyd 
county, there were fifty-four schoolhouses, in- 
cluding two high schools, in Floyd county in 
1914, employing 157 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 4,197. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $87,987.12. 

Floyd County Lourt-House, New Albany. 

Estimated value of school property in the county 
was $383,927, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $43,500. 

Agriculture. — There were in Floyd county 
in 1910 over 1,200 farms embraced in 80,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 66.4 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $4,400,000, 
showing 38.7 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre, $33.60. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $395,000: 
Number of cattle 4,700, valued at $117,000; 
horses 2,300, valued at $213,000; hogs 3,700, 
valued at $25,000; sheep 658, valued at $2,100. 
The total value of poultry was $24,000. 

Industrial. — According to the Linked States 
Census of 1910, there were ninety-five industries 
in New Albany, furnishing employment to 2,135 
persons. Total amount of capital employed, 
$3,565,968. Value of products, $3,492,530, value 
added by manufacture, $1,606,057. 



Fl (UNTAIN COUNTY is located in the 
western part of the State and is bounded on 
the north and west by Warren and Vermilion 
counties, on the east by Tippecanoe and Mont- 
gomery and on the south by Park counties. The 
Wabash river flows along its entire north and 
west border. The county contains about 400 
square miles, its surface being mostly level and 
admirably adapted to agriculture and cattle rais- 
ing. Some coal mining is done in the county. 
According to the mine inspectors' report for the 

fiscal year ending September 30, 1914, 19,710 
tons of coal were mined in the county. 

Organization. — The county was organized 
December 31, 1825, becoming effective April 1, 
1826, with Covington as the county seat, which 
was chosen by the locating commissioners, who 
made their report July 25, 1826. As Covington 
was located on the W "abash river, which forms 
the boundary between Warren ami Vermilion 
counties, there was an agitation started in the 
latter part of the twenties to move the county 



seat to a more central location, with the result 
that the Legislature appointed locating commis- 
sioners on January 29, 1831, to investigate the 
question of relocation. The commissioners unani- 
mously agreed that the town of Covington remain 
the permanent seat of justice of the county. 
Again in 1851, another effort was made to move 
the county seat from Covington to Chambers- 
burg, which failed, and in 1870 and 1871 Vee- 
dersburg tried to get a bill through the Legisla- 
ture to secure the seat of justice. 

Fountain county was so named in memory of 
Major Fountain of Kentucky, who was killed at 
the head of the mounted militia at the battle on 
the Maumee near Fort Wayne in 1790. 

Population of Fountain county in 1890 was 
19,558; in 1900 was 21,446, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 20,439, of 
which 412 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 5,258 families in the county and 5,117 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
eleven townships in Fountain county : Cain, 
Davis, Fulton, Jackson, Logan, Mill Creek, Rich- 
land, Shawnee, Troy, Van Buren and Wabash. 
The incorporated cities and towns are Attica. 
Covington, Veedersburg, Hillsboro, Kingman, 
Mellott, Newtown and Wallace. Covington is 
the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 

the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Fountain county 
was $8,642,635 ; value of improvements was 
$2,227,710, and the total net value of taxables 
was $15,347,085. There were 3,425 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 320 miles of 
improved roads in Fountain county built and un- 
der jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $527,430.50. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
90.03 miles of steam railroads operated in Foun- 
tain county by the Brazil division of C. & E. I. ; 
western division P. & E. ; Toledo, St. Louis & 
Western ; Wabash railroad, and the Attica, Cov- 
ington & Southern branch of the Wabash rail- 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Man ford F. Livengood, county superintendent 
of Fountain county, there were sixty school- 
houses, including eight high schools, in Fountain 
county in 1914, employing 160 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was 3,571. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $82,435.92. Estimated value of school prop- 
erty in the county was $332,600, and the total 
amount of indebtedness, including bonds, was 

Agriculture. — There were in Fountain county 
in 1910 over 2,000 farms em- 
braced in 240.000 acres. Aver- 
age acres per farm, 114.8 acres. 
The value of all farm property 
was over $25,000,000. showing 
94.3 per cent, increase over 1900. 
The average value of land per 
acre was $81.05. The total value 
of domestic animals was over 
$2,100,000: Number of cattle 
12,000, valued at $407,000; 
horses 10.000, valued at $1,100,- 
000; hogs 55,000, valued at 
$414,000; sheep 17,000, valued 
at $81,000. The total value of 
poultry was $78,000. 





FRANKLIN COUNTY is located in the east- 
ern part of the State, bordering on the State 
of Ohio. It is bounded on the north by Fayette 
and Union, on the south by Ripley and Dearborn, 
and on the west by Decatur and Rush counties. 
It contains an area of 394 square miles. The 
topography of the country is rolling, except in 
the extreme eastern part. The White Water river 
is the largest stream that flows diagonally from 
the northwest to the southeast. The best agricul- 
tural regions of the county are in the bottom 
lands of the White Water and the level lands east 
and north of the White Water Valley. Olden- 
burg is located in this county and is noted for its 
Catholic institutions. The Academy of the Im- 
maculate Conception is located here as well as a 
great monastery. 

The Whitewater Valley. — The Whitewater 
region, comprising the valley of the Whitewater 
river with its two branches, extends from the 
Ohio river northward for nearly half the length 
of the State, with a width varying from twelve 
to twenty-five miles. In pioneer times it was 
familiarly known as "The Whitewater," and the 

frequency with which it is alluded to in the local 
literature of those days reveals its then impor- 

This territory has, indeed, claims to distinc- 
tion. There, it may be said, Indiana practically 
had her beginnings. There lay the first strip of 
land that marked, in Indiana, the oncoming tide 
of the white man's progress westward — the first 
overlap from Ohio, which grew, cession by ces- 
sion, west and north. There sprang up some of 
our most important early centers of population 
— Lawrenceburg, Brookville, Connersville, Rich- 
mond and others ; there resided at one time or 
another a remarkable number of men who have 
made their impress upon the State's history or 
on the world at large, and thence came waves 
of migration that have spread over the State. 
This immigration has supplied an important ele- 
ment of the population in not a few localities. 
Indianapolis, for example, in her first days was 
so nearly made up of people from Whitewater 
and Kentucky that a political division, it is said, 
sprang up along the sectional line, and these two 
classes were arrayed against each other in the 

■ it & 



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View of Oldenburg, Franklin County, showing the Monastery, and the Convent and Academy of the 

Immaculate Conception. 



first local campaign, with Whitewater leading. 
Long after that they continued to come from the 
cities mentioned above and intervening localities, 
and the number at the capital to-day who look 
back to the Whitewater as their old home is sur- 
prisingly large. Madison, also, in her growing, 
hopeful days drew good blood from this center ; 
and over the State generally and beyond the bor- 
ders the same is true. 

Of the men of mark who have hailed from the 
Whitewater, Brookville and Franklin county 
alone lay claim to perhaps half a hundred, the 
most notable of whom I find named and classi- 
fied as follows in the columns of a Brookville 
paper : 

Governors. — James B. Ray, Noah Noble, Will- 

McKendrie M. E. Church, near Brookville. 

iam Wallace and Abraham Hammond, governors 
of Indiana ; Will Cumback, lieutenant-governor 
of Indiana ; Lew Wallace, governor of New 
Mexico; John P. St. John, governor of Kansas; 
Stephen S. Harding, governor of Utah ; J. Wal- 
lace, governor of Wyoming, nominated for gov- 
ernor of Indiana but defeated ; J. A. Matson, 
Whig, and C. C. Matson. Democrat, father and 

United States Senators. — Jesse B. Thomas, 
from Illinois; James Noble and Robert Hanna, 
from Indiana ; John Henderson, from Missis- 

Cabinet Officers, Foreign Ministers, etc. — 
James B. Tyner, postmaster general ; James S. 
Clarkson, assistant postmaster general ; Lew 
Wallace, minister to Turkey ; Edwin Terrell, 
minister to Belgium ; George Hitt, vice-consul to 
London ; L. T. Mitchener, attorney-general of 

Supreme Judges. — Isaac Blackford, John T. 
McKinney and Stephen C. Stephens. It is cited 
as the most remarkable instance on record that 
in these three men Brookville had at one time 
the entire Supreme Bench of Indiana. 

Writers, Educators and Ministers. — Lew Wal- 
lace, Maurice Thompson (born in the county), 
Joaquin Miller (born in the county), and a dozen 
or more of local fame ; J. P. D. John, president 
De Pauw University ; William M. Dailey, presi- 
dent Indiana University ; L. D. Potter, president 
Glendale College ; R. B. Abbott, president Al- 
bert Lea College; Charles N. Sims, chancellor 
Syracuse University; S. A. Lattimore, professor 
of chemistry, Rochester University ; E. A. Bar- 
ber, professor in University of Nebraska; C. W. 
Hargitt, professor in Syracuse University ; Fran- 
cis A. Shoup, professor in University of Missis- 
sippi ; J. H. Martin, president Moores Hill Col- 
lege ; Rev. T. A. Goodwin, Rev. Charles N. Sims 
and Rev. Francis A. Shoup. 

Art. — William M. Chase, painter ; Hiram Pow- 
ers, sculptor. 

Science. — James B. Eads, civil engineer, con- 
structor of the great bridge at St. Louis, and of 
the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi river; 
Amos W. Butler, ornithologist and ethnologist, 
now secretary of the State Board of Charities. 

Military and Naval Officers. — Gen. Lew Wal- 
lace, Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, Gen. Francis 
A. Shoup, Gen. Joseph E. Johnson, Gen. P. A. 
Hackleman, Oliver H. Glisson, rear admiral, and 
William L. Herndon, commander U. S. N. 

A few of the above, perhaps, had but slight re- 
lations with this region, but allowing for this the 
output of able men is still remarkably large. If, 
from Franklin county we look northward to Con- 
nersville, Centerville and Richmond, we find 
other men whose services and fame are well 
known within the State, and in not a few in- 
stances far beyond its borders. In this galaxy 
are Oliver P. Morton, George W. Julian, Oliver 
H. Smith, Caleb B. Smith, Charles H. Test, 
James Rariden, Samuel W. Parker, Samuel K. 
Hoshour, and other men notable for caliber. 
Many of these were gathered at Centerville dur- 
ing the time it was the seat of justice of Wayne 
county, but with the removal of the courts to 
Richmond they dispersed, a good proportion of 
these finding their way to Indianapolis, beckoned 








thither, doubtless, by the promise of a larger 
field for their talents. 

The shiftings of the prominent men to and 
from the Whitewater are, indeed, something of 
an index to its fluctuating fortunes. Thus many 
of the more notable names of Brookville were 
identified with it only during brief eras of pros- 
perity induced by extraneous causes, and when 
these lapsed those who were on the track of op- 
portunities sought pastures new. For example, 
one of the most flourishing periods in the history 
of the town began in 1820, when the lands of the 
interior of the State, as far north as the Wabash, 
were thrown open and the land office established 
at Brookville. As all purchasers of lands in this 
vast new tract visited the land office, not only 

Old State Bank Building, Brookville. One of the 
first banks in the State. 

with their purchase money but with the pre- 
sumable surplus of travelers, the great impetus 
to the town's prosperity and growth may easily 
be conceived. For five years, fed by the visiting 
thousands, the place throve, and the men who 
were drawn thither made it a political and intel- 
lectual center. Then the question of removing 
the office to Indianapolis, as a more central loca- 
tion, was agitated. It was bitterly opposed by 
Brookville citizens, who had an unconcealed con- 
tempt for the little insignificant "capital in the 
woods, buried in miasmatic solitude and sur- 
rounded," as James Brown Ray said in one of his 
pompous speeches, "by a boundless contiguity of 
shade." Nevertheless, the despised and ague- 
ridden capital got the land office ; the fortune 
seekers of Brookville betook themselves else- 
where like migrating birds, and then followed a 
period of sorry decadence, during which houses 

over town stood vacant and dilapidated ; all busi- 
ness languished ; money became all but extinct, 
and there was a reversion to the communistic 
method of exchanging goods for goods, or goods 
for labor. 

