(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The centennial year book of Alameda County, California : containing a summary of the discovery and settlement of California, a description of the Contra Costa under Spanish, Mexican, and American rule, an account of the organization and settlement of Alameda County ... also, a gazetteer of each township, useful local and general statistical information, appropriate for the present time, to which are added biographical sketches of prominent pioneers and public men"

Gc U 

979.401 

A-tlha 

1591508 



GENHAL-OGY OOL-i-i^-CTiOM 



lir'llimM*illl'Nmii' PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01717 2047 








y: 







J. E. W^HITE, PROP., 

?//f// '''^He'et, tdivccn bDroadivun and iltoai/iiifQ^on, 
>. OAKLAND. CAL. .^ 



Huviiii,' fitted 11]) tliis otHce with entirely new niateiiiil, we are in-epared 
(In 111! cImsscs of printing ill the xkatkst :ind hkst manner possible. 

k Specialty is mad© ©f I|n© Ctkr©i W@ik, 



10l,00.0 Copies issued monthly fur free distribntion, 
ill Oakland. East and AV.st Oakland, .Vlameda. and on T,oeal Traim-. 

THE BEST ADVERTISING MEDIUM IN THE COUNTY. 



music PRINTING. P 

Connected with our Joli Department is the only Music Printing OflSce ou 
the Pacific Coast. 



^ 



--\11 (l-hileis tuum[itljj itxcctiteil. 




THE DIAMOND 

twelfth' STREET, bet. Broadway & Washington. 



Less than one year ago, this office zvas fitted 
lip for the purpose of doing fine CARD, CIRCULAR and 
BILLHEAD work. So well have our efforts been ap= 
predated, that it has been necessary from time to 
time to add tO!:, our facilities, until from one press 
and a limitedz assortment of type, o^ir outfit coni= 
prises three jok presses and a corresponding increase 
of type and otk&r printing material and machinery . 

Our force' now comprises eight welUworked 
Jiands, as conh-asted with the two lonely individ= 
::als iv ho, were more than able to handle all the 
work with which tliey were favored at the opening 
of the office. 

The DIAMOND OFFICE has not been fitted up with 
the nearly worn out material of some sinking in= 
stitution, bid was all purchased new from the foun== 
dry, and is of the latest and most approved styles. 

To this original outfit ive are continually ad^ 
ding the newest and- fi.nest styles of types, so that 
we are no-iv fully prepared to do all classes of 
printing, from . a' visiting card to a newspaper. 



->-?oOo-^- 



To the ladies we would say, iJ:at this depart= 
:ient of our office isunusually complete. We have 
dken pains to procure the latest and most approved 
•tyles of type for this class of tvork. It is no longer 
lecessary to incur the exper^se of engraving, as our 
\i:rd printing is fully equal in appearance to iJie 
'^est engraved work. 

'IHease call and exanrine our samples. 






„J;!! 




Mil' -i''-'* 



GOOD REASONS FOR INSURING YOUR HOMES WITH THE 

Dwelling House Underwriters of New York, 

COMPOSED OF THE 

Agricultural and "Watertown Insurance Go's of New York. 

Assets, |2oo,ooo,ooo. Surplus, $1,500,000. 



ist. It is the largest exclusive Dwelling Combination in the world. 

2d. They are not permitted by their Charter to insure anything but RESIDENCE property. 

3d. They do not write in Mercantile or Manufacturing districts, therefore cannot suffer by 

conflagrations. 
4th. Their large assets devoted to risks on Residence prDperty exclusively, afford GREATER 

SECURITY to the assured than any company writing on Mercantile risks can offer. 
5th. Under their policies, EITHER Company is liable for the FULL amount of the policy. 
6th. Joint Policies are issued on the Pacific Coast only. 
7th. They do not both do business in the game States east ; hence, if it were possible for either 

to meet with a calamity the other would avoid it. 



Make " INSURANCE DOUBLY SURE " by taking a policy in this 
combination. 



POTTER, JACOBS & EASTON, Managers, 

318 CaliforiiitvSt., San Francisco, and 917 Wilcox Block, Broadway, Oakland. 



WESTCHESTER " Insurance Co., of New York, Organized 1837. 

GLENS FALLS " Insurance Co., of New York, Organized 1849. 

ST. NICHOLAS" Insurance Co., of New York, Organized 1852. 

EXCHANGE" Insurance Co., of New York, Organized 1853. 

ARCTIC" Insurance Co., of New York, Organized 1853. 

FRANKLIN" Insurance Co., of St. Louis, Organized 1855. 

CITIZENS" Insurance Co., of Newark, Organized 1860. 

JEFFERSON" Insurance Co., of St. Louis, Organized 1865. 

TRADERS" Insurance Co., of Chicago, Organized 1865.. 

NORTHERN" Insurance Co., of New York, Organized 1872.. 



Combined Capital and Assets, - ^8,000,000. 
POTTER, JACOBS & BA.STON, 

GENERAL AGENTS, 

318 California St., S. F., and 917 Wilcox Block, Broadway, Oaklaad. 
WILLIAM HALLEY, Agent for Alameda County. 



GRANT I. TAGGART. 



E. W. WOODWARD. 



WOODWARD & TAGGAPiT'S 



^|;||;'i:_W OOP WARD "111 AND j[|" TAGGyTRT "Tj 



ja X^^-^ j 




OFFICE, KO. 400 AM) 402 EIGHTH STREET, 

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA, 



Desirable property For Sale in all parts of the City and suburbs. 



CENTENNIAL YEAR BOOK OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES, 1876. 




HAYES AND WHEELER. 




TILDEN AND HENDRICKS. 



TiaCE 



CENTEN N IAL YEAR BOOK 

— OI^ 

_ALAMEDA COUNTY, CALIFO RNIA, 

coKTAJtnysa 

A SUMMAEY OF THE DISCOVERY AND SETTLEI^IENT 
OF CALIFORNIA; 

A Description of the Contea Costa under Spanish, 
Mexican and American Rule; 

An Account of the Organization and Settlement of Alameda 
County, with a Yearly Synopsis op Important Events, 

DOWN TO THE CENTENNIAL YeAR OF AMERICAN INDE- 
pendence, together with the important 
Events of the Year 1876. 



A GAZETTEER OF EACH TOWNSHIP, 

USEFUL LOCAL AND GENERAL STATISTICAL INFORMATION, 
APPROPRIATE FOR THE PRESENT TIME. 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF 

PROMINENT PIONEERS AND PUBLIC MEN 



BY WILLIAM HALLE Y. 



ILLUSTRATED "WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS. 



" Let na build us a city, and a tower, /^ a 



Whose top may reach unto heaven ; 
And let us make us a r.ame." 



^I^.^c/ 



OAKLAND, CAL. A Ji I A\0^ 



PUBUSHKD BY WILLIAM HaLLEY. 

1876. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year One Thousand Eight 

Hundred and Seventy-six, by 

William Hallev, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 



159i5D8 
CONTENTS. 



Pages. 
Preface xiii-xv 

UNDER SPANISH RULE. 

Chapter I — Discovery, Exploration and Settlement 1-4 

Chapter II — Conjectures concerning the First Visitors to our Ter- 
ritory — Drake, Portala, De Alberni — The (Condition of the Coun- 
try and the Indians 4-11 

Chapter III — The System Established by the Spaniards for the Re- 
duction and Government of the Country — How we came to have 

a Mission 11-12 

Chapter IV — The Mission of San Josg, our Historic Relic 13-16 

Chapter V — The Character and Condition of the California Indians 16-20 
Chapter VI — Life at the Missions and how the Mission of San 

Jose Progressed 20-25 

Chapter VII— Soldiers and Citizens 25-29 

UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 

Chapter VIII — Spanish Supremacy Overthrown — The Mission Sys- 
tem at its Height, and then its Destruction — The First Overland 
American Adventurer Communicating with Father Duran at the 

Mission of San Jos^ 31-35 

Chapter IX — The Establishment of the Ranches and Life upon them 37-46 
Chapter X — Domestic Government and the Final Fate of the Mis- 
sions 49-53 

UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 

Chapter X — The American Conquest of California — Discovery of 
Gold — Constitutional Convention — Organization of the Legisla- 
ture — Contra Costa County Created — The Missions, &c., &c 55-61 

Chapter XI — From the Organization of the Counties in 1850, to 

the Formation of Alameda County in 1853 63-69 

Chapter XII— Creation of Alameda County by the Legislature of 

1853 71-79 

Chapter XIII — The New County prior to its Organization — The 
first Election of County Officers and the Men Chosen— Legislative 
and Judicial Officers 81-86 

Chapter XIV — Beginning and End of the Court of Sessions as a 

Municipal Law-Maker 89-99 

Chapter XV — From the Organization of the County to the Estab- 
lishment of a Board of Supervisors 101-111 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Chaptkr XVI — From the Establishment of the Board of Supervisors 

to the Organization of the Alameda County Agricultural Society.. 11 3-1 30 
Chaptkr XVII— From the Formation of the Agricultural Associa- 
tion, in 1858, to the Census of 1860 133-151 

Chapter XVIII— From the Census of 1860 to the Establishment of 

the Oakland Ferry Kailroad, in 1863 153-182 

Chapter XIX— From the Close of the Court of Sessions, in 1863, 
to the Keorganization of the County Agricultural Association, 

in October, 1866 185-218 

Chapter XX — From the Keorganization of the County Agricultural 
Society, in October, 1866, to the Great Earthquake of October, 

1868 221-254 

Chapter XXI — From the Great Earthquake of October, 1868, to the 

Completion of the Central Pacific Railroad, in November, 1869...257-281 
Chapter XXII — From the Completion of the Central Pacific Rail- 
road to the Census of 1870 283-307 

Chapter XXIII— The Events of 1871 309-324 

Chapter XXIV— The Events of 1872 327-344 

ChapterXXV— The Events of 1873 347-377 

Chapter XXVI— The Events of 1874 .379-403 

Chapter XXVII— The Events of 1875 405-421 

Chapter XXVIII— The Events of the Centennial Year 423-438 

GAZETTEER. 

Chapter XXIX— Oakland City and Township 441-458 

Chapter XXX — Brooklyn Town and Township 461-467 

Chapter XXXI — Alameda Town and Township 469-474 

Chapter XXXII — Eden Township 475-479 

Chapter XXXIII— Washington Township 481-490 

Chapter XXXIV— Murray Township 491-505 

STATISTICAL. 

Chapter XXXV — President, Representatives, etc. — State Officers — 
Supreme Court — Governors of California — Representatives in the 
Legislature of California from 1849 to 1857— Mayors of Oakland 
— County, Township and other Officers — Officers of the City of 
Oakland, Towns of Alameda, San Leandro, Haywards and 
Livermore — Post-offices and Postmasters — Table of Distances — 
Oakland School Census — Assessment Roll of 1870-7 — Votes and 
Estimates of Population— Vote of Electoral College, 1876 — The 
Votes fjr the Presidents — Table of Votes at the Presidential 
Election — Table of Population and Wealth of Alameda, Contra 
Costa, Santa Clara, San Joaquin and Sacramento — Estimates of 
Population — Agricultural Statistics — The Courts — Hold-over 
Senator — County Supervisors — Financial Condition of Alameda 
County 507-527 



BIOGKAPHICAL. 

Chaptkr XXXVI — Rev. Henry Durant, LL. D. — President John 
Le Conte — Hon, Samuel Bell McKee — J. Eoss Browne — Dr. 
E. H. Pardee— Hon. F. K. Shattuck— Col. John C. Hays— Dr. 
Ezra S. Carr— Hon. Thos. Eagar— E. D. Block— James Buskirk 
Larue — William Hayward — Duncan Cameron — Wm. Meek — 
Capt. Badger — .J. W. Kottinger — Augustine Alviso — Henry C. 
Smith — Jose de Jesus Vullejo— A. M. Church — Robert Liver- 
more — Hon. Edward Gibbons — Hon. Jas.Beazell — II. W.Dixon 
— D. W. Galwicks— T. F. Bagge—E. T. Crane— Isham Case— J. 
A. Neal — Howard Overacker — 0. H. Burnham — J. B. Marlin — 
Valentine Alviso — W. C. Mason — PeterPumyea— J. A. Chase — • 
The Peralta Family — Daniel Inman — Augustine Bernal — 
" Bruno" 529-571 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Building Progress — The Central Land Company — California 
Bridge and Building Company — Christian Schrieber's Mammoth 
Furniture Warehouse — Convent of the Sacred Heart — Oakland 
Real Estate Union— Oakland City Flour Mill 573-578 

Patrons' Directory 579-585 



LIST OF ADVERTISERS. 



Alfimeda Encinal — F. K. Kraulh End 

Alameda County Independent — W. W. Theobalds, Publisher End 

Alexander, I. — Boots and Shoes 112 

Babcock & Gould— Oakland City Flouring Mills 308 

Bacon, J. H.— The Palace of Sweets 62 

Baker, Peter — Family Groceries 527 

Barnes, H. W. — Man. Doors, "Windows, Blinds (removed to East Oakland) 80 

Beaudry ife McEvoy — Undertakers, and Horses for Livery 132 

Becht, Geo. J. — Gas Fixtures, etc 47 

Benedict & Ayer — Real Estate Agency 183 

Bigelow, T. B.; Bigelow, E.; Rowell, W. K.— Real Estate 346 

Boardman, W. F. — Civil Engineer, Surveyor, General Land Agent, etc. 87 

Brink, M.— The Oakland Hatter 282 

Brooklyn Vidette— Geo. W. Barter, Editor 459 

Butler & Bowman — General Printers 48 

Butler, W. C. — Designer and Engraver on Wood 527 

California Bridge and Building Company — A. W. Burrcll, President... 440 

Carter, John— Merchant Tailor 326 

Christie & Webster — Attorneys-at-Law 255 

Chappellet, F.— Artificial Building Stone 220 

Cordes, H. -Wood and Willow Ware 131 

Cunningham, Mrs. — Millinery 62 

Dalziel& MoUer — Gas Fixtures and Plumbers' Materials 184 

Dalziel, James — Pioneer Stove Store 219 

Dinsmore, Wm. G. — Drugs, Cigars, «&c 30 

Doe, Luke — Real Estate and House Broker 183 

Democrat, Daily Evening — Democrat Publishing Company 506 

Enright, Jo-eph — Patent Portable Wood arid Straw Burning Engines 460 

Farwell & Hirshberg — Gents' Furnishing Goods, etc 440 

Field, Miss H. N. — Home School for Young Ladies 30 

Francis, S. — Merchant Tailor 219 

Glascock, John R. — District Attorney 255 

Goodall, Perkins & Co. — Pacific Coast Steam-ship Co 522 

Gordon's Ice Cream and Napa Soda Depot End 

How & Doolittle— Whitening, Paints, Oils and Glass 131 

Halley, AVilliam — Insurance Agent Front 

Hauschildt, Henry — Boots and Shoes 131 

Hirshberg & Greenbaura — Clothing and Furnishing Goods 440 

Hirshberg & Farwell — Gents' Furnishing Goods 440 

Home Mutual Life Insurance Company — R. H. Magill, Manager 378 

Hoskins, William — Notary Public, Commissioner of Deeds, etc 255 

Ingersoll, Wm. B. — Photographer 468 

Jordan, W. H.— Manager Oakland Real Estate Union 346 

Kelly, E. J.— Splendid Building Lots 346 

King, W. G. — Civil Engineer and Surveyor 87 



LIST OF ADVERTISERS. 



Kirk, O. C— Tinner, Plumber and Gasfitter 70 

Koenig & Brinckman — Oakland Keal Estate 345 

Lalor & Kellogg— Tubb's Hotel, East Oakland End 

Lussier & Hill— Artists End 

LuUey, M. & Sons — Auction and Commission Merchants 62 

Lawrie, E. G. — Searcher of Records 87 

McGrew, P. H. — Blacksmith, Horseshoer, Carriage Maker, etc 88 

McKeand, G. W. — Searcher of Records. 87 

Moore & Vrooman — Attorneys-at-Law 255 

Murphy, W. S. — Doors, etc, (removed opposite City Market) 100 

Newsom Bros. — Architects, etc 8 7 

Newsom, J. J. — "Period " Window Screens End 

Oakland Daily Transcript and Alameda County Gazette — Powers & 

Chamberlain 422 

Oakland Daily News — Oakland Daily News Company 506 

Oakland (German) Journal — A. M. Schutt, Manager End 

Olney & Co. — Real Estate Agents and Auctioneers 480 

Plomteaux, H. J. — Dentist 459 

Plunket, Jas. C. — Attorney-at-Law 255 

Posey, T. R.— Fire and Water-Proof Paint End 

Potter, Jacobs & Easton — General Insurance Agents Front 

Redstone, John H. — Counsellor-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents 282 

Remillard Brothers — Brickmakers and Contractors 88 

Samm's Flourmg Mills 308 

Schneider, J, A. — Oakland Basket Factory 131 

Shakespeare & Walter — Wood & Coal 54 

Slate, W.E.— Oakland Fur and Cloak Store 480 

Smith, G. Estabrook— Real Estate Exchange 62 

Starkweather & Son — Carpets and Oilcloths 47 

Stokes, Wm.— Architect 87 

Strong, J. D. — Landscape Photographer End 

Stuart, D. — Boots and Shoes (removed to 1071 Broadway) 404 

Senram, F.— Oakland Boot and Shoe Store 468 

St. Joseph's Academy — Bro. Josea, Director End 

Tay, John I,— Butterick's Patterns 326 

The Daily Evening Tribune — Wm. E. Dargie, Manager 439 

The Oakland Bank of Savings 325 

The Pacific Press — Ornamental Book and Job Printing 256 

Van De Mark, Wm. N.— Teacher of Elocution 36 

Voorhies & Brearty — Attorneys-at-Law 255 

Warner & Browne — Real Estate Dealers 459 

West Oakland Press— DeWitt C. Lawrence, Editor and Proprietor End 

Wharton, Mrs. — Ladies' Hair Doctress 468 

Whittier, Fuller & Co.— Doors, Windows, Glass, etc 100 

Wiggins & Eells — Attorneys-at-Law 255 

Wilson, ^Vm. — Watch-maker and Jeweler 152 

Woodward & Taggart's Real Estate Agency Front 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Alameda County Court-House Front 

A Spanish Vessel off the Coast of California 1 

A Mission Church and Buildings 24 

A California Elk 29 

An Oakland Oak 46 

A Grizzly Bear 61 

An Alameda of Olives 71 

An Australian Blue Gum Tree 182 

Agricola 150 

An Alameda Blackberry 479 

Baldwin's Hotel and Academy of Music, S. F Front 

Badger, Captain T. W 556 

Bruno, A Mission Indian 571 

Cameron, Duncan 553 

Convent of the Sacred Heart 577 

Durant, Rev. Henry, LL.D 529 

Eagar, Hon. Thos 544 

Ferry-boat and Railroad Train 458 

Grand Central Hotel, Oakland Front 

Hammam Bath-House, S. F End 

Larue, Hon. J. B , 548 

Livermore, Robert 563 

Mills' Seminary 461 

Oakland Bank of Savings •• 325 

Oakland High School 456 

Office Central Land Company 574 

Palace Hotel, S. F Front 

Pacific Press Printing Office 256 

Presidents Washington and Grant 586 

Presidential Candidates, 1876 iii 

State Seal of California 86 

Sheaf of Wheat 526 

Shattuck, Hon. F. K 540 

Smith, Hon. Henry C 560 

Taylor's Carpet Warehouse 572 

Tubb's Hotel, East Oakland End 

Union Savings Bank 403 

View of the Contra Costa, in 1849 441 

View of Oakland, in 1852 441 

View of Long Wharf 281 

View of the Alameda Encinal 469 

Woodward & Taggart's Real Estate Office Front 



PREFACE. 



For the following chapters no particular literary merit is claimed. They 
are simply the result of steady research and persevering labor. Some years 
since, while conducting and publishing a local newspaper, the author con- 
ceived the design of compiling and publishing such a volume as this. His 
duties had brought him in contact with the people of the county, and he be- 
came interested in their history and progress. He has learned to love the 
country and admire the people. The desire to compile their annals and note 
their deeds became strong within him. Circumstances compelled him for a 
time to relinquish his project, but the presence of the Centennial year of Am- 
erican independence, when all American communities were expected to 
" take stock" of the past and review the present, offered a most fitting oppor- 
tunity to put his temporarily abandoned plan into execution. 

The work is not now all that he designed, and is wanting in several features 
that he wished to present. He has found that there is a limit to space, and 
that even a book will not contain all that one wishes to print. Indeed, it is 
found necessary to reject or lay aside nearly sufficient materials to make an- 
other volume. This fact will account for the absence, in the latter portion of 
the book, of several matters that are referred to in the beginning. 

In preparing this volume' the author had the advantage of personal ac- 
quaintance with all the localities mentioned, and many of the people whose 
names and acts appear in a subdued form or a conspicuous shape within it. 
In many instances he had heard the narration of their personal experiences in 
their sunlit fields or by their bright firesides. For omissions he has been com- 
pelled to make, he is sorry. There are some things in our short history that 
are pleasant to dwell upon. There are others that are painful. Candor 
and fairness are the lights by which he has been guided. There may be 
an instance or two where parties will consider themselves aggrieved. The 
knowledge obtained in the course of his inquiries, however, satisfies the author 
that, in some cases, his pen might, with justice, have pierced more deeply 
and condemned more freely. Wrongs, wilfully and persistently perpetrated, 
should ever be condemned. "When justice fails and iniquity triumphs, the 
sufferer should, at least, have the poor privilege of protestation left. Where 
public opinion is not strong enough, nor sensitive enough, nor just enough, 
to keep evil in check, or punish the wicked, it must be created and fostered. 

To the old settler, to the pioneer citizen, who has made the pleasant 
Alameda valleys or bright hill-sides his home, the recounting of the events 
of the past, in which he has figured, and which have been gradually fading 
away, it is hoped the revival in these pages, of old memories, will be pleasing. 
A new generation will seize upon and perpetuate them. The spirit of the 
parent will be revived in the child. The ground that he contended for, 



HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



rescued from the wilderness and subdued, will be made holy. The child will 
cherish it as he does his life ; the feeling of reverence will be excited, and the 
fire of patriotism made to burn. 

The day has not yet exactly come when we can boast of our sages and 
our soldiers, of our bards and our orators, sprung from the soil and racy of 
its valleys and glens, and bold mountain holds ; but there is, notwithstand- 
ing, when we look around us and reflect, much that is promising and to be 
proud of in the second generation of Alamedans. The deep canons, the 
sylvan glens, the sun-flooded valleys, the high mountain tops, the opaline 
fields and the burnished waters of our great bay, have already photographed 
their forms on the minds of our children, and inspired them with their 
geniuses ; and as bright and beautiful and bold a race of men and women 
as the world has ever yet seen, is preparing to assert itself and show how 
much of Heaven and earth there is in it. In the colleges of the East, in the 
studios of Germany, Italy and France ; as cadets at West Point and Anna- 
polis, they are making their mark. Others are already competing in the 
professions and the marts of commerce with the old and experienced, and 
achieving successes and triumphs. 

Few localities have ever been honored with as superior a race of sires. 
In the walks of literature, science and education, we can with commendable 
pride refer to our Browne, Strong, Gibbons, Leconte and Durant ; in law, 
legislation and oratory, to our McKee, Tompkins, Haight and Felton ; in 
surgical and dental science, to our Pardee and Knowles. The list of prom- 
inent figures in the various walks of life might thus be largely extended. 
The sweetest poetess on the Pacific shores mak* her home among us ; and it 
seems as if Alameda is destined to become the Attica of the Pacific, and 
Oakland the Athens of California. But, unlike the old classic State of 
Greece, 

*' Her fruitful soil it teems with wealth. 
With gems her waters, her air with health." 

The new-comer, it is hoped, will find in this humble volume much to in- 
struct and inform him I'egarding our early aspects, our abnormal conditions, 
our Spanish and American pioneer life. How settlement progressed, how 
the Spanish and Mexican immigrants had to contend with untutored savages 
and wild animals ; with droughts, floods and earthquakes, and leagues of 
arid acres. How that quaint communism of the Missions arose and flourished 
and forever subsided; how a pastoral people appeared, prospered for a period, 
and disappeared ; how the American pioneers, who everywhere expected to 
obtain land for the taking it up, everywhere found themselves trespassers and 
encroachcrs upon the rights of a preceding people ; how American law had 
no adequate remedy for the evil of American land-grabbing ; how titles were 
clouded, and men had to pay more than once for their possessions ; how the 
virgin mold yielded the abundant golden harvest ; how lawlessness had to be 
combatted ; how schools were established, churches erected, colleges and 
universities founded, commerce created, arts encouraged, railroads and 
steamboats built; and all the plain and complex machinery of a high civil- 
ization set in active motion. 



f 



This is the first local literary production, beyond the newspaper, directory 
and pamphlet, that has ever been ottered to the people of Alameda County 
for their appreciation and patronage ; and whether another will follow from 
the same source, will depend upon the encouragement extended to this. 

The advertising feature of the book is not altogether novel. It has been 
copied from another similar publication. Let not the fastidious be offended 
by it. Without it, the Centennial Year Booli of Alameda County would 
never a]ipear. 

The author has to return his thanks to the many who encouraged him at 
the outset with their patronage : to the printers, Messrs. Francis & Valen- 
tine, whose liberal arrangements enabled him to proceed ; and to the kind 
friend in the back -ground who came to his assistance when assistance was 
needed. 

Oakland, Dec. 6, 1876. THE AUTHOR. 




TO THE 

PIONEEES OF THE CONTRA COSTA 

THIS WORK 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

BY THE AUTHOR. 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 



CHAPTER I. 

DISCOVERY, EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT. 



sssm 



On the 12th of October, 1492, Columbus discovered America. He 
gave a new world, not alone to Castile and Aragon, but to mankind. 
On the 2r)th of September, 1513, Yasco Nunez de Balboa, from the 
heights of Panama discovered the greatest of oceans and obtained for 
the civilized world its fii\st knowledge of the broad Pacific, the sea 
that washes our shore. 

In 1519 Hernando Cortez conquered Mexico; and in 15.37 his 
pilot, Zimenez, discovered Lower California. The first " overland " 
travelers we have heard of were Caliesa de Vaca, Castillo Durantez, 
Spaniards, and a negro named Estavanico. They belonged to Nar- 
vaez' party of three hundred, which landed in Florida, in 1527, in 
pursuit of conquest and discovery. Ten years after they fell in witli 
Zimenez' party, in Lower California, and went with them to jMexico. 
They were all that was left of that adventurous three hundred. 

In 1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo made a voyage of discovery along 
our coast, and on the 5th of July of that year landed at Cape St. 
Lucas, in Lower California. On the 28th of September following he 
entered the beautiful harbor of San Diego, in Upper California, and 
was the first white man to land there. He named the place San Mi- 
guel, but it was subsequently changed to San Diego by Viscaino. 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



In 1579 Sir Francis Drake, the English navigator, sailed along our 
coast, and it is an unsettled point whether or no he was the first to 
discover the harbor of San Francisco. The first "tramp" is said to 
have been his Spanish pilot, Movera, who is accredited with having 
left him at Oregon, and walked alone thence to Mexico, a distance oi 
3,500 miles, which speaks w-ell for the hospitality of the native sava- 
ges in those days, as well as his own courage and endurance. Drake 
called the country New Albion, and thought to secure it for his own 
sovereign. 

Not until 1602 did the Spaniards seriously determine to possess 
the country and colonize it. Early in that year the Viceroy of 
Mexico, acting under instructions from King Philip III., dispatched 
Don Sebastian Viscaiho on a voyage of discovery up the coast, with 
three small vessels. Various points of Lower Califoi'nia were visited, 
as also San Diego, where the explorer and his companions remained 
ten days, and departed well pleased with the appearance of the 
country and the disposition of the natives. On the 10th of Decem- 
ber he discovered and entered the harbor of Monterey, our ancient 
capital, and, for the first time, its sands received the impress of the 
conquering white man's foot. It he named in honor of Count de 
Monterey, the Mexican Viceroy, under whose orders he acted. Part 
of this expedition reached as high up as the Columbia River. The 
whole subsequently returned to Acapulco. Whether it discovered 
the port of San Francisco is as much a matter of conjecture and doubt 
as Drake's visit. At any rate, his expedition was considered satis- 
facto]-y, and a glowing description was given of the country. The 
time of tlie expedition was winter, and the land was covered with 
verdure, clearly showing it was not a " dry year." 

Although much knowledge had been gained of the country by this 
expedition, from one cause and another it was not taken advantage 
of, and 168 years were allowed to elapse before the conquest and set- 
tlement of Upper California was successfully undertaken. A plan, 
with this purpose, was formed in 1683, but, although under the 
united management of Church and State, it failed. Admiral Otondo 
represented the State, and a Jesuit Father, named Kino, the Church. 
La Paz was their point of operation, but they di<f not at all visit 
Upper California. 

Finally, the religious society of Jesuits undertook the settlement 
of the peninsula, in 1697, under Father Salva Tierra, who founded 
sixteen missionary establishments in that barren region. The order, 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. '3 



liov/ever, siibsequently fell into disgi-ace in Europe, and was banished 
from the Si^anish dominions and from Lower California after a ser- 
vice of 70 years, in 1768. They had never set foot in Upper 
California. They were succeeded by the Franciscans, an order of 
which the reigning Pope was himself a member ; and they, in tnrn, 
were relieved by the Dominicans, the former proceeding to the con- 
quest and conversion of this part of the province, under the guidance 
of Father Junipera Serra, who is recognized in the Catholic Chui'ch 
as the Apostle of Upper California, and in history as its founder. 

In 1769 the first permanent settlement was made and the first 
mission established at San Diego. That place was made the base of 
operations for further explorations and the founding of other missions. 
The ruling sphit in this new movement was Jose de Galvez, the new 
Visitor-General from Spain, who was afterwards Minister-General for 
all the Spanish possessions in America. The governor of the Cali- 
fornias at this time was Caspar de Portala. He commanded the ex- 
pedition by land that had halted at San Diego. On the 14t]i of July, 
1769, he left that place for Monterey, which, it will be remembered, 
had been discovered by Viscaifio in 1602. He stopped at Monterey 
and set up a cross there, but never knew it was the place he sought. 

" Pious Portala, joumejang by land, 
Reared high a cross upon the heathen strand, 

Then far away, 
Dragged his slow caravan to Monterey. " 

He pushed on further north "wdth his partj^, which included Father 
Junipera Serra, and discovered the broad and beautiful bay which 
washes our shores. Whether Drake or Viscaiiio sought shelter with 
their ships here before, may remain in doubt ; but there is no uncer- 
tainty about Portala's discovery ; and that was just 107 years ago. 
Father Junipera recognized the locality as a desirable place for a mis- 
sion, and in honor of the founder of his order, Saint Francis of Assis, 
in Spain, christened it San Francisco. Seven years later, on the 27th 
of June, 1776, the sand hill peninsiila w^as taken possession of, and the 
presidio established near the entrance to the harbor, on a low piece of 
ground. The mission was located on the site where the old church 
now stands, and the foundation of the greatest city on the western 
shores of America was quietly, religiously, slowly, but certainly laid, 
and the 8th of October of the pi'esent year was celebrated as its cen- 
tennial . 

The establishment of missions, according to the plan adopted, rap- 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



idly followed the journey of exploration. That of San Diego, the 
first, was erected in 1769 ; that of Carmello, near Monterey, was 
built in 1770 ; in 1771 were built those of San Gabriel, in Los An- 
geles County ; San Luis Obispo, in the town and county of that 
name; and San Antonio, in Monterey County ; in 1776 followed 
the Mission Dolores de San Francisco, and San Juan Capistrano in 
Los Angeles County ; in 1777 was started the Santa Clai-a Mission, 
in what was then called the San Bernardino Valley, but now Santa 
Clara County; in 1782 San Buenaventura, in Ventura County, and 
in 1786 Santa Barbara ; in 1787 La Purisima Conception, in Santa 
Barbara County; and in 1791 La Soledad, in Monterey, and Santa 
Cruz, in the town and county of the same name. In 1797 three 
missions were established — our own, San Jose, San Miguel, in San 
Luis Obispo County, and San Fernando, in Los Angeles County ; in 
1798 San Luis Bey, in San Diego County ; in 1799 Saij Juan Bau- 
tista, in San Benito County; in 1804 Santa Inez, in Santa Barbara 
County; in 1817 San Rafael, in Marin County; and in 1823 San 
Francisco Solano, in Sonoma County — twenty-one in all. 



CHAPTER 11. 

CONJECTURES CONCERNING THE FIRST VISITORS TO OUR TERRITORY 

DRAKE PORTALA DE ALBERNI THE CONDITION OF THE 

COUNTRY AND THE INDIANS. 

Who the first white man was to tread our virgin soil and breathe 
our salubrious air, is, we fear, a vain conjectui'e. Was he of Drake's 
oy Portala's parties, or some unlawful roamer of the seas, on wild ad- 
venture beat 1 Or did the first foreigners drift over upon our shores 
from China or Japan, and thus give the despised Mongolian prefer- 
ence over the pale faces of these latter days 1 Whomsoever entered 
our glorious bay by the headlands could hardly avoid being won to 
the opposite side, where the mists of ocean are dissipated by the early 
sun, and the shores sloj)ed gently to the dimpled and brown-faced 
mountains, where the encinals stretched out their arms in welcome, 
and the oak groves gave shade and shelter. There, too, was the light 
from the wigwam to be seen glimmering in the distance, and the re- 
flection of the shell mounds shimmering over the waters. Of what 
unrecorded romance may have this been the early scene ; what un- 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 



wi'itten histoiy, what lost traditions may have been attached to the 
ground which now we tread or turn over : the lost heritage of a 
savage race, and which now blooms as land never bloomed before. 

Ere we proceed further with our narrative, it is necessary that we 
should take cognizance of the conditions discovered here on the ar- 
rival of the Fathers. All was a vast aboriginal wilderness, but by 
no means an untenanted solitude, for the native savage had increased 
and multiplied ; the coyote's call was heard on every hill, and the 
emblematic grizzly roamed at large. Father Junipera stated that, 
even on the arid plains of San Diego, he saw a great many naked 
savages, whose unwholesome habits he described. They were, how- 
ever, for a time hospitable and friendly, until their cupidity led them 
to revolt and murder. 

In 1577 Sir Francis Drake, if he did not actually enter our 
great bay, tarried some time in its vicinity, and had friendly inter- 
course with the natives. The historian of that celebrated voyage to 
our shores, wrote as follows : 

"They here discovered a bay, which, entering with a favorable 
gale, they found sevei'al huts by the water side, well defended from 
the severity of the weather. Going on shore they found a fire in tlie 
middle of each house, and the people lying roiuid it upon rushes. 
The men go quite naked, but the women have a deer-skin over their 
shouldei's, and around their waists a covering of bull-rushes, after the 
manner of hemp. These people bringing the Admiral a present of 
feathers and cauls of net-work, he entertained them so kindly and 
generously, that they were extremely pleased, and soon afterwards 
they sent him a present of feathers and bags of tobacco. A number 
of them coining to deliver it, gathei-ed themselves together on the top 
of a small hill, from the higliest point of which one of them harangued 
the Admiral, whose tent was placed at the bottom. When the speech 
was ended they laid down their arms and came down, offering their 
presents ; at the same time returning what the Admiral had given 
them. The women remaining on the hill, teai-ing . their hair and 
making dreadful howlings, the Admiral supposed them engaged in 
making sacrifices, and thei-eupon ordered divine service to be per- 
formed at his tent, at which these people attended Avith astonishment. 

" The arrival of the English in California being soon known 
through the country, two jjersons, in the character of ambassadors, 
came to the admiral and informed him, in the best manner they wei'e 
able, that the king would assist him if he might be assui'ed of com- 



O HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ing in safety. Being satisfied on this point, a numerous company 
soon appeared, in front of wliich was a very comely person bearing a 
kind of sceptre, on wliich hung two crowns and three chains of great 
length ; the chains were of bones and the crowns of net work, curi- 
ously wrought with feathers of many colors. 

" Next to the sceptre-bearer came the king, a handsome, majestic 
person, surrounded by a number of tall men, dressed in skins, who 
were followed by the common people ; who, to make the grander 
appearance, had painted their faces of various colors ; and all of 
them, even the children, being loaded with presents. The men being 
drawn up in line of battle, the Admiral stood ready to receive the 
king within the entrance of liis tent. The company having halted at a 
distance, the sceptre-bearer made a speech, half an hour long, at the 
end of which he began singing and dancing, in which he was fol- 
lowed by the king and all his people — ^who, continuing to sing and 
dancg, came quite up to the tent ; when, sitting down, the king tak- 
ing off his crown of feathers, placed it on the Admiral's head, and 
pat upon him the other ensigns of royalty ; and it is said he made 
him a solemn tender of his whole kingdom. All of which the 
Admii'al accepted, in the name of the Queen, his sovei-eign, in hope 
these proceedings might, one time or other, contribute to the advan- 
tage of England. 

" The common people, dispersing themselves among the Admiral's 
tents, professed the utmost admiration and esteem for the English, 
whom they considered as more than mortal — and accordingly prepared 
to offer sacrifices to them ; but they were told, by signs, that their 
religious worship was alone due to the Supreme Maker and Preserver 
of all things. The Admiral and some of his people, traveling to a 
distance in the country, saw such a quantity of rabbits that it ap- 
peared an entire warren ; they also saw deer in such plenty as to run 
a thousand in a herd. The earth of the country seemed to promise 
rich veins of gold and silver, some of the ore being constantly found 
on digging. The Admiral, at his departure, set up a pillar with a 
large plate on it, on which was engi'aved her majesty's (Queen Eliza- 
beth's) name, picture, arms and title to the country, together with 
the Admiral's name, and the time of his arrival there." 

One cannot help thinking that the chronicler of this remarkable 
visit drew largely upon his fancy, and prepai-ed his narrative with a 
special view to the pleasure of royal eyes. It was exceedingly con- 
siderate of the sa-\'age king to pi-offer his crown to the bold buc- 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 



caneei- ; and how gi'acious it was of the latter to accept it, in order 
that it might possibly contribute to the advantage of England, and 
become the pretext for future claims ! The judiciously-prepared 
chronicle had its effect, for we are told by the writer of it that Queen 
Elizabeth afterwards knighted Drake for his services, " telling him at 
the same time that his actions did him more honor than his title." 

It will not be uninteresting to note here what Father Junipera 
had to say of the country and people generally on his arrival at San 
Diego. On July 3d, 1769, he wrote : 

" The tract through which we passed is generally good land, with 
plenty of water, and there, as well as here, the country is neither 
rocky nor ovemm with brush- wood. There are, however, many 
hills, but they are composed of earth. The road has been in some 
places good, but the greater part bad. About half way the valleys 
and banks of rivulets began to be delightful. We found vines of a 
large size, and in some cases quite loaded with grapes ; we also found 
an abundance of roses, which appeared to be like those of Castile. 
In fine, it is a good country, and very different from old California. 

" We have seen Indians in immense numbers, and all those on 
this * coast ' of the Pacific contrive to make a good subsistence on 
various seeds and by fishing. The latter they cany on by means of 
rafts or canoes made of tule (bull-rushes), with which they go a great 
way to sea. They are very civil. All the males, old and young, go 
naked ; the women, however, and the female children, are decently 
covered from their breasts downwards. We found, on our journey, 
as well as in the place whei'e we stop})ed, that they treated us with 
as much confidence and good-will as if they had knowTi us all their 
lives. But when we offered them any of our victuals, they always 
refused them. All they cared for was cloth, and only for something 
of this sort would they exchange their fish or whatever else they had. 
During the whole march we found hares, rabbits, some deer, and a 
multitude of berendos, a kind of wild goat." 

No doubt this was a pleasant change from the barren wastes of 
Lower California ; bxit had the time of year been January instead 
of July, the picture of the beauty of the coimtry would be less open 
to the suspicion of exaggeration. It is to be su.pposed that the gi-apes 
and the roses of Castile were the fruit of the seed scattered by Vis- 
caino, or other adventiirers who had preceded the devoted father 
many years before. 

The first mention any^vhere found of this section of the country is 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



in Palou, the first historian of California. Speaking of the land 
journey of Captain Juan Bautista's party from Monterey, in search 
of San Francisco, in the year 1773, that writer mentions the follow- 
ing interesting incident : 

" In the Valley of San Jose, the party coming up by land saw some 
animals which they took for cattle, though they could not imagine 
where they came from ; and supposing they were wild, and would 
scatter the tame ones they were driving, the soldiers made after them 
and succeeded in killing three, which were so large that a mule could 
with difficulty carry one, being of the size of an ox, and with horns 
like those of deer, but so long that their tips were eight feet apai-t. 
This was their first view of the elk. The soldiers made the observa- 
tion that they could not run against the wind by reason of theii' 
monstrous antlers." 

The San Jose Valley here mentioned evidently had reference to 
the plain in the southern part of this county, near which the Mission 
of that name was subsequently established. Indeed, the level j)or- 
tion of Washington Township is yet often mentioned as the San 
Jose Valley, as well as a portion of INIurray, in which was some of 
the mission lands. It is an important matter to have it on record 
that here was seen, for the first time, that magnificent animal, the 
elk, which no doubt was in the habit of crossing over thi-ough the 
passes of the Mount Diablo Range, from its home in the San Joaquin 
Valley, to seek the waters of the Alameda. We further learn from 
the same source that " after the presidio and before the mission was 
e5tablished (in San Francisco) an exploration of the interior was or- 
ganized, as iisual, by sea (the bay) and land. Point San Pablo was 
given as the rendezvous, but the captain of the presidio (Moraga), who 
undertook in person to lead the land party, failed to appear there, 
having, with a design to shorten the distance, entered a canon some- 
where near the head of the bay, which took him over to the San Joa- 
quin River. So he discovered that stream." 

Here it will be seen that after the Spaniards had effected a lodg- 
ment in San Francisco, this part of the country was the first to be 
visited. One party proceeded via San Pablo, and the other down to 
the head of the bay on the San Mateo side. Thence they crossed 
over to the Alameda Canon, and followed its tortuous course until 
the Livermore Valley was reached. They continued thence through 
the Livermore Pass, thus reaching the San Joaquin River and Val- 
ley, in the same course that is now pursued by the Central Pacific 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. \) 

Hailroad. Moraga conferred liis brother's given name on the newly- 
discovered river. 

Tiie tirst official reference to the locality of this county was 
made in 1796. The authorities in Mexico had at the first com- 
manded the establishment of two towns, or pueblos, independent of 
the missions, in Upper California. The first of these was San Jose, 
the second Los Angeles. It was determined by Governor Diego Bo- 
rica, to establish a third, to be called Branciforte. With this view 
he instructed Don Pedro de Alberni to examine certain localities 
and report to him on the most desirable place in which to establish 
the town referred to. Alberni accordingly proceeded on his errand, 
and this is his report : 

" Having examined the points set forth in the foregoing Superior 
Official Communication, as well as those requiring me to set forth all 
that I might think necessary, I might reply as follows : The piincipal 
object and view of the whole matter may be reduced to the project 
formed by Don Jose Maria Beltram, and forwarded by the Royal Tri- 
bunal de Cuentas to the Most Excellent Viceroy, in relation to the 
establishment of a Villa or Poblacion ; and its being necessary to 
remember that in order to attain the desired end, an eye must be had 
to such favorable circumstances as are required to give the inhabitants 
of the same the necessary advantages, such as a plentiful supply of 
water, wood, inigable and arable lands, forest, pastures, stone, lime, 
or earth for adobes ; and ha\'lng been commissioned to this end for 
the examination, which I made with the Sehor Governor, Don Diego 
Borica, of the countiy, from the Mission of Santa Cruz, Arroyo del 
Pajaro, and the Mission of Santa Clara, to the 2)lace of the alameda, 
and the country around the Presidio and Fort of San Francisco, and 
the mission of the same name. After a careful and scrupulous exam- 
ination of these places with the Engineer Extraordinary, Don Alberto 
de Cordoba, I found that the place of the alameda, although it con- 
tains a creek, still that it affi^rds but little water, and that the chan- 
nel is so deep [sunken 1] that it is difficult to obtain water therefrom 
for irrigating the extensive plains of what appears to be good lands ; 
but as the place is without fuel, timber and pasturage, which cannot 
be obtained save at the distance of many leagues, it is clear that it is 
unsuitable for the project under consideration." 

What follows of this document is not particularly relevant, but it 
will be interesting as showing what the Don thought of San Fran- 



10 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

cisco at tliat remote date as a location for a town. It is, tlierefore, 
qvioted : 

" In the district of the Presidio of San Francisco, as also that 
of the Fort or Battery, and in those of the Mission, at the distance 
of a league, there is not only v/anting irrigable lands, but there is a 
very small extent of such as are suitable for grain. The water is so 
scarce that it is barely sufficient for the few families that reside at 
the Presidio, and from a few holes from which, at intervals, they ob- 
tain water with much labor, they have to supply themselves. Groves 
of timber are found at a distance of twelve or fourteen leagues, and 
pasturage for the little stock of the garrison is only found at a dis- 
tance of five or six leagues. The wood used in cooking is some 
matorales, or chiamisos, as it is there called, which grows upon the 
sand-hills. And, therefore, I am convinced that the worst -place or 
situation in California is that of San Francisco, for the establishment 
of such a villa as is proposed by the Sehor Contador, Don Jose Maria 
Beltram." 

That tlie ])lace of the alameda, above referred to, means the country 
watered by the Alameda Creek, there can lae no doubt. The county 
receives its name from that river, which, when first discovered, as 
now, was lined with willow and sycamore trees, giving it the appear- 
ance of an alameda or road lined with trees, while the rest of the 
valley was bare. The first thought was it must have had reference to 
the alameda between Santa Clara and San Jose, but reflection showed 
that the town of San Jos6 was already established there, and there 
would be no sense in setting down another alongside of it. Besides, 
the celebrated alameda referred to was not planted till three years 
later. There is no doubt but what the gentleman was somewhat 
prepossessed in favor of Santa Cruz, because he lays stress upon the 
importance of possessing _/oreA'^, lime and stone, all of which that place 
possessed in close proximity, together with pasturage and water. 
Although the vicinity of the alameda possesed no redwood forests like 
Santa Cruz, there certainly was plenty of wood for fuel ; and although 
the mouth of the Alameda possesses, close to its mouth, a deep bed, 
its waters are not only now used for the purposes of irrigation, but 
they have been secured to supply fresh water to the City of Saii 
Francisco. How he could make out that there was no pasturage in 
the place, is a mystery ; as, in the following year, the mission was 
established in its vicinity, and thousands of cattle foinid there 
abundant subsistence. Why Don Pedro de Alberni did not push his 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 1 1 



observations to the Oak Grove Encinal, and find there the finest site 
in the woild for his proposed villa, can only be attributed to his woeful 
short-sightedness. His Branciforte was established at Santa Cruz, on 
the east side of the San Lorenzo, near the present town, but it never 
amounted to moi-e than an adobe hamlet, and soon dropped into 
decay. There are now no less than four towns on the Kne of the 
rejected river — Sunol, Niles, Centerville and Alvarado (the latter 
having been oiir first county-seat), not counting the mission town, 
situated on one of its tiit)utaries, three miles distant, and Washington, 
also close by. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE SYSTEMS ESTABLISHED BY THE SPANIARDS FOR THE REDUCTION 

AND GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY HOW WE 

CAME TO HAVE A MISSION. 

The order of the establishment of missions and their various local- 
ities has been already stated. It will be proper to give the plan 
with which the Spanish government entered upon the conquest and 
civilization of the country. Three agencies were employed — mili- 
tary, civil and religious. The /^resicZi'o, or garrison, represented the 
military ; the pueblo, the town or civic community ; and the mission, 
the church. The latter played the most prominent pai-t. The Span- 
iards had then what we are lacking to-day — a com.plete municipal 
system. Theirs was derived from the Romans. Under the civil 
Roman law, and the Gothic, Spanish and Mexican laws, municipal 
communities were never incorporated into artificial persons, with a 
common seal and perpetual succession, as with us, under English and 
American laws ; consequently, under the former, communities in 
towns held their lands in common ; when thirty families had located 
on a spot, the pueblo, or town, was a fact. They were not incorpor- 
ated, because the laAv did not make it a necessity, a general law or 
custom having established the system. The right to organize a local 
government, by the election of an alcalde, or mayor, and a town 
council, which was known as an Ayuntamiento, was patent. The 
instant the i^ohlacion was formed, it became thereby entitled to four 



12 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

leagues of land, and the pohladors (citizens) held it in 2^'i'o indivisa. 
The title was a natural right. 

The missions were designed for the conversion and civilization of 
the Indians. The latter were instructed in the mysteries of religion 
(so far as they could comprehend them) and the arts of peace. 
Instruction of the savage in agriculture and manufactures, as well as 
in prayers and elementary education, was the padres' business. The 
soldiers protected them from the hostility of the untractable natives, 
hunted down the latter and brought them within the confines of the 
mission, to labor and salvation. 

It is shown that 21 missions were altogether established in Up- 
per California. Thei"e were but four presidios, however; those of San 
Diego, Monterey, San Francisco and Santa Barbara. Each mission 
was allowed a few soldiers, officered by a sergeant. The pueblos were 
only two: San Jos6 and Los Angeles, besides, subsequently, the 
Branci/orte, near Santa Cruz. Not any other pueblos existed 
before the secularization of the missions, in 1833. Indeed, it has 
been stoutly maintained that even San Francisco was never a pueblo, 
and it was to prove its existence that John W. Dwinelle prepared his 
celebrated argument in the United States District Court in San Fran- 
cisco, which resulted in his compiling the "Colonial History," a work 
to which we are indebted for much valuable information. The suit 
involved the pueblo lands of San Francisco, which were finally won 
from the United States and sold. It was the possession of pueblo 
lands that furnished the City of San Jose with a revenue, which has 
enabled her to make siich fine improvements and leave lier to-day 
without a dollar of debt. 

The Contra Costa had neither presidio, pueblo nor mission. With 
that portion of territory received from Santa Clara at the organization 
of the county, in 1853, Alameda received the Mission of San Jose. 
That might also have brought us a pueblo had not Don Pedro de Al- 
berni willed otherwise with his Branciforte. 



UNDER SPAXISH RULE. 13 



CHAPTER lY. 



THE MISSION OF SAN JOSE, OUR HISTORIC RELIC. 

The Mission of San Jose is the ci-cTclle of Alameda County. It was 
established when San Francisco was an adobe hamlet of very small 
pretensions, and second in importance even to San Jos6. There was 
no other site of civili^iation on the Contra Costa. Over all the broad 
expanse of country to the north and east of it, there was nothing but 
what was savage. Not a rancho, not a hut, inhabited by a white 
man. Occasionally a small party of soldiers from the PresicUo of San 
Francisco, out in pursuit of their game, the unfortunate "Digger," 
would break the solitude of the wilderness. It may, however, have 
been that at that early date, a solitary vaquero attended the herds of 
the Mission Dolores, pastured out on the San Pablo flats. 

As has been already shown, this mission was established June 18th, 
1797. The order for its establishment, nor the actual circumstances 
attending its institution, have not been found, although diligent search 
has been made for the same. Indeed, the documentary information 
to be gathered regarding it is veiy meagre. The person who was 
most identified with the mission, since its secularization, was Father 
Gonzales, late Superior of the Franciscans in this State. To him a 
letter was addressed for information concerning the mission papers. 
His residence had been latterly the Franciscan College at Santa Bar- 
bara. Under date of May 13th, 1876, an answer was received from 
the present Superior of the college. Rev. J. M. Koi^no, stating that 
Father Gonzales had died on the 3d of November last, in that place. 
In his letter the reverend gentleman expressed the fear, " if the re- 
cords of the old Mission San Jos6 are not under the guardianship of 
the pastor, a great deal of information regarding that mission is lost 
to history." He further stated that they had no records there of the 
place. A personal visit to Santa Clara College led to no better result. 
There was nothing there concerning the old neighboring mission, and 
Father Varsi, the Superior, subsequently wrote that he could not 
even guess where any documents could be. found. General Vallejo, 
who is now the best authority on all matters pertsiining to the Span- 
ish-American history of the State, was next appealed to, but that in- 
terestiiig old relic of the past maintained a stately silence. The 



14 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Spanish arcliives in custody of Mr. R. C. Hopkins, San Francisco, 
have been searched with only fragmentary results. Father Gleeson, 
in his "History of the Catholic Church in California," is nearly alto- 
gether silent regarding the Mission of San Jose, although he was a 
resident of this county when his work was put to press. A gentle- 
man who occupies an official position in Washington To^vnship, where 
the mission is situated, and who claims a knowledge of nearly all the 
other California missions as well as this, and an acquaintance with 
many of the old padres, expressed the opinion that the documents 
are in the city of Mexico ; but even if known to be thei-e they could 
not be conveniently followed. The author, however, has been able to 
glean a good deal of oral information, which, with some fragments of 
documentary evidence furnished by Mr. Hopkins and others, enables 
him to convey to his readers a tolerable idea of what the old relic 
was in its palmiest days, and what became of it after its decline and 
fall. 

Although founded twenty years later than San Francisco and 
Santa Clara, it soon outstripped them both, and exhibited a greater 
degree of prosperity. It was established while Diego de Borica, who 
occupied the position from 1794 to 1800, was Governor of the Terri- 
tory. A view of the documents of his time shows that there were 
order and system in the transmission of public affairs. Every year 
the missionaries were compelled to make a report of the condition of 
their respective missions. The number of Indians under tutelage, 
their sex, age, etc., were carefully recorded, as well as the number of 
animals of every kind belonging to them, together with the extent 
and value of their crops. Even the veiy first year's report shows it 
to have received an excellent start. 

Its site was well chosen. Its position was a plateau iu the south- 
ern portion of the county, indenting the foot-hills of the Conti'a Costa 
range, and facing the southern extremity of the Bay of San Francisco, 
from which it was distant about nine miles. San Jose, to the soutli 
of it, was about ten miles, and San Francisco, to the west, about forty 
miles. A beautiful and fertile slope stretched between the tw^o. Be- 
hind it were the handsome Calaveras and Sunol Valleys ; and at some 
few leagues' distance the magnificent tract from whose beautiful 
bosom rises the majestic mound of Diablo, and which stretches a dis- 
tance of some forty mUes, or more, from the Livermore foot-hills to 
the Straits of Carquinez. Mission Peak stood like a giant sentinel 
immediately at its back, and indexed its location. Every want was 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 15 

here abundantly supplied. A fine site, a healthy climate, abundance 
of the purest water (which ran perennially from unfailing springs 
through the Mission garden), with the Calaveras and Alameda Creeks 
close by. Wood was near and abundant. Game was ever within 
shot. The pasturage was all that could be desired. The soil was as 
rich and mellow as a ripe apricot. The belt on which it was situated 
was warm and ever free from killing frosts. An embarcadero was 
only a few miles distant, and within an hour's walk were warm min- 
eral springs, possessed of potent healing qualities. hat more could 
possibly be desired ? If this was not the foundation of an earthly 
paradise, it is hard to say where it could be found. 

The country all around was known as the Valle de San Jos^. 
The Alameda and San Lorenzo Creeks and tracts were tributaries to 
them, and it would be sti-ange, indeed, if the mission did not flourish 
•and the Fathers roll in wealth. 

They who had charge of the foundation of this mission and made a 
report of its first year's pi-ogress, were Friar Ysidro Barcinallo and 
Friar Augustin Merin. As was the custom with all the missions, 
■presidios and pueblos, an annual report was made. The chapel at 
first was a small adobe structure, and it became necessary, duriiig the 
second year of its existence, to add seven varas to its length. There also 
was constructed a wall forty-seven varas long, four high, and six wide, 
thatched with tules. Water-flumes were also laid down. Belonging as 
it did to the presidial jui'isdiction of San Francisco, a number of soldiei's 
were sent from there to protect it, and bring in Indians for education 
and conversion. Many, however, came of their own free will for the 
benefits offered them. 

The fii-st year much was not done. Thirty-three baptisms and five 
marriages were registered. At the end of the second year there were, 
altogether, 162 baptisms and tAventy-nine marriages, and 154 Indians 
under instruction. The young institution, at the same time, was able 
to count 150 head of cattle, including six yoke of oxen; 180 sheep 
and goats ; fifteen tame horses and six head of others ; and six tame 
mules. The harvest was small, consisting only of thirty-three fane- 
gas of wheat, twelve of beans, one of barley, and two of beans. 
There were sown, in the year 1788, 434 fanegas of wheat, two of 
beans, one of corn, and one of barley, from which there was produced 
an abundant yield. 

Having thus seen the mission established and in ship-shape for the 



16 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

work for which it was intended, let us now take a glance at the 
material which its founders had to work upon. 

It will be seen that, contrary to what is sometimes supposed, the 
men who set themselves down to the work before them were far from 
leading lazy lives. It was not only a moral and religious education 
that they undertook to impart to the California savage — the festive 
" Digger " — but also an industrial one. The neophites, or converts, 
were also instructed in agriculture and some of the simplest manu- 
facturing arts, such as tanning, soap-making, weaving, etc. For two 
men, speaking a strange language, to take hold of, educate, even in 
the simplest rudiments, teach them the doctrine and practice of reli- 
gion, the use of raiment, the cooking of food, the cultivation of land, 
the care of horses, sheep and cattle, the construction of houses, flumes 
and fences, the tanning of leather, the preparation of soap, the spin- 
ning of wool and the weaving of thread, seems almost incredulous. 
This statement is not made for the purpose of either approving or 
criticising the conduct of these men towards the creatures brought 
under their charge. Only what the records disclose and what the 
facts truly represent, are stated. Of the value of their services, 
readers can jvidge for themselves. Others haA^e condemned the 
Fathers, and accused them of taking advantage of the ignorance and 
helplessness of the savages to place burdens upon them ; while, 
again, on the other hand, their conduct has been extolled as 
partriarchal, wise and humane, in the extreme. All that is here to 
be remarked is, as the sequel shows, it was unfoi-tunate that so much 
care, patience and zeal were used to no lasting purpose. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE CHARACTER AND CONDITION OP THE CALIFORNIA INDIANS. 

The truth of the matter is, the California Indian was a haixl sub- 
ject for civilization. He was one of the most degraded of God's 
creatures. He was without knowledge, religion or morals, even in 
their most elementary and perverted forms. He lived without labor, 
and enjoyed all the ease and pleasure he could. Physically, he was 
not prepossessing, although having considerable endurance and 
strength. His skin was nearly as dark as that of the negro, and his 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 17 

hail- as coarse as that of the horse, while his features were repulsive. 
To gi'atify his appetite and satiate liis lust were his only ambition. 
He was too cowardly to be warlike, and did not possess that spirit of 
independence which is commonly supposed to be the principal at- 
tribute of his race. In so genial a climate as ours, nature easily 
provided for all his wants. The best part of his time was spent in 
dancing and sleeping. 

The aborigines of Upper California had no history, and but a 
meagi-e amount of tradition. Their remains consisted of earth and 
shell mounds, which were used as places of interment. They bui'ied 
their dead in a sitting posture. They also used cremation. Their 
tongues were various, and when the Spaniards an-ived in the country, 
the natives of San Diego could not understand the natives of Los 
Angeles or Monterey. They led a wandering life, moving from place 
to place, for the purposes of fishing, hunting, and gathering supplies. 
The country teemed with game of all kinds, and the flesh of deer, 
rabbits, etc., was plentifully used. Fish was abundant, and ran in 
every stream. Berries, nuts, and a variety of vegetables entered into 
their diet. Acorns and jiine nuts, roots, and wild oats, all formed 
articles of consumption. The wild oats grew very plentifully, and 
the crop was genei'al. It has been asserted that the natives were in 
the habit of eating vermin ; but it must be remembered they were 
not trained to prejudice against certain things, as are our fastidious 
tastes. It was not want, therefore, that compelled them to do this. 
What can be more repulsive to the civilized man than the idea of 
using the flesh of reptiles for food. Yet when hunger compelled, men 
have been known to eat even rattlesnakes, and praise their flesh as 
dainty. Of course, they rejected the rattles. In savage days rodents, 
such as rats, gophers, and squirrels, were little known. Commerce 
and the wheat fields have caused them to multiply. 

The dwellings of the Indians were the meanest of huts, made of 
willows and thatched with tules or rushes. They were generally 
like conically-shaped baskets, made by taking a few poles and placing 
them in the ground in cii'cular form and gathering them together at 
the top. These were interlaced with thin willows and covered with 
mud or brush. They were very small, and in winter time the burn- 
ing of a handful of twigs inside of them, would keep them warm for 
a day. When they became intolerable with vermin (if they could 
so become to them), they were easily converted into ashes and others 
made instead. 



18 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

The skins of wild beasts made them comfortable coverings ; but it 
was no uncommon thing, even as late as the early days of the gold 
discoveiy, to see them sleeping naked on a couch of rushes, like a 
litter of pigs. In winter weather, the frost, acting on the heat of 
their bodies, would cause smoke to ascend from them. An eye- 
witness has stated that he has observed them in this attitude, and 
it was amusing to see the " outside " ones, as is ever the case, even 
in better society, try to get on the "inside" of the row! Their 
cabins or wigwams were usually built on the mai'gins of rivers and 
creeks, or in the dells of mountains, but always near some stream to 
which they had access for their ablutions, which were frequent. 
The first thing they would do ua the morning, after rising from their 
litters, would be to plunge into the river or wash themselves in the 
stream. They would then dance and play around a large fire until 
they had acquired sufficient appetite to relish a hearty meal. This 
was their practice in the cold mountain regions as well as the more 
temperate valleys ; in winter as well as in summer. Colds came 
with clothing. The latter they did not take kindly to, excepting 
for the purpose of ornament. "When they ran away from the mis- 
sions and rejoined their tribe, the first thing they would do would 
be to doff their mission garments, which were emblematic of 
Christianity and servitude. An anecdote is told of an old chief 
(perhaps old Napa himself), who paid General Vallejo a visit once on 
a very cold day, and -when all that he wore was his war paint. 
" Are you not cold," asked the General, " with no covering on your 
body, such a day as thisi" " Is not your face cold," asked the Indian 
in reply, " with no covering upon it but your beard ?" " I never 
make it a practice to cover my face for protection against the cold, 
Napa," replied the General, "it is not necessary." "Well, Napa's 
body all face and want no covering, ugh," replied the Indian, who 
made his point tell. 

The Upper Califoi-nia Indians, as I have already stated, had no re- 
ligion ; they had no moral code nor even practical superstition. They 
worshipped no Supreme Being, and observed no sacred rites. They 
sometimes, however, set up a stuffed coyote, around which they lazily 
danced. They were devoid of ambition and seldom wei-e stirred by 
passion. They were passive, like all Indians, but they were, never- 
theless, cruel in exercising resentments. They troubled themselv( 
little about the cares of life, for they were sure of a living anyhow ; 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 19 



and rivalry, envy or emulation never took passionate possession of 
their souls. 

Tlie natives of the South Sea islands, no doubt, possessed more 
abundantly laborless supplies of food ; but they had to defend them- 
selves and their possessions against the incursions of their neighbors. 
Hence they were fierce, jealous and warlike. They were troubled 
with ambition and jealousy ; and, although naturally indolent too, 
they did not drone and dance away their days and nights a.s our In- 
dians did. The Calif ornians were festive in their way, but they 
allowed the burdens of labor to be mostly borne by the women. 
They had many dances and dance-houses, and indulged in. many and 
hideous midnight orgies. They were, too, shamelessly sensual. 
There were a few of a particularly depraved class among the tribes. 
These, however, were among the men, not the women. Down our 
valleys they were called Goyas, and were regarded as outcasts. They 
assumed the habits and appearance of women, and lent themselves 
to the lusts of both sexes. They were found all over the province, 
but are said to have been more numerous about Santa Barbara, where 
heathen morals were not even as good as here. Although not pos- 
sessed of large families, their numbers were great. The whole coun- 
try was covered with them, and the men of the leather armors did 
not have to penetrate far to fetch them to the missions. When 
attacked and forced to fight, they would sometimes make a pretty 
formidable resistance, but generally they were not well calculated to 
stand the shock of battle. 

Having had no religion or code of morals of their own, it is not 
' to be gi-eatly wondered that the Fathers found them prepared to fall 
readily under their influence. Hence, the large number of their con- 
versions. They were unacquainted with intoxicating drinks, and 
consequently led sober lives. The exercises of the chase and the 
dance gave them considerable physical strength. They were remark- 
able athletes. As swimmers and runners they were unexcelled. 
Their young would float and gyrate in the water like so many fish. 

To catch, subdue and educate a race like this, to whom freedom 
was everything, it will be seen at a glance, was no easy task. To 
accomplish it, even remotely, 'demanded all the elements of success. 
Force and persuasion must be commingled. The soldier of the pre- 
sidio represented the one, the padre at the mission the other. Good 
treatment must have been used, to keep them from running away, 
and their employments congenial. The novelty of a semi-civilized 



20 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



i 



situation, with the attractiveness of new objects and strange ways, 
with good diet and kind conduct, could alone have kept them, even 
for a time, together. On no other theory can we understand how 
the missions were universally so successful, not only in Upper Cali- 
fornia, but in the other portions of the Spanish dominions. 



CHAPTER YI. 

LIFE AT THE MISSIONS, AND HOW THE MISSION OF SAN JOSE 
PROGRESSED. 

The mission buildings generally consisted of a quadrilateral, two 
stories high ; there was visually a court yard with fountain and trees. 
The various apai-tments consisted of a chapql, Fathers' apartments, 
store-houses, workshops and barracks. The whole wei-e built of adobe 
blocks, of unljurnt clay. 

The mode of life observed at the missions was as follows : The 
entire management of each establishment was under the care of two 
" Religious," or Friars. In spiritual matters they were altogether 
directed by the head of the Franciscan order. In temporal matters 
they accounted to the Governor ; and in the Spanish archives of San 
Francisco will be found many reports from them of the condition and 
increase of the resjDective missions, of which they made statements 
regularly at the end of each year. The elder of the Fathers attended 
to the interior and the younger to the exterior administration. One 
portion of the building, which was called the monastery, was inhab- 
ited by the young Indian girls. There, under the care of approved 
matrons of their own race, they were instructed in the branches neces- { 
sary for their condition in life ; they were not permitted to leave 
until of an age fitting them for marriage. In the schools, those who f 
exhibited more talents than their companions were taught vocal and 
instrumental music — the latter consisting of the flute, horn and vio- 
lin. In the mechanical departments, too, the most apt were promoted 
to the positions of foremen. The better to preserve the morals of all, 
none of the whites, except those absolutely necessary, were employed 
at the missions. 

At sunrise all arose and proceeded to the chapel, where, after morn- 
ing prayer, they assisted at the mass. Breakfast next followed, after 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 21 

hich they proceeded to their respective employments. Toward noon 
they returned to the mission and spent the time from then till two 
o'clock between dinner and rest; after which, they again repaii-ed to 
fcheir work and remained engaged till the sound of the evening bell, 
about an hour before sundown. All then betook themselves to the 
church for evening devotions, which consisted of the ordinary prayers 
and the rosary, except on special occasions, when other devotional 
exercises were added. After supper, which immediately followed, 
they amused themselves with divers spoi'ts, games and dancing, till 
the hour for sleep. Their diet consisted of beef and mutton, with 
vegetables in. the season. Wheaten cakes and puddings, or porridges 
called "atole" and "pinole" also formed a portion of their food. The 
clothing supplied to the males was a linen shirt, pants, and a blanket 
coat ; the females received each, annually, two under garments, a gown 
and a blanket. It cannot be said that these constituted extravagant 
wardrobes, but fashion was not the queen of this primitive realm. 
In years of plenty, after the missions became rich, it is said the Fathers 
distributed all the surplus moneys among them in clothing and trin- 
kets ; but wliat constituted the surplus or how much its quantity, we 
are not informed. 

Apart fi-om the main building, the Indians lived in little thatched 
huts grouped around it, a couple of hundred yards distant. These 
huts were usually made of adobe, but at fii^t they were made of poles 
as heretofore described. Here the married Indians resided with their 
families. The unmarried of both sexes were kept apart in large 
rooms in the main building. A walled enclosure was made around 
some of the establishments, but others were devoid of such protection. 

The Mission of San Jose gained rapidly, and waxed wealthy. Its 
parent, San Francisco, it soon outstripped ; and its sister, Santa Clara, 
it left behind before the close. We have shown that at the end of 
the second year of its existence (the first being fractional), it had 154 
Indians under instinictions, and 357 live animals. Its exhibit of 
cereals produced, all told, at this time, consisted only of 48 fanegas, 
which nearly correspond with two and a half of our bushels. There 
were sown, however, 434 fanegas of wheat, 2 of beans, 2 of corn, and 
1 of barley. The succeeding crop, it is to be presumed, was a most 
abundant one. In 1802 there were 327 male and 295 female in- 
mates of the mission; in all, 622. Santa Clara had then 1,291, and 
San Francisco 814. From this date to 1822, there were baptized 
altogether, in San Jose Mission, 4,573 Indians; married, 1,376; 



ZZ HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

vdied, 2,933, and existing at the latter date, 1,620. During the same 
period there were baptized in Santa Clara 7,324 ; married, 2,056 ; 
while the large number of 6,565 had died, leaving that mission with 
only 1,394 neophytes at the date mentioned, being 226 less than 
ours. San Francisco made an even less favorable presentation for 
this period. During the twenty years there were there 6,804 bap- 
tisms, 2,050 marriages, and the large number of 5,202 deaths, leav- 
ing 958 alive. This shows that those two missions suffered disas- 
trously from epidemics, which the Mission of San Jose escaped or 
received mildly, proving the superiority of the air and climate of 
that place. Syphilis, measles, small-pox, made sad havoc with the 
converts generally ; and in two generations they were reduced from 
74,621 to 20,958 all over the Province of Upper California. The 
change evidently did not tend to the longevity of the lives of the 
natives ; but if the main object of their conversion was to send their 
souls to heaven, it is to be pi-esumed the result was sufficiently satis- 
factory to those who had instituted the new order of things. There 
are individual instances, however, of long life among these poor peo- 
ple. In 1875, a mission Indian, named Jvistinia Roxas, died in San 
Jose at the advanced age of 122 years ; and there is now in the alms- 
house in San Francisco a man named Bruno, whose likeness is printed 
elsewhere, who claims that he remembers the building of the first 
mission-house of San Jose. 

In 1834 the missions throughout the province had reached the 
zenith of their prosperity. Then San Jose had 2,300 Indians, to 
Santa Clara's 1,800, and San Francisco's 500. The number of ani- 
mals had also wonderfully increased. San Jose had 24,000 horned 
cattle, to Santa Clara's 13,000, and San Francisco's 5,000. In horses 
and mules, San Jose had 1,100, to Santa Clara's 1,200, and San 
Francisco's 1,600. In sheep, goats, and hogs, San Jose had 19,000, 
Santa Clara 15,000, and San Francisco 4,000. The hai-vest consisted 
of 10,000 bushels of wheat, maize, etc., in San Jose; 6,000 in Santa 
Clara, and 2,500 in San Francisco ; but it must be remembered that 
the latter's stock was mostly fed, and its crops raised, on this side of 
the bay, as sand was not a very productive soil. 

We have no record of the number of cattle slaughtered, hides 
sold, or of the soap, leather, Avine, brandy, wool, oil, cotton, hemj), 
linen, tobacco, salt and soda, that were raised and manufactured in 
connection with each of the missions, but we have no doubt that 
this one contributed largely to the general product. In the course 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 23 

of a very few years it liacl an excellent orchard, of wliich, however, 
only a few pear trees, which are of a very large size, now remain. 

Besides the lands of the missions, which were usually many 
leagues in extent, there were also farms for the soldiers of the 
presidios. 

During the Spanish possession but few private ranchos had been 
established, and civilized people were only to be found at the mis- 
sions, the four presidios, and three pueblos of San Jose, Los Angeles 
and Santa Cruz. 

It is impossible to give successfully the names of the Fathers who 
had charge of the mission in this county, but it is of no great 
importance. It has been shown that Friars Ysidro Barcinallo and 
Augustin Meria had charge of it at the start. The other Fathers, of 
whom it has been possible to procure any account, are Narcisco 
Durant, Ventura Fortuni, Lorenzo Keifus, Rafael Muro, Maria Real, 
and Father Gonzales. Only two of them were engaged in conduct- 
ing the affairs of the mission at one time, and they mostly continued 
many years together. Father Narcisco came to the mission in 1827; 
Father Muro was there at the time of secularization, in 1835, and so 
was Father Gonzales. For some time the mission was without a 
regular pastor, and Father Real, of Santa Clara, took charge of it. 

The final fate of the mission will be considered and explained in 
its appropriate place, tinder the heading of Mexican Rule. 

Elsewhere allusion is made to the foundation of the villa of Bran- 
ciforte, at Santa Cruz. Since it was wi-itten, the author has been 
favored with a copy of the following instructions for its management, 
which have recently been translated by a gentleman of Santa Cruz, 
and published in a local paper, and will be of interest to the readers 
of this work in connection with the other matters touched vipon re- 
lating to the Spanish regime. That the rules prescribed wei-e intended 
for the management of the Indians is evident ; but the blending of 
civic and ecclesiastical functions in the hands of the Governor is very 
apparent, and the dictum arbitrary. But then we must consider the 
system in force and the class to be dealt with : 

Instructimis to he observed hy the Commissiooier in charge of the Vil- 
lage of Branciforte, for the government and direction of 
its inhabitants. 

Article 1. 
His first care shall be to maintain peace, good will and harmony 
among the colonists, and be vigilant in having good order. 



24 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Living in adultery, gaming and drunkenness will not be allowed, 
and lie who commits such vices shall be punished, as also he wJio fails 
to appear and do duty upon the public works when ordered. 

Article 2. 
He will oblige all pei-sons to attend the celebration of Mass on the 
days fixed by the law of the church, and to make responses in a loud 
voice ; and if any person should fail to observe the above, without 
good cause, they will be put in the stocks for three hours. 

Article 3. 
During the time of Easter, all persons will be careful to comply 
with its amiual observance, and he will remit to the Governor a cer- 
tificate of their having done so. 

Article 4. 
He will not permit the actual colonist nor a sojourner to traffic 
with or trade with any Indian, male or female, of the mission, and 
much less to have illicit intercourse with them. And to this end he 
will prohibit going to their wigwams, whether at night or in the day- 
time. This rule must be scrupulously observed. 

Article 5. 
Whatever individual wishing to become a colonist must have pre- 
sented to me some person who will vouch for his condition and abil- 
ity, and I will order that he have leave to settle, and will indi- 
cate the suertes (a suerte is about ten acres) of land that shall be 
given to him. 

Article 6. 
No colonist or sojourner shall depart from the village for the pur- 
pose of settling at some place that is populated, without fii'st })rocur- 
ing my permission to do so. 

Article 7. 
The Commissioner will exercise the greatest care to prevent leth- 
argy among the colonists, and also sojourners, cavising them all to la- 
bor and to sow and cultivate the lands that have been given to them. 
And he will provide me with a list of the names of those who have 
sowed and harvested annually, and at the proper time inform me how 
they are getting along. 

Article 8. 
He will notify the Governor what lands are unoccupied up to this 




A MISSION CHURCH AND BUILDING.. 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 



date, how much, is agricultural and how much pasture land belonging 
to the village, and how much of the land is useful for both purposes, 
and the reasons why such are not occupied. 

PABLO YAZENTE DE SOLA. 



CHAPTER YII. 



SOLDIERS AND CITIZENS. 



Under this heading wall be considered the militaiy and civil ad- 
ministration of the early affau's of the territory. In the Contra 
Costa was neither presidio (garrison) nor pueblo (town), but San 
Francisco supplied the former immediately to the west of us, and 
San Jose 'the other immediately to the south of us. As from those 
two sources came dii-ectly our first population of European origin, 
this history would not be complete without some i-eference to them, 
and a short chapter shall therefore be devoted to their description. 

The whole military force in Upper California, in its early days, 
numbered no more than 200 or 300 men. It was divided between the 
four presidios of San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey, and San 
Francisco. There were but two towns or pueblos — Los Angeles and 
San Jose. Subsequently another was started near Santa Cruz, 
which was known as the Branciforte, so named after a Spanish Vice- 
roy. There is danger of the Mission of San Jose and the town of 
San Jose being confounded as one and the same place, which would 
be an error, as they were several leagues apart. As may be sup- 
posed, the garrisons were not kept in a very efficient condition. All 
around them betokened the disuse of arms and the absence of an 
enemy, for many years. The cannon of the Presidio of San Fran- 
cisco was covered with mould, and within the military enclosure was 
found a goodly number of women and children. The men were 
mostly away, looking after the Indians and performing the police 
dutie-s of the missions. The soldiers of San Francisco District were 
divided in three squads — one at the Presidio, one at Santa Clara Mis- 
sion, and one at the Mission of San Jose. Here is copied from the 
Spanish archives, in San Francisco, a list of the soldiers connected 
with the Presidio in the year 1790, in which are found the names, 
positions, nativity, color, race, age, etc., of the soldiers, as well as 
those of their wives, when married. That year the soldiers num- 



26 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

bered tliirty-eiglit. Nasario Galiuda, brother-in-law of Antomo 
Peralta, states that he once hekl the position of sergeant in this 
army, and had under his command, at the Mission of San Jos6, 
fifteen men. 

As among these people are found some of the first occupants of our 
soil, it is right to here produce the names of that little band of 
adventurous men, and show some of the present native population 
their pedigrees : 

NAMES OF THE SOLDIERS OF THE PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, WITH 
THEIR WIVES, IN 1790. 

Don Josef Arguello, commandant, age 39. 

Don Ramon Laro de la Neda, Alferez de Campo, age 34. 

Pedro Amador, sergeant, Spaniard, from Guadalaxara, age 5 1 ; wife, 
Ramona Noreiga, Sj^anish, aged 30 ; 7 children. [These were 
the parents of Jose Maria Amador, born in San Francisco in 
1781, and now 95 years of age, and to whom further reference 
will be made hereafter.] 

Nicolas Galinda, mestizo, Durango, 42. 

Majio Chavoya, City of Mexico, 34 ; wife, a Bernal. 

Miguel Pacheco, 36 ; wife, a Sanches. 

Luis Maria Pei-alta, Spaniai-d, Sonora, 32 ; wife, Maria Loretto 
Alviso, 19. 

Justo Altamirano, mulatto, Sonora, 45. 

Ygnacio Limaxes, Sonora, 49 ; wife, Maria Gertiaida Rivas, Span- 
iard, 38. 

Ygnacio Soto, 41 ; wife, Barbara Espinosa. 

Juan Bernal, mestizo, Sonora, 53 ; wife. Maxima I. de Soto. 

Jph. Maria Martinez, Sonora, 35 ; wife, Maria Garcia, mulatto, 18. 

Salvado Iguera, L. C., 38 ; wife, Alexa Miranda, Sonora, 38. 

Nicolas Berryessa, mestizo, 25 ; wife, Maria Gertrudis Pei-alta, 24. 

Pedro Peralta, Sonora, 26 ; wife, Maria Carmen Grisalva, 19. 

Ygnacio Pacheco, Sonora, 30 ; wife, Maria Dolores Cantua, mestizo, 
age 16. 

Francisco Bernal, Sinaloa, 27 ; wife, Maria Petrona, Indian, 29. 

Bartolo Pacheco, Sonora, 25 ; wife, Maria Francisco Soto, 18. 

Apolinario Bernal, Sonora, 25. 

Joaquin Bernal, Sonora, 28 ; wife, Josefa Sanchez, 21. 

Josef Acev;i, Durango, 26. 

Manuel Boranda, Guadalaxara, 40 ; wife, Gertnidis Higuera, 13. 

Francisco Valencia, Sonora, 22 ; wife, Maria Victoria Higuera, 15. 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 27 



Josef Antonio Sanchez, Guadalaxara, 39 ; v/ife, Maria Dolora Mox 

ales, 34. 
Josef Ortiz, Guadalaxara, 23. 

Josef Aguila, Guadalaxara, 22 ; wife, Conellaria Remixa, 14. 
Alexandro Avisto, Durango, 23. 
Juan Josef Higuera, Sonora, 20. 
Francisco Flores, Giiadalaxara, 20. 
Josef Maria Castilla, Guadalaxara, 19. 

Ygnacio Higuera, Sonora, 23 ; wife, Maria Micaelo Bojorques, 28. 
E anion Linare, Sonora, 19. 
Josef Miguel Saens, Sonora, 18. 

Cai^to Serviente, San Diego, Indian, 60. , 

Augustin Xirviente, L. C, 20. 
Nicolas Presidario, Indian, 40. 
Gabriel Peralta, invalid, Sonora. 
Manuel Vutron, invalid, Indian. 
Ramon Bojorques, invalid, 98. 
Francisco Remero, invalid, 52. 

A recapitulation shows that the inmates of the Presidio consisted 
altogether, men, women and children, soldiers and civilians, of 144 
persons. There were 38 soldiei-s and 3 laborers. Of these, 1 was 
a European, other than Spanish, 78 Spaniards, 5 Indians, 2 mulat- 
toes, and of other casts, 44. The document was signed by Pedro 
Beno Cambon. 

Under date of 1793, was discovered an inventory of the rich 
men of the Presidio, showing that Pedro Amador was the proprietor 
of 13 head of stock and 52 sheep ; Nicolas Galinda, 10 head of stock; 
Luis Peralta, 2 head of stock ; Manuel Boranda, 3 head of stock ; 
Juan Bernal, 23 head of stock and 246 sheep ; Salvador Youere, 3 
head of stock ; Aleso Miranda, 15 head of stock; Pedro Peralta, 2 
head of stock ; Francisco Bernal, 1 6 head of stock ; Barthol Pacheeo, 
7 head of stock ; Joaquin Bernal, 8 head of stock ; Francisco Valen- 
cia, 2 head of stock ; Beraueia Galindo, 6 head of stock ; Hermeneo 
Sal (who appears to have been a secretary or something besides a 
soldier), 5 head of stock and 3 mares. Adding up, we find that they 
had between them 115 head of stock, 298 sheep and 17 mares. 
These men were evidently bent on raiichiug, and consequently, we 
find the names of nearly every family of them occupying lands on the 
Contra Costa to-day, having received large grants from the S])anish 
and Mexican Government at a l%ter date. To think of what some of 



28 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

these families have gained and lost in so short a time ! The grant 
to Luis Peralta, whose name is third on this list, comprised within 
its ample acres the City of Oakland, and the towns of Alameda and 
Berkeley, and time will probably prove that it was one of the most 
valuable grants ever made to a single individual, although its worth 
was then far from being appreciated ; nor could its future value be 
anticipated, for gold had not been, discovered at Coloma. 



ADULT MALE RESIDENTS OF THE PUEBLO OR TOWN OF SAN JOSE DE 
GUADALUPE, ACCORDING TO A RETURN MADE IN 1790. 

Antonio Romero, Ygnacio Archuleta, Claudis Alviris, Manuel 
Gonzales, Bernardo Rozales, Manuel Armaquita, Tiburcio Yasquez, 
Francisco Avilla, Balenio Meza, Leferino Lugo, Joaquin Castro, 
Antonio Alegre, Pedro Bojorques, Antonio Aceber, Nazario Jaero, 
Pedro Carguelas, Miguel Ojuno, Pedro Luis Nervo. The occupa- 
tions of these persons were as follows : Farm workers or labradors, 1 7 ; 
artizans, L According to race there were 1 European, 12 Spaniards, 
3 Indians, 2 mulattoes, and of other castes, IL The whole popu- 
lation of the Pueblo consisted of 32 men, 15 women, 15 boys, and 
16 girls; in all, 78 souls. 

The most conspicuous name among those mentioned is that of 
Vasques, being the same exactly as that of the notorious highway- 
man who was executed in San Jose, in 1865. The name was numer- 
ous, and there was a Tiburcio Yasquez in San Francisco in 1842, 
when a census was made, and also in 1848. But, no doubt, the San 
Jose family is the one from which the notorious outlaw sprung. 

For the purpose of comparison, a memoranda is here also presented 
of the population of the only other puebla in the territory, Los 
Angeles, in 1793. The inhabitants of the place then, all told, was 
151 ; of these 3 were Europeans, 46 Spaniards, 27 mestizos, 11 
Indians, and 64 mulattoes. Until the American conquest these 
were the two principal towns in the State, and at present they are 
very flourishing, having a population of about 15,000 each. But the 
change is a remarkable one. American and European enterprise and 
industry have given them an impetus which they are not likely to 
lose for many years to come. 

In the search among those well-preserved and beautifully-written 
old documents, the author discovered, imder date of 1797, a letter of 
Luis Peralta, dated at Santa Clara and addressed to the Governor, 
requesting him to have Bernandio (#^alinda (a wounded soldier) re- 



UNDER SPANISH RULE. 



29 



moved to Monterey for the treatment of his injuries, as there was 
no medical assistance to be had where he then was. It is in a good, 
plain hand. Another letter, of the same period, was from Gabriel 
Moraga to the Governor at Monterey, recommending that the site of 
the pueblo be removed to the other side of the river, as where origin- 
ally established it was too low; and it was so removed. After this 
soldier (by rank a lieit tenant), who was the first to take possession of 
the site of San Francisco, in 1776, and who, subsequently, explored 
and named the Sacramento and San Joaquin R:ivers, is called the 
handsome valley in tke Contra Costa Range, a fev/ miles northeast 
from Oakland, and where his descendants now reside. 



^X r^-t'^1 



^^^ 




30 . HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

HOME SCHOOL 

FOR 

.YOUNG LADIES, 

OAKLAND, CAL 



MISS H. N. FIELD, Principal. 

DEPARTMENTS : 

English and Classical, Ancient and Modern Languages, Drawing and 
Painting, Vocal and Instrnmenlal Music, and Physical Culture. 



It is tho desire of the Principal to combine, as far as possible, the influ- 
ence of home with thorough and practical training in the different 
branches of education. To secure this ohject, a limited 
number of Boarding Pupils will be received, and 
each will be under the immediate super- 
vision of the Principal, 

WM. G. DINSMORE'S DRUG STORE, 

(Proprietor Celebrated "MOZAllT" brand Cigars,) 
1059 BROADWAY, OAKLAND, OAL. 

DEALER IN 

DRUGS, MEDICINES, CHEMICALS, 

TOILET AND FANCY ARTICLES, 
BRUSHES, SOAPS, PERFUMERY. 



Prescriptions Care/idly Compounded at all hours, Day or Night 



A FULL ASSORTMENT OF 



Humphrey's Homceopathic Specifics, 
lubin's and gosnell's toilet goods. 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 



CHAPTER Vlir. 

SPANISH SUPREMACY OVERTHROWN THE MISSION SYSTEM AT IT3 

HEIGHT, AND THEN ITS DESTRUCTION THE FIRST OVERLAND 

AMERICAN ADVENTURER COMMUNICATING WITH FATHER 
DURAN AT THE MISSION OF SAN JOSE. 

In 1823 Mexico, after throwing off the Spanish yoke, and closing 
a short-lived monarchy under Iturbide, became an independent repub- 
lic. In 1810, 1813, and 1815 had the flag of revolt been unsuccess- 
fully raised. In 1820 it was again raised, but with better success. 
It was aided by a successful revolution in the mother country. Span- 
ish policy had deprived the natives of any share in the government. 
The development of the country was hampered. The severest 
restrictions were imposed upon the colony. The possession of gold 
was all that was cared for. All native industrial pursuits were for- 
bidden, and the manufacture and production of wine, flax, olives, 
etc., prohibited. To engage in any outside enterprise was a capital 
offense. Education was neglected, and revolt was justified. 

General Santa Anna headed the revolution of 1823, and dethroned 
Iturbide, who had taken the title of Augiistin I. He formed a pro- 
visional government and provided a constitution fashioned after that 
of the United States. The country was divided into nineteen states 
and four ten-itories. The two Californias formed one territory, with 
a voice in Congress, but no vote. The office of Commandant of Cal- 
ifornia remained as before ; and the Governor, Don Pablo de Sola, 
continued to be the Executive of the Province for a shoi-t time. 

After him, Don Luis Arguello, a Californian by birth, became 
Governor (id interim. Don Jose Noi'iega was sent to the Mexican 
Congress to represent California ; but, as he was by bu-tli a Spaniard, 
he was rejected. Arguello was never formally appointed Governor, 
and was succeeded by Don Jos6 Maria Echandia, the first regular 



32 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Governor under tlie Republic. This man was opposed to church gov- 
ernment and the continuance of the missions, with which he com- 
menced to meddle. Soon the Franciscans were to suffer the fate of 
the Jesuits. In 1826 instructions were forwarded by the Federal 
Government of Mexico to the Governor of California for the libera- 
tion of the Indians. This was followed, a few years later, by another 
act of the Legislature, ordering the whole of the missions to be secu- 
larized and " the Religious," meaning the friars, to be withdrawn. 
It was stated, that at first the missions were only intended as tem- 
porary expedients for civilizing the Indians and settling the country. 
The churches were to be placed under regular ecclesiastical control, 
with secular, or regular clergy, to administer their affairs and attend 
to the spiritual wants of the people, as now. In 1834 the act of 
Congress ■ liberating the Indians from the missions was put in force, 
and Administrators were appointed to take charge of the property. 

Then commenced the decline of those semi-civil, semi-religious in- 
stitutions, which appear to us now as phenomena of the past. The 
Administrators, it is alleged, instead of protecting, plundered. In 
eight years (1842) the Indians liberated declined from 30,650 to 
4,450. The number of horned cattle fell from 424,000 to 28,220 ; 
the number of horses, mules, etc., from 62,500 to 3,800 ; sheep, 
goats and hogs from 321,500 to 31,600 ; and the production of grain, 
from 70,000 to 4,000 hectolitres. 

At the Mission of San Jose the depletion was as follows : Indians 
in 1834, 2,300 ; in 1842, 400. Horned cattle, in 1834, 24,000 ; in 
1842, 8,000. Horses, mules, etc., in 1834, 1,100; in 1842, 200. 
Sheep, goats and hogs, in 1834, 19,000 ; in 1842, 7,000 ; for the dif- 
ference in the production of grain there is no comparative statement. 
The friends of the missions (among whom is ranked Hon. J. W. 
Dwindle, formerly of this county) maintain that the proceeding was 
unjust and the result ruinous and demoralizing. They claim that the 
results obtained by the Fathers, whom they say were cultivated 
men — soldiers, engineers, artists, lawyers, and physicians — were won- 
derful. Others, such as the authors of the " Annals of San Fran- 
cisco," assert that the mission system was inj\ii-ious ; that the Indians 
were left worse men and women than when they entered the missions ; 
that the friars were ignorant men and held tyrannic sway over their 
savage vassals, while they grew rich and indolent. The student who 
cares to learn the truth of these things for himself, can find ample 
authorities for his enlightenment on the subject. It is the present 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 33 

author's business simply to cite facts — not to draw conclusions ; wliicli 
most readers, after all, will do, according to pre-conceived prejudices 
and opinions. 

The Administrator appointed for the Mission of San Jos6 was Jose 
de Jesus Vallejo, elder brother of Genei-al and Ex-Governor G. M. 
Vallejo, and who yet resides there, enjoying the repose of old age, and 
troubling himself little about the affairs of the world, although of late 
years his once ample fortune has dwindled, like that of his compa- 
triots. Among the Mayor Domos who were employed to manage the 
lands, the crops, and the cattle, were Jose Maria Aniador, and Luis 
Suiiol, the foi'mer now residing in Santa Cruz County and the latter 
deceased. Both ' of these men have valleys named after them 
in this county. 

Most of the mission lands finally fell into strange hands, the greater 
part of them having been secured by E. L. Beard, Esq., who re- 
sides at the Mission, and who possesses one of the most lovely jjlaces 
in the State. 

The Indians soon dispersed after the Fathers were deprived of 
their power, and scattered over the surrounding country. A rem- 
nant of them is to be found in the Alameda Canon and near Pleas- 
anton. These continue to visit the Mission once a year, on Good 
Friday, when they assemble more for a feast than a fast, and take 
great pleasure in assisting at the mock cei'emony of " hanging Judas." 
They are a degraded set, and certainly could not possibly have been 
in a worse condition under the Fathers than they are now. They do 
some work on the neighboring ranches ; but they, too, are feeling ad- 
versely the presence of the Mongolian, ancj their labor is not prized 
as it used to be. They live in small huts, and wear away their lives 
in primitive simplicity and unrelieved obscurity. 

Before closing with the Mission, it is necessary to remark that 
three different structures have at various times been placed on the 
site of the present chxirch, owing to destruction and injury by earth- 
quakes. The last of these occurred on the 21st of October, 1868, 
when the country about here received the greatest shock it is known 
to have ever experienced. A di^awing of the adobe building, show- 
ing its condition, was at the time made by Miss Carmelita Vallejo, 
who has kindly placed it at the author's disposal, and is here repro- 
duced in an engraving. The injured building was subsequently re- 
moved, and a wooden structure put up in its place. Some of the 
detached adobe outhouses yet remaia standing. The old orchard 



34 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

and the vineyard continue in charge of a person employed by the 
pastor of the church, and produce more or less revenue. But the 
general aspect of the place is changed, and a different class of men 
now worehip and administer there. ' 

It would not be right to close this chapter without making allusion 
to, and naiTating something of the history of one who may be called 
the last of the Mission Fathei-s. That is Father Maria Gonzales, a 
man who must yet be remembered by many persons in the southern 
part of the county; by some with affection, by others -ft-ith respect, 
and by none with ill-will. 

This pious and exemplary person died at the Franciscan College, 
Santa Barbara, on the 3d of November, 1875. He was born in 
Guadalaxara, Mexico, and was about 72 years of age at the time of 
his death. He came to California from the Convent of Guadaloupe, 
and was a missionary at Old San Jose for many years. On the death 
of Bishop Garcia, the first Catholic Bishop of California, at Santa 
Barbara, in 1846, Father Gonzales, who was his Secretary, was 
made " Custodian of the Mitre " and Administrator of the Chm-ch 
and College property, and it remained under his management until 
1850, when the vacant see was filled by the appointment of Bishop 
Alemany. He was Superior of the Franciscans on this coast, and con- 
tinued so until about three years before his demise. He was the 
oldest missionary in the country, having come to California in the 
palmy days of the missions, before confiscation and dispersion, and 
adhered to his post, even when compelled to depend for food and 
raiment on his former attendants. His missionary career lasted 
nearly two generations, and he exhibited many of the characteristics 
of a true apostle, feeding, clothing and instructing the savage, and 
making little account of his own personal necessities. More than 
once he was offered the Episcopacy, but ever declined, in his great 
humility, to be a bishop. He was a man entitled to be respected by 
all, irrespective of religious convictions, and, as the liistorian of his 
former field qyabor, ^le author simply performs an act of justice by 
offering tliis slight but^tm^interested tribute to his memory. Virtue 
and goodness are of no particular creed, and adorn humanity. Father 
Gonzales was the relic of a system and of a body of men that have 
forever passed away, and for good or for evil controlled the destinies 
of this coast for the better part of a century. With their claims and 
controversies we have nothing to do. If we cannot espouse their 
cause, neither are we disposed to prejudice their lives. 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 35 



In 1827 a circumstance transpired at the Mission of San Jos6 
which is of much interest. Father Narcisce Duran was in charge of 
the Mission at the time. In May, of that year, Captain Jedediah 
S. Smith, the first American who is known to have crossed the Eocky 
Mountains to the Pacific Coast, pitched his tent somewhere in the 
vicinity of the mission, and, in response to enquiries concerning him- 
self and his party, he sent the following letter to the missionary : 

Reverend Father — -I understand, through the medium of one of 
your Christian Indians, that you are anxious to know who we are, 
as some of the Indians have been at the mission and informed you 
that there were certain white people in the country. We are Amer- 
icans, on our journey to the river Columbia. We were in at the 
Mission San Gabriel in January last. I went to San Diego and saw 
the General, and got a passport from him to pass on to that place. 
I have made several efibrts to cross the mountains, but the snows 
being so deep I could not succeed in getting over. I returned to 
this place (it being the only point to kill meat) to wait a few weeks 
till the snow melts, so that I can go on. The Indians hei-e also being 
friendly, I consider it the most safe point for me to remain until such 
time as I cross the mountains with my horses, having lost a great 
many in attempting to cross, ten or fifteen days since. I am a long 
ways from home, and am anxious to get there as soon as the nature 
of the case will admit. Our situation is quite unpleasant, being des- 
titute of clothing and most of the necessaries of life, wild meat being 
our principal subsistence. I am, Reverend Father, your strange, but 
real, friend and Christian brother, J. S. Smith. 

May 19, 1827. 

The tone of this letter should have called forth an active sympa- 
thy from a Christian missionary, and it is to be presumed " the real 
friend and Christian brother " was hospitably treated ; although then, 
as subsequently, there was much jealousy prevailing against for- 
eigners. 



1591509 



36 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



ELOOTJTIOIN" 



WM. N. VAN DE MARK, 

¥e^dl\ef of 3i{lo(5utioi\^ 

BEGS LEAVE TO ANNOUNCE TO THE 

CITIZENS OF OAKLAND AND YICINITI, 

That, after a year's successful teaching in this communit)', he is now 
prepared to take a few more Classes in this most excellent method of 
attaining power in Conversation, upon the Platform, and on the Theat- 
rical vStage. It is not only an intellectual accomplishment which all 
should enjoy, but a health-giving and life-saving knowledge. It is 
one of the surest guards against CONSUMPTION — preserving the 
LUNGS by proper inspiration, and strengthening the vocal organs by 
daily practice. 

Mr. Van De Mark, in consequence of the liberal patronage he 
enjoys, is enabled to offer his services at very Moderate Terms. 
Young Ladies and Gentlemen with weak voices, will be astonished at 
the compass and volume they will attain under his method of vocal 
drill. 

Mr. V. can be consulted in regard to terms, etc., at his Institute, 

OE3SrTEISr3Sri.A^3Li HCOXJSE^ 

Near the City Hall, 
FOURTEENTH STREET, OAKLAND, GAL. 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 37 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE RANCHOS AND LIFE UPON THEM. 

The missions, although ruined, " secularized " slowly. The Mission 
of San Jos6 was in possession of the priests at the time of the 
American conquest, and its lands were not sold until the year 1846. 
The Spanish Government did not do much in the disposal of land 
to settlers, and only two Spanish grants are known to have been 
made in this section. Those are, first, the celebrated grant made to 
Don Luis Peralta, known as the San Antonio Rancho, on which the 
City of Oakland and neighboring towns have since been built ; and 
the Los Tularcitos Rancho, situated partly in Santa Clara and 
Alameda Counties, and granted to Jos6 Hi'guera. The former was 
made on the 20th day of June, 1820 ; and the latter on the 4th day 
of October, 1821, by Governor Don Pablo Vicente de Sola, the last 
Spanish and the first Mexican Governor of California. 

In 1824 the Mexican Government adopted a law of colonization. It 
was four years later, however, in 1828, before the "General Rules 
and Regulations for the Colonization of the Territories of the 
Republic " were adopted, and only a single Mexican gi-ant was made 
anywhere in California before 1833. 

Following is the order of establishment of the different ranches in 
Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, then known as the Ranches of 
the North : 
1820 — San Antonio Rancho ; five leagues, by Governor Don Pablo 

Vincente de Sola, to Luis Peralta. 
1821 — Las Tularcitos ; — leagues, by Gov. de Sola, to Jose Higuera. 
1833 — Las Juntas ; — leagues, by Gov. Figueroa, to Bartolo 

Pacheco and Mariano Castro. 
1834— Acalanes ; 1 square league, by Gov. Figueroa, to Candelario 

Valencia. 
1834 — Arroyo de las Neuces ; 2 square leagues, by Gov. Figueroa, 

to Juan Sanches Pacheco. 
1834 — San Pablo; 4 square leagues, by Gov. Figueroa, to Francisco 

M. Castro. 
1835 — San Ramon ; 4 square leagues and 1,800 varas, by Gov. 

Figueroa, to Jose Maria Amador. 



38 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

1835 — Los Meganos; 4 leagues by 3, by Gov. Jos6 Castro, to Jose 

Noreiga. 
1836 — Agua Calienta ; 2 square leagues, by Governors Gutierrez and 

Alvarado, to F. Higuera. 
1839 — Las Positas ; 2 square leagues, by Gov. Alvai-ado, to Salvio 

Pacheco. 
1839 — El Valle de San Jose ; — leagues, by Gov. Alvarado, to An- 
tonio Maria Pico. 
1839 — Los Medanos ; 2 square leagues, by Gov. Alvarado, to Jos6 

Antonio Mesa and others. 
1839 — Santa Rita ; 8,885.67 acres, by Gov. Alvarado to Jos6 Dolores 

Pacheco. 
1840 — Land, to Guillermo Castro, by Gov. Alvarado. 
1840 — Arroyo del Alameda ; 1,000 varas square, by Gov. Vallejo to 

Jos6 Jesus Yallejo. 
1841 — San Lorenzo; 600 varas square, by Gov. Alvarado, to Guil- 
lermo Castro. 
1841 — El Sobrante ; 11 square leagues, by Gov. Alvarado, to Juan 

Jose Castro. 
1841 — Lagima de los Palos ; 3 square leagues, by Gov. Alvarado, to 

Joaquin Moraga. 
1842 — Boca de Cailada del Pinole ; 3 square leagues, by Gov. Alva- 
rado, to Maria Manuel Valencia. 
1842 — San Lorenzo; 1| square leagues, by Gov, Michel torena, to 

Francisco Soto. 
1842 — San Leandro ; 1 square league, by Gov. Alvarado, to Joaquin 

Estudillo. 
1842 — Canada de los Vacqueros ; — leagues, by Gov. Micheltorena, 

to Francisco Alviso. 
1842 — Canada del Hambre ; 2 square leagues, by Gov. Alvanxdo, to 

Teodora Sota. 
1842 — Arroyo del Alameda; 4 square leagues, by Gov. Alvarado, to 

Jos6 Jesus Vallejo. 
1843 — San Lorenzo; 6 square leagues; by Gov. Micheltorena, to 

Guillermo Castro. 
1844 — Las Juntas ; 3 square leagues, by Gov. Micheltorena, to Wm. 

Welch. 
1844— Monte del Diablo ; 17,921.54 acres ; by Gov. Micheltorena, to 
Salvio Pacheco. 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 39 

1844 — Potrero de los Cerritos ; 3 square leagues, by Gov. Michelto- 

rena to Tomas Paclieco. 
1846 — Mission San Jose ; 30,000 acres, by Gov. Pio Pico to Andres 
Pico and Juan B. Alvarado. 

Nearly, if not all, the grantees of those lands had been soldiers. 
Peralta based his claim on over forty years' military service, and val- 
uable assistance rendered in establishing the missions of Santa Clara, 
Santa Cruz and San Jose, and the number of his family. Salvio 
Pacheco, who died on the 13th of August, 1876, had been a member 
of the Departmental Assembly. Certain foi-malities had, however, 
to be undergone, and in some instances parties had lived for years 
upon their lands before the date of their grants. This will be illus- 
trated by copjdng from the documents put in proof by the Estudillo 
family, for maintaining possession of their rancho, before the United 
States Commissioner in 1854. Following are the petition for the 
land, the grant from the Governor, and the conditions imposed : 
ExMO. SoR : 

The citizen Jos6 Joaquin Estudillo, a Mexican by birth, be- 
fore your Excellency appears through these presents saying : That 
with the object of securing subsistence for and supporting a large 
family, consisting of his wife and ten children, after having been 
in the military service for a period of seventeen years, four months 
and seven days, he solicited, under date of January 8th, 1837, 
the land known as the Arroyo de San Leandro to that of San Lo- 
renzo, four square leagues of land (four sitios de gadado mayor) from 
west to east, and having obtained from your Excellency, who is kind 
to, and protects the interests of, the inhabitants of this country, that 
I should establish myself and continue working until the legal pro- 
ceedings were gone through, which I have done during the long term 
of five years, five months and several days, and as my expediente has 
been mislaid in the Government Secretary's ofiice, I now make a new 
petition, duly accompanied by the annexed draught or plan of the 
said land, that in view thereof you may act as it may please you, re- 
maining perfectly satisfied with your deci'ee ; consequently I entreat 
your Excellency to view my petition in a favorable light, so that I 
may receive the favor that I ask for and expect, paying to yoiu* Ex- 
cellency as homage my eternal gratitude. 

JOSIE JOAQUIN ESTUDILLO. 
Monterey, June 28th, 1842. 



40 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Wliereupon, the then Governor of California, Juan B. Alvaraclo, 
granted said petition in the words following : 

Monterey, October 16th, 1842. 

In view of the petition that heads this expediente, the information 
that was considered necessary to take, and everything else that was 
thought of, having found that they agree with the laws and regula- 
tions on this subject, I declare Don Joaquin Estudillo owner in pos- 
session of a part of the land known under the name of San Leandro, 
bounded on the north by the Arroyo San Leandro, on the east by 
the drainings of the Springs, on the land now occupied by the In- 
dians now settled there ; from this point in a straight line south to 
the Arroyo San Lorenzo, without inchiding the lands cultivated by 
the above-mentioned Indians, and on the west by the sea. Let the 
necessary document be issued, take note of it in the Book of Record, 
and send this expediente to the exmajunta departmental for its appro- 
bation. His Excellency the Grovernor has thus ordered," decreed and 
signed it, 

J. B. ALYARADO, 
Constitutional Governor of the Department of the Californias. 

Whereas, The citizen Joaquin Estudillo has petitioned for his 
personal benefit and that of his family for a part of the land known 
imder the name of San Leandro, the bovmdary of which being on the 
noi-th of the Arroyo San Leandro, on the east the drainage (derama- 
deros) of the Springs in the lands occupied by the Indians now settled 
there; from this point in a straight line south to the "Arroyo de San 
Lorenzo," without including the lands cultivated by the Indians 
ali-eady mentioned, and on the west by the sea, having previously 
taken all the necessary steps and regulations on this subject : In vir- 
tue of the powers conferred on me, in the name of the Mexican nation, 
I hereby decide to gi-ant him the land mentioned, giving to him the 
right of possession thereof by these presents, and by the approbation 
which he has obtained from the Exm'a Junta Depai-tmental, being 
subject to the following conditions: 

1st. He has the power to fence it without interfering with the 
passages, roads, and other rights (scridembi'es). He shall enjoy it 
freely and exclusively, applying it to any use or culture that may be 
most agreeable to him, but witliin a year he shall build a house, and 
said house must be inhabited. 

2d. He shall solicit to be placed in lawful possession in virtue of 
this document, from the competent judge by whom the boundaries 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 41 

shall be marked out, and on their borders he shall, besides placing 

the land marks, plant some fruit trees or some forest trees of some 

utility. 

3d. The land granted is one square league (one sitio de ganado 

mayor), a little more or less, as it is shown by the sketch annexed to 

the expediente on this matter. 

The judge who shall place him in possession must have the land 

measured according to law, leaving the remainder for the uses the 

nation may decree proper. 

4th. Should he contravene these conditions he shall lose his right 

to the land, and it shall be denounced by any other person. 

In vu-tue whereof I order this title, being good and valid, that a 

copy of it be taken in the Book of Record, and that it be delivered to 

the party interested for his security and other ends. 
Given in Monterey, 16th Oatober, 1842. 

Notwithstanding the liberal extent of those gi-ants, there was 
always more or less trouble about their settlement ; boundary lines 
were indefinite, and conflicting claims intervened. Peralta had 
trouble at first with the Padres of the Mission de Lores of San 
Francisco, as will be more fully shown when we come to the history of 
Oakland ; and his son, subsequently, with his neighbor Castro, to 
the right of him ; Estudillo, with his neighbor, the other Castro, to 
the left of him ; and so on, nearly with them all. 

Pei-alta, who had secured another grant of land for his own use in 
Santa Clara County, never resided on the San Antonio Rancho, but 
divided it up among his four sons. These at first lived together in 
one house near the foot-hills on the San Leandro side, and enjoyed 
the property in common ; but finally, having all got maiTied, and 
each possessing stock of his own, the father determined to make 
a division of the rancho among them. In August, 1842, he came up 
one day from San Jose ; they all mounted their horses and rode over 
the land together, when he parceled it out among them, marking 
out the boundaries by natural objects, and putting each one in pos- 
session of his portion. It was divided, as nearly as possible, into 
four equal parts, each running from the bay to the hills, giving to 
u os6 Domingo the most northerly quarter, on which Berkeley is now 
situated ; to Vincente, the next adjoining on the south, including the 
oak grove, then known as the Encinal de Temescal (now the City of 
Oakland) ; to Antonio Maria, the next adjoining on the south, on 
which are situated Brooklyn and Alameda ; to Ygnacio, the most 



42 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

southerly portion, being bounded by " the deep Creek of San Lean- 
dro." 

It will be noticed that the valleys in the southern portion of the 
county, including Washington and Murray Townships, were given 
the general name of the Valley of San Jos6, after the mission, for 
which they were grazing grounds. 

One foreigner only is included among the original grantees : 
William Welch, a native of Ireland, to whom was given Las Juntas, 
which pai-fly fronted on the Straits of Carquinez, and on which our 
first county town, Martinez, is built. Others, however, came in 
at an early date, and by purchase or by marriage secured possession 
of considerable tracts of land, long even before there was any 
serious thought of the conquest of the country by the Americans. 
Among these, the first was Joseph Livermore, an Englishman by 
birth, who came to California in a whaling vessel and deserted there- 
from at Santa Cruz, in 1820, in company with a man named Julian 
Wilson. He worked at various places, gaining the good will of the 
Spanish settlers, and married Josefa Higuera. He helped to build 
Amador's house in Amador Valley, and Amador afterwards, in 
return, helped him in the same manner. Finally, in connection with 
Jose Noreiga, he got possession of the Las Positas Rancho, of two 
square leagues, in Alameda County ; and in his own name, of the 
Caiiada de los Vacqueros, Contra Costa County, and both now form 
a portion of what is generally known as the Livermore Valley. 

The next was Dr. John Marsh, an American, who came to the 
country in 1836, and, in 1840, purchased Los Medanos, which is 
since celebrated as the New York Ranch, in Contra Costa County, 
near which are situated the Mount Diablo coal mines, and from the 
water-front of which, opposite the confluence of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin Rivers, the coal is shipped to market. We shall have 
more to say of this remarkable man hereafter. 

Another old American settler, Avho was successful in securing a 
ranch during the days of the Mexican Republic, was Elam Brown, 
who settled here in 1847, and purchased the Acalanes Rancho of one 
league, granted, in 1834, to Candelario Valencia. 

The most distinguished person who made the Northern Rauchos his 
home in early days, is J. B. Alvarado, Mexican Governor of Califor- 
nia from 1836 to 1842, and who, in his oificial capacity, made many 
of the grants of land that are here recorded. He cultivates an orchard 
in the vicinity of San Pablo, and after him is named the place which has 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 43 

the distinction of being our first county seat. Alameda County, how- 
ever, has the honor of being the residence of more than one governor 
of California. Governor Alvarado is still among us, a hale and hearty 
old gentleman. It is curious to reflect upon how few, even he him- 
self now possesses, of those broad acres that he was wont to parcel 
out to others with an unsparing hand in other days. Little did he 
then dream of the enormous value that those then comparatively 
worthless leagues were soon to acquii'e in the hands of another race 
and under the vigorous operations of another system. It is no exag- 
geration to say that they have become mines of wealth, more endur- 
ing and beneficial than the mines of gold which at first brought our 
State into such great prominence. 

From 1833 to 1850 may be set down as the Golden Age of the 
native Californians. Not till then did the settlement of the ranchos 
become general. The missions were breaking up, the presidios de- 
sei'ted, the population dispersed, and land could be had almost for the 
asking. Never before and never since did a people settle down under 
the blessings of more diverse advantages. The country was lovely, 
the climate delightful ; the valleys were filled with horses and cattle ; 
wants were few, and no one dreaded dearth. There was meat for the 
pot and wine for the cup, and wild game in abundance. No one was 
in a hurry. " Bills payable " nor the state of the stocks troubled 
anyone, and Arcadia seems to have temporarily made this her seat. 
The people did not, necessarily, even have to stir the soil for a liveli- 
hood, because the abundance of their stock furnished them with food 
and enough hides and tallow to procure money for every purpose. 
They had also the advantage of cheap and docile labor in the Indians, 
already trained to work at the missions. And had they looked in 
the earth for gold, they could have found it in abundance. 

They were exceedingly sociable and hospitable. Every guest was 
welcomed. The sparsity of the population made them rely on each 
other, and they had many occasions to bring them together. Church 
days, bull-fights, rodeos, were all occasions of festivity. Horseman- 
ship was practiced as it was never before out of Ai-abia ; dancing 
found a ball-room in every house, and music was not unknown. For 
a cahallero to pick up a silver coin from the ground, at full gallop, 
was not considered a feat, and any native youth could perform the 
mustang riding which lately was accomplished with such credit by 
a young Peralta of this section, in New York. To fasten down a 
mad bull with the larriete, or even subdue him single-handed, in a 



44 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

corral, were eveiy-day performances. The branding and selecting of 
cattle in rodeos was always a gala occasion. 

Gambling was a passion, and love-making was ever betokened in 
the tender glances of the dark-eyed senoritas. Monte was the com- 
mon amusement of every household. Its public practice was against 
the law, but in the privacy of the family it went on unhindered. 

What farming they did was of a very rude description ; their 
plow was a primitive contrivance, their vehicles unwieldy. Such 
articles of husbandry as reapers, mowers and headers, had not en- 
tered their dreams, and they were perfectly independent of their 
advantages. Grain was cut with a short, stumpy, smooth-edged 
sickle ; it Avas threshed by the tramping of horses. One of their 
few evils was the depredations of the Avild Indians, who would some- 
times steal their stock, and then the cattle would have to perform 
the work of separation. The cleaning of grain was performed by 
throwing it in the air with wooden shovels and allowing the wind to 
carry off the chaff. 

While the young men found means to gratify their tastes for 
highly wrought saddles and elegant bridles, the women had their 
fill of finery, furnished by the Yankee vessels that visited them 
regularly for trade every year. Few schools were established, but 
the rudiments of education were given at home. 

There was a strict code of laws in force for maintaining order, and 
crime seldom went unpunished. ^ Chastity was guarded, and trouble 
about females was not as frequent as might be supposed. Women, 
unfaithful to their vows, were confined in convents or compelled to 
periods of servitude. Men, guilty of adulteiy, wei-e sent to the 
presidios and compelled to serve as soldiers. The law was adminis- 
tered by Alcaldes, Prefects and the Governor. Murder was very rare, 
suicide unknown, and San Francisco was without a jail. Wine was 
plentiful and so was brandy. There was a native liquor in use that 
was very intoxicating. It Avas a sort of cognac, which was very 
agreeable and very volatile, and went like a flash to the brain. It 
was expensive and those selling it made a large profit. This liquor 
was known as aguardiente, and was the favorite tipple until sup- 
planted by the whiskey of the Americanos. It was mostly made in 
Los Angeles, where the better part of the grapes raised were used 
for it. When any considerable crime was ever committed, it was 
under its influence. Its evil eflects, however, might possibly be 
attributed to a counterfeit which is yet in use in the southern part of 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 45 

the State, and which is one of the vilest of concoctions. Those who are 
acquainted with its evil effects say that it is " too unutterably villain- 
ous for words, and the wretch who has swallowed thi-ee fingei-s of it 
may bid adieu to all hope of days passed without headaches and 
nights put in without unsufferable agony, for a week, at least." The 
beverage most in use, however, was the mission wine, and a mayor 
domo has informed the writer that he made fifty ban-els a year of it 
at Mission San Jose. Milk and cheese, beef, mutton, vegetables, 
bread, tortillos, beans and fruit, constituted the daily diet. Potatoes 
were unkno^vn, but pinole was plentiful. Wild strawberries were 
numerous about the coast, and honey was procured from wild bees. 

The Californians were not without their native manufactures, and 
they did not, as is generally supposed, rely altogether upon the 
slaughter of cattle and the sale of hides and tallow. The missiona- 
ries had taught them the cultivation of the grape and manufacture of 
wine. Hemp, flax, cotton and tobacco were gi-own in small quanti- 
ties. Soap, leather, oil, brandy, wool, salt, soda, harness, saddles, 
wagons, blankets, etc., were manufactured. Wheat was even then 
an article of export and sold to Russian vessels. A church historian 
has said, that to such perfection had even the Indians attained in the 
manufacture of these articles in the missions, that " some of them 
were eagerly sought for and purchased in the principal capitals of 
Europe ;" but, if this were really the case, no doubt the circumstances 
of their production and the country from which they came, made 
them objects of very great curiosity. 

Among those who carried on manufacturing in California was Jos6 
Maria Amador, at his well-known rancho, in Amador Valley, and his 
adobe work-shops are still extant, but used for a different purpose. 

There were occasional political trovibles, but these did not much 
interfere with the profound quiet into which the people had settled. 
The change from a monarchy to a republic scarcely produced a ripple. 
The invasion of the Americans did not stir them very profoundly ; 
and if their domains had not been invaded, their lands seized, their 
cattle stolen, their wood cut and earned off, and their taxes increased, 
no doubt they would have continued in their once self-satisfied state 
to the present day. But they received such a shock in their slum- 
bers that they, too, like their predecessors, the Indians, are rapidly 
passing away. 