This paralysis lay on Brookville and the sur- 
rounding county until the schemes for the inter- 
nal improvement, agitated throughout the twen- 
ties and for one-half of the third decade, began 
to take definite and practical shape. About 1833, 
according to Mr. T. A. Goodwin, there was a 
revival of life in the Whitewater; people began 
to paint their houses and mend their fences, and 
deserted houses began to fill up. The internal 
improvement act of 1836 provided for the con- 
struction of "the Whitewater canal, commenc- 
ing on the west branch of the Whitewater river, 
at the crossing of the National road, thence pass- 
ing down the valley of the same to the Ohio 
river, at Lawrenceburg, and extending up the 
said west branch of the Whitewater above the 
National road as may be practicable." This was 
a promise of commercial prosperity and a new 
lease of life to the Whitewater region. The day 
that the contracts were let at Brookville for 
building the various sections of the canal there 
was a grand jollification — speech-making, dinner, 
toasts and all the rest ; and a like enthusiasm pre- 
vailed in all the valley. Towns sprang up along 
the proposed route and lay in wait, and as the 
canal, crawling northward, reached them, suc- 
cessively, making one and then another the head 
of navigation, each flourished and had its day, 
drawing to itself the wheat and hogs and other 
agricultural exports from the inlying country for 
many miles east, north and west. This great 
trade, of course, always sought the nearest point 
of shipment, and so Brookville, Metamora, Lau- 
rel, Connersville and Cambridge City were, in 
turn, receiving ports and reaped the benefits of 
traffic. The people on the east branch, not to be 
outdone by their neighbors on the west, also 
strove energetically for a canal between Brook- 
ville and Richmond that should promote the de- 
velopment of this valley, and, though the work- 
was never completed, much labor and money 
was expended upon it. 

The old canal days are a distinct era in the 
history of our State. The younger generation 
knows little about them, but many a reminis- 
cence might be picked up of the merchant fleets 



of the Whitewater and the idyllic journeyings up 
and down the beautiful valley by packet. This 
order of things, which continued about thirty 
years, was maintained in the face of serious dis- 
couragements, for the Whitewater river, one of 
the swiftest streams in the State, is subject to 
violent freshets, and these have repeatedly dam- 
aged the canal, effectually stopping traffic and 
entailing heavy expenses in repairs. The great 
flood of 1847 all but ruined the ditch, and 
scarcely was this recovered from when another 
proved almost as disastrous. Besides these 
checks on traffic, untold thousands of dollars 
have been lost by the sweeping away of mills 
and other property, and in the opinion of many 
old citizens, these disheartening losses have 
caused much of the exodus from the valley. 

The lower part of the Whitewater valley, with 
Brookville as its center, lies to-day aloof from 
the trunk railway lines that have been the great 
determining factor in the development of the 
country. But if it lacks the bustle and growth 
of some other newer sections of the State, it has 
another and different attraction — the attraction 
of great natural beauty of landscape combined 
with quiet idyllic charm and pleasing reminders 
of the past. The disused bed of the old White- 
water Canal and its crumbling stone locks are 
grown with grass. Grass grows in the peaceful 
thoroughfares in and about the villages of Laurel 
and Metamora, and in these villages and in 
Brookville quaint and weatherworn houses speak 
of a past generation of builders. Our artists 
have already discovered the picturesqueness of 
the region, and some of Indiana's abundant lit- 
erary talent might well find inspiration here be- 
fore it is too late. — Geo. S. Cottman. 

Organization. — Franklin county was the 
sixth county organized in Indiana. It was named 
in honor of Benjamin Franklin and its organiza- 
tion became effective February 1, 1811. It was 
formed from Dearborn and Clark counties in 
conformity with the legislative act of November 
27, 1810. Brookville, which had previously been 
organized, was made the county seat. The or- 
ganization of Fayette and Union counties in 1819 
and 1821 greatly reduced the area of Franklin 

Population of Franklin county in 1890 was 
18,366; in 1900 was 16,388, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 15,335, of 

which 681 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 3,684 families in the county and 3,622 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
thirteen townships in Franklin county : Bath, 
Bloomington Grove, Brookville, Butler, Fairfield. 
Highland, Laurel, Aletamora, Posey, Ray, Salt 
Creek, Springfield and White Water. The in- 
corporated cities and towns are Brookville, Cedar 
Grove, Laurel, Mt. Carmel, and Oldenburg. 
Brookville is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Franklin county 
was $4,349,965 ; value of improvements was 

Little Cedar Baptist Church, near Brookville, Building 
Completed in 1812. 

$1,954,370, and the total net value of taxables 
was $9,441,250. There were 2.389 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 178 miles of 
improved roads in Franklin county built and un- 
der jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1914. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $129,796. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There arc 
37.93 miles of steam railroad operated in Frank 
lin county by the C. & O. ; Chicago. division of the 
Big Four, and the White Water railroads. 

Educational. — According to the biennial re- 
port of T. J. McCarty, county superintendent, 
there were eighty-four schoolhouses, including 
eight high schools, in Franklin county in 1913- 
1914, employing 101 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 2,265. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, su- 



Convent and Academy of the Immaculate Conception, Oldenburg, Franklin County. 

pervisors, principals and teachers was $48,017.15 ; 
estimated value of school property in the county 
was $124,685, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $31,190. There is one 
parochial school, enrolling 183 pupils and em- 
ploying four teachers. This school is conducted in 
a new modern brick building containing class 
rooms, basement with gymnasium, reading rooms 
and the largest hall in the city of Brookville. 

Agriculture. — There were in Franklin county 
in 1910 over 2,100 farms embraced in 240,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 113.9 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $12,000,000, 
showing 69.2 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre, $32.65. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,400,000: 
Number of cattle 14,000, valued at $357,000; 
horses 6,700, valued at $650,000; hogs 42,000, 
valued at $272,000; sheep 15,000, valued at $65,- 
000. The total value of poultry was $73,000. 

Convent of the Immaculate Conception, con- 
ducted by Sisters of St. Francis of the Third 
Order Regular, Oldenburg, Ind. 

The founder of the Oldenburg convent and 
academy was the sainted Rev. Francis Joseph 
Rudolf. He was ordained priest August 10, 1839, 
at Strasburg, Alsace, and in 1842 came to the 
United States as missionary. On January, 6, 1851, 
the first steps were taken toward the foundation 
of a teaching community, with the auspicious aid 
of Sister M. Theresa, who volunteered to bid 
farewell to her convent in Vienna, Austria, to 
serve God in the wild West. She landed in New 
York in January, 1851. This saintly maiden 
formed the corner-stone of the Oldenburg con- 
vent, and became its first superior general, under 

the title of "Mother." The old convent was re- 
constructed in 1899-1901. 

The community advanced steadily, though 
often under great difficulties, opening new 
schools from year to year, until now it numbers 
seventy-three mission schools, in which 13,500 
children are educated. These schools are located 
mainly in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky and 
Kansas. These great achievements are due to 
the sainted founders and their worthy successors 
who continued the good work. Among the latter 
ranks the present Mother General Olivia, sec- 
onded by her energetic counsel and devoted sub- 

The Academy of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, Oldenburg, Ind. — The foundation of the 
academy is so closely connected with the convent 
that its history is virtually contained in that of the 
convent or Mother house. The Mother General 
always has been, and still is its president, with the 
directress as vice-president. 

The academy's beginning was lowly as that of 
the convent. The first boarders, attending a fall 
and winter session, had their first quarters in 
the convent, and only in 1859 was a special two- 
story brick building erected for the academy stu- 
dents. This was replaced by a handsome, exten- 
sive three-story structure in 1863. Later, in 1876, 
the conservatory of music was added to the 
academy building. This building, with occasional 
later improvements, still continues its efficient 
service, as does the north addition of the convent, 
the only buildings not contained in the great re- 
construction of 1899-1901. The new convent 
church, a veritable gem of architectural beauty, 
had been built in 1890. 



The newly erected edifices rank among the best 
in the State. The efficiency of this school has 
been recognized by the Indiana State Board of 
Education, and its Normal department has been 

accredited by the State Teachers' Training 
Board, and it is affiliated with the Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington, D. C, and the 
University of Cincinnati. 



FULTON COUNTY is located in the north- 
ern part of the State and is bounded on the 
north by Marshall, on the east by Kosciusko. 
Wabash and Miami, on the south by Cass and 
Miami, and on the west by Pulaski counties. It 
contains 350 square miles. A ridge of small, 
rugged hills, from one to two miles in width, ex- 
tend along the north bank of the Tippecanoe 
through the county. With this exception, the face 
of the county is level or undulating. There are 
numerous lakes in the county, which abound 
with game fish of almost every variety. The most 
important lake in the county is Manitou, which 
lies one mile southeast of Rochester, the county 
seat. According to a late survey by H. B. Hol- 
man, the area of the lake is 886.75 acres, making 
it the eighth in size of Indiana lakes. When 
and how the lake was given its name is a matter 
of conjecture, for it was called "Manitou" by the 
Indians before the white settlers came. Jacob P. 
Dunn, in his book, entitled "True Indian Stories," 
says : "Manitou Lake in Fulton county. This is 
the Potawatomi mah-nee-to — the Miami form be- 
ing mah-nat-o-wah — and refers to a supernatural 
monster said to inhabit the lake. Mah-nee-to 
signifies merely a spirit, and good or bad quali- 
ties are indicated by adjectives." Some writers 

state that probably the lake received its name 
through the fact that unusually large spoon-bill 
catfish were in early days caught in the lake and 
that these were the monsters thought by the In- 
dians to be the spirits. 

The first white men to enter this vicinity found 
five small basins of water, separated by low 
marshes, in most places, while at some the ground 
was high enough to permit farming, which was 
being done by some of the Pottawatomie In- 
dians, then residing here. The first dam, at the 
outlet into the Tippecanoe river was built by the 
United States government in 1830. Between 1836 
and 1840 the Indians were removed from this vi- 
cinity to a place reserved for them west of the 
Mississippi river and the dam was discontinued. 
A little later, however, another dam was built 
farther down the stream at the town site of 
Rochester, then just laid out and plotted. Later, 
about 1850, the dam was rebuilt at the lake and 
the water raised as a reservoir, the water being 
taken from the lake by an artificial race to the 
mill at Rochester. No use is made at the present 
time of the water power at the lake, but through 
the old mill race or canal, leading to Rochester, 
is drawn the supply for the city water works. 

Organization. — Fulton county w r as organ- 

Colonial Park. 

Lake Manitou. 

Wolf Point. 



ized February 4, 1836, and named in honor of 
Robert Fulton, the inventor of the steamboat. 
Rochester was selected by the locating commis- 
sioners the second Monday of June, 1836, as the 
county seat, after examining several places. 