Whether the rude and unjust treatment they have received at the 
hands of the new-comers, or that the band of Mexican cut-throats 



46 



HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



imported by Micheltorena in 1842, as soldiers, have bred a race of 
thieves and vagabonds, will not be here determined ; but, certainly, 
the Mexican population of California has produced, since the Ameri- 
can occupation, a large number of dangerous and very troublesome 
criminals. Our own county has had its full share of them, but now, 
happily, owing to the exertions of intrepid officers, they have been 
extirpated. Horse and cattle-stealing was their great weakness. 




UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 47 

STARKWEATHER & SON, 

IMPORTERS OF 

Carpets and Oil Cloths 

Offer to the citizens of Oakland and Alameda County the largest 
and most attractive stock of 

o A. 1=1. ]p :e T s 

Ever shown in this vicinity. The Vert Latest Patterns of Body Brus- 
sels, Tapestries, Three-Plies and Ingrains, Hugs, Mats, 
Matting, etc., etc., etc. 

on Carpets lata nn, Cleanscl, ReJtteil aiii Relaii the same iay, 

when desired. Perfect satisfaction guaranteed in all cases. 



STARKWEATHER & SON, 

1153 Broadway, Between Thirteenth and Fourteenth Sts., 
O ^^ I^ 31j^^ ISI ID _ 

G-IBO. T. iBEiOUT, . 

(SUCCESSOR TO BECHT & NICOL,) 
IMPORTER OF 

GAS FIXTURES, 

PLUMBER, STEAM AIHD GAS FITTER. 



ToToloizig P^ron3.:ptl3r ^^ttendec^. to. 



No. 1014 BRADWAY, 
OAKLAJVD, ------- CAL. 



48 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 







o 

Eh 
so 



*? 
^ 








0) 

■H 
H 

ti 

cS 

6D 
f! 

•H 
•H 

ffl 







UNDER MEXICAN" RULE. 49 



CHAPTER X. 

DOMESTIC GOVERNMENT AND THE FINAL FATE OF THE MISSIONS. 

The Spanish archives in San Francisco contaia many documents 
that ai'e interesting to the student of California histoiy, and show 
how carefully the officials treasured even trivial things. Among the 
articles we have been shown, is a copy-book sent by a schoolmaster 
to the Governor, to exhibit the proficiency his pupils were making in 
their studies. Passages of the Old Testament, of which the following 
are a sample, were used for initiating youth into the mysteries of the 
un-Spencerian and un-Paytonian hands of those days : " The Ish- 
maelites having ;" " Jacob sent him to see his brothers ;" " Abimilech 
took from Abraham." 

As might be expected from so primitive-minded a people, there 
were many silly complaints obtruded on the Alcaldes, Prefects and 
Governors. Some of those have been translated, and are calculated 
to provoke a smile at the present day. One poor fellow complained 
to the Alcalde that he had been badly treated by his wife, who had 
carried her injustice and contempt for him so far as to refuse him his 
marital rights. Another document tells how a young Lothario had 
been caught by a young lady's mother in a very suspicious position, 
and how he, to save himself from summary chastisement, hastily 
declared that his intentions were "honorable and matrimonial." 
Another relates, with great gravity, in a communication to the 
Governor, how an Indian woman at one of the missions had given 
birth to " dos perritos" or puppies, and this the Governor thought of 
sufficient importance to transmit to the Viceroy in Mexico, for the 
savans of Spain to investigate. 

There are some documents there, however, that have more pai-ticu- 
lar interest for the reader than those referred to. 

The one hereunder produced will amuse as well as instruct. 
Forty-one years have elapsed since it was written. It is a record of 
proceedings had by the residents in the vicinity of San Francisco 
(Contra Costa), praying that they might be allowed to belong to the 
jurisdiction of San Jose Guadalupe, instead of that of San Francisco. 
It is as follows : 



50 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



To His Excellency the Governor : 

The residents of the adjoining Ranches of the North, now belong- 
ing to the jurisdiction of the port of San Francisco, with due respect 
to your Excellency, represent : That finding great detriment and 
feeling the evils under which they labor from belonging to this juris- 
diction, whereby they are obliged to represent to your Excellency 
that it causes an entire abandoning of their families for a year by 
those who attend the judiciary functions and are obliged to cross the 
bay. Truthfully speaking, to be obliged to go to the port by land, 
we are under the necessity of traveling forty leagues, going and com- 
ing back ; and to go by sea, we are exposed to the danger of being 
wrecked. By abandoning our families, as above stated, it is evident 
that they must remain without protection against the influences of 
malevolent persons ; they are also exposed to detention and loss of 
labor and projjerty and injury by animals. There is no lodging to be 
had in that port where, for a year, an ayuntamiento is likely to 
detain them, and, should they take their families, mcurring heavy 
expenses for their transportation and necessary provisioning for the 
term of their engagement, there is no accommodation for them. 
Wherefore, in view of these fticts, they pray your Excellency to be 
pleased to allow them to belong to the jurisdiction of the to^vn of 
San Jose, and recognize a commission of justice that will correspond 
with the said San Jose as capital for the people in this vicinity ; 
wherefore we humbly pray your Excellency to favor the parties inter- 
ested by acceding to their wishes. 

San Antonio, San Fable, and the adjacent Ranchos of the North, 
May 30, 1835. 

Antonio Maria Feralta, Joaquin Ysidro Castro, Bias Narboes, Z. 
Bias Angeleno, Sanuago Mesa, Juan Jos6 Castro, Gabriel Castro, 
Antonio Castro, Candelario Valencia, Jos6 Femlta, Fernando 
Feles, Antonio Amejar, Juan Bernal, Marcano Castro, Antonio 
Ygerce, Ygnacio Feralta, Bruno Valencia, Joaq'n Moraga, Rar 
mon Fovero, Jose Duarte, Fi'ancisco Facheco, Bartolo Facheco, 
Mareano Castro, Felipe Briones, Julian Veles, Rafael Veles, 
Francisco Soto, Franco Amego. 

Several of these names can readily be recognized as the proprietors 
of ranchos, but quite a number of them are those of retainers. The 
document is indeed a curious one. It shows that the bay, which Are 
now cross in thirty minutes, was to these people "a sea of trouble 
the passage of which exposed them to the dangere of the deep — to 
shipwreck and disaster ! How changed, how different is all this 
now 1 Instead of no place to lodge, San Francisco to-day boasts the. 
finest hotels in the world ; while the means of transportation consists 
of floating palaces and endless trains of steam cars. And only forty 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 51 

ontB years ! It is hard to realize the wonderful transformation that 
has taken place within this brief period. 

The document was duly received at Monterey. Its history is as 
follows : 

Under date Aug. 12th, 1835, it was endorsed : " Let it be kept to 
be reported to the deputation." Under date of Sept. 1st, it was 
endorsed : " On this day the same was reported and referred to the 
Committee on Government." Over date of Sept. 5th, the committee 
reported as follows : " Most Excellent Sir : The Committee on Gov- 
ernment being required to report upon the memorial, with the parties 
subscribed thereto, made to the Political Chief on the 30th day of 
May last, finds that the said memorial is grounded upon good reasons 
and public convenience ; but, as the subject should be considered 
upon proper reports for a due determination, the Committee is of 
opinion that the reports of the Ayuntamientos of the towns of San 
Jos6 and San Francisco are required for that purpose. Therefore, 
the Committee offers, for the deliberation of the most Excellent 
Deputation, the follow"ing propositions : 1st. That this expediente be 
referred to the Ayuntamientos of the towns of San Jos6 and San 
Francisco, in order that they report upon said memorial. 2d. That 
after which, the same be returned for determination. Signed, 
Man'l Jimeno. Salved Pacheco." 

"Monterey, Sept. 10th, 1835. — At the session of this day the 
most Excellent Deputation has approved the two propositions made 
in the report of the Committee on Government. Manuel Jimeno." 

"Monterey, Sept. 28th, 1835. — Let this expediente be forwarded 
to the Ayuntamiento of the town (pueblo) of San Jose Guadeloupe 
for a report upon the prayer of the foregoing memorial, and to that 
of San Francisco for the like purpose. The Ayuntamiento of the 
latter town will moreover give a list of the residents of the vicinity 
of the same. Don Jose Castro, senior member of the Most Excel- 
lent Ter)-itorial Deputation and Superior Political Chief of the Upper 
California, thus commended, decreed and signed this, which I attest, 
Jose Castro. Fran'co del Castello Negrete, Sec'y." 

" In pursviance of the foregoing Supreme Order of Y. E., this 
Ayuntamiento begs to state the following : That with regard to the 
residents on the northern vicinity, now under jurisdiction of San 
Francisco, and who in their memorial prayed to be exempted from 
belonging to that jurisdiction, owing to most notable detriment occa- 
sioned to them now and then from having indispensably to cross the 



52 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Bay, or to travel upwards of forty leagues, while on half their way 
they can come to this town (pueblo), under the jurisdiction of which 
they formerly were, which was most suitable and less inconvenient 
to them, this Ayuntamiento thinks that their prayer should be 
granted, if it is so found right. Antonio Ma. Pico, Ignacio Mar- 
tinez, Sec. Jose Berreyesa. Town of San Jose Guadalupe, Nov. 
4th, 1835." 

The response of the Ayuntamiento of San Francisco (which in 
fact was a remonstrance) was lengthy, and treated the complaints of 
the petitioners as frivolous. They were rebuked for their want of 
patriotism, and were asked if they could compare their service of 
traveling forty leagues with that of others, who, for the purpose of 
serving their country, had traveled many leagues in the interior of 
the republic, and others who had traveled from San Francisco to San 
Diego in the performance of public duties. It indignantly asks : 
" Which are those Peraltas and Castros that have been wrecked on 
attending to then- business affairs every time that any vessel comes to 
anchor in the Bay of Yerba Buena ^" — and denies that up to that 
time any such calamitous event ever happened. The charge that 
there were no accommodations at the Presidio for them is denied, 
and the declaration made that the officers of the present Ayuntami- 
ento were provided with accommodations by the Commandant of the 
Presidio at the time the same were installed. The proximity of the 
Castro and Peralta ranches, opposite the Presidio, is alluded to, and 
the jurisdiction of San Fi-ancisco insisted upon. The document is 
signed by Francisco de Haro, and is dated. Port of San Francisco, 
Dec. 20, 1835. 

The whole of this is interesting as exhibiting the routine observed 
in the management of public business, and the length of time it took, 
in that circumlocutionary day, to accomplish anything. It has, also, 
all the appearance of having been the Jirst of our coimty seat quarrels^ 
of which we have had, surely, a sufficiency ever since. 

It seems that they had such institutions as primary elections in 
those days, for I find that an election of Electors of the Ayunta- 
miento (town council), in the Town of San Francisco, took place in 
December, 1835, at which 9 Electors wei-e chosen by ballot, as fol- 
lows : Citizen Bartolo Bajorques received 16 votes; Jos6 de la Cruz 
Sanchez, 14; Felipe Brioues (one of the Conti-a Costa petitioners), 
14; Gabriel Castro (another), 13; Manuel Sanchez, 11; Francisco 
Sanchez, 1 1 ; Ygnacio Peralta (another), 1 1 ; Joaquin Estudillo, 1 1 ; 



UNDER MEXICAN RULE. 53 

Candelario Valencia (another), 10. The men of the "Northern 
Ranches," it would seem, came very near carrying (if they did not 
actually do so) the " primary," and the event goes to show the 
political influence of tliis side of the bay, even at that remote day, 
of which we have hitherto had little idea. That the petition was 
finally defeated, however, is evident. At any rate, in 1835, an 
Auxiliary Alcalde or Magistrate was appointed for Contra Costa, in 
the person of Gregoria Briones. The appointment was made by the 
" Constitutional Alcalde," and was sanctioned by the approval of 
Governor Figueroa. 

In 1840, Governor Alvarado issued new regulations regarding the 
missions, by which the ofiice of administrator was abolished and 
mayordomos and inspectors instituted instead. The highest salary 
paid to any mayordomo was to the one at the Mission of San Jose, 
which amounted to $600 per annum ; the next highest being that of 
Santa Clara, with $480. 

It appears that, even down to this date, the attempt to secularize 
the missions had not been complete, and that some of the Indians 
were still living in them in community. The new I'egulations only 
had the efiect of completing their ruiii, although three years later 
Micheltorena attempted their restoration. Secular priests could not 
be had, and there was no ecclesiastical head in the territory. 

In 1845 Pio Pico, governor ad interim, by order of the Depart- 
mental Assembly of Mexico, issued a proclamation for the sale and 
leasing of the missions. They were divided into three classes : those 
that were to be sold, those that were to be rented, and those that 
eould not be sold nor rented on account of indebtedness. Of the 
latter class were the Missions of Santa Clara and San Jos6. The 
proclamation stated that " the renting of these missions shall take 
place when the difficulties shall be got over which at present exist 
with respect to the debts of these establishments, and then the Gov- 
ernment will inform the public ; and all shall be done agreeably to 
these regulations." During the following year (1846), that of the 
American invasion, Governor Pico made a grant of the mission lands 
in this county, some 30,000 acres, to his brother, Andi-es Pico and 
Ex-Governor Juan B. Alvarado. It appears that the governors 
and ex-governors took some care of themselves and their friends, for 
they divided much of the mission pi'operty among them. It does not 
seem, however, to have benefited them a great deal. 



\ 




/ 




J ft t 












^ i 1 












^ 1 Q s ,- 





1 




1 iz; !^ 3 


rf 






^ < i 


■H 






I O '^ M 


' 


1 


1 O ^ J 




/ 




\ 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



CHAPTER X. 

WONDERFUL AND RAPID MARCH OF EVENTS FREMONT AND HIS FOL- 
LOWERS TRAVERSE THE COUNTRY THE RANCHEROS COMPELLED 

TO SUPPLY HORSES AND FORAGE CONQUEST OP THE PROVINCE 

FIRST AMERICAN SETTLERS ON THE SCENE THE DISCOVERY OF 

GOLD AND THE RUSH THROUGH THE LIVERMORE PASS VIA THE 
MISSION THE ROUTES THROUGH THE COUNTY AND THE HOSPITAL- 
ITY OF THE RANCHEROS THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION AND 

WHO REPRESENTED US THERE THE FIRST CALIFORNIA LEGISLA- 
TURE AND ITS PROCEEDINGS CONTRA COSTA COUNTY CREATED 

AND HOW IT CAME TO GET ITS NAME NARROW ESCAPE FROM THE 

DEVIL— A BID FOR THE STATE CAPITAL CALIFORNIA ADMITTED 

INTO THE UNION. 

In 1846 war broke out between the United States and Mexico. 
It is estimated that there were 15,000 people in Upper California 
then, exchisive of Indians. Of these, about 2,000 were from the 
United States. In March of that year. Col. John C. Fremont came 
over tlie plains and across the mountains to California, on his way to 
Oregon. He appeared first at Monterey, and asked permission of 
Governor Castro to proceed thence, via the San Joaquin Yalley, on his 
errand. Pemiission was gi'anted, but was almost immediately after 
revoked, and he ordered to leave the country with his party, which 
consisted of only 42 men. He did not leave as ordered, but proceeded 
on his journey. His route was via Mission San Jose and Stockton. 
One of his camping places was pointed out to the writer, a few years 
since, by the late Henry C Smith, who was one of his party. It was 
on the hill-side, near the Laguna, between Sunol and Pleasanton. At 
that time the whole country was covered with wild oats. Fremont 
continued on his journey, entered the San Joaquin and Sacramento 
valleys, and had got as far north as the Great Klamath Lakes, when 
hostile demonstrations in his rear, and despatches which he then re- 



56 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ceived, caused him to retrace his steps. Startling events had occurred 
before he again entered the Contra Costa, but a few weeks later. 
The "bear flag" had been raised at Sonoma, the Mexican forces driven 
out of that part of the Province north of the Sacramento River, the 
guns of the old fort near the Presidio of San Francisco spiked, and the 
independence of California declared. Not only this. War had broken 
out between the United States and Mexico, and Commodore Sloat 
had hoisted the American flag and taken j^ossession of the California 
capital, Monterey. Fremont, with a much increased force, was pur- 
suing the hostile Mexican bands, and levied supplies of stock and 
forage on the inhabitants as he went along. He marched down the 
San Ramon Yalley and took what he wanted from the ranches. 
Amador, who was then living at his place, was stripped of all his 
stock. The old man states that it was only after an earnest entreaty 
he was left even a single saddle-horse for his own use. When he 
asked Fremont by what right he thus deprived people of their pro- 
perty, he answered, "by the right of my rifles." Amador was no 
friend after that of Fremont. The Pathfinder, however, meant bxis- 
iness. The country was soon conquered, and Fremont's corps dis- 
banded. Many of his men remained in the country; several of them 
settled in this county. 

Before this, the only foreigners in this part of the country were 
Welch, at Antioch ; Dr. Marsh, on the New York Ranch ; and 
Livermore, on the Las Positas. Those who made their homes hex'e 
after the war was ended were the Smiths, Harlans, Meudenhalls, 
Pattersons, &c., who shall be more fully referred to hereafter. An 
acquisition of American population was received from another sovn-ce 
the same year. A company of Mormons, from New York, arrived 
in the ship Brooklyn, at San Francisco, on the 31st day of July, 1846, 
under the leadership of Samuel Brannan, some of whom soon found 
their way across the bay, and settled at Washington, within a few 
miles of the mission, where a Mormon church was afterwards built. 
That i^arty furnished the materials for the first American colony, and 
several of its members are now respected iiien in this community ; 
some of them, however, have abandoned their peculiar notions. A 
member of that party, now living in Brooklyn, , has informed the 
writer that he roamed over the Contra Costa hills and traveled down 
the slope that year. The parties coming from San Francisco to view 
the country would land in boats at the mouth of the Temescal Creek 
and then proceed to the residence of Yincente Peralta, two or three 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 57 

miles inland. If they called, they were sure to be hosjsitably enter- 
tained. Thence, they would proceed, following the foot-hills, to 
Antonio Peralta's, near Fruit Yale ; thence to Ygnacio Peralta's, 
near San Leandro Creek ; thence to the Estudillo Rancho, on the 
south side of the creek ; and from there to Guillermo Castro's, at 
the site of the present town of Haywood. Roads led thence to 
Amador's and Livermore's ranches, eastward, and the Mission San 
Jose, southward. There were, however, various other places to land. 
San Antonio (now Brooklyn) had its embarkadero ; and each rancho 
its landing-place on the border of the bay. The Yankee trading 
vessels, or boats from them, used to come to these embarkaderos to 
trade for hides and tallow. 

On the 19th of January, 1848, gold was discovered at Coloma, on 
the American River. The noise of it soon reverberated across the 
continent and over the oceans, to Europe and to Asia. Discoveiy fol- 
lowed discovery, and a rush for the California gold mines took place in 
every country. It was a year of commotion. Europe had risen in a state 
of revolution, and many of the defeated and disappointed patriots 
soon turned their attention to the Pacific Coast. Mexico, Central 
and South America, sent their thousands this way. Even the sub- 
jects of the far-ofi" Flowery Kingdom soon appeared iipon our shores. 
The places where the precious metal was found were far in the inte- 
lior, in the beds of creeks and rivers, near the foot-hills. Travel, at 
first, was nearly altogether by land, and the " Livermore Pass," be- 
came one of the prmcipal routes to the mines. The Coast Range 
was crossed at the Mission, and the road led through Sunol Yalley, 
Livermore Yalley, the Livermore Pass, and across the San Joaquin 
River to Stockton, as traversed by Moraga just after the occupation 
of San Francisco ; thence to Sutter's Fort, at the junction of the 
Sacramento and American Rivers, which soon became the city of 
Sacramento. By this route went people from the South — from South- 
ern California, from Sonoi^a and other States of Mexico, and even 
many who had come from the United States via the latter country. 
The Mission then became suddenly an important trading place, and 
fortunes were soon made. Nearly all, at first, rushed ofi" to the 
" diggings," rancheros and vacqueros, and everyone who could possi- 
bly get away. Most of the farmers, however, soon returned. A gi'eat 
demand for farm products sprung up, and cattle were wanted at 
the mines. Henry C. Smith, who is justly entitled to the desig- 
nation of Father of the County, returned from a short trip to the 



58 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

mines and opened a store at the Mission in 1848. He made so much 
money in a short time that it took a wagon to remove it. Mexican 
sUver coin was at - first mostly in use, but after a while gold ounces 
and slugs were the fashion. At the Mission a small town sprung up, 
and there gathered the nucleus of our first American settlement, and 
the material which gave us our first county organization. Beyond 
the ranchos there were no settlements on the Contra Costa. Oak- 
land was unthought of. The giants of a thousand years' growth re- 
mained undistui'bed by the woodman's axe. Adams, Carpentier, the 
Pattens, Larue and Hayward had not crossed the bay. As yet, the 
squatter's shanty nor the tent of the huntsman had appeared among 
the oaks, and wild cattle roamed at large. The songs of birds and 
the bellowing of the Spanish bull almost alone disturbed the air. It 
was the calm before the mighty, irresistible torrent of activity and 
life that was soon to follow. The race of giants was on the march 
to occupy those delightful slopes and valleys, and woe to the woods, 
the wild cattle, and their inoffensive owners ! 

In the spring of 1848 the treaty of peace was signed by which 
California was amiexed to the United States. On the first of Sep- 
tember, 1849, the first Constitutional Convention was commenced at 
Monterey. 

Brigadier-General Riley was then Military-Governor. It was he 
who ordered the election of representatives to the Convention. It 
was by districts. This section belonged to the District of San Jose, 
and Mr. Elam Bro^vn, of Lafayette, was chosen to represent it. 
Among those who took a prominent part in that remarkable assem- 
blage were Hon. Chas. T. Botts, now of Oakland, and our late 
lamented fellow-citizen, J. Boss Browne, who was its official reporter. 
On the 13th of November the constitution was adopted by the peo- 
ple, and Congressmen' and State officers elected. 

The first Legislature met at San Jose on the 13th of December, 
1849. The first man who made a motion in that Assembly was Wm. 
Van Voorhies, one of the oldest politicians of Alameda County, but 
then representmg San Francisco. As the State had not then been 
divided into counties, the representation, as in the case of the Consti- 
tutional Convention, was by districts. The first State senator who 
represented us was Mr. W. R. Bassham, of the San Jose District, 
who received 544 votes, and had no opposition — the only instance 
of the kind that occurred. In the Assembly, the District was repre- 
sented by Joseph Aram, Benjamin Corey, and Elam Brown, the lat- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 59 

ter gentleman having been chosen from the Contra Costa section. 

Tlie Legislature divided the State into twenty-seven counties. The 
first report on " Counties and County Boundaries " was made by 
Pablo de la GueiTa, making " Mount Diablo " the name of the county 
in which we were to be embraced. "VVe had a narrow escape from 
the devil. It was amended on the protest of the members of the 
district, and changed to Contra Costa. Its boundaries were drawn as 
follows : 

" Beginning at the mouth of the creek Alameda, and running in a 
southwesterly direction to the middle of the Bay of San Francisco ; 
thence in a northerly or northwesterly direction, following as near as 
may be the middle of the bay to the Bay of San Pablo ; thence up 
the middle of the Bay bf San Pablo to the Straits of Carquinez ; 
thence running up the middle of said straits to the Suisun Bay ; and 
up the middle of said bay to the mouth of the San Joaquin River; 
thence following up the middle of said river to the place kno^^ai as 
the Pescadero or Lower Crossing ; thence in a direct line to the 
northeast corner of Santa Clara County, which is on the summit of 
the coast range, near the source of Alameda Creek ; thence down the 
middle of said creek to its mouth, which is the place of beginning, 
including the islands of San Pablo, Coreacas and Tesoro. The Seat 
of Justice to be at Martinez, until removed in the manner to be pre- 
scribed by law." 

These boundary lines were amended April 5, 1850, of the same 
Session, as follows : 

" Beginning at the mouth of the Alameda Creek and running to 
the southeast corner of San Francisco County to Golden Rock ; 
thence up the middle of the Bay of San Pablo to the Straits of Car- 
quinez ; thence up the middle of said sti-aits and Suisun Bay to the 
mouth of the San Joaquin River ; thence up the middle of said river 
to the place known as the Pescadero or Lower Crossing ; thence in 
a direct line to the summit of the Coast Range at the head of Ala- 
meda Creek ; thence down the middle of said creek to its mouth, 
which was the place of beginning." 

Some time after, in the Senate, General Vallejo made a report on 
the derivation and definition of the names of the several counties, as 
previously adopted. Contra Costa he defined as follows: "This 
name signifies opposite coast, and the county is so called from its 
situation opposite San Francisco, in an easterly direction. It is un- 
doubtedly one of the most fertile counties in the State, possessing 



60 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

rich agricultural lands, which embrace an interior coast of thirty- 
leagues, extending in the bays of Santa Clara, San Francisco, San 
Pablo, the Straits of Carquinez, the Bay of Suisun, and the San Joa- 
quin River; a circumstance which, united to its mild climate, will 
render it very important. The pueblo of Martinez is its chief town, 
and New York of the Pacific, as well as other towns on the shores 
of the San Pablo and San Joaquin, will also very soon effectually 
contribute to its importance. Mount Diablo, which occupies a con- 
spicuous place in modei'n maps, is the centre of this county. It was 
intended so to call the county, but both branches of the legislature, 
after warm debates on the subject (the representatives of the county 
opposing the proposed name) resolved upon the less profane name of 
Contra Costa. The following is the history of Mount Diablo ( INIount 
Devil) : In 1806 a military expedition from San Francisco marched 
against the tribe Bolgones, who were encamped at the foot of the 
mount; the Indians were prepared to receive the expedition, and a 
hot engagement ensued ia the large hollow fronting the western side 
of the momit. As the victory was about to be decided in favor of 
the Indians, an unknown personage, decorated with the most extra- 
ordinary plumage, and making divers movements, suddenly appeared 
near the combatants. The Indians were victorious, and the incognito 
( Puy) departed towards the mount. The defeated soldiers, on ascertain- 
ing that the spirit went through the same ceremony daily, and at all 
hours, named the mount 'Diablo,' in allusion to its mysterious in- 
habitant, that continued thus to make his strange appearance, until 
the tribe was subdued by the troops in command of Lieut. Gabriel 
Moraga, in a second campaign of the same year. In the aboriginal 
tongue *Puy' signifies evil spirit; in Spanish it means 'Diablo,' and 
doubtless it signifies 'Devil' in the Anglo-American language." 

The question of location for a permanent State capital was one of 
the most important that engaged the attention of our first legislative 
body. Various individvials and localities bid high for the prize. 
The offer of General Vallejo was startlingly grand, amounting to no 
less than $350,000 in land and money — the location to be the pres- 
ent City of Vallejo, but which city did not then contain a single 
habitation ! Messrs. Stevenson & Parker, then proprietors of the 
New York Ranch in Contra Costa County, held up the advantages 
of their " New York of the Pacific," and offered, in case it sliould 
be selected for the State capital, to erect buildings upon it for the 
use of the Legislature of the value of $100,000, to be finished on or 



UNDER THE STARS AXD STRIPES. 61 

before the 1st day of January, 1851. They held, in their memotial, 
that it was better situated and more accessible than any other point 
that could be selected ; as its peculiar situation, at the head of the 
Bay of Suisun, at the junction of the two great rivers — -Sacramento 
and San Joaqiun — -rendered it accessible almost hourly to all who 
passed to and from the extensive mineral regions. They further 
oflfered to erect temporary public offices, to be ready for occupancy on 
the first of May, 1850. Tempting offers were also made by San 
Jose, Monterey, etc. The Legislature decided to leave the matter to 
the votes of the people, to be determined at the elections held in the 
fall of 1850. Strange to say, notwithstanding that twenty-one locali- 
ties were favored with votes, the " New York of the Pacific " did not 
receive one. Yallejo carried off the prize by a large majority, but, 
sad to say, was not able to retain it. 

On the 9th of September, 1850, California was admitted a State of 
the Union, and Messrs. Gwin and Fremont were appointed our first 
representatives to Congress. 




62 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



THE PALACE OF SWEETS 



965 BROABWAY, OAKLAND. ^>^ 

Home-Made Candies and Fine Chocolates a Specialty. 

J". lEI. .B^OOKT. 




MRS. CUNNINGHAM'S 

JR^ filSlAJV 

illiagr; Eslallisk^iitp 

060 BROADWAY, 

Betwesn 81I1 and lOtH Streets, OAKLAND. 



Latest Styles, Reasonable Charges, and Prompt Attention. 



e. ESTABROOH SNITIf, 

Late Countj' Clerk of Alameda County. 



JfOTAUY PUBliIC, 

Searcher of Records and Conveyancer. 



REAL ESTATE EXCHANGE, 

Large List of Farms and Homesteads in all parts of Alameda County. 

DesiraDle Properly for Investment or Occupation in OaMacfl, Brooklyn, Frnit Vale or Vicinity. 



-o OFIPICE. o- 



Cor. Broadway k 5th Street 



; NEW COURT HOUSE, 



OaHanil. 



M. LULLEY & SONS, 

AOCTION I COliSSION MERCHANTS 

Every description of Furniture always on hand. 

OFFICE AND S«AL,FMKOOIfI : 

301 TWELFTH STREET, Under Oraiid Central Hotel, 

P. 0. Box 5i8. 0-<ak.I^ILi.^KriD. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES, 63 



CHAPTER XI. 

FROM THE ORGANIZATION OP THE COUNTIES IN 1850, TO THE FORMA- 
TION OP ALAMEDA COUNTY IN 1853 LEGISLATIVE REPRESENTA- 
TION AND LEGISLATIVE ACTS THE CENSUS OF 1850, AND WHAT IT 

SHOWED — EXORBITANT RATES OP TAXATION THE CENSUS OF 

1852— COUNTY SURVEYOR BROWN's REPORT POPULATIONS OF 

SANTA CLARA AND SACRAMENTO WHAT WAS DONE FOR US BY THE 

LEGISLATURE OF 1852 COUNTY GOVERNMENT AND COURTS— CON- 
TESTED ELECTION CASES AND THE VOTE OF OAKLAND IN 1853. 

An act to regulate elections was passed on the 23d of March, 
1850, at the first meeting of the Legislature, held in San Jose. By 
that act Santa Clara and Contra Costa composed the Fifth Senatorial 
District, and jointly elected one senator, and the former two and the 
latter one member of Assembly. 

The first election by counties was held in the same year, when 
Hon. Gr. B. Tingley, of San Jose, was elected Joint State Senator, 
and Hon. Elam Brown, Assemblyman, to represent Contra Costa. 
No business of a special character, affecting the county, was intro- 
duced the following session. 

In the Legislature of 1851 there were only two propositions from 
the new county, and both these came from Martinez. One was a 
bill to incorporate a ferry company, to operate between Martinez and 
Benicia ; and the other was a petition for a grant of the tide lands 
adjacent to the town, between high and low water marks. 

The first census of the State was taken in September and October, 
1850, when it was ofiicially ascertained that Contra Costa had 722 
inhabitants. Santa Clara, at the same time, had 3,502 — surely, a good 
start to begin with. 

The first State assessment-roll, made out the same year, placed the 
number of acres assessed in Contra Costa at 377,528. The value of 
these, without improvements, was set down at $1,141,953 ; improve- 
ments were set at $51,852 ; total value, $1,193,841. The tax levy, 
for State purposes, on this, was placed at $5,969.20i- ; for county 
purposes, $2,984.60|; for public building purposes, $2,984,601; 
altogether, $11,938.41. Town lots, without improvements, were 
assessed at $164,957 ; improvements, $37,650 ; total, $202,607 ; tax 
on same for State purposes, $1,013.03|; for county pui-poses, 



64 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

$o06,51f ; for public building purposes, $506.51f ; total for State 
and county purposes, on town lots and improvements, $2,026.07. 
The value of personal property was estimated at $605,992 ; charged 
on same for State purposes, $3,029.96 ; for ordinary county purposes, 
$1,514.98; for public building purposes, $1,514.98; State poll-tax, 
$1,320 ; county poll-tax, $660 ; total on personal property for 
county purposes, $3,689.96 ; for State purposes, $4,349.96 ; total 
polls and personal tax for State and county pui-poses, $8,039.92. 
The total value of propei-ty of all kinds in the county was thus made 
$2,002,440 ; and the amount of taxation for all purposes, $22,004.40. 
Tins made the rate of taxation about $30.50 per capita for every man, 
woman and child in the county. A pretty good round sum, it must 
be conceded ; but in this regard we continue to maintain a high 
standard yet ; although Alameda's assessment rate is lower than that 
of any other county in the State. 

This was nothing, however, compared with the following year, 
when the rate of taxation was more than doubled. 

The following memoranda will show the manner in which the levy 
was collected for the two years : 

Contra Costa County, property and poll-tax for 1851 : In cash, 
$55,203.57; in 3 per cent, per month bonds, $13,275 ; in interest 
thereon, $8,040.52 ; in Controller's warrants, $150 ; total, $76,669.- 
39. The rate in 1850 was $2 on the $100 ; in 1851, $4.10 ; and in 
1853, $4.41 ! 

For the purpose of comparison the following statement of the 
value of property in Contra Costa, Santa Clara and Sacramento will 
serve : Contra Costa, $2,002,410 ; Santa Clara, $4,883,295 ; Sacra- 
mento, $8,947,454. These three counties are selected because they, 
of late years, have been the three leading counties of the State in 
population and wealth ; Alameda, however, taking the place of Contra 
Costa. 

That the mode of assessment in those days was very unequal will 
be shown by the following statement for 1852 : Value of real and 
personal property in Contra Costa County, $3,236,198; in Santa 
Clara, $3,292,153 ; in Sacramento, $7,232,026. As will be noticed, 
these figures show a gi'eat increase in Contra Costa and reduction in 
Santa Clara and Sacramento. 

In 1852, when a second census was taken, Warren Brown, Coimty 
Surveyor of Contra Costa, made the following report to the Surveyor- 
General of the State : 



under the stars and stripes. 65 

Martinez, Nov. 29, 1852. 

Tillable land in county, 132,000 acres ; gx-azing land, 530,000 acres ; 
government land, 5,000 acres. 

Population, 2,745. White males, 1,937 ; females, 550. Citizens of 
the U. S. over 21 years, 946 ; negroes, male, 2 ; female, ; mulattoes, 
male, 17; female, 2 : domesticated male Indians, 156; female, 122; 
foreign male residents, 669; female do., 115; foreign residents over 
21, 627. 

Horses, 3,984; mules, 183; cows, 1,789; beef cattle, 38,451 
work oxen, 1,127; hogs, 1,898; sheep, 3,704; poultry, 9,274 
bushels barley, 288,180; oats, 4,085; corn, 8,865; wheat, 17,060 
potatoes, 85,190; acres of land under cultivation, 9,093; tons of 
hay, 512; pounds of onions, 180,000; lbs. of cheese, 5,000; of but- 
ter, 700; gallons milk, 4,400; dozens of eggs, 1,000; cords of fire- 
wood, 710 ; number of rails, 50,000. 

The Assessor indulged in the following laconic remarks regarding 
his county : 

" There is found limestone in excellent quality. Gypsum, is found 
in one place ; excellent building-stone and red fire-stone have been 
discovered ; sulphur springs abundant, mostly tepid ; salitie springs 
exist. 

" Streams, small, and generally dry in summer ; many springs and 
plenty of water, except on the San Joaquin Plains. 

" Names of principal streams : San Ramon, Jugerto, Neuces, 
Hambre, Pinole, San Pablo, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, Alameda, 
Tassajara, Laguna. 

" Towns and villages : Martinez, Oakland and Squatterville. Bays : 
San Francisco, San Pablo and Pinole. Straits : Carquinez. Com- 
munication good from all parts of the county." 

There is not much reliance to be placed on official returns of this 
kind in this State, and the statistician who depends upon them will 
only deceive himself and the public. No better records, however, of 
our infantile condition are at hand, and they are given merely for 
what they are worth. As an instance of the absurdity of some of 
those official statements, it will do to mention that a certain assessor 
returned 1,000,000 hens in his county and only enough dozens of eggs 
to allow one-tenth of an egg for each inhabitant ! 

The school census is apt to be reliable, and is as follows : Schools, 
1 ; children between ages of 4 and 18, 563; attending, 190; teach- 
er's salary, $300 ; total expenditure, $300. Amount of school money 



66 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

assessed under revenue law of 1852, $1,618.09, Amount paid to 
State Treasury, up to January 18, 1853, $1,378.07. 

An amusing thing about Mr. Brown's report is his lucid descrip- 
tion of the topographical features of the county, and his enumeration 
of the towns. It is very instructive, indeed. The united counties 
of Alameda and Contra Costa boasted of three towns, " Oakland, 
Martinez and Squatterville !" The puzzle to-day is to know where 
was " Squatterville," or which place was meant by that appellation, 
as mostly every new place then was a " Squatterville" — even Oakland ; 
but it is to be presvimed that San Loi'enzo was so meant. At any 
rate, the population, all told, of our towns at that date, did not ex- 
ceed two or three hundred souls ! 

By the census of 1852 Santa Clara returned a population of 6,664: 
persons. There were included 550 domesticated Indians, mostly, no 
doubt, in the immediate vicinity of the Mission of San Jose, which 
was ceded, in the division of the county, to Alameda, the following 
year. The places reported by the County Surveyor, where the land 
was then principally cultivated, Avere in the four districts of Santa 
Clara, Gilroy, San Jos6 Mission and Union City. The two latter 
disti-icts being in Washington Township, fell to Alameda in 1853, 
and for years they ruled the rest of the county. 

Santa Clara reported 1,776 childi-en of school age, with an attend- 
ance, however, of only 47 ; and an expenditure of $187.50 on teach- 
ers' salary. These, certainly, were the days of " small things " in 
educational mattei-s. 

The population of Sacramento in 1852 was 12,000. Then it was 
the most favored place in the State, and had as much as $5,358,394 
invested in mining, agricultural and manufacturing operations. 

These figures are somewhat instructive now, showing as they do 
the importance of her neighbors when Alameda had not even " a 
local habitation nor a name." How she was born into existence and 
sprang forward to the foremost position among California counties, 
the following chapters will show. 

State as well as county elections, at this time, were annual. 

In 1852 Mr. Tingley, who appears to have been a leadmg man in 
his House, was again elected to the Senate to represent Santa Clara 
and Contra Costa ; and N. B. Smith, better known as "Bony" Smith, 
represented Contra Costa. 

At this session of the Legislature (the third and last one held in 
San Jos6) another amendment was made to the definition of the 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 67 

county boundaries, more minutely setting them forth; but as the 
county was divided the following session of 1853, it will not be ne- 
cessary to produce it. 

All Act was also passed declaring San Antonio Creek navigable. It 
provided that "the stream called San Antonio Creek in the County 
of Contra Costa is declared navigable from its mouth to the old Em- 
barcadero of San Antonio, and no obstruction to the navigation there- 
of shall be permitted." San Antonio Creek, since the passage of this 
act has been the subject of frequent legislation, not alone at our 
own State Capital, but also in Washington, and shall hereafter be 
entitled to a fair share of consideration in this work. 

At this session of the Legislature, the town of Oakland, then hardly 
possessing one hundred inliabitants, was incorporated. The promoter 
of the act was Mr. Horace W. Carpentier, a gentleman who the pre- 
vious year held the position of Enrolling Clerk of the Senate, and of 
■whom, more shall be heard hereafter. As Oakland occupies a place 
of her own in this work, it will not be necessary to further i-efer to 
this Act here. It is printed at length in its proper place. 

Hitherto reference has not been made to the mode of municipal 
management in operation, nor the manner in which justice was dis- 
pensed. For a year or two after the establishment of the State 
Legislature the Mexican system remained in force, and Alcaldes were 
elected. Henry C. Smith acted in this capacity at the Mission of 
San Jos6. The first Legislature, however, provided for Courts of 
Session, County and District Courts. At first Boards of Supervisors 
managed county affairs, and in the Contra Costa County Board, Con- 
tra Costa (Oakland) and Clinton townships were represented respec- 
tively by L. H. Robinson and William Patten. The latter gentleman 
wa« President of the Board. On the division of the county Lemuel 
Russell, of San Ramon Valley, and S. A. Bishop, of Monte Diablo 
Valley, were appointed to their places. The vacancies were filled by 
the Court of Sessions, of which Hon. F. W. Warmcastle, County 
Judge, was President, with A. R. Mallery and J. H. Leveystein as 
associates. The County Clerk and Clerk of the Court of Sessions, 
was Thomas A. Brown. The date on which the seats of Messrs. 
Robinson and Patten were declared vacant and their successors ap- 
pointed, is April 7th, 1853. Jas. B. Larue was a member of the 
previous Board. The principal improvement undertaken up to that 
time was the construction of a bridge across the slough of San Anto- 
nio, between the towns of Clinton and Oakland. The contract was 



HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY, 



let to a man named Gilman. This work was subsequently the cause 
of considerable trouble between Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, 
and between Alameda County and Horace W. Carpentier, as will 
appear hereafter. 

The last election of the two counties, jointly, took place on the 
26th day of March, 1853. It was a special election for the choice 
of an Assemblyman, to fill a vacancy in the Legislature, then assem- 
bled at Vallejo. Three candidates entered the field and two of them 
belonged to this side of the mountains. As the election was con- 
tested in the House afterwards, and the evidence throws liglit on 
our electoral strength at that day and the mode of conducting elec- 
tions, it will be worth while to dwell a little upon it. The candi- 
dates, on this interesting occasion, were H. W. Carpentier, of Oak- 
land ; R. S. Farrelly, of " Squatterville " or San Lorenzo ; and a 
Mr. Halliday, of Martinez. Mr. Carpentier received the highest 
number of votes polled, but Mr, Farrelly protested against his elec- 
tion on the ground of fraud ; the County Clerk refused to issue 
his certificate of election, and the dispute was handed over to the 
Committee on Elections of the Legislature. 519 votes were claimed 
for Mr. Carpentier, 254 for Mr. Farrelly, and 192 for Mr. Halliday, 
thus giving the former a majority of 73 over both his opponents. 
Mr. S. J. Clark appeai'ed as attorney for Mr. Farrelly. Various 
grounds of objection wei'e presented by that gentleman, who urged 
fraud on the part of Mr, Carpentier, and collusion on the part of 
the Board of Judges, and Inspectors and Clerks in Contra Costa or 
Oakland Townsliip. It was shown that the number of 377 ballots 
were cast in that township, while the census agent of the county, 
who took the census of the township about two months and a half 
preceding the election, testified that there were only about 130 legal 
voters residing within its limits. It was also assei-ted that there 
was a compact layer of yellow (Cai'pentier) tickets on the top of the 
box, the counting of which lasted near two hours, before a wldte or 
Farrelly ticket was reached, although two of the three last votei's, 
who cast their ballots at sundown, declared they had voted for Far- 
relly. A man named Ford made aflidavit that he was a passenger 
on the ferry-boat from Oakland to San Francisco on the day of elec- 
tion, and back to San Francisco after the election was over, and that 
there was a man by the name of Gilman on board, who promised to 
settle for 37 passengers, whom he stated wei-e going to work for him 
on the bridge. He saw these men, afterwards, about the polls ; was- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



certain tliey voted, some of them swearing in their votes, and one of 
whom chximed to have voted seven times when mistakenly demand- 
ing his pay of $5 for such service from the witness. 

Against thLs a majority of the members of the Board of Supervis- 
ors of the County made their affidavits that they believed Mr. Car- 
pentier duly elected, and a majority of four out of six of the House 
Committee on Elections reported in favor of his retaining the seat. 
The figures of the Census Commissioner are stated, by the report of 
this committee, at 520, being strangely at variance with the testimony 
of the Commissioner himself, who stated the number at 130 in Oak- 
land Township. The majority committee saw no cause to wonder at 
the large vote (374) cast in Oakland Precinct, because there were 212 
cast in San Antonio Township, the two together making only sixty- 
six votes more than was found to reside in the district in the previ- 
ous August, wliich excess they reasonably supposed to be " made up 
by additions to the popidation, especially in Oakland, a young and 
thriving town." The fact that there were from 300 to 400 persons 
employed in the Redwoods, " and that a great number, if not a 
majority, of them voted at Oakland," while some from the Encinal 
and other San Antonio precincts also voted at Oakland, left them 
" no reason for doubting that the votes in Oakland Precinct were 
honestly cast by qualified electors." 

Mr. Carpentier was confirmed in his seat and sworn in on the lltli 
of April, thirty-eight days before the adjournment of the House. 

Another contested election case, in the same body, was that of 
Walter Van Dyke, Esq., for a number of years a resident of Oak- 
land, but who then represented Klamath County. His seat was 
contested by a Mr. J. McMahon, on the ground that Mr. Van Dyke's 
majority had been obtained in the adjoining State of Oregon. The 
seat was given to McMahon. 

It is to Mr. Carpentier's credit, whatever may be said of the man- 
ner in which he procured his seat, that he was a very energetic mem- 
ber, and introduced no less than seventeen bills, some of them very 
important, and assisted in the creation of Alameda County, that 
same session. 



70 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 



O. c- ^iPtu 



Tinner, Plumber, 

AND 

GiS^^aAS FITTER, -^^=0 

315 East Twelflli Street, (Near TntDs' itei), 



A LAI\GE STOCK OF 



TINWARE, STOVES, j 

^@^^ RANGES, ^^^ 

Gas Fixtures, Pumps, Ktc, 



ALWAYS ON HAND. 



O'olo'loliag' '^TOTOCLj^tl-sr ,A.ttezic3.ec3, to. 




AN ALAMEDA OF OLIVE TREES. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 71 



CHAPTER XII. 

CREATION OP ALAMEDA COUNTY BY THE LEGISLATURE OF 1853 

SHARP CONTEST BETWEEN SMITH AND CARPENTIER FOR THE LOCA- 
TION OF THE COUNTY SEAT THE ACTS FIXING THE BOUNDARIES 

OF ALAMEDA AND PROVIDING FOR ITS ORGANIZATION AND GOV- 
ERNMENT AND THE ADMINISTRATION OP JUSTICE THEREIN DEFI 

NITION OF THE NAME— DISSATISFACTION IN CONTRA COSTA AND 
SANTA CLARA CONTRA COSTA AS IT IS NOW THE NEW APPOR- 
TIONMENT, ETC. 

In the year 1853 Alameda was created a separate county out of 
Santa Clara and Contra Costa. Previously Contra Costa covered the 
whole of the present County of Alameda, excepting Washington 
Township, which was south of the Alameda Creek, then the bound- 
ary line, and in Santa Clara County. In the Legislature of that 
year, both Santa Clara and Contra Costa were served in the 
State Senate by Hon. G. B. Tingley, who resided in Santa Clara 
County. In the Assembly, Santa Clara was represented by W. S. 
Letcher and Henry C. Smith, while Contra Costa was represented by 
Horace W. Carpentier. Mr. Smith then resided at New Haven, or 
Alvarado, and championed the creation of the new county. 

Acccordingly that gentleman, on the 10th of March of that year, 
presented in the Assembly the petition of citizens of Santa Clara and 
Contra Costa Counties praying for the erection of a new county, to 
be called Alameda, out of territory then belonging to those counties. 
The petition was read and referred to the Committee on Counties 
and County Boundaries ; and the same day Mr. Smith introduced 
his bill, which was entitled "An Act to create the County of Ala- 
meda and establish the seat of justice therein ; to define its bound- 
aries and provide for its oi-ganization." Read first and second time 
and referred to Committee on Counties and County Boundaries. 

On the 11th of March the committee to which it was referred 
reported the bill back with the recommendation that the same be 



On the 1 2th Mr. Thomas, from the Committee on Engi'ossed Bills, 
reported the bill as correctly engrossed, and the report was adopted. 
On the follow ing day it went to the Senate, where it was amended ; 
and on the 18th the Assembly concurred in the Senate amendments. 



72 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

On the 23d it was referred back to tlie Assembly to correct some 
errors of enrollment ; on the 25th. it was reported as correctly enrolled; 
on the same day it was presented to the Governor for his appi-oval ; and 
on the 28th the same was approved by the Governor. It must be 
admitted that the bill was well engineered and went through expedi- 
tiously, but it contained some material defects, and, therefore, Mr, 
Smith, its author, came forward, three days after its passage, with a 
bill to remedy them. The amendatory bill was passed through all its 
stages the same day ; on the 1st of April it passed the Senate, and on 
the 6th received the Governor's signature. On the 21st of April 
Mr. Carpentier introduced another amendatory Act. This was for 
the purpose of changing the location of the county seat from New 
Haven to Oakland. A vote was taken on the amendment and it was 
lost by 19 noes to 17 ayes. 

A sharp contest had been going on from the first between Mr. 
Smith and Mr. Carpentier, for the county seat, each desiring to have 
it in his own locality, and, as the result shows, the former triumphed 
by a bare majority of two. Thus was born, at the City of Benicia, 
then the State Capital, a bantling which soon waxed robust and 
strong, and in a few years outstripped all her elder sisters, being now 
possessed of the largest population of any county in the State, except- 
ing the consolidated City and County of San Francisco. John 
Bigler, who was then Governor, stood sponsor for the new-born 
babe, which, in every sense, has proved a healthy and promising 
child. 

The Act of Incorporation, as it finally passed, is as follows : 
An Act to create the County of Alameda and establish the Seat 

of Justice therein, to define its boundai-ies and to provide for 

its organization. Approved March 25, 1853. 

The People of the State of California, represented in Senate and As- 
sembly, do enact asfolloivs: 

Section 1. The following shall constitute the boundaries and 
Seat of Justice of Alameda County : Beginning at a point at the 
head of a slough, which is an arm of the Bay of San Francisco, mak- 
ing into the mainland in front of the Gegara Ranches ; thence to a 
lone sycamore tree that stands in a ravine between the dwellings of 
Fluhencia and Valentine Gegara ; thence up said ravine to the top 
of the mountains ; thence in a direct line eastwardly to the junction 
of the San Joaquin and Tuolumne Coimties; thence northwest- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 73 

waixlly on the west line of San Joaquin County to the slough known 
as the Pescadero ; thence westwardly in a straight line until it strikes 
the dividing ridge in the direction of the house of Joel Harlan, in 
Amador Valley ; thence westwardly along the middle of said ridge, 
crossing the gulch one-half mile below Prince's Mill ; thence to and 
ininiiing upon the dividing ridge between the Pedwoods known as the 
San Antonio and Prince's Woods ; thence along the top of said ridge 
to the head of the gulch or creek that divides the ranches of the 
Peraltas from those known as the San Pablo Ranches ; thence down 
the middle of said gulch to its mouth ; and thence westwardly to 
the eastern line of the County of San Francisco ; thence along said 
last-mentioned line to the place of beginning. Seat of Justice, 
Alvarado. 

Sec. 2. There shall be held an election for county officei-s in the 
County of Alameda, on the second Monday of April, one thousand 
eight hundred and- fifty-three, at which election the qualified voters 
of said county shall choose one County Judge, one District Attorney, 
one County Clerk, who shall, ex-ojfficio, be Comity Recorder, one 
Sheriff, one County Surveyor, one County Assessor, one Coroner, 
and one County Treasurer. 

Sec. 3. James B. Larue, Michael Mm-ray, J. S. Watkins, J. S. 
Marston and Gustavus Harper are hereby appointed Commissioners 
to designate the necessary election precincts in the County of Ala- 
meda for said election, and to appoint the Judges and Inspectors of 
Election at the several precincts designated to receive the returns, 
and to issue certificates of election to the parties receiving the high- 
est number of legal votes, and in all other respects said election shall 
be conducted according to the provisions of the "Act to Regulate 
Elections," passed March 23d, 1850. 

Sec. 4. For the purpose of designating the several precincts in 
said county, said Commissionei's shall meet on the Monday two 
weeks previous to the day of election, and at said meeting shall 
designate the Judges and Inspectors of Election for such precincts. 
The Commissioners shall appoint one of their number as Pi'esident, 
and one as Clerk, who shall keep a record of their proceedings in a 
book to be provided for that purpose, which record shall be deposited 
in the Clerk's office after the Commissioners shall have closed their 
labors. A majority of said Commissioners shall at all times consti- 
tute a quorum for the transaction of business. 

Sec. 5. The Commissioners shall, immediately after designating 



74 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

the precincts, and appointing the proper officers to conduct said 
election, give notice of such election, and the names of the officei'S 
appointed to conduct the same, by wi-itten or printed notices, to be 
posted at each of the precincts, and said notices shall be thus posted, 
at least ten days before the election. 

Sec. 6. Sealed returns from the offices of election may be 
delivered to any member of said Board. The Commissioners shall 
meet in the town of New Haven, on the tenth day subsequent to 
the day of election, and the returns shall then be opened by said 
Commissioners and canvassed, and the persons having the highest 
number of legal votes for the several offices to be filled shall be 
declared elected, and the President shall immediately make out and 
send or deliver to each person chosen a certificate of election, signed 
by him as President of the Commission and attested by the Clerk. 

Sec. 7. Each person chosen shall qualify and enter upon the dis- 
charge of the duties of his office, within ten days after the receipt of 
his certificate of election. The person elected as County Judge 
shall qualify before the President of the Commissioners. Persons 
elected to the other offices may qualify before the County Judge or 
before said President. 

Sec. 8. The President of the Commissioners shall transmit with- 
out delay an abstract of said election returns to the Secretary of 
State, and retain the original returns until the Clerk shall qualify, 
when he shall file the same in the Clerk's office. 

Sec. 9. The County Judge shall hold his office for four years, and 
until his successor is chosen and qualified. The other officers shall 
hold their offices for two years, and until then- successors are chosen 
and qualified pursuant to law. 

Sec. 10. The County Judge and two Associate Justices, to be 
chosen from among the Justices of the Peace that may be elected 
from among themselves, shall form a Court of Sessions for the trans- 
action of all county business authoi'ized to be transacted by Boards 
of Supervisors in other counties of the State. 

Sec. 11. At the first term of the Court of Sessions of said County 
of Alameda, said Court shall appoint two Commissioners, to meet a 
corresponding number of Commissioners to be appointed on the part 
of the County of Santa Clara, and the like number on the })art of 
the County of Contra Costa, for the purpose of ascertaining and set- 
tling the amount of indebtedness said County of Alameda shall 
assume of said counties ; and when so ascertained and ratified by said 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 75 

Commissioners, or a majority of them, the Court of Sessions of Ala- 
meda County shall issue a warrant in favor of the County Treasurer 
of each of said counties for the sum awarded to each respectively, 
payable out of any funds that may come into the treasury of Alameda 
County. The said Commissioners shall meet in the town of Alva- 
rado on the first Monday of July, A. D. one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-three, which shall be known as the seat of justice of Ala- 
meda County. 

Sec. 12. The County Judge shall receive, as compensation for his 
services, two thousand five hundred dollars ])er annum, payable quar- 
terly out of the county treasury ; and the District Attorney shall 
receive, as compensation for his services, one thousand dollars per 
annum, payable quarterly out of the county treasury of said county. 

Sec. 13. The county seat of Alameda County shall be at the 
town of New Haven. 

Sec. 14. Alameda County shall be in the Third Judicial District, 
and there shall be four terms of the District Court holden in said 
county each year. 

Sec. 15. The Commissioners appointed to conduct the election, as 
in this Act specified, may also, at the same time, place and manner, 
oi'der an election for not less than five Justices of the Peace in said 
county, to qualify in manner as other officers elected under the pro- 
visions of this Act, and shall hold their offices for one year, and until 
their successors are chosen and qualified. 

Sec. 16. The Recorders of Contra Costa and Santa Clara Coun- 
ties, upon application and payment of the fees, shall transmit to the 
Clerk's Office of the County of Alameda, certified copies of all deeds 
or other papers recorded in their offices, wherein the subject matter 
of such deed or other paper is situated in Alameda County. The 
Clerks of Contra Costa and • Santa Clara shall transmit all files in 
their offices, wherein both parties reside in Alameda County, or 
where the subject matter is situated in said county, and for such 
services the Clerk shall receive the fees allowed by law ; said Clerk 
shall transmit, as aforesaid, and upon like conditions, all papers and 
files relating to unfinished actions, or proceedings in the nature of 
actions, whether original or on appeal, wherein both parties reside in 
said Alameda County ; and also in local actions, wherein the subject 
matter in controversy is situated in said Alameda County. Nothing 
in this Act shall be so construed as to prevent those persons now 
citizens of Contra Costa County, who, by the operation of this Act, 



76 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

shall become citizens of Alameda County, from participating in and 
voting at the election to be held in Contra Costa County, on the 26th 
of March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three. 

Sec. 17. The parts of counties out of which the County of Ala- 
meda is formed, shall, for judicial purposes, remain in and constitute 
parts of the counties to which they respectively belonged before the 
passage of this Act, until the County of Alameda shall be organized 
under the provisions of this Act. Approved March 25, 1853. 

The following is the Amendatory Act already referred to : 

An Act amendatory of an Act, entitled an Act to create the 

County of Alameda and establish the Seat of Justice therein ; 

to define its boundaries and provide for its organization. Passed 

March 25th, 1853. 

Section 1. The second section of an Act entitled "An Act to 

create the County of Alameda and establish the Seat of Justice 

therein, to define its boundaries and provide for its organization," 

passed March 25th, 1853, is hereby amended so as to read as follows: 

There shall be held an election for County Officers, in the County of 

Alameda, on the 4th Monday of April, 1853, at which election the 

qualified voters of said county shall choose one County Judge, one 

District Attorney, one County Clerk, who shall, ex-officio, be County 

Recorder ; one Sheriff, one County Sui-veyor, one County Assessor, 

one Coroner, one County Treasurer, and one Public Administrator. 

Approved April 6, 1853. 

At its birth, the population of the new county was about 3,000, 
having increased at a rapid rate during the two years previous. 

The derivation of its name is simple and easily given. It comes 
from the Alameda Creek, its principal stream, which runs through its 
most southerly township, east and west, and had been the dividing 
line between Santa Clara and Contra Costa befoi-e separation. It 
rises in the mountains of the Contra Costa Range, emerges thence at 
Niles, and winds through the plains until it enters San Francisco 
Bay near Alvarado. Its banks being lined with trees all the way 
through the otherwise sparsely wooded plains, gave it the appearance 
of a shaded avenue, road or walk, which in Spanish is called an ala- 
meda. When the Mexican pioneers first discovered the territory, 
they knew it by the name of the place of the alameda. 

The division gave dissatisfaction in Santa Clara and Contra Costa, 
as was to be expected, and some of the people of Santa Clara yet feel 
a little sore over the same, as it took from them one of the most val- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



UiiMe portions of tlieir territory, which inchided the ohl, historic 
j^Iission, and the passes of the mountains to the San Joaquin Valley, 
tlirough which the track of the C. P. R. R. now runs. 

Citizens of the northern portion of the late Contra Costa sent a 
memorial to the Legislature for a new county to be called Contra 
Costa; cei'tain citizens of San Pablo prayed for another division of 

id county ; and citizens of Conti-a Costa and Santa Clai-a asked for 
the creation of another new county. Certain citizens of Contra Costa 
sent to the Legislature a petition remonstrating against being set off 
into Alameda County. Mr. Carpentier introduced the bill for another 
county. The Committee reported in favor of its indefinite postpone- 
ment ; but at a subsequent date it was taken from the table and or- 
dered engrossed. The purport of it was to reorganize Contra Costa 
County and take back some of the territory gained by Alameda. It 
was finally defeated on a vote of 25 to 19, Mr. Smith and Mr. Letcher 
of Santa Clara, voting with the majority, and Mr. Carpentier with 
the minority. The old name continued, with Martinez as the county- 
seat, for the northern county. 

Oakland gave the name of Contra Costa to the original county, be- 
cause it was the part of the "opposite coast" that sugge.sted it, and 
in the old county organization, what is now known as Oakland Town- 
ship was then Contra Costa Township. 

It does, therefore, seem a little anomalous that, on a division, it 
should have abandoned its original title of local suggestion and allow 
it to be taken by its cast-off connexion. But the acquisition of the 
new territory to the south, and the abandonment of so much on the 
north, made all the difference. The Alameda was the principal 
stream of the new covmty ; the name sounded nice, and was accej)ta- 
ble generally. 

The division left the new Conti'a Costa with a territory of upwards 
of 500,000 acres, or an area of 756 square miles, as at present. Its 
length, from east to west, is about forty miles, and its width, from 
north to south, about twenty miles. Its outlines ai'e very irregular, 
being bounded on the north by San Pablo and Suisun Bays and the 
San Joaquin River ; on the east by the western channel of that 
river ; on the south by Alameda County, and on the west by the Bay 
of San Francisco. It contains several handsome and fruitful valleys, 
some of them, such as the San Ramon, with its different divisions, 
being equal to any in the State for beauty and productiveness. It 
has a large quantity of swamp and overflowed lands, situated on the 



78 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

margins of Suisun Bay and along the banks of the San Joaquin 
River, and much of it has been reclaimed. Portions of them, brought 
under cultivation, have produced great crops of grain, fruit and veg- 
etables, without irrigation. There is a great sweep of this tide land 
—about 75,000 acres — in the northeast corner of the counjiy, which 
has, for the most part, been brought under cultivation, but which is 
not yet altogether secure from overflow. The mountains and hills 
embrace about 250,000 acres, including Mount Diablo, which con- 
tains the only remunerative coal mines in the State. There is hai-dly 
an article that is produced in any portion of California, from the 
orange to the tobacco plant, that is not or cannot be grown within its 
boundaries. The county is Veil supplied with the means of ready 
transportation, having a gi'eat circuit of coast, and its various land- 
ings being daily visited by steamers and sailing craft. The southern 
portion, however, is not in so good a condition, on account of the 
height of the mountains, that present such a formidable baiTier 
between it and Oakland. It is proposed to build a railroad from the 
latter place to Walnut Creek, which is about eighteen miles distant 
and in the centre of the county. It is also proposed to build a bet- 
ter and more direct wagon road than that now existing, which will 
include a tunnel of a half a mile, in a suitable place at the summit of 
the mountain. The C. P. R. R. Co. has laid out a branch line all 
along its front, and which will extend from Oakland to the main line 
between Ellis' and Banta's stations, on the one side, and across the 
Straits of Carquinez, at Martinez, to Colusa, on the other. Its prin- 
cipal streams are the San Pablo and San Ramon Creeks— the former 
rising in the Contra Costa Hills and emptying into San Pablo Bay ; the 
latter rising in the Monte Diablo range, near the Livermore Pass, and 
emptying into Suisun Bay about five miles soiitheast from Martinez, 
When this stream reaches the tules it becomes a tide-water stream, 
navigable *at high tide for schooners drawing six feet of water. The 
portions adjoining Alameda are the San Pablo flats and the Taylor 
and Moraga Valleys, on the south, and the San Ramon and Tassa^ 
iara on the east. The county town is Martinez. On the west, or 
bay side, the only town is San Pablo, about ten miles north of Oak- 
land, and where the late Ex-Governor of California, J. B. Alvarado, 
resides. On the north side, at the confluence of the San Joaqiiin and 
Sacramento Rivers, is the thi-iving town of Antioch. Pacheco is a 
prosperous town, and has considerable commei'ce and tr;ide ; and Con- 
cord, Clayton, and Walnut Creek, are small but thriving valley 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 79 

towns. Nortonville and Summerviile are extensive mining camps in 
the east side of the mountains ; and Limeiick, Danville, Alamo and 
Lafayette are small places with post-offices. Mount Diablo, one of 
the principal land-marks in the State, is set down in the middle of it, 
and which, with its spurs, is seventy-five miles in circumference ; it 
is 3,381 feet high, and has considerable influence on the climatology 
of the county, which is subject to variation. Contra Costa has no 
forests suitable for lumber, bvit there is a profuse scattering of oaks, 
sycamores and other trees, over its surface, suitable for fuel. There 
are splendid wagon roads, built by private enterprise, leading to the 
summit of Mount Diablo, from both the west and south sides, and 
which, no doubt, when better communication is had via Oakland, 
will be much used by tourists and pleasure-seekers. Contra Costa 
has an intelligent, law-abiding population, and continues to increase 
in numbers and productiveness. It has many resources that capital 
and labor will yet develop. The population in 1870 was 8,461, and 
is now estimated at 10, .500. Contra Costa and Alameda naturally 
l)elong to each other, forming as they do the twin sides of a penin- 
sula, and only requu-ing better means of communication in overcom- 
ing the barriers of the mountain range to make their interests, as of 
yore, identical. 

, The division of the county made a new apportionment of repre- 
sentatives necessary in 18-53. The Counties of Santa Clara and Ala- 
meda were created the Fourth Senatorial District, with one Senator 
between them. She continued to have two members of Assembly, 
and Alameda was given one for herself The Counties of San 
Joaquin and Contra Costa were made the Eighth Senatorial District, 
with one Senator. San Joaquin was given two Assemblymen, and 
Contra Costa one. 

The chai-ges against the county by the State for the year ending 
May 1st, 1853, were as follows : Per diem and mileage of members 
of the Legislature, $10,540 ; salary of District Judge, $5,500 ; salary 
of District Attorney, $1,916; taking the census, $960; transpoi'ta- 
tion of prisoners, $50. Total, $18,966. The State charges against 
Santa Clai-a for similar benefits were $32,050 ; and against Saci'a- 
mento, $78,435. 



80 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



H. W. BARNES, 

Manufacturer and Dealer in 

DOORS, WINDOWS 

Blinds, Transom Sash, 



Constantly on hand and made to order, 



ALL KINDS OF 



Mullion and Bay Window Sash, 

SEGMENT HEAD, CIRCLE TOP, ROUND CORNERS, Etc. ' 



Inside and Outside Blinds made to order for same. 



OFFICE AMD WAREHOUSE, 

Removed to East Twelfth Street, 

EAST OAKLAND. 

Manufactory : — Brooklyn Planing Mill, cor. Commerce and 
East Twelfth Streets, East Oakland. 

Residence: — East Fourteenth Street, between Eleventh and Twelfth 
Avenues, East Oakland. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 81 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE NEW COUNTY PRIOR TO ITS ORGANIZATION SOME OF ITS PIONEER 

SETTLERS THE VICISSITUDES OF LIFE AMONG THEM WONDER. 

FUL CROPS YIELDED BY THE VIRGIN SOIL THE FIRST ELECTION 

OF COUNTY OFFICERS AND THE MEN CHOSEN LEGISLATIVE AND 

JUDICIAL OFFICERS. 

Those who had the largest share in shaping affairs in the new 
county, at the start, were Henry C. Smith, Judge A. M. Crane, A. 
M. Church and Horace W. Carpentier. The southerly end possessed 
the controlling influence, as it carried off the cou.nty seat and nearly, 
if not all, the offices. 

It had to reconcile the 722 inhabitants, given by the census of 
Contra Costa in 1850, with the thousands in Alameda alone three 
years later. But people commenced to come in fast in 1851, when 
most of the lands bordering on the bay were taken up, and it has had, 
ever since, a never-ceasing flow of settlers. 

A picture of the county, as it appeared in 1851, will be here appro- 
priate and may prove interesting. It will show the commencement 
of occupation and settlement ; show what the second race of pioneers 
had to encounter ; who some of the men were who took possession, 
broke up the soil, utiH^ed the harbors, seized upon the natural re- 
sources that were going to waste, set the wheels of trade and com- 
merce in motion, and administered laws. It is true these men had 
not the hardships to encounter and privations to endure that beset 
the pioneers of more rigorous latitudes and less hospitable regions. 
There were no forests to fell, no savages to subdue, no malarias to 
encounter, and no climatic hardships to guard against. Yet, they 
had a land in a state of natui'e to cultivate, and all the necessaries, 
and conveniences of life to procure. Everything that goes to make 
a home had to be provided, and no inconsiderable amount of " rough- 
ing " to be done. Women were very few and children more scarce, 
and those elements that go to make up social happiness were nearly 
altogether wanting. But the favorable conditions offei-ed by so 
beautiful and bounteous a land enabled them to bear theii- conditions 



82 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

hopefully and perform their labors cheerfully ; and. they prospered 
marvelously. 

In 1851 the foreranners of American civilization on our soil were 
but few ; who they were has already been sufficiently described. This 
year Adams, Moon and Carpentier appeared upon the scene, for the 
first time, in Oakland. The Pattens and Chase had settled in Clin- 
ton the year before, and became the i:)ioneers of that place. Jas. B. 
Larue this year settled at San Antonio and started it ; men were 
whip-sawing lumber in the redwoods of San Antonio, and between 
there and the Old Mission, a stretch of more than twenty miles, there 
only resided two or three Mexican rancheros and their retainers. At 
San Leandro there was only the Estudillo residence ; San Lorenzo 
was an Indian rancheria ; Guillermo Castro's residence alone monop- 
olized the site of the present pretty town of Hajrwards ; Amador, in 
the valley beyond, possessed undisputed possession of his broad acres ; 
Mount Eden was a wilderness ; New Haven was the Mission embark- 
adero, without a house ; Centerville had in its neighborhood a few 
settlers who came in the year before, and John M. Horner, almost 
alone, inhabited the vicinity of the " Corners." The Mission town 
had some white settlers, as well as a considerable number of natives. 
Henry C. Smith kept store there, and was administering justice as 
Alcade under appointment of Gen. Riley. The vii-tues of the Agua 
Ccdiente, or Warm Springs, afterwards so famous, were only known 
to the few native Californians and Indians, and the old chief, Mor- 
giana, was yet an object of respect. Sunol alone inhabited the 
beautiful valley to which his father has given his name. Augustine 
Bernal had removed from San Jose and settled at Alisal, now Pleas- 
anton, in 1850, and held half the county, divided between liimself, 
Livermore, Noriega, Francisco Alviso, and Amador. 

Wild cattle roamed at large in thousands; -wild oats covei-ed the 
hills, and wild mustard grew so long and luxuriantly in the vicinity 
of the Alameda, that, in the somewhat exaggerated but humorous 
language of a pioneer, " yovi could climb the stalks and look over 
Mission Peak ! " Deer and all kinds of wild game were abundant. 

Presto, change ! The land has awakened from its slumber of ages, 
and the pine-benders of civilization are climbing its mountains, tread- 
ing its valleys and viptuming its soil. The wilderaess will soon bloom 
like the rose, and the activity of modem Hfe Avill bo observed on 
every hand. 

It has already been mentioned that in 1851 Oakland was starred, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 83 

that Clinton had been commenced, and that San Antonio had 
received settlers from the new invasion. They grew apace and their 
pioneer occupants were soon joined by hundreds of others. As some 
of their histories shall be given elsewhere, it will not be necessary to 
enlarge upon them here. Suffice it to say that in 1852 Oakland 
was incorporated as a town, possessing hundreds of voters. The 
men of the Redwoods commenced to scatter and occupy some of 
the adjoining lands. The numerous sloughs along our western mar- 
gin were followed up and landings established upon them. 

The lower portion of the peninsula of Alameda was laid out as a 
town in 1852, by Messrs. Chipman and Aughenbau. Damon and 
Clark had established their landings ia Brooklyn Township. Moses 
Wicks, T. "W. Mulford, and Minor and Wm. Smith had " squatted " 
on the border of the bay, near San Leandro. Captain John Chisholm 
and Captain William Roberts had started landings, erected ware- 
houses and commenced freighting at San Lorenzo, where they took 
up land, and sailed sloops along the bay, between San Francisco and 
New Haven. After them came " Bob " Farley, and the founders of 
" Squatterville "—the Blackwoods, Cranes, Kennedys, McMurtrys, 
Campbells, Harlans and Johnsons. 

In 1852 Chas. Duer, Alex. Peterson, Fritz Boehmer, Geo. Meyer, 
William Field, Joel Russell and others took up land at Mount Eden, 
that was then open and apparently unoccupied, except by wild cattle. 
Then, too, Captain William Hayward pitched his tent on the 
pleasant site of Haywards, which was only known as Castro's Ranch, 
and many others followed Mm to occupy the beautiful valley beyond. 
In 1852, A. M. Church had returned from a trip to the East, and 
settled at New Haven, where he "stai-ted store," and soon had 
plenty of customers. Wm. Blacow and John Threlfall were estab- 
lished at Centerville, and others soon gathered around them ; Tim 
Rix had located his zinc house, where Montrose now lives ; John M. 
Horner, our first farmer, had gathered his brothers about him, and 
was farming on a large scale ; Ned Nehaus and L. P. Gates had 
land rented from Tyson and Morrison, already possessed of their 
acres between Niles and the Mission. There were besides the 
Combses, and Haleys, and Marstons, and Watkinses, and Chamber- 
lains, and Breyfogles, and Beards, and Briers, and Cranes, and 
Broders, and Moores, and Palmers, and Ellsworths, Smiths and Hufis. 
Further south, near the Warm Springs, had already settled the 
Columbets, Geo. W. Peacock, Henry Curtner and Thos. W. Millard, 



84 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

•well-known citizens. Michael Murray had appeared on the scene at 
Amador, and with him his friends Fallon and others. J. AV. Doherty, 
John Scarlett and William Glasskin had also taken ixp their resi- 
dences in the same place. James Johnson was even then in the 
"sheep business" — a pioneer in that line with " Old Man Mun-ay," 
Allen, and " Captain Jack " O'Brien, who had pitched his tent in 
Con-al Hollow. J. West Martin, the Kapp Brothers and John 
English had commenced to cultivate the rich mold of the Santa Rita 
Rancho. J. AV. Kottinger had laid the foundation of Alisal or 
Pleasanton ; Green Patterson was residing in the old Livemioi-e 
House in the valley ; and Zimmerman was in charge of that outpost 
of our civilization, the Mountain House. 

It is impossible to here enumerate all the pioneers that had come 
into the county at this time, and the names of many men of worth 
and influence are of necessity omitted. Suffice it that the foundations 
of this new section of the commonwealth were laid well and strong ; 
that a body of hardy, sterling, intelligent and detei-mined men had 
resolved to make this their home, to plant theii* vines in the soil, 
groAV their fig trees, and raise their children in the principles of 
liberty, peace, knowledge and virtue. 

The gi-eat trouble with most of the settlers at the start was the un- 
certainty of their tenures and the amount of litigation they were com- 
pelled to enter upon. The question was between Mexican gi-ants and 
government land. That the wild cattle would attack their tents or 
knock down their shanties was not so serious a miitter as this. Every 
thing they I'equired was enormously high, and the markets were un- 
certain. What was a remunerative crop one year would be niinous 
the next. Those who rented land gave up one-half of its yield in 
payment. Wheat, potatoes, barley and onions were the most pro- 
fitable. The nature of the soil not being well known, the proper mode 
of cultivation was not always pursued. Some who lost by their agi-i- 
cultural ventures would repair to the mines to make good their re- 
verses. Those who had planted barley the first years made well. It 
brought as high as 12^ cents per pound in the Spring of 1851. The 
first year the blackbirds were so destructive that some gave up in 
despair and sold out. Farm help commanded $4 per day. Squin-els 
and grasshoppers were annoying. Mills had to be pi-ovided, agricul- 
tural implements purchased, and houses built. Those who planted 
potatoes in 1852 made fortunes, and those who planted them in 1853 
lost fortunes. The first year potatoes realized a thousand dollars au 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 85 

acre. John M. Horner raised immense quantities both years. The 
second they did not pay for sacking, and were allowed to rot on the 
ground. The second crop of wheat, that of 1853, compensated for 
the loss of the potatoes. It was very large, some of the land pro- 
ducing as high as seventy-five bushels to the acre ! It was so heavy 
that it lodged, and had to be cut by hand. It realized 8| cents per 
pound at the mill. Many of the settlers had to pay twice for their 
land. • There was a good deal of trouble about cattle-stealing, and 
several persons convicted a la vigilante, were summarily dealt with 
and hung. 

The first election of officers for the new county took place in May, 
1853. Although parties were organized throughout the State as 
Whigs and Democrats, politics did not enter into the contest, 
and any man who considered himself qualified to run, entered the 
lists for office. There were from three to six candidates for each 
position, and the election was spoken of for years afterwards as the 
*' steeple chase." So little regard had previously been paid to the 
proper names of pei-sons, that until the election some were known 
only by nick-names. Thus, the gentleman who had conferred upon 
him the inelegant alias of " Tom Snook," emerged from the contest 
as A. H. Broder, Esq., Sheriff of Alameda County. 

Following are the names of gentlemen elected to fill the various 
offices designated by the Organic Act : 

A. M. Crane — County Judge. 

A. N. Broder— Sheriff. 

Wm. H. Combs — District Attorney. 

A. M. Church — County Clerk. 

J. S. Marston — Treasurer. 

Jos. S. Watkins — Public Administrator. 

Wm. H. Chamberlain — Coroner. 

H. A. Higley — County Surveyor. 

Geo. W. Goucher — County Assessor. 

W. W. Brier — County Superintendent. 

Jacob Gi-ewel, who had been elected for two years in 1853, contin- 
ued to act as joint Senator for the three counties of Contra Costa, 
Alameda and Santa Clara, until 1855, and Joseph S. Watkins was 
our first choice for Assemblyman for Alameda County, wliile F. M. 
Warmcastle was elected for Contra Costa. 

The County Judge was also Judge of the Court of Sessions, and 
the District Judge was Craven P. Hester, The Third Judicial 



86 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

District then embraced the Counties of Ah^meda, Santa Clara, Santa 
Crnz and Monterey. Now it only embraces Alameda and a district 
of San Francisco. 

By an Act of 1853, the salaiy of the County Judge was fixed at 
$2,500 per annum, and the compensation allowed the Associate Jus- 
tices was $8 per day when in actual attendance at the terms of the 
Court. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



87 



]N. F. BOARDMAM. 

CmL ENGINEER anSSUEYETOR 

General Land .^.gent, 

AND ' 

ASSESSOR FOR OAKLAND TOWNSHIP. 

EOOM 3, COUBT HOUSE. 



NEWSOM BROS. 

ARCHITECTS 

Room 10 Benitz Block, 

Bet. Tenth and Eleventh Sts., (East side.) 
OAKLAND. 



W^M.. STOKES, 

^^:fi.o]E3:ii?eot, 



Oflace, Room 4, 



WILCOX BLOCK. 



:E=LEI^E:Fl.ElSrOES. 

F. Delger, C. B. Rutherford, W. K. Rowell, A. J. Snyder, 

A. C Henry, P. Thompson, G. W. Dam. 



W. O. KINO, 

CIVIL ENGINEER & SURVEYOR 

ROOM 9, BENITZ BLOCK, OAKLAND- 



Publisher of King's Ne%v Map of Oakland and Vicinity. 



A, G, LAWEIE, 

SEARCHER OF RECORDS 

COTJItT KCOTJSE, 
OAKLAND. 



G. W. McKEAJYD, 

SEARCHER OF RECORDS 

OFFICE, 

Cor. Broadway «& Fourth Sts. 

Near Court House, 
O >i. K L -A. 3Sr ID , 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



^^. ^. ^i^^rr ^ 



Blacksmith, Horse-Slioer, 

CARRIAGE MAKER AND REPAIRER, 

Thirteenth Avenue, J{ear Railroad Depot, 

bb,ook;x,-h-it. 



Manufacturer of all kinds of Iron work for Building purposes, and Esti- 
mates made for the same. 

B^'AII work warranted to give entire satisfaction .''^8 



Remillard & Brothers^ 

Brick Makers, Contractors, 



AND DBALERS IN 



orrice:s z 
CITY WHARF, near Webster Street Bridge, 

ROOM No. 10, 

WILCOX BLOCK, BROADWAY, 

AND 

Washington Street Wharf, San Francisco. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 89 



CHAPTER XIV. 

BEGINNING AND END OF THE COURT OF SESSIONS AS A MUNICIPAL 

LAW - MAKER AN EPITOME OF ITS PROCEEDINGS FROM THE SIXTH 

DAY OF JUNE, 1853, TO THE TWENTY - SECOND DAY OF JANUAHY, 
1855 FIXING TOWNSHIP BOUNDARIES, GRANTING LICENSES, LAY- 
ING OUT HIGHWAYS, AND APPOINTING ROAD COMMISSIONERS AND 
SUPERVISORS ITS CONTRACT WITH HORACE W. CARPENTIER, PER- 
MITTING HIM TO COLLECT TOLL ON THE TWELFTH STREET BRIDGE 
AS A COURT OF EQUALIZATION ALLOWING BILLS ESTABLISH- 
ING VOTING PRECINCTS SETTLING CLAIMS OF CONTRA COSTA AND 

SANTA CLARA, ETC. 

The fii-st regular term of the Court of Sessions of Alameda County 
was holden in the Court-room in the Town of Alvarado, on Monday, 
the 6th day of June, A. D. 1853, before the Honorable Adison M. 
Ci'ane, County Judge ; A. M. Church, Clerk ; Andrew H. Broder, 
Sheriff; and William H. Combs, Esq., Disti-ict Attorney of said 
county. 

In pursuance of a call of his honor the County Judge, there 
appeared A. W. Harris, I. S. Long, David S. Lacey, A. Marier, and 
John McMurtry, all the qualified Justices of the Peace of the county, 
who proceeded to the election of two of their number to serve as 
Associate Justices of the Court of Sessions for the current year ; and, 
upon counting the ballots, it appeared that David S. Lacey received 
five votes, I. S. Long received three votes, and A."VV. Harris received 
two votes ; whereupon the said David S. Lacey and Isaac S. Long 
were declared duly elected as such Associate Justices ; Avho then 
appeared and produced their certificates of election, and took their 
oaths of office and their seats as Associate Justices of said Court. 

William H. Combs, Esq., px'oduced a license from the Supreme 
Court of the State of Indiana as Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 
bearing date the 25th day of May, 1849 ; and thereupon, the Court 
being satisfied that the said William H. Combs was a man of good 
moral character, admitted him as the Attorney and Counsellor of the 
Court, and was sworn as such. 

The county was divided into six townships, as follows : 

1st. The Township of Oakland, the boundaries whereof were the 



90 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

same as prescribed and specified in Chapter 107 of the Statutes of 
this State for 1852. 

2d. The Township of Contra Costa, which was bounded on the 
north by the north line of the county ; on the west and southwest by 
the west line of the county and the northeast line of the Township 
of Oakland ; commencing, for the southern boundary, at the north- 
west corner of Oakland Township, and thence running southeast 
along the northwest line of said townsliip to the Indian Gulch ; 
thence up said gulch easterly to the summit of the mountains ; thence 
east to the east bounds of the county; thence northerly along said 
east line to the northeast corner of said county. 

3d. The Township of Clinton, which was bounded on the north 
by the Townships of Oakland and Contra Costa ; on the west by the 
west line of the county ; and for the south and east boundaries, com- 
mencing at the point where the United States surveyed township 
line, passing east and west between the San Leandro and San Lorenzo 
Creeks, cross the west line of said county ; and thence running east 
along said township line to the summit of the coast mountain range ; 
and thence north to the east of the county ; and thence along said 
line to the place of beginning. 

4th. The Township of Eden, which commenced for a boundary 
thereof at the southwest corner of Clinton Township, and thence 
running east along the south line of said to'sviiship to the summit of 
the Coast Range of mountains ; thence along said Coast Range sum- 
mit southerly to the Alameda Creek ; and thence down said creek to 
the west line of the county ; and thence along said west line north- 
erly to the place of beginning. 

5th. The Township of Washington, which was bounded on the 
north by the Township of Eden, on the east by the summit of the 
Coast Range of mountains, on the south by the sovith line of the 
county, and on the west by the west line of the county. 

6tli. The Township of Murray, which embraced all the territory 
of the county not included in the townships before specified, and was 
bounded on the north and east and south by the county lines, and on 
the west by the summit of the Coast Range of mountains. 

The Contra Costa Steam Navigation Company appeared by H. "W. 
Cai'pentier, their Attorney, and made application for renewal of 
license. It was ordered that the license of William H. Brown, and 
by him assigned to said company, to keep the ferry between Contra 
Costa, on San Antonio Creek, and San Francisco, heretofore issued 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 91 

to said Brown by tlie Court of Sessions of Contra Costa County, be 
renewed for one year, from the 7th day of April following the term- 
ination of said license, the said company paying therefor as provided 
by law in such case made and provided, at the same rates hitherto 
charged under former license, imtil the fourteenth day of July fol- 
lowing, from and after which date they were to charge the following 
rates, to-wit : Upon each and every foot passenger, 50 cents ; upon 
every head of horses, mules and cattle, $2 each ; on empty wagons, 

.50 each ; upon hogs and sheep, each per head, 50 cents ; and 25 
cents for each one hundred pounds of freight. 

In the matter of roads and highways, it was ordered that the road 
then traveled, leading from the county line east of the Mission of San 
Jos6, and to said Mission; thence through Amador Valley, and 
known as the Stockton Road, be, and the same was declared a public 
highway ; also, the road leading from Union City to the Mission of 
San Jose was declared a public highway. 

There was presented a petition from sundry citizens for a road 
leading from Vincente Peralta's house to the Town of Oakland ; also, 
a petition for a road from some convenient point, crossing from the 
Oakland and San Pablo Road to the road i-unning from Vincente 
Peralta's to Oakland. It was ordered that Francis K. Shattuck and 
I. S. Tubbs be, and the same were appointed Commissioners, in con- 
nection with the County Surveyor, to view out and locate said road, 
and repoi-t thereon to the Court. 

Then came a petition from sundry other citizens, for a road com- 
mencing at the Town of Alvarado and running thence in a north- 
westerly direction, to intersect the road leading from San Antonio to 
the Mission San Jose, at some point between the Alameda and San 
Lorenzo Creeks. Also, a petition for a road, starting at the Mission 
of San Jose and running nearly north, at the east side of, and nearly 
parallel with,- an artificial ditch, and crossing the brook that runs 
do^vn the Corral Pass in the mountains, at some point between said 
artificial ditch and fifty yards to the eastward of the same ; thence 
between the farm of Henry C. Smith and John M. Horner ; thence 
intersecting the Union City road at or near the schoolhouse. It was 
ordered that John L. Marston and Horace Bacon be, and they there- 
by were appointed Commissionei-s in connection with the County 
Surveyor, to view out and locate the two last-mentioned roads and 
report thereon to the Court. 

Also a petition for a I'oad from the Mission San Jose to Beard's 



92 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Landing. Also a petition foi* a road from a line dividing the lands 
of Charles Bryfogle and D. D. Henion, and Blacow and Wilson, to a 
landing on Tide Water Creek, emptying into the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco. It was ordered that Charles Kelsey and Perry Morrison be, 
and the same were appointed Commissioners, in connection with the 
County Surveyor, to view out and locate the two last-mentioned 
roads, and report thereon to the Court. 

It was ordered that Road District No. 1 should embrace the high- 
way from Union City to the Mission San Jose, extending two miles 
each side thereof, and Charles Breyfogle was appointed Supervisor 
thereof. 

It was ordered that Road District No. 2 should embrace the high- 
way leading from the Mission of San Jose, running in the direction 
of the Pueblo of San Jos6, to the county line of Santa Clara County, 
and William H. Chamberlain was appointed Supervisor thereof. 

It was ordered that Road District No. 3 should embrace the high- 
way leading from the Mission of San Jos6 in the direction of Stock- 
ton, through the Amador Valley to the crossing of the Alameda 
Creek, and that A. Marshall be appointed Supervisor thereof. 

It was ordered that Road District No. 4 should embrace that part 
of the highway leading from the Mission San Jos6 to Stockton, 
which lies between the Alameda Creek and the house of Robert 
Livermore, and Robert Livermore was appointed Supervisor thereof. 

It was ordered that Road District No. 5 should commence at a 
point opposite the house of Livermoi-e, and thence embrace all that 
part of the main traveled highway leading to Stockton, up to the 
east line of the county, and a Supervisor thereof was appointed. 

It was ordered that Road Districts Nos. 2, 3 and 5 should extend 
two miles each side of the highways designated as their boundaries. 

It was ordered that Road District No. 6 should commence at the 
town of Oakland and run thence along the highway, extending two 
miles each side thereof, to the house of Vincente Peralta, and Francis 
K. Shattuck was appointed Supervisor thereof. 

It was oi-dei-ed that Road District No. 7 should commence at Oak- 
land, and run thence to the north line of the county, near the house 
of Vincente Peralta, and R. M. Randall was a])pointed Supervisor 
thereof, and his jurisdiction was extended two miles each way from 
the above line. 

H. W. Carpentier appeared before the Court and submitted the 
following proposition : 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 93 

County of Alameda, June 6th, 1853. 

I hereby propose to complete the bridge across the creek known as 
San Antonio Slough, opposite the residence of the Messrs. Patten, on 
the following terms : The bridge shall be commenced forthwith and 
finished with expedition. I will charge and receive for my own 
use, tolls thereon at the following rates, to wit: Each footman, 12c.; 
each horse, cattle, etc., 25c.; each vehicle drawn by one or two animals, 
50c., and other things in like propoi-tion. Said bridge shall be free 
from taxation or assessment. I will surrender said bridge to the 
county to be made a free bridge, and to be used only as a bridge, at 
any time within twelve months, on their payment to me of the orig- 
inal cost of its constraction, together with interest thereon at the rate 
of three per cent, per month. It shall be finished from bank to bank. 
This proposition binding on its acceptance by the Coui't of Sessions 
of Contra Costa County. 

(Signed.) H. W. CARPENTIER. 

"Upon due consideration" by the Court, it was ordered that the 
foregoing proposition be accepted and the bridge surrendered to H. W. 
Carpentier, to be built and constructed upon the same plan upon 
which it was originally projected, reference being had to proceedings 
in the matter then of record in the County of Contra Costa, but noth- 
ing in this order contained was to be construed into an obligation on 
the part of the county ever to redeem said bridge, or to refund to said 
Carpentier any money whatever expended on the account thereof. 

It was further ordered that the said Carpentier or his assigns be 
authorized to charge the rates of toll specified in the proposition above 
accepted. 

A poll-tax for liighway purposes, of two days' work, was ordered to 
be levied on all able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45 years, 
for the present year. 

The Court then adjourned till the following morning at 8 o'clock. 

On Tuesday morning. May 7th, 1853, the Court met pursuant to 
adjournment the previous day, and ordered that all the Judges, 
Inspectors and Clerks of County and Township Elections who there- 
tofore had, or thereafter might serve, be allowed and paid $5.00 per 
day each, but not more than one day's service was to be charged by 
any person olficiating as such at any one election. The Auditor to 
draw upon the Treasurer for the amount due any person under this 
order, upon application of the party entitled, and upon being satisfied 
that the service claimed for had been performed. 



94 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The followmg claims, which go to show what the county had to 
pay for goods and services at that day, and who its first creditors 
were, were allowed, viz. : 

To D. L. Lord, for blank book and stationery, etc., as per 

accounts on file, ..-.--- $425.00 
" A. M. Chvirch, services obtaining books, stationery, etc., 

for desk, etc., as per ac't on file, - - - -. 49,00 
" Liberty Petham, for work on county desk, as per accounts 

on file, -------- 33.00 

" W. C. "Weaver, for work on county desk, as per accounts 

on file, - - . 48.00 

" J. L. Long, 2 days' services as Asso. Jus. C. S. - 12.00 

" A. Marier, 1 day's service as " " " . - 6.00 

" A. W. Harris, 1 day's service as " " « - - 6.00 

" Jno. M. Horner, for lumber for county desk, - - 16.50 

" C. J. Stevens, " «'.<.- 9.00 

Orders were issued by the Auditor upon the Treasurer of the 
County to the persons above named, for the sums specified. 

There having been no further business before the court, it ad- 
journed until the next term thereof 

A, M. CRANE, County Judge. 

DAvm S. ^^<^^,\^^,odate Justices. 
J. S. Long, / 

At a special meeting held on July 19th, H. K. W. Clark appeared 
as a petitioner for a road from, the Encinal to the county road from 
San Antonio to the Mission. 

At the meeting held on the first day of August many petitions for 
the laying out of roads were presented. The following election pre- 
cincts were established : 

In Washington Township, at the Mission of San Jose, at the 
room next eastei-ly of Howard & Chamberlain's store ; at the town 
of Alvarado, at the roOm then used for a Court-house. In Eden 
Township, at the house of William Hayward, and at the house of 
T. H, Cowles. In Clinton Township, at the house of James B, 
Larue, and at the house of Chai-les Ray, and at the saw-mill of 
Tupper & Hamilton. In Oakland Township, at the office of A, 
Man-ier. In Contra Costa Township, at the house of Seth R, 
Bailey, and at the house of A. E. Hutchinson, In INlun-ay Town- 
ship, at the house of Michael Murray. 

The Court resolved itself into a Court of Equalization, and ordered 
that 60 cents on one hundred dollars be levied on all taxable proi)ei'ty, 
real and personal, within the county, for State tax, instead of 30 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 95 

cents, as theretofore ordered at a special term, held on the 11th day 
of May (under Contra Costa). 

At a meeting held on the 2d day of August, A. Marshall, Esq., 
was appointed a " Judge of the Plains," to look after rodeos and the 
branding of cattle. 

J. M. Selfridge, M. D., presented to the consideration of the Court 
his account against the county for the sum of $20, for ser-\T.ces in 
the examination of two insane persons, showing that the doctor, who 
is yet hale and hearty, was our first County Physician. The account 
of Geo. Kerr & Co., for the sum of $30, for printing 100 hand-bills, 
was considered " too steep," and was reduced by the court to $1.5, that 
sum having been considered all that was justly owing, and even then 
Geo. Ken- & Co. fared much better than does the County Printer of 
the present day, and ought to have been well satisfied. But those 
were the days of " big things " for the disciples of Faust. There 
also came J. S. Marston, Treasurer of the County, and pi-esented 
his account for services as Treasurer for three months, for the sum 
of $500, and $60 for rent of Treasurer's ofiice, to the 1st of August. 
" After due consideration " such account was disallowed, and as com- 
pensation for his services, as such Treasurer, in addition to the fees 
allowed by law, it was decreed that said Marston should receive up 
to that time the sum of $400, and for eveiy three months thereafter, 
during the term of liis ofiiGe, he should receive the sum of $400. 

Commissions to view out roads and bridges were numerous, and it 
was ordered by the Court that all orders and appointments of Com- 
missionei-s for such purpose be delivered to the County Surveyor, 
" whose duty it should be to call upon the Commissionei-s appointed 
and proceed with them to the discharge of their duties." It was 
ordered that the County Surveyor be directed to make " an estimate 
and plan of the cost " of a single-track bridge across the San Lorenzo 
creek, " where the public laid out highway will cross said creek." 

Adolph Sillmann's bill for nineteen and a half days' services as 
Deputy County Surveyor, at $12 per day, was allowed. D. S. Lacy 
was allowed $19, for his services as a Justice of the Peace, in the 
case of The People vs. Augustin Young. 

A. S. Hurlliutt was allowed $294, for twenty-four and a half days' 
services as Deputy Assessor, being at the i-ate of $12 per day. 
Horace A. Higley was allowed $514, for three months' services as 
County Surveyor. A. Kuner was allowed $100, for five public seals, 
furnished for the county, A. M. Church was allowed $192, " for his 



96 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

services as Clerk and Auditor of the County, for office furniture and 
stationery furnished for Clerk's office." It was ordered that $5 per 
day be allowed to Commissioners to view out and locate highways. 

The court resolved itself into a Board of Equalization, and reduced 
the assessment of Robert Livermore from $36,000 to $20,000. 
George W. Goucher, County Assessor, was allowed the sum of $540, 
for forty-tive days' services, which was at the rate of $12 per diem. 

At the election of Justices of the Peace, held on the 7th and 8th of 
September, 1853, the following persons were returned and reported : 
Asa Walker, S. P. Hopkins, H. M. Randall, B. F. Ferns, A. Mar- 
shall, William Fleming, Calvin Rogers and S. H. Robinson. As 
required by law, these gentlemen met at the Court-house, in 
Alvarado, on the 3d day of October, and, from their number, elected 
two Associate Justices, for the term of one year, the same being A. 
Marshall and L. H. Robinson, Esquires. The Justices in attendance 
received for their sei'vices at such election the sum of $8 each. 

H. Adler was allowed the sum of $10 for his services as Clerk of 
Election, at the Mission of San Jos^, April 25th, 1853, and the fur- 
ther sum of $10 for his services at the election held on the 7th and 
8th of September. The Court ordei-ed that every Judge, Inspector 
and Clerk of any election thereafter be allowed the sum of $5 per 
day, and that only two days' services be paid for in any case. 

F. K. Shattuck, Deputy Sheriff, was allowed the sum of $40.90 
for services rendered the county. 

At a special term of the Court, held on the 7th day of November, 
1853, District Attorney Moore, of Santa Clara County, appeared, 
and moved that the Court allow the sum of $7,204.73 to the County 
of Santa Clara, in accordance with an award made October 27th, 
1853, by H. C. Melone, John Yoiitz, Thos. A. Brown and J. W. 
Williams, Commissioners, appointed for the purpose of ascertaining the 
amount of indebtedness due from this county to the Counties of Santa 
Clara and Contra Costa, which motion was taken under advisement 
until the next regular term of the Court. 

Geo. M. Blake appeared for the first time and presented the peti- 
tion of sundry citizens of Contra Costa Township, praying that said 
township be abolished and embraced in the Township of Oakland. 

At a meeting held on the 8th of November, Noble Hamilton 
appeared, taking a part, for the first time, of the firm of Combs & 
Hamilton, and as Attorney for J. J. Yallejo, presenting a petition 
with regard to a public highway. Bills for work done on the much- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 97 

charged county desk, it appears, had not all been put in to this date, 
and G-eo. W. Poi-ter was allowed $5 " for work and labor done in and 
about finisliing the County Clerk's desk." 

At the session of the Court of December 6th, 1853, the following 
interesting and important communication was read : 

Hon. A. M. Crane, County Judge, c&c. ; 

Dear Sir — I herewith transmit to you my accoimt with the Oak- 
land Bridge. In the item of lumber, I have charged $53 per M, 
which I consider a fail' and reasonable average charge. I paid 
$41 to $63 per M. That portion of the bridge built by me is built 
in a strong and substantial manner. The old part will require to be 
replanked and repaired the ensuing season, at an expense of some 
$2,000 to $2,500. 

Yery respectfully yours, 

HORACE W. CARPENTIER. 

Oakland Bridge, to Horace W. Carpentier, Dr. : 

To hewn timber, $16.28; 3,000 feet piles, $960; spikes and iron 
work, $669.08 ; labor, $3,021.25; 98,000 feet lumber, $5,194 ; ten 
per cent, for sundries not included in above items, $1,147.23. 
Total, $12,619.56. 

In the matter of the claim of Santa Clara County against the 
County of Alameda, the following report was entered: " Whereas, at 
the last special term of this Covirt an application was made on behalf 
of Santa Clara County for an order upon the Treasurer of Alameda 
County for that portion of the debt of Santa Clara County which 
was awarded to be paid to said county by the County of Alameda ; 
and the Coui't having had the said matter under advisement, do re- 
fuse said application, on the ground that the award so made was 
made wholly without the authority of law, do not admit the same to 
be in any way correct as to amount, or that anything whatever is 
due from Alameda to Santa Clara County." 

The boundai-ies of Oakland and Clinton Townships were rear- 
ranged so as to do away with Contra Costa Township, as desired by 
the inhal:)itants of that township. 

On December 8th William H. Chamberlain presented a bill for 
his services as Coroner, in holding an inquest and burying a dead 
body, amounting to the sum of $27, which account was allowed. 
H. Adler was allowed $20 for his services as interpreter before the 
Grand Jury, H. C. Sill presented a bill for $25 for his sex-vices in 



98 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

making a jyost mortem examination of the body of a man found dead 
on the 14th of November. Was allowed $15. 

At the meeting held on the 2d day of January, 1854, the county 
was divided into three road districts. No. 1 comprised the town- 
ships of Washington and Eden; District No. 2, the townships of 
Oakland and Clinton; District No. 3, the township of Murray. 
William Blackwood was appointed SuperAdsor of No. 1 ; D.N. Yan 
Dyke of No. 2; Michael Murray of No. 3. 

It was ordered that each able-bodied man between the ages of 
Eighteen and forty-five years be requii-ed to work on the highways 
three days during the year 1854, or commute by paying $3 
in money for each day. Albert E. Crane was allowed a bill of 
$3,071.94 for building two bridges across San Lorenzo and San 
Leandro Creeks, and was voted $300 for his services as Commissioner 
for the building of said bridges. 

At the term of the Court of Assize, held on the 6th day of Feb- 
iiiary, 1854, it was resolved, in the matter of the claim of Contra 
Costa against Alameda County: "Whereas, an application has been 
made on behalf of Contra Costa which was ordered to be paid to 
said county by the County of Alameda ; having had the same under 
consideration, do refuse said application, upon the ground that the 
award made was made wholly without authority of law. And the 
Court in placing their refusal vipon the ground that said award was 
made without authority of law, do not in any way admit the same to 
be correct as to amount, or that anythmg whatever is due from 
Alameda to Contra Costa County. 

William Blackwood was allowed $12 per day for his services as 
Supervisor of Road District No. 1. 

On Feb. 7th J. W. Dougherty, Wm. R. Defrees and Wm. Glaskin 
applied for a franchise to construct a toll-road from Dougherty's 
house, for seven miles through the caiion, towards Haywards, which 
was granted on certain conditions. John Hogan, Mai-shal of the 
Town of Oakland, was allowed $118.40 on his account against the 
county. 

On the 1st day of May the court resolved itself into a Boaixl of 
Equalization, and it was ordered that the following be the rate of 
taxation for the year 1854 : For State purposes, 60 cents upon each 
hundred dollars ; for county purposes, 50 cents ; and for school pur- 
poses, 3 cents ; in all, $1.13 per hundred dollars. 

On May 2d several considerable amounts, to Justices and Attor- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



neys, for services in criminal cases relating to the stealing of cattle, 
were allowed ; and Michael Murray, for disbursements in the case 
of People vs. Leonard, was allowed $96.10. The disbursements this 
month were particularly heavy. 

It seems that Santa Clara had a just claim against this county, 
and had enforced it ; for on the 24th day of August it was ordered 
that the sum of $3,237 be levied upon the taxable property of the 
county, to be apportioned according to the aggregate and individual 
-amounts of the assessment-roll for the present year, for the purpose 
of paying that portion of the indebtedness of Alameda to Santa Clara, 
ordered to be paid on the first of January next, pursuant to the pro- 
visions of the Act of the Legislature upon that subject, passed at the 
last session of the Legislatui-e. 

On September 14th, 1854, the Court of Sessions, Judge A. M. 
Crane presiding, and A. Marshall and S. H. Robinson as Associates, 
the Township of Alameda was constituted, and changes made in the 
boundaries of Washington and Eden Townships. At this meeting 
Henry C. Smith was allowed $200 for rent of Court-room, which 
was over his store, in Alvarado — the first mention made of any such 
charge. On the 3d of October, 1854, the Justices of the Peace met 
for the purpose of selecting Associate Justices from among their num- 
ber, and selected John Travis and S. H. Robinson, 

It was ordered that the order creating the To^vnship of Alameda, 
heretofore made, be amended so as to prescribe the following bound- 
aries : Commencing in the centre of the estuary or Bay of San 
Leandro, northeastwardly from the place known as the Bay Farm ; 
thence running northwestwardly up the centre of the Brick 
Yard Creek, and thence to the northwest corner or point of the 
Encinal San Antonio ; thence around said Encinal, on the west- 
ward ly side thereof, to the northwestern coi'ner of the incorporated 
Town of Alameda ; thence southwardly to the shore of Bay Farm, 
and so along the shore of the Bay of San Francisco to the southeast- 
erly end of said farm ; and thence in a right line to the place of 
beginning, so as to inelude said Bay Farm and the whole of said 
Encinal. A. Mai'shall was appointed Judge of the Plains. 

The last meeting of the Court of Sessions, as a municipal body, 
was held on the 22d day of January, 1855, an act of the Legislature 
havmg been passed on the following April, creating a Board of 
Supervisors for the County of Alameda ; and thus closes the fii-st 
chapter in the history of our municipal management. 



100 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



WIIITTIEK, FULLER & CO., 

Late W. S. MURPHV 
WHOLESALE ANI> RETAIL DEALERS IN 

DflflFS, IMlfS, filiifls 




SASH DOORS, 

Trazisojoas, Sid© I_ilglits, 

Weights, Cords 8f Pulleys, at the lowest market prices. 
BLINDS, OUTSIDE AND INSIDE, 

Constantly on Hand or Made to Order. 

TWELFTH ST., opposite the Martet, P. 0. Boi 640. 

OAKLAND, CAL. 



Printed Price Current on application. 



■UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 101 

CHAPTER XV, 

1853—1855. 

yROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY TO THE ESTABLISHMENT 
OF THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. 



More Ahout Road-Making and Bridge-Building — Toll-roads — Land- 
ings and Ferries — Oakland a Pleasant Resort — Hunters Ahout 
— Sidt-Gathering on the Marsh Lands — Indebtedness to Contra 
Costa and Santa Clara Repudiated hy the Court of Sessions — 
An Act Parsed to Compel Payment to Santa Clara — Clinton 
Laid Out — Oakland Incorporated as a City— A Newspaper 
Started — Senators and Asserahlymen Elected — Legislature of 
1854 — Time for Holding the Courts — Santa Clara and Contra 
■Costa Abolish their Boards of Supervisors and Transfer the 
Municipal Business to the Court of Sessions — Paymeiits into the 
State Treasury — First Reports of the County Surveyor, Assessor 
and Superintendent of Schools — C omijarative Statement of the 
Value of Property in Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara and 
•Sacramento Counties — County Officers far 1854 — Vote on Change 
of County Seat to San Leandro — Act of the Legislature Neces- 
sary — Progress of the County and General Condition — County 
Officers for \9>56—The Board of Supervisors Established — Other 
Legislation o/ 1855. 

In the foregoiiig chapter the machinery of the new county organ- 
ization is shown at work. The great want of the people at that date 
was roads and bridges, and, as has been seen, they went vigoroiisly 
to work to provide them. Roatl-viewers, commissioners and sn]:)er- 
visors were numerous, and tlie Court of Sessions had its hands full 
at every meeting, receiving petitions and reports and making appoint- 
ments. 

The system of roads established was not a veiy expensive one. 
'There was little quarrying and cracking of stones at that date, and 
the pick and shovel did nearly all the work. There were many 
marshy places close to the margin of the bay that had to be raised or 
filled, and the beds of creeks had to be crossed. Gravel and shells, 



102 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTT. 

howevei", were plentiful and easily procured from tlie numerous creeks 
and mounds, and the great expense was the hauling. While in the 
valleys and low lands it was filling in and banking up, on the moun- 
tain sides it was cutting away and digging out. The bridges gen- 
erally required were simple and inexpensive, but a bridge to cross 
the ai"m of the estuary, between Oakland and Clinton, was a serious 
afiair, and mtich time and labor over it wea-e necessary. The con- 
struction of it had already become an embarrassing matter, invohing 
the credit of the old county and trouble to the new. The other most 
impoi-tant bridges required were the one crossing the San Leandro 
Creek, at the town of the same name, and that which spanned 
the Alameda at Alvarado. No others presented any serious obsta- 
cles, and in a couple of years we had an excellent showing in the way 
of improved highways. As a rule, toll -roads were eschewed, yet 
franchises were granted in two or three instances to make roads,, 
build bridges and collect tolls. One of these was to Mr. Carpentier, 
for the Oakland bridge ; the other to Hiram Thorne, for a few miles of 
road over the mountain, back of Brookljoi, into Contra Costa County; 
and a few miles to J. M. Dougherty and others, on the route from- 
Haywards to Dublin. There is but one road now on which toll is 
collected in the county, and that is on the Thorne road, here referred 
to, and the franchise for that wall soon expire. 

At fii-st, on account of the sparsity of population, crossing the bay 
from San Francisco to Oakland and San Antonio was a serious 
matter. We have shown the inconvenience of this, many yeara. 
before, to the Mexican settlers. So soon, howeverr, as the inducements 
seemed sufficient, small steamere commenced to cross. As early as; 
1850, the Kangaroo was put on the ferry route and made two trips 
a week, sailing to and from San Aiitonio, then the principal place 
of traffic ; in 1851, a small steamer, brought from New York and 
belonging to Captain Rhodes, ran to Oakland. In 1852,, the Boston 
made a few trips and was destroyed by fire. Then followed the 
Kate Hayes the latter end of the same year ; until filially the Contra 
Costa Steam Navigation Company was established,, with two steamers,, 
making regular daily trips, and charging ^1 for each passage. This, 
large charge was reduced by opposition until finally,, some yeai's 
later, 25 cents became the regailar fare. Thus the means of access 
and communication were early established, and proximity to the 
luu-bor of San Francisco, as well as possessing one of the most im- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 103 

port ant passes to and from the mines, gave the county eveiy advan- 
tage in securing population. 

It startled into life with two incorporated towns — Oakland an 
Alameda — and both have ever been eagerly sought as pleasant 
resorts by the citizens of San Francisco. Oakland grew apace, 
although its land troubles were innumerable and its poj^ulation 
somewhat inharmonious. Its oak groves and level streets were in 
pleasant contrast with the high hills and barren aspect of the 
commercial city beyond, and many eagei-ly sought it as a suburban 
home. 

What helped much, too, to rapidly populate the county and 
develop its resources was its length of coast line and numerous inlets, 
on which landings were established and light craft at once placed, 
carrying freight and passengers. Many new-comers, full of the 
spirit of adventure and love of exploration, as well as a desire for 
gain, would come over from San Francisco in row-boats and sail-boats 
to hunt and fowl on the hills and marshes, and always with profit- 
able results. They had ever in San Francisco a ready market for 
all they could capture or kill. Some of our most esteemed pioneers 
made their beginnings here in this way. 

The fact that our low lands, bordering the bay, were productive 
salt marshes, brought many to gather the salt that was to be had for 
the scraping ; and as this commodity was a scarce article then, in the 
market, it brought a good price. Salt-making is now an established 
business, carried on scientifically with capital and hired labor. It is 
an important interest in our local industry. Those engaged in it 
and the modus operandi of its manufacture, will be found fully 
described elsewhere in this work. 

It will be noticed that her separation from Contra Costa and Santa 
Clara left Alameda with an amount of indebtedness for portions of 
past expenditures due to each. The Organic Act provided for the 
payment of these debts, but strange to say, we find our first Court of 
Sessions coolly repudiating both, while a subsequent Coui't was com- 
pelled to make provision for payment. It is to be regretted that 
this indebtedness should have for several years been a matter of con- 
troversy, with the interest outgi'owing the original amounts. In the 
Legislatui-e of 1854 an Act was passed in favor of Santa Clara, of which 
these are the features : Amount of indebtedness adjusted and fixed 
at $6,475. Court authoi-ized to levy special tax. $3,237 to be paid 
in cash. Court of Sessions to provide for collecting $3,238, In gase 



104 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

of failure of payment, to draw interest at the rate of 3 per cent, per 
month, until paid, provided the whole shall not exceed 10 per cent. 
per annum. 

The location of the county seat was not at fii'st well chosen, al- 
thoiigh it then best accommodated the largest number of people. The 
ground being very low, the roads leading to it were not good, and in 
winter time it was difficult of access. The house accommodation, 
too, was poor, and the iipper flat of a store building was utilized for 
a Court House and county offices, and there was not a safe place 
there. An agitation for removal, therefore, soon followed. 

In the meantime the work of improvement went on. A wharf 
had been built at San Antonio. In 1853 the town of Clinton was 
laid out, and a line of Cottonwood trees, a la alameda, planted along 
the road from the bridge to San Antonio landing. In the spring of 
the following year a grand hotel was built there by the town com- 
pany, and a temporary impetus given to the place ; but the hotel 
having been destroyed by lire soon after it was built, a cloud covered 
it for a while. 

By the Legislature of 1854 Oakland was incorporated as a city — - 
a small one, to be sure — but full of the future. It went on pros- 
perously, and has never had a serious set-back by fire, flood, or 
business stagnation. Henry Durant had already commenced his 
college, and the foundation of the future Univei-sity of California 
was laid. 

In September, 1854, the first newspaper devoted to Oakland in- 
terests was started by H. Davison, but as the town was yet too poor 
to own a printing office, it was printed in San Francisco. It was 
styled the Leader. All litigant advertisements, however, by an Act of 
the Legislature, had to be sent to the Placer Times and Transcr-ipt, 
published in San Francisco. 

There were politics, too, and politicians, and everything went 
Democratic. Many of the men who were prominent then are 
prominent now, but the political opinions of quite a number have 
undergone a change, and those who would not be Whigs, or else but 
Democrats, before the war, have become Republicans after it. Our 
Senator in 1853-4, jointly with Santa Clara, was Jacob Grewell, and 
for 1855-6, Sherman Day. Ovir Assemblyman for the same years 
successively was, in 1854 and 1855, Jos. S. Watkins, pi-esumably a 
Democrat, as Democracy was the political faith of our younger days. 

The Legislatxire of 1854, besides incorporating the City of Oak- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 105 

land and providing for the payment of our debt to Santa Clara, 
passed an Act fixing the time for holding our several courts. The 
County Judge after that, was to hold his several courts — Sessions, 
Probate and County — on the first Mondays of January, March, May, 
July, September and November ; doing the business of the Court of 
Sessions first, then the County, and last the Probate. Another Act 
fixed the time for holding the various terms of the District Couii; 
on the third Monday of February, May, August and November. 

It is singular that Santa Clara and Conti-a Costa should at the 
Session of 1854 have Acts passed to abolish their Supervisor Boards 
and resort to the Court of Sessions again to transact theii* municipal 
business ; whUe in the following year, Alameda dropped the Court 
of Sessions for such purpose and established a Board of Supervisor. 
And Alameda was right, for the Court of Sessions was always an 
unconstitutional tribiuial. 

The latter half of 1853 Alameda paid into the State Ti-easury the 
humble sum of $696.17. This was her small beginning, for which 
she amply compensates at the present. Contra Costa paid for the 
same six months, $7,878.19. 

In 1854 County Suiweyor Higley made his fii-st report to the 
Surveyor-General, and as the first document of the kind, it . is 
deemed of sufiicient importance to print it in full. It is as follows : 

Office County Surveyor, 
Clinton, Alameda Co. 
Hon. S. II. Marletto, Surveyor-General, Sacramento : 

Dear Sir — In obedience to law and in compliance with your cir- 
cular, I have the honor to submit the following report : 

I have no data that would facilitate the making of an accurate 
map of the county. I have applied to the Coui-t of Sessions for the 
necessary authority and means to yum the county boundaries, and 
make such surveys as would enable me to make a map of the county, 
biU it failed to grant what I asked for. 

There is no internal na\T.gation in the county, except upon arms 
of the Bay of San Francisco. The pass through the Coast Ilange of 
mountains between the Bay of San Francisco and the San Joaquin 
Valley, that is found along the waters of the San Lorenzo Creek, is 
admirably adapted for the construction of a railroad, and is probably 
the only practicable pass, for that purpose, to be found in the moun- 
tains that separate these valleys. There is now in process of construc- 
tion a sliell and turnpike road, leading from the town of Alameda, 
through the San Lorenzo Pass, to Stockton. There is a short plank 
road leading to the Embarkadero of San Lorenzo. It is the property 
of the Eden Plank Road Company. There is a toll-bridge across an 



106 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

arm of the Bay of San Antonio, between the towns of Clinton and 
Oakhxnd. This bridge was partly built by Contra Costa County, 
before the organization of Alameda. The Court of Sessions granted 
the right to H. W. Carpentier, to complete the same and charge toll 
until such time as the county shall see fit to repay the cost of its 
construction, with interest at three per cent, per month. The county 
has not yet redeemed it. 

There are about 800 square miles of land in the county, the greater 
portion of which is mountainous and therefore unfit for cultivation, 
though much of it is well adapted for grazing. 

The Bay of San Francisco forms the western boundary of the 
county, and between it and the mountains, running parallel with, 
and, on an average, four miles distant, there is a very fertile and level 
valley, well watered with mountain streams and springs. This valley 
contains about 100,000 acres of as fine land as there is in the State 
of California, and nearly all of it is under cultivation. Other arable 
land is foimd in valleys among the mountains, and a small portion of 
the San Joaquin Yalley. On the east side of the first range of 
mountains there is a large valley, known in some parts as the Liver- 
more, in others as the Amador, and in others again as San Ramon 
Yalley, which contains within the county about .50,000 acres of well- 
watered and fair agricultural land, not much under tillage. Other 
valleys of less note are also found among the mountains. 

There are no known mineral lands in the county. There is no 
overflowed land in the county, except from the tide- water of the bay; 
of this tliere is about 20,000 acres that has salt-water vegetation 
growing upon it, and is only overflowed at extremely high tides^. 

I have examined the ofiicial map of the State, and, so far as my 
knowledge extends, there is no material error in it. 

Between this county and Santa Clara and San Joaquin, there are 
about one hundred miles of boundary that should be established. 
The points in these lines are mostly natural — fixed monuments ; but 
the connecting lines not having been run, confusion and difliculty 
often arise as to the location of persons and property, in relation to 
the several counties. 

I have reason to believe there is a small portion of land in the 
San Joaquin Valley unclaimed by grantees of former governments, 
but all other arable land in the county is claimed, with the adjacent 
hill and mountain land. The greater portion of the mountain land 
is almost valueless. A part, however, is well adapted to grazing. 
The county, generally, is very sparsely timbered. For reasons here- 
tofore assigiied, I cannot send a map of these lands. 

The wliole county has been townshipped by the U. S. Surveyors, 
but none of it sectioned. The Mount Diablo meridian passes through 
Amador Valley, enters the Bay Valley at the Mission of San Jose, 
and strikes the said land at the southern extremity of the county. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, H. A. HIGLEY, 

County Sui-veyor, Alameda Co, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 107 

Wliile Mr. Higley's sagacity, in pointing out the only feasible pass 
for a railroad in the Mount Diablo range, is to be commended, it is 
unpardonable that he should have mentioned the banks of the San 
Lorenzo Creek, instead of the Alameda, as the position of this pass. 
The Shell Road referred to does not exist but for a few miles in 
Alameda Township, and what wagon road there was through the 
Alameda Canon was wantonly destroyed by the railroad engineers 
when making their road through the pass. Shells for road pui-poses 
were plentiful, and large mounds of them are yet to be found in 
various places along the water-front. The plank road to the " em- 
barkadero of San Lorenzo " was made by John B. Ward, who secured 
a francliise to build said road and a wharf, from the previous Legis- 
lature. There is but little of the mountain land which Mr. Higley 
mentioned as valueless that is not now utilized and good crops pi'O- 
cured therefrom, excepting that portion adjoining Santa Clara, on 
our southeastern boixler. 

Accompanying Mr. Higley's report were duplicates of two land- 
warrants located by liim in the county, wliich, with a few others, he 
said had been floated, showing how little Government land there was 
even then in the county considered worth taking up, all having been 
disposed of in Spanish and Mexican gi-ants. The Assessor's Report 
for 1854, the first made out for Alameda County, was as follows : 

Alameda — Area, 800 square miles ; no mineral lands ; nearly all 
the ai-able land claimed by Mexican grants ; all " townshipped " by 
the general Government ; none " sectioned ;" overflowed and subject 
to overflow, 20,000 acres; land under cultivation, 61,000 acres; in 
barley, 24,000 acres ; in wheat, 20,000 acres ; in oats, 6,000 acres ; in 
potatoes, 5,000 acres; in nurseries, trees, etc., 1,000 acres; in 
vegetables, 2,000 acres; in canary beans, plants, etc., 3,000 acres. 
Yield per acre : wheat, 36 bushels ; barley, 66 bushels ; oats, 80 
bushels. Total crops: barley, 1,584,000 bushels; wheat, 720,000 
bushels; oats, 480,000 bushels; potatoes, 1,000,000 bushels. 

Live stock: Cattle, 110,000; horses, 60,000; sheep, 20,000; 
hogs, 13,000 ; goats, 350. GEO. W. BOUCHER, Co. Assessor. 

The County School Superintendent's Report wtis as follows : 

Number of children between five and eighteen years, 577 ; boys, 
330; girls, 247. Number of pupils attending school, 214; daily 
average attendance, 129. State Fund, $1,072.35; School Fund on 
hand October 31st, 1854, $1,339.72. Expended on rents and repairs 
to school-houses, $425. Amount raised in boundary and paid teach- 
ers, $4,100. Total amount expended for school purposes in 1854, 
$4,765. W. W. BRIER, County Superintendent. 



108 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

School Warrant returns prior to January 1st, 1854, two for 320 
acres; for the year 1854, two of 160 acres; two of 320 acres. 

Apportionment of School Fund by Townships, January 1st, 1875: 
Washington, 179 pupils; Eden, 92; Alameda, 50; Oakland, 204. 
Brooklyn and Murray appear to be omitted in return. 

Abstract of total value of property assessed in 1854, and amount 

of State Tax thereon. For the purpose of comparison, four counties 

are included : 

Value of Property. State Tax. 

Alameda, ... - $4,383,179 $26,298.91 

Contra Costa, - - - - 2,330,084 13,980.46 

Santa Clara, - - - 6,582,062 39,492.36 

Sacramento, - - - - 8,775,966 52,655.79 

It will be well to keep these figures in view to show the compara- 
tive increase of each county to the present day. 

At the election of county officers, held September 6th, 1854, the 
following persons were chosen: J. S. Chipman, District Attorney; 
B. S. Marston, Treasurer; A. H. Broder, Sheriff; Edward Barnes, 
Public Administrator; H. A. Higley, County Surveyor; A. M. 
Church, County Clerk; L. N. Crocker, Coroner; C. C. Breyfogle, 
County Assessor. A. M. Crane was the County Judge. 

It has been already stated that an agitation was started at an 
early day for the removal of the county seat, and San Leandi'o, then 
with only a few scattering houses around the Estudillo homestead, 
was pitched upon as the place to be substituted for Alvarado. A 
vote upon the question was ordered, but by what authority does not 
clearly appear. At any rate, it was taken on the 30th day of De- 
cember, 1854, with the following result: 

Alameda, . . . . 

Alvarado, 

Temescal, .... 

Oakland, 

Mission San Jos6, - . . 
Horner's School House, 
San Lorenzo House, 
William Hayward's, - - - 
Jeremiah Utter's, . - - 
J. W. Kottinger's, - - - 
Bedwoods, .... 
San Antonio, .... 
Mountain House, - - - 

Totals, -..--. 1,067 1,301 



Alvarado. 


San Leandro. 


95 


39 


384 


9 


4 


343 


44 


317 


178 


25 


173 


7 


17 


98 


30 


47 


14 


140 


92 


18 





38 


25 


206 


11 


14 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 109 

It is somewhat singular, but the foregoing is the only official elec- 
tion return, or any return of an election held in this county, before 
1860, that is to be found aniong the official papei-s to-day. It shows 
that San Leandro gained the day by 234 majority ; but at the same 
time exhibits extraordmary voting capacity on the part of some, if 
not all, of the precincts. The vote of Temescal, which was only four 
less than that of Oakland, is particularly noticeable ; but the fran- 
chise was rather freely handled in those days. The vote, by town- 
ships was as follows : 

Washington, - - - - 

Eden, 

Murray, . _ _ . 
Brooklyn, - - - - - 
Alameda, . - _ - 
Oakland, 



Uvarado 


For San Leandro. 


735 


41 


47 


145 


103 


32 


39 


384 


95 


39 


48 


660 



Totals, 1,067 1,301 

It ^viU. be observed by the above that the vote of Washington 
was larger than that of Oakland by 68. But how mai'velously the 
latter is shown to have increased in two years, smce the contest be- 
tween Carpentier and Farrelly ! 

In accordance with this vote, the county seat was removed to San 
Leandro ; but, in consequence of some informality in the Act, the 
county offices were removed back, for a time, to Alvarado, until the 
Legislature, on the 8th of February, 1856, by a special Act, author- 
ized the removal to San Leandro, and established the seat of justice 
in that place ; and that was what gave San Leandro a start as a 
town. 

Prior to ,1853 there was only one little adobe flour mill in the 
county — that built by the Fathers at the Mission. In 1853 two 
expensive mills were erected in W^ashington TowTtiship : the one at 
Niles, by J. J. Yallejo, and the one at Alvarado, by J. M. Homer. 
The former was run by water-power and the latter by steam. In 
1854 the Clinton mill was built. Other industrial enterprises 
were in progress. The first blacksmith shop was started in San Lo- 
renzo, in December, 1853, by a man named John Boyle, whom Henry 
Smyth, the pro^Drietor of the present extensive agi-icultural works in 
that place, succeeded. James Beazell and Chas. Hilton started the 
first blacksmith shop at Centreville. Stores were established at a 
few places in the country. Henry C. Smith had removed his from the 



110 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Mission to Alvarado ; Capt. Bond started one at Centreville ; Lacy 
had one at Brooklyn ; besides tliose at Oakland and the Mission. 

In 18.53 attention was first paid to the business of fruit-growing. 
Before that the only trees in the county were those belonging to the 
Mission orchards, of Avhich E. L. Beard possessed the best. Several 
gentlemen clubbed together and sent Captain Whalley, in the fall of 
1853, to Rochester, N. Y., for a general assortment of trees. Then 
came Mr. Lewelling with his nursery stock, from Oregon. 

The moral and religious welfare of the population had not as yet 
received much attention. There were, however, three or four Pro- 
testant Church organizations in Oakland ; while the Catholics, for 
the purpose of worship, had to betake themselves to San Francisco, 
on the one hand, or the Mission on the other. "W. W. Brier, at 
Centreville, was the first Protestant clergyman in the county, and at 
this period was Supei-intendent of Education. 

The mission town continued the scene of considerable debauchery. 
Gambling flourished ; fandangos were in favor ; drinking, bull and 
bear-fighting, horse-racing, etc., were regular Sunday amusements ; 
and the ceremony of " hanging Judas " on Good Friday, never failed 
to draw together people from the whole surrounding country — In- 
dians, Californians, Mexicans, Portuguese, and even Americans. 

The Mission, however, was not alone the scene of these noisy 
amusements. Oakland and San Antonio both had their full shai'e of 
them, until suppressed by law and better habits were enforced. 

Oakland had the only lock-up in the county. At the county seat 
the Sheriff had to stand guard over his prisoners, or lock them up in 
a room at the Brooklyn Hotel. To save trouble, sometimes, the 
Sheriff would be i-elieved of his charge, and the prisoners taken out 
in the salt-marsh and lynched. Instances of this kind, however, 
were not numerous, and, on the whole, the people were a law-abiding 
class. 

In 18.55 the county officers elected were as follows : County Judge, 
A. M. Crane; County Clerk, H. M. Vesey ; Sherift; A. H. Broder ; 
Treasurer, P. E. Edmondson ; Assessor, C. C. Breyfogle ; Distric-t 
Attorney, Geo. M. Blake ; County Superintendent, A. H. Meyers ; 
Surveyor, H. A. Higley ; Public Administrator, A. D. Eames ; 
Coroner, D. C. Porter. The places of residence of these gentlemen 
were as follows': Crane, Meyers and Higley, Alameda Town ; Vesey, 
Broder, Edmundson and Breyfogle, Washington Township ; Blake, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. Ill 

Eanies and Poi-ter, Oakland. Mi\ Higley, however, kept his office 
in Clinton, where Mr. Stratton was his Deputy. 

It has been already shown that in February, 1855, the Court of 
Sessions closed its functions as a municipal body. Early in the 
session of that year's Legislature a bill was introduced to create a 
I Board of Supervisors for Alameda County, and was passed. The 
Board was to consist of one Supervisor for each township ; Justices 
of the Peace, county officers and their deputies were excluded from 
membership. 

The first election was ordered on the 3d Monday of March ; the 
members elected to hold their meetings on the first Mondays of 
April, July, October and January following, and on the second 
INIonday after each general election, and oftener, if, in their judg- 
ment, necessaiy. The salary of the Clerk (exclusive of fees) was 
placed at $300 a year. 

The same Legislature passed the following acts : 

An Act to authorize the Supervisors of Alameda to re-assess the 
taxable propeii;y upon which the taxes remained unpaid in said 
county for tlie year 1854. To be applied by the Board of Supervisors 
for the purpose of improving the navigation of the San Antonio Creek 
and removing the bar from the mouth of the same. 

An Act to provide for funding the outstanding debt of the city of 
Oakland and prevent the creation of new debts by said city; not to 
exceed $25,000. Also creating Commissioners of the Fimded Debt, 
to be elected by the people. 



112 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

NEW PRICE LIST 

A.t tlie Old Established 

BOOT AND SHOE STORE 

Near Seventh St. O^if^I^L^aSTID. 



Ladies' Balmorals, foxed, worth §2, for gl 00 

" Buttoned, foxed, worth §4, for 3 00 

« Balmorals, scollop, worth $3. for 2 00 

«' Toilet Slippers, worth ?1.50, for..; 1 25 

Misses', Children's and Infant's Shoes, 25 per cent, less than formerly. 

Misses' School Shoes, worth $2.50, for §1 75 

Children's School Shoes, worth $2, for 1 50 

500 pairs Children's Shoes, per pair 1 00 

100 pairs Infant's Kid Shoes, per pair 75 

Has so largely increased that I am able to sell very cheap. 

Grained Leather Boots, worth $5, for §3 50 

100 pairs French Calf Boots, worth ?6, for 4 00 

200 pairs Army Brogans, worth $2.50, for 1 50 

Box Toe Congress Shoes, worth $4, for 3 00 

Alexis, best sewed, worth $7, for 4 50 

The most of my Boots and Shoes are marked with plain figures. 

B@" Remember the place— SIGN OF THE BIG BOOT."@g 

I. ^LEXi^NDER. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 113 



CHAPTER XVI. 

1855—1858. 

FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BOARD OP SUPERVISORS TO THE OR- 
GANIZATION OF THE ALAMEDA COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



1855 — The first Board of Supervisors — County Officers elected for 
1855-6 — The vote of the County this year hy Precincts and Town- 
ships — The Acts of the Court of Sessions coi firmed — Tax Levy — 
Safe for the County Treasurer- — -Rents of Court-rooms — A tem- 
porary Court-house to he built — Lot donated by the Estudillo 
Estate — War on Carpentier and his bridge — An ordinance agahist 
cutting trees — Gates allowed — The Santa Clara debt — -Judges of 
the Plains— The County Seat removed hack to Alvarado — New 
Board of Supervisors — County Newspapers — Additional Bonds — 
Vote and Children of four Counties. 

The election of the first Board of Supervisors makes a period in the 
history of our own county, and although it is the plan of tlie work to 
print all the county officers elected since the organization of the county 
together, for the purpose of reference, it is deemed desirable to print 
them also in the narrative, according to their election. The gentle- 
men elected were as follows: 

Washington Township, Henry C Smith ; Murray Township, J. W. 
Dougherty; Eden Township, S. D. Taylor; Clinton Township, J. L. 
Sanford ; Alameda Township, Jas. Millington ; Oakland Township, 
J. L. Sanford. Mr. Dougherty was elected chairman of the Board 
for 1855. The Su.pervisors were elected yearly; but the following 
County Ofiicers were elected to serve for two years — 1855-6 : 

County Judge, A. M. Crane; County Clerk, H. M. Vesey; Sherifi', 
A. H. Broder; Tx'easurer, P. E. Edmundson; Assessoi', C. C. Brey- 
fogle; District Attorney, Geo. M. Blake; County Sup., A. H. Meyers; 
Surveyor, H. A. Higley; Public Adm., A. D. Eames; Coroner, D. C. 
Porter. 

Here is an abstract from the ofiicial election returns of 1855, show- 
ing the number of votes cast in each precinct in the county : 



114 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

Mission, - 134 

Horner's School House, 145 

Alvarado, - - - - - - - -256 

Hay ward's, - - - - - - --163 

San Lorenzo, - - - - - - - -107 

San Leandro, .-118 

San Antonio, - 189 

Redwoods, 20 

Titter's, 70 

Alameda, 85 

Kottinger's, - - - - - - - -63 

Oakland, 202 

Smith's, - - - 83 

Ocean Yiew, - - - - - - .-81 

Total, 1716 

By townships the vote was as follows : 

Washington, - 535 

Eden, - 388 

Brooklyn, - 279 

Alameda, ---------85 

Murray, 63 

Oakland, 366 

Total - 1716 

The first meeting of the new Board was held on the 2d of April, at 
the room i-ented for a Court-house in San Leandro. 

The first business was to order that all the public highways thereto- 
fore located and established by the Court of Sessions of the county, and 
then remaining of record, be confirmed. The same rules as those 
established by the Court of Sessions for the government of Road Su- 
pervisors were adopted for the government of the same officers to be 
appointed thereafter by the Board of Supervisors. 

The tax levy ordered was $1.50 on the $100 for the different funds, 
as follows; For State purposes, 60c.; for county purposes, 50c.; 
for school purposes, 5c.; for building Coui-t-house, and salaries, 
25c.; for Santa Clara indebtedness, 10c. 

The sum of $200 was voted to provide a safe for the Tretisui^er ; 
and a committee appointed to provide suitable rooms for holding 
Courts and accommodating public officei-s. 

At this meeting, in desciibing the route of a certain road, " Val- 
lejo's Old Mill " was mentioned as if it had been an ancient laud- 
mark. 

Among the bills presented were one from Geo. W. Leland, for rent 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRlTPES. 115 

of Court-room in San Leandro, |61.64; and one from L. C. Smith, 
"for rent of Court-house at Alvarado to date," $100. The Court 
and the Boards, it will be seen, had been paying for temporary ac- 
commodations all along. At a subsequent meeting, April 14, 1855, 
temporary quarters were rented at $75 per month. 

Then, however, the fii-st step was taken for securing the erection 
of a building for the special use of the county, but this also was only 
a temporary expedient, as the building contracted for was only a 
frame of 30x60 and 12 feet high, and not to exceed in cost $1,200. 

It is not heretofore mentioned in this narrative that the Estudillo 
estate had donated a block of land in San Leandro for county pur- 
poses, and the new building was put upon this. We shall soon see 
how unsatisfactory such a cheap county house as this became, and 
liow speedily an agitation was started to provide a building more in 
accoi'dance with the necessities of the county and the dignity of the 
people. 

One of the first acts of the new Boai'd was to make war on Car- 
pentier and his toll-bridge. At the meeting held on May 1st, on 
motion of Mr. Sanford, it was resolved that the bridge now in pos- 
session of H. W. Carpentier, and crossing San Antonio Slough be- 
tween Clinton and Oakland, be declared a piiblic highway." 

The gatekeeper, Mr. John Watson, had had trouble enough be- 
fore to stand his ground and collect his toll, but now that the bridge 
by the Act of the Supervisors had been declared free, it is pretty 
evident that his position afterwards had become perilous and difficult. 
On one occasion his brother, Wm. J. Watson, was in attendance at 
the gate when a Spaniard, supposed to be one of the notorious Joaquin 
INIuriatti's men, rode up on horseback and demanded free passage, 
and on being refused compliance with his request, drew his pistol and 
snapped it at Mr. Watson three times, but without effect. The latter, 
nothing daunted, ran into the toll-house for his shot-gun. When he 
came out, the bandit had got through the gate, and was riding off at 
full speed. He was foitunate in being favored by the darkness of 
the night, for Mr. W.'s gun never missed fire, and he was " a dead 
shot." Personal encounters between passengers and the gatekeepei-s 
became frequent, but somehow or other, either in consequence of 
their prowess or their prudence, they managed to escape without any 
serious personal injury. 

One of the first ordinances of the Supervisors was directed against 
the destruction of trees, which were becoming precious, as the only 



116 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

lumber region of the county, the Redwoods, was becoming rapidly 
depleted of its forest, no less than four saw-mills having been at 
one time in operation there. 

At this period most of the roads were unfenced, and generally 
were through fields with growing crops ; and,, in orde? to protect 
them, the Board of Supervisors gi-anted their owners authority to 
put up gates for the purpose of keeping out cattle. 

On the 10th of July the temporary Court-house was reported com- 
pleted, according to contract, and ready for occupancy, and C. P. 
Hester, then Judge of the Third District Court, held his Court 
there. 

Santa Clara became pressing for the payment of her debt, and, on 
a writ of peremptory mandamus, brought action against this county 
at San Jose, on the 11th of July. Mr. Dougherty was instructed by 
the Board of Super\dsors to appear there and i-epresent the county, 
which he did. 

This year not one but three "Judges of the Plains" were 
appouited for the county, in accordance with De la Guera's Rodeo 
law ; and these were John W. Martin, Wm. Glaskia and Aninah 
Marshall, all but the latter residents of Murray Township, and large 
cattle-owners. 

A few months after this inauguration, the Board of Super\'isors 
met with a serious interruption in their proceedings, and instead of 
going on with their bucolic bvisiness in quiet and peace in their new 
Court-house, in the embryo town of San Leandro, that had cost the 
magnificently liberal sum of $1,200, the fact was discovered, and the 
fiat went forth, that the county seat had been illegally removed from 
Alvarado ; and back they had to trot over the Salt Marsh road to 
the triple-named City of New Haven, Alvarado and Union, there to 
remain until such time as they could be released by the Legislature. 

Accordingly, on the 16th of August the Board met again at 
Alvarado, the "Ancient Capital." 

On the 1st of October, 1855, a new Board of Super\-isors was 
elected, of which Henry C. Smith was appointed Chairman. The 
members were as follows : Washington, H. C. Smith ; Clinton, Thos. 
Eagar ; Alameda, Hemy Haile ; Eden, Geo. Fay ; Murray, F. W. 
Lucas ; Oakland, S. D. Taylor. The latter gentleman was hold-over 
on a tie vote, but re-elected Nov. 21th, 1855. 

It appears that there were two newspapers in the county at this 
date, both published in Oakland — the Leader, which was established 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 117 

in 1854, and the Contra Costa, in 1855. Both had bills before the 
Board for printing. 

One of the acts of the new Board was to require of B. S. Marston, 
County Ti-easurer, to file additional bonds in the sum of $30,000. 

Following is the comparative vote in four counties, and the num- 
ber of children m each, in 1856 : 

County. Vote. Children. 

Alameda, - - - 1,665 - - - - 847 

Contra Costa, - - - 933 - - - - ^ 

Santa Clara, - - - 2,058 - - - - 1,678 

Sacramento, - - - 7,765 - - - - 2,223 



1856 — Supervisorial Stwpidity — iVo Serious Complaints of Drought to 
Date — The Wheels of the County Seat in Motion for the Third 
Time — Back to San Leandro — The Law Creating the Board of 
Supervisors Amended — Name of Clinton and San Antonio Town- 
ship Changed to Brooklyn — Proposition to Purchase the Oakland 
Bridge and make it Free — Disti'ict Attorney Chipman to make 
*' a Full and Complete Report " — Punning the County Lines — 
New County Buildings at Martinez — Proposition to Purchase 
Bridge reported on Adversely — The Cost of a New Bridge to be 
Ascertained — Plans for County Buildings— The Township of 
■" Jefferson " — The " Indigent Sick " — Tax Levy for the Year — 
Contract for huilding Court-house and Jail let — Mr. Eagar in- 
structed to remove the obstructions on the Oakland Bridge — A cool 
proposition from Carpentier rejected — Grand Jury Court of Ses- 
sions strongly urge necessity for County Buildings — The County 
Districted — Results of State and County Elections — -The Alameda 
County Gazette established — Acts of the Legislature— Social Con- 
■dition of the C ounty— Amount of Money Disbursed siiice the 
County teas organized— Money stolen from the County Treasurer 
at Alvarado — School matters — Agricultural report — $4,000,000 
the Value of the Year's Product — Telegraph Lines — Mills — Arte- 
sian Wells— State Senator and Assemblyman — Siq^ervisors' Elec- 
tion. 
So far the affairs of the county progressed pleasantly, the principal 
■Jraw-back having been the loss of the county and State monies, stolen 
from their insecure place of deposit in Alvarado. It appears at tliis 
date exceedingly stupid on the part of the Supervisors not to have 
ordered the deposit of those monies in the San Francisco banks for 



118 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

safe keeping, wlien they possessed no place of safety at home. It may 
be, however, that there was no great faith put in the baiaks referred 
to, and the treasure had to take its chances. 

Down to this date -we hear of no serious complaints of droughts and 
failures of crops. But it must be remembered that the wheat-farming 
which had been done in the county, down to this date^ was in the rich 
slope bordering the bay, where in the dryest years crops were pro- 
duced. The Livermore and adjoining valleys had not yet been 
brovight to grain cultivation, and it is there where suffering from dry 
years has since been mostly felt. 

On the 16th of January, 1856, the Board of Supei'visoi-s met at 
Alvarado, and among other business passed a resolution in favor of 
repealing the special Act creating a Boai-d of Supervisors for Ala- 
meda County ; and also that the Act creating a Board of Supervisors 
for each county in the State, be so amended as to include Alameda, 
which could thereby elect her Supervisors in the same mamier. 

The Legislature being in session at Sacramento, this recommenda- 
tion was made law, and the vote removing the county seat to San 
Leandro legalized by the passage of a special Act ; so the wheels of 
the county seat were set in motion for the tliird time. 

At the meeting on the 10th of March, held at San Leandi-o, it 
was resolved, on motion of Supervisor Eagar, that the to-svnship 
heretofore known as Clinton and San Ajitonio be called Brooklyn. 
Whether this name was conferred because the worthy Supervisor 
who had been a passenger on the good ship Brooklyn., which brought 
the first body of i-egular settlers to the State, wished to compliment 
that craft ; or tlaat the relations of the townslup with San Francisco 
were considered somewhat similar to those of Brooklyn and New 
York in the East, is not made evident ; birt probably both circum- 
stances had their weight in the choice. By the same resolution the 
towns of Clinton and San Antonio wei'e united imder the name of 
Brooklyn. 

Up to this time Alameda County had beeiL dependent on her 
neighbors for jail facilities, ajid at the March meeting of the Board 
a committee was appointed to ascertain the cost of building a 
structure of bricks for the piu-pose of a County Jail. On the 6 th of 
May the Building Committee was instructed to px'oceed to Martinez 
to see the new Court-house and Jail erected there, and report on the 
feasibility of building a Court-house and Jail on a similar plan. 

At the same meeting Supervisors Smith and Eagar were appointed 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 119 

a committee on behalf of the county to confer with the owners of 
the San Antonio bridge and report upon what terms the same could 
i)e purchased by the county, with the view of making it a free 
bridge and remo\Txig the obstruction to travel on that public high- 
way on which it was situated. 

The late District Attorney, John S. Chipman, was ordered to 
make "a full and complete report of all his acts and doings as such 
attorney, from the commencement to the close of his duties in said 
office and file the same with the Clerk ; " from which it is to be 
inferred that the said District Attorney had not been attending faith- 
fully to his duties. 

On the same date (May 6th) a committee was appointed to confer 
with Boards of Supervisors in adjoining counties in relation to a 
svirvey of the county lines. It was also resolved that the Surveyor- 
General be requested to employ the County Surveyor of this county 
to svirvey and locate the county boundaries, which had not been done 
before. 

At a meeting on the 26th of May the Building Committee which 
was appointed to visit Martinez reported adversely to the new build- 
ings there; and they were instructed to advertise for plans and 
specifications for a Jail and Court-house. 

On June 16th the committee appointed to confer with Carpentier 
& Co., with regard to the bridge, reported adversely to a purchase; 
and the same committee was appointed to ascertain the cost and 
value of the bridge. 

Plans for county buildings were px'esented and approved; but 
before acceptance the cost was to be ascertained. 

At this meeting a new townshijD, called Jefferson, was created out 
of Washington and Eden, and its boundaries set forth ; but the reso- 
lution was rescinded at the next meeting of the Board. 

On July 16th the purchase of the bridge was again reported 
against, and the Clerk instructed to give notice in accordance with 
law for bids for building a Court-house and Jail. 

On August 4th the tax levy for the year was made, as follows : 
For State purposes, 70c.; School Fund, 10c. ; Roads, 5c.; Building 
Fund, 25c. ; County General Fund, 50c. ; Santa Clara indebtedness, 
10c. In all, $1.70. 

At this meeting we hear for the first time of provision being made 
for the indigent sick of the county, and on motion, Mr. Haile, of 



120 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Alameda, and Mr. Eagar, of Brooklyn, were appointed a committee 
to report on a place for their keeping, at the next meeting. 

On August 19th the proposal of C. B. Tool for building a Court- 
house and Jail for $32,400 was accepted. The plans were subse- 
quently amended so as to make a reduction of $2,400, leaving the 
cost $30,000. 

The bid of Orrin Hamlin to house, feed and take care of the indi- 
gent sick of the county, at a charge of $12 each, per week, was 
accepted. 

Mr. Eagar had a herculean task imposed upon him at this meeting. 
It was nothing short of an instruction " to proceed accoi'ding to law 
to remove the obstruction of the public highway between the town 
of Brooklyn, and the city of Oakland, being a certain gate placed 
upon the bridge, known as the Oakland bridge." Mr. Eagar did not 
undertake this arduous duty at once, but a short time afterwards 
Mr. Carpentier appeared before the Board, coolly requesting it to do 
as the Court of Sessions had illegally done : to make a contract with 
him with regard to the bridge. This proposition was rejected by a 
vote of four to one. 

The matter of providing sufficient and safe county offices was be- 
coming daily more pressing, and on the 1st of September the Grand 
Jury of the Court of Sessions made the following presentment, 
exhibiting the piteous condition of the county in this aspect, and 
which justified the Board of Supervisors in taking the steps already 
recorded in providing a new brick building : 

" The treasury and county recoi-ds are but baits for the burglar and 
incendiary. The misfortune of the county heretofore in the loss of 
a large amount of money — the destruction by fire of one Court-house 
and the narrow escape of the records covering transactions of im- 
mense value to our fellow citizens. While we consider it neither be- 
coming nor economical that we should be yet unprovided with a place 
of confinement to enforce the decrees of our own Courts, having to 
depend upon the charity of our neighbors to supply a necessity we 
are well able to furnish ourselves." 

On Oct. 4th the county was districted as follows : Oakland, No. 1 ; 
Brooklyn and Alameda, No. 2 ; Eden, No. 3 ; AVashington, No. 4 ; 
Murray, No. 5. 

On Nov. 17th the returns for Presidential, State, and County 
elections were canvassed. At this election Judge McKee presented 
himself for the fix'st time before the peo]jle as candidate for County 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 121 

Judge. His opponent was the late Asa Walker. The vote stood 
969 for McKee, and 610 for Walker. For President of the United 
States, Buchanan I'eceived 729 votes; Fremont, 723; Fillmore, 216. 
This was the first Presidential election in which a Republican can- 
didate appeared in the field. Although the Democratic candidate for 
President received a small plurality of votes, the Republicans elected 
their State Senator. Bell (Re])ublican) received on that occasion 704 
votes ; Hamilton (Democrat), 589 ; and Williams (Knownothiiig), 
316. 

One of the events of this year was the establishment of a weekly 
newspaper at the county seat. It was called the Alameda County 
Gazette, and was published by W. P. Rodgers and W. G. Hamilton. 
The former was afterwards an eiiicient Assemblyman ; the latter was 
a brother of Judge Hamilton ; and both were Democrats ; but the 
paper was neutral in politics. 

The following two acts concerning the government of the county 
formed a portion of the legislation of the year : 

An Act to authorize the Sherifi" of Alameda County to collect the 
delinquent taxes assessed during the year 1854, 1855, and 1856; 
empowei'ed the Sheriff to act as Tax Collector, to collect taxes re- 
maining unpaid, without vitiating his ofiicial bond, and requiring 
him to file with the Recorder an ofiicial bond, providing for the faith- 
ful performance of his duties as such Tax Collector. 

An Act to repeal an Act entitled an Act to create a Board of 
Supervisoi-s for Alameda County, and to provide for the government 
of said county, repealing the special Act and subjecting to the Act 
creating Boards of Supervisors in the counties of the State, the pi-e- 
sent Supervisors to remain till their successors are appointed. 

At the termination of the year 1856 the social condition of the 
county had considerably improved. People began to enjoy them- 
selves, and balls and parties were becoming quite common. Alva- 
rado, the old county seat, and Centerville, became as famous for 
social gatherings as San Leandro had subsequently. Haywards, too, 
was looming up in this respect. There was a good deal of lawless- 
ness yet abroad, and murder and violence was somewhat frequent. 
Education, under the eflicient management of Mr. Brier, was mak- 
ing headway, and altogether much progress was apparent. 

Up to July of 1856 there had been paid out of the Treasury, 
since the organization of the county, in May, 1853, upon orders of 
the County Auditor, $73,979.73, besides $7,156.44 stolen from 
County Treasurer Marston at Alvarado. 



122 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The number of children of school age in the county in ISoG was | 
847, but the school attendance was only 387. The girls were rapidly j 
gaining on the boys ; the latter being 403, to the former's 444. 
There were 14 districts, employing 19 teachers, at an average salary 
per month of $76.70. There was paid on account of salaries, 
$4,937.36; expended in the erection and I'epair of schoolhouses, 
$2,512. The total expenditure for the year was $7,499.36. The 
average time of school in each district was 6 months. The expenses 
of each pupil in attendance amounted to $20.83. 

There were cultivated, in 18-56, 22,0.54 acres of wheat, 20,000 of 
barley, 210 of oats, 45 of rye, 105 of buckwheat, 3,108 of potatoes, 
265 of Indian coi'n, yielding an aggregate of 1,877,999 bushels; of 
broom-corn there were 39 acres; of cabbage, 139; of onions, 73; 
beans, 3,657 ; peas, 175 ; beets, 28 ; turnips, 41 ; cucumbers, 43 ; 
tomatoes, 31 ; carrots, 15 ; garden vegetables, 410 ; strawberries, 
38; apple orchards, 426; peach orchards, 173; vineyards, 34; 
making in all 56,509 acres under cultivation. The total number of 
animals and fowls enumerated was 58,955 ; of which 4,734 were 
horses, 1,067 mules, 4,223 cows, 13,325 stock cattle, 9,328 sheep, 
and 18,250 hens and chickens. Of butter, 120,235 lbs. were made; 
of cheese, 163,013 ; of wool clipped, 27,984 lbs. 

The estimate of the average yield of all the land cultivated was 
at 50 bushels per acre, and the average price at $1.20 per bushel, 
giving the large sum of $3,390,540 as the value of the produce of 
the soil ; and estimating the value of the increase of stock and 
manufactures at $600,000, made the handsome little sum of $4,000,- 
000, as the annual value of the various productions of Alameda 
County for 1856. 

The County Assessor reported that there were in the county, at 
this time, 40 miles of telegraph wire in operation ; one steam saw-mill, 
two steam flouring-mills, two water flouring-mills, one toll-bridge, 
one flowing artesian well at Alvarado, another at Alameda, and 
several others of minor importance, in various localities. 

Our legislative representatives were, as Joint .Senator, for 1855-6, 
Sherman Day ; and as Assemblyman, T. M. Coombs. 

In October of the year the following Supervisors wei-e elected : 
Murray, J. M. Dougherty ; Brooklyn, Thos. Eagar ; Washington, 
Jos. R. Mason ; Eden, "VVm. Hayward ; Oakland, J. A. Hobert. 
The county officers were the same as in 1855. 



[ UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 123 

I IS,") 7 — The Neio Sujm-visors Tackle the Bridge Matter — $1,000 Ap- 
j in'opriated for the Castro and Amador Road — They Refuse to 
Release Jotham S. Marston — An Agreement to Purchase the 
Bridge — County Hospital Abolished — The New Bridge Project — 
The County Buildings Completed — Discount on California Gold 
Coin — The Yearly Tax Levy — A County Map Made — Marston's 
Sureties Released on a Compromise and Suit Dismissed — The 
New Court-room Furnished — Election of County Officers — The 
Bridge Again — Free at Last, and Suit Suspended — Temporary 
Court-house Sold at Auction — The Oalcland and San Antonio 
Steam Navigation Company Formed — The Old Company Become 
more Accommodating — Legislation of the Year — Manufactures 
ami Finances. 
This year our representatives in the State Legislature were, as 
Joint Senator for 1857-8, S. B. Bell, whose election has been already- 
mentioned, and Jas. B. Larue as Assemblyman. 

The county officers elected in Sept., 1855, served to Sept. 2d, 1857. 
The Supervisors elected in October, 1856, served till October, 1857. 
Theii' first meeting was on the 5 th of January, when they took up 
the vexatious bridge matter. This time it was resolved to build an 
opposition bridge to Carpentier & Co.'s, from Seventh Street in Oak- 
land to Jackson Street in Brooklyn, and a committee of two was ap- 
pointed to invite proposals for plans and estimates. This committee 
consisted of those members most immediately interested, Messrs. 
Eagar and Hobart. 

At the same meeting the sum of $1,000 was appropriated out of 
the road fund, to be expended on roads and bx-idges " running from 
Castro's Gate to Amador Valley." 

A bill had been introduced in the Legislature, then in session, for 
the relief of Jotham S. Marston, late County Treasurer, who had 
been robbed as already mentioned ; but the Board not only refused to 
release him from the amount missing, as empowered by the Act 
referred to, but employed counsel to aid the District Attorney in his 
prosecvition. The amount lost to the county was $7,000, and to the 
State, $1,300. Mr. Larue favored the bill to grant relief. At the 
meeting of March 3d an ofier was received from Carpentier & Co., 
proposing to sell the bridge to the county for $6,000. The following- 
resolution was passed in regard thereto : 

" It is hereby ordered by the Board, that the ofier of $6,000 be 
made to the owners of the bridge connecting Oakland with Brooklyn 



124 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Township, for all right, title and interest thereto, provided that oh or 
before the presentation of said offer, Messrs. Hays, Caperton and 
others connected with them in the proprietorship of Spanish grants in 
said Oakland Township, and Horace W. Carpentier, shall pay to the 
Sheriff of Alameda County all arrears of taxes standing against 
them on the tax-lists of said county. " Supervisor Hobart was author- 
ized to enter into a suitable contract. 

On May 4th the Supervisors abolished the County Hospital, and 
the Supervisor.? instructed to take charge of the indigent sick in their 
respective localities. 

On the same date the report in reference to the new bridge matter 
was laid on the table, and on the 1st of June it was taken up and 
the proposition rejected. Then, on 6th of Ju.ly, came a petition from 
citizens in favor of a free bridge, to be located between Seventh 
Street in Oakland and Jackson Street in Brooklyn; and A. J. Coffee 
was ordered to notify parties on route of said highway. 

The new coixnty buildings were reported completed at this meeting, 
and the sum of $580 extra voted to the builder, Mr. Toole, for 
which he gave a receipt free of all demands. Messrs. Eagar and 
Hayward were appointed to take possession of the building in the 
name and in behalf of the county. 

At the meeting of August 3d, a circumstance occurred which goes 
to show that even a gold currency as well as silver and paper is 
liable to depreciation. On that day the Sheriff was allowed $60 for 
"loss on California coin." Nothing is immutable, for here we have 
even our much-valued California coin suffering a depreciation of $60 
in a single officer's hands, and a reimbursement of him for the same. 

The tax levy for the year, for State and County purposes, was fixed 
at .$1.55 on the $100. 

The Seventh-street bridge matter was again taken up, and A. J. 
Coffee voted $6,000 for building and completing a bridge at the 
points indicated, to be finished on the 4th day of March, 1858. 

On August 10th the Board of Supervisors met in the new Court 
house. The County Sui-veyor was allowed $2,600 for a new map 
of the county. Marston and sureties were released on payment of 
$3,441.40, being a partial reimbursement of the county for the 
money stolen, and the suit was dismissed. 

On August 24tli Freeman & Smith contracted to furnish the new 
Court-room for $1,150. 

On September 14th the election returns were canvassed, when it 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 125 

■was found the following gentlemen were elected county officers, to 
serve for two years: County Judge, Sam. Bell McKee ; Slieriif, P. 
E. Edmondson; Clerk, H. M. Vesey; Treasurer, C. C. Breyfogle; 
Surveyor, Jas. T. Stx-atton; District Attoniey, Wm. Van Voorhies; 
County Superintendent, W. W. Brier; Assessor, David S. Lacey; 
Coroner, W. J. Bowen, 

• On the October following the following Supervisors were elected 
to sei-ve for one year: Murray, J. W. Dougherty; Oakland, F. K. 
Shattuck; Brooklyn, Jas. B. Larue; Washington, Jos. E,. Mason; 
Eden, C. P. Wray. 

On the 5th the new Board took their seats, and Mr. Shattuck 
moved that county warrants be issued for the sum of $6,000 to pur- 
chase Carpentier & Co.'s bridge, provided they agreed to replank the 
portion built by Carpentier. The resolution was adopted on a divis- 
ion; the yeas being Shattuck, Dougherty and Mason, and the noes 
Larue and "Wray. Subsequently the county warrants were issued 
to Messrs. H. W. Carpentier, Edson Adams and John B. Watson, 
in payment for the long-contended-for bridge, and Jas. B. Larue was 
empowered to take possession of the same in the name of the comity 
and issue the warrants out of the County General Fund. And thus 
was the second long-pending county controversy settled. Thereafter 
people felt more free and traveled more frequently, and rejoiced that 
that old toll-gate and that persistent toll-taker were forever out of 
the way. A suit had been pending against the bridge trio for ob- 
structing the bridge, which on this consummation was oixlered dis- 
missed on payment of costs. 

After the new Court-house was taken possession of, the old build- 
ing was sold at auction, on the first Monday of December, there 
being no use for the same any longer. 

Some of the events of the year were the commencement of the 
steamer Peralta, on January 6th, to make thi*ee trips per day to 
" Peralta Landing," near Alameda ; and the County School Exhibi- 
tion, on the 1st of May. But the most important event in the way 
of progi-ess and enterprise, was the formation of the " Oakland and 
San Antonio Steam Navigation Company," under the presidency of 
Mr. Larue, to run an opposition line of steamers between Brooklyn, 
Oakland and San Francisco. 

The Minturn line had been in operation for some years, but the 
dissatisfaction of the public with it had become so great that the 
stock of the new company was readily taken up. 



126 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, | 

The Minturn Company were led to perceive by this the public 
want, and, on April 4th, put on another boat, the Contra Costa, in 
addition to the Clinton, with the intention of making nine trips per 
diem between San Francisco and Oakland. 

The legislation of the year, for Alameda County, consisted of the 
following Acts : 

An Act for the relief of Jothani S. Marston, late Treasurer of 
Alameda County. To be given a credit of $1,395.40 by the Treasurer 
of the State, he being relieved from the pajnnent of that sum stolen 
from his office. The Board of Supervisoi-s of Alameda County to give 
him a credit and acquittance for the sum of $7,156.40. 

An Act supplementally to the Act to incorporate the City of Oak- 
land, passed March 25th, 1854. All sales of any property for the 
payment of delinquent taxes to be made at some public place within 
the city. 

An Act to authorize the Supervisors of Alameda County to levy a \ 
special tax of one-fourth of one per cent., to constitute a special fund 
for the construction of a Court-house and Jail. 

An Act to authorize the holding of the Courts of the County 
Judge at the same time, on the third Mondays of January, March, 
May, July, September and November. 

An Act to fix the compensation of certain officers. The Assessor 
and his Deputies, each, in the Counties of Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, 
Napa, Alameda, Sonoma and San Joaquin, shall not be allowed more 
than $5 per diem, whilst actually engaged ; and no per diem for col- 
lecting poll-tax. 

An Act to amend an Act to adjust the amount of indebtedness of 
the County of Alameda to the County of Contra Costa, and provide 
for the payment thereof. Passed May 15th, 1854. B. C. Whitman, , 
of Solano County, John H. Livingston, of Contra Costa County, 
and Samuel Bell McKee, of Alameda County, appointed a Board 
of Commissioners to ascertain and adjust the amount of indebtedness 
of the County of Alameda to the County of Contra Costa. Award to 
be certified to the Board of Supervisors, who are, in the year 1857, to 
levy a special tax for the payment in cash of one-half of the said 
award with ten per cent, interest thereon, to be paid on or before 
the 1st of March, 1858. The balance to be raised and paid over 
before the 1st of March, 1859, with ten per cent, interest until paid. 

An Act to grant the Sherifi" of Alameda County additional time to 
make his anmial settlement for the collection of State and county 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 127 

taxes for the year 1856. Two months gi-anted from the first Monday 
of March, 1857, for collection of State and county taxes up to 
the expu-ation of that time. Written consent of sureties required 
for extension of bonds. To make a settlement on the first Monday 
of March, 1857. 

There were in the county at this date four gi'ist-mills, two running 
by steam and two by water. The former were located at Alvarado 
and San Leandro ; the latter at Yallejo's and the Mission. Between 
them they possessed 16 run of stone, with a capacity for 600 barrels 
of flour per day. Their aggregate cost was $150,000. 

The saw-mills in the Redwoods had become reduced to one, and 
that propelled by water. Its capacity was 10,500 feet of lumber 
per day. 

There was one tannery, situated on the Encinal, the capacity of 
which was 250 sides of leather per month. 

The condition of the county finances at the beginning of the year 
was as follows : Floating debt, $3,460 ; I'eceipts from all sources 
from January 1st, 1856, to January 1st, 1857, $34,410.56 ; expendi- 
tures during same period, $27,780.52 ; excess of receipts, $6,630.04. 
This, it must be confessed, was a healthy condition for so young a 
county and one having so much to do -wdth its money. 



1858 — The Bushiess of the Supervisors Confined to Routine — The An- 
nual Tax Levy — The Santa Clara Indebtedness not yet Paid 
Off — Contra Costa's Claim also Drags — ./. W. Luttrell Resigns 
Jils Office as Justice of the Peace, Leaves the County and Gains 
Fame Elsewhere — Careless Assessing — -A Difference of Divers 
Leagues and Thousands of Acres — Valv^ of Land and Stock in 
Murray Township — A New Board Seated — Heavy Physicians^ 
Bills for Care of the Indigent Sick — Road Districts — Fining of 
a Sunday Bull-Fighter — Is Illegal — The Offender Commits a 
Murder — Fruit Vale to the Front — Fourth of July Celebrations 
- — Wm. Van Voorhies and Judge McKee Deliver Orations — Daily 
Mail Between Oakland, and San Jose — The Oaklaiul Postmaster 
Failed to Forward it on Sundays — The Alameda Collegiate 
Institute — Formation of the Alameda County Agricultural 
Society. 
The Board of Supervisors continued their sessions throughout the 

year, having little to engage their attention besides the construction 

of roads and bridges, and the payment of accounts. 



128 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 1 

On the 26th of February the tax levy for the year was struck at 
$1.80 for all purposes ; but at the next meeting the State portion was 
reduced from $1 to 60c., so that the actual assessment was $1.40 on 
the $100. 

At this date the account witli Santa Clara was not yet closed, and 
on June 7th Supervisor Dougherty was appointed to meet a Com- 
missioner from that county, to decide upon the balance remaining 
unpaid. 

On June 7th the amount remaining due to Contra Costa County 
was stated at $1,972.33, being the award of Commissioners; and an 
additional tax of 5c. on the $100 was ordered, to pay one-half of this 
indebtedness. The indebtedness to Santa Clara was fixed by the 
Commissioners at $882.47. 

On August 2d J. W. Luttrell, Justice of the Peace for Brooklyn 
Township, sent in a bill for $24.75 for services rendered the county, 
which bill was allowed, but not without it being " likewise ordered 
tl^at the balance due the county, now remaining in his hands, 
amounting to $325, be paid by him into the County treasury." Im- 
mediately on the passage of this offensive order, the worthy Justice 
immediately tendered his resignation to the Board. Some time after 
he left the county, and has made a name and acquired fame since 
then, elsewhere, as a State Legislator and United States Congress- 
man. Asa Walker, since deceased, was appointed to succeed him. 

The County Assessor for this year, or his deputy, showed consider- 
able carelessness, because, at the meeting of the Board of Equaliza- 
tion, Jos6 Livermore protested that he was assessed for four leagues 
of land, while, in reality, he only possessed two leagues. Even with 
this reduced quantity most people will think he possessed quite 
enough, and the Assessor ought to have been punished for making so 
bad a blunder. Evidently he supposed, in this land of great farms, 
a league or two of no consequence. Augustine Alviso was taxed for 
3,500 acres, wliile he protested he owned but 2,500 acres, and had 
his assessment reduced accordingly. This land was all in Murray 
Township, and was valued at $10 jjer acre. Three hundred head of 
cattle were valued at $15 per head and assessed accordingly. 

On the 1st of November the new Board, consisting of F. K. Shat- 
tuck, Oakland ; Jonathan Mayhew, Washington ; S. M. Davis, Ala- 
meda and Brooklyn ; Chas. Duer, Murray ; and A. A. Anderson, 
Eden, took their seats. 

A committee was appointed to report on the best mode of caiing for 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 129 



the- indigent sick, who had become a great bill of expense on the 
county. At this meeting bills to the amount of $98.5.25 were passed 
upon in favor of several physicians of the county for their attendance 
upon them ; and some months later an Oakland physician got a bill 

I of $700 allowed for medical attendance given to a single individual 
who had accidently broken a leg. The business was becoming unbear- 
able, and a proposition was seriously entertained to have the sick 
poor of the county transferred to the San Francisco County hospital, 
; if a satisfactory arrangement could be come to. A somewhat similar 
arrangement was entered into the following year. 

There were in the county, at this date, thirteen road districts, vnth 
a supei'visor for each, and all seemed to be busy. 

A committee of examination declared the new jail unsafe for hold- 
ing prisoners, and the defect was ordered remedied. 

On the 13th of June of this year Judge Luttrell, of Brooklyn, 
fined Miguel Marqu.is the sum of $150 for indulging his taste for bull- 
fights on Sundays. For years San Antonio had been noted for the 
i practice of this barbarous amusement. Marquis paid the fine under 
protest, and the Court having declared it contrary to law, the Super- 
visors returned the fine. This man Marquis, a short time afterwards, 
murdered a man in Oakland, for which he was sentenced to suiFer the 
entreme penalty of the law, but he was granted a new trial and 
acquitted. 

There was a Fourth of July celebration at Fruit Vale (for the first 

l-time brought into notice), at which the Declaration of Independence 

I Hvas read by Thos. Eagar, Esq., and a very eloquent address delivered 

I 'by Wm. Van Voorhies, Esq. At a similar celebration, at Centreville, 

Hon. S. B. McKee delivered an exceedingly eloquent oration. There 

was a bachelors' ball on the same occasion at the county seat ; so 

1 that the people of the county seem to have enthusiastically celebrated 

the glorious annivei\sary, as they have ever since. 

At this date a daily mail was established by the Post-office Depart- 
ment between Oakland and San Jose, which was considered a boon 
to the people down the valley; but they grumbled because the Oak- 
land Postmaster neglected or objected to forward it on Sundays. 

The Alameda Collegiate Institute, which had been established 
some years, commenced its term with improved prospects and greater 
efficiency. It was under the chai-ge of Mr. Peck, aided by Mrs. Cro- 
well and Miss Rosenbaum. There was connected with the school a 
Belles Lettres Society, which possessed a library. Some of our most 



130 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

prominent citizens of the present day are graduates of the Collegiate 
Institute, an institution wliich ceased to exist several years ago. 

Pursuant to a published call, a number of citizens of Alameda 
County assembled at San Leandro on July 24th of this year, for the 
purpose of forming an Agricultural Society. Henry C. Smith, of Al- 
varado, was appointed Chairman, and Dr. H. Gibbons, of Alameda, 
Secretary. A constitution and code of by-laws were adopted. The 
payment of $3 per annum entitled a person to membership. The 
payment of $25, at one time, constituted life membership. The offi- 
cers comprised a president, vice-president, corresponding and record- 
ing secretaries, a treasurer and five directors, who constituted alto- 
gether a Board of Directors. The principal officers to be practical 
farmers. Officers elected annually. The Society to hold an annual 
fair at such time and place as might be chosen by the members. The 
meeting, after transacting the business of organization, adjourned to 
the 11th of September to meet there for the purpose of electing 
officers and making arrangements for an exhibition, should it be 
deemed expedient to hold one. The names of the gentlemen who 
signed the constitution at the second meeting were H. C. Smith, Dr. 
H. Gibbons, A. H. Myers, Henry Linden, W. W. Moore, J. M. 
Moore, R. Blaco, Alfred Lewelling, P. J. Campbell, Frank F. Fargo, 
H. Lewelling, G. W. Fountain, IMark T. Ashley, F. K. Sliattuck, S. 
Shurtleff, Isaac B. Rumford, E. Wilson, Hiram Keeney, J. Blaco, 
W. H. Davis, John B. Ward, J. L. Wilson, D. E. Hough, E. S. 
Chipman, C. C. Brejrfogle, J. A. Lent. An address was delivered 
by Mr. J. Silver, of Philadelphia, on the benefit of such societies in 
the East. Semi-annual faii-s were decided on ; one in the Spring, 
for the display of flowers, early grains, and the pi-oducts of the 
horticulturist ; and the other in the Autumn, for the exhibition of 
stock, general farming products, late fi-uits and vegetables, and such 
other articles as could be shown to greater advantage at this season 
of the year. The officex's elected at this meeting were, A. H. Myers, 
President ; H. C. Smith, F. K. Shattuck, Vice-Presidents ; E. S. 
Chipman, Secretary ; Frank F. Fargo, Treasurer ; Robt. Blaco, 
Alfred Lewelling, Directors. A committee of one from each townsliip 
was appointed to solicit subscriptions to the constitution and initia- 
tion fees for membership, siich committee consisting of H. C. Smith 
for Washington Township, Hiram Keeny for Eden, Dr. H. Gibbous 
for Alameda, and G. W. Fountain for Oakland, 




UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 131 

A. J. SCHNEIDER, 

Oakland Basket Factory 

96Q BROADWAY, 

Between Ninth and Tenth Streets, East side. 



Overland, Lunch, Picnic, and Ladies' Fancy Baskets made and repaired. 

Children's Chairs and Carriages made and repaired. Cane Chairs re-seated, and coarse 

work promptly attended to. 

HOW & DOO LITTLE. 



P>A.I3SrTS, OIIL.S J^l^JD C3-IL..A.SS. 

HOUSE PAINTERS AND GRAINERS, 
Cornel' Broadway ojvcl Jiinth Street, opposite Union Sav- 
ings Banhi Oahlancl. 

HENRY HAUSCHIEDT. 

Dealer in and Importer of 



BOOTS & SHOES ^:^ 




1057 BRO A.D^\^A. Y, 

Between Eleventh and Twelfth Streets, OAKLAND. 

Repairing neatly executed with Dispatch. 

H. CORDES, 

Jobber and Dealer in 

WOOD AND WILLOW WARE, 

Cordage, Twines, Brooms, Brushes, Paper, Sieves, 

Matches, Inks, Soaps, Mucilage and Slate 

Pencils, in great variety. 

SOUTH SIDE SIXTH STREET, Hear Broaiway, OAKLAHD. 

All Goods delivered Free of Charge in city limits. 



132 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



BEAUDRY & McAVOY, 



'^^'ff^~^:^^^^^^^^^^~=^^^ 







UNDERTAKERS 

MD OE/tERAL FUfiHISHEHS, 

Corner Broadway and jSeyenth jStreet. 



Hearse and Coaches, Rosewood, Mahogany and Lead 
Coffins, Shrouds, Collars, Cravats, Silver and White 
Metal Coffin Plates constantly on hand; Grave Stones, 
Iron and Wood Enclosures furnished. 



Horses for Livery Hire, 

For phaeton and road uses; well broken and carefully 
trained. Can please the most timid lady. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 133 



CHAPTER XVII. 



FROM THE FORMATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION IN 1858 TO 
THE CENSUS OF 1860. 



1858 Continued — The Warm Sprinjs xi Popular Resort for Pain and 
Pleasure — Their Present Use — Ferry Lines in Operation Between 
Oakland and San Francisco — Opposition and Reduction of 
Charges — A Schedule of the Same — The San Leandro " Gazette " 
Fspouses the Cause of the Rentei-s and Denounces the High Charges 
Made for the Use of Land — Some of the Yearns Unfortunates — 
Rejoicing Over the Atlam,tic Gable — The Pioneer of the Overland 
If ail Route, an Alameda Man, Arrives at Salt Lake — The State 
and County Elections — The Democracy Again Victorious, and S. 
Bell McKee Elected Judge of the Third District Court for the First 
Time — Interesting Suit — A Murderer Convicted — Public School 
Convention — Edson Adams Fined%\QO and Costs for Contempt — 
Indignation at a Proposition for a Fence Law — Governor Weller 
Offers $500 Reward for the Conviction of the Murderers ofCiriaco 
Sacre — The Bachelor's Ball — " Little Lotta " — Legislation of the 
Year — School Statistics and Assessor's Rej)ort. 

At this time Wai-m Springs, three miles south of the Mission, was 
in full blast, as one of the gayest and most fashionable watering 
places in the State. The Springs were first utilized by Clement 
Columbet, who removed a house, for the purpose of a hotel, all the 
way from San Jose. In 1858 the place was leased by Alex. Beaty, 
who gave a grand ball there on the 29th of July, which was suc- 
ceeded by many others. Subsequently the Springs became a grand 
resort and several fine buildings were constructed for the accommo- 
dation of guests, and the fashionable, frivolous, wealthy and leisurely, 
as well as the invalided, from all parts of the State, were in the 
habit of resorting there, to partake of the benefits of the hot sulphur 
water. For several years the place has been closed up to the public, 
having been purchcused by Laland Stanford. The brother of that 
gvjutlemin, M»-. Joshua Stanford, resides on the premises, and has con- 



134 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

verted most of the land Ijelongmg to it into vineyard, as tlie grape 
thrives there equal to any other place in the State. 

A newspaper item of August gives this information with regard to 
the ferry lines communicating between San Francisco and Oakland 
and Brooklyn: "The San Antonio (Larue) Company are building a 
fine boat (the Oakland) at Steamboat Point, intended to run regu- 
larly (with the San Antonio) as soon as completed. The Contra 
Costa (Minturn line) has been coppered new, and somewhat remod- 
eled, giving her a tine cabin aft, and other improvements. The 
Clinton and San Antonio (one of each line) are now runnmg, the 
former making four trips daily and the latter three." 

Following are the reduced rates of charges induced by the oppo- 
isition: Horses, each 50c.; cattle, each 50c.; calves, each 25c.; hogs, 
each 20c.; sheep, each 12c.; grain, per ton $1.50; hay in bales, per 
ton $2; vegetables, per sack 10c. ; threshing machines, each $5 to 
$8; reaper machines, each $3 to $7; plows, 25c. to 50c.; horse-rakes, 
25c. to $1 ; measurement freight, per ton $2 ; one horse and buggy, 
75c.; two horses and buggy, $1; stage cjaches, $2; lumber wagons, 
$1; passage, 25c.; commutation tickets, per month $5. 

The San Leandro Gazette, the only paper in the county at this 
date, complained strongly of the high price charged by owners of 
land to renters, and spoke of " the ruinous summer just closing." 
Alluding to the Portuguese renters, it went on to remark, " they 
will go and others will come to be duped, and humbugged and 
swindled as their predecessors have been. This is partially endur- 
able with reference to the Portuguese, you may say ; but with 
American, English and Irish citizens, and white men generally, avIio 
are supposed to have their fiiir share of good sense, the farce ought 
not to have been re-enacted." Four dollars an acre, for the coming 
season, it declared to be all that the land was woi-th. The article 
was aimed at the management of the Estudillo Kancho, which it 
charged with extortion. Three dollars an acre, it stated, had rented 
as good land on the Peralto Rancho adjoining. Notwithstanding 
this sad plaint, the Portiiguese had gone on renting, and from rent- 
ing buying, until many of them are now Avell oif and all of them 
making something. 

The losses this year, in farming, by renters especially, were con- 
siderable, and show that the labor of the husbandman is not always 
jjrofitable, even in this garden spot of Alameda ; for instance : jMr. 
Mulford, farming GOO acres, lost to the extent of $7,280 ; Mr. Huff, 



I UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 135 

farming 260 acres, lost $3,375 ; Mr. Sliurtleff, farming 162 acres, 
lost $1,750 ; Mr. Kimball, farming 162 acres, lost $1,250. All of these 
were -within two and one-half miles of the town of San Leandi-o. 

This was the year of laying the Atlantic telegraph cable, which 
was the cause of so much joy to the civilized world, and Alameda 
County, as an integral portion thereof, celebrated the event with 
commendable enthusiasm. 

Here is a newspaper item of interest, copied from the Gazette of 
September 18th : ''Safely arrived — ^Mr. C. Dyer, of Alvarado, whom 
we have heretofore mentioned as being the pioneer of the Overland 
Mail route, has safely arrived at Salt Lake City, accomplishing the 
distance from Placerville in 16 days and 14 hours. He arrived 
there, however, too late for the stages thence eastward, and was 
consequently compelled to remain until the second departure for the 
States." 

On the 2d of September a State and county election took place, in 
which the Democrats were victorious against the "fusion ticket" of 
the Republicans and Broderickites combined. The highest State 
officer elected was Judge of the Su})reme Court. For this office 
Baldwin got 786 votes to Curry's 724 ; Meloney, for Controller, got 
800 to Gumi's 522 ; for District Judge, McKee received 822 to 
Hester's (his predecessor's) 647 ; for State Senator, Redman received 
749 to Bell's 733 ; for Assemblyman, Rodgers received 739 to Wm. 
Hayward's 515, and Edward Gibbons' 246 ; for Member of Congress, 
McKibbon received 709 to Dudley's 183, and Tracy's 531 ; for 
Public Administrator, Linden received 748 to McDonald's 585, and 
Chisholra's 123; and for County Judge, Pease was without opposi- 
tion. This time, certainly, the Democracy had the satisfaction of 
making a " clean sweep " of Alameda County, and great was their 
rejoicing thereat. But a dark day was dawning. 

The October Term of the Thu-d District Court was the occasion of 
an important suit between two native California families. The suit 
was that of H. G. Blankman and wife vs. Jose Jesus Yallejo and 
wife. This was suit brought for the foreclosure of a mortgage for 
$30,000. The claim grew out of aii interest the wife of Blankman 
had in the estate of Ygnacio Yallejo, father of defendant — Mrs. B. 
being a sister's child — which interest Yallejo bought of plaintiff in 
1853, for the above sum, and the defendant paying interest for 
years, and making subsequent engagements respecting the payment 
of the mortgage, up to the year 1857, when Yallejo, thi'ough his 



136 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

counsel, sought to set up want of consideration and fraud ; in this 
the defendant failed. He then tried to show a discrepancy of the 
bond and the mortgage was fatal, although the bond was of the same 
date, and called for the payment of $30,000, and bore even date with 
the mortgage. The mistake was accounted for by the power of 
attorney, and one of the subscribing witnesses swore that there were 
three papers executed at the time, and those in court were the ones. 
What made this case more peculiar was, that there had been no 
misunderstanding between the parties up to the time of suit being 
brought. Judgment was entered against Vallejo for |30,000, and 
$5,834 interest. 

A man named Chas. Dowes was convicted of murdering a person 
named Peter Becker, in San Francisco. Having been apprehended 
at Alvarado, hx this county, he was tried in the District Coui-t at 
San Leandro. The evidence against him was circumstantial but con- 
clusive, and he was sentenced to State Prison for life. 

A Public School Convention took place at San Leandro on the 
6th of November, the members of which were composed of School 
Trustees for the different townships, at which nine districts were rep- 
resented. Henry Haile, M. D., was elected chairman, and Wm. C. 
Blackwood, secretary. It was resolved, among other things, " That 
the value of pi-operty depends upon the intelligence of the people, 
and, therefore, the property of the county should pay for the educa- 
tion of the rising generation." 

At the Court of Sessions, for the November term, Edson Adams 
was fined $100 and costs, for contempt of Court in neglecting to ap- 
l^ear as a Grand Jui-or. 

Considerable stir was made and indignation aroused among the 
farmers of the county by the presentation of a petition to the Legis- 
lature calling for an amendment of the trespass law, which would 
compel grain-growers to fence their fields against the predations of 
roaming stock. So unjust a proposition, however, could not and did 
not carry. 

Governor John B. Weller, under date of Nov. 25th, offered a 
reward of $500 for the apprehension of the murderer or miirderers 
of Ciriaco Sacre, a Chihmo, who was cruelly murdered on a little 
island, near Alvarado, some eighteen months previously. Justice 
must have been sleeping when so slow. 

The Bachelors' Club elected their officers at San Leandro on the 
2 2d Dec, j^reparatory to their winter campaign of amusements. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 137 

Jolin A. Lent was elected R. G. G., instead of Hon. W. P. Rogers, 
whose duties called liiin to Sacramento ; and the withdrawal of " their 
highly esteemed friend and brother," E. Minor Smith, who had a few 
dajs previovisly entered the matrimonial state, was sadly dwelt upon. 
The club gave a Christmas ball at the Estudillo House, which was 
greatly enjoyed by the invited guests. 

The Gazette had this to remark of a little girl there present, and 
who has since become famous as a California actress, and the first 
person to erect a drinking fountain, at her own personal expense, in 
the city of San Francisco : 

" The bright little star of the evening was Miss Lotta Crabtree, 
aged eleven years, who is noted and praised throughout California 
for her peculiar grace, juvenile modesty and politeness, while her 
excellent dancing delights eveiybody. Lotta will reach a high posi- 
tion in life if properly trained and kept as pure as she is now." 

The prediction has been verified, and Little Lotta continues to 
adorn her profession and do credit to California. 

The legislation of the year was as follows : 

An Act to fijc the compensation of the Assessor of Alameda County 
and his deputies by the Board of Supervisors, but not to exceed $8 
per day. 

An Act to fix the compensation of Sheriff or Tax Collector in 
Coimties of Alameda and San Joaquin. To be allowed for collecting 
all taxes (excepting minei-s', license and poll-tax) six per cent, on the 
first $10,000; four per cent, on all over $10,000, and three per cent, 
on all over $20,000; two percent, on all over $50,000. The County 
Treasurers shall be allowed three per cent, on all moneys received 
and disbursed by them, but not on both receiving and disbursing. 

An Act to adjust the amount of indebtedness of the County of 
Alameda to the County of Contra Costa, and provide for the pay- 
ment thereof. Section 1 : B. C. Whitman, of Solano, John H. 
Livingston, of Contra Costa, and J. W. Dougherty, of Alameda, 
shall be a Board of Commissioners to ascertain and adjust the 
amount of indebtedness of Alameda to Contra Costa, prior to the 
23d day of March, 1853; Supervisoz's to meet within sixty days 
after awai'd, and levy a special tax for the payment in cash of one- 
half the amount, etc., as heretofore. Compensation $8 per day, one- 
half by Alameda and one-half by Contra Costa. 

An Act to adjust the amount of indebtedness of Alameda to Santa 
Clara. Both counties to appoint a Commissioner; when amount is 



138 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

certified the Auditor of ALameda County to issue a warrant in favor 
of Santa Clara County. To meet at tlie county seat of Alameda on 
or before tlie 1st of July, 1858, to settle. A tliird party to be called 
in if required. 

An Act concerning roads and highways in Tuolumne and Alameda 
Counties. 

An Act to provide for funding outstanding debts of the City of 
Oakland, and prevent the creation of new debts. 

The school statistics of this year were very full. There were 
1,174 children of school age, and the total expenditure for school 
purposes was $10,138.33. Andrew J. Moulder, State Superinten- 
dent, in his report strongly urged immediate measures for founding 
a State University on the military plan. W. W. Brier, Superintend- 
ent for this county at this time, recommended the adoption of the 
compulsory system of education, but was opposed to a military school 
as a State University. He gave the Trustees of the county credit 
for having done well this year. 

The Assessor's report, too, was very detailed and showed much 
progress since the last report, but the reproduction of these annual 
reports successively would become wearisome. 



1859 — The Proceedings of the Sujnrvisors Without Interest — An Event- 
ful Year — The Fraser and Gila Excitements — A Dry Winter but 
Good Crops — The Tax Levy — Oakland for the State Capital — 
The Proposition Lost by Two Votes- — The Estudillo Pancho Con- 
firmed — The Steamer " Contra Costa " Explodes her Boiler — Six 
Hitman Lives Lost and Several Horses Killed — May-day Festi- 
val at Alameda — The Seale Murder Trial — Floral Fair and 
Agricultural Exhibition — The Alameda "Herald" Appears — 
A Practical Move for Dredging the Oakland Bar — The County 
Treasurer a Large Defaidter — The State and. County Elections — 
Three Tickets and Three Parties in the Field — All Get a Share 
of the Plunder — The Agricultural Association Embarrassed — A 
College of Teachers and Trustees — The Legislature Provides for 
Comity Infirmaries — Acts of the Year — The Bridge Again — 
Some Valuable Statistics. 

The first meeting of the Board of Supervisors held this year was 
on January 3d. A vast amount of routine business was transacted, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 139 

Ijut nothing of general interest was under consideration. Indeed, 
the whole year'.s proceedings were devoid of all but sectional interest, 
the matters of roads and bridges, the payment of bills, etc., absorbing 
nearly all the attention of the Supervisor. With one exception (the 
case of the indigent sick), the Boaixl had settled its controvei-sies and 
went on working diligently in the ruts of routine. 

The year, however, was an eventful one, and pregnant with mat- 
ters of interest for the people. The organization of an Agricultural 
Association, and the holding of a Floral Fair and an Agricultural 
Fair, occupied a good deal of attention ; so, also, did the State and 
County elections ; the subject of dredging the bar ; the defalcation of 
a county officer ; the organiztition of a College of Teachei-s. and 
Trustees ; an important murder trial ; and the establishment of an 
opposition line of steamers on the Creek route, with much-i-educed 
rates of charge. There were also the Oregon, Fraser and Gila excite- 
ments, which disturbed and broke up many homes ; and the proposi- 
tion to make Oakland the State capital. 

The opening months of 1859 were dry, and there was a gi-eat 
dread of drouth ; but notwithstanding, a good average crop was cut 
when the harvest was gathered. The new boat of the Larue line, 
the Oakland, was launched on the 20th of Januaiy. She was then 
taken to San Antonio, where she was fitted up for use and soon 
placed in ninning condition. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held at San Leandro, 
Febi-uary 28th, the tax levy ordered was .$1.45 on the $100. 

On the 1st of March the representatives of the county, in the 
State Assembly, procured the passage of a resolution appointing a 
committee to proceed to Oakland to inquire into the expediency of 
moving the State Capital to that })oint ; and therea,fter the claim of 
Oakland assumed great imi)ortance as a location for the seat of 
government. The committee reported favorably ; but on a vote the 
proposition was beaten by 30 to 28 ! 

The mandate of the U. S. Supreme Court finally confirming the 
heirs of Jose Joaquin Estudillo to the Eancho of San Leandro, was 
entered on the docket of the U. S. District in San Frtincisco, in 
March. 

On the 3d of April the steamer Contra Costa, of the Minturn 
line, had her boiler blown out, causing the death of six persons and 
injury to many others, besides the destruction of horses and other 
property. This was the fii'st seiuous casualty of the kind in the 



140 • HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

county, and was a niorst unfoi'tunate affair, evidently caused by the 
negligence of the engineer. 

On the 11th of April commenced a trial for murder, in which 
unusual interest was taken. It was in the Third District Court, 
held at San Leandro, before Judge McKee. The case^was that of 
The People vs. Thos. Seale, indicted for the murder of Paul C. 
Shor^ on the 6th of January, 1859, in Santa Clara County. The 
trial lasted five days, and the jury failed to agree on a verdict. 
Another jury was immediately empanelled, and after three days 
trial the case was given to the jury. The latter occupied two days 
more, and finally brought in a verdict of " not guilty." The difii- 
culty that caused the murderous affray was about land, the murdered 
man having been a trespasser, and the general opinion was that the 
verdict was a righteous one. There have been too many such affrays 
in the State, for which a failure to properly enforce the laws is much 
to blame. 

There was a fine May-day festival of the children of the schools 
at Alameda, under the auspices of the County Superintendent. 

The Floral Fair, for which preparations had been going on for 
several months, was opened in a large pavilion erected for the pur- 
pose, on the Plaza, on the 18th day of June, and the Committee of 
Arrangements made good their promises to the public regarding the 
same. Besides flowers, all kinds of horticultural products and works 
of art were exhibited, and the whole combined to make the show a 
very creditable affair for the county. All other counties in the State 
were invited to compete. The Fair festivities concluded with a grand 
ball. It deserves to be remembered as one of the finest associated 
efforts ever made in the county, and it is to be regretted that the 
association was not able to hold a similar Fair annually. The Agri- 
cultural Society was re-organized in July, under an act of the Legis- 
lature, passed the previous winter, and entered upon the full tide of 
its pi^osperity and offered a list of premiums to be contended for at 
an exhibition, which took place at Oakland on the 4th of October 
following. 

The month of July of this year witnessed the birth of another 
newspaper— the Alameda Herald — published by Frank Fargo, at 
Oakland, but printed in San Francisco. It was the organ of the 
" Fusionists," and did service in the campaign of 1859. 

The proposition to dredge the bar at the mouth of Oakland harbor 
had engaged the attention of the people of Alameda County for 



UXDER THE STARS AXD STRIPES. 141 

several years, but witliout any real good having come of it. A num- 
ber of gentlemen, in August of tliis year, formed themselves into a 
committee to receive subscriptions and proceed with tlie work. 
They collected among themselves and friends the sum of $11,000, 
but $3,000 more was required from the public, and collectors were 
appointed for the purpose of procuring it by subscription. " The 
channel," said these gentlemen in their circular, "is to be thoroughly 
dredged, from the deep water of the bay to the San Antonio channel, 
two hundred feet wide and five feet deep at extreme low tide — to be 
marked with piles on each side through the whole length, at a dis- 
tance of forty feet from each other. The whole work is to be done, 
and materials furnished, for the sum of fourteen thousand dollars, 
the contractor giving the most satisfactory securities for the faithful 
performance of the work. 

"The U. S. Government has given the gratuitous use of the 
splendid di-edging machine which has been in use at Mare Island, 
and the work will be commenced as _ soon as the contract money is 
paid in to the treasurer, W. A. Bray, Esq. 

"W. A. Bray, A. A. Cohen, 

A. L. Tubes, L. Johnson, 

John Caperton, E. E. Cole." 

The work was accordingly proceeded with, and the harbor, for a 
time, was cleared of its obstruction. 

Rumors having become rife chai-ging that all was not right in the 
Treasurer's office, a committee, consisting of Jonathan Mayhew and 
Sam. M. Davis, was appointed by the Board of Supervisors, to ex- 
amine that officer's books, when it was discovered that his accounts 
showed defalcations in the office amounting to $8,107.37. The won- 
der was what the Treasurer, Mr. Breyfogle, had done with the money ; 
but when it is remembered that gambling was a prevalent vice among 
men, thei'e ought to have been no gi-eat wonder how the money was 
squandered. Of course the county, possessing sufficient security, 
ultimately sustained no loss in funds. 

On the 2d of September took place the State and County election. 
There were three tickets in the field — Regular Democratic, Broderick 
Democratic, and Republican. On the State ticket, Latham (Dem.) 
received 1,069 votes; Currey (Brod.), 664 votes; and Stanford 
(Rep.), 299. At tliis election Mr. Higley, County Surveyor of this 
county, was elected to the office of Surveyor-General. The Demo- 
cratic county ticket was generally successful. John A. Lent (Dem.) 



142 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

was elected County Judge, to succeed Wm. H. Glascock, who suc- 
ceeded Judge McKee when elected District Judge. The other officers 
elected were P. E. Edmondson (Dem.), Sheriff; W. H. Glascock 
(Dem.), District Attorney ; D. S. Lacey (Dem.), Assessor ; F. K. 
Shattuck (Brod.), Assemblyman ; J. R. Mason (Brod.), County 
Clerk; John W. Carrick (Rep.), Treasurer; E. H. Dyer (Brod.), 
Surveyor; J. M. Selfridge (Brod.), Coroner; H. Gibbons (Rep.), 
Supt. Schools. Alameda and Brooklyn elected S. M. Davis (Dem.) 
Supervisor ; Oakland Township, Malachi Fallon (Dem.) to the same 
office; Eden Township, A, A. Anderson (Dem.); Murray Township, 
J. W. Dougherty (Dem.); and Washington Township, Wm. Shinn, 
the only Republican of the lot. The contest was a very bitter one, 
and much personality was indulged in during the canvass. 

On October 4th opened the first Annual Fair of the Alameda 
County Agricultural Society, which was held in the Pavilion on the 
plaza. A long list of premiums, divided into two classes, Avere 
offered, for which two kinds of diplomas were given— one handsomely 
framed and the other with a plain frame. The Fair lasted from the 
1st to the 14th of the month, and was well attended. From some 
cause or other the Society suffered from the embarrassment of debt, 
but kept up its organization and held its shows for several years, un- 
til merged into the Bay District Agricultural Association. A state- 
ment of the treasurer showed that from the date of its organization 
to the conclusion of this Fair, the Association had collected $6,606.97, 
while the disbur-sements were $Q,5o8.53, with $58.44 left in the 
treasury, and obligations to the amount of $2,000 to provide for. 
. On the 30th of December of this year a meeting was held in Oak- 
land to aid in making an effort to procure the location of the next 
State Fair in that city. It did not, however, have the desii-ed effect. 

A "College of Teachers and Trustees" was organized at San Lean- 
dro on the 31st of October. The object of this association was to 
bring teachers and trustees together for the purpose of advancing the 
educational interests of the county. Thei-e was a large attendance. 
The following named gentlemen were elected officers: President, 
W. H. Souther; Vice President, A. More, of Oakland; Business 
Committee, Robert Blacow, Jos. H. Taylor and Joseph Demont. 
County Superintendent H. Gibbons was, by virtue of his office, the 
Secretary. The College recommended the organization of a Teachers' 
Association, which was accordingly done on 1 2th of the same month . 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 143 

The legislation for the county for 1859 consisted of the following 
enactments : 

An Act to authorize the Board of Supervisors of Alameda County 
to levy a special tax for school purposes. Not to exceed 25 cents on 
the 1100. 

An Act to fix the salary of the County Judge of Alameda County. 
The County Judge to be elected at the next general election to re- 
ceive $2,000 per annum as compensation for his services. 

An Act for the improvement of San Antonio creek. Board of 
Supervisors appointed Commissioners ; plans and specifications to be 
provided; county not responsible stockholders; may purchase work 
when $-40,000 are paid in; privileges to expire in ten years. 

An Act to authoiize Charles Minturn, Ira P. Rankin and E. C. M. 
Chadwick to erect a wharf at Castro's Landmg, in Alameda or Contra 
Costa County ; franchise for twenty years. Board of Supervisors of 
Contra Costa to fix rate of wharfage. 

It was to be supposed that the bridge controversy had been finally 
settled by the action of 1857, but the purchase was not finally con- 
summated. In the Legislature of this year the owners of the bridge 
endeavored to have Jin act passed confirming the original contract 
with the Court of Sessions before proceeding to construct a new 
bridge to take the place of the old one, then in a dilapidated condi- 
tion. The vote on the question was close, but the House refused the 
legislation sought. 

Tlie following statements, taken from the Assessor's and Treasurer's 
books, show the material condition of the county : 

Total mnnber of acres assessed, - - - 179,959 

Value of personal property, - - - - $1,4.36,995 

Value of real estate, ----- 1,618,205 

Improvements on real estate, - - - - 441,415 

City and town lots, - . . - . 197,875 

Improvements on same, - - - -~ 219,720 



Total value of property, . - . - $4,094,169 



Total tax, 1859-60, $56,756.52 

State portion, 23,485.23 

County portion, 33,271.00 



Delinquent tax, 1858-9, . - . - $2,272.24 

Excess of assessment over last ) ^^oo qk't qq 

year (without supplemental) J ' " - -" ? • 



144 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Townsliips, in point of wealth, were as follows : 

Eden, ..-..-- $1,085,618 

"Washington, ------- 1,016,845 

Oakland, ------- 679,913 

Brooklyn, ------- 640,170 

Murray, ------- 322,364 

Alameda, 169,300 



The average value of real estate, as assessed in the several town- 
ships, was as follows : 

PER ACRE. 

Eden (a fraction over), - - - - - $11.44 

Washington (a fraction over), - - - - 10.00 

Oakland, ------- 15.80 

Brooklyn, -------- 11.56 

Alameda, _------ 39.44 

Murray, -------- 1.10 

The following is the first list made out of "rich men," as they 
appeared according to valuation on the Assessor's books in 1859 : 

J. J. Vallejo, $190,050; Wm. Castro, $148,000; Estudillo Family, 
$120,359; Hathaway, Brady & Crabb, $60,800; Soto Family, 
$60,392; J. B. Larue, $56,145; Ygnacio Peralta, $54,100; A. 
Alviso, $45,900; S. B. Martin, $43,250; H. G. Ellsworth, $38,975; 
J. W. Dougherty, $31,800; F. Higuera, $28,950; Livermore, Estate 
of, $28,300; Contra Costa Steam Navigation Co., $28,000; Edward 
Minturn, $27,200; Eob't Simson, $26,750; E. L. Beard, $26,285; 
A. M. Peralta, $25,550; Clemente Colombet, $25,100; A. B. Fabes, 
$23,000; Antonio Sunol, $21,400; W. M. Lubbock, $20,000; Earl 
Marshall, $18,000; G. W. Patterson, $17,320; Mrs. A. C. Colombet, 
$17,000; Thomas G. Carey, $15,400; H. K Carpenter, $15,000; 
Benjamin Holladay, $15,000; C. J. Stevens, $14,725; A. Lewelling, 
$13,700; Cal. St'm Nav. Co., $13,500; Z. Hughes, $13,450; Richard 
Threlfall, $12,450; Wm. Glaskin, $12,000; Coffee & Risdon, $12,000; 
H. P. Irving, $11,675; Wm. H. Souther, $11,500; E. S. Eigenbrodt, 
$11,450; Mulfoi-d & Co., $11,425; William M. Maddox, $11,250; 
Cull & Luce, $11,040; R. B. Donavan, $10,950; Jesse Beard, 
$10,625; J. Lewelling, $10,385; A. L. Pioche, $10,300; Domingo 
Peralta, $10,000. 

Condition of public schools: Districts, 16; childi*en, 2,230; boys, 
between 4 and 18, 719; girls, 685; total, 1,404; under 4 years, 826; 
boi-n in California, 1,303; orphans, 58; attending school, 616; aver- 
age attendance, 361. Male teachers, 13; female, 14; schools, 18; 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 145 

pupils in private schools, 146. State school money drawn to pay- 
salaries, $2,136.68; raised in school boundaries, $3,700; drafts on 
account salaries, $6,419.00; expended on school houses, $1,578.00; 
for school libraries and apparatus, $132.00; county tax received for 
school purposes, $4,866.87; total expenditure, $8,250.00. 



1860 — A Memorable Year — Overthrow of the Democratic Party — Bad 
Condition of the Roads — -New Board of Supervisors — Thick Fog 
on the Bay — Another Effort to Secure the State Capital for Oak- 
land — Ended in Failure — Hojw for the Future — Activity of the 
County Agricultural Association — The Supervisors Emjioivered 
to Appropriate Money in its Aid — The Washoe Fever Bi'eahs Out 
and the County Treasurer Gets Leave to Visit the Mines — Dredging 
the Bar Once More — Governor Weller a Resident of the County — 
Mitch Enterprise Evinced — Great Demand for Land — Wild 
Geese — Prolific Subjects for Discussion — Springing the Kate 
Hays Title on Oakland Property — Several Convictions for Mur- 
der, but no Executions — Poor Crops and Stagnation — Legislative 
Enactments — A Review of the Progress of the County, and a 
Comparison with Some of its Neighbors — Census 0/1860. 

The year 1860 is a memorable one in the annals of the nation. In 
it occun-ed the great Pi'esidential contest, in which the Democratic 
party was overthrown in the Union, in this State, and in this 
county. It was the year in which Abraham Lincoln was elected 
President of the United States. The fact is simj^ly mentioned to 
mark a period in our political and social histoiy. It was also the 
year for taking the Federal census, and presents a resting-place for 
reflection — for observing our ten years' growth and establishing our 
status. 

The number and importance of local events, apai-t from politics, 
was considerable. The proceedings of the Board of Supervisors con- 
tinued to be of little value to the historian, but of great importance 
to the intei-nal economy of the county. Roads, bridges, the care of 
the sick and the schools, received constant attention, and piK)viding 
for these taxed the -wits of our township statesmen to the utmost. 

The county guardians this year were : J. Lewelling for Eden ; F. 
K. Shattuck for Oakland ; A. W. Swett for Brooklyn; C. S. Eigeii-. 
brodt for AVashington ; and M. Murray for Murray. 

10 



146 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

In January of the year tlie Grand Jury of the Court of Sessions 
found it necessary to call attention to the bad condition of the roads 
and bridges, urging the Board of Supervisors to attend to their re- 
pair, just as if they had not had their hands full wrestling with them 
constantly. 

In the same month a very thick fog covei-ed the bay and surround- 
ing country for several days, and the ferry-steamer Contra Costa had 
in consequence to lay up until it cleai-ed off. No serious injury, how- 
ever, resulted therefrom. 

In the Legislature, our representatives, Senator Redman and As- 
semblyman Shattuck, had labored to make Oakland the State Capi- 
tal, and would have succeeded only for the apathy of the people. It 
has been shown that Senator Redman and Assemblyman Rodgers, 
during the previous session of 1859, had secured the appointment of 
a committee to visit Oakland, wliicli subsequently presented a report 
recommending the selection of this fair young city. On a vote being 
taken, the proposition was lost by only two votes. The prospect for 
the future looked bright. But the people of the town did not suffi- 
ciently sustain their repi'esentatives. Next year's work was unavail- 
ing, and Sacramento got it. Although much money has been sunk 
in the buildings erected at Sacramento, there is no great cause to 
dread a defeat for Oakland or some of her suburbs when the battle 
is again renewed, as it certainly must be, on account of the unsuit- 
ableness of the present location. 

The lately organized Agricultural Society was very active this 
year. It appealed to the Legislature, backed by numerously-signed 
petitions, for power for the Board of Supervisors to donate $.500 
amnially towards the support of the society. The Legislature passed 
the enactment prayed for, but the Board hesitated to make the appro- 
priation at first, on account of the numerous demands on the treas- 
airy; but subsequently yielded, adding the amount to the tax levy, 
which, besides this, was for the year placed at $1.55. The members 
busied themselves in the foi^mation of the Bay District Association, 
then recently organized, and in endeavoring to break up the State 
Association, the management of which did not please the people of 
the bay counties, and Senator Redman endeavored to have its charter 
repealed, but without success. 

At this time the Washoe excitement was at its height, and many 
of ovxr prominent citizens, as well as many who were not prominent, 
caught the contagion of the time and went off to the new mining 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 147 

region, and to such an extent did the fever rage that our County- 
Treasurer asked leave from the Legislature to absent himself from 
his post to seek his fortune with the rest, and got it. 

The scheme for dredging the Oakland bar had not, down to this 
date, resulted satisfactorily, and a bill was introduced in the Legis- 
lature to enable the Board of Supervisors to tax the county for the 
work, and it passed. 

Among those who had made Alameda County their home at this 
date was John B. Weller, a former Governor of the State, who re- 
sided at Fruit Vale. He participated in the proceedings of his party 
and devoted some little attention to our local affairs. 

There was considerable enterprise displayed in Alameda County 
this year, and much was done, besides the Fair, to develop its indus- 
trial resources. Mr. J. B. Ward, agent of the Estudillo Rancho, 
bored a tunnel in the hills through which runs the San Leandro 
Creek, to make a reservoir for irrigating the land below, near the 
place where the Contra Costa Water Company has lately bored a 
much larger one and constructed a very extensive reservoir. C. L. 
Place, of San Francisco, built a 70-ton sloop at San Antonio. A 
company was formed under the name of Anderson & Cummings, to 
run a stage to Stockton and carry the U. S. Mail, This service had 
cost the Government previously $42,000 a year, but this company, 
in which several Alamedans were interested, did the business for 
$10,000. The company failed, however, and the California Steam 
Navigation Company, which held the contract before at an exorbi- 
tant remuneration, again secured the prize. 

AVilliam Blacow, of Centreville, purchased of Mr. J. D. Patterson, 
of New York, a number of fine French Merino sheep, including the 
celebrated ram " Napoleon III," which have thriven finely, and done 
much to improve our flocks. At this time, too, commenced the im- 
provements of Mr. W. A. Bray in the vicinity of Fruit Yale, which 
now so much adorn the eastei-n suburbs of the City of Oakland. The 
Santa Rita Rancho, near Pleasanton, was confirmed to S. B. Mai-tin, 
and has since proved one of the most productive pieces of land in 
the State. Mrs. Blake, who had been conducting a Yoi^ng Ladies' 
Academy with success in Oakland, leased the spacious and elegant 
premises of J. Ross Browne, to accommodate the increasing number 
of her pupils. Notwithstanding that the year did not turn out as 
satisfactory for farming as was expected at first, there was a great 
demand for land. The Alameda County Medical Association was 
formed this year. 



148 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The phenomena of the day was the presence of myriads of wild 
geese, which covered the Bay slope and filled the aii-, supplying plenty 
of sport for those who prized such game. 

The county was constituted one revenue district by the Supervisors, 
under the Revenue Act of April 30. 

The year was prolific with subjects for discussion. The Presi- 
dential election, the merits of the three parties in the field, the atti- 
tude of the county towards the State Agi-iciiltural Society, the grant- 
ing of $500 to the County Association, the Bar bill, and the care of 
the sick poor, all were subjects for considerable comment. In Oak- 
land, the springing of the Kate Hayes title, bought up by Mr. Car- 
pentier, aroused the indignation of the people, involving, as it did, 
half a million dollars' worth of jiroperty, already paid for by many 
purchasers. The Court record of this year was not a satisfactory 
one. There were three or four trials for murder ; but as is usual in 
California, the result was not a satisfying of justice, but a heavy bill 
of expense to the county. Horse thieves, too, abounded. 

The year previous a contract was made by the Supervisors with 
the Sisters of Mercy in San Francisco to provide for the care of in- 
digent sick of the county, the new law establishing county infirm- 
aries not having yet gone into force. The charge was $1.2.5 per day 
per patient. 

The crops did not turn out as well as had been expected, and there 
was great stagnation in business on account of the scarcity of money 
and the low prices obtained for farm products ; yet there was no 
despondency, and notliing like suflei'ing. 

The moment has now arrived to take a glance backward and review 
the. social, industi-ial and financial condition of the county. A decade 
of years has been passed through — three of them as a portion of an- 
other covinty and seven under our own name and sign manual, " do- 
ing our own behests for our own behoof." The contemplation, the 
reader will agree, is a most satisfactory one. It is pleasant to be the 
chronicler of such progress and such pleasing results. In every sense 
had the county prospered. The material gain was very great ; the 
increase in population, to say the least, remarkable. Where, before, 
all was wild and uncertain, now everythiiig is civilized and satisfac- 
tory. The habits of home life have been restored to the immigrant ; 
woman graces the scene and adorns the household ; the fixmily is 
gathered under the roof-tree, and uncouth habits ai-e corrected. Do- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 149 

mestic animals gather around the homestead, and the pleasures and 
joys of the far-off home are renewed. From a mere sojoui-ner, the 
new comer has become a settler. All the cherished habits of a civil- 
ized community have been put on ; churches, societies and schools 
have been established, and promise is given of a future fraught with 
comfort, leisure and refinement. Land susceptible of the highest 
cultivation has been secui^ed, and where cai-e and diligence have been 
exercised, it has been made to "blossom like the rose." The climate 
is found to be of the most agreeable description for health and per- 
sonal comfort, as well as beneficial for the productiveness of the earth. 
The geographical position is found to be most favorable, and every 
product within easy reach of a profitable market. 

Figures have heretofore been given of other most prosperous coun- 
ties, for the purpose of comparison, to prove our own gain as well as 
the State's. Sacramento, from the start, had a large population, 
owing to her proximity to the gold mines and the commercial advan- 
tages of her principal town, as well as possessing the State capital. 
Santa Clara contained the oldest to-wn. in the State, and was rich, too, 
in a certain precious metal (cimiabar), as well as in agricultural ad- 
vantages. Both had thousands of population when we had but a few 
hundreds, and possessed prosperous cities when Alameda had nothing 
better than a mere hamlet. 

At this date Alameda cultivated 75,000 acres of land — -more than 
Sacramento, and considerably more than Contra Costa and Santa Clara. 
Our return of grain and potatoes, groAvn in 1858, is 1,392,100 bushels, 
to Sacramento's 927,442. Our production of barley, in 1859, was 
over 1,000,000 bushels, nearly double that of any other county in the 
State, and altogether in. excess of our neighbors, with whom we have 
been comparing figures. In the growth of wheat we were only ex- 
celled by Contra Costa (our old partner), Napa and San Joaquin ; 
while in the product of oats we raised about three times as much as 
the best of the other counties of the State, averaging 70 bushels to 
the acre. Of potatoes we grew, in 1860, 1,830 acres, and cut 5,200 
tons of hay, for which we had a ready market. Of horses we counted 
7,982 head ; of cows, 18,276 ; of sheep, 26,800, and of hogs, 2,785. 
A great increase was shown in our poultry, numbering 25,426, and 
producing 462,300 dozen eggs — more than double any other county. 
Of fruit trees, of all kinds, we had 316,286 ; of gooseberry and 
raspberry vines, 39,030. We had under strawberry vines, 204 acres, 
and under gra2>e vines, 200 acres. Four flouring-mills had been estab- 



150 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

lislied, several saw-mills and a tanueiy. "We not only had numerous 
schools, well-spread throughout the county, but also two colleges and 
one ladies' seminary, all of a high order. 

The following is a synopsis of the year's legislation : 

An Act to authorize the. Board of Supervisors of Alameda and 
Santa Clara Counties to make appropriations to agricultural societies, 
and to legalize an appropriation heretofore made. May make an 
annual appropriation of not more than $500 to the Alameda County 
Agricultural Society. The appropriation of same sum to the Santa 
Clara Yalley Agiicultural Society. 

An Act, approved March 6, 1860, for amending the Oakland charter 
of 1854, granting further powers to the Common Council. 

An Act providing for the payment of a judgment in favor of Trus- 
tum C. Gilman against the county of Contra Costa. Board of Sup- 
ervisors to levy a tax of one per cent, upon $100 each year till paid, 
with interest at ten per cent., and costs. " The Gilman judgment 
fund," judgment obtained in March, 1856, to the amount of $20,427 
and accruing interest and costs. 

An Act concerning roads in the counties of Alameda and Santa 
Clara. All roads in Alameda and Santa Clara, now used as such, 
declared to be so considered. 

An Act to provide for the opening of a channel across the bar at 
the mouth of San Antonio Creek. Commissioners, James Dougherty, 
Alfred L. Tubbs and W. A. Bray. 

An Act for the education and care of the indigent deaf, dumb and 
blind in the State of California. Plans and specifications for build- 
ing. Contract for $10,000 approved. 

An Act for the establishment of county infirmaries, for the relief 
of the indigent, and to amend an Act entitled an Act to provide for 
the indigent sick in the counties of this State. The Supervisors to 
establish said infirmaries. 

Several steamers found business carrying freight and passengers, 
and a line of telegraph stretched through the country. 

The county owned in real estate, according to a very liberal mode 
of assessment, which indicated only about one-third the real value, 
$2,065,400 ; in improvements, $740,765 ; and in personal property, 
$1,575,415 ; making a total valuation of $4,381,580. Our rate of 
taxation was only $1.55 on the $100; less than any other county 
in California. 

By the census of 1860, Alameda had a considerably larger popula- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES, 



151 



tion than Coutra Costa ; while Santa Ch^ra held her own, and Sacra- 
mento nearly trebled iis. 

Let us compare the figures of the four counties for 1852 and 
1860, and the reader can clearly see how we grew numerically : 

1852. 1860. 

Alfyneda, 8,926 

Contra Costa, 2,745 5,328 

Santa Clara, 6,664 11,912 

Sacramento, 12,589 24,145 

The Surveyor-General's report of the state of the cx'ops in Alameda 
County this year was as follows: "The crops in this county have 
been good. Many of the ranch-owners are inclosing the valley tracts 
extensively, thus limiting the range for pasture. Much attention has 
been given to sheep-raising. Some superior imported stock has been 
introduced this year. The wool clip is generally of a fine quality." 




152 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



WM. WILSON, 

No. 961 BROADWAY, - OAKLAND. 




innnuiinininumffi«iia;ui'!fflisniiai!iBi!i!iira5os33i.=ffiiaiBf 



:E^:R-A.aTia.A.ij 



Watch and Clock Maker. 



MAKES REPAIRING A SPECIALTY. 




KEEPS CONSTANTLY ON HAND, 

The FINEST of JE^A^ELRY, 

A Splendid. Lot of 

GOLD AND SILVER WATCHES, 

ALL OF WELCH ARE GUARAJVTEEB. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 153 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



FROM THE CENSUS OF 1860 TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE OAKLAND 
FERRY RAILROAD IN 1863. 



1861 — An Eventful Year — Military Movements in Alameda County — 
Home Guard — Camps Downey and Merchant — A Winter of 
Floods — Destruction of Cattle — The ''Skinners" — The Bar Bond 
Tax — The New Board of Supervisors — County Officers and Re- 
presentatives — Benj. F. Butler, an Engraver — The Democracy 
Successful at the Oakland Charter Election — Dismemherment 
Movement — Military Ajjpointments — A Deputy Sheriff for Mur- 
ray — The Hirsche Murder — Breyf ogle's Bondsmen — Coal Disco- 
veries—The Destruction of the Neio Court-house Prophesied Seven 
Years before it Happened — A Lawyer-Editor laments Over the 
Healthy Condition of the County — County Seat Festivities — Col- 
lege of California — Centreville Making a Large Display of the 
Fair Sex — The Santa Cla/ra Settlers and the Governor — Fruit 
Injured hy Frost and Grain by Rust— A Regiment of Dragoons — 
Republican Successes at the Elections — Bay District Agricultural 
Association — The Alameda Fair — Obituary of a "Judge of the 
Plains" — Conditimi of the Schools — Acts of the Legislature. 

The year 1861 is eventful in the annals of the nation as the one in 
which broke out the great rebellion. It was the year of military or- 
ganizations and the movements of masses of men. Even at this great 
distance from the scenes of actual conflict, tliere was a commotion and 
preparation for conflict, for defense, if not assault. Alameda County 
was, for the fii-st time in her history, made the chosen camping 
gi-ound of military bodies. The peace of the State had to be main- 
tained, lawlessness and violence repressed, and when occasion de- 
manded it, the life of the nation defended. 

There was a "Home Guard" organized at Oakland on the 31st of 
August, 1861. The oflicers of this patriotic body were as follows: 
Captain, James Brown; First Lieutenant, John Potter; Second Lieu- 
tenant, W. H. Pufier; Brevet Lieutenant, J. H. Hobart; Orderly 



154 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

Sergeant, H. H. Crockex-; Second Sergeant, T. W. Newcomb; Third 
Sergeant, W. Woolsey; Fourth Sergeant, Chas. McKay; First Cor- 
poral, H. A. Morse; Second Corporal, Henry Sommers; Tliii-d Cor- 
poral, C. Stewart; Fourth Corj^oral, Jas. Travis. 

Two recruiting camps were established on this side of the bay. 
They were respectively Camp Downey and Camp Merchant. The 
former was at the Race Course, on the San Pablo Road. It consisted 
of one thousand volunteers, recruited for the purpose of protecting 
the United States mails and keeping open our communications with 
the East. Camp Merchant was formed of a cavalry force, consisting 
of 500 men, who occupied the ground on Kennedy's farm, Brooklyn 
Township, for some months. In August they broke camp and pro- 
ceeded to San Francisco via San Jos6, whence they were sent to the 
southern portion of the State, the same destination as that of the vol- 
unteers of the other camp. Their transit from San Francisco was 
by water. When at Milpitas the horses stampeded, and many of them 
were lost among the mountains. 

The years 1861 and 1862 are memorable in the history of Califor- 
nia as the years of the second great flood, when Sacramento and 
Marysville were submerged and the great central valley inundated. 
Our own county, too, was subjected, in its southern portion especially, 
to the overflow, and for a time traveling was impossible. The heavy 
rains of the winter of 1861 proved disastrovis to the stock intei-est, 
and a great reduction in the number of cattle in the county became 
thereafter apparent. Hundreds perished for the want of food and 
shelter, and there were persons known as " skinners," who made a 
business of divesting the dead animals of their hides and making 
their own of them. As is the case with almost everything else in 
California, even in this poor business there was a spirited competition. 

The question of levying the tax of $35,000 for dredging the Oak- 
land bar, authorized by the Legislature, was considerably talked of 
and discussed ; but the Supervisors levied the rate and enabled the 
Commissioners to go on with the work, which, when completed, 
proved to be of only temporary utility. 

On the first Monday in February the newly elected Board of 
Supervisors took their seats. They were as follows : For Oakland 
Townshi]-), F. K. Shattuck ; Brooklyn and Alameda Townships, 
Henry Robinson ; Eden Township, Wm. Meek ; "Washington Town- 
ship, 0. S. Eigenbrodt ; Murray Township, Michael Murray. 

The county officers were those elected the previous year, who 
served until September 7tli, 1862. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 155 



The Joint Senator for Alameda and Santa Clara was A. L. Rhodes, 
a talented lawyer and a gentleman of high literary attainments, 
lately deceased at San Jose. Frank F. Fargo, editor of the Alameda 
Herald, was our Assemblyman. He was subsequently elected Clerk 
of the Supreme Court, and finally went East. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held in February, ap- 
peared Benjamin F. Butler, presenting a bill for engraving and 
printing county bonds on accoimt of the Oakland bar at the mouth 
of San Antonio creek. Soon after this name was made conspicuous 
as the " Hero of New Orleans," the lawyer-general of Massachusetts, 
who but a few months previously had been acting in politics with 
the pro-slavery men of the South. 

Notwithstanding the reaction that had taken place in the political 
sentiments of the people, caused by the breaking out of the i-ebellion, 
and the fact that Alameda County had gone Republican at the pre- 
vious general election, the City of Oakland at this year's charter 
election remained true to her youthful Democratic instincts, and 
elected Democratic officers, by considerable majorities. 

Thei-e was something of a movement this year to get Washington 
Township, or a portion of it, back into Santa Claiu County, but it 
ended in failure. 

Among the military appointments made by Governor Downey, 
were P. E. Edmondson, to the position of Adjutant of the Firet 
Brigade, Second Division, National Guard; Col. J. C. Hays, 
Brigade Inspector, First Brigade, Second Division ; and Wm. Van 
Yoorhies, Judge Advocate, First Brigade, Second Division. 

Owing to the frequent occurrence of murders and other crimes of 
magnitude in Murray Township, withovit the making of ai-rests, the 
Sherifi" appointed Jas. S. Kapp as Deputy for that section of the 
county. This was the first step to repress lawlessness in that thinly- 
settled and mountainous district. 

At the Session of the District Court, held in March of this year, 
was indicted E. W. Bomiey, for the murder of Auguste Hirsche, 
under peculiar cii-cumstances. Both parties resided in San Fran- 
cisco, and had been friends. Bonney was subsequently convicted of 
the crime. 

The bondsmen of Breyfogle, the defaulting Treasurer, had resisted 
the demand to make good the amount of that officer's defalcation, 
and defended a suit for recovery brought against them in the Dis- 
trict Court by the county. The suit went against them, and they 



156 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

appealed to tlie Supreme Court, where they were again defeated, aild 
mulcted in considerable costs. The amount of their liabilities was 
about $10,000, besides their own costs; altogether about $12,000. 
The principal bondsman was Mr. E. A. Haynes, who has recently 
been again placed in a similar unfortunate position. The claim was 
subsequently compromised by authority of the Legislature. 

This year extensive veins of coal were discovered in Mount Diablo, 
and soon after coal was found in Corral Hollow and the Stone Cor- 
ral in the Li verm ore Pass. The discovery in Mount Diablo proved 
valuable, but not so with any of the others. 

The Gazette of March 30th made this prophesy with regard to the 
new Court-house building, which proves it to have been a flimsy 
affair at best : " Our Court-house will fall down one of these days. 
"What with earthquakes and equinoctial storms, the one shocking 
from top to bottom, and the other sending small rivulets through and 
through, it cannot be expected to stand. "We suppose the Board of 
Supervisors are unable to control the earthquake, but they may shut 
out the rain." 

The small amount of business before the Courts in the April Term 
led the editor of the Gazette to make the following reflections : 1st. 
That the county morally is in an exceedingly healthy condition. 2d. 
That the county physicially is in a healthy condition. 3d. That the 
county, so far as litigation is concerned, is in a deplorahhj healthy 
condition. That editor was a lawyer, as is plain to be seen. 

That the lawyers did not have a great pressure of business, nor 
were the clients particularly tmhappy, will be gleaned from the fol- 
lowing in the same paper : 

"Court Festivities. — The past week has been one continued 
round of enjoyment for the good people of San Leandro. The session 
of the District Coui-t having brought an unusual number of strangers 
to our town, was seized upon as occasion for nightly impromptu 
* soirees ' at the ' Estudillo,' whicli eclipsed in true enjoyment all the 
studied arrangements of any public ball that ever was given. The 
fairest of San Francisco's daughters and the beauties of San Leandro 
combined to chain the attention and admiration of the gallants of 
both places night after night, until 'the wee sma' hours.' The tine 
parlor of the Estudillo, so admirably adapted for the purpose, re- 
sounded with natural and \inaftected gaiety. The votaries of the 
Muses ruled the hour, uuafl'ected and uncontrolled by fears of writs, 
commitments or attachments, legal or otherwise." 

Commencement exercises of the " College of California " were held 
in the Presbyterian Church, Oakland, Tuesday, 12th of June. The 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 157 

anniversary address was delivered by J. J). "Wliitney, State Geologist. 
J. E. Ride, editor of the Daily liJveninij Journal, read a poem pre- 
pared for the occasion. After music and a benediction, the audience 
repaired to the grove witliin the College grounds and refreshed them- 
selves at a table bountifully siipplied by the ladies of Oakland. 

At a May ball at Milton's new hotel at Centreville, 1.50 ladies 
were reported present, " all beautiful to behold." May festivities 
were general this year. The influence of the fair sex was surely 
growing powerful. 

There was trouble among the settlera on the Chabolla Ranch, in 
Santa Clara. In reply to a letter of admonition addressed them by 
Governor Downey, they replied as follows : 

" We know you have a duty to do, and so have we. "VVe only ask 
to be let alone until the suits now pending in Washington are de- 
cided. But if that cannot be done by the plaintiffs interested in the 
present suit of restitution, then, live or die, sink or swim, we will, 
by the help of our own strong arms and the aid so generally tendered, 
relying upon Divine Providence, defend our rights, our homes and 
our families as best we can." There was no bloodshed, however, 
after this expression of Spartan determination. 

The fruit crop was damaged one-half by frost. On the 12th of 
June there was a heavy rain, which was more injurious than other- 
wise ; the year's crops would have been good only much was injured 
by rust. 

A company of dragoons was formed at Centreville, imder C. Eigen- 
brodt, in the latter part of the year. It was organized under a late 
militia law of the State. 

The officer commissioned to organize the battalion was Major 
Thompson, of Oakland. The battalion was subsequently attached to 
the Massachusetts Second Cavalry Regiment, to enable it to fill the 
quota of that State. It was mustered into seiwice in October, 1862, 
and mustered out in August, 1865. But few members of Company 
E, the one raised in this county, are now resident here, besides Col. 
Thompson. One of these is John T. Campbell, who resides near 
Brusha Peak. 

At the election of 1861 there were three tickets in the field — 
Republican, Democratic and Union Democratic. The Republican 
ticket was everywhere successful. Leland Stanford, Republican 
candidate for Governor, received 1,932 votes ; J. R. McCounell, 
Democrat, 356 ; and John Conness, Union Democrat, 511. 



158 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

For State Senator, A. M. Crane, Kepublican, received 1,274 
votes; N. Hamilton, Union Democrat, 616; and H. Linden, 
Democrat, 288. There were no less than six candidates for Assem- 
bly in the field, last year's apportionment having given Alameda 
County a State Senator of her own and two Assemblymen. The 
successful men were S. B. Bell and J. M. Moore, Republicans. All 
the other Republican candidates were elected. 

A meeting of the Board of Delegates of the Bay District Agricul- 
tural Association was held at the Fair in San Jose, in September. 
The Board of Delegates consisted of seven members from each county. 
At the annual meeting the folio vv^ing gentlemen were elected ofiicers : 
President, Sam. Bell McKee, of Oakland ; F. K. Shattuck, Rodman 
Gibbons, Oakland; Henry Thompson, Washington ToAvnship; and 
John Lewelling, Eden, Vice-Presidents ; A. A. Cohen, D. L. Per- 
kins, Alameda, Directors ; G. W. Crane, of Monterey; B. F. Fish, of 
San Francisco ; H. A. Innis, of Santa Cruz ; Andrew Inman, of Con- 
tra Costa; Wm. Reynolds, of Santa Clara; and John Cummings, of 
San Mateo, Vice-Presidents ; Edward Hoskins, of Oakland, Secre- 
tary ; and Hai-ry Linden, of Oakland, Treasurer. It will be seen 
that Alameda County possessed the " lion's share " of the offices and 
responsibility belonging to the Bay District Association. 

In September the officers of the Oakland Guard received their 
commissions, duly signed, as well as their arms and accoutrements. 

The Alameda County Agricultural Fair was held in the last week 
of September and first of October, and was pronounced a substantial 
success, and reflected much credit on the county. There was horse- 
racing, as usual, and a ball at the close. 

A correspondent sent the following obituary notice to the editor of 
the Gazette : 

"Mr Editor: Squire Marshall, ' with his quiddits, his quillets, 
his tenures and his tricks,' is no more. He died at 1 1 o'clock last 
evening, of apoplexy. Yes ; the ' Old Squire,' with all his eccentri- 
cities, now lies Avrapt in the cerements of the grave, after a 
residence of eight or nine years amongst us, during which time, save 
one year, he served as Jiistice of the Peace, and was successful in 
establishing a reputation suitable to the capacity of ' Judge of the 
Plains.' The career of this old man, with its privations and vicis- 
situdes, if biographized, would fill a large-sized and interesting 
volume. Although not an admirer of his acts and qualities while 
living, I could not, last night, while gazing upon the inanimate 
features of that once eccentric old man, but evince a hope that after 
' life's fitful fever ' he sleeps well ; and trust that his enemies will 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 159 

forgive him, bury liis faults with their victim in the grave, and say 
' Peace to his ashes.' " 

The annual school report of J. D. Strong, County Siijierintendent 
for the year 1861, showed the following condition of the school de- 
partment : Children from 4 to 18 years of age, 1,823 ; more boys than 
girls, 111; increase during the year, 204; enrolled in the public 
schools, 772; number of schools, 22; total school expenditure during 
the year, $9,986. At this time there were three times as many male 
as female teachers employed in the county. The school houses were 
generally very inferior. Those in Oakland, Brooklyn and Alameda, 
were altogether inadequate to meet the wants of scholars. So con- 
sjiicuously was this the case in Oakland, that the Superintendent re- 
marked: "Oakland, especially, with its four hundred and sixty-four 
scholars, has not adequate accommodation for more than thirty. And 
yet, strange to say, the district had more than $1,600 lying idle in the 
County Treasury. In addition to the public schools there were at 
this time nine private schools and colleges in the coimty, with about 
190 pupils. 

The following constituted the Legislation of the year for the county : 
An Act to fix the times of holding the County Court, Probate 
Court, and Court of Sessions in and for the County of Alameda. Ac- 
tions not to be affected by change. 

An Act to extend the time for opening of a channel at the mouth 
of San Antonio Creek. 

An Act to fund the city debt of Oakland. 
An Act relating to collection of delinquent taxes. 
An Act incorporating Corral Hollow Railroad Company. Jos. S. 
Kohn, John O'Brien and their associates granted franchise to con- 
struct and maintain a railroad from Corral Hollow to a point on the 
San Joaquin River, to comnrence within one year and complete with- 
in two years. 

An Act providing for fee books by Sheriff, Clerk, Recorder and 
Treasiirer. 

An Act authorizing and empowering Juana M. Estudillo to sell 
and convey the interest in certain real estate of her infant child, 
Jesus Maria Estudillo. 

An Act amendatory of an Act supplementary to an Act entitled 
an Act to provide for the funding of the outstanding debt of the City 
of Oakland and to pi-event the creation of new debts. 

An Act relating to a certain judgment to be funded ; Commission- 



160 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

ers, powers, duties ; issuance of bonds ■ collection of delinquent taxes ; 
assessment legalized; duties, fees, etc., of Disti'ict Attorney. 

An Act defining duties of Marshal and Assessor of the City of 
Oakland. 

An Act amendatory of the charter of the City of Oakland. 

An Act granting to certain persons the right to construct and 
maintain a railroad through certain streets in the City of Oakland ; 
granted to Rodmond Gibbons, Wm. Hilligas, R. E. Cole, Samuel 
Wood, Joseph Black and Geo. Goss, for fifty years; road to be con- 
structed within two years ; from the westerly end of the bridge lead- 
ing from the City of Oakland to the Town of Clinton, to a point in 
the Bay of San Francisco where the shore nearest approaches Yerba 
Buena Island. ^ 

1862 — Continuance and Severity of the Winter Rains— Great Flooch 
and Loss of Life and Property — Succeeded hy Gold Weather in 
the Spring — Grand Jury Report of the Gourt of Sessions — Uiv- 
satisfactory Condition of the Gounty Property — "Honest" Gounty 
Officers — Taxation for the Year — I sham Gase, Gounty Assessor — 
Discovery of Goal and other Mineral Deposits — A Legislative 
Joke at the Expense of Alameda's Senator — A Gonlra Gosta Glaim 
Bill 2)assed in the Legislature — Ferry TrijJS — Rev. Mr. Willey — 
Hanging of Edward W. Bonney, the First Judicial Execution in 
the Gounty — War Tax — The Vallejo Mill Grant Rejected — A 
Steam-tug Launched at Mount Eden — An Exte7isixe Fire at San 
Antonio — A Bloodless Duel in Oakland — Rain in Jtme — Good 
Grops — Union Convention — Contra Costa Commissioners' Report 
— First Marriage License under the New Law — Union Mass 
Meeting at Haywards — Sheriff's Delinquent Tax Advertisements 
— "Smoking out a Mouse" and' Burning of Judge Crane's House 
in Alameda — Commencement of Wo7'k for the Oaklatul Ferry — 
Burning of the "Golden Gate" — Union Convention to Nominate 
Candidates for Assembly — Thunder, Lightning and Rain in 
August — An "Over-land" Train at San Leandro — Union Can- 
didates Elected — The Bay District Fair at Oakland — Books for 
Stock to the C. P. R. R. Opened at Sacramento — Great Soldiers' 
Relief Mass Meeting at San Leandro, Addressed hy Rev. Starr 
King — Large Contributions — New Suj^ervisors — Horace Higley 
Fighting with the Rebels — Miscellaneous — Legislation cf the Year. 
It has been already shown that the early winter i-ains were very 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 161 

severe and tliat much damage and destruction was the result. The 
severity of the weather continued throughout the winter and spring. 
The tides ran very high, and all the lands lying along the bay were 
inundated by salt water. The Alameda wharf was entirely sub- 
merged, and the Oakland ferry boats were compelled to omit some of 
their trips. For want of attendance the January tenn of the County 
Court and Court of Sessions had to be adjourned. The Supervisors 
also adjourned their meeting. Amador Valley was one sheet of water. 
One of the piers of the San Leandro bridge was broken by the force 
of the water, and the farms bordering the creek were submerged to the 
depth of two feet. The current was so strong and swift, that two 
slaughter houses were carried off and lodged near the bay. At Niles, 
San Lorenzo, and Yoakum's Feny, thei'e was a good deal of destruc- 
tion. Sheep and cattle continued to die in thousands. San Leandro, 
however, sustained no damage fi-om the overflow. The volume of 
water that fell in January was immense. In the space of 40 minutes 
water fell to the depth of an inch on the 23d of the month. The San 
Lorenzo Creek rose seven feet and two inches in 58 minvites. In 
Stockton the flood was 22 inches higher than in 1852. The total 
damage in the State was roughly estimated at $75,000,000. It was 
, computed that as many as 1,400 Chinamen were disowned in the State 
during the floods. It was an awful visitation. One good result, 
however, was the destruction of myriads of squirrels, who were un- 
able to procure food and whose holes in the ground were filled with 
water. 

The consequent gloom and despondency was very general; the pe- 
cuniary outlook was unsatisfactory. Besides the loss of property in 
mines and stocks, the loss of the hay and gi-ain crops looked very likely. 
The high tariff recently imposed by Congress, made foreign goods very 
high, and on top of all came the war tax. The year promised to be 
the most depressing known to the State. Providence, however, 
helped the people out; farmers got good prices for what was left of 
their pi-oduce, and the harvest, notwithstanding all the evil prognos- 
tications made, turned out to be the best ever known in the State. 

Not only was the winter of 1861-2 very wet, but very cold. Snow 
fell several times, and the hills and mountains were covered with a 
white pall. For the first time since 1859, snow laid in the valleys, 
and on the last Sunday in January ice formed an inch thick. 

The Grand Jury of the Court of Sessions, when it met, with Mr. 
Edmondson as Foreman, strongly condemned the condition in which 



162 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

they found the coiinty property — -jail, court-house, etc. They urged 
the rebuildmg of the bridges destroyed by the freshets, and the repair 
of the roads. They reported only three prisoners in jail. The fee 
books were examined and pronounced correct. The County Officers 
were made happy by the confidence expressed by the Grand Jury that 
they were "honest." 

The Board of Supei'visoi-s, after due deliberation at their March 
meeting, declared the following rate of taxation for the current year : 
State Taxes, 62c. ; County General Fund, 50c. ; Common Schools, 
20c. ; Koad and Bridge Fund, 20c; Indigent Sick Fund, 13c. ; In- 
terest on Oakland Bar Fund, 10c. ; total, $1.75. The Board ordered 
that the Tax Collector do not accompany the Assessor. 

Mr. Isham Case commenced his duties as Assessor for the County 
on the 15 th day of the month of March, 

The discovery of a deposit of coal at Pinole, betv/-een San Pablo 
and Martinez, in Contx'a Costa, was hailed with much satisfaction. 
The belief seemed to be well founded that similar deposits were 
numerous in various parts of the adjacent mountains. 

Some merriment was caused at the expense of our State Senator, 
Mr. Crane, on account of the occurrence of a grammatical blunder in 
the printed copies of a bill introduced by that gentleman in the 
Legislature, concerning roads in our county. The sixth section of 
the bill read as follows : 

" The Board of Supervisoi-s shall not open or establish any road 
or liighway through the ornamental grounds of any dwelling-house of 
over three years' growth, etc." 