Population of Fulton county in 1890 was 
16,746; in 1900 was 17,453, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 16,879, of 
which 251 were of foreign white birth. There 
were 4,347 families in the county and 4,258 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
eight townships in Fulton county : Aubbeenaub- 
bee, Henry, Liberty, Newcastle, Richland, 
Rochester, Union and Wayne. The incorporated 
cities and towns are Rochester, Fulton, Akron, 
and Kewanna. Rochester is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Fulton county 
was $7,787,195; value of improvements was 
$2,081,965, and the total net value of taxables 
was $13,612,700. There were 2,722 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were eighty-seven 
miles of improved roads in Fulton county built 
and under jurisdiction of the county commission- 
ers January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road 
bonds outstanding. $86,739.20. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
77.52 miles of steam railroad operated in Fulton 
county by the C. & O. ; C. & E. ; Indianapolis, 
Michigan City division of L. E. & W., and the 
Michigan division of the Vandalia railroads. The 
Winona Interurban Railway Company operates 
6.49 miles of electric line in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Henry L. Becker, county superintendent of Ful- 
ton county, there were 73 schoolhouses, including 
eight high schools, in the county in 1914, employ- 
ing 155 teachers. The average daily attendance by 
pupils was 37,925. The aggregate amount paid 
in salaries to superintendents, supervisors, prin- 
cipals and teachers was $71,128.26. Estimated 
value of school property in the county was 
$366,050, and the total amount of indebtedness, 
including bonds, was $140,190. 

Agriculture. — There were in Fulton county 
in 1910 over 2,300 farms embraced in 221,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 94.5 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $18,000,000. 
showing 80.1 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre, $59.96. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $1,800,000: 
Number of cattle 18,000, valued at $500,000; 
horses 8,800, valued at $1,000,000; hogs 32,000, 
valued at $208,000 ; sheep 24,000, valued at $100,- 
000. The total value of poultry in Fulton county 
was $100,000. 



GIBSON COUNTY is located in the south- 
western part of the State and is bounded 
on the north by Knox, on the east by Pike and 
Warrick, on the south by Warrick, Vanderburg 
and Posey and on the west by the Wabash river, 
separating it from the State of Illinois. It con- 
tains 450 square miles of the richest land in the 
State. In parts of the county, the soil is a sandy 
loam which produces the finest melons and can- 
telopes. All of the surface land is comparatively 
level and all being suitable for agriculture and 
orchards. A part of the county has three veins 
of good coal, and oil and gas have been found in 
paying quantities. According to the report of the 

State mine inspector for the fiscal year ending 
September 30, 1914, there were four mines in 
operation under his jurisdiction that produced 
251,379 tons of coal. « 

Organization. — Gibson county was organ- 
ized April 1, 1813, the same year that the capital 
of the territory was moved to Corydon. The 
county was named in honor of General John Gib- 
son, secretary of the territory from 1801-16, and 
repeatedly acting governor of the territory in the 
absence of General Harrison. He had been taken 
prisoner in early life by the Indians, and con- 
tinued among them for many years and was fa- 
miliar with their language and usages. It was to 



him that the celebrated speech of the Indiana 
chief Logan was made. Princeton has always 
been the county seat of Gibson and was named in 
honor of Judge William Prince, who represented 
the first congressional district in Congress in 

Population of Gibson county in 1890 was 
24,920; in 1900 was 30,099, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 30,137, of 
which 518 were of white foreign birth. There 

$3,686,615, and the total net value of taxablcs 
was $18,814,375. There were 4,938 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 241 miles of 
improved roads in Gibson county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners January 
l t 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds outstand- 
ing, $557,358. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
89.77 miles of steam railroad operated in Gibson 

Hazelton Ferry on White River between Gibson and Knox Counties. 

were 7,119 families in the county and 6,977 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
ten townships in Gibson county: Barton, Center, 
Columbia, Johnson, Montgomery, Patoka, Union, 
Wabash, Washington and White River. The in- 
corporated cities and towns are Princeton, Fort 
Branch, Francisco, Hazelton, Oakland City, 
Owensville and Patoka. Princeton is the county 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Gibson county 
was $10,166,355 ; value of improvements was 

county by the Evansville & Indianapolis; Evans- 
ville division of the C. & E. I. ; Mount Vernon 
branch of the C. & E. I. ; Evansville, Mount Car- 
mel & Northern division of the Big Four ; Peori i 
division of the Illinois Central, and the Southern 
Railway Company of Indiana. The Public Utili- 
ties Company operate 17.79 miles of electric line 
in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Wilbur F. Fisher, county superintendent of Gib- 
son county, there were 120 schoolhouses, includ- 
ing ten high schools, in Gibson county in 1914, 
employing 239 teachers. The average daily at- 
tendance by pupils was 5,636. The aggregat 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, su- 




pervisors, principals and teachers was $126,- 
685.54. The estimated value of school property 
in the county was $455,600, and the total amount 
of indebtedness, including bonds, was $102,200 
for school purposes. 

Agriculture. — There were in Gibson county 
in 1910 over 2,800 farms embraced in 270,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 94.8 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $21,000,000, 
showing 73.8 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre, $59.59. The total 
value of domestic animals was over $2,000,000: 
Number of cattle 14,000, valued at $350,000; 
horses 10,000, valued at $980,000; hogs 45,000, 
valued at $250,000; sheep 13,000, valued at $58,- 
000. The total value of poultry was $87,000. 

Oakland City College is the final outgrowth 
of an effort on the part of the General Baptist 
denomination, a body of Liberal Baptists, to 
found an institution of learning in the Mississippi 
valley. After several previous efforts the pres- 
ent organization was incorporated in 1885. A 
beautiful campus of native oaks in the west edge 
of the town of Oakland City was donated by 
Colonel W. M. Cockrum, and the building was 
begun. After a long period of hard struggle, 
owing to the lack of financial strength, the build- 

ing was completed, and schools opened in 1891. 
Since its beginning the college has enjoyed a 
growth, not rapid but constant, and has been 
gradually enlarging its equipment and scope of 
work. It now has the following departments : 
Preparatory, Collegiate, Normal, Theological, 
Vocational, Music and Art. It is partially en- 
dowed, having been the recipient of several gifts, 
including some 400 acres of land. The plans are 
practically completed by which it is to receive 
during the present year, through the generosity 
of a friend, a special building, 40 by 300 feet and 
two stories high, which is to be the future home 
of the entire vocational department. This will 
make possible the realization of a dream to give 
to this immediate territory a needed service in 
practical education along the lines of agriculture, 
orcharding, dairying, poultry, domestic science, 
and such other things as will meet the commu- 
nity's needs. 

W. P. Dearing, just then graduating from the 
college at the age of twenty, and being the first 
graduate of the institution, was in 1895 chosen 
dean of the college and placed in actual charge 
of the institution. Eight years later he was pro- 
moted to the presidency, which position he is still 



GRANT COUNTY is located in the third 
tier of counties northeast of Indianapolis 
and is bounded on the north by Wabash and 
Huntington, on the east by Wells and Blackford, 
on the south by Delaware and Madison and on 
the west by Miami, Howard and Tipton coun- 
ties. It contains 418 square miles and a consid- 
erable part of Grant county lies in the bounds of 
the Miami Reserve. Here, on the banks of the 
Mississinewa river, formerly lived Menshinge- 
mesia and his ancestors, and the battle of Mis- 
sissinewa between the reds and whites was 
fought here in primitive days. On the west bank 
of this river is located the Marion branch of the 
National Soldiers' Home, just beyond the south- 
ern limits of the city of Marion. Several notable 
educational institutions are located in the county, 

notably Marion Normal College, Taylor Univer- 
sity at Upland and the Wesleyan Theological 
Seminary and the Fairmount Academy at Fair- 

Organization. — Grant county was formally 
organized April 1, 1831, and was named in honor 
of Captain Samuel Grant and Moses Grant, who 
were killed in 1789 in a battle with the Indians 
near the creek, since called by their name in the 
northeast part of Switzerland county. Marion 
was selected as the county seat during the sum- 
mer of 1831, and the first lots were sold on the 
first Monday in November. The first court-house 
was not erected until three years later. 

National Soldiers' Home. — In 1890 Congress 
passed an act establishing a branch of the Na- 
tional Soldiers' Home at Marion, which was se- 



cured mainly through the efforts of George W. 
Steele, member of Congress from the Marion 
district, who served as superintendent of the 
home until the spring of 1915. The home is 
located on a beautiful rolling tract of land cover- 
ing about 250 acres, about two and a half miles 
southeast of the city of Marion. It is bordered 
on the east and south by the Mississinewa river. 
About 1,500 veterans are cared for here. 

Population of Grant county in 1890 was 
31,493; in 1900 was 54,693, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 51,426, of 
which 1,722 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 12,676 families in the county and 12,332 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
thirteen townships in Grant county : Center, 
Fairmount, Franklin, Green, Jefferson. Liberty, 
Mill, Monroe, Pleasant, Richland, Sims, Van 
Buren and Washington. The incorporated cities 
and towns are Gas City, Marion, Fairmount, 
Fowlerton, Jonesboro, Matthews, Swayzee, Up- 
land and Van Buren. Marion is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Grant county was 
$12,175,800, value of improvements was $6,544,- 
725 and the total net value of taxables was $30,- 
235,865. There were 8,075 polls in the county. 

Improved Roads. — There were 900 miles of 
improved roads in Grant county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing, $857,583.06. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 

122.42 miles of steam railroad operated in Grant 
county by the C. & O. ; C, W. & M. ; C, I. & E. ; 
Logansport division of the P., C, C. & St. L., 
and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western railroads. 
The Indiana Railway & Light Company, Marion. 
Bluffton & Eastern Traction Company, and the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana operate 
58.60 miles of electric line in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Charles H. Terrell, county superintendent of 
Grant county, there were 138 schoolhouses, in- 
cluding nine high schools, in Grant county in 
1914, employing 327 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 8,416. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, su- 
pervisors, principals and teachers was $193,658. 
Estimated value of school property in the county 
was $946,500, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $132,825. 

Agriculture. — There were in Grant county in 
.1910 over 2,800 farms, embraced in 240,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 85.5 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $30,000,000, 
showing 106.2 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $92.32. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $2,800.- 
000: Number of cattle 20,000, valued at $630,- 
000; horses 12,000, valued at $1,300,000; hogs 
95,000, valued at $570,000 ; sheep 27,000, valued 
at $119,000. The value of poultry was $111,000. 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910 there were eighty-nine industries 
in Marion, furnishing employment to 2,610 per- 
sons. Total amount of capital employed, $3,933,- 
723; value of products, $4,442,116; value added 
by manufacture. $2,118,513. 

mil if r u| iii iii • intiiijuinjni «;»• 

jgiffiMfc .~~ja**~~ i -* J Tp£liEf ' 

■»-4.-.'.U». , 5V«i-- v-, r.'l^.r-3B!l J »- 

National Soldiers' Home, Marion. 