In amendment of which, Mr. Oulton, of San Francisco, moved to 
insei-t after the word "through," the following: "The number of 
years which the house has been gi'OAving shall be determined by the 
rings on the chimney," 

In the Senate, on Thui-sday, April 24th, a bill providing for the 
payment by the County of Alameda to the County of Contra Costi*a 
of the Gilman debt, for the construction of the San Antonio bridge, 
was, in s})ite of the determined opposition of Senator Crane, carried 
by a large vote. 

The two boats running on the ferry route between San Francisco 
and San Antonio — the Oakland and Contra Costa — were thoroughly 
overhaided this Spring, and made trips daily as follows : From San 
Antonio, at 7J and 9 o'clock a. m. ; and 12J, 2| and 5 o'clock p. m. 

The weather continued cold late in the Spring of this year, and on 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 163 

the 5th of April Mission Peak and the foot-hills were covered with 
snow. On May 17th they were again visited in like manner. 

Ramon Romero, who had narrowly escaped the gallows for a mur- 
der committed in Oakland, was, in April of this year, guilty of 
killing another man, in Sacramento, Avith a knife. 

In the latter part of Api'il there was a reported discovery of a 
coal-oil bed in the Contra Costa hills, within 12 miles of Oakland. 
"We have not " struck oil " here yet, however. 

Rev. Mr. Willey, one of the pioneer clergymen of San Francisco, 
was in the Spring of this year elected one of the Yice-Presidents of 
the College of California, Oakland. 

The execution of Edward W. Bonney, for the murder of Aug. G. 
Hirsch, took place at San Leandro on the 9 th day of May, between 
the hours of twelve and one o'clock p. m. This was the first legal 
execution for any crime that ever took place in Alameda County. 
The culprit died protesting his innocence, although the evidence 
against him was most conclusive. 

At their May meeting the Board of Supervisors imposed a tax of 
15 cents ad valorem on each $100 of property, real and personal, in 
the county, as a war tax, besides a poll tax of $2 /)er capita on each 
male inhabitant betAveen the ages of twenty-one and sixty years. 

On the 20th of May Judge Hoffman filed his opinion, rejecting 
the claim of Jos6 de Jesus Vallejo to the property known as the Val- 
lejo Mill grant in this county. 

On the 22d day of May a steam-tug, built at Eden Landing, was 
launched, and a large number of persons were present to Avitness the 
BA'ent. Miss Ellen Barron, daughter of the OAvner, christened her 
the Monitor. This is an instance of industrial enterprise of Avhich we 
have since had but feAv similar examples. 

An extensive fire occurred at San Antonio on the 22d of May, 
by which A. Waldman lost his dwelling ; B. F. Rynders, his saloon ; 
Liese Brothers, their meat market ; Hirschf elder, Levy & Co., their 
dwelling house ; Henry Hampel, his blacksmith shop, and the estate 
of d'Alamere, a house. 

This side of the Bay obtained this year some notoriety as a duel- 
ling gi-ound. Frank Turk and 0. C. Hall, of San Francisco, fought 
a duel on the 1st of June, in the Avoods of Oakland. They settled 
their dispute and satisfied each other's wounded honor by firing pistol 
balls at each other at a distance of ten paces, Avithout doing each 
other any injury. 



164 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Tlie month of June was remarkable for several showers of rain, 
which occurred in the second week of the month. Notwithstanding 
the great severity of the winter, the croj^s at this period promised 
very fairly. 

At a Union County Convention, held at San Leanch-o on the 14th 
of June, for the purpose of selecting delegates for the State Conven- 
tion, held at Sacramento on the following 17th, A. M. Crane, Wm. 
Kennedy, W. W. Crane, Jr., J. M. Moore, S. W. Levy, Wm. Meek, 
F. K. Shattuck, A. M. Church, and A. J. Kelly were appointed. 
The State Convention was presided over by Walter Yan Dyke, then 
of Humboldt County, but who for a number of years has been a 
prominent citizen of Alameda County. 

Reports of mineral discoveries within our territory were becoming 
frequent, and on the 28th of June a ledge of coal was reported to 
have been found on the premises of W. O. Harris, near Warm 
Springs. A test of a sample of it as fuel was made, and pronounced 
satisfactory, but the ledge was never worked. 

The Contra Costa Commissioners, appointed by the last Legislature 
to determine the indebtedness of Alameda to Contra Costa County, 
met at Martinez in the latter part of June. The Commissioners 
appomted from Alameda to act with them declined to attend, as this 
county altogether denied any indebtedness. The Contra Costa Com- 
missioners reported that their county had paid on account of obliga- 
tions existing at the time of the organization of the County of 
Alameda, the sum of $36,755.15 ; that this county was justly and 
equitably bou.nd to the payment of a portion thereof amountiug to 
$15,518.78; that Alameda had paid the sum of $3,944.66 on the 
4th day of June, 1858, leaving an unpaid balance of $11,574.12, due 
from the County of Alameda to the County of Contra Costa, and 
they therefore awarded that amount to the latter county, in vii-tue 
of the powers conferred upon them. The report was signed by B. C. 
Whitman and Chas. Fish. The Alameda Commissioners, who failed 
to appear, were J. W. Dougherty and A. M. Church. 

The first marriage license, issued under the new law, in Alameda 
Co., was issued by the County Clerk on the 1st day of July this year. 

A great Union meeting, with flags and banners and a band of 
music, was held at Haywards on the 4th of July. Over one 
thousand pei'sons wei-e present, and at the close a procession of car- 
riages was formed to San Lorenzo and San Leandro. The demon- 
stration closed with a ball at Hayward's Hotel in the evening. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 165 

Tlie San Leandro Gazette, then the official county paper, was nearly 
altogether taken up in its issue of the 12th of July with the an- 
noimcements of delinquent tax sales, published by the Sheriff. 

Among the casualties of the year was the destruction by fire, at 
Alameda, of the fine residence of Judge A. M. Crane. The fire 
originated in. an effort of the Judge's children to smoke a mouse out 
of a hole in the attic. The building was valued at $5,000, and was 
not insured. 

There was a great hurrah in Oakland when, on the 2d day of 
August, it became known that work had commenced on the ferry 
railroad. The fii-st cause of rejoicing was the arrival of piles for the 
construction of the wharf. Real estate immediately advanced fifty 
per cent. 

ISIuch regret was expressed at the news of the demise of G. B. 
Tingley, a pioneer citizen, and the Senator i-epresenting Contra Costa 
and Santa Clara in the Legislatures of 1851 and 1852. He died in 
San Francisco on the 3d day of August, from a fit of apoplexy. 

News was received here about the first of August of the destruc- 
tion of the steamer Golden Gate by fire. She left San Francisco on 
the 21st day of July, with 242 passengers and a crew of ninety-six 
persons. Among the 200 pei-sons lost was Mr. R. T. Hawkins, of 
San Leandro. The ill-fated steamer was burnt within fifteen miles 
of Mazatlan. 

A second Union Convention was held at San Leandro on the 13th 
day of August, for the purpose of nominating candidates for Assem- 
bly. Over fifty delegates, equally divided between Republicans and 
Democrats, were present. Loyal resolutions were passed, and oppo- 
sition to Milton S. Latham, for U. S. Senator, expressed. The 
nominees for Assembly were Henry P^obinson, of Alameda, Repub- 
lican, and Thos. Scott, of Washington, Democrat. 

The unusual phenomena of a thunder-storm, accompanied by light- 
ning and heavy showers of rain, occurred on the 1 8th day of August. 
Lightning struck a straw-stack near Mount Eden, and burnt it ; the 
telegraph wire at Centreville was also struck in like manner, and 
the maguet in the telegraph office exploded, making a report like 
that of a musket. Such an occurrence was never before known in 
California. 

In August of this year the survey of the Estudillo Rancho was 
confirmed. It took in one-half of the McMurtrie orchard, in San 
Lorenzo. 



166 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Quite a novel spectacle for this section of tlie country was witnessed 
at San Leandro on a certain Saturday and Sunday of the month of 
September. It was a train of four covered wagons, with cami)- 
utensils, belonging to a family of immigrants who had crossed the 
plains and mountauis all the way from the State of Iowa. They 
were just four months making the trip. They lost one of their 
number, a young man, on the way. They buried him on the plains. 
They had had no difficulty with Indians. 

The result of the election in September, for membex'S of Assembly, 
were favorable to the Union Candidates. There were two tickets in 
the field — Union and Union Democratic. For Assembly, Robinson 
(Union) received 914 votes, and Scott, 834 ; Johnson (Union Demo- 
crat) received 777, and Fallon, 640. For Public Administrator, 
Amerman (Union) received 683 votes ; Keyes (Union Democrat) 
323. For Coroner, Foss (Union) received 762, and Green (Union 
Democrat) 688, Alfred A. Cohen took an active part in this elec- 
tion, and was said to be the originator of the Union Democratic 
party of Alameda County. 

The Bay District Fair was commenced in Oakland, on Tuesday, 
October 7th, of this year, and was well attended, while the display 
of produce of all kinds, and animals, was creditable. Among the 
articles on exliibition were a squash weighing 90 Rs., a cabbage 51 
lbs., and a sweet potato 9 lbs. There were some potatoes almo.st 
round and perfectly smooth. There were blackberries, raspberry- 
wine, and samples of tobacco grown in the San Ramon Valley. At 
the stock parade, in the evening, were exhibited the horses " Owen 
Dale," " Kentuck," " Hunter," " Comet," and the Clydesdale horses 
imported by Messrs. Dougherty and IMartin, of the Amador Yalley. 
J. D. Patterson exhibited five specimens of his celel^rated Alderney 
cows. At the election of officers to serve for the ensuing year, the 
following gentlemen were chosen : President, J. J. McEwen ; Vice- 
Presidents, S. J. Tenant, J. Bowles ; Vice-Presidents for counties at 
large, Wm. Reynolds, Santa Clara ; S. W. Johnson, Contra Costa ; 
R. Blacow, Alameda ; D. S. Cook, San Mateo; J. A. McClelland, 
San Francisco. Directors, Gr. P. Loux, Piatt Gregory, R. G. Davis ; 
Treasurer, K. W. Taylor; Secretary, 0. Falley. Rev. Starr King 
delivered the annual address, to a large audience. As was usual at 
that period in our history, all manner of gambling was in full blast 
in Oakland during the fair. 

On the 22d of October, of this year, l:)Ooks for the subscri})tion of 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 167 

$3,000,000 of stock for the Central Pacific Railroad were opened in 
Sacramento. 

On the 29th (jf September there was held at San Leandro a mass 
meeting for the purpose of raising funds for the relief of sick and 
wounded soldiers in the war. The meeting was addressed by Rev. 
T. Starr King, Edward Tompkins, and Frederick Billings. There 
was a great deal of enthusiasm and the people subscribed liberally at 
the meeting and afterwards. Altogether there was over .$12,000 
raised for the laudable purpose in Alameda County. J. A. Mayhew, 
W. W. Crane, Jr., Noble Hamilton, Socrates Huff, and I. A. Amer- 
man were appointed an Executive Committee. The sum of $5,082.25 
was contributed at the meeting. 

In the month of October Thomas Eagar, of Brooklyn, received the 
appointment of*United States Assessor for Alameda County. 

The new Board of Supervisors, consisting of Meek for Eden, Davis 
for Brooklyn and Alameda, Martin for MuiTay, Overacker for Wash- 
ington, and Shattuck for Oakland, took their seats on the 3d of No- 
vember. Shattuck was elected Chairman. 

The value of property assessed for taxes in Alameda County this 
year was $4,233,396. The total amount of taxation, including the 
Federal tax, for the year 1862-3, was $93,134.20. 

News was received here, in the month of November, that Horace 
Higley, the first County Surveyor for Alameda County, and subse- 
quently Surveyor-General of the State of California, had enlisted in 
the rebel army in Mississippi. The report was afterwards con- 
firmed. Mr. Higley returned to the State after the war was over and 
died in San Francisco. 

The Oakland Guard gave a Thanksgiving ball this year, at the 
Agricultural Pavilion. 

A number of the Contra Costa Gazette, of the month of November, 
reported the recent discovery of three veins of coal in the southern 
portion of that county, near the San Joaquin River, together with 
oil springs near the town of Antioch. 

As an indication of the price land was capable of bringing this year 
in this county, it may be mentioned that nineteen acres were sold at 
San Lorenzo for $5,000, or a little over $263 per acre; and this for 
agricultural or horticultural purposes! 

In the latter end of November the property of the Alameda County 
Agi-icultural Society was advertised for sale by the Sheriff, to satisfy a 
mortsraore. 



168 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Tlie criminal calendar this year was pretty lieavy. A man at- 
tempted to murder his wife in the southern part of the county, hav- 
ing fired three pistol shots at her; a man was killed in Brooklyn, and 
another in Moraga Valley. 

An individual in this county was reported in the papere to be 
raising 2,500 hares per month for the San Fi-ancisco market. It may 
have been so, but his name was not given, and the belief must be in- 
dulged in that a wag was at work. It would not do to put some of 
those hairs in the pot. 

The number of students in attendance at the College of California 
this year was 120. The winners of the rhetorical prizes were Messrs. 
Harwood, Daly and Emerson, two of whom have since distinguished 
themselves on the press and platform. 

The judicial election, held in the month of November, showed the 
follo^ving result in the Third District for District Judge : McKee 
—Monterey, 349; Santa Cruz, 199; Alameda, 333. Total, 881. 
Brown — Santa Clara, 420 ; Contra Costa, 385. Total, 805. Majority 
for McKee, 76. 

Among the casualties by fire was the burning of Becht's Brewery, 
on the comer of Broadway and Ninth Sti-eet, which occurred on the 
night of the 11th of November. Besides the brewery and 2,000 
gallons of beer, Mr. Becht lost his dwelling-house and furniture, 
altogether amounting to about $6,000, on which there was onl};- $2,000 
insurance. 

The first rain of the regular winter season fell about half-past one 
o'clock on the morning of the 1 2th of November. 

The number of militia enrolled in the county by the enrolling 
ofiicers was 2,000. 

The legislation of the year, concerning Alameda County, was as 
follows : 

An Act entitled an Act to incorporate the city of Oakland, j)assed 
March 25th, 1854, and repealing certain other Acts in relation to 
said city. Restates boundaries, regulates officers, duties of City 
Council, and time and method of levying taxes. 

An Act to provide for an equitable adjustment of claims arising 
from the indebtedness of the County of Contra Costa, outstanding at 
the date of the organization of the County of Alameda, and for aj> 
portioning any award made thereon. 

Whereas, the Legislature of 1860, by compulsory Act, imposed 
on the County of Contra Costa the payment of the claim of one T. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES, 169 

C. Gilman, amounting to upwards of $31,000, some $24,000 of the 
amount being for interest, part of it at the rate of 5 per cent, per 
month, on an obligation contracted before the organization of the 
County of Alameda, mainly fi"om tei-ritory and population at that 
time belonging to the County of Contra Costa ; and vyh&reas, the 
County of Contra Costa claims that no such adjustment of the then 
existing indebtedness as equity demands and as the Legislature in- 
tended in the Act providing for the organization of the County of 
Alameda, and in subsequent Acts, has ever been made ; and it is 
therefore provided, for a full settlement in equity, as was originally 
intended, and due, that a commission be organized as follows : 

Section 1. B. C. Whitman, of Solano County; Chas. Fish, of 
Contra Costa County ; and J. W. Dougherty, of Alameda County, 
are hereby appointed and constituted a Board of Commissioners to 
ascertain and award the amount of indebtedness, if any be found 
equitably due from the County of Alameda to the County of Contra 
Costa, on account of obligations existing at the time of the organiza- 
tion of said County of Alameda; and the said Commissionei's shall, 
before entering upon the discharge of the duties, be sworn. 

Sec. 2. To meet within sixty days of passage of Act. 

Sec. 3. The County Clerks to furnish copies of papers. 

Sec. 4. To examine witnesses and award amount of indebtedness. 

Sec. 5. The Board of Supervisors of Alameda, at a special 
meeting four weeks after award, to levy a special tax to meet amoimt 
of award, called " Contra Costa Fund," payable from time to time to 
Treasurer Contra Costa County. 

Sec. 6. A majority to act. 

Sec. 7. Commissioners to be paid $8 per day — half by each 
county. 

Sec. 8. In case of the Commissioners foiling to meet. District 
Judge of Contra Costa to compel them to meet. 

Sec. 9. Award to be paid in two years, with ten per cent, inter- 
est per annum. 

Sec. 10. Clerk of Alameda to notify Clerk of Contra Costa 
quarterly when there are funds. 

Sec. 11. Money to be appropriated as follows by Contra Costa : 
50 per cent, in a fund designated " Alameda E-oad Fund," to con- 
struct a road from Walnut Creek to the Alameda line ; 30 per cent, 
for " San Pablo Road Fund," for a road from San Pablo to Martinez ; 
the remaining 20 per cent, to be appropriated for school purposes. 



170 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

An Act coiicei"iiing roads and highways in Alameda County. E.t ■ 
lating to public highways, road districts, locations, alterations, costs, 
viewers, surveyor, expenses, damages, obstructions, prosecution, pen- 
alties, tax, road funds, poll-tax, fines, duties of road commissioners, 
contracts, award of contracts, pay of commissioners, deputies, asses- 
sors' fees. 

An Act to authorize Hiram Thome and others to reconstruct and 
make a wagon road in the counties of Contra Costa and Alameda. 
Commences at the Redwood Canon, thence running through said 
caiion in Contra Costa Coimty, a distance of five miles to the Oak- 
land and San Antonio road, and have the right to erect a toll-gate 
thereupon, and collect such rate of toll as the Board of Supervisors 
shall authorize. A failure to keep the road in good repair shall work 
a forfeiture of franchise. 

An Act to authorize Chas. C. Bowman and his associates to con- 
struct a wharf at the western end of the Encinal of San Antonio, at 
some point adjacent to the lands of said Bowman, and extend a dis- 
tance into the bay to give ten feet of water at low tide, and granted 
use of a strip of tide-land for the purpose. The Board of Supervisors 
to fix the rates of toll and wharfage. Franchise good for twenty 
years. 



1863 — A Year of Railroad Activity — Death of Judge Lent — Various 
Appoint7ne7its — Alameda Railroad Compani/ — Shocking Murders 
at Corral Hollow — ^^4 Proposed Subsidy Defeated by the People — 
Memorial of the San Antonio and Sail Fraiicisco Steam Naviga- 
tion Company — A Committee of the Senate Reports Against 
Contra Costa's Claim — The Ranch of Guillermo Castro Changed 
Hands — Hop Crop in Alameda — Washing Machine Mania — An 
Offensive Slaughter House — Resignation of the County Superin- 
tendent — High Wind — Discovery of Copper atid other Minerals — 
''Prairie Schooners" — A Deputy U. S. Assessor Appointed — 
Demise of the Oakland " Press " — Unio7i Convention — Fourth 
of July Celebrations at Alvarado and San Leandro — Rev. Dr. H. 
Durant, Hon. E. Tompkins, Judge McKee and Judge Hamilton 
take part — Governor Weller at the Democratic Convention — Man 
Gored to Death by a Bull — A Prisoner " Ctds Stick " and Sig- 
nalizes the Event in Rhymes — An Old Resident Murdered in 
Mexico — Lawyers take the Oath of Allegiance — Result of the 



UXDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 171 

Elections — Judge McKee Defines his Position — Trains Commence 
to Run on the Oakland Ferry Road — Ferry Steamer Time — Dis- 
tressing Accident — The Oakland ^^ News" Started — Coal Ship- 
ments — Military Camps — Brooklyn School-house — A Desperado 
Lynched at Alvarado — Legcd Condition of the various Ranchos — ■ 
Close of the Court of Sessions — Legislation of the Year, etc. 

The events of the year 1863 were interesting and important. 
This was the year in which the railroad interests were prominent for 
the first time, and during which the .question of subsidy was first 
tested, in the instance of the Alameda Valley Railroad. It was the 
year in which gi-ound for the Central Pacihc Railroad was broken in 
Sacramento ; it was a year of loyal demonstrations and devotion to 
the Government. It was also i-emai'kable as the year in which the 
functions of the Court of Sessions were brought to a close. 

The first day of the year gave birth to a new newspaper, which 
was started in Oakland, and named the Press. It was published by 
S. B. English, a gentleman who had previously been associated with 
Mr. Jas. F. Kapp, in the publication of the San Leandro Gazette. 
It was Democratic in politics, and lasted but thi-ee months. 

On the 2d day of the month the melancholy intelligence came 
across the Bay that Judge Lent, of our County Coui-t, had died, near 
the Mission Dolores, San Francisco, after a painful and protracted 
illness. Major Noble Hamilton was appointed by Governor Stanford 
to succeed him. 

Senator A. M. Crane, of this county, who was for many years our 
County Judge, was elected Chairman p>ro tem. of the Senate, then in 
session; and Hon. Thomas Eagar, of Brooklyn, who a short time 
previously had been appointed Federal Assessor for the county, was 
elected Sergeant-at-Arms of the Assembly. He had resigned the 
former position. 

News was received from Boston of the safe arrival there of the 
California Hundred, a portion of whom were recruited in this county. 

Judge Hamilton appointed Asa Walker and George Fleming 
Associate Justices of the Court of Sessions. 

On the 29th of January a fearful crime was committed in San Joa- 
quin County, near CoiTal Hollow, on the southeastern boi'der of Ala- 
meda County. A man named Aaron J. Golding, his wife, a Mexican 
vaquei-o and a Spanish boy were all brutally murdered and the house 
in which they slept set on fii-e. No cause for this fiendish act wa,s 



172 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ascertained nor the vile miscreants who perpetrated the deed dis- 
covered. 

The articles of incorporation of the Alameda Valley Railroad were 
filed on the 10th day of January, in the office of the Secretary of 
State. The first Board of Directors were B. C. Horn, President; 
Timothy Dame, Treasurer; George E. Potter, Secretary; and Wil- 
liam Hayward, J. A. Mayhew, J. B. Felton, E. M. Derby. Mr. 
Dame was the President of the San Jose Road. The intended ter- 
minus of the proposed road was Niles, makmg a length of twenty- 
two miles. The estimated oost was $750,000. Shares were $100 
each, of which 10 per cent, was to be paid down. Senator Crane got 
a bill passed through the Legislature authorizing the Svipervisors of 
Alameda to take $220,000 worth of stock in the enterprise, should 
the same receive the sanction of the people at a special election to be 
holden for the purpose. The Boaixl of Supervisors held an election 
for the purpose specified, on the 2d of June, 1863, and the proposition 
was defeated by those voting. The vote was as follows : 



Precinct. 


Whole Vote. 


Yes. 


No. 


Oakland, - 


_ "• 


419 


389 


30 


Temescal, 


- - 


50 


49 


1 


Ocean View, 


_ 


52 


52 




Brooklyn, 
Halfway House, - 
San Leandro, - 


'.-'.-. 


258 
65 
90 


103 

5 

12 


155 

60 

78 


Haywards, - 
San Lorenzo, - 


- 


117 
66 


49 
6 


68 
60 


Mount Eden, 


- 


45 


11 


34 


Alvarado, 


. _ 


132 


16 


116 


Mission San Jos^, 


_ 


152 


26 


126 


Centerville, - 


. . 


198 


24 


174 


Hart's (Murray), - 
Dougherty's Station, 
Alameda, . . - 


. - 


57 
62 
49 


56 
4 

28 


1 
58 
21 



1,812 830 982 

Majority against the proposition, 152. 

Therefore, on the vote being counted by the Supervisors, the pro- 
position was declared lost. 

Jas. B. Larue, A. W. Swett and "William Hayward presented a 
memorial to the Legislature for whaif privileges in San Francisco, in 
which they stated that the pri\'ileges required were for the accommo- 
dation of the ferry line of steamers communicating between Brooklyn, 
Oakland and San Francisco ; that the line had been in operation 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 173 

since the spring of 1858, nearly five years ] and that a phvce at which 
to construct a wharf at San Francisco had become a necessity. The 
franchise was gi-anted and a wharf built. 

In the United States District Coui-t, held in the month of March, 
in San Francisco, Judge Hoffman rejected the survey of the claim of 
Augustine Bernal, and ordered a new survey. In the case of the 
United States vs. Antonio Peralta a decree approving the survey 
was entered. 

Senator Porter, of Contra Costa, had the claim of that county 
against Alameda submitted to a committee of the Senate, -with a view 
to compelling the payment of the same, but the committee reported 
against it. 

In Febriiary the organization of the San Francisco, Alameda and 
Stockton Railroad Company commenced to be spoken of. 

The entii-e rancho of Guillermo Castro, of Haywards, passed into 
the hands of A. B. Grogan, of San Francisco. The amount paid for 
the same, including homestead, was $130,000. 

This winter Dr. Henry Haile, of Alameda, planted a hop crop in 
that place. 

It is evident that our citizens in the southern pai"t of the county 
had time for other work than farming about this time, because two 
of them became the inventors of washing macliines, which they 
offered for sale, and claimed superiority for them over all others in 
the market. 

Samuel Davis, an old resident of the county, died at Alameda on 
the 31st of March. 

A slaughter-house was built on the San Antonio road, which was 
complained of as an intolerable nuisance. 

The Rev. J. D. Strong having resigned his position as County 
Superintendent of Education, in consequence of removal to San 
Francisco, the Supervisors appointed Hev. Mr. Seymour, of Alva- 
rado, in his stead. 

The wind was so high on the morning of the 16tli of April that 
a schooner-rigged scow was capsized, ofi' Oakland, in. the bay. 

A discovery of copper was made in Murray Townshiji, back of the 
premises of Mr. Kottinger, near Pleasanton. 

Alameda commenced to loom up as a manufocturing county about 
this time. Henry Smythe, of San Lorenzo, built three "prairie 
schoonei-s " for Joseph Demont and William Searing, of San Lean- 



174 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ciro, to be used in the Waslioe mining region. Each was capable of 
carrying 10,000 Tbs. 

In the month of May the Board of Supervisors of Contra Costa 
authorized their District Attorney to renew the contest for the 
balance claimed by that county against Alameda, by bringing suit. 

The coal, copper and silver discoveries in Murray Township about 
this time were creating considerable stir, and it looked as if Alameda 
was going to take rank among the mining counties. Many "claims" 
and "feet" were taken up. 

Alfred C. Crane, of San Leandro, was appointed Deputy U. S. 
Assessor for the townships of Eden, Washington and Murray. 

The Supervisors farmed out the indigent sick this year, by contract, 
and it fell to the lot of Dr. Haile, of Alameda, to take care of them 
for a compensation of $7.25 per week per patient. 

The new newspaper venture in Oakland, The Press, did not prove 
a success, and the material and good-will of the paper were purchased 
by Mr. Kapp, of the San Leandro Gazette. The material was subse- 
qiiently sold to Mr. Gagan, when he started the Oakland News. 

A Union party convention was held at San Leandro on the 13th 
of June, at which Asa Walker was appointed chairman, and F. M. 
Campbell secretary. The following delegates were appointed thereat 
to the Union State Convention at Sacramento : Oakland, John Mc- 
Mann ; Brooklyn, A. W. Swett ; Alameda, Henry Eobinson ; Eden, 
William Meek ; Washington, H. Overacker. No delegate was ap- 
pointed for Murray. 

The people of Alvarado, determined to celebrate the Fourth of 
July with spirit and make as loud a i-eport of their proceedings as 
possible, purchased a cannon at a cost of $150, by means of which 
they expended no small amount of gunpowder. The firing of their 
gun could be heard several miles away, and the people of the neigh- 
boring towns complained that they were in the habit of " touching 
off " the thing too often. 

The weather in June was not considei-ed the most pleasant through- 
out the county. " For the last fortnight," remarked the Gazette, 
"the mornings have been cold and foggy; the noons hot enough to 
roast one ; the evenings windy ; the nights cool and cloudy. People 
complain of rheumatism." 

There was a spirited Fourth of July celebration at San Leandro 
this year. There was a grand procession, the filing of national 
salutes, singing and speaking. E.ev. Henry Durant read an oi'iginal 



UNDER THE STARS AJTD STRIPES. 175 

hymn, Judge Hamilton read the Declaration of Independence, and 
Judge McKee, who presided, delivered a stirring address. Edward 
Tompkins was the orator of the day. 

Among those who took part in the Democratic County Convention 
held in San Leandro on the 27th day of June, was Governor Weller, 
then a resident of the county, his home being at Fruit Vale. Judge 
O. L. Shafter, who was elected one of the Supreme Court Judges this 
year, also resided here at that time. 

W. H. Thompson was killed by the imported bull "Buttercup" on 
the Forbes' ranch, near Centreville, on the 1st of July. He was 
found dead on the ground, with two holes in his body. 

Constable O. B. Wood, of San Lorenzo, was shot in the arm, at San 
Lorenzo, by a Mexican horse thief he was arresting. He was a com- 
panion of the celebrated Procopio, named Tomas Radondo. He was 
subsequently arrested, tried and convicted on live indictments. He 
was sent to San Quentin for nine years. 

The Grand Jury in their presentment condemned the condition of 
the County Jail, as well they might. One George Phillips, an un- 
willing inmate thereof, had a few days before taken French leave of 
it. Deputy Sheriff Amerman, recaptured him in a hay loft, took him 
back and loaded him with ii"ons. These, however, he took off and 
made another excursion, leaving the following choice poetic morceau 
behind him, to commemorate his departure : 

1. — In the County Jail for two months 
I've been both night and day, 
Excepting once a notion 
I took to run away. 

2. — Unfortxmately they caught me, 
Put chains on both my feet. 
And locked me up for ten days 
With dry bread and meat to eat. 

3.— The Sheriff kindly told me 
That I would have to stay 
Thirty-five days longer 
For trying to get away. 

4. — Then I determined I would not, 
As my sequel soon will show. 
That at the end of two months 
You bet, I am bound to go. 

And go he did, beyond recovery. 



176 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Information was received from Mexico that J. A. G-riffin, a former 
resident and storekeeper at San Lorenzo, had been murdered on Yake 
Kiver by Indian peons, on the 15th of June. 

The following lawyers of Alameda County, in accordaaice with the 
requirements of the times, took the oath of allegiance to the United 
States, and thus proved their patriotism and devotion to the cause of 
the Union: A. M. Crane, W. W. Crane, Jr., Noble Hamilton, O. L. 
Shafter, A. A. Cohen, Edward Tompkins, D. Y. Barstow, S. J. Clark, 
G. M. Bh^ke, H. W. Carpentier, W. H. Glascock, Benjamin "Wil- 
liams, J. L. Chipman. 

A Union County Convention was held at San Leandro on the 1st 
of August, for the purpose of nominating County Officers. 

At the State election held in August, the vote in Alameda County 
stood, for Lowe (Union) 1,392 ; Downey (Democrat) 805. The Union 
County Candidates were successful in every instance, as the following 
result shows, the Union candidates occupying the first place in every 
instance : For State Senator— W. W. Crane, 1 ,3 74 ; W. S. Moss, 761, 
For Assembly— Thos. Scott, 1,340; Asa Walker, 1,366; T. W. Mil- 
lard, 770; T. J. Haynes, 770. For Sheriff— Harry N. Morse, 1,309 ; 
Jas. Beazell, 820. For County Clerk— A. M. Church, 1,377; P. E. 
Edmondson, 749. For County Treasurer— S. Huff, 1,344; E. Kei- 
haus, 786. For District Attorney— S. G. Nye, 1,366; J. H. Ran- 
kin, 766. For County Assessoi- — -Isham Case, 1,384; M. G. Higgins, 
728. For Public Administrator — Duncan Cameron, 1,373 ; H. Hagan, 
752. For Sup. Common Schools — B. N. Seymour, 1,366; Benj. 
Ackerly, 765. For County Surveyor— T. O. Hopkins, 1,361 ; J. T. 
Stratton, 764. For Coroner— E. P. Sanford, 1,373; Dr. Burr, 759. 
The total vote polled at this election was 2,212. 

At the judicial election held on the 21st day of October following, 
Judge McKee had a majority of 333 votes over his opponent, Thos. 
A. Brown, of Contra Costa, for District Judge. Judge McKee ap- 
peared at the Union nominating convention held previously in San 
Jose, and said the office of District Judge being non-political, he 
would not seek a nomination at the hands of any political party. 
He was a candidate independent of all political conventions. He was 
now and always had been an unconditional Union man. Twenty-six 
years ago he had sworn allegiance to the Government of the United 
States, and had never wavered in his loyalty or fealty. That as a 
loyal citizen from the time the fii'st shot was fired in this unliappy 
rebellion he had never doubted the right of the Government to use 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 177 

,ill tlie means in its power to crush it out, and that every measure of 
tli<' Administration tending to bring about tliis most desirable result 
iii't his hearty approval and support. 

Mr. Brown, however, received the Union nomination by a vote of 
eighteen to six ; but McKee, notwithstanding, was elected by the 
force of his eminent fitness and rectitude of character. 

The first trip made by the cars on the Oakland and San Francisco 
Ferry Railroad was made on the 2d day of September, 1863. At 
that date the road was completed from the end of the wharf to 
Broadway, a length of about four miles. Thereafter the trains made 
regular trips in connection with the steamer Contra Costa. The 
wharf at that time was only about three-quarters of a mile long, suf- 
ficient to clear the bar. The tii*st three cars used by the company 
were built at Oakland Point, by a Mr. Young, and the engine also at 
the same place, by C. "W. Stevens, now of San Francisco. Singularly 
enough, it does not appear that they gave it any name. The second 
engine was named the Oakland, and was built in Schenectady, N. 
Y. James Batchelder was the fii-st man to drive an engine on the 
road, and he yet remains at his post in the service of the present com- 
pany, and is recognized as one of the foremost engineers in the State. 

The hours of departure on both sides at the first were as follows : 
From San Francisco, 7, 9, and 11a. m., and 2|, 4|, and 6| p. m. ; 
from Oakland, 6, 8, and 10 a. m., and 1, 3|, and 5| p. m. The fare 
was for single trips .50 cents, and for commutation tickets, per month, 
S5. The Market Street wharf was then, as now, the place of land- 
ing on the San Francisco side. 

The steamers of the Larue line — the San Antonio and Oakland — 
continued to ply on the Creek route. Their time was as follows : 
From San Francisco, 8 and 10 a. m., and 1, 3|^, and 5 P. M. ; from 
San Antonio or Brookljrn, 1^ and 9|- A. m., and 12|-, 2|^, and 5 p. m. ; 
from Oakland, 8 and 10 A. m., and 1, 3, and 5 p. M. Single fares by 
this line were 25 cents, and commutation tickets, per month, $3. 

The San Francisco and Alameda Railroad, familiarly known as 
the Encinal Road, was being pushed vigorously forward at the same 
time. It was contemplated to extend it to Vallejo's Mills, where it 
would join the Western Pacific. Enough iron was at this time con- 
tracted for to run the line to Haywards. 

It was in contemplation to connect the Alameda Yalley road with 
the Oakland road, an enterprise put into execution by the Central 
Pacific people, after all the lines fell into therr hands. 

12 



178 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

A distressing accident occurred in Alvarado, at the Union City 
Flouring Mill, on the ith day of September. Mr. Lindell, a partner 
in the establishment, was caught in his clothes by a belt in the mill 
and whirled about with terrible velocity, striking a projection every 
time he was turned about. Both his legs were broken and liis body 
otherwise badly injured, so that he died from the effects two days 
afterwards. 

Some parties having located mining claims on the hills, some four 
miles east of Brooklyn, wei-e hard at work upon them and gave oiit 
that the rock taken from their shafts showed excellent indications. 
They were not lasting, however, and the situation of those operations 
has since been known by the appropriate name of the " Wild-cat 
Kanch." About twenty men were also at work digging for gold in 
Brown's Valley, near Mills' Seminary. 

It was in the month of September of this year that the Oakland 
News was started by Mr. William Gagan, who had then recently 
arrived in the State from Illinois. 

Judge Reynolds, of Contra Costa, issued a mandamus to compel 
the Supervisors of Alameda County to levy a tax for the payment of 
the judgment in favor of Contra Costa. A stay of proceedings was 
applied for and granted, and an appeal taken to the Supreme Court. 

Two military camps were formed in the month of September at 
Alameda. They were, respectively, Camps Allen and Stanford, both 
consisting of California militia. They were pronounced "a success." 
Alameda County was repi'esented in Camp Allen by the Oakland 
Guards, Capt. Brown. 

Coal was sliipped in October of this year from Corral Hollow to 
Stockton. The first cargo consisted of 100 tons, of which sixty tons 
were for the Insane Asylum. The cost of this coal was, delivered 
on the levee, $10 per ton. 

The San Francisco and San Jos^ Railroad was in operation at the 
end of this month, between San Francisco and Mayfield, on the 
opposite side of the bay ; and the first rail of the Central Pacific 
Railroad was laid at Sacramento, on the 26th of October, amid much 
rejoicing. 

A new ofiice brouglit into requisition by the war was that of 
Deputy Provost Marshal, to which Harry N. Morse was api)ointed 
in this county. 

A cruel murder was committed at Brooklyn on the evening of the 
1 2th of October, Jos6 Cosa having killed Juan Andreada by stabbing 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 179 

hini with a sheath kiiife through the heart. The wounded man died 
in a few minutes after he received the fatal stab. The difficulty was 
about some money matter. Cosa was arrested and committed for 
trial. He was afterwards tried, convicted, and sent to the State 
Prison for ten years. 

This month the Brooklyn people taxed themselves, by vote, 14- per 
cent, to build a school-house, which when completed was the finest in 
the county. It was built of brick, occupied a commanding position, 
and cost over $5,000. Its dimensions were 42 x 45 feet, two stories 
high. It Avas, indeed, at the time of its erection, something to boast 
about ; but it m turn has been superseded, or i*ather supj^lemented, by 
another school building, the cost of which was about $18,000. The 
block on which the former is built cost $500, while that upon 
which the latter is erected cost $8,000, and it was considered cheap 
at that, showing the greatly enhanced value of real estate in ten or 
eleven years. 

Asa Walker resigned the position of Justice of the Peace for 
Brooklyn ToAvnship, and Carlyle Cameron was appointed in his stead. 
W. W. Crane resigned the office of District Attorney, and was suc- 
ceeded by G. M. Blake, on November 16th. ^ 

Alvarado was the scene of a dastardly outrage on the evening of 
the 23d of November, a party of Mexican desperadoes having en- 
tered the town and fired shots at individuals and buildings, and then 
left the place. Chase was given to them and one of the party 
arrested and brought back to the town. He was placed under guard, 
but the guard was overpowered and the prisoner taken to the bridge 
crossing the Alameda and hung. The gallows was not cheated out 
of a victim this time, but the lawyer complained next morning that 
he had lost a client. 

The following was the legal condition of the difierent ranches in 
this county at the end of November, 1863 : 

RANCH TITLES APPROVED PATENTED CLAIMS. 

J. J. Vallejo, Rancho de Alameda, - - 17,705 Acres. 
Ygnacio Peralta, San Antonio, - - - 9,416 " 
F. Higuera, Agua Calienta, - - - 9,563 " 
J. J. Estudillo, San Leandro, - - - 7,010 " 

J. M. Amador, San Ramon, - - - 16,516 " 
J. D. Pacheo, Santa Rita, - ... 8,855 " 



180 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

SURVEYS APPROVED. 

A. Sunol, et al., Yalle de San Jos6, - - 51,572 Acres. 
A. M. Peralta, San. Antonio, - - - 16,067 " 

SURVEYS APPROVED IN U. S. DISTRICT COURT AND APPEALED TO U. S. 
SUPREME COURT. 

Barbai-a Soto, et al., San Lorenzo, - - 6,686 Acres. 
T. Pacheco, et al, Los Cerritas, - - - 10,610 f 

SURVEYS BEFORE U. S. DISTRICT COURT. 

J. J. Castro, San Pablo (Contra Costa), - 48,824 Acres. 
G. Castro, San Lorenzo, - - - - 26,717 " 
V. Peralta, et al., San Antonio, - _ - 19,143 " 

CLAIMS FINALLY CONFIRMED. 

J. J. Castro, Sobrante, - - - - 48,824 Acres. 

BEFORE U. S. COURT ON QUESTION OF TITLE. 

Noriega & Livermore, Las Positas, - - 8,877 Acres. 

CLAIM REJECTED. 

Andi-es Pico, Mission San Jos6, - - 30,000 Acres. 

The claims of G. Castro to San Leandro, and that of Domingo and 
Vincente Peralta were withdrawn in District Court. 

There was a mortgage filed for record on the 3d of December, in 
the Recorder's Office, at San Leandro, which was covered with 
revenue stamps to the value of $750. 

Following are the Acts of Legislature concerning Alameda County, 
that became laws this year : 

An Act to provide for the election of two additional Supervisors 
in the County of Alameda. 

Sec. 1. The Townships of Brooklyn and Alameda to have power 
to elect one Supervisor for each township. 

Sec. 2. Whenever the Board of Supervisors shall have created a 
new townshiiJ from adjacent portions of Washington and Eden, 
including in said new township the Town of Alvarado, it shall have 
power to elect one Supervisor. 

An Act to authorize the Treasurer of Alameda County to collect 
the taxes of said county. To be in opei-ation on and after the first 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 181 

day of March. Coaipensation to be fixed by Board of Supervisors. 
Shall not exceed sum paid for collecting State revenue ; if such 
amount is allowed, balance to go to School Fund. 

An Act to authorize the Board of Supervisors of the County of 
Alameda to take and subscribe $220,000 to the capital stock of the 
Alameda Valley Railroad Company, and to provide for the payment 
of the same, and other matters relating thereto. Tliis Act contained 
seventeen clauses : Special election ordered ; ballot ; manner of con- 
ducting ; subscrijition ; how to be made ; conditions ; duties of Super- 
visors ; Loan Commissioners ; bonds when payable'; interest ; to be 
paid in coin ; coupons ; manner of expending funds ; Supervisors 
may withhold payment ; interest tax ; loan fund ; payment of bonds 
and interest ; surplus in interest fimd ; payment of interest ; surplus 
in loan fund and redemption of bonds ; proviso ; cancellation of 
bonds, duty of County Clerk ; liabilities of officers and their compen- 
sation ; proviso ; powers of Supervisors ; conditions of subscription. 

An Act to authox-isie and empower the Board of Supervisors of 
Alameda County to improve the navigation of San Antonio Creek. 
Cribbing ; dredging ; charge toll ; proposals ; free navigation, except- 
ing toll for improvements to remain as before. 

An Act to authorize the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad 
Company to construct and maintain a wharf at the Avestern end of 
the Encinal of San Antonio, in Alameda County. To extend into 
the water far enough to secure ten feet of water at low tide ; granted 
a sti-ip of tide land or mud flats five hundred feet in width ; toll or 
wharfage to be fixed by Board of Supervisors ; not to exceed 1| per 
cent, per month of the cost of wharf ; rates may be collected by said 
corporation ; franchise for fifty years. 

An Act to regulate the fees of officers of Alameda County. Fees 
of notaries ; clerk of District Court ; Clerk County Court, etc. 

An Act to repeal Sec. 6 of New Road Act. 

An Act concerning fees of juroi's in Alameda County. In civil 
cases : Justice Court, $2 per day ; County or District Court, $3 ; if 
no verdict, costs to be paid by plaintiff; no fees for Coroner's jury. 

An Act to provide bonds for completing the Deaf, Dumb, and 
Blind Asylum. Location not named. 

An Act to rectify and confirm a certain ordinance passed by the 
Common Council of the City of Oakland, and approved by the Mayor 
of said city Nov. 20, 1861. (This was the act giving away the water 
front.) 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



An Act to aiitliorize the Oakland and San Antonio Steam Navi- 
gation Company to build and maintain a wliarf and ferry landing in 
the City and County of San Francisco. 

Supplementary Act relating to City Charter, concerning costs and 
fees. 







Vv 



Australian Blue Gum Tree. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 183 

NEWTON BENEDICT. ISAAC AYER. 

BENEDICT & AYER, 

( SUCCESSORS TO STEPHEN SMITH ) 

Real Estate Agency 

AT THE OLD STAND, 

917 BROi^DA^^A.Y, 

Behveen Eighth and Nmth Streets, Wilcox Block, OAKLAND, CAL. 



HOUSES RENTED, 

Collections Made, Insurance and Loans Effected. 



NEWTON BENEDICT, Notary Public for ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



IL.XJ lE^ E ID O JB . 




958 Broad^Aray, Oakland. 

special attention paid to Reciting Houses and Collecting Rents; also, 

Negotiating Loans. Agent for Royal Insurance Cojnpany, 

Assets, $17,000,000. 



184 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



GAS FIXTURES AND PLUMBERS' MATERIALS. 



DALZIEL & MOLLER 

1151 BROADWAY, 

Corner Thirteenth Street, Oakland. 




Direct Importations^ 

Best Stock and 

Cheapest Goods, 



All kinds of Plumbing and Gas Fitters' work attended to. 
The Trade supplied with a full assorttnent of 

PLUMBERS' AND GAS FITTERS' MATERIALS. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 185 



CHAPTER XIX. 



FROM THE CLOSE OF THE COURT OF SESSIONS IN 1863 TO THE RE- 
ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 
IN OCTOBER, 1866, 



1864 — A Grand Jury Once More Condemns the County Jail — Opening 
of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad, — The Mountain 
House Sacked hy a Band of Robbers — Fine New School House at 
Brooklyn — The San Antonio Navigation Company Propose to 
Improve the Harbor and Collect Toll — The Bill Vetoed by the 
Governor — Three Thousand Men enrolled in the Comity for Mil- 
itary Duty — A New Fee Bill — Franchise for a Wharf at Green 
Point to Andrew B. Forbes and others — A Subsidy Bill for the 
Alameda Valley Railroad p)0'Ssed by the Legislature, but Vetoed 
by Gov. Low — Sanitary Fand Ball in Brooklyn — The Murderer 
of Andreada Sentenced to Ten Years' Imprisonment at San 
Quentin — Grief at the Death of Rev. T. Starr King — Union Co. 
Convention at San Leandro — Social Gatherings — -A Prospecting 
Fever all over the Contra Costa — Gen. Chipman Arrested on the 
Charge of Using Treasomible Language — Property of the County 
Agricultural Association Sold on Foreclosure of Mortgage — 
Democratic County Convention at San Lea)idro Attended by Ex- 
Governor Weller — T/ie County Jail Without a Prisoner — A Two 
Years' Financial Statement — New Bridge at San Leandro — Good 
Joke on an Old Cotmty Officer — Construction of the Alameda 
Railroad Commenced — The Alvarado Guards at San Jose — New 
Catholic Church at San Leandro — A Brass Band Organized — 
A " Bastile " — Death of the Catholic Pastor at San Leandro, from 
Injuries Received on the " Washoe" — Railroad Amalgamation — 
Distressing Accident near Centreville — Death of a Canadian 
Patriot — Assessment for the Year 1864-5 — Death of Col. Eigen- 
hrodt — Alvarado Guards Ball— A Call for Volunteers — Squatter 
Troubles at the Mission — Poor Crops — Presbyterian Church Cor- 
poration at San Lea^idro — Great Demonstration of the Union 



186 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Masses — Procession Reviewed hy Gen. McDowell — Large Major- 
ities/or the Lincoln Electors — Lecjislation of the Year. 

Tlie Grand Jury which met in Jamiary of this year, condemned 
the County Jail as a public nuisance, being damp, insecure and un- 
healthy, and a totally unfit place for prisoners. The condition of 
the county roads was praised. One indictment was found for murder 
and another for grand larceny. W. A. Bray was foreman of the 

The San Francisco and San Jos6 Railroad, on the opposite side of 
the bay, was opened on the 16th day of January, 1864. 

On Thursday, January 15th, the Mountain House, situated in the 
northeastern portion of the county, w&s, attacked by a band of rob- 
bers and plundered. The house then (as now) was kept by Mr. 
Simon Zimmerman, a well-known citizen. The robbers were armed 
with pistols and bowie-knives, and threatened to murder all in the 
house. The time of their unwelcome visit was night-fall, and there 
was no opportunity for defense. Mr. Zimmerman, a sick Frenchman, 
and a timid German, were all the men in the house at the time. Mrs. 
Zimmerman was unwell and in bed. 

They succeeded in getting less bootj-- than they expected, having 
found only $100 of Mr. Zimmerman's treasui^e; from the French- 
man they took $2.50 ; and from the German, $9, all that he had. 
Of the latter sum they returned to the owner $1, saying they did not 
like to see a man "dead broke." Having helped themselves to a 
hearty supper, they compelled Mr. Zimmerman to provide them with 
horses and saddles apiece, promising on the honor of highwaymen to 
return the same. They were altogether one hour about their busi- 
ness, having taken things leisurely. As was usual in the case of 
such outrages in those days, the perpetrators of this were not Mexi- 
cans, Californians or Chilanos, who, for convenience sake, are all 
usually classed as " Spaniards," but men speaking the English lan- 
guage. Mrs. Zimmerman, to whom they had most to say, she 
having been the custodian of Mr. Zimmerman's treasure, believed 
that they were respectively an American, an Irishman and a Ger- 
man. They used the lady rather roughly, in order to compel her to 
give up the money ; but she baffled them after all, having had con- 
siderable more money in the house than what they secured. Two of 
the wretches were soon after arrested at San Jose, when they ga-\-e 
the names of Robert Jones and Chai-les Williams, but these were not 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 187 

considered to be their true cognomens. They had a preliminaiy ex- 
amination at Centreville, and were committed on the charge of grand 
larceny. Subsequently, they were tried and convicted by the County 
■Court, at San Leandro, and Judge Hamilton, then County Judge, 
sentenced Jones to a term of fifteen years imprisonment, at San 
Quentin, and Williams to ten. The punislunent of the latter was 
mitigated, because the evidence showed tliat but for him the whole 
houseliold would have been murdered in cold blood by the other vil- 
lians. 

The new Brooklyn School-house, then the pride of the county, 
opened in the first week of January, with Mr. "W. K. E,owell as 
Prmcipal, and Miss M. E. Tucker as Assistant. Over 100 pupils 
were in attendance at the opening, and tlie number i-apidly aug- 
mented. 

At the January meeting of the Super\T.sors 'Mr. J. B. Larue pre- 
sented for their approval a scheme for dredging the bar at the mouth 
of the creek and keeping the same in good navigable condition, pro- 
vided he were allowed a franchise and permitted to take toll. All 
previous efforts to improve the harbor ha,d proved failures, and he 
argued that there was then no danger of such a francliise as he asked 
for proving a monopoly, as tliere were two ferries communicating 
with Oakland and Alameda, irresj^ective of the ci-eek. Tlie proposi- 
tion was made in the name of the Oakland and San Antonio Navi- 
gation Company, of which Mr. Larue was pi-esident. The Super- 
visors subsequently approved the proposition, and the scheme was 
embodied in a bill, which passed the Legislature, but was vetoed by 
the Govei-nor. 

At the commencement of this year Sheriff Moi*se, as De]juty Pro- 
vost Marshal for Alameda County, reported 3,008 men enrolled for 
military duty. It was not believed that California would be called 
upon for a draught of men, but it was thought prudent to ascertain 
the military strength of the State. No draught was made, conse- 
quently there was no resistance to it. One man in Brooklyn, how- 
ever, resisted the enrollment, but he was pronounced insane. 

A fee bill, regulating the emoluments of county officers, which had 
passed the last Legislature through the instrumentality of Assembly- 
man Scott, gave rise to a gi-eat deal of dissatisfaction, and a new bill, 
to correct its ein-ors, became necessary. The Sherifl"s fees were made 
the same as those established by the bill of 1855, and the clause 
relating to justices' and constables' fees was repealed. 



188 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Andrew B. Forbes and associates applied to the Legislature for a 
■wharf franchise, to build and maintain a wharf at Green Point, for 
the convenience of the public and the accommodation of the steam- 
ers plying between San Francisco and Alviso. A railroad is now 
built to this point from San Jose, and close by it is the location of 
the proposed town of Newark. 

A bill was engineered this year through the Legislature, and passed 
a day or two before the adjournment, authorizing a subsidy from the 
county of $120,000 to the Alameda Valley Railroad, and $50,000 to 
the Western Pacific Railroad (subject, however, to a vote of the 
people), but both were vetoed by Governor Lowe. 

On the 20th of February Judge Hamilton sentenced Perez, or 
Pizarro, to ten years' servitude in the State prison, for the murder of 
Andreada, at Brooklyn. 

On the 22d of February a ball, for the benefit of the Sanitary 
Fund, was given by the ladies of Brooklyn at Swett's Hall, which 
netted $420. 

News of the death of the Rev. Thomas Starr Kiag, at San Fran- 
cisco, on the 4th of March, was the occasion of demonstrations of 
grief in all parts of the county. The disease of which the eloquent 
gentleman died was putrid sore throat. The people of this county 
had fi-equently felt the spell of his enchanting voice, which was ever 
raised in the cause of humanity and progress. 

On the 19th of March a Union County Convention was held at 
San Leandro, when delegates were appointed to the State Convention 
at Sacramento, which in turn appointed delegates to the National 
Union Convention for the choice of candidates for President and 
Vice-President of the United States. As the sequel shows, the 
unanimous feeling was in favor of the nomination of President Lin- 
coln. Dr. W. Newcomb, of Oakland, was Chairman of the County 
Convention, and S. S. Saul, Secretary. 

At this period of our social and domestic history " dime parties," 
" socials " and " bazaars " were all the rage, and were utilized to ad- 
vance various worthy objects. 

There was a mining fever in this section of the country in the 
spring of 1864, and prospectors were everywhere at work, but most 
especially about Mount Diablo, in seai-ch of gold, silver and copper. 
Like all other fevers, it ran its course and left us without any per- 
manent developments. In no place were the deposits of the precious 
or other metals sufficient to pay for the working. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 189 

On the 7tli of May General J. S. Cliipman, our second County 
Attorney, was arrested in San Francisco, by a U. S. Marshal, on a 
) charge of using treasonable language, and was lodged in Fort Alca- 
traz. He was released on taking the oath of allegiance. 

Ours was far from being a lawless county, as matters stood in 
those days ; and it may be interesting to mention, by way of contrast, 
that in Santa Cruz, at the May Session of the District Court, Judge 
McKee disposed of no less than three murder and ten divorce cases. 
And Santa Cruz is one of the smallest counties in the State. 

By this time the glory and promise of our Agricultural Associa- 
tion had departed, and Mr. E. Hoskins, who held a mortgage over 
the property of the Association, sold the buildings erected on Wash- 
ington Square, then kno^vn as the Agricultural Stock Grounds, to 
Messrs. Wadleigh and Dietz, for $150. A similar fate befel the 
Agricultural Pavilion at a later date. 

At a Democratic County Convention, held at San Leandro, on the 
7th of May, to appoint delegates to the State Convention, "Wm. S. 
Moss presided, and Hai^ry Linden acted as Secretary. Among those 
present were Ex-Governor John B. "VVeller and H. E. Highton. The 
delegates appointed were Wm. S. Moss, P. E. Edmondson, W. H, 
Glascock and H. Linden. 

During the month of May the County Jail was without a prisoner, 
notwithstanding the many lawless characters that frequently found 
their way over here from San Francisco. 

According to a financial statement, published by the Board of 
Supervisors, in May, embracing a period of two years, from February 
1st, 1862, to February 1st, 1864, the receipts of the County Treas- 
urer, from all sources, were $223,489.39. 

The new bridge, which had been for some time building over the 
creek at San Leandro, was completed on the 19th of May, much to 
the delight of all who used vehicles. 

A good joke was perpetrated in June of this year, at the expense 
of Mr. A. M. Church, so long and well known as an efficient county 
ofiicial. In contributing to the Soldiers' Relief Fund, several gentle- 
men agreed to pay a certain sum per month while the war lasted. 
Among these was Mr. Church, who subscribed $10 per month. The 
Committee of the Soldiers' Relief Fund, in San Francisco, in acknowl- 
edging the receipt of Mr. Cluirch's first contribution, printed it in 
the Bulletin as from the African Methodist Church, in San Leandro, 
thus taking an unwarranted but innocent liberty with his initials. 



190 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

On the 23cl clay of June was commenced the building of the San 
Francisco and Alameda Railroad. On that day the rails, chairs and 
spikes were brought over from San Francisco, and landed at the 
company's wharf, at Alameda Point. W. H. Anderson, foreman of 
the work, laid down the first raUs on the day mentioned. 

The handsome School-house at San Lorenzo was completed in July 
of this year, much to the credit of the inhabitants of that 'district. 

The Alvarado Guards took part in a parade of militia at San Jose 
one day in the month of July, and through some misunderstanding 
or mismanagement were not handsomely treated, and there arose a 
newspaper controversy therefrom regarding who was to blame. 

The new Catholic Church at San Leandro, which had been for 
some time building, was so far completed in August of this year as to 
be used for public worship. It was the handsomest church in the 
county, with a spire 100 feet high. 

During the month of July subscriptions were taken up in the 
various towns of the county in aid of the Freedman's Association. 

A trial trip was made over the San Francisco and Alameda Rail- 
road on Saturday, August 13th, with the locomotive "E. B. Mastick" 
and two passenger cars, which started from the Point, to the town of 
Alameda, where a large company was taken on board. The "Mas- 
tick" was manufactured at the Vulcan Iron Works, San Francisco, 
and the cars were constructed by Casebolt, of the same place. On 
the 25th of August the cars were run on the road as far as High 
Street, where a delighted multitude indulged in three rousing cheers 
in honor of the event. 

One of the events of the year was tlie organization of a brass band 
in San Leandro, under the leadership of L. J. Bullard. It was the 
cause of considerable "blowing" among the young men of the to\vn 
for some time after. So many complaints had been made of the un- 
safe condition of the County Jail, that the Board of Supei-visors had 
an iron cell made, at a cost of $600, in which the worst criminals were 
thereafter kept. It was known as the " Bastile." 

The Rev. Jas. Callan, pastor of the Catholic Church at San Lean- 
dro, died on the 5th of September, from injuries received on the 
steamer Washoe, on which he was a passenger at the time of her ex- 
plosion. He was buried from St. Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco. 

The San Francisco & Alameda Railroad and the San Francisco, 
Alameda & Stockton Railroad Company amalgamated. Tlie directors 
of the San Francisco & Alameda road were : F. D. Atherton, Alfred 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 191 

A. Cohen, E. B. Mastick, Clias. Miiiturn, J. D. Farwell, J. G. Kel- 
logg and John W. Dwinelle ; and of the Stockton road : F. D. Ath- 
erton, Alfred A. Cohen, H. Barrioldet and John B. Felton ; so tliat 
it was not so much of an amalgamation after all. 

On the 7th of September a very distressing and remarkable acci- 
dent occurred on the Alameda creek, about midway between Centre- 
ville and ISTiles, near the residence of Mr. Overacker. It appears 
that a Mr. Jerome Rice, an auctioneer of San Francisco, and his 
bookkeeper, a Mr. E,. Gardiner, were on their way to Warm Springs 
in a buggy, drawn by a span of horses. They lost the main road 
near Alvarado, in the dark, and took a wrong direction. When at 
I the point indicated, the horses stopped suddenly on the edge of the 
' river bank, and Mr. Gardiner suggested that one of them had better 
1 get out and see what was the matter. Mr. Rice thought it was but 
! one of those sudden frights to which horses are subject, and urged 
them forward again, when, in an instant, horses, drivers, carriage 
and all went crashing down to the bottom of the creek, making a 
: fall of about twenty-five feet. Strange as it may appear, here they 
remained as they fell for four days and nights, without relief or food, 
with the exception of Mr. Gardiner, who, after shouting himself 
hoarse and remaining a whole day expecting assistance, with a 
broken leg, proceeded to drag himself towards the nearest habita- 
tion, that of Mr. Overacker, which was almost within hailing dis- 
tance. He was not seen nor heard, and two days and nights and a 
part of a third day were consumed in making this painful journey. 
When the circum.stances of the sad affair were made known to Mr. 
Overacker and his family they at once proceeded to render all the 
assistance in their power. On arriving at the scene of the accident, 
they found that Mr. Rice was hurt internally, seriously injured, and 
knocked insensible by the fall. One of the horses was lying down, 
tangled in the harness, and the other standing by him. When Mr. 
Rice was taken up he remarked : " How hard it is to lie here and 
die. How far is it — " and then became insensible. He died on the 
following day, at two o'clock in the morning. Persons in the vicinity 
heard the shouts of Mr. Gardiner, but supposed they came from soine 
drunken Indians in the neighborhood. Mr. Gardiner, notmthstand- 
ing the hardships he endured and the severity of his injuries, recov- 
ered, but was lamed for life. It was asserted that the unfortunate 
gentlemen were under the influence of liquor at the time, or so 
dreadful an occurrence could not have happened to them. 



192 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

There died at Temescal, on tlie 1 2tb. of September, a Frencli-Cana- 
dian gentleman named Jean B. Poirier, wlio, like his compatriots, Dr. 
Duncoml)e, of Sacramento, and Dr. Thellar, of San Francisco, took 
an active part in the Canadian rebellion of 1837-8 and afterwards 
made California their home. Deceased, for expressing his sympathy 
with the cause of his countrymen and a Republican form of govern- 
ment, was imprisoned in Montreal jail for several months. He lived 
to see the men who had been most active in that outbreak, such as 
Cartier, Morin, Papineau, Lafontaine and Bouchette, governing the 
destinies of his country; and two of them, Cartier and Lafontaine, 
were created baronets before their death, the British Government 
thereby acknowledging that their services to their country were 
worthy of recognition. They compromised nothing because all the 
reforms they fought for were carried out under a more responsible 
system of government than that which existed when they took up 
arms to redress the wrongs of their country. 

The property assessment for the fiscal year of 1864-5 was as fol- 
lows in the diiferent townships. It will be seen that the northern 
townships had gained over the southern ones and that Oakland, instead 
of Washington, was thereafter destined to take the lead : 

Alameda Township, $181,105 

Brooklyn " 802,005 

Eden " ..... 900,820 

Murray " 192,280 

Oakland " 1,396,910 

Washington " 738,990 



Total, ,f 4,212,1 10 

Total tax levy, $107,830.01. 

News of the death of Capt. C. S. Eigenbrodt, of Alvarado, was re- 
ceived throughout the county and State Avith great regret. It will 
be recollected that he recruited a company of California Cavalry, 
which was sent East and attached to a Massachusetts regiment. He 
was killed in an action in the Shenandoah Valley, on the 2d of Sej)- 
tember, while gallantly leading a charge. He had been a Supervisor 
for Washington To^vnship, and was in every respect a spirited citizen. 
He founded a public library in Alvarado which is still in a flourish- 
ing condition. Crusade Lodge of Odd Fellows, of which Capt. Eigen- 
brodt was a member, passed resolutions of condolence and otherwise 
honored the memory of their deceased brother. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 193 

Squatter troubles sprung up on the Ellsworth Ranch, near the 
Mission, on the 21st of December, which lasted some time, but Mr. 
Ellsworth finally got full possession of his property, which originally 
constituted a portion of the Mission grant. 

The crops this year did not turn out well, the grain having been 
but a small yield, and in some places no stubbles were left. Santa 
Clara County was no better off in this respect, and pz-obably suffered 
more than Alameda. 

On the 18th of September was formed a corpoi-ation to build the 
First Presbyterian Chui-ch in San Leandi'o. The meeting was held 
in the Court-room. S. G. Nye was Chaii-man, and G. E. Smith, 
Secretary. Five Trustees, consisting of S. G. Nye, S. Huff, L. 
Stone, D. Smalley and G. E. Smith, were elected, and the work 
went on. 

The Alvarado Guards had a grand dedicatory ball on the 23d of 
September, in their Armory. Among the military men of note pres- 
ent were Col. Jackson and Lieut. -Col. Rowley. This was considered 
one of the principal social events of the year. 

The proclamation of Governor Lowe, dated 24th of September, 
calling for volunteers to form a regiment of infantry, was readily 
responded to. Besides a bounty of $300 in currency from the U. S. 
Government, the State of California paid each man $160 in gold, 
besides $5 a month extra in gold. To all this was added $1.5 a 
month soldiers' wages, besides the grant of 160 acres of land at the 
end of the term of enlistment. The inducements were good, cer- 
tainly, for volunteering. The regiment for which the volunteers 
were recruited was called the Seventh Infantry, California Volunteers. 

There was a very large and enthusiastic meeting of Union men at 
San Leandro on the 29tli of October, which was pronounced the 
largest gathering ever held in the State outside of San Francisco. 
I. A. Amerman, President of the Lincoln and Johnson Club of San 
Leandro, was the Grand Marshal of the Day, with E. M. Smith 
Asa Collins, Lysander Stone and E. C. Jacobs as Aids. At noon a 
grand cavalcade from the southern portion of the county, headed by 
the San Jos6 Brass Band, made its appearance. There was a dele- 
gation from Centreville, with Capt. J. M. Moore as Marshal ;, fr,om.i 
Alvarado, including the military company, under arms and iii.fuU 
uniform, with Judge Williams as Marshal ; from "Washingtoj^ Cor- 
ners, with J. T. Walker as Marshal ; and from San Lorenzo, with 
Henry Smyth as Marshal. The appearance of this coluiaft.wa^ very 

13 



194 HI8T0RY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

imposing, and extended from San Lorenzo to San Leandro. All the 
wagons and horses were profusely dressed ^vith flags and banners. 
Soon after noon the procession from the north appeared, marshaled 
by Mr. Shattuck, of Oakland. With this delegation were Gen. I. S. 
McDowell and members of his staff, and the Oakland Giiard. The 
Guards carried with them a mounted cannon, labeled " The Peace- 
maker." The Brooklyn delegation, with which were the men from 
San Francisco, said to number 1,000 men, were headed })y Hon. Thos. 
Eagar as Marshal, Judge Hastings headed the Alameda delegation. 
This line stretched from the Alameda Lane to San Leandro, a dis- 
tance of four miles and a half, altogether making eight miles of a 
procession. The whole was reviewed by General McDowell, who 
stood in his can-iage, uncovered, as the vast concoui-se jmssed by him, 
cheering. The President of the Day was the Hon. Edward Tomp- 
kins, who made a very eloquent speech. He was followed by Hon. 
Delos Lake, W. H. L. Barnes, Hon. Nathan Porter, Hon. F. M. 
Pixley, Hon. J. G. McCallam, Judge Tyler and Attorney-General 
McCullough. Messrs. Saul Giigan and Estabrook Smith were the 
Secretaries. The demonstration was in every sense a great one, and 
will be remembered by those who participated in it as long as 
they live, with pride and satisfaction. 

At the Presidential election which followed this mass meeting, on 
the 8th of November, the Lincoln electors received a majority of 
658 votes, they having received 1,470 to 812 for the McClellan 
■electors. For Congress, Higby had 1,458 votes to Coifroth's 797. 
The total majority for Lincoln throughout the State was 16,634. 

'Tlie Coiinty Supervisors Avere all re-elected, with the exception of 
Mi:. <Cummings, of Alameda, whose place was taken by Mr. Fass- 
king. 

Following was the legislation of the first term xnider the biennial 
system, established by the amended Constitution : 

An Act to improve the navigation of San Antonio Creek, re- 
pealed. 

An Act to divide the State into Congi-essional Districts, and to fix 
time to elect Representatives to Congress. Contra Costa, Alameda, 
San Joaquin, Tuolumne, Mono, Calaveras, Amador, Eldorado, Sacra- 
mento, Placer, Nevada, and Alpine to form the Second District. 

An Act providing time for holding County and Probate Courts in 
Alameda. On fii-st Monday of January, April, and July, and third 
JMLonday of September each yeai\ 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 195 

An Act to autliorize Andrew B. Forbes, his associates and as- 
signs, to construct a wharf at Green Point, in ALameda County. 
Granted the use of tide lands, 100 feet wide, on either side of said 
wharf; twenty-five years' franchise. 

An Act supplementary to an Act concerning ofiicers. Supervisors 
to hold office for three years ; Alameda excepted from the provisions 
of this Act. 

An Act to authorize the City Council of Oakland to improve 
streets, lanes, alleys, courts, and places. To have power to lay out 
new streets ; to gi-ade and improve ; notice to be given of inten- 
tion to improve ; remedy of persons aggrieved ; to file a remon- 
strance ; owners of property to petition for improvements ; how 
contracts are to be made ; duty of Marshals ; assessment for ex- 
penses ; city to pay for improvements on its own property ; when 
done on one side of street, the lots on that side only to be assessed ; 
City Marshal to make assessments ; warrants to be attached to the 
assessment ; assessments to be a lien on the property ; contractors to 
collect ; appeal to counsel ; contractors may bring suit. 

An Act creating Treasurer ex-qfficio Tax Collector. Amendatory. 
The duties of SheriflT as ex-officio Tax Collector to cease, excepting as 
regards to licenses. 

An Act for assessing and collecting taxes in Alameda County. 
Taxes to be apportioned. 

An Act amendatory of an Act for holding Courts of Record. Fix- 
ing the second Monday of February, June, and October, in Alameda 
County, for the Third Judicial District. 

An Act to provide for the election of Township Assessors. As- 
sessors shall give bonds ; Supervisors to fill vacancies ; the Assessors 
of different townships shall meet on third Monday in March, and 
classify the several descriptions of property. ^ Office of County As- 
sessor abolished. 

An Act to provide for the erection of a Jail and repair of Coiirt- 
house in Alameda County. To levy for the fiscal year 1864-5 
special tax not exceeding each year twenty-five cents on each hundred 
dollars. Stone or brick ; shall cease when work is completed. 

An Act to provide for the retention of the hides of slaughtered 
cattle in certain counties, including Alameda, for eight days. 

An Act svipplementary to an Act, entitled an Act to incorporate 
the City of Oakland, passed March 26, 1854. Abating nuisances 
within city limits ; providing building for municipal purposes ; li- 
censes : election of Justice of the Peace, 



196 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

An Act supplementary to an Act dividing the State into judicial 
districts. Third District to consist of Monterey, Santa Cruz, Santa 
Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, until a Judge for Fifteenth Dis- 
trict shall have been duly elpcted or appointed. 

An Act establishing a fee bill for Alameda Count}^ 
1865 — Prosecution of Squatters on the Mission Ranch — Work on the 
Yiestern Pacific Railroad — Condemnation of Lands — Continua- 
tion of the Alameda Railroad and its Completion to Haywards — 
Tim,e Table ai%d Fares — Cold Weather — Portuguese Land Pur- 
chasers — Contra Costa's Claim Ujiheld by the Suprone Court — 
Soldiers' Aid Society in Brooklyn — Haywards Guards Voted $50 
Per Month by the County Supervisois — The Mintui'n Ferry Line 
Purchased hy the Oakland Railroad Company — San Lorenzo 
Guards — Contra Costa Railroad Company Organized — A. A. 
Moore Admitted to Practice in the District Court as an Attorney 
— Postmaster Green gives all he has ever made out of his Office to 
Sanitary Fund— Seventeenth of March Ball at Alvarado — De- 
structive Fire in Oakland — The Railroad Extended to Larue's 
Wharf — A Vigilance Committee Organized — Grief for President 
Lincoln's Death — May-day Celebrations at Alarneda and Alva- 
rado — Earthquake — San Leandro School-house — Promising 
Crops — Presbyterian Clergyman Installed — Jail Delivery — Hon. 
J. B. Felton a Candidate for U. S. Senator — Reported that the 
California Steam Navigation Co. loere Going to " Gobble Up " 
our Ferries and Railroads — Large Harvest — Political Conven- 
tions — Vote of the County — Unfortunate Fracas — Clinton Cot- 
ton Mills — Brooklyn Guards Organized — San Ramon Settlers 
Pay H. W. Carpentier $111,000 — Formation of the Contra Costa 
Water Co. — Grain Warehouses — Ball of the Brooklyn Guards — 
Heavy Earthquake — Death of a Pioneer — Oakland Railroad Un- 
der A. A. Cohen^Officers Brooklyn Guard — Republican Judicial 
Choice — Big Squash — San Leandro School Opened — Chas. Garth- 
wait's House Robbed — School in San Leandro — Haywards 
Guards' Election — New Ferry Steamer " Alameda" — Haywards 
Fire Company — New Railroad Project — Cold Weather — "Sjwrt" 
at Haywards — No Legislative Session in 1865. 

The leading features of the year 1865 were raili'oad building ; 
mourning for the death of President Lincoln ; sevei'e shocks of earth- 
quake ; and the formation of military and civic organizations. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 197 

The case of H. G. Ellsworth vs. Elias Sampson and twenty other 
defendants, for trespass, was tried this month in the January Term 
of the County Court. The men on the defense were squatters on a 
portion of the Mission Ranch, and supposed they possessed pre- 
emption rights. Edward Tompkins appeared for the plaintiif ; W. 
H. Glascock, H. K. "W. Clark and Judge Collins, for the defendants. 
Tlie trial lasted several days, and at its close the plaintiff was 
awarded $1,000 damages. 

The contract for the construction of the Western Pacific Railroad, 
from San Jose to Stockton, a length of seventy-five miles, was let to 
Messrs. Cox & Meyers. The line of this road was through three 
counties — Santa Clara, Alameda and San Joaquin. It nearly crossed 
the whole of the widest portion of Alameda County, from west to 
east, and was by way of the Alameda Canon and Livermore Pass. 
On the 6th of May the company published notice of the pendency of 
proceedings for the condemnation of lands for the use of the road, in 
the Alameda County Gazette, which notice occupied three closely- 
printed columns of that paper. This notice, however, had only 
reference to the occupants of land between the Santa Clara line, at 
the head of the bay, and the Alameda Canon. The notice was ad- 
dressed as follows : 

To Mathew W. Dixon, Calvin Yalpey, Shaw Nash, Andrew Whis- 
man, William D. Hudson, William Story, E. Burns, Peter Cam])bell, 
George W. Peacock, T. W. Millard, J. Sinclair, Flugencio Higuerra, 
J. Emerson, Chester Harris, Henry M. Ellsworth, Ronlif J. Horner, 
William Y. Horner, William H.' Graves, Earl Marshall, Michael 
Ovex-acker, Robert Bonner, Perry Morrison, Dennison D. Henyon, 
Caleb C. Scott, C. C. Simms, AV. A. Jordan, Isaac Troth, L. S. Frakes, 
O. C. Simms, William Bonner, S. Bonner, Augustus Bernel, Juan 
Bernel, John Kottinger, and his wife Kottinger, Josefa Liver- 
more, Joseph Livermore, John Doe, Richard Doe, John Jones, John 
Smith, John Brum, John Jackson, James Johnson, John Taylor, 
Sarah Smitli, Susan Jones, Ann Jackson, Mary Miller, and Julia 
Jones, and all persons occupying, claiming, or having any right, title 
or interest in and to the tracts of lands hereinafter described. 

Work was commenced in the Alameda Canon in the month of 
June, when a force of 500 men, mostly Coolies, was put to work 
there under Mr. Bates, of this city, who held a sub-contract on the 
road. 

The grading of the San Francisco and Alameda Railroad was fin- 
ished to San Leandro in the month of January, and the laying of the 
track finished on the first day of March, and the first trip made by 



198 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

boat and cars from San Francisco to San Leandro in au lioiii- and a 
quax-ter, three miles being by water and tliirteen by rail. Following 
is a copy of the first time table issued by the company after the com- 
pletion of the road to the county seat: 

" San Francisco and Alameda Railroad and Ferry Liiae. From 
corner Vallejo and Davis Streets. From San Francisco : 7:15 A. m., 
9 A. M., 12 M., 2 p. M., 4:30 p. m. From Alameda : 7:40 A. m., 9:20 
A. M., 12:20 P. M., 2:20 P. M., 4:50 p. m. From San Leandro: 7:20 
A. M., 9 A. M., 12 M., 4:30 p. m. Good accommodations for stock on 
both sides, which will be taken at greatly reduced rates, viz : Cattle 
at 25c. per head, calves at 10c. per head, hogs and sheep at oc. per 
head. On and after March 15th, there will be a trip from Alameda 
at 5:50 A. M., and from San Francisco at 6:30 p. m. Alfred A. 
Cohen, General Superintendent S. F. and A. R. R." 

The fare for passengers from San Francisco to San Leandro (six- 
teen miles) was 75c., or five tickets for $2.50. It was subsequently 
reduced to 50c. to San Leandro, and 25c. to Alameda, from San 
Francisco. 

The contract for the completion of the road from San Leandro to 
Haywards (five miles) was given out in April to Mr. C. D. Bates, 
and on the 25th of August the line was completed. It was the 
occasion for a free excursion, collation and general rejoicing at Hay- 
wards. Judge Crane, Edward Wheeler, A. A. Cohen, Hemy Rob- 
inson and Dr. Henry Gibbons all made congratulatoiy speeches, and 
the first railroad through Alameda County was in full operation. 

The cold weather drove the coyotes down in the direction of the 
bay this winter, and in the month of Janu.ary there was a coyote 
hunt in the foothills, when several were killed near Brooklyn. 

In the month of January the frost was so intense that ice formed 
an inch thick at Mission San Jose. 

The Portuguese population, or more properly speaking, the Portu- 
guese colonists from the AVestern Isles, were settling so rapidly in 
this county at this time and paying such high prices for small parcels 
of land, that a humorous correspondent in the county paper, writing 
at Centreville, remarked that "a Portuguese advancing towards 
your premises for the purpose of negotiating a purchase, adds much 
gi-eater enhancement to its value than the assurance of having a rail- 
road pass through your verandah." 

In the month of February the judgment obtained by Contra Costa 
County against Alameda County, for the old Oakland bridge indebt- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 199 

edness, was affirmed by tlie Supreme Court. The amount of the 
judgment was $15,000; so that after all, Alameda had to own up 
and " pungle." The repudiation of this debt from the first does not 
api^ear to have been particularly honest, and had it been paid as it 
ought to have been, the great additional charge for intei-est and the 
cost of legislation on the matter, and viseless litigation, would have 
been avoided. 

In February there was a Soldiers' Aid Society formed in Brooklyn. 
The Haywards Guards applied to the Board of Supervisors for an 
armory, and were allowed $50 per month for the purpose of procur- 
ing one. The Alameda Park Hotel, erected by the Railroad Com- 
pany, was opened this month. 

In March the Contra Costa or Mintui-n Ferry line of steamers, 
consisting of the Contra Costa and Clinton, was sold to the Oakland 
Railroad Company. 

At the first election of the San Lorenzo Guard, held on the 28th 
February, the following officers were appointed : Captain, A. L. 
Fuller ; 1st Lieutenant, Henry Smyth ; 2d Lieutenant, L. Stone ; 
Brevet 2d Lieutenant, J. L. Shyman ; Secretary, E. D. Lewelling ; 
Treasurer, Wm. Farris ; 1st Sergeant, H. Doppman ; Sergeants, 
Chas. Harper, Jas. Fan-is, O. C. Lewelling, O. W. Owen. 

On March 2 2d was incorporated the Contra Costa Railroad Com- 
pany, the object of which was to connect the San Francisco and 
Alameda Railroad with Oakland and San Pablo. The Directors of 
the proposed enterprise wex-e F. D. Atherton, E. B. Mastick, John 
Caperton, A. A. Cohen and E. G. Walsworth. No work was ever 
done on this line, but the Central Pacific Company is consummating 
the object it had in. view. 

The Committee appointed by the District Court to examine A. A. 
Moore, who was a candidate for admission to practice in that Court, 
reported favorably, and that gentleman, who was the first law student 
of Alameda County to make such an application, was admitted to 
practice as an Attorney in the Court. 

John Green, Postmaster at Dougherty's Station, showed his value 
of the emoluments accruing to him from that position, by donating 
the whole sum to the Sanitary Fund. It amounted to $35.35, the 
proceeds of several years' labor in the postal service of his country. 

The 17th of Mai-ch was celebrated at Alvarado by a ball, the pro- 
ceeds of which were donated for the purpose of paying olf the debt of 
the Catholic Church in that place. 



200 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

On the 18tli of March patents were issued for the Santa Rita and 
San Ramon Ranchos. 

On March 18th there died at San Jose an old Spanish pioneer of 
Alameda County, Antonio Maria Sunol, who hatl first settled in the 
beautiful little valley called after him, forty-eight years jireviously. 
He was in his sixty-eighth year. 

There was a destructive fire in Oakland on the 25th of March. It 
broke out at the Railroad Station, and destroyed property to the 
value of 175,000. 

On the 1st of April the Oakland Railroad was extended to Laiiie's 
Wharf, in Brooklyn, beyond which it did not extend until purchased 
by the Central Pacific Railroad Company. 

At this period the people of "Washington and MuiTay Townships 
were sufiering much from the depredations of horse and cattle thieves, 
stock poisonere and incendiaries, and resolving to no longer submit to 
such outrages and injuries as they had become used to, a large num- 
ber of them assembled at Milton's Hotel, Centerville, on the 1st day 
of April, and there resolved to form themselves into a Vigilance Com- 
mittee. Thos. Scott was elected President, and Dr. J. M. Selfridge, 
now of Oakland, Secretary; William Tyeson was appointed Treas- 
urer. There was besides these officers an executive committee of 
twelve members chosen. Tlie organization of this committee had a 
salutary efiect, and the evil-doers became thereafter very cautious. 
The Committee oflered a reward of |500 for the conviction of the 
person or persons who had a short time before poisoned Ellsworth's 
wheat field. 

The news of the assassination of President Lincoln, on the 14th of 
April, created a profound sensation. The newspa])ers turned their 
column rules in mourning, and the people assembled, after due notice, 
in the old grove of San Lorenzo on the lOtli of the month, to express 
their united sorrow and show their grief for the melancholy event 
The outpoviring of the people was large and the expression of feel- 
ing manly and earnest. They had formed a warm attachment for 
the man in -whom they had placed their confidence in the dark and 
dismal hours of the nation's tribulation, and many a word of admira- 
tion and sympathy had been spoken of the dead President — he whom 
they had learned to revere and love — "Honest Old Abe." The Court- 
house, by order of the Supervisors, was draped in moui-ning. 

On the 29th of April the title to the Sail Lorenzo Rancho was con- 
firmed for 26,723 acres to Guillermo Castro, and a United States 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 201 

patent issued for the same, which was filed in the Eecorder's Office. 

On the 1st of May, the new Odd Fellows' Hall, of Crusade Lodge 
of Odd Fellows, was dedicated at Alvarado by a grand ball, at which 
140 couples were present. It was pronounced the finest social affair 
that ever took place in the southern portion of the county. 

The Sanitary Pic-nic at Alameda, on Mayday, was the event of the 
month. The com})utation, at the time of the attendance, was that 
there were 6,000 people present. They were there from San Fran- 
cisco, Oakland and all parts of the county. The day was lovely and 
the proceedings joyous. The time-honored May festivities were 
obsei-ved. The crowning of the May Queen was an interesting and 
pleasing ceremony. Miss May Browne, daughter of our lamented 
and distinguished fellow-citizen, J. Ross Browne, gracefully repre- 
sented the Queen of the May. She was attended by a long retinue 
of young ladies, attired in white and acting as "Maids of Honor.' 
Master Ashley Crane waited upon the Queen in the character of 
Robin Hood, the bold woodsman, and Charley Saul represented the 
character of "Jack o' the Green." At noon the grand entry of the 
Queen and her attendants was announced by the blast of a bugle. 
They were preceded by the Presidio Band, of San Francisco, and the 
gi'and ceremonial was pA^formed in excellent style. Then followed 
the May dance around the May pole, exquisitely performed in the 
presence of the Queen by sixteen couples of the young lads and lasses 
of the San Francisco schools. Dr. Gibbons had composed an ode to 
the Queen, which was read by Mr. Wheeler, and a stirring oration 
was delivered by Mr. Frank M. Pixley. Dancing in the open air 
followed and was generally indulge in. The whole affair was under 
the superintendence of Dr. Henry Gibbons, to whom much credit Avas 
given for the completeness of the arrangements. The gentlemen who 
acted as a Committee of Stewards during the day, for the preserva- 
tion of order and decorum, were Messrs. A. S. Barber, Henry Robin- 
son, J. D. Bostwick, H. Clark, W. S. Lee, Judge Hastings and W. 
B. Clement. The net sum of $1,404.87 was realized for the benefit 
of the Sanitary Fund. 

On the 24th of May the shock of an earthquake was felt through- 
out the county, which was considered one of the severest during 
American experience. 

The new school house at San Leandro was started this month. 
John Q. Dunn was the builder, and the cost fixed at $3,635. It was 
two stories high, and in dimensions 24x36 feet. It was calculated to 
accommodate 200 pupOs. 



202 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Crops promised finely ; as an evidence, Captain Fuller exhibited 
barley eight feet long, taken from a field of Wm. Meek, at San 
Lorenzo. 

On the lltli of June Rev. Mr. Alexander was installed a minister 
of the Presbyterian church at San Leandro, in the District Court- 
room. Mr. Sessions, of Oakland, Mr. Pierson, of the Brooklyn 
church, Mr. Beckwith, of San Francisco, and Mr. Brier, of Centre- 
ville, took part in the ceremony. 

There was a jail delivery at San Leandro on the 5th of July. The 
various officers were so much taken up with celebrating the " Glorious 
Fourth," that the prisoners were left without a guard, and four of 
them out of the six then confined there easily made their escape. 

At this time Hon. J. B. Felton was a prominent candidate for the 
position of United States Senator, and much was said, v/hether truly 
or othervt^ise, about his making free use of money for the object of 
his ambition. The Oakland News warmly espoused his cause, and 
the San Leandro Gazette as warmly opposed him. 

At the beginning of August it was reported that the California 
Steam Navigation Company, which had, become the great monopoly 
of the coast, had purchased the Oakland Ferry and Eailroad. 

In August there was a successful festival at Alameda, for the 
benefit of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

At the harvest this year a field of wheat in the Martin Banch, 
Amador Valley, yielded eighty bushels of wheat to the acre. 

The County Union Convention was held at San Leandro, on the 
5th of August. The Democratic Convention was held on the 24th 
of the same month. The following was the platform adopted : 

1st. In favor of a hard-money currency, with an extension of the 
Specific Contract Act, to include verbal contract for workingmen's 
wages. 2d. Opposition to Negro or Chinese suffrage. 3d. In favor 
of the reconstruction of the Southern States on the principles 
established by President Johnson. 

At the election held on the 6 th of September the following votes 
were cast : 

State Senator — Henrv Bobinson, - - - - 1278 
W. H. Glascock, - - - - 844 

Assembly— John L. Wilson, - - - -1119 

Thos. Eagar, - 121.5 

John B. Ward, - - - - - 861 
Jas. Graves, 849 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 203 

Slieriff— Henry N. Morse, ----- 1399 

Ed. Neihaus, - 723 

Clerk— I. A. Amerman, - - - - - 1216 

Chas. Gleason, - 865 

Treasurer — Socrates Huff, ----- 1400 

Eb. C. Farley, - - - - - 716 

County Attorney — Geo. M. Blake, - - - 1416 

A. H. Griffith, - - - - 683 

Public Administrator — Duncan Cameron, - - 1346 

Frank Maillot, - - - 769 

County Sup. Ed. — Rev. Clias. E. Rich, - - - 1315 

Thos. A. Smith, - - . - 796 

Comity Surveyor — -Wm. F. Boardman, - - - 1359 

W. Hughes, - - - - 749 

Coi-oner — Sabia Harris, - - . . - 1342 

Thomas Greene, - - - --777 

In every instance the Union Candidate occupied the fii-st position. 

The Clinton Cotton Mill was established this month,, by Rector <fe 
Sons, and got to work by the middle of November. 

The Brooklyn Guards, a new military company, was organized in 
August, with Capt. AV. H. Hamilton at their head. 

The settlei-s on the San Ramon Ranch, in Contra Costa County, 
purchased the title of H. "W. Carpentier to the same. It was said 
that all the ranch cost Carpentier was a sack of flour given to some 
old Spaniard, but the settlers, in order to possess clear titles, paid 
that unscrupulous gi-abber the sum of $111,000. 

In September of this year was formed the Contra Costa Water 
Company, the immediate object of which was to bring the water of 
Temescal Creek into Oakland. 

An unfortunate fracas occurred at San Antonio, on Sunday night, 
September 30th, 1865, between a Frenchman named Cora, of San 
Pablo, and Samuel S. Kennedy, of San Antonio. In the light, 
Kennedy was very much hurt, and died from the effects of his in- 
juries on Tuesday evening following. On Wednesday, Dr. M. P. 
Gibbons made a post-mortem examination on deceased, and on Wed- 
nesday a coroner's inquest was held by Judge Walker, when the jury 
rendered a verdict that Kennedy came to his death by the hands of 
Cora, with kicks from his feet and blows from a club of some kind. 
Deceased, who was a native of Scotland, aged 42 years, left a wife 
and three children. Cora was arrested and lodged in jail to await 
aiTaignment before the Grand Jury. 

Grain-warehouse building was a feature of this fall. Mr. Edmond- 



204 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

son added sixty feet to liis warehouse at Hay wards, and the Alameda 
Railroad Company erected warehouses at both San Leandro and 
Haywards. Capt. Roberts also added to the accommodation of the 
warehouse at his landing. It was a year of large crops. 

Ninety couples attended the ball of the Bi-ooklyn Guards, on the 
5th of October. The music was by Fuller's Band. 

There was a severer earthquake than that already mentioned, on 
Sunday, the 8th of October. It created quite a sensation, as it was 
felt in San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Petaluma, 
Stockton and Sacramento. At San Jose a portion of the fii-e-wall of 
the Jail was thrown down. At San Leandro the vibration was 
sufficient to toll the bell in the steeple of the Catholic Church, and the 
spire, 100 feet high, swayed like a reed in the wind, but no damage 
was done. Even the Court-house, which was considered an unsafe 
structure, withstood the shock. In Oakland no damage was done. 

On the 8th of October there died at San Leandro an old pioneer, 
named George Fleming, a respected gentleman, who had for a short 
time filled an official position. Mr. Fleming was born in Westmore- 
land County, Pa. In the year 1816 he went to Carlisle, Pa., and 
engaged in the printing business. In 1823 he became editor of the 
WeeJdy Religious Miscellany ; in 1830 editor of the Carlisle Exposi- 
tor, which was afterward united with the Herald, of which he was 
editor and proprietor until about the year 1837. In 183-4 he com- 
piled and published a collection of sacred music, called " Evangelical 
Music." His talent for music made him a valuable leader in public 
praise in the church, of which he was a member forty-three years. 
He held the office of Prothonatory of Cumberland County, Pa., dur- 
ing the administration of Gov. Ritner. He came to California across 
the plains in 1849 ; settled in Alameda County in 1853, on a farm 
on the San Lorenzo Rancho, where he resided until his removal to 
San Leandro, in 1863. He served part of that year as Associate 
Judge of the county. For several years previous to his death he 
was afflicted with disease of the brain, which gradually gained the 
mastery over his bodily and mental powers. 

In the month of October the Oakland Railroad was placed under 
the management of A. A. Cohen, who was the principal stockholder 
and Superintendent of the Alameda and Haywards road. This event 
was for some time expected, and was looked upon as adverse to the 
intex-ests of Oakland. 

In October the Brooklyn Guard mustered fifty -four men, rank and 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 205 

file. The list of its officers was as follows : Captain, ~W. Henry 
Hamilton ; First Lieutenant, John H. Campher ; Senond Lieutenant, 
John Sutch ; Third Brevet Lieutenant, Eben E. Webster ; Orderly- 
Sergeant, Asa Cochran ; Second Sergeant, George Lewds ; Third 
Sergeant, Caleb Cadwell ; Fourth Sergeant, Peter Rimelard ; Fifth 
Sergeant, Homer Sliuey ; First Corporal, Vernal S. Northey ; Second 
Corporal, Benjamin Neiderman ; Third Corporal, Alfi'ed "Wright ; 
Fourth Corporal, Enos Taylor ; Ensign, James Moffit ; Drummer, 
James Knapp. Regular drill night was every Saturday evening, at 
7h o'clock ; officers' drill and instruction, third Monday in each 
month ; squad drill, second and fourth Monday in each month ; 
stated meetings, first Monday in each month. 

At the Judicial election, held in October, S. W. Sanderson, the 
Republican nominee, received in this county, for Judge of the Su- 
preme Court, 390 more votes than Hartley, the Democratic nominee. 

Remillard Brothers started their first brickyard in Alameda 
County, at Haywards, in the latter part of this year, and made a 
good article. 

There was raised for the Contra Costa indebtedness this year 
$4,110.56, which sum was paid over to the Treasurer of that county, 
in compliance with the decisions of the Courts. 

As an addition to the agricultural facts already mentioned, it may 
be stated, on the authority of the local paper, that J. "W. Harlan, of 
San Leandro, raised a squash measuring seven feet si:i inches one 
way and nine feet the other, and weighed 142 lbs. ^ 

School opened in the new school-house, San Leandro, on the 13th 
of ISTovember, with Mr. Bullard and INIrs. Hart as teachers. It was 
pronotmced one of the finest then in the State, and cost altogether 
$3,800. The thanks of the community were due to Messrs. Geo. E. 
Smith, Lysander Stone and William Abel, the Trustees, for the 
attention they had given to its construction. 

The robbery of Chas. Garthwait's house, near Pleasanton, took 
place one night in October, in the absence of Mr. Garth wait. Mrs. 
Garthwait shot and wounded one of the robbers, named Welch, who 
was subsequently arrested. 

The Haywards Guards elected the following officers : Captain, A, 
L. Fuller ; First Lieutenant, Jas. A. Webster ; Second Lieutenant, 
Jos. H. Taylor; Third Lieutenant, D. C. Kennedy; Ordei'ly Ser- 
geant, Harvey Rice ; Sergeants, A . J. Packard, O. Lewelling, J. 
Meyers, D. St. Clair; Corporals, J. Davis, D. Walgen, Chas. Thoerer. 



206 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The new ferry steamer Alameda, built at the Potrero, San Fran- 
cisco, was launched on the 2d of December, and christened by ]Mrs. 
A. A. Cohen. She is yet doing good service on the ferry I'oute. 

Besides a military company, Hay ward rejoiced in a fire company, 
officered as follows : Chief Engineer, H. F. Irving ; Foreman, E. 
Dole ; 1st Assistant, Joseph Rivers ; 2d Assistant, H. li. Hrne ; 
Secretary, Thos. Glaskin ; Treasurer, Alex. Allen ; Hoseman, H. 
Fleury ; Assistant-Hoseman, Chris. Hermann. 

A grand new railroad project was confidently s})oken of in Decem- 
ber. It included the extension of the San Francisco and Alameda 
line to the Western Pacific, at Washington Corners ; the continuance 
of the Haywards Road to Amador Valley ; the Oakland Road to be 
continued to Goat Island in the bay ; a northern road to be run to 
Placerville, crossing the Straits of Carquinez. The plan then laid 
down has been partially followed by the Central Pacific Company, 
into whose hands all our railroads and ferries subsequently fell. 

Eight degrees below freezing point was the depth to v/hich the 
mercury fell one very cold December night in San Leandro. 

Jas. McCurdy, the owner of a drinking saloon in Haywards, 
announced his new year's sports in the following open, artless man- 
ner : "Sport! sport 1 On New Year's Day, Monday, January 1, 
1866, at Haywards, commencing at 10 o'clock, shooting, raffling, 
freeze-out, poker, seven-up, etc., etc., for turkeys, geese and all kinds 
of game, and meerschaum pipes. Come one, come everybody, and 
have a merry* New Year !" 

There was no meeting of the Legislature this year. Our C*ounty 
Senator was Mr. Henry Robinson, of Alameda ; and our late As- 
semblymen, Mr. Thos. Eagar, of Brooklyn, and J. L. Wilson, of 
Washington. 



\^Z^— Target Shooting— Western Pacific Railroad— A $10,000-^er- 
Mile Railroad Subsidi/ Passed by the Legislature —Vetoed by the 
Governor — Railroad Proposed to Goat Island — T. D. Judah 
Marks the Island Out as the Terminal Point of the Trans- 
continental Railroad — Tlte Clinton Cotton Mill in Operation — 
The BoA Ltick of an ex-Convict — A Home-made Locomotive^A 
" IS^o-Pence Law" Agitation — A Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany Organized — Mr. Robinson Introduces a Bill to Provide a 
Dog Tax — The Alameda Park Hotel Sold at Auction — A Post- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 207 

office Established at Harrishurij — Masonic Celebration at Centre- 
ville — Telegraph Road Commission — An Indian Convicted of 
Murder — Tlie Gilman Bridge Debt — The Vallejo Mill Property 
Sold — Turnpiked Road Through Clinton — Octavia Cora, on a 
i Second Trial, Convicted of Manslaughter — A $ Mark necessary 

I to Legalize a School Tax — Officers of the Brighton Cattle Market 

I ■ — Prices Fetched There — New Time Table of the Alameda and 

j Ilayioards Railroad — Jackson Guards Organized in Oakland — 

I New Supervisors Take Their Seats — New Warehouse — A Freed- 

man's Association — San Leandro Brightening Up — Ward Avenue 
Opened — Stock in Murray Toionship — " Cancelling " the Court- 
I house Walls — Horse Show at Centreville — Ad Valorem Tax — 

Base Ball Match at Clinton — May Celebrations General — Grad- 
ing in A lameda Caiion — Presentation to the Haywards Guards- 
Murder of Saunders M. Simpson — Income Tax Suspended — Fe- 
nian Brotherhood — Time Extended — County Fair — May Rains — 
Enrolling Voters — Great Growth of Grain — Laborers Scarce — 
Cattle Thief Arrested — Warm Weather — A Murderer Surrenders 
Himself — Supervisors Elect — Death of Judge Keeny — Horse 
Thief Shot — Cheap Lots and ^^ Night's Diamond Blankets"— 
Severe Norther. 

Target-shooting vras the natiiral offspring of so many military com- 
panies. A match came off at Haywards, on the 1st of January, be- 
tween the Haywards Guard and the Alvarado Guard. Thirty men 
from each company fired three rounds each at the target. The Alva- 
radons made 985 points and the Haywardens 1,030, thereby winning 
the match by 45 points. In the evening the contestants were enter- 
tained by a ball at Haywaixl's Hotel, at which many lovely ladies 
were present to smile upon the gallant defenders of the State. 

The annual meeting of the Western Pacific Railroad Company 
was held at San Jose, on the 8th inst., when the following Directors 
were elected : Chas. H. Fox, John Center, E. F. Pease, Chas. AV. 
Sanger, San Francisco ; B. F. Mann, S. O. Houghton, San Jose ; 
and M. J. Dooly, Stockton. The follo^viIlg Directors were elected 
as ofiicers of the company : President, Chas. H. Fox ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, S. O. Houghton ; Secretary, Chas. W. Sanger ; Treasurer, B. 
F. Mann. The report stated that work on this road had been com- 
menced about a year ago, under contract to Chas. McLaughlin, who 
prosecuted the work with energy. Grading of twenty miles of the 



208 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

road had been completed. In the Alameda Canon were through cuts 
of over sixty feet in depth, and side-liill cuts of much greater depth. 
Some of the embankments were over fifty feet in heighth, and were 
retained at the bottom by huge walls of solid masonry. Over 1,000 
feet of heavy bridging was constructed, some of them as high as 
thirty feet above the water. Cross ties for twenty miles were deliv- 
ered on the road, and that twenty miles of the road would be in 
working order within four months, for which the rolling stock had 
been already received. Iron for 100 miles, between Vallejo's Mills 
and Sacramento, had been purchased; and befoi-e the close of 1866 
it was supposed trains would be ranning to Stockton, thus complet- 
ing the first link of the great Pacific Railroad. 

The Legislature was in session in Sacramento, in January, and the 
Alameda Railroad Company went before it with a modest demand 
for a subsid}'- of $10,000 per mile ! Mr. Robinson, Senator for the 
county, desired an expression of opinion from his constituents on the 
merits of the bill, and he got it in the shape of numerous i-emon- 
stranoes against it. The subsidy asked for was to be raised by a tax 
of 25c. on the $100 of the property of the people. The bill was 
passed, but vetoed by the Governor. 

Among the many x-ailroad enterprises afloat at this time was one 
for the construction of a road from Oakland to Goat Island. A 
j^rofile of the proposed road was filed in the Recorder's Ofiice, on 
the 22d of January, certified by Chas. Main, President ; Periguine 
Fitzhugh, Secretary ; and L. H. Shoi*t, Chief Engineer. The route 
was in a direct line from the outer end of the San Francisco and 
Oakland Railroad Companies' AVharf to the Island. The distance 
over which the road was to be constructed was nearly two miles, and 
the greatest depth of water to be passed over v/as about sixty feet. 
Such a road would give railroad communication to within 1|- miles of 
San Francisco. Goat Island was looked upon, by railroad engineers, 
as the terminal point of the transcontinental railroad, and as early 
as 1863, T. D. Judah, the original projector of the Central Pacific 
Railroad, put his finger on this spot in the map and said to an Oak- 
land engineer, " thei-e is the point to which we will ultimately have 
to go." All efforts, however, to place Goat Island in the possession 
of a railroad company have been defeated in Congress, that island 
being United States property. 

The Clinton Cotton Mills were well under way, employing 20 
girls, and turning out 500 yards of sheeting per day. The raw 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 209 

material was brouglit from Mexico. Thirty looms were in place, and 
a Mr. Fortner was Superintendent. 

A man named Welch was competed of grand larceny in the 
County Court and sentenced by Judge Hamilton to eighteen months 
confinement in the State Prison at San Quentin. He told a tale of 
his hardships which entitled him to sympathy, if true, and reminds one 
of some of the incidents in the play of " The Ticket of Leave Man." 
Welch stated that after serving a term some time previously at San 
Quentin he resolved to lead a correct life, and went honestly to work 
on a ranch in Santa Clara County. Pretty soon, however, some of 
his acquaintances, formed during the term of his confinement, came 
along, and recognizing him threatened to "blow" on him if he did 
not give them money. He stood this as long as he could, but finally 
fled from them to avoid exposure, and went over among the Amador 
hills, where he thoiight himself secure from his vile tormentors. He 
had been there but a little while when his confederates in the crime 
for which he was then suffering came along and recognized him. 
They declared if he did not go with them and help to commit the 
robbery they would kill him, and he yielded. 

A fine locomotive of twenty tons burden, called the "J. G. Kel- 
logg," was turned out of the railroad machine shop in Alameda on 
the 27th January, manufiictured under the supervision of Mr. A. J. 
Stevens, the Master Mechanic of the Alameda Railroad. It was 
four months building ; had an 1 1-inch cylinder with a 22-inch stroke. 
It was considered a very creditable piece of machinery. 

The gi^eat questions in this county during the meeting of the Legis- 
lature was the " No-fence law," introduced in a bill by Assemblyman 
Eagar, and the railroad subsidy. Ojiinions were so mvich divided 
that the "No-fence" bill was withdrawn; and although the subsidy 
bill passed, it was strongly protested against, and at a meeting in 
Oakland, on the 27th of March, the Governor was called upon to 
veto it, which he did. 

The first steps were taken towards the construction of a Southern 
Pacific Railroad in Januaiy of this year. A company was organized 
and filed its certificate of incorporation in the oflice of the Secretary 
of State. The amount of capital was fixed at $33,000. T. G. 
Phelps was President of the Company. Among the incorporators 
were AVm. T. Coleman and C. J. Hutchinson, of San Francisco ; 
Hon. P. Banning, of Los Angeles; Capt. Johnson, of San Diego. 
The line was to commence at the Bay of San Francisco and run to 

14 



210 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

the Bay of San Diego ; thence to the eastern line of the State of 
California, and connect with the great overland line from the Mis- 
sissippi. The great southern road is now completed as far as Los 
Angeles, and Oakland is its terminus. 

Senator Robinson introduced a bill in the Legislature to impose a 
dog-tax and regulate the collection of the same. The editor of the 
Gazette pronounced this an important measure, and cited the fact, in 
evidence, that a considerable portion of Dana's book, " Two Years 
Before the Mast," was devoted to a description of the dogs of South- 
em California. 

The Alameda Park Hotel, built at the opening of the Alameda 
Railroad, was sold in February by auction to satisfy an execution 
against it. 

A postoffice was established at Peacock's Hotel, near AVarm 
Springs, in February, called Harrisburg, which still continues in the 
charge of the same postmaster, Mr. Geo. W. Peacock. 

The social event of the month of February was the Masonic cele- 
bration at Centreville, on the 2 2d. It was pronounced a magnificent 
afiair, consisting of a ball and supper, at which 240 pei-sons were pre- 
sent. 

At a second target match, on the 2 2d of February, the Hay wards 
Company again beat the Alvarado Company. 

A commission was appointed jointly by the Contra Costa and Ala- 
meda Boards of Supervisors to survey the Telegraph Road ^\ith a 
view to its permanent improvement. 

In the District Court, an Indian named Rupardo was convicted of 
murder in the second degree, and sentenced to thirteen years impris- 
onment at San Quentin. 

The case of Gilman vs. Contra Costa County, for the building of the 
,San Antonio bridge in 1852, and which even yet keeps cropping out 
occasionally in some form or other, came before the Supreme Court at 
Sacramento in the beginning of March, and a verdict rendered thereon 
adversely to the claimant. The history of this bridge matter is in- 
terestiing- We have gone through one phase of it in some of our first 
chapters, showing the transactions between the Court of Sessions and 
the Board of Supervisors of Alameda Coimty on the one part, and 
Horace W. Car|>entier on the other, i-egarding the same. The follow- 
ing narrative is taken from a local paper, and shows how an oiiginal 
debt of $7,400 was inci-eased to the magnitude of $85,000 in a few 
years. Following are the features of the case : 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 211 

SHARP VS. CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

The case of Sharp, as assignee of T. C. Oilman, vs. Contra Costa 
County, was before the Supreme Court at its present term. As this 
matter is of interest to the people of this county (as they were liable 
for their portion of any judgment Sharp might recover) we make the 
following extracts from the brief filed in the case by H. Mills, Esq., 
then District Attorney for Contra Costa County : 

In 1852 one T. C. Gilman built a bridge for Contra Costa County, 
across San Antonio Creek, now, and since 1853, in Alameda County, 
under contract with the Board of Supervisors of Contra Costa County, 
wherein it was agreed to pay by warrant the sum of $7,400, and the 
further agreement, that if the Treasurer did not pay said warrant 
that the County would pay a penalty of five per cent, per month, 
which should be deemed as interest thereon. 

The warrant No. 216 was drawn and delivered on completion of 
said bridge, for the said sum, without specifying any rate of interest. 
In the year 1856 Gilman recovered judgment on said contract 
(said warrant being still outstanding) for the sum of $20,427 and 
costs, which judgment was assigned to plaintiff, Geo. F. Sharp, Jan- 
uary 12th, 1857. 

During the year 1860 said plaintiff. Sharp, revived in his own 
name said Gilman judgment, as hereinafter stated. 

That each party, plaintiff and defendant, fully complied with the 
terms of the Act of 1865, except that plaintiff had not satisfied of 
record said judgment or the demands mentioned in said Act. 

The complaint shows that Gilman had a judgment in 1856, March 
12th, for $20,427, which bore interest at five per cent, per month, 
and costs, and upon which nothing had been paid. Plaintiff, if enti- 
tled to judgment for anything, was only entitled to judgment for 
about $64,000. Instead of taking judgment for said amount, plain- 
tiff took it for $85,000, the same being for $21,000 or more too much, 
and also that the judgment boi'e interest at five per cent, per month. 
The contract was a fraud upon defendant, because : 
Fix'st — The Board of Supervisors had no power to make the contract. 
Second — The agreement to pay five per cent, per month penalty, 
as interest, was illegal and prohibited by law. 

The judgment sued upon was entered without authority of law, 
and was void. 

The Clerk had only authority to enter judgments on default in the 
cases mentioned in the statute. 



212 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The Clerk entered judgment for a larger amount than prayed in 
complaint, in this, to- wit : He entered judgment that the judgment 
bear interest from date of entry at the rate of five per cent, per 
month. 

The agreement to pay more than the legal rate of interest by the 
Board of Supervisors, acting in the name of the defendant, is void 
under the statute, and no judgment entered upon default of defendant 
could be made binding or valid for a larger rate of interest than that 
fixed by law, otherwise the same would accomplish that which is pro- 
hibited by statute. 

The contract undertakes to fix a penalty, and the Clerk could ren- 
der no judgment thereunder, nor could tlie Board of Supervisors, by 
authority of law, make the defendant liable either for pains or 
penalties. 

For the purpose of giving construction and eifect to said Act of 
1860, the Court looked at the facts of the case, from which it 
appeared : 

1st. That at the date of making the contract between Gilman and 
defendant, there was no law authorizing a suit against defendant. 

2d. In 1855 the Legislature provided a remedy for plaintifi" (to- 
wit : the Funding Act, before referred to), which remedy plaintifi" 
lost by his neglect to comply with the terms thereof. 

3d. It was admitted as a fact in this case, that at the time of the 
making of said Act of 1860, the plaintifi" was without remedy for the 
enforcement of his claim. 

4th. The defendant, without the action of the Legislature, could 
not pay the claim, or any part thereof, there being no authority to 
levy taxes save in the Legislature. 

5th. It is settled beyond question that the Legislature may 
impose taxes for any purpose they may choose, and it follows that, 
having such authority, they, the Legislature, may do so upon such 
terms as to them may seem just. 

Contra Costa County vs. Board of Supei-visors Alameda County, 
and cases there cited, 26 Cal., 646. 

6th. The levy of taxes by the Act of 1860 was made upon the 
terms stated in said Act ; the consideration was the settlement of this 
claim. 

7th. The pai-ty (plaintifi' in this case) having no remedy, obtain 
of the Legislature what they decide is due, and without compelling 
him to accept of their ofier, they do say, in emphatic language, that 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 213 

unless plaintiff shall accept and make known his acceptance of the 
sum levied as taxes in full payment and satisfaction of all demands 
against defendant, he shall not have the benefit of the remedy pro- 
vided for him in said Act. 

8th. The plaintiff did accept and did make known his acceptance 
in'full satisfaction of all demands, and, upon the faith of his declara- 
tion made as provided by said Act, the defendant did fully comply 
by levy, collection and payment of the sum mentioned to plaintiff, 
who further acknowledged compliance with the terms agi'eed upon 
by giving receipts, stating that such sums were by him received in 
full satisfaction, according to the tenns of said Act of 1860. 

In view of the foregoing, defendant submitted that the defence in 
this case relied upon either payment and satisfaction, accord and sat- 
isfaction, release and dischai-ge, compromise and satisfaction, or part 
payment as satisfaction in full. 

The laws of this State nowhere give the Board of Supervisors 
authority to agi-ee, on behalf of the coiinty, except as follows : By 
auditing an account ; by directing the Auditor to draw a warrant 
upon the Treasurer, and he, said Treasurer, shall pay, if he has in 
his hands moneys, not othei-wise appropriated, belonging to the 
county. If he has not the money, he shall endoi-se upon such war- 
rant, " not paid, for want of funds," and the amount specified in such 
Avarrant shall thereafter draw interest at the rate of ten per cent, per 
annum, until i-edeemed. 

This was tlie law in force, and the only mode of payment at the 
time of making the Oilman contract. The penalty stated in contract 
was wholly unwarranted by law. 

At the time of making the Gilman contract, individuals might 
agree upon any rate of interest, and, if they so chose, could agree 
that the interest, after due, might be added to the principal, and 
thereafter bear interest, etc. Now, if the Board of Supervisors had 
the authority to agree to pay more than ten per cent, per annum 
interest money (which was denied), it was not by them agreed in 
this case, in writing, that the penalty, or interest mentioned, should 
ever be added to the principal sum, as is shown to have been done in 
this case. The statute, being in contravention of the common law, is 
to be strictly construed. 

The Vallejo Mill property, consisting of the mill, water privileges 
and twelve acres of land, passed into the possession of J. S. Doe, of 
San Francisco, who bought under a decree of sale on moi-tgage for 



214 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

foreclosure, for about $30,000. The purchase was made in the early 
part of March. 

The road through Clinton was this month turnpiked and covered 
with a coating of gravel. 

Octavia Cora, charged with the killing of Samuel Kennedy, at 
Brooklyn, was, on his second trial, on the 2d of March, in the District 
Coui-t, convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced by Judge McKee to 
three years confinement in the State Prison. 

Some parties belonging to the Union School District of San Lean- 
dro objected to paying their school taxes on technical ground, and 
on suit being brought against them, Judge McKee decided that tlie 
tax could not be enforced, owing to the absence of a $ mark in the 
assessment roll. 

The following is quoted to give an idea of the prices brought in 
the Brighton Cattle Market, established last year, near Haywards : 

BRIGHTON CATTLE MARKET. 

Haywood, Apiil 11th, 1866. 

1 bull, $20 ; 16 calves, $9 per head ; 16 calves, $8.25 per head ; 
2 cows and calves, $30 and $36 ; 3 cows, $75 per head ; 4 cows, $50 
per head ; 5 cows, $40 per head ; 50 cows, unsold, offered at $25 to 
$30 per head ; 50 yearlings, $7 per head ; 24 cattle, $20 per head; 
40 cattle, $18 per head ; 60 cattle, $16 per head ; 120 cattle, $15.50 
per head ; 50 cattle, unsold, too thin ; 3 horses, $68 each ; 2 mares, 
$75 each ; 2 mares, harness and wagon, $225. 

Remarks. — 15 extra milch cows, blood stock, offered at $100 to 
$150 per head; no sales. 75 pigs arrived too late for the market. 
Beef cattle, heavy American, in demand ; none in market. Stock 
offered in market very thin and mixed lot. Sheep offers, to arrive, 
$3.25 per head ; Weathers, do, $5 ; none in market. Milch cows, 
pi'ices declining ; prices asked, too high ; purchasers plenty, at lower 
rates. 

The following officers of the Brighton Cattle Market were elected 
in March : President, Wm. Fulton ; Vice-president, W. H. Souther ; 
Trustees, W. Knox, D. C. Kennedy, Alex. Allen. Board of 
Directors — F. P. Lauterwasso, President; E. A. Haines, John 
Searles, H. D. Ellerhorst, J. A. Mayhew ; C. T. Ward, Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

Following is the new time-table of the San Francisco and Alameda 
Railroad, after completion to Hay wai-ds ; it is interesting as a thing 
of the past : 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 215 

San Francisco and Alameda Railroad and FeiTy Line. From 
Pacific Street Wharf. From San Francisco : 9:30 a. m. ; 1:30, 4:15, 
6 p. M. From Alameda: 7:45, 9:45 a. m. ; 1:45, 4:30 p. m. From 
San Leandi-o : 7:25, 9:25 A. M. ; 1:25, 4:10 p. M. From Hay wards : 
7, 9 a. M. ; 1, 3:45 p. M. Sunday time. From San Francisco : 9, 
11:30 A. M. ; 2, 4:45, 6 p. m. From Alameda: 9:10, 11:40 A. M. ; 
2:10, 4:55 p. M. From San Leandro : 8:50, 11:20 a. m. ; 1:50, 4:35 
p. M. From Haywards: 8:30, 11 a. M. ; 1:30, 4:15 p. m. The 6 p. 
M. trip from San Francisco on Saturday evenings, and 7 A. M. from 
Haywards on Sundays, will be omitted. A commodious and safe 
carriage-way at each landing. Live stock taken at reduced rates. 
Alfred A. Cohen, General Superintendent S. F. and A. R. R. 

The Jackson Guards, of Oakland, were organized latter end of 
March, and the Board of Supervisoi-s allowed them $50 per month 
for rent of armory. 

The new Board of Supervisors took their seats March 6th, when 
Mr. R. S. Farrelly was elected chairman. 

In AprU Mr. T. J. Edmondson erected a grain warehouse at San 
Leandro, the dimensions of which were 50x200 feet. 

A Freedman's Association was established at San Leandro this 
month, with Judge Hamilton, of the County Court, as President ; 
S. G. Nye, as Vice-President ; J. W. Josselyn, Secretary and Treas- 
urer, and L. J. Bullard, Collector. 

In the spring of this year matters looked cheerful for San Leandro, 
and it was in a flourishing condition. Ward Avenue, an alameda one 
mile in length, running to the foot-hills, was opened and planted with 
shade trees, furnishing a handsome drive, for which much credit was 
due to the projector, Mr. J. B. Ward. 

MuiTay Township was looming up about this time as a market for 
fine stock. In ten days Mr. S. B. Martin sold 57 head of fine 
horses, and Mr. Dougherty and other importers also sold many ani- 
mals. A Clydesdale three-year-old stallion, belonging to Mr. Martin, 
was sold for $1,000. 

An advertisement appeared in the San Leandro Gazette, of March 
31st, signed by I. A. Amerman, County Clerk, inviting sealed pro- 
posals for painting the Court-house and cancelling the walls. Calct- 
minvng, no doubt, was intended. The cancelling, however, was 
pretty effectually done on the 28th of October, 1868, when the eartjh- 
quake took charge of the job. 

There was a horse show held at Centre ville, on the 28th of April, 



216 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

when some fine samples of stock were exhibited. The farmers and 
stock-owners present wei-e expected to consider the subject of holding 
a county fair in the Fall, but the matter received no attention. 

The ad valorem tax, for State purposes, was fixed at $1.10 on 
each $100 of property. 

The first important base-ball match in the county took place in 
Clinton, on the 21st of April, between the City College Club, of San 
Francisco, and the Live Oak Club, of Oakland. There was a large 
and fashionable attendance, many ladies from San Francisco and 
Oakland having been spectators. The game was brought to a close 
after eight innings, the City Club having declined to play the last. 
At the close the score stood 39 to 84 in favor of the Live Oak Club. 
The Oakland boys treated their vanquished rivals to a dinner in the 
evening, after the contest, and the affair terminated in a happy and 
friendly manner. 

May celebrations were general. The " Always Happy " Lodge of 
Good Templars held a pic-nic at Haywards, on the 3d, at which a 
table 130 feet long was spread for the guests. The Odd Fellows 
held a ball at Centreville, which brought together a large company, 
and everythmg passed off" with that good order and good feeling 
which is a notable feature of all social gatherings in Alameda 
County. 

In April Messi'S. Cox & Arnold, contractors for grading the 
Western Pacific Railroad from San Jose to Stockton, resumed opera- 
tions in the Alameda Canon, above Vallejo's Mills, after a cessation 
of work for the winter months. 

On the 28th of April a flag and address were presented to the 
Haywards Guai'ds, by Miss Haymer, ou^behalf of the ladies of the 
place, which Captain Fuller accepted on behalf of the company. 

Calvin Perkins, Joseph Fisher and a number of others took a 
large number of mustang horses from this county to Salt Lake, for 
sale, 

Mr. Sanders M. Simpson, an estimable citizen and brother-in-law 
of Mr. Greene Patterson and" Joseph Black, of Mun-ay Township, 
was most brutally murdered in bed, by his herder, in the month of 
May, at Carral Hollow. The guilty man was arrested, convicted, 
and sentenced to State Prison for life. 

Notice was given this month that assessment for the income-tax 
was susj^ended till fui'ther notice. 

A circle of the Fenian Brotherhood, then a powerful oi-gauization, 
was established in Oakland. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 217 

Tlie time for completing the fir^t section of the Western Pacilic 
Raih-oad havmg expired, it was extended by Congress at the instance 
of Senator Conness. There was fear that the company would claim 
some of the lands of the ex-Mission as a portion of their grant, and 
on May 23d Judge Crane publicly stated that the company set up 
no such claim. 

At a mestiug held at the Brighton Cattle Market, on May 30th, 
a committee for each town was appointed to arrange matters for a 
County Fair. 

There were heavy rains in the latter part of May. That the last 
rains came regularly in the third week of this month, is shown by 
the following statement, taken from competent authority, which also 
gives the amount of rain-fall each day. It will be of service to those 
who do not understand this peculiarity of our climate : 



1801 - - - 


May 


18th, 19th, 20th 


_ 


- 0.69 in. 


1852 - - - 




17th 


. - 


.30 in. 


1853 - - - 




24th 


. 


.05 in. 


1854 - - - 






. . 


.00 in. 


1855 - - - 




11th to 20th 


. - 


- 2.14 in. 


1856 - - - 




19th to 25th 




.86 in. 


1857 - - - 






- . 


.00 in. 


1858 - - - 




none after 7th 


. . 




1859 - - - 




2 2d 


- 


- .05 in. 


1860 - - - 




18th to 25 th 


- . 


- 1.27 in. 


1861 - - - 




20th and 2 2d 


- 


.55 in. 


1862 - - - 




none after 12th 


. 




1863 - - - 




18th and 19th 


- - 


- .41 in. 


1864 - - - 




17th 


- . 


.34 in. 


1865 - - - 




18th 


. - 


.27 in. 


1866 - - - 




22d, 24th, 26th, 28th - 


- 1-64 in. 



As the law required that all persons claiming the right to vote 
should be enrolled in their respective townships, the following En- 
rolling Clerks were appointed for each township : Alameda, Charles 

H. Haile ; Brooklyn, ; Eden, Joel Russell ; Murray, J. 

W. Dougherty ; Oakland City, Perry Johnson ; Oakland Township, 
T. L. Walker ; Washington, J. Shinn. 

As a sample of the prolific growth of grain this year, Mr. E. 
Munion, of Centre ville, left at the ofiice of the Alta California, San 
Francisco, a bunch of white Australian wheat, consisting of 120 
stalks, each with a fairly developed head, all grown from a single 
grain. This was noticed in the Alta of the 10th of July. The 
growth was so dense this year that the grain was much affected by 
rust. 



218 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Under date of July 15th, a correspondent at Centreville wrote to 
the Gazette : " Labor is in good demand, f:\rmers are in want of bind- 
ers, white men are scarce, and the result, as might be expected, is a 
forced necessity to employ Mongolians." 

On the 15th of July a notorious cattle tliief, named Edwardo 
Ghiardo, was arrested in a cafion near Mount Diablo, by Sheriif 
Moi-se. 

The weather was very warm in July, and at the Mission of San 
Jose on the 18th the thermometer stood at 110 degrees in the shade. 

On the 11th of August one Chavoye entered Justice Smith's Coui-t 
at San Leandro, and surrendered himself for the killing of one 
Richardo, near Pleasanton, on the evening before. 

Following were the Supervisors elected in September, for the en- 
suing year : Oakland, F. K. Shattuck ; Brooklyn, R. S. Fai-relly ; 
Eden, J. B. Marlin ; Washington, Wm. Threlfall ; Murray, John 
Green. 

On Thursday, the 6th day of September, died at San Leandro 
Justice Hiram Keeny, an old resident of the county, at the age of 
sixty years. He came from Indiana in 1852, and had been a resi- 
dent of San Leandro since 1856. 

Sheriif Morse, in attempting to arrest a notorious horse thief, 
named Narcisso Bojorques, in Sunol Yalley, shot him, but the fellow 
nevertheless escaped. When he first saw the Sheriff, he drew a large 
navy revolver and snapped it at the officer, but it failed to go off. 

A Brooklpi coiTespondent of the Gazette, who was in the habit of 
disporting himself under the giiise of " Louise " (the freight boat), 
wrote as follows, under date of October 20th, regarding cheap lots in 
San Antonio : "Twenty-five dollars will buy a lot 25x140 in the old 
town plot of San Antonio. This is a cheap investment, and you are 
requii-ed to pay only one-half down, the balance in twelve months. 
Why, they are worth that to fence in for a con-al to furnish the 
owner Avith cheap lodgings and plenty of fresh air, with only ' night's 
diamond blanket' for a covering." They cannot be hatl so cheap as 
that now, by a very long way. 

There was a very severe *' norther " which blew a perfect gale on 
the 15th of October. It did much damage to fruit, and blew down 
the liberty-pole on the Court-house square in San Leandro. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



219 



PIONEER STOVE STORE, 




JAMES DALZIEL, 



-MANUFACTURER OF- 



Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Wares 

And Dealer in Medallion, Eiclimond, and all Best Style Eaiiges. 

1163 BROADWAY, 2 DOORS ABOVE THIRTEENTH ST. 

Jobbing of all kinds promptly attended to. Motal Roofing done in the Boat Manner. 



S. FRANCIS, 




1006 BROADWAY, 



Three Doors from Tenth St. 



OAKLAND. 



THE BEST IS ALWAYS THE CHEAPEST. 
1 get up first-class work for loss money 
than San Francisco. Call and satisfy yourself. 
Remember the place, 

Benitz Block, 1006 Broadway. 




A Fine Selection of Foreign and Domestic CLOTHS. BEAVERS and CASSIMERES. 
for Dress and Business Suits, made in the Latest Stylo, and warranted to 



220 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

FRENCH, STUART & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

Furniture and Bedding 

NICOL BLOCK, 

4']6 J^inth Street , bet. (Broadw.iy and Wasliington Sts., 

OAKLAND. 



Parties furnishing will do well to give us a call. Our Stock is 
large and new, and prices low, 

ARTIFICIAL 

SUILDING ^TONE 

PLAIJV AJVD ORJSTAMEA^TAL, 

MANUFACTtJItKD BY THE 

PACIFIC STONE CO., OAKLAND, 



O EWERS, Continuous Pipes, Belting Courses, Chimney Tops, 
^ Hitching Posts, Carriage Blocks, Window Caps, Sills, Water 
Tables, Steps, Sidewalks, Fountain Basins, Cemetery Work, Monu- 
ments, Lot Fencing, Vases, Mosaic Tiles, in any design or color. 
Cheaper than native Stone. 

Works, cor. SecoRl and Fraiikliii Sts. Dice, No. 472 Seventli Street. 

L. L. Leathers, Supt. F. Chappellet, President. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 221 



CHAPTER XX. 



FROM THE REORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, IN 
OCTOBER, 1866, TO THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1868. 



1866 Continued — Stock Show at Brighton Market, nea,r Hai/iixirds — 
A Iloi'se Race and Gentlemen Jockeys— The County Agricultural 
Society Reorganized and Officers Elected — Advent of General 0. 
H. La Grange at San Leandro — Sycamore Lodge of Odd Fellows 
Instituted at Hay wards — Assessed Value of Property — Internal 
Revenue Tax — Death of L. Legrange — Numher of Children of 
School Age — Contra Costa Debt — First Gas-lamp in the County 
— Semi-annual Statement of County Finances — Legislation of 
1866. 
A stock show was held at Hay wards on the 31st of October, con- 
tinuing on the 1st of November. The day was fine and as it was in 
contemplation to reestablish the County Agricultural Society, there was 
a large attendance of peo])le from the surrounding country. Judge 
Hamilton delivered an inaugural address, which gave much satisfac- 
tion, and was very appi'opriate for the occasion. There was consider- 
able racing, and among the matches was one between Wm. Meek's 
mare "Jane" and Joel Russell's mai'e "Rose," the owners riding their 
respective animals, and doing so handsomely. No drinking places 
were allowed on the gi'ound. 

The follomng officers of the new Agricultural Society were elected 
to serve for the ensuing year: President, Wm. Meek; Secretary, C. 
F. Ward; Treasurer, J. S. Walker; Corresponding Secretary, I. A. 
A merman. A Committee on constitution and by-laws was appointed 
to report at a subsequent meeting. A number of awards were made, 
but no pi-izes were ofiered. 

The California Teacher speaking of the aiTival here of General O. 
H. La Grange, paid the distinguished gentleman the following compli- 
ment: "Gen. O. H. La Grange, recently from the State of Wiscon- 
sin, has assumed the principalship of the Grammar School at San 
Leandro. Gen. La Grange was engaged in teaching in Wisconsin at 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



the breaking out of the rebellion, when he gave up the spelling book, 
entered the army, and fought his way up to the title of Brigadier- 
General. We give him a most cordial welcome to this State, and 
congratulate the people of San Leandro on their good fortune in se- 
curing a man who will make their school one of the best in the State." 

On the 1 3th of November an Odd Fellows' Lodge was instituted at 
Hay wards, which was named and numbered Sycamore Lodge No. 
129. 

The total valuation of assessed property in Alameda County for 
the current year was $.5,620,976.50. The county paid $63,.528.74 of 
internal revenue tax, and 551 individuals were fortunate enough to 
possess sufficient incomes to be taxed, while 12 persons returned in- 
comes of over $10,000, the richest of whom was N, Van Bei'gen, 
who returned $30,628 per annum. The number of carriages that 
paid taxes was 443 ; pianos, 133 ; gold watches, 392 ; ounces of sil- 
ver-plate, 2,661 ; billiard tables, 42 ; yachts, 2. 

Mr. L. Legrange, a prominent citizen of the county, residing near 
Centre ville, died suddenly of heart disease, on the 8th of December. 
He was a valuable citizen and much regretted. 

The number of children of school age — between the ages of 7 and 
15 — in the county, on the 30th of June, 1866, was officially reported 
at 2,742, of which 701 were in Oakland City. 

The Contra Costa debt, which was allowed to haunt the county 
since its formation, seemed to be in a fair way of final liquidation. 
On December 13th the balance due, with interest, was $2,339.63. 
Of the special tax to meet it at the same time there was in the 
treasury $2,715.27. 

The first gas lamp-post erected in Alameda County was put up at 
the corner of Broadway and Seventh Street, Oakland, in the month 
of December, whereat there was much congratulation. 

The Board of Supervisors, in compliance with the requirements of 
the law, made a semi-annual statement on the 3d of December, of 
the revenue and finances of the county, and the existing indebtedness 
at that date. The receipts from all sources wei-e as follows : 
From State Fund, $56,711.26; from County General Fund, $19,- 
752.11; from Common School Fund, $15,469.67; from Eoad and 
Bridge Fund, $23,176.70; from Indigent Sick Fund, $4,379.02; 
from Oakland Bar Fund, $3,882.52 ; from Contra Costa Fund, $2,- 
453.01. Total, $125,824.29. Cash on hand June 4th, 1866, $13,- 
137.22. Grand total of receipts, $138,961.51. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 223 

Tlie legislation of the year 1866, for Alameda County, was as 
follows : 

An Act to establish an Agricultural, Mining and Mechanics Art 
College. 

An Act to establish a Police Court in the City of Oakland, and 
deJSne its jurisdiction ; duties and fees of Court and its officers. To 
have a judge, clerk, seal ; to have jurisdiction in petit larceny, assault 
and batteiy, breaches of the peace, violation of city ordinances, city 
taxes, sums of money less than §300, bonds, recovery of city pi-o- 
perty, license, etc. 

An Act creating a Board of Education. To consist of eight 
members, to be elected, and have a president, superintendent, clerk ; 
disposal of school moneys, and to be governed by school law. To 
take effect 1st May, 1866. 

An Act in relation to the City Courts of Oakland. M.iyor no 
longer to exercise power of justice. The Police Judge shall have 
power to hear cases for examination, and may commit and hold 
offenders to bail. 

An Act granting to P. J. Vandewater, his associates, their suc- 
cessors or assigns the right to construct, maintain and operate a 
railroad in certain streets of the City of Oakland. On Second, 
Fourth, Eighth, Twelfth and Market Streets, including Twenty-eighth 
to the San Pablo Road, to the city limits. 

An Act to grant the Oakland Railroad Company the light of way 
for a railroad track in the City of Oakland and Alameda County, 
and to run hoi-se-cars thereon. The Oakland Railroad Company, a 
corporation incorporated in 1861, to have right of way to run horse- 
cars from end of Broadway to Temescal Creek, and thence to the 
grounds of the College of California, for thirty years. 

An Act to allow mileage to Grand and Trial Jurors in Alameda 
County. Allowing 20c. per mile. 

An Act creating live additional Notaries Public. 

An Act concerning hogs running at large. Penalty for neglecting 
to pay for sale of hogs by constables. 

An Act preventing stallions running at large. 

An Act establishing terms of District Court. 

An Act amending Road Act. 

An Act providing for maintenance of pounds. 

An Act for Superintendent of Schools to furnish annual estimate 
of school moneys to Trustees. 



224 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

1867—-^ Year of Activity and Enterprise — Departure of the Hon. 
John Wilson — Lawlessness and Crime — An Editor Called to 
Account — Railroad "Benefits" — The Alameda Park Hotel Con- 
verted Into a Private Insane Asylum — Death of Jesse Beard — 
Prisoners Break Jail — - The New Agricultural Association 
Stirring — New Presbyterian Church at San Leandro Dedicated 
— Good Templars doing Good Work — Election of the Agricultural 
Association — A Report from the Brighton Cattle Market Associa- 
tion — Registration of Voters — A Teachers^ Association Formed — - 
Dr. Yates makes an Important Scientific Discovery — Dr. Wm. 
P. Gibbons on the San Antonio Redwoods — Proposes a Botanical 
Garden — Reading-room and Library at Haywards — Union 
County Convention — A Resolution Favoring Negro Suffrage 
Voted 'Down — A Slap at Gorham — Democratic County Conven- 
tion — -Strong Union Resolutions, but Negro and Chinese Suffrage 
Condemned — The Union Ticket Defeated, and H. H. Ilaight, 
of Alameda, Elected Governor — Alameda County Selected as the 
Location of the Agricultural College — Man Killed in Murray — 
Tragic Affair at Mount Eden — Shooting Scrape at Centreville 
— A Daily Mail — Prof. Wm. Lucky — A Chickory Company — 
Quail a Nuisance — A Fuse Factory in Brooklyn— Democratic 
County Nominations — Shei'iff Morse's Pursuit of Thieves and 
Desperados — -Arrest of Joaquin at New Almaden — Literary 
Association at San Leandro — The Oakland Bank of Savings In- 
corporated—A Jail-breaker Recaptured — Thunder Storm— Fires 
— Gorham in Alameda — Democratic Barbecue — Timothy Har- 
rington Found Dead — Union Ticket Defeated in the State, but 
Successful Here — A Granite Quarry Discovered — Judge Hamilton 
Resigns — Stephen G. Nye his Successor — Amateur Theatricals — 
Corner-stone of Deaf, Dumb ami Blind Asylum Laid— Daily 
Morning Herald — Murder of W. L. Joy, and Sheriff Morse's 
Pursuit of the Murderer Ponce, whom he Kills — Suicide of Henry 
Clark — Railroad Matters — Murder of Officer Richardson in 
Oakland — The Agricultural Fair — Ta,x of 1867-8 — Judge 
Crockett Appointed — A Family Poisonsd — Patents for Ex- 
Mission Lands — Severe Storm. 

The year 1MG7 w.is ono of activity and enterprise. During it was 
reorganize:! the County Agriciiltur.\l Society; the Agricultural Col- 
lege and the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institute located; the Oakland 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 225 

Bank of Savings incorporated; a Covinty Teacliers' Association 
established; an Alameda man elected Governor of the State, and 
another appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court. It was also a 
year of activity for the Sheriff, who had his hands full in pursuing 
horse and cattle thieves and murderers, with whom he was occasion- 
ally under the necessity of exchanging shots. 

Hon. John "Wilson, one of our representatives in the Assembly, 
immediately after the close of his legislative labors, returned to his 
old home in Moni'oe County, Illinois, and did not return. Our 
other Assemblyman during this term was Hon. John W. Dwinelle, 
one of the ablest men in the State, and certainly the ablest man 
Alameda County ever sent to the lower branch of the State Legis- 
lature. 

There was a good deal of individual lawlessness and violence this 
year, and the Grand Jury of the County Court, at the January term, 
took three days to get through with theii* business. They returned 
into Court with eleven indictments, embracing various shades of 
crime, from manslaughter to petit larceny. 

The editor of the Gazette well-nigh got himself into trouble with 
some of the jury, to whom he was under the necessity of making an 
explanation to exculpate himself. It appears that a prisoner was 
tried for stealing a horse, and was acquitted. The editor, as the legal 
phrase goes, stated that he was acquitted of the crime by a jury of 
his /»ee?-«. The jurymen were of the impression that he estimated 
them in this remark as no better than horse thieves ! 

An important decision was rendered by the Supreme Court in Jan- 
uary, touching the question of damages and benefits to property by 
railroads. It was the case of the San Francisco, Alameda and Stock- 
ton Railroad vs. Andrew Caldwell and others, landowners on the 
route of the road. Judge McKee had decided that it was wi-ong for 
commissioners to take the supposed benefits conferred by a railroad 
as whole or part compensation for lands taken from an owner for 
right of way. The Supreme Court reversed this decision, and 
maintained that the difference in the value of property before and 
after the improvement should be taken into account in awarding dam- 
ages and benefits. This view was sustained by Justices Curry,, 
Shafter and Sanderson, while Justice Rhodes dissented on the ground 
that " benefits " could not be considered in ascertaining the "just 
compensation " to which the landowner is entitled under the Con- 
stitution. 

15 



226 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The Beaty House, in San Leandro, which liad been for some time 
vacant, was pxirchased by Mrs. Webei-, who re-opened it after fitting 
it up anew. 

Early in February information was I'eceived at San Leandro that 
Narcisso Bojorques, the cattle-stealer, shot some time previously by 
Sheriff Morse, but who, nevei-theless, made his escape, had been shot 
at Copperopolis for stealing cattle, and died soon after at Stockton, 
where he was removed to. 

The Alameda Park Hotel was purchased by Dr. Tucker this month, 
for the pui-pose of converting the same into a private lunatic asylum. 

Jesse Beard, one of the pioneers of the county and father of E. L. 
Beard at the Mission, died at Alvarado on the 6th day of Mai'ch, in 
the seventy-eighth year of his age. He was a much respected old 
gentleman. 

On the 7th of March two prisoners, named Wm. Hagan and Jos6 
Valenzviela, broke jail in San Leandro and made good their escape. 

At their February meeting the Supervisors fixed the rate of taxa- 
tion for 1867 at $2.20 on each $100. 

The Commissioners appointed to award damages in the case of the 
Western Pacific P^aih-oad Co. vs. M. W. Dixon et al., made their re- 
poi-t at San Leandro on the 11th of March. 

On the 20th of April I. A. Amerman, Esq., County Clerk, ad- 
dressed 800 circulars to the farmers of the county, with a blank to 
be filled out by them, showing the agricultural resoiirces and the pro- 
ductiveness of the county for the year, but it does not aj^pear that 
(he received a ready response, for nothiiig further appears to have 
come of it. 

The new Presbytei'ian Church at San Leandro was dedicated on 
tthe 28th of April, when Rev. Dr. H. M. Scudder, of San Francisco, 
preached a sermon, and the choir of the Howard Street Presbyterian 
Church in San Francisco furnished the music. 

In April the Good Templars' temperance organization of San Le- 
andro made a move to get up a reading-room and library in that 
town, which was to some extent a success. 

On the 27th of April the County Agricultural Society held a meet- 
ing at Haywards, at which the following officers were elected : 
President, William Meek ; Vice-President, J. A. May hew ; Record- 
ing Secretary, C. T. Ward ; Corresponding Secretary, I. A. Amer- 
man ; Auditing Committee, Wm. Whidden, E. M. Smith ; Committee 
on Premiums, F. K. Shattuck, R. S. Farrely, Chas. H. Haile, J. B. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 227 

Marlin, S. I. Marston, Geo. Martin. The subscription for member- 
ship was set at $3 per annum. 

At the teachers' examination in San Leandro, on the 27th of April, 
there were a dozen candidates for diplomas. 

It became rumored about this time that the W. P. R. R. Co. had 
sold out their road and franchise to Leland Stanford and the Central 
Pacific Railroad Company, which proved subsequently to have been 
well-founded. 

The Brighton Cattle Market Association published an annual re- 
port in May, which is deemed of sufficient interest to reproduce here. 
It is as follows : 

ANNUAL BRIGHTON MARKET REPORT. 

The Butchei's, Drovers, and Stock Raisers' Association held its 
first meeting January 31st, 1866, and preliminary steps were taken 
towards forming the " Brighton Market," or, as some term it, "Bull's 
Head." In April arrangements were perfected and yards erected for 
the accommodation of live stock. The first regular meeting was 
held Wednesday, April 11th, 1866; Mr. T. A. Cunningham being 
the first drover who arrived with cattle for sale, and Mr. W. H. 
Souther the first purchaser. From this date the market has steadily 
increased in business ; and the following list will show the amount of 
transactions during the year ending May 7th, 1867. This does not 
include sales effected on the premises for stock deliverable in the in- 
terior : 



Steers, - - - 


2,506 head at | 


5101,810.00, or $40.62 ea. 


MLxed Cattle, - - 


1,021 


" 


32,281.00, 


31.62 ea. 


Yearlings, - - 


72 


t( 


1,779.00, 


24.71 ea. 


Milch Cows, - - 


158 


« 


8,135.00, 


51.48 ea. 


Calves, - - - 


457 


(' 


^ 4,292.75, 


9.39 ea. 


Bulls, Scrvibs, - - 


10 


<' 


172.00, 


17.20 ea. 


Sheep,- - - - 


3,021 


" 


11,153.00, 


3.69 ea. 


Wethers, - - - 


1,437 


(( 


4,877.00, 


3.40 ea. 


Lambs, - . - 


2,759 


'< 


6,171.37, 


2.23 ea. 


Pi,a;s, 


373 


" 


4,562.25, 


12.50 ea. 


Mules, - - - - 


6 


" 


575.00, 


95.79 ea. 


Horses, Mares, - 


113 


" 


6,587.00, 


58.29 ea. 


Colts, Yearlings, 


5 


" 


200.00, 


40.00 ea. 



Total, - - 11,938 $182,595.37 

Issues of shai-es have been made by our association to members 
residing in all parts of the State, and, instead of, as last year, the 
majority of shax-es being held by the butchers, it is in the hands of 



228 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

the stock-raisei's and drovers. Aiiivals of live stock have uever as 
yet reached the demand ; this is to be regretted, as many have been 
desirous of supplying themselves entirely from this source; but, like 
all institutions, it must have time for growth. With the supplies to 
arrive this season, it is hoped the remedy will be attained. Eveiy 
exertion is being made by the board of managers to induce stock- 
raisers and drovers to patronise our market, and each day additions 
are being made to our arrivals. Some annoyance has been felt at the 
drovers disposing of live stock before a regular market day ; this has 
in a measure remedied itself, as outsiders in some instances have 
bought and i-esold on Wednesday, paying the drover out of the pro- 
ceeds of the sale — a sharp practice which cannot often be repeated. 
The largest anival of cattle at any one time has been 1,123 head, and 
the largest sale to any one purchaser at any one regular sale day has 
been to the cash value of $20,000.00. 

The Association, of its twenty-five acres of land, has ten acres 
fenced into yards, and proposes at an early date to build a hotel, also 
a stable and sheds, for the accommodation of its members and stock 
in winter. It has no outstanding debts at the present tinie. * * 
* * As considerable misunderstanding has arisen regarding our 
mode of selling cattle, through reports circulated in the interior, it 
will not be out of place to mention our constitution particularly sets 
forth that "All are free to come and go, to buy and to sell at 
pleasure." Unless a special request is made, no auction sales take 
place. The drover is the seller of his own stock, without interference 
from anyone, or any charges of commission. Satisfactory arrange- 
ments have been made with the Alameda Railroad Company for 
transportation of stock to San Francisco, the result of which has 
been the dealers in sheep are availing themselves largely of this 
mode of saving expenses and hai'd driving. 

In conclusion, the result of the last year has been satisfactory. A 
gi^eat deal of the success attending the enterprise has been the result 
of the exertions of our President, William Fulton, and to him, in a 
measure, belongs the honor of the final establishment of the Brighton 
Market. C. T. WARD, Secretary. 

It appears there was difficulty in getting voters to register their 
names this year, which urged the County Clerk, Mr. Amerman, to 
issue an explanatory circular to the people. According to this cir- 
cular, the registered vote in the county, in May of 1867, was as 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 229 

follows : Oakland Township, 462 names ; Brooklyn, 288 ; Alameda, 
78; Eden, 240; Washington, 221; Murray, 51; total, 1,340; of 
which 1,151 were natives and 189 naturalized. 

At the last meeting of the Teachers' Association, held in San 
Francisco, it was resolved, by those present from this county, to form 
a Teachers' Association for Alameda County; and this was done in 
the latter part of May, when the necessary rules for its government 
were adopted. 

In June of this year Dr. Yates, the scientific dentist of Centre- 
ville, discovered the tusk of an animal oi the elephant species, near 
Mission San Jose. It was found about twenty feet under ground, 
where a channel had been cut by the last winter's rains. The tusk 
was 24 inches long, and 23| in circumference. 

Another scientific gentleman of our county. Dr. "William P. 
Gibbons, read an interesting paper before the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, in San Francisco, on the subject of a proposed park and 
botanic garden, in the Redwoods back of Brooklyn. He said this 
forest, which was found on the mountain, five miles east of Brook- 
lyn, was composed of immense trees. There was a stump 32 feet in 
diameter, and dozens measuring from 18 to 20 feet. It was about 
half a mile in width, and extended down the eastern slope of the 
mountain some two miles. The doctor had with great labor and 
taste completely restored on paper the main grounds of these fallen 
giants, and had also made accurate drawings of the trees yet spai-ed 
by the woodman's axe. His views had for theii- background the 
Golden Gate and Bay, or Mount Diablo, as they were taken in dif- 
ferent positions. The Doctor's paper closed as follows : " On this 
little range, of less than half a mile square, there are probably not 
less than 1,000,000 sapling redwoods. That which civilized men have 
left is fast becoming the prey of reckless squatters. Every year 
diminishes the number of stumps, which these fellows work up into 
fire-wood. In doing this they destroy such an immense number of 
saplings that in a short period every vestige of this luxuriant nurs- 
ery of the primeval forests will be obliterated, if measures be not 
taken to prevent it. A trifling sura would secure title and pos- 
session. There is no spot about San Francisco that possesses such 
admirable adaptations for a botanical garden. Every variety of tree 
and plant, which grows in the State or which flourishes to the 
north of us, would here find a congenial soil and climate. Already 
over fifteen species of forest trees are thriving within the district ; 



230 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

there are over twenty species of shrubs, and more than 300 flower- 
ing plants. With such a fine beginning, initiated by Nature herself, 
let the Academy make a move to secure this locality. It is not a 
question of local but of general intei-est. The cavise of science and 
civilization demands that a conservative intervention should be . 
made, that our noble forest may not be recklessly and permanently 
destroyed. That hill, with a little aid from the restorative of art, 
would be so regenerated in a few years as to become one of the most 
interesting localities in the United States." 

The Good Templars of Haywards, following the example of the 
order in San Leandro, determined to possess a reading room and 
library, and rented two suitable rooms for the purpose. The young 
ladies of the organization, with a view of aiding the enterprise, held 
a strawberry festival, on the evening of the 18th of June, when a 
handsome sum was realized. 

The Union County Convention was held at San Leandro on the 8th 
of June. There was undoubtedly diversity of opinion and an inhar- 
monious feeling at this time in the ranks of the dominant party. 
The meeting was in the Court-room and the hour for opening the 
proceedings one o'clock. Judge A. M. Crane was appointed Chair- 
man, and A. M. Church and William Gagan, Secretaries. Some 
fifty delegates were in attendance from all the townships in the county. 
Delegates were appointed to the State Convention at Sacramento, 
as follows : Oakland, John W. Dwindle and B. F. Ferris ; Washing- 
ton, A. M. Church and B. F. Marston ; Eden, Wm. Meek ; Brooklyn, 
S. Milbury ; Alameda and Murray (jointly), A. M. Crane. 

Mr. Dwinelle ofiered two resolutions which were adopted. The 
first presented Hon. E. D. Wheeler as a candidate for the office of 
Attorney-General ; the second endorsed the official coui-se of Hon. 
Wm. Higby as representative of the District in the United States 
Congress. Judge Crane (the Chairman) took the floor and ofiered a 
series of four resolutions. The first endoi'sed the reconstruction 
policy of Congress ; the second favored the amendment of the Con- 
stitution, as proposed by the Thirtieth Congress, and the disfranchise- 
ment of the leaders of the rebellion ; the third favored the amend- 
ment of our State Constitution, removing the discrimination then 
made against the better educated of the colored people in this State ; 
the foin-th resolved, " that while this Convention refrains from 
instructing the delegates to the State and Congressional Conventions 
in favor of any particular persons, yet we do instruct them to vote 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 231 

foi- no candidate known to be a crafty and unprincipled politician, 
seeking his own good and the consummation of corrupt schemes for 
the enriching and aggrandisement of a class at the expense of the 
people ; for no one heretofore known as a corrupt lobbyist, seeking 
to impose upon the people an immense public debt for the sole benefit 
of already overgrown corporations or secret cliques and " rings " of 
public thieves ; for no one, in short, whose record in public and 
private life is not pure and clear from all such corrupt contam- 
inations." 

The mover sustained his resolutions in a lengthy speech, after 
which Mr. Dwinelle moved that they be voted upon separately. The 
first and second resolutions were unanimously carried ; the third gave 
rise to a discussion in wliich most of the members of the Convention 
took part. 

Mr. Dwinelle opposed the resolution at length, taking strong 
grounds against negro suffrage, and contending that the negroes were 
inferior to the Chinese, and finally moved that the resolution be laid 
upon the table. 

Mr. Crane and Mr. Shinn replied, condemning Mr. Dwinelle's 
uttex-ances, and said the speech of the gentleman from Oakland would 
have been a very proper one for a Democratic Convention. 

S. G. Nye defended the resolution as far as it went, but thought 
sufi'rage should not be based on complexion, but on manhood. 

On a division, it was found that twenty-five voted for Mr. Dwinelle's 
proposition, and twenty against, while four declined to vote. All 
the Oakland delegates but two voted in the majority. 

The fourth resolution, which was evidently aimed at the candidacy 
of Mr. Gorham for Governor, was withdi'awn, and peace and har- 
mony restored by Judge Hamilton moving that the word ivhite be 
stricken out of our State Constitution wherever it occurred. 

The Democratic County Convention was held on the 15th of June 
at the same place, when J. West Martin, C. H. Cushing, J. W. 
Dougherty, Wm. Moss, and John Threlfall were appointed delegates 
to the State Convention. 

At the head of the Union State ticket, adopted at the State Con- 
vention, was the name of Geoi'ge C. Gorham, who it was afterwards 
charged had secured his nomination by smart tactics and " trading," 
while General Bidwell was the real choice of the Convention. At 
any rate, many Union men were displeased, and at the election, which 
came ofi" in October, the ticket was beaten, and the Union paper in 



232 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

tliis county regi-etted that the party did not have a better candidate. 

At the Democratic State Convention, which took place shortly 
after, strong Union resolutions were adopted, the Mongolian influx 
condemned, and labor declared the foundation of all prosperity. 
Henry H. Haight, of Alameda, was placed at the head of their ticket 
as Democratic candidate for Governor, amid much enthusiasm, and 
the residt was a majority of 8,527 for that gentleman over Gorham. 

Another triumph for Alameda, this year, was the location of the 
Agi-icultural College at Berkeley. The meeting of the College Board 
was at Sacramento, on the 14th of June. There were present F. F. 
Lowe, President of the Board ; Felix Tracy, of Shasta ; William 
Holden, of Mendocino ; C. T. Eyland, of San Jos6 ; George R. 
Gluyas, of San Francisco ; J. B. Meader, of Copperopolis ; Hemy 
Philip, of Nevada ; Charles F. Pteed, of Yolo. 

On motion of Director Byland, the Board proceeded to ballot for 
the location of the College. Three ballots were taken, with the fol- 
lowing result : First ballot — Alameda County, three votes ; Santa 
Clara, two ; Napa, two. Second ballot — Same as first. Third ballot 
— Alameda, four ; Napa, two ; Santa Clara, one. 

It was then Resolved, That the location of the Agiicultural, Min- 
ing and Mechanic Arts College be fixed in the County of Alameda, 
at such locality within the limits of said county as may be decided 
by the Board after contemplated negotiations have been fully carried 
out. 

It was rumored for some weeks before that Berkeley had been 
selected for the site, and that a beautiful tract of land, contiguous to 
that of the College of California, had been pitched upon. It was 
said that 100 acres had been selected, for Avhich $30,000 was to be 
paid. 

On the 6th of June a fiucas of a fatal character occurred at Robert 
Livei-more's, in Livermore Valley. A Californian named Moche, 
who had been drinking heavily, made an attack with a knife upon 
a young man named Foscalini, who avoided him several times, but 
finally turned upon him and discharged his pistol at him, emptying 
three chambers of the weapon, each shot taking effect. Both parties 
wei-e on hoi-seback. The wounded man instantly wheeled his horse, 
rode away i-apidly, and soon disappeared. When about three miles 
fi'om the place of shooting, Moche fell heavily from his hoi-se, head 
foremost, to the ground, and when approached was found to be dead, 
his neck having been broken by the fall. It was foimd, however, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 233 

that either of the shots was sufficient to kill him. Foscalini sur- 
rendered himself, and after an examination before Justice Marks, of 
Pl6asanton, was dismissed. Moche, who was partly paralyzed, was, 
nevertheless, considered a desperate and dangerous man. Some ten 
years previous it was said he attacked a stage single-handed, and on 
its refusal to halt at his command, he sent a shot from his revolver 
through it. 

On the 30th of June a very tragic affair occurred at Mount Eden, 
a Dane, named Peter Jobson Schmidt, having murdered his sister 
and then shot and killed himself. Contraiy to his wish, his sister, 
whom he had sent for to his native land some time previously, had 
determined to marry a young man in the neighborhood, and it seems 
that this drove him crazy. Schmidt was a farmer, owning 112 acres 
and unmarried, this sister keeping house for him. The j^oor girl 
made a desperate struggle for life, and the contest was a sevex-e one. 
Two shots of his gun had entered her body ; the fii-st below her right 
nipple and the second in her heart. "Whether the affection the man 
had for his sister, or the weight of his financial troubles, with which 
he was beset, had upset his reason, is not known ; but he had pre- 
viously proved himself a man of good character. Indeed, he had 
previously m^ade a will, in which he devised all his estate to his 
sister Jane, the girl whose life he took, and whose fate he thus 
hori'ibly ended with his own. 

There evidently was a mui'derous mania abroad about this time, 
and another shooting affair took place on the 29 th of June at Centre- 
ville, but without a fatal result, although the wounded man was shot 
at three times. The offender, whose name was Chas. Deil, was ar- 
raigned before the Grand Jury, then in session at San Leandro, on a 
charge of assault with the intent to murder. The man shot was 
wounded above the hip. 

At the July term of the County Coiirt, the Grand Jury came into 
Court with eleven indictments for all kinds of crimes. 

During the middle of July the people of the valley were put in 
possession of a long-sought boon — a daily mail. 

The Union County Convention took place at San Leandro on the 
2 2d of July, when County and Judicial Officers were nominated. 

Prof. Wm. T. Lucky, an eminent teacher, took charge of the Ala^ 
meda Seminary in August. 

A company was formed in San Francisco with the intention of 
raising chiccory, a plant much used in the preparation of ground oof- 



234 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

fee. F. B. Granger sowed twenty-five aci-es on his ranch in Alvarado 
for this company, which produced an abundant crop. The same com- 
pany was desirous of gi-owing the sugar beet, whicli was found to do 
well in the same locality. 

Since the passage of the game law, quail multiplied very rapidly in 
the county; so much so, indeed, as to be looked upon as a nuisance 
by the farmers. 

A Fuse Factory, erected in Brooklyn Township, near the railroad, 
below the farm of John Mathews, was one of the industrial gains of 
the year 1867. 

The Democratic County Convention was held in San Leandro on 
the 10th day of August, when County Officers were nominated. 
For Members of Assembly, J. West Martin and J. B. Ward; for 
County Judge, A. H. Griffith; for District Attorney, Geo. M. Blake, 
(a convert from the Union ranks); for Sheriff, John Gieschen; for 
County Treasurer, John Threlfall ; for Public Administrator, H. D. 
EUerhorst ; for Coroner, Dr. Lambert. It appeared that besides Mr. 
Blake, Captain Mayhew, a prominent member of the other party, had 
joined forces with the Democracy. The result, however, was favor- 
able to the Unionists, on the day of election. 

Sheriff Morse, in pursuit of his laudable enterprise in ridding the 
county of thieves and desperadoes, succeeded in making another im- 
portant arrest one day in August, down at the New Almaden quick- 
silver mines, in Santa Clara County. The individual ai'rested was one 
Joaquin, charged with grand larceny in stealing cattle from the ranch 
of S. B. Martin, in Murray. The Sheriff was accompanied by Officer 
Richardson, of Oakland, and Deputy Sheriff Hall, of Santa Clara. 
Morse was well disguised, and found the object of his search in a 
small cabin near the mines. Joaquin was in bed, feigning sickness, 
Richardson covered the man with a double-barrelled shot-gun, Avliile 
the Sheriff tumbled him out of bed. It was found that the ruffian 
although nabbed, was vigilant, and had concealed beneath the bed 
clothes a navy revolver, full cocked and ready for iise. The danger- 
ous appearance of the shot-gun, however, prevented any attempt on 
the part of the pi-isoner to use his arms. 

A social and literary association was organized by the congregation 
of the Presbyterian Church at San Leandro, on the 7th of August. 
A constitution and rules were adopted. W. M. McFadden, was 
chosen President ; George Smith and Mrs. Alexander, Vice-Presidents ; 
O. Morrison, Secretary; and Mrs. G. E. Smith, Treasurer. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 235 



On Monday, August 19th, the incorporators of the Oakland Bank 
of Savings filed their articles of incorporation in the County Clerk's 
office. The declared object was "to accumulate and invest the funds 
and savings of its members for their benefit." The capital stock was 
set down at $150,000, divided into 1,500 shares of $100 each. Tlie 
Board of Directors chosen for the first six months were W. W. Crane, 
Jr., A. C. Henry, E. M. Hall, Samuel Menitt, and P. S. Wilcox. 

Sheriff Morse succeeded in getting back the jail-breaker, Hagan, 
who had escaped from the county jail a few months previously. He 
was captured in the classic region of Fort Yuma, on the outer edge 
of our civilization, and taken in charge by Morse at Los Angeles. 
On the way up, he was fastened by a chain, and on the presentation 
of an opportunity he drew a large file from some unknown recess of 
his person and in a short time had severed a link, in the hope of es- 
cape. He was detected too soon, however, for this, and the "Bastile" 
at San Leandro was thereafter, until sent to San Quentiu, his abiding • 
place. 

Little is said in this book of thunderstorms, lightning, etc., because 
they seldom occurred. There were heavy peals, however, on the morn- 
ing of the 23d of August, after sunrise. 

There were two fires in the southern part of the county in the latter 
part of August. On the 17th the Mission Hotel, kept by James 
Tiirelfall and owned by Senor Vallejo, was burned; and on the 26th 
the stable belonging to the Warm Springs Hotel was destroyed, con- 
suming a large quantity of hay and grain, and what was worse, eleven 
valuable hoi'ses, that could not be got out in time to save their lives. 

George C. Grorham, Union Candidate for Governor, accompanied 
by Gen. LaGi'ange, Frank M. Pixley -and Rev. Dr. Cox, spoke at 
various meetings in Alameda County; or, in common parlance, 
"stumped the county," during the month of Avigust. The Democrats, 
too, had their speakers in the county, and on the 24th held a big 
barbecue at Haywards, which was numerously attended by the Dem- 
ocracy from all parts of the county, and much enthusiasm excited. 

On Wednesday, September 4th, the body of Timothy Hai-rington, 
a wholesale butcher of San Francisco, wlio had suddenly disappeared 
about a month previous, was found in the hills several miles from the 
Mountain House, near the Livermore Pass. In a pocket of deceased 
v/as found $20 in coin, a bank check book, and a letter of credit. 
The remains evidently had not been disturbed by either man or beast. 

The State and county election was held on the 4th of September. 



236 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The Union ticket was defeated throughout the State, and although 
successful in Alameda County, it was with much reduced majorities. 
Following was the vote: Governor — Geo. C. Gorham (Union) 1,344 ; 
H. H. Haight (Democrat) 1,190; majority, 154. Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor— J. P. Jones (Union) 1,430; Wm. Holden (Democrat), 1,140; 
majority, 290. For the other State Officers, the Union majorities 
ranged from 347 for Pacheco, for State Treasurer, to 185 for D. O. 
McCarthy, for State Printer. For Congress, Higby had 301 votes 
over Coffroth. 

For County Officei-s the majorities averaged about the same. For 
Assembly — Dwinelle (Union) had 1,390 votes to J. West Martin's 
(Democrat) 1,184; A. M. Church, 1,419 to John B. Ward's 1,132. 
For District Attorney — 0. H. LaGrange, 1,425; Geo. M. Blake, 
1,155. Sheriff— H. N. Morse, 1,533 ; John Gieschen, 1,050. County 
Clerk— I. A. Amerman, 1,449; Jas. F. Kapp, 1,126. Treasurer— 
R. A. McClure, 1,382; John Threlfall, 1,189. County Surveyor— 
Wm. F. Boardman, 1,464; G. W. Hughes, 1,119. Superintendent of 
Schools— A. L. Fuller, 1,426; Rev. Benj. Ackerly, 1,137. Public 
Administrator— C. Whipple, 1,437; H. D. Ellerhorst, 1,111. Cor- 
oner— W. B. Clement, 1,432; B. Lambert, 1,123. 

Every township, Murray excepted, gave majorities for the Union 
ticket. For Township Officers, the result was a mixture, Oakland, 
Washington and Eden elected Union Supervisors ; Brooklyn and 
Murray,' Democrats ; and Alameda an Independent. 

One of the most important discoveries made in the county was 
that of a blue granite quarry, found on the property of A. D. Pryal, 
nurseryman, in the foot-hills, about four miles northeast of Oakland. 
Mr. Pryal sold this quarry to- Mr. J. S. Emery, contractoi-, and from 
it was procured the stone for building the Deaf, Dumb and Blind 
Asylum. 

Hon. InT. Hamilton tendered his resignation of County Judge, and 
Governor Lowe filled the vacancy by the appointment of Stephen G. 
Nye to the vacant position. Judge Nye has ever since continued to 
occupy the position. He had just been admitted to practice in the 
United States District Court, and was at the time editor of the S;in 
Leandro Gazette. 

San Leandro, as will be noticed by these disconnected items, was a 
place of much sociability, there having been a continuous coiirse of 
socials, dime parties, dances, concerts, etc., but until now we have 
not had an o^iportunity to chronicle anything in the shape of a dra- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES, 237 

matic performance. The time has at last come. At tlie Planters' 
Hotel, on the evening of the 1 8th of September, there was a display 
of amateur theatricals by the Sau Leandro Amateur Dramatic Club, 
when the farce of " Oblige Benson " was performed for the benefit of 
a local festival. Mr. Moore represented " Benson," a dignified law- 
yer ; Mr. Borein, " Southdown," a thick-headed farmer ; Mr. Mor- 
rison, " Meredith," the fascinating lawyer's clerk ; Miss Hall, the 
susceptible Mrs. Benson ; and Miss Fenner Mrs. Southdown. All 
of that youthful and talented dramatis j^ersonae, then in the enjoy- 
ment of all the advantages of single blessedness, have since ceased to 
play mock parts and entered eagerly into the realities of life. 

A new flouring mill was established at Haywards by Messrs. 
Morse & Heslep. The building was frame and the motive power 
steam, with a capacity to grind 20 tons of bai-ley in a day. 

The comer stone of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum, near Oak- 
land, was laid on Thursday, the 28th of September. An address was 
delivered by Warring Wilkinson, the Principal, and other gentlemen, 
on the occasion. 

A new paper, called the Daihj Morning Herald, made its appear- 
ance in Oakland on the 2d of October. It professed neutrality in 
politics and was published by W. D. Harwood. It was discontinued 
for want of sufficient support, on the 15th of December. Mr. Har- 
wood resumed his position as "local" on the Oakland News. 

While blasting rock at his ranch, north of Temescal, Mr. A. D. 
Pryal found three petrified substances resembling bombshells, im- 
bedded 20 feet in the rock. Breaking off" the ends from the shells, 
which were about half an inch thick, he found the insides com- 
pletely tilled with clay, which crumbled at the touch of the finger. 
The largest shell was about a foot long and five or six inches in di- 
ameter and oval shaped. Mr. P. presented these remarkable articles 
to the College of California. 

About 2 o'clock, on the morning of the 3d of October, a man 
named W. L. Joy, an American, residing at Amador Valley, was 
shot and killed at Haywards, by a Chilano, named ISToratto Ponce. 
They had been playing cards, and had had a dispute. The Chilano 
went out of the room, but soon returned and shot Joy, committing a 
cold-blooded murder. He then escaped to the hills, leaving his horse 
in a corral close by. Sheriff" Moi-se was soon informed of the mat- 
ter, and was early in pursuit of the murderer, who, for the time 
being, managed to elude capture. Having heard, however, that he 



238 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

was liiding somev/iiere in the Livennore mountains, the Sheriff 
thought to enti'ap him, and, with this view, secured the assistance of 
Officer Conway, of Oakland. On the 1st of November the two 
started for the hiding-place of the culprit via Dublin. The Sheriff 
had secret information that Ponce would endeavor on that evening to 
escape to the lower country, and he watched for him on a by-road 
that led into the main traveled road, on the way to San Jos6. They 
first made fast the gate that led to the main road, and then hid 
themselves behind a haystack there, to await the arrival of their 
man. About half-past nine o'clock they heard the footsteps of 
horses coming up on the gallop, and the voices of two men. The 
Sheriff recognized one of the voices as that of Ponce, who was con- 
versing with a companion. The Chilano unsuspectingly opened the 
gate, tied it, and moved forward towards the place where the officers 
were hiding. When within about ten feet of Sheriff Morse, the lat- 
ter drew a shot-gun and ordered the man to stop, which he refused 
to do ; at the same time he turned his horse around cpiickly and 
started back, but only to encounter Conway, who levelled a six- 
shooter and commenced firing at the fugitive. Morse followed suit 
and lodged a chai-ge of buckshot in his back. The Chilano suc- 
ceeded in firing two shots at Conway without efifect, but with the 
latter's last shot the murderer fell from his horse. He managed to 
get up quickly, however, and in the darkness escape. They hunted 
around for him until 2 o'clock in the morning, but without success. 
"When daylight appeared they renewed their search, aided by eight 
or ten Mexicans, and discovered his coat, completely riddled with 
buckshot and balls. Half a mile from his coat was found his boots. 
His horse was wounded in the thigh and not worth taking away. 
Nothing further was heard of the murderer until about the 7th of 
November, when Sheriff Morse received a letter from Sheriff Classen, 
of Contra Costa County, infoi'ming him that if he came to INIar- 
tinez he would give him information as to Ponce's whereabouts. 
About 8 o'clock of the same evening, Morse was at the designated 
place, prompt and prepared. The information received was that 
Ponce was supposed to be in Cisco, Placer County. For Cisco Morse 
started, accompanied by Deputy Sheriff Swain of Contra Costa 
County. The intention was to take the Sacramento boat at Antioch, 
and for the latter place they started. At Antioch they learned the 
man they wanted was not at Cisco, but was concealed in Rigg's 
Canon, near Mount Diablo. To reach the place designated they had 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 239 

to return by boat to San Francisco and cross from there to Sau Lean- 
dro, where they took saddle horses and proceeded to the Black Hills, 
north of Livermore Valley. Ofiicer Conway of Oakland accom- 
panied them froTn San Leandro, and all arrived at the canon about 
11 o'clock at night. The party surrounded the house where Ponce 
was supposed to be concealed, but waited till daylight before enteiing. 
A thorough search failed to discover the object of their solicitude. 
Scouting through the hills and caiions they discovered his hiding 
place, where he was in the habit of sheltering himself before his fii-st 
encounter with the officers. 

At this point they fell in with an old native, who, on being exam- 
ined and threatened, conveyed the information that Narrato's liiding 
place was then at Pinole, near the bay. Back again went the offi- 
cers to San Leandro ; from there they went to San Francisco and 
took the boat for Martinez, the place they had fii-st set out for. On 
the following morning (Sunday) they started for Pinole, which is 
eleven miles south of Martinez and seven east of San Pablo. They 
searched all the houses through the valley as they went. Arriving 
at the house of one Jose Rojos, they saw a man on the mountain 
side, with a bundle on one arm and a shot gun on the other, and they 
thought he might be the man they were looking for. Conway and 
Swain went into the house with instructions to let no one out until 
Morse had ascertained who the man was on the hillside. Just as 
Morse got to the hill, he heard Swain cry out " he's here ;" Avhich 
cry was followed by the report of a pistol shot. Morse immediately 
directed his horse to the house on a run, when he discovered Narrato 
Ponce ruiming away, trying to escape from the officers, who were 
shooting after him as rapidly as possible. A ravine intervening, Morse 
had to dismount. He immediately called upon the fugitive to stop 
and lay down a pistol he carried in his right hand ; but the latter 
paid no attention to tliis command, and kept on running, endeavoi-- 
ing to escape. A shot from Conway here struck him in the right 
hand, and he immediately changed his revolver to the other, keeping 
the officers covered. Morse, finding that the fellow was determined 
not to be taken alive, concluded to end the play. Four shots from 
his Henry rifle, however, failed to have any effect, owing to the 
manner in which Ponce jumped aboiit to frustrate the Slieriff''s aim ; 
but the fifth shot entered his stomach, piercing his pistol belt, and 
went through his body, coming out near the backbone. When struck 
he pitched forward on his face, and expired with his revolver firmly 
clenched in his hand. 



240 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

An inquest was lield on the body by Justice A. F. Dyer, and a 
verdict i^endei^ed in accordance with the facts stated. The body was 
identified as that of Ponce by several persons who were well 
acquainted with him. It was stated to the grand jury, by one who 
knew him well, at the time he was indicted, that he was a more des- 
perate character than the celebrated Joaquin Muriatti, and his indom- 
itable pluck showed that he was brave as well as cruel. A reward 
of $500 had been offered by the Governor for the capture of this 
man, but it was a small compensation for the expense gone to, 
danger encountered, and hardships endured by the captors. 

While hunting for Ponce, Sheriff Morse overhauled, in the Am- 
ador hills, another offender named Antonio Martinez, alias Jesus 
Forez, an ex-convict, who had been evading the law for six months 
previous. There were several charges of grand larceny against him. 
He was taken to San Leandro, whence he was taken to Sonoma 
County to stand his trial. 

A man named Henry Clai-k, who had become insane on religion, 
committed suicide by taking a dose of strychnine on the 30th of Sep- 
tember. He resided at Stony Brook, Washington Township, and 
was well known. He labored under the delusion that he was a 
Prophet of the Lord, and after several years of ineffectiial labor at 
making converts, he became discouraged and ended his life. His pe- 
culiar insanity was brought on by a blow on the head. He left a 
wife and two children, besides his father and mother, to mourn his 
fate. 

A report having gained currency to the effect that the ferry be- 
tween San Fi-ancisco and Alameda was to be discontinued, Mr. W. 
Bray, of Fruit Vale, addressed a letter to the President and Secre- 
tary of the company to ascertain what truth there was in it, when, 
under date of October 7, that gentleman replied that the only change 
contemplated was an extension of the road to the Western Pacific 
Eailroad, and probably a connection with the Oakland road, so that 
the citizens of Oakland might have the accommodations of the line 
with the southern part of Alameda County. 

At the Judicial election held in October, the Democratic candi- 
dates were elected throughout the State, but were in considerable mi- 
norities in this county. Currey (Union) received 1,067 votes and 
Sprague (Dem.) 754. Swett (Union), candidate for Superintendent 
of Education, received 1,111 votes to Fitzgerald's (Dem.) 704. For 
County Judge, Nye had 1,043 to Griffith's 666. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 241 

The murder of Officer Richardson in Oakland, on the 2 2d of Oc- 
tober, caused an unusual sensation. It appears that the late Gen- 
eral Wright, about four years previously, had placed a colored man 
named Thomas in charge of a block of land which he owned in Oak- 
land, and on which there was erected a small house. Some short 
time previous, Mr. E. Bigelow had sold this property to some gentle- 
man who desired to obtain possession of it and gave Thomas legal 
notice to vacate, but he refused to do so, contending, in true squatter 
style, that the property was Government land, and threatened to 
shoot anyone who might molest him. For this a complaint was made 
and a warrant issued for his arrest. The arrest was entrusted to 
Mr. Richardson, and while in the execution of this duty he was shot 
dead by Thomas. Thomas and his wife (the latter as accessory be- 
fore the fact) were arrested and lodged in the County Jail at San 
Leandro by Sheriff Morse, to await trial on the charge of murdei-. 

The fair of the newly organized agricultural society was held at 
Haywards on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday, October 
23, 24, 25 and 26, 1867. The prizes offered consisted only of 
engraved diplomas, handsomely framed. The attendance on the first 
day was good. The opening address was delivered by Gen. O. H. 
LaGrange, and was highly spoken of as a talented efibrt. There were 
on exhibition quite a number of home-made agricultural implements, 
and a large display of agricultural and horticviltural products. The 
principal feature of the exhibition, however, was the horse show. 
There was more or less racing every day, and some excellent stock 
was on the ground. The particulars of this exliibition will be found 
in the agricultural chapter of this work. 

The amount of property tax levied for the fiscal year 

1867-8 was ------ - $146,739.97 

Amount delinquent Nov. 19, 21,80.5.91 



Amount collected, $124,934.06 

Colonel J. B. Crockett, of Brooklyn, was appointed by Governor 
Haight to fill the vacancy in the Supreme Bench, occasioned by the 
resignation of Judge Shafter. Col. Crockett was considered one of 
the best lawyers in the State. He still occupies the position to 
which he was then appointed. 

Patents were received in the montli of December, at the United 
States Land Office, San Francisco, for the following named persons, 
residents on the ex-Mission of San Jose tract, in Washington Town- 

16 



242 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ship : William Walker, Timothy Rix, John Threlfall, James Emer- 
son, Robinson Ruckledge, John Taylor, Rufus Denmark, Robert 
Bonner, Jas. Threlfall, E. Willard, Martin Brophy, Marcus Torrey, 
Stephen Larkin, Origin Mowry, Elijah Forrester, Alfredson Carey, 
Liither E. Osgood, Edward Neihaus, John Blacow, Andrew J. Tyler, 
Wm. Hopkins, Samuel J. Brown, R. J. Horner, Jesus J. Vallejo, 
Alfred O. Rix, Elias L. Beard, Michael Gannon, Patrick Clark, Frank 
Rosa, Joshua Wahup, Barton Mowry, Margary Walker, Michael J. 
Overacker, Christian Knittle, George Zeigenfuss, Simon Backman, 
Wm. J. Reed, Wm. Johnson, Wm. Corl)ett, Hiram M. Young, Chas. 
Kelsey, Max. Seigrist, Henry Hagan, Mich. H. Ryan, Otho Morgan, 
Caleb S. Haley, S. J. Marston, Ebenezer Haley, John J. Riser, 
Waitsill Baker, Richard A. McClure, Josiah Wilkinson, Chester 
Harris, Calvin J. Stevens, John M. Moore, Peter AVessinger, George 
W. Patterson, Hei-man Eggers, J. Wilson Musser, Antonio Rozas, 
James Shinn, Jos. NichollSjWm. Threlfall, Howard Overacker, Dan- 
iel Sanborn, Hypolite Bez, Benj. Donnegan, Robert Blacow, Mark 
Lyons, Anna M. McDavid, Nicholas Bergman, Jas. A. Trefry, Rich- 
ard Threlfall, Andrew B. Forbes, Henry Dusterberry, Garret S. 
Norris, Robert Blacow, Geo. W. Cook, John Proctor, Jotham S. 
Marston, Ernest H. Frick, Isaac Sampson. 

On Sunday, the 2 2d of December, there occurred in this vicinity 
a storm of more than usual severity, the like of which, old residents 
declared, was never before experienced here. For twelve hours the 
wind blew a perfect hurricane, spreading ten-or and destruction in its 
path. Dark as night, and with the force of the Furies, the scream- 
ing blast swept over the earth, shaking the finnest structures, bend- 
ing and uprootiiig trees and demolishing fences. At times deep, 
low thunder mutterings were joined to the chonis of the raging 
storm. The ferry boat Alameda found it unsafe to make a 
single trip across the bay. A scow, with an engine and other pile- 
di'ivin" apparatus aboard, which was moored to the Railroad Com- 
pany's wharf, was upset and sunk. At Wick's Landing, near San 
Leandro, 80 feet of roof of a large warehouse was blown off and 
carried some 200 feet. Several other pranks were played by the 
storm in San Leandro. The steamer Cora, anchored at the head of 
San Antonio Creek, broke loose from her moorings and was driven 
against the railroad wharf at Brooklyn. The tide having been 
unusually high, the guard and wheel-house projected over the pier, 
.obstructing the track The tide falling, the boat could not be 



UNDER THE STAKS AND STRIPES. 243 

removed, and it was impossible for the trains to pass during the 
day. The shipping in the harbor of San Francisco suffered consid- 
erably. A sloop was reported lost and all on board drowned, at 
Redwood City, on the opposite side of the bay. During the week 
high winds and heavy storms prevailed, impeding travel and render- 
ing the holidays very unpleasant. 



1868 — Military Organizations Disbanded — A Journey to Oakland 
on Snow-shoes — -./. Boss Browne Appointed A7nerican Minister 
to China — The Capitol Removal Question Again — " Crooked 
Whiskey" — Activity of Horse Thieves and their Pursuit by 
Sheriff Morse — Formation of a Jockey Club — Importation of 
Stock — A Mysterious Murder — Tract of Submerged Land 
Donated to the Western Pacific R. R. — Giving Away the Water 
Front of Oakland — Fee Bill Comicalities — N'ew Jail and Re- 
corder's Office — County Infirmary Lamls — Another Mysterious 
MurdjCr — Death of John Thomas, the Murderer of Officer 
Richardson — -Tax Levy for Year 1868-9 — A Brief County 
Court Term — First Sunday School Convention in the County — 
Rylandj and Lee's Circus Sold out — A Lively Earthquake in 
March — The Alameda Railroad Extension Abandoned — Union 
County Convention — Visit from the Chinese Embassy — Butchers' 
and Drovers' Association — Democratic County Convention — A 
Horse Show — Election of Officers of Alameda County Agricul- 
tural Association — Farmers' Club — A Remarkable Case of Mis- 
taken Identity — A New Democratic Paper at San Leandro — 
Ten Years' Increase of School Population — Bloody Affray at 
Laddsville — Gratid Fourth of Jtdy Celebration in Oakland — 
Appaling Calamity — Twenty Persons Drowned — Fire at Val- 
lejo's Mills — Democratic Ratification Meeting — Meeting in Favor 
of an Eight-hour Law — A Mechanics' Institute Organized — 
Fire at San Leandro — Aiiother Fatal Affray at Laddsville— 
" A Man for Supper " — Real Estate Looking Up — New Towns — 
Jail-breaking Frustrated — A Comical Scene — The Presidential 
Canvass and Election of Grant and Colfax — Teachers' Institute. 

The country being by this time considered "safe," the necessity 
for our military organizations was not urgent, and they were there- 
fore generally mustered out of service. The Hay wards Guards were 



244 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

mustered out on the 18th of January, 1868. The Guards numbered 
sixty-four members at the time of disbanding, and were the first 
company of the State militia to be disbanded by the new Governor. 
A vote of thanks was extended to Captain Fuller, and he was pre- 
sented with a picture as a token of esteem by his late companions in 
arms. All the other companies excejiting the Oakland Guards were 
subsequently disbanded. 

Two young men arrived in Oakland in the latter part of the 
month of January from Sierra County, to attend the College School. 
They were under the necessity of making the first forty miles of their 
journey on snowshoes ; but here, on their arrival, there was no such 
thing as snow to be seen. 

J. Ross Browne, a gentleman distinguished in the walks of litera- 
ture, and an old resident of Oakland, received the nomination and 
subsequent confirmation as American Minister to China, in the 
month of February. His mission did not prove a satisfactory one, 
and he gave the Celestials up as an unprofitable puzzle. After re- 
turning home he unmercifully satirized the Burlingame Treaty and 
the whole Chinese business as a terrible humbug. He had no relish 
for a position under " the Dragon's Footstool." 

The question of the removal of the State capital had again this 
year obtained prominence, and had somewhat engaged the attention 
of the people of the county. The Board of Supervisors were induced 
to take some action in the matter, and at a meeting held on the 4th 
of February, the following resolution was passed unanimously : 

" Resolved, That a committee of three members of this Board be 
appointed to prepare a bill to be submitted to the Legislatiu'e, 
authorizing the Board of Supervisors of Alameda County to issue 
bonds to the amount of $150,000, to be appropriated to the erection 
of suitable buildings for the use of the State, in the event of the 
Legislature locating the State capital in this county." 

Messrs. Shattuck, Smith and Cameron were appointed as the com- 
mittee mentioned. 

The reader will no doubt be somewhat surprised to learn that the 
manufacture of whiskey was at one time one of our industries. The 
youthfvil enterprise was nipped in the bud, for we learn that R. 
Savage, United States Assessor for the Second District, having 
satisfied himself of the existence of an illicit distillery in the vicinity 
of Alameda Point, paid the locality a visit on the 5th of February, 
.|ind succeeded not only in finding and seizing the establishment, but 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 245 

also arrested the operator, Jas. King, and Geo. Bird, the owner of 
the illicit establishment. Bird was held for examination in the sum 
of $1,000. 

There was at this time much activity among the horse thieves in 
the southeastern portion of the county, and parties residing on the 
Alameda, Valle and Mocho Creeks, suffered greatly from their thievish 
doings. Active steps, however, were taken by the Sheriff to arrest 
them, and they gradually were driven off or fell into that officer's 
toils. 

The stock owners of the county about this time organized a 
Jockey Club, and the race-track at Hay wards was put in order for 
the accommodation of those desirous of testing the speed of their 
stock. Their races, too, were calculated to amuse the public. Fol- 
lowing were the officers of the Club : J. Hall (a prominent stock- 
raiser). President; Wm. Granger, Vice-President; C. T. Ward, Jr., 
Secretary ; Wm. Hayward, Treasurer. There was besides a Board 
of Directors, consisting of Wm. Meek, Chairman; David S. Smalley, 
O. Morgan, A. Allen, Walter Smith. Financial Committee: M. W. 
Levy, E. M. Smith, O. P. Perkins. 

By the steamer Golden City, which arrived in San Francisco on 
the 13th of February, Sam. Mai-tin, of Amador Valley, received 
seven large English stallions, for his stock, and Mr. Johnson, of Tas- 
sajarra Valley, close by, received five Clydesdale stallions. These 
gentlemen were considered among the fii'st stockmen in the State, 
but there were several others in Alameda County who could boast of 
superior horses, the raising of which they had made a specialty. 

One of the most important events in the history of the county was 
the visit of the State Legislature to the City of Oakland, on Friday, 
the 21st day of February. But as this will be dwelt u])on more fully 
in the section of this work ha\dng special reference to Oakland, it is 
not necessary to dwell iipon it here, further than to say the Honor- 
able gentlemen were hospitably entertained, and that they came on 
the invitation of the Mayor and Council of Oakland. 

On Monday, the 2d of March, the new county officers entered 
upon their respective duties. 

A man named Henry Creiger was found murdered in the hills 
back of Haywards on the 4th of March. A saloonkeeper in Hay- 
wards was arrested on suspicion, but, on an examination, there being 
no evidence to connect him with the crime, he was discharged from 
custody. 



246 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

A bill was introduced in the State Senate, and its passage recom- 
mended by the Committee on Commerce and Navigation, granting to 
the Westei'n Pacific Railroad Company for a terminus a tract of sub- 
merged lands lying between Alameda and San Leandro, with a fi'ont- 
age of nearly a mile upon ship channel. The company was to give 
bonds that the terminus would be located on the lands so granted 
and that a large amount of money would be expended in improve- 
ments. 

Pursuant to a call of the Mayor of Oakland, a large number of 
citizens met at Shattuck & Hillegas' Hall, on the 10th day of March, 
for the purpose of ratifying a proposition to grant a portion of the 
water front of the city to the Central Pacific Railroad Company for 
terminal pui'poses. The meeting was unanimous and enthusiastic in 
favor of the proposition. 

A bill before the Legislature, affecting the fees and salaries of the 
county offices, which was inti'oduced by Mr. Church, proposed a con- 
siderable diminution of the emoluments of office, and was the cause 
of much discussion. It was also the occasion of some merriment, as 
will be seen by an extract from a humorous article in the Gazette. 
On the supposition, should the bill become law, that the county offi- 
cers would be under the necessity of resorting to other employments 
for a livelihood, the following form of advertisement for the County 
Clerk was suggested : 

" County Clerk's Office. — Notice ! Except during the sessions 
of the Courts, or meetings of the Board of Supeiwisors, the Clerk 
will be found somewhere about the neighborhood, sawing wood. Any 
business connected with the office will be attended to after work 
hours. N. B. — Orders for wood-sawing left on the oi'der slate will 
be promptly attended to at $2 per day and board." 

A bill to provide for the erection of a jail and County Recorder's 
office in San Leandro, and an Act concerning roads and highways in 
Alameda Covinty, passed the Legislature on the 18th of March. The 
buildings proposed were made an addition to the Court House. Mr. 
Cliurch introduced a bill about the same time to enable the Count}^ 
to purchase a tract of land for charitable pur])oses, and to establish 
an institution for the cai-e of unfortunates — our pi-esent County 
Infirmary. 

A man named O'Keefe was found dead in his bed in Oakland 
Townshi}), near the Conti'a Costa line, with two bullets in his head. 
A coroner's jury found that the man had been murdered, but no clue 
was found to the perpetrator of the foul deed. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 247 

John Thomas, the colored man who murdered officer Richardson, 
of Oakland, in October, 1867, died in the County Jail on the 17th 
of March. He was over seventy years of age, and would have been 
tried in a few days. 

On Tuesday morning, March 24th, about twenty minutes past 
1 1 o'clock, there was a lively shock of earthquake felt here, which 
was repeated during the day, but in a less severe form. No injury 
to life or property, however, resulted therefrom, although people were 
a good deal alarmed by the first shocks. 

The Legislature having failed to pass a bill in favor of a subsidy 
for the Alameda Railroad Company, to enable it to extend its line to 
Washington Corners, that portion of the line was abandoned. 

A Union County Convention was held at San Leandro on the 28th 
of March, for the purpose of electing delegates to attend the State 
Convention at Sacramento on the Lst of April. 

The celebrated Chinese embassy that visited the United States in 
1868, paid Alameda County a visit on the 15th of April and viewed 
many places of interest on this side of the bay. 

The tax levy for the fiscal year of 1868-9, ordered by the Board of 
Supervisors, was as follows: State tax, $1; County General Fund, 
22c.; Road and Bridge Fund, 45c.; Common School Fund, 35c.: In- 
digent Sick Fund, 7c.; Oakland Bar Fund, 4c.; Special Jail and Re- 
corder's Office Fluid, 7c. Total $2.20 on each $100 of assessed pro- 
perty. 

The Spring term of the County Court this year was one of shoi-t 
duration, and justice was prompt and summary with her transactions. 
Tlie Grand Jury was impannelled and their business completed on 
Monday, the 6th day of April; on Tuesday the prisoners were all 
arraigned and plead guilty; and on Thursday they received their sen- 
tences. The services of the Trial Jury were altogether dispensed with. 

The first Sunday School Convention in Alameda County was held 
in Oakland, on the 28th and 29th of Aprd. The Committee of Ar- 
rangements consisted of R. E. Cole, Chaii-man; G. "W". Armes, E. W. 
Taylor, F. S. Page, and H. A. Palmer. 

Between the 10th and 19th of April, some 110 land suits were in- 
stituted in the Third District Court for Alameda County. 

Messrs. Ryland & Lee's circus, which wintered at Haywards, was 
sold in April to Samuel Stickney &, Co. The latter firm arranged to 
permanently locate in that town during the winter, for practice, etc. 

The following officers were elected for the Butchers, Drovers and 



248 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

Stock Raisers' Association, at Hay wards, to serve for one year : Pre- 
sident, Wm. Fulton; Vice-President, William Mattox; Trustees: 
Mm. Meek, August May, H. D. Ellerliorst; Directors: Wm. Knox, 
J. A. Mayhew, D. C. Kennedy, C. T. Ward, Jr. — ^the latter Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

The Democratic County Convention was held at San Leandro on 
the 25th of April. A resolution was passed highly complimenting 
Governor Haight, who was proposed, in a strongly- worded resolution, 
as Democratic candidate for the next President of the United States. 

The sales of the association, at Brighton Market, during the last 
year, amounted to $232,441.81. The largest sale effected in anyone 
market day was $31,888.50, on the 15th of June, 1867. The 
association had a cash surplus on hand, was free from debt, and had 
no outstanding accounts. The managers were complimented for the 
manner in which the affairs of the association had been conducted, 

A horse show, under the auspices of the Jockey Club, was held in 
Haywood on the 5 th of May. The attendance was small, but the 
display of stock excellent. The races of the association lasted three 
days and were well enjoyed. 

The annual election of officers of the Alameda County Agricul- 
tural Society was held at Haywards on the same day, when were 
chosen, for President, Wm. Meek; Vice-President, Capt. J. A. 
Mayhew ; Recording Secretaiy, C. T. Ward, Jr. ; Corresponding 
Secretary, I. A. Amerman — all re-elected. J. B. Martin was elected 
Treasurer, and Wm. Whidden and R. S. Farrelly, Auditing Com- 
mittee. 

The Alameda County Farmers' Club was organized at Haywards, 
on the 16th day of May, No person was eligible to membership 
who was not a farmer residing in the county. No subject was per- 
mitted to be discussed, except what related to agriculture and horti- 
culture. 

Alameda County had a remarkable case of mistaken identity ou 
its hands this year. A man named John Slack was arrested iu 
San Luis Obispo County, in May, by Sheriff Morse, on the supposi- 
tion that he was John Wilson, who, some thirteen years previous, 
had murdered a son of Antonio Sunol, in the valley wliich beai's his 
name. The particulars of the case were narrated in the San Leandro 
Gazette, of the 30th of May, as follows : 

" Most of the old residents about Mission San Jos6, and many of 
our readers in other parts of the county, will remember the cii'cum- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 249 

stances of the killing of young Sufiol, on account of some land diffi- 
culty ; the attempted arrest by the Sheriff ; the resistance of the 
murderer, and his escape and disappearance. This occurred in the 
spring of 1855. Twelve years passed, and no clue to Wilson's where- 
abouts could be obtained. About a year ago a Spaniard who had 
been acquainted with the parties, while passing through the "lower 
country," saw at San Luis Obispo a man whom he took to be 
Wilson, and on returning informed the friends of Suhol of the fact. 
About two months since the matter was put into the hands of 
Sheriff Morse to be worked up. The Sheriff immediately set at 
work. He at once ascertained the whereabouts of the man, 
corresponded with the officers of the county, who quietly made in- 
quiries and informed Morse of the result. Everything pointed to 
this man. The necessary warrant was taken out, and the Sheriff 
started for San Luis Obispo to make the arrest. On making the 
arrest some little show of resistance was made by the father-in-law 
of the prisoner, but he was soon quieted. On examination of his 
charge the Sheriff was more confident than ever that he had his man. 
The description was perfect — the height, complexion, color of the 
hair and eyes were the same. The prisoner had the same stoop of 
his shoulders, downcast look and restless eye that characterized 
Wilson, and the absence of a tooth from the coi'ner of his mouth. 
He was brought to San Leandro and placed in jail, although he 
protested and insisted that his name was Slack, and not Wilson. He 
stated that in the spring of 1855 he was at work in the mines ; that 
subsequently he removed to San Jose, where he was at work on a 
ranch till the spring of 1860, when he went to Monterey County 
with a drove of cattle ; and finally settled in San Luis Obispo, where 
he resided till the time of his arrest. Upon the examination of 
Slack before Judge Nye, on Monday, the 18th instant, two wit- 
nesses, one a brother of the murdered man, swore positively that 
Slack and Wilson were the same person. Other witnesses thought 
they were the same, but were not positive. One of these latter was 
present when the murder was committed. -When the prosecution 
closed the case seemed strong against the prisoner. The accused had 
three witnesses ; one a Mr. Jameson, of Santa Clara County, who 
swore that he brought Slack across the plains from Missouri in the 
fall of 1854, and knew of his whereabouts in the spring of 1855, at 
the tims the deed for which he was arrested was committed. A 
gentlem in residing in San Francisco, namjd Cooksie, swore that he 



250 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

knew the accused in Missouri, and liad known him from childhood ; 
that his name was Slack, and that he always bore a good character. 
A Mr. Eaton, living in San Francisco, testified that he knew the 
prisoner in the spring of 18.55 ; that his name was Slack ; that they 
worked together that spring in the mines at Coon Hill, between 
Mud Springs and Diamond Springs, near Placerville, El Dorado 
County ; that he had met Slack in Santa Clara in 1860. When the 
defense closed the prosecution asked for a postponement until the 
following Saturday, for the purpose of procuring the attendance of 
an important witness, whose whereabouts had been ascertained since 
the commencement of the examination. The motion was granted. 
On the reopening of the examination on Saturday, two other wit- 
nesses were examined for the prosecution. One testified that this was 
the man AVilson. A woman who was called as a witness said that 
the prisoner was not Wilson ; that Wilson had lost two front teeth ; 
that she knew they were front teeth from the fact that on one occa- 
sion in conversation Wilson told her that he lost his teeth in a fight 
with a grizzly bear, but did not know whether they were from the 
iipper or lower jaw, or from the front or the corner of the mouth. 
The former witness had sworn that Wilson had lost one or two teeth. 
The prisoner showed that he had had a tooth pulled about a year 
before, at San Luis Obispo. After the summing up by the respective 
attorneys. Judge Nye decided that the evidence was insufiicient, and 
discharged the prisoner." 

The first number of a new weekly paper, called the AhuaeJa Dem- 
ocrat, made its appearance in San Leandro on the 6th of June. 

The following statement, published by the County Superintendent 
of Schools, shows the increase of the school population in ten years : 
The number of children in the county between the ages of four and 
eighteen, in 1858, was 1,174. The number between the ages of five 
and fifteen, in 1868, is estimated at 4,000. The average daily attend- 
ance upon the public schools, in 1858, was 278 ; in 1868 it is esti- 
mated at 1,500. There were sixteen teachers employed in the county 
in 1858 ; in 1868, forty-eight. There was expended for school pur- 
poses, in 1858, $9,605 ; the sum expended in 1868 exceeded $40,000. 

There was another of those bloody afi'rays for which the native 
population had become so noted, which took place at Laddsville on 
the night of the 29th of June. Two Mexicans named Lazaro Higu- 
era and Rafael Altamareno got into a dispute over a game of cards. 
Words brought blows, and Higuera, drawing a knife, attacked Alta- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 251 

niareuo, cutting liiiu about the face in a shocking manner, and neai-ly 
severing his arm above the elbow. A man named Agatone Ruis in- 
terfered and told Higuera not to kill Altamareno, when Higuera, 
now that he had drawn blood, seemed perfectly infuriated, turned 
and attacked E,uis, who, in self-defence, was compelled to shoot the 
enraged man. He fired three shots, all of wliich took eifect upon 
the person of Higuera ; one passing through his breast, another 
through his arm, and the thiixl through his neck. Sheriff Morse 
went to arrest Higuera, but he was so seriously wounded he could 
not be removed. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated in Oakland this year with a 
great deal of spirit and enthusiam, but the joy of the occasion was 
marred by an appalling accident which occurred at the ferry landing 
at the end of the railroad wharf, by which about twenty persons 
were drowned. 

There were races at Haywards which were well attended, and the 
contests quite spirited. 

A fire occuiTed at Yallejo's Mills on July 11th, by which the hotel 
at that place, kept by Mr. Wm. Jordan and wife, was destroyed. 
There has not been a good hotel at the place since. 

There was a Democratic ratification meeting at SanLeancb'o on Sat- 
urday, the 18th of July, in honor of the nomination of Seymour and 
Blair as candidates for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency of the 
United States. Among the speakers were Governor Haight and 
Lieut. -Governor Holden. Wm. S. Moss was Chainnan, and W. J. 
Collier, editor of the Democrat, Secretary. 

A large and earnest meeting of mechanics in favor of the eight- 
hour law. was held in Shattuck & Hillegass' Hall, Oakland, on the 
evening of the 23d of July. C. A. Wetmore called the meeting to 
order and mtroduced F. L. Taylor as President of the meeting, and 
Walter Prosser as Secretary. Mr. Wetmore urged the organization 
of an association to be called the Mechanics' Institute of Alameda 
County. Among those who addressed the assemblage were G^n. Winn 
and Hon. J. W. Dwinelle. The following i^esolutions were adopted : 

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to draft a plan for tlie 
general co-operation of the Eight-hour Mechanics of Alameda County, 
said plan to be both protective and progressive. 

Resolved, That the following gentlemen be appointed to serve on 
said Committee, and be requested to report within one week : F. L. 
Taylor, C. A. Wetmore, F. Cook, E. L. Wetmore, B. Radican, J. A. 



252 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Buckingham, W. P. Bagley, John H. Ellis, J. W. Hand, • ■ 

Bellington. This Committee to determine the time and jjlace of next 
meeting, and to elect its own Chairman. 

Resolved, That the mechanics of Alameda County are hereby i-e- 
quested to assist in this movement by organizing leagues and protect- 
ive associations on the eight-hour system. 

Resolved, That we recommend the organization of leagues to em- 
brace all trades in localities in which it may be impracticable to 
establish them separately. 

Resolved, That we petition the Board of Supervisors of Alameda 
County to pass an ordinance similar to the Eight-hour Ordinance 
lately passed by the City Council of Oakland. 

A splendid new house, but recently erected by Mr. Joseph Damont, 
of San Leaudro, was destroyed by fire, on the 10th of August. It 
had not yet been occupied, but was insured for $3,000. The cost of 
the structure was $4,500. The fire was supposed to be caused by 
the carelessness of some men who took lodgings among the shavings 
for the night. 

On Sunday, 9th of August, a fatal aifray occurred at Ladd's 
Hotel, Livermore Valley. A man named Hyde, known to be a 
desperate character, entered Ladd's Hotel and asked for something 
to drink. As he was already under the influence of liquor, Mr. 
Ladd refused to let him have anything. Hyde then stepped behind 
the counter, seized a large water pitcher, and struck Ladd with it on 
the head, cutting an ugly gash on the temple. This blow he fol- 
lowed with another from a lager beer mug. Ladd managed to keep 
his feet and grappled mth his assailant. He was no match, how- 
ever, for his powerful adversary, who soon threw him down, holding 
him there. While in this position, Mr. Ladd's barkeeper entered 
and endeavored to separate the combatants, but failing went outside 
for assistance, and retui-ned to the bar-room with a couple of Mexi- 
cans. As they entered they heard two reports of a pistol, and on 
taking Hyde oflf Ladd, they found a pistol in his hand, with one 
of his fingers upon the trigger, and the middle of it in Ladd's hand. 
Hyde was found to have been shot in the abdomen, and on the 
following day he died from his wound. During an examination, 
held by Justice Kottinger, into the cause of the man's death, Mr. 
Ladd stated that after being struck with the pitcher he did not 
know what occurred until the pistol was fired, and he then su})posed 
he had been himself shot. Some one stated that Hyde had made a 



rXDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 253 

threat that day that he would " have a man foi- his supper " tliat 
night, and went into Ladd's house with the deliberate intention of 
taking his life. "VViien he had him down he endeavored to shoot him 
with his pistol, but Ladd turned the muzde of it against Hyde, and 
when the latter fired, he shot himself. Ladd's hand was somewhat 
lacerated by the powder and ball, as he held the weapon. Of course, 
Ladd was acquitted of all blame in the man's death, as he clearly 
acted only in self-defence and had no idea of committing a homi- 
cide. This same man Hyde, about a year previous, had killed a 
barber at Mission San Jos6, but was acquitted, for some reason or 
other, of the crime. 

The country along the line of the Western Pacific Railroad was 
looking up. M. W. Mendenhall donated 10 acres of land to the 
company, for a depot, near Laddsville, and laid out a town, naming 
the same after Livermore, the first settler in the valley. The name 
of the place called Alasal'was changed to Pleasanton, and a town plat 
formed. Under date of September 12, Mr. J. A. Neal advertised 
the first town lots for sale, the inducement to purchase being that 
the Railroad Company would establish a depot there. Land ad- 
vanced largely in price, and speculation throughout the county in- 
creased to a furor in the southern and eastern jjortions, as well as in 
Oakland and Brooklyn. 

A new wharf, erected by the Alameda Ferry Company, was com- 
pleted this month. A new slip was constructed, the old wharf in- 
creased in width, making this one of the best docks on the Bay. 

On the 6th of October there was an attempt made on the part of 
two prisoners named Jackson and Mann, confined in the County 
Jail, to effect an escape, and with this view endeavored to overpower 
Under Sheriff Borein. The latter made an effectual resistance and 
his cries soon brought assistance. He had hold of Jackson, but 
Mann managed to get out. The latter was immediately pursued and 
captured. Prominent among the pursuers was District Attorney 
Gilcrist, of Oakland, who seized an old musket, the same with which 
Thomas had shot Officer Richardson in Oakland. When Mann be- 
held the noble Attorney armed with an old gun, which had pi'obably 
not been loaded for many years, he cried out with fear and trem- 
bling — " Don't shoot ; for God's sake, don't shoot ! " The usual quiet 
was soon restored, and the exploits of the day were subject for 
amusement for considerable time thereafter. 

This being the year for a presidential election, there was a great 



254 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

deal of political excitement throughout the county. Mass meetings 
of both the Republican and Democratic parties were held in every 
town and prominent speakers engaged on the canvas. Among those 
who spoke in this county were, on the Republican side, Hon. S. Grar- 
field of Washington, Hon. A. A. Sargent, Hon. John B. Felton, Hon. 
Alex. Campbell, Hon. A. P. Dudley, Gen. John F. Miller, Hon. E. 
D. Wheeler, Hon. Chas. A. Tuttle, Hon. Walter Van Dyke, Hon. 
A. M. Crane, Hon. Noble Hamilton, Hon. I. A. Amerman, Hon. J. 
G. Eastman, General O. H. LaG range, Hon. John F. Swift, Hon. 
Newton Booth, George C. Gorliam, Hon. W. W. Gordon, Hon. W. 
C. Norton, Hon. John G. McCallum, Hon. John W. Dwindle. , 

On the Democratic side were Hon. J. W. Coffroth, Hon. W. T. 
Wallace, Governor Haight, Lieutenant-Governor Holden, Zach Mont- 
gomeiy, Wm. Van Vooi-hies, and others. 

The Republican Candidates for President and Vice-President were 
Gen. U. S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax; the Democratic Candidates 
were Governor Seymour, of New York, and Frank P. Blair, of Mis- 
souri. The Republican Electors for this State were Messrs. Felton, 
La Grange, Hoffman, Redington and AVestmoreland ; the Democratic 
Electors, Messrs. Henley, Kewen, AVallace and Pearce. The Con- 
gressional Candidates for the Third District, Messrs. Coffroth and 
Sargent. 

There were enrolled on the Great Register this year, after the can- 
celled names were struck off, 4,623 names, while there were enrolled 
on the Poll List only 3,596 names, showing that a short time before 
the election day there were 2,027 persons who did not feel sufficient 
interest to have their names enrolled. The election took place on 
Tuesday, the 3d day of October, when the Republican Electors re- 
ceived in this county 1,861 votes each, and the Democratic 1,262, 
giving the former a majority of 599. The majority in the State for 
Grant and Colfax was 536. Taking the number of votes cast from 
the number of votes on the Great Register, it appears there were 
1,500 persons in the county entitled to vote, who did not do so. 

The Alameda County Teacher's Institute assembled at the Lafay- 
ette Grammar School, Oakland, on the 13th day of October. It was 
called to oixler by A. L. Fuller, County Superintendent. Tlie pro- 
ceedings occu]>ied four days. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 255 

CHARLES P. EELLS. MARCUS P. WIGGIN. 

"WIGGIN &; EELLS, 

Union Savings Bank Building. P. O. BOX, 598. 

W. VAN VOORHIES. F. J. BKEARTY- 

VOORHIES & BREARTY, 

Room 14, Cosmopolitan Block, Oakland. 

john r. glasoook, 
District Attorney Alameda County, 

Room 3, Court House, Oakland. 

HENRY VROOMAN. A. A. MOORE- 

MOORE & VROOMAN, 

Attorneys and Counselors-at-Law, 

402 Montgomery Street, Room 31, 

HENRY VROOMAN, c„ „ PTrnnriQrn 

City Hall, Oakland. ^^" T ranCISCO. 

JAMES C. PLUNKETT, 

.A-ttorxioy - Sbt - I_joL w, 
1055 BROADWAY, 

(Betwien Elevantk and Tzvalfth Streets, Oakland. 

E. J. WEBSTKB. K. J. CHRISTIE. 

CHRISTIE & WEBSTER, 

(Beniiz (Block, cor. Tenth &^ Qjroadivay, (Rooms ly S^ 18, 
OAKLAND. 

WILLIAM HOSKINS, 

NOTARY PUBLIC, 

CyMissioner of Deeds for all lie States and Territories, and Agent Coninierclal Fire Insurance Co. 
No. 909 Broadway, Oakland. 



256 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 



Established 1875. 



Oakland, Cal. 



ORNAMENTAL 



neatly executed by 

THE PACIFIC PRESS. 





< 
o 

PQ 

<: 

s 

o 

a: 

w 
p 
p: 
o 




!33 
W 
O 

w 
< 

o 

> 
H 
H 
W 

H 

o 



A^o. 205^ Castro Street^ Between Eleventh and Twelfth^ 

OAKLAND. 



Daily and Weekly Newspapers printed at reasonable 
Rates. 

A constant supply of News and Book Papers cheap for 
Cash. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 257 



CHAPTER XXL 



FROM THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1868, TO THE COMPLE- 
TION OF THE CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD, IN NOVEMBER, 1869. 



1868 continued — Effects of the Earthquake Throughout the State — • 
In Oakland and the Various County Towns — The Court-house 
Destroyed at San Leandro, and a County Officer Killed — 
Edmujidson's Large Grain Warehouse Destroyed, and Morsels 
Flour Mill Overturned at Haywards — The Residence of General 
LaGrange Ruined — The Old Mission Church Ruined — Fissures 
in the Earth — How the New Deaf and Dumb and Blind Insti- 
tute Stood the Shock — How a Man Felt on the Top of a Steeple, 
One Hundred and Fifty Feet from the Ground — County Records 
all Saved — The Methodist Ejnscopal Church in San Leandro 
Used Temporarily for County Offices — Josselyn's Fimeral — 
The Supervisors Declanre the Result of the Vote for Presidential 
Electors and County Officers — First Rain of the Season — Plans 
Adopted for New County Buildings— The Estudillo House Re- 
Opened with a Ball — Comparative Vote of 1858 and 1868 — 
Ground for County Infirmary Chosen — A Murder in Castro 
Valley, and Sheriff Morse's Persistent Pursuit of the Murderer 
— Legislation of 1868. 

On Wednesday morning, October 21st, 1868, a few niimites 
before 8 o'clock, occurred the severest shock of earthquake ever 
experienced in this part of the Pacific Coast. It was particularly 
hard in Alameda County, which appears to have been its center. It 
did much damage in the lower portion of the City of San Francisco, 
and several lives were lost by casualties occasioned by it. It was 
felt all over the State, and slightly on the eastern slope of the Sierra 
Nevadas. At Sacramento it was so severe that it frightened people 
from the houses, whence they rushed in the most ridiculous manner. 
No serious damage was done. The chronometers stopped at one 
minute to eight o'clock, indicating the time of the shake. The water 
in the Sacramento River i-eceded to such an extent that it left the 

17 



258 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

hulk Globe nearly surrounded by dry land. It soon returned in a 
wave about two feet liigh, setting the vessels at the levee rocking 
violently. Some walls in the city were cracked, plastering fell and 
crockery was broken. There were repeated shocks during the day. 

At Marysville the shock was felt at about eight o'clock. It was 
the most serious ever felt in that city. There was a general rattling 
of glassware, doors, windows, etc., but no damage done. 

At San Jos6 the shock was very severe. The time recorded is two 
minutes past eight. The vibrations were north and south, and were 
more severe than ever before experienced within the recollection of 
the oldest American settler. Great damage was sustained by many 
buildings. The lai-ge and elegant Presbyterian Church, with its tall 
tower, was very badly injured. The tower was so badly cracked that it 
had to be taken down. The organ was destroyed by bricks falling 
through the roof. The entire damage was not less than $3,000 or 
$4,000. About one-half of Moody's mill, a frame building, was 
thrown down. Numerous walls were cracked, and many chimneys 
and fire-walls thrown down. Other shocks wei-e noticed during the 
day, and much consternation was felt. 

In Virginia and Gold Hill the tremblings were felt and great anx- 
iety experienced. Apprehensions were felt for the people of San 
Francisco, and the papers published extras to satisfy the want for 
news. A despatch was reported to have been received from the tele- 
graph operator at Oakland, who stated that his office— a frame build- 
ing — was a total wreck, and that he was sending this news from a 
place outside of the town, where he had cut the wires. This was all 
that could be heard from Oakland, and rather excited than allayed 
the general anxiety. A large crowd collected about the telegra})h 
office, clamorous for news, but the pale and nervous operators could 
only repeat over and ever again what little they had been able to 
learn through the despatch from Oakland. But no such despatch 
was sent from the Oakland office. 

In the towns north of the bay the shock was quite severe, but not 
so disastrous as sovith of this point. Martinez and Pacheco were 
considerably damaged. The center of the earthquake was in the 
mountain range in the southern pai-t of this county, Avhere the greatest 
convulsions were experienced and fissures made in the earth. 

Oakland svifiered less than any other place within the circle of the 
quake. A stranger passing through its streets immediately after 
would not suppose that anything unvisual had hajjpened, or that 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 259 

nature had been indulging in one of her convulsive throbs. The 
following particulars are mostly taken from the Oakland yeivs of the 
following day : 

THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE ITS EFFECTS IN ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

There was yesterday another of those convulsions of nature which 
reminds men of their own weakness and of the frailty of their 
works. Oakland has sustained slight damages, in comparison with 
what have befallen other towns, for which we should feel peculiarly 
thankful. From our neighboring towns come sorrowful tidings, and 
in one case there has been a loss of life. The damage to property 
has been estimated with difficulty. In many cases the full extent 
cannot be known until a close mechanical examination has been 
made, and any statement that could now be given would necessarily 
be far from correct. 

Yesterday morning the weather was the same that has for some 
days past prevailed. The usual mists obscured the sun until two 
o'clock, when the air became clear and balmy, and the remainder of 
the day was warm but not sultry. 

THE EARTHQUAKE SHOCKS. 

During the day there were a succession of shocks, the first and 
most distinctive occurring about six minutes before eight o'clock. 
A gentleman i-esiding near Temescal, on the Telegraph road, about 
two miles from this city, kept a recoi'd of the different shocks that 
occurred, from which we extract the following : 

First shock, at 7:54 A. m., very heavy — -direction, northeast, east 
and soxithwest, a rolling motion. Almost like a continuation of this 
came a whirling motion. 8:26, slight shock ; 8:44, heavy shock, 
with rolling motion; 8:47, slight shock; 9 : 1 1 , slight shock ; 10:15, 
heavy shock, with rolling motion, and up and down movement ; 
3:12, slight shock; 3:17, slight shock; 4:08, double shock, up and 
down. 

There were shocks during the entire day, some observers stating 
that there were thirty-two. Those we have named attracted atten- 
tion and were noted. 

THE DAMAGE IN OAKLAND. 

"VVe believe that the damage to property in Oakland is insignifi- 
cant when contrasted with that sustained elsewhere. The private 
dwelling houses all sustained some small damage ; in many cases 
crockeiy and glassware were broken, and gi-eat numbers of chimneys 



260 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Avere broken off above the roof. Plaster was cracked in several 
houses ; the residence of Capt. Wilcox, Mr. "Wedderspoon and Mr. 
Coleman being the most badly damaged. 

Boai'dman's new brick building, on Twelfth Street, west of Broad- 
way, presents a badly damaged appearance, although the only injury 
sustained was the destruction of the fire-wall and awning. 

Bigelow & Sessions' Broadway block does not appear to have sus- 
tained any damage. 

AVilcox's three-story brick building, corner of Broadway and Ninth 
Streets', escaped unharmed, some of the cement merely being broken 
from the outer wall. This building is the highest in the city. Its 
walls are well tied together, a large amount of iron having been used 
in their construction ; this accounts for their security. Dunham & 
. Cook, the proprietors of the Palace Photograph Gallery, sustained 
some damage from the destruction of chemicals, which damaged the 
carpeting of the waiting room. 

Holmes' building, corner of Broadway and Eighth Streets, seems 
considerably shattered. The rear walls are cracked, and one of the 
iron pillars of the front is displaced. The shelving in Radcliffe's 
grocery, being imperfectly fastened to the walls, was thrown down 
and a large quantity of crockery and glassware was broken and the 
miscellaneous articles usually kept upon the shelves of an extensive 
retail grocery were thrown vipon the floor. The damage cannot be 
far from $2,000. 

Shattuck's building, on the opposite side of Eighth Street, was 
damaged in the rear wall, there being a large crack extending from 
the top of the building very nearly to the ground. Cautious men 
did not care to visit the Marshal's office or the Council-rooms. 

Shattuck & Hillegass' livery stable buildings and hall were but 
slightly injured. 

Delger's bviildings, on either side of Seventh Street, received but 
slight damages to the walls. Lamarche's store was thrown into con- 
fusion, and some of the stock was damaged. 

The one-story brick building, corner of Broadway and Foui-th 
Street, was shattered badly, and will probably be demolished. It is 
an old building, and was not erected in a solid or substantial 
manner. 

The walls of Herzog's building, on the west side of Broadway, 
between Third and Fourth Streets, were badly shattered, and it was 
deemed unsafe for a family to reside within them. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 261 

The old one-stoiy brick building, corner of Broadway and Third 
Streets, was very badly damaged, and its walls are kept erect only 
by means of props. 

The front wall of the County Hospital was slightly cracked. 

The rear wall of the brick building owned by Mr. E. C. Sessions, 
near the corner of Broadway and First Street, was so badly shat- 
tered that it will probably be necessary to remove it. 

The walls of the Hotel de France building will need repairs to 
the value of about $500, as estimated. 

The show windows of the stores on the west side of Broadway, 
between Fifth and Ninth Streets, were neai'ly all broken, and, in a 
few cases, goods were damaged. 

THE CITY FRONT. 

The large holder at the gas works, corner of Washington and 
First Streets, was thrown out of position by the breaking of a cast- 
ing, and the gas bubbled out through the water. By prompt action 
the damage was speedily repaired and last night the usual supply of 
gas was furnished. 

Work was suspended at the Pioneer Mills after the first shock, as 
it was feared that some of the machinery had been thrown out of 
level. 

The brick work about the engine and furnace of the Oakland Plan- 
ing Mills was very slightly cracked. 

The portion of Broadway wharf extending east from Broadway, 
gave way, precipitating into the creek about seventy tons of coal. 

A small quantity of the bricks which were stored upon Dr. Mer- 
ritt's wharf were thrown forward into the creek. 

The heaviest damage that will probably be sustained is that which 
occurred at the lumber wharf of Taylor & Co., at the foot of Wash- 
ington Street. A trestle work pier, of frail construction, had been 
built for the storage of lumber, and upon this there were about 1.50,- 
000 feet. The shock experienced shortly after ten o'clock precipi- 
tated this into the creek. A large force of laborers were immediately 
set to work to recover it. 

BROOKLYN. 

Considerable damage was sustained in Brooklyn. The fire-wall of 
the Cotton Mills, on the west side, was thrown down and slight 
damages were sustained by the walls. As in Oakland, many chim- 
neys were broken off above the roofs of houses. 



262 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Scliiiiimelpfennig's new brick building was almost entirely demol- 
islied. 

Baryles' drug store sustained lieavy injuries, the building and stock 
being damaged. 

The injury to household furniture, etc., was greater in Brooklyn 
than in Oakland. 

ALAMEDA. 

The earthquake was very severe in this town, and scarcely a house 
escaped uninjured. The Insane Asylum building was badly dam- 
aged, and the contents of the stores were tumbled together, occasion- 
ing considerable loss. 

On the San Lsandro Road the concrete dwelling house of Mr. 
Creighton was damaged, one of the walls being demolished. 

SAN LEANDRO. 

At San Leandro the earthquake was much more severe than in 
Oakland or Alameda, and not a building escaped damage. The 
saddest calamity was the death of Mr. J. W. Josselyn, Deputy 
Clerk, a young man of much promise and ability, who has for a few 
years past been in the office of the County Treasurer. He was 
crushed in the ruins of the fallen Court-house. 

The entire Court-house building, above the second or main floor, 
is in ruins, and the walls of the lower or basement story are so 
cracked and thrown out of place that they never can be used again. 
The foundation and part of the walls of the Recorder's Office being 
built, were partially destroyed. Of the Coui-t-house, only a small 
portion of the roof remains in its original position, and the base of 
one of the columns that stood at the entrance was left. An exam- 
ination of the ruins showed that the building had been im})roperly 
erected, and that the charge of criminality or carelessness attaches to 
the county officei-s who had accepted such an affair from the con- 
tractors. 

Under-Sherifl' Borein, Deputy-Clerk Josselyn, Chai-les Palmer and 
two workmen engaged in making a vault for the Treasurer, weie in 
the building at the time of the earthquake. When the first shock 
came Mr. Borein was in bed. He endeavored to escape by the dooi", 
but on account of the vibrations the door could not be opened. He 
crouched down in the coi-ner of the room, sujjposmg that only the 
roof would fall ; a portion of the wall fell, some of the debris .striking 
him on the head. He escaped by the window, over the fallen brick 
and mortar, which was piled to the height of the second floor. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 263 

The prisoners, five in number, were yelling and praying, some to 
get out and some for pardon for their oSences. One of the windows 
on the north-west side not being covered, tools were passed to them, 
the keys of the jail being covered up. Finding it impossible for the 
prisoners to dig out in this way, the Under Sherifi" and Mr. Collins, 
one of the contractors on the new building, went down and broke 
open the front door of the jail and succeded in rescuing and securing 
the prisoners, who are now in jail in this city. 

There were in the Clerk's office four persons besides Mr. Josselyn. 
Mr. Josselyn endeavored to escape by the front entrance to the 
building, and when passing the threshold the falling walls buried 
him in its fragments. The other persons, seeing the front give way, 
escaped through one of the windows. 

The Beatty House and the Estudillo House, the two principal 
hotels, were badly damaged. The walls were shattered and the 
floors covered with debris. 

The Beatty House was cracked in every direction, and the south 
wall was entirely demolished. Tlie roof and walls of the Gazette 
office fell in, and it is doubtful whether the publisher can issue his 
regular weekly edition next Saturday. [But he did.] The type and 
forms of the Democrat office were pied, and much damage was done. 
There is only one chimney standing in the town. A tank ten feet 
wide and six feet deep was entirely emptied of water by the move- 
ment imparted to it. People are afraid to remain in theii- dwellings, 
and were camping in the streets. The bed of the San Leandro 
creek, which had been dry for several months, is now coursed by 
a stream of water six feet wide and one foot deep. Back of San 
Leandro, in the mountains, there are numerous fissures in the earth, 
from which came clouds of dust, and from some have come great 
volumes of water which flows into tlie San Leandro creek. 

HAY\VARDS. 

Bad as is the destruction of })roperty at San Leandi'O, it is worse 
at Hay wards. We did not observe a building there which was not 
in some manner damaged. Previous to entering the town, the first 
wreck noticed is that of the residence of General LaGrange. The 
house, a frame one, is not thrown upon the groiind, a mass of ruins, 
Ijut it is broken into several parts, and rendered unsafe and wholly 
unfit for residence. On account of the partial destruction of his 
house, General LaGrange will be unable to fulfill all of his appoint- 
ments for public speaking, his family requiiing his attention. 



264 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

In the town, many wooden buildings fell which would have re- 
mained secure if they had been built upon proper foundations. Stilted 
up, so to speak, no great force was required to move them, and a 
storm, similar to those which sometimes occur in the Atlantic States, 
would have prostrated them. 

The flouring mill owned by Sherifi" Morse is a complete wi-eck. 
The most valuable parts of the machinery are supposed to be unin- 
jured. The immense gi-ain warehouse of Mr. Edmondson is as com- 
pletely ruined as it could possibly be, hardly one brick remaining 
upon another. C. T. Ward, Jr., writes to the Times that "the large 
amount of grain buried in the ruins of the warehouse will nearly all 
of it be saved, and the loss will not exceed sixty tons. Some consid- 
erable excitement existed at first amongst the gi-ain-owners, but it 
was soon allayed. Work is being commenced to remove the grain 
and rebuild the warehouse. Fortunately there has been no loss of 
life, and but one man badly injured. The cook at the Washington 
Hotel had his leg broken. An open crack runs through the town, 
its course being south 53° east, said to be nine miles in length." 

Mr, Ward gives the following rough estimate of the damages done : 

Edmondson's warehouse, complete ruin, $25,000 ; Morse & Hes- 
lip's mill, complete ruin, $12,000; Washington Hotel, complete 
ruin, $4,000 ; Castro homestead, damage, $3,000 ; Lee & Ryland's 
Hotel, damage, $4,000 ; Chas. Spoerer's, damage, $1,000 ; Wm. Hay- 
ward, damage, $2,500 ; George Brown, property damaged, $2,000 ; 
S. F. & A, Railroad Company, property damaged, $500 ; A. S. Rock- 
wood, house upset, $400 ; Horace Hall, blacksmith shop, damaged, 
$750 ; Smalley & Stratton, livery stable, damage, $2,000 ; Louis 
Barbolla, restaurant, damage, $500 ; Wetterau &, Co., bakery, dam- 
age, $500; M. W. Levy, store damaged, $1,000; Larabee & Co., 
buildings damaged, $700 ; A. B. Grogan, dwelling-house damaged, 
$2,500 ; Globe Hotel, damaged, $450 ; Loon & Co., brewery dam- 
aged, $250 ; New York Brewery, damaged, $600 ; School-house, 
damaged, $450 ; Linakin & Barnes, damaged, $350 ; Creig & Mor- 
ton, blacksmith shop, damaged, $200 ; J. S. Rivers, blacksmith shop, 
damaged, $250. 

WASHINGTON. 

The store of C. J. Stevens, at Centime ville, was entirely destroyed 
to-day, and goods badly damaged. The store of J. Salze was badly 
shaken, and goods damaged very much. Dr. Selfridge's house was 
partly destroyed, and his cliild injured by the crash. Bamber's 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 265 

Hotel settled about two feet and was badly damaged. At the Mis- 
sion San Jose the church and many other buildings are in ruins. 
At Alvarado the brick shop of A. J. Lattin is entirely destroyed. 
The store of J. J. Stokes was damaged, with great loss of goods. 
No lives lost at either place. 

Between Haywards and the Mission San Jos6, there are numerous 
fissures in the earth, and it was difficult for a stage to be di'iven 
from one place to another. 

PACHECO AND MARTINEZ. 

At Pacheco and Martinez the full violence of the earthquake was 
felt. At the former place, Hook's warehouse was badly damaged, 
and the front wall of Carother's concrete house fell to the ground. 
There were numerous fissures in the earth, and much consternation 
prevailed among the people yesterday. Both ends of the Court- 
house, at Martinez, have fallen, but further than this there was no 
destruction of property. 

DAMAGE IN THE OAKLAND VALLEY— THE DEAF AND DUMB ASYLUM. 

The destruction of property in the valley back of Oakland was 
not extensive. At Jacob's Wharf, near Ocean View, a large quan- 
tity of lumber was precipitated into the bay, although the wharf 
was not damaged. From most houses the chimneys have been 
broken away. The buildings of the Female College of the Pacific 
and of the Oakland Academy were slightly damaged by the cracking 
of plaster. 

The Deaf and Dumb Asylum being probably the largest stone 
structure in the State, it was naturally supposed that it would be 
badly damaged, if not entii'ely ruined. The real damage is compara- 
tively trifling. We visited the building in the afternoon, and care- 
fully examined the walls. Eleven chinmeys, projecting above the 
roof, were broken. These chimneys were constructed of cut stone, 
well cemented together, and were in size 2^ feet by 4| feet. That 
such solid structures were broken, shows the force of the earthquake, 
and that the motion was quick and sudden, not gradual. Two of 
the gables had fallen, and in several places the rear walls of the 
building were cracked. The gable whicli fell was on the southwest 
corner of the building. The greater part of the space was occupied 
by a large bay-window, and this having been cai-ried away, the gap 
appeared exceedingly large. The amount of mason work, however, 
is slight, and wood-work having been carried away, the destruction 



266 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

appeared greater than it actually was. The mason work of another 
gable was cracked and will probably be removed. • The side an;l 
interior walls appeared to be without a flaw, but in. the few wall^> 
where there were numerous openings for doors and windows, cracks 
could be observed upon careful examination. Only a small portion 
of the flooring is laid, and when the building is completed it will be 
much stronger than at present. 

INCIDENTS. 

Numbers of chimneys, which have not fallen, are cracked and 
twisted, and unless house-owners are careful much loss might be occa- 
sioned by fire. The Mayor has issued an order calling attention to 
this fact, and it is to be hoped that every chimney in the city will be 
thoroughly examined. 

The large chimney of the furnace at the Contra Costa Laundry 
was twisted out of place several inches, but no damage was done to 
the machinery or the brick walls of the building. 

Mr. Thompson, a cai-penter, was at work on the top of the spire of 
the Baptist Church, on Fourteenth Street, at the time of the earth- 
quake. The to}) of the spire is one hundred and fifty feet from the 
ground, and swayed to and fro in a fearful manner. Mr. Thompson 
maintained his position until the earthquake subsided. 

At the Point two men were engaged in digging a well, one of them 
being in the shaft and the other at the windlass. At the first shock 
the windlass man deserted his post and left the man in the well to 
take care of himself. We did not ascertain the name of the wind- 
lass man, whose presence of mind and heroism Q) should be widely 
piiblished. 

The drawbridge on the line of the S. F. and O. R. R. was thrown 
out of place about eight inches, and as the locomotive and nearly all 
the cars were at San Antonio, no ti'ain left Oakland at 8 o'clock. 

Those accustomed to leave on that train went upon the Louise, from 
the foot of Broadway Wharf. James Bacheldei', the engineer, whose 
presence of mind has often been illustrated, hastened to the Point, 
got up steam on the old locomotive, and, gathering all tlie box and 
platform cars to be found, made the 10 o'clock trip and all the othere 
at the proper hours. The accidout to the draw has been remedied, 
and trains will run to-day at the regular hours. 

There were a niimber of workmen busy at the Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum, one or two being at the top of the tower, which is 146 feet 
high. None of them were in any way injured. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 26 7 

It was noticed throughout the city that chimneys and walls fell 
toward the South, not a single exception being noticed. 

The only damage to persons, occurring in Oakland, was sustained 
by IMrs. Cord, who, rushing from her residence on Twelfth Street, 
was just in time to intercept a falling brick from the cornice of 
Boardman's building, and received quite a severe cat on the head. 
The heavy cornice of the building came to the ground with a terrible 
crash. 

The tall chiimiey of the workshop of the Alameda Railroad vibrated 
more than a foot from a perpendicular line, but was not thrown down. 

On the locomotive the sensation was the same as if it were run- 
ning ofi' the track, and at the first shock the engineer feared such an 
accident had happened. 

A Mr. Davis, who resides on a farm near San Leandro, informs 
the Bulletin that the workmen on his farm at the time the shock 
occurred, observed that the gi'ound was distui'bed and thrown about 
with a rapid and violent rotary motion, which continued several sec- 
onds. A creek running through the fixrm, and which was nearly dry, 
rose instantly to the depth of about three feet, and sevei*al deep 
gulches were formed in the plain. His house was literally twisted in 
pieces and prostrated to the ground, but the family escaped as if by 
a miracle. Mrs. Davis was caught in the ruins. She was badly but 
not dangerously wounded about the head and face, and is recoveiing 
from her injuries. 

The following observations appeared in the San Leandro Gazette, of 
\he date following the earthqviake : 

" There was no approach to panic, and the women and cliiidren 
behaved in a most heroic and sensible mamier. Those who sutfered 
least vied with each other in rendering assistance and aid to their 
less fortunate neighbors. Tlie strong of nerve labored to quiet the 
apprehensions of the timid, and it was gi-atifying to witness the 
nxmierovis acts of kindness and general manifestations of brotherly 
love among all our citizens. All the nobler qualities of human 
nature were exhibited, and selfishness was nowhei-e exposed. Mat- 
ters are beginning to assume their wonted appearance, and all are 
busy repairing as fast as possible the damages sustained. 

" We make no apology for our somewhat demoralized appearance, 
for we are thankful, as we look upon the wreck aromid us, that we 
are able to issue even these few hastily-written words. Fortunately, 
the first and fourth pages of the Gazette were printed on Tuesday 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 



evening. The forms had been taken from the press and laid upon - 
the stone, and the shock overturned it and destroyed them. The 
advertising pages for the inside of the paper were only slightly pied, 
and by using some of our job letter, and judiciously patching up the 
dead matter which was not " pied," we are enabled to put in an ap- 
pearance. As our two principal advertising pages are worthless, we 
will be obliged to issue a small sheet next week. New material will 
have to be procured, and everything reset, before we assume our 
usual appearance. Fondly hoping — devoutly praying — that our fair 
town, county and State may never again be visited by so devastating 
a phenomena, we present you, dear reader, with our earthquake 
edition." 

Mr. Wai-ring Wilkinson, Principal of the Deaf and Dumb and 
Blind Asylum, whose building was then in the course of completion, 
in a letter to the Bulletin, showed how a solidly constructed, although 
fresh stone edifice, could stand the severest of earthquakes : 

" On Friday, October 23d, the Commissioners appointed for the 
location and erection of the new institution, visited the grounds to 
examine critically the condition of the building. As Principal of 
the institution I accompanied them. We spent three hours in and 
around the edifice. Every portion, from foundation stone to roof, 
was inspected thoroughly. There was no disposition to cover up any 
defects that may be found, or to solace themselves with the idea that 
no damage had been done. As guardians of a public trust, and 
responsible for the future safety of wards whom the State has ever 
treated with tender care, the Commissioners desired simjtly the 
truth. As the result of that investigation, every member of the 
Board is more convinced than ever before of the strength and honest 
construction of the building, and fully believes that if it had been 
finished no injury beyond the loss of the stone chimneys would have 
been sustained. The testimony of the workmen goes to show that 
the earthquake was very severe at that point. Mr. Mecreey, the 
carpenter, who was on the roof, states that the chapel walls swayed 
back and forth not less than four feet, and he believes that had the 
walls been of brick, they would have been leveled with the ground. 
The mason, who was several rods to the rear, says that the whole 
structure seemed tossing like a ship on a wild sea, the waves coming 
cornerways in such rapid succession as to keep all parts of the biiild- 
ing in continual motion. And yet throughout the whole foundation 
there is not the slightest trace of a crack. Let us now go through 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 269 

the building in detail. The Commissioners made the circuit of the 
walls and entered." 

The county records were all saved, and the Coiinty Clerk and other 
officials established themselves in the Methodist Episcopal Church, a 
small edifice, but the only place available, until a new county build- 
ing was erected. 

The lamented Josselyn's funeral took place at 1 1 o'clock on the 
morning of the 23d of October, from the Presbyterian Church, and 
under the auspices of the Masonic fraternity. His remains were 
interred in Mountain View Cemetery, near Oakland, and over eighty 
carriages formed the funeral procession. 



The first rain of the season commenced at dusk on Wednesday, 
Nov. 18, and continued, with but little abatement, till a late hour on 
Thursday night. 

On the 9th of November the 'Board of Supervisors met and can- 
vassed the vote at the late election for presidential electors, supervis- 
ors, and other township officers. 

The Supervisors, at their meeting of November 16th, agreed iipon 
plans for a new Court house and jail and Recorder's office. They 
were prepared by Mr. Barnes, architect, and provided for a one-story 
wooden building in front, over the foundation of the old Coiirt House. 
Iron cells were provided for the jail. The Recorder's office was brick, 
and fire-proof. 

The Estudillo House re-opened, on the 19th of December, with a 
ball, after being closed for repairing damages received during the 
gi-eat eai-thquake. 

The whole number of votes cast in the county, in 1868, was 3,123, 
a gain in ten years of 1,617. 

A special committee of the Board of Supervisors, appointed to 
purchase a suitable piece of gi-ound on which to establish the County 
Infirmary, were instructed by the Board to purchase fifty acres of 
land belonging to a Mr. Puff, and situated above the county road, 
between San Leandro and Haywards. The soil was reported excel- 
lent, and watered by a running stream. The law of April 18, 1860, 
authorized the establishment of County Infirmaries, and is as follows : 

Section 1. The Supervisoi-s of each and every county in this State 
shall be and they are hereby authorized to erect and establish county 
infirmaries within theii- respective counties, whenever, in their opinion. 



270 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

such measure will be advantageous, and for that purpose it shall be 
lawful for the said Supervisors to purchase such lot or tract of land, 
of not more than one hundred and sixty acres, and erect thereon one 
or more suitable buildings for the accommodation of the institution ; 
provided, that if the Supervisors of any covmty shall think proper to 
purchase land and erect a county innrmaiy under the provisions of 
this Act, the expense of such purchase and erection shall be defrayed 
by a tax levied in the objects of county taxation, described in the 
Twelfth Section for that express purpose, which shall be collected and 
paid over at the same time, and in the same manner that other taxes 
are collected ; provided also, that said tax shall not exceed one-fourth 
of one per cent. ; provided further, that when there is a sufficient sum 
of money in the Special Hospital Fund of any coimty therefor, or 
other provision is made by law for raising said sum, the tax author- 
ized by this section may or not be levied, at the option of the Board 
of Supervisors. 

A great deal of interest was excited in Sherifi' Morse's pursuit and 
capture of a mvirderer named Newell, in the latter end of this year. 
The facts of the case briefly told are these: On the 20th of Septem- 
ber, in Castro Yalley, back of Haywards, two men named Lighton 
and Newell had a dispute over a dog fight, when Newell shot Lighton 
through the head with a pistol, causing a wound from the eftects of 
which he died on the 26th of the same month. Newell immediately 
mounted a horse and escaped. As soon as possible after receiving 
information of the murder and the escape of the murderer. Sheriff 
Morse, accompanied by his trusty aid. Constable Morehouse, set out 
in pursuit of the fugitive. They traveled over 200 miles of territoiy, 
making a careful search for their man wherever they went. They 
ransacked the coal mines of Conti'a Costa and Alameda, and after a 
protracted absence returned without their man. Subsequently they 
heard of him in the soiithern country and again set out in pursuit. 
They tracked him over the sierras and through deserts, at times los- 
ing all traces of him and again finding only the faintest clue. At 
last they stumbled over the rotting carcass of his abandoned and dead 
horse, and finally found him with an assumed name, working as a 
laborer on the Los Angeles and Anaheim Railroad ; and on tlie 7th of 
November arrived with him at San Leandro. He was tried soon 
after, and convicted, and the case appearmg only a homicide, Newell 
was sentenced to six years imprisonment at San Quontiu. 