GREENE COUNTY is located in the south- 
western part of the State and is bounded 
on the north by Clay and Owen, on the east by 
Monroe and Lawrence, on the south by Martin, 
Daviess and Knox and on the west by Sullivan 
counties. It has an area of 535 square miles. 
The eastern part of the county is rough and 
broken, extending into the limestone region. In- 
dian, Doans, Plummer, Richland and Beech 
creeks drain this section. White river drains the 
central part and the west fork of White river 
flows entirely across the county. The coal fields 
are located in the western section. According to 
the report of the State Mine Inspector for the 
fiscal year ending September 30, 1914, there were 
nineteen mines in operation in the county under 
his jurisdiction, which produced 2,388,182 tons 
of coal. Agriculture and fruit raising is carried 
on extensively in the central part of the county. 
Organization. — The organization of Greene 

county was made effective February 5, 1821. 
The county was named in honor of General 
Nathaniel Greene, one of the heroes of the revo- 
lution. The first county seat was located at 
Burlington. The site had been selected by the 
locating commissioners March 10, 1821, and the 
land had been donated by Thomas Bradford, 
Frederick Shepherd and Zebulon Hague. The 
county seat remained here until 1824, when it 
became necessary to find a new location, for the 
reason that an adequate supply of water was not 
obtainable at this point. Peter C. Van Slyke, a 
wealthy landowner, offered to donate the land 
for the location of the new county seat, which 
the commissioners accepted, and Bloomfield came 
into being. The first sale of lots was set for 
April 22, 1824, and a log court-house built that 
summer of "hewed logs, 26 by 20 feet, one story 
and a half high, with one door and one window, 
with twelve lights in it (8 by 16) in the lower 

Bridge Over Richland Creek Near Bloomfield, Greene County, on the Illinois Central Railroad. 

highest bridge in United States. Height, 158 feet. 




story, with a good poplar plank floor. House to 
be covered with shingles." The board of justices 
met for the last time in Burlington in September, 
1824, and adjourned to meet in the new court- 
house in Bloomfield. At the present time not a 
vestige remains of the former county seat. 

Population of Greene county in 1890 was 
24,379 ; in 1900 was 28,530, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 36,873, of 
which 1,647 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 8,466 families in the county and 8,344 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
fifteen townships in Greene county: Beech 
Creek, Cass, Center, Fairplay, Grant, Highland, 
Jackson, Jefferson, Richland, Smith, Stafford, 
Stockton, Taylor, Washington and Wright. The 
incorporated cities and towns are Jasonville, 
Linton, Bloomfield, Lyons, Newberry and Worth- 
ington. Bloomfield is the county seat of Greene 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Greene county 
was $6,906,380, value of improvements was 
$3,678,915 and the total net value of taxables 
was $16,217,505. There were 6,587 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 453 miles of 
improved roads in Greene county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing, $408,450.50. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
150.52 miles of steam railroad operated in Greene 
county by the C. I. & L. ; Chicago, Terre Haute 
& Southeastern ; Evansville & Indianapolis ; In- 
dianapolis & Louisville ; Indianapolis branch of 
the Illinois Central, and the Vincennes branch 
and the Greene county coal branch of the Van- 
dalia railroads. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Daniel C. Mcintosh, county superintendent of 
Greene county, there were 154 schoolhouses, in- 
cluding nine high schools, in Greene county in 
1914, employing 279 teachers. The average daily 

This sycamore is the largest non-nutbearing tree in the 
United States of which there is any record. It is ISO 
feet high, 45 feet in circumference. Its spread is 100 
feet. The tree is located near Worthington, Greene 
Count v. 

attendance by pupils was 7,601. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, su- 
pervisors, principals and teachers was $130,- 
051.79. Estimated value of school property in 
the county was $431,675, and the total amount 
of indebtedness, including bonds, was $136,- 

Agriculture. — There were in Greene county in 
1910 over 3,500 farms, embraced in 315,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 89.6 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $16,000,000, 
showing 69 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $38. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $1,800,- 
000: Number of cattle 17,000, valued at $440,- 
000; horses 9,400, valued at $904,000; hogs 
25,000, valued at $160,000; sheep 16,000, valued 
at $66,000. The total value of poultry was 





HAMILTON COUNTY is located immedi- 
ately north of Indianapolis in the first tier 
of counties. It is bounded on the north by Tip- 
ton, on the east by Madison and Hancock, south 
by Marion and on the west by Boone and Clinton 
counties. It contains 400 square miles and the 
surface is of such nature that practically every 
acre is available for agricultural purposes. 

Organization. — Hamilton county was for- 
mally organized April 7, 1823. Noblesville has 
been the seat of justice since the organization of 
the county. The county was named in honor of 
Alexander Hamilton, the patriot and statesman. 

Population of Hamilton county in 1890 was 
26,123; in 1900 was 29,914, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 27,026, of 
which 235 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 6,941 families in the county and 6,783 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
nine townships in Hamilton county : Adams, 
Clay, Delaware, Fall Creek, Jackson, Nobles- 
ville, Washington, Wayne and White River. The 
incorporated cities and towns are Noblesville, 
Arcadia, Atlanta, Carmel, Cicero, Fishers, Sheri- 
dan and Westfield. Noblesville is the county 

Scene on White River near Noblesville 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of 'the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Hamilton county 
was $10,977,265, value of improvements was 
$3,909,615 and the total net value of taxables was 
$20,121,120. There were 4,191 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 650 miles of 
improved roads in Hamilton county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $410,776.31. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
58.67 miles of steam railroad operated in Ham- 
ilton county by the Central Indiana ; Chicago, In- 
dianapolis & Louisville ; Lake Erie & Western, 
and the P., C, C. & St. L. railroads. The T. H., 
I. & E. Traction Company and the Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana operate 25.39 miles of 
electric line in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of John 
F. Haines, county superintendent of Hamilton 
county, there were seventy-seven schoolhouses, 
including ten high schools, in Hamilton county in 
1914, employing 204 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 4,847. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, princi- 
pals and teachers was $108,684. 
The estimated value of school 
property in the county was $443,- 
600, and the total amount of in- 
debtedness, including bonds, was 
$107,500. Hamilton county or- 
ganized the first Boys' Corn 
Club in the world and has been 
a leader in vocational work. The 
county also has excellent rural 

Agriculture. — There were in 
Hamilton county in 1910 over 
3,000 farms embraced in 243,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 
81 acres. The value of all farm 
property was over $31,000,000, 



showing 105.1 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $95.06. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $3,- 
300.000: Number of cattle 22,000, valued at 

$690,000; horses 13,000, valued at $1,900,000; 
hogs 87,000, valued at $500,000; sheep 13,000, 
valued at $66,000. The total value of poultry 
was $122,000. 



HANCOCK COUNTY is located due east 
of Indianapolis in the first tier of coun- 
ties. It is bounded on the north by Hamilton 
and Madison, on the east by Henry and Rush, 
on the south by Shelby and on the west by Ma- 
rion counties. It contains 307 square miles, its 
surface is level and the soil fertile. Natural gas 
was once found here in what was supposed to 
be limitless quantities. 

Organization. — The organization of Hancock 
county became effective March 1, 1828, and 
Greenfield has been the county seat since its 
organization. The county was named in honor 
of John Hancock, one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. Greenfield, the 

county seat, has become famous as the birth- 
place of James Whitcomb Riley, the Hoosier 
poet, and the fountain from which he drew in- 
spiration for his poems, "The Brandywine," 
"The Old Swimmin' Hole," and other poems. 

Population of Hancock county in 1890 was 
17,829; in 1900 was 19,189, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 19,030, of 
which 402 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 4,935 families in the county and 4,817 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
nine townships in Hancock county : Blue River, 
Brandywine, Brown, Buck Creek, Center, Greene, 
Jackson, Sugar Creek and Vernon. The incor- 

The Brandywine, in Hancock County, Made Famous by James Whitcomb Riley, the Hoosier Poet. 



Home of James Whitcomb Riley, Greenfield. 

porated cities and towns are Greenfield, Fortville, 
New Palestine and Shirley. Greenfield is the 
county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Hancock county 
was $9,011,000, value of improvements was 
$3,176,310 and the total net value of taxables 
was $19,043,510. There were 3,340 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 281 miles of 
improved roads in Hancock county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $196,378.30. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
59.19 miles of steam railroad operated in Han- 

cock county by the Cincinnati division of the 
C, I. & W. ; C, W. & M. ; Big Four, and the P., 
C, C. & St. L. railroads. The Indianapolis & Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company, Indianapolis, New- 
castle & Eastern Traction Company, Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany, and the Union Traction Company of Indi- 
ana operate 55.39 miles of electric line in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
George J. Richman, county superintendent of 
Hancock county, there were seventy-five school- 
houses, including ten high schools, in Hancock 
county in 1914, employing 140 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was : High 
school, 469; grade school, 2,633. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, su- 
pervisors, principals and teachers was $78,257.79. 
The estimated value of school property in the 
county was $312,900, and the total amount of in- 
debtedness, including bonds, was $59,032.50. 

Agriculture. — There were in Hancock county 
in 1910 over 2,100 farms, embraced in 186,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 86.4 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $21,000,000, 
showing 87.5 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $89.15. The 
total value of domestic animals was $1,800,000: 
Number of cattle 13,000, valued at $404,000; 
horses 9,400, valued at $990,000; hogs 43,000, 
valued at $280,000; sheep 10,000, valued at 
$46,000. The total value of poultry was $87,000. 



HARRISON COUNTY is located in the 
southern part of the State and borders on 
the Ohio river. It is bounded on the north by 
Washington, on the east by Floyd and its entire 
southeastern, southern and southwestern section 
is on the Ohio river and is bounded on the west 
by Crawford county. It contains 478 square miles. 
The face of the country as well as the character 
of the land is much diversified. The greater part 
of the county is broken, and the chain of Knobs 
on the east, the river, hills and many places along 
Indian creek and Blue river present as fine scen- 

ery as can be found in any part of the State. 
The sloping hillsides, which are fast being cleared 
of their valuable forests of poplar and oak, are 
producing great orchards of the finest flavored 
apples and peaches in the world. Tobacco of an 
excellent quality is being raised in large quanti- 
ties, and two of the largest distilleries in the 
United States are located here. The county also 
has excellent quarries of limestone. For some 
years, wells of natural gas have been flowing in 
the county. Several large caves and a system of 
subterranean rivers, brooks and creeks are to be 



found in ihe county. In one of the large caverns 
Squire Boone lived, died and was buried, and is 
marked by his inscriptions, Bible texts and draw- 
ings of animals and birds. 

Organization. — Harrison county is one of the 
oldest and most historic counties in the State. 
It was the fourth one to be organized, and De- 
cember 1, 1808, witnessed its official beginning, 
when the Territorial Legislature carved it out 
of Knox and Clark counties. It was named in 
honor of General William Henry Harrison, ter- 
ritorial Governor of Indiana. On May 1, 1813. 
the capital of the territory was removed from 
Vincennes to Corydon. Corydon has been the 
county seat since the organization of the county. 
and here still stands the old stone building that 
was the first State capitol. and near which stands 
the grand old elm, now fast decaying, under 
whose spreading branches was written the first 
constitution of the State of Indiana. 

In 1807 William Henry Harrison entered a 
tract of land on Blue river at Wilson Springs in 
Harrison county, and when he was Governor of 
the territory he traveled to and from Vincennes 
on horseback to visit this location. On these 

trips he often visited the home of Edward Smith, 
who is said to have left the British army during 
the revolutionary war and made his way to Indi- 
ana and married and lived with his family in a 
log cabin in Harrison county. On the occasion 
of General Harrison's visits after the evening 
meal was finished, the members of the family 
and their guest would gather around the open 
cabin door and sing the general's favorite songs. 
On one of these visits, as General Harrison was 
making his departure, tradition says he re- 
marked : "In a few days 1 expect to lay out a 
town here and would like to have you suggest a 
suitable name for it." Whereupon Miss Jennie 
Smith asked : "Why not name it 'Corydon,' from 
the piece you like so much ?" Her suggestion 
pleased the Governor, and thus the town is said 
to have derived its name. The words and music 
of this traditional song appeared in the "Mis- 
souri Harmony," a copy of which is preserved in 
our State library. 