The legislation of the year 1868, for the benefit of Alameda 
County, was as follows : 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 271 

All Act for the relief of Sheriff Morse, for the expenses in the 
pursuit of the murderer Ponce. 

An Act to prevent stallions running at large in Alameda Cfounty. 
An Act to confer a whai-f franchise at Ocean Yiew on Messrs. 
Hayward and Jacobs. 

An Act to regulate compensation of Township Assessors. 
An Act authorizing the election of additional Supervisors. 
Aji Act to enable the County Auditor to certify to the amount of 
school money in the Treasury. 

An Act to enable County Supervisors to levy a tax for building 
Recorder's office and jail. 

An Act to provide payment of the State's portion of salaiy of 
Auditor. 

An Act concerning roads and highways. 

An Act concerning San Francisco and Alameda Railroad, extend- 
ing time for building wharf 

An Act for the preservation of trout. 
An Act establishing boundaries of pound districts. 
An Act conferring a wharf franchise at the Encinal of San An- 
tonio to Aughenbaiigh and others. 

An Act relating to election of County Clerk and Recorder. Re- 
corder to be ex-ojicio Auditor. 

An Act declaring San Leandro Creek between its mouth and "An- 
drew's Landing " navigable. 

An Act to enable the City of Oakland to issue bonds to purchase 
lands and erect a City Hall. 

An Act to authorize a tax for building, interest, and redemption 
purposes. 

An Act to enable the City of Oakland to settle its land contro- 
versies. 

An Act constituting the Mayor of Oakland a Commissioner for 
appraising land granted to Terminal Pacific Railroad — 150 acres. 

An Act legalizing the location of San Francisco and Alameda 
Railroad fl-om Haywards to Washington Corners. 
An Act concerning the Oakland Railroad. 

An Act authorizing bonds to pay judgments against the City of 
Oakland. 

An Act to keep San Antonio Creek navigable. 
An Act to change the name of the Congregational Church to the 
First Congregational Religious Society of Oakland. 



StJi HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

1869 — The Small-pox Prevalent — The Agricultural Society and Jockey 
Club Re-organized — Public Hall in San Leandro — Criminals 
Arraigned — Marriages — Admissions to County Hospital — Suit 
Against the Railroad — A Railroad Survey of Crow Ctirion— 
Dissatisfaction with the New Court-house — Death of a Valuable 
Horse — Tresspasser Shot — Warm Springs Sold to A. A. Cohen — 
Arrest of the Horse-thief Robinson — San Leandro Water Com- 
pany Incorporated — Destructive Fire in Brooklyn — The Akcmeda 
Democrat Discontinued — Pleasanton Post-offi.ce Revived — Cali- 
fornia Lions About — The Brighton Market Association Elect 
New Officers — School Exhibition at Dublin — Odd Fellows^ Hall 
at Haywards Dedicated— Suicide of Judge Walker— The New 
Agricultural Society Dissolved — The Velocipede Mania— Natural 
Photography — San Lorenzo Water Company — Catholic Fair at 
San Leandro — Rev. J. M. Alexander Resigned — General La- 
Grange Appointed Superintendent of the Mint — The State Uni- 
versity Established — Mr. Hlllebraiul Records his Celebrated Deed 
— Death of Dr. Haile — Serious Stage Accident — Union Bank 
Established — Failure of the Wheat Crop — The National Anni- 
versary — Union Convention — New Co^tholic Church at the Mis- 
sion — Mutual Provident Association — Death of John S. Chijmian 
■ — Cost of Land — Fruits and Vegetables — The Oakland " Tran- 
script" Gone Democratic — Flour Mill at Liveivnore — The Elec- 
tions and their Residts — Railroad Consolidation— Fire in the 
Foothills — A Pacific Race Track — l^he Western Pacific Railroad 
Co. Purchase the Oakland Ferry — Racing at Haywards — Laying 
of the Last Rail of the Overland Railroad, at Oakland — First 
Passenger Train Through Oaklatul — Great Rejoicing at the 
Event. 
The small-pox was prevalent in various parts of the county, and at 
New Year's there were as many as eleven cases reported in Hay- 
wards alone, with one death. The disease was brought from San 
Francisco, where it was raging with much virulence. Several pro- 
minent citizens of Alameda died of it. 

The Alameda County Agricultural Society and Hay^vards Jockey 
Club were reorganized and consolidated at the beginning of the new 
year, under the name of the Haywards' Trotting Park Association. 
"Wm. Hay ward was chosen President ; Wm. Roberts, Vice-President; 
M. W. Levy, Secretary ; and D. Smalley, Treasurer. 

A new public hall was erected in San Leandi-o, by Mr. Geo. E. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 273 

Smith, whicli was dedicated by a public ball, on the last day of the 
old jea.r, under the management of the Madigan Brothers, of the 
Estudillo House. 

At the County Goui-t, held January 4th, in the new Court-house, 
the following prisoners were arraigned: Edward Minor, Joseph Newell, 
Alphonso Benouf, J. Sullivan, R. Ryan, Rafael Altamoreno. These 
men were all charged with serious crimes, one, at least, being for 
murder. 

Returns in January showed that there were 196 marriage licenses 
issued by the County Clerk during the year 1868. 194 persons were 
admitted into the County Hospital during the same year. There were 
four patients in the Oakland pest-house, attended by a cook and nurse 
and a visiting physician. The monthly allowance required for sala- 
ries for the institution was $450. 

Benjamin A. Harrison commenced suit in the Fourth District 
Court, San Francisco, against the San Francisco and Oakland Rail- 
road Company, to recover $25,000 damages for the death of his 
daughter, Cora Harrison, on the occasion of the disaster at Oakland 
Pier, July 4th, 1868. He also sued for $5,000 damages sustained 
by his wife, Lydia Harrison, at the same time. He joined with his 
wife in a third suit against the company for damages, and prayed for 
a judgment against it for $20,000. 

The following obituary notice appeared in the Alta: 

" Died, at Wilmington, Delaware, on the 30th of Januaiy, Rebecca 
Donaldson Gibbons, relict of the late William Gibbons, M. D., in the 
84th year of her age. She was the mother of Dr. Henry Gibbons, of 
San Francisco ; Dr. William P. Gibbons, of Alameda ; Dr. Edwai-d 
Gibbons, of Oakland, and Rodmond Gibbons, of San Francisco. She 
reared to adult age 1 3 children, of whom 1 1 survive her ; together 
with 35 grand-children, and 7 great grand-children. Her life was 
one of active benevolence, and her chief happiness consisted in mak- 
ing others happy. As a Christian, her faith and hope were unbounded. 
Having filled the measure of time of duty, she awaited calmly and 
cheerfully the summons to depart. For her the Valley of the Shad- 
ow of Death had no darkness, no gloom ; and she entered it with the 
confidence of the traveler who has already trodden the j^ath and 
found it full of life and joy." 

The Pacific Railroad Company's engineers completed a survey 
through Crow Canon to Castro Valley, and in addition surveyed a 
line through Indian Canon, down the San Leandro, thence to Oak- 

18 



274 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

land. The route presented too many objectionable features to war- 
rant its adoption. 

The appearance, style and discomfort of the new Court-house 
excited general complaint. 

A very valuable horse, known as " Cassius M. Clay, Jr.," died at 
San Leandro on the 29th of Januaiy. He was owned by Capt. P. 
W. Dickey, who considered him the fastest untrained horse in the 
world, and valued him at $10,000. This was a serious loss to the 
stockraisers of the Pacific Coast, as well as to his owner. His colts 
were among the fastest in the State, and were selling at very high 
prices. 

A man named John Alty shot a Spaniard Avho was trying to force 
an entrance one night into a stable where he slept. He told him 
several times to go away, wliich he declined to do, and he then shot 
him, the ball taking effect in one of the arms, and in a few days he 
died from the effects of the wound. Alty, after giving bail to appear, 
was dismissed by the Grand Jury of the County Court of any crimi- 
nal intent. The occurrence took place at Laddsville. 

The property so well known as the Warm Springs, belonging to 
the Rancho Agua Caliente, was sold to A. A. Cohen, Esq. The sum 
paid was $100,000. These Springs a few years ago constituted the 
most popular summer resort in the State. I 

Sheriff Morse aiTCsted, on the 5th of April, in Palmyras Caiion, a j 
notorious thief and desperado named S. F. Robinson, on the charge 
of stealing a set of harness from the barn of Thomas Livingston, San 
Lorenzo. Robinson had several other charges of a serious character 
standing against him. 

There were filed in the office of the Secretary of State, on the 1 7th 
of April, articles of incorpoi-ation of the San Leandro Water Com- 
pany, the objects of which were to appropriate, hold and enjoy 
all the waters of the stream known as the San Leandro creek and 
tributaries thereof, in the County of Alameda, and supplying pure, 
fresh water to the inhabitants of San Leandro, Oakland and Alameda. 
Capital stock, $150,000, in shares of $100 each. Term of existence, 
fifty yeai-s. Principal place of business, San Francisco. Trustees, 
Austin D. Moore, Edwin B. Mastic and Noble Hamilton. 

The most destructive fire that ever occurred in Brooklyn broke 
out on the evening of the 18th of April, when Plummer's building, 
containing Webster & Co.'s grocery store, the Post-office, Bamber's 
Express office, Bangle's drug-store, Heilner & Bro.'s chy-goods store, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 275 

and O'Keefe's shoe shop, was destroyed. The upper part of this 
building was used for a public hall. An unoccupied blacksmith's 
shop and a hotel kept by Mrs. Wilson were also destroyed. The 
roof of Swett's Hall was burned off, and some other buildings on the 
opposite side of the street injured. The loss was estimated at 
$20,000, which was partly covered by insurance. The cause of 
the fire was unknown. 

The Alameda Democrat, started and published in San Leandro, 
the previous year, was discontinued on the 28th of April, for want 
of support. 

The Post-office, which had been established some time previously 
at Pleasanton and discontinued, was revived in April of this year. 

Farmers in Livermore Valley complained of depredations by Cali- 
fornia lions on their stock. It was very unusual to hear of those 
animals doing harm so far noi-th. 

The Butchers, Drovers and Stock Raisers' Association elected the 
following ofiicers, on the 29th of May, in addition to their old offi- 
cers, who were re-elected : AVilliam Mattox, President ; W. Fulton, 
Vice-President. 

The usually quiet little town of Dublin presented a lively appear- 
ance on May morning, as groups of children were wending their 
way in conveyances and on foot to the school-house, where an event 
of more than usual interest was to transpire. The occasion was a 
pic-nic and school exhibition. At one o'clock there were 600 people 
present at the pic-nic ground, a very unusual number for that local- 
ity. The May-day festivities were observed with more than usual 
display. Miss Fitzgerald was honored as Queen of the May. At 
7 o'clock in the evening, the company reassembled at Green's Hall, 
but half of those who desired admission could not procure it. J. W. 
Doixgherty, Esq., occupied the chair. Singing and recitations fol- 
lowed. The day was one long remembered in the Amador Valley. 

The hall of Sycamore Lodge No. 129, I. 0. O. F., was publicly 
dedicated, on Friday evening, April 30th, 1869, in the presence of a 
large number of persons, members and friends of the order, drawn 
together to witness the interesting ceremony. The M. W. Grand 
Master, C. S. Has well, officiated, assisted by a number of other 
Grand Officers. There was a ball in the evening, which was a 
highly successful afiair. The hall is an imposing two-story fi-ame 
building, occupying an elevated position, 40 feet front by 70 feet 
deej). 



276 HISTOKY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Judge Asa Walker, of Brooklyn, committed suicide on Thursday, 
the 13th of May, by drowning himself in Lake Merritt. He was 
seen to walk into the water and lie down there, and soon after his 
lifeless body was seen floating near the shore. A Coroner's jury, 
summoned by Justice Rector, found a verdict that deceased came 
to his death while laboring under a fit of temporary insanity, caused 
by recent sickness. Judge Walker was sixty-seven years of age, and 
a native of the State of Maine. He was an old resident of Brook- 
lyn, one of its earliest residents, and held the office of Justice for 
many years, as well as having served a term in the State Legislature. 
He was a man of strong opinions, and of progressive ideas, a good 
citizen, an efficient officer, and in hLs family and social relations uni- 
versally esteemed. 

At a meeting of the Alameda Agricultural Society, held at Hay- 
wards on Monday, May 10th, it was agreed to discontinue the society, 
and arrangements were made to pay up all liabilities, which amounted 
to about $600. There were no spring races, as hitherto. 

Real estate had taken a new start, and lots sold for $200 each. 
Land sold for $200 per acre. Edmondson's new warehouse was re- 
erected on the old location. 

In May of this year the velocipede mania was raging in every 
town in the county. 

The Gazette of May 2 2d remarked with regard to a natural curios- 
ity : " We have in our possession a piece of sandstone I'ock, taken out 
of a quarry in the vicinity of Livermore tunnel, which has distinctly 
impressed upon its surface the figure of an oak leaf, with nearly 
every vein clearly defined. It was blasted out of a solid rock twenty- 
five feet from the surface, and was presented to us by Mr. Beckfox-d, 
of the engineer corps at the tunnel." 

The Sacramento Record of May 20th stated that there was filed in 
the office of the Secretary of State the certificate of incorporation of 
the San Lorenzo Creek Water Company, the objects of wliich were 
to appropriate, hold and enjoy, exclusively, all the waters of the 
creek known as the San Lorenzo, and its tributaries, in the County 
of Alameda, and to supply pure, fresh water to the inhabitants of 
the town of Haywax'd, the town of San Lorenzo, and the inhabitants 
of Alameda County generally, for the purpose of general and common 
use, and for irrigation. Capital stock, $120,000 ; principal place of 
business, San Leandro ; trustees, A. L. Fuller, Wm. Meek, and G. 
E. Smith. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 277 

At a Catliolic festival, in aid of the cliiirch. at San. Leandro, on 
25th, 26th, and 27th of May, there was realized $1,000 net. 

Rev. J. M. Alexander, first pastor of the San Leandro Presby- 
terian Church, resigned his charge on Sunday, May 23d. He was 
compelled to abandon the ministry on account of ill health. 

A dispatch, dated Washington, June 3d, announced General O. 
H. LaGrange, of San Leandro, to be appointed Superintendent of 
San Francisco Mint. 

At a meeting of the Regents of the State University, held on 
Tuesday, June 1st, it was resolved that suitable buildings be obtained 
in Oakland, and the University put in opei-ation on first day of Sep- 
tember following, without any connection with the College of Cali- 
fornia. Gen. Stoneman was put in nomination for President of the 
University. 

The Gazette, of June 12th, contained the following: Mr. Hille- 
brand, the urbane City Clerk of Oakland, paid a visit to this town a 
few days since, to record that " little deed," the real estate plaster to 
cure all the ills that Oakland is heir to. He was saluted as Mr. 
Carpentier, Mr. Cost, Mr. Sam Clarke, Mr. Pretermitted Heir, and 
other like names, indicative of distinguished consideration, but so 
multiplied that he must have done his level best to preserve his indi- 
viduality. "The Kate Hays title" was not included. 

Dr. Henry Haile, an old and useful citizen, died at his residence, 
in Alameda, on Tuesday, June 15th. He was a native of Vermont, 
and came to California in 1853, when he located in Alameda. 

A terrible accident occurred at Buhner Hill, near Dublin, on the 
1 7th of June, by the upsetting of a stage containing about twenty 
passengers. Several persons were seriously injured, and the driver, 
Oliver P. Perkins, killed. 

The Union Bank of Savings was opened on the 1st day of July, in 
Oakland, with A. C. Henry, as President. 

The wheat ci-op was set down this year as a faikire, from rust. 
From Oakland to Mission San Jose there was scarcely a piece of 
wheat worth harvesting. 

The national anniversary was celebrated at San Lorenzo. Patriotic 
speeches were made b_y Judge Crane, S. P. Wright, Rev. L. R. Clark 
and others. 

At the Union Convention, in San Leandro, July 17th, there were 
two delegations from Oakland ; one elected on the Porter plan ; the 
other the old way. Matters had to be reconciled. 



278 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The Catholics of the Mission of San Jose contracted for the build- 
ing of a new chui-ch edifice on the site of the one destroyed by the 
earthquake. Main building 47x77 ; a bell-tower, ten feet square, 
increased the frontage to fifty feet. This, it was expected, would be 
one of the finest churches in the State. 

The Mutual Provident Association, of Oakland, was organized, 
with N. W. Spaulding as President. 

Gen. John S. Chipman, formerly a i*esident of Alameda County, 
died at San Jose on Tuesday, 27th July, of paralysis, in the sixty- 
eighth year of his age. Deceased was a native of Vermont, and 
was educated to the law. In early life he settled in Michigan, where 
he obtained considerable eminence as a Democratic politician. About 
nineteen years ago he came to Calilbrnia and opened a law oflice in 
San Francisco, and soon acquired a lucrative practice. He subse- 
quently removed to Alameda and took an active part in its afiairs. 

The Westei'n Pacific Railroad paid as high as $300 per acre for 
the land adjoining San Lorenzo. Between Vallejo's Mills and San 
Leandro the average price was $150. That was the price paid for 
the site of Decoto. 

Fruits and vegetables were to be the crops for the coming year, on 
account of the wheat failure. 

The Oakland Transcript was purchased by Col. John Scott, and 
converted into a Democratic organ. 

Mr. C. J. Stevens erected a new flouring mill at Laddsville, Liver- 
more Valley, which commenced running in September, 1869. 

This year an Independent party was formed in the county, and a 
ticket put in the field, headed by Edward Tompkins for State Sena- 
tor. The Democrats made no nominations. 

The result of the election, which was held on the 1st day of Sep- 
tember, was as follows — a portion of both the Republican and Inde- 
pendent tickets having been elected : 

For County Recorder — B. S. Marston, 1,282; Morris W. Levy, 
1,282. Tie. 

For Superintendent Schools— A. L. Fuller (R.), 1,293; W. F. B. 
Lynch (I.), 1,358. Majority for Lynch 65. 

For Cotmty Assessor—^. Hunt (R.), 1,237; J. V. Webster, 1,1-13. 
Majority for Hunt, 194. 

For District Attorney— ^. P. Wright (R.), 1,310; W. J. AValker, 
1,301. Majority for Wright, 9. 

For Comity Su.roeyor — Luis Castro (R.), 1,301; Jas. T. Stratton 
(I.), 1,272. Majority for Castro, 29. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 279 

For County Coroner— T. C. Rector (R.), 1,290; Geo. H. Fogg (I.), 
1,324. Majority for Fogg, 34. 

For State *S'e>iator— Edward Tompkins (I.), 1,417; F. K. Shattuck 
(R.), 1,185. Majority for Shattuck, 232. 

For Assemblymen — W. Whidden (R.), 1,245; E. D. Lewelling 
(R.), 1,392. Wm. C. Blackwood (I.), 1,253; Daniel Inman (I), 1,268. 
Majority for Lewelling, 139; for Inman, 23. 

For Sheriff— R. N. Morse (R.), 1,534; Erasmus D. Brown (I.), 
1,073. Majority for Morse, 461. 

For County Clerk — I. A. Amerman (R.), 1,266. Geo. E. Smith, 
1,341. Majority for Smith, 75. 

For County Treasurer— B.. X. McCIure (R.), 1,324; John Threl- 
■fall (I.), 1,282. Majority for McCiure, 42. 

For Public Administrator— W . P. Gibbons (R.), 1,340; C. Whip- 
ple (I.), 1,270. Majority for Gibbons, 70. 

For Sxvper visor Alameda Township — L. Faskings (R.), 87; Jas. Mil- 
lington (I.), 66. Faskings' majority, 21. 

For Supervisor Brooklyn Township) — D. Cameron (R.), 257; G. 
W. Adams (I.), 52. Cameron's majority, 205. 

For Supervisor Eden Township— Z. B. Marlin (R.), 213; Wm. 
Hay ward (I.), 231. Hay wards' majority, 18. 

For Supervisor Murray Township — Hiram Bailey (R.), 122; Thos. 
Scott (I.), 126. Majority for Scott, 4. 

For Supervisor Oakland Township — A. C. Henry (R.), 582; A. C. 
Dietz (I.), 430. Majority for Henry, 152. 

For Supervisor Washington Township — L. E. Osgood (R.), 176; 
M. W. Dixon (I.), 202. Majority for DLxon, 26. 

There was much rejoicing at San Leandro on the an-ival there of 
the first train of the Western Pacific Railroad, through from Sacra- 
mento, on Monday evening, September 6th. 

At the judicial election, held on Wednesday, Oct. 20, the follow- 
ing were elected : For Justices Supreme Coui-t, Lorenzo Sawyer (R.), 
944 ; O. C. Pratt (R.), 605 ; J. B. Crockett (D.), 941 ; W. T. Wal- 
lace (D.), 584. District Judge, McKee (D.), 986 ; Spencer (R.), 
553. Crockett, Wallace and McKee were elected. 

At a special election held on 25th of October, the former vote hav- 
ing been a tie, B. S. Marston (R.) received 783 votes, and M. W, 
Levy (I.) 649. Marston's majority, 134. 

Notice was given at Sacramento, 28th of October, that the Wes- 
tern Pacific Railroad and San Francisco Bay Railroad had amalga. 



280 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

mated and consolidated into a new company, with Leland Stanfoi-d, 
C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Chas. Crocker, E. B. Crocker, F. 
H. Miller, Jr., and A. P. Stanford as Directors. Capital, $10,000,- 
000. The Bay Pailroad Company had only organized a few weeks 
before. 

During the 6th, 7th and 8th of October there raged a destructive 
fire in the foot-hills north of Oakland, by which much damage was 
done and property destroyed. It originated in the works of the 
Contra Costa Water Company, from a fire of brushwood kindled by 
some of the workmen. The fire crept gradually from the hills to 
the Telegraph road, leading out of the city, and destroyed the resi- 
dence of Rev. Mr.Wliite, with its furniture. Stacks of hay, belong- 
ing to Mr. Colby and Mr. E,. D. Pryal, of considerable value, were 
burned. Finally, the tire reached as far north as the University 
grounds, destroying a large quantity of standkig hay, timber and 
grass, and was only subdued after traveling over some 15,000 acres 
of ground. 

On the 15th of October the lovers of the turf were gi-atified by 
the opening of a new race track, which is situated on the edge of the 
salt marsh in Brooklyn Township. This track was the joint venture 
of Messrs. Ceo. Treat, A. W. Swett and Lloyd Tevis. It was called 
the Pacific Race Track, and was inaugurated with a $5,000 trotting 
race, the best three in five, between " Har^'est Queen " and " Ven- 
ture." The former won the race and took the money. The races 
lasted three days. 

On the 21st of October the Oakland Transcrqit announced, on 
authority of President Stanford, that on the 1st of November the 
"Western Pacific R. R. Co. would take formal possession of the Oak- 
land Ferry, and that on that date commutation tickets would be 
reduced to $3.00 per month, and hourly trips introduced. 

The annual meeting of the Alameda Jockey Club took place at 
Hay wards, on the 27th of October. The town was full of people, 
and many of the principal stock men of the county were on liand. 
The racing lasted four days, during which the speed of all the lead- 
ing horses in the surrounding country was tested. 

The last rail of the Pacific Railroad was laid on the 29 th of 
October, in Oakland, and the fii-st locomotive of the line entered 
that city at five minutes after 10 o'clock A. M. of that day. The 
Reindeer was the name of the locomotive, and attached to her was a 
construction train, which passed down to the Point. On the 8th 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



281 



of November, the first passenger tliroiigh train started from Oakland 
Point, at half past eight o'clock in the morning, stopping a moment 
at Broadway station. At a quarter before 12 o'clock two large 
trains from the East airived, and at 2 o'clock a long construction 
train passed down to the Point. The first through overland train 
arrived in Oakland at five minutes past 5 o'clock. It stopped at the 
Broadway station for a moment and then passed down to the whaif, 
at a high rate of speed, amid general rejoicing. 




282 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

BACON'S 

fhllidQ of j^weet^ 

965 BROADWAY, OAKLAND. 



Pure Confections and Fine Chocolates a Specialti/. 

Received Daily, per Bacon's Express, from five of the most prominent 
Manufacturers in San Francisco. 

JAS. H. BACON, Proprietor. 

FOE LATEST STYLES OF DRESS MATS, 



M. BRINK, 

The Oakland Hatter. 

A large Assortment of St{ff' and Soft 
Also Fine Selection of 

STRAW AND PANAMA HATS. 



LATEST CALIFORNIA, NEW YORK AND PARIS STYLES. 



Dont forget the OAKLAND HAT MANUFACTORY, 

M. BRINK, 929 BROADWAY. 

JOHN H. REDSTONE, 
Counselor-at-Law'§ Solicitor of Patents, 

461 Ninth Street (Over the Post Office), OAKLAND. 



Will attond to Patent Suits in the Federal Courts, nnd procure'XJNITED 
STATES AND FOREIGN PATENTS FOR INVENTORS. Furnish 
Models on short notice, and assist Inventors in perfecting their inventions. 
Taxes and Aniuiities i)aid on existing European Patents, and Patents worked 
according to the requirements of Law. No extra charge for transhitions. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 283 



CHAPTER XXII. 



FROM THE COMPLETION OP THE CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TO THE 
CENSUS OF 1870. 



1869 Continued — Dreadful Railroad Accident at Simpson's Station — 
Many Persons Killed, and Wounded — Hoio ilie Sufferers were Re- 
lieved — A Coroner s Inquest Declared the Cause of the Accident to 
he the Ignorance of a SwitcJtman — Funeral Obsequies in Oakland — 
The Mm'tgaije Tax Struck from the Assessment Roll by the Board of 
Equalization — TJte County Infirmary Condemned. 

The sounds of joy and gladness consequent upon tlie completion of 
the Overland Railroad and the passage of its trains through the City 
of Oakland had hardly died aAvay, when a disaster occurred that 
changed everything into gloom. Indeed, it may be said that the 
new road was baptized in blood, for, six days later — on Sunday morn- 
ing, the 14th of November, 1869 — the most frightful accident that 
ever occurred in California happened on the road, within a few miles 
of its western terminus, at Simpson's Station, Brooklyn Township. 
It was caused by a collision between the train of the Alameda and 
Hay ward's road going west and the Eastern -bound train, on the 
Western or Central Pacific, which left Oakland Point but a few min- 
utes before. 

The following particulars of the sad event are taken from tlie Ala- 
meda County Gazette, then published at San Leandro, and within 
three miles west of which town the catastrophe occurred : 

The most frightful railroad accident that has ever occurred in Cali- 
fornia, was that of Sunday morning last, between the Alameda- 
boimd train on the Alameda Railroad and the Eastward-bound train 
on the Western Pacific Railroad, about three miles below San Lean- 
dro. About half an hour after the train left this place, a young man, 
named Spear, came dashing into town on horseback and announced 
the catastrophe. A freight train with two locomotives attached was 
standing on the side track at this station, awaiting the arrival of 



284 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

the Eastward-bouud train. The conductor of this train was imme- 
diately informed of the disaster, and the telegraph operator sent the 
news to head-quarters. The engineers did not dare to leave the 
station without orders. Tlie news had spread like wildfire through 
the town, aild but a few moments elapsed ere every conveyance, 
public and private, was engaged to convey the anxious inhabitants 
of San Leandro to the scene of the accident ; and the railroad track 
was lined with pedestrians who were unable to get conveyances. 
The scene presented upon our ai'rival beggars description. The 
wrecked trains, with their engines and cars smashed and shivered, 
the groans and shrieks of the wounded, the mutilated remains of 
the dead, the tumult and confusion of those who were endeavoring 
to render assistance, combined to make the picture horrible in the 
extreme, and indelibly impress it upon the memory of every be- 
holder. The Alameda train consisted of the locomotive F. D. 
Atherton, one box car, three passenger cars, smoking car, and one 
express and baggage car. The Western Pacific train consisted of 
the locomotive Sonoma, two express and baggage cars, smoking car, 
two passenger cars, and one sleeping car. The Alameda train 
passed San Leandro Station nearly on time (8:45) and was due at 
Simpson's, the junction of the two roads, at 8:.55. The Eastward- 
bound train of the Western Pacific Railroad left Oakland wharf at 
8:30, and was also due at Simpson's at 8:55. 

At the time of the accident the sun was shining brightly at San 
Leandro, but in the direction of Alameda could be seen a heavy 
bank of fog, which, at the scene of the accident, was said to be so 
dense that objects could not be distinguished fifty yards. The engineer 
of the Alameda train, the only living witness who can speak under- 
standingly of the subject, saw the Western Pacific train approaching. 
To pull the whistle, shut down breaks, was the work of an instant, 
and having done so, he shouted to the fireman to jump for his life, 
and then leaped from the engine. He struck the ground, rolled over 
two or three times and then heard a terrible crash; the two engines 
had smashed into atoms, and for a moment he was enveloped in the 
scalding, escaping steam. Then came the groans and shrieks of the 
wounded, the agonized cries of the mangled and torn sufferers and 
hasty exodus of the aSVighted who wex^e uninjured. Two cars were 
" telescoped " on each train ; one run into and through the other like 
the shutting of a spy-ghiss or telescope. The telescoped cars of the 
Western Pacific train exhibited a most terrible sisjlit. In one end 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 285 

of the car were some sixteen men, most of them dead — all of them 
injured — jammed and tangled with a mass of sticks, splinters and 
iron. The woi'k of breaking away the outer shell of the car seemed 
terribly slow to the sympathizing laborers, and doubly so to the poor 
sufferers within, to whom the interval between the rapid blows of 
the deliverers' axes seemed as an age to their moments of agony. 
But two persons were killed on the Alameda train — the fireman, 
Mai-tin, and one passenger. The noise of the crash attracted peo- 
ple to the spot from the neighboring farms and dwellings, couriers 
were dispatched for axes and other implements to clear away the 
wreck, and telegi-ams were sent to the nearest stations. Those who 
were present immediately set to work with all their might and ener- 
gies to extricate the passengers from the ruins. Follo^ving is a list 
of the dead and wounded : 

THE DEAD. 

John D. McDonald, Road Master on the California Pacific (Val- 
lejo) Eailroad. 

Max Ehrman, a merchant at the Mission San Jose. 

George Thompson, fireman on the Western Pacific train. 

Charles Martin, fireman on the Alameda train. 

James Conley, a farmer residing at Corral Station, Livermore Val- 
ley. 

Ritchison Peterson, identified by papers in his pockets. Identified 
as a member of Wildey Encampment, No. 22, I. O. O. F., San Fran- 
cisco. 

David Wand, dry goods merchant, San Francisco, and brother-in- 
law of Ehrman. 

Judge Alexander W. Baldwin, known to his friends as "Sandy" 
Baldwin, Judge of the United States District Court of Nevada. 

Edward Anderson, engineer on the Western Pacific train. 

Arsene Boullet, French Private School, corner of Fifth and Frank- 
lin Streets, Oakland. 

Bronce H. Fox, identified by his ticket. 

Frank B. Millikin, brakeman on the Western Pacific ti-ain. 

J. P. Lowell, of Sacramento, leather dealer; taken from the wi-eck 
alive, but died of his injuries. 

Thomas F. Sandoz, a native of Natchez, Mississippi, aged 48 years. 

THE WOUNDED. 

Follomng are the names of the wounded, most of whom were 
taken to Dr. Trenor's private hospital at Alameda, with a description 
of their injuries : 



286 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Seth Bromley, pilot of the Stockton boat, right ankle terribly 
shattered, rendering amputation necessary below the knee. i 

J. E.. Helens, of San Francisco, left leg and hand and foot bruised. 

James F. Kapp, formerly proprietor of the Gazette, head and right 
leg bruised. 

Simon Meloche, of San Francisco, hip dislocated, with a number 
of contusions. 

Thomas McNulty, San Francisco, fracture of tlie fibula and bruises ; 
able to be sent to his residence. 

G. Leighton, Rocklin, Placer County, leg broken. 

Philip Ruly, Stockton, shoulder dislocated and severely bruised. 

Noel Lang ton, an employee on the Western Pacific road, both legs 
bi'oken. 

Patrick Mehan, San Francisco, leg bruised and severe internal 
injuries. 

E. F. Fitch, Cosumnes, school teacher, leg broken. 

Joseph L. Perkins, employee on the Western Pacific road, badly 
injured internally. 

C. E. Needham, of P>antas Station, leg broken. 

S. M. B. Haly, San Francisco, injured internally. 

Judge William Campbell, of Nevada, leg broken. 

Robert McLaughlin, brakeman on the Alameda train, seriously 
injured. 

Robert Owens, "conductor on the Alameda train, seriously injured. 

John L. Beai-d, Mission San Jos^, foot badly injured. 

T. W. Finlayson, teacher at Washington Corners, leg badly injured 
and fiice cut. 

J. J. Hill, of San Francisco, injured in one of hips and hands, 
having been thrown up into the car at a distance extending over five 
seats. 

J. H. Downer, wounded in the head. 

Wells, Fargo & Co.'s messenger, badly hurt. 

M. L. Taylor, of Chicago, bruised. 

Two Chinamen were badly bruised. 

As soon as the dead and wounded had been removed, a large gang 
of men were set at work to clear away the wreck. A side track was 
constructed around the debris, so that the evening trains could pass. 

It is a pleasing duty to record the noble and heroic conduct of the 
women residing in the vicinity of the accident, in assisting to allevi- 
ate the sufiferings of the wounded, and in renderintr those delicate 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 287 

attentions that woman's hand alone can render. They contributed 
liberally of linen, lint and bandages, assisted the surgeons in their 
nerve-trying duties, and their noble efforts relieved many a sufferer 
who will forever i-emembsr them with gratitude and thanks. One 
lady, a passenger on the Western Pcicific train (whose name we did 
not learn), rendered signal assistance in attending to the wounded. 
As soon as they were taken out, she tore up her linen skirts to 
make bandages, and was unremitting in her attentions, accompany- 
ing the wounded to Alameda. 

The iSan Leandro people were among the first to reach the place, 
and they were not idle spectators. On every hand we saw the 
familiar faces of our neighbors, ministering to the wounded and 
carefully carrying those who were horribly mutilated, or working 
amidst the wreck rescuing those who were confined in the debris. 
Doctors Coleman, Fox and Pratt, of this place, were the fii-st physi- 
cians upon the ground, and zealously labored to relieve the sufferings 
of the wounded. There wei-e a great many narrow escapes. Mrs. 
Huff and sister, of San Leandro, were riding in the second passenger 
car of the Alameda train, and were seated about the centre of the 
car. Tliey occupied two seats, Mrs, H. riding backwards. In the 
seat ahead of the ladies sat Mr. BouUet. When the collision took 
place, this car " telescoped " into the forward car about half its length. 
Mr. Boullet was killed but the ladies escaped with only slight con- 
tusions about the ankles. 

Soon after the accident occurred, W. B. Clement, Justice of the 
Peace of Alameda and ex-offido Coroner, was on the spot and took 
chai-ge of the bodies. A jury was immediately summoned and em- 
panelled on the spot. After viewing the bodies and premises they 
adjourned, to meet at Alameda Station on Monday evening. The 
following gentlemen composed the j ury : F. M. Campbell, C. F. Wood, 
A. D. B.icon, F. K. Shattuck, Robinson Grlbbons and Charles Wood. 
Drs. Malcolm, Nicholson, Van Wyke and Trainer hurried at once 
to the scene of the disaster and gave their aid to the wounded. 
The worst wounded were transferred to the sleeping car of the, 
Central Pacific train. Others were taken away in hacks or in the 
private vehicles that soon appeared upon the spot. The Alameda 
Park Insane Asylum furnished a convenient and comfortable hos- 
pital for the woimded, and hither they were brought in the sleeping 
car and received fui'ther attention from the medical gentlemen already 
mentioned,who wei'e further i-einforced by the presence of Drs. Gibbons, 



288 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Fox, Verhave, Gushing, Holmes, Baldwin, Coxhead, Selfridge and 
Poi-ter, of tliis county, together with Drs. Letterman and McNulty, 
of San Francisco. 

The excitement in Oakland was intense, and extended throughout 
the country. 

The inquest was commenced on Monday evening, at the Alameda 
station, and lasted several days. The following verdict was ren- 
dered : 

We, the jury empanuelled on an inquisition held at the town of 
Alameda, before W. B. Clement, Esq., Justice of the Peace and 
Acting Coroner for the County of Alameda, State of California, to 
enquii'e into the cause of the death of Alexander White Baldwin, 
A. Boullet, Edward Anderson, George Thompson, Ghas. Martin, 
Frank B. Miliken, J. D. McDonald, David Wand, Max Ehrman, 
Thomas F. Sandoz, James Conly, Brunson H. Fox and Henry L. 
Peterson, do find, from the evidence before us, that the said persons, 
and each and all of them, came to their death from the effect of a 
collision which took place between the westward-bound train of the 
Alameda Railroad and the eastward-boimd train of the Westei-n 
Pacific Railroad, near Damon's Station, in the said County of 
Alameda, on Sunday, the 14th day of November, A. D. 1869, at or 
about the hour of 9 a. m. of said day, and that the said collision was ■^ 
the result of and was caused by the ignorance and incompetency of the \ 
switchman, Bernard Kane, employed at Simpson's Station, in giving a 
signal to the oflicers of the Western Pacific train, indicating that it 
was " all right, go ahead," and in saying to the locomotive engineer 
of said Western Pacific Railroad, " all right." 

The jury further find, from the evidence of said Bernard Kane, 
that he cannot read, and that the ofiicer of the Railroad Com})any, 
whose duty it was to instruct said Kane in his duties, was deceivetl 
by said Kane as to his inabilit^f to read. 

Dated at Alameda, the 17th day of November, 1869. 

(Signed.) H. D. Bacon, Foreman ; F. K. Shattuck, F. M. Gamp- 
bell, G. F. Woods, Robinson Gibbons, Charles Wood. 

On Tuesday, the 16th, took place the funeral obsequies of some of 
the dead, at Oakland. 

The funeral of Judge Baldwin took place from the residence of 
Hon. John B. Felton, his brother-in-law, in Oakland. It was attend- 
ed by the Masonic Lodges and the members of the bar, and many 
other distinguished citizens. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 289 

Monsieur Boulet's remains was placed in a temporary resting place, 
in the old cemetery on "Webster Street, as it was the intention of his 
fiimily to send them to Paris for permanent interment. 

Brouson H. Fox, of Illinois, was buried by the Masonic Fraternity, 
in Mountain View Cemetery. 

The Boai-d of Supervisors, assembled as a Board of Equalization, on 
the 1st of November, passed the following resolutions, by which over 
$8,000 of assessments were struck from the assessment roll: 

1st. That all money secured by moi'tgage which had been pa,id 
after the 1st Monday of August and before the 1st Monday of No- 
vember, should be stricken from the roll on application and a showing. 

2d. That all sums due as purchase money and secured by mort- 
gage, should be stricken from the roll on application and a showing. 

The moi'tgage tax question was one that for several years agitated 
the State, and finally, in 1875, the Supreme Court decided it to be 
illegal. 

The new County Infirmary in Eden Township does not appear to 
have been a very creditably conducted institution. The editor of 
the Gazette paid it a visit in the latter part of December, and drew a 
very repulsive picture of it. The edifice he described as nothing bet- 
ter than a rough wooden shell, 15x30, through which the cold Avind 
whistled ; the wards small and over-crowded. The number of patients 
was twenty-five males, three females and two children. The article 
concluded by saying: "We ai-e ready to acknowledge that the trvie 
state of affairs is almost beyond conception ; but nevertheless, there is 
no dodging the fact that we, constituting the populous third county 
in the State, are treating our sick paupers with a heartless cruelty, 
which it is to be hoped is without a parallel in any civilized land." 

In this year appeared the first number of the Alameda Encinal, 
the first paper issued in Alameda town. It was published by F. K. 
Krauth, its present editor and proprietor, and was noted for its typo- 
graphical stj'le and judicious management. 



1870 — Geiivitery Associations at Haywards — The People of Brooklyn 
Resolve to Incorporate — Bridge between Oakland and Alameda 
Proposed — Distasteftd to Brooklyn People — Agitation Favoring 
the Removal of the County Seat to Oakland Commenced — Hay- 
wards Trotting Association — Mining Excitement near Brooklyn 



290 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

- — NeitJier Coal, " a Color" or Copper Fouiul — Installation of 
New County Officers — Testimonials to Mr. Amerman, the Retir- 
ing Clerh — The Mills Seminary Coming — Portuguese Benevolent 
Societies formed — Tax Levy for 1870 — Directors o^the S. F. aixd 
Oakland Railroad Elected — Death of Major-General Thomas — - 
Bill Authorizing the Issuance of Bonds for Building a New 
Bridge between Brooklyn and Oakland Passed — School Festival 
at San Lorenzo — Post Office Op>ened at Washington Comers — - 
County Boundaries — -A New Railroad Town — Railroad Consol- 
idation — Capture of Jesus Tejada — Water Connpany at the Mis- 
sion — Berkeley and Oakland Water Works Company — Consoli- 
dation of the Western Pacific Railroad with the Central Pacific — 
Accidental Death of a S. F. Merchants— Brooklyn Indulges in a 
Fourth of July Celebration — A Fatal Trial Trip — Three Men 
Drowned — Homicide at Haywanrds — Chinese Expelled from Al- 
varado — Governor Stanford Purchases the Warm Springs Prop- 
erty — Beet Sugar Mill in Operation at Alvarado — The Annie 
Mooney Mystery — A Model Grand Jury Report — Death of Tom 
Hart — " No Shooting Allowed " — The October Races at Hay- 
wards — Grand Squirrel Hunt — Missioii Land Company — Pro- 
posed Savings and Loan Society in Alameda — Fall Races on the 
Pacific Track — A Gipsey Camp Instituted at Alameda — Edmond- 
son, a Defaulter at Boise — Piscatorial Propagation at Alvarado 
— Good Grain Crop — -S. B. Martin Charters a Vessel to Take his 
Grain to Europe — Horrible Double Murder— Railroad Bridge 
near Niles Burned — Loss, $80,000 — Decoto Land Company — 
The Alameda County, Advocate Commenced — Titles of Legisla- 
tive Enactments. 

There was organized in Haywards, at the beginning of tliis year, 
the Lone Tree Cemetery Association, which purchased tliii-ty-four 
acres of land near the town for bui-ial purposes. The incorporators 
were E. Dole, C. Ward, Geo. Brown, H. W. Rice and T. Cunning- 
ham. There was a Catholic Cemetery of fifteen acres, staited a short 
time previous, which was called Santa Maria Cemeteiy. 

A meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Brooklyn, including 
San Aiitonio, Clinton and Lynn, was held on the 19th of February, 
for the purpose of taking into consideration the advisability of incor- 
porating under a town charter. The sense of the meeting was in the 
affirmative, and a bill was drawn u}) and sent to the Legislature, 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 291 

tlien in session, for the purpose of having it ]>assed. The bill became 
law, and on and after the 1st day of May, 1870, Brooklyn was an 
incorporated town. The follomng officers were elected to serve for 
the first year : Trustees, H. A. Mayhew, President of the Board ; 
A. Cannon, H. Turn Suden, H. Tubbs, Chas. Newton ; Clerk and 
Treasurer, J. F. Steen ; Assessor, E. E. Webster ; Marshal, O. 
Whipple. 

There was a bill before the Legislature for the construction of a 
bridge across the creek, between Oakland and Alameda, which was 
very distasteful to the people of Brooklyn, as it interfered with and 
obstiiicted the navigation of the estuary down to that town, and they 
sent in a strong remonstrance against it, but without avail, as the 
bill became law and the bridge was built, and is now known as the 
Webster-Street Bridge. 

The question of removing the county seat from San Leandro to 
Oakland received some attention about this time, and a bill, drawn 
up by some citizens of Oakland for the purpose of efiecting such 
removal, was sent to Sacramento ; but the delegation being opposed 
to any such legislation, it was not introduced. It was the com- 
mencement, however, of a very acrimonious and bitter contest 
between the people of the city and the country, which lasted several 
j'ears, and finally resulted in the triumph of the city. 

The Haywards Trotting Association, or Jockey Club, elected the 
following officers at its annual meeting in February : President, 
William Meek ; Yice-President, F. B. Granger ; Secretary, C. Ward ; 
Ti'easurer, D. Smalley. 

There was a mining excitement in Brooklyn Township this year. 
It did not confine itself to the precious metals, and "black diamonds" 
were looked for as well as gold and silver, and copper. Some parties 
thought they had discovered indications of coal near the head of 
Fruit Vale, in March, and parties set to work to unearth it, but they 
had only their expenditure and loss of time for their trouble. It 
was the same, a coiiple of months later, with the parties who were 
at work in search of gold and silver, further up the mountain side. 

There was found a supposed mineral lode, which it was believed 
would assay $200 a ton in gold and silver. It was located on the 
land of Mr. May, north of the termination of Fruit Vale Avenue, 
among the canons in the foothills. The rock taken out was com- 
posed of talcose slate, in places sparingly intermixed with quartz and 
strontian. The entire length of some of these gulches is flanked by 



292 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

this formation, while neighboring hills are made up of serpentine to 
the south and sandstone and conglomorate to the north. For two 
years past there had been considerable speculation on the prospect of 
finding gold and silver in paying quantities in this locality, and in 
consequence land assumed an unusual value. Some parties actually 
paid $20,000 for a piece of ground, which was not worth half the 
money ; employed an experienced miner to sink a shaft, the rock 
from which was said to yield $80 per ton, but upon being assayed 
did not produce a color of the precious metal. The only deposit of 
any metal yet found in those hills is that of iron sulphurets. 

The new county officers took possession of their desks on the 7th 
of March. The clerks employed in the Court House presented the 
retiring County Clerk, Mr. I. A. Amerman, with a handsome gold 
watch, cham and key, as a token of their esteem upon his retiring, 
Mr. A. A. Moore, Dejiuty Recorder, made the presentation in a 
handsome speech, which was feelingly replied to by the talented re- 
cipient. A few days later the same gentleman was presented with a 
silver set of table ware, the gift of the members of the bar, and, no 
doubt, was a well-merited compliment. The presentation was made 
by Lewis Shearer, Esq. 

A meeting in favor of a Female College, to be established in 
Brooklyn Township, was held at Judge Hamilton's office, San Leau- 
dro, on the 5th of March. The object was to raise funds and assist 
the enterprise. J. O. Eldridge was present on behalf of the College, 
and stated that the institution would be conducted by the Rev. jNIr. 
and Mrs. Mills, then conducting a similar school at Benicia. 

A branch of the Poi-tuguese Benevolent Society of San Francisco 
was formed at Hay wards, March 13th, when the following officers 
were elected : President, Joseph Silva ; Vice-President, William 
Marriante ; Recording Secretary, Joseph Pimentel; Permanent Sec- 
retary, John T. Quadros ; Treasurer, Antonio Pedes ; Trustees, An- 
tonio P. Leal, Joseph F. Silvara, Candido Menezes. 

Another branch of the same association was established in San Le- 
andro early in Jvily, where the following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, Antonio Lucio ; Vice-President, Lanzo A. Ferreira ; vSecretary, 
Manuel S. I. Andrado ; Treasurer, Frank Williams ; Permanent 
Secretary, Francisco Est. Correa ; Trustees, Antonio Damaiao, Fran- 
cisco Jose Ignacio, Manuel F. da Cunha, Antonio F. da Cunha, 
Juan Baptista. 

What is called the Portuguese population in Alameda County 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 293 

commenced to settle here at an early date, and are amongst the 
most thriving portion of our population, occupying, ?,s they do, small 
farms of the best land and growing vegetables and fruits. They are 
natives of the Azores or Western Isles, and are an exceedingly in- 
dustrious and thrifty class, with simple hearts and simpl-^ pleasures, 
and number between 4,000 and 5,000 in the county. 

The Board of County Supervisors, at theii* meeting held in San Le- 
andro on the 14th day of March, adjusted the tax levy for the 
fiscal year of 1870-1, as follows : County General Fund, 21 cents ; 
Road and Bridge Fund, 40 cents ; Common School Fund, 35 cents ; 
County Infirmary Fund, 15 cents ; Jail and Recorder's Office Fund^ 
1 5 cents ; Oakland Bar Fund, 2 cents. This, exclusive of the State 
Fund, was two cents more than the previous year's levy. 

At the annual election of Directors of the San Francisco and Oak- 
land Railroad Company, held on the 21st of March, 1870, Alfred A. 
Cohen, F. D. Atherton, D. B. Barstow, D. O. MUls and W. C. Ral- 
ston were chosen. 

On Tiiursday, 31st March, the funeral train containing the re- 
mains of the late Major-General Thomas passed through Alameda 
County on their way to their final resting place, in Troy, N. Y. The 
distinguished soldier died suddenly in lus office in San Francisco, on 
the previous Monday. 

The proposition before the Legislature authorizing the Board of 
Supervisoi's of Alameda County to issue bonds for the construction 
of a new bridge between Brooklyn and Oakland, to the value of §20,- 
000, became law. 

At a meeting of the Board held on Tuesday, June 7, it was re- 
solved that all orders and resolutions passed previous to that date in 
regard to the Oakland and Brooklyn bridge, on Twelfth Street, be re- 
pealed, and all bids received in the matter of building be rejected. 
It was further resolved that $15,000 in bonds be issued and placed 
in the hands of the Road and Bi-idge Committee for the construction 
of said bridge, and that said Committee proceed immediately to build 
the bridge and roadway, according to the plans and specifications of 
W. F. Boardman, either by private contract or by day's labor, or by 
advertisement for bids, as said Committee might deem best. Work 
was commenced on the 20th of August, under Roadmaster Thorne, of 
Brooklyn, and Hersey, of Oakland, they doing the preliminary grad- 
ing, cutting down the hill" on the Clinton side and filling in the road- 
way with the earth. The rest of the work was let to different par- 



294 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ties, and it was close to the end of the year before the job was fin- 
ished. The grading and macadamizing of Washington Street, Brook- 
lyn, went on simultaneously. 

Bates & Wales' blue trap I'ock quarries, for macadamizing purposes, 
were opened this summer. They are situated in the direction of 
Piedmont, and supjjly excellent materials for street-making jDur- 
poses. 

There was a fine display of the schools of San Lorenzo, Haywards, 
Alvarado, Centreville and Washington Corners, on the 10th day of 
June, at Centreville, under the management of Mr. M. M. Spencer, 
of Haywards. The celebration was in the form of a musical festival, 
and Prof. Gustave Scott, of San Francisco, had charge of the musical 
directorship on the occasion. 

A postoflice was established at Washington Corners in July, with 
the late Timothy Eix as Postmaster. This was the first office in the 
place, the people of that locality having had previously to go to Cen- 
treville or Mission San Jose on their mail business. 

The Board of Supervisors, at one of its meetings, adopted a reso- 
lution requesting the Surveyor-General to establish the boundai'y 
lines between the counties of Alameda, San Joaquin and Contra 
Costa. It was their opinion that San Joaquin and Contra Costa in- 
fringed on the boundaries as first established by Mr. Higley, the 
first County Surveyor of Alameda. As no official survey had been 
made, that officer ran the line in accordance with the statute, starting 
at the junction of the counties named and running in a straight line 
northwesterly to a point on the old San Joaquin river, which he 
supposed to be what was designated as the Pescadero Slough. Sub- 
sequently a dispute arose, and Messi's. Boardman, of Alameda, and 
Stakes, of San Joaquin, met and reestablished the line. They started 
from High Pine Peak, near the junction of the Counties of Tuol- 
umne (now Stanislaus) and San Joaquin (the point of Higley 's de- 
pai-ture), and ran along the "Main Divide," in a westerly course, for 
two or three miles, and thence in a straight line to the point of the 
tennination of Higley 's survey, making a diffei'ence in favor of San 
Joaquin of several miles of valuable land, including the Corral Hol- 
low coal mines. 

Recently the County Sui'veyor of Contra Costa had fixed on Pes- 
cadero Slough, at a point some six miles northwest of the point 
designated by Higley. If the Sur^-eyor of Contra Costa was correct, 
and Mr. Higley seemed to think he was, then a large stiip of valu- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 295 

able agricultural laud, rightfully belonging to Alameda County, was 
in the possession of Contra Costa County. Mr. Higley was author- 
ized to establish the lines between Alameda and San Joaquin. 

On Saturday, June 11th, articles of incorporation were filed in the 
County Clerk's Office of San Francisco, by the Decoto Land Com- 
pany of Alameda County. The object was to purchase the ground 
and lay out the railroad town of Decoto, and plant there 37,500 ever- 
green trees. 

The San Francisco and Oakland and San Francisco, Alameda and 
Hay wards Railroad Companies were consolidated July 1st, under the 
name of the S. F. O. &; A. E,, R. Co., to form a continuous line from 
San Francisco to Hay wards. Directors : Faxon D. Atherton, D. O. 
Mills, Wm. C. Ralston, Alfred A. Cohen and David P. Barstow. 

In the latter part of May, Sheriff Morse, accompanied by Constable 
Morehouse, captured a Californian named Jesus Tejada, who had 
been chai'ged with being a participant in a dreadful crime in San 
Joaquin County, about twenty miles from Stockton, on the 9th of 
December, 1869. He and a number of others belonging to his band, 
brutally and in cold blood, murdered a man named Frank Medina, an 
Italian storekeeper, his clerk, two Mexicans and a negro on the oc- 
casion referred to, and then escaped. Sheriff Morse was commissioned 
with their arrest. About the latter part of April he received infor- 
mation that led him to believe that Tejada, one of the murderers, was 
encamped with a band of outlaws in the mountains, about 100 miles 
south of Ellis Station, and with his companion started in pvirsuit. 
They found the band alluded to but could not identify their man, 
and had to return. Subsequently, having received further informa- 
tion, they again proceeded to effect the arrest, and in the night time 
made a descent upon the outlaws' hiding place. When within a few 
hundred yards of the spot where Tejada and four companions were 
sleeping, the officers came upon a sentinel that had been posted to 
warn the sleepei-s of the approach of danger. The sentinel, on per- 
ceiving the officers, started for the tree where the murderer was rest- 
ing, but the officers overhauled him before he could give the alarm. 
Creeping up softly, they got within a few feet of the party, and getting 
tlieir rifles in position called upon them to surrender. Tejada, in sur- 
prise and consternation, threw up his hands, evidently aware that he 
was the object sought. He was handcuffed and the officers took him 
off, leaving the others to their reflections. Tejada was a native Cal- 
ifornian, about 24 years of age, and six feet in liight. He was lodged 
in San Leandro jail. 



296 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

The cei-tificate of the Bay Spring AVater Company was filed in the 
ofiice of the Secretary of State on the 4th of April. The object of 
the Company was to supply Mission San Jos6 and other towns in 
Alameda County ^vlth fresh and pure water taken from Barry and 
Story Springs. Capital stock, $50,000, divided into 500 shares. 
Term of existence, fifty years. Trustees : George W. Cook, Ira Mai*- 
den and Chas. W. Cook. 

The certificate of incorporation of the Berkeley and Oakland Water 
"Works Company, was filed m the Clerk's office on the 12th of April. 
The object was to furnish pure, fresh water for the City of Oakland 
and to the towns in the County of Alameda and to the inhabitants 
thereof, from San Pablo Creek, Wild Cat Creek, Cordoneres Creek, 
and from springs, wells and other sources of supply as might be made 
aA^ailable for that purpose. Capital stock, $1,000,000, in 10,000 
shares of $100 each. Trustees: F. K. Shattuck, A. J. Snyder, and 
others. 

There was filed in the office of the Secretary of State, on the 23d of 
June, articles of association, amalgamation and consolidation of the 
Central Pacific of California with the Western Pacific Railroad, un- 
der the name of Central Pacific Railroad, executed June 22d. By 
this arrangement all the capital stock, property, assets, debts and 
franchises of the companies were consolidated. The number of Direc- 
tors were seven, and the foUoAving were to act mitil others were elect- 
ed, namely: Leland Stanford, C. P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, 
Charles Crocker, E. B. Crocker, E. H. Miller, Jr., and A. P. Stan- 
ford. Capital stock, $100,000,000. The companies thus consolidat- 
ed, though run as separate concerns, were, as was well known, 
owned by the same parties. The consolidation did away with the 
keeping of two sets of books, and thus simplified the business of the 
company. 

A frightful accident occurred on the San Pablo road, near Oak- 
land, on the 3d day of July, by which a gentleman named Walter 
Welch, of the firm of Kelly, Welch & Co., San Francisco, lost his 
life. It appears that Mr. Welch, accompanied by his wife and 
daughter, hired a livery horse and went to see a friend out the San 
Pablo road, and when returning the horse got frightened at some- 
thing and shied so badly that he xipset the buggy, thro-svdng out the 
occupants and injuring Mr. Welch so much that he died shortly after, 
and Mrs. Welch was seriously but not fatally injured. 

Brooklj^n, this year, the fiivst of its incorporation, indulged in a 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 297 

fii'st-class Fourth of July celebration, cousisting of a procession of 
the Fire Department, the reading of the Declaration of Independen- 
ce by C. F. Haswell, and an oration by Dr. Knowles. 

A sad accident occurred to three residents of Brooklyn on the 4th 
of Jvdy, by which they lost their lives on the San Antonio Creek. 
A man named Buzzalini, a tailor by trade, invented a boat to work 
with paddles, like a railroad hand-cai-, and got a caveat for patenting 
the same. He built a boat, and, on that day, took a party of eleven 
out on a trial trip. When about a mile beyond Broadway Wharf, 
and one hundred yards from the shox-e, the boat was swamped, and 
Buzzalini and two other men, named Patrick H. Grimes and James 
Clark, unfortunately, were drowned. Buzzalini left a wife and six 
children to mourn his loss. 

On the 27th day of July, at the Haywards Trotting Park, two 
boys, named Charley Poos and John McCue, young jockeys, were 
indulging in some play or skylarking, when the former drew a pistol 
and shot the latter through the head. Young Roos was tried for 
murder at the following session of the County Court and acquitted, 
on the ground that the shooting was not willful. 

On the 4th of August, in consequence of disorderly conduct on 
their part, all the Chinamen in Alvarado were di-iven out of the 
town by a mob of citizens. 

Governor Stanford this summer purchased the fine property in 
Washington Township known as the Warm Springs, from JNIr. A. 
A. Cohen, with the intention of converting the same into a private 
residence.. He has made no improvement on the property since, but 
his brother Josiah has been occupying it, cultivating a fine vineyard, 
and making wine. 

Work in the new beet sugar company's mill, at Alvarado, com- 
menced in the latter end of November, 1870. The mill was located 
about a half mile from Alvarado, on the Alameda Ci^eek, on the 
Dyer Ranch. The bu.ilding was txo hundx-ed feet by fifty, three 
stories high, with a large tower, and was built of Avood, at a cost of 
$20,000. The following well-known gentlemen composed the com- 
pany : General C. L.' Hutchinson, Benj. Flint, W. T. Garrett, T. G. 
Phelps, J. N. Risdon, P. Spreckles, W. B. Can-, E. R. Carpentier, 
E. H. Dyer, and Bonesteel, Otto & Co., who were formerly of Wis- 
consin. The capital stock was $250,000, all owned by the gentlemen 
named. The building and machinery cost $150,000. The rest of 
their- capital was kept for the purchase of moi-e lands, and for the 



298 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

running expenses of the factory. This factory used up fifty tons of 
beets every twenty-four hours, and employed about 150 hands. Tlie 
company had between 300 and 400 acres of beets growing in 1870, 
which were increased. The species of beets of which the best sugar 
is made, and produces the largest percentage of saccharine, is called 
the White Silesian. They require a light, loamy soil, with clay sub- 
soil, to bring out the gi-eatest capacity. The machinery of the 
establishment was of the latest invention and most perfect construc- 
tion. It Y/as all made in San Francisco, at the Union Iron Works, 
except the centrifugals, which were imported from Germany, where 
every conti-ivance for making- sugar from beets had been thoroughly 
tested by the most scientific experiments. The whole business was ' 
under the management of Messrs. Bonesteel, Otto & Co., who had 
large experience in similar undertakings in Wisconsin. 

This sugar mill continued in Alvarado until 187-*, when it was 
removed to Suscol, in Santa Cruz County, on account of the accessi- 
bility of chea,per fuel, which was an important item. 

The sudden and mysterious death, in a San Francisco hotel, of a 
young school girl belonging to Brooklyn, named Annie Mooney, was 
the cause of deep regret and great excitement in that town at the 
time. The occurrence took place in August. A coroner's inquest 
was held on the remains of the unfortunate girl, but the correct 
cause of her death was not elicited. The fact that she had, at the 
hotel, enquired for the room of a gentleman who was the conductor 
of a train on the Central Pacific Railroad, caused suspicion to be 
entertained against him, and he was arrested by the coroner's jury, 
on suspicion, but soon after was released. He sued them and the 
publishers of the Brooklyn Independent newspaper, subsequently, for 
damages for false arrest and libel. 

The Grand Juiy of the County Covirt, at the September session, 
had a great deal of business to investigate, and the result was an 
important and able jjresentment, which is worthy of reproduction 
here as a model of its kind. It conveys a great deal of information 
concerning our county institutions, and is worthy of being read and 
reflected upon by all citizens who may be under the necessity of per- 
forming similar services hereafter. Some portions of it, which are 
not essential, have been omitted on account of length : 

To the Honorable the County Court of Alameda Count)/: 

The Grand Jury for the September Term, 1870, of the County of 
Alameda, State of California, do respectfully report as follows : 



rXDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 299 

I _ 

I Tiiat we have examined into nineteen cases of alleged offenses 
ja^Miiist the laws, and have found true bills of indictment in twelve 

c.i>^'s, as follows : 

One for mui-der ; one for murder in the second degree ; two for 

bi.L;:uuy ; one for burglary ; four for grand larceny ; one for accessory 
|aftL'r the fact of grand larceny ; one for petit lai'ceny ; one for rob- 

I That we have ignored bills in six cases following, to-wit : 
i o. E. Peck, charged with grand larceny ; Chas. Feeder, assault to 
,c )]iiinit bodily injury ; John Ashwest, robbery ; Nemesa Celares, 
ia -;iult to commit bodily injury; Manuel F. Duconia, assault to 

urder ; Jennie G-enieve, attempt to commit arson. 

That we have refeiTed one case of complaint for grand larceny to 
the next Grand Jury. 

We have visited the County Jail, and thoroughly examined the 
!, finding it secure, and in a good, cleanly condition. 

We have also inquired into the cause of the confinement of all per- 
sons confined therein, and fiiid that each prisoner's case has been pass- 
ed upon by the Grand Jury, Avith the exception of three pei-sons who 
are serving out sentences of Court heretofore pronounced against 
them. 

The Grand Jury cannot but feel the hardship im[)Osed by their 
finding against the boy Charles Roos, for mui'der in. the second degree. 
While the evidence by which we were compelled to decide this case 
left no alternative to our action, we cannot but observe a serious 
deficiency in ovir criminal law, which threatens not only the punish- 
ment of mature felons, but a cliild of the tender age of from twelve 
to fourteen years, whose education has been neglected, and who needs 
instruction and information rather than punishment. The hardening 
companionship* of the State Prison can only confirm him in a lifelong 
career of crime. Such cases ought to be sent to an Industrial School ; 
and since the abolition of the institution formerly located at Maiys- 
ville, we would suggest that the next Legislature be called upon to 
make some other provision for the reformation of juvenile ofienders 
throughout the State. 

We have examined the books of the County Treasurer, and find 
them kept neatly and legibly. We find the sum of $12,914 in the 
vault, which agrees with the Treasurer's balance sheet. 

The assessment roll shows the assessed value of the real and per- 
sonal property of Alameda County to be $11,786,381, and the amount 
of tax levied is §2.55,764.48 for the year 1870. 

I 



300 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



We have examined the books of the County Recoi'dei-, and find the 
books neatly kept and systematically arranged. 

We also visited the County Clerk's Office, and found on file therein 
quite a number of certificates of incorporations of religious and other 
societies, cemeteries, etc., that should be made matters of record, in 
order to their preservation. We also find the judgment docket of the 
District Court to be nearly worn out by constant use since the organ- 
ization of the county . 

We recommend to the Board of Supervisors, that they authorize 
the County Clerk to have the certificates of incorporation on file in 
his office recorded, and that he also be authorized to procure new- 
judgment docket, and transcribe therein the records of the old one. 

We have visited and examined the County Hospital, and find the 
same in a cleanly and comfortable condition. Since the present Stew- 
ard, C. Caldwell, took charge, on January 1st, 1870, thei-e have been 
admitted sixty-two patients (all males). 

There were in the hospital, February 15 : males, 27 ; females, 3 ; 
total number treated, 92. Pi'esent number of patients, 18 ; average 
number per day from February 1st to April 30th, 1870, 28 ; average 
number per day from May 1st to July 31st, 1870, 16. 

We could not ascertain the number of deaths, as no separate record 
has been kept thereof by the Steward, and we had not sufficient time 
to cull this information from the records as kept. We recommend 
that the Board of Supervisors require of the Steward quarterly or 
monthly repoi'ts for publication, stating the number, sex and diseases 
of all persons admitted, and especially the names, sex, age, diseases 
and date of death, of all who die in the hospital. Also, that a sepa- 
rate record be kept of the deaths, and that a head-board with, at 
least, a number corresponding with the record number, be placed 
over each grave in the hospital cemetery, so that should the remains 
be hereafter claimed, there would be no difficulty in identifying them. 

We examined the Court-house building, and found the same to 
have been substantiallj'- rebuilt of wood, and ceiled throughout — thiis 
guarding against future loss by earthquakes. The various offices are 
convenient, and kept in excellent condition. 

On a careful examination into the mode of presenting and auditing 
bills by the Board of Supervisors for road and bridge expenditures, 
we must wholly condemn the system as affijrding no })rotection what- 
ever to the Treasuiy, and as calculated to^ render the detection of 
fraud impossible. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 301 



The statute entitled "An Act concerning roads and liigliways in 
the County of Alaijaeda," approved March 20th, 1862, Section 25, 
reads as follows : " The Board of Commissioners shall * * * 
at every regular meeting of the Board of Supervisors make a full and 
explicit report of all their official acts * * * All their official 
acts shall be subject to the approval of said Board." Now it is evi- 
denced before us that no such reports of the condition of the roads 
and bridges, or of the Road Commissioners' official acts, have been 
filed by any of the Road Commissioners during two years last past, 
if ever. But in lieu thereof we find a long series of bills made out 
on blanks furnished by the Board, which state the name, number of 
days' work, rate per day, and sum total of labor due, or of material 
furnished, without a word of explanation as to what woi'k has been 
done, or where or what equivalent, if any, the county has received 
for its money. The oath on the back of this document is also appa- 
rently worded so as to be entirely non-committal on those important 
subjects. When the bills are presented they are referred to an Aud- 
iting Committee, whose custom it has been to pass upon them at the 
same meeting, without any inquiry or examination into the work 
actually done, and generally upon the mere assurance of the town- 
ship Supervisor that it is " all right." 

We therefore urge upon the Board of Supervisors that they 
abolish the present form of Road Masters' bills, and substitute 
therefor such a form and such affidavit as will require proof of the 
work done, as well as of all the other items contained in the present 
form. 

Tliat the present mode of auditing such bills at the same meeting 
as when presented, be abolished, and instead thereof that no such 
bill be audited imtil at the lapse of at least one meeting after that 
at which the bill shall have been presented, and that, meantime, the 
Auditing Committee shall be required to examine the work done. 
That, as required by statute, the Road Commissioners shall be 
required, at every regular meeting of the Board, to present reports 
as prescribed by statute. We further commend this important sub- 
ject to the next and each succeeding Grand Jury, until the abuses 
to which the present system dix-ectly tends shall be prevented alto- 
gether. 

C. G. Reed, W. H. Hamilton, L. J. Hamilton, Hiram Bailey, 
Beuj. F. Bramen, Chas. W. Keene, A. B. Dixon, G. A. Babb, J. 
Meagher, James Edger, Hiram Battin, William G. Crow, Martin 
Brophy, John Arnett. C. T. Hopkins, Foreman. 

San Leaiidro, September 23d, 1870. 



302 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Mr. Tliomas Hart, an old resident of the county, and one of the 
first settlers in Livermore Valley, died at his residence in that place, 
on the 23d of September, 1870, in the forty-third year of his age^ 
He was bnried in the Dougherty grave yard, in Dublin, then the 
only buiyiag place in Murray Township, and the funeral corte 
reached nearly a mile in length, making the largest funeral ever 
known in that part of the county. An effective funeral sermon v 
preached by the Rev. L. E.. Clark, who did not long survive the 
man whose obsequies he attended. 

The quail-hunters had reason to complain of the restrictions placed 
on them by a law passed by the previous Legislature, with reference 
to shooting in enclosed premises. Everywhere a " No Shooting 
notice stared them in the face, and the birds were sure of refuge j 
where the chagrined sportsman could not follow. The Act provided 
" It shall not be lawful for any person or persons to enter any en- 
closure belonging to or occupied by another, for the purpose of 
hunting with hounds, or to shoot, kill or destroy any kind of game, 
without first having obtained permission from the owner or agent of 
such enclosure." The position of those matters in the State, are 
exactly similar to the English law in regard to hunting, with the 
exception of the license, for a license to shoot game is required by 
the English statute. 

There was great interest taken in the October races, at Haywards, 
this year. They lasted three days, but the pi-incipal contest was 
between " Alameda Maid " and " Brooklyn Boy." The mare was 
declared the winner of the race and money. 

The members of the Alameda County Farmers' Club treated them- 
selves to a grand squirrel hunt in September and October, during 
which months they killed and scalped no less than 11,792 squirrels. 
There was a premium awarded by the Legislature for every squirrel 
destroyed and scalp produced, besides a prize given by the Club, 
which in this instance was carried off" by Wm. Cox, who had 27 
scalps over and above all competitors. Shooting and poisoning were 
the means of destruction. 

The San Jose Mission Land Company filed a certificate of incor- 
poration on the 13th October. Objects: to purchase a certain tract 
of land, comprising about five thousand acres of the tract known as 
the San Jos6 Mission lands, and to improve and distribute the same 
among the shareholders; also to raise a fund for the purpose of con- 
structing and endowing two colleges, one for males and the other for 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 303 

females, should the order of Odd Fellows locate the one at San Jose 
IMission and the other at Decoto, in Alameda County. Capital stock, 
$1,250,000, gold coin, divided into 500 shares of $2,500 each. The 
trustees were S. S. Tilton, C. F. Wood, E. H. Myer, Koble Hamilton, 
Harvey S. Brown, Henry V. Herbert and I. A. Amerman. The 
plan of the Company was not carried out, but an excellent college was 
established at Washington Corners. 

The preliminary steps for establishing a Savings and Loan Society 
in Alameda town, to be called the Alameda Valley Savings Bank, 
were taken in October of this year, and the articles of incorporation 
drawn up and sent to Sacramento. It was expected the bank would 
be in operation by the beginning of 1871, but for some reason the 
proposed financial institution never opened. The incorporators were 
W. B. Clement, W. H. Harnden, J. W. McKee, Eustace Trenor, Conrad 
Liese and N. W. Palmer. The Board of Directors, for the fii'st six 
' months, consisted of W. B. Clement, Eustace Trenor, W. H. Harnden, 
N. W. Palmer, Louis Fassking, J. W. McKee, Henry Ptobinson, Thos. 
A. Smith, Frank Coy, F. Boehmer and Wm. P. Gibbous. 

The fall I'aces on the Pacific Track, Brooklyn, were very spirited 
and lasted five days, extending from the 10th to the 15th of 
October. 

A gipsy camp was set up in Alameda, in October, the first known 
in the county. A number of the lineal descendants of one of Father 
Koali's boys, Japhet by name, encamped on Buena Vista Avenue, 
between Walnut and Willow Streets. They had with them the usual 
accompaniments of the tribe. The human portion of the band was 
composed of expatriated noblemen and ladies, traveling incog — or, in 
their wagon, as the humor dictated. 

Infonnation was received here in October, that Edmondson, 
formerly Sherifi" of Alameda County, but then latterly Treasurer of 
Boise County, Idaho, had tui'ned out a defaulter to the extent of 
$13,000, and had absconded. 

Messrs. Wiggins & Taylor, a firm of piscatorial propagators, tried 
the experiment of trout culture, at Alvarado, where they purchased 
land for the purpose and sunk an artesian well. Hatching-houses 
were constructed, the ponds ditched and dyked, but the exjieriment 
does not appear to have been a success, as it was not continued. 
The locality, hov/ever, appears to be very suitable for such an enter- 
prise, whatever the cause of discontinuance. 

The grain crop of 1870 proved a good one, especially barley, which 



304 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

was a large one in the Alameda Valley. Wheat brought $2 per 100 
lbs., and barley $1.25. One of our extensive wheat-growers, Mr. S. 
B. Martin, instead of employing middle-men, commission merchants 
and shippers, to cany his crop to market, chartered a ship and sent 
his crop direct to Liverpool, at his own risk. The vessel he chai-t- 
ered was the Archer, which hauled in at the end of the Central 
Pacific Eailroad Wharf, on the Oakland side. Twelve hundred tons 
of wheat were brought along her side, and in a few hours were 
stowed, and the ship, without incurring any wharfage charges, was 
hauled into the stream ready for her voyage. Whatever pi-ofit there 
was in this transaction went directly to the producer. He avoided 
commissions, tolls and storage, and got the Liverpool price, having 
only had to pay moderate freight charges. There is no wheat-grower, 
outside of California, who has taken up a ship on his own account. 
Shipments have been made in this way from Vallejo. The facilities 
offered to Avheat-growers for shipping direct to a foreign market are, 
probably, better here than in any other wheat-growing State in the 
Union. 

The Alaineda County Gazette, of Nov. 12th, contained the follow- 
ing account of a horrible double murder committed the previous 
week in the southern section of the county, which shows the deprav- 
ity and native ferocity of the Indian character : 

" On the evening of Tlnirsday, the 10th inst., an Indiaii woman, 
supposed to be insane, named Anistaba, killed her daughter, aged ten 
years, the child of a "greaser" (who was himself killed about three 
years ago at Gilroy) and a man named Cohuacho, a native of Sonora, 
Mexico, aged about forty years. The killing was done with an axe, 
in a house near the Alviso hills, where the woman had been put by 
her Indian friends for safe-keeping, and the man, Cohuacho, set to 
watch her. Fi'om the surroundings it appears that the woman took 
the man by surprise, in the house, his head being chopped and smashed 
to a jelly. The body of the little girl was found in a swamp near 
by, with the head mangled in the same way as the man's. Dr. Yates, 
who held the inquest upon the bodies, says the sight was an exceed- 
ingly horrible one. After the killing, the woman wandered from the 
house, and was not found until the following Friday evening ; she 
was then found at an Indian house, at Baylis' Mills. When she pre- 
sented herself to the inmates of this house she appeared to be drunk. 
Her head was covered with gashes, more than a dozen in number, 
which were evidently self-inflicted, and her clothes clotted with blood 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 305 

from head to foot. Constable Trefrey, of Centreville, lodged the wo- 
man in the County Jail yesterday morning, to which she was com- 
mitted by the acting Justice. Since the commission of the crime 
she has acted as a perfectly sane person, except when she first ap- 
peared at the house at the mills. Before the arrest she acknowledged 
the murder, and gave as her motive a desire to die herself, as she had 
no way of making her living. Violent deaths run among these peo- 
ple — the last husband of this woman having been killed a few weeks 
ago, in a drunken row, by an Indian." 

A very heavy loss was sustained by the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company, in the destruction by fire of the bridge crossing the Ala- 
meda creek, on the San Jos6 road, near Niles Station. It is sup- 
posed that the fire broke out about one o'clock Wednesday morning, 
November 23d, and being removed from any station or settlement, 
no information of the occurrence could be given to the officers of the 
road in Sacramento. The bridge was a very substantial structure, 
said to have cost some $80,000. Nothing is known as to the origin 
of the fire. A temporary bridge was built at once, over which the 
trains passed. 

At the annual election for officers of the Decoto Land Company, 
held in San Francisco, Mr. I. A. Amerman, of San Leandro, was 
chosen President ; Wm. Harney, Treasurer ; and H. V, Herbert, 
Secretaiy. A contract was entered into .at this meeting with S. 
Nolan, the horticulturist, of Oakland, to plant 27,000 evergi-een 
trees upon the lands of the company, at a cost of $20,352, the work 
to be commenced immediately. The company made ari-angements 
with the Central Pacific Railroad Company, whei'eby commutation 
tickets between the toAvn of Decoto and San Francisco might be pur- 
chased for $7.50 per month. 

The trees were planted, and although evidently they did not re- 
ceive much care and many of them died, yet there is quite a respect- 
able gi'ove of gum and cypress trees on the town site. But as yet, 
notwithstanding its natural advantages, Decoto has failed to reach 
the dimensions of a town. 

The first number of the Alameda County Advocate, published by 
S. S. Saul, late of the Gazette, made its appearance at Haywards, on 
the 19th of December, 1870. 

The census of 1870 gave Alameda County a population of 24,737, 
with an assessment roll of $11,786,381. The complete figures for 
the year will be found in the statistical department of this work. 



306 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Following are the titles of the various legislative Acts passed con- 
cerning the County of Alameda and the City of Oakland, at the 
session of 1870-1 : 

An Act regulating bond of Eecorder. 

An Act constituting County Clerk ex-officio Clerk of Board of 
Supervisors. Coiuity Clei-k to be ex-officio Auditor. Election of 
County Clerk and Eecorder. 

An Act for the relief of Sheriff Morse. 

An Act to provide for building bridge across the Estuary of San 
Antonio. Tax for payment of bridge bonds. To issue bonds for 
bridge purposes. 

An Act for impounding of stock running at large. 

An Act to prevent the destruction of tish and game in and around 
Lake Merritt. 

An Act to prevent hunting and shooting on private grounds. 

An Act regulating compensation of Under Sherifl'. 

An Act amending Act of 1862, concerning roads and liighways. 

An Act establishing legal distances to Capitol, Insane Asylum and 
Prison. 

An Act authorizing a county tax for destruction of squirrels and 
gophers. 

An Act incorporating Town of Brooklyn. 

An Act providing for. bridge across San Antonio Greek. Mayor 
of Oakland to appoint Bridge Committee. City of Oakland to levy 
special bridge tax. 

An Act to provide for collection of delinquent taxes. 

An Act to provide additional Notaries. 

An Act constituting Superintendent of Schools to be member of 
State Board of Education. 

An Act to lay out and improve streets of Oakland. 

An Act for relief of John Scott. 

An Act authorizing contract for lighting city of Oakland with 
gas. 

An Act authorizing bonds for school purposes — $50,000. 

An Act authorizing tax for redemption of School Bonds in Oakland. 

An Act amending an Act of 1864, to improve streets in Oakland. 

An Act to authorize a tax for interest on bonds issued for funding 
<;ertain claims on Oakland. 

An Act to authorize a tax for redemption of bonds issued foi" fund- 
ing certain claims. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



307 



An Act authorizing the Mayor to appoint Commissioners for a 
bridge across San Antonio Creek. 

An Act authorizing a special tax for bridge across San Antonio 
creek. 

An Act concerning wliarves, not to apply to Oakland. 

An Act regarding collection of delinquent taxes. 

An Act establishing boundary between Brooklyn and Oakland. 




308 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

GEORGE BABCOCK. HENRY GOULD. 

BABCOCK & GOULD, 

PROPRIETORS OS THE 

Okklk^d City l^louriii^ >Iill^, 

THIRD STREET, NEAR BROADWAY, 



-MANCPACTURERa OF- 



BAKERS^ XXX and FAMILY FLOUR, 

Corn Meal, Oat Meal, Pearl Barley, Rye and Buck- 
wheat Flour, Cracked "Wheat, Hominy, 
Split Peas and Ground Feed. 

SAMM'S 

Corner of First and Clay Streets, Oakland. 



JACOB SAMM, Proprietor. 



Manufactures Finest Family Flour, Farina, Cracked 
Wheat, Rye Flour, Rye Meal, Indian Meal, ■ Cracked Corn, 
Buckwheat Flour, Buckwheat Groats, Graham Flour, Small 
Hominy, Oat Meal, Oat Groats, Pearl Barley, Split Peas, 
Feed Meal, Ground Barley, Bran, Middlings, Etc. Barley 
Ground to Order. 



A8K YOUR GROCER FOR SAM3I'S FLOUR. 



UXDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 309 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



THE EVENTS OF 1871, 



Judge Nye Condemns the Legislature on Account of a Lottery Act — 
The Crittenden Murder Case — The Suhol Valley Murder — Pur- 
suit and Death of the Murderer, Juan Soto — Murder of Hiscock, 
near Pleasanton — Arrest, Trial, Conviction and Execution of 
Ramon Amador for the Cnme — Thwiider -storm — The Clark- 
Reed Homicide, near Ocean View — An Extraordinary Case, 
Showing How a Criminal was Shielded Against Punishment — 
Jurymen and Judges Implicated — A Homicide near Haywards, 
the Result of a Drunken Brawl — Suit for the Recovery of Taxes 
— First Election of Brooklyn Town Officers — Bill for the Recla^ 
mation of Swamp Lands — Roller Skating and Rinks — Another 
Homicide in Eden Toionship — Republican Candidates for Gov- 
ernor — Selby and Booth — The Livermore Grant Decision — Fourth 
of July Celebration — Moraga Land Troubles — A Man Killed — 
The Brooklyn Home Journal — Hotel Burnt at Centreville — 
Movement in Favor of a College in Washington Toionship — 
" After Many Years " — An Old Indian Looking for a Man 
Dead Over Twenty Years — Teeth of a Mastodon Discovered — A 
Herd of Sheep Stolen — Still Another Homicide, followed by a 
Shooting Affair — Republican Ticket Successfid at the Elections, 
and Booth Elected Governor over Haight — Extensive Fire at 
Livermore — Draw-bridge Decision — Visit of a Norther — A 
Church, Nearly Finished, Blown Down — Temperance Association 
at San Leamlro — Fire at the County Hospital — Jail-birds Escape 
Rainstorm. 



The year 1871 was remarkable in this county for its homicides, its 
criminal calendars, its educational enterprises and short crops. 

In his opening charge to the Gi'and Jury, on the 2d day of Jan- 
uary, County Judge Nye severely censured the last Legislature for 
passing an act, contrary to the Constitution of the State, permitting 



310 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

the holding of a lottery in San Francisco, known as the Mercantile 
Library Lottery. He declared that, without exaggeration, no single 
legislative act in the history of the State had been so baneful tD 
society, and urged upon them to indict any parties getting up lotteries 
or raffles in the county, several of which were known to be in pro- 
gress. 

The Grand Jury, in their first report, stated that they had exam- 
ined into seventeen cases of alleged offenses, and had found true bills 
in twelve cases. 

An order was issued transferring the case of Laura D. Fair, in- 
dicted for the murder of A. P. Crittenden, in the previous October, 
to the Third District Court, as well as that of Arastaba, the Indian 
woman who had murdered her child and an Indian man, near Mission 
San Jos6, some time previous. Crittenden was shot by Mi-s. Fair, 
shortly after the ferry steamer had left the Oakland whai'f, which, as 
is well known, runs a long distance into the bay, and a survey was 
made by the Sui'veyor-General, Mr. Bost, to determine within which 
county the crime was committed. The result went to show that the 
Courts of San Francisco, not Alameda County, had jurisdiction in the 
matter, and consequently the case was transferred thither. 

An unprovoked and cold-blooded murder was perpetrated at the 
store of Thos. Scott, in Suilol Yalley, on the 10th day of Jainiary, 
1871, by a Mexican marauder, named Juan Soto, whose victim was 
a clerk of Mr. Scott, named Ludovischi. On the evening of the day 
mentioned, about the hour of 7 P. M., while Mr. Scott and family, 
with three men, were sitting by a fire in a room adjoining his store, 
when three " Spaniards " entered, and one of whom, who was masked, 
fired at the clerk with a pistol, hitting him in the left side and kill- 
ing him. Another man, a sti-anger, was shot in the hand, and the 
rest of the people in the house, including Mr. Scott, escaped. Tlu^ 
assassins robbed the till of $65, and took with them some pantaloons 
and other articles with which they escaj^ed. The assassins, who were 
mounted, were tracked and pursued by Sheriflf Morse and Officers 
Morehouse and Faville, next day. They proceeded to San Jos6, the 
New Almaden Mines, and the country as far south as the Pacheco 
Pass and San Luis Eanch, in Merced Count}-, all of which wen^ 
unsuccessfully seai-ched. In the Panoche mountains, however, 
Sheriff Harris, of Santa Clara County, discovered a colony of 
" Greaser " vagabonds, all arnied, and among whom they arrested an 
escaped convict from Santa Clara, named Patricp INIaucellos. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 311 

Until the 12tli of May following the murderers managed to 
escape capture, but on that day the fate of one of them at least was 
sealed. Sheriff Morse, having obtained information of the where- 
abouts of some of the gang, started off again in pursuit, directing 
his course for the Panoche mountains, accompanied by Sheriff Harris 
and Constable Winchell, of San Jose, together with a small party of 
other reliable men. Guides were procured, and the exact locality of 
the bandits ascei-taiiied. There were three houses in close proximity, 
and it was necessary to divide the party to search them all and arrest 
the inmates. Morse, accompanied by Winchell, entered one of the 
houses, leaving his Henry rifle slung from the horn of his saddle. 
Sitting at a table in one of the rooms were three men, one of wliom 
he immediately recognized as Soto, the murderer of Ludovischi. He 
was not prepared for so sudden a meeting, but determined then and 
there to secure his man. He drew his revolver and ordered the 
Mexican to " throw up his hands," at the same time covering him. 
The order was not obeyed, and thrice was it repeated, the only 
response being a steady, unflinching, defiant glare from the eyes of 
the bandit. With his unoccupied hand the Sheriff pulled a pair of 
handcuffs out of his pocket and threw them upon the table, and told 
his companion to fasten them upon the outlaw's wrists. At this 
critical moment a muscular female sprang upon the Sheriff and 
seized his right arm, while a man seized upon his left, when Soto, 
quick as a flash, sprang from his place to behind one of the other 
men and drew his pistol. The moment was now critical, and a 
death struggle was before the officers. With a strong effort Sheriff 
Morse threw otf his assailants and discharged his pistol at the head 
of the bandit, who was sheltered behind his friend. The shot only 
knocked off the outlaw's hat. It was the latter's turn next. Morse 
made a dash for the door, got out and turned the corner, but only to 
find himself covered with a revolver, in the hand of the desperate 
villain. Both fired their revolvers. The outlaw had the first shot 
and missed, although I'eputed to be a " dead-shot." Four rounds 
were exchanged before a shot took effect, Morse's ball striking Soto's 
pistol, which probably paralyzed the latter's arm, for he immediately 
ran for the house. 

In the meantime, Winchell, armed with a double-barrel shot-gun, 
heavily loaded with shot, fired at the retreating outlaw, but missed 
him. Morse then ran for his Henry rifle and secured it. Soto, in 
the meantime, was indulging in a little piece of strategy. He pulled 



312 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

off his blue soldier overcoat and put it upon one of his friends, while 
both ran for a saddled horse hitched to a tree, and standing opposite 
the house. Sheriff Harris, having heard the shots, hastened to the 
scene of combat, and was about firing with his Heruy rifle on the 
" boy in blue," supposing him to be the person that had been fight- 
ing Morse, when the latter, discovering the bandit's ruse, checked his 
friend's fire. Soto's horse, on which he ti'ied to escape, broke away 
from him, and while in the act of running to another, which stood 
ready at a little distance, a ball from Morse's rifle struck him in the 
right shoulder. But he was determined not to be taken alive. 
With a revolver in each hand, and liis eyes gleaming with desperate 
determination, he boldly advanced towards his antagonists. Moi-se 
raised his fatal rifle, and, with steady and deliberate aim, fired. The 
shot was fatal, and the despei-ado dropped to the ground, pierced 
through the brain, a corpse ! 

The party was soon at the headquartei-s of the band of outlaws, 
close by, and arrested them all. Among the gang was the notorious 
horse and cattle-stealer, Gonzales, who had escaped some time pre- 
viously from the Santa Cruz Jail. 

Soto had led a life of outlawry for several years, although b\it 
thirty-two years of age. He had served two terms in the State 
Prison, at San Quentin. He was one of four who had, some few 
years previous, robbed the house of Charles Garthwait, near Pleiis- 
anton, and maltreated his wife and daughter. He was of mixed 
Indian and Mexican blood, was six feet two inches in height, 
muscular and i-epulsive in aspect. 

Another of those cowardly and unprovoked murdere which have 
made the native population so odious in the eyes of all good citizens, 
was perpetrated in this county on the 16th of January. The victim 
was a hunter named Hiscock, and the muixlei-er a Californian named 
Ramon Amador. The scene of the homicide was the hills between 
Haywai-ds and Pleasanton, and the facts are briefly these : On the 
day mentioned Amador was heixling cattle on the hills in company 
with a German boy, when Hiscock came along in seai-ch of game. 
He had with him a shot-gun and rifle, both of which Amador was 
permitted by their owner to exiiniine. He told Hiscock where he 
had shortly before seen a haw, and the latter went and shot it. 
Amador then volunteered to show him where thei-e was some deer, 
and both entered the chappaial together. Amador offered to i-elieve 
his companion of one of liis gnus, which apparent kindness was 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES, 313 

accepted ; Ijut he soon received a discharge of its conteuts in the 
back of the head, having been treacherously fired upon from behind, 
and left dead upon the ground. Amador, during the darkness of 
night, conveyed both guns to his own house. Hiscock not having 
returned home as promised, his friends made a vigilant search' for 
liim, and found his body in the chapparal, on the eastern slope of the 
mountain, about three miles from Pleasanton. An inquest was held 
by Dr. Marks, when the fact of the man having been murdered was 
made apparent, and sixspicion strongly pointed to Amador, who was 
an ex-State Prison convict. The latter having ridden into the village 
while the inquest was in progress, was arrested by a number of 
citizens, who handed him over to Constable Faville, who conveyed 
him to San Leandro, there to await his trial in the County Jail. On 
search being made, both of Hiscock's guns were found in his house. 
The prisoner was tried in the Third District Court before Judge 
McKee, on the 20th day of July, and found guilty. He was sen- 
tenced to be hanged on the 31st day of August. An effort to obtain 
a commutation of the sentence failed, and at 114- o'clock on Friday 
morning, September 22d, the unfortunate culprit sufiered the exti'eme 
penalty of the law. Two reprieves were granted by the Governor 
before the sentence was finally carried into execution. 

Amador was a native Californian, of about 26 years of age. He 
was born in this county, and was a short, muscular nian, and evi- 
dently an incorrigible character. 

This was the second legal execution that took phice in this county, 
and the last. It took place at San Leandro, then the county seat, 
and was witnessed by a select few, who were supplied with tickets by 
Sheriff Morse. 

On Tuesday, the 29th of Jan., about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, 
the building in Alameda, first known as the Park Hotel, and more 
recently as a j^rivate insane asylum, was destroyed by fire. A Mrs. 
Stoval had mtended to open a boarding school for young ladies in 
the building on the Friday following. The building belonged to Drs, 
Trenor and Sutter, and was valued at $5,000, on which there was a 
partial insurance. 

Strong eflbrts were made about this time to bring Decoto forward 
as a town site, and various improvements, such as tree-planting, were 
in progress ; but the company effected no sales of lots worth men- 
tioning. 

There was a very heavy storm in this section on the night of the 



314 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

IStli and lOtli of January. Aljout nightfall a violent wind aro.se 
and continued throughout the night, accompanied with ^ heavy rain- 
fall. At two o'clock of the following morning one of the most 
violent thunder storms ever knowai here burst forth and continued 
for over an hour. 

Crimes and casualties seemed to be an epidemic, and pi-edominated 
in this year of our history. Already, in the second month, two cold- 
blooded murders, committed by native Californians, have been 
recorded. It is now the writer's painful duty to record a third, com- 
mitted by a white man and an American, a man of education and 
good connections. Reference is made to what is known as the Clark- 
Read homicide. This tragic affair took place on the 17th day of 
February, about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The facts relating to it 
are as follows : 

Two suits had i"ecently been decided against occupants of a ranch, 
situated a short distance north of the City of Oakland, near Ocean 
View — one, John Hall vs. Henry Williamson ef al., in favor of Hall ; 
the other, Gustav Mahe vs. John Reynolds, in favor of Mahe. Writs 
of ejectment had been placed in the hands of Sheriff H. N. Moi-se, 
who, on the day preceding the homicide, ejected Mr. Williamson, and 
placed Mr. Henry Kirke White Clark, who had an intei-est in tlie 
propei-ty, in possession. The latter })laced his son, F. W. Clark, in 
charge of the premises. As Mr. Williamson was unable to remove 
all his portable property on Thursday, the Sheriff" gave him permis- 
sion to remove the remainder on Friday. There was a tacit agree- 
ment betvreen all parties that he should be allowed to return on 
Friday. 

On that day two men, named Charles Huntsman and Zelotes Read, 
who weie in Williamson's employ, and had been engaged on the pre- 
vious day in moving away Williamson's effects, drove upon the prem- 
ises with a team for the purpose of taking away the remainder of 
Williamson's effects, articles about which there was no dispute as to 
ownership. Huntsman was driving, and Read was sitting alongside 
of him on the wagon. Clark stopped them at the entrance of the 
premises and forbade their advancing, at their peril. They advanced, 
however. Read stating that he wovdd " do his duty." Clark, who 
was accompanied by another person named Chas F. Wait, raised his 
arm and fired four shots at the men — the first at the driver, Hunts- 
man, and the remaining three at Read, who was fatally wounded, 
and dietl in fifteen or twenty minutes after he was shot. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 315 

An inquest on the body of the deceased was held on Saturday fol- 
lowing, before Justice James Lentell, Acting Coroner. The vei-dict 
of the jury was signed by William Graham, Silvanus White, Joseph 
Fallon, A. Rammelsberg, Charles Carl, Walter Blair, G. A. Warren, 
and was as follows : 

We, the undersigned, the jurors summoned to appear before James 
Lentell, Acting Coroner of the County of Alameda, on the 18th day 
of February, 1871, to inquire into the cause of the death of Zelotes 
Read, who was killed on Williamson's Ranch, having been duly 
sworn according to law, and having made such inquisitions, after in- 
specting the body, and hearing the testimony adduced, upon our 
oaths, each and all do say, that we find the deceased was named 
Zelotes Read, aged about forty-six or forty -seven years ; that he came 
to his death on the 17th day of February, 1871, in this couinty ; and 
we further find that we believe F. W. Clark to be the person by 
whose act the death of the said Zelotes Read was occasioned, by 
shooting him, the said Read, with pistol-shot, killing him ; and we 
further believe that Chas. F. Wait was accessory thereto ; all of 
which we duly certify by this inquisition in wi'iting, by us signed 
this 18th day of February, 1871. 

Clark and Waite had given themselves up, and wei-e under arrest. 
On the following day, the 21st of February, a preliminary examina- 
tion commenced in the Police Court, before Judge Jayne, in Oa,kland, 
which continued for five days. The defense was conducted by a 
large array of legal ability, consisting of Harvey S. Brown, Blake 
& Yan Voorhies, H. W. Glascock, and Alex. Campbell. The pros- 
ecution was conducted by the County Attorney, Mr. Wright, aided 
by the City Attorney, H. H. Havens, Zach Montgomexy, and W. 
W. Foote. 

Judge Jayne delivered judgment in the case, as follows : 

" I have listened attentively to every word of the testimony, and 
have studied over it by night as well as by day, and can come to a 
conclusion now. I find from the evidence adduced in the examina- 
tion, that a crime has been committed as charged in the complaint, 
and that there is sufficient cause to believe the defendant, Frederick 
F. Clark, guilty thereof. It is ordered that he be committed to the 
Sherifi^ of Alameda County. In regard to the defendant, Wtut, I 
considered his evidence against himself to be the clearest of all the 
evidence brought forward, except as to the statement by Huntsman, 
that he saw him show a weapon before the shooting. He does not 



316 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

seem to attempt to screen his friend. I am constrained to believe 
that he has narrated the transaction as lie believes it to be. I be- 
lieve that he has told the truth. There is no evidence to charge him 
with being accessory. He is therefore discharged." 

Subsequently, application was made for bail, and the case was 
submitted on testimony, without argument, to Judges Crockett and 
"Wallace, of the Supreme Court, in argument. A short-hand report 
having been made of the evidence, by the defense, two days were 
occupied in reading it. No attempt was made to deny the homicide, 
the point being that it was justified by the circumstances. Judge 
Crockett said that he should admit the prisoner to bail. Where 
malice and premeditation are proven, the statute declares that no 
bail shall be received ; but in the present case the circumstances 
were such that he felt warranted in releasing the prisoner. He 
oi'dered Clark to be released on bail, in the sum of $30,000. 

The trial was to take place at the Spring session of the County 
Court, before Judge Nye. All criminal cases, of course, had first to 
go before the Grand Jury for examination. 

The Grand Jury on this occasion consisted of: Messrs. W. G. 
Hunt, foreman ; Robert Carr, C. P. Hanson, F. Gai'cia, F. Devoll, 
C. B. Rutherford, A. Chabot, J. A. Folger, E. Gallagher, Fred. 
Runkle, David Scully, W. A. Bray, H. F. Shepardson, W. Benitz. 

In their report they stated that they had found two indictments 
for murder, one in the first degree and one in the second degree ; 
two indictments for Inirglary, one indictment for grand larceny, one 
for obstructing a public highway, and had ignored the chai'ge of mur- 
der against Frederick W. Clark ! 

The })ublic were amazed. The press denounced the conduct of the 
Grand Jury ; the District Attorney, S. P. Wright, was condemned. 

The latter published a letter in his own defense, in whicli he stated 
that the case for the peoi)le was presented, as far as he was concerned, 
in the best possible manner before the Grand Jury, and that they had 
the testimony untrammelled, by alarge number of witnesses that the 
defendant produced before the committing magistrate, as to the gen- 
eral reputation of deceased. 

He said : "When I left the Grand Jury room, and as I was clos- 
ing the door after me, I heard some one of the grand jui'ors say, ' I 
move to ignore the bill ;' and, hearing such a motion as that, I felt 
indignant, as the defendant, untlcr the evidence, in my Oi>iuion, ought 
to have been indicted." 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 317 

The Gazette, in commenting upon the action of the Grand Jury of 
Alameda County, in ignoring the bill of indictment against F. W. 
Clark, charged -with the murder of Zelotes Read, said it excited sur- 
l)rise, and was eliciting indignant comment. 

On the loth of April the question came up in the County Court 
on an application for a resubmmission of the case to a Grand Jury. 
District Attorney Wright argued in favor of the application, and 
Harvey S. Brown, H. K. "VV. Clark, Wm. Van Voorhies and Geo. M, 
Blake represented the accused, Clark, and opposed the application. 

This decision of Judge Nye ended the matter for that term of the 
Court. 

At a subsequent tenn. Judge Nye made an order resubmitting the ' 
case to the Grand Jury. From this order the defendant appealed to 
the Supreme Court. That Court held that the order was not appeal- 
able. The County Judge again submitted the case, and defendant 
sued out a writ of review before Judge Dwindle. Judge Dwinelle 
held the case for about two years without rendering a decision, until 
the press and the public became so clamorous about it that he at 
length dismissed the writ and the case went before another Grand 
Jury, which in turn also ignored the bill. 

There was a great deal of feeling in this case, not only in Alameda 
County, but outside of it. It was presumed that the wealth of the 
accused and his social position had much to do with his escape ; it 
was charged that he received the favor of the legal fraternity ; that 
his father was a lawyer ; that members of the judiciary became his 
bondsmen ; that the Supreme Court Judges favored him ; that all 
the land-gi-abbers in the country gathered around him ; that Horace 
W. Carpentier had used his wealth and influence unsparingly for his 
protection ; and all because the man who was slain had in his capa- 
city, as a settler on some disputed lands in Contra Costa County, 
rendered himself obnoxious to these parties in defending his own and 
his neighbors' rights against their encroachments. 

Much space is given here to this celebrated case, because it is 
looked upon as one to be ever held up as an example, showmg the 
danger to life and liberty, even under our free and popular system of 
government, when certain influences are allowed to be exercised. 
Indeed, the whole aflair is looked upon as marvelous, and such as 
not to be credited only that the evidence of it is so recent, and all 
the facts so patent. With what assiduity and ability the mind must 
have worked and the hand directed, that produced such an extraordi- 



318 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

nary resixlt that defeated justice, shielded a culprit and threw the 
darkest shades of suspicion on the machinery of law ! 

The fourth lioinicide of the year occurred in the third montli. It 
began in a drunken bout, on a Sunday evening in March, between a 
man named William Power and a Norwegian named Larsen, and the 
scene of it was on the Haas place, about six miles east of Hay wards, 
in the country. In the melee Power stabbed Larsen in the back with 
a knife, acd he died shortly after from the effects of his wound. A 
coroner's inquest was held over the dead man's body, presided over 
by Justice Graham, when the following verdict, in accordance witli 
the facts, was rendered : 

" "We, the undersigned, convened as jurors to hold an mquest on a 
dead body, do find as follows, viz : That tlae body is that of one 
Larsen; that his age was about 47 years ; nativity, Norway; and that 
he came to his death on the 26th of March, at Haas* ranch, in Eden 
Township, from a wound inflicted by a knife in the hands of one 
William Powers." 

Powers, who gave himself up, was committed to jail on a charge 
of murder, to await the action of the Grand Jury. That body found 
a true bill against him. He was tried, convicted and sentenced to 
13 years in the State Prison at San Quentin. A feAv weeks since he 
was pardoned out by Governor Irwin, for exteuiiating circumstances 
and good condiict. 

On the 30th day of January suits were commenced in the Third 
District Court by Messrs. Wm. C. Blackwood and William INIeek, 
two of the principal tax-payers of the county, against County Treas- 
urer McClure, to recover the amount of State and county taxes paid 
by these gentlemen under protest. Tlie complaints in the actions set 
forth, among other things, that the assessment roll was not made by 
any person authorized by law to make an assessment, and that Edwin 
Hunt was not County Assessor. The Board of Sujjervisors em})loyed 
John W. Dwinelle as special counsel for tlie county in the cases. As 
a decision of the cases w;xs not likely to be readied for some months, 
and as the legality of the assessment for the current fiscal year was 
involved, Mr. Dwinelle consulted Attorney-General Hamilton, who 
brought an action of q}to tvarranto against Edwin Hunt, the acting 
County Assessor, charging him with usurpation of oftice, setting out 
all the facts, including Mr. Hunt's election. Mr. Dwinelle demurred, 
and Judge Morrison, of the Eoiu-th District Court, before whom the 
case was first argued, decided in Mr. Hunt's favor. The case was 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 319 

a]iiieiik'd to the Supreme Court, and that body affirmed the jiidg- 
meut, deciding that the office of Assessor in Alameda County is a 
county office ; that Edwin Hunt was lawfully elected, and was last 
year and 'was then lawfully in office. 

A movement was made in the early part of March by the i)rincipal 
inhabitants of Washington Township to organize a silk manufactur- 
ing company, the capital stock of which was to be $1,500,000. They 
proposed to purchase for the purposes of the company the propert)"- 
of Messrs. Beard & Ellsworth, at Mission San Jos6, containing 4,820 
acres of land. Two thousand two hundred shares of stock, at $25 
per share, were taken, but the project finally fell through. It may 
be a hint for others hereafter to undertake an important and re- 
munerative enterprise. 

The first election for Brooklyn town officers took place at Brooklyn 
on Monday, April 29th. There were two tickets in the field, desig- 
nated as the Eegular and the Independent. Considerable interest 
was manifested, and 201 votes were cast, and candidates on both 
tickets were elected. Following were the officers chosen : Trustees, 
H. A. Mayhew (Reg.), Hiram Tubbs (Reg.), A. Cannon (Reg.), H. 
Tum Suden (Reg.), Isham Case (Ind.) ; School Trustees, A. W. 
Swett (Reg.), F. Buel (Reg.), T. J. Steere (Ind.); Clerk and Treas- 
urer, J. F. Steen (on both tickets); Assessor, A. B. Webster (on 
both tickets) ; Justice of the Peace, L. J. Rector (on both tickets) ; 
Constable, O. Whipple (on both tickets). 

At the meeting of the Board of Supervisors held on May 8tli, Mr. 
E. L. Beard presented a bill for the reclamation of swamp land in 
District No. 82, for work performed from May, 1870, to May, 1871, 
amounting in the aggregate to the sum of $7,321. On motion, it 
was ordered that the said amount be paid when there are funds suf- 
ficient in the treasury for the purpose. 

This was the period of roller-skating, and " rinks " were built in 
almost evei-y town in the county. A very large structure was erected 
in Oakland, between Broadway and Washington Streets, and extend- 
ing the whole length of the block from Eleventh to Twelfth Sti-eets. 
Those structures were also iised for public meetings, balls, fairs, etc. 

April and May passed off without a homicide, but in June the evil 
broke out again. On the 15th of that month a man called " Dutch 
Frank," alias Michael Frendar, shot and killed a man named Ed- 
ward Lavin, in Eden Vale, about a mile and a half from Haywards, 
on the Dublin road. The men were neighbors, and the cause of the 



320 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

quarrel was a trivial one. Frendar had accused Laviii's boy of steal- 
ing one of his chickens and caught him roughly, when La^in went 
to his rescue. He took hold of Frendar and called him " an old 
thief," following up with other coarse language, and striking him on 
the neck. Frendar had a gun, and with an imprecation raised it and 
fired at Lavin. The latter staggered and fell, and while falling 
Frendar fired another shot. The defendant, who had given himself 
up, was committed for trial, and locked up in the County Jail to 
await the action of the Grand Jury. The trial took place on the 
21st of July, and on the following day the pi'isoner was found guilty 
of murder in the second degree, and sentenced to confinement in the 
State prison for a term of fifteen years. 

The Union County Convention met at San Leandro on the 24th 
day of June. The object was to send delegates to the Republican 
State Convention at Sacramento, on the following week, when a can- 
didate for Governor was nominated. The contest was between Selby, 
of San Francisco, and Booth, of Saci\amento. On a vote it was foiind 
the Selby men outnumbered the Boothites by thirty-two to twenty- 
three. 

The recent Supreme Court decision contracting the Livermore 
Grant to two leagues instead of eleven, as originally claimed by 
the parties in interest, which latter decision thi-ew into the market 
some forty thousand acres of Government land, created considerable 
excitement in the Livermore Valley ; and very many settlers took 
advantage of this opportunity to select one hundred and sixty aci'es 
(quarter section) for a homestead. In several sections they had gone 
into occupation of land already im])roved, and on which there was 
growing crops of grain, and were refusing to allow the claimants to 
hai'vest their crops. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated throughout the county, with 
spirit. There was a large gathering at San Lorenzo, which was ad- 
dressed by General La Grange, who delivei-ed a fine oration. Rev. 
W. F. B. Lynch, Rev. J. M. Miller, and Rev. A. F. White also par- 
ticipated. 

On Sunday, the 1st of .luly, one of those disgraceful land feuds, 
lately so common in California, in consequence of the maladministra- 
tion of the laws, took place in Moraga Valley, Contra Costa County. 
The difficulty was between the Moraga family and Isaac Yoakum. 
On this occasion a Californian in tlie emj)loy of the Moragas, named 
Silverio Monjes, was shot and killed by a man named Steele, in the 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 321 

employ of Yoakum. So great was the excitement that Yoakum, 
who held an interest in the land with Horace W. Carpentier, had to 
leave. A jn-evious case was one of assault on females of the Moraga 
family by Yoakum, which was tried at Pacheco on the 10th of June, 
when Yoakum was fined in the sum of $500. In retaliation, Yoa- 
kum had five of the Moraga girls arrested on a charge of robbery, but 
the complaint was dismissed. 

On the 9th of July a new weekly paper, published by William 
Halley, and called the Brooklyn Home Journal, made its appearance. 
It was a local paper, independent in party politics, and generally ex- 
pressing the views of the independent press, then so potent through- 
out the State, but pi-incipally devoted to local interests. 

The American House, at Centreville, was burned to the gi'ound 
early on the morning of July 5th, when nearly everything in the house 
was lost. The loss was about $11,000, with an insurance of $6,000. 
The property was owned by J. W. Mayers. 

A meeting was held at "Washington, in this county, on Saturday, 
July 1st, for the purpose of devising measures to secure a site and 
the requisite means to erect a college building in which to carry on a 
school, to be known as "The Washington College of Science and In- 
dustry." E. L. Beard, of Mission San Jose, was elected Chairman, 
and Albert Lyser, of San Francisco, Secretary. The object of the 
enterprise was briefly stated by Superintendent W. F. B. Lynch. In 
addition to the usual high school course it was the intention to give 
the school some of those practical features which have made the 
Polytechnic Schools of France and Prussia so eminently successful. 
The classical course to extend no further than to fit students to enter 
the fourth class at the University. The whole subject of vegetable 
physiology would be taught practically on the ground; surveying 
would be taught, and in fact a thorough business education includ- 
ed in the coui-se. Mr. Lynch stated that a sufficient amount had 
already been subscribed. 

At an adjourned meeting, five acres of land belonging to Mr. 
Beard, located in the rear of the old Washington-Corner District 
School lot, were selected. Subsequently the site was changed to- 
lands on the opposite side of the county road leading to the Mission,^ 
the land being donated by E. L. Beard. The location is a very pleas- 
ant one, and has good water privileges. 

One day in July an Indian named Cenovio called at the Estudillo 
residence, at San Leandro, and asked for Lieut. Ignacio Martinez,. 

21 



322 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUXTY. 

and appeared surprised when he was told that Mr. Martinez had been 
dead upwards of twenty-four years. Cenovio must have been 
nearly one hundred years old, if indeed he did not exceed that age. 
He stated that he was a servant of Mr. Martinez when the latter 
was an officer in the Mexican army, in 1823, and from his conversa- 
tion Cenovio must at that time have been well along in years. 
Lieut. Martinez was gi-andfather to Mr. J. M. Estudillo. Cenovio 
was then living near Santa Clara, and looked hale and hearty. 

Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates, of Centreville, while out prospecting for 
geological specimens in the hills in the southern part of the county, 
unearthed a portion of the inferior maxillary of a mastodon. Its 
measure was : From front of jaw to the back of the last molar teeth, 
24 inches ; width of jaw at angles, 18 inches ; width of jaw midway 
beweeu ft-ont and rear, 15 inches ; depth of jaw from crown of molar 
teeth, 9 inches; thickness of jaw, 9 inches. This specimen exhibited 
in a marked degree the peculiar process of the shedding and rei:)lace- 
ment of molar teeth. In the jaw, here mentioned, a part of one set 
of teeth had just been shed, another set were in place, and another 
set developed in the jaw, ready to replace the others when shed. The 
jaw was one of the finest ever discovered in California. 

Another homicide took place at Mission San Jose, on the 23d of 
July, when a man named Edward Donohue was shot and killed by 
John Dorsey. 

This homicide was soon followed by another brutal shooting aifair. 
About three o'clock on Sunday afternoon, 30th of July, a man named 
Bi-adley shot and desperately wounded a man named Knuckles, near 
Livermore. Bradley, to elude his creditors, placetl a sum of money 
in the hands of J. Knuckles. The latter refused to refund. Brad- 
ley took deliberate aim with a shot-gun and fired. The greater part 
■of the charge entered the lower jaw, tearing away nearly the entire 
chin, and ripping the flesh down close to the wuid])ipe. 

At the election, held on Sei)t. 6th, for Congi'essioual, State, county 
and municii)al officers, the Kepublican ticket was successful against 
the Democratic and Iudci>endent tickets put in nomination. Newton 
Booth, for Govei'nor, received 2,489 votes to Haiglit's l,r)71, making 
a majority of 918. For Congress, Sargent had 2,510 to CoftVotli's 
1,528. For Assembly, Pardee and Crane (11.) had, respectively, 
2,390 and 2,359 votes to Martin's and Swett's (I.) 1,643 and l,66i;. 
There was great rejoicing among the Republicans for the election of 
Booth, as his friends did not ex{)cct much of a majority, and Gov- 



UNDER TlIK STARS AND STRIPES. 323 

ernor Haight and Ids friends were morally sure of success in the State 
at large. 

An entire block of stores was destroyed by fire at Livermore on 
Tuesday evening, 26tli of Sept. The fire broke out about six o'clock, 
•in Knight »fe Sproule's drug store, and burnt property estimated at 
the value of $20,000. Follo^\'ing were the losses : B. Mayer, general 
merchandise, house total loss, but contents mostly saved ; vacant build- 
ing belonging to C. Miner, total loss ; Knight &, Sproule's drug store, 
store total loss ; Goetjen, general merchandise and Post-office, portion 
of stock saved, building a total loss ; A. J. Alviso, barber shop, stock 
saved, house a total loss ; A. Bardalini, Washington Hotel, portion of 
the furniture saved, house a total loss. The buildings were all insured, 
except that of Miner & Goetjen, On Monday afternoon an unoccu- 
pied building, owned by Jose Flores, was totally destroyed by fire. 
Loss, $300. During the extensive conflagration on Tuesday, Dr. 
Knight was wounded in the forehead by the explosion of a metalic 
cartridge. 

Judge McKee gave a decision in the Oakland Draw Bridge case, 
in which he declared that the assessment on Alameda property, for 
the construction of the bridge and roadway, was void, because the 
Board of Supervisors had exceeded their authority. They then 
ordered a levy of $3.60 on each $100 of property in Alameda Town- 
ship, to raise the amount required for the payment of the bridge and 
roadway. 

The newly-elected Board of Supervisors took their seats on the 2d 
of October, when F. K. Shattuck was elected Chairman for the year. 

On Thursday aftex-noon, October 12th, the Alameda Valley was 
visited by the most severe stoi-m of wind known for years. The 
newly-erected and yet unfinished church edifice, at Seminary Park, 
connected with the Mills' Seminary, was blown to the ground ; the 
wind-mill of the San Francisco & Alameda Railroad, at San Lsandro, 
was overturned and demolished, and considerable damage done to 
fruit and shade trees. The storm was hardly felt in San Francisco. 
In Oakland the -wind made matters decidedly lively, but no great 
damage resulted. With regard to the church, in view of the storm, 
all the openings were closed up, and, so far as human aid could go, 
all precaution was taken to prevent the disaster. The bell was hung, 
but the cupola closed up and the staying taken down ; the windows 
were all in, the doors hung, and the second coat of plaster on. Mr. 
Geo. W. Babcock, the builder, had done his work to the entire satis- 



324 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

faction of the arcliitect and to all those interested. It was well 
braced, and every spot and place was by all considered secure. The 
building was badly exposed to the gale, coming as it did broadside 
on. But nothing could have stood before the gale. Redwood jiosts, 
8x8 inches, were broken off close to the ground, like pii^e-stems, and ' 
the horse-shed carried a distance of one thousand feet before it struck 
the ground. No harm of any kind happened to the Seminary build- 
ings, but it blew a hurricane all through that section of the country. 
Oak trees, that had withstood the storms of ages, were levelled to the 
earth, and a good deal of damage done. 

The San Leandro Union Temperance Association was organized at 
San Leandro on the 22d of October. The officers were : President, 
L. Stone; Vice-Presidents, Rev. J. H. Miller, Mrs. 0. H. Wicks, 
Mrs. A. F. White; Secretary, Geo. Beers; Treasurer, Geo. A. David- 
son; Committee on Membei'ship, Rev. A. F. White, Mrs. Knox, 
Mrs. Fielding. 

On the 1st of November the barn belonging to the County Hos- 
pital was destroyed by fire. It was a new structui'e, erected on the 
site of one built in the previous August. It was completed only the 
day before, and contained hay and straw valued at $200. It was the 
fourth attempt to set the Infirmary on fire. 

On Saturday, 2d of December, two prisoners, named Pickett and 
Smith, efi'ected their esca2)e from the County Jail at San Leandro. 

About 6 o'clock on Sunday afternoon, December 17th, it com- 
menced to rain, and continued without ceasing for 60 houi-s, much to 
the delight of the farmers, who had hitherto been dreading a dry- 
season. In some })laces the storm was very severe and did much 
damage. The railroad between San Lorenzo and Ilaywards wiW 
washed away, and the water in the San Leandro creek rose rapidly. 

A wild man named Peavy was shot and killed in Livermore Valley 
in the latter end of the month, by a man named Mullen, whoso life 
he had threatened. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 325 

THE O^KL^ND 

BANK OF SAVINGS. 

Corner Broadway and Twelfth Street. 



CAPITAL, - - - - $1,000,000. 



E. C. Sessions, W. W. Camron, W. E. Miller, 

Wm. Power, Henry Rogers, A. W. Bowman, 

W. A. Aldrich, E. F. Northam. 



nisr-A.2sraE coivOiis^iittee- 

E. C. Sessions, W. E. Miller, Wm. Power. 



E. C. SESSIONS President. 

W. W. CAMRON Vice-President. 

CHARLES ROBERTS Casliier. 



Teinn Deposits remaining three full months or 

more, will be entitled to dividends of interest, 

which are poAjahle semi-annually. 

No Entrance Fees or Charges Made for 
Bank Books. 



Loans made and a general Banking business transacted. 

Our own exchange, gold or currency, on New York, available in all 
parts of the Atlantic States, for sale. 

We also furnish exchange at current rates on London, Frankfort-on-the- 
Man, Berlin and Paris, available in all parts of Europe. Allow the best 
marlcet rales for gold and currency drafts on New York. 

Collections made and proceeds remitted at current rates. 

San Francisco correspondents, the ANGLO-CALIFORNIAN BANK, 
LIMITED. 

New York correspondents, the NINTH NATIONAL BANK, NEW 
YOEK. 



326 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



JOHN CARTER, 

3firrr|jiii! Cisilnr 

4e6 EZO-J^TIT ST.. OJ^T^XaJ^lsTlD. 



Best of Goods, Superior Workmanship, Sure Fits and 
Moderate Charges guaranteed. 

OJ^JsLI^A^ND DEPOT 

FOR 

Butterick's Patterns 



Cut Paper Patterns of all kinds, comprising every Idud of gar- 
ment worn by ladies, misses, girls, boys, little children and 
infants; gentlemen's Shirt Patterns included. Also, E. 
Butterick & Go's celebrated Shears and Scissors. 
Patterns sent by mail on receipt of number, 
size and price. Send for Illustrated 
Catalogue of Patterns, to 

jonnxr I. Tj^-^r, 

965 BROADWAY, OAKLAND, CAL. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 327 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



THE EVENTS OF 1872. 



Winter, Wet and Stormy — Reclamation Lands Served^— Death of Jas. 
B. Larue — The County Seat Fight — Repeated Efforts of Oakland 
and Persistent Resistance of the Townships — Close Contest in the 
Legislature — Supervisors Refuse an Election — The Question in 
the Third District Court — A Library Association in San Lean- 
dro — A Bill Favoring Ramie Culture — Incorporation of San 
Leandro — Opening of Washington College — Boundary Dispute 
with San Francisco — Moraga Troubles — Another Shock — Ojjen- 
ing of Badger's Grand Central Park — Procopio, alias Rodendo, 
Sentenced — Isaac Yoakum Shot — A Mirage on the Bay — Death 
of Hon. E. D. Lewelling — San Joaquin Boundary — Distressing 
Accident to a Portuguese Family at San Leandro — Loss of Life 
and Property by Fire at San Leandro — Republican Convention 
at San Leandro — Porter, the Favorite for Congress, but Page 
Nominated at Sacramento — -Death of Wm. Gagan — Farmer's 
Club Started — Catholic Church at Livermore~~C Union Annexa- 
tion — Xeio Cliurch at Seminary Park — Brooklyn Annexed to 
Oakland — Alameda Votes Against Annexation — Death of Hon. 
Edward Tompkins — New Board of Supervisors — Death of 
Timothy Rix — The Niles Bridge — Corner Stone of the Univers- 
ity Building Laid at Berkeley— Legislative Enactments. 

The ^\'inter of 1871-2 was the periodical time for a flood, and was 
very wet and stormy. The flood of December was followed by 
another in January. Railroad communication was very much in- 
terrupted, and in many places roadbeds were washed away. By the 
first of the year no less than 21 inches of rain had fallen in San 
Francisco — more than was ever known before. The trains on the 
Central Pacific road stopped running. Considerable damage was 
done at Mission fSan Jose, where the water had come down in tor- 
i-ents from the mountains, and swept through the streets in loishing 



328 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



and roaring streams. The mai-sh lands of E. L. Beard, wliich wei-e 
in course of reclamation, were greatly served by tliLs flood, as it 
carried a great deal of surface soil upon them and left quite a thick 
coating of clay, while little damage was done the dykes. More or 
less injury was done all over the State, but the advantage gained in 
a thorough soaking of the ground and the destruction of squh'rels 
and gophers was considerable, and, at least, quite a sufficient oflset. 
Early in the year Oakland lost one of her most prominent and 
enterprising pioneer citizens. On Sunday, Jan. 7, died, at Brooklyn, 
Mr. Jas. B. Larue, the founder of the town. He was an active bus- 
iness man, discriminating and far-seeing. He was in the seventy- 
second year of his age, having been born in the year 1800. As a 
biographical sketch of him will be found elsewhere, it is not neces- 
saiy here to dwell further on the events of his iiseful life. 

SECOND YEAR OF THE COUNTY SEAT FIGHT. 

The county-seat removal question was at this time very prominent. 
The Legislature was in session. The Oakland men were veiy per- 
sistent in their efforts ; they had a better opportunity to work to 
advantage in this yeai"'s Legislature than that of 1870, as they had 
a representative in both branches. Senator Tompkins warmly espousetl 
their cause in the Senate, and Doctor Pardee in the Assembly. They 
had an energetic lobby, and an indefatigable agent in Harry Linden. 

Neither were the people of Eden idle or at a disadvantage. They 
were well organized, and had the support and sympathy of all the 
county outside of Oakland City. Assemblyman Crane took up the 
cause of his country constituents ; the Board of Supervisors, exce})t- 
ing the Oakland delegate, were a unit in favor of San Lfandro ; an 
able delegation, consisting of Hon. I. A. Amerman and Jolm Nugent, 
watched over their interests at Sacramento, where they had the sui>- 
port of some of the ablest men on both sides of both liouses. On 
one side the cry raised was convenience, and, on the other, cost. 
The Oakland peoi)le maintained that ^they supplied the greater part 
of the business transacted at the county seat, which was nine miles 
distant from them. There were the pi-incipal lawyers and profes- 
sional men, the banks and real estate agents of the county. The 
Edenites maintained that San Leandro was more central ; that it was 
accessible and convenient for all parts of tlie county, and was served 
by two railroads ; that the county was in possession of a valuable 
piece of property, which was donated to it by the Estudillo family. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 329 

wliicli would revert to the original owners in case of disuse of the 
l)urpose for which it was granted ; that county offices, a Court house 
and jail, sufficient for the wants of the county, were already ei-ected ; 
and that removal would entail great expense on the people for new 
county buildings and grounds upon which to erect them. 

The Oaklanders met some of these objections by showing that the 
upper portion of the City Hall could be iised for years yet to come 
for county offices ; that a fii-e-proof hall of records could be built on 
the city property adjoining the City Hall ; oi-, in case of failure in 
this, the two city plazas, consisting of two town blocks in the lower 
part of the city, on Broadway, could be secured for the purpose of 
county buildings. 

Oakland had a committee, or an association, established, called the 
Citizens' Union, which directed the agitation in favor of removal, 
and of wliich Mr. Harry Linden was agent. A petition was pre- 
pared and names sought for it all over the county, and active steps 
taken for legislative action. This aroused the Eden people, who also 
held meetings and organized. Their first public meeting was held in 
the Court-house, San Leandro, on the 10th of January, 1872. It 
was addressed by I. A. Amerman, John Nugent, of Eden; R. S. 
Farrelly and A. H. Griffith, of Brooklyn ; and J. R. Palmer, of 
Murray. A committee was appointed to report a plan of action and 
resolutions, consisting of County Judge Nye and four of the gentle- 
men already mentioned. 

The following resolutions were adopted : 

Whereas, Certain people in the City of Oakland ai-e endeavoring 
to remove the county seat of Alameda County from its present cen- 
tral location to the City of Oakland, and 

Whereas, Said removal is contrary to the wishes of a large 
majority of the tax-payers of Alameda County ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That our Senator and Members of Assembly be, and they 
are hereby earnestly requested to delay any action upon the petition 
for the removal of the county seat until they receive a remonstrance 
of the tax-payers who are opposed to such removal. 

Resolved, That a copy of the above proceedings be forwai-ded to 
the Senator and members of Assembly of Alameda County, duly 
certified by the Chairman and Secretary. 

A committee, having a representative in every school district in 
the county, was appointed to procure names to a remonstrance, which 
in due time was forwarded to Sacramento, largely signed. 



330 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Mr. Amerman having beeu commissioned to go to Sacramento to 
watcli legislation and defeat action there, immediately after his 
arrival addressed a communication to Senator Tompkins, in which he 
put to that gentleman six leading questions touching removal. Mr. 
A.'s communication was dated the 17th of January, and the Senator's 
answer came promptlj' on the 18th, and in which he took strong 
ground favorable to the Oakland agitation. 

Then followed a ])ul)lic meeting, in Bray ton Hall, Oakland, on the 
24th of January, at which the following preamble and resolutions 
were adopted : 

Whereas, It has become necessary for the accommodation of a 
large majority of the citizens of Alameda County, that the county 
seat of said county should lie removed to the City of Oakland, and a 
petition of the voters of said county has been presented to the 
Legislature of the State asking the passage of a law authorizing such 
removal, and 

Whereas, Objections to said removal are being made by some, on 
the ground that a heavy debt would be incurred by such removal in 
the purchase of land and the erection of the necessary buildings for 
county purposes ; it is therefore 

Resolved, By the citizens of Oalcland that the second story of the 
City Hall shall be finished at the expense of the city, and partitioned 
into suitable rooms for the District Court, the County and Probate 
Courts, the Sheriff, the District Attorney, the Grand Jury, the Petit 
Jury, the County Surveyor, and the Judge's Chambers, and that 
rooms shall be provided on the first floor of said hall for the Board of 
Supervisors and the Superintendent of Public Sciiools, and in the 
basement of said hall, if required, room sufficient for a jail. And 
that the city will also dedicate to the county a lot of land, parcel of 
the City Hall lot, situated in the southwest corner of the same, fifty 
feet wide, on Fourteenth street, by one hundred feet in depth, for the 
pxirpose of erecting a hall of recoi-ds for the use of the County Ee- 
corder. County Clerk and County Treasurer. And that the use antl 
control of said rooms and said land shall be vested in the Board of 
Supervisors of Alameda County, for so long a time as said Board may 
use and occujiy tlicni for the purposes aforesaid. 

Resolved, Tliat tlie Secretary of this meeting transmit to our 
Senator and Representatives, and to the City Council, a copy of 
these resolutions. 

Messrs. F. K. Sliattuck, E. C Sessions, John Benton and Dr. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 331 



Samuel JNIorritt, were apjioiiited to see that the matter was brought 
before the Legishiture. 

At a meeting of the City Council, held on the 29th of January, 
a bill' was presented and adopted, which was sent to the Hon. Mr. 
Tompkins, for introduction in the Senate. 

The bill provided for an election to determine the future loca- 
tion of the county seat — San Leandi'o or Oakland. 

In case of the success of the latter, the City Hall of Oakland 
was to be fitted up for the use of the county officere ; the basement of 
the same given up for a jail ; and furthermore, a piece of groimd, 
50 feet front by 150 feet in depth, granted on Fourteenth street, 
for the purpose of bviilding a fire-proof Hall of Records thereon ; 
and bonds issued for the purpose of erecting the necessary build- 
ings thereupon. The bill provided that the i-emoval should be at the 
expense of the county ; but the rooms in the City Hall were to be 
fitted up at the expense of the City of Oakland. 

Tuesday, the 17th of February, was the day fixed for the dis- 
cussion of the bill in the Senate. The bill was read by the Clerk, 
Mr. Ferrall, in a distinct voice, after which Senator Tompkins rose 
and offered a series of amendments, meeting some of the objections 
that had been raised to the bill ; among which was one providing for 
the use of the plazas in Broadway for county purposes, and another, 
making the City of Oakland liable for the election expenses in case 
of a defeat at the polls. His argument was strong, plausible, and 
persuasive. In his masterly manner he porti-ayed the justice of 
his cause, and delivered an exceedingly able argument. No one in 
that Senate Chamber knew better how. He had all the facts and 
figures of the case to perfection, and placed them in a manner best 
calculated to enforce his opinions. Oakland was fortunate in possess- 
ing so able an advocate. He was one of the most brilliant men that 
ever shone in a California Legislatui-e, and in point of ability and 
efi'ectiveness was supeiior to every man there. Not a point was lost, 
not an advantage left untouched. All he wanted was a vote on the 
question. Nothing was fairer than that the will of the majority 
should be respected and their demands granted. 

Senator Pendegast, of Napa, was expected to reply. The San 
Leandro lobby depended upon liim. He was considered next to 
Alameda's Senator, the most eloquent man in the Senate. But no 
reply came from him. 

Senator Larkin, of El Dorado, objected to the bUl, because it was 



332 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

a species of special legislation, while there was a general law to cover 
the case. 

Ill Senator Farley, of Amador, howev^er, the Edenites found their 
strongest champion. He espoused their cause warmly, and he was a 
power. He was chairman j^ro-tem of tbe Senate, and the leader of 
the Democrats in that House. He referred to the remonstrance that 
had been presented against the bill, which he said contained 500 
more names than the petition in favor of it. The Board of Super- 
visors of the county, he said, were all opposed to it, with one excep- 
tion, and had officially so declared ; he showed that the townships 
represented by the Supervisors contained 13,133 inhabitants, while 
the population of the City of Oakland was but 11,104. He main- 
tained that there were facts to show that the county seat was best 
situated where it then was, to serve a majority of the people of the 
county. He had seen so many discreditable proceedings in con- 
nexion with county seat removals, that he was cautious in such 
mattei's. Senators Maclay, of Santa Clara, and Minis, of Yolo, 
followed on the same side, and Tompkins had to reply to them all ; 
and this he did ably and clearly, meeting their objections in the 
most forcible manner. But there was an asperity in his manner and 
a bitterness in his tone that was unpleasant. 

The bill was ordered engrossed by a majority of one, there being 
19 for, to 18 against it. 

On the 28th of Februai-y the vote on the passage of the bill was 
taken, when there appeared a majority of one against it, Senator 
Goodall, of Contra Costa, having reversed his former vote. The vote 
to reconsider, next day, stood 19 to 17 against. 

There Wcis rejoicing throughout the county precincts, and the San 
Leandraus received their lobby back from Sacramento with bon -tires, 
music and the ringing of bells, followed by a public ball. 

But the contest was not yet over. On the 20th of March, Assem- 
blyman Pardee gave notice that he would iiitroduce a new bill in his 
House in reference to the subject, but it was not necessary that he 
should, for the revised Codes provided the means for ending all such 
disi)utes, and of these the ])eai)le of Oakland subsequently availed 
themselves. 

At a meeting of the I'o.ird of Suitervisors, on Septenaber 24th, a 
petition was presented to that body praying the Board to order an 
election for the ])urpose of allowing the citizens of the county to vote 
on tlie question of change of location of the county seat. W. "W. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 333 

Foote and Wm, Van Voorhies ap})eared on behalf of the petitioners, 
and R. B. Moyes and A. H. Griffith, opposing the same. The peti- 
tion was accompanied by the affidavit of Harry Linden as to the sig- 
natures upon the petition being those of qualified electors of the 
county, and also by the certificate of the County Clerk as to the 
number of votes cast at the last gubernatorial election. Messrs. 
Moyes and Griffith opposed the petition upon the ground that the 
county seat had already been once removed, thereby making it neces- 
sary that two-thirds of the voters upon the Great Register should 
sign a petition for I'emoval of the county seat, and Joseph Dumont 
was sworn and testified that the county seat was formerly located in 
Alvarado and was removed from there some time in 1854. J. V. B. 
Goodrich and C. G. Reed were each sworn and testified as to the 
number of uncancelled names upon the Great Register, both setting 
the number down at 5,600. 

The Board appearing to be dissatisfied as to all the names upon the 
petition being those of qualified electors, on motion, the petitioners 
were allowed to withdraw the petition, for the purpose of presenting 
the same at the next meeting, with the necessary proofs as to all the 
signatures being those of qualified electors. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held on the 2 2d of Oc- 
tober, Col. Harry Linden agaiil presented the county seat removal 
petition, signed by over one-third of the voters at the last general 
election, 1,707 names. 

W. W. Foote introduced Col. Linden, who was sworn and testified 
that he obtained over 1,400 of the signatures on the petition. 

Richard Moyes asked Col. Linden to point out the names he had 
obtained, which was not done. 

John Coffee was sworn and testified that he had compared 1,707 
names on the petition with the great register, with the assistance of 
Mr. Collins and Mr. Knox. He could point out all the names as he 
had marked them. 

Mr. Collins was sworn and testified that he had assisted in com- 
paring about 100 names on the petition, and found them on the great 
register. 

J. V. B. Goodrich, County Clerk, was sworn and testified that the 
great register presented contained all the names of the voters of the 
county. He knew that at the last general election 4,060 votes were 
cast. On examination by Mr. Moyes, he said there were 5,754 
names on the great register. 



334 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Mr. Poote said the petition was presented under section 3,976 of 
the Political Code, under which the petitioners demanded that the 
Supervisors should act. 

Mr. Knox was here sworn and testified that he had compared do^vn 
to 1,562 of the names on the petition. 

The question whether the county seat had been once removed by 
a popular vote was brought up. 

Judge Williams was sworn on this point. In 1855 or 1856 the 
election was held for the relocation of the county seat from Alvarado 
to San Leandro. There was no Board of Supervisoi's at that time, 
and the Court of Sessions called the election. The election resulted 
in the removal. The county became a county in 1853. The county 
seat I'emained at Alvarado until 1855. A popular vote was taken 
in that year and it was in favor of San Leandro. Subsequently it 
was removed back to Ah'arado. In accordance with an act of the 
Legislature, after that, the county seat was again removed to San 
Leandro. 

Supervisor Case moved that the petition be received and the elec- 
tion ordered. 

Mr. Moyes objected on the ground of unauthenticity of the names. 

Mr. Grilfith ai-gued against the motion. A wint of mandau\us 
compelled the removal of the records'from San Leandro to Alvarado. 
A similar case came up in Sutter County at that time, and the Su- 
preme Court decided that the Courts of Record must be kept where 
they wei-e prescribed by law. The District and County Courts must 
be held at the county seat. The Legislature deemed it tlieir duty to 
fix the place where the Courts should be held. An election, called 
by this Board, would amount to nothing. An act of the Legislature 
must be had. He claimed that the petition did not come up to the 
requirements. The county seat had been once i-emoved ; to remove it 
again it must be done in the manner prescribed by the act. One- 
third of the votes of the great i*egister is required. There are 5,754 
names on the great register, and the petition contaijis but 1,453. 

At the meeting held on Oct. 7th, AV. W. Foote aj^peared before the 
Board and stated that the parties who had been at work comparing 
the names on the petition for the county seat removal had as yet only 
compared about 800 or 900 names. He stated that in two weeks 
from then the petition would be pn^seuted ; and, if the Board refused 
to grant the jietition, proceedings would be instituted to compel the 
Board to do so. 

Mr. Moyes arose to speak on the question. 



UNDER THE STAUS AND STRIPES. 335 

Mr. Shattuck said it was uiinccessaiy to say any more on the suljject. 
He was satisfied that a majority of the Board woukl vote against tlie 
petition. 

John Glascock read af decision of the Supreme Conrt, in the case 
of Ujiham vs. tlie Supervisors of Sutter County, in support of the 
argument that the Supervisors have the power to order the election. 

Supervisor C;ise called upon the county's legal adviser for his opin- 
ion on the point as to whether the Board is required to grant an 
election upon the petition of one-third of the voters of the last gen- 
eral election. 

Mr. Moore said he did not think the present case came under 3,985, 
but does properly come under section 3,976. 

Mr. Moyes requested that Judge Nye's opinion be asked. 

]\Ir. Moore said it was pi'oper for him to state that Judge Nye dif- 
fered from him. 

Judge Nye was sent for and returned word that he thought it bet- 
ter for him not to give his opinion, as the matter might come before 
him judicially. 

A vote was taken, and the motion lost by the following vote : 
Neal, Overacker, Clement, Marlin, no ; Case, Shattuck, yes. 

The petition was ordered on file. 

The next step was to apply to the Supreme Court for a mandamus, 
which was done on the 12th of November, by Mr. Foote. The 
Court granted an alternative writ, returnable on the following 19th. 
It commanded the Board of Supervisors to order an election or show 
cause for declining to do so. 

A demurrer was filed, and on the 19th of November the case was 
argued before Judge McKee, in the Tliird District Court; Gen. 
Irvine, of San Fi-ancisco, and A. H. Griffith, of San Leandi-o, repre- 
senting the Board, and Wm. Yan Yoorheis, of Oakland, and W. W. 
Foote, of San Francisco, appearing for Linden. ■ The Court sustained 
the demurrer, on the ground that Harry Linden was not the proper 
party to bring the action— he, in fact, having no more interest in the 
question than any other of the petitioners. The Court held the suit 
should have been brought in the name of the people. 

No further action was had in the matter during 1872 ; but, as ynll 
be seen hereafter, a new complication of the matter was in process by 
the annexation of the Town of Brooklyn to the City of Oakland. 



336 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

A meeting was held at San Leandro, on the evening of the 16th of 
January, to organize a library association, in connection with the 
Presbyterian Church. It was resolved, on motion of Eev. Mr. 
"White, to call it the San Leandro Library Association. 

Assemblyman Crane introduced a bill in the Legislature to 
encourage the culture of ramie, at which a commencement had 
already been made in this county. 

On Thursday evening, February 20th, the citizens of San Leandro 
assembled in the Supervisors' room, at the Court-house, to consider 
the matter of incorporating the town. The meeting was organized 
by selecting Justice George Smith as Chairman, and J. M. Estu- 
dillo as Seci-etary, with David Uiy as Vice-President. The 
Chairman, in a few well-timed remarks, stated the objects of the 
meeting, after which Dr. Pratt, A. T. Covell, L. C. Morehouse, J. H. 
Putnam and others made brief speeches on the question, whereupon 
the boundaries of the district sought to be incorporated were inform- 
all}' agreed upon. It being the sense of the meeting that the town 
should be incorporated, on motion of A. T. Covell, a committee of 
five was appointed, consisting of I. A. Amerman, Judge Steph. G. 
Nye, A. T. Covell, J. H. Putnam and Socrates Hutf, to draft an 
incorporation Act. 

One of the important events of the year was the inauguration 
of the Washington College, at Washington Corners, on the 2 2d of 
February, by an invitation ball, wliu-li was attended by guests from 
all parts of the county, numbering over one hundred couples. The 
certificate of incorporation, filed July 20th, 1871, styled the school 
" The Washington College of Science and Industry." It is a char- 
tered college of the State, and a fifth class of the University. The 
stock capital of thirty thousand dollars was divided into six hundred 
shares, of fift}^ dollars each. The projectors of the scheaie were 
Messrs. W. F. B. Lynch, County Superintendent of Public Schools, 
and Albert Lysei", a teacher in the public schools of San Francisco. The 
First Board of Trustees consisted of those gentlemen and E. L. Beard, 
W. Y. Horner, S. I. Marston, H. Crowell, O. Mowry, H. Curtner, 
and M. AT. Dixon. The building then erected was designed as only 
a wing to the main portion, to l)e constructed afterwards. It meas- 
ured 106x60 feet. It cont:\ined a dining-room 25x.')0 feet, and a 
large kitchen. The College was opened, under the charge of Mr. 
and Mrs. Harmon, on the 31st of July. 

The Central Pacific Railroad Company, in the mouth of Febru- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 337 

avv, brought suit against the City and County of San Francisco, and 
the County of Alameda and the City of Oakhmd, to determine in 
wliich county their whai^ was situated, and to what corporation they 
More justly compelled to pay taxes. Much discussion followed, to de- 
termine the boundary line between the two counties. The services 
of Surveyor-General Bost, S. J. Clarke, a member of the first Cali- 
fornia Legislature ; Captain E. F. Rogers, of the Coast Sui'vey ; G. 
F. Allardt, Chief Engineer of the Tide Land Survey ; Luis Castro, 
County Surveyor of Alameda, and Col. Coffee were called into requi- 
sition, and it was finally determined that the end of the wharf was 
in San Francisco County, and the County of San Francisco competent 
to collect the taxes from the company. 

At the trial of Wni. Steele, indicted for the murder of Silvia 
Monjes, in Moraga Valley, on the 1st day of July, 1871, which 
came off at San Leandro, on the 6th of March, in the District Court, 
on a change of venue, the jury rendered a verdict of not guilty. 
The prisoner was held on another charge, that of assault with intent 
to murder Joaquin Moraga, on the 13th of April, 1871, when the 
plaintiff had his horse shot under him. The defendant was liberated 
on bail, to appear at the next session of the Court on this charge. 
The case was tried in the April term of the County Court, and the 
prisoner found guilty. He was sentenced to pay a fine of $500, or 
be imprisoned at the x-ate of $2 per day until paid. 

On the 2Gth of March, about 2 o'clock in the morning, there were 
several prolonged shocks of earthquake felt throughout the State, 
which, however, were not sufiiciently severe in this section to awaken 
the people. 

Badger's Grand Central Park, in Brooklyn, was opened to the 
public, for the first time, on the 14th of April of this year, and at 
once become a favorite resort. 

The trial of Eodendo, alias Procopio, one of the worst outlaws 
that ever infested Alameda County, and who was charged with the 
larceny of a cow, at Pleasanton, took place on the 2.5th of April, 
when the prisoner was convicted. His counsel asked till May 3d 
for time to show reasons for asking a new trial. On that day the 
case was argued and application denied. The prisoner was sentenced 
to the State Prison for the term of ten years. 

On the 26th of April, Isaac Yoakum, whose residence was in 
Brooklyn, but who was complicated in land mattei-s in Contra Costa 
(•ounty, was shot near Moraga Valley, by some person in ambush. 



338 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Tlie ball entered his right leg an inch above the knee, but did not 
prove a very serious wound. Two moi^e shots were fii'ed at him, but 
he escaped by throwing himself on the gi'ound and rolling down a 
hill into a gully. He dragged himself along on his hands and one 
knee toward a milk ranch, aiad shouted until he made himself heard 
by the inmates, who conveyed him home. 

A mirage was seen around the bay shore of Alameda and Contra 
Costa Counties, by passengers on board the ferry trains, last Thurs- 
day, May 2d. It appeared as "a duplicating or double banking of 
the shore. A wai-ehouse near Point Isabel was magnified several 
times; the distance was wonderfully shortened, and the old ware- 
hoiise looked like some mighty fortification, almost near enough to 
cast a shadow upon the obsei"ver. Trees, which were mere scrub 
oaks, loomed up like grand old forests, presenting a pei-jjendicular 
bank lo the water front, in places apparently from fifty to seventy- 
five feet in height. As the sun went down the mirage faded out." 
Nothing of such supernatural strangeness had been seen along the 
coast line in many a day. 

The Hon. E. D. Lewelling died in Na})a County, May 2d, aged 3 1 
years. His disease was consumption. He was a native of Iowa, 
but removed to Oregon with his father's family at a veiy early age, 
whence they removed to California, in 18.53. He was educated at 
the College of California. His father was desirous that he should 
prepare himself for tlie i)ractice of medicine and surgery, but his tastes 
did not lead him to pursue that calling, and he became a horticul- 
turist, in whicli i)ursuit he was an enthusiast and achieved "more than 
ordinary success ; probably no man on the Pacific Coast had a better 
scientific and i)i'actical knowledge of his business. Public apprecia- 
tion of his ability in this line was very projjerly shown by his ap- 
pointment by the last Legislatui-e as one of the Commissionei-s under 
what is known as Betge's Forest Bill. lu 1869 he was elected by a 
large majority to represent this county as Assemblyman in the State 
Legislature, and repi^esented the county faitlifully and well. He was 
a young man of high promise and of imimiieachable character ; cor- 
rect in dei)ortment, afiabk; and obliging in business and social intei-- 
course, honest and unswerving in liis convictions. He endeared him- 
self to a large circle of friends, and was held in high esteem by all 
who knew him. He was a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows and of the INIasous, under the auspices of which orders 
he was buried at San Lorenzo on the 4th of May. In the full flush 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 339 

of t^arly manhood, with more than ordinaiy success in the pui-suit 
and attainment of wealth and woi'ldly honors, with a wide fiekl for 
the display of an honest ambition for usefulness in the future, his 
death was particularly sad, and his loss was sincerely mourned by all 
who had the advantage of his acquaintance. 

Elsewhere is given a description of a contest over our western 
boundary line with San Francisco. A similar contest had for some' 
time been going on with San Joaquin and Contra Costa. Early in 
June, of this year, a suit was prosecuteti by this county against San 
Joaquin for the recovery of territory claimed by that county. It was 
decided in favor of Alameda, but the Code gave it back again to our 
eastern neighbor. 

A terrible accident took place near San Leandro on Sunday, 9th 
of June. Vincent Gardoz, Frank Cardoz and Minewell Praes, all 
Portuguese, were at Vincent Cardoz' house, on Chicken lane, just out- 
side the corporation limits, on the day named, engaged in making 
fu-e-crackers. They had a keg of powder for that purpose, and were 
seated around it, together with the Avife and infant child of Vincent 
Cardoz and the son of Frank Cardoz, all being on the porch or piazza 
of the house ; by some means a spark came in contact with the pow- 
der in the keg, which contained about fourteen pounds, and the 
explosion which followed tore the clothes from the bodies of all the 
parties, burned the hair from their heads, tore the nails off the fin- 
gers of one of them, and left them all prostrate. Vincent Cardoz' 
child, aged about ten months, was so badly injured that it died within 
four hours. The explosion took place about noon. Medical aid was 
promptly summoned, but without avail. Those who were pi^esent at 
the scene of the disaster soon after it occurred say the victims pre- 
sented a most heart-rending appearance. A bi'oken pipe, filled with 
tobacco, which had evidently been lit and suddenly extinguished, was 
found near the spot after the explosion ; and the only way the acci- 
dent could be accounted for is that one of the number was trying to 
light his pipe when a spark from it came in contact with the powder. 
The fire-crackers which they were manufacturing were to be used 
two or three weeks after, in some religious observances peculiar to the 
Portuguese. 

On Tuesday morning, July 29 th, about a quarter to one o'clock, a 
fire broke out near the Post-office, in San Leandro, wliich destroyed 
several houses. This was not the worst, for two lives were lost in 
the burnuig. The fix-e broke out in a restaurant belonging to a 



340 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Poi-tuguese, named Manuel Rogers, who lost his life trying to secure 
some treasure, and a man named Manuel Soars, whom he had 
employed as an assistant, and to whose carelessness the fire was 
attributed by the coroner's jury. 

At a convention of the Republican party, of Alameda County, 
held at San Leandro, on the 28tli of July, for the purpose of selecting 
delegates to the Congressional Convention, at Sacramento, the Hon. 
Nathan Pointer, of Alameda, was recommended, after a bitter contest, 
as the choice of the Republipan party of this county. Mr. Porter's 
name was presented at Sacramento, where he seemed to be the 
favorite ; but Mr. H. F. Page, of Placerville, was put forward by 
the friends of the Central Pacific Railroad, and i-eceived the nomina- 
tion. 

Mr. William Gagan, founder of the Oakland News, died at his 
residence in Oakland, on September 14t]i, of congestive chills. 
Deceased was a native of Ireland, and was forty-two years of age. 
Nine years pre\'ious he came to Oakland and started the Weekly 
News, which was Republican in politics, and, for some time after, 
the only paper published in that city. Before coming to Oakland 
Mr. Gragan had resided at Syracuse, New York, where he learned 
the printing business. From Syracuse he went to Pontiac, Illinois, 
where he published a paper till the breaking out of the war. He 
took an active part in the politics of Alameda County, placing him- 
self at once in the front rank of his party. His funeral was largely 
attended, the services of which were conducted by the Rev. L. 
Hamilton. 

A Farmers' Club was organized early tliis year in Oakland, which 
was known by the name of the Oakland Farming, Horticultural and 
Industrial Club. It held many meetings and discussed many 
questions of interest. Professor Ezra S. Carr was President of this 
club, and delivered many useful and interesting addresses at its 
meetings, which were open to the public. Lectures were also deliv- 
ered by some of the members, on practical subjects. The meetings of 
the club continued until the organization of the granges, when most 
of its members joined the Temescal Grange.. 

A Catholic church edifice was erected in Livermore this summer, 
the first building of the kind erected in the town. There were at 
this time only two other churches in the township — the Catholic 
church at Dublin, and the small Protestant church at Pleasanton. 

Early in September a movement was set on foot for the purpose of 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 341 

uniting the towns of Brooklyn and Alameda with the City of Oak- 
land. It made little headway at first, but gradually some of the 
principal property-holders of Brooklyn began to favor it, possessing 
as a leading inducement the prospect of securing the covinty seat in 
case of removal from San Leaudro. During the spring, while the 
Legislature was in session, an effort was made by Hii-am Tubbs and 
others to annex that portion of it origiiially known as Clinton, in 
which effort they were aided by a bill introduced in the Legislature 
by Senator Tompkins. This, however, was a failure. 

The new church at Seminary Park, close to Mills Seminary*, was 
completed in September. It is a very handsome edifice, and had for 
a pastor the Rev. Mr. Lacy, one of the most popular pastors on the 
Pacific Coast, since deceased. 

At a meeting of the Boai-d of Supervisors held on the 7th of Octo- 
ber at San Leandro, a petition was received from a number of the 
inhabitants of Brooklyn, asking that an election be ordered on the 
question of annexing certain territory described in Brooklyn to Oak- 
land. The petition was signed by A. W. Swett, Benj. Haynes, 
James Larue, Hiram Tubbs, W. C. Mason, B. M. Atchinson, Wm. 
C. Glass, J. E. Capell, A. Cannon, L. B. Huff, A. Fonte and John 
Colfer. 

The petition was accompanied by a bond, in accordance with law, 
signed by Benjamin Haynes, L. B. Huff, Jas. Larue and A. Fonte. 
The petition was received, the bond accepted and the election called 
for the 21st of October, to be held in the Town Hall, Brooklyn. 
The officers of election appointed were A. Howard, Judge ; E. J. 
Hector and A. W. -Swett, Inspectors. The polls to be open from 
8 A. M. until sundown. 

The election came off according to the appointment of the Board of 
Supervisoi-s, when there were 186 votes cast in favor of annexation to 
73 against. The arguments in favor of annexation were the pro- 
bability of getting the county seat, as there was a tacit understand- 
ing of that kind ; and the necessity of a closer union on the part of 
the people on this side of the bay to advance the improvement of 
the harbor of San Antonio by the United States Congress, and pro- 
mote the commercial advantages of the estuary towns. The opposi- 
tion came from those who feared increased taxation, and a neglect of 
Brooklyn interests in a consolidated city government. The result 
showed, however, that the more enlarged and enlightened view pre- 
vailed. 



342 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Following the examj)le of Brooklyn, a number of the citizens of 
the incorporated Town of Alameda were inspired to present a peti- 
tion to the Board of Supervisors, at its meeting on the 22d of Octo- 
ber, asking the Board to order an election to submit to the voters of 
that town the question of annexation to the City of Oakland of the 
territory embraced within the corporate limits of said to^^^l. 

On the announcement of the result of the election to the City 
Council of Oakland, at a meeting held on the 4th of November, Mr. 
A. L. Warner presented an ordinance which was read by the Clerk 
as follows : 

An Ordinance approving the annexation of certain territory to the 
City of Oakland, in pursuance of an Act entitled " An Act to 
enable the inhabitants of territory adjacent to any city iu this 
State, to annex the same thereto." Approved, February 1st, 1872. 

Whereas, the Mayor of the City of Oakland has presented to the 
City Council of said city a certificate of the Clerk of the Board of 
Supervisors of the County of Alameda and State of Califoi-nia, 
together with a. certified copy of an ordei- of said Board of Super- 
visors, declaring that at an election held in the Town of Brooklyn in 
said county, on Monday, the 21st day of October, 1872, to determine 
the question of the annexation of certain territory, hereinafter de- 
scribed, to the City of Oakland, that a majority of the votes had 
been cast in favor of such annexation ; and that the same be declai-ed 
as the official canvass ; therefore the City Council of Oakland do 
ordain as follows : 

Section 1. The Council of the City of Oakland does hereby ap- 
prove of the annexation to the City of Oakland of that certain ter- 
i-itory situated in the Township of Brooklyn, in the County of Ala- 
meda and State of California, which said territoiy is bounded and 
described as follows: (Here follows a description of the boundaries 
of the town of Brooklyn.) 

Sec. 2. The City Clerk of the City of Oakland is hereby ordered 
to transmit a certified copy of this preamble and ordinance, imderthe 
corporate seal of the City of Oakland, to the Board of Supervisors of 
the County of Alameda. 

Sec. 3. This ordinance shall take efiect and be in full force on and 
after its approval. E. H. Pardee, 

Passed November 4th, 1872. President of the Council. 

Attest: H. Hillebrand, City Clerk. Approved Nov. 4th, 1872. 
N. W. Spaulding, Mayor. 

The Alameda petitioners were H. F. Shepardson, T. S. Fitch, 
Wm. Horst, Louis Fassking, C. Wilson, L. G. Mead, J. H. Clark, 
Wm. Simpson, B. H. Ramsdell, John D. Crowei", C. R. Rowen, N. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 343 

W. Palmer, F. Coy, F. Bolimei-, Joliii Nobbmau, Wm. Severance 
and William Gibbons. 

The Board, in compliance with the petition, ordered an election to 
allow the people to vote on the proposition to annex Alameda to 
Oakland, and set the 9th day of November as the day for such elec- 
tion, which came off accordingly, when it was found that the people 
of that town did not favor the proposition, it having been rejected by 
a vote of 141 to 47. 

The Hon. Edward Tompkins, Senator from Alameda County in the 
State Legislature, died at his residence in Oakland, on Thursday 
afternoon, the 14th of November, in the 58th year of his age. For 
some months the deceased gentleman had been suffering from ill- 
health, against which he bore up until the 8th of November, the day 
after the inauguration of President Gilman of the State University, 
when he was taken down, and died six days after. His complaint 
was neuralgic affection of the kidneys. He was a native of Oneida 
County, New York. 

The new Board of Supervisors met at San Leandro, on December 
5th. There was no change from the old Board, excepting Mr. E. 
Bigelow taking the place of Mr. Shattuck, for Oakland Township. 
Mr. Case continued to represent Brooklyn ; Mr. Clement, Alameda ; 
Mr. Marlin, Eden ; Mr. Overacker,"Washington; and Mr. Neal, Murray. 

Mr. Timothy Eix, father of 0. A. Eix, and the fii'st postmaster of 
Washington Corners, died at his residence in the latter place, on 
Friday, November 15th, at the advanced age of seventy-seven years. 
Mr. Rix was a remarkable man, and one of the very first settlers on 
the Mission Ranch, in Wasliington Township, having settled there 
as early as 1850. 

The most important county improvement during the year was the 
construction of the Niles bridge, which crosses the Alameda near the 
railroad junction. The breadth of the river bed here is about 400 
feet. The length of the bridge is 414 feet, with twenty-four feet of 
filling in at each end. The roadway is eighteen feet wide, with the 
planking laid transversely. The elevation from the water is twenty 
feet. The framework, which is composed of heavy timbers, rests on 
four tubular abutments and four tubular piers, 134 feet apart. C. 
T. Arnold, of Oakland, was the engineer of this woi-k ; and the 
builders, the Pacific Bridge Company, of Oakland. The cost of the 
structure was $15,000. It was accepted by the Supervisors on the 
10th of October. 



344 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

One of the important events of the year was the laying of the 
corner-stone of the Agricultural College of the State University 
Building, at Berkeley, on the 9th of October. The day was a most 
auspicious one, and a large number of persons were present. 

The legislation of 1872 was as follows : 

An Act incorporating the town of Alameda. 

An Act repealing an Act creating a county tax for the destruction 
of squirrels and gophers. 

An Act to construct a bridge across Alameda creek. 

An Act to construct a bi-idge across San Antonio creek. 

An Act to prevent the propagation of Canada thistles. 

An Act declaring creek at Warm Springs Landing, in Wasliing- 
ton Township, navigable. 

An Act relating to salary of District Attorney. 

An Act legalizing certain Oakland ordinances. 

An Act relating to salaries of certain fixed officers. 

An Act to prevent poaching in Alameda County. 

An Act relating to levy of road and bridge tax. 

An Act relating to duties of Road Commissioners. 

An Act to pay certain claims against road fund of Washington 
Township. 

An Act to enable Trustees of Mountain View Cemetery Association 
to mortgage land. 

An Act to enable Oakland Cotton Manufacturing Company to 
change its name to California Jute Manufacturing Company. 

An Act relating to roads and highways in Alameda County. 

An Act fixing the salaries of certain county officers. 

An Act incorporating the town of San Leaudro. 

An Act restricting the herding of sheep in Alameda County. 

An Act relating to delinquent taxes in Alameda County. 

An Act to authorize the Treasui^er to pay certain claims against 
the county. 

An Act concerning wharves not to apply to Alameda County. 

An Act relating to the City of Oakland. To be exempt fi'om 
taxes for bridges — to provide funds for — Oakland City Wharf fund — 
salary and general funds — ordinances of legalized — exempt from 
road tax — county road tax collected in — to provide funds for school 
depai-tment — tax for improvement of streets— taxes delinquent in- 
exempt from road and bridge tax — special tax — duty of Treasurer. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



345 



Real Estate i 









stSS«5^ 



n 






scarfs " -^ ' 




KOENIG & BRINCKMANN, 

472 Seventh Street, 

Bet Broadway and Washington, (Newland'S Hatel BniMing.) 

^al 1|$tate awl ^^mn |pi^ol|er$, 

Respectfully offer their services to their many friends and the public 

generally. All those entrusting us with their orders can rely 

upon conscientious and prompt execution. 



]i\4:ono3r to X-iOaxi 

IN SUMS TO SUIT, ON APPROVED SECURITY, 
At Ten per cent, per annum. 



346 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUXTY. 

THE O^KL^ND 

Offers Houses for Sale oo lie Iiistalliiieiit Plai. 

FOR TERMS ETC., APPLY AT THE OFFICE, 

Room 12, Wilcox Block, Broadway, Oakland. 
WM. H. JORDAN, Manager. 

REAL_ESTATE! 

T. B. BIGELOW, E. BIGELOW and WM. K. KOWELL, 

900 Broadway, Oakland. 



General Agents for buying and selling property, and 
managing the same. 



At this office can be found some of the most desirable business and residence 

proi^erty in Oakland, Brooklj-n, Berkeley and vicinity, 

on the most favorable terms. 



BUILDING LOTS, 

Upon high rolling ground, only tAvelve minutes' ^Vcalk from the 

Adeline-Street Station. Horse Cars pass near these lots 

every seven minutes. They are rapidly increasing 

in value. JE^CDFL S.A.I_.p:i IB"^ 

414 Seventh Street, OakSand. 



UXDER THE STARS AXD STRIPKS. 311 



CHAPTER XXV. 



THE EVENTS OF 1873. 



Heporf of the United States Ewj'iueers on the Goat Idaiul Terminus 
Proposition — Death of Wm. Mendenhall, a7i old Pioneer of tlie 
Count 1/ — New Sunday Lato — Fattening Cattle at the Beet Sugar 
Mill — Second Year of the County Seat Controversy — An Election 
Ordered — Oakland Wins — Block 22, Brooklyn, Selected — Oakland 
Improves Her Offer — Temporary Buildings Erected in Brooklyn 
— San Leandrds Farewell — An Injunction Asked For— Dismissed 
by the Judges — The County Re-districted into Supervisor Dis- 
tricts, and Oakland Gets Three out of Seven StqysTviscn's — War 
Waged Betioeen the Two Parties — The Legislature to he Again 
Appealed to by Oakland— End of the Second Year's Conflict — 
The Epizootic — Narrow-Gauge Railroad Propositions — An Offer- 
ing of Trees — A County Map Wanted — Death of " Old Umbre " 
— Oyster Culture in Alameda — Barfolo Supelvedct, Gives Himself 
Up, and is Tried and Convicted — A New Trial Granted — May 
Day Festivities — Corner Stone College of Letters Laid — Troubles 
of Settlers hi Murray — Division of the Las Poscitas Rancho — A 
Scotch Company Purchase the Salt Marsh — Progress of Reclama- 
tion — Fourth of July Celebration — Application for a Railroad 
Franchise from Mission San Jose to Oakland — Fire at Pleas- 
anton — A Diminutive Specimen of Humanity — Geo. M. Pinney 
a Candidate for State Senator — Acts as Chairnum oftJie Repub- 
lican Convention — Contract for aCoxinty Map — Conventions and 
Candidates — Result of the Election of 1873 — Judge Nye Delivers 
a Charge Against Bribery — Good Price for Grain — The Uni- 
versity Opens at Berkeley — New Time Table — Half-Hourly Trips 
— Contract for Dredging tlie Creek — County Teachers' Institute 
— Judicial Election — Livermore Grange Organized — Long Court 
Calendar — County Assessor Hunt Arrested — No Commissioner 
of HighvKiys — Death of Rev. Mr. Buel — Trial of Flores — Strike 
Among the Vegetarians — Death of Harry Linden — Snow Storm 



348 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

— Harvest Feast of Temescal Granje — ProjMsition to Remove the 
Supreme Court to Oakland — The Kate Hayes Title Dead — Hon. 
Walter Van Dy]ce,U. S. District Attorney — Alameda Members in 
the Legislature — Amerman's Beapjjortionment Bill — Alameda at 
Last Outstriiis Santa Clara and Sacramento — What the Assessment 
Roll Showed— Financial Condition — Rainfall — Deeds and Mort- 
gages. 

In Januaiy, the Board of United States Engineers for tlie Pacific 
Coast, in their report to Brig. -General Humphries, at "Washington, 
with reference to the adaptability of Goat Island as a railroad ter- 
minus, after discussing the various points at issue, and deciding 
against granting the use of the island for railroad and commercial 
purposes, concluded as follows : 

Having thus reported our views upon the questions submitted to 
us by the Chief of Engineers, we feel at liberty to make a few 
general remai-ks on the subject. Our reasons heretofore urged 
against granting a portion of Yerba Buena Island for railro:id and 
commercial purposes are two-fold. First, the military objection ; 
second, the probable injury to the harbor by the occupation of this 
island for railroad and commei'cial purposes. These are the only 
reasons we have urged against the cession ; we think, however, that 
it can be clearly shown that Yerba Buena Island is in no sense a 
convenient or proper location for the end of a great railroad. First, 
it is not convenient, because it is in the middle of the Bay of San 
Francisco. It has to be approached on one side by a. ferry, and on 
the other by an expensive bridge thi'ee miles long. Both of these 
means of transit must prove very inconvenient. Second, the position 
here will not be economical, because of the cost of a bridge from the 
Oakland shore to the island. The cost of this bridge, resting on 
stone piers, even with a wooden superstructure, would be at least 
$•5,000,000. Now, the interest on this sum, at seven per cent, per 
annum, is $350,000. Add the annual cost of the maintenance of 
bridge, etc., say $20,000, and we have the annual cost of bridge and 
maintenance $370,000. This sum is sufficient to maintain a free 
ferry between San Francisco and Oakland, consisting of three first- 
class ferry boats. The time of transit, whether of passengers or 
freight, from San Francisco to Oakland, would not be greater by ferry 
all the way than it would be by ferry to Yerba Buena Island, and 
thence by bridge to Oakland. But it may be said there is no good 
harbor, with sufficient depth of water on the Oakland shore. This 
is granted ; but a good harbor may be made here, capable of accom- 
modating forty large ships at one time, by dredging out San Antonio 
creek and the approach to it, for one-half the cost of a bridge from 
Oakland to Yerba Buena Island, and if the general government is 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 349 

disposed to assist the railroad in establishing its terniiuus in deep 
water, we believe the better way will be to bring the deep water to 
the Oakland shore. If this be the case, and we think it susceptil)le 
of proof, then the railroads leading eastward from San Francisco 
would have a natural terminus on the mainland, free from the ob- 
jections attaching to a terminus on an island — free from the expense, 
inconvenience and risks of a bridge three miles long- — free from com- 
promising the defense of San Francisco and Oakland, in time of war, 
and free from all danger of injury to the hai'bor by obstructing the 
natural currents, and causing extensive shoals in the Bay of San 
Francisco. Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) G. H. Mendell, 

Major of Engineers. 
Seaforth Stev.art, 

Lieut. -Col. Engineers. 
B. S. Alexander, 
Pres't Board Engineers Pacific Coast. 
John H. Weedon, 
First Lieut. Engineers, IT. S. A. 

Wm. Mendenhall, of Livermore, a respected citizen, and one of 
our oldest pioneers, departed this life on the 12th of January, at the 
advanced age of seventy-eight years and eleven months. Deceased 
was a native of Tennessee, where he resided until he had reached the 
age of nineteen, at which time, the war of 1812 breaking out, he 
entered the service in the Ohio militia, and was present at the battle 
of Queenstown as private under Captain McClennai-d, for which serv- 
ice he was pensioned by the United States Government up to the 
time of his demise. Noble and kind-hearted during his lifetime, in 
death he was mourned by his relatives and many friends as one who 
had bravely done his duty in the battle of life, as well as in the pro- 
tection of his country, and who now is gathered to his fathers to 
enjoy that everlasting peace that is ever the reward of the good and 
the just. Funeral services were conducted by Bev. — — , of San 
Jose, at the residence of his son Martin ; whence the remains were 
conveyed to their last resting-place at " Oak Knoll," this being the 
tirst interment in the new cemetery — the old bui'ial place having 
been abandoned, owing to its unfavoi-able locality. 

A new Sunday law, which required the closing of saloons on the 
Sa])bath, went into force at the beginning of the new year. It was, 
at tirst, generally observed, but, in course of a few months, got to be 
disregarded, and business went on as before. 

Attached to the Beet Sugar Mill, at Alvai\ado, were lai'ge cattle 
sheds where 350 oxen, belonging to Miller & Lux, were fattening. 



350 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

There were two large cattle sheds, some 500 feet long, with a tram- 
way through the centre of each, and on each side of these tramways 
were arranged stalls where the oxen were brought in and securely 
fastened with chain halters, and were usually kept for months, or 
until they became fattened sufficiently for the market. 

SECOND YEAR OF THE COUNTY SEAT CONTROVERSY. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held on the 3d day of 
February, the county seat controversy was reopened. Messrs. W. 
W. Foote and Col. H. Linden appeared before the Board and asked 
that an election be ordered. Col. Linden and E. Gr. Knox were 
sworn and testified to the names on the petition. Supervisor Bigelow 
moved that an election be ordered ; seconded by Mr. Clement. Aj'es 
■ — Bigelow, Clement, Case. Noes- — Mai-lin, Neal, and Overacker. 
Motion declared lost. 

It will be noticed by this vote that mattei-s had assumed an altered 
aspect, since the matter was last brought before the Board. Tlie 
consolidation of Brooklyn with Oakland had changed the vote of 
Mr. Case, and it will be seen the Alameda Supervisor, Mr. Clement, 
changed with him. The supposition that Brooklyn would be the 
part of Oakland selected for the county se?ct in case of removal by a 
vote of the people, was the cause of this. 

The day, however, was near at hand when the Board could no 
longer refuse an election, as Mr. Foote, who was conducting the 
county seat cause for the City of Oakland, had procured an order 
from the Supreme Court, commanding the county authorities to call 
an election. He therefore appeared at the meeting of the Board, 
lield on tlu' 1 7 th day of February, and served on the Chairman a 
certified copy of an order of the Supreme Court, directing a peremp- 
tory writ of mandate in the matter of the county seat removal. 

Supervisor Clement moved that an election lie called for Saturday, 
March 29th, 1873, and that the Clerk be directed to give the proper 
notice of the election. Ayes — Bigelow, Clement, Neal, Overacker, 
and President Case. Noes — None. Not present, Marlin. 

The following election proclamation was the result of this order : 

State op California, ) 

County of Alameda, j 
A petition having hem\ heretofore presented to the Board of Super- 
visors of the County of Alameda, signed by more than thirteen 
hundred and fifty-five qualified electoi-s of said county, praying the 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 351 

Board of Su}Jel■^dsors to order an election, to be held t(^ determine 
the question of removing the county seat of Ahimeda County from 
the place where it is now fixed by hiw, and to determhie to wliat 
place it shall be removed, And it having been determined and 
established satisfactorily, and it ajjpearing to the Board tliat said peti- 
tion does contain tlie requisite number of names of qualified electors, 
and is in all respects in compliance and conformity with law, it is 
therefore ordered by the Board that a special election be held in the 
County of Alameda, on Saturday, March 29 th, 1873, to determine 
whether or not the county seat of Alameda County shall be removed 
from the town of San Leandro, in Alameda County, the place where 
the same is at present located by law, and to what place tlie same 
shall be removed. Said election to be held and conducted, and the 
returns made in all respects in the manner prescribed by law for gen- 
eral elections in said county. 

At such electiori each elector must vote for the place in the County 
of Alameda which he prefers as the seat of justice, plainly designat- 
ing it in his ballot. And it is further ordered by the Board that, at 
such election, the election precincts, polling places and officers of elec- 
tion of each precinct in said county shall be as follows : [Here fol- 
lows the usual description of places constituting election precincts, 
polling places, oflieers of election, etc.] 

By order of the Board of Supervisors. 

J. V. B. Goodrich, 
Clerk of the Board of Supervisors of Alameda County. 
By C. G. Eeed, Deputy Clerk. 

San Leandro, Feb. 2.5, 1873. 

The result of the election was looked upon as a foregone conclu- 
sion, as it had become apparent that a majority of the electors of 
Brooklyn would favor removal, under the new aspect of aftairs, and 
probably a majority of those of Alameda. The contest was kept up, 
however, with spii'it, until the day of election ; and, although it 
looked like facing the inevitable, the San Leandrons were not willing 
to give up the battle or slacken their efforts. They had an idea that 
there was a serious breach in the Oakland camp, on account of the 
choice of location, which would militate in their favor ; and there is 
no doubt that, fo]- a time, the friends of the City Hall and the friends 
of the Plaza location carried on a pi-etty warm contest ; it was, thei'e- 
foi-e, they hoped, among the possibilities that a breach would redound 
to the advantage of the bucolic town. Brooklyn, too, was expectant, 
supported by a large number of citizens, but she put no ticket in the 
field, the result of a compromise with the Oaklanders, .who had 
threatened to place " Oakland Township " on their ballots instead of 
" Oakland City," which latter included Brooklyn as well as the old 



352 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

section of the city. To make the election more certain, however, a 
nnmber of Oakland citizens went before the City Conncil with the 
proposition embodied in the following resolution, wliich was read, and, 
after some discussion, in which the Council was assured by promi- 
nent citizens that money sufficient to fulfil the promises in the reso- 
lution should be placed at the disposal of the Council, it was adopted : 

" That in case the people of the county vote for the removal of the 
county seat, tlie Council hereby tender the county the free use of the 
unoccupied portion of the City Hall, the same to be furnished by the 
Council, within sixty days after notice by the Supervisors. And 
that whene-\^er the Supervisors deem it expedient to erect buildings, 
the Council will then dedicate public squares on Broadway for county 
purposes. And, in the meantime, to secure the county records, the 
Council will cause to be erected a fire-proof building adjoining the 
City Hall, for the use of the county, free of charge. And that we 
are opposed to a division of the county." 

The following petition, signed by six hundred persons, was here 
read : 

To THE Honorable, the City Council of the City of Oakland: 

We, the undersigned, residents and property-holders in the city of 
Oakland, respectfully ask that your honorable body offer to the Board 
of Supervisors of Alameda County, for temporary county purposes, 
for such length of time as the said Board may deem proper to meet, 
the use of the City Hall of said city, and as much land immediately 
adjacent thereto belonging to said city as may be required for the 
erection of such other buildings as may be found necessary to the pro- 
per and safe management of county affairs. Also, that your honor- 
able body offer to the said Board the two plazas fronting on Bi'oad- 
way, between Fourth and Fifth streets, in said city, as permanent 
location for such county buildings as said Board m;iy in future see fit 
to erect thereon. 

On the other side it was argued that this offer was of no avail — that 
the finishing of the City Hall would only be for the benefit of Oak- 
land — ^that the latter had no authority or power to offer the plazas 
mentioned — that they were bestowed as a gift for certain specific pur- 
poses, from which they could not be diverted. Another aigumeut 
was that in case of remo-\-al very costly buildings would have to be 
erected to conform with the growing importance of the city of Oak- 
land, at the expense of the county at large. 

The election took place on the day designated (April :29th), with 
the following result, wliicli it will be seen was largely on the side of 
the citv: 



Precints. 




Oak- 
land. 


Sun 
Leandro. 


Scatter- 
ing. 


Alameda, 


- 


- 53 


83 




Brooklyn, 




- 293 


109 


1 


Oiikland Precinct No. 


1, 


- 727 


15 





Oakland Precinct No. 


2 


- G43 


5 





Oakland Precinct No. 


3,' 


- 247 


9 


1 


Temescal, - - . 




- 167 


4 





Ban Leandro, 


_ 


- 7 


157 





Haywards, 




2 


229 





San Lorenzo, 


. 


- 3 


45 


50 


Mission San Jose, 




- 16 


50 


11 


Centreville, - 


. 


- 18 


126 





Alvarado, 




- 12 


99 


4 


Pleasanton, - 


_ 


- 19 


88 


17 


Livermore, 




- 45 


134 


25 


Altamont, - 


. 


2 


27 


— 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 353 

Total. 

136 
403 

742 

648 

257 

171 

164 

231 

78 

77 

144 

115 

124 

204 

29 

Totals, - - - 2,254 1,180 89 3,523 

Total vote for Oakland City, - - . . 2,254 

Total vote against Oakland City, - - - - 1,269 

Majority for Oakland City, - - _ - 985 

In compliance with the result stated, the Board of Supervisors 
visited Oakland on the 5th day of April, to make choice of the de- 
sired location. Three places were suggested and ui-ged, viz. : the City 
Hall, the Broadway plazas, and the old town of Brooklyn, or East 
Oakland. At the latter place it was understood that Independence 
Square was available, or in the failure of that, the Larue estate would 
donate a suitable block for county seat proposes. 

The members of the Board were accompanied by several prominent 
tax-payers from the various townships, and after viewing the city and 
having conversed with the various deputations that waited upon 
them, including Mayor Spaulding, Councilman Ferris, Ex-Su})erA-isor 
Shattuck, Councilman Larue, Judge Glascock, etc., they adjournetl to 
meet on the following Monday at San Leandro, when it was under- 
stood they would determine their choice. 

After the noon i-ecess the matter was taken up. Councilman La- 
rue, on iDehalf of the executors of the Larue estate and the people of 
Brooklyn, handed in an offer donatmg for county piu-jioses a certain 
block of land on Adams Avenue, mmibered 22 on the map of the 
old town of San Antonio, and an offer of $10,000 in coin, accompa- 
nied by properly executed bonds. 

23 



354 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Judge Glascock appeared on behalf of the City Council of Oak 
land, and read to the Board the resolutions offering to the county the ■ 
use of the iipper portion of the City Hall so long as they might re- 
quire the same, and promising to place it in a fit condition for recep- 
tion. The resolution also promised the erection of a fire-proof Hall 
of Records on the City Hall property, free of charge, and the dona- 
tion in addition of two blocks of land known as the Broadway plazas, 
the whole or part of which to be at the disposal of the county. He 
stated that there were gentlemen present. Mayor Spaulding and 
others, who would give their bonds in the sum of $50,000 as a guar- 
antee that these ofiers would be faithfully carried out. 

Mr. Leonidas E. Pratt, attorney of San Francisco, appeared on 
behalf of the Brooklyn people, and stated that the ofier of the exec- 
utors of the Larue estate and the gentlemen who had signed their 
names to the bond, viz : Messrs. A. "W. Swett, F. Schimmelpfennig, 
Crist & Rued, Charles Derby, Henry Hampel, J. F. Keller, Antonio 
Fonte, F. A. Rogers and Duncan Cameron, was a substantial one, 
about which there need be no fear of litigation or trouble ; on the 
contraiy, he declared the ofier of the Oakland City Council an empty 
one, inasmuch as the city had no title to the plazas nor any power to 
divert the city pi'operty to any other use than that for which it was 
originally intended. President Case stated that the Board having 
heard all the propositions that were made, were now prepared to make 
a choice. 

Mr. Elijah Bigelow, Supervisor from Oakland, thought time should 
be taken for further consideration, and moved that the matter be 
Jaid over for one week. 

;Supervisor Clement, of Alameda, proposed a resolution accepting 
the ofier of the executors of the Larue estate on Adams street, 
donating block No. 22, of the late town of Brooklyn. The resolu- 
tion was seconded by Supervisor Marlin, of Eden, and on a vote 
being taken it was found there were five out of six of the Su])ervisors 
in favor of it, and but one — Mr. Bigelow— against it. 

The permanent seat of Alameda County was therefore declared t© 
be located at the place selected, which was within a few blocks of 
the easterly limits of the city, and over a mile from the City Hall. 

There was great interest evinced in the proceedings, and as the 
friends of Brooklyn were largely in the ascendant, the result was 
received with cheers and other signs of satisfaction. 

The news flew at once through San Leandro, and was satisfactorily 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRITRS. 3.").j 

received throiigliout the siii-rouiiding country. Of course, there was 
much exultation in Brooklyn. In Oakland, however, the news was 
received with the utmost indignation, and " curses, loud and deep," 
were heard on every side. Talk of an " injunction " was at once set 
in circulation, and bets were freely offered that the county seat 
would not be two years in the locality selected. 

The Supervisors at once advei'tised for tenders for a plan of a hall 
of records, the cost of which Avas not to exceed $10,000. In the 
meantime the citizens of Brooklyn set to work to provide temporary 
accommodations for the county officers, and with that view let a con- 
tract to Mr. George W. Babcock, for the erection of a building on a 
block adjoining that which had been accepted by the Supervisors. 

There was another meeting of the Board, at San Leandro, on the 
15th of April. After the transaction of some unimportant business, 
the county seat matter came up for rehearing. The Chair announced 
that petitions were in order. Coimcilman B. F. Ferris came forward, 
and stating that he was the Chairman of a Special Committee, ap- 
pointed on the previovis evening by the Oakland City Council to wait 
upon the Board 2)resent, and read the following bond : 

Know all men by these presents, that we, the undersigned, under- 
take and promise and hereby guarantee that the City of Oakland will 
faithfully carry out all that is expressed and contained in the resol- 
utions hereunto annexed : 

RESOLUTIONS. 

In the matter of furnishing the county with suitable buildings for 
county goverment, in case of removal of the county seat to Oakland, 
the City Council of the city of Oakland, at a regular meeting held 
Monday evening, March 10th, unanimously passed the following re- 
solutions : 

Iiemlmd, That in case the people of the County of Alameda, at the 
approaching election, vote for the removal of the county seat from 
San Leandro to the city of Oakland, the City Council of the city of 
Oakland do hereby tender to the county of Alameda the free use of 
the unoccupied portion of the City Hall, the same to be finished by 
the City Council, so as to accommodate the county government, within 
sixty days after notice from the Board of Supervisors of their accep- 
tance, for such time as the Board of Supervisors of said county may 
desire ; and that whenever the Board of Supervisors deem it expedient 
to erect buildings for county seat purposes, the City Council will 
cause, free of cost to said county, to be dedicated for such purposes, 
the public squares, situated upon Broadway in said city, usually 
•known as Washington and Franklin Squares, and also known as the 
plazas; and in the meantime, and for the purposes of securing the 



356 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



public records, the City Council will cause to be erected, free of cost 
to said county, a good and sufficient fire-proof building upon a lot ad- 
joining the City Hall, for the use of the county, free of charge, so 
long as the county may desire the use of the same for said purposes. 
4 H. HiLLEBRAND, City Clerk. 

B. F. Ferris, Wm. H. Glascock, P. S. Wilcox, James De Fremery, 
Mack Webber, Samuel Merritt, John Scott, Benjamin Akerly, Isi'ael 
Knox, F. K. Shattuck, A. C. Henry, F. Warner, Henry Diirant, 
Henry Rodgers, Gustave Touchard. 

Mr. Ferris also read a resolution passed by the City Council Mon- 
day evening, April 13th, to build a Recorder's office, fire-proof 
throughout, free of expense to the county, and to cost not less than 
$20,000. 

He also presented the following petition from the citizens of 
Washington Township : 

To the Hon. Board of Supervisors of Alameda County : 

The undersigned citizens of Washington Township respectful h'- 
request that you will reconsider your action in locating the county 
seat of Alameda County on Block 22, in the Town of Brooklyn, for 
three reasons : 

1st. We believe that the location selected is not a desirable one. 

2d. In our opinion it does not conform to the intentions of the 
majoi-ity as expressed in the recent election. 

3d. We believe that it is not for the best interests of the county 
financially. 

Samuel Marston, H. Crowell, J. C. Palmer, E. L. Beard, John ]M. 
Horner, Joseph Hirsch, A. O. Rix, Edward Rix, Ehrman & Bach- 
man, Stephen Murphy, N. Bergman, C. W. F. Bergman, J. L. Lang, 
Alfred K. Henry, Isaac L. Lang, Michael Rogan, T. W. Millard, H. 
M. Holland, M. Sigrist, Louis Sigrist, Henry Muller, Peter Wer- 
ringer, Geo. W. Cook, E. F. Palmer, Plutarco Vallejo, Joseph Her- 
bert, M. M. Smith, G. M. Walters, W. H. Mack, R. Threlfall, R. 
Blacow, W. Blacow, Peter Campbell, J. S. Marston, Lorenzo G. 
Yates, R. B. Hull, W. F. B. LjTich, Jacob Salz, S. Salz, Joseph 
Horner, John Lo-wi-ie, W. J. Egleston, Jos. McKeown, August May, 
August Heger, O. P. Tuller, J. J. Stokes. 

The bond, resolutions and petition presented by Mr. Ferris were 
laid on the table. 

Mr. Estudillo sent in a statement, setting forth that the Estudillo 
family had, on the 30th day of December, 1854, deeded to Alameda 
County, as a site for a Court-house, so long as the county seat should 
I'emain at San Leandro, the grounds on which the Court-house stood. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 357 



I requesting tlie Supervisors to execute a quit-claim deed of said 
olock of land back to the Estudillo family. 

Tlie document was referred to the Judiciary Committee and the 
District Attorney. 

Several plans for the Hall of Records were opened, and a motion 
made to adopt the plans of Mr. Bugbee. 

Mr. Goodrich, County Auditor, appeared before the Board, and 
asked if he had any right to issue warrants to pay for plans, if 
adopted 1 

The District Attorney, Mr. Moore, being called to give an opinion 
in the case, said he thought there was no power in the Board to 
enable them to erect county buildings without first receiving 
authority to levy a tax. A decision had been made in Monterey 
County, in support of this view of the case. 

The subject was finally referred to the Ordinance and Judiciary 
Committee, to be reported upon at the next meeting of the Board. 

A meeting of the Board was held on the 20th of April, when 
Su})ervisor Clement, of the Ordinance Committee, reported that they 
had considered the question of the authority of the Board to order 
the payment of the premiums ofliered for plans and specifications for 
a Hall of Recoi'ds, and reported " that the Board had sufficient power 
under the law to order the said payment, and it is its duty to do so." 

The Board adopted the plans of S. C. Bugbee & Son for the Hall 
of Records, and ordered the clerk to advertise for bids for the Hall 
of Records, bids to be received up to Friday, April 25th. The adver- 
tisement was ordered published in the San Francisco Bulletin and 
Oakland Evening Torchlight. 

S. C. Bugbee & Son here presented their bill of $250 for the plans 
and specifications for the Hall of Records, which was allowed. Mr. 
Bugbee took the bill to the auditor, Mr. Goodrich, who refused to 
audit it. 

"When this fact was reported to the Board, Clement said that, as 
the County Auditor had refused to issue the warrant, he wouki move 
that the chairman be authorized to employ counsel in the matter, as 
the County Auditor had been advised in his course by the District 
Attorney. The motion was adopted. 

On the 25th of April a contract was awarded to Geo. W. Babcock 
for the erection of a Hall of Records, to cost $18,240, and a Build- 
ing Committee was appointed. 

The next meeting of the Board took place on the 28th of April. 



358 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Before the Board had faMy got to work, Under Sheriif P. R. Borein 
came into the room and served a complaint, made by Harry Linden, 
upon President Case, and upon him and each member present a copy 
of an injunction granted by Jiidge Samuel Bell McKee of the Third 
District Court, restraining the Board from entering, into any contract 
for the erection of any buildings for county purposes, or for the pay- 
ment of any bills against the county for such purposes. Summons 
were at the same time served on them requiring them to answer the 
complaint within ten days. 

The complaint averred that the site selected by the Board of Svi- 
pervisors was not witliin the City of Oakland ; that the location was 
procured by the votes and influence of President Case, who was 
charged with being interested in the adjacent property ; that the de- 
fendants had advertised for one week for proposals for the erection of 
a County Recorder's office upon said block, which would involve an 
expenditure of about $18,240; that such expenditures would be an 
incumbrance upon the tax -payers of the county, and that no author- 
ity of law existed for such expenditure ; that the Board had not yet 
acquired a title to the property, and that unless the Svipervisors were 
restrained from proceeding with their proposed exjienditui^e, great em- 
barrassment would result to the tax-payers and to the County. The 
complaint conchided by praying that the defendants might be enjoined 
from entering into any contract for the erection of a Hall of Records 
or other county buildings, and that said injunction might be made 
perpetual. 

The complaint was signed by Haight and Sawyer, plaintiff's attor- 
neys. 

After the complaint was served, the Board adjourned, without 
proceeding any further. It apjjears that while the injunction had 
the effect of sto])ping the erection of the proposed buildings on 
Block 22, it did not prevent the work being proceeded with. 
Instead of building on the block donated to the county, the adjoin- 
ing Block 21 had been purchased by the Brooklyn Joint Stock Com- 
pany, on which the erection of the Hall of Records was at once 
proceeded with. A Court-house was also commenced on the same 
block, which was to embrace all the necessary county offices. This 
was the undertaking of the Brooklyn company, whose names have 
been already given. 

By this proceeding the purpose of the injunction was avoided and 
the county seat fixed at Brooklyn. It looked now as if nothing but 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 359 

an Act of the Legislature could prevent its permanent location there, 
objectional as it was. 

On the 20th of May a deed to Block 22 was presented by the 
Larue estate to the Board and was referred to the District Attorney 
to report on the title. On the 10th of June the District Attorney 
reported favorably upon the same. 

James Larue and others made a proposition to the Board, offering 
the use of the wooden building lately erected on Block 21 for such 
a time as the Board may wish, at monthly rental of one dollar. 
■ Also, a proposition offering the use of the new Hall of Records, at a 
monthly I'ental of $75. The propositions wei-e accepted, and the 
District Attorney directed to draw leases, conditioned that the 
county lease said property for one year, with the privilege of two — 
either party to vacate the lease upon notice of three months. 

On Tuesday, June 17th, the Board adopted the following ordei-, 
locating the county seat in Block No. 21 : 

Whereas this Board did heretofore, by resolution duly passed and 
entered, in pursuance of law, designate the City of Oakland, in the 
County of Alameda, State of California, as the county seat and seat 
of justice of said county, from and after the 25th day of June, A. D. 
1873 ; now be it further resolved and ordered, that the wood and 
brick buildings erected and being finished upon Block 21, of the late 
Town of Brooklyn (now Oakland), in said county, together with the 
land upon which they stand, is, and shall be from and after said 25th 
day of June, 1873, and until the further order of this Board, the 
county seat and Court-house of said county, and the abiding place of 
all the offices and records of said county. 

The following order was passed locating the County Jail : It 
having been ordered by this Board that the seat of justice be from 
June 25th, 1873, at the City of Oakland, in this county, and it 
appearing to the Board that no adequate facilities exist in said city 
for the safe keeping and detention of prisoners and persons accused 
of crime, it is resolved and so ordered, that until the further order 
and action of this Board, the Jail of said county be and remain in 
the Town of San Leandro, and as at present used. 

The closing scene was enacted, and the last meeting of the Board 
held in San Leandro adjourned. The old Court-house was stripped 
of its precious contents, the recoi'ds removed from their hall, and on 
the 26th the place was deserted, the prisoners in the jail alone re- 
maining. Thus, in spite of them, was consummated an act against 
which the people of San Leandx-o and surrounding district persist- 



360 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



eutly and strenuously battled for two years, but the fates and neces- 
sities of the times, the demands of progi-ess, were against them. A 
San Leandro poet expressed his grief in the following doggerel 
rhymes : 

Farewell to the Hall — ^the Temple Hall, 

Reared for Justice cause ; 
Where oft has resounded the call 

For mercy, and freedom's laws. 

Where Baker, the soldier eloquent, 
And Williams, erratic, but true, 
And Stanley, the good and the prudent. 



Here Foote and Weller contended, 

McDougall, too, having his say, 
What mighty shades surround you 

Deserted Hall of to-day. 

Kocked by the earthquake shake. 

Its people stood by the corse, 
And vv^e may not forget for thy sake. 

Here was won the fame of Morse. 

Shades of the mighty departed, 
• Spirits of the good and true, 
Curse not those who so acted, 

By fraud for the destruction of you. 

Grant as the New Halls rise. 

That they shall be good and true, 
And Mercy sharing in Justice cause. 

May yet atone for the great loss of you. 

On the morning of the 26th of June the records and seals of the 
Courts were taken to Brooklyn, then beginning to be well known as 
East Oakland, and carefully deposited in their new resting place. 
The county officers took formal possession of their new quarters the 
same day, there to remain until some new action of the Corirts or 
the Legislature might cause another disturbance. As it was, it 
seemed as if Brooklyn had it ; but tenures are uncertain in young 
and rapidly changing communities. The temporary buildings ei-ected 
by the Brooklyn people, althougli hastily constructed, w-ere convenient 
and substantial. The buildings were situated on Block 21, cornier of 
Fourteenth street and Twentieth avenue. The main building wtis a 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRITES. 361 

two-story frame structure. lu it -were situated the Coui-t-room, 
Supervisors' room, SherilT's, County Judge's, County Superintendent's, 
Auditor's, Tax Collector's, and County Attorney's oltices. The rooms 
were well lighted, the ceilings high, and the ventilation good. Ample 
})rovision for lighting and heating had been made. The other build- 
ing was of brick, and only one story high, but furnished with iron 
shutters. Here were situated the Hall of Records, the Treasurer's, 
and the Clerk's offices. 

The ground was elevated and tlie view fhie, commanding a good 
deal of the surrounding countiy ; but in close proximity were a 
slaughtei'-house and a couple of tanneries, whose unpleasant odors, 
wafted to the seat of justice on the prevailing breeze, did not agree 
witli the olfactory nerves of the fastidious or fault-finding Oaklander, 
and consequently caused the refractory County Fathei's to be visited 
with no small amount of condemnation and reproach for the mal- 
odorous character of theii- choice of location. 

The de)i02iernent was not yet, however, at hand. The comity seat 
had been fixed in Brooklyn, but was it going to rest there 1 What 
was Oakland, so frequently bafiled, going to do further about 
it ] Thoroughly aroused, with her feelings outraged, she was not 
disposed to submit and quietly yield the fruits of her hard-fought 
fight to her deceitful sister. The war was to be continued and the 
battle fought unto final victory or irretrievable defeat. 

The Supervisors held their firf?t meeting in the new building -on the 
5th of July, and the County Court was held there for the first time 
on the 7th. Another meeting of the Supervisors was held on the 
15th, when considerable discussion was had over the order of the 
previous meeting, accepting the deed to Block 22. The doubt was 
suggested that the title in fee simple still rested in the grantor, 
Larue, who did not propose to divest himself of the right to the land 
should the county neglect or be unable to build thereon. K the title 
is not in the county, any pei'son objecting to buildings being put 
ujjon the land would have good cause for an injunction. On the 
other hand, should the fee simple of the land be vested in the 
county and the county not build, Mr. Larue would be the loser of 
his land. As the deed had been recorded and the acceptance of it 
on the minutes of the Boai-d, it was decided to make no change 
in the minutes, but let the matter stand for further consideration. 

The opinion of the Supreme Court on the application for an 
injunction was anxiously looked for, as the Supervisors were desii-ous 



362 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

of erecting a jail on Block 22, and those wlio were unfavorable to 
the location were in hopes of obtaining a restraining order. The 
application was filed on July 18th, and the decision was published 
July 19th. After mentioning the reasons given for demanding 
a temporary injunction, the decision was given as follows : 

Waving the question of whether the action is properly brought by 
the plaintiff and against the defendants, withoiit making the county 
by name a party thereto, we are satisfied that the complaint states no 
cause of action. It is settled in this State that no order made by 
the Board of Supervisors is valid or binding unless it is ordered by 
law. No claim against a county can be allowed unless it be legally 
chargeable to the county ; and if claims not legally chargeable to the 
county are allowed, neither the allowance nor the warrants drawn 
thei-efor create any legal liabilities. (People vs. Supeiwisors of El 
Dorado County, 11 Cal., 170; Branch Turnpike Company v^. Super- 
visors of Yuba County, 13 Cal., 190; Trinity County vs. McCam- 
mon, 25 Cal, 117.) 

If, therefore, it be true, as alleged, that no authority of law exists 
for the expenditure proposed, and neither the defendants nor the 
, Board of Supervisors are authorized by law to make provision for the 
payment of any claim for or on account of the work proposed, it 
must follow, as a consequence, that by no legal possibility can the 
plaiiitifi" or the other tax-payers of the county be injui-ed b}' the .sxip- 
posed illegal acts of the defendants. The expenditure, if made, 
would, in that event, be no charge upon the j^laintifi" 's property, and 
he has, therefore, no interest in the question presented. If' illegal 
claims are allowed by the Boai'd against the county, it will he the 
duty of the Auditor to refuse to draw wai-rants therefor ; and if war- 
rants are drawn it will then be the duty of the Treasurer to refuse to 
pay them. The presumption is that these officers will faithfully dis- 
charge their duty in the premises. 

Order reversed ; remittitur to issue forthwith. 

We concur : Belchek, J. 

Wallace, C. J. 
Ehodes, J. 

Of the five Supreme Judges, at this time, two (Messrs. Crockett 
and Niles) were residents of the contending districts — Judge Crock- 
ett, of Brooklyn, and Judge Niles, of Oakland — and, as will be seen, 
they took no part in the decision, lest they might be accused of prej- 
udice or favor. The decision determined nothing, only that defend- 
ants could not be restrained from building. 

On the 28th of July the Board, feeling the decision to be in their 
favor, authorized the clerk to advertise for plans and s})ecifications 
for a County Jail, to cost not exceeding $50,000, to be erected on 
Block 22, the j^lans to be presented to the Board August 2d, and a 



UNDER THE STARS A\D STRIPES. 3G3 

premium of $300 to be paid to the architect whose })huis wuuhl be 
accepted. 

On the 6th of August the Board accepted tlie bid of CI. W. 15; ib- 
cock for building the proposed jail for $32,066, payment to be made 
in county warrants. At the same time James Larue presented a 
new deed for Block 22, which was accepted, and the building of a 
jail, the materials of whicli were brick, stone and iron, wa.s at once 
proceeded with. 

Up to this time the Board stood five to one in voting upon this 
vexed question. The Civil Code had provided for dividing counties 
into supervisor districts, according to population, and this required 
the I'e-arrangement of the districts in this county so as to take one 
supervisor from the country districts and give Oakland Township 
three instead of one, as hei-etofore. This was done prior to the Sep- 
tember election, when Oakland elected three super\isors, against four 
from the rest of the county, placing her in a mi;ch more improved 
and just position. It was clear that this advantage would enable her 
to carry on the fight with better results than before. 

The new districts and the persons elected to serve them were as 
follows : 

District No. 1 (Murray Township), J. A. Neal. District No. 2 
(Washington Township), H. Overacker. District No. 3 (Eden 
Township), J. B. Marliu. District No. 4 (Brookl;)Ti and Alameda 
Townships), Isham Case. District No. 5 (Precinct No. 1, Oakland), 
W. B. Hardy. District No. 6 (Precinct No. 2, Oakland), P. S. 
Wilcox. District No. 7 (Oakland Point and Temescal), F. K. 
Shattuck. 

All the " Modocs," as the country members of the old Board were 
called by some of the Oakland papei-s, were re-elected, and on the 
county seat question the new Board stood, on a vote, four to three. 
Whatever was the cohesive power, the old members continued to ad- 
here to their ground and stick to each other through every vicissi- 
tude, and lively times were experienced within the walls of the 
Board-room. 

The new Board met for the first time on the 6tli of October, and 
things immediately became heated. There was a contest over the 
chairmanship, and some of the members allowed themselves to be 
betrayed into undue warmth of language. Finally Case, the old 
chairman, and the leader of the Brooklyn party, was elected by a 
strict sectional vote of four to three. 



364 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

At the ]iext meeting of tlie Board, on the 13th of October, the 
bill of Gr. W. Babcock, for " labor and material furnished for County 
Jail as per contract," amounting to §5,000, was taken up, not ap- 
proved by the Finance Committee. A motion to lay it on the table 
was lost, and there ensued a good deal of word-sparring between 
Messrs. Case and Wilcox, but eventually a motion to allow the bill 
was carried. 

Mr. Shattuck moved that P. S. Wilcox, J. B. Marlin, and W. B. 
Hardy be appointed a Committee to ascertain if a more suitable loca- 
tion could be secured for the county buildings. He said it had been 
suggested that a site could be selected in the neighborhood of Tubbs' 
Hotel, and he had been informed that property could be secured for 
county buildings on satisfactory tei-ms. Marlin moved that Case be 
added to the Committee, which was cai-ried. 

Mr. Wilcox offered a resolution reqnii-ing that the District Attor- 
ney be instructed to ascertain if an injunction could not be got out 
against the building of the County Jail on Block 22. The motion 
was lost on the usxxal vote of four to three. 

On the 24th of November a proposition was made to the Board 
by T. A. Mudge, agent, offering them the G-hirardelli block, near 
Lake Merritt, for $16,000, and subsequently Mr. Wilcox offered a 
resolution to look into the matter of purchasing the Ghirardelli blocks, 
and to ascertain the best terms upon which they could be procured 
by the county. The resolution was lost. There were frequent squab- 
bles among the members about the payment of the bills of the con- 
tractor for the jail building, and at the end of the year the passions 
invoked in the county seat contest were far from being set at rest. 

That another effort would be made to obtain relief from the Leg- 
islatui-e was evident, but with what success remains to be seen, as 
here will have to be closed the narrativ-e of the second year's contest 
over the location of the county seat of Alameda County. 



The horse distemper, known as tlie epizootic, made its appearance 
liere in March and ran its course, horses having been generally 
affected by it. 

Surveying parties Avere in the tiold in Contra Costa County this 
spring, surveying proposed narrow-gauge railroad routes from Mar- 
tinez to Dublin, and from Walnut Creek to Oakland. 

A fruit-drying and preserving association was formed in San Lo- 



UNDER THE STARS AXO STRIPES. 365 

renzo by a numljer of the residents of the locality in March. The 
members of the incorporation were Captain Roberts, E. T. Crane, 
John Marlin, Wm. Meek, E. Lewelling, C. O. Hathaway, Silas Mc- 
Clure, W. C. Blackwood, Lonis Knox, J. L. Shimun, Jos. Graham. 
W. C. Blackwood was sent east for machinery to establisli tlie busi- 
ness, and was the tii'st to introduce the Alden process on this coast. 

The following offer was made to the Board of Supervisors at their 
March meeting : 

Gentlemen : — The undersigned having a large number of young 
trees on hand at Fitchburg, Alameda County, offers from two to four 
thousand as a gift to the county, provided your Honorable Board will 
have them taken up and transplanted on the two sides of the county 
road between San Antonio and San Leandro — two rows on each side 
of the road. , Respectfully, Henry S. Fitch. 

It does not appear that this offer was acted upon, or that any notice 
was taken of it, although a liberal one, and the subject of planting the 
county road with trees had been contemplated by the Board as one of 
the imjirovements to be inaugurated upon that thoroughfare. 

At the same meeting appeared Mr. W. F. Boardma,n, who made 
■some remarks on the subject of a county map. He recommended that 
the Boai-d have the proposed county map made in two pai-ts, one re- 
presenting Oakland, Alameda and Brooklyn Townships, on a scale of 
ten' chains to an inch, and the other representing Eden, Washington 
and Murray Townships, on a scale of twenty chains to the inch. He 
also informed the Board that it would take fully a year to make a 
suitable map of the county, and that it would cost from five to six 
thousand dollars. Mr. Boardman showed to the Board a beautiful 
map representing San Mateo County, which was the same style as he 
recommended for this county. 

The proposition to build a narrow-gauge railroad from Oakland to 
Walnut Creek, in Contra Costa Coiuity, engaged a good deal of atten- 
tion this year. The farmers of Contra Costa were very much alive 
to the importance of the enterprise, but nothing has yet been done in 
the matter, although there was much earnestness shown in the matter 
then, and a powerful company to carry out such an enterprise was 
organized in 1875. 

At a meeting held in Walnut Creek on the 2 2d of March, W. L. 
Boiirdman, for the engineers, made a verbal report, which eml:iraced 
-the following facts : That they had made a preliminary survey of the 



366 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

road from Oakland over the hills ; that they had surveyed several 
routes, either of which they found practicable ; but the best i-oute 
was by way of Berkeley. They commenced the survey at the west 
side of the hills, ab )ut five miles from Oakland, ascending the moun- 
tain with a grade of one hundred and fifty feet to the mile, to an alti- 
tude of about eight hundred feet ; thence, by running a tunnel near 
the Berkeley House, two thousand five hundred feet, they commenced 
the descent on the eastern side of the i-ange, down by Heuston's, 
with a grade of one hundred feet to the mile, with another short tun- ' 
nel of two hundred feet, making a gradual descent to Lafayette and 
Walnut Creek — distance, nineteen miles. The cost will not exceed 
$15,000 per mile, complete, in running order, thus bringing Walnut 
Creek within thirty minutes of Oakland. An average engine, of 
twenty-seven tons weight, will take one hundred and twenty-three 
tons over the proposed road at a good speed. There are no curves on 
the line of less than eight or ten degrees. The tunnel can be made 
shorter by giving the road a greater grade. The tunnel will proba- 
bly cost $40,000. He stated that, in making the surveys, they had 
found the very best indications of coal, and had no doubt but that 
the building of the road would develop some of the best coal mines 
in the State. 

The following resolutions were passed : 

Resolved, That we, the Farmers' Club of Contra Costa County, are 
in favor of building the railroad from tide Avater at Oakland to Wal- 
nut creek, and thence to Antioch ; also, 

Resolved, That we recommend the County of Contra Costa to give 
a subsidy of $200,000 in bonds to aid the building of said road. 

An old Mission Indian named XJmbry, well known at San Leandro, 
where he was often employed by the inhabitants at sawing wood and 
doing chores, died at Piei-ce's ranch, about two miles from the town, 
about the middle of March. Old Umbre was the last of his tribe 
left about San Leandro, and was over sixty years of age. 

Nothing has as yet been said in this work about our oyster beds. 
The Alameda Enclnal of March 2 2d contained the following })iece of 
information concerning our oyster industry : 

"Alameda promises to become an important point for the growing 
and cultivation of oysters. Parties long engaged in the business 
have recently purchased some of the tide lands lying in Alameda 
Bay, and have already commenced to plant extensively. The schooner 
B. F. Lee, Cajjtain J. J. Winant, has just brought from Shoal water 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 3G7 

Bay a cargo of about five thousand baskets, for the AVasliiugton 
Oyster Company — a company formed hy the oystermen of Shoal- 
Avater Bay, who are largely interested in tlie business there, and have 
formed themselves into a co-operative comjjany for the purpose of 
marketing their oysters in San Francisco. J. J. Winant is their 
agent. Their depot is at 107 California Market. The Pacific Oyster 
Company, whose beds ai'e at present located at Oakland, have also 
purchased land, and will remove to this place. They have made ai'- 
rangements with parties in New York to ship them several car-loads 
this spring. Their depot is at No. 27 San Francisco Market. In 
addition to these, Mr. S. Winant, who has been engaged in the busi- 
ness in this State for twenty years, has made arrangements with large 
dealers in New York to send fifteen or twenty car-loads in the spring, 
to be planted adjoining the beds of the first-named companies. So 
the prospect is that Alameda Bay will soon contain the most extensive 
oyster beds in the State." 

A meeting of the movei's in the railroad project between Oakland 
and Contra Costa County held a meeting at No. 24 Wilcox Block, on 
Wednesday, March 26. Judge W. H. Glascock was called to the 
Chair, and Franklin Warner, Esq., was chosen Secretary. Articles 
of Incorporation of the Oaklo.nd and Conti-a Costa Railroad Company, 
drawn by eminent attorneys, were presented, but upon examining the 
Code in connection with a late decision of the Supreme Court, were 
deemed informal. It was then decided to defer incorporating until 
Saturday, April 5th. A committee was appointed by the meeting, to 
solicit subscriptions to the stock. - The Contra Costa delegation named 
E. Brown, Esq., as a special committee for that county for that pur- 
pose. Several subsequent meetings were held, but nothing c;xme of 
the movement at this time. 

About two years ago this community was startled by a cold-blooded 
murder commited in Sunol Valley, at the store of Thomas Scott, an 
ex-supervisor of this county. The victim was Otto Ludovisco, a clerk 
in the store, and the perpetrators supposed to be three native Cali- 
fornians. Sherifi" Morse traced one of the supposed murderers, Juan 
Soto, to his mountain retreat in the lower county. The attempt of 
Morse to arrest the assassin led to a desperate and deadly fight, in 
which Juan Soto was killed. Bartolo Sepulveda, another one of 
the suspected parties, v/ho had not been seen in this county since the 
night of the murder, gave himself into the custody of the Sheriff, stat- 
ing that he desired a trial to establish his innocence. The prelimi- 



368 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

naiy examination, before Justice Smith, resulted in the prisoner being 
bound over to appear before the Grand Jury. 

The case was brought before the first Grand Jury of the County 
Court, and an indictment found, but the case was transmitted to the 
District Court, in which it was tried in the Jiily term. It com- 
menced on the 26th of the month, and occupied one week. The 
prosecution was conducted by the District Attorney, A. A. Moore ; 
and Mr. Spencer of San Jose, and Mi\ Van Yoorhies of Oakland, 
appeared for the defense. On the 1st of August the Jviry bi-ought 
in a verdict of muixler in the first degree against the prisoner. A 
new trial was demanded and the case continued till the next term. 

The May-day festivities were very general this year, and picnics 
were held in almost every locality in the county, in grove, pavilion 
and hall, with the sound of music, the spreading of flowers, and the 
wreathing of bright garlands. At Dry Creek, near Decoto, the festi- 
vities were kept up for four days. 

The corner-stone of the College of Letters of the University of 
California was laid at Berkeley on May 3d, by A. J. Moulder, in the 
absence of Governor Booth. 

There was no June tei-m of the District Court this year, on 
account of the removal of the county seat. 

There was a meeting of settlers at Altamont, on the 31st of May, 
for the purpose of having a new and general survey of Murray 
Township, in order to trace out the lines of the government survey 
accurately, as they were surveyed by Sherman Day, as Department 
U. S. Surveyor under Col. John C. Hays, when he was Surveyor- 
General, and which survey is the correct one. Subsequent to that 
the settlers complained there were all manner of surveys, of which 
no two were alike, and trouble among neighboi's Avas the result. 

The final division of the Las Poscitas or Livermore ranclio was 
made on Friday, May 30th, subject to the approval of parties 
interested, by Commissioners Col. A. J. Cofiee, R. A. McClure and 
Newton Ingram, with the assistance of Mr. Louis Castro and his 
corps of surveyors. By this decision J. H. Mahoney was allowed 302 
acres ; F. Aurreocochea, 4, .500 ; H. Bailey, 865 ; Rolland Saunders, 
965 ; George May, 315 ; Robei-t Livermore, Ji\, 400 ; John Green, 
500; Mariana Avila, 395; V. Alviso, 815. Bailey gained 100 
acres on the old survey ; R. Livermore, 10; Saunders, 140; Avila, 
21 acres and $1,000 for improvements; and John Green, 100 acres. 
The following are the losers: May, 85 acres; Mahoney, 108; 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 369 

AuiTeococbea, 240 ; and Alviso, 10. The case for final decision was 
placed before Judge McKee, with Pringle and Hamilton, attorneys 
for Alviso, May, Aurreococheo, Bailey, Saunders and Avila. Crane 
and Johnston for Green; and J. R. Palmer for Mahoney. 

A company of Scotchmen, through a Mr. Robertson, purchased of 
E. L. Beard, of Mission San Jose, 18,000 acres of salt marsh, between 
Alviso and Alvarado, with the intention of reclaiming it and putting 
it under cultivation. The ti-act has a length of over twelve miles 
on the bay of San Francisco, with many inlets having the necessary 
depth of water for navigation. The soil is exceedingly rich, and has 
gi-eat depth. In winter the fresh water, by the overflow of Mission 
and other creeks, covers the tract and leaves a deposit of rich mud 
for fertilization, and leach out the salt left by the tides of the previ- 
ous Summer. The company intended to prevent the salt water over- 
flow at high tides, and to control the Winter overflow of fresh water, 
distributing it at pleasure by an improved system of canals and small 
locks. The reclamation, it was thought, could be easily and cheaply 
made, compared with Sherman and neighboring islands. The work 
was a great one, and in a few years, at the fai-thest, the spot promises 
to teem with agricultural products. Since then 4,000 or 5,000 acres 
of the land have been reclaimed and placed under crop. 

The anniversary of our national independence was celebrated with 
the usual enthusiasm and in the usual manner in various parts of the 
county. At San Lorenzo, the orator of the day was Dr. J. W. Van 
Zandt, of Haywards, and J. V. B. Goodrich, County Clerk, read the 
Declaration of Independence. Both those gentlemen have since left 
■us — the one having removed to Virginia City and the other to Mich- 
igan. They will not forget the years they spent in the pleasant places 
of Alameda. 

The following petition for a franchise was received by the Board 
of Supervisors, on July 25th, and referred to the proper committee : 

To the Hon. Board of Supervisors of Alameda County : 

The undersigned petition your honorable body to gi-ant them and 
their associates or assigns the right to lay down, construct, o]ierate 
and maintain, for a period of twenty-five years, an iron railroad, to 
run cars thereon and to cany passengers and freight from tlie Mis- 
sion San Jose to the City of Oakland, upon the following route, 
to-wit : Commencing at the Mission San Jose, Alameda County, 
thence westerly and southerly along the main county road through 
the villages of Washington Corners, Centreville, Alvarado and San 

24 



370 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Lorenzo, to San Leandro ; thence upon and along the main public 
road to Adams Avenue, extended, and along and upon Adams 
Avenue, extended, to the Oakland city limits. E. L. Beard, J. 
West Martin, S. Huff, Robt. Simpson, Wm. Meek, A. W. Swett, 
W. F. B. Lynch, James Larue. 

Nothing has yet been done to show that said petitioners were in 
earnest. 

A fire broke out in the storehouse of the C. P. R. R. Co., at 
Pleasanton, about 2 o'clock, on July 26th, which resulted in the 
destruction of property belonging to the company, estimated at the 
value of $10,000 to $12,000. Besides the storehouse, the passenger 
station was also destroyed. These buildings were on either side of 
the railroad track, which also received some injury. The telegraph 
wires wex'e destroyed, and for some time communication was sus- 
pended. 

In the east end of the warehouse resided Mr. Stewart, the Station- 
master, with his family, who lost everything he possessed, including 
a quantity of money. In a ve»y brief space of time, let it be said to 
the credit of the people of Pleasanton, a sum of $200 was collected 
for his relief. 

At a baby show in San Francisco, the prize for the smallest speci- 
men of humanity was taken by a child born in East Oakland, which 
weighed but two pounds. It was leased for exhibition as a curiosity, 
which it certainly was, and probably went the rounds of the world. 

At the State election, this year, one of the candidates for office 
was the notorious absconder, Geo. M. Pinney, who set up for the 
position of State Senator and made a promising canvass of the county. 
Before the party nominations, however, he withdrew, leaving the 
field clear for Messrs. Spauldmg and Howard — other candidates for 
the Republican nomination. Neither, however, won the prize. 
Pinney gave as a reason for his withdrawal from the contest that the 
fact that he had killed a man in Helena, Montana, in 1868, in self- 
defense, was being used to his disadvantage by his enemies. There 
were other reasons besides this for his withdrawal, which was only 
used as a pretense. 

The contract for constructing a map of the county was awarded 
August 4th, to G. F. Allardt, he having undertaken to do the work 
for the sum of $6,750, One lai-ge map was to be furnished for the 
Supervisors' room, and fifty copies of a smaller size, printed or photo- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 371 

lithographed. The following were the specifications for the construc- 
tion of said map : 

After the boundaries of the county are established, the work of 
preparing a map to proceed as follows : 

1st. The division of the county into townships, and the area of 
each given. 

2d. The location of each Spanish grant, and the area thereof as 
confirmed ; the name of the grant and date of confirmation. 

3d. The location of all sobrante grants (so called), and the esti- 
mated area of each, and the date of confirmation, if contii-med. 

4:th. The public lands and the estimated area of such, whether 
occupied or not, and the subdivisions of such by sections and one- 
fourth section lines (Mount Diablo base and meridian). 

5th. The location of all the School and Supervisor Districts, 
properly defined, and the names of each. 

6th. The location of all the public roads in the county, and the 
survey number of each. 

7th. All the railroads and railroad stations in the county, and the 
names thereof. 

8th. The location of all the principal creeks, by actual survey, 
and the general topogi-aphy of the county. 

9th. The location of all cities, towns and villages, with plans of 
streets, if laid out. 

10th. The location of each rancho, farm or tract of land compris- 
ing forty acres or more, and the name of the owner thereon. 

11th. The location of homestead tracts and names and smaller 
subdivisions as far as practicable, but without the name, the names 
of lessees and what are known as squatter claims should not be 
given. 

12th. The location of the swamp and ovei-flowed and salt marsh 
lands, and subdivisions of the same, according to the surveys of the 
State and Tide Land Commissioners' survey. 

13th. The segregation line between the marsh and upland, as 
established by the State. 

14th. The maps shall be made on a scale of forty chains to the 
inch ; also, one map to be made on the scale of twenty chains to the 
inch, and hung on rollers. 

By order of the Boai-d of Supervisors of Alameda County. 

J. V. B. GOODKICH, Clerk. 

By C. G. Reed, Deputy. 

Oakland, July 8th, 1873. 

The Republican County Convention was held in San Leandro, on 
the 11th of August, Geo. M. Pinney acting as Chairman. Chas. 
Webb Howard was nominated for State Senator, and Messrs. W. J. 
Gurnett and I. A. Amerman, for Assemblymen. With the excep- 



372 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

tion of Senator and Treasurer, all the nominees of the Republican 
Convention were elected. 

The Independent Reform Convention was held at the call of the 
Democratic County Committee, August 23d, when a full ticket was 
nominated. 

Dr. Bevei'ly Cole was appointed Chairman, and J. M. Estudillo, 
Secretary, of the Convention. 

Hon. Edward Gibbons, Independent, received the nomination for 
State Senator, and Hon. J. W. Dwinelle, Republican, and Hon. 
Daniel Inman, Democrat, both former representatives of the 
county, were nominated for Assembly. For Treasurer, Robert Far- 
relly was nominated by acclamation. Mr. Farrelly had been a 
candidate before the Republican Convention, having hitherto co- 
operated with that party ; but, by one of those mysterious political 
manoeuvre, which sometimes surprise people, the nomination was 
snatched from him. This was believed to be done through the in- 
fluence of a secret politico-religious organization, known as the 
" Crescents," which had a strong delegation in the Convention, and 
Mr. Farrelly felt free to accept the Independent nomination, which 
he did. Ellis E. Haynes, a Republican, was nominated for Sheriff; 
J. M. Estudillo, Democrat, for County Clerk; Eben C. Farley, 
Democrat, for Recorder ; Henr)^ Evers, Republican, for Auditor ; 
W. W. Foote, Democrat, for District Attorney ; Newton Ingram, 
Democrat, for Tax Collector ; Thos. W. Millard, Democrat, for As- 
sessor ; V. S. Northey, Independent, Commissioner of Highways ; 
John Doherty, Democrat, Surveyor ; Eugene Thurston, Democrat, 
for Superintendent of Schools ; S. W. Mather, Republican, for 
Coroner ; and Dr. W. P. Gibbons, Republican, for Public Adminis- 
trator. 

The election took place on the 3d of September, the result showing 
that, with the exception of Senator and Treasurer, the Republicans 
elected their whole ticket. The majoi-ities were as follows : Gib- 
bons (Independent), for State Senator, 345 ; Amerman, for Assem- 
bly, 272 ; Gurnett, for Assembly, 326 ; Farrelly (Independent), 515; 
Goodrich, for Clerk, 1098; Borein, for Auditoi-, 1165 ; Stevens, for 
Tax Collector, 363 ; Moore, for District Attorney, 775 ; Marsten, 
for Recorder, 954 ; Morehouse, for Assessor, 893 ; Castro, for Sur- 
veyor, 924 ; Lynch, for Superintendent of Schools, 526. Mather 
and Gibbons (for Coroner and Administrator) were Avithout opposi- 
tion, having been endorsed by both parties. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 373 

At the September session of the County Court, Judge Nye deli- 
vered a charge to the Grand Jury on the abuse of the ballot and the 
necessity of punishing offenses against the elective franchise. It was 
charged that corrupt practices had been resorted to in the late 
election, and the Judge desired the jury to investigate the matter. 
No inquiry was made, however, and the matter was allowed to rest. 

The price of grain this year was good. In September, 1872, wheat 
sold in San Francisco for $1.90 per hundred; the same month, this 
year, it brought $2.27 to $2.35. The harvest was not so large, but, 
in addition to better prices, freights were much lower. 

On the 25th day of September the State University reopened at 
Berkeley, when the first session there was formally commenced. 

The People's Independent party was organized this fall in Califor- 
nia, with the Governor, Newton Booth, at its head. 

On September 29th the new time table of the San Francisco and 
Oakland Ferry and Eailroad, making half-hourly trips, went into 
operation. 

On the 30th a contract was signed between Jolin A. Ball and Seth 
H. Wetherbee, on the one part, and Henry Durant, Mayor of Oak- 
land, on the other, for the dredging of the Oakland bar, the cost of 
the work having been fixed at $20,000. 

The County Teachers' Institute met in the Oakland High School 
building on the 30th, when there were about 100 teachers in attend- 
ance. 

At the judicial election, held on the 15th of October, there were 
four candidates in the field for Judge of the Supreme Court. McKee 
was the Democratic nominee, McKinstry the Independent, and Dwi- 
nelle the Republican. The Republicans ran a second candidate, 
Judge Brunston, to fill a possible vacancy. McKinstry, the Inde- 
pendent nominee, was elected by a large majority in the whole State, 
but McKee carried his own county by a very large majority, the fig- 
ures being as follows : McKee, 1,316; McKinstry, 465 ; Dwinelle, 
400. 

At a meeting, held to organize a Grange, the second in the county, 
at Livei-more, the following ofiicers were chosen : Daniel Inman, M.; 
J. A. Neal, 0.; E. M. Carr, L.; J. T. Taylor, S.; E. P. Bragdon, A. 
S.; E. S. Allen, T.; F. R. Fassett, Sec; W. W. Wynn, C; J. H. 
Brackett, G. K.; Mrs. A. P. Francis, Ceres; Mrs. Mattie Rinaldo, 
Pomono ; Mrs. M. Taylor, Flora ; Mi-s. J. J. Inman, Lady Assistant 
Steward. 



374 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The calendar of the Third District Court, for the October term, 
was an extremely long one. The case of Bartolo Sepulveda, con- 
victed at the last term of murder in the first degi-ee, but applying for 
a new trial, was continued till the 11th of November. Sebastian 
Flores was indicted for the murder of Francisco Garcia. 

County Assessor Hunt was arrested on the 21st of October, on a 
warrant, issued by Justice Asa Howard, charging him with appro- 
priating to his own use money belonging to the county. The sum 
to be accounted for was $8,085.20. It was understood there was 
$5,102 of the amount on deposit. Judge McKee gave a decision in 
the case on the 2d of December, and sustained the demurrer to the 
complaint on the ground that the provisions of the Political Code, 
authorizing assessors of counties to collect poll-taxes, Avere inap- 
plicable to those officers who were elected before the adoption of 
the Code. 

Mr. Northey, who was elected Commissioner of Highways at the 
general election, was refused a certificate of election by the Coxanty 
Clerk, on the ground that the law did not authorize the office in this 
county. Mr. Northey applied to tbe District Court for a writ of 
mandate to compel the issuance of the certificate asked for. On the 
5th of December Judge McKee rendered a decision against the exist- 
ence of the office. 

E.ev. Frederick Buel, a well-knoAvn Presbyterian minister, died at 
Ms home in East Oakland, on the 27th of October. He organized 
the Califoi-nia Bi-anch of the American Bible Society, and was its 
agent for about twenty years. He took an active interest in educa- 
tional matters on this side of the bay. He was a graduate of Yale 
College, and a native of Litchfield, Conn. "When California was a 
territory of Mexico, Mr. Buel was in the Bay of Monterey as the 
first officer of a ship then trading to this coast. There had not been 
rain enough for two seasons to produce a crop, and Mr. Buel sent 
ship-bread ashore to supply the natives. Deceased was aged 60 
years, and left a large family. 

The trial of Flores, for the murder of Garcia, commenced in the 
Third District Court, on the 6th of November. Flores had once 
been the principal witness agamst Garcia, in a trial for murder at 
San Jos6, but the evidence was not sufficient to convict, and Garcia 
was cleai'ed. From that time a gi-udge existed between them. 
They met on the 12 th of August, at a wake, which was held over 
the body of a young Spanish girl, at the house of Higuera, at 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 375 

Warm Springs, and a slight difficulty occurred between them during 
the evening. About 10 o'clock they left the house and went a 
shoi't distance together down a road, where another altercation took 
place between them, and Garcia received a wound from which he 
died a few days afterwards. "When found, he lay on the ground 
with his throat cut. After several days' trial and an elaborate 
charge by Judge McKee, the jury brought in a verdict of man- 
slaughter. The prisoner was sentenced on the 21st to five yeara' 
confinement in the State Prison. 

The rare occurrence of a strike among vegetable-growers took 
place in November, in consequence of the San Francisco authoiities 
disallowing them the use of Sansome Street on which to longer sell 
their produce. Even in this vicinity they refused to sell until their 
troubles were settled. The result was, a dearth for some days of 
garden stuS", for which Oakland was largely relying on the San Fran- 
cisco market, the strange anomoly existing of Alameda producers 
sending their stufi" fii-st to San Francisco and Oakland consumei-s 
buying it back again from them. 

Colonel Harry Linden died at the residence of his brother-in-law, 
James Beebe, at Temescal, on the 2 2d of November. Deceased was 
forty -three yeai-s of age and a native of Pemisylvania. He came to 
Calif oi-nia in 1850, and lived in this county duiing the greater part 
of his residence in the State. He was appointed Lieut .-Colonel on 
Gov. Haight's stafi"; was at one time Public Administrator of the 
county, and, for several years prior to his death, served as Commis- 
sioner of the Third District Court ; he was also, until recently, a 
member of the Board of Commissionei-s and Treasurer of the Deaf, 
Dumb and Blind Institute. He was always an active citizen, and 
took a prominent part in politics, having been an ardent Democrat. 

The work of dredging the Oakland bar, under the new contract 
with Ball's di-edger, commenced on the 1st of December. 

The very unusual spectacle of a snow-storm was witnessed in this 
county on the morning of the 3d of December. The storm did not 
last long, but, while it contitiued, communicated a chill feeling and 
bleak appeai-ance. The amount of snow on the ground was trifling 
— hardly sufficient to indulge in the luxury of snow-balling, wliich, 
however, was generally indulged in. Soon the flaky substance was 
converted into slush, and the unusual meteorological visitor disap- 
peared, to be remembered as a wonder. 

The Harvest Feast of the Temescal Grange, the first gi-ange of the 



376 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

county, lield in Oakland on tlie 4th of December, and the fii-st of 
its kind, was not largely attended on account of the severity of the 
•weather. The other granges, however, in the county were represented, 
and a good social time was enjoyed by those who participated in the 
feast. The fourth degree was conferred^ and the work of all degi'ees 
exemplified. Interesting speeches were made by Wm. M. Jackson, 
W. A. S. of the State Grange, from Woodland ; Capt. Wm. M. 
Haynie, Secretary of Sacramento Grange ; Eobert Hellar, W. M. of 
Eden Grange, Hay wards ; John Kelsey, A. S.; W. B. Ewer, A. M., 
(editor of the Rural Press), and other brothei-s and sisters of Temes- 
cal Grange. 

The State Legislature met on the 1st of December this year, it 
being the first Monday of the month. Senator Gibbons voted for 
the Hon. Wm. Irwin, as President pro tern, of the Senate. The 
first notice of a measure in the Assembly was Amerman's Re-appor- 
tionment Bill. Mr. Amerman soon found himself the leader of the 
Republican minority in the House, a position which his tact, parlia- 
mentary knowledge and address entitled him to. Mr. Gurnett was 
given positions on important committees. 

The death of the last of the fraudulent Oakland titles — the Kate 
Hayes' title — which claimed to cover all of Oakland Township out- 
side of the old charter line, was proclaimed. On Monday, December 
8th, the Supreme Court sustained the decision of Judge McKinstry, 
in favor of the settlers, thus' forever setting the claim of Carpentier 
at rest. 

The Hon. Walter Van Dyke received from Washington, on the 
11th of December, the appointment of United States District At- 
torney. Mr. Van Dyke stood high in the councils of the Republican 
party, having been Chairman of the State Central Committee at the 
time of his appointment. 

A bill was introduced in the Legislature to change the sittings of 
the Supreme Court from Sacramento to Oakland. Mr. Rogers, of 
San Fi^ancisco, was the author of the bill ; but it did not succeed. 

Rev. E. A. Winning, Presbyterian, and Rev. C. W. Anthony, 
Methodist, lately arrived, were the first stationary Protestant clergy- 
men in Livermore. 

The reports of the several County Assessors at the end of the 
year showed that Alameda County had attained the proud pre- 
eminence of being the first rural county in the State, and was second 
only to San Francisco in population and wealth, surpassing Santa 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 377 

Clara and Sacramento. The population was variously estimated at 
from 35,000 to 40,000 persons. 

The county assessment-roll, for the several parts of the county, 
"was as follows : 

Oakland Township, - $ 4,279,540 

Oakland City, ._---- 14,202,630 

Brooklyn Township, 2,678,820 

Brooklyn To^vTi, ------ 2,192,705 

Alameda Township and Town, - . - - 1,838,660 

Eden Township, 2,868,505 

Town of San Leandro, 396,465 

Washington Township, 3,409,250 

Murray Township, - - - - - - 3,287,490 

Total, - - - $35,154,065 

The total State and County tax was $413,344.16. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF THE COUNTY INDEBTEDNESS. 

Oakland Bar Bonds, $34,000.00 

Oakland Bridge Bonds, . - - - 20,000.00 
Niles Bridge Bonds, 15,000.00 

Total funded debt, - - - $69,000.00 
Ten per cent. Warrants, - - - - 14,102.26 
Seven per cent. Warrants, - - - - 103,522.87 

Total indebtedness, - - -$186,625.13 

The only property owned by the county was the Infirmary and 
Court-house Block, valued at $18,000. 





RAINFALL TO JANUARY IST. 






Inches. 


Total. 


1868-69, - 


- 6.21 - - 


- 20.69 


1869-70, - - 


- - 7.75 - 


- - 19.58 


1870-71, - 


- 3.25 - - 


- 12.16 


1871-72, - ■ 


- - 20.15 - 


- - 32.69 


1872-73, - 


- 9.55 - - 


- 16.42 


1873-74, - ■ 


- - 10.47 - 


- - 



During the year 1873 there were placed on record 2,073 deeds 
and 867 mortgages, besides the large number of releases, liens and 
other documents. 



378 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Q^lkniedk County ©f^i:\dl\^ 






^ « 



DO lI; 



I I I 



« -S ® ♦ A 






Prompt in the Adjustment and Payment of Losses. 



O I^ P^ I O E3, 

No. 924 BROADWAY, OAKLAND, 



ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



The net Income of this Branch is deposited and invested in 
Alameda County, as an additional security to policy-holders — a feature 
peculiar to this Company. 



H. A. Craig, Secretary. 



R. H. MAGILL, Manager. 
W. W. Haskell, Special Agent. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. :^79 



CHAPTER XXVL 



THE EVENTS OP 1874. 



The Green Point Dairy Company Incorporated — Memm'ials to Con- 
gress Praying for the Imjirovement of Oakland Harbor — $100,000 
Appropriated — Windstorm in Livermore Valley— Failure of a 
propositiooi to Incorporate the town of Berkeley — A Proposition to 
Annex Alameda Territory to Santa Clara Defeated — Tide Land 
on Lake Merritt Ceded to Oakland — Third and Last Year of the 
County Seat Controversy — County Clerk Goodrich Refuses to 
Audit Contractor Bahcock's Bill for Work on Jail — Goes Before 
the Supreme Court ami Decision Favorable to Babcock — The City 
Council of Oakland Aiithorized by the Legislat^ire to Deed the 
Plazas to the County ^Supervisors Reject the Offer — Aid Sought 
hy the City from the Legislature — Views of the County Delega- 
tion — ^^ An Act to Provide for the Erection of County Buildings 
in Alameda County and for the Issuance of Bonds Therefor " — • 
Mayor Durant Sends the City Council a Message Suggesting Di- 
vision — Mass Meeting in Oaklaml — Proceedings at Sacramento — 
A Compromise — The Bill Passed and the County Buildings to be 
Located on the Plazas — The Local Option Elections — The Contest 
in Washington, Oakland, Brooklyn, Alameda, Murray ami Eden 
Townships — Oaklaml and Brooklyn Favor the Law — The Other 
TowTixships Opposed — Extraordinary Electioneering Scenes — A 
Majority o/" 51 in the County for License — The Law Declared 
Unconstitutional — The College of Letters Investigation — Sundry 
Matters of Interest — The Granges and Professor Carr — Wharf 
Finished — Death of Hon. S. P. Wright — Proposed Martinez and 
Livermore Narrow-Gauge Railroad — Grangers' Reunion — Legis- 
lature of 187 4:-5. 

Tlie Green Point Dairy and Transportation Company filed its cer- 
tificate of incorporation in the Secretary of State's Office, on January 
6tli. The objects of the Company were stock-raising, daiiying, etc., 



380 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

in Alameda County, and navigating tlie bay of San Francisco and 
tributaries. Capital stock $250,000, with 500 shares of $50 each. 
Directors: E. B. Perrin, R. F. Tracy, J. T. Brown, A. L. Gurney, B. 
B. Minor and G. F. Thornton. Green Point is on the bay, two or 
three miles from Centreville, in Washington Township, but now 
known as Dumbarton Point. 

The Board of Supervisors, at their meeting January 1 2th, adopted 
a memorial to the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
State Congress, praying for the improvement of the Oakland Harbor, 
as follows: 

Whereas it is now understood by your petitioners that an official 
survey has been made by officers of the United States for the purpose 
aforesaid, and that a plan is about to be reported by the Board of 
Engineers of the Pacific Coast. 

Wherefore, Your petitioners, on behalf of the citizens of Alameda 
County and of the City of Oakland, and in view of the very impor- 
tant geographical location of the harbor of the City of Oakland, rel- 
ative to the marine and land traffic and travel connecting the shores 
of Asia and Europe across the continent of America, and joining the 
Atlantic and Pacific seaboards of the United States, most respect- 
fully ask that your honorable bodies will be pleased to grant such an 
appropriation for the improvement of the harbor of Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, as may be recommended by the Board of Engineers of the 
Pacific Coast and indorsed by the Chief of Engineers of the United 
States Army. And further, your petitioners will ever pray. 

The Board of Trustees of Town of San Leandro also memorialized 
Congress at the same time on the same subject, as well as the City of 
Oakland, and the result was an appropriation by Congress of $100,000 
for the commencement of the work. 

A fearful wind-storm prevailed in the county on Jan. 15th. It 
continued in Livermore all night, commencing at 7 o'clock. Several 
buildings were badly injured. The grain warehouse, recently built 
by Joseph Wilkinson, was completely demolished. The blacksmith 
shop of Hatch &, Holmes was also totally wrecked. The frame of 
the new Presbyterian church, in course of erection, was totally de- 
stroyed. Barns and poorly constructed dwellings were blown down, 
but no loss of life occurred. The buildings blown down were loosely- 
constructed frames, large and open, and such as to easily fall victims 
to a good blow. 

A meeting of Bei'keley property-owners was held on Jan. 20th, to 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 381 

cousitler the question of incorporation. The call Avas signed by Pro- 
fessor Durant. The principal property-owners were present, inchiding 
John W. Dwinelle, A. B. Dixon, Henry Durant, F. K. Shattuck, Chas. 
Dwinelle, John Kelsey, J. D. Colby, Peter Mathews, E. D. Hiirmon, 
John Kearney, James Edgar, H. E. Carlton, Arthur Edgar, Horace 
W. Carpentier, Capt. Jacobs, Mr. Newell, Peter McGee, Mr. Ashby, 
Mr. Townsend, James McGee, Mr. Higgins, Mr. Boleta, Mr. Morse, 
J. T. Fowler, Professor Ri.sing. 

Prof. Durant presided and Mr. Kelsey acted as secretary. The 
object was to consider the question of incorporation. Carpentier sug- 
gested incorporation with Oakland ; Mr. Dwinelle wanted to keep out 
of the jaws of Oakland ; Mr. Shattuck said San Leandro was at an 
exjjense of only about $500 per year. Judge Dwinelle spoke fui-ther 
in favor of an incorporated town of Berkeley. It was necessary that 
some system of sewerage should be adopted. 