Population of Harrison county in 1890 was 
20.786: in 1900 was 21,702, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 20,232, of 
which 312 were of white foreign birth. There 

Pillar of Constitution, Wyandotte Cave, Crawford County. Largest stalagmite in the world, 24 feet in 

diameter and 35 feet high. 



were 4,579 families in the county and 4,515 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
thirteen townships in Harrison county : Blue 
River, Boone, Franklin, Harrison, Heth, Jackson, 
Morgan, Posey, Scott, Spencer, Taylor, Wash- 
ington and Webster. The incorporated cities 
and towns are Corydon, Elizabeth, Laconia, 
Lanesville, Mauckport, New Amsterdam, New 
Middletown and Palmyra. Corydon is the county 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Harrison county 
was $2,709,610, value of improvements was 
$1,272,770 and the total net value of taxables was 
$6,422,975. There were 3,028 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 145 miles of 
improved roads in Harrison county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $232,252. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
24.80 miles of steam railroad operated in Harri- 
son county by the Louisville, New Albany & 
Corydon and the Southern Railway Company of 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Arville O. Deweese, county superintendent of 
Harrison county, there were 148 schoolhouses, 
including eleven high schools, in Harrison county 
in 1914, employing 184 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 4,642. There are 
three parochial schools in the county with an en- 
rolment of one hundred pupils. The county has 
an excellent school spirit, but because of the 
rough and broken country school consolidation 
is coming very slowly. The aggregate amount 
paid in salaries to superintendents, supervisors, 
principals and teachers in 1914 was $79,870.93. 
The estimated value of school property in Har- 
rison county was $122,400, and the total amount 
of indebtedness, including bonds, was approxi- 
mately $30,596. 

Agriculture. — There were in Harrison county 
in 1910 over 3,100 farms, embraced in 288,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 93 acres. The 
value of all the farm property was over $9,300,- 
000, showing 55.7 per cent, increase over 1900. 
The average value of land per acre was $19.41. 
The total value of domestic animals was over 
$1,100,000: Number of cattle 11,000, valued at 
$240,000 ; horses 7,600, valued at $660,000 ; hogs 
18,000, valued at $110,000; sheep 6,700, valued 
at $27,000. The total value of poultry was 



HENDRICKS COUNTY is located in the 
central part of the State and in the first 
tier of counties west of Indianapolis, and is 
bounded on the north by Boone, on the east by 
Marion, on the south by Morgan and a very 
small section of Putnam and on the west by 
Montgomery and Putnam counties. The county 
has 480 square miles, the surface of which is 
rolling, and with one or two exceptions some of 
the greatest elevations in the State are found 
here. The natural drainage is afforded by com- 
paratively small streams. The wonderfully fertile 
soil is especially adapted to agriculture and stock 
raising, its two greatest industries. This county 

is the home of the Central Normal College at 
Danville and the Friends Academy at Plainfield. 

Organization. — Hendricks county was organ- 
ized by legislative act December 28, 1823, which 
was made effective by formal organization April 
21, 1824. The county was named for William 
Hendricks, who at that time was Governor of 
the State of Indiana. Danville was selected as 
the seat of justice, where it has remained ever 

Population of Hendricks county in 1890 was 
21,498; in 1900 was 21,292, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 20,840, of 
which 172 were of white foreign birth. There 



were 5,262 families in the county and 5,204 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Hendricks county : Brown, 
Center, Clay, Eel River, Franklin, Guilford, Lib- 
erty, Lincoln, Marion, Middle, Union and Wash- 
ington. The incorporated cities and towns are 
Brownsburg, Coatesville, Clayton, Danville, Liz- 
ton, North Salem, Pittsboro and Plainfield. Dan- 
ville is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Hendricks county 
was $11,655,606, value of improvements was 
$2,785,065 and the total net value of taxables 
was $19,583,852. There were 3,581 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 330 miles of 
improved roads in Hendricks county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding. $390,863.91. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
78.19 miles of steam railroad operated in Hen- 
dricks county by the Springfield division of the 
C, I. & W. ; St. Louis division and the P. & E. 
division of the Big Four; the St. Louis division 
and the Vincennes division of the Vandalia rail- 

Public Library, Danville. 

Central Normal College, Danville. 

roads. The Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company operates 49.62 miles of elec- 
tric lines in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Theodore B. Martin, county superintendent of 
Hendricks county, there were seventy-two school- 
houses, including ten high schools, in Hendricks 
County in 1914, employing 173 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was 4,269. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $89,213.90. Estimated value of school prop- 
erty in the county was $501,700, and the total 
amount of indebtedness, including bonds, was 

Agriculture. — There were in Hendricks county 
in 1910 over 2,700 farms, embraced in 250,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 91.2 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $28,000,000, 
showing 94.1 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $85.52. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $2,500,- 
000: Number of cattle 18,000, valued at $660,- 
000; horses 11,000, valued at $1,100,000; hogs 
74,000, valued at $490,000; sheep 20,000, valued 
at $94,000. The total value of poultry was 

Central Normal College, Danville, was made 
possible by the abandoned buildings of two of 
the earlier educational institutions of Hendricks 
county, the Hendricks County Seminary, which 
was opened soon after the county was organized, 
and the Danville Academy, which was established 
in 1858 by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The 
Central Normal College was organized in 1876 
by William F. Harper and Warren Darst at La- 
doga, Ind., and was known as the Central 



Normal School and Commercial Institute. Out- 
growing the accommodations at Ladoga, the fac- 
ulty and nearly two hundred students moved to 
Danville on May 10, 1878. The school is self- 
supporting, independent of church, State or en- 
dowment of any character. During the thirty- 
seven years of the existence of the college it has 
graduated more than 1,500 students. J. W. Laird 
is president and C. A. Hargrave is secretary- 

Indiana Boys' School. — The constitution of 
Indiana (1851, art. 9, sec. 2) expressly declared 
that the State should provide houses of refuge 
for the correction and reformation of juvenile 
offenders. The first action of the General As- 
sembly looking to this end was the law approved 
March 8, 1867, establishing "the House of 
Refuge for Juvenile Offenders." The institution 
was located on a farm nearly a mile southwest of 
the village of Plainfield and was occupied Janu- 
ary 1, 1868. Its name was changed in 1883 to the 

Indiana Reform School for Boys (Laws 1883, 
p. 19), and twenty years later to the Indiana 
Boys' School (Laws 1903, p. 172). The school 
receives boys committed for crime from eight to 
sixteen years of age and for incorrigibility from 
ten to seventeen, no commitment being for a 
shorter period than until the boy attains the age 
of twenty-one. 

One-half the cost of keeping and taking care 
of each boy is paid by the county from which he 
is committed. By rule of the institution a boy 
may earn his release in eighteen months from 
the time of his commitment. The institution has 
its own schools, graded like those of the public 
schools and also affords manual and industrial 
training. The law of 1903, p. 251, provides for 
the transfer to the State Reformatory of any 
inmate of the Boys' School convicted of crime 
who is more than seventeen years old and whose 
presence is detrimental to the welfare of the 



HENRY COUNTY is located in the second 
tier of counties east of Indianapolis. It 
is bounded on the north by Delaware, on the east 
by Randolph and Wayne, on the south by Fay- 
ette and Rush and on the west by Hancock and 
Madison counties. It contains 385 square miles. 
The face of the country is gently undulating, 
with many large and beautiful tracts on the east 
side of the county. Blue river runs from near 
the northeast to the southwest corner of the 
county and Fall creek through the north. The 
State's Village for Epileptics is located on a 
tract of 1,200 acres two miles north of New- 

Organization. — The first white men who were 
known to locate in the territory now known as 
Henry county, were Daniel and Asa Heaton, who 
settled in the year 1819. The county was organ- 
ized formally June 1, 1822. It was named in 
honor of Patrick Henry, the patriot and orator 
of revolutionary war times. Newcastle has been 
the county seat since the organization of the 
county. In recent years it has become famous 

for the production of roses, which are shipped 
all over the United States. 

Population of Henry county in 1890 was 
23,879; in 1900 was 25,088, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 29,758, of 
which 465 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 7,661 families in the county and 7,422 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
thirteen townships in Henry county : Blue 
River, Dudley, Franklin, Fall Creek, Greensboro. 
Harrison, Henry, Jefferson, Liberty. Prairie, 
Spiceland, Stony Creek and Wayne. The incor- 
porated cities and towns are Newcastle, Blounts- 
ville, Cadiz, Dunreith, Greensboro, Kennard, 
Knightstown, Lewisville, Middletown, Moore- 
land, Mt. Summit, Shirley, Spiceland, Straughn 
and Sulphur Springs. Newcastle is the county 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Henry county 



was $11,806,480, value of improvements was 
$4,305,570 and the total net value of taxables 
was $24,922,890. There were 4,794 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 280 miles of 
improved roads in Henry county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners Janu- 
ary 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds out- 
standing, $86,978. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
108.29 miles of steam railroad operated in Henry 
county by the C. & O. ; C, W. & M. ; Fort Wayne, 
Cincinnati & Louisville ; Big Four, and the Indi- 
anapolis and Richmond divisions and the Cam- 
bridge City branch of the P., C, C. & St. L. 
railroads. The Indianapolis, Newcastle & East- 
ern Traction Company, T. H., I. & E. Traction 
Company, and the Union Traction Company of 
Indiana operate 56.11 miles of electric line in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Harry B. Roberts, county superintendent of 
Henry county, there were sixty-seven school- 
houses, including thirteen high schools, in Henry 
county in 1914, employing 218 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was 1,007. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $120,477.31. The estimated value of school 
property in the county was $532,600, and the 
total amount of indebtedness, including bonds, 
was $294,548. 

Agriculture. — There were in Henry county in 
1910 over 2,500 farms, embraced in 244,000 

acres. Average acres per farm, 94.9 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $27,000,000, 
showing 90.8 per cent, increase over 1900." The 
average value of land per acre was $82.86. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $2,600,- 
000: Number of cattle 18,000, valued at $580,- 
000; horses 12,000, valued at $1,300,000; hogs 
86,000, valued at $540,000; sheep 19,000, valued 
at $89,000. The total value of poultry was 

Industrial. — There were over twenty-five in- 
dustries in Newcastle that furnish employment 
to more than 1,500 persons, according to the re- 
port of the State Bureau of Inspection for 1912. 
Automobiles, furniture and pianos are the lead- 
ing products. 