The motion to organize a town was amended to define the southern 
boundary at the centre of Alcatraz avenue. 

A motion of Mr. Kearney to make the northern line of the county 
the northern point of the town, was next adopted against the pro- 
testations of Cai-pentier. The motion to incorporate was lost, finally, 
and the meeting adjourned, the farmers being unfavorably inclined 
towards the proposition. 

A bill was introduced in the Legislature to take a strip of about 
two miles off the southern extremity of Alameda Coimty, and annex 
it to Santa Clara ; but it failed in its object. 

The Tide Land Commissioners were about to sell a piece of tide 
land at the head of Lake Merritt, but by a bill passed in the Legis- 
lature it was ceded to the City of Oakland. 

THIRD AND LAST YEAR OP THE COUNTY SEAT CONTROVERSY. 

The county seat conflict opened in January, 1874, in the Supreme 
Court. It appears that County Auditor Goodrich declined to allow 
Contractor Babcock's claim for work done on the jail, and the latter 
applied to the Court for a peremptory writ of mandate to compel the 
County Auditor to allow his claim. The cause was argued on the 
20tli of January, when Messrs. Cope &■ Wilson, Attorneys, appeared 
for Babcock ; and Chas. A. Tuttle for Goodrich. The various alle- 
gations in the matter were fully discussed, and the Court rendered 
a decision in favor of the plaintifi". Subsequently, a bill was passed 
through the Legislatui^e to allow $1,000 for his costs. 



382 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUXTY. 

A bill was introduced in the Legislature and passed, authorizing 
the Council of the City of Oakland to deed the plazas to the county 
for county seat purposes, and empowering the Board of Supervisors 
to accept them, should they see fit. The plazas, by this Act, were 
to revert to the city if county buildings were not erected upon them 
in four years. 

At the meeting of the Board held on the 11th of February Mr. 
Shattuck called attention to the bill, which was read ; also a certified 
copy of a resolution passed by the Oakland City Council, together with 
a deed of the plazas duly signed, and moved that the deed be accepted. 
The usual majority were opposed to it. The county members said 
they were expressing the will of their constituents in refusing to 
accept the proposition. Mr. Case contended that the lease was not 
legal. He had no evidence that a majority of the people of the county 
desired a change ; and finally Case moved that the resolution be post- 
poned indefinitely. 

The subject was renewed at the following meeting, held Febi-uary 
13th. Capt. Wilcox said the donation of the plazas was equivalent 
to $100,000. Mr. Neale said in opposing a relocation he was doing 
what the people of his township wanted him to do. Mr. Hardy was 
sorry Mr. Neale's people Avanted him to remain in tlie stench. Mr. 
Case said the issue at the last election, upon which four of the mem- 
bers were elected, Avas the removal question. Between the present 
location and the plazas there was not much choice in the score of 
"stink," as the plazas were in the midst of dens of the vilest kind, a 
gas works, and contiguous to the marsh lands. Capt. Wilcox and Mr. 
Case indulged in a spicy discussion xipon "stench" and the delicacy 
of the Captain's olfactories. The latter gentleman would urge remo- 
val, and if necessary advocate force to have the buildings removed. 
The motion to indefinitely postpone the resolution was put and car- 
ried by the usual vote of four to three. 

This ended the matter so far as the Board of Supervisors were con- 
cerned. The city had exhausted all its i-esources in that quarter, and 
set its mind on legislative relief. What could be done thei-e? The 
County Delegation at Saci-amento could only be pai-tially relied upon. 
Senator Gibbons had expressed no opinion on the matter, and had 
made no pledges on the matter when before the people of the county, 
seeking election. He had, in fact, refused to commit himself, and had 
consequently met with opposition where he would otherwise have 
gained votes. He was an Oakland man, to be sure, but then he had 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 383 

the example of Senator Tompkins, who had incurred the hostility of 
the country people on account of his alleged special advocacy of Oak- 
land, to warn him. Assemblyman Amerman, until the time of the 
removal to Brooklyn, had conducted the fight for San Leandro, and 
it could not be supposed that his support would be forthcoming. 
Mr. Gurnett alone, of the three delegates, was the only man who 
could be relied upon to warmly espouse the cause of Oakland in the 
Legislature, and this, of course, he did. 

Then there was the question — "What could the Legislature legally 
do that had not been already done?" Could it properly interfere in 
deciding what part of a town a Court-house was to be located inl The 
matter, at any rate, was to be tested, as Oakland had already exhaust- 
ed every other resource. 

At a meeting of the City Council held Februaiy 16th, Mayor Du- 
rant sent in a message in which he urged the Council to take the ini- 
tiative in a movement for the division of the county with a view to 
the erection of the city of Oakland and the adjoining townships into 
a separate county, to be called the County of Oakland. No action, 
however, was taken on this message, which no doubt was merely 
meant as a thi'eat to be put in force under certain contingencies, 
"With the aid of the daily papers, which had very warmly entered into 
the controversy in favor of the claims of the city, public opinion was 
aroused to action and the legislative remedy sought. 

The best legal opinion was obtained, and a bill drawn up to suit 
the emergency, at the instance of a committee having the matter in 
hand, called the Citizens' Union, which consisted of prominent 
property-ownei-s. By this bill, which was entitled : " An Act to 
provide for the erection of county buildings in the County of Ala- 
meda and for the issuance of bonds thei-efor," the Board of Super- 
visors was directed to issue 8 per cent, twenty years' bonds, to 
the amount of $150,000, to be redeemed by an annual tax, which 
raised $1,000. The Governor was required to appoint five Commis- 
sioners, who were to have sole management of the money. They 
were to take possession of the Oakland plazas, and proceed to erect 
such county buildings as they might deem proper. They were 
authorized to complete the Jail, then erecting on Block 22, if they 
saw fit. The bill contained many restrictions, and it was intended 
that the Supei'visors should not have any control over it, or in any 
way defeat the progress of the work, even by resigning. 

Dr. Gibbons introduced the bill without comment in the Senate, 



384 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

and it soon went before the Committee on Corporations. Both, sides 
were advised, and, on the evening of the 3d of March, the matter 
was discussed. Supervisor Case, E. G. Mathews and Wm. Meek, 
were heard on behalf of the Supervisors. W. W. Foote followed as 
counsel for the city, speaking for more than an hour. Then Senator 
Gibbons declared himself. He was in favor of the bill, but said he 
had offered a compromise to locate the county seat in the vicinity of 
Tubbs' Hotel, but the idea was not tolerated. Then followed a 
speech by Mr. Gurnett, before and after which there was a running 
cross-fire of assertions and contradictions from both sides. 

It will be seen that so far Mr. Amerman had taken no part in 
this year's internecine warfare. The Sacramento correspondent of the 
News, Mr. Harwood, who took a very zealous part in the contro- 
versy, and may be said to have kept the life in it for the Oakland 
people, wi'ote very despondingly one day that Amerman would 
" oppose any legislation intended to break the ring in the Board of 
Supervisors," and this left the matter in not an altogether encourag- 
ing condition. The Chairman of the Committee on Corporations, too, 
was Senator Farley, who, two years ago, had championed the 
cause of San Leandro in the Senate, in opposition to Senator 
Tompkins. 

On the 5th of the month, the committee met again and heard 
further statements in reference to the question. The chairman said, 
on calling the committee to order, the question before them was 
whether they should take from the Board of Supervisors certain 
functions they were vested with by law ; whether it was good policy 
in this case for them to do so. 

Supervisor Shattuck appeared and made a full statement of the 
existing troubles. He cited the example of San Francisco, where 
the erection of county buildings had been taken out of the hands of 
the supervisors' and vested in commissionei's. 

The question of title to the plazas was discussed, when Mr. Shat- 
tuck stated how the plazas were donated and what they were worth; 
and Senator Gibbons said the original owners of the town site, Hayes 
& Caperton, had recognized the plazas as public property, and for 
twenty yeai-s they had been so considered. Mr. Gurnett read a let- 
ter from Judge Glascock, attorney for Hayes & Caperton, stating that 
he was authorized and would execute any kind of deed that was 
required. The chairman asked what was the general sentiment of 
the people on the question. Shattuck replied that they denounced 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 385 



the action of the Supei-visors. Senator Laine asked how the vote of 
the county woiikl stand on the proposition, when Shattuck answered, 
"two to one." Case asked if the Jail tlien buikling woukl be sacri- 
ficed. Shattuck then went into a statement of the buihling diffi- 
culty ; showed how the Supervisors were elected for three yeai-s inider 
the Code ; how they had endeavored to obtain a classification of the 
Board as to years of service, and been defeated ; and how, under a 
late decision of the Supreme Court, the Board could raise |400,000 
annually by taxation and put up fine buildings at the expense of the 
people. F. J. Clark, of Livermore, said those who voted for removal 
in his township were in favor of the plaza proposition. Mr. Shat- 
tuck said, in Washington Township many representative men were in 
favor of the Oakland plazas. Case said that the Jail would be com- 
pleted in thirty days. Senator Gibbons stated that he had received a 
letter from >Samuel Marston, of Centre ville, stating that a majority 
of the people of Wasliington Township favored the pending bill. 
Mr. Mathews read an article from the Oakland News, which stated 
that, if the Brookljm people would annex to Oakland, her plazas 
shoiild be included in an ofier to the county. Senator Gibljons 
replied to this that he had offered to compromise in favor of the 
plaza near Tubb's Hotel, in Brooklyn, a most beautiful location, but 
Mr. Case paid no attention to the proposition. Case and Mathews 
said they would be very glad to give up the Court-house and get back 
their town government, and be once more independent of Oakland. 
And here follows another pause in the controversy before the final 
and abrupt close of the protracted farce. 

After this Mr. Harwood wrote to his paper that success was quite 
certain, if the bill was got through the Senate. Gurnett could get it 
easily through the Assembly, whether Amerman opposed it or not. 
A day or two after there was suddenly a talk of compromise in favor 
of the Washington (Brooklyn) plaza, near Tubb's Hotel ; then an 
open declaration that Case would agree to a compromise by which the 
Jail would remain on Block 22, and the Court-house be built near 
Tubbs' Hotel ; and that Senator Gibbons was a party to the com- 
pi'omise. 

Then came a cry of " treason," and a declaration that Oakland was 
■withovit a particle of public spii'it. There was a sudden awakening, 
how-ever. Senator Gibbons' course was criticised, and a public meet- 
ing called by " Many Tax-Payers " on Saturday evening, March 14th, 
in Brayton Hall, whose rallpng cry was "no compromise." Hon. 

25 



386 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Zach Montgomery, on motion of Judge Ferris, was moved to the 
Chair ; W. D. Harwood and A. W. Bishop, the editors of the News 
and the Transcript, were appointed Secretaries. Then followed a long 
list of Yice-Pi'esidents. Judge Ferris moved, the first resolution in- 
structing " our Senators and Members of Assembly to use their best 
endeavors to pass, without delay, the original bill in relation to the 
removal and location of the county buildings, and opposing their 
location elsewhere than upon the Broadway plazas. Senator Gib1:)ons 
was called for, but was not forthcoming. Mr. Gaskill said he was at 
the Grand Central Hotel, and moved the appointment of a committee 
to wait upon him, and he was accordingly waited upon by Messrs. 
Gaskill, Wilcox and E. Bigelow. They subsequently reported they 
had seen the Senator, but he excused his non-attendance on the gi'ound 
of illness. He admitted being a party to the compromise, and would 
not pledge himself to the removal to the plazas, as contingencies might 
arise that would influence him. Mr. Shattuck gave his version of 
the new development, with which he associated the name of A. A. 
Cohen. He said Senator Farley would report the bill on Monday, 
unless he 'received instructions to the contrary, and expressed the 
opinion that the people were opposed to any compromise. Judge 
Blake followed in a speech, wondering at the conduct of Senator Gib- 
ibons, and opposing a compromise. The compromise was to let the 
,,J^il renriain on Block 22, and pay the Larue estate $12,000 for the 
Jai^^d. Hon. R. C. Gaskill followed in a " ringing " speech, condemn- 
jiag the course of the Senator, and declaring the Senate would pass the 
bill ill spite of him. Supervisor Wilcox made a speech in v/hich he 
.described the power of a " stench," and said he would prefer to have 
the county buildings back to San Leandro, or even Alvarado, than 
ithat they ^should remain where they were. He favored " no com- 
promise." He accused the members of the Board of Supervisors of 
telegraphing each other with their thumbs, whenever a vote on this 
question was taken. Marlin had told him he would vote for the 
plazas, but wheu thumbs went up he " fell down." Mr. Foote accused 
some of the members of the Board with perjury, and spoke encour- 
:agingly of the bill. He believed Dr. Gibbons would withdraw his 
support from the compromise ; he knew that Amerman, who was a 
prospective candidate for Congress, would not dai"e to oppose it ; and 
Gurnett, he was sui-e, was in favor of it. The resolution was unani- 
mously carried, and a committee of five appointed to go to Sacra- 
jinento, to assist in the passage of the Senate bill. The proceedings 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 387 

concluded by taking up a subsci'iption to defray expenses. The Sec- 
retaries were instructed to furnish the deU^gation with a copy of the 
resohition, and then the meeting adjourned, feeling that success would 
surely follow. 

The meeting had its effect, and the result was an immediate sur- 
render. The committee appointed proceeded to Sacramento on 
Sunday. They met at Amerman's apartments and talked the matter 
OA'er. It was stated that Case would not oppose the bill if the Com- 
missioners were stricken out and the Supervisors allowed to erect 
the buildings. All but Judge Ferris agreed to this. Senator Gib- 
bons said the bill should be so altered ; it was the weak part of the 
bill, and the concession was a trifling one. Amerman said he had 
taken no part in the contest, but could not, as expected, champion 
Block 22. He favored the bill with the Commissioners sti'icken out. 
Gurnett did not care who did the work, so long as the buildings wei*e 
placed on the plazas ; so that the whole delegation were united, and 
the bill would go through both Houses without a word of dissent. 

About midnight Case was called upon. He was not in favor of 
the bill in any shape, but as all Alameda County's representatives 
had united to pass it, as an officer of the law he should obey. He 
"would not do anything to obstruct the erection of the buildings, and 
as a Supei-visor he would act in connection with all building 
operations on the Broadway plazas, just as if they were on the loca- 
tion of his first choice. 

The praise of Mr. Case, as a man of honor, who had made a 
gallant fight for his section and his friends, then followed. He had 
never broken his promise or violated his word, and all that remained 
to end this prolonged county seat controversy, to finish this three 
years' local warfare, was the arrangement of the formalities. On 
the following Thursday Senator Farley reported a substitute for the 
original bill. Gibbons moved the suspension of the rules, in order 
to consider the bill at once. Edgerton opposed it, and said he 
had been requested to oppose it, and wanted time to consider their 
reasons. Evans said the committee had heard both sides, and the 
substitute was the result. Gibbons explained ; and on a call of ayes 
and noes there were 13 noes to 18 ayes, showing that the Brooklyn 
party were far from being ^vithout strength, even after this com- 
promise was concluded ; and it is doubtful, considering that this was 
within twelve days of the end of the session, if the fight had been 
kept up, the original bill could be carried through. 



388 HISTORY GF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

A few clays after there was a hitch ; some of the Brooklyn men — 
Larue and Duncan Cameron — having heard what wks going on, pro- 
ceeded to Sacramento and rather disjointed matters. Some new 
arrangement was effected, however, and the parties appeased ; and on 
the 19th the bill passed the Senate unanimously, and went to the 
Assembly. It provided for the issue of bonds to the amount of 
$200,000, instead of $150,000 as at first proposed, and allowed the 
deeding back to James Larue of Block 22, should the County Jail 
be removed. In case the Jail sliould be completed on Block 22, the 
Supervisors were to pay Mr. Larue a reasonable compensation for the 
property. Mr. Larue, however, did not want the Jail on his property, 
and simply asked for a retui'n of the land, which of course could not 
be, and was refused. There were several Brooklyn gentletiien pres- 
ent, who did not relish the turn things had taken, as several of them 
had invested largely in the company to put up the temporary county 
biiildings ; and it was no wonder if they felt as if they had in some 
way been deceived. 

The bill passed the Assembly on the 20th, and at 4 o'clock on the 
25th it was signed by the Governor and became a law. Until the 
very last there was some opposition to it, and there remained yet a 
dread that the majority of the Supervisors would carry on a hostil- 
ity, or that the legality of the bill would be tested in the courts. 
Indeed, a slight move in this direction was made, but all opposition 
was soon abandoned. The Jail building on Block 22 was pulled down, 
and the material removed to Washington Plaza, where it Avas recon- 
structed. This little matter cost the county about $20,000. A bill 
was passed through the Legislature allowing Mr. Babcock, the con- 
tractor, $1,000 for his law expenses in his contest with the Auditor, 
who very injudiciously put the county to that and other expenses, in 
taking a position that the Judges made clear to him he had no right 
to take, in dispixting an order of the Supervisors. 

In looking over the whole of this protracted contest, the writer 
cannot help thinking that the greater part of the acrimony and p; 
sion that entered into it might have been avoided, and all that was 
desired accomplished by the use of conciliation and a clearer fore- 
cast. At the start the agitation for removal was consigned to the 
management of one man, who, however active and zealous, was not 
the proper person to conduct so delicate a business. Mr. Linden 
was suffermg from ill health, dyspeptic and crabbed, and was not able 
to use that argument of the manner which pleases, if it does not con- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 389 

vince. Had only one of the outside townships been won, the battle 
was assured for Oakhmd. A respectable deputation from the city at 
the proper time would have done it. But, instead of persuasion, 
there was too much wordy warfare — too much assumption, for con- 
ciliation. The Supervisors, however improper their conduct might 
have been, when violently attacked received the sympathy of their 
constituents, and an opposition was constructed so inflexible as 
nearly to conqtier and endanger the decision of the county. That 
Block 22 was not a desii-able location, no one will now pretend to 
maintain ; but in it was centered the local pride of a spirited com- 
munity, who believed that they were entitled by an vln^vritten com- 
pact to the county seat. Again, the southern section of the county, 
formerly the ruling portion of it, saw the seat of justice gi-adually 
slipping away from it — from Alvarado to San Leandro ; from San 
Leandro to Brooklyn — and it was only natural that they should 
resLst its establishment on Broadway as an Oakland aggression and a 
centralization of power and advantages. But it is very doubtful, if 
the location wei'e open to disturbance to-morrow, that the slightest 
eflbrt would be made to effect another change. 

Since the close of the contest a fine structure has been erected, 
which, notwithstanding some defects, is an ornament to the city and a 
proud emblem of the importance of the county. It is hoped that by 
its cost, completeness and convenience, an end is forever put to all 
further county seat agitations. The latter is an ordeal which almost 
every county in the land has some time to pass through. We have seen 
the trouble crop out here first in 1835, with our Mexican predeces- 
sors, -who desired to see the seat of justice for this district removed 
from San Francisco to San Jose, where laws for the Contra Costa were 
first administrated. When Contra Costa was organized, in 1 850, there 
appears to have been no trouble in effecting the location at Martinez, 
because Alameda was virtually without population, a location or a 
champion; but when the creation of Alameda came, there was the 
first bitter warfare between the northern and southern sides of the 
county. The south was then the strongest, and won. It had the pop- 
ulation and the resources. The removal to San Leandro was an 
assertion of the growing power of the north; and the removal to 
Brooklyn was a piece of strategy that obtained its advantage from 
peculiar position and tact. The final transfer to Broadway was sim- 
ply the evidence of cumulative power and the irresistible force of a 
rapidly augmenting business center, and a spiiit that would brook no 



390 HISTOBY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

resistance and yield to no compromise. All the localities that have 
lost the boon of the county seat at various times, made gallant con- 
tests for its maintenance, and there is no just reflection to be indulged 
in now, only that they had to yield to the inevitable. 

THE LOCAL OPTION ELECTIONS. 

One of those moral epidemics that sometimes sweep over a commu- 
nity, visited the State this year. Reference is made to the Local 
Option excitement, which found its way to this State from Ohio. It 
was a new phase of the crusade against intemperance, and had its em- 
bodiment in a law which allowed municipalities to detennine by a 
vote of the people whether the sale of liquor should be licensed with- 
in them or not. 

A bill to gi-ant this privilege was mtroduced in the last Legislature 
by Senator Pendegast, of Napa, and unexpectedly became a law. It 
was familiarly known as the Local Option Law, on account of its 
granting to every separate town or townshij) the right to determine 
the license question for itself. The temperance organizations were 
not slow to take advantage of it, and [female "Crusaders," as they 
were called, were soon in the held, exhorting people in favor of the 
law with as much zeal as Peter the Hei-mit, of old. Here was an op- 
portunity, they thought, to rid the land of the evils of intemperance 
by closing up the liqvior saloons with the force of a legal statute. 

The law, as it passed in the California Legislature, required that 
on the presentation of a petition containing the names of one-fourth 
of the legal voters of a township, duly authenticated, the Board of 
Supervisors of the county in which such to-sviiship was situated 
should name a day and call an election to determine, by a majority 
of the votes cast, whether license to sell less than one gallon of 
intoxicating liquors or beer should be allowed in such township or 
not. 

The first petition for an election in this county came fron "Wash- 
ington Townsliip, and was presented at a meeting of the Board of 
Supervisors, held on the 2 2d of April. The petition was signed by 
270 persons. An election was ordered for the 23d of May, tlnis 
allowing one month for prei)aration. There were three or four tem- 
perance organizations in the township, wdiile the number of saloons 
was said to be 25 or 30. Both sides prepared for battle. The tem- 
perance people calculated on an easy victory, especially as they had 
the names of a majority of the votei's attached to their petition. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 391 

"Wlien election day came, however, they were disapi)ointed, for tliere 
were cast in favor of their cause but 167 votes, to 184 votes in favor 
of license. The vote at the different precincts was as follows : 
Alvarado — for license, 70 ; against, 52. Centreville — for, 67 ; against, 
84. Mission San Jose — for, 47 ; against, 31 — a very light vote. 

In the meantime petitions for elections were circulating in other 
townships, and the friends of the cause were active secui'ing the 
names of voters in both Oakland and Brooklyn Townshijis. Those 
most active in the work were women. They soon enlisted most of 
the churches in the work. Organizations were formed- committees 
set at work, and public meetings held. The enthusiasm was rapidly 
kindling, and some of the most addicted tipplers wei'e soon giving 
their adhesion to the movement. A mass meeting, under the auspices 
of the Oakland Woman's Temperance Union and the Alameda 
County Temperance Alliance, was held in Brayton Hall, on the 23d 
of April. The meeting was called to ox'der by the leading Crusader 
of the county, Mrs. Hariett E. Bishop, a lady recently from the 
East, and who had initiated the movement in Oakland. Clergymen, 
business men and county officials took part in the proceedings, and 
the agitation was regularly inaugurated. The petitions for an elec- 
tion were rapidly being signed, one of the morning papers (the A^eios) 
had come out openly and advocated the strange doctrine, and the 
feeling on the question was soon at a white heat. At a meeting of 
the Temperance Union, held on the 28th of April, nearly 1,000 
signatures were reported to the petition, and, at the session of the 
Board of Supervisors, on the 4th of May, said petition was presented, 
with the names of 1051 voters of Oakland Township attached. 
An election was ordered to be held on the 30th of May, and then 
the real work commenced. 

On the same day a petition was presented from Brooklyn Town- 
ship, but, not having contained a sufficient number of signatures, was 
not acted upon ; but having been presented at the next meeting, with 
a sufficient number of names, an election was ordered for the 6th day 
of June. 

At first the saloon-keepers and liquor dealers were not much 
alarmed ; but they soon became uneasy, and finally were forced into 
activity. They, too, commenced to hold meetings, to collect a cam- 
paign fund and register votes. The County Clerk's office became the 
scene of unusual activity, naturalization papers were in demand, and 
the Great Register was the recipient of several hundred additional 



392 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

As tlie day of election approached the excitement and interest in- 
creased. The ladies left no stone unturned. A large tent, belonging 
to the Seventh-day Adventists, was placed at their disposal, and there 
men and women held forth nightly on the evils of intemperance, and 
the benej&ts of the local option law. The clergy made it the prom- 
inent theme in their pulpits, confirmed tipplers made temperance 
speeches, daily prayer meetings for the success of the cause were held, 
the papers were full of local option discussions, and crowds came over 
daily from San Fi-ancisco, especially temperance people, to lend a help- 
ing hand. Among those who addressed temperance meetings before 
the election, besides the clergymen of Oakland, were Hon. William 
Wirt Pendegast, the framer of the law ; Dr. C. S. Haswell, of Sac- 
ramento ; W. E. Turner, an Oakland attorney, who took a very 
prominent part in the contest; S. H. Garter, of Red Bluff; Mrsn 
Emily Pitts Stevens, of San Francisco ; Miss Sallie Hart, Wm. Yan 
Voorhies, Judge Chamberlain, Mr. Redstone, Dr. Myrick,Mr. Battei-s, 
of San Francisco ; Judge Blake, Dr. Henry Gibbons, and several 
others. 

At last the anxiously-looked-for 30th xlay of May arrived. The 
ladies had carefully arranged their plan of battle. With bountifully- 
supplied lunch-tables, situated in convenient localities, with an abund- 
ance of boquets, tastefully prepared for the button-hole, and with 
sweet smiles and bewitching ways, they prepared to meet the cohorts 
of rum. Early in the day they were all at their well-appointed posts, 
distributing ballots inscribed with the portentous words, " Against 
License," and soliciting votes. The " big tent," near the City Hall, 
was the grand rendezvous, but every polling precinct in the city had 
its guard-house, and was well watched and provided for. AVith bo- 
quet-baskets in hand and pleasant smiles on countenance, the most 
zealous would promenade in the vicinity of the polling places. Nay, 
some were so intrepid as to boldly penetrate rough crowds of men, 
clamorous for the protection of their personal liberties against this 
new-fangled notion, and ai-gue the point with them like experienced 
politicians. It was, for the female heart, a joyous taste of freedom. 
To be sure they did not vote, but they made votes. They were not 
candidates for office, but they enjoyed the i'ai*e privilege of openly 
expressing their sentiments in front of the ballot-box. 

The 30th day of May was not a pleasant one. It was very chilly ; 
the wind was high and the dust was driven in clouds, and it was 
anything but comfortable to be in the streets ; yet the ladies did not 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 393 

give way nor coiuplaiai, but manfully held their phices. "Have you 
voted, sir T woukl be their sahitation to every male they nu^t ; or 
" Will you have a boquet ?" to draw on a conversation and ascertain 
the subject's sentiments. A " hard case " would be coaxed into the 
tent or refreshment place, plied with cakes and coffee, sandwiches, 
ibc, and converted. A deputation of the dear creatures woiikl some- 
times accompany him, as an escort, to the ballot-box, and thus secure 
his vote beyond pei-adventure. And thus they worked all day long, 
at times receiving rebukes, and often saluted with cheers. Insults 
were seldom openly offered ; but when an instance of the kind oc- 
curred, woe to the guilty one, for he was hastily hustled by a 
clamorous crowd to the City Prison. 

The "For License" men, although for the time being unpopular, 
and, in the feminine mind, little short of monsters, kept well up their 
side of the fight. They were not without friends. Although the 
bai'-rooms were all closed, in compliance with the law, they found 
plenty of sympathizers ; and, for the greater part of the day, it was 
considered a very doubtful contest. The first precinct, it was sup- 
posed, would give a large majority for license ; and the second, a 
large one against it ; while the Point and Temescal, it was thought, 
would be about equally divided. Towards evening, however, the 
conviction gained that the women were victorious, as was shown at 
the close of the count, when it was found that there was a majority 
of 253 against license, in the aggregate. The following was the vote 
by precincts: First Precinct — For license, 510; against license, 
469. Second Precinct — For license, 249 ; against license, 524. 
Third Precinct — For license, 171 ; against license, 183. Fourth 
Precinct — For license, 108 ; against license, 115. Of course there 
was great rejoicing when the result was ascertained. There were 
congratulatory speeches, sei-enading and general exultation. 

On the second night after the election there was a grand rally of 
the victorious femmine forces, in the tented field, on the corner of 
Fourteenth and Washington Streets, where the leaders of the army 
were crowned with victors' laurels, and the soldiers received con- 
gi-atulations and thanks. 

Another battle was before them in a few days. The field of East 
Oakland was to be contested on the 7th of June. The ladies had 
fleshed their maiden swords, and the thirst for carnage was now upon 
them. More whiskey was to be spilt, more kegs of beer placed hors 
de combat. The army of Oakland determined to reinforce the anny 



394 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

of Bx'ooklyn en masse. The forces there were ah-eady well drilled 
and organized, and the Oakland victory had immensely improved 
their morale. Mr. E. Gr. Mathews was chosen Commander, with 
Messrs'. Sumner, Ford, Steen, Pensam, Lynde and Watson as Lieu- 
tenants. All the ladies of the town hastened to enroll themselves ia 
the Army of the East, while a large number of gentlemen volun- 
teered their services as an active reserve. Whatever element of suc- 
cess that might have been overlooked or forgotten in the Oakland 
battle was here used to advantage. Duties were assigned to every 
one willing to lend a helping hand ; the organizers of the Oakland 
victory lent their aid and encouraged the cohorts. 

But the other side was not idle. Defeat had not disheartened 
them ; it only made them more energetic. Nightly they met to raise 
the " sinews of war," and plan their battle ; every voter was can- 
vassed, and a victory assured. Aid was invited from San Francisco 
and Oakland, and it came. There was a mightier marshalling 
of forces on both sides. Captain Badger was chosen general of 
the spirituous host ; and he called to his aid Hatch, of Santa 
Clara. Against the latter was pitted the Rev. Otis Gibson, of San 
Francisco, who led the singing host. Both armies met for review in 
sight of each other, the night before the battle. Martial music rent 
the air, and both sides shouted for victory, and were confident it was 
within their grasp on the morrow. As in Oakland, the temperance 
host took the field in a tent. The Union Hotel served the license 
legion for a camp. Hatch harangued his followers at great length, 
and proved the superior morality of the license cause, and the great 
evils of no license. In the tent, license was torn to tatters, and all 
the bottles and glasses smashed. 

The eventful morning arrived. The very atmosphere seemed con- 
scious of the desperate character of the approaching conflict, and 
held its breath. The sun shone sei'enely in the heavens, equally 
favoring both sides with the effulgence of his rays. The polling- 
place was Judge Howax-d's old oflice, equi-distant between the two 
hostile camps. 

In the " no license " camp the refreshment brigade and the boquet 
battalion were early in motion. Hot coffee and cakes, ham sand- 
wiches and cold turkey were never so abundant on this side of the 
bay before, or since. The odor of flowers perfumed the au', and 
sweet smiles, bright eyes and soft words wooed the unwilling voter to 
cast his ballot against rum. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 395 

But the champions of vum were not idle either. They, too, had 
learnt a lesson from the Oakland encounter, and took advantage of 
several neglected aids. The streets swarmed with tlie valiant war- 
riors from near and far. Male and female mingled in the moral 
melee. Martial music rent the air. The war chant of the crusader 
cari-ied dismay to the heart of the enemy at every street corner. 
Sallie Hart, leading the light infantry of the local option army, was 
distinguished for the rapidity of her movements and her sanguinary 
encounters. From Tubbs' Hotel to Tum Suden's — from the Railroad 
Depot to Adams Street, was the battle fiercely waged and every inch 
of ground disputed. Load after load of reinfoi'cements were carried 
to the battle-field. Never before, since the world began, was there 
such a wordy warfare. Tongues cut sharper than swords. There 
was bullyi'agging and brow-beating, badinage and braggadocio, coarse 
invective and sharp recontre, pointed jests and biting sarcasms, 
ridicule and rodomontade. 

The " license" band-wagon would drive through a tempei*ance 
crowd and defiantly display its banners, inscribed with tlie legends 
of " Equal Rights " and " No Blue Laws for Brooklpi ;" and the 
band strike up with its stirring strains; when the Temperance Glee 
Club would gather a multitude around it and respond with a chorus 
that awakened the echoes in the distant mountains, and the refrain 
of " Grlory, glory, hallelujah ! " pierced the hills. 

At last the polls closed ; the combat ceased ; and victory had once 
more perched on the temperance tent-top. A majority of 84 had 
decided against license. The vote was as follows : 

Brooklyn Precinct — For license, 181 ; against license, 273. 

Fitchburg Precinct — -For license, 86 ; against license, 78. 

Thus closed the most remarkable election that ever took place in 
this State, and perhaps anywhere else in the ^world. It vv-as com- 
puted that 500 women were on the sti*eets of Brooklyn that day, 
doing battle against the bottle. Not a breach of the peace was com- 
mitted, nor an arrest made — wluch fact spoke well for the conduct of 
the men who Avere battling for the protection of their business, or 
repelling what they believed to be an encroachment upon their natui-al 
rights. 

Immediately after the Brooklyn election was formed the Oakland 
Township Temperance Alliance, the objects of which were the pro- 
motion of temperance principles by all suitable means and the secur- 
ing of the best laws to that end. 



396 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

It was recommended by the Supervisors that no prosecution be had 
against those who kept their saloons open after the election, until the 
first of July following, and that recommendation was acted upon in 
Oakland and Brooklyn. 

The next election ordex-ed was in Muri-ay Township. It took place 
on the 27th day of June. The largest vote ever polled in the town- 
ship was cast, and was largely for license. Livermore Precinct gave 
241 votes for and 125 against; Pleasanton Precinct, 120 votes for, 
and only 33 against; Summit Precinct, 23 for, and 12 against — 
making a total vote in Murray Township of 554, and giving the 
license side a majority of 214. It was evident from this that the 
extreme ends of the county were widely at variance on the^liquor 
question, and each side had won important victoi'ies. Two town- 
ships had now gone for Kcense, and two against, and two — Alameda 
and Eden — remained to be heard from. 

As was the case elsewhere, the preparations for the fray in Ala- 
meda were very vigorous. Dr. Henry Gibbons marshalled and 
animated the option host. He had abundance of assistance ; but 
the ladies, on account of the difference in the population — Alameda 
being largely German — did not turn out so numerously as they did 
in Oakland and Brooklyn. The liquor men dropped the policy they 
had hitherto pursued, of making few public demonstrations, and em- 
ployed speakers and held meetings, making a good canvass. The 
election was held on the 2d day of July. That usually quiet place 
underwent a siege which will be remembered by all who witnessed it 
as long as they live. The scenes that took place almost beggared 
description. Ladies from Oakland, Brooklyn and San Francisco, 
with many gentlemen, were present. A tent was used as a rallying- 
place, as in Oakland and Brooklyn. The usual lunch-tables were 
laid out and the flower-girls were on hand. The singing host, headed 
by the Rev. Otis Gibson, was there, too, and the fighting host under 
Turner. The wildest enthusiasm was excited. Here lager was 
attacked in one of its strongholds, and lager met ifc in no laggard way. 
A policy of ofiense was determuaed upon, and the ladies were Avarned 
to look out. The little town was regularly besieged. Hundreds 
came over from San Francisco, where the liquor men had organized 
a league. A detachment of this organization, headed by a band of 
music, marched through the town, singing Bacchanalian songs. Sally 
Hart was present with her light infantry (an organization of young 
men and women), but she was overwhelmed by the physical force 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 397 

pitted against her. It was no longer pretty talk and good-natured 
discussion. Affairs took a decidedly rude turn, and the ladies were 
finally forced to yield the streets and retreat to their tent, while the 
battle at the ballot-box went largely against them. The result at 
the close was that 201 votes were given for license, and only 108 
against. The newspaper controversy that followed was very warm. 
The San Francisco Post and Chronicle, and the Oakland News were 
very severe in their comments on the conduct of the license men ; 
while the Alia and Transa-ipt espoused their cause, and defended 
them against the onslaughts of their adversaries. 

License was now in' the ascendant in the county, having carried 
three out of the five township elections held, and Eden alone remained 
to determine whether it should be an equally divided victory or an 
overwhelming defeat for the temperance army. The election was 
fixed for the 11th day of July. The rudeness practiced at Alameda 
it was feared would be renewed in Eden, and matters took a deci- 
dedly belligerent turn. A strong police force, headed by Sheriff 
Morse, was on hand to prevent disorder, and many of the temperance 
men went armed. Even giins were held in readiness. The most 
prominent men and women in each toAvn in the township — wliich 
embraced Haywards, San Leaudro, San Lorenzo and Mount Eden — 
were ranged with the temperance ticket, regardless of pai-ty or poli- 
tical proclivity. Here Judge Russell, head of the Temperance Al- 
liance, was at home. The usual workers on both sides at the other 
elections were on hand, women as well as men. No disturbance took 
place, and tlie only arrest made was of a couple of contraband kegs of 
lager at San Leandro. These were carried off from their hiding place 
on the margin of the creek, in triumph, and confiscated by the Slieriff. 
The contest promised to be very close, but the count of the ballots in 
the evening unfolded another license victoiy. The majority was 
small, but it confirmed the unpopularity of the new law. 

Following were the returns received from each polHng place : San 
Leandro — For License, 79; against, 87. Haywards — For License, 
101; against, 93. San Lorenzo — For License, 79; again.st, bo. 
Mount Eden — For License, 49 ; against, 9. Total majority for Li- 
cense in the township, 61. 

Summing up the total result in the county by townships, the fol- 
lowing result was obtained : 



For License. 


Against. 


- 201 


108 


- 267 


3.51 


- 308 


244 


- 1,038 


1,291 


- 384 


170 


- 184 


167 



398 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Alameda Township, - - 

Brooklyn " - - - 

Edeii " - - 

Oakland " _ . . 

Murray " ... 

Washington " - - - 

2,382 2,331 

Showing a majority of 51 in favor of the license cause. 

The total resvilt, however, did not influence the result in each se- 
parate township, which was to exercise its own local option. 

In Oakland and Brooklyn the saloons did not close at the apj^ointed 
time, and forty-four warrants were served by the Sherilf in one day, 
for violations of the law. Convictions were had; but an appeal was 
in the mean time made to the Supreme Court against the unconstitu- 
tionality of the law, and Judge Nye reserved his decision until the 
Supreme Court had passed upon it. The ground taken was that the 
law operated unequally, as under it liquor could be sold in one locality 
and not in another. The Constitution of the State declares that all 
laws must be equal in their operation, and on this ground the Su- 
preme Court quashed the whole business, and the Pendegast Act was 
repealed at the last session of the Legislature. And thus fruitlessly 
closed a series of the most exciting, odd, and probably most re- 
markable election contests that ever took place in the w-orld. 

During the winter of 1874 took place the celebrated legislative 
investigation into the management by the Board of Regents of the 
erection of the College of Letters of the State University. The build- 
ing had been constructed the previous summer, at a cost to the State 
of $130,000, and it was maintained by some that this amount was in 
excess of what it should rightly have cost by about $24,043.12. Two 
investigations were held — one by an Assembly and the other by a 
Senate Committee. It was shown that the Regents left the manage- 
ment of the erection to Dr. Merritt, who was Chairman of the Build- 
ing Committee, and that he had let the work to certain favorite con- 
ti-actors, in order that he might, himself, make a profit thereon. The 
attack on Dr. Merritt and the Regents was led by Assemblyman 
Tyrrell, of San Francisco, who was himself a builder, and anxious at 
the time to bid on the job; but according to his own statement, was 
advised by Mr. Miller, the millman, that it would be useless for him 
to do so, as the firm of Power & Ough were sure to have the work, no 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 399 

matter who bid or what their offers were. Mr. Miller, however, 
denied on oath that he had made any such remark. A great many- 
witnesses were examined and much time taken up with the enquiry. 
Power &. Ough, who had in the meantime left the country, asserted by 
letter that all that they had made by the contract was 3^ per cent., 
and that the State had in the College of Letters the cheai)est of all 
its structures. The fact that Dr. Merritt was the owner of a lumber 
yard, and supplied material for the building, was much commented 
upon, although the Doctor declared that he had furnished lumber as 
cheap as anyone else could have done. At any rate, the reports of 
the Special Committees were condemnatory of the manner in which 
the work had been carried out ; but nothing more was done about it, 
excepting Judge Nye calling attention to the matter in his subse- 
quent charge to the Grand Jury. 

The Parshall case was another of the events of this year which 
made it remarkable, the facts of which are fresh in most people's 
minds. 

This year, too, we had Sheriff Morse's celebrated pursuit of Vas- 
quez, which proved ineffectual, as the celebrated detective never got 
. near the notorious outlaw, who, however, was captured soon after 
Morse gave up the chase, near Los Angeles. 

Oakland witnessed the famous Grand Central Hotel suit — 
Merritt vs. Wilcox ; was entei-tained and puzzled with the Clarke 
ghost mystery ; the introduction of public drinking-fountains ; and 
the establishment of a Board of Public Works. 

Prof. Wm. Swinton, a gentleman who was associated with the 
University since its establishment, as Professor of English Language 
and Literature, resigned his position and went East. He carried 
with him the regrets and well- wishes of his colleagues in the Univer- 
sity. The resignation took place early in March. 

Captain Hii-am Thorne, a member of the Oakland Board of Fire 
Commissioners, and an old resident of Brooklyn, died suddenly of 
heart disease, on the morniag of the 13th of March. He was a 
native of ISTew York, and about 60 years of age at the time of his 
death. The flags of the City Hall and engine-houses were placed at 
half-mast in respect to his memory. 

There was much discussion on the water question in Oakland, as 
the supply then obtainable was altogether inadequate. 

The Oilman claim against Contra Costa County, for the l;)uilding 
of the first Oakland bridge, was up before the Legislature again this 
session, with no other than the usual result — defeat. 



400 



HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Tlie Livermore Grange of tlie Patrons of Husbandry passed a series 
of resolutions, at a meeting held on the 1st of August, protesting 
against the action of the Board of Regents in removing Dr. CaiT 
from the position of Professor of Agriculture in the State Univer- 
sity, and condemning the management of the College of Agriculture, 
which were followed by many others of similar character in various 
portions of the State. 

Mr. S. A. Penwell, Secretary of the Berkeley Land Company, gave 
notice, in August, that the wharf was completed, and that all ship- 
pers were entitled to the use of the same, free of charge. It is 1,360 
feet in extreme length, and 80 feet wide at its lower portion, and at 
its upper portion, 30 feet. It is a strong structure. 

Hon. S. P. Wright, late Disti-ict Attorney of Alameda County, 
died at Santa Bai'bara on the 24th of July, after a protracted illness. 
He was formerly State Senator from the counties of Humboldt, Kla- 
math and Del Norte, and served a term as President ^;ro tern. He 
was an able and honest man. At the time of his demise his plac^ 
of residence was East Oakland, where he left a wife and two chil- 
dx'en to mourn his loss. At the following meeting of the County 
Court, resolutions of regret and condolence were passed. 

A meeting of persons interested in the construction of a narrow- 
gauge railroad from Martinez to Livermore, was held at Danville, 
Contra Costa County, on the 3d day of October. Nathan Jones, of 
Walnut Creek, occupied the Chair ; and F. R. Fassett, of Livermore, 
acted as Secretary. A committee, consisting of Daniel H. Inman, 
of Livermore ; Mr. Baldwin, of Limerick ; Chas. Wood, of Danville ; 
W. W. Camron, of Green Valley ; John Larkey, of Walniit Creek ; 
Lafayette Fish and Dr. Strentzel, of Martinez, were appointed a 
committee to complete the organization. The distance from Mai-tinez 
to Livermore is 35 miles, and a railroad would run nearly all the 
way over a level gi'ade, through the Pacheco, San Ramon, Amador, 
and Livermore Valleys. Several other meetings were subsequently 
held, but, after a time, the enterprise was allowed to drop. 

A reunion of the Grangers of Alameda County took place at Hay- 
wards on the 17th of October, at which wei'e represented Eden 
Grange, Thos. Hellar, Master ; Centre ville Grange, Jas. Shinn, 
Master; Sunol Grange, E. M. Carr, Master; Livermore Grange, 
Daniel H. Inman, Master; Temescal Grange, Dr. Ezra S. Carr, 
Master. 

During the year 1874 the new Court-house was started in Oakland. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 401 

It is situated on the west, or Washington Phiza, on Broadway, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth streets. It is constructed of wood, stone, 
brick and iron, and is an elegant and imposing structure ; in dimen- 
sions, 175x100 feet. The contract price was $148,550; but the 
extras and alterations have raised it to over $200,000. A Jail was 
also erected this year, on tlie same block of ground, immediately 
west of the Court-house. It is built of brick and stone, and its 
dimensions are 40x75 feet, two stories high, with wings. Cost, 
$39,000; but, with building at Brooklyn, taking down and rebuild- 
ing, the total charge to jail account is $70,000. 

The local legislation for the year 1874 embraced the following 
enactments : 

Introduced by Senator Gibbons : 

An Act to prevent the sale of liquor within two miles of the State 
University. 

An Act to fix the salaries of officers in Alameda County. 

An Act to abolish the office of County Assessor, create Township 
Assessors, and define the duties thereof. 

An Act to authorize the Mountain View Cemetery Association to 
issue bonds to the amount of $13,000. 

An Act to define the boundary line between San Francisco and 
Alameda Counties. [The old line included a portion of the railroad 
w-harf within the limits of San Francisco County ; the line deter- 
mined by this Act is drawn at a distance of 500 feet west of the 
railroad wharf.] 

An Act authorizing the Supervisors of Alameda County to erect 
buildings on Washington and Franklin Squares, in the City of Oak- 
land, and to issue bonds to the amount of $200,000 therefor. 

An Act to authorize the Governor to select five Commissioners, 
who shall have concurrent power with the Council to purchase, con- 
struct or condemn water-works. [Bonds to the amount of $800,000 
may be issued and the credit of the city pledged.] 

An Act supplementary to the city charter. [Makes office of City 
Attorney elective ; fixes salaries of officers ; prohibits the incurring 
of debts, etc.] 

Bills introduced by Assemblyman Gurnett : 

An Act granting tide-lands north of Lake Peralta to the City of 
Oakland. 

An Act to provide for the ei-ection of a bridge from Alameda to 

26 



402 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

• 

Bay Island. [Appropriated $8,000 from the County for this pur- 
pose.] 

An Act confirming the action of the City Council in paying City 
Marshal Johnson the damages recovered against him by property- 
holders on Eighth Street. 

An Act to construct a main sewer from the lake westerly to the 
bay. 

An Act to provide for the issue of $100,000 of bonds, to fund the 
debt of tlie city. [$12,000 is provided for the new school-house in 
Brooklyn ; and the creation of further debts in excess of the city's 
revenue is prohibited.] 

An Act to legalize an assessment in Brooklyn, for the construction 
of a sewer ordei*ed by the former town authorities. 

An Act to legalize the action of the City Council of Oakland in 
paying AV. W. Foote $500 for legal services rendered the ^ity. 

An Act to postpone the city election this year until the first Mon- 
day in May. 

An Act to ratify the action of the City Council of Oakland in 
paying J. M. Bailey for a sidewalk. 

An Act to fix the compensation of the Deputy-Sherifi" at $1,500 
per annum. 

An Act to authorize the City of Oakland to issue eight per cent, 
bonds, and use the money to I'edeem the ten per cent, bonds now out- 
standing. 

Mr. Amerman is the author of the following acts : 
An Act to revise an Act, entitled an Act to incorporate the Town 
of San Leandro. 

An Act declaring Alameda creek, in Alameda County, a navigable 
stream, and providing for the removal of obstructions therefrom. 

An Act to amend an Act entitled an Act to incorporate the Town 
of Alameda. 

An Act to authorize the trustees of the First Congregational Reli- 
gious Society of Oakland to convert certain real estate belonging to 
said society in the City of Oakland and County of Alameda. 

An Act to provide for the collection of district school taxes in 
Townsend and May School Districts, in Murray Township, in the 
County of Alameda. 

An Act in relation to certain streets in the Town of Alameda. 
An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled an Act to establish a 
Police Court in the City of Oakland, and define its jurisdiction, 
.duties, and fees of Court, and its officers. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 



403 



An Act to authorize the Board of Supervisors of Akiiueda Couuty 
to pay the claim of Geo. W. Babcock. 

Mr. Amerman was also the author of "An Act to define the Sen- 
atorial and Assembly Districts of this State, and to apportion the 
representation thei-eof," whereby^ the representation of Alameda 
County was increased from one to two Senators, and from tv/o to 
three Assemblymen. 




404 



HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 



Shoes 

Shoes 


Soot^ ki\d ^]:\oe^. 


Boots 
Boots 


Shoes 




Boots 


Shoes 


^^te^^ 


Boots 


Shoes 


^wf 


Boots 


Shoes 


^^m 


Boots 


Shoes 


^H 


Boots 


Shoes 


i^SlK 


Boots 


Shoes 


'^^^rai 


Boots 


Shoes 


^^^^Plw 


Boots 


Shoes 


^^^^ 


Boots 


Shoes 


THE FINEST STOCK OF 


Boots 


Shoes . 




Boots 


Shoes 


Boots and Shoes 


Boots 


Shoes 
Shoes 


Evex" XDis^Dlst^^eci ixi 0^l5:l£<.3:ica - 


Boots 
Boots 


Shoes 
Shoes 


All Grades and Styles of Work 


Boots 
Boots 


Shoes 


AT 


Boots 


Shoes 


AUCTION PRICES! 


Boots 


Shoes 




Boots 


Shoes 


ADAPTED TO THE SEASON, 


Boots 


Shoes 


AT 


Boots 


Shoes 
Shoes 
Shoes 


T). STtJA.IlT'S 

No. 90B Broadway. 


Boots 

Boots 
Boots 


Shoes 




Boots 


Shoes 


Sole Agent for Oakland for Edwin C. Burt's Fine 


Boots 


Shoes 


Shoes. A full Stock on hand. 


Boots 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 405 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



THE EVENTS OF 1875. 



Destruction of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asi/him by Fire — Death 
of Mayor Durant — New Mineral Discoveries in Brooklyn 
Township— $100,000 More for Oakland Harbor — Death of 
General Heath — Women Petitioning for their Rights — Newark 
Land Association — Appearance of the Oakland (German) Jour- 
nal — Regidation for Tree-Planting — The Right to Impose a High 
Rate of Liquor License Affirmed — Livermore Incorporation — 
Great Odd Fellows^ Celebrationis — May-day Festivities — The 
Hammond Religious Revival — First Brick House in Livermore 
Dedicated — Rhode Island Celebration and Clam Bake — Grangers^ 
Reunion — Rejmblican Convention — The Alameda Independent 
— The County Offices Removed to the New Court-house — Heavy 
Rain Storm in June — Death of Alonzo D. Fames- — A Lively 
Democratic Primary in Oakland — Independents^ Convention — 
Fourth of July at San Lorenzo — Com,ments of a Grand Jury 
on the Court-House — What Alameda Paid the State — Republican 
County Convention — Democratic County Convention — Refuse to 
Join with the hulependents, Who Make a Separate Ticket — 
County Infirmary Investigation — Death of Governor Weller — 
Demise of Rev. F. S. Lacy — Great Stringency in Money Matters 
— The Votes at the General and Judicial Elections — A Bill of 
Damages — Light-house on Goat Island — Death of '■'■Father'^ 
Bryant — An Old Pioneer Dies — -Santa Clara and Alameda 
Narrow-gunge Railroad — Abscoiuling of Geo. M. Pinney — 
Harry Meigs Intending to Settle in Oakland — Death of Geo. M, 
Blake — Of Francisco Aurrecoech^ar-^^J,ameda and Contra Costa 
Railroad Company Organized-^-^Progress at Berkeley — Death of 
Mrs Larue — Sudden Demise of J. Ross Browne — County Statis- 
tics — Alameda in tJie Legislature. 

The year 1875 is remarkable in our county annals for the number 
of deaths that occui-red among old citizens, for the many new enter- 



406 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

prises commenced, the increase of our means of intercourse, the rapid 
augmentation of our population, the fullness of our cereal and fruit 
crops, the tightness of the money market, caused by the temporary 
failure of the Bank of California ; the number of our political con- 
ventions, the multiplicity of parties, and the partial restoration of 
the Democratic pai-ty to power. 

The destruction by fire of the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum took 
place on Sunday afternoon, January 17th. It was situated in the 
foot-hills, half a mile south of Berkeley ; was constructed of stone, 
and constituted one of the most solid and valuable buildings in the 
State. It was built and maintg-ined by public funds, and in its 
destruction over $200,000 was lost to the people. There were ninety- 
one inmates of the Asylum at the time of the fire, all of whom were 
removed in safety. 

An investigation into the cause of the fire took place a few days 
after, by the Board of Directors, when it was declared to be purely 
accidental, and no blame attached to any of the oflicei-s or servants of 
the institution. Temporary buildings were at once constructed. 

Rev. Henry Durant, Mayor of Oakland, and the firet president of 
the State University, died at his residence, at half past three o'clock 
on Friday afternoon, January 22d, of congestive chills. His death 
was sudden, as he had been on the streets the day before, attending to 
his usual avocations. He was seventy-two yeai's of age. No man 
was ever more regretted. A sketch of his eventful life will be found 
in another part of this volume. 

In the latter part of January a vein of silver ore was discovei-ed 
in the liills between Brooklyn and San Leandro, by Thomas P. 
Gilmore, a nephew of the celebrated musician, then employed in 
the California Reduction "Works. It was estimated to yield $25 to 
the ton, but no steps were taken to work it. A serpentine belt 
was found by Mr. Gilmore, almost two miles and a half long, run- 
ning in' a northeasterly and southeasterly direction. On the west 
side of it is a range of hills, containing a conglomerate heavy gravel 
deposit, which in some places is 100 feet thick. On the east side of 
this serpentine belt, auriferous quartz has been found with limestone, 
showing a good })rospect of copper. At a subsequent date Mr. Gil- 
more took samples of rock fi-om the croppings alluded to above to 
San Francisco and had the same assayed. Mr. R. J. Kohler, after 
testing one sample, stated that it yielded $58 per ton in silver, with 
a trace of gold. Another specimen assayed produced $18.25 in sil- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 407 

ver, and ,|5 in gold, besides 5 per cent, in copper. Mr. Gilmore pur- 
chased the land on which the mine was located, and desired to 
associate some capitalists with him to open and work the mine, but 
nothing has yet been done. 

A second appropriation of $100,000, towards the improvement of 
Oakland Harbor, was made by Congress, the news of which was 
received in Oakland with much rejoicing, early in February. Senator 
Sargent and Representative Page were accredited with having secured 
this second fiivor, as they did the first. 

General R. W. Heath, an old resident of Oakland, died at his 
residence near St. Helena, Napa County, on the 7th of February. 
Deceased was a native of Bladensburg, Maryland, and was aged 52 
years and 7 days. The funeral service took place at St. John's 
Chui'ch, Oakland, two days after, his remains having beei; removed 
here for interment in Mountain View Cemetery. Many prominent 
citizens were present. 

At the Republican City Convention, held in Oakland in February, 
Dr. Newcombe presented a voluminous petition from a number of 
women and citizens of Oakland, accompanied by a memorial 
addressed to the Convention, asserting the right of women to hold 
two places on the Board of Education. The names of 365 ladies 
and 350 voters were signed to the petition. 

The Newark Land Association was incorporated in February, with 
the intention of founding a new town on the borders of the bay, in 
Washington Township, to be named after the manufacturing city of 
New Jersey. Several strong capitalists engaged in the enterprise, 
which was under the management of Mr. Charles Peters, of San 
Francisco. 

The first number of the Oakland Journal, a weekly newspaper in 
the German language, made its appearance on the 27th of February. 
It was published, then as now, by Messrs. Schmidt, Wieymer & 
Schutt, the latter gentleman being manager. It was a very hand- 
some sheet, of the dimensions of 24x36, and still flourishes. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held on the 8th of 
March, Mr. Shattuck presented the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Besolved, That all shade trees planted on public highways in Oak, 
land Township, shall be as follows : Roads of the width of 100 feet, 
shade trees shall be planted 16 feet from the outer edge thereof, 
Roads of the width of 85 feet, shade trees shall be planted 13 feet 



408 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

from the outer edge thereof. Roads of the width of 85 feet, shade 
trees shall be planted 14 feet from the outer edge thereof. Roads of 
the width of 66 feet, shade trees shall be planted 12 feet from the 
outer edge thereof Roads of the width of 60 feet, shade trees shall be 
planted 10 feet from the outer edge thereof. The width of sidewalks 
shall be as follows : On public roads 100 feet, the sidewalks shall be 
20 feet; on public roads 80 feet wide, the sidewalks shall be 16 feet ; 
on public roads of the width of 60 feet, the sidewalks shall be 14 
feet wide. All shade trees shall be planted not less than 12 feet 
apart. 

In a test case brought before Judge McKee, in the Third District 
Court (The People vs. Wm. Hurll), to determine the power of the 
City Council of Oakland to exact a high rate for licenses, the Judge 
decided that they had ])ower to exact any sum for license they thought 
proper. He stated, in objection to the plea that the sum demanded 
for liquor license was unequal when compared with other brandies of 
business, that the Legislature had conferred this power upon them, 
and what was a reasonable fee, was a practical question the City 
CouncU was better able to determine than the Court. 

A meeting was held in Livermore, April 3d, for the purpose of tak- 
ing into considei'ation the advisability of incorporating the to^vn. It 
was determined to hold a public meeting on the following Saturday, 
to ascertain the opinion of a majority of the citizens on the subject. 
The meeting was held, but the most of those in attendance were 
opposed to incorporation ; the project did not die, however, and was 
kept alive by those interested until the meeting of the last Legisla- 
ture, when an Act of incorporation was presented and passed. 

The Odd Fellows of San Francisco celebrated their fifty-sixth anni- 
versary by a monster picnic at Badger's Park, Oakland, on the 26th 
of April ; and the Oakland Odd Fellows held their celebration at 
Scheutzen Park, Alameda. Games of various kinds and dancing- 
were pai-ticipated in, and both celebrations, in point of attendance, 
enjoyment and results, were highly satisfactory. 

May- Day, as usual, was celebrated throughout the county with 
balls and picnics, crowning of the May Queen, etc. At Dry Creek, 
near Decota, jbhe students of Washington College celebrated the day 
with becoming cei-emouy, and made a veiy pleasing display. 

The great excitement of this year was the reHgious revival season 
inaugurated by the Rev. E. B. Hammond in Oakland. The meet- 
ings were held in a large tent, situated on the coi'ner of Washington 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 409 

and Fourteenth Streets, and were very largely attended, the interest 
having been kept up for several weeks. 

Friday, the 30th day of April, was a gala day in the town of I.iv- 
ermore, the occasion being the dedication of the first brick building 
— erected by Mr. Esdon — a handsome two-story structure. The 
lower part consists of stores, and the upper of a public hall. The 
tire company turned out with a band of music in honor of the event, 
and paraded the town ; speeches were made, and in the evening a 
ball was given in the hall. 

The natives of Rhode Island, in this State, held a reunion at the 
Piedmont Hotel, Oakland Township, on the 21st of May, where they 
enjoyed the luxury of an old-fashioned clam bake. An original poem 
Avas read by Mr. D. P. Moore, and an eloquent speech was made by 
Hon. Nathan Porter. A society was formed, and the following offi- 
cers, who were mostly residents of Alameda County, were elected 
President, William Sherman; Vice-President, E,. B. Woodward 
Second Vice-President, Allen Gladding ; Secretary, E. H. Smith 
Treasurer, William ISTorris ; Executive Committee, George B. Knowles, 
Nathan Porter, Stephen H. Smith, Jr. 

The Grangers of Alameda County held their annual reunion in 
the San Lorenzo Grove, on the 29th of May. The day was delight- 
ful, the time propitious, and the attendance large. At the literary 
exercises the assemblage was called to order by Joel Russell, Esq., 
of Haywards, President of the Council for Alameda County, who was 
nominated as President of the Day. An original poem, " The 
Patrons' Declaration of Principles," was read by Mrs. J. V. Web- 
ster, of Fruit Vale. A short address was delivered by Mrs. Dr. 
Carr, who gave a history of the Order in the State, and referred to 
woman's place in the Order. Addresses were also made by other 
prominent members of the Order, and a pleasant and profitable time 
passed. 

A new accession was made to the press of the county in the 
beginning of June, when the Alameda Independent appeared at 
Washington Corners. It is publislied by W. W. Theobalds & Co., 
is ably conducted, and the only paper now printed in the valley be- 
tween Brooklyn and San Jose. 

The Republican County Convention was held in Oakland on the 
11th of June, when there was a full attendance of members. The 
Convention was called to order by Geo. M. Pinney, Chairman of the 
County Central Committee. Thos. Eagar was elected Temporary 



410 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Chairman ; and A. W. Bishop, Secretary. Resolutions expressing 
confidence in the National Administration, and in Congressman 
Page, were passed, and delegates appointed to the State Convention, 
At the State Convention, held in Sacramento, a few days later. Dr. 
Ezra S. Carr, of this county, was nominated as candidate for Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction ; and F. K. Shattuck, a member of the 
State Central Committee. 

The Board of Supervisors met for the first time in their room, in 
the new Court-house, on Monday, June 14th. The County officers 
took possession on Tuesdaj^, the 8th of the same month, having 
occupied the temporary quarters in East Oakland until then. It 
was proposed to get up a celebration in honor of the completion of 
the new building, but the proposition was not acted upon. 

June of this year was remarkable for the rain storm that occurred 
in the middle of the month. It rained more or less during three or 
four days. Rain set in on the morning of the 15th, about 8 o'clock, 
and continued steadily until the afternoon. The wind was from the 
south-east and strong, and a poi-tion of the time the rain poured down 
very heavily. The storm ceased at 6 o'clock in the evening, having 
done some damage to stacked grain and hay. From Sunday the 1 3th, 
to Wednesday the 16th, the total rain-fall was one and sixty-five 
hundreths of an inch. From the record kept by Mr. Thomas Tennant, 
it appears that rain fell during the month of June, in the years 1849, 
1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1855, 1859, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1867, 1870, 
1871, and 1874, but there had been no such fall as this since 1849. 

Information was received in Oakland that Alonzo D. Eames, one 
of the pioneers of Oakland, had died at Lone Pine, Inyo County, on 
the 17th of June. Deceased was elected a member of the first City 
Council of Oakland in 1854, and was re-elected in 1855, 1861, and 
1862; in 1865 and 1866 he was City Clerk, and the predecessor of 
Mr, Hillebrand. 

The first session of the Third District Court held in the new Court- 
house, was commenced on the 21st day of June, 

A Democratic Primary Election was held in Oakland on the 19th 
of June, when two tickets were placed in the field. The largest vote 
ever polled at a Democratic primary was cast, and the opposition 
ticket (anti-chivalry) elected. About 600 votes were polled, all at 
one polling })lace, on the corner of Broadway and Fifth street. The 
successful ticket was headed by F. J, Brearty, and the unsuccessful 
by Col, J, C, Hayes. As the defeated ticket contained the names of 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 411 

several distinguislied Democrats, such as those of Wm. Van Voorhies, 
Malichi Fallon, Theodore F. Bagge, D. W. Gelwicks, D. Ghirardelli, 
Wm. Hoskins, and other old steady and constant Democrats, the 
result was the cause of much comment. The County Convention was 
held on the 26th day of June, when the contest between the contend- 
ing elements was renewed. It ended in the defeat of the Oakland 
delegation, who found nearly all the county delegates against them, 
and they lost the control of the Convention. The contest was for 
seats in the State Convention, for which the Irish friends of Hon. 
Philip A. Roach made a bold push. Although defeated, a majority 
of the delegation selected favored the nomination of that gentleman 
on the first ballot, at the State Convention. As the following elec- 
tion was the first in which occurred a Democratic victory in this 
county for many yeai-s, it is appropriate to mention the names of the 
delegates chosen. They were, for Oakland, F. J. Brearty, S. D. Cro- 
nin, and Joseph Becht; for Alameda, M. W. Peck; Bi'ooklyn, Thos. "W. 
Badger; Washington, Edward Niehaus; Eden, S. W. Cull; Murray, 
Jos. F. Black. The Convention met at iTnion Hall, San Francisco, 
on the 29 th of June, when Hon. Wm. Irwin and all the present State 
Ofiicei-s, excepting Dr. Carr, were nominated. No one from Alameda 
County was placed upon the State ticket. At the Democi-atic Con- 
gressional Convention, held at the same time, Hon. Henry Lai-kin, of 
El Dorado County, was nominated to oppose Mr. Page, for Congress. 

An Independent County Convention was held in Oakland, Avhen 
delegates to the State Convention of the party, held at Sacramento, 
were appointed. The principles of this party were reform in the 
administration of public affairs, the correction of local abuses, oppo- 
sition to monopolies, and the reconciliation of the North and South. 
The Convention met at Sacramento, on the 2 2d of June, when a 
platform was adopted, and a State ticket, headed by Genei-al John 
Bidwell, of Chico, for Governor, was nominated. No one from Ala- 
meda County was placed on the ticket ; but Hon. Chas. E. Tuttle, of 
Oakland, received the Congressional nomination. 

At the Fourth of July celebration, at San Loi-enzo, the Declai-a- 
tion of Independence was read by J. V. B. Goodrich, County Clerk ; 
Mr. Jacob Price, of San Leandro, was Poet of the Day ; Hon. Ste- 
phen G. Nye, Orator ; and Rev. W. F. B. Lynch, Master of Cere- 
monies. An attempt had been made to get up a celebration in Oak- 
land ; but it ended in foilure. The County Court met in the new 
Court-house, in Oakland, for the first time, on the 10th of July. 



412 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

The Grain! Jmy on tliat day made its presentment, and, among 
otlier observations, made the following strictures on the completion 
of the new Conrt-house : 

" In examining the proceedings of the Board of Supervisors, the 
jury were led to examine tlie contract for building the Court-house, 
and found material, as well as minor, discrepancies between it and 
the building as completed. Particularly as to the front steps. The 
contract calls for steps fifteen inches wide ; speaking-tubes and 
whistles are called for between the Court-rooms and certain offices ; 
while none are found. The jury considered that the architect has 
been negligent in duty, and, to say the least, censurable, if not liable 
therefor • and that it was the duty of the Building Committee and 
Board of Supervisoi-s, before accepting the building, to see that it 
was completed according to contract, and this they evidently did not 
do. Tlie construction of the floors in the Supervisors' and Recorder's 
rooms is very faulty, and more pillars or other suppoi-ts are needed 
under the floors. We consider it a great oversight in a climate like 
this, in allowing the plastei'ing to be put upon the brick, instead of 
furring the walls. The rooms are cold and damp, and, in conse- 
quence, the walls are nearly all discolored. The whole interior con- 
struction and arrangement of the building is, in our opinion, 
excellent ; and the upholstering and furnishing, except in the Sur- 
veyor's office, tasteful ; but, at the same time, unnecessarily expens- 
ive and extravagant for county purposes." 

During the last fiscal year Alameda County paid into the State 
Treasury the large sum of $241,141.51, or $6 for each man, woman 
and child in the county. A portion of this came back in the appro- 
priation for school purposes ; but even on the item of school money 
we paid out $20,000 per annum more than we received in return. 

The Republican Convention for making nominations for legislative 
and county officers, was held in the Academy of Music, Fifth Street, 
Oakland, on the 2d of August. Delegates were present from all 
parts of the county, numbering 115 persons. 

Mr. E. B. Mastick, of Alameda, was nominated for State Senator ; 
Messrs. John L. Beard, of Centreville, A. T. Coville, of San Leandro, 
and J. V. B. Goodrich, of Oakland, were nominated for Assembly, 
with a full list of county officers, whose names will appear hereafter. 
Delegates were also appointed to attend the Judicial Convention, for 
the nomination of candidates for County and District Judges. Mr. 
Mastick subsequently declined to be a candidate for Senator, and 
Mr. Jas. W. Shanklin, of Oakland, was substituted in his stead. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 413 

At the Democratic County Convention, held on the 24th of July, 
at the Academy of Music, a full and exclusive Democratic ticket was 
nominated, witli Jas. Beazell at its head for State Senator. It was 
undei-stood that the Democrats and Independents woukl make a joint 
ticket, but from some motive, not explained (probably a promise of 
the railroad support), the Democrats did not enter into the an-ange- 
ment, and three separate tickets were put into the tield. 

The Independent Convention, which met in the City Hall the 
same day, appointed a committee to make a selection of names, and 
report at a subsequent meeting. The committee consisted of Casper 
T. Hopkins, Brooklyn TowTiship ; J. F. Walker, Washington Town- 
ship ; Myron Smith, Alameda Township ; Walter Blair, Oakland 
To\vnslup ; W. W. Winn, Murray Township ; Wm. Heller, Eden 
Township ; C. W. Phelps and J. H. Redstone, Oakland Township. 
On the 7th of August they reported the names of their choice of 
candidates, naming Hon. Henry Robinson, of AJameda, for State 
Senator ; endorsing Dixon (Democrat), of Washington, for Assem- 
bly, adding Walter Blair, of Oakland, and Joseph Tayloi-, of Mur- 
ray. L. C. Morehouse, of San Leandro, was nominated for Sheriff, 
and the remainder of the candidates were taken from both the 
other tickets, as will be seen in the classification of candidates here- 
after. 

A committee of the Board of Supervisoi*s, appointed to investi- 
gate the management and condition of the County Intii-maiy, 
reported, Augiist 7th, that they found everything satisfactory, with 
the exception that the Infirmary physician was in the habit of pre- 
paring skeleton figures on the premises, a practice wliicli they con- 
demned. Only three skeletons, all for scientific purposes, had been 
prepared. 

Information was received here, on the 19th of August, that John 
B. AVeller, formerly Governor of the State and a resident of Fruit 
"Vale in this county, had died in New Orleans, two days previous, of 
small-pox. He was bom in Oxford, Ohio, in 1812, and Avas there- 
fore 63 yeai's of age. Governor WeUer's career was an eventful one. 
He was admitted to the bar at an early age, and was at one time 
Democratic candidate for Governor of his native State, and although 
defeated, was twice elected to Congress. He sei'\'ed with distinction 
in the Mexican war, and was appointed, by President Polk, one of 
the Commissioners to locate the boundary line between Mexico and 
California. He came up from Panama on the first trip of the steam- 



414 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

ship Panama, and on the first day of June, 1849, was landed at the 
old hide house, on the beaoh at San Diego, with Major Emory, 
Captain Hardcastle, Lieutenant Derby (Phoenix) and the members 
of the surviving party. He was elected Governor of California in 
1857, just after the Know-nothing party collapsed. He subsequently 
lived for short periods in Utah and Idaho. During the last fi\'f 
years of his life he practiced law in New Orleans, but had visited liis 
old home here since his settlement in that city. He was four times 
married, and one of his sons is a lawyer in San Francisco. Governor 
Weller was regarded and esteemed as an honest public man, and iu 
social life had many warm friends. 

Another notable death was that of the Rev. E. S. Lacy, Congi'e- 
gational clergyman, which took place near St. Helena, Napa County, 
on the 23d day of August. Deceased was a minister of the gospel 
in this State for 23 years, and Avas well and widely known. He was a 
native of Saratoga County, N. Y., and at the time of his death 48 years 
of age. He graduated at Hamilton College with distinguished honors, 
and, after his admission to the ministry, came to California. He first 
went to Crescent City, and, as early as 1854, temporarily supplied 
the pulpit of the fii-st Protestant church in San Francisco, of which 
Kev. S. H. Willey, subsequently Vice-President of the College of 
California, in Oakland, was pastor. In 1856 Mr. Lacy succeeded T. 
Dwight Hunt as pastor of the First Congregational Church, in San 
Francisco. He continued as pastor for nearly ten years, during 
which time no minister on the coast acquired more influence, or used 
it more beneficially than did the subject of this notice. He was a 
large-hearted, genial, sympathetic man, quick and warm in his im- 
pulses, a steadfast friend and an earnest and persuasive preacher. 
About 11 years previous to his death, an attack of hemorrhage of 
the lungs forced him to retire from the active duties of the ministry. 
He traveled in Europe for two years, and on his return settled down 
on a farm near Martinsburg, Virginia, and was for a time Superin- 
tendent of Schools for the county in which he resided. After several 
years of out-door life thei*e, at the earnest solicitation of many of his 
friends, he returned to California, and was tendered charge of the 
new church at Seminary Park, near Mills Seminary ; but his health 
failing soon after, again he retired from the active duties of his pro- 
fession, still hoping for a longer lease of life. Death came gently 
and closed the career of a man of large-hearted benevolence and use- 
ful life. To do good was his pleasure, to be a time Christian his pride. 
Mr. Lacy left a wife and family to mourn his untimely death. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 415 

The death of Wm. C. Ralston, and the temporary faihire of the 
Bank of California, were severe blows to the business and industry of 
the State, from which they did not recover for many months. Our 
local monetary institutions were not specially aflected, but tliere set 
in a monetary stringency and a depression of business that was 
severely felt here as well as in San Francisco. The bank closed its 
dooi-s temporai-ily on the 26th day of August. 

The General Election, State and County, took place on the 1st of 
September. There were four tickets in the field : Democratic, Re- 
publican, Independent and Temperance. The vote in this county 
was as follows : 

For Governor—'^ \\i. Irwin (D.), 2,433 ; T. G. Pheljis (R.), 1,956 ; 
John Bidwell (I.), 895 ; W. E. Lovett (T.), 45. 

Lieutenant-Governor — -Jas. A. Johnson (D.), 2,398 ; J. M. Cavis 
(R.), 1,991 ; Romualdo Pacheco (I.), 997 ; W. D. Hobson (T.), 40. 

Secretary of State^T\\o^. Beck (D.), 2,450 ; E. H. Hallet, (R.), 
2,215 ; Wm. Rousch (I.), 756. 

Controller— 3 a^. W. Mandeville (D.), 2,238; Jas. J. Green (R.), 
2,260; Lauren E. Crane (I.), 827; Joel Russell (T.), 58. 

Treasurer— 3. G. Estudillo (D.), 2,306; Wm. Beckman (R.), 
2,270 ; Ferdinand Baehr (I.), 806 ; C. P. Thompson (T.), 47. 

Attorney-General — Jo. Hamilton (D.), 2,471 ; E. D. Sawyer (R.), 
2,243 ; Peter Van Clief (I.), 681. 

Surveyor-General — AVilliam Minis (D.), 2,437 ; Robert Gardner 
(R.), 2,155 ; Edward Twitchell (I.), 784. 

Clerk Supreme Court— J). B. Woolf (D.), 2,336 ; Grant I. Tag- 
gart (R.), 2,393 ; Paul Morrill (I.), 684. . 

For Congress — Henry Larkin (D.), 1,870 ; Horace F. Page (R.), 
2,895 ; Chas. A. Tuttle (I.), 660. 

For State Senator— Jas. Beazell (D.), 2,618 ; J. W. Shanklin (R.), 
2,033 ; Henry Robinson (L), 769. 

Three Assemblymen —^I. W. Dixon (D. and L), 3,163; D. W. 
Gelwicks (D.), 2,419 ; Theo. F. Bagge (D.), 2,399 ; J. V. B. Good- 
rich (R.), 2,273 ; John L. Beard (R.), 2,208 ; A. T. Covell (R.), 
2,059 ; Walter Blair (I.), 863 ; Joseph H. Taylor, 820. 

County Clerk — Spencer C. Bro^vne (D.), 2,551 ; Chas. G. Reed 
(R. and I.), 2,760 ; J. A. Chase (I.), 53. 

Sherif—ThoH. O'Neil (D.), 2,080; Henry N. Morse (R.), 2,091 ; 
L. C. Morehouse (L), 1,242. 



416 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

County Treasurer — Joseph Becht (D. and I.), 2,757 : Clias. E. 
Palmer (R), 2,666. 

County i?ecm7er— Thos. A. Smith (D. and I.), 2,941 ; P. R. Bo- 
rein (P.), 2,483. 

District Attorney — John P. Ghiscock (D. and I.), 3,105 ; Albert 

A. Moore (P.), 2,289. 

County Surveyor — George "W. Dougherty (D.), 2,383 ; Lnis Cas- 
tro (P. and I.), 3,022. 

County Superintendent Schools — B. F. Haislip (D.), 2,308 ; "\V. F. 

B. Lynch (P.), 2,309 ; Mrs. L. P. Fisher (I.), 779. 

Puhlic Administrator — William Hoskins (D.), 2,474 ; C. B. Puth- 
erford (P. and I.), 2,924. 

(;'oro;^er— William Helmer (D.), 2,584 ; S. H. Mather (P.), 1,947 ; 
Chas. S. Kittredge (I.), 854. 

Of the various candidates for State officers, but two belonged to 
Alameda County — Grant I. Taggart, Pepublican candidate for Clerk 
of the Supreme Court, and Joel Pussell, Temperance candidate for 
Controller — neither of whom, it will be seen, was elected. 

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. 

Supervisors : District No. 5, Oakland — Peter Pumyea (P.), 529 ; 
S. Hirshberg (D.), 381. District No. 2, Washington— H. Overacker, 
139 ; J. McKeown, 119 ; M. W. Listen, 18 ; J. A. Chadburne, 50 ; 
M. B. Sturges, 82 ; G. W. Cook, 92 ; C. A. Plummer, 13. 

Assessors: Oakland Township — E. Hunt, 1,122; J. F. Steen, 
521 ; J. E. Whitcher, 441. Brooklyn Township— A. B. Webster, 
321 ; John Carey, 201. Alameda Township — E. Minor Smith, 195. 
Eden Township— A. P. Hall, 272; Thomas Heller, 83; Joseph 
Pimentel, 205. Washington Township— L. S. Osgood, 337 ; W. T. 
Palph, 122 ; S. Martin, 1. INIurray Towiiship — Newton Ingrara, 
422 ; P. Wilson, 93 ; H. Bailey, 1 ; J. F. Black, 1. 

Constables: Oakland Township— W. T. Miles, 1,442; G. H. 
Tilly, 1,273 ; S. G. Crawford, 257 ; two required. Brooklyn Town- 
ship— J. W. Still, 213; E. Yates, 166; Jas. Triplet, 273; J. B. 
Merritt, 71 ; John Shearer, 136 ; two required. Alameda Towu- 
ship— H. S. Barlow, 12; W. P. Valentine, 137; S. Fish, 126; S. 
OiT, 144; W. K. Jacqueth, 22; two required. Eden Township — 
P. B. Cooley, 50; G. H. Horn, 284; J. S. Rivers, 211 ; J. H. 
Sherley, 312 ; G. H. Richardson, 160; two required. Washington 
Township— C. Nail, 128; J. A. Trefry, 341; C. O. Babb, 62; R. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 417 

Denmark, 82 ; E. Huff, 3 ; W. Lattin, 3 ; J. White, 1. Murray 
Townsliip— S. M. Conkey, 365; E. Faville, 490; D. Eegan, 104; 
R. Sanders, 115.; J. Atwell, 16; two required. 

The vote for Sheriff and County Superintendent was so close that 
a re-count was demanded, at the next meeting of the Board, by Mr. 
O'Neal and Mr. Haislip. The result, by process of law, when 
obtained, was that the majorities of Mr. Morse and Mr. Lynch were 
increased, the foi-mer having 38, and the latter 82, Mr. Haislip's 
name having been wrongly spelled on 90 ballots. 

The judicial election took place on the 20th of October, and 
resulted in the following vote : 

For State Siiperintendent — Ezi-a S. Carr, of Alameda (E. & I.), 
2,448; O. P. Fitzgerald, of Sonoma (D.), 1,090. 

Judge Third District Court — Samuel Bell McKee (D.), 2,7G^i^ 
Lewis Sheai-er (E.), 783. 

County J'^w/ye— Stephen G. Nye (E.), 2,095 ; W. Gibbons (D.), 1,451., 

Justices of the Peace: Alameda — J. W. Clark, 185; C. M. Ead- 
cliffe, 163; Wm. Holtz, 74; H. Hoag, 147. BrookI\T)i — . Jas.. 
Merritt, 214; Asa Howard, 194; M. Hawes, 183. Eden-^as, 
Collingridge, 275; S. Wootten, 200; Wm. Pearco, 12o ; J. A. 
Gallett, 39; scattering, 15. Oakland— Jas. Lentell, 1>120; "Wmi. 
M. Graham, 1,003 ; B. B. Taylor, 960. Murray— A. M. Church, 
274; L. A. Coats, 390; M. P. H. Love, 165. Washington— Jos. 
McKeown, 59; L. G. Yates, 154 ; Henry Smith, 96 ; W. H\ Geary, 
47 ; Joseph Herbert, 80 ; Geo. W. Bond, 37 ; a B. Eobinson, 20 ; 
scattering 2. 

The two candidates receiving the highest number of votes in each 
township were elected. 

A claim was presented to the Board of Supervisors, on September 
6th, by Juana M. Estiidillo, for the following items : 

For value of iron vault taken from old Coui-t-house, 

in San Leandro, --...- §5,000 

For nine iron cells, - - ^ - - - 8,000 

Eent of premises, from June 25th to Janxxary 25th, 

1875, at 0150 per month, ----- 2,850 

Eent from January 25th to August 25th, 1875, at 

8100 per month, ------ 700 

Damages to premises (Coui-t-house), - . - 1,500 



Total claim, . . - - $18,050 
The vault referred to in the foregoing claim is th.e Ti-easurer's 

27 



4:18 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

vault, now in the new Court-house, for the possession of which a suit 
had also been mstituted by F. Rhoda, the owner of the temporary 
Court-house in East Oakland. Both parties' claims were based on 
the ground that it became a permanent fixture in the respective 
buildings. The bill of Juana M. Estudillo was x-eferred to the 
County Attorney, and on the 29th of September was rejected by the 
Board, 

A light-house was erected on Goat Island, hj the Light-house 
Board, in September. Thei'e had been a fog-bell and fog-horn erected 
previously, but in foggy weather the bell could not be distinctly 
heard on the pilot-houses of vessels. 

The Independence of Mexico and Chili was celebrated at Liver- 
more, in September, by natives of those respective countries. 

On the 27th of September, died at Hay wards, Father Bryant, 
father of the Bev. J. W. Bryant, of Haywards, and Rev. Wm. S. 
Bryant, of San Leandi'O. Deceased was 75 years of age, and left 
behind him his wife, who had attained the advanced age of 69 years. 

An old pioneer of the county, named Wm. H. Hawthorne, was 
found dead about a mile from Niles bridge, on the 23d of September. 
He lived for many years in Washington Township. Of late years he 
had resided in San Francisco. His remains were accompanied by a 
large concourse of friends, to the Centreville Cemetery. Deceased 
formerly owned a valuable i~anch in Washington Township, and was 
noted for his hospitality. 

■ The grading of a new narrow-gauge railroad — the Alameda and 
Santa Clara — was commenced on the 27th day of September. The 
proposed line is between the town of Santa Clara and Dumbarton 
Point, on the Bay of San Francisco, and in Alameda County. Its 
completion was expected in a few months. It promised to be of great 
advantage to the inhabitants of the southern part of Alameda County, 
and it was proposed to connect it by a tram-way with Mission San 
Jos6, some ten miles distant. 

The disappearance of Ceo. M. Pinney, a prominent politician, 
Naval Paymaster's Clerk in San Francisco, a heavy o}3erator in mines 
and mining stock, and a resident of Oakland, caused much anxiety 
in San Francisco, where he had embezzled a large amount of money. 
He absconded on the 4th of July, and for a long time nothing was 
heard of him. He left behind him, in Oakland, a wife and family, 
and carried off a large amount of money, estimated as high as $1,000,- 
000, partly belonging to individuals and partly to the government. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 4H) 

No sucli bold adventurer as Pinney had ever appeared or disappeared 
in California. Much speculation existed and still continues, as to his 
whereabouts. 

Harry Meiggs, a former heavy defaulter and absconder from San 
Francisco, and who has since made much money in South America, 
was favored in the last Legislature by an Act passed allowing hini to 
return to this State, which it was his intention then to do, and settle 
in Oakland; but subsequent events prevented. He was so ill in July 
of this year, at his residence in Lima, that his life was at one time 
despaired of, and much anxiety existed in consequence. 

Judge George M. Blake, one of the oldest residents of Alameda 
County, and a pioneer of Oakland, died suddenly while out on a hunt- 
ing expetlition with Dr. Paixlee, at a place called Davis' Ranch, about 
sixty miles from Shasta. There was great grief in Oakland on the 
receipt of this news. The sad event took place on the 16 th day of 
October. Resolutions of regret and condolence were passed by the 
bar of Alameda County, at a meeting held in the Court-house on the 
following 18th; and a mass meeting of citizens was held in the City 
Hall, to express the sorrow of the community for the loss they had 
experienced in the death of so valuable a citizen. The obsequies took 
place on the afternoon of the 19th, at 2 o'clock. The funeral service 
was performed at the First Congregational Church, by Rev. J. K. 
McLean. The funeral was attended by a large number of citizens, 
City Council, the Bar, and the members of the Masonic Fraternity. 
While the cortege was moving to deposit the remains of the lamented 
gentleman in their last i-esting place, the bells of the city tolled a sad 
farewell, and the last earthly rites were performed by depositing the 
body in the gi-ave at Mountain Yiew Cemetery. 

There was buried at Mission San Jose, on the 11th of October, an 
old and well-known citizen of Alameda County — Francisco Aiirrecoe- 
chea. Deceased had been a resident of this county since 1852. He 
was a native of Spain, and was born in the town of Bilboa. For 
eral years he was engaged in mercantile business at Mission San 
Jose, but subsequently retired upon his landed possessions in Liver- 
more Valley, which had assumed large proportions, demanding his 
undivided attention. He was always known as a warm-hearted and 
honoi-able man ; generous by nature, and always helping any public 
charity or deserving person. His extensive estate was for many 
years a gi-eat temptation to settlers, and Mr. Aurrecoechea was much 
annoyed by squatters. His name appears quite often upon the Court 



420 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

records, as plaintiff in forcible entry and detainer suits. But his titles 
had been pei-fected for some time, and bis lands were all clear at 
the time of his demise. The deceased was about fifty years of age. 
He is succeeded in his property by his brother, Jos6 Aurrecoechea. 

In October, of this year, the idea of tunnelling the Contra Costa 
hills, and constructing either a railroad or improved wagon road, was 
revived. Some two years previovTsly, Messrs. J. E. Whitcher and 
W. F. Boardman, civil engineers, made a careful survey for a narrow- 
gauge railway between Oakland and Walnut Creek. A short, easy and 
feasible route was found, which included a tunnel, about half a mile 
in length, at the summit, and situated a short distance north of Lake 
Chabot. The idea of a railroad was taken up by a number of wealthy 
capitalists and a company formed, named the Oakland and Contra 
Costa Railroad. A meeting of the stockholders was held at the 
Grand Central Hotel, Oakland, on the evening of the 21st of Decem- 
ber, at which the following directors were elected, viz : Thomas H, 
Williams, W. W. Camron, J. M. Walker, Joseph Becht, E. Chappel- 
let, H. B. Berryraan, S. N. Puttnam, A. J. Snyder, John P. Jones, 
Mack Webber and L. W. Kennedy. The Board selected the follow- 
ing otficers : President, Thos. A. Williams , Treasurer, Joseph Becht ; 
Secretary, L. W. Kennedy. It was understood that Mr. Camron 
would act as General Superintendent. 

A committee appointed on pi'elirainary survey reported progress, 
Engineers were then in the field, and a favorable report followed in 
a few days. The length of the proposed road was to be about twentj 
miles, and the chief question to determine would be the route to hi 
taken from Oakland. It was afterwards determined to be via Berke 
ley. As will be hereafter seen, the chief difliculty in the way of thf i 
new company was to secure a desirable right of way through the Cit} 
of Oakland. Upon this matter tvirned the subsequent city election 

The progress going on about this time, at Berkeley, warranted th( 
ex})ectation that the beautiful suburb would, ere long, swell into i k 
town of considerable dimensions. A steamboat was making severa 
trips daily between there and San Francisco, and the stakes wertj* 
driven to mark the line of a steam railroad between Berkeley anc 
Oakland. The California Watch Factory had located there, and wa 
putting up a lai'ge building ; the Standard Soap Company was als< 
putting u}) a large building ; and great progress was visible at botl pi 
the University and water front sides of the new town. Water work 
were being erected, and building progressing very rapidly, while thi 
demand for lots was constant. 



UNDER THE STAHS AND STRIPES. 421 



A new Ti'auscoutineutal Telegi'aph Company was organized in New 
York during the latter half of 1875, with A. A. Cohen, of Ak\meda, 
as President. 

On the 19th of November died, at East Oakland, Mrs. Sarah La- 
rue, relict of the late Jas. B. Larue, the pioneer of Brooklyn. Mrs. 
Larue was one of the first American ladies that settled in Alameda 
County, and was a woman possessed of great fortitude, sound head 
and good heart. She was a native of New Jersey, came to Califor- 
nia in 1854, and settled with her husband in Brooklyn. At the time 
of her demise she was aged 69 yeai-s, 2 months and 14 days. 

J. E,oss Browne, the celebrated traveler and author, and one of the 
early settlers of Oakland, died suddenly on the morning of the 8th 
of December. He was taken ill with spasms on the pi-evious even- 
ing, on his return from San Fraiicisco to his residence north of Oak- 
land. Mr. Browne was born in Ireland, in 1817, and, at the time of 
his demise, was in his 58th year. 

The total value of real estate in Alameda County, in 1875, as re- 
turned by the assessors, was $32,168,903. The value of personal 
property was $6,672,822 ; of assessable property, $38,841,725. The 
tax for State purposes was $234,992.44 ; for county purposes, $217,- 
018.52, making a total tax of $452,010.96, levied in the county for 
State and county purposes. 

The funded debt of the County was $247,944, showing a large in- 
crease since the previous year on account of the cost of the Court- 
house and Jail buildings. The floating debt was $112,743.64. The 
rate of interest was 7 per cent. The cash in the Treasury was $50,- 
175.04. The value of the County property, including the two plazas 
ionated by the city of Oakland, was estimated at $300,000. The 
fate of taxation was $1.30 on each $100. 

The taxable property of Alameda had grown to be $10,000,000 
cnore than any county in the State, excepting San Francisco, having 
ately outgrown Sacramento, which hitherto held the second position, 
[ts rate of taxation was lower than any other county, excepting San 
Joaquin and San Benito. Sacramento and Santa Clara levied the 
same rate. 

The Legislature was in session, and Alameda was represented for 
■ike first time with her full delegation of five, secured by the new a])- 
3ortionment passed into law in the previous Legislature, through the 
sfibrts of Mr. Amerman. 



422 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Oakland Daily Transcript 

— AND — 

Alameda County Gazette. 



POWERS & CHAMBERLAIN, Editors and Proprietors. 



The Oakland Daily Transcript is nearly nine years old, 
and has a wide circulation. It is the official organ of the United States 
and County of Alameda, and is conceded to be one of the leading 
Republican papers of this State. 

The Alameda County Gazette is over twenty-one years 
old — the oldest paper published in the County, and one of the oldest 
in the State. It is full of local, current and general news. 

The price of the Daily is $7.00 per year, $3.75 for six months, 
and $2.00 for three months, and is served by carriers at 1 5 cts. per week. 

The Weekly is $2 .00 per year, $1.50 for six months, and de- 
livered by carrier per year for $2.50. A limited number of advertise- 
ments is only taken, and it is the cheapest weekly journal published 
west of the Rocky Mountains. 

The Transcript has the largest circulation of any Morning Paper, 
and the Alameda County Gazette of any Weekly Paper published in 
this County, 

This large circulation makes these papers the best advertising 
mediums in the County. 

O. B. POWERS, ) Editors and 

WM. H. CHAMBERLAIN, ) Proprietors. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 423 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



THE EVENTS OF THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 



Legislative Committees visit the University and Deaf arul Dumb and 
Bliml Institute — Death of Ux- Mayor Williams, of Oakland — 
Franchise granted for the Northern Railway — Uxtension of 
Eighth Street, Oakland, and the Building of Another Bridge Pro- 
posed—The San Leandro Town Trustees Reduce the License Fee — 
Oakland Districted Into Wards — The Oakland, Berkeley and Corir 
tra Costa Railroad Company Ask the City Council for the Right 
of Way Through Market Street — Petition Refused — The Municipal 
Election Turns Up>on the Question — Dr. Pardee Elected Mayor 
Upon the Issue — Another Franchise Demanded by the Central Por- 
cific Company — The Folly of Political Nominations in Munici- 
pal Affairs — Final Defeat of the Franchise — The City Elections 
— The Repxiblican Nominees Generally Successful — Death of Gen- 
eral Shxiey — A Nonagenarian — Repuhlican County Convention 
— Centennial Fund Committee — Incorporation of the Town of 
Uaywards — Death of WiUiam Hillegas, a Pioneer of Oakland — 
Election of Town Officers of Alameda, San Leandro, Hay wards, 
ayid Livermore — Death of County Treasurer Becht — $30,Q00 
Damages for Rev. R. F. Parshall, against P. H. Sumner— Chas. 
Palmer Appointed County Treasurer — Democratic Convention — 
Delegates to Cincinnati and Saint Louis — Suicide of Judge Fer- 
ris — Anti-Chinese Mass Meeting in Oakland — The Lightning 
Train from New York to Oaklaml — Death of Jas. S. Latham — 
Reimblican and Democratic Ratification Meetings — A Champion 
Bigamist — Opening of the Berkeley Railroad — State Conventions 
for Choosing Presidential Electors — The Oakland Assessor' Reports 
$22,000,000 Assessable Property in the City — New City Direct- 
ory — Neiv Wharf at Foot of Broculway — The Creek Route Re- 
opened — Centennial Celebrations atul Festivities — West Oakland 
Rejoices — Acts of the Legislature of 1875-6 relating to Alameda 
County — Completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad to Los 
Angeles. 



424 HISTORY OP ALAMEDA COUNTY, 

The year 1876 is memorable as the Centennial year of American 
Independence. At the beginning of this year our Legislature was in 
session, and many important measures affecting the interests of Ahi- 
meda County were passed. During this year the city of Oakland 
was districted into Wards ; and the towns of Hayward and Liver- 
more incorporated. It was to us a year of great pul)lic enterprises; 
the second year of the construction of the seawalls for the protection 
of Oakland Harbor ; year of the dredging out of the chamiel, and the 
re-opening of the Creek route. During it the pi'omoters of the Con- 
tra Costa Railroad Company made a protracted struggle for the right 
of way through Market street to ship channel; during it v/as the 
West Oakland and Berkeley Branch Eailroad, of five and a quarter 
miles, built and put in operation; the building of the Noi'thern Rail- 
way by the Central Pacific Company commenced ; the Southern Pa- 
cific Railway, with Oakland as its northern terminus, completed to 
Los Angeles; and the Alameda section of the Dumbarton, Santa 
Clara and Santa Cruz Narrow-Gauge Railroad, completed. There 
was besides built and pu.t in operation the Brooklyn and High street 
horse railroad; the Piedmont horse railroad from Seventh street, 
Oakland to Mountain View Cemetery, It is a year remarkable in 
the annals of Oakland for its numerous and important building enter- 
prises, the improvement of its streets, and a great increase in its 
population. It is to be regarded as a year of general abundance — of 
good grain, fruit and vegetable crops, throughout the countiy. And 
finally, it is of farther importance as the year of a presidential election. 

The commencement of the year was marked by the appearance of 
Legislative Committees appointed to examine into the condition of 
the University property and the management of the Deaf, Dumb and 
Blind Asylum. The Univei-sity Committee found some fault with 
the management of the Regents in regard to its water rights ; and the 
Hosjjital Committee recommended that the useful branches of educa- 
tion only be taught to the pupils in the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Insti- 
tute, The general management of both institutions was a}>proved, 

A. Williams, an old i-esident of Oakland and an Ex-Mayor, died at 
the residence of Benjamin H. Wyman, corner of New Broadway and 
Bay Place, at 5 o'clock, on the afternoon of January 1 9th. His com- 
plaint was pneumonia, a disease conti-acted while returning from the 
States to California, some few weeks previously. He was se^-enty- 
six years of age, and served the city in the capacity of Chief Magis- 
trate during the yeai-s 1857 and 1858. 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 425 

At tLe meeting of the Oakland City Council, held January 24th, 
the JSTortheru Railway Company, by Leland Stanford, Clias. Crocker, 
et al., representing the company, petitioned to Council to grant them 
the privilege of constructing a double track for railroad purposes 
along certain streets. Mr. Crocker was present, and by request 
explained the object of the road. The Northern Railroad Company 
was organized to build a road fx'om Oakland to Tehama, via Car- 
quinez Straits. It will be built in connection with the Bantas Road, 
coming into Oakland on the old survey of that road wth certain 
changes to bring it to the Central Pacific grounds. The company 
had procured the right of \fa,j along the route, and intended to 
commence work immediately. They had thi-ee ships just arrived 
with steel rails which they would put on this road. It would be the 
gi'eat thoroughfare of the State, over which would pass all the travel 
overland from the northerly part of the State and Oregon. It would 
shorten the time between Oakland and Sacramento some two hours. 
The road was to run along Cedar street. The petition was referred 
to the Street Committee, and subsequently granted. 

On the 5th of February a meeting of property-owners was held 
in the City Council Chamber, Oakland, to consider the proposition to 
cut Eighth street through from Oak street to the estuary, and bridge 
the same, thus securing a second avenue of communication with the 
eastern section of the city. The cost of the bridge was limited to 
$30,000. After a good deal of consideration and several subsequent 
meetings, the project was determined upon, and the street has been 
cut through the property of General Kirkham ; but nothing has yet 
been done towards the construction of the proposed bridge. 

At tlie same meeting a petition was pi-esented from Thos. H. "VVil- 
Kams, President of the Oakland and Contra Costa Railroad, for per- 
mission to lay down iron rails for railroad purposes, from the noi'th- 
ern limits of the city to its junction with Market street. Mr. 
Kennedy, agent of the company, was present, and explained that the 
company were about commencing work on the road, and hoped the 
Council would report favorably upon the petition at an early day, 
as the road would be of the utmost advantage to the city. Both 
petitions were referred to committees, and that of the Northern 
Railroad subsequently reported favorably upon and granted, while 
that of the Contra Costa Road excited hostility. 

The Board of Ti-ustees of the town of San Leandro, at a meeting 
held in February, resolved to abandon their policy of high license, 



426 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

before acted upon, and reduced the fee from $75 per quarter to $30. 
With the previous high tariff the Trustees were able to carry on the 
business of the town on a taxation of fifty cents on the $1,000. The 
result was an immediate increase in the number of saloons to nearly 
double. 

The new county officers assumed the duties of their respective 
departments on the first Monday in March. 

Among the measures introduced and carried through the Legisla- 
ture, early in the session, was one to divide the City of Oakland into 
wards. It was a favorite project of the Democratic party, by wliich 
it hoped to gain some advantages. According to the old system, of 
electing candidates at large, a hardship was done to some sections of 
the city, fi'om the fact that the City Hall Precinct had controlled the 
election of Councilmen and School Directors in all the other pre- 
cincts. The bill was hurried through the Legislature by its friends, 
in order that the approaching city election, to be holden on the 1 3th 
day of March, might take place under the new subdivision and mode 
of representation which it provided. The ward bill divided the city 
into seven districts, as follows : 

The First AVard to constitute that poi'tion of the city lying west 
of Adeline Street, and extending from the estuary to the north city 
limits, and including the Point, or West Oakland ; the Second Ward, 
that poi-tion of the city lying north of Twentieth Street, and extend- 
ing to the Charter line, and east of Adeline Street to Lake Avenue ; 
the Third Ward, that poi-tion bounded on the west by Adeline Street, 
on the north by Twentieth Street, on the east by Broadway, and on 
the south by Tenth Street ; the Fourth Ward, that portion bounded 
on the west by Adeline Street, on the north by Tenth Street, on the 
east by Broadway, and on the sovith by the estuary ; the Fifth 
Ward, that portion bounded on the west by Broadway, on the north 
by Delger Street, on the east by Lake Mei'ritt, and on the south by 
Tenth Street ; the Sixth Ward, that portion bounded on the west by 
Broadway, on the north by Tenth Street, and on the east and south 
by the estuary ; the Seventh Ward, that portion constituting East 
Oakland, or Brooklyn. 

At the meeting of the Oakland City Council, held on the 2 2d day 
of Februaiy, an ordinance was introduced to grant the right of way 
to the Oakland, Berkeley and Contra Costa Railroad Company to 
lay down an iron railroad ti-ack and run cai-s propelled by steam On 
Market Sti'eet from the northern line of the city to the water front, 



UNDER THE STARS AXD STRIPES. 427 

the track to be commenced and completed witliin one year from the 
date of franchise, with other safeguards. It was referred to the Ordi- 
nance and Judiciary Committee. The Committee, by Mr. Shanklin, 
at once referred it back, and recommended that it do not jiass. 

At a subsequent meeting the question was again brought up, and 
the proposition to grant the franchise defeated by a vote of four to 
thi'ee. A petition to the Legislature was then drawn up and pre- 
sented, signed by 1200 voters of the city of Oakland, pi-aying that 
that honorable body would grant the franchise asked by them, as per 
bill presented by the Hon. D. Gelwicks. No action was had in the 
Legislature on the matter, as it properly belonged to the province of 
the City Council ; and the first election following the division of the 
city into wards, turned upon this railroad question — -a purely local 
affair — ^which demonstrates the absurdity of making municipal man- 
agement a political partisan issue. Membei's of both parties were in 
favor of granting the franchise, and othei-s were opposed. Doctor 
Pardee, the Rei^ublican nominee for Mayor, was strongly in favor of 
it, as were also many of the leading Democrats in the city. What 
must the latter do — vote for the Republican candidate for Mayor on 
this important question, or for the Democratic nominee, Judge Stan- 
ley, and endanger the success of an important local enterprise ] As 
might be expected, many exei'cised theu- rights, irx-espfective of party 
trammels, and voted for the man for Mayor who was strongly in fa- 
vor of furthering the important enterprise referred to. Division fol- 
lowed — ^the natural outcome of an arbitrary rule in such mattei's. 

The city Republican Convention for the nomination of candidates 
for Mayor and other city officers took place on the 26th of February. 
J. E. Whitcher, chairman of the Republican Central Committee, 
called the convention to order. There were eighty-eight delegates 
present. 

For the office of Mayor, Dr. Pardee was nominated. Judge JajTie 
was nominated for Police Judge ; Perry Johnson, for City Marshal ; 
F. M. Campbell, for City Superintendent of Schools ; Henry Yroo- 
man, for City Attorney. The Central Committee chosen consisted of 
the following gentlemen : First "Ward, N. B. Hoyt ; Second Ward, 
John A. Hobart ; Third Ward, W. A. Walter ; Fourth Ward, J. E. 
Whitcher ; Fifth Ward, O. H. Burnham ; Sixth Ward, M. M. Howe; 
Seventh Ward, P. H. McGrew. There were subsequently nominated 
the followiug candidates for ward offices : 

For School Directoi-s : First Wai-d, -Herman Cordes ; Second Ward, 



428 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

L. L. Alexander ; Third Ward, C W. Kellogg. For Councilmen : 
Second Ward, C. Brier ; Third Ward, W. A. Walter ; SLxth Ward, 
William Sohst. 

The Democratic City Convention was held on the evening of the 
1st of March, in the Academy of Music, Fifth street, to make nom- 
inations for city officers. After transacting some business, it ad- 
journed to the 6th of the same month, when the following candidates 
were nominated : 

For Mayor, Judge John A. Stanley ; for Police Judge, F. J. 
Brearty ; for City Marshal, John R. Piice ; for City Attorney, Hon. 
E.. A. Redman ; for Superintendant of Schools, Kii'k W. Brier. 
For School Directors : First Ward, Rev. B. Akerly ; Second Ward, 
H. A. Craig ; Third Ward, Capt. John Hackett. For Councilmen : 
Sedond Ward, H. H. W^atson ; Third Ward, Ferdinand Kluger ; 
Sixth Ward, Capt. J. Callaghan. The wards mentioned were the 
only ones in which there were vacancies. The following Central 
Committee was appointed : First Ward, B. McQuade ; Second Ward, 
S. D. Cronin ; Third Ward, John Hackett ; Fourth Ward, J. G. 
Riley ; Fifth Ward, A. P. Moore ; Sixth Ward, Thos. O'Neil ; Sev- 
enth Ward, L. Wintringer. 

Republican and Democratic clubs were formed in every ward, and 
a vigorous campaign commenced. 

Following were the polling places appointed by the City Council 
for the new Wards, and the Inspectors and Judges of Election for 
the same : 

First Fan:?— Office of D. Bushen, 1,801 Railroad Avenue, West 
Oakland. Inspector, Dr. William Bolton ; Judges, O. W. Hawkett, 
W. S. Palouze. 

Second Ward — J as. Hutchison's store, corner Telegraph Avenue and 
Bay Place. Inspector, C. Brier; Judges, T. B. Simpson and W. K. 
Rowell. 

Third Ward— City Attorney's Office, City Hall. Inspector, J. J. 
Porter ; Judges, S. K. Hassinger and Walter Blair. 

Fourth Ward — Alta House, corner Washington and Eighth Streets. 
Inspector, John Cook ; Judges, Jesse Robinson and William Searing. 

Fifth Ward—O&ice of James Lentell, Odd Fellows' Hall build- 
ing. Eleventh Street, near Webster. Inspector, James Lentell ; 
Judges, John Cushing, Thos. Yolland. 

Sixth Ward — Office of Geo. H. Fogg, 814 Broadway. Inspector, 
W. D. Harwood ; Judges, J. L. Bromley, J. Fallon. 



UNDER THE STARS AXD STRIPES. 429 

Seventh THm/— Office of Asa Howard, G26 East Twelfth Street, 
Brooklyn. Inspector, L. J. Rector ; Judges, A. W. Sweet, Asa 
Howard. 

The election took place on the 13th day of March, with the fol- 
lowing result, Pardee having a large majority, and the Eepublican 
ticket being generally siiccessful : 

For Mai/or—K H. Pardee, 1,681 ; J. A. Stanley, 1,063. 

Fo7' Police Judge — A. H. Jayne, 1,590 ; F. J. Brearty, 1,129, 

For City Marshal— Vervy Johnson, 1,502 ; J. R. Price, 1,246. 

For City Attorney — H. Yrooman, 1,573; E. A. Redman, 1,051, 

Fo)- Superintende)it of Schools — -F. M. Campbell, 1,973 ; K. W. 
Brier, 745, 

Councilmen: Second "Ward — H. N.Watson, 171; C. Brier, 127, 
Third Ward— W. A. Walter, 182 ; F. Kruegel, 155. Sixth Ward— 
Wm. Sohst, 266; J. Callaghan, 140; D. Nearny (1.), 15. 

For School Directors : First Ward — Herman Cordes, 211; Rey.Benj, 
Akerly, 213. Second Ward— L. L. Alexander, 153; H. A. Craig, 
147. Third Ward— C. W. Kellogg, 255 ; Adam Koob, 75. 
- For Justice of tJie Peace— Geo. H. Fogg, 1,039 ; S. F. Daniels, 
320. Both the latter were Republicans. 

The result, of course, was a triumph for the Oakland, Berkeley and 
Contra Costa Railroad Company, and a defeat for the Democracy, 
who had injudiciously linked their fortunes with those opposed to the 
Market street franchise. 

With a Mayor and a presumed majority of Councilmen fayoi-able 
to the project, it was natural to s^^ppose that the railroad franchise 
through Market street was considered assured ; but it was not. A 
large pubHc meeting was held, in opposition to it ; the fears of prop- 
eli:y-o^^^lers in the Broadway district were excited, lest a new San 
Francisco and Oakland Ferry would be started, haying its terminus 
on Market street, and thus divide the ti-avel ; and the Central Pa- 
cific Railroad Company, alarmed at the danger to itself, exerted its 
influence against it. The latter sent in a petition, as an offset, for a 
franchise for a steam railroad from the water front, through Webster 
street, to the foothills, A bill was also slyly passed thi-ough the 
Legislature prohibiting the passage of any new railroad through the 
town excepting by the unanimous consent of the members of the City 
Council. An open aii' mass meeting, presided over by the Mayor, 
was held on the corner of Ninth street and Broadway on the evening 
of the 24th of March, protesting against the approval of such a bill, 



430 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

and it was vetoed by the Governor. The same meeting passed a 
resokition recommending the City Council to grant the Market street 
franchise. Ward meetings wei-e also held favorable to it. 

At a meeting of the City Council, held March 27th, the ordinance 
was introduced a second time. It was well guarded, prohibiting the 
assigning or consolidating with any other company, and providing 
that no Chinese labor should be employed ; and that if not completed 
within one year from the first day of October following, the franchise 
to revert to the city. 

Another proposition before the same meeting was the location of a 
railroad avenue, for the use of all railroads entering the city. Only 
Messrs. Ford and Watson favored this resolution. 

An application was in the meantime made in the name of Joseph 
S. Fogg, to the Supreme Court, to restrain the City Council from 
granting a franchise to run steam cars on Market street, asserting 
that Judge McKee, of the Third District Court, was an interested 
party. On the 13th of April, the Court denied the motion, on the 
gi-ound that the District Court was the proper tribunal possessing 
jurisdiction in the case. 

At a meeting of the Council held on the 24th of April the Ordi- 
nance and Judiciary Committee finally reported, refusing the franchise 
to the Conti'a Costa Company, assigning as reasons: first, that sufii- 
cient notice had not been given; and second, that two-thirds of the 
property-ownei's along the street had not signed the petition, as re- 
quired by a former resolution. The report was signed by Messrs. 
Ford, Miner, and Huntington; and was adopted, with only Sohst 
voting ISTo. No further efi'ort has since been made to obtain the fran- 
chise, and the company has not felt justified, in its absence, to further 
prosecute their enterprise. 

General Martin Shuey, a native of Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania, 
died at his son's residence, Fruit Vale, on the 12th day of February, 
Deceased was aged ninety years, four months and fourteen days. He 
was a soldier of the war of 1812 and a pioneer of the States of Ohio 
and Indiana, as well as a resident of this county since 1859, having 
settled that year in East Oakland. His wife, who was eighty yeai-s 
of age at his demise, survives him. His descendants consist of ele- 
ven children, twenty-nine grand children, and forty-nine great-grand 
children, nearly all residing in this State. General Shuey was a 
devoted member of the Baptist Chux-ch. 

At the Republican County Convention held April 22d, the follow- 



UNDER THE STARS AND STRIPES. 431 

ing geutlemen were appointed Delegates to State Convention at Sacra- 
mento, for nominating Presidential Candidates and electors: Ala- 
meda, Orville "W. Ames; Brooklyn, Walter Van Dyke, Hiram 
Tubbs; Washington, S. I. Marston, E. H. Dyer; Eden, J. B. Mar- 
lin, M. C. LaGrange; Murray, J. A. Neal, C. J. Stevens; Oakland, 
J. M. Miner, S. F. Gilcrist, W. "W. Crane, Jr., C. B. Rutherford, J. 
W. Shanklin, John A. Hobart, A. C. Hemy, J. W. Pearson, E. 
Surryhne, F. K. Shattuck. 

The following Centennial Fund Collection Committee was appointed 
at a meeting held in the City Council Chambei', Oakland, April 2 2d: 

Herman Cordes, F. K. Hassinger, W. Graham, B. F. Stillwell, 
Wm. Sohst, H. Tabbs, W. C. Mason, O. F. Fuller, J. B. Ford, W. 
Everson, J. W. Pearson, L. Alexander, J. W. Shanklin, D. Hersh- 
berg, Dr. S. Merritt, L. G. Cole, W. W. Camron, Wm. Searing, J. 
M. Cronin, W. H. Higby, O. H. Burnham, W. A. Walters, J. Green- 
hood, A. C. Henry, E. C. Sessions, B. F. Mann, Israel Knox, J. M. 
Walker, F. J. Brearty, M. de la Montanya, George C. Potter, and 
D. H. Band. The Executive Committee consisted of Dr. E. H. Par- 
dee, J. B. McChesney and J. M. Miner. Their labors did not prove 
a very great gain to the fund, as their report showed. 

An Act of incorporation having been passed in favor of the town 
of Haywards, by the Legislature of the State, the citizens held a 
meeting on the 28th day of April to prepare for electing their town 
officers, when i-esolutions were passed in favor of preserving the 
streets at their original width, and retaining all property then belong- 
ing to the town, according to a map made by William Castro, and 
tiled for record in 1856. Candidates for office were desired to make 
known their views on the street question and saloon license — whether 
the latter should be high or low. 

William HiUegas, a pioneer of Berkeley and Oakland, died at his 
residence, near Berkeley, April 26th. Deceased was born in Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, in the year 1827. He arrived in California, 
via the Isthmus, in August, 1849. Early in 1850 he associated him- 
self in business with F. K. Shattuck, and foi-med a partnership that 
contmued to exist till the day of his death. In 1851 Messrs. Shat- 
tuck & Hillegas established themselves in the hamlet then known as 
Contra Costa, and subsequently incorporated as the town of Oakland. 
Here deceased amassed a handsome fortune, and built himself a 
handsome residence in the locality since become well known through- 
out the State as Berkeley — the seat of the State University, Mr. 



432 HISTORY OF ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

Hillegas, with his partner Mr. Shattuck, carried on successfully the 
business of livery-keeping, farming and coal mining. In all his bus- 
iness and social relations Mr. Hillegas was fortunate and happy. The 
society of California Pioneers, of which he was a member, passed 
resolutions of regret and condolence, and attended his funeral in a 
body. 

Joseph Becht, an old resident of Oakland, and, at the time of his 
demise. County Treasurer, died at his residence in that city, on Sun- 
day, May 7tli, aged 47 years and 18 days. He suffered a long and 
painful illness. Deceased came to California in the month of March, 
1850. He settled in Oakland in 1859. He was a native of Bavaria. 
During the Hecker revolution, in 1849, he came to America to 
escape conscription. As soon as he had attained his majority he 
became naturalized, and up to his death he took an active interest in 
public affairs. Mr. Becht was a public-spirited citizen ; was a mem- 
ber of the Masonic, Odd Fellows, Druids, and Red Men's Associa- 
tions. He was a steadfast member of the Democratic party, and 
took an active part in every movement for the benefit of the town, 
and his personal popularity was very great. 

Bev. R. F. Parshall, formerly pastor of the Baptist Cliurch in 
Oakland, brought an action for slander against one P. H. Sumner, 
in the Third District Court, and got a verdict for $30,000. The his- 
tory of this case reveals one of the darkest conspiracies and deep-laid 
pieces of villainy to injure an innocent man that was ever brought to 
light. Some time previous the defendant's character and conduct 
had been publicly exposed, and he suddenly left California for the 
East. An effort to bring him back to justice failed. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held May 15th, Chas. 
E. Palmer, late Deputy County Treasux-er, was appointed County 
Treasurer in place of the late Joseph Becht. Mr. Palmer was the 
Republican candidate opposed to Mr. Becht at the general election. 
The Treasui-er is also Tax Collector. The security bonds i-equired for 
the former office amount to $200,000, and for the latter, |1 00,000. 

At the Democratic County Convention, held May 21st, in Oak- 
land, to appoint delegates to the State Convention at San Francisco, 
the following delegates were appointed : Oakland — J. West Martin, 
M. V. O'Brien, Theo. Bagge, P. Duffy. Brooklyn— L. Wintringer, 
Walter Turnbull. Eden — Joseph Demont, John Kauffman. Mur- 
ray— F. J. Clark, J. F. Black. Washington— Henry Smith, Dr. S. 
G. Buteau. Alameda — H. H. Haight. 



UNDER THE STAUS AND STRIPES. 433 

Tlie following were elected a County Central Committee : Newton 
Ingram, Murray ; Capt. E. Hackett, J. W. Tliurman, Oakland ; 
Joseph Demont, Eden ; H. E. Wilcox, Brooklyn ; Michael E-ogan, 
Washington j R. H. Magill, Alameda. Capt. Hackett was chosen 
Chairman, and Mr. Wilcox, Secretary. 

The Eepublican State. Convention selected E. H. Dyer, of Alva- 
rado, as one of the delegates to the National Convention at Cincin- 
nati ; and the Democratic Convention appointed Col. John C. Hays, 
of Oakland, one of the delegates to represent them at St. Louis. 

One of the most lamentable personal events that ever occurred in 
Oakland, was the suicide of Benjamin F. Ferris, by drowning, in the 
Sacramento river, about 4 o'clock on the morning of the 20th of 
May. He had taken passage in the steamer Amador, at San Fran- 
cisco, the previous afternoon, and when the boat was near Sacra- 
mento, in the vicinity of what is known as the Chicory Eanch, he 
threw himself overboard and was drowned. His remains were found 
in due course and conveyed to Oakland. Deceased was Mayor of 
the city in 1865, and was Justice of the Peace for severad years. 
He was frequently a member of the City Council, and was one of the 
founders and the first President of the First National Gold Bank of 
Oakland. The cause of the rash act was temporary insanity, caused 
by financial embaiTassment. 

An anti-Chinese mass meeting was held in Oakland on the even- 
mg of the 27th of May. It was under the auspices of the Oakland 
Anti-Coolie Club ; was held in front of the City Hall, and was 
id'.lressed by E. J. Kelley, the President of the club. Gen. A. M.. 
Winn, Hon. T. P. Ryan and Dr. O'Donnell, of San Francisco, and 
jtliers. A large number of persons signed the roll of the club,, and 
memorial to Congress, pi'aying for relief from Coolie imniigi-ation, 
vas adopted. Also, a series of resolutions. This was the second 
nass meeting of a similar character. 

T