The Indiana Village for Epileptics was 
authorized by an act approved March 6, 1905, 
and a 1,245-acre site near Newcastle was pur- 
chased one year later. The purpose of the in- 
stitution is "the scientific treatment, education, 
employment and custody of epileptics," all epi- 
leptics having a legal settlement in the State to 
be considered admissible. With what was left 
from the original appropriation of $150,000, 
after the site was purchased, two small cottages 
were erected and the first patient was received 
September 16, 1907. Five cottages have been 
erected and others are in process of construction. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home. — The 
Indiana Soldiers' and Seamans' Home for the 
maintenance of sick and disabled soldiers and 
seamen, their widows and orphans, was author- 
ized by an act approved March 11, 1867. It was 

The Indiana Village for Epileptics, Henry County. 



formally opened June 15, 1867, in the Home for 
Disabled Soldiers, previously established at 
Knightstown by a private corporation. On the 
morning of December 25, 1871, fire destroyed 
that part of the institution occupied by the sol- 
diers and they were moved to the National Mili- 
tary Home at Dayton, Ohio. The orphans were 
left in full possession of the home until the Leg- 
islature of 1879 provided for the care of the 
feeble-minded children therein. The two classes 
of inmates were maintained in the home until 
1887, when the institution was reorganized as the 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, and the 
feeble-minded children were moved to new quar- 
ters. The home has twice been destroyed by fire 
—September 8, 1877, and July 21, 1886. It is lo- 
cated in Rush county, two miles south of Knights- 
town. As now maintained it is open to children 
under the age of sixteen years whose fathers 
were soldiers or sailors in the army or navy of 
the United States in the civil war or the war 
with Spain or the war in the Philippine Islands. 
Educational, religious and industrial training is 



HOWARD COUNTY is located in the cen- 
ter of the northern half of the State, fifty 
miles north of Indianapolis. It is bounded on the 
north by Cass and Miami, on the east by Grant, 
on the south by Tipton and Clinton and on the 
west by Carroll counties, and contains approxi- 
mately 300 square miles of rich farm land. It is 
pre-eminently an agricultural county. It is trav- 
ersed by the Wildcat river, which forms a most 
excellent natural outlet for the many little 
streams that empty into it. 

Organization. — Howard county was formally 
organized May 1, 1844, under the name of Rich- 
ardville county, which was nearly all within the 
old Miami Reserve. It was this fact which led 
the Legislature to name the new county in honor 
of Richardville, a Miami chief and successor of 
Little Turtle. This sentiment did not prevail 
for any length of time, and on December 28, 
1846, the Legislature passed its first and only 
act changing the name of a county in Indiana, 
and it was rechristened "Howard" in honor of 
Tilghman A. Howard, a noted Indiana states- 
man of that period. Kokomo, the county seat of 
Howard county, is located on the site of an In- 
dian village of the same name and was first set- 
tled in the autumn of 1844. According to the 
United States Census of 1910 it has a population 
of over 17,000, with seventy-two manufacturing 
establishments, furnishing employment to more 
than 2.700 wage-earners. It is particularly dis- 
tinguished as being the home of the first automo- 

bile made in America, work on which was com- 
menced in 1893 by Elwood Haynes. For want 
of a better name it was called "The Horseless 
Carriage," and on July 4, 1894, Mr. Haynes made 
a successful trial trip on the streets of Kokomo, 
running at a speed of about eight miles an hour. 

Population of Howard county in 1890 was 
26.186; in 1900 was 28,575. and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 33,177, of 
which 993 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 8,266 families in the county and 8,056 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
eleven townships in Howard county : Center, 
Clay, Ervin, Harrison, Honey Creek, Howard, 
Jackson, Liberty, Monroe, Taylor and Union. 
The incorporated cities and towns are Kokomo 
and Greentown. Kokomo is the county seat of 
Howard county. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Howard county 
was $9,436,985, value of improvements was 
$5,266,560 and the total net value of taxables was 
$23,079,110. There were 6,272 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 518 miles of 
improved roads in Howard county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $862,745.50. 



Educational. — According to the report of 
Albert F. Hietson, county superintendent of 
Howard county, there were sixty-seven school- 
houses, including five high schools, in Howard 
county in 1914, employing 203 teachers. The 
average daily attendance by pupils was 5,925. 
The aggregate amount paid in salaries to super- 
intendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
was $116,900.95. Estimated value of school 
property in the county was $761,050, and the total 
amount of indebtedness, including bonds, was 

Agriculture. — There were in Howard county 
in 1910 over 2,400 farms, embraced in 184,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 74.8 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $26,000,000, 
showing 117.4 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $108.22. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $2,100,- 

000: Number of cattle 15,000, valued at $470,- 
000; horses 10,000, valued at $1,200,000; hogs 
71,000, valued at $420,000; sheep 11,000, valued 
at $52,000. The total value of poultry was 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
51.79 miles of steam railroads operated in How- 
ard county by the Lake Erie & Western ; P., C, 
C. & St. L. ; Richmond division of the P., C, C. 
& St. L., and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western 
railroads. Indiana Railways & Light Company 
and the Union Traction Company of Indiana 
operate 51.08 miles of electric line in the county. 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910 there were seventy-two industries 
in Kokomo, furnishing employment to 2,366 per- 
sons ; total amount of capital employed, $3,921,- 
141 ; value of products, $5,451,441 ; value added 
by manufacture, $2,469,526. 

Kokomo — 1. Hotel Francis. 2. City Building. 3. Posloff.ce. -). City Library. 





HUNTINGTON COUNTY is located in 
the northeastern part of the State and is 
bounded on the north by Whitley, on the east by 
Allen and Wells, on the south by Grant and 
Wells and on the west by Wabash counties. It 
contains about 384 square miles. The soil is a 
glacial deposit, with the exception of the river 
valleys, which are a sedimentary deposit. The 
Wabash river flows west across the county, di- 
viding it into two almost equal portions. What 
is known as Little river joins it west of the cen- 
ter of the county. Another small river, the Sala- 

Public Library. Huntington. 

monie, cuts off a small portion of the southwest 
corner of the county and joins the Wabash river 
soon after leaving Huntington county. Because 
of the fertility of the soil farming, fruit growing 
and stock raising are chief occupations of the 

Organization. — The organization of Hunting- 
ton county became effective December 2, 18*4. 
It was named in honor of Samuel Huntington, a 
delegate in the Continental Congress from Con- 
necticut and one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The name was proposed 
by Captain Elias Murray, then a member of the 
Legislature. Huntington was selected as the seat 
of justice at the time of the organization and 
General Tipton was the proprietor and Captain 
Murray among the first settlers. 

Population of Huntington county in 1890 was 

27,644; in 1900 was 28,901, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 28,982, of 
which 735 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 7,399 families in the county and 7,290 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Huntington county : Clear 
Creek, Dallas, Huntington, Jackson, Jefferson. 
Lancaster, Polk, Rock Creek, Salamonie, Union, 
Warren and Wayne. The incorporated cities 
and towns are Huntington, Andrews, College 
Park, Markle, Mt. Etna, Roanoke and Warren. 
Huntington is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Huntington 
county was $9,700,000, value of improvements 
was $4,1 19,270 and the total net value of taxables 
was $21,741,080. There were 4,904 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 383 miles of 
improved roads in Huntington county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $456,774.42. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
56.62 miles of steam railroad operated in Hunt- 
ington county by the Chicago & Erie; Cincinnati. 
Bluffton & Chicago; Toledo, St. Louis & West- 
ern, and the Wabash railroads. The Fort Wayne 
& Northern Indiana Traction Company and the 
Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Company 
operate 59.61 miles of electric line in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Clifford Funderburg, county superintendent of 
Huntington county, there were 111 schoolhouses, 
including twelve high schools, in the county in 
1914, employing 222 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 5,273. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 
visors, principals and teachers was $126,860.13. 
Estimated value of school property in the county 
was $487,313, and the total amount of indebted- 
ness, including bonds, was $81,851.87. 



Agriculture. — There were in Huntington 
county in 1910 over 2,600 farms, embraced in 
234,000 acres. Average acres per farm, 89.5 
acres. The value of all farm property was over 
$24,000,000, showing 112.9 per cent, increase 
over 1900. The average value of land per acre 
was $72.66. The total value of domestic animals 
was over $2,200,000: Number of cattle 19,000, 
valued at $500,000; horses 10,000, valued at 
$1,100,000; hogs 61,000, valued at $370,000; 
sheep 22,000, valued at $11,000. The total value 
of poultry was $107,000. 

Industrial. — According to the United States 
Census of 1910 there were thirty-three industries 
in Huntington, furnishing employment to 1.575 
persons. Total amount of capital employed, 
$1,301,621; value of products, $2,227,558; value 
added by manufacture, $1,097,361. 

Huntington City Free Library. — The first 
organization of a library for Huntington oc- 
curred in the year 1874. It was called the Pub- 
lic School Library Association. The yearly mem- 

bership fee was $2. The Central School building 
gave space for the books constituting the library, 
which in a short time possessed over 1,200 vol- 
umes, many of which had belonged to the famous 
Mechanics' and Working Men's Library, estab- 
lished by William McClure, who founded the 
New Harmony Library. A number of these 
books, bound in sheepskin, and bearing on the 
cover the words, "Mechanics' and Working 
Men's Library," may still be seen in the present 

In 1889 the library was reorganized under 
State laws, making it a free library, thus reach- 
ing more people. In January, 1902, the school 
board formally accepted Mr. Andrew Carnegie's 
offering of $25,000 for the erection of a library 
building and donated the site. This building as 
it now stands, represents the sum of about $29,- 
000. This includes recent additions and improve- 
ments. The building was first open to the pub- 
lic February 21, 1903. The library contains about 
24.000 volumes. 



JACKSON COUNTY is located in the south 
central part of the State and is bounded on 
the north by Brown and Bartholomew, on the 
east by Jennings, on the south by Scott and 
Washington and on the west by Lawrence and 
Mc in roe counties. A range of hills passes through 
the county from northeast to southwest and there 
is another range of hills or knolls in the north- 
west part of the county, but the face of the 
country for the most part is level or gently un- 
dulating. The bottoms along the different 
streams are very large and fertile, and they oc- 
cupy about one-half of the whole county. In the 
northeast corner of the county, in the bed of 
White river, is a solitary boulder of granite 
weighing several tons. No other rock of any 
kind is found in the vicinity. In the same neigh- 
borhood is a large mound 200 yards in circum- 
ference at the base, and it was upon this spol in 
1812 that a party of Indians held a coin nil in 
decide whether they should retreat or light. A 
party of thirty men. under General Tipton, was 


then in close pursuit on their trail. They re- 
tired to what is now known as Tipton's Island, 
where General Tipton engaged them, and which 
practically ended the Indian warfare in Indiana 

Organization. — Jackson county, which was 
named in honor of General Andrew Jackson, 
hero of the battle of New Orleans, was organ- 
ized in 1816. It was the fourteenth county to be 
organized in the Territory of Indiana and was 
formed from Washington and Jefferson counties, 
the legislative act having been passed December 
18, 1815. The first county seat of Jackson was 
established at Vallonia June, 1816, and the first 
courts were held in the shade of the old fort in 
the village. It remained here but for a short 
time, as the commissioners in November, 1816, 
decided to establish the seat of justice at Browns- 
town, where it has since remained. 

Population of Jackson county in 1890 was 
24,139; in 1900 was 26,633. and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 24,727, of 



which 570 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 5,927 families in the county and 5,822 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
eleven townships in Jackson county : Browns- 
town, Carr, Driftwood, Grassy Fork, Hamilton, 
Jackson, Owen, Redding, Salt Creek, Vernon 
and Washington. The incorporated cities and 
towns are Seymour, Brownstown and Crothers- 
ville. Brownstown is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Jackson county 
was $6,684,440, value of improvements was 
$2,780,900 and the total net value of taxables 
was $15,167,640. There were 3,846 polls in the 

Improved Roads. — There were 577 miles of 
improved roads in Jackson county built and 
under jurisdiction of the county commsisioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $204,572.83. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
81.57 miles of steam railroad operated in Jackson 
county by the B. & O. Southwestern ; Chicago, 
Terre Haute & Southeastern ; Westport branch 
of the C, T. H. & S. E., and the Louisville divi- 

sion of the P., C, C. & St. L. railroads. The 
Brownstown & Ewing Street Railway Company, 
Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company, and 
the Interstate Public Service Company operate 
22.96 miles of electric line in the county. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Jeremiah E. Payne, county superintendent of 
Jackson county, there were 103 schoolhouses, in- 
cluding eleven high schools, in Jackson county 
in 1914, employing 179 teachers. The average 
daily attendance by pupils was 4.359.2. The ag- 
gregate amount paid in salaries to superintend- 
ents, supervisors, principals and teachers was 
$62,578.72. The estimated value of school prop- 
erty in the county was $265,465, and the total 
amount of indebtedness, including bonds, was 

Agriculture. — There were in Jackson county 
in 1910 over 2,700 farms, embraced in 290,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 106 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $17,000,000, 
showing 89.5 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $44.44. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $1,500,- 
000: Number of cattle 11,000, valued at $314,- 
000; horses 6,500, valued at $650,000; hogs 
23,000, valued at $160,000; sheep 5,900, valued 
at $21,000. The value of poultry was $87,000. 



JASPER COUNTY is located in the north- 
west part of the State and is bounded on the 
north by the Kankakee river, which separates it 
from Lake and Porter counties, on the east by 
Starke, Pulaski and White, on the south by Ben- 
ton and on the west by Newton counties. The 
county contains about 575 square miles and the 
principal resources of the county are agriculture 
and stock raising. 

Organization. — It was the Legislature of 
1838 that made Jasper county possible. Its for- 
mal organization taking place on March 15, 1838. 
when its territory included all of the present 
county of Newton and most of Benton. The first 
county seat was located at Parish Grove, thirty 

miles south of the present seat of justice and 
five miles southwest of Fowler, the county seat 
of Benton. This was chosen because it was near 
the center of population and for the additional 
reason that it is one of the few high and dry spots 
in the county. At the first meeting of the commis- 
sioners it was decided to change the county seat 
to the cabin of George W. Spitler, in what is now 
Iroquois township, Newton county, he having 
been elected county clerk and refusing to serve 
unless this was done. This temporary arrange- 
ment was upset by the legislative act of January 
29, 1839, which appointed commissioners to ex- 
amine the counties of Jasper and Newton and see 
whether they should be consolidated. The State 



commissioners met in June, 1839, and decided 
upon a consolidation, selecting the present site of 
Rensselaer for the county seat, which was called 
Newton in accordance with the act, and the orig- 
inal plat of the newly chosen county seat was 
filed June 12, 1839. The early history of the 
county can never be satisfactorily recorded owing 
to two destructive fires, one which occurred in 
1843 and the second in 1864, which practically 
destroyed all of the records at those periods. 

Population of Jasper county in 1890 was 
11,185; in 1900 was 14,292, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 13,044, of 
which 843 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 2,951 families in the county and 2,915 dwell- 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
thirteen townships in Jasper county : Barkley, 
Carpenter, Gillam, Hanging Grove, Jordan, Kan- 
kakee, Keener, Marion, Milroy, Newton, Union, 
Walker and Wheatfield. The incorporated cities 
and towns are Rensselaer, Remington and Wheat- 
field. Rensselaer is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Jasper county was 
$7,303,610; value of improvements was $1,589,- 
395 ; and the total net value of taxables was $12,- 
743,181. There were 2,384 polls in the county. 

Improved Roads. — There were 209 miles of 
improved roads in Jasper county built and under 

jurisdiction of the county commissioners January 
1, 1915. Amount of gravel Voad bonds outstand- 
ing, $248,410. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
94.30 miles of steam railroad operated in Jasper 
county by the LaCrosse branch of the C. & E. I. ; 
Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville ; Kankakee 
division of the Chicago, Indiana & Southern ; 
Chicago & Wabash Valley, and the Effner branch 
of the P., C, C. & St. L. railroads. 

Educational. — According to the report of 
Ernest Lamson, county superintendent of Jasper 
county, there were eighty-nine schoolhouses, in- 
cluding four high schools, in Jasper county in 
1914, employing 133 teachers. The average daily 
attendance by pupils was 2.548. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, su- 
pervisors, principals and teachers was $63,958.43. 
The estimated value of school property in the 
county was $195,100, and the total amount of in- 
debtedness, including bonds, was $34,877.48. 

Agriculture. — There were in Jasper county 
in 1910 over 1,700 farms embraced in 307,000 
acres. Average acres per farm, 179.1 acres. The 
value of all farm property was over $22,000,000, 
showing 76.6 per cent, increase over 1900. The 
average value of land per acre was $57.04. The 
total value of domestic animals was over $1,900,- 
000: Number of cattle 21.000, valued at $650,- 
000; horses 9,100, valued at $960,000; hogs 18,- 
000, valued at $184,000 ; sheep 7,000, valued at 
$35,000. The total value of poultry was $86,000. 

Kankakee Swamps and the Home of a Big Family of Muskrats. 





JAY COUNTY is located in the eastern part 
of the State and borders on the State of Ohio. 
It is bounded on the north by Wells and Adams, 
on the south by Randolph and on the west by 

Jay County Court-House, Portland. 

Delaware and Blackford counties. It contains 
about 378 square miles. It is purely an agricul- 
tural county, having a large percentage of black 
loam soil which was formerly thickly overgrown 
with oak, hickory and other species of hardwood. 

Organization. — Jay county was formally or- 
ganized March 1, 1836. It was named in honor 
of the celebrated patriot and statesman, John Jay. 
The locating commissioners met on the first Mon- 
day in June, 1836, and decided upon the site at 
Portland and at a special meeting of the county 
board on December 5, 1835, gave the new county 
seat the name of Portland, where it has remained 
ever since. 

Population of Jay county in 1890 was 23,478 ; 
in 1900 was 26,818, and according to United 
States Census of 1910 was 24,961, of which 406 
were of white foreign birth. There were 6,359 
families in the county and 6,224 dwellings. 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
twelve townships in Jay county : Bear Creek, 
Green, Jackson, Jefferson, Knox, Madison, Noble, 
Penn, Pike, Richland, Wabash and Wayne. The 
incorporated cities and towns are Dunkirk, Port- 
land, Bryan, Pennville, Red Key and Salamonia. 
Portland is the county seat. 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the to- 

tal value of lands and lots in Jay county was 
$8,342,700; value of improvements was $3,073,- 
385, and the total net value of taxables was $17,- 
109,425. There were 3,663 polls in the county. 

Improved Roads. — There were 451 miles of 
improved roads in Jay county built and under 
jurisdiction of the county commissioners January 
1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds outstand- 
ing, $359,033.94. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
67.50 miles of steam railroad operated in Jay 
county by the Cincinnati, Bluffton & Chicago ; 
Cincinnati, Richmond & Fort Wayne ; Grand 
Rapids & Indiana ; Lake Erie & Western, and 
the Logansport division of the P., C, C. & St. L. 
railroads. The Muncie & Portland Traction Com- 
pany operates 15.82 miles of electric line in the 

Educational. — According to the report of 
William R. Armstrong, county superintendent of 
Jay county, there were ninety-eight schoolhouses, 
including six high schools, in Jay county in 1914, 
employing 183 teachers. The average daily at- 
tendance by pupils was 4,484. The aggregate 
amount paid in salaries to superintendents, super- 


Public Library, Portland. 

visors, principals and teachers was $98,037.98. 
The estimated value of school property in the 
county was $487,754, and the total amount of in- 
debtedness, including bonds, was $101,250. 

Agriculture. — There were in Jay county in 
1910 over 2,800 farms embraced in 235,000 acres. 
Average acres per farm, 82.9 acres. The value of 



all farm property was over $23,000,000, showing 
115.5 per cent, increase over 1900. The average 
value of land per acre, $69.08. The total value 
of domestic animals was over $2,300,000 : Num- 
ber of cattle 15,000, valued at $470,000; horses 
11,000, valued at $1,300,000; hogs 56,000, valued 
at $360,000; sheep 26,000, valued at $130,000. 
The total value of poultry was $121,000. 

Industrial. — According to the report of the 
State Bureau of Inspection for 1912 there were 
twenty industrial establishments, employing about 
450 persons. Among its unique establishments is 
one for the production of baseball bats and its 
largest establishment is devoted to the manufac- 
ture of automobile wheels, etc. Drain tile is manu- 
factured extensively. 



JEFFERSON COUNTY, the second one from 
the eastern line of the State in the tier border- 
ing on the Ohio river, is bounded by Switzerland, 
Ripley, Jennings, Scott and Clark counties and 
the Ohio river. The county contains 370 square 
miles. Its bluffs, many of them 400 feet high, 
are intersected by frequent deep ravines, adding 
slopes to its cultivable area, raising it to the con- 
stitutional 400 square miles per territory. A no- 
table feature of the county is its varied topogra- 
phy. In the western part, the ground is rolling, 
in the center, a level plateau, and the eastern sec- 
tion, which is traversed by "Indian-Kentuck" 
creek and its tributaries, is an uninterrupted 
series of hills and vales. 

The character of the soil varies from the black 
alluvial deposits of the river bottom to the clay 
and loam on the level lands. Tile clay abounds 
in the central part of the county. Wheat and corn 
are staple products, yet all grains are successfully 
grown in this county and fruits are grown in 
abundance. Forty years ago the experiment of 
raising tobacco was tried and proved successful 
and it is now grown extensively. 

The county is rich in building stone of excel- 
lent quality and has many quarries, the largest 
one being at Deputy, on the B. & O. railroad. A 
beautiful species of marble is found in the south- 
ern part of the county. 

There are numerous water courses in the 
county, many with cataracts quite as picturesque 
as Minnehaha, comparing favorably with it in 
height and volume. The geological formation fol- 
lowing the line of the north bend of the river 
bounding Jefferson county forms a watershed 

about two and one-half or three miles west and 
north of Madison, which divides the flow of the 
streams between the Ohio and the Wabash by 
way of the White and Muscatatuck rivers. Ken- 
tucky creek rises in Ripley county, flows through 
the eastern part of Jefferson county into the Ohio. 
Big creek flows through the northwestern corner 
of the county into the Muscatatuck and the Mid- 
dlefork. Harbert's, Bear's, Lewis, Marble and 
Camp creeks are all tributaries of Big creek. 
Crooked creek parallels the Ohio river for some 
seven miles, beginning far up the Canaan valley, 
running through the full length of Madison and 
falling into the river beyond the western corpora- 
tion line of the city. 

Jefferson county is noted for its wealth of ro- 
mantic spots. Just across the river on the Ken- 
tucky hill is a prehistoric Indian fort, near which 
in ante-bellum days stood the cabin of Delia Web- 
ster, a station of the "underground railroad" 
operated through Madison. Three miles east of 
Madison on the Indiana side, is Cedar cliff, a 
sheer precipice one and one-half miles long, and 
hundreds of feet high. Little Cedar, nearer town, 
has quite as fine an outlook. Three and a half 
miles northwest of Madison are Clifty Falls and 
glen. The series of falls is 200 feet in height, one 
pitch being over a jutting ledge of rock eighty 
feet above the receiving basin into which plunges 
ail immense volume of foaming, spraying water. 
A shelving rock canopies the North Madison pike 
for a stretch of 100 feet, veiling it with mist or 
ice, according to the temperature. Chain Mill 
falls, near North Madison, guards the mouth of 
an unfinished railroad tunnel, making a unique 



combination. Crowe's, Chain Mill, Hart's, Dead- 
man's and Butler's falls cluster around Hanover 
most invitingly. 

Organization. — The act of the Legislature 
creating Jefferson county was approved Novem- 
ber 23, 1810, and went into effect February 1, 
1811. It was named for President Jefferson, 
probably because of the personal interest he had 
taken in the campaign of George Rogers Clark, 
for ex-soldiers of Clark's command formed the 
nucleus of the pioneers of Jefferson county, one 
of whom, John Paul, suggested the name, having, 
as original proprietor of Madison, which was 
made the seat of justice, named the city for the 
President in office when it was founded. 

Historical. — The keynote of State expansion 
was sounded in Jefferson county. Independently 
of this, an honorable position among the coun- 
ties of the State is due it, by reason of the 
names and events associated with its past. The 
original proprietors of Madison and their families 
were educated people from Philadelphia and Bal- 
timore. Colonel John Paul — a soldier of the 
Revolution and the War of 1812, founder of the 
cities of Xenia, Ohio, and Madison — purchased 

the site and came to Madison in 1809. In 1810, 
associated with Lewis Davis and Jonathan Lyons, 
he enlarged his original plans, and founded a 
city which grew to be the metropolis of the State. 
This it was until it was superseded by the present 
capital. The name of Indianapolis was coined by 
Judge Jeremiah Sullivan, a member of the Jef- 
ferson county bar. Jacob Burnett and Lewis 
Whiteman bought the share of Lewis Davis in 
1813 and in 1817 and became later joint-proprie- 
tors of the town. 

Very many of the 140,000 pioneers from cul- 
tured centers, who poured into Indiana between 
1810 and 1819, came through Madison's portals 
and here many builders of the commonwealth re- 
mained. The Rev. Thomas C. Searles was promi- 
nent in all early educational movements, as were 
General Milton Stapp, Dr. William Goode, Beau- 
mont Park and Charles Barnes. 

Early resident lawyers were Hon. Alexander 
A. Meek, Judge Miles, Cary Eggleston, Governor 
William Hendricks and his kinsman, William 
Hendricks, Jr. ; Judges Jeremiah Sullivan, Wil- 
liamson Dunn, Stephen C. Stevens, and Charles 
Test, also Joseph Glass Marshall, Milton Stapp 


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View of Canaan Road, Jefferson County. 



and Nathaniel Hunt. Jesse L. Holman, Elijah 
Sparks, Jesse Olds, Isaac Blackford and John 
Lawrence were present at nearly every term of 
court. Hugh McCulloch and J. F. D. Lanier, 
financiers ; Edward and George Cary Eggleston 
and David Graham Phillips were all Madisonians 
of national reputation. Harvey W. Wiley, John 
Merle Coulter and Stanley Coulter are scientists 
of note from this county. Dr. Fisk was the first 
physician. Dr. Hicks, Dr. Robert Cravens, Dr. 
Samuel Mackarnes Goode, the two Drs. Howes, 
Dr. Howard Watts, Dr. Norwood, Dr. Hodges, 
Dr. J. H. D. Rogers and Drs. McClure, Lewis 
and Alexander Mullen followed in the early 
decades. Dr. Israel T. Canby, father of General 
R. Canby, came to Madison in 1816 and was a 
large owner of real estate. 

The intellectual die of Hanover may have been 
cast when Christopher Harrison, a graduate of 
St. John's College, Maryland, the rejected lover 
of "Glorious Betsy" Patterson, sought the far- 
away West, and found a lone spot where he 
might bury his sorrow, in the point west of 
Hanover college point. Between the year of 
his coming to Hanover, 1808, and 1803, he is 

supposed to have been an inmate or a fre- 
quent guest of the island home of the Blan- 
nerhassets, which he left to escape the toils of 
Aaron Burr. His cabin on the Hanover bluff 
is said to have reflected the art and culture 
of Blannerhasset Island, its walls being cov- 
ered with rare paintings by the masters, and 
some of his own execution. One of his own, 
"The Tryst," was kept veiled, and when at last 
revealed, showed a maid of wondrous beauty ; 
beside her a knight, who is carving their blended 
initials on a majestic beech tree. Upon a noble 
beech which had sheltered his cabin door, felled 
a few years ago by a storm, was found cut deep 
into the bark a century before, "Christopher 
Harrison, July 8, 1808," and in "The Tryst" a 
romantic dream is read. The maid becomes Eliz- 
abeth Patterson, the lover Christopher Harrison. 
Jefferson county has later artists, but the ro- 
mance is not paralleled. William McKendree 
Snyder immortalizes the beech groves of the 
county, and contributes other memorials of its 
picturesque beauties to Indiana art. As a sculp- 
tor, George Grey Barnard is in the first rank of 
those who have won fame. His frequent visits 

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Hanging Rock, Madison, Jefferson County. 



to the home of his parents in Madison establish 
a claim to citizenship. 

The first newspaper established in the county, 
the second in the State, was the Western Eagle, 
owned by Colonel John Paul, edited by his son- 
in-law, William Hendricks, afterward first mem- 
ber of Congress from Indiana, United States 
Senator, and second Governor of Indiana. With 
him was associated William Cameron. The first 
issue was on May 26, 1813. Editors of papers 
following were John Lodge, Colonel C. P. J. 
Arion, Judge Courtland Cushing, D. D. Jones, 
W. W. Crail, John R. Cravens, W. W. Woolen, 
Milton Stapp, Rolla Doolittle. S. F. Covington 
and Colonel M. C. Garber were editors of the 
Madison Courier, established in 1837, and the 
leading paper in the county ever since. It is now 
under the management of Michael Christian Gar- 
ber and Michael Eggleston Garber. 

Hanover College grew out of Hanover Acad- 
emy, which was established in the village of Han- 
over near Madison, January 1, 1827, by the Rev. 
John Finley Crowe, D. D. The institution was 
adopted by the Presbyterian church in 1829, and 
college work begun the same year. The first class 
was graduated in 1834. During the early years 
a theological department and a law school were 
maintained in addition to the liberal arts and pre- 
paratory departments. The theological depart- 
ment was subsequently moved to Chicago, where 
it became McCormick Seminary. The law school 
was abandoned. The total number of matricu- 
lants to the present time is something under 
5,000. Of this number 1,104 have been granted 
the baccalaureate degree and sixty-five the mas- 
ter's degree. Many of the history makers of In- 
diana are Hanover men. Prominent among them 
are Thomas A. Hendricks, William H. English, 
Albert G. Porter, Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, John H. 
Holliday, Walter L. Fisher, Robert J. Tracewell 
and R. J. L. Matthews. The college is thoroughly 
equipped and throughout its history has stood 
for the highest educational standards. The doors 
were opened to women in 1880. The president is 
William Alfred Millis, LL. D. Among its latest 
buildings, Science Hall and the Hendricks Me- 
morial Library are especially worthy of men- 
tion. The latter, a memorial of Vice-President 
Thomas A. Hendricks, erected by his widow. 

The co-education of white and colored stu- 

dents was tried but once in this county. A col- 
lege, called Eleutherian College, was founded in 
1850 by Elder Thomas Craven and his son, John 
( i. Craven, at Lancaster. A church, in which the 
college was housed, and boarding houses were 
built, was burned by the neighbors to whom the 
ideas were obnoxious, and rebuilt many times. 
Stone buildings were at last erected and stood, 
but the project was abandoned in the early six- 
ties. From 1857 to 1860 it was in its prime, hav- 
ing from seventy-five to eighty students, equally 
divided as to color. 

The Southeastern Hospital for the Insane, 
"Cragmont." — The crowded condition of the 
Central Hospital for the Insane led the General 
Assembly of 1905 to set aside fifteen of the 
thirty-eight counties constituting the central dis- 
trict as the southeastern district and to establish 
therein an additional hospital. On September 4, 
1905, the commission created by the act selected 
a site containing 363.79 acres near the city of 
Madison overlooking the valley of the Ohio river. 

Industries. — The industries of the county 
center in Madison, which from a commercial city 
has changed to a manufacturing one. Milling 
was the earliest and has been perhaps the most 
important industry. The first flour mill in this 
part of the State was built and operated by 
Colonel John Paul on Crooked creek, north of 
John Paul park. It was running in 1814. Madi- 
son now builds steamboats and vehicles, manu- 
factures furniture, saddle trees, cotton and 
woolen goods, pearl buttons, engines and boilers, 
nails, tacks, hubs and spokes, glue, fertilizer, 
chewing gum, ice, candy and ice cream on a large 
scale for shipping. It has also several flour mills 
and bakeries, a cracker factory, a brewery and a 
packing house which stores and ships exten- 

Madison is one of the largest markets for bur- 
ley tobacco in the country and here is located the 
largest business establishment in the United 
States for handling roots and herbs for medical 
purposes. These are shipped to all parts of the 

Taxable Property and Polls. — According to 
the annual report of the Auditor of State from 
the abstract of the tax duplicate for 1913, the 
total value of lands and lots in Jefferson county 
wis $3,401,815; value of improvements was 



$2,445,470, and the total net value of taxables 
was $9,415,815. There were 3,148 polls in the 

Population of Jefferson county in 1890 was 
24,507 ; in 1900 was 22,913, and according to 
United States Census of 1910 was 20,483, of 
which 471 were of white foreign birth. There 
were 5,254 families in the county and 5,096 

Townships, Cities and Towns. — There are 
ten townships in Jefferson county : Graham, 
Hanover, Lancaster, Madison, Milton, Monroe, 
Republican, Saluda, Shelby and Smyrna. The in- 
corporated cities and towns are Madison, Brooks- 
burg and Hanover. Madison is the county seat. 

Improved Roads. — There were 190 miles of 
improved roads in Jefferson county built and un- 
der jurisdiction of the county commissioners 
January 1, 1915. Amount of gravel road bonds 
outstanding, $197,443.30. 

Railroads — Steam and Electric. — There are 
21.56 miles of steam railroad operated in Jeffer- 
son county by the Louisville division of the B. & 
O. Southwestern ; Big Four, and the Madison 
branch of the P., C, C. & St. L. railroads. The 
Madison Light & Railway Company operates 

three miles of electric line in the county. The 
branch of the Pennsylvania railroad which con- 
nects Indianapolis with the Ohio river traffic, en- 
ters Jefferson county a few miles northwest of 
Dupont, and has its terminus at Madison. This 
was originally the Madison & Indianapolis rail- 
road ; later, the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indi- 
anapolis, "The J. M. & I.," as familiarly known. 
This was the first railroad west of the Alleghany 
mountains, the first to be completed of the six 
lines chartered by the Legislature of 1831, hav- 
ing been begun September 16, 1836; completed 
to Vernon by 1839; to Griffith's Station, twenty- 
eight miles from Madison, in 1841 ; and to Indi- 
anapolis, October, 1847. The descent of 473 feet 
from North Madison to Madison is by an in- 
clined plane one and one-half miles in length, 
which in two places cuts 100 feet deep through 
spurs of the hill formed of solid rock. The dis- 
tance through the south cut is 800 feet; through 
the north, or Big cut, 1,100 feet, and both pass 
through solid rock walls, rising perpendicularly 
on each side of the track to the height of 100 
feet. This grade was the steepest known to rail- 
road engineering until the construction of the